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Title: The First Six Books of the Elements of Euclid Subtitle: And Propositions I.-XXI. of Book XI., and an Appendix on the Cylinder, Sphere, Cone, etc., Author: John Casey Author: Euclid Release Date: April 14, 2007 [EBook #21076] Language: English Character set encoding: TeX *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ELEMENTS OF EUCLID ***

Produced by Joshua Hutchinson, Keith Edkins and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images from the Cornell University Library: Historical Mathematics Monographs collection.)

Production Note Cornell University Library produced this volume to replace the irreparably deteriorated original. It was scanned using Xerox software and equipment at 600 dots per inch resolution and compressed prior to storage using CCITT Group 4 compression. The digital data were used to create Cornell’s replacement volume on paper that meets the ANSI Standard Z39.48-1984. The production of this volume was supported in part by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Xerox Corporation. Digital file copyright by Cornell University Library 1991.

Transcriber’s Note: The Index has been regenerated to ﬁt the pagination of this edition. Despite the author’s stated hope that “few misprints have escaped detection” there were several, which have here been corrected and noted at the end of the text.

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R. BY J O H N C A S E Y. ETC.THE FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID.. AND PROPOSITIONS I. DUBLIN: HODGES. ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY. FIGGIS.. AND PROFESSOR OF THE HIGHER MATHEMATICS AND OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS IN THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND. D. GREEN. SPHERE. F.. LONDON: LONGMANS. 1885. MEMBER OF THE MATHEMATICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON AND FRANCE. . & CO. MEMBER OF COUNCIL. LL. GRAFTON-ST. WITH COPIOUS ANNOTATIONS AND NUMEROUS EXERCISES. & CO. THIRD EDITION.-XXI. FELLOW OF THE ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND.. S.. OF BOOK XI. REVISED AND ENLARGED. AND AN APPENDIX ON THE CYLINDER. CONE.

BY PONSONBY AND WELDRICK .DUBLIN PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

The new matter includes several alternative proofs. Pyramids. A cursory examination of the work will show that the Editor has gone much further in this latter direction than any of his predecessors. The book was rewritten and considerably altered in accordance with his suggestions. s. They are for the most part of an elementary character. and it is hoped that few misprints have escaped detection. but also much of a special character. the Trait´ e de G´ eom´ etrie. for it will be found to contain. of which there are over eight hundred. In compiling his work the Editor has received invaluable assistance from the late Rev. and its general adoption in schools. important examination questions on each of the books. is intended to supply a want much felt by teachers at the present day—the production of a work which. the ﬁrst twenty-one propositions of Book XI. not only more actual matter than is given in any of theirs with which he is acquainted. Every person who has had experience in tuition knows well the importance of such examinations in teaching Elementary Geometry. and a large number have been taken from two important French works—Catalan’s Th´ eor` emes et Probl` emes de G´ eom´ etrie El´ ementaire. The Exercises at the end of each Book are more advanced. would also contain the modern conceptions and developments of the portion of Geometry over which the Elements extend. The great extension of geometrical methods in recent times has made such a work a necessity for the student. an explanation of the ratio of incommensurable quantities. and to which it is in reality the best introduction. by Rouche The second edition has been thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged. and to that distinguished Geometer it is largely indebted for whatever merit it possesses.c. so far as he is aware. Sphere. and ´ and De Comberousse. undertaken at the request of the principals of some of the leading Colleges and Schools of Ireland. that it is likely to i . The Exercises.f. nearly every one of them having appeared already in previous collections. while giving the unrivalled original in all its integrity. which is not given. The Editor is glad to ﬁnd from the rapid sale of former editions (each 3000 copies) of his Book. The present Edition has been very carefully read throughout. some are original. This edition of the Elements of Euclid. and Cone. and an Appendix on the properties of the Prism. Cylinder. which the teacher ought to follow through the entire work. Professor Townsend. and may be regarded as common property..d. Those in the body of each Book are intended as applications of Euclid’s Propositions.PREFACE. several are due to the late Professor Townsend. but even to understand those mathematical writings of modern times which require an accurate knowledge of Elementary Geometry. The Questions for Examination in the early part of the First Book are intended as specimens. in any former work on the subject. have been all selected with great care.t. to enable him not only to read with advantage.

and introduce them. 1885. November. Dublin. 86. to some of the most important conceptions and developments of the Geometry of the present day.accomplish the double object with which it was written. ii . viz. to supply students with a Manual that will impart a thorough knowledge of the immortal work of the great Greek Geometer. South Circular-road. at the same time. JOHN CASEY.

. . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. . . .Contents Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Theory of Angles. 2 2 8 45 46 BOOK II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 101 101 112 112 BOOK V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . Questions for Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. . . . . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 49 50 65 66 BOOK III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . . 1 BOOK I. . . . . . . . . . Triangles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory of the Circle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . and parallelograms. . . .–xvi. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . .–xxxvii. . . .–xlviii. . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory of Proportion. . . . . . . . Parallel Lines. . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . 116 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory of Rectangles. . . . . . . . . Inscription and Circumscription of Triangles and of Regular Polygons in about Circles. Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . . . . . 68 68 69 97 98 BOOK IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .–xiv. . . . .. . . . . . . . . Exercises. .

. . Introduction. . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . .Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . and Cone. Exercises. .—To inscribe a regular polygon of seventeen sides in a circle—Ampere’s solution simpliﬁed. . . . . .. . . . . . .–xxxiii. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . .—On the trisection of an angle by the ruler and compass. . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyramid. . . . . 171 171 171 181 APPENDIX. . . . . . . . . .—Modern theory of parallel lines. . . . . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . .—On the quadrature of the circle. i. . Newton’s solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coplanar Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .–xxv. . . . . . . Hamilton’s . . . . . . Sphere. . . A. . . . . . . . . and Solid Angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lines. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .–xxi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prism. .—To ﬁnd two mean proportionals between two given lines—Philo’s solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .—Legendre’s proof of Euclid.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .–vii. . . . . . . . Cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 194 195 196 197 197 198 199 200 202 iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 183 183 183 192 NOTES. . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 135 135 163 BOOK XI. . 116 116 121 133 134 BOOK VI. . . . . . . . . . . . xxxii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application of the Theory of Proportion. . . . . . . .—Mc Cullagh’s proof of the minimum property of Philo’s line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory of Planes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. . . . . . . .. . E. . . . . F. Conclusion. . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .

is Geometry of Three Dimensions. Euclid’s Elements. of which it forms an extensive and important department. and the study of the properties of the point. surfaces. This symbol has been introduced by the illustrious Gauss. and of the ﬁgures described on surfaces. according as it consists of lines. The simplest lines that can be drawn on a plane are the right line and circle. and the circle. ⊥ In addition to these we shall employ the usual symbols +. Figured Space is of one. Parallelogram . the particular. The annotations will be printed in smaller type. The student will ﬁnd in Chasles’ Aper¸ cu Historique a valuable history of the origin and the development of the methods of Geometry. The Propositions of Euclid will be printed in larger type. Thus it is the province of Geometry to investigate the properties of solids. The number of the Book will be given only when diﬀerent from that under which the reference occurs. The following symbols will be used in them:— Circle will be denoted by Triangle . By omitting the letters enclosed in parentheses we have the general enunciation. &c. of curved surfaces. The general and the particular enunciation of every Proposition will be given in one.THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID.. The simplest of all surfaces is the plane. of surfaces. is written. the most comprehensive of all the Sciences. Parallel lines . is the introduction to Geometry. of surfaces. −. the student should construct them from the given directions... Geometry is the Science of ﬁgured Space. Thus [III. and of lines. The conic sections and other curves that can be described on a plane form special branches. and the ﬁgures described on curved surfaces. and also the sign of congruence. and complete the divisions of this. namely. or three dimensions. two. or solids. and is the subject of the present volume. and that department of Geometry which is occupied with the lines and curves drawn on a plane is called Plane Geometry . Perpendicular . when ﬁgures are not drawn. 1 . points.. In the following work. that which demonstrates the properties of solids. and by reading them. namely ≡. lines. This is the part of Geometry on which the oldest Mathematical Book in existence. of Algebra. The boundaries of solids are surfaces.] will denote the 32nd Proposition of the 3rd Book. INTRODUCTION. and will be referred to by Roman numerals enclosed in brackets. the right line. xxxii.

It has no thickness. and thickness. hence it has no dimensions—that is. it would be space of two dimensions. A surface is space of two dimensions. which we call a straight line. such as length and breadth. When a surface is such that the right line joining any two arbitrary points in it lies wholly in the surface.BOOK I. PARALLEL LINES. A line which lies evenly between its extreme points is called a straight or right line. that is. nor a surface. 2 . iii. hence a line has neither breadth nor thickness. v. length. no matter how small. DEFINITIONS. But a point is neither a solid. for if it had any.— Newcomb. If we mentally abstract from this string all thickness. like the surface of still water. iv. A line is length without breadth. TRIANGLES. breadth. nor thickness. the string becomes stretched. and we say it is straight. A surface is that which has length and breadth. or of a smooth ﬂoor.” If the moving point continually changes its direction it will describe a curve. vi. The direction in which a point moves in called its “sense. A plane is perfectly ﬂat and even. hence it follows that only one right line can be drawn between two points. that which has two dimensions. such as AB . however small. it has neither length. it is called a plane. The following Illustration is due to Professor Henrici:—“If we suspend a weight by a string. breadth. The Line. THEORY OF ANGLES. it would be space of three dimensions. and if in addition it had any thickness it would be space of three dimensions. A line is space of one dimension. by which we mean to express that it has assumed a peculiar deﬁnite shape. is a surface. and that which has but one dimension is a line. If it had any breadth. AND PARALLELOGRAMS. The Point. If a point move without changing its direction it will describe a right line. is a solid. A point is that which has position but not dimensions. i. nor a line. The intersections of lines and their extremities are points. A geometrical magnitude which has three dimensions. we obtain the notion of the simplest of all lines.” The Plane. ii.

is called a plane ﬁgure. Thus if AB . a line may turn from the position AB to the position AC in the two ways indicated by the arrows.” xi. they are called supplements of each other. called a re-entrant angle. A. The angle formed by joining two or more angles together is called their sum. and if of right lines only. from the position of coincidence with one leg to that of coincidence with the other. is said to turn through the angle. viii. a rectilineal ﬁgure. CAD is such that the legs BA. x. The inclination of two right lines extending out from one point in diﬀerent directions is called a rectilineal angle. or of points and lines in a plane. and the angle is the greater as the quantity of turning is the greater. The two lines are called the legs. AC be the legs. seldom occurs in the “Elements. Thus the sum of the two angles ABC . 3 . since the line may turn from one position to the other in either of two ways.—A particular angle in a ﬁgure is denoted by three letters. If a ﬁgure be formed of points only it is called a stigmatic ﬁgure. When the sum of two angles BAC . The angle is then read BAC . when one line stands on another. A ﬁgure formed of collinear points is called a row of points. Hence. is at the vertex. so that the vertex Q shall fall on the vertex B .Figures. two angles are formed by two lines drawn from a point. and the other two along the legs. Designation of Angles. the two angles which it makes on the same side of that on which it stands are supplements of each other. of lines. AD form one right line. xiii. and the side QR on the opposite side of BC from BA. The Angle. xii. vii. P QR is the angle AB R. A light line drawn from the vertex and turning about it in the plane of the angle. ix. Again. Any combination of points. The larger. and the point the vertex of the angle. of which the middle one. formed by applying the side QP to the side BC . The smaller of the angles thus formed is to be understood as the angle contained by the lines. Points which lie on the same right line are called collinear points. as BAC .

The side which subtends the right angle is called the hypotenuse . The Triangle. The three lines are called its sides. xvi. as C . An obtuse angle is one which is greater than a right angle. xix. as BAC . as A. as D. as A. each of the angles is called a right angle. A triangle is a ﬁgure formed by three right lines joined end to end. each is called the complement of the other. An acute angle is one which is less than a right angle. xvii. DAC are complements of each other. as B . When one line stands on another. and and having all its sides equal. to be equilateral . Three or more right lines passing through the same point are called concurrent lines.xiv. When the sum of two angles is a right angle. and makes the adjacent angles at both sides of itself equal. a triangle having two sides equal. Each line of a pencil is called a ray . the angles BAD. to be isosceles . Thus. if the angle BAC be right. xx. and the common point through which the rays pass is called the vertex . A right-angled triangle is one that has one of its angles a right angle. Concurrent Lines. xxii. xv. xxi. The supplement of an acute angle is obtuse. 4 . Hence a right angle is equal to its supplement. and conversely. and the line which stands on the other is called a perpendicular to it. xviii. the supplement of an obtuse angle is acute. A triangle whose three sides are unequal is said to be scalene . A system of more than three concurrent lines is called a pencil of lines.

xxviii. as F . An acute-angled triangle is one that has its three angles acute. xxxi. Hence a triangle has six exterior angles. This point is called the centre . A circle is a plane ﬁgure formed by a curved line called the circumference . A quadrilateral whose four sides are equal is called a lozenge.xxiii. xxvii. the radius. A lozenge which has a right angle is called a square. A rectilineal ﬁgure bounded by more than three right lines is usually called a polygon. A right line may be drawn from any one point to any other point. Postulates. xxix. and also each exterior angle is the supplement of the adjacent interior angle. or on the circumference of a circle according as its distance from the centre is less than. xxxiii. An obtuse-angled triangle is one that has one of its angles obtuse. An exterior angle of a triangle is one that is formed by any side and the continuation of another side. A radius of a circle is any right line drawn from the centre to the circumference. such a portion is called a ﬁnite straight line. A polygon of four sides is called a quadrilateral. A polygon is said to be convex when it has no re-entrant angle. or equal to. xxiv. and is such that all right lines drawn from a certain point within the ﬁgure to the circumference are equal to one another. greater than. A terminated right line may be produced to any length in a right line. xxv. 5 . xxvi. such as CD. The Circle. A diameter of a circle is a right line drawn through the centre and terminated both ways by the circumference. ii. A polygon which has ﬁve sides is called a pentagon . The Polygon. From the deﬁnition of a circle it follows at once that the path of a movable point in a plane which remains at a constant distance from a ﬁxed point is a circle. Let it be granted that— i. such as AB . xxx. and so on. xxxiv. When we consider a straight line contained between two ﬁxed points which are its ends. a hexagon. also that any point P in the plane is inside. one which has six sides. as E. outside. xxxii.

that is. can be given. if there be three things. ACD) on the same side less than two right angles. If two right lines (AB. The halves of equal magnitudes are equal. The superposition employed in Geometry is only mental.Every right line may extend without limit in either direction or in both. xii. This axiom relates to all kinds of magnitude.. such as a line on a line.. the line EF must coincide with GH . that they are equal. i. so as to make the sum of the two interior angles (BAC. Similar observations apply to the other postulates.. CD be made to coincide by superposition. we draw a line from A to B . The doubles of equal magnitudes are equal. v. EF .. and also some breadth and thickness. this will evidently have some irregularities. xi. x. are strictly geometrical. “If two right lines have two points common to both. by the present axiom. vi.. we infer. Euclid makes frequent use:—“Any ﬁgure may be transferred from one position to another without change of form or size. a triangle on a triangle. we infer by this axiom that the ﬁrst is equal to the second. Thus. For if it could be accurately done there would be no need for his asking us to let it be granted. Two right lines cannot enclose a space. then if AB . 6 . of which. such as a ruler and pen. Things which are equal to the same. if we can prove that they coincide. but viii. and the second.. If there be two points A and B .. v. If equals be taken from unequals the remainders will be unequal. Hence it will not be a geometrical line no matter how nearly it may approach to one. If equals be taken from equals the remainders will be equal. and if the ﬁrst. vii. they coincide in direction. By this postulate a ﬁnite right line may be supposed to be produced. is called superposition. ix. The whole is greater than its part. whenever we please. we conceive one magnitude placed on the other. founded on other problems or on the foregoing postulates. CD. viii. It is also worthy of remark that Euclid never takes for granted the doing of anything for which a geometrical construction. vi. If equals be added to unequals the sums will be unequal. and with any distance from that centre as radius. This axiom is included in the following. be each equal to the third. &c. namely. The placing of one geometrical magnitude on another. and two perpendiculars to them. xii. iv. x. iv. GH .. into an indeﬁnite right line. This is the reason that Euclid postulates the drawing of a right line from one point to another. This can be proved as follows:—Let there be two right lines AB . which is a fuller statement:— ix . and if with any instruments. vii. If equals be added to equals the sums will be equal. The whole is equal to the sum of all its parts. iii. iii. are equal to each other.. and then.” ix. Hence the angle AEF is equal to CGH . Magnitudes that can be made to coincide are equal. so that the point E will coincide with G. ii. All right angles are equal to one another.” that is. or a circle on a circle. Superposition involves the following principle. Axioms. these lines being produced shall meet at some ﬁnite distance. CD) meet a third line (AC ).. This is equivalent to the statement.. iii.. The same is true of Axioms ii. It is in these cases called an indeﬁnite line. they form but one line. xi. or to equals. then since a right angle is equal to its supplement. without explicitly stating it. and this holds true even when one of the points is at inﬁnity. A circle may be described from any centre.

). (i.) is— If Z is W. then X is Y. and the conclusion .) we may infer two others. A Theorem is the formal statement of a property that may be demonstrated from known propositions. Thus the converse of the theorem (i. but we can give no proof of the proposition that “things which are equal to the same are equal to one another. They are divided into theorems and problems. A theorem consists of two parts. the truths of which are self-evident. These propositions may themselves be theorems or axioms.) From the two theorems (i. each of the other.. Axioms. A Problem is a proposition in which something is proposed to be done. If Z is not W .) the obverse of (ii. Thus.) (iv. then Z is W. then Z is not W . (ii. 7 . perhaps. it is an axiom. Converse Theorems . and (iii.” and. that they cannot be inferred from any propositions which are more elementary.) the hypothesis is that X is Y .) is. or that which is asserted to follow therefrom.—Two theorems are said to be converse.This axiom is the converse of Prop. they are incapable of demonstration. in the typical theorem.) and (ii. Book I. Explanation of Terms. then X is not Y . If X is not Y . If X is Y.” according to Dugald Stewart.) is called the obverse of (i. Propositions which are not axioms are properties of ﬁgures obtained by processes of reasoning. Thus the contrapositive of (i. “That two sides of a triangle are greater than the third” is. or that which is assumed. (iii. inasmuch as it can be inferred by demonstration from other propositions. xvii. and which are so fundamental. being self-evident. of (ii. and the conclusion is that Z is W . are certain general propositions.—“Elements of human reason. the hypothesis .) The theorem (iv. when the hypothesis of either is the conclusion of the other. but it is not an axiom. or a ﬁgure to be constructed. such as a line to be drawn. in other words.) is. under some given conditions. called their contrapositives . self-evident.).

but diﬀer in position. A Corollary is an inference or deduction from a proposition. because B is the centre of the circle ACE . Postulates are the elements of geometrical construction. which was required to be done. CA are equal to one another.—Because A is the centre of the circle BCD.). and the quaesita. Hence it follows. the data. that corresponding parts or portions of congruent ﬁgures are congruent. The Demonstration is the proof. describe the circle BCD (Post. and BA as radius. The Enunciation of a problem consists of two parts. or things required to be done. With B as centre. Hence we have proved. Congruent ﬁgures are those that can be made to coincide by superposition. Then ABC is the equilateral triangle required. 8 . Hence the triangle ABC is equilateral (Def. i. AC = AB. in the case of a theorem. and that congruent ﬁgures are equal in every respect..). namely. therefore the three lines AB . A Secant or Transversal is a line which cuts a system of lines. and occupy the same relation with respect to problems as axioms do to theorems. xxxii.”—Syllabus.The Solution of a problem is the method of construction which accomplishes the required end. and it is described on the given line AB . On a given ﬁnite right line (AB ) to construct an equilateral triangle. BC = AB. Join CA. or things supposed to be given. by Axiom viii. BC is equal to BA. A Lemma is an auxiliary proposition required in the demonstration of a principal proposition.—Under this name the following principle will be sometimes referred to:—“If there is but one X and one Y . therefore AC is equal to BC . CB (Post. iii. that the conclusion follows from the hypothesis. PROP. and in the case of a problem. Again.—Problem. Sol. xxi. then. and AB as radius. Rule of Identity . a circle. AC is equal to AB (Def.—With A as centre. or any other geometrical ﬁgure.). and But things which are equal to the same are equal to one another (Axiom i. cutting the former circle in C . BC .). They agree in shape and size. I. describe the circle ACE . that the construction accomplishes the object proposed.). it necessarily follows that Y is X . from the fact that X is Y . Dem.

H are collinear. CB be produced to meet the circles again in G and H . ii.). and DE as radius. BC is equal to BE . And because DAB is an equilateral triangle. on AB describe the equilateral triangle ABD [i. CF 2 = 3AB 2 . and BC as radius. and we have proved that AF is equal to BE . Hence we have DF = DE. bounded by the line AB and the two circles.—Join AB (Post. iii. and things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another (Axiom i. 5.Questions for Examination. With B as centre. 3. If CF be joined. II.). describe the circle EF G (Post. the triangles CDF and CEF are equilateral. F . 2. i. The following exercises are to be solved when the pupil has mastered the First Book:— 1. and the triangle GCH is equilateral. AF is equal to BC . In what part of the construction is the third postulate quoted? and for what purpose? Where is the ﬁrst postulate quoted? 6. 4. Describe a circle in the space ACB . What is a ﬁnite right line? 4. With D as centre. describe the circle ECH (Post iii. 1. If CA. What is the quaesitum ? 3. What is the opposite of ﬁnite? 5.). Again.). If AB be produced to D and E . Produce DB to meet the circle ECH in E (Post. What use is made of the deﬁnition of a circle? What is a circle? 8. What is the datum in this proposition? 2. the ﬁgure ACBF is a lozenge.). Hence AF 9 .]. Sol. From a given point (A) to draw a right line equal to a given ﬁnite right line (BC ). Dem. xxxii. the points G.). because B is the centre of the circle ECH . Produce DA to meet this circle in F .—Because D is the centre of the circle EF G. If the lines AF . DF is equal to DE (Def.). DA = DB . PROP. What is an equilateral triangle? Exercises. DA is equal to DB (Def. and and taking the latter from the former. xxi. Where is the ﬁrst axiom quoted? 7.—Problem. BF be joined.). the remainder AF is equal to the remainder BE (Axiom iii.

one of the extremities of AB . 2. Therefore from the given point A the line AF has been drawn equal to BC . AE shall be equal to C . Questions for Examination. and things which are equal to the same are equal to one another (Axiom i. Wherefore from AB . Exercises. AC ) of one equal respectively to two sides (ED. It is usual with commentators on Euclid to say that he allows the use of the rule and compass.—Because A is the centre of the circle EDF . F ) at the base of the other. EF ) shall be equal. and AD as radius. Show how to produce the less of two given lines until the whole produced line becomes equal to the greater. the less.—From A. EDF ) have two sides (BA. State the number of solutions. If two triangles (BAC. xxxii.—Theorem.is equal to BC . What postulate? 3. What previous problem is employed in the solution of this? 2.—Problem. line. The fact is. From the greater (AB ) of two given right lines to cut oﬀ a part equal to (C ) the less. those shall be equal to which the equal sides are opposite. and the only things he postulates are the drawing of right lines and the describing of circles. a part.) cutting AB in E . PROP. the triangles shall be equal in every respect—that is. D) included by those sides equal. Euclid’s object was to teach Theoretical and not Practical Geometry. and have also the angles (A. III. therefore AE is equal to C . and circle.”—See Notes D. 1. 10 . DF ) of the other. the greater of the two given lines. If he allowed the mechanical use of the rule and compass he could give methods of solving many problems that go beyond the limits of the “geometry of the point. PROP. Solve the problem when the point A is in the line BC itself. describe the circle EDF (Post. What axiom in the demonstration? 4. C ) at the base of one shall be respectively equal to the angles (E. IV. has been out oﬀ equal to C .]. their bases or third sides (BC. Were such the case this Proposition would have been unnecessary. Inﬂect from a given point A to a given line BC a line equal to a given line. Sol. Dem. and with A as centre.). AE is equal to AD (Def. 1.). AE . namely. iii. F at the end of this work. and the angles (B. and C is equal to AD (const. draw the right line AD equal to C [ii.).

Dem. taken along with iv. the angle B is equal to the angle E . how many parts of one must be given equal to corresponding parts of the other? Ans. What property of two lines having two common points is quoted in this Proposition? They must coincide. How many in the conclusion? Name them. 8. any three except the three angles. What axiom is made use of in superposition? 6. their other sides are equal. namely. therefore BC is equal to EF . 7. so that the point A shall coincide with D.—Theorem. How many parts in the hypothesis of this Proposition? Ans. This will be established in Props. Exercises. the line AC shall coincide with DF . and the triangle BAC to the triangle EDF . and that the point C shall be on the same side of DE as F . and we have proved that the point B coincides with E . 3. 4. and xxvi. How many parts in a triangle? Ans.) PROP. Three. If two lines be at right angles. and if the equal sides (AB. and the diagonal bisects the angle between them. 1. the angle C to the angle F . If two adjacent sides of a quadrilateral be equal. 2. Questions for Examination. Hence two points of the line BC coincide with two points of the line EF . three sides and three angles. V. They are said to be congruent. Six. the point C shall coincide with F . What technical term is applied to ﬁgures which agree in everything but position? Ans. viii. the point B shall coincide with E . Hence the triangles agree in every respect. and if each bisect the other. and the line AB with DE . 4. the distances between the vertices of the original triangle and the opposite vertices of the equilateral triangles are equal. The line that bisects the vertical angle of an isosceles triangle bisects the base perpendicularly. In general. BC must coincide with EF . and since AC is equal to DF (hyp. Name them. If equilateral triangles be described on the sides of any triangle. ECB ) below the base shall be equal. (This Proposition should be proved after the student has read Prop. then because AB is equal to DE . What is meant by superposition? 5. and since two right lines cannot enclose a space.). then any point in either is equally distant from the extremities of the other. AC ) be produced.—Let us conceive the triangle BAC to be applied to EDF . The angles (ABC. When it is required to prove that two triangles are congruent. 11 . 2. because the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDF . 1. the external angles (DEC. ACB ) at the base (BC ) of an isosceles triangle are equal to one another. 3. xxxii. Again..

angle F AC = angle GAB. and these are the angles at the base. but the angle ADC is equal to ABC . Hence the remaining angle ACB is equal to the remaining angle ABC . and these are the angles below the base. round the line AC .—Every equilateral triangle is equiangular.—The great diﬃculty which beginners ﬁnd in this Proposition is due to the fact that the two triangles ACF . AC in one respectively equal to the sides GA. without alteration.—In BD take any point F . CF (Post. The following is a very easy proof of this Proposition. The student should also be shown how to apply one of the triangles to the other. AC of one respectively equal to the sides AC .). Let ACD be its new position. GAB have the sides F A. then the angle ADC of the displaced triangle is evidently equal to the angle ABC . therefore [iv. the two triangles F AC . ABG overlap each other. GB in the other. and the included angle A is common to both triangles. Hence [iv. the greater. AB in the other. BF . AC = AB .). and the angle BF C equal to the angle CGB .).].] these triangles have the angle F BC equal to the angle GCB . Observation. and angle ACF = angle ABG. and the angle ACF is equal to the angle ABG. Because AF is equal to AG (const.). Also the angle F CB equal to GBC . and from AE . the angle AF C is equal to AGB . and AC is equal to AB (hyp. is equal to CG (Axiom iii). CGB . i. F C in one equal to the two sides CG. cut oﬀ AG equal to AF [iii]. and point out the corresponding parts thus:— AF = AG. CGB have the two sides BF .). Again. Conceive the ACB to be turned. the two s BAC . with which it originally coincided. and we have proved that F C is equal to GB . the remainder. Join BG. AD of the other. angle AF C = angle AGB. but the whole angle F CA has been proved equal to the whole angle GBA.] the base F C is equal to GB . Again. Therefore [iv. CAD have the sides BA.] the angle ACB opposite to the side AB is equal to the angle ADC opposite to the side AC . and the included angles equal. Similar Illustrations may be given of the triangles BF C . The teacher should make these triangles separate.Dem. because AF is equal to AG (const. Hence [iv. Cor. 12 . and AB to AC (hyp. until it falls on the other side. therefore ACB is equal to ABC . so as to bring them into coincidence. and the angle BF C contained by the two sides of one equal to the angle CGB contained by the two sides of the other. as in the annexed diagram. Hence the two triangles BF C .

5. 4. Then the two triangles DBC . one part of the diagram will coincide with the other. 8. 2. and that the part BD is equal to AC . 6. Exercises. i. that is.—If AB . the other pair of conterminous sides (BC. BD) must be unequal. If two triangles (ACB. Dem. which is absurd. 7.—Theorem. one must be greater than the other. AC are not equal. Suppose AB is the greater. ACB have BD equal to AC . and the angle DBC in one is equal to the angle ACB in the other (hyp). Prove that the angles at the base are equal without producing the sides. PROP.Def. C ) of a triangle be equal. VI. 5. Show how to prove this Proposition by assuming as an axiom that every angle has a bisector. What is the hypothesis in this Proposition? What Proposition is this the converse of? What is the obverse of this Proposition? What is the obverse of Prop. 1. hence AC . and be either at the same or at opposite sides of it. the line joining their vertices is an axis of symmetry of the ﬁgure formed by them. 3. AB are not unequal. Prove that the line joining the point A to the intersection of the lines CF and BG is an axis of symmetry of the ﬁgure. If two angles (B. such as AC in the preceding diagram. 6. Each diagonal of a lozenge is an axis of symmetry of the lozenge. Join CD (Post. which is such that. is called an axis of symmetry of the ﬁgure. 2. 13 .—A line in any ﬁgure. 1. v.] the triangle DBC is equal to the triangle ACB —the less to the greater. BC in one are equal to the two sides AC . 4. CB in the other. VII—Theorem. by folding the plane of the ﬁgure round it.). Questions for Examination. the lines joining them form a new equilateral triangle. 3. Therefore [iv. and BC common to both. If two isosceles triangles be on the same base. AB ) opposite to them are also equal. the sides (AC. Also by producing the sides through the vertex. If three points be taken on the sides of an equilateral triangle. one on each side. they are equal. namely. Therefore the two sides DB . AD) equal to one another. ADB ) on the same base (AB ) and on the same side of it have one pair of conterminous sides (AC. at equal distances from the angles.? What is meant by an indirect proof? How does Euclid generally prove converse Propositions? What false assumption is made in the demonstration? What does this assumption lead to? PROP.

those shall be equal to which the equal sides are opposite. viii.). Show that two circles can intersect each other only in one point on the same side of the line joining their centres. Hence BD is not equal to BC . If two triangles (ABC.). and have also the base (BC ) of one equal to the base (EF ) of the other. In the demonstration of Prop. therefore [v. occurs. Questions for Examination. show where. more is BCD greater than BDC . PROP. the contrapositive of Prop. As a lemma to Prop.Dem. AC ) of one respectively equal to two sides (DE. and the line BC with the line EF .—Theorem. then because BC is equal to EF .). Dem. 1. DF ) of the other. Produce the sides AC . the point C shall coincide with F . Join CD. so that the point B will coincide with E . 3. but ECD is greater than BCD (Axiom ix. AD to E and F . the triangle ACD is isosceles. Then if the vertex A fall on the same 14 . 2.—1.].].] the external angles ECD.? Ans. Now if the side BD were equal to BC . but it has been proved to be greater. Let the vertex of one triangle ADB fall within the other triangle ACB . If the vertex D of the second triangle fall on the line BC . the angle BCD would be equal to BDC [v. VIII. therefore ACD is greater than BDC : much. 3.—Let the triangle ABC be applied to DEF . vii. Then because AC is equal to AD (hyp. vii. and the angles of one shall be respectively equal to the angles of the other—namely. Therefore F DC is greater than BCD: much more is BDC greater than BCD. Then because AD is equal to AC (hyp.). F DC at the other side of the base CD are equal. v. DEF ) have two sides (AB. it is evident that BC and BD are unequal. but ADC is greater than BDC (Axiom ix. then the two triangles shall be equal. 2. but if BC were equal to BD. and hence that two circles cannot have more than two points of intersection. the triangle ACD is isosceles. therefore BC cannot be equal to BD. and [v.] the angle ACD is equal to the angle ADC . Let the vertex of each triangle be without the other. What use is made of Prop. the angle BDC would be equal to BCD [v.

Join AG. the point A must coincide with D. Hence the whole angle BAC = BGC . because they are the sides of an equilateral triangle (Def.] the angle DAF is equal to the angle EAF . Sol.) and AF common. then let BGC be the position which EDF takes.) EG is equal to ED: in like manner. and therefore the three angles of one are respectively equal to the three angles of the other—namely. and BA is equal to ED (hyp.] AE equal to AD. In like manner the angle CAG = CGA. Join DE (Post.—The line AF is an axis of symmetry of the ﬁgure.). xxi. describe the equilateral triangle DEF [i. and this is impossible [vii. To bisect a given rectilineal angle (BAC ). therefore the two sides DA.).—Let the equal bases be applied as in the foregoing proof. for if not. but let the vertices be on the opposite sides.]. hence the angle BAC is bisected by the line AF . and the triangle ABC agrees in every respect with the triangle DEF . PROP. AF . and cut oﬀ [iii. Dem. let it take a diﬀerent position G.—The triangles DAF . and is the second case of the congruence of triangles in the Elements. on the side remote from A. AF are respectively equal to EA. Therefore [viii. This Proposition is the converse of iv. A to D. IX. F G is equal to F D. 15 .—Problem. Then because BG = BA. and the two triangles are equal.] Join AF . and upon it. the angle BAG = BGA. then we have EG equal to BA.). Cor.. and the base DF is equal to the base EF . B to E . i. Philo’s Proof. EAF have the side AD equal to AE (const. Hence the point A must coincide with D. and C to F . AF bisects the given angle BAC .side of EF as the vertex D. but BGC = EDF therefore BAC = EDF . Hence (Axiom i.—In AB take any point D.

therefore the two sides CD. 2. 16 . Sol. CF in the other. BCD.—In AC take any point D. XI. To bisect a given ﬁnite right line (AB ).) each of them is a right angle. CF in one are respectively equal to the two sides CE . Sol. 1.).]. that AF is perpendicular to DE . viii.Questions for Examination. Why does Euclid describe the equilateral triangle on the side remote from A? 2. CD in one are equal to the two sides BC . Upon DE describe an equilateral triangle DF E [i. that any point in AF is equally distant from the points D and E . B is in the line CD. that any point in AF is equally distant from the lines AB . Bisect the angle ACB by the line CD [ix. Therefore the base AD is equal to the base DB [iv.]. therefore [viii. Therefore (Def. Join CF .] the angle DCE is equal to the angle ECF . Therefore the two sides AC .]. xxi. Prove Prove Prove Prove this Proposition without using Prop.—The two triangles DCF . being the sides of an equilateral triangle. ECF have CD equal to CE (const.]. AC .—Problem. and make CE equal to CD [iii. Dem. Then CF shall be at right angles to AB . and the base DF is equal to the base EF . 1. In what case would the construction fail.].). if the equilateral triangle were described on the other side of DE ? Exercises. 2. 1. Hence AB is bisected in D. have the side AC equal to BC . and CD common. Every point equally distant from the points A. then AB is bisected in D. From a given point (C ) in a given right line (AB ) to draw a right line perpendicular to the given line. 3. Dem. CD in the other. Show how to bisect a ﬁnite right line by describing two circles. PROP. and the angle ACD is equal to the angle BCD (const. meeting AB in D. Exercises. xiii. and CF is perpendicular to AB at the point C .—Problem. PROP.—Upon AB describe an equilateral triangle ACB [i. and they are adjacent angles. 4.—The two triangles ACD. X.) and CF common. being the sides of an equilateral triangle (Def.

]. the angle formed by the joining lines shall be bisected by the given line. XII.—Take any point D on the other side of AB . To draw a perpendicular to a given indeﬁnite right line (AB ) from a given point (C ) without it. Find a point in a given line that shall be equally distant from two given points. being adjacent angles. The diagonals of a lozenge bisect each other perpendicularly. If one angle of a triangle be equal to the sum of the other two. 4. CG. and HC common. Prove that the circle cannot meet AB in more than two points.). meeting AB in the points F and G. Prove Prop. xxxii.). 3. and describe (Post. or their sum is equal to two right angles. being radii of the circle F DG (Def.) a circle. Then the two triangles F HC . 5. CH shall be at right angles to AB . and CD as radius. Find a point in a given line such that. Erect a line at right angles to a given line at one of its extremities without producing the line. 17 . xi.—Theorem. Exercises. 1. and. with C as centre. 1.Exercises. XIII.—Join CF . they are right angles (Def. and the base is equal to twice the line from its middle point to the opposite angle. Bisect F G in H [x. ABD) which one right line (AB ) standing on another (CD) makes with it are either both right angles. i. GHC have F H equal to GH (const. without using Prop. 6. and the base CF equal to the base CG.). the triangle can be divided into the sum of two isosceles triangles. Therefore the angle CHF is equal to the angle CHG [viii. The adjacent angles (ABC. PROP. viii. Find a point that shall be equidistant from three given points. Dem.].—Problem. PROP. if it be joined to two given points on opposite sides of the line. xiii. Join CH (Post. Sol. Therefore CH is perpendicular to AB .). 2. 2. iii.

adding the angle ABD. and BA stands on it. And things which are equal to the same are equal to one another. ABD.—Two right lines cannot have a common segment. If not. and the sum of the angles CBA. XIV.—The angle EBA is half the diﬀerence of the angles CBA. ABE is two right angles (xiii. 1.). ABD is equal to the sum of the angles CBE . Cor. Now the angle CBA is equal to the sum of the two angles CBE .—If AB is perpendicular to CD. PROP.). ABD. Cor. 1. 4. Now. the sum of the angles CBE .—The bisectors of two supplemental angles are at right angles to each other. draw BE perpendicular to CD [xi. Or thus: Denote the angle EBA by θ.–Theorem. 18 . as in ﬁg. therefore the sum of the angles CBA. xi.—If BD be not the continuation of CB . Dem. ABD is equal to the sum of the three angles CBE . BD) on opposite sides make the adjacent angles (CBA. ABD) together equal to two right angles.—The bisector of any angle bisects the corresponding re-entrant angle. Cor. these two right lines form one continuous line. the sum of the angles CBA. EBD is equal to the sum of the three angles CBE . ABD are right angles. In like manner.]. EBD are right angles. the angles ABC . EBA (Def. CBA + ABD = two right angles. but CBE . the sum of the angles CBA. EBA. ABD. 2.). Cor. let BE be its continuation. EBA.Dem. Hence. Cor. then evidently the angle the angle therefore CBA = right angle + θ. 3. 5.—The sum of two supplemental angles is two right angles. Therefore the sum of the angles CBA. EBD. ABD is two right angles. since CBE is a right line. ABD is two right angles (hyp. ABD = right angle − θ. If at a point (B ) in a right line (BA) two other right lines (CB.

? Ans. XIV. the triangles CEF . CD) intersect one another. AED is equal to the sum of the angles BEC . xv. XIII. Produce it. CEA is two right angles. the angle CEA is equal to DEB . which is common. CEA. xv. 5. which is common. 3. the exterior angle (ACD) is greater than either of the interior non-adjacent angles. Angles at a point. xiii. xiii. 8.—Theorem. xiv. 19 . XV. Join BE (Post. and EF is equal to EB .. If two lines intersect.). therefore the angle ACD is greater than EAB . XVI.] the angle ECF is equal to EAB . and the angle CEF equal to AEB [xv.? What three lines in Prop. What is the subject of Props. No theorem. are concurrent? What caution is required in the enunciation of Prop. ABD.—Theorem. and we have the angle AED equal to BEC .. AEB have the sides CE . Questions for Examination on Props. xiv. bear to Prop. ABE is equal to the sum of the angles CBA. i. and from the produced part cut oﬀ EF equal to BE [iii]. 1.therefore the sum of the angles CBA. Now because EC is equal to EA (const.—Bisect AC in E [x. how many pairs of supplemental angles do they make? What relation does Prop. If any side (BC ) of a triangle (ABC ) be produced.).? State the converse of Prop. 7.. the sum of the angles CEA. PROP. xiii. 2. XV. EB in the other. The foregoing proof may be brieﬂy given. Prove it. a part equal to the whole—which is absurd. EF in one equal to the sides AE . by saying that opposite angles are equal because they have a common supplement. Therefore [iv. therefore the sum of the angles CEA. Reject the angle CEA. but the angle ACD is greater than ECF . the opposite angles are equal (CEA = DEB . If two right lines (AB. and BEC = AED). Join CF . AED is two right angles [xiii. In like manner.]. Hence BD must be in the same right line with CB . and because the line CE stands on AB . xiv. only the axioms. What problem is required in Euclid’s proof of Prop.? What theorem? Ans.].. PROP. Reject the angle CBA. Dem. Dem.]. 4. and we have the angle ABE equal to the angle ABD—that is. xiv.—Because the line AE stands on CD. the sum of the angles BEC . 6.

—Every triangle must have at least two acute angles. if produced.—Produce BC to D. or of the angles A. ACB is two right angles [xiii. XVIII. but BCG is equal to ACD [xv. ACB is less than two right angles. C . Therefore ACD is greater than either of the interior non-adjacent angles A or B of the triangle ABC . Hence ACD is greater than ABC . Cor. Cor.] the angle ADB is equal to ABD.In like manner it may be shown. Much more is the angle ABC greater than the angle ACB . the triangle ABD is isosceles. but the sum of the angles ACD. if they met at any ﬁnite point X . Any two angles (B.]. Now since AB is equal to AD. therefore [v.—From AC cut oﬀ AD equal to AB [iii]. 2. is less than two right angles. If in any triangle (ABC ) one side (AC ) be greater than another (AB ). i.—The sum of the three interior angles of the triangle BCF is equal to the sum of the three interior angles of the triangle ABC . without producing a side. xvii. 2. Join BD (Post. cannot meet at any ﬁnite distance. therefore ABD is greater than ACB . ACB greater than the sum of the angles ABC . For. the lesser must be acute. ACB .]: to each add the angle ACB . Prove Prop. Cor. PROP. that the exterior angle BCG is greater than the angle ABC . 20 . the triangle CAX would have an exterior angle BAC equal to the interior angle ACX .—Theorem.—The area of BCF is equal to the area of ABC . C ) of a triangle (ABC ) are together less than two right angles.]. then the exterior angle ACD is greater than ABC [xvi.). Exercise. 1.—If two angles of a triangle be unequal. and we have the sum of the angles ACD. In like manner we may show that the sum of the angles A. Cor. XVII. Dem.]. Therefore the sum of the angles ABC . 3.—Theorem. Cor. B . Dem. but the angle ADB is greater than the angle ACB [xvi.—The lines BA and CF . PROP. the angle opposite to the greater side is grater than the angle opposite to the less. if the side AC be produced. 1.

and the angle BF C is less than half the angle ABC . but it is not by hypothesis. Now since AB is equal to AE . and since AC is neither equal to AB nor less than it. Prove this Proposition by a direct demonstration. but it is not by hypothesis. If AC were less than AB . describe the circle BED. If ABC be a having AB not greater than AC .]. therefore ABE is greater than ACB . XIX. but AEB is greater than ACB (xvi. therefore AC is not less than AB . 2. with the lesser side AB as radius. and then the angle B would be equal to C [v. but AGC [xvi. If in the second method the circle cut the line CB produced through B . Exercises. If two of the opposite sides of a quadrilateral be respectively the greatest and least. and of all others that may be drawn to it. For the angle ACB [xviii. The perpendicular is the least line which can be drawn from a given point to a given line. the triangle ACB would be isosceles. Let us examine each case:— 1.] is greater than ABC . 5.. AB be the greatest side of the ABC .]. prove the Proposition. the side (AC ) which it opposite to the greater angle is greater than the side (AB ) which is opposite to the less. therefore AGC is greater than ACG. it must be greater. that which is nearest to the perpendicular is less than any one more remote.).—Theorem. cutting BC in E . but greater if the point be in the base produced. a line AG. the angle B would be less than the angle C [xviii. Prop. 4.. A line from the vertex of an isosceles triangle to any point in the base is less than either of the equal sides.] is not greater than ABC . Three equal lines could not be drawn from the same point to the same line. 1. 4.—If AC be not greater than AB . xvi. is less than AC . the perpendicular from the vertex opposite the side which is not less than either of the remaining sides falls within the triangle. 3. 21 . PROP. drawn from A to any point G in BC . Hence AC is greater than AG. it must be either equal to it or less than it. If AC were equal to AB . the angle AEB is equal to ABE . 1. In any triangle. This Proposition may be proved by producing the less side. If one angle (B ) of a triangle (ABC ) be greater than another angle (C ). Dem.Or thus: From A as centre. 6. 2. If in the ﬁg. Join AE . therefore AB is not equal to AC . Exercises. BF is the greatest side of the F BC . the angles adjacent to the least are greater than their opposite angles. 3. 2.

6. their sum is less than the sum of the remaining sides (BA.]. 1.PROP. Again. but EAC = EAB (const. hence the side BD opposite to the greater angle is greater than BC opposite to the less [xix. adding BA to both.—Theorem. AC is greater than BC . 22 . PROP. Def. The perimeter of any triangle is greater than that of any inscribed triangle. CA). XXI. their sum is greater than the sum of the sides. AC ) of a triangle (ABC ) is greater than the third. If the lines be drawn to any point in the bisector of the external vertical angle. their diﬀerence is less than the diﬀerence of the sides. The perimeter of any polygon is greater than that of any inscribed. The sum of the three medians of a triangle is less than its perimeter.). If through the extremities of the base of a triangle. and make AD equal to AC [iii. Hence AB is greater than BE [xix.] Then the angle BEA is greater than EAC . the angle ACD is equal to ADC (v. polygon of the same number of sides. AC is greater than BC . therefore the angle BCD is greater than the angle BDC .]. we have the sum of the sides BA. lines be drawn to any point in the bisector of the vertical angle. 9. therefore the angle BEA is greater than EAB . Exercises. 8. In any triangle. In like manner AC is greater than EC . Or thus : Bisect the angle BAC by AE [ix. 5.—Produce BA to D (Post.]. Then because AD is equal to AC . ii. The sum of the diagonals of a quadrilateral is less than the sum of the lines which can be drawn to its angular points from any point except the intersection of the diagonals. and less than that of any circumscribed. Join CD. but they contain a greater angle. since AC is equal to AD. Therefore the sum of BA. the diﬀerence between any two sides is less than the third. Therefore the sum of BA. and less than that of any circumscribed triangle. 3. Dem. CD) be drawn to a point (D) within a triangle from the extremities of its base (BC ). 10. whose sides are unequal. The perimeter of a quadrilateral is greater than the sum of its diagonals. the sum of the joining lines is greater than its semiperimeter. 2. 4.—Theorem. If any point within a triangle be joined to its angular points. AC equal to BD. 7.—A line drawn from any angle of a triangle to the middle point of the opposite side is called a median of the triangle. The sum of any two sides (BA. XX. Any side of any polygon is less than the sum of the remaining sides.).). If two lines (BD.

The external angle BDC of the triangle DEC is greater than the internal angle BEC [xvi. KF G is the triangle required.] DF equal to A.]: to each add EC . Therefore much more is the sum of BA.).—Problem.) to meet AC in E . and with G as centre. If a convex polygonal line ABCD lie within a convex polygonal line AM N D terminating in the same extremities.Dem. 2. but it has been proved that the sum of BA. PROP. and the angle BEC . 1. iii. EC . C ). and F D as radius. and GH as radius. Therefore the whole angle BDC is greater than BAC . Part 2 may be proved without producing either of the sides BD. the length of the former is less than that of the latter. AE is greater than the side BE [xx. AC greater than the sum of BD. To construct a triangle whose three sides shall be respectively equal to three given lines (A. Produce BD (Post. Then. describe the circle KDL (Post. and cut oﬀ [iii.) 2. for a like reason. The sum of the lines drawn from any point within a triangle to its angular points is less than the perimeter. the sum of the sides DE . and we get the sum of BE . last Prop. Thus: join AD and produce it to meet BC in F . DC . 23 . describe the circle KHL. and F DC is greater than F AC . and we have the sum of BA. DC . Again. With F as centre. the sum of every two of which is greater than the third.—1. KG. but unlimited towards E . EC greater than the sum of BD. 2. DC . ii. in the triangle BAE . terminated at D. intersecting the former circle in K . F G equal to B .—Take any right line DE .]. (Compare Ex. then the angle BDF is greater than the angle BAF [xvi. Therefore much more is BDC greater than BAC . Sol. Exercises. XXII. EC of the triangle DEC is greater than DC : to each add BD. AC is greater than the sum of BE . is greater than BAC . EC . Join KF .]. B. and GH equal to C . AC greater than the sum of BE . the sum of the sides BA.

AC equal to EF . and CB equal to F D. Questions for Examination.—Problem. What is the reason for stating in the enunciation that the sum of every two of the given lines must be greater than the third? 2. then the angle BAC will [viii. F K is equal to F D. Sol. and construct [xxii. PROP. taken in order. If the sum of two of the lines were equal to the third.—Since F is the centre of the circle KDL. shall be equal to those of DEF —namely.Dem. Prove that when that condition is fulﬁlled the two circles must intersect.—In the sides ED. Hence it is the required angle.) F K is equal to A. whose sides. B . Under what conditions would the circles not intersect? 4. and F G is equal to B (const. Join DF . would the circles meet? Prove that they would not intersect. 24 .] be equal to DEF . AB equal to ED. 3. EF of the given angle take any arbitrary points D and F . In like manner GK is equal to C . C . XXIII. but F D is equal to A (const. At a given point (A) in a given right line (AB ) to make an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle (DEF ).). therefore (Axiom i.] the triangle BAC . 1.) Hence the three sides of the triangle KF G are respectively equal to the three lines A.

being given two sides and the angle opposite to one of them. because AH is equal to AC (const. but AH = AC (const. AC . AG + GC > AC [xx.). Join OH . one of the angles at the base. The concluding part of this Proposition may be proved without joining CH . and make AH equal to DF or AC [iii. Construct a triangle. and the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [xix. thus:— BG + GH > BH [xx. If two triangles (ABC. and we have BC equal to the sum of BO. Construct a triangle. DF ) of the other. 2. being given two sides and the angle between them. such that the sum or diﬀerence of its distances from the former points may be given. therefore AHC is greater than BCH : much more is the angle BHC greater than BCH . Or thus: Bisect the angle CAH by AO. Show that two such points may be found in each case. but BH has been proved to be equal to EF . we have AB equal to DE (hyp. AO in the other.—Of the two sides AB . 1. being given the base. Therefore BC is greater than BH . therefore BC is > BH . Now in the s CAO.. DEF ) have two sides (AB.). Join BH . Dem. OH is greater than BH [xx.]. Therefore BC is greater than BH . XXIV.Exercises. 4. greater than EF . Given two points.]. therefore BC + AH > BH + AC .—Theorem. therefore the base OC is equal to the base OH [iv. Produce AG to H . therefore BC is greater than EF . PROP. one of which is in a given line. and the contained angles equal. and the sum or diﬀerence of the sides.). HAO we have the sides CA.]. it is required to ﬁnd another point in the given line. Then because AB is not greater than AC .).]: to each add BO. CH .). being given two angles and the side between them.]. the base of that which has the greater angle is greater than the base of the other. Again. the triangle ACH is isosceles. and the angle BAH equal to the angle EDF (const. AO in one equal to the sides AH . In the triangles BAH . Exer. EDF . AC ) of one respectively equal to two sides (DE. but the sum of BO. Construct a triangle. 5. OH . AG is less than AC [xix. therefore the base [iv. therefore the angle ACH is equal to AHC [v. but the contained angle (BAC ) of one greater than the contained angle (EDF ) of the other.].]. AH equal to DF (const. let AB be the one which is not the greater. 6]. but ACH is greater than BCH . 3. 25 .] BH is equal to EF . Construct a triangle.]. and with it make the angle BAG equal to EDF [xxiii. that is.

hence the angle A is not equal to the angle D. whose three sides AG.] EF would be greater than BC . PROP. BC is greater than CG.) the angle BGH equal to GBH . AH of one equal to the sides AG. ABC would have the two sides DE .] the angle BGC is greater than GBC . it must be either equal to it or less than it. Or thus. GC .] BC would be equal to EF .] the angle BAH is equal to GAH . Hence [xviii. DEF would have the two sides AB . CA shall be respectively equal to the three sides DE . Therefore A is not less than D. AH of the other. the triangles ABC .] BH is equal to GH . Then [vi. If A were equal to D.—Theorem. Prove this Proposition by making the angle ABH to the left of AB . by hypothesis. the angle (A) contained by the sides of that which has the greater base is greater them the angle (D) contained by the sides of the other. Then because BC is greater than EF . Prove that the angle BCA is greater than EF D. Hence the angle BAC is greater than CAG. DEF ) have two sides (AB.—If the angle A be not greater than D. and therefore greater than EDF . AC of one respectively equal to the two sides DE . If A were less than D. Hence [iv. directly : Construct the triangle ACG.) is not greater than BC . 1. EF . Dem. We shall examine each case:— 1. Hence [xxiv. and the angle D contained by the two sides of one greater than the angle A contained by the two sides of the other. Therefore the triangles ABH . therefore it must be greater. AC of the other. If two triangles (ABC.]. but EF (hyp. F D of the triangle DEF [xxii. but the base (BC ) of one greater than the base (EF ) of the other. Therefore [viii. greater than EF . DF of the other.Exercises. and join AH . 2. and make (xxiii. AC ) of one respectively equal to two sides (DE. and we have proved that it is not equal to it. Join BG. and the base BH equal to GH . AGH have the sides AB . but BC is. and the triangles DEF . DF ) of the other. and the angle A contained by the two sides of one equal to the angle D contained by the two sides of the other. DF of one respectively equal to the two sides AB . XXV. then D would be greater than A. 26 . 2.

and AC to DF . but the angle ACB is (hyp. the exterior angle of the triangle ACG is equal to the interior and non-adjacent angle. and the contained angles ABC and DEF equal. and since the angles B . or those opposite equal angles. includes all the cases of the congruence of two triangles.). which is absurd. If two triangles (ABC. therefore [iv. and the angle ABG equal to the angle DEF . since BC is equal to EF . but the angle ACB is equal to DF E (hyp. and the angle ABC equal to the angle GEF (hyp. and viii. C are 27 .] is impossible. and the line BC with EF . EF of the other. PROP. AC is equal to DF . DEF have the sides AB . it is required to prove that BC is equal to EF .. which [xvi. they are equal. that is. Let the equal sides be BC and EF . Demonstrate this Proposition directly by cutting oﬀ from BC a part equal to EF . that is. therefore [iv. BC of one respectively equal to the sides DE . BC of one respectively equal to the sides GE . then the triangles ABC . and the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDF . namely BC and EF . may be proved immediately by superposition. the triangles are equal in every respect. the point C shall coincide with F . then if DE be not equal to AB . and the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDF . 2. Let the sides given to be equal be AB and DE . Hence (Axiom i.] AC is equal to DF . Consequently the triangles ABC . Hence BC must be equal to EF . suppose BG to be equal to it. GEF have the sides AB . and the same as in 1.—This Proposition breaks up into two according as the sides given to be equal are the sides adjacent to the equal angles.] the angle ACB is equal to the angle GF E .Exercise.] the angle AGB is equal to DF E . Join GF . C ) of one equal respectively to two angles (E. suppose GE to be equal to it. together with iv. therefore AB and DE are not unequal.—Theorem. EF of the other. DEF ) have two angles (B. hence GF E is equal to DF E —a part equal to the whole. Part I. XXVI. For it is evident if ABC be applied to DEF . Then the triangles ABG. This Proposition. BG of one respectively equal to the two sides DE .) equal to DF E . Dem. so that the point B shall coincide with E .).) the angle AGB is equal to ACB . Join AG. DEF have the two sides AB . EF of the other. and a side of one equal to a side similarly placed with respect to the equal angles of the other. If BC be not equal to EF . F ) of the other. therefore [iv. 1.

a circle is the locus of a point whose distance from the centre is equal to its radius.—A parallelogram is a quadrilateral. such that perpendiculars on it from two given points on opposite sides may be equal to each other. If two right-angled triangles have equal hypotenuses.—If every point on a geometrical ﬁgure satisﬁes an assigned condition. that ﬁgure is called the locus of the point satisfying the condition. Def. 3. State also the number of solutions. 10. 6. they are said to be parallel. Def. Def. 4. when produced indeﬁnitely. which have received special names in relation to one another. vii. iii. The extremities of the base of an isosceles triangle are equally distant from any point in the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. and a side of one equal to a side of the other. they do not meet at any ﬁnite distance. The bisectors of two external angles and the bisector of the third internal angle are concurrent. The bisectors of the three internal angles of a triangle are concurrent. both pairs of whose opposite sides are parallel. Def. F . 9.—A quadrilateral which has one pair of opposite sides parallel is called a trapezium . Through a given point draw a right line intersecting two given lines. the intercept between their feet is called the projection of the ﬁrst line on the second. Through a given point draw a right line. Def. If two right-angled triangles have equal hypotenuses. and forming an isosceles triangle with them. 2. i. vi. Thus. 7. In a given right line ﬁnd a point such that the perpendiculars from it on two given lines may be equal. Def. Def. the right line joining their points of intersection is called its third diagonal . they are congruent. for example.respectively equal to the angles E .—If from the extremities of one right line perpendiculars be drawn to another. Thus. in the 28 . If the line which bisects the vertical angle of a triangle also bisects the base. ii. and an acute angle of one equal to an acute angle of the other.—When a right line intersects two other right lines in two distinct points it makes with them eight angles. Hence the triangles are congruent. The locus of a point which is equally distant from two ﬁxed lines is the pair of lines which bisect the angles made by the ﬁxed lines. 5. the triangle is isosceles. Parallel Lines. Def. 1. v.—If two right lines in the same plane be such that. iv. CA shall coincide with ED and F D.—The right line joining either pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is called a diagonal . they are congruent. 8. Exercises. the lines BA.—If both pairs of opposite sides of a quadrilateral be produced to meet.

and the line F D the place of EA. which is absurd.—1. 8. Hence they are parallel. so that EF shall fall on itself. therefore AB is parallel to CD [xxvii. Since the lines AB . and the angle AEF is an exterior angle. 2. 4.—If AB and CD are not parallel they must meet. Dem. then the ﬁgure EGF is a triangle. these lines are parallel. 5. but EGB is equal to GHD (hyp. CD) makes the exterior angle (EGB ) equal to its corresponding interior angle (GHD). therefore rejecting the angle BGH we have AGH equal GHD. the two right lines are parallel. GHD) on the same side equal to two right angles. Hence [xvi. if produced. PROP. therefore they do not meet at either side. 7. but the sum of BGH and GHD is two right angles (hyp. Hence [xxvii. their sum is equal to two right angles [xiii.). interior angles.]. therefore AGH is equal to GHD. CD) makes the alternate angles (AEF. Hence. 6. Again. but it is also equal to it (hyp. 6. and the ﬁgure is symmetrical with respect to the point O.] AEF is greater than EF D. turn the whole ﬁgure round O as a centre. PROP. lastly. Hence AB and CD are parallel.). 3. 8 are called exterior angles. XXVIII. Or thus: Bisect EF in O. 5. XXVII. 2. Dem. Since AGH and BGH are adjacent angles.ﬁgure—1.] AB is parallel to CD. 6. EF D) equal to each other. the angle AGH is equal to EGB [xv. 7 are called corresponding angles.—Theorem. 4. 29 . that is. both equal and greater. the point E shall fall on F .—Theorem. 1.). the line EA will occupy the place of F D. and because the angle AEF is equal to the angle EF D. If a right line (EF ) intersecting two right lines (AB. then because OE = OF . and EF D a non-adjacent interior angle. 3. and they are alternate angles. CD meet on one side of O.]. at some ﬁnite distance: if possible let them meet in G. 2.). but two right lines cannot enclose a space (Axiom x. and they are alternate angles. 3. EF intersect. or makes two interior angles (BGH. therefore the lines AB . 5 are called alternate angles. if AB . CD interchange places. If a right line (EF ) intersecting two right lines (AB. 4. they must also meet on the other side.].

GHD is two right angles.]. If two right lines (AB. Hence the angle AGH is not unequal to GHD—that is.). the two interior angles (BGH. 4. its diagonals are concurrent. the angle between the former is equal to the angle between the latter. BGH greater than the sum of the angles BGH . Since the angle EGB is equal to AGH [xv. it is equal to it. The perimeter of the parallelogram. 2. EGB is equal to GHD (Axiom i. GHD) on the same side equal to two right angles. If through the middle point O of any right line terminated by two parallel right lines any other secant be drawn. add HGB to each. CD) be parallel to the same right line (EF ). will meet at some ﬁnite distance: but since they are parallel (hyp.PROP. and GHD is equal to AGH (1). and we have the sum of the angles AGH . XXIX. 1. formed by drawing parallels to two sides of an equilateral triangle from any point in the third side. 8. If ACD. Let AGH be the greater. XXX. CD). AC be respectively parallel to DE .—Theorem. but the sum of AGH . If two intersecting right lines be respectively parallel to two others. The parts of all perpendiculars to two parallel lines intercepted between them are equal. is equal to twice the side. For if AB . DE meet in G. GHD. HGB . they are parallel to one another. If the opposite sides of a hexagon be equal and parallel.] is two right angles. PROP.]. DF . GHD is less than two right angles. HGB equal to the sum of the angles GHD. and if AC . D are each equal to G [xxix. 2. 3. If a right line (EF ) intersect two parallel right lines (AB. xxvii.—If the angle AGH be not equal to GHD. the angles A. if produced. Since AGH is equal to GHD (1).—Theorem. the alternate angles (AGH. BCD be adjacent angles. one must be greater than the other. Exercises. it makes— 1. 3. Dem. and therefore (Axiom xii. therefore the sum of BGH . any parallel to AB will meet the bisectors of these angles in points equally distant from where it meets CD. Two right lines passing through a point equidistant from two parallels intercept equal portions on the parallels. Demonstrate both parts of Prop.) they cannot meet at any ﬁnite distance. 3. BGH is two right angles.) the lines AB . therefore the sum of the angles BGH . 2. the intercept on this line made by the parallels is bisected in O. to each add BGH . 30 . 7. xxviii. without using Prop. GHD) equal to one another. CD. 6. 5. and we have the sum of the angles AGH . but the sum of the angles AGH . the exterior angle (EGB ) equal to the corresponding interior angle (GHD). HGB [xiii.

having its base on a given side of the triangle.—Problem. and make the angle DCE equal to the angle ADC [xxiii. Show that there are two solutions in each case. F : E . 4.]. Now since BC intersects the parallels BE .].]. Through a given point (C ) to draw a right line parallel to a given right line. BD. Draw a line parallel to the base of a triangle so that it may be—1.—Theorem. AC . and the sum of the three internal angles is equal to two right angles. XXXI. meeting AB in E . the angle EBD is equal to BAC [xxix. In like manner the angle GHF is equal to HKD [xxix. meeting in D. construct it. equal to the intercept it makes on one of the sides from the extremity of the base. Then since AB and EF are parallel.] AB is parallel to CD. Show that there are two solutions. equal to the sum of the two intercepts on the sides from the extremities of the base. through D draw parallels to AC . i.]. since AB intersects the parallels BE . PROP. 3. The line CE is parallel to AB [xxvii. From a given point draw to a given line a line making with it an angle equal to a given angle.—Draw any secant GHK . 6.). Between two lines given in position place a line of given length which shall be parallel to a given line. AC . 1. Show that there will be two solutions. the alternate angles EBC . XXXII. Inscribe a square in a given equilateral triangle. 3. Through two given points in two parallel lines draw two lines forming a lozenge with the given parallels. B by the lines AD.Dem. Sol. F are the points of trisection of AB . Given the altitude of a triangle and the base angles. Bisect the angles A. Prove the following construction for trisecting a given line AB :—On AB describe an equilateral ABC . 5.—Take any point D in AB . 2.—Draw BE parallel to AC [xxxi. equal to their diﬀerence. PROP. the angle AGH is equal to GHF [xxix. Dem.]. Therefore the angle AGK is equal to the angle GKD (Axiom i. Hence [xxvii. Join CD (Post.].). ACB are equal [xxix. 2. C ). BC . Again. Exercises. 7. the external angle (CBD) is equal to the sum of the two internal nonadjacent angles (A. hence the whole angle CBD is equal to the sum 31 .]. If any side (AB ) of a triangle (ABC ) be produced (to D).

—Each angle of an equilateral triangle is two-thirds of a right angle. the sum of the external angles is equal to four right angles.]. If the line which bisects the external vertical angle be parallel to the base. 3. the sum of its angles is equal to four right angles. C denote the angles of a . 8. 5. the sum of whose opposite angles is equal to two right angles. according as the opposite side is greater than. 9. 1 (B + C ). If two right-angled s ABC . right. Cor.—If one angle of a triangle be equal to the sum of the other two. The angle included between the internal bisector of one base angle of a triangle and the external bisector of the other base angle is equal to half the vertical angle.—If all the sides of any convex polygon be produced. Cor.—Since a quadrilateral can be divided into two triangles. ABC equal to the sum of the three angles ACB . the triangle is isosceles. 2. Cor. Cor. prove that the angle DBC is equal to half the diﬀerence of the base angles. Any angle of a triangle is obtuse. 10. 1.—Every right-angled triangle can be divided into two isosceles triangles by a line drawn from the right angle to the hypotenuse. xviii. Exercises. 1. 6. ABD be on the same hypotenuse AB . it is a right angle.of the two angles ACB .—If a right-angled triangle be isosceles. 11. Construct a right-angled triangle. prove that 1 2 2 2 be the angles of a formed by any side and the bisectors of the external angles between that side and the other sides produced. 32 . (A + B ). Trisect a right angle. BAC . the triangles are equiangular. hence the sum of the three angles ACB . 3.—If two triangles have two angles in one respectively equal to two angles in the other. ABC : but the sum of CBD. In the construction of Prop. twice the median drawn from that angle. 2. ABC is two right angles [xiii. 4. If the sides of a polygon of n sides be produced. and the vertices C and D be joined.—If a ﬁgure of n sides be divided into triangles by drawing diagonals from any one of its angles there will be (n − 2) triangles. Cor. Cor. 13. 4. hence the sum of its angles is equal 2(n − 2) right angles. B . If the three sides of one triangle be respectively perpendicular to those of another triangle. ABC is two right angles. being given the hypotenuse and the sum or diﬀerence of the sides. each base angle is half a right angle. 12. 1 (C + A) will 14. 7. Cor. equal to. Cor. BAC . the pair of angles subtended by any side of the quadrilateral thus formed are equal. 5. the sum of the angles between each alternate pair is equal to 2(n − 4) right angles. The angles made with the base of an isosceles triangle by perpendiculars from its extremities on the equal sides are each equal to half the vertical angle. The bisectors of the external angles of a quadrilateral form a circumscribed quadrilateral. BAC : to each of these add the angle ABC and we have the sum of CBD. If A. or acute. The three perpendiculars of a triangle are concurrent. their remaining angles are equal. The bisectors of two adjacent angles of a parallelogram are at right angles. 8. 6. or less than. 7.

The opposite sides (AB. 3. DCB have the two angles ABC . Again. 1. AC. Again. because the angle ACB is equal to CBD.] the base AC is equal to the base BD. hence the triangles ABC .—Join BC . XXXIII. Exercises. and either diagonal bisects the parallelogram.PROP. B. BD. 33 .—If one angle of a parallelogram be a right angle. Dem. CD. all its angles are right angles. Now since AB is parallel to CD. and it has been proved equal to it. and the angle ACB is equal to the angle CBD. 2. XXXIV.] AC is parallel to BD. the whole angle ACD is equal to the whole angle ABD. BC be respectively equal and parallel to two other right lines DE . CB in the other. and BC intersects them. ACB in one respectively equal to the two angles BCD. and conversely. and DCB equal to ABC . PROP.—Theorem. the triangles ABC . the angle ABC is equal to the angle BCD [xxix. CD) are equal and parallel. C ) of a parallelogram are equal to one another. and the angles ABC . Right lines that are equal and parallel have equal projections on any other right line. and AC to BD.]. the angle BAC to the angle BDC . Again. 1. Equal right lines that have equal projections on another right line are parallel. and the side BC common. therefore [iv. the angle ABC is equal to the alternate angle DCB [xxix. DCB contained by those sides equal. Dem. and BC common. Since AB is parallel to CD.] AB is equal to CD. the right line AC joining the extremities of the former pair is equal to the right line DF joining the extremities of the latter. The right lines (AC. Cor. the angle ACB is equal to the angle CBD. D. since BC intersects the parallels AC . BD) which join the adjacent extremities of two equal and parallel right lines (AB. CBD in the other. Therefore AC is both equal and parallel to BD. BC in one respectively equal to the sides DC .].—Theorem. 4. but these are alternate angles. since AB is equal to CD. and the triangle ABC to the triangle BDC . BD) and the opposite angles (A.—Join BC . EF . The right lines which join transversely the extremities of two equal and parallel right lines bisect each other. hence [xxvii. Therefore [xxvi. parallel right lines that have equal projections on another right line are equal. DCB have the sides AB . If two right lines AB . and BC intersects them.

Cor. 2.—If two adjacent sides of a parallelogram be equal, it is a lozenge. Cor. 3.—If both pairs of opposite sides of a quadrilateral be equal, it is a parallelogram. Cor. 4.—If both pairs of opposite angles of a quadrilateral be equal, it is a parallelogram. Cor. 5.—If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, it is a parallelogram. Cor. 6.—If both diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect the quadrilateral, it is a parallelogram. Cor. 7.—If the adjacent sides of a parallelogram be equal, its diagonals bisect its angles. Cor. 8.—If the adjacent sides of a parallelogram be equal, its diagonals intersect at right angles. Cor. 9.—In a right-angled parallelogram the diagonals are equal. Cor. 10.—If the diagonals of a parallelogram be perpendicular to each other, it is a lozenge. Cor. 11.—If a diagonal of a parallelogram bisect the angles whose vertices it joins, the parallelogram is a lozenge. Exercises.

1. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. 2. If the diagonals of a parallelogram be equal, all its angles are right angles. 3. Divide a right line into any number of equal parts. 4. The right lines joining the adjacent extremities of two unequal parallel right lines will meet, if produced, on the side of the shorter parallel. 5. If two opposite sides of a quadrilateral be parallel but not equal, and the other pair equal but not parallel, its opposite angles are supplemental. 6. Construct a triangle, being given the middle points of its three sides. 7. The area of a quadrilateral is equal to the area of a triangle, having two sides equal to its diagonals, and the contained angle equal to that between the diagonals.

PROP. XXXV.—Theorem. Parallelograms on the same base (BC ) and between the same parallels are equal. Dem.—1. Let the sides AD, DF of the parallelograms AC , BF opposite to the common base BC terminate in the same point D, then [xxxiv.] each parallelogram is double of the triangle BCD. Hence they are equal to one another. 2. Let the sides AD, EF (ﬁgures (α), (β )) opposite to BC not terminate in the same point.

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Then because ABCD is a parallelogram, AD is equal to BC [xxxiv.]; and since BCEF is a parallelogram, EF is equal to BC ; therefore (see ﬁg. (α)) take away ED, and in ﬁg. (β ) add ED, and we have in each case AE equal to DF , and BA is equal to CD [xxxiv.]. Hence the triangles BAE , CDF have the two sides BA, AE in one respectively equal to the two sides CD, DF in the other, and the angle BAE [xxix.] equal to the angle CDF ; hence [iv.] the triangle BAE is equal to the triangle CDF ; and taking each of these triangles in succession from the quadrilateral BAF C , there will remain the parallelogram BCF E equal to the parallelogram BCDA. Or thus: The triangles ABE , DCF have [xxxiv.] the sides AB , BE in one respectively equal to the sides DC , CF in the other, and the angle ABE equal to the angle DCF [xxix., Ex. 8]. Hence the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle DCF ; and, taking each away from the quadrilateral BAF C , there will remain the parallelogram BCF E equal to the parallelogram BCDA.

Observation.—By the second method of proof the subdivision of the demonstration into cases is avoided. It is easy to see that either of the two parallelograms ABCD, EBCF can be divided into parts and rearranged so as to make it congruent with the other. This Proposition aﬀords the ﬁrst instance in the Elements in which equality which is not congruence occurs. This equality is expressed algebraically by the symbol =, while congruence is denoted by ≡, called also the symbol of identity. Figures that are congruent are said to be identically equal .

PROP. XXXVI.—Theorem. Parallelograms (BD, F H ) on equal bases (BC, F G) and between the same parallels are equal. Dem.—Join BE , CH . Now since F H is a parallelogram, F G is equal to EH [xxxiv.]; but BC is equal to F G (hyp.); therefore BC is equal to EH (Axiom i.). Hence BE , CH , which join their adjacent extremities, are equal and parallel; therefore BH is a parallelogram. Again, since the parallelograms BD, BH are on the same base BC , and between the same parallels BC , AH , they are equal [xxxv.]. In like manner, since the parallelograms HB , HF are on the same base EH , and between the same parallels EH , BG, they are equal. Hence BD and F H are each equal to BH . Therefore (Axiom i.) BD is equal to F H . 35

Exercise.—Prove this Proposition without joining BE , CH .

PROP. XXXVII.—Theorem. Triangles (ABC, DBC ) on the same base (BC ) and between the same parallels (AD, BC ) are equal. Dem.—Produce AD both ways. Draw BE parallel to AC , and CF parallel to BD [xxxi.] Then the ﬁgures AEBC , DBCF are parallelograms; and since they are on the same base BC , and between the same parallels BC , EF they are equal [xxxv.]. Again, the triangle ABC is half the parallelogram AEBC [xxxiv.], because the diagonal AB bisects it. In like manner the triangle DBC is half the parallelogram DBCF , because the diagonal DC bisects it, and halves of equal things are equal (Axiom vii.). Therefore the triangle ABC is equal to the triangle DBC . Exercises.

1. If two equal triangles be on the same base, but on opposite sides, the right line joining their vertices is bisected by the base. 2. Construct a triangle equal in area to a given quadrilateral ﬁgure. 3. Construct a triangle equal in area to a given rectilineal ﬁgure. 4. Construct a lozenge equal to a given parallelogram, and having a given side of the parallelogram for base. 5. Given the base and the area of a triangle, ﬁnd the locus of the vertex. 6. If through a point O, in the production of the diagonal AC of a parallelogram ABCD, any right line be drawn cutting the sides AB , BC in the points E , F , and ED, F D be joined, the triangle EF D is less than half the parallelogram.

PROP. XXXVIII.—Theorem. Two triangles on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal. Dem.—By a construction similar to the last, we see that the triangles are the halves of parallelograms, on equal bases, and between the same parallels. Hence they are the halves of equal parallelograms [xxxvi.]. Therefore they are equal to one another. Exercises.

1. Every median of a triangle bisects the triangle. 2. If two triangles have two sides of one respectively equal to two sides of the other, and the contained angles supplemental, their areas are equal.

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3. If the base of a triangle be divided into any number of equal parts, right lines drawn from the vertex to the points of division will divide the whole triangle into as many equal parts. 4. Right lines from any point in the diagonal of a parallelogram to the angular points through which the diagonal does not pass, and the diagonal, divide the parallelogram into four triangles which are equal, two by two. 5. If one diagonal of a quadrilateral bisects the other, it also bisects the quadrilateral, and conversely. 6. If two s ABC , ABD be on the same base AB , and between the same parallels, and if a parallel to AB meet the sides AC , BC in the point E , F ; and the sides AD, BD in the point G, H ; then EF = GH . 7. If instead of triangles on the same base we have triangles on equal bases and between the same parallels, the intercepts made by the sides of the triangles on any parallel to the bases are equal. 8. If the middle points of any two sides of a triangle be joined, the triangle so formed with the two half sides is one-fourth of the whole. 9. The triangle whose vertices are the middle points of two sides, and any point in the base of another triangle, is one-fourth of that triangle. 10. Bisect a given triangle by a right line drawn from a given point in one of the sides. 11. Trisect a given triangle by three right lines drawn from a given point within it. 12. Prove that any right line through the intersection of the diagonals of a parallelogram bisects the parallelogram. 13. The triangle formed by joining the middle point of one of the non-parallel sides of a trapezium to the extremities of the opposite side is equal to half the trapezium.

PROP. XXXIX.—Theorem. Equal triangles (BAC, BDC ) on the same base (BC ) and on the same side of it are between the same parallels. Dem.—Join AD. Then if AD be not parallel to BC , let AE be parallel to it, and let it cut BD in E . Join EC . Now since the triangles BEC , BAC are on the same base BC , and between the same parallels BC , AE , they are equal [xxxvii.]; but the triangle BAC is equal to the triangle BDC (hyp.). Therefore (Axiom i.) the triangle BEC is equal to the triangle BDC —that is, a part equal to the whole which is absurd. Hence AD must be parallel to BC .

PROP. XL.—Theorem. Equal triangles (ABC, DEF ) on equal bases (BC, EF ) which form parts of the same right line, and on the same side of the line, are between the same parallels.

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are the angular points of a parallelogram whose area is equal to half the area of the quadrilateral. 6.]. and the right line joining the middle points of its diagonals. 38 . but the triangle ABC is equal to the triangle EBC [xxxvii.—If a triangle and a parallelogram have equal altitudes. If AD be not parallel to BF . XLI. The right line joining the middle points of opposite sides of a quadrilateral. and any pair of parallels drawn through the same points to meet the third side. 9. Triangles and parallelograms of equal bases and altitudes are respectively equal. Therefore AD must be parallel to BF .—The altitude of a triangle is the perpendicular from the vertex on the base.)— that is. Exercises. is equal to half the triangle. The lines of connexion of the middle points of the sides of a triangle divide it into four congruent triangles. The parallel to any side of a triangle through the middle point of another bisects the third. a part equal to the whole. the parallelogram is double of the triangle. 4. Cor. 1. EF .].—Theorem. The middle points of the four sides of a convex quadrilateral. Now since the triangles GEF and ABC are on equal bases BC . PROP. for the medians from the extremities of the base to these points will each bisect the original triangle. If a parallelogram (ABCD) and a triangle (EBC ) be on the same base (BC ) and between the same parallels. taken in order. 7. and between the same parallels BF . the areas are equal.—Join AD. Dem. The right line joining the middle points of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third. AG. The line of connexion of the middle points of two sides of a triangle is equal to half the third side. Therefore the parallelogram ABCD is double of the triangle EBC . 2. Hence the two triangles whose base is the third side and whose vertices are the points of bisection are equal. are concurrent. 1. The sum of the two parallel sides of a trapezium is double the line joining the middle points of the two remaining sides. which is absurd. 3.Dem. Hence GEF is equal to DEF (Axiom i. they are equal [xxxviii. The parallelogram ABCD is double of the triangle ABC [xxxiv. Join GF . but the triangle DEF is equal to the triangle ABC (hyp. Def.]. 8.). The parallelogram formed by the line of connexion of the middle points of two sides of a triangle. 5.—Join AC . and if the base of the triangle be double of the base of the parallelogram. let AG be parallel to it.

and between the same parallels EB and CG. 2.].—If through a point K within a parallelogram ABCD lines drawn parallel to the sides make the parallelograms DK . 1.—Because the diagonal bisects the parallelograms AC . Dem. Cor. Join EC . PROP. but the parallelogram EG is also double of the triangle EBC [xli. Cor. subtracting the sums of the two last equalities from the ﬁrst. and which are called the complements of the other two. we get the parallelogram DK equal to the parallelogram KB .]. Dem. KC we have [xxxiv. Hence EG is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions. KB equal. KD) through which the diagonal does not pass.] the triangle ADC equal to the triangle ABC .—Bisect AB in E . Make the angle BEF [xxiii. The parallels (EF. the triangle AHK equal to AEK . Cor.—Theorem.—The parallelogram BH is equal to AF . the triangle AEC is equal to the triangle EBC [xxxviii. supplies an easy demonstration of a fundamental Proposition in Statics. Sol. XLIII.). To construct a parallelogram equal to a given triangle (ABC ). and which have any point between these sides as a common vertex. are equal. GH ) through any point (K ) in one of the diagonals (AC ) of a parallelogram divide it into four parallelograms. and it has (const. XLII. Draw CG parallel to AB [xxxi. and BF to HC . Hence.) the angle BEF equal to D. PROP. 2. is equal to half the parallelogram. and having an angle equal to a given angle (D).Cor.] equal to D. EG is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions. because they are on the same base EB .].—Because AE is equal to EB (const. Therefore the parallelogram EG is equal to the triangle ABC . 39 . and the triangle KF C equal to the triangle KGC . of which the two (BK. therefore the triangle ABC is double of the triangle EBC . AK .—The sum of the triangles whose bases are two opposite sides of a parallelogram.—Problem. 2. K is a point in the diagonal AC . and BG parallel to EF .

GF meet in M . IH are concurrent (Ex. AEBG.. XLIV. 1). Again. Now the complement OF = F J : to each add the F L. EH . GH . GH be parallels to the adjacent sides of a parallelogram ABCD. Therefore they are about the same diagonal [xliii.Exercises. Dem. then AB . therefore IH will pass through F . EH are the middle points of AC . Hence the P C = CJ . Produce AD. Draw DH . 2. but [xxxiv. BD. If EF . 40 . Hence AC produced will pass through M . 1. The middle points of the three diagonals AC . BD. GF of two of the four which they divide it and one of the diagonals of ABCD are concurrent. EF of a quadrilateral ABCD are collinear. 1].—Complete the produce. BD. and Dem. To a given.. 2. EH .]: to each add the OC . and have one of its angles equal to a given angle (D). right line (AB ) to apply a parallelogram which shall be equal to a given triangle (C ). M J parallel to AB . EF . EF are collinear.—Let EH . DC to meet M J . Ex. 3] the middle points of EI . through M draw M P . Join EI . CD.—Problem. EF are collinear. the dis into agonals EH . and we get the P C = ﬁgure OF L. CI parallel to AG. BG. Ex. and we get the ﬁgure OF L = CJ .. BC to meet M P . PROP. BC . the complement P H = HK [xliii. Join IH . and AB . Cor. Hence the middle points of AC . 1] the middle points of EI . Now [xi.

41 . Dem. and produce HA and GB to meet it in the points L and M .—Join BD. Through A draw AH parallel to BG [xxxi. Construct a parallelogram EG [xlii.]. therefore the angle ABM is equal to D. Then EI is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions. therefore it is the parallelogram required.]. Sol.]. the angle ABM is equal to EBG [xv. HF E is less than two right angles. and EBG is equal to D (const. and HF intersects them. Through K draw KL parallel to AB [xxxi. and having the angle GHK equal to X [xliv.) the lines HB . and so that its side BE shall be in the same right line with AB . To construct a parallelogram equal to a given rectilineal ﬁgure (ABCD). and having the angle E equal to the given angle X . if produced.Sol.].] equal to the triangle ABD. and to the right line GH apply the parallelogram HI equal to the triangle BCD. XLV. and AM is constructed on the given line. and having the angle B equal to the given angle D. PROP. will meet as at K . and produce F G to meet it in H . therefore AM is equal to the triangle C . Again.] equal to the given triangle C .—Construct the parallelogram BEF G [xlii.—Problem. Then because HA and F E are parallels.].).]. the sum of the angles AHF . and having an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle (X ).). Then AM is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions.—The parallelogram AM is equal to GE [xliii. F E . and therefore (Axiom xii. and so on for additional triangles if there be any. therefore the sum of the angles BHF . but GE is equal to the triangle C (const. Join HB . HF E is two right angles [xxix.

the sum of F EH . GHE is two right angles [xxix.—Problem. GHE . and AD is equal to BC [xxxiv. since rectangles are the simplest areas to which others are referred. 1. Hence EI is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions. therefore AD is equal to CD. therefore EI is a parallelogram. therefore F G and GI are in the same right line [xiv. PROP. and the opposite sides EK and F I are parallel. therefore AC is a lozenge. Hence the sum of GHK . Hence the sum of the angles F GH .]. but AB is equal to AD (const. and we have the sum of the angles GHK . because EG and HI are parallelograms.—Erect AD at right angles to AB [xi. and in this special form they would be better understood by the student. HGI . 2. On a given right line (AB ) to describe a square. GHK are equal [xxix.—Because AC is a parallelogram. and HI to the triangle BCD. and we have the sum of the angles F GH . GHE is two right angles. because GH intersects the parallels F G. and GH intersects them. Therefore AC is a square (Def. XLVI. It would simplify Problems xliv..—Because the angles GHK .]. therefore EH . AB is equal to CD [xxxiv.). hence [xxx. they are equal to one another: to each add the angle GHE .]. xxx. and because the parallelogram EG (const. and through B draw BC parallel to AD.]. HGI is two right angles. Through D draw DC parallel to AB [xxxi. Sol. then AC is the square required.). the whole parallelogram EI is equal to the rectilineal ﬁgure ABCD. HK are in the same right line [xiv. Again.].Dem. EF and KI are each parallel to GH . Again.] EF is parallel to KI . Dem. and it has the angle E equal to the given angle X . and the angle A is a right angle. and EH intersects them. the alternate angles F GH . but since GI is parallel to HK . GHE equal to the sum of the angles F EH .].). HGI equal to the sum of the angles GHK . Construct a rectangle equal to the sum of two or any number of rectilineal ﬁgures. Hence the four sides are equal.. if they were stated as the constructing of rectangles. F EH are each equal to X (const. xlv.]. but since HG is parallel to EF . the sum of the angles GHK . EK .]. Construct a rectangle equal to the diﬀerence of two given ﬁgures.) is equal to the triangle ABD.]: to each add the angle HGI .]. 42 . HGI is equal to two right angles [xxix. and make it equal to AB [iii. Exercises.

they will be the angular points of another square. conversely. AB in the other. because BAG is the angle of a square it is a right angle: in like manner CAK is a right angle. namely. BC . because they are on the same base AK . and CA to AK . Then because the angle ACB is right (hyp. &c. PROP. Hence BAG is equal to CAK : to each add BAC . Again. Divide a given square into ﬁve equal parts.—On the sides AB . since BG and CK are squares. XLVII. CH are in the same right line [xiv.] the triangles are equal. the parallelogram AL is equal to AH . ACH is two right angles. BC ). 4. and between the same parallels AG and CL. The squares on equal lines are equal. 43 . AG in one respectively equal to the sides KA.). In a right-angled triangle (ABC ) the square on the hypotenuse (AB ) is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides (AC. 2.).—Theorem. or on the sides produced. the sum of the angles ACB . CD are in the same right line. In like manner it can be proved that the parallelogram BL is equal to BD.]. Hence the whole square AF is equal to the sum of the two squares AH and BD. BK . 3. and since doubles of equal things are equal (Axiom vi. BA is equal to AG. Join CG. and we get the angle CAG equal to KAB . being the angle of a square. KAB also equal. In like manner the parallelogram AH is double of the triangle KAB . Therefore [iv. Again. KAB have the sides CA. CA describe squares [xlvi. therefore BC . points be taken equidistant from the four angles.Exercises. but the parallelogram AL is double of the triangle CAG [xli.]. and ACH is right. four right-angled triangles. and between the same parallels AK and BH . hexagon. and similarly for a regular pentagon. Draw CL parallel to AG. If on the four sides of a square. the sides of equal squares are equal. 1. because they are on the same base AG. Hence the two triangles CAG. and a square. In like manner AC . The parallelograms about the diagonal of a square are squares.]. Dem. and. and the contained angles CAG.

three times the square on any side is equal to four times the square on the perpendicular to it from the opposite vertex. 3). If perpendiculars be let fall on the sides of a polygon from any point. taking the ∠BAC from the right ∠s BAG. On BE . 18. BD are equal. BO. AH are respectively the doubles of since [xli. BD. CD are in one right line. meeting AB in Q. Exercises.] the these triangles. described on a line equal to the sum of its sides.] they are equal. The sum of the squares on lines drawn from any point to one pair of opposite angles of a rectangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the lines from the same point to the remaining pair. are concurrent. AC 2 − BC 2 = AO2 − BO2 . is equal to the right-angled triangle ABC . BK . CL. 11. The square on CO = AO . and hence that they are congruent. 1. In like manner the s BL. If AE be joined. and AG = AB . CAK . and through C draw OL parallel to AG.. The square on the diﬀerence of the sides AC . Find a line whose square shall be equal to the sum of two given squares. 10. hence the whole square AF is equal to the sum of the two squares AH . BAK are equal.Or thus: Let all the squares be made in reversed directions. The transverse lines BK . OB . Another simpliﬁcation of the proof would be got by considering that the point A is such that one of the s CAG. 44 . 16. This proof is shorter than the usual one. Each of the triangles AGK and BEF . In an equilateral triangle. Find a line whose square shall be equal to the diﬀerence of the squares on two lines. CB is less than the square on the hypotenuse by four times the area of the triangle. if the vertical angle of a triangle be equal to the angle of a regular polygon of n sides. 17. The square described on the sum of the sides of a right-angled triangle exceeds the square on the hypotenuse by four times the area of the triangle (see ﬁg. the locus of its vertex is a right line perpendicular to the base. 3. 15. therefore [iv. it is required to divide the ﬁgure AGF ECD into three parts which will form a square. having its side BG in the continuation of AB . 9. then CP is equal to P Q. and the square on BC = AB . Ex. the lines AE . 7. The square on AC is equal to the rectangle AB . formed by joining adjacent corners of the squares. 14. 6. xlvi. its square is equal to AC 2 + 4BC 2 . then the regular polygon of n sides. BAK have the side CA = AK . such that the diﬀerence between their squares shall be equal to the square on one of the sides. 2. Divide the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle into two parts. dividing each side into two segments. 19. the remaining ∠s CAG. 4. Now. 5. Hence the s CAG. a part of the side BC of a square ABCD. 13. exceeds the area of the regular polygon of n sides described on the base by n times the area of the triangle. CG are perpendicular to each other. and s AL. and through P a line be drawn parallel to BC . and the ∠CAG = BAK . If AC and BK intersect in P .. In a similar way the Proposition may be proved by taking any of the eight ﬁgures formed by turning the squares in all possible directions. BAK can be turned round it in its own plane until it coincides with the other. the sum of the squares on one set of alternate segments is equal to the sum of the squares on the remaining set. BK . AO. is described the square BEF G. since it is not necessary to prove that AC . More generally. they are equal. 8. Four times the sum of the squares on the medians which bisect the sides of a rightangled triangle is equal to ﬁve times the square on the hypotenuse. 12. Join CG. Given the base of a triangle and the diﬀerence of the squares of its sides. If EG be joined.

CB ). 9. 3. Points. Join AD. Why has a point no dimensions? 10. How is a curved line generated? Ans. What is geometric magnitude? Ans. because AC is equal to CD (const. and moves along it without changing its direction. By the motion of a point which has the same direction throughout. By the motion of a right line which crosses another right line. 7. let CD be perpendicular to it. the square on AC is equal to the square on CD: to each add the square on CB . Dem. as before. and solids. This is contrary to Prop. Therefore the square on AB is equal to the square on BD. By the motion of a point which continually changes its direction.]. How may a plane surface be generated. What is Geometry? 2. Name the primary concepts of geometry. and CD is equal to CB (const. Ex. How is a straight line generated? Ans. and make CD equal to CA [iii. and the base AB equal to the base DB . How may surfaces be divided? Ans. If the square on one side (AB ) of a triangle be equal to the sum of the squares on the remaining sides (AC. XLVIII. CB .]. Then. lines. 5. Hence AB is equal to BD [xlvi. but the angle DCB is a right angle (const. and the sum of the squares on CD. Then because AC is equal to CD. it can be proved that AD is equal to AB . How many dimensions has a surface? 12. Make CD = CB . DCB . Questions for Examination on Book I. surfaces. for it is direct. Hence the angle ACB is a right angle.—Erect CD at right angles to CB [xi. 4.). 6. From the extremities of the base of a triangle perpendiculars are let fall on the opposite sides. Join BD. Ans. prove that the sum of the rectangles contained by the sides and their lower segments is equal to the square on the base. CB equal to the sum of the squares on CD. Hence the angle ACB is a right angle. vii.). The foregoing proof forms an exception to Euclid’s demonstrations of converse propositions. Why has a line neither breadth nor thickness? 11. How may lines be divided? Ans. Ans. PROP. Again. CB is equal to the square on BD [xlvii. Into straight and curved.). but the sum of the squares on AC . and CB common to the two triangles ACB . the angle ACB is equal to the angle DCB . 8. and we have the sum of the squares on AC . That which has extension in space.. What is Plane Geometry? 45 .—Theorem.20. 1. CB is equal to the square on AB (hyp.]. 1]. The following is an indirect proof:—If CB be not at right angles to AC . Into planes and curved surfaces. the angle (C ) opposite to that side is a right angle.).

Construct a triangle. The direction in Problem 2 is indeterminate.13. 20. 6. Part I. 18. They are said to be identically equal. alternate angles respectively. two points through which it must pass. 35. In every triangle the sum of the medians is less than the perimeter. Construct a triangle. 16. 17. Deﬁne adjacent. Through a given point draw a line so that the portion intercepted by the legs of a given angle may be bisected in the point. 19. What other name is applied to them? Ans. 14. and greater than three-fourths of the perimeter. Construct a parallelogram. 31. 9.. and the bisector of the vertical angle. 7.. What is the subject-matter of Book I. 4. 21. Give examples taken from Book I. xxxi. being given two diagonals and a side. as. Find in two parallels two points which shall be equidistant from a given point. for instance.? 30. being given the three medians. 10. Construct a triangle. Three.. straight or curved. xxvii.. The three medians of a triangle are concurrent. v. 26. Three. How many conditions must be given in order to construct a triangle? Ans. Mention some propositions in Book I. 3.)... xxvi. 29.? Ans. xxiii. What is the diﬀerence between the symbols denoting congruence and identity? 28. Two. how many conditions must be given? Ans. xii. How is a proposition proved indirectly? Ans. 8. are the obverse respectively of Propositions iv.. which are particular cases of more general ones that follow. or two sides and an angle. What proposition is the converse of Prop.? 15. The medians of a triangle divide each other in the ratio of 2 : 1. 2. except Problem 2. interior. How many conditions are necessary to ﬁx the position of a point in a plane? Ans. 1. for instance. being given a side and the two medians of the remaining sides. in each of which. 12.. 11. What problems on the drawing of lines occur in Book I. The angle included between the perpendicular from the vertical angle of a triangle on the base.? 23. line. 46 . Any triangle is equal to the fourth part of that which is formed by drawing through each vertex a line parallel to its opposite side. exterior. What is meant by the obverse of a proposition? 22. What is the sum of all the exterior angles of any rectilineal ﬁgure equal to? 36. What are meant by the medians of a triangle? 33. 27. there are two conditions. The geometry of the point. What are congruent ﬁgures? 25. What is meant by the third diagonal of a quadrilateral? 34. &c. Exercises on Book I. as. How many conditions are required in order to describe a circle? Ans. &c. The three perpendiculars of the ﬁrst triangle in question 1 are the perpendiculars at the middle points of the sides of the second triangle. and circle.. vi. What proposition is an instance of the rule of identity ? 24. By proving that its contradictory is false. Classify the properties of triangles and parallelograms proved in Book I. xi. or one point through which it must pass and a line to which it must be parallel or perpendicular. ix. ii. for it must be the intersection of two lines. What is meant by the projection of one line on another? 32. is equal to half the diﬀerence of the base angles. iii. In order to construct a line. the position of the centre (which depends on two conditions) and the length of the radius (compare Post. 5. What portion of plane geometry forms the subject of the “First Six Books of Euclid’s Elements”? Ans. such as the three sides. and whose line of connexion shall be parallel to a given line. being given two sides and the median of the third side. Two. Mention all the instances of equality which are not congruence that occur in Book I. What propositions in Book I..

AD and BC are two parallel lines cut obliquely by AB . 22.13. on parallels drawn from the same point to these sides. 29. Construct a quadrilateral. and P is a point in a given line L. and the middle points of two opposite sides being given in position. these lines meet on the other bisector of the vertical angle. C . and from O. the three external triangles formed on the sides of the original triangle are equiangular. 14. prove that the angle BOD is equal to the angle COE . If the exterior angles of a triangle be bisected. 27. prove that the locus of the vertex is a right line. 31. 33. 23. 16. The distance of the foot of the perpendicular from either extremity of the base of a triangle on the bisector of the vertical angle. 36. and perpendicularly by AC . 26. B C is any secant cutting the equal sides in B . from the middle point of the base. If O be the point of concurrence of the bisectors of the angles of the triangle ABC . such that ED = 2AB . In the same case. and that their sum is a minimum if it bisects the supplement. 24. both in magnitude and position. The bases of two or more triangles having a common vertex are given. 18. Find the locus of a point. ABC is an isosceles triangle whose equal sides are AB . If the sum of the perpendiculars let fall from a given point on the sides of a given rectilineal ﬁgure be given. is equal to half the diﬀerence of the sides. The sum of the distances of any point in the base of an isosceles triangle from the equal sides is equal to the distance of either extremity of the base from the opposite side. 37. Inscribe a lozenge in a triangle having for an angle one angle of the triangle. AC . The sum of the perpendiculars from any point in the interior of an equilateral triangle is equal to the perpendicular from any vertex on the opposite side. 34. The angle made by the bisectors of two consecutive angles of a convex quadrilateral is equal to half the sum of the remaining angles. 17. if the bisector of the external vertical angle be taken. 47 . so that AB + AC = AB + AC : prove that B C is greater than BC . 25. The three perpendiculars at the middle points of the sides of a triangle are concurrent. B are two given points. prove that the diﬀerence of AP and P B is a maximum when L bisects the angle AP B . 35. the distance will be equal to half the sum of the sides. 2]. The perpendiculars of a triangle are the bisectors of the angles of the triangle whose vertices are the feet of these perpendiculars. 19. prove that the angle DBC is one-third of ABC . 20. Bisect a quadrilateral by a right line drawn from one of its angular points. 21. the sum or the diﬀerence of whose distance from two ﬁxed lines is equal to a given length. and the sum of the areas is given. Inscribe in a given triangle a parallelogram whose diagonals shall intersect in a given point. 30. Inscribe a square in a triangle having its base on a side of the triangle. their bisectors are either parallel or perpendicular. Hence prove that perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite sides are concurrent [see Ex. If two angles have their legs respectively parallel. If lines be drawn from the extremities of the base of a triangle to the feet of perpendiculars let fall from the same points on either bisector of the vertical angle. the four sides being given in magnitude. Find in two parallels two points subtending a right angle at a given point and equally distant from it. A. OE be drawn perpendicular to BC . Find a point in one of the sides of a triangle such that the sum of the intercepts made by the other sides. and the angle made by the bisectors of two opposite angles is equal to half the diﬀerence of the two other angles. 15. 28. 32. The smallest median of a triangle corresponds to the greatest side. may be equal to a given length. the locus of the point is a right line. and between these lines we draw BED. and if AO produced meet BC in D. cutting AC in E .

If AB . 39. the second is a square. CA of a triangle are respectively D. G. 53. If the ﬁrst quadrilateral be a parallelogram. 42. meet on a given line perpendicular to the base. 48 . construct it. 50. when the base and diﬀerence of the sides are given. Given the base of a triangle. EF . 49. 48. construct the polygon. 45. CD. and if BD be a perpendicular on AC . 46. If two lines bisecting two angles of a triangle and terminated by the opposite sides be equal. Given the base of a triangle in magnitude and position and the sum of the sides. 40. If in the construction of the ﬁgure. If squares be described on the sides of any triangle. and the external bisector of the vertical angle. DG is drawn parallel to BF to meet EF . BC . the median that bisects the base. prove that the perpendicular at either extremity of the base to the adjacent side. The sum of the equilateral triangles described on the legs of a right-angled triangle is equal to the equilateral triangle described on the hypotenuse. construct it. prove that the sides of the triangle DCG are respectively equal to the three medians of the triangle ABC . 51. 43. the second is a rectangle. Trisect a quadrilateral by lines drawn from one of its angles. If the diagonals AC . The bisectors of the angles of a convex quadrilateral form a quadrilateral whose opposite angles are supplemental. E . and the sum or diﬀerence of the sides. EF 2 + KG2 = 5AB 2 . AC be equal sides of an isosceles triangle. and be bisected in the points F . if the ﬁrst be a rectangle. the rectangle under its side and the sum of the base and altitude is equal to twice the area of the triangle. (2) perpendicular to them. after being reﬂected from the four sides of the table. the triangle is isosceles. Find the path of a billiard ball started from a given point which. Proposition xlvii. 41. the lines of connexion of the adjacent corners are respectively—(1) the doubles of the medians of the triangle. prove that BC 2 = 2AC . then 4 EF G = (AEB + ECD) − (AED + EBC ). KG be joined. 52. If a square be inscribed in a triangle. F .. Given the middle points of the sides of a convex polygon of an odd number of sides. the diﬀerence of the base angles.38. 44. will pass through another given point. and the area. State and prove the Proposition corresponding to Exercise 41. BD of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect in E . Given the base of a triangle. The middle points of the sides AB . 47.

divide two adjacent sides each into twelve equal parts. AC . yards. and drawing parallels to the sides. iii. by dividing one side into m and the other into n equal parts. BC . miles. AD. If we take a linear foot. and. Thus. &c. so the square unit is that to which all superﬁcial measures are referred. the square foot contains 144 square inches. A parallelogram whose angles are right angles is called a rectangle. the parts AC . metres. describe a square on it.) a rectangle is contained by any two adjacent sides. but C is called a point of external division. A rectangle is said to be contained by any two adjacent sides. Thus a square inch is the square described on a line whose length is an inch. A square unit is the square described on a line whose length is the linear unit. If a point C be taken in a line AB . Thus. &c.BOOK II. as a simple case. Definitions. ii. if AB . In the same manner it can be shown that a square yard contains 9 square feet. for if we multiply the length of one by the length of the other we have the area. the rectangle is expressed by AB . If C be taken in the line AB produced. If a rectangular parallelogram be such that two adjacent sides contain respectively m and n linear units. CB are still called the segments of the line AB . conversely. i. iv. &c. inches. will be rendered not only easy. which is usually considered diﬃcult. On account of this property the second power of a quantity is called its square. and as there will manifestly be 12 rectangular parallelograms. and so in general the square described on any line contains n2 times the square described on the nth part of the line. Before commencing it the student should read the following preliminary explanations: by their assistance it will be seen that this Book. and in France. but almost intuitively evident. 2. Thus the rectangle ABCD is said to be contained by AB . a square foot is the square described on a line whose length is a foot. the square on a line is four times the square on its half. 1. AD. iv. feet. the square on a line AB is expressed symbolically by AB 2 . 3. CB are called segments . Again. the whole area is evidently divided into mn square units. we evidently divide the square foot into square inches. As the linear unit is that by which we express all linear measures. AD be two adjacent sides of a rectangle. The rectangle contained by two separate lines such as AB and CD is the parallelogram formed by erecting a perpendicular to 49 . as there are diﬀerent linear units in use. v. such as in this country. THEORY OF RECTANGLES Every Proposition in the Second Book has either a square or a rectangle in its enunciation. and their multiples or sub-multiples. each containing 12 square inches. and this explains why we say (see Def. 4. and draw parallels to the sides. and C a point of division.. so diﬀerent square units are employed. or by AB . Hence the area of the parallelogram is found by multiplying its length by its breadth.

DE ≡ DH . one of which is divided into any number of parts (BD.. Complete the parallelogram BK (Def.. Axiom ix. .. PROP. v. A . EC by a.. since A is equal to BF (const. Hence we have the following identities:— Rectangle contained by A and BD ≡ BG. vi. A and DE . A is equal to DG. . xi.] and make it equal to A.). equal to CD. . But BK is equal to the sum of BG. . In like manner the rectangle contained by A and BD is BG. DE.. since A is equal to BF (const. xliii.—Theorem. Thus. .. In any parallelogram the ﬁgure which is composed of either of the parallelograms about a diagonal and the two complements [see I. D. each of the quadrilaterals BG.] is called a gnomon. If there be two lines (A. is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the undivided line (A) and the several parts of the divided line. A . DH . xxxiv. Dem.]. EK (I. b.. BC ). c.. A 50 . DH . OC from the parallelogram AC . BC ≡ BK . and BF is equal to DG [I. v. In like manner the rectangle contained by A and EC is the ﬁgure EK . A ..). E are right angles. Through D.—Erect BF at right angles to BC [I.. CD. the rectangle contained by the two lines (A. if we take away either of the parallelograms AO. I. DE . the rectangle contained by A and BC is the rectangle contained by BF and BC (Def. the Proposition asserts that the rectangle contained by A. at A.). Hence the rectangle contained by A and DE is the ﬁgure DH (Def. and drawing parallels: the area of the rectangle will be AB .. EC ≡ EK . the remainder is called a gnomon. and a + b + c is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by A and a. If we denote the lines BD. . but BK is the rectangle contained by BF and BC . Hence the rectangle contained by A and BC is BK . Because the angles at B . A and EC .AB . Again. EH parallel to BF . BC ).. EK is a rectangle. Again. E draw DG. v. EC ). Therefore the rectangle contained by A and BC is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by A and BD.).).).

since AB is equal to AF . the rectangle contained by AB and AC is equal to the rectangle contained by AF and AC . Therefore the sum of the two rectangles AB . but BF is equal to CD. xlvi. A . Therefore the triangle ABC is = 1 2 AB . PROP.—Suppose A to be 6 inches. as it may be written. CB ). Cor.—The area of a triangle is equal to half the rectangle contained by its base and perpendicular. A . is 72. EC . Hence the rectangle A .. we get AB = AC + CB. xli. A(a + b + c) = Aa + Ab + Ac. 51 . Now. AB 2 = AB .]. DE = 6 × 4 = 24 . We recommend the student to make himself acquainted with the proofs by this method as well as with those of Euclid.. EC .. Draw EF parallel to AB . 5 inches. xxxi.—Theorem. BD + A .. 3 inches. A . 24. BD. .. 30. 2. Hence AF = AB . and products in Arithmetic and Algebra. Illustration. Dem. BC = 6 × 12 = 72 square inches. A . then BC will be 12 inches. AB = AB. AC . Hence the rectangle contained by AB and AC is equal to AE . . CD. Cor. BF each parallel to CD. CB. DE . The Second Book is occupied with the relations between the segments of a line divided in various ways. and the rectangles will have the following values:— Rectangle . but [I. CD . 1. and through C draw CE parallel to AF [I.] the triangle ABC is = half the parallelogram AF . CB is equal to the square on AB . Dem. A and c. Now the sum of the three last rectangles. If a line (AB ) be divided into any two parts (at C ). or. EC = 6 × 3 = 18 .. and AE .]. In like manner the rectangle contained by AB and CB is equal to the ﬁgure CD. 18. This corresponds to the distributive law in multiplication. Or thus: and Hence.and b. II. multiplying. viz. Then AF is the rectangle contained by AB and BF . AC + AB . He will thus better understand the meaning of each Proposition. DE + A . BC = A .—From the vertex C let fall the perpendicular CD. 4 inches. AB . All these can be proved in the most simple manner by Algebraic Multiplication. BD = 6 × 5 = 30 . and shows that rectangles in Geometry. the square on the whole line is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the whole and each of the segments (AC.—The rectangle contained by a line and the diﬀerence of two others is equal to the diﬀerence of the rectangles contained by the line and each of the others. are subject to the same rules. but AE is the rectangle contained by AF and AC .—On AB describe the square ABDF [I.

CB ). hence it does not require a separate Demonstration. CB = CB. CB + CB 2 . the rectangle contained by the whole line and either segment (CB ) is equal to the square on that segment together with the rectangle contained by the segments. since CB is equal to BE . CB . Hence the rectangle AC . Through A draw AF parallel to CD: produce ED to meet AF in F . Def. And since things which are equal to the same are equal to one another. If a line (AB ) be divided into any two parts (at C ). is the particular case of Prop. the angle ABE is equal to AEB [I. and the square on CB is the ﬁgure CE . xxx. PROP. CB is equal to the ﬁgure AD. Or thus: Hence AB = AC + CB. CB = AC .This Proposition is the particular case of i. Hence the ﬁgure CBIG is a lozenge. Join EB . the rectangle AB .] CG is equal to CB . Dem.]. Now since AE is equal to AB . when the divided and undivided lines are equal. Hence (I. Now since CB is equal to CD. xlvi. the rectangle contained by AC . Hence the rectangle AB . together with the square on CB . CB . the square on the whole line is equal to the sum of the squares on the parts (AC. is equal to the rectangle AB . the angle AEB is equal to CGB [I.—On AB describe a square ABDE . III. BE .—On BC describe the square BCDE [I. CD is the ﬁgure AD. CB is equal to the ﬁgure AE . CF . and the angle CBI is right. but CG is equal to BI and CB to GI . BE is equal to the ﬁgure AE . CB . v. the rectangle AC . 52 . but since BE intersects the parallels AE . Hence the rectangle AC . iii. IV. If a line (AB ) be divided into two segments (at C ). and therefore [I...—Theorem. xxix.—Theorem. together with the square on CB . Dem. AB . through C draw CF parallel to AE . In like manner the ﬁgure EF GH is a square. i. vi. when the undivided line is equal to a segment of the divided line. Prop. is equal to the ﬁgure AE . but the rectangle contained by AC . CB is equal to the rectangle contained by AC .].]. CD. PROP. but the rectangle AB . Again. and through G draw HI parallel to AB . Hence the angle CBG is equal to CGB .) it is a square. CB is equal to the rectangle AB . together with twice their rectangle. intersecting BE in G.

F DG. is the sum of the four ﬁgures HF .. CI . Therefore the sum of the four triangles is equal to 2AC . GD. CB . CBF . AH (i. and make CD = AC or CB . Join AD. GH . being the complements about the diagonal of the parallelogram AD. and HG is equal to AC .). GD are equal [I. the ﬁgure CF GH is a square [I. AG. GD are together equal to twice the rectangle AC . 3. Cor. therefore AB 2 = 4AC 2 . iv. but the ACH is half the rectangle AC . and CI is the square on CB . DB . CG is the ﬁgure AG (Def. F G. and equal to AC 2 + AH 2 [I. CG. xliii. since CB is equal to CG.]. and twice the rectangle AC . and cut oﬀ AH . CB is equal to the ﬁgure AG. Cor. AB 2 =AC 2 + 2AC . 1. equal to half the rectangle AC . Hence the parallelograms AG. 2. CB is equal to the rectangle AC . xlvi. the ﬁgure HF is the square on HG. therefore their sum is equal to four times the ACH . therefore But since the angle ADB is right. Or thus: Squaring. CB . but AC . CB + CB 2 . CB . AD2 + DB 2 = 2AC 2 + 2CB 2 = 4AC 2 . AD2 + DB 2 = AB 2 . the rectangle AC . Or thus: On AB describe the square ABDE . Cor.—The square on a line is equal to four times the square on its half. Now the ﬁgures AG. CB . This Cor. equal to AC 2 + CB 2 . Therefore the square on AB is equal to the sum of the squares on AC . Cor. Again.Again. which is the square on AB . Therefore the rectangle AC . DF each equal to CB .]—that is. the square on the whole is equal to the sum of the squares on all the parts. Now the four s ACH . Therefore HF is equal to the square on AC .—The parallelograms about the diagonal of a square are squares. but the whole ﬁgure AD. xlvii. CB . may be proved by the First Book thus: Erect CD at right angles to AB . Again. Cor. Join CF . together with twice the sum of the rectangles contained by the several distinct pairs of parts. EG. Then In like manner.—If a line be divided into any number of parts. 3]. then AB 2 = 4AC 2 . 2)—that is. GEH are evidently equal. For let AB = 2AC . CB . HC . Hence the whole ﬁgure ABDE = AC 2 + CB 2 + 2AC . 53 . AD2 = AC 2 + CD2 = 2AC 2 DB 2 = 2CB 2 . we get AB = AC + CB.

together with the square on the part (CD) between the points of section. CB . is equal to the square on half the line. 2].Exercises. and the sum of the hypotenuse and the other side. and between the same parallels. but AL is equal to CM [I. If from the vertical angle of a right-angled triangle a perpendicular be let fall on the hypotenuse. xliii. Cor. Or thus: therefore Hence AD = AC + CD = BC + CD. Hence the rectangle AD . xxxvi. prove that the square on the middle segment is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the extreme segments. but AH is equal to the rectangle AD .]. and we have proved it equal to the diﬀerence between the square on AC and the square on CD. DB . Hence the diﬀerence of the 54 . 5. together with the square on CD.]. DB is the rectangle contained by the sum of the lines AC . Prove Proposition iv.. and iii. From the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle portions are cut oﬀ equal to the adjacent sides. Dem. the rectangle (AD . The parallelogram CM is equal to DE [I. The square on the perimeter of a right-angled triangle is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the sum of the hypotenuse and one side. 4. Cor.]. exceeds the square on the sum of the sides by the square on the perpendicular. therefore AL is equal to DE : to each add CH . DB . and also into two unequal parts (at D). because they are on equal bases AC . DB ) contained by the unequal parts. DH . meeting BF in H . V. 1]. and therefore equal to the rectangle AD . by using Propositions ii. xxxi. Cor. 1. AD . Join BF . If a line (AB ) be divided into two equal parts (at C ). and the square on CD is equal to the ﬁgure LG. In any right-angled triangle the square on the sum of the hypotenuse and perpendicular. Through H draw KM parallel to AB . PROP. to the square on CB . since DH is equal to DB [iv. xlvi. and we get the parallelogram AH equal to the gnomon CM G. 2. 3. from the right angle on the hypotenuse.—The rectangle AD .—Theorem.—On CB describe the square CBEF [I. CD and their diﬀerence. its square is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the hypotenuse. Through D draw DG parallel to CF .. DB = BC − CD. AD . and through A draw AK parallel to CL [I. BD = (BC + CD)(BC − CD) = BC 2 − CD2 . therefore the rectangle AD . is equal to the whole ﬁgure CBEF —that is. BD + CD2 = BC 2 . DB is equal to the gnomon CM G. 1.

If a line (AB ) be bisected (at C ). therefore AL is equal to HF . the rectangle will have the maximum area. since DB is equal to DM . HF are equal [I.—On CD describe the square CDF E [I. The diﬀerence between the square on one of the equal sides of an isosceles triangle. together with the square on CB .—Theorem. but AM is equal to the rectangle AD . DB . VI. made by the perpendicular from the vertex. and through A draw AK parallel to CL. and divided externally in any point (D). The square on either side of a right-angled triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the sum and the diﬀerence of the hypotenuse and the other side. 6. through B draw BHG parallel to CE [I. and we get AM and LG equal to the square CDF E . made by the perpendicular from the vertex.].]. through H draw KLM parallel to AD. of all rectangles having the same perimeter. 5. Hence. 2.—The perimeter of the rectangle AH is equal to 2AB . DM .]. BD) contained by the segments made by the external point. Then because AC is equal to CB . Hence the rectangle AD . and join DE .]. the rectangle (AD . it equal to the square on CD. and the area of the same rectangle is less than the square on half the line by the square on the segment between D and the middle point of the line. The diﬀerence of the sides of a triangle is less than the diﬀerence of the segments of the base. Cor. 55 . and is therefore independent of the position of the point D on the line AB . xlvi. xliii. Divide a given line so that the rectangle contained by its parts may have a maximum area. meeting DE in H .squares on two lines is equal to the rectangle contained by their sum and their diﬀerence. 1. and the square on any line drawn from the vertex to a point in the base. Divide a given line so that the rectangle contained by its segments may be equal to a given square. 2. when D is the middle point. and therefore equal to the rectangle AD . also LG is equal to the square on CB . PROP. To each of these equals add CM and LG. is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the base. DB . therefore. together with the square on half the line. Exercises. 3. xxxvi. the square has the greatest area. the rectangle AL is equal to CH [I. xxxi. The rectangle contained by the sum and the diﬀerence of two sides of a triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the base and the diﬀerence of the segments of the base. not exceeding the square on half the given line. and CDF E is the square on CD. is equal to the square on the segment between the middle point and the point of external division. 4. Dem. but the complements CH .

DB . the sum of the squares on the whole line (AB ) and either segment (CB ) is equal to twice the rectangle (2AB . xlvi. To each add CH . xliii. AD . ﬁnd the lines. If from the vertex C of an isosceles triangle a line CD be drawn to any point in the base produced. Through D draw DG parallel to CF .]. Therefore the rectangle AD . CB ) contained by the whole line and that segment. and we get the parallelogram AH equal to the gnomon CM G. Through A draw AK parallel A to CL [I. together with the square on the other segment. DB + CB 2 = CD2 . 2. because they are on equal bases AC . xxxi. Show that Proposition vi. 1]..Or thus:— Dem.]. 4. If a right line (AB ) be divided into any two parts (at C ). Through H draw KM parallel to AB . therefore AL is equal to DE . minus the square on half the diﬀerence.—Theorem. The rectangle contained by any two lines is equal to the square on half the sum. Exercises. and therefore equal to the rectangle AD . 7. but AL is equal to CM [I. and between the same parallels. therefore the rectangle AD . together with the square on CB . Divide a given line externally.]. and vi. and the square on CB is the ﬁgure CE . meeting F B produced in H . Given the diﬀerence of two lines and the rectangle contained by them. Join BF . Given the sum or the diﬀerence of two lines and the diﬀerence of their squares. xxxvi. VII. is reduced to Proposition v. 3. DH . DB .—On CB describe the square CBEF [I. Or thus: Hence therefore AD = AC + CD = CD + CB . DB = (CD + CB )(CD − CB ) = CD2 − CB 2 . equal to the square on LH or to the square on CD. 56 . so that the rectangle contained by its segments may be equal to the square on a given line. AD . 1. since DH is equal to DB [iv. Cor. DB . 5. is equal to the whole ﬁgure LHGF —that is. but AH is equal to the rectangle AD . DB is equal to the gnomon CM G. by producing the line in the opposite direction. prove that CD2 − CB 2 = AD . The parallelogram CM is equal to DE [I. PROP. ﬁnd the lines. CB . Give a common enunciation which will include Propositions v. BD = CD − CB. 6.].

equal to the sum of the squares on AB . together with the four equal triangles HAB . BK . BC + BC 2 . F D. 57 . Or thus: therefore therefore AC = AB − BC . therefore the sum of the squares AD. viii. Comparison of iv.—On AB describe the square ABDE . If a line (AB ) be divided into two parts (at C ). F DG.]. Now AK is the rectangle AB . 3]. and it is equal to the square on AC .–Theorem.). Join BE . VIII. F G. BCF . and make each produced part equal to CB . but BK is equal to BC . and therefore equal to the square on AC . GH . square on sum = sum of squares + twice rectangle. intersecting BE in F .. GEH . Then the ﬁgure BF GH is a square [I. and we have the sum of the squares AD. xlvi. and GH : to each add the square CK . AC 2 + 2AB . BC is equal to twice the rectangle AB . Or thus: On AC describe the square ACDE . but CD is equal to AK . together with the ﬁgure GH . Hence the sum of the squares on AB and BC is equal to twice the rectangle AB . and the square on the diﬀerence of any two lines. PROP. 2. and GH is the square on HF . Hence the sum of the squares on AB . 3. DE . therefore AK is equal to the rectangle AB . Square on the sum. ix. The square on the sum − the square on the diﬀerence of any two lines = four times the rectangle under lines (Prop.. AH —that is. and vii. BC = AB 2 + BC 2 . CK the square on CB . Cors. Square on the sum + square on the diﬀerence of any two lines = twice the sum of the squares on the lines (Props. HB . the sum of the squares. BC . Ex.Dem. and AD is the square on AB . Through C draw CG parallel to AE . GH . BC . Join BF . are in arithmetical progression. BC . BC . CK is equal to twice the ﬁgure AK . CD.. the square on the sum of the whole line (AB ) and either segment (BC ) is equal to four times the rectangle contained by the whole line (AB ) and that segment. 1. from iv. By vii. Now the square AD is equal to the three ﬁgures AK . BC . BC . AC 2 = AB 2 − 2AB . and vii. By iv. together with the square on the other segment (AC ).). square on diﬀerence = sum of squares-twice rectangle. CK equal to the sum of the three ﬁgures AK . and x. EA. and the sum of the four triangles is equal to twice the rectangle AB . for each triangle is equal to half the rectangle AB . Through F draw HK parallel to AB . xlvii. together with the square on AC . Now [I. Produce the sides CD. together with the square on AC . the ﬁgure BF GH is equal to the sum of the squares on AB .

Now it is evident that the four rectangles. BC . the rectangle contained by any two lines is = the square on half their sum − the square on half their diﬀerence. B draw CH . On AD describe the square AEF D [I. Direct sequence of viii. BG or AB . and CK the square on CB . Hence the whole ﬁgure. Cut oﬀ BG.]. and CB is the half of CD. Hence the parallelogram AG is equal to M I [I. Hence the whole ﬁgure AF . hence their sum is equal to four times AG.. CO is equal to four times CK [iv. Cor. GI . xlvi. (AB + BC )2 = AC 2 + 4AC . and through K . BC .. GI are the sides of equal squares. Or thus : therefore AB + BC = AC + 2BC . is equal to 4AB . the square on the diﬀerence = the sum of the squares − twice the rectangle. Hence the gnomon AOH is equal to four times the rectangle AK —that is. and vii. Cor. On DB describe the square DBEF . by subtraction. IL. AG. LA are all equal. By iv. xliii. By vii. BC . BC. since CG. Again. they are equal [I.Dem. Join DE . EI . the square on AD. P O parallel to AD. Therefore. In like manner IL is equal to JF . Or thus: Produce BA to D. but AG is the rectangle AB .]. Again. Again. M I . xlvi. together with the square on AC . that is. the ﬁgure N P is evidently equal to the square on AC . Since by v.]. I draw M N . therefore four times the rectangle contained by any two lines = the square on their sum − the square on their diﬀerence.—Produce AB to D.. or vi. Therefore the sum of the four rectangles is equal to 4AB . Make BD equal to BC . CB = AC 2 + 4AB . 58 . JF are all equal. BC + AC 2 . BL parallel to AE [I. xxxi. Through C . and the square CO has been proved to be equal to four times CK .]. from iv. since BC is equal to BK . lines parallel to AB . is equal to four times the rectangle AB . F L each equal to BC . CB + 4BC 2 = AC 2 + 4(AC + CB ) . Direct sequence from v. Therefore the four ﬁgures AG. or vi. the square on the sum − the square on the diﬀerence = four times the rectangle. xxxvi. but M I is equal to IL [I. and therefore equal to the square on AC . Through A and I draw lines parallel to DF . BC . IL. the square on the sum = the sum of the squares + twice the rectangle. 1]. equal to four times the rectangle AB . Since CO is the square on CD. the ﬁgure P H is the square on P I . which is the square on BD.. and through G and L. and make AD = BC . or the square on the sum of AB and BC . 1].

If a line (AB ) be bisected (at C ) and divided into two unequal parts (at D). ﬁnd the lines.]. therefore the whole angle AEF is right. DF 2 is equal to DB 2 : to each add AD2 . GK be joined. and GEF has been proved to be half a right angle. 2. therefore AF 2 is equal to AD2 + DB 2 . In the ﬁgure [I. See note C. the sum of the squares on the unequal parts (AD. xlvii. Again. Prove GK 2 − EF 2 = 3AB (AO − BO).—Theorem. Therefore AD2 + DB 2 is equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 .] GE is equal to GF . AC 2 is equal to CE 2 .]. 1 3. DB ) is double the sum of the squares on half the line (AC ). Given the diﬀerence of two lines = R. In like manner the angles CEB . In like manner EF 2 is equal to 2GF 2 or 2CD2 . prove EF 2 − CO2 = (AB + BO)2 . and we get AD = AC + CD. AD2 + DB 2 = 2AC 2 + 2CD2 . xxxii. and on the segment (CD) between the points of section. Or thus: Square and add. Therefore AE 2 is equal to 2AC 2 . and we get AD2 + DF 2 equal to AD2 + DB 2 . vi. xlvii. Again. but ECB is right (const.—Erect CE at right angles to AB . but AE 2 is equal to AC 2 + CE 2 [I. but AE 2 + EF 2 is equal to AF 2 [I. Dem. and make it equal to AC or CB . the angle EGF is equal to ECB . EB . PROP. and we have proved AF 2 equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 .]. and F G parallel to CD. Join AE .Exercises. since DF is equal to DB . and their rectangle = 4R2 . 1 Ex. but AD2 + DF 2 is equal to AF 2 . DB = AC − CD. the angle CEA is half a right angle. because GF is parallel to CB . CBE are half right angles. Therefore AF 2 is equal to 2AC 2 +2CD2 . Therefore [I. and CE intersects them. Again. 1. Because AC is equal to CE .] if EF . Join AF . Therefore AE 2 + EF 2 is equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 .). Draw DF parallel to CE . In like manner F D is equal to DB . and the angle ACE is right. therefore the angle GF E is half a right angle [I. 59 . xlvii. IX. since AC is equal to CE . therefore EGF is right. 3 occurs in the solution of the problem of the inscription of a regular polygon of seventeen sides in a circle.

2.—Theorem. DB + 4CD2 .] GF E is half a right angle. but ECB is right (const. vi. but AE 2 + EF 2 is equal to AF 2 [I.]. and we get AD2 + DF 2 equal to AD2 + DB 2 .] the lines EB . xlvii. Therefore AF 2 is equal to 2AC 2 +2CD2 . Dem. therefore AE 2 is equal to 2AC 2 . the continued product of all the parts is a maximum. Again. AC 2 is equal to CE 2 . If a line (AB ) be bisected (at C ) and divided externally (at D). the sum of the squares on the segments (AD. Let them meet in F . xlvii. therefore the sum of the angles BDF . therefore AE 2 + EF 2 is equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 . and the angle ACE is right. and therefore [I. and GEF has been proved to be half a right angle. 5. CBE are half right angles. Join AF . and produce EC to meet it in G.]. The sum of the squares on the segments of a line of given length is a minimum when it is bisected. xxxii. and make it equal to AC or CB . and [I. since AC is equal to CE .] the angle DBF is = to EBC . In like manner EF 2 is equal to 2GF 2 or 2CD2 . Divide a given line internally. xxix. X.]. Axiom xii.. Because AC is equal to CE . AD2 + DB 2 = 2AD . DF 2 is equal to DB 2 : to each add AD2 . 4. In like manner F D is equal to DB . PROP.—Erect CE at right angles to AB . but AE 2 is equal to AC 2 + CE 2 [I. but AD2 + DF 2 is equal to 60 . because GF is parallel to CB . In like manner the angles CEB . Twice the square on the line joining any point in the hypotenuse of a right-angled isosceles triangle to the vertex is equal to the sum of the squares on the segments of the hypotenuse. the angle EGF is equal to ECB [I. and the sum of their squares is a minimum when all the parts are equal.).]. DBF is less than two right angles. DB ) made by the external point is equal to twice the square on half the line. 3. and therefore [I. since DF is equal to DB . Through F draw F G parallel to AB . therefore [I. therefore EGF is right. Join AE . EB . xvii. the angle BDF is = to BCE [I. the angle CEA is half a right angle.] GE is equal to GF . xv. if produced. so that the sum of the squares on the parts may be equal to a given square. will meet.Exercises. therefore the whole angle AEF is right. Again.]. Now since DF is parallel to EC . DF . and GE intersects them. xxix. but the sum of the angles BCE . EBC is less than two right angles [I. Again. Draw DF parallel to CE . 1. If a line be divided into any number of parts. If a line AB be bisected in C and divided unequally in D. and twice the square on the segment between the points of section. and state the limitation to its possibility. and produce EB .

so that the rectangle (AB . and the sum of their squares. and we get AD2 + BD2 = 2CD2 + 2AC 2 .—Produce GH to K . H is the point required. The following enunciations include Propositions ix. AF .AF 2 . BH ) contained by the whole line and one segment may be equal to the square on the other segment. the sum of the squares on the two unequal parts exceeds the sum of the squares on the two equal parts by the sum of the squares of the two diﬀerences between the equal and unequal parts. ﬁnd the lines. The square on the sum of any two lines plus the square on their diﬀerence equal twice the sum of their squares. 5. The sum of the squares on two sides AC .]. prove that the middle point of AD is equally distant from B and C . but EF is equal to EB (const.). 3. If a line be cut into two unequal parts. and x. The sum of the squares on the sides of a parallelogram is equal to the sum of the squares on its diagonals. On AF describe the square AF GH . 2. PROP.]. Given the sum or the diﬀerence of any two lines. therefore AF 2 is equal to AD2 + DB 2 . Then because CA is bisected in E . Exercises . 61 .—Problem. Bisect AC in E . and the sum of the squares on the sides in magnitude. Join BE . and also into two equal parts. and make EF equal to EB . To divide a given ﬁnite line (AB ) into two segments (in H ). and AF 2 has been proved equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 .:— 1.—On AB describe the square ABDC [I. is equal to the square on EF [vi. 3. The sum of the squares on any two lines it equal to twice the square on half the sum plus twice the square on half the diﬀerence of the lines. the locus of the vertex is a circle. XI. If in the ABC a point D in the base BC be such that BA2 + BD2 = CA2 + CD2 . Sol. CB of a triangle is equal to twice the square on half the base AB . together with the square on EA. and divided externally in F . 2. BD = CD − AC. 1. and twice the square on the median which bisects AB . Therefore AD2 + DB 2 is equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 . 4. Square and add. xlvi. If the base of a triangle be given both in magnitude and position. the rectangle CF . Produce EA to F . Dem. Or thus: AD = CD + AC.

no matter how far we proceed we cannot arrive at any remainder which will be a common measure of AB and AC . which is common. Hence. D. BH . but HD is equal to the rectangle AB . A. since AF is equal to F G. Rejecting EA2 .. 62 .” 2. Now since CD is greater than AD. and so on. The diﬀerence between the squares on the segments of a line divided in “extreme and mean ratio” is equal to their rectangle. If CH be produced. to the ﬁgure CG. 2) AC is cut in “extreme and mean ratio” at D. then (Cor. because BD is equal to AB . it is evident that CD is not a common measure of AC and CB . Again.” Cor. Hence. it is evident that CA will be divided into parts respectively equal to AH . and F H is the square on AH . 7. 2) that AC is greater than CB . are parallel. Def. prove that (1) AB 2 + BC 2 = 3AC 2 . The three lines joining the pairs of points G. In like manner AD is not a common measure of AC and CD. if the square on one side be equal to the rectangle contained by the hypotenuse and the other side. 8. AF is equal to CF . In a right-angled triangle. AF . If CH intersect BE in O. Reject the part AK . F G—that is. in the construction of Proposition xi. the rectangle CF . HB . Cor. 4. Therefore the rectangle AB . Hence. Cut oﬀ CD = CB . and therefore not a common measure of AB and AC . Next. ABC is a right-angled triangle having AB = 2AC : if AH be made equal to the diﬀerence between BC and AC . 3.—A line divided as in this Proposition is said to be divided in “extreme and mean ratio. and so on. &c. AB is divided in “extreme and mean ratio” at H . we get the rectangle CF .—Let AB be divided in “extreme and mean ratio” in C . and AB 2 is equal to the ﬁgure AD. AF equal to AB 2 .therefore the rectangle CF . 3. cut oﬀ DE equal to AD. if a line be divided in extreme and mean ratio. which is common. B . being the sides of a square. is equal to EB 2 —that is [I. 2. Cut a line externally in “extreme and mean ratio. and in the same manner we have DE greater than EC . (2) (AB + BC )2 = 5AC 2 . and the less will be similarly divided by taking on it a part equal to the diﬀerence. the hypotenuse is cut in “extreme and mean ratio” by the perpendicular on it from the right angle. the parts of a line divided in “extreme and mean ratio” are incommensurable. 1. 1. together with EA2 . then it is evident (Cor. 6. therefore CG is equal to AD. it meets BF at right angles. F .] equal to EA2 + AB 2 . and therefore not a common measure of AB and AC . and CD is greater than AD. Exercises. 5. AO is perpendicular to CH . K . xlvii. If AB be cut in “extreme and mean ratio” at C . Cor. BH is equal to the square on AH . and we get the ﬁgure F H equal to the ﬁgure HD.—If from the greater segment CA of CF we take a segment equal to AF .—The line CF is divided in “extreme and mean ratio” at A. the greater segment will be cut in the same manner by taking on it a part equal to the less.

] and AD2 = AD2 . 4. Hence the sum of the two squares on AC . Dem. and its continuation (CD) to meet a perpendicular (AD) on it from the opposite angle. 5. XII. CD. CG perpendicular to the sides of the squares. DC = BD . CA) containing the obtuse angle. be equal to 2AB 2 . Hence.—Because BD is divided into two parts in C .] BD2 + AD2 = AB 2 . If AB be the diameter of a semicircle. that the rectangle BG is equal to BE . by twice the rectangle contained by either of them (BC ). ABC is a right-angled triangle. CD. adding. prove that AB 2 + BC 2 = 2AB . ﬁnd a point C in AB such that. and erecting a perpendicular CE meeting the circumference in E . the rectangle AC . and CE to CF . AG to AF . AB 2 = BC 2 + CA2 + BC . BF . BC produced meet in E . CD [iv. BC . In an obtuse-angled triangle (ABC ). xlvii. 1. Therefore AB 2 is greater than BC 2 + CA2 by 2BC . AC . Prove AB .—Theorem. Or thus: By the First Book: Describe squares on the three sides. CB is less than the square on AB by twice the rectangle CE . CA. and AD. and BD is a perpendicular on the hypotenuse AC . Then it can be proved exactly as in the demonstration of [I. that is. 1. CD. CE .]. 6. we get AB 2 = BC 2 + CA2 + 2BC . 63 . 3. CD. prove AE . we have BD2 = BC 2 + CD2 + 2BC . I have found by experience that pupils more readily understand it than any other method. CE 2 − CD2 may be equal to a given square. and CD2 + AD2 = CA2 . DE = BE . since [I. The foregoing proof diﬀers from Euclid’s only in the use of symbols. joining C to a ﬁxed point D in the circumference.PROP. Cor. by twice the rectangle BC . prove that AD is cut in “extreme and mean ratio” at B .—If perpendiculars from A and B to the opposite sides meet them in H and D. 2. xlvii. ABCD is a quadrilateral whose opposite angles B and D are right. If the square of a line CD. Draw AE . the square on the side (AB ) subtending the obtuse angle exceeds the sum of the squares on the sides (BC. Exercises. drawn from the angle C of an equilateral triangle ABC to a point D in the side AB produced. CH is equal to the rectangle BC . If a line AB be divided in C so that AC 2 = 2CB 2 . If the angle ACB of a triangle be equal to twice the angle of an equilateral triangle.

. then. Observation. and xiii. as in the demonstration of [I. XIII. Dem. but each pair is regarded as one Proposition.].—Theorem. v. BC 2 + AC 2 = AB 2 + 2BC . ix.]. Hence.—Because BC is divided into two segments in D. CD.. AG to AF . 64 . the square on any side subtending an acute angle (C ) is less than the sum of the squares on the sides containing that angle. The pairs of Propositions thus grouped are considered in Modern Geometry not as distinct. and we get BD2 + AD2 = AB 2 . iv. and x. we have made some slight alterations in the usual proofs.. xii. CD. by 2BC . BC 2 + CD2 = BD2 + 2BC . and AD2 = AD2 . since CD2 + AD2 = AC 2 [I. by twice the rectangle (BC. CB exceeds the square on AB by twice CE —that is.—By comparing the proofs of the pairs of Props. BF . the rectangle BG is equal to BE . xlvii. adding. CG perpendicular to the sides. Therefore AB 2 is less than BC 2 + AC 2 by 2BC . CD.PROP. Or thus: Describe squares on the sides. Draw AE .]. In any triangle (ABC ). and CE to CF . CD) contained by either of them (BC ) and the intercept (CD) between the acute angle and the foot of the perpendicular on it from the opposite angle.. In order to render this identity more apparent. it will be seen that they are virtually identical. and vii. Hence the sum of the squares on AC . and vi. CD [vii. xlvii.

Then because AE is divided equally in F and unequally in B . bisect AE in F . ﬁnd the lines.—The square on the perpendicular from any point in a semicircle on the diameter is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the diameter. 1. BE is equal to the ﬁgure AC . AB 2 = AC 2 + BC 2 − AC . is equal to the sum of the squares on its sides.—Problem. the rectangle AB . to F G2 . and therefore equal to the given rectilineal ﬁgure (X ). PROP. Given the diﬀerence of the squares on two lines and their rectangle. Dem. XIV. the rectangle AB . Cor. BC be equal. xlvii. 2.Exercises. and we have the rectangle AB . Sol. The square described on BG will be equal to X . and the problem is solved. The sum of the squares on the diagonals of a quadrilateral. describe the semicircle AGE . produce AB to E . BE + F B 2 is equal to F B 2 + BG2 .]. if not. BE = BG2 . with F as centre and F E as radius. 65 .] the rectangle AC equal to X . Therefore the rectangle AB . 1. so that the rectangle contained by another given line and one segment may be equal to the square on the other segment. xlv. BE . together with F B 2 is equal to F E 2 [v. and make BE equal to BC .—Join F G.]. If the angle C of the ACB be equal to an angle of an equilateral . To construct a square equal to a given rectilineal ﬁgure (X ). if the adjacent sides AB .—Construct [I. 2. which is common. produce CB to meet it in G. Exercises. Reject F B 2 . Divide a given line. Then. Therefore BG2 is equal to the ﬁgure AC . that is. together with four times the square on the line joining their middle points. AC is a square. so that AC 2 + BC 2 = 2AC . BC . BC . but since BE is equal to BC . but F G2 is equal to F B 2 + BG2 [I. Find a point C in a given line AB produced. 3.

15. expresses the distributive law of multiplication? 13. The sides of a triangle are 13. The three sides of a triangle are 8. 5. then CP 2 + P D2 = AP 2 + P B 2 . AB 2 + BC 2 + CA2 = 3(OA2 + OB 2 + OC 2 ). is equal to the sum of the squares on the bisected sides. If the sides of a triangle be expressed by x2 +1. 14. OC of given lengths. ﬁnd the area of the square formed by joining the points thus found. ﬁnd its dimensions.25 perches. If squares be described on the sides of any triangle. Exercises on Book II. and 2x linear units. How would you construct a square whose area would be exactly an acre? Give a solution by I. How is a line divided when the sum of the squares on its segments is a minimum? 11. so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one segment may be equal to any multiple of the square on the other segment. If in any quadrilateral two opposite sides be bisected. &c. The diagonals of a lozenge are 16 and 30 metres respectively. 12. ﬁnd the lengths of its medians. 2.20 linear metres. What is the altitude of a parallelogram whose base is 65 metres and area 1430 square metres? 10. The square described on a line whose length is an inch. Through a given point O draw three lines OA. and 2mn linear units. together with four times the square on the line joining the points of bisection. x2 − 1. and xiii. 24. What is the subject-matter of Book II. Linear measurement has but one dimension. If the sides of a triangle be expressed by m2 + n2 . 2. The diagonal of a rectangle is 4. How is the area of a rectangle found? 7. What is meant by incommensurable lines? Give an example from Book II. the sum of the squares on the lines joining the adjacent corners is equal to three times the sum of the squares on the sides of the triangle.50 square perches. 4. and II. When is a line said to be divided internally? When externally? 6. such that their extremities may be collinear. 6. 16. and its area is 7. respectively. What is the diﬀerence between linear and superﬁcial measurement? Ans.60 square metres and its perimeter is 48. 17. superﬁcial has two. On what proposition is the rule for extracting the square root founded? 14. m2 − n2 . xlvii. What Proposition in Book II. 1. and that AB = BC . prove that it is right-angled. If on each side of a square containing 5. and CD any parallel chord. 15. If P be any point in the diameter AB of a semicircle. Theory of rectangles. 23. what are its dimensions? 21. xlvii. 1. Prove that a side and the diagonal of a square are incommensurable. 18. How is a line divided so that the rectangle contained by its segments may be a maximum? 8. OB .29 square perches we measure from the corners respectively a distance of 1. 19. 11. Divide a given line into two parts. prove that it is right-angled. 20. 7.? Ans. 5. Compare I.5 linear perches. 22. What is a rectangle? A gnomon? 3. If the medians of a triangle intersect in O. also the lengths of its perpendiculars. prove that it has an obtuse angle. together with the sum of the squares on the diagonals. 4. ﬁnd the length of a side. xii. The area of a rectangle is 108. respectively. How is the area of a parallelogram found? 9. and prove that all its angles are acute.Questions for Examination on Book II. 3. The squares on the diagonals of a quadrilateral are together double the sum of the squares on the lines joining the middle points of opposite sides. the sum of the squares on the other two sides. a perch. 15. a foot. 66 . What is a square inch? A square foot? A square perch? A square mile? Ans.

in magnitude. In any triangle. 17. so that mAD = nDB . whose extremities rest on the circumferences of two given concentric circles. be given in magnitude. D be four collinear points taken in order. &c. If the point D be taken in AB produced. 20. If A. be any number of ﬁxed points. B . 67 . the locus of the vertex is a circle. by four times the sum of the squares on the lines joining the middle points of the diagonals... AD2 + AC . its perimeter is a minimum when it is a square. If a transversal cut in the points A. BC . and P a variable point. C . If the base AB of a triangle be divided in D. Given the base of a triangle in magnitude and position. p denote the sides of a right-angled triangle about the right angle. Any rectangle is equal to half the rectangle contained by the diagonals of squares described on its adjacent sides. then mAC 2 − nBC 2 = mAD2 − nDB 2 + (m − n)CD2 . Upon the segments AC . b. an equilateral triangle ABD be described. 13. ﬁnd the locus of P . so that mAD = nBD. and the sum or the diﬀerence of m times the square on one side and n times the square on the other side. the locus of its middle point is a circle. 10. then mAC 2 + nBC 2 = mAD2 + nDB 2 + (m + n)CD2 . CB of a line AB equilateral triangles are described: prove that if D. AB . divided in extreme and mean ratio. 19. upon the greater segment AB of a line AC . AD = AC . CD2 = 2AB 2 . BD. D be the centres of circles described about these triangles. 9. 18. and CD joined. subtend a right angle at any ﬁxed point. 15. If A. prove that BC . 14. B three lines issuing from a point D. CD + BC . C . If a variable line.8. CA. C . 2 + 2 = 2 . a b p 21. 11. 16. If. If perpendiculars be drawn from the angular points of a square to any line. 12. 22. Three times the sum of the squares on the sides of any pentagon exceeds the sum of the squares on its diagonals. and the 1 1 1 perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse. the sum of the squares on the perpendiculars from one pair of opposite angles exceeds twice the rectangle of the perpendiculars from the other pair by the area of the square. If the area of a rectangle be given. B . If a. if AP 2 + BP 2 + CP 2 + &c. CD2 = AB . 6DD 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 + CB 2 . BD2 − AB . three times the sum of the squares on the sides is equal to four times the sum of the squares on the medians.

consecutive points common. When one is inside the other. For if two circles have equal radii. orders. If the chord be produced both ways. iv. four. The angle contained by two lines. they are evidently congruent ﬁgures. but do not intersect. iii. and the point where it touches it the point of contact. is called an angle in the segment. the whole line is called a secant.—Newcomb. ii. When each circle is external to the other. 68 .–xxix. and. third. follow as immediate inferences. i. and not a deﬁnition. Equal circles are those whose radii are equal. being produced both ways. and even for these the modern deﬁnition is better. A right line is said to touch a circle when it meets the circle. v. 2.. xxvi. the line is called a tangent to the circle. and each of the parts into which a secant divides the circumference is called an arc—the greater the major conjugate arc. This is a theorem. A segment of a circle is a ﬁgure bounded by a chord and one of the arcs into which it divides the circumference. second. A chord of a circle is the line joining two points in its circumference. and the lesser the minor conjugate arc. three. and then the secant through two consecutive points is a tangent. &c. There are two species of contact:— 1. Euclid’s deﬁnition for a tangent is quite inadequate for any curve but the circle. vi. drawn from any point in the circumference of a segment to the extremities of its chord.. Chords are said to be equally distant from the centre when the perpendiculars drawn to them from the centre are equal. From this way of proving this theorem Props. which are placed in order along the curve. In Modern Geometry a curve is considered as made up of an inﬁnite number of points. and therefore equal. &c. they have contact of the ﬁrst. vii. THEORY OF THE CIRCLE DEFINITIONS.BOOK III. does not cut it. The following is the modern deﬁnition of curve-contact:— When two curves have two. Circles are said to touch one another when they meet. and those derived from it by projection (the conic sections).

2.—Newcomb. the amount of the rotation from OA to OB is called an angle. a negative angle. Def. To a pair of radii may belong either of the two conjugate arcs into which their ends divide the circle. 3. To ﬁnd the centre of a given circle (ADB ). xiii. 3 greater than two right angles. The arrow-heads denote the direction or sense. A sector of a circle is formed of two radii and the arc included between them. It is usual to call the direction indicated in the above ﬁgures positive. until it comes into the position OB . I. PROP. ix. A line such as OA. in ﬁg. in which the line OA turns. and the opposite negative. An angle in a segment is said to stand on its conjugate arc. Concentric circles are those that have the same centre. A ray which turns in the sense opposite to the hands of a watch describes a positive angle. From the diagrams we see that in ﬁg. Points which lie on the circumference of a circle are said to be concyclic. xiv. which turns about a ﬁxed point. Similar segments of circles are those that contain equal angles. xii. A theorem is tacitly assumed in this Deﬁnition. x. xi. in every application of Geometry. and one which turns in the same direction as the hands. 69 . in ﬁg. ix. We shall prove this further on. that the angles which the chord makes with the tangent at its extremities are equal. 4 it is greater than four right angles. namely. as it is technically termed. This extension is necessary in Trigonometry. in Mechanics—in fact. and has been partly given in I. xv. but less than four. if a line OA revolve about the point O. as in ﬁgures 1. 4. is called a ray . 1 it is less than two right angles.viii. Thus.—Problem. 2 it is equal to two right angles. The angle of a segment is the angle contained between its chord and the tangent at either extremity. A cyclic quadrilateral is one which is inscribed in a circle. It will be proper to give here an explanation of the extended meaning of the word angle in Modern Geometry. and in ﬁg. and then we have the following deﬁnition:— xvi.

] the angle ACG is equal to the adjacent angle BCG.—Take any two points A. must be the centre. The remaining parts of the line are without the circle. the points A. to the circumference.—If A. and since it must be equally distant from E and D. xxiii. Join CE . the centre.—The line which bisects any chord of a circle perpendicularly passes through the centre of the circle. Hence no point can be the centre which is not in the line DE . every point equally distant from.].Sol. the middle point of DE .). BC intersect in the centre. Let C be the centre.—1. Join AB . CG common. Hence CE is greater than CA. Then F is the centre. it must be the middle point of DE . 2. Def. v. and the base GA equal to GB . Join GA. xix. xvi. C be three points in the circumference of a circle. x. because the triangle CAB is isosceles. by hypothesis. xvi. consequently the point D must be within the circle (note on I.). CB .). viii. II. 3.]. Dem. Def. xiii.] greater than ABC . therefore CAB is greater than AEC . Cor. but the centre is equally distant from A and B . because they are drawn from G. GB . Take any point D in AB . Then in the triangles ACG. 2]. Erect CD at right angles to AB . 2. but the angle ABC is equal to CAB [I. B must lie in ED [I. Join CA. the lines bisecting perpendicularly the chords AB . Ex. Bisect DE in F . Cor. 1. Now the angle ADC is [I. Cor. Dem. which is. If any two points (A. GC . PROP. Produce DC to meet the circle again in E . B . 70 . B ) be taken in the circumference of a circle—1. 2. The segment (AB ) of the indeﬁnite line through these points which lies between them falls within the circle. The foregoing proof may be abridged as follows:— Because ED bisects AB at right angles.—If possible.—The locus of the centres of the circles which pass through two ﬁxed points is the line bisecting at right angles that connecting the two points. Hence [I. CD. Hence AC is greater than CD [I. B in the circumference. and therefore [I. but the angle ACD is right (const. Therefore F . therefore CD is less than the radius of the circle. and the point E is without the circle. Take any point E in AB produced either way. hence the centre must be in ED.].—Theorem. Then the angle ABC is greater than AEC [I.] each is a right angle. therefore ACD is equal to ACG—a part equal to the whole—which is absurd. BCG we have AC equal to CB (const. In the same manner every other point between A and B lies within the circle. therefore the angle ADC is greater than CAD. let any other point G be the centre. Bisect it in C .

1. Observation. Cor.—Three collinear points cannot be concyclic. Cor.] the side CE is equal to ED. May be proved as follows:— OC 2 = OE 2 +EC 2 [I. and OC equal to OD. III. and the side EO common. Prop. Dem.. Therefore CD is bisected in E . 2.]. 1..]. Cor.—The line joining the centres of two intersecting circles bisects their common chord perpendicularly. The same construction being made: because OC is equal to OD. 2. and they are adjacent angles. Cor. are so related. DEO have CE equal to ED (hyp. 3. ∴ OE 2 + EC 2 = OE 2 + ED2 . 1. that any one being proved directly.–Theorem. If it cuts it at right angles. DEO have two angles in one respectively equal to two angles in the other. Hence [I. namely. because they are radii of the circle. and OD2 = OE 2 + ED2 . Then the triangles CEO. 71 . Hence AB cuts CD at right angles. of Prop. PROP. If a line (AB ) passing through the centre of a circle bisect a chord (CD). i. xlvii.—If a line intersect two concentric circles. Cor. its intercepts between the circles are equal. Def.—The three theorems.—The line which bisects perpendicularly one of two parallel chords of a circle bisects the other perpendicularly.—A line cannot meet a circle in more than two points.—The locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords of a circle is the diameter of the circle perpendicular to them all. 3. and Parts 1. Cor. iii.—1. EO common.—The circumference of a circle is everywhere concave towards the centre. Cor. v. because each is right. EC 2 = ED2 . xxvi. the other two follow by the Rule of Identity. it cuts it at right angles. 2. 2. viii. 2. The indirect proof given of the ﬁrst part in several editions of Euclid is very inelegant. it bisects it. Therefore the triangles CEO. and CEO is equal to DEO (hyp. Therefore [I. which does not pass through the centre. Join OC ..). but Hence OC 2 =OD2 . 2. Cor.] each is a right angle. and EC = ED.We have added the second part of this Proposition.). 4. hence [I. xiii. it is one of those absurd things which give many students a dislike to Geometry. the angle OCD is equal to ODC [I.] the angle CEO is equal to DEO. OD. Let O be the centre of the circle.

Then because O is the centre of the circle ABC . they are both diameters. Let AB . OA is equal to OD. PROP. and CE equal to ED. OA is equal to OC . In like manner the angle CEO is right. because O is the centre of the circle ABD. Every circle passing through a given point. cutting the circles in C and D respectively.—Theorem. A the point of intersection. Exercises. V. Now. Draw a chord in a given circle which shall subtend a right angle at a given point. they must intersect in another point.—If two chords of a circle bisect each other. since OE passing through the centre bisects AB . Hence AEO is equal to CEO—that is. passes through another given point. from A let fall the ⊥ AC on the line OO . IV. a part equal to the whole—which is absurd.—If possible let them have a common centre at O. If possible let AE be equal to EB . 2.Exercises. Produce AC to B . Again. If a chord of a circle subtend a right angle at a given point. let O. Therefore the circles are not concentric. PROP.—Let O be the centre. they are not concentric. CD intersect in E . Therefore AB and CD do not bisect each other. For. Dem. 2. then since AB .—Theorem. and be parallel to a given line. Two chords of a circle (AB. If two non-concentric circles intersect in one point. 1. Hence OC is equal to OD—a part equal to the whole—which is absurd. join OE . though either may bisect the other. 72 . Cor. the locus of its middle point is a circle. Join OA. Two circles cannot have three points in common without wholly coinciding. CD) which are not both diameters cannot bisect each other. it is at right angles to it. making BC = CA: then B is another point of intersection. CD are not both diameters. ABD) cut one another in any point (A). 3. and draw any other line OD. which does not pass through the centre. Dem. If two circles (ABC. and having its centre on a given line. 1. therefore the angle AEO is right. O be the centres.

and we have AP equal to the sum of OB . which is common. but OD is equal to OE [I.]. VI.PROP. P D is greater than OD. xx. If one circle (ABC ) touch another circle (ADE ) internally in any point (A). OB and OD are each equal to OA. cutting the circles in the points B . Now since O is the centre.] the base P B is greater than P C . xx. that which is nearest to the line through the centre is greater than every one more remote. 4. 4. and OP common. Therefore P A is greater than P B . 2. xxx. one of which passes through the centre. Dem. P D is greater than OE . Make at the centre O the angle P OF equal to P OD.]. Hence the circles cannot have the same centre. Join P F . &c. PROP. Therefore P D and P F make equal angles with the diameter. Reject OP . Any two lines making equal angles with the diameter on opposite sides are equal. which is impossible. xxiv.). it is not concentric with it. but the sum of OB . then—1.—Theorem.]. then two triangles P OB . 3. P OC have the side OB equal to OC [I. Def. OP is greater than P B [I. In like manner P C is greater than P D. OP . Def. lines (P A. P C. OA is equal to OB : to each add OP . 3.—1.] the sum of OP . iv. hence P D is equal to P F [I.]. VII. OD in one respectively equal to the sides OP . D respectively.—If possible let the circles be concentric. and we have P D greater than P E . Join OB . P B. If from any point (P ) within a circle. The greatest is the line (P A) which passes through the centre. More than two equal right lines cannot be drawn from the given point (P ) to the circumference. and draw any other line OD. Join OA. Then because O is the centre of each circle (hyp. Therefore the sum of OP . 5. 2. Then [I. therefore [I. be drawn to the circumference. and the angle OP D equal to the angle OP F . Let O be the centre. 73 . The production (P E ) of this in the opposite direction is the least. but the angle P OB is greater than P OC . OF in the other. and let O be the centre of each. which is not the centre. xxx.).—Theorem. therefore OB is equal to OD. Dem. P OF have the two sides OP . and the angle P OD equal to the angle P OF . Of the others. Then the triangles P OD. Join OD. Join OC .

P F .—Proposition vii. then P G is equal to P F —that is. 2. both of which make equal angles with the line passing through the centre.]. then—1.—1. The maximum is that which passes through the centre. the line which is nearest to the one through the centre is equal to the one which is more remote. Again. The minimum is that whose production passes through the centre. P C . 1.—If P be the common centre of circles whose radii are P A. Thus. P C . but if it goes on increasing for some time. if it decreases for some time. Dem. such as the radius of a circle revolving round the centre. P B . Again. Of the others. 5. it is a minimum at the commencement of the increase. From the given point (P ) there can be drawn two equal lines to the concave or the convex circumference. and if it retains the same value throughout. 2. it is said to be a maximum at the end of the increase.. OA is equal to OB : to each add OP . VIII. lines (P A. The circle whose radius is the minimum line (P E ) lies inside the circle ADE . A third line cannot be drawn from P equal to either of the equal lines P D. iv. P A.—Theorem. and then begins to decrease. OP . Now since O is the centre. is a maximum. &c. More than two equal lines cannot be drawn from the given point (P ) to either circumference. Of the others. Hence three equal lines cannot be drawn from P to the circumference. and touches it in A [Def. and we have AP equal to the sum of OB . Cor. 4. P F be drawn from a point P to the circumference of a circle. 6. A circle having any of the remaining lines (P D) as radius cuts ADE in two points (D. that which is nearer to the minimum is less than one more remote. supposed as before to revolve round P and meet the circle.—If two equal lines P D. will give other illustrations. Observation. PROP. that which is nearer to the one through the centre is greater than the one more remote. 2. Proposition viii. then— 1. in the foregoing ﬁgure. Join OB . 3. If from any point (P ) outside a circle. which is impossible. it is said to be a constant.5. supposed to revolve round P and meet the circle. is a minimum. and touches it in E .) be drawn to the concave circumference. Thus P E . &c. 74 . Let O be the centre. The circle whose radius is the maximum line (P A) lies outside the circle ADE . and then begins to increase. If possible let P G be equal to P D. if lines be drawn to the convex circumference—3. F ). Cor. the diameter through P bisects the angle DP F formed by these lines. p. 13):—If a geometrical magnitude varies its position continuously according to any law. aﬀords a good illustration of the following important deﬁnition (see Sequel to Euclid. P B .

and OP common. 3. but OF is equal to OE [I. and F P will remain greater than EP . The two triangles GOP . Join OG. therefore [I. OP is greater than BP [I.—If P be the common centre of circles whose radii are lines drawn from P to the circumference of HDE . xxx. 5. then—1. P C. one which is nearer to the minimum equal to one more remote—which is impossible. Make the angle P OI equal P OF [I. A circle having any of the remaining lines (P F ) as radius intersects HDE in two points (F. Join OC .]. Hence P must be the centre. 75 . from which more than two equal lines (P A. and the parts of them intercepted by the circle are equal. PROP.].—If two equal lines be drawn from P to either the convex or concave circumference. OP in one respectively equal to two sides F O. I ). F P is greater than OP [I. P L is equal to P B.—If P I be produced to meet the circle again in L. 1. The circle whose radius is the maximum line (P A) has contact of the second kind. F P . Reject them. Join OF .) can be drawn to the circumference. let O be the centre.] the base GP is greater than F P . OP in the other. 3.but the sum of OB . 2.). Join IP . OP in one respectively equal to two sides F O. therefore [I.]. xx. the diameter through P bisects the angle between them. therefore the base BP is greater than CP [I.] IP is equal to F P . Now in the triangle OF P the sum of the sides OF . and produce it to meet the circle in D and E . F OP have two sides GO. &c.—If P be not the centre.]. A point (P ) within a circle (ABC ). Therefore AP is greater than BP . 6. Now the triangles IOP . Join OP . is the centre. iv. The circle whose radius is the minimum line (P E ) has contact of the ﬁrst kind with ADE [Def. Cor. and P is a point in it which is not the centre: therefore [vii. OP in the other. COP have the side OB equal to OC . but three equal lines are drawn (hyp. 3. For if possible let P K be equal to P F .]. then P K is equal to P I —that is. Def. P B. xxiii. Cor.). A third line cannot be drawn from P equal to either of the lines IP . OD. 4. xxiv. which is absurd. IX.]. iv. In like manner CP is greater than DP . xxiv. and the angle BOP greater than COP .—Theorem. 2.] only two equal lines can be drawn from P to the circumference. In like manner HP is greater than GP . 2. Cor. The two triangles BOP . and the angle IOP equal to F OP (const. xx. Dem. OH . then DE is the diameter. &c. F OP have two sides IO. but the angle GOP is greater than F OP .

If one circle (CP D) touch another circle (AP B ) internally at any point P . Let it be H . P C are equal to one another.. Join P A. and if possible let another circle Y have three points. and produce OE through E to meet the circles in the points C . Hence EA is less than EC . If not. Hence the point of intersection of these bisectors.) also in P . the three lines P A. which is impossible. Axiom x.—Theorem. let it be in any other position such as E . XI.—Let O be the centre of AP B . 2] AP B in P . the point P .. Or thus: Since EP is a line drawn from a point within the circle AP B to the circumference. Then since P is the centre of X . they must coincide. EA is less than EP [vii. that two right lines not coinciding cannot have more than one point common. PROP. P B . A. Compare I. 2]. the line bisecting the angle AP B [vii. consequently the centre of the smaller circle must be in the line OP . B .—Theorem. but not forming part of the diameter through E .). C . X. Dem. that is. the circle whose centre is E and radius EP cuts [vii. Now since E is a point in the diameter of the larger circle between the centre and A. Dem. Hence the centre of the smaller circle CP D must be in the line OP .—Two circles not coinciding cannot have more than two points common. which [v. PROP. then we see that the line joining the centres passes through the point P . P B . I say the centre of the smaller circle is in the line OP . Join OE . P C can be drawn to its circumference. Find P . BP are equal.] is impossible.. Cor. since Y is a circle and P a point. Join OP . but EP is equal to EC (hyp. from which three equal lines P A. must be the centre. in common with X . the line joining the centres must pass through that point. EP . 76 . 1] must pass through the centre: in like manner the line bisecting the angle BP C must pass through the centre. being radii of the smaller circle. Again. without coinciding with it. P must be the centre of Y . Hence X and Y are concentric.Or thus: Since the lines AP . A. P B . Cor. the centre of X . If two circles have more than two points common. which is impossible. P C . but it touches it (hyp. Cor.—Let X be one of the circles.

4. 3]. let it be elsewhere. the line joining their centres must pass through that point. may both be included in one enunciation as follows:— “If two circles touch each other at any point. Hence a contact counts for two intersections. In consequence of the motion. BP is equal to BD. as at B . but it touches it (hyp. therefore AB is greater than the sum of AP . 77 .” And this latter Proposition is a limiting case of the theorem given in Proposition iii. AP is equal to AC . Cor. intersecting the circles in C and D. as in the second diagram. Observation. Cor. we see that when B ultimately becomes consecutive to A. xii. If not.) also in P . Join AB . Let it be G. Or thus: Since BP is a line drawn from a point without the circle P CF to its circumference.. G´ eom´ etrie Plane. Hence the centre of the second circle must be in the line P E . 1. Hence the centre of the second circle must be in the line P E . Dem. that “The line joining the centres of two intersecting circles bisects the common chord perpendicularly. and we see that the line through the centres passes through the point P . but AB is greater than the sum of AC and DB .—Let A be the centre of one of the circles. Cor. and produce it to meet the second circle again in E . the common chord will become in the limit a tangent to each circle. Hence the sum of the lines AP .—Comberousse.” Suppose the circle whose centre is O and one of the points of intersection A to remain ﬁxed. P DE ) have external contact at any point P . DB . since the line OO always bisects AB .] is impossible. page 57. and when produced does not pass through the centre. the centres and that point are collinear. and since B is the centre of the circle P DE ... which is impossible.—If two circles touch each other. Now since A is the centre of the circle P CF . If two circles (P CF. XII. xx. Join AP .PROP. BP is equal to the sum of the lines AC . the line OO passes through A. the circle whose centre is B and radius BP must cut the circle P CF in P [viii. P B —that is. their point of contact is the union of two points of intersection. while the second circle turns round that point in such a manner that the second point of intersection B becomes ultimately consecutive to A. I say the centre of the second circle is in the line P E . one side of a triangle greater than the sum of the other two–which [I.—Theorem. and join BP .—Propositions xi. then.

] O B is greater than O A. Cor. 1] must pass through the centre of each circle. 3. and that the point of contact is equivalent to two common points. 78 . that it. that a point of contact counts for two intersections. according as the contact with the second circle is of the ﬁrst or second kind.—If two circles touch each other at any point. A the point of contact.. Two circles cannot have double contact. 2.] the line joining the centres should pass through each point. it passes through B . Exercises. Dem.] must pass through each point of contact. Hence B cannot be common to both circles. If possible let two circles touch each other at two points A and B . the line joining their centres passes through A [xi. Join O B . Cor. and let O lie between O and A. O be the centres of the two circles. they cannot have any other common point but A. Cor. according as the contacts are of the same or of opposite species (Def. 2. the diﬀerence of the distances of its centre from the centres of the ﬁxed circles is equal to the diﬀerence or the sum of their radii. and touch the other ﬁxed circle either externally or internally.Cor. the sum of the distances of its centre from the centres of the ﬁxed circles is equal to the sum or the diﬀerence of their radii.] is impossible. therefore AB is a diameter of each circle. Hence two circles cannot have double contact. If a variable circle be touched by one of two ﬁxed circles internally. It also follows from Prop. 1. The following is a formal proof of this Proposition:—Let O. If a variable circle touch two ﬁxed circles externally. If two circles touched each other externally in two distinct points. If through the point of contact of two touching circles any secant be drawn cutting the circles again in two points. Or thus: Draw a line bisecting AB at right angles. therefore the point C is outside the circumference of the smaller circle.]. Then this line [i. which is impossible. cannot touch each other in two points. take any other point B in the circumference of O. 1]. but there cannot be more than two intersections [x.. since two circles cannot have more than two points common [x. In like manner. circles that touch cannot have any other point common. 2. Hence the centres and the points A.].—Theorem. the radii drawn to these points are parallel. This Proposition is an immediate inference from the theorem [xii. Now since the two circles touch each other in A. 2. xii. the circles are concentric—which [v. they cannot have any other common point. and therefore [xi. xii.). PROP. B are in one right line. XIII. for then two contacts would be equivalent to four intersections. then [xii.]. For. then [vii. In like manner. E must be the centre of each circle—that is.—1. they cannot have any other point common. that if two circles touch each other in a point A.. if AB be bisected in E . which is impossible. Hence. hence they cannot touch again in B . iv.

Let O be the centre. as before. XV. and since the 79 . equal chords (AB. it is required to prove AB equal to CD. and draw the perpendiculars OG. AE 2 + EO2 equal to CF 2 + F O2 .) equally distant from the centre. Because the chord CD is nearer to the centre than EF . and AE is equal to CF . and OE is drawn from the centre cutting it at right angles. OH . Dem. chords which are equally distant from the centre are equal. 2. The diameter (AB ) is the greatest chord in a circle. OF . but EO2 is equal to F O2 (hyp. OD is greater than CD [I. therefore AE is the half of AB . the locus of any point ﬁxed in the chord is a circle. CO2 is equal to CF 2 + F O2 . Then because AB is a chord in a circle. The same construction being made.—1. PROP. In like manner. And because E is a right angle.—Theorem.. xxxii. PROP. vi. AO2 is equal to AE 2 + EO2 .). the locus of its middle point is a circle. xx.]. In like manner. OE .). OA is equal to OC [I. and AE 2 has been proved equal to CF 2 . Dem. If a chord of given length slide round a ﬁxed circle—1.—1. Def. then because O is the centre. XIV. but the sum of OC . CD are (Def. 2. Hence AE 2 is equal to CF 2 . In equal circles—1.—Theorem. it bisects it [iii. the chord (CD) which is nearer to the centre is greater than (EF ) one more remote. OG is less than OH . CD) are equally distant from the centre. and OB is equal to OD. we have.].].4. and CD double of CF . CF is the half of CD. and the greater is nearer to the centre than the less. but AB is equal to CD (hyp. Let EO be equal to F O. CO. Hence EO2 is equal to F O2 . Therefore AB is greater than CD. Therefore AE 2 + EO2 is equal to CF 2 + F O2 . Therefore AE is equal to CF [I. Exercise. 2. but AO2 is equal to CO2 . OD. Axiom vii. and of the others. but AB is double of AE . If two diameters of two touching circles be parallel. the lines from the point of contact to the extremities of one diameter pass through the extremities of the other. Draw the perpendiculars OE . Join AO. Hence AB . 2. therefore EO is equal to F O. Join OC . Therefore AB is equal to CD.].. Hence AB is equal to the sum of OC and OD.

Hence. since BI meets the circle at B . As before. it must touch it. and consequently the line BG produced must meet the circle again. 1. and join it to the centre C . draw a chord of length equal to that of a given chord. which shall be of any length less than that of the maximum. and OE 2 = OH 2 + HE 2 . C . therefore CI 2 is greater than CB 2 . xxxii. Three circles touch each other externally at A. Then because the angle CBI is a right angle. Take any point I . cuts the circle. and BC is greater than CG. Any other line (BH ) through the same point cuts the circle. Hence OG is less than OH .] the point G must be within the circle. 4. Def. 2. 2. 2. AC of two of them are produced to meet the third again in the points D and E . 3. but CG2 is greater than EH 2 . Def. but OG2 is less than OH 2 . 3.]. XVI. but CD and EF are the doubles of GC and HE . Draw CG perpendicular to HB . Hence [note on I. xlvii. and the point I [note on I. prove that DE is a diameter of the third circle. every other point in BI . Exercises. The shortest chord which can be drawn through a given point within a circle is the perpendicular to the diameter which passes through that point. therefore OG2 + GC 2 = OH 2 + HE 2 .. B . Through one of the points of intersection of two circles draw a secant—1. PROP. which is not perpendicular to AB . The perpendicular (BI ) to the diameter (AB ) of a circle at its extremity (B ) touches the circle at that point. In like manner. Therefore BC 2 is greater than CG2 .—Theorem. OHE are right-angled. we have OG2 + GC 2 equal to OH 2 + HE 2 . the chords AB . and must therefore cut it. 2. xxxii. 1. the sum of whose segments intercepted by the circles shall be a maximum. within or without a given circle. 80 . Through a given point. it is required to prove that OG is less than OH . CI 2 is equal to CB 2 + BI 2 [I. therefore GC 2 is greater than HE 2 . we have OC 2 = OG2 + GC 2 . is without the circle. This Proposition may be proved as follows: At every point on a circle the tangent is perpendicular to the radius. Let CD be greater than EF . but does not cut it.triangles OGC . Now BC 2 is equal to CG2 + GB 2 . Hence CD is greater than EF . and GC is greater than HE .. and parallel to the line joining the centres of the others. To prove that BH .—1. except B .] is without the circle. therefore OG2 is less than OH 2 . Hence CI is greater than CB . Dem.

3. or that shall touch two given circles. namely. Again. Or again: The angle CP R is always equal to CQS . Describe a circle of given radius that shall touch a given circle and a given line. and the others are equal.Let P and Q be two consecutive points on the circumference.). Now since P and Q are consecutive points. Describe a circle of given radius that shall touch two given lines. and the tangent is perpendicular to the radius. Hence each of them is a right angle. PROP. Describe a circle having its centre at a given point—1. 7. From a given point (P ) without a given circle (BCD) to draw a tangent to the circle. in the limit the tangent is perpendicular to the line from the centre to the point of contact. and touching a given circle. 2.—Problem. Join CP . Find the locus of the centres of a system of circles touching two given lines. all chords of the greater which touch the lesser are equal.] is perpendicular to it. How many solutions of this case? 5. produce P Q both ways. 4. If two circles be concentric. 1. CQ. and touching a given line. when the secant moves out until the two points of intersection with the circle become consecutive. Therefore the tangent is perpendicular to the diameter. but the line through the centre which bisects the part of the secant within the circle [iii. when P and Q come together each is a right angle. but the angle C is inﬁnitely small. Draw a parallel to a given line to touch a given circle. iii. the sum of the three angles of the triangle CP Q is equal to two right angles. Hence. 2. Exercises. 81 . P Q is a tangent (Def. Or thus: A tangent is a limiting position of a secant. XVII. hence. P Q. How many solutions? 6. Draw a perpendicular to a given line to touch a given circle.

9. it will be the tangent required. such as F and P . 4. intersecting OP in F . Join OP . the rectangle of whose distances OF . Find a point such that tangents from it to three given circles shall be equal. Let OG cut the circle in F . show how to draw a line cutting two circles. and the line DP drawn. Hence. and OC equal to OB . 10.—Theorem If a line (CD) touch a circle. OP from the centre is equal to the square of the radius.] P B touches the circle at B . cutting the circle BCD in D.) the angle OCG [I.] must be acute. P OB have the sides OA. OP is equal to the square of the radius. If two circles be concentric. a part greater than the whole. the sum of one pair of opposite sides is equal to the sum of the other pair. Hence the two triangles AOC . If a parallelogram be circumscribed to a circle it must be a lozenge. PROP. Exercises.—Let O (ﬁg. xix.Sol. The rectangle OF . Dem.] the angle OCA is equal to OBP . Erect CA at right angles to OP .—If AC (ﬁg. XVIII. all tangents to the inner from points on the outer are equal. xvii. Then because the angle OGC is right (hyp. and the contained angle common to both. 7. which is impossible.) 8. we have OA equal to OP . therefore OF is greater than OG—that is. but OCA is a right angle (const. because the square of each is equal to the square of OP minus the square of the radius. xxxii. cutting the circumference in C . and OP as radius. Two points. intersecting the circle BCD in B . are called inverse points with respect to the circle.]. and [xvi. Cor. 1. OE joined. Join OA. If BD be joined. Therefore [I. OP is perpendicular to BD. Def. Join BP . Def. P D (ﬁg. 1) be the centre of the given circle. If a quadrilateral be circumscribed to a circle. suppose another line OG drawn from the centre to be perpendicular to CD. Draw a common tangent to two circles. The two tangents P B . the line (OC ) from the centre to the point of contact is perpendicular to it. OB in the other.). The intercept made on a variable tangent by two ﬁxed tangents subtends a constant angle at the centre. 5. Hence OC must be perpendicular to CD. DP will be another tangent from P . Dem. OC in one respectively equal to the sides OP .—If not. Hence [I. but OC is equal to OF [I. The locus of the intersection of two equal tangents to two circles is a right line (called the radical axis of the two circles ). (This point is called the radical centre of the three circles. so that the intercepted chords shall be of given lengths. 6. describe the circle AP E . 82 . 2. and its diagonals intersect in the centre. 3. iv. With O as centre. 2) are equal to one another. therefore OBP is a right angle.] OC is greater than OG.—Since O is the centre of the two circles. 2) be produced to E .

in strict logic. therefore OAB is equal to CAB —a part equal to the whole. Then because OA is equal to OC . Cor. and OA is drawn from the centre to the point of contact. 1.]. but the angle AOE is equal to the sum of the two angles OAC . the line (AC ) drawn at right angles to it from the point of contact passes through the centre. OA is at right angles to AB [xviii. If a line (AB ) be a tangent to a circle. Join AO. xix. Observation.—Theorem. let O be the centre. Hence the angle AOE is double the angle ACO.—Theorem... PROP. In like 83 . the angle ACO is equal to OAC . are so related that any two can be inferred from the third by the “Rule of Identity. PROP. 2.. Again.. which is impossible. and produce it to E ...—If a number of circles touch the same line at the same point. XIX.). ACO. the locus of their centres is the perpendicular to the line at the point. The angle (AOB ) at the centre (O) of a circle is double the angle (ACB ) at the circumference standing on the same arc. be suﬃcient to prove any one of the three. and Parts 1. and the others would follow. these three theorems are limiting cases of Proposition i. Then because AB touches the circle. XX. when the points in which the chord cuts the circle become consecutive.—Propositions xvi. Cor. namely. and the angle CAB is right (hyp. therefore OC must be perpendicular to CD. Hence the centre must be in the line AC . Dem.” Hence it would.Or thus: Since the perpendicular must be the shortest line from O to CD. therefore the angle OAB is right.—Join CO. of Proposition iii. and OC is evidently the shortest line. If the centre be not in AC . xviii.

and subtracting in (γ )). 84 .]. Cor.—Let O be the centre.—If A. and produce it to meet the circle again in E . Join DE . ﬁg. and if C varies its position in such a way that the angle ACB retains the same value throughout. Then the angle AOB is double of the angle ACB [xx. Now since O is the centre. the segment ACE is greater than a semicircle. have equal vertical angles. Cor. the locus of the vertex is a circle. B be two ﬁxed points.—If AOB be a straight line. The following is the proof of the second part—that is. and on the same side of it. Therefore the angle ACB is equal to the angle ADB . the angle ACE is equal to ADE . Hence (by adding in ﬁgs. Join CO. C . (α). the angle AOB is double of the angle ACB .manner the angle EOB is double the angle OCB . the four points A. In like manner the angle ECB is equal to EDB . without using angles greater than two right angles:— Let O be the centre. Hence the whole angle ACB is equal to the whole angle ADB . D. 2. (β ).—If two triangles ACB . ACB will be a right angle—that is. Join OA. (α). Dem. the angle in a semicircle is a right angle (compare xxxi. when the arc AB is not greater than a semicircle. OB . hence.). XXI. In other words—Given the base of a triangle and the vertical angle. by the ﬁrst case. and also double of the angle ADB . B are concyclic.—Theorem. the locus of C is a circle. The angles (ACB. Cor. 1. ADB on the same base AB . PROP. ADB ) in the same segment of a circle are equal.

XXII. 2). note] AOC . CDA is two right angles. CDA of the triangle ACD. but the sum of two angles AOC . COA is double of the sum of the angles CDA.]. The sum of the opposite angles of a quadrilateral (ABCD) inscribed in a circle is two right angles. COA is four right angles. Given the base of a triangle and the vertical angle. OB OC . xxxii.]. Therefore the sum of ABC . (3) of the intersection of the external bisectors of the base angles. Def. and the angle DBC is equal to DAC . ﬁnd the locus— (1) of the intersection of its perpendiculars. To each add the angle CDA. The angle ABD is equal to ACD. BD. ABC is two right angles. (4) of the intersection of the external bisector of one base angle and the internal bisector of the other.. therefore the angle BAD is equal to the sum of the angles OBA. because they are in the same segment DABC . (2) of the intersection of the internal bisectors of its base angles. ix. 2. DOA are each isosceles. DAC . being in the same segment ABCD [xxi. OC (see ﬁg. 1. 3. DAC . OD. BOC . 5. Dem. CDA equal to the sum of the three angles ACD. 4. Or again: Let O be the centre (ﬁg. Hence the sum of the angles [I. COD. Or thus: Let O be the centre of the circle. the area is a maximum when the sides are equal.]. the sum of the sides of an isosceles triangle is a maximum. their sum is a maximum when the lines are equal. PROP. If the sum of the squares of two lines be given. and the angle COA is double of ABC . ODA. and we have the sum of the two angles ABC .—Theorem. Now the angle AOC is double of CDA [xx. Hence the angle OAB is equal to the angle OBA. Join OA. 2). and the angle OAD equal to the angle ODA. Hence the whole angle ABC is equal to the sum of the two angles ACD. Then the four triangles AOB . but the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles [I. Join OA.—Join AC . Of all triangles inscribed in a circle. Therefore the sum of the angles CDA. Of all concyclic ﬁgures having a given number of sides. ABC . the equilateral triangle has the maximum perimeter. Of all triangles having the same base and vertical angle.Exercises. In like 85 .

The feet of the perpendiculars let fall on the sides of a triangle from any point in the circumference of the circumscribed circle are collinear (Simson). 3. 5. and on the same side of that chord. 9. 13. PROP. and any two lines ACD. it is cyclic. and the other in the points D. XXIII—Theorem. and produce it to meet the outer one in C . 4. BD. Dem.]. In the same case prove that the centres of the circles described about the equilateral triangles form another equilateral triangle. which is impossible [I. 86 . E . Then since the segments are similar. Join AD. Hence two similar segments not coinciding cannot be described on the same chord and on the same side of it. Def. If a ﬁgure of six sides be inscribed in a circle.—If possible. the lines joining the vertices of the original triangle to the opposite vertices of the equilateral triangles are concurrent. ADB . BCD is equal to the sum of the two angles ABC .). If two pairs of opposite sides of a cyclic hexagon be respectively parallel to each other. the sum of the angles subtended at the centre by any three alternate sides is equal to two right angles. ODC . 10. the angle ADB is equal to ACB (Def. 7. 12. If a variable tangent meets two parallel tangents it subtends a right angle at the centre. If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral be supplemental. If two opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral be produced to meet. 6. 2. the line CE is parallel to DF . Join BC . x. B . and a perpendicular be let fall on the bisector of the angle between them from the point of intersection of the diagonals. makes equal angles with the remaining pair and with the diagonals. be drawn through A and B .—The line of collinearity is called Simson’s line. the sum of any three alternate angles is four right angles. be two similar segments constructed on the same side of AB . Take any point D in the inner one. Two similar segments of circles which do not coincide cannot be constructed on the same chord (AB ). 11. Cor. If a hexagon be circumscribed about a circle. The perpendiculars of a triangle are concurrent.—If a parallelogram be inscribed in a circle it is a rectangle. A line which makes equal angles with one pair of opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral. ADC . F . cutting one of the circles in the points C .manner the angle BCD is equal to the sum of the angles OBC . If equilateral triangles be described on the sides of any triangle. the remaining pair of sides are also parallel. the angles at the centre subtended by the opposite sides are supplemental. If two circles intersect in the points A. xvi. Exercises. BF E . and hence each sum is two right angles. Hence the sum of the two angles BAD. this perpendicular will bisect the angle between the diagonals. If a quadrilateral be described about a circle. 1. 8. let ACB .

with F A as radius. and therefore the segments. EF at right angles to AB . Sol.. The following scheme will assist in remembering them:— In Proposition xxvi. the point of intersection.. . Bisect AB in D. In equal circles (ACB.. must be congruent. . Dem. An arc (ABC ) of a circle being given. Hence they are equal. 87 . and the circle described from F as centre..—Theorem. it passes through the centre [i. so that Proposition xxvii. chords =. arcs =. xxix. CD) are equal to one another. Similar segments of circles (AEB. PROP. will be the circle required.—Because DF bisects the chord AB and is perpendicular to it. to prove arcs =. DF E ). PROP. . DF E ) stand upon equal arcs. .—Since the lines are equal. chords =. xxvii. and xxix. The four Propositions xxvi. . This demonstration may be stated as follows:—Since the chords are equal.—Take any three points A.]. they must coincide [xxiii. xxviii. being similar. so that the point A will coincide with C . they are congruent.–xxix.PROP..—Theorem. . are given angles =. DHE ) or at the circumferences (ACB. C in the arc. arcs =. of xxviii. arcs =. CF D) on equal chords (AB. is the converse of xxvi. are so like in their enunciations that students frequently substitute one for another. .. and because the segments are similar. BC . Join AB .. Cor. . Hence the point F must be the centre. then F . equal angles at the centres (AOB. angles =. B . and BC in E . XXVI. the point B shall coincide with D.. In like manner EF passes through the centre..—Problem. XXIV.. if AB be applied to CD. BC . will be the centre of the circle. 1]. XXV. Erect DF . . and the line AB with CD. it is required to describe the whole circle. Dem..

DF E are [xx. are equal.). a part equal to the whole. the arc AL is equal to DE [xxvi. 2. Hence the arcs AGB . the diﬀerence of the arcs they intercept is equal to the arc which parallel chords intersecting on the circumference intercept.Dem.—If two chords intersect at any point within a circle. Cor.).] the segments are equal.—If two chords intersect at right angles. DF E ). 3. 1. DHE . Then since the circles are equal. DF E are similar. therefore [xxiv. DE ). And taking these equals from the whole circles. x. Therefore (Def. the remaining segments AGB . which is absurd. DHE at the centres are equal (hyp. DHE . In equal circles (ACB. Therefore the two triangles AOB . Again. 2.]. HE in the other. and the angles AOL.—1. Cor. DE have been proved equal. DKE are equal. Axiom vii. the sum of the opposite arcs which they intercept on the circle is a semicircle. DF E ). 88 . which are equal (hyp.). If they intersect without the circle. PROP. Therefore the angle AOB is equal to DHE . Therefore [I.—Theorem. The demonstration of this case is included in the foregoing. be greater than the other.] the halves of the equal angles AOB . which stand on equal arcs (AB. DHE have the sides AO. DHE ). and their chords AB . Dem. DKE are equal. one of its diagonals must be a diameter of the circumscribed circle. 4. the sum of the opposite arcs which they intercept is equal to the arc which parallel chords intersecting on the circumference intercept. they are equal [I.] the base AB is equal to DE . such as AOB .—Parallel chords in a circle intercept equal arcs.]. Suppose the angles at the centres to be given equal. iv. angles at the centres (AOB. Hence AL is equal to AB —that is. XXVII.—If possible let one of them. and the angle AOB equal to DHE (hyp. and suppose a part such as AOL to be equal to DHE .). OB in one respectively equal to the sides DH . or at the circumferences (ACB. Cor.—If the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral be equal.) the segments ACB . i. Now because the circles are equal their radii are equal (Def. Cor. but AB is equal to DE (hyp. 2.). since the angles ACB .

).2. Dem. DF E ). the Proposition is evident. being the halves of the central angles. which are equal each to each— that is. DKE . PROP. HE . DH .) PROP. equal chords (AB. and since the whole circumference AGBC is equal to the whole circumference DKEF . the base AB of one is equal to the base DE of the other. The angles at the circumference. i. OB in one respectively equal to the sides DH . let O.—Since the two circles in the four last Propositions are equal. Therefore [I. HE in the other. OB .). XXVIII. on two diameters given in position. then because the circles are equal their radii are equal (Def. OB in one respectively equal to the two sides DH . the lesser to the lesser. Join AO.). viii. Hence the two triangles AOB . XXIX. Observation.—Let O. and the truth of the Propositions is evident by superposition. DCK ) are subtended by equal chords. If a line of given length slide between two lines given in position. DHE have the two sides AO. The line joining the feet of perpendiculars from any point in the circumference of a circle. the locus of the intersection of perpendiculars to the given lines at its extremities is a circle. are therefore equal. and the base AB is equal to DE (hyp. is given in magnitude. Exercises. In equal circles (ACB. and the angle AOB equal to the angle DHE .—If the equal chords be diameters.—Theorem. Dem.]. DF E ). they are congruent ﬁgures. (This is the converse of 1. HE . DH . OB . DHE have the sides AO. the angles AOB . 2. DHE at the centres. HE in the other. are equal [xxvii. DE ) divide the circumferences into arcs.]. In equal circles (ACB. then because the circles are equal. which stand on the equal arcs AGB .] the angle AOB is equal to DHE . because the triangles AOB . H be the centres. 1. If not. and the greater to the greater. Join AO. Again. 89 . equal arcs (AGB. Hence the arc AGB is equal to DKE [xxvi. H be the centres (see last ﬁg. the remaining arc ACB is equal to the remaining arc DF E .—Theorem.

XXX.—Theorem. Join AC . Let AB be the diameter. AC D be drawn. ABCD is a semicircle whose diameter is AD. Therefore [xxviii. are equiangular. CBA. The internal and the external bisectors of the vertical angle of a triangle inscribed in a circle meet the circumference again in points equidistant from the extremities of the base. D. Dem. the angle ACO is equal to the angle OAC . Hence the base AC is equal to the base BC . Sol. Then the triangles ADC . and from D perpendiculars DE . C . meeting the arc in C . CBA of the triangle ABC . one of the points of intersection of two given circles. 2. The angle in a segment less than a semicircle is an obtuse angle. Hence the angle ACB is equal to the sum of the two angles BAC .). BC . Def. the angle OCB is equal to CBO. the chord BC produced meets AD produced in E : prove that if CE is equal to the radius. 4. which meets the circle again in D.—Problem. Dem. To bisect a given arc ACB . Exercises. and therefore it is a right angle [I. The angle in a segment greater than a semicircle is an acute angle. bisect it in D. In a circle—(1).]. The angle in a semicircle is a right angle. Join OC . If the vertical angle ACB of a triangle inscribed in a circle be bisected by a line CD. PROP. each being right.] the angle F CB is equal to the sum of the two interior angles BAC . erect DC at right angles to AB .] the arc AC is equal to the arc BC . two chords ACD. (2). If from A. and produce AC to F . the triangles BCD.—(1). XXXI. Hence the arc AB is bisected in C . Then because AO is equal to OC .—Join AC . D . and DC common to both. but [I. 90 . and hence show that CE is equal to half the sum of AC . then the arc is bisected in C . In like manner. the arc AB is equal to three times CD. CB . xiii.PROP. and the angle ADC equal to the angle BDC . Hence the angle ACB is equal to its adjacent angle F CB . cutting the circles in the points C .—Draw the chord AB . one of which must be produced: prove that EA is equal to BF . formed by joining these to the second point B of intersection of the circles. The angle ACB is a right angle. BC . (3). xxxii. 3. For let O be the centre. C any point in the semicircle. BC D . 1. DF be drawn to the sides. BDC have the side AD equal to DB (const.

therefore ACE is acute. CDA is two right angles [xxii. Therefore the remaining angle AGC = F AC .].—Theorem. Therefore the angle ACB is right [xxxi.]. GB . 3. but the angle BAF is right (const. F AC are equal (1).—If a parallelogram be inscribed in a circle. 1. Cor. Join BC . and CGB = CAB [xxi. If the chord passes through the centre. Take any point D in the arc AC . (3). join BD. therefore the sum of the angles ABC . Since the quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic. Reject BAC .—(1). for the angles are right angles. which is common. Again. but ACB is right. the angle ACD is obtuse. and we get the angle CDA equal to CAE . from (1). Hence the angle CDA = CAE . the angles made by this line with the tangent are respectively equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. GC .(2). 2. If a line (EF ) be a tangent to a circle.]. Then because EF is a tangent to the circle. and from the point of contact (A) a chord (AC ) be drawn cutting the circle. CD. XXXII.].].). Or thus: Take any point G in the semicircle AGB . Then the angle AGB = F AB . Cor. BAC is equal to BAF . each being right. the sum of the opposite angles ABC . Join CE . (2). 91 . Let the arc ACE be greater than a semicircle. Reject them. and therefore equal to the sum of the angles F AC . and AB is drawn from the point of contact perpendicular to EF . CAB is one right angle.—Lardner. but if not. Then the angle ACE is evidently less than ACB .—From a point outside a circle draw two tangents to the circle. and CDB = CAB [xxi. then evidently. It is required to prove that the angle CAE is equal to CDA. Dem. its diagonals intersect at the centre of the circle. but the angles ABC . the Proposition is evident. and we get the angle ABC equal to the angle F AC . AB passes through this centre [xix. Join AG. CAE . Hence the sum of the two remaining angles ABC . Let the arc ACD be less than a semicircle. each being right. Cor.—Find the centre of a circle by means of a carpenter’s square. The angle BDA = BAE . from the point of contact A draw AB at right angles to the tangent. PROP.

Exercises. Sol..]. and the thing required is done. 5. and its square is equal to the rectangle contained by their diameters. if DE be bisected in C . CE a tangent at C . meeting the circles in B and C : prove that the tangents at B and C are parallel to each other. Erect AC at right angles to AE . see Townsend’s Modern Geometry. If two circles touch. and ABC be a chord through A. that the arc AC = 2CB . vol. and any two lines be drawn through the point of contact. The angle BAC is equal to BDC [xxi. XXXIII. If two circles touch. PROP. and BC at right angles to AB . meeting the chord AB produced in E . page 14. describe a semicircle on the given line. the chord connecting their points of intersection with one circle is parallel to the chord connecting their points of intersection with the other circle. On AC as diameter describe a circle: it will be the circle required. If two circles touch at a point A. and the angle BDC with ADC . any line drawn through the point of contact will cut oﬀ similar segments. if AX be a tangent at A. On a given right line (AB ) to describe a segment of a circle which shall contain an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle (X ). AC any chord. make with the given line AB the angle BAE equal to X . If two circles touch externally.Or by the method of limits. then AB will be a tangent. 3. Now let the point B move until it becomes consecutive to A.—Problem. their common tangent at either side subtends a right angle at the point of contact. Hence.—If X be a right angle. and AD a perpendicular to AB in D: prove. 1. 92 . and BD will coincide with AD. the tangent at B meets the outer circle in two points equidistant from C . and that when one circle is within the other. If not. the angle which the tangent makes with the chord is equal to the angle in the alternate segment. 2. cutting both circles again. 4. ACB is an arc of a circle. for the angle in a semicircle is a right angle. i.

Dem.Dem. the rectangle 93 . and cut the other chord CD. 4. ﬁnd the locus of the middle point of the line joining the vertices of equilateral triangles described on the sides. ﬁnd the loci of the angular points of a square described on one of the sides. Sum or diﬀerence of the squares of the sides. and cuts the other chord CD. In the same case. CD) of a circle intersect in a point (E ) within the circle. 5. and make the angle DAC equal to the given angle X .] is equal to the angle in the alternate segment. Then the angle DAC is equal to ABC [xxxii. XXXV. Exercises. ED) contained by the segments are equal. being given base. The sum or diﬀerence of the sides. 3.] and touches AE .]. 2. If two chords (AB.—The circle on AC as diameter passes through B . Therefore the angle BAE [xxxii. Perpendicular. AC will cut oﬀ the required segment. Draw the tangent AD. Now because AB passes through the centre. Join OC . which does not pass through the centre at right angles. which does not pass through the centre. because AB is divided equally in O and unequally in E . vertical angle. Therefore the angle X is equal to the angle in the segment described on AB . XXXIV. and any of the following data:—1. PROP.). at right angles. Therefore the angle ABC is equal to X . CE . since the angle ABC is right [xxxi. Construct a triangle. the rectangles (AE . 1. since the angle CAE is right [xvi. If the point of intersection be the centre.—Take any point B in the alternate segment. PROP. 3. Hence they are equal. each rectangle is equal to the square of the radius.—Take any point A in the circumference. 4.—1.]. Again. Join BA.).—Theorem. 2. Dem. The median that bisects the base. To cut oﬀ from a given circle (ABC ) a segment which shall contain an angle equal to a given angle (X ).—Problem. Let one of the chords AB pass through the centre O. but DAC is equal to X (const. Side of the inscribed square on the base. EB. BC . 2.]. the locus of all their points of bisection is a circle. it bisects it [iii. but the angle BAE is equal to the angle X (const. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. If lines be drawn from a ﬁxed point to all the points of the circumference of a given circle. Sol.

is equal to OB 2 —that is. the rectangle F E .]. the rectangle contained by the noncorresponding sides about any two equal angles are equal. but OC 2 is equal to OE 2 + EC 2 [I. Therefore Hence CE . where they intersect. EB = EC 2 . AE . which passes through the centre. since CE is equal to ED.—If a chord of a circle be divided in any point within the circle. 1. draw the diameter F G. EB is equal to the rectangle CE . 4. it is bisected in F [iii.—If the rectangle contained by the segments of one of two intersecting lines be equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the other.—If two triangles be equiangular. xlvii. Through the point E . but CE 2 is equal to the rectangle CE . and cut CD. EB + OE 2 = OE 2 + EC 2 . Then. v. together with OE 2 . which does not pass through the centre obliquely. Cor. the rectangle contained by its segments is equal to the diﬀerence between the square of the radius and the square of the line drawn from the centre to the point of section. and OF 2 = OF 2 . Cor. 2. since CD is cut at right angles by OF . we get CE . EB + OE 2 = OB 2 [II.] Therefore AE . ED. EB + OE 2 . ED. ED. since F E 2 + OF 2 = OE 2 [I. ED + OE 2 = OD or OB 2 . CE . Let O be the centre. and also to the rectangle CE . Cor.].]. Draw OF perpendicular to CD [I.]. EB. Again. and F D2 + OF 2 = OD2 . EB . v. ED + OE 2 = AE . Then by 3. Let neither chord pass through the centre. the four extremities are concyclic. which is common. Therefore the rectangle AE . ED + F E 2 = F D2 [II. and we have AE .]. ED. 3. xi. 3. since AB is bisected in O and divided unequally in E . xlvii. OD. Hence the rectangle AE . and divided unequally in E . EG is equal to the rectangle AE .AE . to OC 2 [II.]. Hence CE . Join OC . EB . Let AB pass through the centre. Hence. Reject OE 2 . 94 . EB is equal to the rectangle CE . ED = AE . adding. v.

Exercises. the rectangle AC . Again. Now. the rectangle contained by their chords is equal to the rectangle contained by the radius. Hence the rectangle AO . 1). If the base and the diﬀerence of the sides be given. 95 . 5. 7. and therefore equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and 2CI . the points A.—The supplement of an arc is the diﬀerence between it and a semicircle. and therefore = CD + EF . BG.—Catalan. as before. B . Def. In any triangle. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on the internal bisector is given. and let them be placed so that the equal angles at O may be vertically opposite. CB . DCO be the equiangular triangles. 8. and that the non-corresponding sides AO. OD [xxxv. If the sum of two arcs. Now (Ex. 6. but the diﬀerence between CF and BG is evidently equal to 2CI . 3. BF we ﬁnd. and draw the chords CF . the rectangle AC . the arc ABG is a semicircle. the rectangle AF . The rectangle contained by the chord of an arc and the chord of its supplement is equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and the chord of twice the supplement. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on the external bisector of the vertical angle is given. D are concyclic [xxi. and the excess of the chord of the supplement of their diﬀerence above the chord of the supplement of their sum. CB contained by their chords is equal to the rectangle contained by the radius. BG parallel to DE .Let ABO. so that the rectangle contained by the segments intercepted between it and the line may be given. F B equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and 2F I —that is. Through a given point draw a transversal cutting two lines given in position. Cor. 1]. the diameter which is perpendicular to AB . CB is equal to the rectangle contained by the diameter and CI . 4. then the noncorresponding sides BO. the rectangle contained by two sides is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendicular on the third side and the diameter of the circumscribed circle. so that the rectangle contained by the intercepted chords may be given.—Draw DE . Dem. since the angle ABG is right. equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and the sum of CF and BG. therefore the line BG is the chord of the supplement of the sum. or a maximum. CB is equal to 2CD. Now it is evident that the diﬀerence between the arcs AC . Hence the rectangle AC . and the sum of the chords of the supplements of their sum and their diﬀerence. and the sum of the sides. Hence BG is the supplement of the sum of the arcs AC . If we join AF . CB is equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and the diﬀerence between the chords CF .]. OD shall be in one line. 2. and CF is the chord of that supplement. Hence—If the sum of two arcs of a circle be greater than a semicircle.. CB of a circle be less than a semicircle. OC is equal to the rectangle BO . Through one of the points of intersection of two circles draw a secant. AC . If the base of a triangle be given. Hence the arc CBF is the supplement of the diﬀerence. C . since the angle ABD is equal to ACD. CO may be in one line. 1.

Hence OT 2 + P T 2 is equal to OP 2 . which does not pass through the centre at right angles. Then because OC .PROP. vi.]. and rejecting the equals OB 2 and OT 2 . OP . Dem.]. If AB does not pass through the centre O. either within or without the circle. OB . let fall the perpendicular OC on AB . BP ) contained by the segments of the secant is equal to the square of the tangent. Therefore but Hence the rectangle AP . But since P T is a tangent. xlvii. AP . the rectangle (AP. the rectangle AP . XXXVI. Then because AB is bisected in O and divided externally in P . may be included in one enunciation. and CP 2 + OC 2 = OP 2 . OB 2 = OT 2 . it bisects it [iii. Let P A pass through the centre O. BP + OB 2 = OT 2 + P T 2 . BP + OB 2 = OT 2 + P T 2 . xxxvi.]. Join OT . is constant. Join OT . adding. one of which (P T ) is a tangent. Hence. the angle OT P is right [xviii. since CB 2 + OC 2 = OB 2 [I.]. a line through the centre. xlvii. vi. BP + OB 2 = OP 2 . AP . BP + CB 2 = CP 2 [II.—Theorem. 2. cuts AB . OT 2 + P T 2 = OP 2 [I. and the other (P A) a secant.. BP = P T 2 .—1. BP contained by the segments of any chord of a given circle passing through a ﬁxed point P . and OT drawn from the centre to the point of contact. as follows:—The rectangle AP .]. The two Propositions xxxv. If from any point (P ) without a circle two lines be drawn to it.]. we have the rectangle AP . BP = P T 2 . the rectangle AP . For let O be the centre: join 96 . and OC 2 = OC 2 . Hence.. we get rectangle but Therefore AP . BP + OB 2 is equal to OP 2 [II. since AB is bisected in C and divided externally in P .

and EF is a common tangent to the circles described upon AB . PROP. OQP have the side OT equal OQ.. Describe a circle passing through two given points. Then the rectangle AP . the line which meets the circle is a tangent. and equal to the square on P Q [xxxvi. A. hence [I. 6). be equal to the square of a line (P T ) drawn from the same point to meet the circle. CD as diameters: prove that the triangles AEB .—The common chords of any three intersecting circles are concurrent (compare xvii. Describe a circle passing through a given point. 2. touching a given circle. viii.]. since P Q is a tangent [xviii. and the circle described about the right-angled triangle.—Theorem. Describe a circle through two given points. Again. 6. but OQP is a right angle. the perpendicular from the right angle of the hypotenuse. B .OA. OB .. 3. T P equal QP . Now the rectangle AP . 1. D are concyclic (compare xxxv. 7). or touching a given ﬁle and a given circle. BP ) contained by the segments of a secant.]. Dem. Ex. OT . and the base OP common. If the rectangle (AP . or base produced. AD be drawn. Cor. D are four collinear points. B . and fulﬁlling either of the following conditions: 1. C . Exercises. DP . 1. hence OT P is right. 2. and therefore P T is equal to P Q. prove DB . BP = CP . and touching two given lines. 4. having its centre on a given line and touching a given circle. OQ. DC = DA2 . Describe a circle through a given point. CF D are equiangular. the points A. and making the angle BAD = ACB . 2. Exercise. Join OP . Cor. drawn from any point (P ) without a circle. 3. Cor. touching a given line. and OP is a line drawn from its vertex to a point P in the base. If from the vertex A of a ABC . the triangles OT P .—From P draw P Q touching the circle [xvii. and therefore [xvi.]. 5. CD produced meet in P . Then OAB is an isosceles triangle.] the angle OT P is equal to OQP . XXXVII. and if the rectangle AP . meeting CB produced in D. and intercepting a given arc on a given circle. Hence P T 2 is equal to P Q2 . Let O be the centre. 2).). Ex..—Tangents to two circles from any point in their common chord are equal (compare xvii. 97 . Cor.—If two lines AB .] P T is a tangent. and is therefore constant. The diameter of the circle inscribed in a right-angled triangle is equal to half the sum of the diameters of the circles touching the hypotenuse. C . OP . BP is equal to the square on P T (hyp. BP is equal to the diﬀerence of the squares of OB and OP .

Also the sum of the squares of perpendiculars on it from two other ﬁxed points (which may be found) is constant. which are proved directly. Exercises on Book III.. What is Euclid’s limit of an angle? 20. of Book III. If a ﬁgure of any even number of sides be inscribed in a circle. What does the line become when the points of intersection become consecutive? 14. What is the locus of the middle points of equal chords in a circle? 32. prove that the sum of one set of alternate angles is equal to the sum of the remaining angles. How many points of intersection can two circles have? 15. the rectangle of the perpendiculars on it from the ﬁxed point and from the centre of the given circle is constant. 3. xviii. What is meant by an angle in a segment? 7. State the relations between Propositions xvi. What is meant by an angle standing on a segment? 10.5 feet. Explain the extended meaning of the word angle. and their distance asunder is 2 perches.25 and 1. What is a cyclic quadrilateral? 12. prove that the length of the tangent drawn from it to the circle is 2 26. ﬁnd the lengths of their direct and their transverse common tangents.Questions for Examination on Book III. If the angle in a segment of a circle be a right angle and a-half. Mention the converse Propositions of Book III. If through either of the points of intersection of two equal circles any line be drawn meeting them again in two points. The radii of two circles are 4. If a chord of a given circle subtend a right angle at a ﬁxed point. and the distance between their centres 10. Give one enunciation that will include Propositions xi. 3h miles. The radii of two circles are 6 and 8. Deﬁne equal circles. 3. What is the magnitude of the rectangle of the segments of a chord drawn through a point 3. What is the condition that must be fulﬁlled that four points may be concyclic? 29. 21. 1. What is the diﬀerence between a chord and a secant? 4. 27. ﬁnd the length of their common chord. What Proposition is this a limiting case of? 18. the sum of the squares on their segments is equal to the square on the diameter. What is the diﬀerence between a segment of a circle and a sector? 6.? 2. these points are equally distant from the other intersection of the circles. What Propositions are these limiting cases of? 22. 1. How many common tangents can two circles have? 23. If an arc of a circle be one-sixth of the whole circumference. ﬁnd the length of the diameter. and the distance between their centres 6. What is the subject-matter of Book III.. what is the magnitude of the angle in it? 8.. xii. What are linear segments? 9. What is the reason that if two circles touch they cannot have any other common point? 16. 98 . What is the locus of the centres of all circles touching a given circle in a given point? 28. How many intersections can a line and a circle have? 13. 19. 2. 17. xix.25 metres? 24. When does a secant become a tangent? 5. 33. What are concyclic points? 11. 31. If a point be h feet outside the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 7920 miles. 25.75 feet respectively. Two parallel chords of a circle are 12 perches and 16 perches respectively. If two chords of a circle intersect at right angles. what part of the whole circumference is it? 30.65 metres distant from the centre of a circle whose radius is 4.

AC . BEF be drawn parallel to each other. Given the base of a triangle. 16. If through the points of intersection A. Find a point in the circumference of a given circle. and either the internal or the external bisector at the vertical angle. 99 . is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the same point on either pair of opposite sides. on the diagonals of an inscribed quadrilateral. If a variable circle touch a given circle and a given line. The square on the external diagonal of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the sum of the squares on the tangents from its extremities to the circumscribed circle. C . 25. the lines joining the points of contact are perpendicular to each other. E . In every triangle the bisector of the greatest angle is the least of the three bisectors of the angles. AC in the points F . 2. C be three points in the circumference of a circle. XCY pass through a common point. Y . 13. the four chords BD. 8. and the point where the perpendicular from the vertex meets it from the middle point of the base. the lines joining the extremities of these chords make a given angle with each other. 18. 27. and meeting the circles again in C . 7. The circles whose diameters are the four sides of any cyclic quadrilateral intersect again in four concyclic points. C . one of the points of intersection of two circles. The rectangle contained by the sides of a triangle is greater than the square on the internal bisector of the vertical angle. If A. 9. we draw any line ABC . If through the point of intersection of the diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral the minimum chord be drawn. ZBX . 26. then if any secant cut O in the points B . 28. The common chord of any two on adjacent sides is parallel to the common chord of the remaining two. Draw a tangent to a given circle so that the triangle formed by it and two ﬁxed tangents to the circle shall be—1. then if the line DE intersect the chords AB . The four angular points of a cyclic quadrilateral determine four triangles whose orthocentres (the intersections of their perpendiculars) form an equal quadrilateral. E the middle points of the arcs AB . 23. If a cyclic quadrilateral be such that a circle can be inscribed in it. a minimum. E respectively. the vertical angle. the rectangle AD . and another secant cuts them in the points D. the three circles about the triangles Y AZ . is equal to the square on half the diﬀerence of the sides. The four circles circumscribing the four triangles formed by any four lines pass through a common point. D. State and prove the Proposition analogous to 17 for the external bisector of the vertical angle. is equal to the rectangle of the perpendiculars from the same point on the tangents. AE is constant. then CD = EF . If through the middle point A of a given arc BAC we draw any chord AD. Given two circles. 24. If through A. O . If X . and O in the points B .4. 17. on the chord of contact of two tangents. and D. 20. construct it. the sum of the squares on whose distances from two given points may be a maximum or a minimum. C E form a cyclic quadrilateral. If a chord of a given circle pass through a given point. If through one of the points of intersection of two circles we draw two common chords. 12. D . O. F . AF is equal to AG. G. Z be any three points on the three sides of a triangle ABC . 19. 15. 11. cutting BC in E . the tangents at B and C intersect at a given angle. 21. B . Four circles are described on the sides of a quadrilateral as diameters. B D . a maximum. cutting the circles again in B and C . B of two circles any two lines ACD. 10. E . by the rectangle contained by the segments of the base. 6. the chord of contact passes through a given point. 5. The rectangle contained by the distances of the point where the internal bisector of the vertical angle meets the base. The rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from any point in a circle. The square on the perpendicular from any point in the circumference of a circle. that point will bisect the part of the chord between the opposite sides of the quadrilateral. CE . 14. 22. the locus of the intersection of tangents at its extremities is a right line.

the locus of the centre of the circumscribed circle is a right line. 33. CD is a perpendicular from any point C in a semicircle on the diameter AB . BE = AB 2 . CD in F . 31. Construct the greatest triangle equiangular to a given one whose sides shall touch three given circles. Construct an equilateral triangle having its vertex at a given point. Construct the least triangle equiangular to a given one whose vertices shall lie on three given lines. AC . prove—(1) that the points A. Being given an obtuse-angled triangle. If two sides of a given triangle pass through ﬁxed points. (2) orthogonal to two others. Find the locus of the centre of a circle which bisects the circumferences of two given circles. If from the extremities of a diameter AB of a semicircle two chords AD. 54. 51. Describe a circle—(1) through two given points which shall bisect the circumference of a given circle. 47. 38. 44. these circles intersect successively in four other points E . 42. F . O is a point outside a circle whose centre is E . If ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral. and if D be any point outside the circles at which their radii through C subtend equal angles. 53. AC . If ABC be an equilateral triangle. F . 48. DE . AD + BC . Construct the greatest triangle equiangular to a given one whose sides shall pass through three given points. 37. and a fourth through D and A. 55. given the sum or the diﬀerence of two sides and the angle formed by these sides both in magnitude and position. 43. Construct an equilateral triangle having its vertex at a given point.29. Place a given triangle so that its three sides shall touch three given circles. (2) that AC = AE . H . 32. draw from the obtuse angle to the opposite side a line whose square shall be equal to the rectangle contained by the segments into which it divides the opposite side. AB is a diameter of a circle. 52. a third through C and D. 35. The sum of the squares on the sides of a triangle is equal to twice the sum of the rectangles contained by each perpendicular and the portion of it comprised between the corresponding vertex and the orthocentre. Inscribe a square in a given quadrilateral. G are collinear. the three angles of the triangle XY Z are given. F are concyclic. 30. the third touches a ﬁxed circle. also equal to 12R2 minus the sum of the squares of the distances of the orthocentre from the vertices. and the extremities of its base on a given circle. In a triangle. (2) through one given point which shall bisect the circumference of two given circles. DF = DC 2 . meeting in C . 49. then AB 2 + CD2 + 4OE 2 = 8R2 . 50. and passing through a given point. Describe a circle which shall bisect the circumferences of three given circles. Circumscribe a square about a given quadrilateral. forming another cyclic quadrilateral. Describe circles—(1) orthogonal (cutting at right angles) to a given circle and passing through two given points. if DE . EF G is a circle touching DB in E . (3) orthogonal to three others. If two sides of a given triangle touch ﬁxed circles. Place a given triangle so that its three sides shall pass through three given points. the third touches a ﬁxed circle. 34. BE be drawn. CD on the circle. Place a given triangle so that its three vertices shall lie on three given lines. F respectively: prove that the points C . 40. two perpendicular lines passing through O intercept chords AB . AD are two chords meeting the tangent at B in the points E . 41. if M A = M B + M C? 46. and if we describe any circle passing through the points A and B . 45. 100 . E . If the position of the common point in the last question be given. what is the locus of the point M . 36. and conversely. G. DF be tangent from D. 39. If two circles touch in C . another through B and C . and the semicircle in G. and the extremities of its base on two given circles. D.

Of the four Propositions occupied with triangles— (α) One is to inscribe a triangle in a circle. A circle is said to be inscribed in a rectilineal ﬁgure when it touches each side of the ﬁgure. iii. 101 . (β ) Its reciprocal. F . the latter is said to be described about the former. then.—Draw any diameter AC of the circle. In a given circle (ABC ) to place a chord equal to a given line (D) not greater than the diameter. a circle is said to be circumscribed to a rectilineal ﬁgure when it passes through each angular point of the ﬁgure. and four miscellaneous Propositions. A rectilineal ﬁgure which is both equilateral and equiangular is said to be regular.—Problem.BOOK IV. Observation. cutting the circle ABC in the points B . iv. A rectilineal ﬁgure is said to be inscribed in a circle when its angular points are on the circumference. from AC cut oﬀ the part AE equal to D [I. the thing required is done. iii. and with A as centre and AE as radius. INSCRIPTION AND CIRCUMSCRIPTION OF TRIANGLES AND OF REGULAR POLYGONS IN AND ABOUT CIRCLES DEFINITIONS. Join AB . (β ). 3. i. Every Proposition in the fourth Book is a problem. PROP. describe the circle EBF . Then AB is the chord required. 4. to describe a circle about a triangle. If we substitute in (α). four to squares. four to pentagons. (γ ). (δ ) Its reciprocal. 2. and pentagons for triangles. Sol. we have the problems for squares and pentagons respectively. (γ ) To inscribe a circle in a triangle. a rectilineal ﬁgure is said to be circumscribed to a circle when each side touches the circle. It contains sixteen Propositions. if AC be equal to D. If two rectilineal ﬁgures be so related that the angular points of one lie on the sides of the other—1. of which four relate to triangles. Reciprocally. ii. the former is said to be inscribed in the latter. if not. (δ ) squares for triangles. I. 2. to describe a triangle about a circle. Reciprocally.].—The following summary of the contents of the Fourth Book will assist the student in remembering it:— 1.

]. Sol. Hence the triangle ABC inscribed in the given circle is equiangular to DEF .—Because A is the centre of the circle EBF . and from the centre O of the circle draw any radius OA. Dem. ABC is a triangle fulﬁlling the required conditions. then make the angle HAC equal to E . AB is equal to AE [I. and at it draw the tangent GH .] Join BC . and HAC is equal to the angle ABC in the alternate segment [III. Therefore [I. Def. make the angle AOB equal to GEF [I. In a given circle (ABC ) to inscribe a triangle equiangular to a given triangle (DEF ). 102 .).—Take any point A in the circumference.] the remaining angle D is equal to BAC . xxiii.—Produce any side DE of the given triangle both ways to G and H . Hence the angle E is equal to ABC . C draw the tangents LM . Sol. therefore AB is equal to D. and the angle AOC equal to HDF . N L to the given circle.Dem.]. LM N is a triangle fulﬁlling the required conditions. In like manner the angle F is equal to ACB . II. PROP. B . xxxii. III. PROP. M N .—Problem.—The angle E is equal to HAC (const. About a given circle (ABC ) to describe a triangle equiangular to a given triangle (DEF ). and GAB equal to F [I.—Problem. but AE is equal to D (const. xxiii. xxxii. xxxii.]. At the points A.).

1. Hence “the bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent” (compare I. b. In like manner OD is equal to OF . ALC is equal to EDF . If the external angles of the triangle ABC be bisected as in the annexed diagram. The distances of the vertices A. F are right.—Bisect any two angles A.] touch the three sides of the triangle ABC . B of the given triangle by the lines AO. OE . These three circles are called the escribed circles of the triangle ABC . OF on the sides of the triangle. Dem. B . s − a. OE .. 4. the distances of the vertices A. In like manner. O . Therefore the sum of AOB . If the sides BC . 3. but the sum of the four angles of the quadrilateral OAM B is equal to four right angles.Dem. and the angle AEO equal to AF O. the angle OAM is right. CA. C from the points of contact of the escribed circle which touches AB externally are s − b. of the triangle formed by the three bisectors will be the centres of three circles. the angle M BO is right. the three angular points O . 103 . AB of the triangle ABC be denoted by a. 2. and the side OA common. Ex. E .—Because AM touches the circle at A.] the sum of the two angles GEF .] the side OE is equal to OF . and half their sum by s. because each is right. AM B is equal to the sum of GEF . is the centre of the required circle. and therefore the circle DEF is inscribed in the triangle ABC . OAF the angle OAE is equal to OAF (const. s − b. Therefore the sum of the two remaining angles AOB . In like manner. in the triangles OAE .—Problem. therefore the three lines OD. xxxii. O . xvi. F ED is two right angles. the angle C is bisected. and since the angles D. F . C of the triangle from the points of contact of the inscribed circle are respectively s − a. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle (ABC ). xxvi. and [I. and the other two produced. If the points O.).] the remaining angle BN C is equal to DF E .). xxvi. therefore [I. c. Now. And the circle described with O as centre and OD as radius will pass through the points E . xiii. s. 7). each touching one side externally. PROP. Hence the triangle LM N is equiangular to DEF . s − c. Sol. F ED. then O. it will [III. but AOB is equal to GEF (const. their point of intersection. C be joined. BO. Exercises. B . OF are all equal.—From O let fall the perpendiculars OD. AM B is two right angles. IV. Hence AM B is equal to F ED. Hence [I.

10. ABO are equiangular. 11. and the radius of the inscribed. 104 . Square of area = r . O . Also any two of the escribed centres are concyclic with the corresponding two of the angular points of the triangle. the vertical angle. Hence [I. CO are equal. then O. AO = bc. The three triangles BCO . EO at right angles to BC . O .). 6. r . In like manner AO is equal to OC . iv. C . Square of area = s .] BO is equal to OC . BOC . Exercises. it may be shown in like manner that r (s − a) = area of the triangle. and its centre the circumcentre of the triangle. 14. V. because each is right. 1. To describe a circle about a given triangle (ABC ). AC in the points D. its radius the circumradius. COA. will pass through the points A. and the circle described with O as centre. we see that the rectangle contained by the sum of the three sides. The three perpendiculars of a triangle (ABC ) are concurrent. OC . and the radius of the inscribed circle. the point of intersection of the perpendiculars. iii.—Since the perpendicular from O on AB bisects it [III.—Problem. 7. CO = ab. CA. E . having the angle C right. Given the base of a triangle. 12. BO = ca. rr = s − b . Def. and DO common. any one is the orthocentre of the triangle formed by the remaining three. if r denote the radius of the inscribed circle. Erect DO. If the triangle ABC be right-angled.—The circle ABC is called the circumcircle. OB . Dem.—Join OA. Since the whole triangle ABC is made up of the three triangles AOB . is the centre of the required circle. BO . s − b . are concyclic.]. The triangles BDO.—Bisect any two sides BC . and be described about the triangle ABC . The centre of the inscribed circle. and OA as radius. B . 9. 13. rs = area of the triangle.5. Cor. or any of the escribed circles: construct it. BO. and the angle BDO equal to the angle CDO. s − c. PROP. r = s − b. s − c. CDO have the side BD equal CD (const. and two of the angular points of the triangle. the centre of each escribed circle. r = s − a. r . O . s − a . AO . we see that the perpendiculars at the middle points of the sides of a triangle are concurrent. r . r = s. 1. CAO . The rectangle CO . Hence. Sol. 8. If r denote the radius of the escribed circle which touches the side a externally. is equal to twice the area of the triangle. Of the four points O. 15. r = s − c. Therefore the three lines AO.

Cor. and are concurrent. Let fall the perpendicular CF . hence OF A = ODC .Dem. OQ. and have contrary signs. is = 1 2 1 the manner. If the perpendiculars of a triangle be produced to meet the circumscribed circle. Again. OF A have the sides GF . OR. P H are perpendiculars on AB . and OP is bisected in I .—Draw the perpendicular P H . then. F . F A in one equal to the sides OF . OQ. BE will be perpendicular to AC . Dem. the intercepts between the orthocentre and the circle are bisected by the sides of the triangle.—The point O is called the orthocentre of the triangle ABC . the rectangles OA . Def. IF = 2 the radius. OP . Hence we have the following theorem:—The nine points made up of the feet of the perpendiculars. Def. and these are evidently the perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite sides of the triangle ABC (compare Ex. when the triangle has an obtuse angle. This Proposition may be proved simply as follows:— Draw parallels to the sides of the original triangle ABC through its vertices.] the angle GAF equal OAF . and from the middle points of the distances of the vertices from the orthocentre. IF = 2 P G— 1 that is. 4. then IK = 2 radius.]. hence OAF = OCD. 7. Then the triangles GF A. Join AG. is called the polar circle of the triangle ABC . OB . Hence the distance of I from the foot of each perpendicular. 3. 105 .—If the orthocentre of the triangle ABC be within the triangle. The radius of the “nine points circle” of a triangle is equal to half its circumradius. 5. Observation. 2. OC . OP . Def. OB . 1]. The point of bisection (I ) of the line (OP ) joining the orthocentre (O) to the circumference (P ) of any triangle is equally distant from the feet of the perpendiculars.. but it is real when the point O is without the triangle—that is. The three rectangles OA . hence ODC is right. 1 since OP . and the middle points of the lines from the vertices to the orthocentre. The distances between the vertices of a triangle and its orthocentre are respectively the doubles of the perpendiculars from the circumcentre on the sides. hence the polar circle is imaginary. and from the the radius. OC . but GAF = GCB [III. F A in the other.). because the lines OA . Produce AO to meet BC in D. Hence the three perpendiculars pass through O. AO. the middle points of the sides. if BO be joined to meet AC in E . forming a new triangle A B C described about ABC . Make F O = F G. Produce CF to meet the circle in G. The circumcircle of a triangle is the “nine points circle” of each of the four triangles formed by joining the centres of the inscribed and escribed circles. the square of whose radius is equal OA . and the contained angles equal. but OF A is right. are measured in opposite directions. it is easy to see that IH = IF . iv. 6. since OF .—The circle round O as centre. OP . 16. In like middle point of each side. Book I.—The circle through these nine points is called the “nine points circle” of the triangle.—Describe a circle about the triangle. OQ = OC . if OC be bisected in K . from the middle points of the sides. &c. xxi. Hence [I. OR are equal. then the three perpendiculars at the middle points of the sides of A B C are concurrent [v. are concyclic. OG are bisected in I . OR are negative. In like manner. and F OA = DOC . OP = OB .

In like manner the remaining angles are right. In like manner EB is parallel to AO.]. because AC is a diameter. Sol. B . B draw the lines AC . respectively parallel to EF . and hence the four chords are equal [III. Cor. DA is a square. PROP. VIII.—Problem. being right angles. EF . 106 . C . Dem. xviii.—Problem. then O. Sol. In a given square (ABCD) to inscribe a circle. EF GH is a square. xxvi. DA. In like manner each of the ﬁgures BC . the point of intersection of these parallels. Sol. are equal. D the lines HE . and the angle AOB is right. and through A. VI. GH touching the circle. Hence ABCD is a square.—The circumscribed square is double of the inscribed square. and since AO is equal to OB . hence AOBE is a square.—Because AE touches the circle at A. EF in the points A. therefore AO is equal to EB . xxxi. About a given circle (ABCD) to describe a square.].). Again. the angle ABC is right [III. which is right (const. the angle EAO is right [III. and draw at the points A. BC . its opposite sides are equal. is the centre of the required circle. the ﬁgure AOBE is a lozenge. and therefore equal to BOC .PROP. CD. BD. BD at right angles to each other.]. B . F G. Dem.—Because AOBE is a parallelogram. PROP. VII. Then the four angles at O. CD.—Bisect (see last diagram) two adjacent sides EH . Hence the whole ﬁgure is a square.—Problem. In a given circle (ABCD) to inscribe a square. Therefore the ﬁgure ABCD is equilateral. ABCD is a square.—Let O be the centre. EH . Dem. but EB is half the side of the given square.—Draw any two diameters AC . Hence the arcs on which they stand are equal [III. xxix. Join AB .].—Through the centre O draw any two diameters at right angles to each other. Hence AE is parallel to OB .

OD.]. and be described about the square. PROP. Divide it in C . BC is equal to BD2 . and since they are perpendicular to the sides of the given square. therefore [I. To each add CDA. Hence [I. and AB as radius.—Problem. vi.] BD touches the circle ACD.—Problem. will be inscribed in the square. About the triangle ACD describe the circle CDE [v.]. and that AC is equal to BD (const. C . v. Dem. Hence the angle BDC is equal to the angle A in the alternate segment [III. and OC to OD.]. Sol. but BD is equal to AC (const. OC . so that the rectangle AB . therefore the rectangle AB . With A as centre. IX. In like manner ABO is half a right angle. About a given square (ABCD) to describe a circle. In like manner OB is equal to OC . O is the centre of the required circle. Hence BDA is double of A. BC shall be equal to AC 2 [II. PROP.). but BDA has been proved to be equal to the sum of CDA and A.—Draw the diagonals AC .]. because the rectangle AB . therefore BAO is half a right angle.—Join CD.] BD is equal to CD. and we have the angle BDA equal to the sum of the angles CDA and A. Hence each of the base angles of the triangle ABD is double of the vertical angle. each of the other angles is half a right angle.). describe the circle BDE . therefore the angle CBD is equal to BCD. and so in like manner is each of the lines OB . the angle BDA is equal to ABD. and the angle B is right.] AO is equal to OB . the circle described with O as centre. therefore AC is equal to CD. BC is equal to AC 2 (const. Join AD. but the exterior angle BCD of the triangle ACD is equal to the sum of the angles CDA and A. with O as centre and OA as radius. D. xxxii. but since AB is equal to AD. Hence the circle described. will pass through the points B .).therefore AO is equal to half the side of the given square.—Since ABC is an isosceles triangle. and therefore [I. To construct an isosceles triangle having each base angle double the vertical angle. OC . and in it place the chord BD equal to AC [i. ADB is a triangle fulﬁlling the required conditions. and OA as radius. xxxii. xi. X. therefore the four lines OA. 107 . hence the angle BAO equal ABO. BD intersecting in O (see diagram to Proposition vi. Then. Sol. OB .). OD are all equal. vi. Hence [III. Hence the angle BDA is equal to BCD.] the angle CDA is equal to A. Dem.—Take any line AB .

Exercises.

1. Prove that ACD is an isosceles triangle whose vertical angle is equal to three times each of the base angles. 2. Prove that BD is the side of a regular decagon inscribed in the circle BDE . 3. If DB , DE , EF be consecutive sides of a regular decagon inscribed in a circle, prove BF − BD = radius of circle. 4. If E be the second point of intersection of the circle ACD with BDE , DE is equal to DB ; and if AE , BE , CE , DE be joined, each of the triangles ACE , ADE is congruent with ABD. 5. AC is the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle ACD, and EB the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle BDE . 6. Since ACE is an isosceles triangle, EB 2 − EA2 = AB . BC —that is = BD2 ; therefore EB 2 − BD2 = EA2 —that is, the square of the side of a pentagon inscribed in a circle exceeds the square of the side of the decagon inscribed in the same circle by the square of the radius.

PROP. XI.—Problem. To inscribe a regular pentagon in a given circle (ABCDE ). Sol.—Construct an isosceles triangle [x.], having each base angle double the vertical angle, and inscribe in the given circle a triangle ABD equiangular to it. Bisect the angles DAB , ABD by the lines AC , BE . Join EA, ED, DC , CB ; then the ﬁgure ABCDE is a regular pentagon. Dem.—Because each of the base angles BAD, ABD is double of the angle ADB , and the lines AC , BE bisect them, the ﬁve angles BAC , CAD, ADB , DBE , EBA are all equal; therefore the arcs on which they stand are equal; and therefore the ﬁve chords, AB , BC , CD, DE , EA are equal. Hence the ﬁgure ABCDE is equilateral. Again, because the arcs AB , DE are equal, adding the arc BCD to both, the arc ABCD is equal to the arc BCDE , and therefore [III. xxvii.] the angles AED, BAE , which stand on them, are equal. In the same manner it can be proved that all the angles are equal; therefore the ﬁgure ABCDE is equiangular. Hence it is a regular pentagon. Exercises.

1. The ﬁgure formed by the ﬁve diagonals of a regular pentagon is another regular pentagon. 2. If the alternate sides of a regular pentagon be produced to meet, the ﬁve points of meeting form another regular pentagon. 3. Every two consecutive diagonals of a regular pentagon divide each other in extreme and mean ratio. 4. Being given a side of a regular pentagon, construct it. 5. Divide a right angle into ﬁve equal parts.

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PROP. XII.—Problem. To describe a regular pentagon about a given circle (ABCDE ). Sol.—Let the ﬁve points A, B , C , D, E on the circle be the vertices of any inscribed regular pentagon: at these points draw tangents F G, GH , HI , IJ , JF : the ﬁgure F GHIJ is a circumscribed regular pentagon. Dem.—Let O be the centre of the circle. Join OE , OA, OB . Now, because the angles A, E of the quadrilateral AOEF are right angles [III. xviii.], the sum of the two remaining angles AOE , AF E is two right angles. In like manner the sum of the angles AOB , AGB is two right angles; therefore the sum of AOE , AF E is equal to the sum of AOB , AGB ; but the angles AOE , AOB are equal, because they stand on equal arcs AE , AB [III. xxvii.]. Hence the angle AF E is equal to AGB . In like manner the remaining angles of the ﬁgure F GHIJ are equal. Therefore it is equiangular. Again, join OF , OG. Now the triangles EOF , AOF have the sides AF , F E equal [III. xvii., Ex. 1], and F O common, and the base AO equal to the base EO. Hence the angle AF O is equal to EF O [I. viii.]. Therefore the angle AF O is half the angle AF E . In like manner AGO is half the angle AGB ; but AF E has been proved equal to AGB ; hence AF O is equal to AGO, and F AO is equal to GAO, each being right, and AO common to the two triangles F AO, GAO; hence [I. xxvi.] the side AF is equal to AG; therefore GF is double AF . In like manner JF is double EF ; but AF is equal to EF ; hence GF is equal to JF . In like manner the remaining sides are equal; therefore the ﬁgure F GHIJ is equilateral, and it has been proved equiangular. Hence it is a regular pentagon.

This Proposition is a particular case of the following general theorem, of which the proof is the same as the foregoing:— “If tangents be drawn to a circle, at the angular points of an inscribed polygon of any number of sides, they will form a regular polygon of the same number of sides circumscribed to the circle.”

PROP. XIII.—Problem. To inscribe a circle in a regular pentagon (ABCDE ). Sol.—Bisect two adjacent angles A, B by the lines AO, BO; then O, the point of intersection of the bisectors, is the centre of the required circle. Dem.—Join CO, and let fall perpendiculars from O on the ﬁve sides of the pentagon. Now the triangles ABO, CBO have the side AB equal to BC (hyp.), and BO common, and the angle ABO equal to CBO (const.). Hence the angle BAO is equal to BCO [I. iv.]; but BAO is half BAE (const.). Therefore BCO is half BCD, and therefore CO bisects the angle BCD. In like manner it may be proved that DO bisects the angle D, and EO the angle E . 109

Again, the triangles BOF , BOG have the angle F equal to G, each being right; and OBF equal to OBG, because OB bisects the angle ABC (const.), and OB common; hence [I. xxvi.] OF is equal to OG. In like manner all the perpendiculars from O on the sides of the pentagon are equal; hence the circle whose centre is O, and radius OF , will touch all the sides of the pentagon, and will therefore be inscribed in it. In the same manner a circle may be inscribed in any regular polygon. PROP. XIV.—Problem. To describe a circle about a regular pentagon (ABCDE ). Sol.—Bisect two adjacent angles A, B by the lines AO, BO. Then O, the point of intersection of the bisectors, is the centre of the required circle. Dem.—Join OC , OD, OE . Then the triangles ABO, CBO have the side AB equal to BC (hyp.), BO common, and the angle ABO equal to CBO (const.). Hence the angle BAO is equal to BCO [I. iv.]; but the angle BAE is equal to BCD (hyp.); and since BAO is half BAE (const.), BCO is half BCD. Hence CO bisects the angle BCD. In like manner it may be proved that DO bisects CDE , and EO the angle DEA. Again, because the angle EAB is equal to ABC , their halves are equal. Hence OAB is equal to OBA; therefore [I. vi.] OA is equal to OB . In like manner the lines OC , OD, OE are equal to one another and to OA. Therefore the circle described with O as centre, and OA as radius, will pass through the points B , C , D, E , and be described about the pentagon. In the same manner a circle may be described about any regular polygon.

Propositions xiii., xiv. are particular cases of the following theorem:— “A regular polygon of any number of sides has one circle inscribed in it, and another described about it, and both circles are concentric.”

PROP. XV.—Problem. In a given circle (ABCDEF ) to inscribe a regular hexagon. Sol.—Take any point A in the circumference, and join it to O, the centre of the given circle; then with A as centre, and AO as radius, describe the circle OBF , intersecting the given circle in the points B , F . Join OB , OF , and produce AO, BO, F O to meet the given circle again in the points D, E , C . Join AB , BC , CD, DE , EF , F A; ABCDEF is the required hexagon. 110

Dem.—Each of the triangles AOB , AOF is equilateral (see Dem., I. i.). Hence the angles AOB , AOF are each one-third of two right angles; therefore EOF is one-third of two right angles. Again, the angles BOC , COD, DOE are [I. xv.] respectively equal to the angles EOF , F OA, AOB . Therefore the six angles at the centre are equal, because each is one-third of two right angles. Therefore the six chords are equal [III. xxix.]. Hence the hexagon is equilateral. Again, since the arc AF is equal to ED, to each add the arc ABCD; then the whole arc F ABCD is equal to ABCDE ; therefore the angles DEF , EF A which stand on these arcs are equal [III. xxvii.]. In the same manner it may be shown that the other angles of the hexagon are equal. Hence it is equiangular, and is therefore a regular hexagon inscribed in the circle. Cor. 1.—The side of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle is equal to the radius. Cor. 2.—If three alternate angles of a hexagon be joined, they form an inscribed equilateral triangle. Exercises.

1. The area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle is equal to twice the area of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the circle; and the square of the side of the triangle is three times the square of the side of the hexagon. 2. If the diameter of a circle be produced to C until the produced part is equal to the radius, the two tangents from C and their chord of contact form an equilateral triangle. 3. The area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle is half the area of an equilateral triangle, and three-fourths of the area of a regular hexagon circumscribed to the circle.

PROP. XVI.—Problem. To inscribe a regular polygon of ﬁfteen sides in a given circle. Sol.—Inscribe a regular pentagon ABCDE in the circle [xi.], and also an equilateral triangle AGH [ii.]. Join CG. CG is a side of the required polygon. Dem.—Since ABCDE is a regular pentagon, the arc ABC is 2 5 ths of the circumference; and since 1 rd AGH is an equilateral triangle, the arc ABG is 3 of the circumference. Hence the arc GC , which is the diﬀerence between these two arcs, is equal to 2 1 1 5 ths − 3 rd, or 15 th of the entire circumference; and therefore, if chords equal to GC [i.] be placed round the circle, we shall have a regular polygon of ﬁfteen sides, or quindecagon, inscribed in it.

Scholium.—Until the year 1801 no regular polygon could be described by constructions employing the line and circle only, except those discussed in this Book, and those obtained from them by the continued bisection of the arcs of which their sides are the chords; but in

111

Exercises on Book IV. What is a regular polygon? 9. Inscribe a circle in a sector of a given circle. How many circles can be described to touch three lines forming a triangle? 13. If a circumscribed triangle be isosceles. 2 have equal vertical angles. they are both equilateral. When is one rectilineal ﬁgure said to be inscribed in another? 3. 3. 1. 6. If r be the radius of a circle. 15. see Note at the end of this work. 112 . 8. the corresponding inscribed polygon is also regular. squares. Equilateral triangles. regular polygons of 2n + 1 sides are inscriptable by elementary geometry.? 10. 5. and hexagons. What is the polar circle? 17. What is the centroid of a triangle? 14. What is the orthocentre? 15. With the same hypothesis.that year the celebrated Gauss proved that if 2n + 1 be a prime number. The line DE is parallel to the base BC of the triangle ABC : prove that the circles described about the triangles ABC . What ﬁgures can be inscribed in. What is the radius of its nine-points circle? 25. Divide an angle of an equilateral triangle into ﬁve equal parts. Give instances of reciprocal propositions in Book IV. Questions for Examination on Book IV. What is meant by escribed circles? 12. What is the circumcentre? 16. When circumscribed? 4. Why is it so called? 20. ADE touch at A. If the two isosceles triangles in Ex. 2. What regular polygons has Gauss proved to be inscriptable by the line and circle? 11. 7. What is the subject-matter of Book IV. and conversely. and conversely.? 2. 1. When is the polar circle imaginary? 18. to every point in one there corresponds a line in the other. ﬁnd the sides of the same regular ﬁgures. Inscribe a regular octagon in a given square. What is meant by reciprocal propositions? Ans. conversely. 14. and. What three regular ﬁgures can be used in ﬁlling up the space round a point? Ans. 21. When circumscribed about it? 6. 22. a circle by means of Book IV. If the sides of a triangle be 13. and circumscribed about. Name the special nine points through which it passes. 8. 4. what is the area of its inscribed equilateral triangle?—of its inscribed square?—its inscribed pentagon?—its inscribed hexagon?—its inscribed octagon?— its inscribed decagon? 27. 7. For the case n = 4. What is the “nine-points circle”? 19. The diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral intersect in E : prove that the tangent at E to the circle about the triangle ABE is parallel to CD. When is a circle said to be inscribed in a rectilineal ﬁgure? 5. to every line in one there corresponds a point in the other. the corresponding inscribed triangle is isosceles. What is the distance between the centres of its inscribed and circumscribed circles? 26. which is the only ﬁgure of this class except the pentagon for which a construction has been given. what are the values of the radii of its inscribed and escribed circles? 23. If a circumscribed polygon be regular. What is the radius of the circumscribed circle? 24. In reciprocal propositions.

δ . r the radii of its inscribed and escribed circles. δ . 3. 113 . 17. 21. In every quadrilateral circumscribed about a circle. 22. µ. and L the point where a parallel to the base through the vertex meets DE : prove DL . Given four points. 23. Through a given point P draw a chord of a circle so that the intercept EF may subtend a given angle X . and DF . The base. If the perpendicular to any side of a triangle at its middle point meet the internal and external bisectors of the opposite angle in the points D and E . The line joining the orthocentre of a triangle to any point P . 15. r. µ the segments of these perpendiculars between the sides and circumference of the circumscribed circle. 2. 12. r . the sum or diﬀerence of the other sides. is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of any secant to the semicircle. their feet may be collinear. 26. δ the perpendiculars from its circumcentre on the sides. r . is drawn a transversal EDF .9. 16. Through a point D. no three of which are collinear. If a semicircle and its diameter be touched by any circle. their sum is equal to n times the radius of the inscribed circle. taken on the side BC of a triangle ABC . µ . 11. prove that D. and circles described about the triangles DBF . F E is equal to the square of half the sum. through the point of contact of the diameter and touching circle. E are points on the circumscribed circle. In a given circle inscribe a triangle whose three sides shall pass through three given points. Construct a triangle. δ + δ + δ = R + r. The sum of the perpendiculars let fall from the angular points of a regular polygon of n sides on any line is equal to n times the perpendicular from the centre of the polygon on the same line. and the third parallel to a given line. being given— 1. The centres of the escribed circles. 18. The locus of their second point of intersection is a circle. ECD. is bisected by the line of collinearity of perpendiculars from P on the sides of the triangle. 14. and the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. If F be the middle point of the base of a triangle. If from any point within a regular polygon of n sides perpendiculars be let fall on the sides. Find a point such that. 25. and the radius of the inscribed circle. In a given circle inscribe a triangle having two sides passing through two given points. 19. (1) (2) (3) µ + µ + µ = 2R − r. the middle points of its diagonals and the centre of the circle are collinear. 13. either internally or externally. in the circumference of its circumscribed circle. 20. A line of given length slides between two given lines: ﬁnd the locus of the intersection of perpendiculars from its extremities to the given lines. 24. or of one of the escribed circles. if perpendiculars be let fall from it on four given lines. we have the relations— r +r +r = 4R + r. the vertical angle. The orthocentres of the four triangles formed by any four lines are collinear. The radius of the inscribed circle. 10. If R denotes the radius of the circle circumscribed about a triangle ABC . the sum or diﬀerence of whose distances from two given points may be given. twice the rectangle contained by the radius of the semicircle. Find on a given line a point P . describe a circle which shall be equidistant from them. The relation (3) supposes that the circumcentre is inside the triangle. DE the diameter of the circumscribed circle which passes through F . and the radius of the tangential circle. LE equal to the square of half the diﬀerence of the two remaining sides.

then ρ1 ρ2 ρ4 ρ8 = R4 . . Hence ρ1 ρ 2 ρ4 ρ 8 = R 4 . r2 . For instance. in the hypothesis and notation of Ex. . Four concyclic points taken three by three determine four triangles. ρ2 r2 = Rr4 . Therefore ρ3 ρ 5 ρ 6 ρ7 = R 4 . 28. If. 3n times the square of the radius. ρ1 ρ4 = R(ρ3 + ρ5 ) [III. 37. For the circumscribed circle. . In the same case. 7]. 39. lines be drawn to its angular points. the constant is equal to n times the square of the radius 1 of the inscribed circle. State the corresponding theorem for the sum of the squares of the lines drawn from any point in the circumference of any concentric circle. If from any point in the circumference of any concentric circle perpendiculars be let fall on all the sides of any regular polygon. A2 . 114 .—Let the supplemental chords corresponding to ρ1 . &c. And it may be proved in the same manner that ρ 1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ 4 ρ5 ρ 6 ρ 7 ρ8 = R 8 . prove 1 1 2 + = . A1 . &c. 34. . prove that the sum of their squares is equal to n times the sum of the squares of the radii of the inscribed and the circumscribed circles. ρ ρ r and state and prove corresponding theorems for the escribed circles. . . The greater the number of sides of a regular polygon circumscribed about a given circle. . xxxv. the centres of whose nine-points circles are concyclic. the six perpendiculars thus obtained are concurrent. 34. ρ be the radii of two circles. ρ4 r4 = Rr8 . ρ2 . 32. α. touching each other at the centre of the inscribed circle of a triangle. For the inscribed circle. 35. A8 on one side of AO. and ρ3 ρ5 ρ6 ρ7 = R4 . If two sides of a triangle be given in position. ρ2 . ρα ρβ = R(ρα−β + ρα+β ). if the lines be drawn from any point in the circumference of the inscribed circle. 36. . xxxv. Dem. and if their included angle be equal to an angle of an equilateral triangle. be denoted by r1 . If ρ. . 40. The area of any regular polygon of more than four sides circumscribed about a circle is less than the square of the diameter. the sum of their squares is equal to 2n times the square of the radius. circumscribed about a regular polygon of n sides. the constant is equal to 2 33. If from the middle point of the line joining any two of four concyclic points a perpendicular be let fall on the line joining the remaining two. we have ρ1 r1 = Rr2 .. the sum of their squares is constant. together with 2 n times the square of the radius of the circumscribed circle. Ex. β denote any two suﬃxes whose sum is less than 8.. the locus of the centre of its nine-points circle is a right line. Ex. 2]. and if ρ1 . 30.—Catalan. If from any point in the circumference of the circle.27. and each touching the circumscribed circle. ρ8 denote the chords from O to the points of division. ρ8 r8 = Rr1 .. 38. then [III. 29. 31. . the less will be its perimeter. and AO be the diameter drawn from one of the points of division (A). If the circumference of a circle whose radius is R be divided into seventeen equal parts. and of which α is the greater.

43. 52. respectively. 51. B . and if the lines AP . ρβ = R(ρα−β − ρ17−α−β ). If the sides AB . DE . Express the sides of a triangle in terms of the radii of its escribed circles. 55. r . and an equiangular inscribed polygon. 3. 50. prove A AE − A AE = pentagon A B C D E . In a circle. Given the base of a triangle and the vertical angle. &c. ρα . and also an equilateral circumscribed polygon. 53. and P Q any chord cutting AB in O. and the foot of the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. D. Two lines are given in position: draw a transversal through a given point. the radii of its escribed circles. if the number of sides be odd. if the suﬃxes be greater than 8. 45. 46. E . 48. C . forming with the given lines a triangle of given perimeter. in D and E respectively. and if R. then 6Rr is equal to the rectangle contained by the greatest and least sides. the radius of the inscribed circle. D . are concyclic. xxxv. the middle point of the base. 115 . If the sides of a triangle be in arithmetical progression. The bisector of the vertical angle. 54. prove that an equilateral inscribed polygon is regular. The feet of the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on either bisector of the vertical angle. For instance. If s be the semiperimeter of a triangle. the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. the points A. ρ8 ρ2 = R(ρ6 − ρ7 ) [III. Ex. r be the radii of the circumscribed and inscribed circles. 47. 41. AB . 2. BC . 42. AE .. E . In a given circle inscribe a triangle so that two sides may pass through two given points. meet in the points A .. The perpendiculars from the centres of the escribed circles of a triangle on the corresponding sides are concurrent. construct it with either of the following data: 1.In the same case. and that the third side may be a maximum or a minimum. ﬁnd the locus of the centre of the circle passing through the centres of the escribed circles. of a regular pentagon be bisected in the points A . r r +r r + r r = s2 . The sum of the perpendiculars drawn to the sides of an equiangular polygon from any point inside the ﬁgure is constant. B . r . if the number of sides be odd. and if the two pairs of alternate sides. If AB be the diameter of a circle. AQ intersect the perpendicular to AB at O. 6]. Given the vertical angle and perimeter of a triangle. Inscribe in a given circle a triangle having its three sides parallel to three given lines. 44. Prove also that an equiangular circumscribed polygon is regular. E are concyclic. 49. BC . r .

A greater magnitude is said to be a multiple of a less when the greater is measured by the less—that is. as no student reads them now. if the line AB represent the integer. and we see that AC = 2 8 8 8 3 8 AB = 8 . It is evident that a fraction is an abstract quantity—that is. that AE = 4 of the integer. ii. one. D. the fraction is less than unity. Euclid’s proofs of the propositions. AD = 4 . and the upper. 3 . called the numerator. Hence 4 = 6 . AE . we saw in 1. In like manner it may be shown that multiplying the terms of 116 . 2. If an integer be divided into any number of equal parts. DE . 4 . the easiest and the most satisfactory. and his nomenclature is universally adopted. But although his demonstrations are abandoned. or the sum of any number of these parts. Now. If we divide each of the equal parts AC . and if greater than the denominator. Introduction. at all events. If the numerator be equal to the denominator.—Every proposition in the theories of ratio and proportion is true for all descriptions of magnitude. THEORY OF PROPORTION DEFINITIONS. when the less is contained a certain number of times exactly in the greater. i. denotes the number of equal parts into which the integer is divided. then AC is 4 . CD. and we have just shown that it is 3 6 equal to 6 . A less magnitude is said to be a part or submultiple of a greater magnitude. the fraction is equal to unity. which has the fault of conveying no precise meaning—being.. possess at present none but a historical interest. and then supply simple algebraic proofs of his propositions. It is. his propositions are quoted by every writer. that its value is independent of the nature of the integer which is divided. Hence it follows that the proper treatment is the Algebraic. when the greater contains the less a certain number of times exactly.BOOK V. denotes the number of these equal parts which are taken. For these reasons it appears to us that the best method is to state Euclid’s deﬁnitions. when the less measures the greater—that is. iii. iii. Thus. Thus. and if it be divided 1 2 into four equal parts in the points C . explain them. The following annotations will make them explicit:— 1. in fact. or prove them when necessary. it is greater than unity. will be divided into eight equal parts. E . Magnitudes are said to have a ratio to one another when the less can be multiplied so as to exceed the greater. Ratio is the mutual relation of two magnitudes of the same kind with respect to quantity. the lower. Hence we infer generally that multiplying the terms of any fraction by 2 does not alter its value. AD. in the Theory of Proportion. AB . a fraction 4 is denoted by two numbers parted by a horizontal line. for some are theorems under the guise of deﬁnitions. . iv. is called a fraction. the whole. These deﬁnitions require explanation. unintelligible. but 8 would be got from 3 by multiplying its terms (numerator 8 8 4 and denominator) by 2. EB into two equal parts. especially Def. AE = 6 . called the denominator. that if the numerator be less than the denominator. Hence it follows.

two fractions n n m+1 and can always be found. Hence it follows conversely. if pose that AB is equal to 3 4 AB be divided into 3 equal parts. and if we supof CD. then. And this may be extended to the case where the lines are incommensurable. &c. Hence lies between and . 15. &c. In fact. then this quantity must lie between some two na is greater than unity.a fraction by any whole number does not alter its value. it is evident. . Thus. since the diﬀerence (m + 1)b b n n m m+1 1 between and namely. . It is evident we may continue the series as far as we m please. In the case of the diagonal and the side of a square. 17. both are diﬀerent ways of expressing and writing the same thing. 3. In this case.. such as na. 9. although their ratio is not equal to that of any two commensurable numbers. &c. becomes small as n increases. and 4 in CD. the ratio of two commensurable lines is the ratio of the numbers which express their lengths. therefore mb na a m m+1 less than unity. By their means we can approximate as nearly as we please to the exact value of the ratio. the following are the pairs of convergents:— 14 15 141 142 1414 1415 . 3 is a submultiple. 13. 3 : 4. 15. but not of 10. and we denote it thus. such as the diagonal and the side of a square. we express this relation by saying that AB has to CD the ratio of 3 to 4. in the case of two incommensurable quantities. These fractions are called convergents. or √ . measured with the same unit. the second n m+1 m will be . CD. that one of the parts into which AB is divided is equal to one of the parts into which CD is divided. its terms can be either multiplied or divided by any whole number. 4 In the same manner it can be shown that every ratio whose terms are commensurable can be converted into a fraction.. Thus 6. evidently. When written 3 : 4 it is called a ratio.. &c.. 17. If we take any number. Hence we have the following important and fundamental theorem:—Two transformations can be made on any fraction without changing its value. 10 10 100 100 1000 1000 and the ratio is intermediate to each pair. such as mb. where n can be made as large as we please. if a be the side and b the diagonal of a square. 13. . and less than the other fraction of each pair. but 10. And as there are 3 parts in AB . yet a series of pairs of fractions can be found whose diﬀerence is continually diminishing. or part of 6. For let a and b be the incommensurable quantities. are multiples of 3. conversely. the product is called a multiple of 3. . the ratio of a : b is a 1 . namely. because it is contained in each of these without a remainder. or measure. every fraction can be turned into a ratio. such as 3. &c. Hence the ratio 3 3 : 4 expresses the same idea as the fraction 4 . From this explanation we see that the ratio of any two commensurable magnitudes is the same as the ratio of the numerical quantities which denote these magnitudes. Thus. Conversely. because the multiplication of 3 by any whole number will not produce them. b 2 When two quantities are incommensurable. are not. and multiply it by any whole number. one of which is less n and the other greater than the true value of the ratio. 4. that dividing the terms of a fraction by a whole number does not alter the value.. and (m + 1)b. If we consider two magnitudes of the same kind. we cannot ﬁnd two multiples na. Now if we denote the ﬁrst of any of the foregoing pairs of fractions by . such as two lines AB . and CD into 4 equal parts. mb. such that na = mb. we see that the diﬀerence n n n between the ratio of two incommensurable quantities and that of two commensurable numbers 117 . and in general. 12. 12. 9. such that the ratio of the incommensurable quantities is greater than one. and which ultimately becomes indeﬁnitely small. Now. take any multiple of a. and when 3 a fraction. and consecutive multiples of b. . and in either case the value of the new fraction is equal to the value of the original one. because in each case it leaves a remainder. and.

according as the multiple of the ﬁrst is greater than. are deﬁnitions of proportion. The following explanations will give the student clear conceptions of their meaning:— 1. and each ratio can be written as a fraction. 118 .” 6.—Since we have a : b :: c : d. which is as follows:— 6 : 9 :: 10 : 15.. we can write it in the form of two equal fractions. and is not a deﬁnition but a theorem. and vi. to the equality of ratios. 28 are called equimultiples of 5 and 7. 10 and 15 are equimultiples of 2 and 3. Analogy or proportion is the similitude of ratios. The reciprocal of a ratio is the ratio obtained by interchanging the antecedent and the consequent. Also the ﬁrst and last terms are called the extremes . the ratio of incommensurable quantities may be regarded as the limit of the ratio of commensurable quantities. mc is greater than nd. is put before vii. In this form it is called a proportion . by any number such as 4. and the two middle terms the means . if equal. the products 20. which are each equal to the same thing 2 ). vi. and multiply the ﬁrst and third terms. or less than the multiple of the second. and we want to prove that if ma is greater than nb. viii. and the 2nd and 4th the consequents. Hence. Hence a proportion consists of two ratios which are asserted by it to be equal. such as 6 : 9 and 10 : 15. we get the four multiples. equal to. and v. &c. but it is not the usual one. or less than the multiple of the fourth. This would be the most intelligible way. each by n. an equation between two fractions can be put into a proportion. In like manner. If we multiply any two numbers. Lardner. We have given the foregoing deﬁnitions in the order of Euclid. and any equimultiples whatsoever of the second and fourth. The 1st and 3rd terms are the antecedents.m and n can be made as small as we please. If we take the proportion a : b :: c : d. less. and second and fourth. nd. Axiom i. if. By means of these simple principles all the various properties of proportion can be proved in the most direct and easy manner. 4 : 3 is the reciprocal of the ratio 3 : 4. Magnitudes which have the same ratio are called proportionals. requires proof. for vi. mc. equal.). Dem. 5. whereas vii. they are equal to one another (I.2 but it is evidently an inverted order. instead of being taken for granted. Thus. 3. is a test of their inequality. ma. v. because it relates.” 7. and if less. is only a test of proportion. When four magnitudes are proportionals. and others. Then we (in this example each is equal to 3 may write it thus— 6 : 9 = 10 : 15. and 18 and 30 of 3 and 5. and one which. each by m. Its four terms consist of two antecedents and two consequents. ultimately. whenever we have a proportion such as a : b :: c : d. Thus: a c = . it is usually expressed by saying. nb.. equal to.” viii. These correspond to the numerator and the denominator of a fraction. as v. a c = . Since a proportion consists of two equal ratios. 2. b d 2 Except that viii. Hence we have the following deﬁnition:— “A ratio is the fraction got by making the antecedent the numerator and the consequent the denominator. The two terms of a ratio are called the antecedent and the consequent . “The ﬁrst is to the second as the third is to the fourth. b d Conversely. The ﬁrst of four magnitudes has to the second the same ratio which the third has to the fourth. Hence we have the following theorem:—“The product of a ratio and its reciprocal is unity. as 5 and 7. when any equimultiples whatsoever of the ﬁrst and third being taken. the multiple of the third is greater than. as given by Simson. If we take two ratios.

The foregoing is an easy proof of the converse of the theorem which is contained in Euclid’s celebrated Fifth Deﬁnition. is less than unity. nc na = 1. but if is nb nd nb mc greater than unity. the b d n diﬀerence is nothing. suppose a and b are incommensurable. Dem.—Since ma is greater than nb. then it is evident that we can take multiples na. as it implies that it is. Therefore Hence. but less than unity.—Let. or less than the multiple of the second. b. c. such that na = mb. equal to. lies between the same quantities. Thus. and if is greater than unity. d be the four magnitudes. in fact. First suppose that a and b are commensurable. or less than the multiple of the fourth. since b n n d a c 1 the diﬀerence between and is less than . We have altered the last clause from that given in Simson’s Euclid. but mc not greater than nd. Now. to prove Euclid’s theorem—that if. the ratio a : b is greater than the ratio c : d. we can ﬁnd two na na numbers m and n. a. b. is a theorem. mc is greater than nd nd. by convention. b d that is. instead of being a deﬁnition. Dem. We have made a similar change in the enunciation of the Fifth Deﬁnition. and when is less than unity. nc = md. equal to. ma is greater than nb. b d therefore vii. v. b n n mb nc na nc is greater than unity. if ma be equal to nb. = 1. Then. Hence. since by hypothesis. when is greater than unity.Hence. by hypothesis. therefore c a = . it is evident that mc ma is greater than . that the ratio a : b is greater than the ratio c : d. such is not the case. is greater than unity. This. according as the multiple of the ﬁrst of four magnitudes is greater than. Hence mb (m + 1)b m m+1 na a lies between and . Next. 119 . mb. the ratio of the ﬁrst to the second is equal to the ratio of the third to the fourth. it is required to prove. such that is greater than unity. for it follows from the hypothesis that the ﬁrst ratio is greater than the second. that if ma be greater than nb. the multiple of the third is greater than. whereas. the ﬁrst has to the second a greater ratio than the third has to the fourth. b d Next. nb nd mc ma ma is greater than unity. but mc not greater than nd. mb md Now. which runs thus:—“The ﬁrst is said to have to the second a greater ratio than the third has to the fourth. and if it did not. that the ﬁrst ratio is greater than the second. and if less. multiplying each by m we get n ma mc = .” This is misleading. In like manner. and m and n the multiples taken. c. but the multiple of the third not greater than that of the fourth. md (m + 1)b (m + 1)d m m+1 c a lies between and . When of the multiples of four magnitudes (taken as in Def. d be the four magnitudes. it could not be made so by deﬁnition. it is evident that if a c = . mc is equal to nd. as in a recent note. Let a. nb nd a c therefore is greater than . and since n may be as large as we please.) the multiple of the ﬁrst is greater than that of the second. less.

by Def. there are four terms. in this example it is 15 28 we multiply the two antecedents together for a new antecedent. and the ratio of 3 2 6 : 9 is 3 . the ratio of their squares (see Book VI. Here the ratio of 4 : 6 is 2 . or 15 : 28. so that 4. of the third to the fourth. c. Hence we have the following deﬁnition:—“The ratio compounded of any number of ratios it the ratio of the product of all the antecedents to the product of all the consequents. but an inference. Hence we see that what Euclid calls triplicate ratio of two magnitudes is the ratio of their cubes. It occurs when the means in a proportion are equal. When there is any number of magnitudes of the same kind greater than two. in reality. This may be proved exactly like 3. is a theorem. of the second to the third. For the ratio of the 1st : 3rd is compounded of the ratio of the 1st : 2nd. d 1st : 2nd = Hence the ratio compounded of the ratio of 1st : 2nd. as we shall see. 1. for the full proportion is 4 : 6 :: 6 : 9. 1st : 3rd :: square of 1st : square of 2nd.. and of the ratio of the 2nd : 3rd. c c 3rd : 4th = . It is evident we get the same result if the two ratios. 9. c. are only inferences from it. When three magnitudes are continual proportionals. x. If four magnitudes be continual proportionals. Def. such as 5 : 7 and 3 : 4. of 2nd : 3rd. the ﬁrst is said to have to the third the duplicate ratio of that which it has to the second. &c. Let the magnitudes be a. and x. and xi. b. b b 2nd : 3rd = . Or thus : Let the proportionals be a. the ratio compounded of them will be equal to the square of one of them. and multiply these fractions together. but their order is inverted. and the two consequents for a new consequent. so that. of 3rd : 4th = abc a = = ratio of 1st : 4th. When four magnitudes are continual proportionals. 6. x. but. the ﬁrst is said to have to the fourth the triplicate ratio of that which it has to the second. 4. let us take the numbers 4. and. If three magnitudes be proportional. let a : b :: b : c. c b or a : c :: a2 : b2 —that is. and if we convert each ratio into a fraction. Proportion consists of three terms at least. xii. the ﬁrst is said to have to the last the ratio compounded of the ratios of the ﬁrst to the second. 9 are continued proportionals. the ratio of 1st : 4th is equal to the cube of the ratio of 1st : 2nd.). hence we have b a = . what is the same thing. we get a result which is called the ratio compounded of . b. xx. This has the same fault as some of the others—it is not a deﬁnition. in fact. that is. viz. bcd d 3. Hence the duplicate ratio of two magnitudes means the square of their ratio. or the cube of their ratio. xii. 120 . If we have two ratios. d. the ratio of the 1st : 3rd is equal to the square of the ratio of the 1st : 2nd. the ratio of 1st : 3rd is.ix. we get b a a2 = 2.” 2. To prove the theorem contained in Def. Then the ratio of a . the duplicate ratio of 1st : 2nd. or. c b And multiplying each by a . and since these ratios are equal. xii. Now. 6. there are four terms. xi. We have placed these deﬁnitions in a group. As an illustration.

. and a great part of the theory of proportion consists in proving the truth of these derived proportions. Dem.—Theorem.) = m(a + b + c . Dem. Therefore (a + b) = (m + n)c. PROP. Hence a + b is the same multiple of c that a + b is of c .—Theorem. xiii.). from it an indeﬁnite number of other proportions can be inferred. This Proposition is evidently true for any number of multiples. &c. Then we have a = ma (hyp.). If one proportion be given. and (a + b ) = (m + n)c . PROP. b. be equimultiples of as many others (a . as also the consequents to one another. the deﬁnitions by squares and cubes are more explicit. c = mc . If two magnitudes of the same kind (a. Every Proposition in the Fifth Book is a Theorem. b ) are of another (c ). b = mb . I. Then we have a = mc and a = mc . by one word. &c. &c. II. They are useful as indicating. In fact.).—Let m denote the multiple which the magnitudes of the ﬁrst system are of those of the second system. We shall indicate these terms by including them in parentheses in connexion with the Propositions to which they refer. 121 . the whole enunciation of a theorem. Geometers make use of certain technical terms to denote the most important of these processes. &c. c. (a + b + c + &c. c . b = nc and b = nc . b .) shall be the same multiple of the sum of the second which any magnitude of the ﬁrst system is of the corresponding magnitude of the second system. In proportionals. as Euclid does.—Let m and n be the multiples which a and b are of c. Hence.We also see that there is no necessity to introduce extraneous magnitudes for the purpose of deﬁning duplicate and triplicate ratios. b) be the same multiples of another (c) which two corresponding magnitudes (a .). If any number of magnitudes of the same kind (a. then the sum of the two ﬁrst is the same multiple of their submultiple which the sum of their corresponding magnitudes is of their submultiple. then the sum of the ﬁrst magnitudes (a + b + c. &c. &c. the antecedent terms are called homologous to one another. by addition.

nb = mnb . b ).—Theorem.PROP. b . and a = mc . b = mb .—Theorem. then the diﬀerence of the two ﬁrst is the same multiple of their submultiple (c). b . b) will be also equimultiples of the second magnitudes (a . c a = . and any other equimultiples of the second and fourth. Cor. Hence a − b is the same multiple of c that a − b is of c . 122 .—Let m and n be the multiples which a and b are of c. m − n = 1. nb nd therefore ma : nb :: mc : nd. and if any equimultiples of the ﬁrst and third be taken. b ). Then we have a = mc. then ma : nb :: mc : nd.). Dem. for if a − b = c. Let a : b :: c : d. na. multiplying each equation by n. V. PROP. Therefore (a − b) = (m − n)c. then the multiple of the ﬁrst : the multiple of the second :: the multiple of the third : the multiple of the fourth. PROP. we get na = mna . and b = nc . III. multiplying each fraction by . Hence. and (a − b ) = (m − n)c . b ) are of another (c ). b) be equimultiples of two others (a . which the diﬀerence of their corresponding magnitudes is of their submultiple (c ) (compare Proposition ii. then any equimultiples of the ﬁrst magnitudes (a. If four magnitudes be proportional. therefore b d m Hence. a − b = c . b) be the same multiples of another (c) which two corresponding magnitudes (a .—Let m denote the multiples which a. b are of a . then we have a = ma . If two magnitudes of the same kind (a. Dem. If two magnitudes (a. IV. Dem. b = nc. nb are equimultiples of a .—We have a : b :: c : d (hyp. Hence.).—If a − b = c.—Theorem. we get n ma mc = .

Hence Prop. c is equal to d. a = mb . is greater than unity. then b : a :: d : c.—Let then a : b :: c : d.PROP. Dem.—Since then therefore or Hence a : b :: c : d. the remainder is the same multiple of the remainder that the whole is of the whole (compare Proposition i. if a be equal to b. (a − a ) = m(b − b ). a : b :: c : d. the antecedent of the second ratio is greater than. or less than its consequent. therefore is greater than b d unity.—Theorem (Simson). 123 . Let Dem. B. Prop. If a magnitude (a) be the same multiple of another (b). then according as the antecedent of the ﬁrst ratio is greater than.). VI. a c = .—Let m denote the multiples which the magnitudes a. b d b d = a c b : a :: d : c. or less than its consequent. b . and if less. A. and c is greater than d. c a = .—Theorem.—Theorem (Simson). If two ratios are equal their reciprocals are equal (invertendo). In like manner. Dem. less. then we have a = mb. a are of b. equal to. which a magnitude (a ) taken from the ﬁrst is of a magnitude (b ) taken from the second. b d a c and if a be greater than b. equal to. If two ratios be equal. b d a c 1÷ =1÷ .

124 . d b d Hence a : b :: c : d.—Theorem (Simson). 1. Let a and b be equal magnitudes. n b n therefore Hence 1 c = .—Let a = mb. we have = m. therefore = . and let a be a multiple of b. C. b a c c but = . Equal magnitudes have equal ratios to the same magnitude. = m. d n d c= . The same magnitude has equal ratios to equal magnitudes. a a = mb. dividing each by c. n PROP. and if the ﬁrst be a multiple or submultiple of the second. then = m. Dem.—Theorem.—Theorem (Simson). If the ﬁrst of four magnitudes be the same multiple of the second which the third is of the fourth. Prop. therefore = m. 2. b d d b a 1 2.—Since a = mb. D. 2. then c is the same multiple of d.Prop. then = . Then 1. we have a b = . c = md. Let a : b :: c : d. Let a = . VII. then a : b :: c : d. a : c :: b : c. and c any other magnitude. c c therefore a : c :: b : c.—Since a = b. 1. the ﬁrst is to the second as the third is to the fourth. c : a :: c : b. and c = md. the third is the same multiple or submultiple of the fourth. Let Dem. b c a c In like manner. If the ﬁrst be to the second as to the third is to the fourth. a Dem.

therefore c : a :: c : b. we get a = b. VIII. 2.Again. magnitudes to which the same magnitude has equal ratios are equal to one another. a b therefore c : a :: c : b. Dem. PROP. dividing c by each. [1]. to prove a = b. Magnitudes which have equal ratios to the same magnitude are equal to one another. 2. PROP. since a = b. Observation. dividing each by c. a : c :: b : c. the greater has a greater ratio to any third magnitude than the less has. and let c be any other magnitude of the same kind. 1. c c therefore is greater than .—Theorem.—Theorem. to prove a = b. the quotient which is the result of dividing any magnitude by b is greater than the quotient which is got by dividing the same magnitude by a. IX. then the ratio a : c is greater than the ratio b : c. To prove that the ratio c : b is greater than the ratio c : a. a : c :: b : c. Let a be greater than b. Dem. 2. any third magnitude has a greater ratio to the less of two unequal magnitudes than it has to the greater. a = b. b a is greater than . Of two unequal magnitudes.—2 follows at once from 1 by Proposition B. 1. 2. multiplying each by c.—Since b is less than a.—Since by inversion. b a Hence the ratio c : b is greater than the ratio c : a. If c : a :: c : b. c c therefore the ratio a : c is greater than the ratio b : c. Dem.—Since 125 .—Since a is greater than b. c c Hence. a b = . we have c c = . If a : c :: b : c. Dem. 1.

PROP. X.—Theorem. Of two unequal magnitudes, that which has the greater ratio to any third is the greater of the two; and that to which any third has the greater ratio is the less of the two. 1. If the ratio a : c be greater than the ratio b : c, to prove a greater than b. Dem.—Since the ratio a : c is greater than the ratio b : c, a b is greater than . c c Hence, multiplying each by c, we get a greater than b. 2. If the ratio c : b is greater than the ratio c : a, to prove b is less than a. Dem.—Since the ratio c : b is greater than the ratio c : a, c c is greater than . b a Hence that is, 1÷ c c is less than 1 ÷ , b a b a is less than . c c

Hence, multiplying each by c, we get b less than a.

PROP. XI.—Theorem. Ratios that are equal to the same ratio are equal to one another. Let a : b :: e : f , and c : d :: e : f , to prove a : b :: c : d. Dem.—Since a : b :: e : f , a e = . b f c e = . d f a c = [I., Axiom i.], b d a : b :: c : d.

In like manner, Hence and

126

PROP. XII.—Theorem. If any number of ratios be equal to one another, any one of these equal ratios is equal to the ratio of the sum of all the antecedents to the sum of all the consequents. Let the ratios a : b, c : d, e : f , be all equal to one another; it is required to prove that any of these ratios is equal to the ratio a + c + e : b + d + f . Dem.—By hypotheses, c e a = = . b d f Since these fractions are all equal, let their common value be r; then we have a c e = r, = r, = r; b d f therefore a = br, c = dr, e = fr ; therefore a + c + e = (b + d + f )r. Hence therefore and a+c+e = r; b+d+f a a+c+e = , b b+d+f a : b :: a + c + e : b + d + f.

Cor.—With the same hypotheses, if l, m, n be any three multipliers, a : b :: la + mc + ne : lb + md + nf . PROP. XIII.—Theorem. If two ratios are equal, and if one of them be greater than any third ratio, then the other is also greater than that third ratio. If a : b :: c : d, but the ratio of c : d greater than the ratio of e : f ; then the ratio of a : b is greater than the ratio of e : f . Dem.—Since the ratio of c : d is greater than the ratio of e : f , c e is greater than . d f Again, since a : b :: c : d, a c = ; b d a e is greater than . b f

therefore

or the ratio of a : b is greater than the ratio of e : f .

127

PROP. XIV.—Theorem. If two ratios be equal, then, according as the antecedent of the ﬁrst ratio is greater than, equal to, or less than the antecedent of the second, the consequent of the ﬁrst is greater than, equal to, or less than the consequent of the second. Let a : b :: c : d; then if a be greater than c, b is greater than d; if equal, equal; if less, less. Dem.—Since we have and multiplying each by b we get c a b c b × = × , b c d c a b = ; c d a : c :: b : d. a : b :: c : d. c a = , b d

or therefore

Hence, Proposition [A], if a be greater than c, b is greater than d; if equal, equal; and if less, less.

PROP. XV.—Theorem. Magnitudes have the same ratio which all equimultiples of them have. Let a, b be two magnitudes, then the ratio a : b is equal to the ratio ma : mb. a ma Dem.—The ratio a : b = , and the ratio of ma : mb = ; but since the b mb value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying its numerator and denominator by the same number, a ma = ; b mb a : b :: ma : mb.

therefore

PROP. XVI—Theorem. If four magnitudes of the same kind be proportionals they are also proportionals by alternation (alternando). Let Dem.—Since a : b :: c : d, then a : c :: b : d. a : b :: c : d, a c = , b d 128

and multiplying each by

b , we get c c b a b . = . , b c d c a b = ; c d a : c :: b : d.

or therefore

PROP. XVII.—Theorem. If four magnitudes be proportional, the diﬀerence between the ﬁrst and second : the second :: the diﬀerence between the third and fourth : the fourth (dividendo). Let Dem.—Since a : b :: c : d : then a − b : b :: c − d : d; a : b :: c : d, c a = ; b d a c − 1 = − 1, b d c−d a−b = ; b d a − b : b :: c − d : d.

therefore or therefore

PROP. XVIII.—Theorem. If four magnitudes be proportionals, the sum of the ﬁrst and second : the second :: the sum of the third and fourth : the fourth (componendo). Let Dem.—Since a : b :: c : d; then a + b : b :: c + d : d. a : b :: c : d, a c = ; b d a c + 1 = + 1, b d a+b c+d = ; b d a + b : b :: c + d : d.

therefore or therefore

129

of xvii.PROP. E. Prop. XX. and if less.].—Theorem (Simson). Dem. then if the ﬁrst of either set be greater than the third.—Theorem. b d a a−b c c−d ÷ = ÷ . equal. the ﬁrst : its excess above the second :: the third : its excess above the fourth (convertendo). XIX. the ﬁrst of the other set is greater than the third. Let a : b :: c : d. if equal. a b d c 1− =1− . b d a−b c−d = [Dem. If a whole magnitude be to another whole at a magnitude taken from the ﬁrst it to a magnitude taken from the second. which taken two by two in direct order have equal ratios. a : c :: b : d [alternando ]. a : b :: c : d.—Since therefore therefore or therefore PROP.—Theorem. 130 . c and d being less than a and b.—Since then and therefore and or Hence a : b :: c : d. d c = . Let a : b :: c : d. a−b c−d a : a − b :: c : c − d. then a − c : b − d :: a : b. b b d d a c = . c : a :: d : b [invertendo ]. Dem. a b a − c : b − d :: a : b. a c = . then a : a − b :: c : c − d. If there be two sets of three magnitudes. a b a−c b−d = . less. the ﬁrst remainder : the second remainder :: the ﬁrst whole : the second whole. If four magnitudes be proportional.

b b = . a . c. then the ﬁrst : the last of the ﬁrst set :: the ﬁrst : the last of the second set (“ex aequali. if equal. b . equal. less. a is greater than c . b c b a = . b. less. and b : c = a : b . If there be two sets of three magnitudes. c be the two sets of magnitudes. a b = . Then. then. Let a. have equal ratios. = b c a = .Let a. a will be greater than.—Theorem. c be the two sets of magnitudes. or less than c. less. equal to.” or “ex aequo”). if less. which. equal. if equal. and let the ratio a : b = b : c .—Since we have In like manner. which taken two by two in transverse order have equal ratios. or less than c . Dem. if equal. equal. XXI. or less than c .—Theorem. PROP. Hence or a : b :: a : b . equal to. 131 . if a be greater than. XXII. a . equal to. and let the ratio a : b = a : b . c. b. then. c b a a = . If there be two sets of magnitudes. if the ﬁrst of either set be greater than the third. Hence. or less than c. multiplying a : b :: b : c . Dem. c = Therefore if a be greater than c. and b : c = b : c . if a be greater than. and if less. a b b c a b × b c a c a . and if less. if a be greater than c. a is greater than c . c b a × . b . taken two by two in direct order. PROP. a will be greater than.—Since we have In like manner. the ﬁrst of the other set is greater than the third. equal to. c c Therefore.

c c a : c :: a : c . if a a = . If there be two sets of magnitudes. c. taken two by two in transverse order. Hence. b. 2.—Theorem. XXIII. c . and similarly for any number of magnitudes in each set. and so will a . a . then the ﬁrst : the last of the ﬁrst set :: the ﬁrst : the last of the second set (“ex aequo perturbato”). Hence [Def.—Since we have In like manner. c b c b but Therefore Hence. .Let a. Annotation 3]. b . multiplying. b. Dem. a a = b b b b = . [xxii. Let a.] 132 . PROP. . c c a a = . 1. Cor. a2 a a2 a = 2 and = 2. c will be in continued proportion. b. a2 : b2 :: a 2 : b 2 Or if four magnitudes be proportional. then a : c :: a : c . and b : c = a : b .—Since we have In like manner. :c. xii. Therefore a : b :: a : b . Dem. their cubes are proportional. a .—If the ratio b : c be equal to the ratio a : b. and if a : b :: a : b . b2 b a : b :: a : b . c. c be the two sets of magnitudes. then a. which. and b : c :: b : c . b . b .—If four magnitudes be proportional. Hence. a b = b c a b = c b a a = c c a : c :: a . therefore a : b :: b : c . Cor. and let the ratio a : b = b : c . c be the two sets of magnitudes. multiplying. c c a2 a2 = 2. have equal ratios. their squares are proportional. then a : c :: a : c .

5. a : a − c :: b : b − d [E]. therefore. if a be the greatest. 6. the sum of the greatest and least is greater than the sum of the other two.” PROP. and a].—Theorem. Dem. If four magnitudes of the same kind be proportionals. c c b b = . Questions for Examination on Book V. XXIV. PROP. XXV. then the sum (a + b) of the ﬁrst two has the same ratio to their third (c) which the sum (a + b ) of the other two magnitudes has to their third (c ). c c a + b : c :: a + b : c .). a : c :: b : d [alternando ]. thus: “Ratios compounded of equal ratios are equal. then. 1. Hence a : c :: a : c . 7. Let a : b :: c : d.and similarly for any number of magnitudes in each set.]. a a = . 3. What are the terms of a ratio called? 133 . 8.—Since we have In like manner. If two magnitudes of the same kind (a. [xiv. a − c is greater than b − d a + d is greater than b + c. It is required to prove that a + d is greater than b + c. 4. 2. b ) have to a third (c ).—Since therefore but therefore Hence a : b :: c : d.. c c a+b a +b = . What is the subject-matter of this book? When is one magnitude said to be a multiple of another? What is a submultiple or measure? What are equimultiples? What is the ratio of two commensurable magnitudes? What is meant by the ratio of incommensurable magnitudes? Give an Illustration of the ratio of incommensurables. adding. This Proposition and the preceding one may be included in one enunciation. b) have to a third magnitude (c) ratios equal to those which two other magnitudes (a . a is greater than b (hyp. d will be the least [xiv. Dem.—Theorem.

A ratio of lesser inequality is diminished by diminishing its terms by the same quantity. II. and a ratio whose antecedent is less than its consequent. What is the product of two ratios called? Ans. AD. BD. or + = . In the same case.. Give another deﬁnition. xxiii. If four magnitudes be proportionals.? 20. or + = . &c. What is duplicate ratio ? 13. Give Euclid’s deﬁnition of proportion. 4. A ratio of greater inequality is increased by diminishing its terms by the same quantity. 18. Exercises on Book V. 6. It two proportions have three terms of one respectively equal to three corresponding terms of the other. And AB . BD AD CD 13. cubes. their squares. 16. be bisected in O. prove OC . the remaining term of the ﬁrst is equal to the remaining term of the second. Def. the quotients are proportionals. equality of ratios. OB . If a line AB . and if we multiply corresponding terms together. if O be the middle point of CD. are proportionals. and if we divide corresponding terms. 10. 15. 5. 8. cut harmonically in C and D. If two sets of four magnitudes be proportionals. Give one enunciation that will include Propositions xxii. 22. prove OO 2 = OB 2 + O D2 . What are the Latin terms in use to denote some of the Propositions of Book V. If three magnitudes be continual proportionals. the ﬁrst is to the third as the square of the diﬀerence between the ﬁrst and second is to the square of the diﬀerence between the second and third. What is proportion? Ans. what are corresponding pairs of points called? Ans. Def. 134 . And CD(AD + BD) = 2AD . How many ratios in a proportion? 19. 1 2 1 11. CB . 2. Deﬁne triplicate ratio. What is a ratio of greater inequality? 10. I. and diminished by increasing its terms by the same quantity. The ratio compounded of these ratios. OD are continual proportionals. the sum of the ﬁrst and second is to their diﬀerence as the sum of the third and fourth is to their diﬀerence (componendo et dividendo ). 3. If four magnitudes be proportionals. What is a ratio of lesser inequality? 11.—A right line is said to be cut harmonically when it is divided internally and externally in any ratios that are equal in magnitude.—A ratio whose antecedent is greater than its consequent is called a ratio of greater inequality. If two sets of four magnitudes be proportionals. 9. 1. AC AD AB 1 1 2 12. When is a line divided harmonically? 21. What is Euclid’s deﬁnition of duplicate ratio? 14. 7. a ratio of lesser inequality. CD = 2AD . and increased by increasing its terms by the same quantity. And AB (AC + AD) = 2AC .. When a line is divided harmonically. Harmonic conjugates. of Book V. 17.9. What are reciprocal ratios? 23. 12. the products are proportionals.

BG.—Theorem. for instance. In like manner. GH are all equal. each equal to CD. iv. each equal to CB . A right line is said to be cut at a point in extreme and mean ratio when the whole line is to the greater segment as the greater segment is to the less. it is said to be given in species . CF ) which have the same altitude are to one another as their bases (BC. it is said to be given in position . and whose sides about the equal angles are proportional. they are congruent. The altitude of any ﬁgure is the length of the perpendicular from its highest point to its base. &c. When the place which a ﬁgure occupies is known. KL. Dem. I. When the shape of a ﬁgure is given. PROP. iii. Similar Rectilineal Figures are those whose several angles are equal. AK .BOOK VI. since the several bases CB . AGH are also all equal [I. CD). Thus a triangle whose angles are given is given in species. the middle term is called a mean proportional between the other two. If four quantities of the same kind be in continued proportion. it is said to be given in magnitude . and cut oﬀ any number of parts BG. the triangles ACB . ii. APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF PROPORTION DEFINITIONS. 1. Two corresponding angles of two ﬁgures have the sides about them reciprocally proportional. 3.—Produce BD both ways. and any number DK . a square whose side is of given length. i. Hence similar ﬁgures are of the same species. when a side of the ﬁrst is to a side of the second as the remaining side of the second is to the remaining side of the ﬁrst. Therefore the triangle ACH is the same multiple of ACB that the base CH is of the base CB . ACD) and parallelograms (EC. each to each. This is evidently equivalent to saying that a side of the ﬁrst is to a side of the second in the reciprocal ratio of the remaining side of the ﬁrst to the remaining side of the second. Join AG. Magnitudes in continued proportion are also said to be in geometrical progression. AH . Now. Similar ﬁgures agree in shape. the two middle terms are called two mean proportionals between the other two. vi. 135 .]. if they agree also in size. ABG. xxxviii. 2. GH . When the size of a ﬁgure is given.. v. Triangles (ABC. AL. If three quantities of the same kind be in continued proportion.

measured from the opposite angle (A). the triangle HAC is greater than CAL.] EC : CF :: the base BC : CD. measured from an angle. 1. It is required to prove that AD : DB :: AE : EC . then and but Hence AD : DB :: the triangle ADE : BDE [i.). If a line (DE ) be parallel to a side (BC ) of a triangle (ABC ). the base CH . If AD : DB :: AE : EC . A= 1 P 2 . and between the same parallels BC . BC. and therefore [V.] EC : CF :: the triangle ABC : ACD.—Let the same construction be made. or less than the multiple of the fourth.. ACD. and it is evident that [I. Now we have four magnitudes: the base BC is the ﬁrst. the multiple of the third is greater than.—Join BE . and the triangle ACD the fourth. xxxiv.] the triangle ADE : BDE :: ADE : CDE . A denote the areas of the triangles ABC . v. and P their common altitude. be cut proportionally. conversely. Or thus: Let A. Therefore [V. Hence [V.).] they are equal. xxxvii.—Theorem. the line joining the points of section is parallel to the third side. CD. or less than the multiple of the second. CD. 1]. it is required to prove that DE is parallel to BC .]. also equimultiples of the second and fourth. II. if equal. the base CD the second. 2 PROP. it divides the remaining sides.]. and the triangle ACL. the triangle ABC the third. vii. Dem. CED are on the same base DE . DE . AE : EC :: the triangle ADE : CDE [i. and the triangle ACH . or A : A :: BC : CD. Hence A CD In extending this proof to parallelograms we have only to use P instead of 1 P. Hence [I. 2. and if less. namely. Cor. but and Hence ADE : BDE :: AD : DB [i.].] the base BC : CD :: the triangle ABC : ACD. ADE : BDE :: ADE : CDE. xxxviii. i. AD : DB :: AE : EC (hyp. proportionally. The parallelogram EC is double of the triangle ABC [I. xv. then [II. AD : DB :: AE : EC.] if the base HC be greater than CL. equal. A = 1 P 2 . and. less. and we have proved that according as the multiple of the ﬁrst is greater than. If two sides of a triangle. namely. ADE : CDE :: AE : EC [i. Hence [V. Def. Dem. and the parallelogram CF is double of the triangle ACD. 136 . but ABC : ACD :: BC : CD (Part I. equal to. The triangles BDE . the base CL. 2. equal to. xi.]. BC A = .].the triangle ACL is the same multiple of ACD that the base CL is of the base CD. respectively. We have taken equimultiples of the ﬁrst and third.

but evidently a separate ﬁgure for each of these cases is unnecessary. Exercises. vi.] the triangle BDE is equal to CDE . therefore AE is equal to AC [I. the angle DAC is equal to ACE . If BD : DC :: BA : AC . but AE has been proved equal to AC . If two lines be cut by three or more parallels. and they are on the same base DE . the angle BAC is bisected. 137 . AC produced through B .] BA : AE :: BD : DE . as an inference from it. Therefore [V. III. hence BAD is equal to DAC . 2. because AD is parallel to EC . Dem. p.].—Cut oﬀ AE = AC . Then the triangles ACD. to meet BA produced in E . 191). Therefore BD : DC :: BA : AC . BD : DC :: BA : AE [ii. and on the same side of it. AED are evidently congruent. Join ED. and because AC meets the parallels AD. Dem. and ACE to DAC . Prove it independently.] is equal to AEC .] BA : AE :: BA : AC .—The line DE may cut the sides AB . If the line AD bisect the external vertical angle CAE . The internal and the external bisectors of the vertical angle of a triangle divide the base harmonically (see Deﬁnition. and the line AD bisects the angle BAC . xxix. 1.].]. but BD : DC :: BA : AC (hyp. ix. and prove iii.—1.—Let the same construction be made.Therefore [V. If a line (AD) bisect any angle (A) of a triangle (ABC ). therefore the angle EDB is bisected. xxxix.]. xxix. PROP. Observation. BA : AE :: BD : DC [ii. Again. DC ) into which a line (AD) drawn from any angle (A) of a triangle divides the opposite side be proportional to the adjacent sides. and hence [V. that line bisects the angle (A). Dem.). BA : AC :: BD : DC . xi. C . and conversely.—Theorem. ix. EC . 3. but the angle BAD is equal to DAC (hyp. If the segments (BD. hence [iii. hence they are between the same parallels [I. one of the sides of the triangle BEC . Exercise.].). 2.] AE is equal to AC . Exercise 1 has been proved by quoting Proposition iii. Through C draw CE parallel to AD. it divides the opposite side (BC ) into segments proportional to the adjacent sides. or BA : AC :: BD : DC . the intercepts on one are proportional to the corresponding intercepts on the other. or through the angle A. therefore the angle AEC is equal to ACE . the angle BAD [I. therefore the angle ACE is equal to AEC . Conversely. Because BA meets the parallels AD. EC . Therefore DE is parallel to BC . Because AD is parallel to EC . but AEC is equal to BAD [I.

because CD is parallel to BF . if E . CED may not have a common vertex.4.]. F . Therefore the sides about the equal angles BAC . Again. In like manner. Now. therefore BA : CD :: BC : CE . then. hence [V. and similarly for the others.] the lines AB .. respectively. the side DE is parallel to BC . c denote the sides of a triangle ABC . hence AD : AB :: AE : AC . xvi. but F D is equal to AC . BED is less than two right angles.] is parallel to EF . Let them meet in F . so that its two sides AD. the locus of the vertex is a circle which divides the base harmonically in the ratio of the sides. Hence [ii. ii. Any line intersecting the legs of a right angle is cut harmonically by any two lines through its vertex which make equal angles with either of its sides. IV. AB : BC :: DC : CE . This Proposition may also be proved very simply by superposition. AE may fall on the sides AB . 6. Therefore the sum of the angles ABE . and D. BF is parallel to CD. 5. prove 1 1 1 + + = 0. Therefore we have proved that AB : BC :: DC : CE .. In the same case.—Let the sides BC . and the ratio of the sides. Prop.] BC : AC :: CE : DE . If a. let the second triangle ADE be conceived to be placed on ABC . DD EE FF 2 2 2 b c a + + = 0. and so that the equal angles BCA. Again. hence AC is equal to DF . and those which are opposite to the equal angles are homologous. and that BC : CA :: CE : ED. BCA is less than two right angles. the sum of the angles ABC .—Theorem.): let the two triangles be ABC . xvi. because the angle BCA is equal to BEF . Any line intersecting the legs of any angle is cut harmonically by the internal and external bisectors of the angle. D the points where the internal and external bisectors of A meet BC . Hence (ex aequali ) AB : AC :: DC : DE . and DD EE FF PROP. DAE are proportional. hence [V. CDE ) are proportional.). but BCA is equal to BED (hyp. because AC is parallel to F E . Therefore the sides about the equal angles are proportional.] AD : AE :: AB : AC . therefore BC : CE :: AC : DE . Axiom xii. CE . F be points similarly determined on the sides CA. which are opposite to the equal angles A and D. but AF is equal to CD. the triangles being on the same side. 7. AB . the line CA [I. E .] AD : DB :: AE : EC . ADE . AC . 138 . therefore the ﬁgure ACDF is a parallelogram. Dem. since the angle ADE is equal to ABC . The sides about the equal angles of equiangular triangles (BAC. BC : CE :: F D : DE . b2 − c2 8. be conceived to be placed so as to form one continuous line. If the base of a triangle be given in magnitude and position. hence [I. and CD is equal to AF . prove DD = 2abc . Now. xvi. b. ED will meet if produced. BA : AF :: BC : CE [ii. Thus (see ﬁg. xxviii. and [V.].

EDG have the sides ED. B . the tangents to the circles at the points of intersection have a given ratio. but the triangle DEG is equiangular to ABC . Therefore DG is equal to DF . the lines AA . BB [I. Therefore the triangle DEF is equiangular to ABC . Hence [I. 2. viii.. Now. Being given a circle and a line. Def. xiv. DEG equal to the angles A. and draw any two parallels intersecting them in the points A. Then [I. PROP. If two circles intercept equal chords AB .] they are equiangular. namely. let I denote the point at inﬁnity through which the two given lines pass.—In VI. we see that if two triangles possess either condition. A .] the second term AB is equal to the fourth A B . The proportionality of sides. 4. AC : CB :: DF : F E ) they are equiangular. The equality of angles. E make the angles EDG. A T to the circles at the points of intersection are to one another as the radii of the circles.] are parallel. they also possess the other. two conditions are laid down as necessary for the similitude of rectilineal ﬁgures. For. A B on any secant. A IB are equiangular. Dem. from Propositions iv.). If two triangles (ABC. DEF ) have their sides proportional (BA : AC :: ED : DF . Therefore but BA : AC :: ED : DG [iv.–Theorem. DEG are equiangular. B . Thus. 1.] the triangles ABC . two quadrilaterals may have their sides proportional without having equal angles. xxxii. DF in one equal to the sides ED.]. B of the triangle ABC .It can be proved by this Proposition that two lines which meet at inﬁnity are parallel. prove that a point may be found. In like manner it may be proved that EG is equal to EF . 3. DG in the other. so that the ratio CE : EF may be given. Observation. but the ﬁrst term of the proportion is equal to the third. the tangents AT . 139 . draw through A a chord AF of the semicircle meeting CD in E . CD a perpendicular to AB . the ratio compounded of the direct ratio of the radii and the inverse ratio of the chords. being parallel to it. or vice versˆ a. If two circles intercept on any secant chords that have a given ratio. then the triangles AIB . Triangles are unique in this respect. such that the rectangle of the perpendiculars let fall on the line from the points of intersection of the circle with any chord through the point shall be given. Hence the triangles EDF . 2. and v. Exercises. V. BA : AC :: ED : DF (hyp. therefore [V. and those angles are equal which are subtended by the homologous sides. xxxiii. In all other rectilineal ﬁgures one of the conditions may exist without the other.—At the points D. and. 1. and the base EF equal to the base EG. i. AB is the diameter of a semicircle ADB . therefore AI : AB :: A I : A B .

].—Theorem. VII. Therefore the triangles are equiangular. VI. then the triangles ABC . the triangles are equiangular..). the triangle is given in species. which is absurd. xvii.—If the angles B and E are not equal.—Make the same construction as in the last Proposition.). is obtuse. therefore AGB must be obtuse. they are equal. Therefore but AB : BG :: DE : EF [iv. F ) of the same species (i. either both acute or both not acute). which is equal to it. E ) proportional (AB : BC :: DE : EF ). Therefore EDF is equiangular to BAC . Hence the angles B and E are not unequal.). and the angle between them.]. If two triangles (ABC. then the triangles ABG.—If the ratio of two sides of a triangle be given.). e. DEF ) have one angle (A) in one equal to one angle (D) in the other. Therefore BG is equal to BC .]. PROP. the triangles are similar. and it has been proved that ACB is acute. and DE is common. Therefore but BA : AC :: ED : DG [iv.—Theorem. hence DF E . DF E are of diﬀerent species. the angle EDG is equal to EDF . [It is easy to see. one must be greater than the other. Therefore DG is equal to DF . DEG are equiangular. because the angle EDG is equal to BAC (const. and are [I. Again. BGC must be each acute [I. DEF ) have one angle (A) one equal to one angle (D) in the other.PROP. therefore the angles ACB . and the sides about these angles proportional (BA : AC :: ED : DF ).]. 140 . AB : BC :: DE : EF (hyp. Dem. and BAC equal to EDF (hyp. and the remaining angles (C. but EDG is equiangular to BAC . and it has been proved that DG is equal to DF . xxxii. hence the triangles EDG and EDF are equiangular. Dem. If two triangles (ABC. and have those angles equal which are opposite to the homologous sides. and that the part ABG is equal to DEF . Cor. DEF have two angles in one equal to two angles in the other. 1. that an immediate proof of this Proposition can also be got from Proposition ii. Hence the angles BCG. as in the case of Proposition iv. Suppose ABC to be the greater.] equiangular. the sides about two other angles (B. that is. but (hyp. BA : AC :: ED : DF (hyp.) they are of the same species.

iii. Cor. and the angles ADC . Book I.) the parts CD.—Problem.] they are similar. making any angle with AB . Cor. but AC is the fourth part of AF (const.). and therefore they are similar to one another. the other must be right. Sol. d. AC : AF :: AG : AB [ii.] equiangular. is a particular case of this Proposition. BD. to cut oﬀ the fourth part. Hence AG is the fourth part of AB [V.Cor.—Since the two triangles ADC . DB of the hypotenuse. any other required submultiple may be cut oﬀ. and AB : BD in the duplicate ratio of AB : BC . PROP. are similar to the whole and to one another.. Cor. In the same manner. From a given right line (AB ) to cut oﬀ any part required (i.—BA : AD in the duplicate ratios of BA : AC . they are [I. AG is the fourth part of AB . DB are in the duplicate of AC : CB . Hence ADC . each being right. and the angles A. IX. ACB equal. F be right. to cut oﬀ any required submultiple) . 2.—Since CG is parallel to the side BF of the triangle ABF . hence [iv.). DE .—If two triangles ABC . Draw AF . 1. and draw CG parallel to BF .—The perpendicular CD is a mean proportional between the segments AD. VIII. Proposition x. Cor. we have AD : DC :: DC : DB . This Proposition is nearly identical with vii. the angles C . DEF have two sides in one proportional to two sides in the other. 2.]. 141 . Join BF . and AC between AB .—Theorem.—Let it be required. by the perpendicular (CD) from the right angle (C ) on the hypotenuse. Dem. BCD) into which a right-angled triangle (ACB ) is divided. xxxii. or in other words..—The segments AD. iii. CDB are each similar to ACD. and cut oﬀ (I. AD.]. 4. 1. EF each equal to AC ..e. In like manner it may be proved that BDC is similar to ABC . 3. AD : DB :: AC 2 : CB 2 . Dem. DB (Def. PROP. hence DC is a mean proportional between AD. for instance.—If either of the angles C . F opposite the other are either equal or supplemental. and in AF take any point C .—BC is a mean proportional between AB . since the triangles ADC . CDB are equiangular. AB : BC :: DE : EF . The triangles (ACD. D opposite one pair of homologous sides equal. ACB have the angle A common. For. Cor.

] HM is equal to KL. M I is parallel to N G. 142 . E divide AB harmonically. but [I. making any angle with AB . F D of the given divided line CD. Again. to ﬁnd the lines. Hence [ii. Given the diﬀerence of the squares on two lines and their ratio.—Through A and B draw any two parallels AC and BD in opposite directions.] HM : M N :: HI : IG. HI . the diﬀerence of the base angles. the diﬀerence on the squares of the sides. Hence the line AB is divided similarly to the line CD. is cut harmonically by the sides of the triangle and a parallel to the base through the vertex. This problem is manifestly equivalent to the following:—Given the sum or diﬀerence of two lines and their ratio. and join CD. that is :: CE : EF (const. ﬁnd the lines. Cut oﬀ AC = m. Exercises. the joining line will divide AB internally at E in the ratio of m : n. Given the sum of the squares on two lines and their ratio. as denoted by the dotted line. Dem. 5. ﬁnd the lines. Cor. and cut oﬀ the parts AH . 2. Sol. 3. n.—Through H draw HN parallel to AB . To divide a given line AB internally or externally in the ratio of two given lines.). 2. 6. X. M N is equal to LB . EF . m. 4. in the triangle HN G. then CD will cut AB externally at E in the ratio of m : n. Join BG. 3. and draw HK . Now in the triangle ALI . Any line AE . Given the base and ratio of the sides of a triangle. HK is parallel to IL. the area. the sum of the squares on the sides.—Problem. IL. the vertical angle. xxxiv. each parallel to BG.—Draw AG. cutting IL in M . Sol. Therefore [ii. through the middle point B of the base DD of a triangle DCD .] AK : KL :: AH : HI . 5. and BD = n. Therefore KL : LB :: EF : F D.). If BD be drawn in the same direction with AC . 1. construct it when any of the following data is given:—1. 4.PROP. To divide a given undivided line (AB ) similarly to a given divided line (CD).—The two points E . IG respectively equal to the parts CE . AB will be divided similarly to CD. and IG is equal to F D (const. HI is equal to EF .

AB will be the third proportional. therefore X : Y :: Z : DE .—Draw any two lines AC .] AB : BC :: AD : DE . and draw CE parallel to BD. Y . and AD equal Y . Z. OB = Y . AE . then DB will be the third proportional. then cut oﬀ AB equal X . For if AD. AD each equal to Y . Join BD. Therefore X : Y :: Y : DE . 2. Dem. Or again. XI.. Proposition viii. and describe a circle through the points A. OC = Z . AD = X . This is evident by drawing through B a parallel to AΩ. &c. DE will be the fourth proportional required. Exercises. BC equal Y . v. Join BD. the series of lines AB . and draw CE parallel to BD. Y ). but AB is equal to X . AB − BC : AB :: AB : AΩ. Cut oﬀ AB equal X . DC in that Proposition be respectively equal to X and Y . The demonstration is evident from the similarity of the triangles AOB and COD. making an angle. Z ). C [IV. BC equal Y . 1.]. we have [ii.. CD. Sol. Hence DE is a fourth proportional to X . AE making an angle. Make OA = X . Another solution can be inferred from Proposition viii.PROP. therefore AB : BC :: AD : DE [ii. AD equal Z .—Draw any two lines AC . draw BB parallel to AO. are in continual proportion.—Problem. PROP. and BC . To ﬁnd a third proportional to two given lines (X. having the side AΩ greater than AO. XII. 143 . Y.—Problem.—Since BD is parallel to CE . then if we cut oﬀ AB = AO. Dem. BC . and AC = Y . If AOΩ be a triangle. OD will be the fourth proportional required. To ﬁnd a fourth proportional to three given lines (X.] cutting AD in D. B . &c.—In the triangle CAE . Hence may be inferred a method of continuing the proportion to any number of terms.. then DE is the third proportional required. BD is parallel to CE . BC intersecting in O. if in the diagram. cut oﬀ BC = BB . Hence DE is a third proportional to X and Y. Sol. Or thus: Take two lines AD.

—Problem. XIII. BD is a mean proportional [viii. On AC describe a semicircle ADC . 5. XIV. BC respectively equal to X . PROP. which is bisected in that point. its half is a mean proportional between the segments of any other chord passing through the same point. meeting the semicircle in D. 2. Dem.—Join AD. CE be so placed as to form one right line.PROP. is a mean proportional between the two extremes of the three segments into which the diameter is divided by the chords. 3. Exercises. 1. State and prove the Proposition corresponding to Ex. Since ADC is a semicircle. the perpendicular from the centre of the former on the diameter of the latter. Erect BD at right angles to AC . for external contact of the circles. BC . 2. The tangent to a circle from any external point is a mean proportional between the segments of any secant passing through the same point. BD will be the mean proportional required. and the circle again in E . Dem. the chord of half the arc is a mean proportional between CD and CE . 7. Cor. If a circle be described touching a semicircle and its diameter. 2. that is. and BD a perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse.—Take on any line AC parts AB . 1. BD is a mean proportional between X and Y . the diameter of the circle is a harmonic mean between the segments into which the diameter of the semicircle is divided at the point of contact. Y ). 1] between AB . Cor.—Let AC . Sol.. 5. Equiangular parallelograms which have the sides about the equal angles reciprocally proportional are equal in area. To ﬁnd a mean proportional between two given lines. DC .]. If through any point within a circle the chord be drawn. since ADC is a right-angled triangle. the angle ADC is right [III. Hence. xxxi. and that the equal angles 144 . CD) which are equal in area have the sides about the equal angles reciprocally proportional— AC : CE :: GC : CB . Y . (X. 6. Equiangular parallelograms (AB. If a circle be described touching another circle internally and two parallel chords. Another solution may be inferred from Proposition viii. If through the middle point C of any arc of a circle any secant be drawn cutting the chord of the arc in D. which bisects the chords. 4.—Theorem.

Join BD. CG form one right line. and the Proposition is evident. :: GC : CB [i. AB : CF :: CD : CF. DCE ). to each add BCE . AB : CF AB : CF CD : CF AC : CE :: CD : CF [V. have the sides about these angles reciprocally proportional. xiii.] the points I . The twice the BDE . BCE . Another demonstration of this Proposition may be got by producing the lines HA and DG to meet in I . which have one angle (C ) in one equal to one angle (C ) in the other. xiv. to prove the parallelograms AB . Then [I.] BC . Hence [I. and the sides about these angles reciprocally proportional. HC = twice the HBE .] HD is parallel to BE . BCE is two right angles. 2. Let the equal angles be so placed as to be vertically opposite. we have AB : CF :: AC : CE [i. BE . 2. 1. the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. CE form one right line.). BD.]. XV. and [I. vii. PROP. since the parallelograms AB . Two triangles equal in area (ACB. since the angle ACB is equal to ECG. xxxix.]. that is. xliii. are equal in area. and but Therefore Hence that is. F are collinear. BCE is [I. Therefore the sum of ECG. but and therefore that is. as in the last Proposition. Dem. AC : CE :: GC : CB.]. ix. ECG may be vertically opposite. AB = CD [V.ACB .—Theorem. C . 145 . Complete the parallelogram BE . CD are equal (hyp. Two triangles.—1. Therefore the HBE = BDE .]. BCE equal to the sum of the angles ECG. CD are equal. AC : CE :: GC : CB (hyp. :: GC : CB . and we have the sum of the angles ACB . and the CD = Or thus: Join HE .). :: AC : CE [i. Again. 2. but the sum of ACB . Hence HB : BF :: DE : EF . CD may form one right line. Dem.].] two right angles. CD : CF :: GC : CB [i. Let AC : CE :: GC : CB . then it may be demonstrated. Now. the parallelograms are equal. that BC . HD.—Let the same construction be made.]. and that AC . which have one angle in one equal to one angle in the other. May be proved by reversing this demonstration.

PROP. E . but since AH is equal to F . If the rectangle contained by the extremes of four right lines be equal to the rectangle contained by the means. CI at right angles to AB and CD. E . the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. CD. since the triangles are the halves of equiangular parallelograms. then we have AC : CD :: triangle ACB : BCD [i.]. 1.—Let the same construction be made. : BCD :: EC : CB [i. E ) contained by the means. the triangles are equal. DCE are equal. 146 . CK is equal to the rectangle CD .Now since the triangles ACB . 2. to prove the triangle ACB equal to DCE . ix. that is.]. If four right lines (AB. If AC : CD :: EC : CB . and showing that it is parallel to BD. and that E is equal to CI . vii. we have AB : CD :: CI : AH .—1.].). and equal to F and E respectively.] equal. the rectangle (AB . Hence the parallelograms AG.]. the rectangle contained by the extremes is equal to the rectangle contained by the means.). and complete the rectangles. E. or it may be proved by joining AE . ACB ACB DCE AC : BCD :: DCE : BCD [V. CK are equiangular. Therefore they are [xiv. F .]—that is. Erect AH . : CD :: EC : CB . Then because AB : CD :: E : F (hyp.—Theorem. and have the sides about their equal angles reciprocally proportional. F = CD . Dem.). the four lines are proportional. Dem. In like manner. F ) be proportional. but and Therefore that is. and F to AH (const. : BCD :: AC : CD [i. Hence the triangle ACB = DCE [V.]. and but Therefore the triangle ACB : BCD :: DCE : BCD. This Proposition might have been appended as a Cor. XVI. Hence AB . to the preceding. AC : CD :: EC : CB (hyp. 2. F ) contained by the extremes is equal to the rectangle (CD . AG is equal to the rectangle AB . EC : CB :: triangle DCE : BCD [i.

that is. which is one of the fundamental Propositions in Mathematics. then it is easy to see that the triangles ACD. Exercises. C = B . then because A : B :: B : C . E . DE = CD2 + AD . the sides about their equal angles are reciprocally proportional.] AC : CD :: CE : CB . If three right lines (A. PROP. The rectangle contained by the diameter of the circumscribed circle. BO. since AC = B 2 . OC = BO . because AB . 147 . and the angle AOB = DOC . Let the four lines so placed be AO. and since these parallelograms are equiangular. OD. D. 3. B . Then because AO : OB :: OD : OC . is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of any chord of the circumscribed circle passing through the centre of the inscribed. Therefore [III. that is. CB = CE . but BD = B 2 . D are concyclic. ECB are equiangular. xxxv. F = CD . we have A . Join AB . Hence [iv. and the means another. OD. C ) contained by the extremes is equal to the square (B 2 ) of the mean. If AB . to the last. 2. DB [III. Therefore [xvi. Hence the four points A. CD.] AC = BD. XVII. Hence A : B :: B : C . but D = B . we have A : B :: D : C .2. its square added to the rectangle AD . and E to CI . C ) be proportional. CD = CD2 + CD . If a line CD bisect the vertical angle C of any triangle ACB . its square subtracted from the rectangle AD . that is. OC . the rectangle contained by the extremes is equal to the square of the mean.] AO . DB contained by the segments of the base is equal to the rectangle contained by the sides. This Proposition may be inferred as a Cor. CB . F = CD . E . If the line CD bisect the external vertical angle of any triangle ACB . 2.—1. If the rectangle contained by the extremes of three right lines be equal to the square of the mean. and produce CD to meet it in E . The same construction being made. C . 1. we have the parallelogram AG = CK . The same construction being made. Therefore AC = B 2 . the three lines are proportional. xxxv. AB : CD :: E : F. the triangles AOB . B. Dem. therefore A : B :: D : C . Assume a line D = B . therefore AC . Or thus: Place the four lines in a concurrent position so that the extremes may form one continuous line. Dem. the three lines are proportionals. D B is equal to AC . 2. Therefore AB : CD :: CI : AH . and that F is equal to AH . to prove AB : CD :: E : F . COD are equiangular. the rectangle (A .—Describe a circle about the triangle. and the radius of the inscribed circle of any triangle.].—Theorem 1.

and the sum of the base and altitude. Dem. 6. AL = AB . AE = AF . 148 . 4. Join AE . then AB . Then the triangles ABH . Hence AD . AE + GO . AG = AC . CB = CD . OH. F G. 7. Ex. GH . Dem. Therefore AB : AH :: AF : AE . 10. Therefore. let CE be the diameter. ECB are equal. Then the triangles ACE . AE. therefore BC : CH :: AF : AG. hence AC : CE :: CD : CB . OH.—AO . because EF B . CE .—Join EF . If through a point O within a triangle ABC parallels EF . OC .—Let O be the centre of the inscribed circle. AF = AD2 + BD . xxvii. AK + CH . CH . is equal to twice the area of the triangle. AG + AB . is equal to twice the area of the triangle. OGC are each right. OG = EB . DC . AD again in the points E . therefore EBO = sum of OCB . draw the diameter EF of the circumscribed circle. therefore EF . OBC = EOB . The rectangle contained by two sides of a triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendicular and the diameter of the circumscribed circle. OC = EO . therefore AC . AF . or AD . hence BC . EF : EB :: OC : OG. AF E are equiangular. the sum of the rectangles of their segments is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of any chord of the circumscribing circle passing through O. AC . AK + AH . and the diﬀerence between the base and altitude. This is an easy deduction from 6. then AB . AH . and EBF . For. F AG are equiangular. but we have proved AB . But Hence or AO = AG . Join OB (see foregoing ﬁg. and make the angle ABH = AF E . AO . OK + GO . 3 may be extended to each of the escribed circles of the triangle ACB .]. The rectangle contained by the side of an inscribed square standing on the base of a triangle. OL = BG . G and the diagonal AC again in F . AE + AC . 5. AO .Dem. Again. Again. IK to the sides be drawn. 8. Hence AB . AE = AF . it is easy to see that the triangles BCH . Hence EB = EO. DF be parallels to the sides of a triangle ABC from any point D in the base. 2 (6) (7) 9. AH . Now the angle ABE = ECB [III. AE + AD . OH. the triangles EBF . DCB are equiangular. let fall the perpendicular OG. AE = AF .). AG = AF . OL = EO . OF + IO . If a circle passing through one of the angles A of a parallelogram ABCD intersect the two sides AB . AE − GO . If DE . AG = AF . The rectangle contained by the side of an escribed square standing on the base of a triangle. and ABO = OBC . OGC are equiangular. CH . AK + AC .

the angle ABH equal to CDE . Hence AD . PROP. DA. therefore AC . BC = AC . CD = AC . 149 . AD. its square is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the chord on the tangent at P . In like manner construct the triangle HAI 3 This Proposition is known as Ptolemy’s theorem. and if a perpendicular to AB from any point C meet P A. If O be the point of intersection of the diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. If the quadrilateral ABCD is not cyclic. If AB be the diameter of a semicircle. 15. and similarly placed as regards any side (CD) of the latter. AB . and CD : AC :: BO : AB . DA .3 14. CD . BC . CO. BC . and P A. DO . the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars on the diagonals is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars on either pair of opposite sides. and similarly placed as regards CD. the triangles DAC .—Similar ﬁgures are said to be similarly described upon given right lines. therefore AD . BD are proportional to the three sides of a triangle which has an angle equal to the sum of a pair of opposite angles of the quadrilateral. BO. 16. Sol.—Join CE . Def. BD. Prove by using Theorem 11 that if perpendiculars be let fall on the sides and diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral. therefore AD : DO :: AC : CB . P B in D and E . 13. make. Dem. that is. CF . The sum of the rectangles of the opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD is equal to the rectangle contained by its diagonals. CD. OAB are equiangular. AO. CAB are equiangular. If from any point P in the circumference of a circle a perpendicular be drawn to any chord.11. XVIII. prove that the three rectangles AB . 12. the four rectangles AB . CF is a mean proportional between CD and CE . and the semicircle in F . BD . when these lines are homologous sides of the ﬁgures. DO. P B chords from any point P in the circumference. from any point in the circumference of the circumscribed circle. CD = AC . BC + AB .—Make the angle DAO = CAB . then the triangles DAO. CD. and construct a triangle ABH on AB equiangular to CDE . and BAH equal to DCE . AC . Again. are proportional to the four lines BO. On a given right line (AB ) to construct a rectilineal ﬁgure similar to a given one (CDEF G).—Problem.

The ﬁrst of the ﬁgures thus constructed is said to be directly similar. 150 . that is. 1. also the sides BH . J will be respectively on the lines CE .—From the construction it is evident that the ﬁgures are equiangular. Similar triangles (ABC. E are reciprocally proportional. from the same triangles we have BH : HA :: DE : EC . Again.). Join AG. and it is evident that we may take AB to be homologous to any other side of the given ﬁgure CDEF G. therefore the triangles are equal. XIX. PROP. DEF about the equal angles B . I . Then ABHIJ is the ﬁgure required. 3. Again. Dem.—Theorem. DEF ) have their areas to one another in the duplicate ratio of their homologous sides. CG. therefore [V. EF [xi. F G of the other. Cor. IJ of the one polygon will be respectively parallel to their homologous sides DE . hence the sides about the equal angles B and D are proportional. it the ﬁgure ABHIJ be turned round the line AB until it falls on the other side. DEF are similar. These technical terms are due to Hamilton: see “Elements of Quaternions. then the points H .].—If the ﬁgure ABHIJ be applied to CDEF G so that the point A will coincide with C . in each case. Now because the triangle ABH is equiangular to CDE .—If lines drawn from any point O in the plane of a ﬁgure to all its angular points be divided in the same ratio. hence the sides of the triangles ABG. and lastly. and it is only required to prove that the sides about the equal angles are proportional. i.—In the foregoing construction.] AB : DE :: EF : BG. the triangle IAJ equiangular and similarly placed with F CG. CF . Hence (Def. AB : BC :: DE : EF . the sides about the equal angles BHI .—Take BG a third proportional to BC .) the ﬁgures are similar. and from the triangles IHA. and having the given line AB homologous to any given side CD of the given ﬁgure. DEF are proportional. Hence on a given line AB there can be constructed two ﬁgures each similar to a given ﬁgure CDEF G. Cor.equiangular to ECF . HA : HI :: EC : EF . but BC : EF :: EF : BG (const. the lines joining the points of division will form a new ﬁgure similar to. EF . Then because the triangles ABC . and the second inversely similar to the given ﬁgure. Observation. 2. and having every side parallel to. and that the line AB may be placed along CD.—Twice as many polygons may be constructed on AB similar to a given polygon CDEF G as that ﬁgure has sides. HI .” page 112. F EC . the line AB is homologous to CD. it will still be similar to the ﬁgure CDEF G. xi. the homologous side of the original. hence (alternately) AB : DE :: BC : EF . and so in like manner are the sides about the other equal angles. Cor. AB : BH :: CD : DE [iv.]. Dem. therefore (ex æquali ) BH : HI :: DE : EF . and similarly placed.

viz. DN . Now. Def. JA : AG :: OD : DL. which. My experience with pupils is. AC : AB :: DF : DE [iv. JA : AG :: AI : square AH [i. the triangles JAC .) described on these lines. and DE = DL. AI : DN :: AH : DM [V. Hence but Hence but therefore Again. since the lines BC . JA : AB :: OD : DE (ex æquali ). x. AB = AG. Def. and through C and F draw lines parallel to AB and DE .]. Therefore ABC : ABG in the duplicate ratio of BC : EF . EF . BC : BG in the duplicate ratio of BC : EF [V. but it has been proved that the triangle ABG is equal to DEF . ABC : DEF :: AB 2 : DE 2 . the ratio of the squares (see Annotations on V. however. x.Again.]. This is the ﬁrst Proposition in Euclid in which the technical term “duplicate ratio” occurs. and complete the rectangles AI . but BC : BG :: triangle ABC : ABG. xvi. AI : AH :: DN : DM .]. On this account I submit the following alternative proof. makes use of a new deﬁnition of the duplicate ratio of two lines. ODF are evidently equiangular.]. OD : DL :: DN : square DM [i. Therefore the triangle ABC is to the triangle DEF in the duplicate ratio of BC : EF .]. BG are continual proportionals. On AB and DE describe squares. 151 . and Hence therefore hence JA : AC :: OD : DF [iv. that they ﬁnd it very diﬃcult to understand either Euclid’s proof or his deﬁnition.].

Join AH . When the inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons of any common number of sides to a circle have more than four sides. AHI : CEF in the duplicate ratio of AH : CE . hence (ex aequali ) IH : HA :: F E : EC . If one of two similar triangles has its sides 50 per cent. In like manner. and since the triangles ABH . (2) the corresponding triangles have the same ratio to one another which the polygons have. and the angle IHA has been proved to be equal to the angle F EC . and AB : BH :: CD : DE .]. therefore [vi. AI . therefore the angle AHI is equal to CEF . and have the sides about their equal angles proportional [Def. Dem.].). Since the triangle ABH is similar to CDE . and let the sides AB . For. In the same manner it can be proved that the remaining triangles are equiangular.] the triangle ABH is equiangular to CDE .—Theorem.—Let ABHIJ . since the polygons are similar. 152 . HB : HA :: ED : EC . AHI : CEF = AIJ : CF G. because the polygons are similar. ABH : CDE in the duplicate ratio of AH : CE. The triangles into which the polygons are divided are similar. Again. CE . ABH : CDE = AHI : CEF [V. xi. F EC are equiangular. what is the ratio of their areas? 2. CDE are similar. longer than the homologous sides of the other. hence the angle B is equal to D. they are equiangular. IH : HB :: F E : ED. hence Similarly. XX. we have [xix. 1. PROP. 2. CF . i. (3) the polygons are to each other in the duplicate ratio of their homologous sides.Exercises. CDEF G be the polygons. 1. hence the angle BHA is equal to DEC . the diﬀerence of their areas is less than the square of the side of the inscribed polygon. therefore the triangles IHA. but BHI is equal to DEF (hyp.]. Similar polygons may be divided (1) into the same number of similar triangles. CD be homologous.

Cor. C describe two circles intersecting again in the point O: O will be the point required.). x. For. that lines drawn from them to the angular points of the two ﬁgures are proportional to the homologous sides of the two ﬁgures. 2. then it is easy to see that lines from P to the angular points of A B C D are proportional to the lines from P to the angular points of ABCD.—The perimeters of similar polygons are to one another in the ratio of their homologous sides. Def. and construct a triangle A P B on A B . Cor. B .—Similar portions of similar ﬁgures bear the same ratio to each other as the wholes of the ﬁgures. AHI . will be parallel. It is also called their double point. P a point in the plane of ABCD. let AB . Join AP . 4. CEF .In these equal ratios. is its own homologous point with respect to the other. Dem.]. xii. C . and the triangles CDE . CF G the consequents. BP .—Similar portions of the perimeters of similar ﬁgures are to each other in the ratio of the whole perimeters. Def. regarded as belonging to either ﬁgure. 3. AB . so that the two bases. A B be two homologous sides of the ﬁgures.—The point O is called the centre of similitude of the ﬁgures. A B . there is in the plane a special point which. the triangles ABH .—As squares are similar polygons. similar to AP B . ii. Exercises.—Homologous points in the planes of two similar ﬁgures are such. Cor.] any one of these equal ratios is equal to the ratio of the sum of all the antecedents to the sum of all the consequents. and [V.—Let ABCD. Hence (2) the polygon ABHIJ : the polygon CDEF G in the duplicate ratio of AB : CD. 3. OA B are similar and that either may be turned round the point O. Cor. therefore the duplicate ratio of two lines is equal to the ratio of the squares described on them (compare Annotations. A . If two ﬁgures be directly similar. 2. B . Def. 1. Through the two triads of points A. and in the same plane. AIJ are the antecedents. V. i. 1. Two regular polygons of n sides each have n centres of similitude. therefore the triangle ABH : the triangle CDE :: the polygon ABHIJ : the polygon CDEF G. C their point of intersection. to each point in the plane of one there will be a corresponding point in the plane of the other. 153 . The triangle ABH : CDE in the duplicate ratio of AB : CD [xix. If two ﬁgures be similar. 3. A B C D be the two ﬁgures. For it is evident that the triangles OAB .

1). as in Ex. B O C are similar. The circumference of sectors having equal central angles are proportional to their radii. so that the arc AB may be regarded as a right line.—Theorem. A O B are similar. If two polygons be directly similar. = . Proceeding in this way. we see that the circles can be divided into the same number of similar elementary triangles. 13. If two ﬁgures be homothetic. 15. are said to be homothetic . and have the sides about their equal angles proportional. and have the sides about their equal angles proportional. two circles have in consequence an inﬁnite number of centres of similitude. 8. 10. Therefore they are similar. Dem. make the angle BOC indeﬁnitely small. and these are as the squares of the radii. and have the sides about their equal angles proportional. PROP. The area of a sector of a circle is equal to half the rectangle contained by the arc of the sector and the radius of the circle. Dem. a denote the arcs of two sectors. Sectors of circles having equal central angles are similar ﬁgures. Hence A and B are equiangular. they are equiangular. they have a common centre of similitude. are similar to one another. In like manner B and C are equiangular. If two ﬁgures be directly similar. r be their radii. and make B O C equal to it. If any number of similar triangles have their corresponding vertices lying on three given lines. 5. and have a pair of homologous sides parallel. whose diameter is the line joining the two points for which the two circles are homothetic.—Two ﬁgures.4. For they are to one another as the similar elementary triangles into which they are divided. B ). such as those in 5. 8. 11. the triangles BOC . 6. which are similar to the same ﬁgure (C ). Hence the circles are similar ﬁgures. their locus is the circle. This is evident by dividing the circle into elementary triangles. let the angle AOB be indeﬁnitely small. 9. then the triangles AOB . The area of a circle is equal to half the rectangle contained by the circumference and the radius. and a a if r. As any two points of two circles may be regarded as homologous. XXI. Again. 154 .—Since the ﬁgures A and C are similar. 12. and the point of concurrence is the centre of similitude of the ﬁgures. either may be turned round their centre of similitude until they become homothetic. The areas of circles are to one another as the squares of their diameters. Rectilineal ﬁgures (A. 7. Def. The circumferences of circles are as their diameters (Cor. r r 14. O be their centres. Two circles are similar ﬁgures. which subtend equal angles at the centres.—Let O. make the angle A O B equal to AOB . every pair of homologous sides will be parallel. the lines joining corresponding angular points are concurrent. and this may be done in two diﬀerent ways. iii. Hence if a.

AB : CD :: EF : GH . CDL) be similarly described on the ﬁrst and second. GH ) be proportional.].—ABK : CDL :: AB 2 : CD2 and therefore Hence EI : GJ :: EF : GH 2 2 2 2 2 2 [xx. if any rectilineal ﬁgure described on the ﬁrst of four right lines: the similar and similarly described ﬁgure described on the second :: any rectilineal ﬁgure on the third : the similar and similarly described ﬁgure on the fourth. AB : CD :: EF : GH. Conversely. Dem. and But since therefore EI : GJ :: EF 2 : GH 2 [xx. ABK : CDL :: EI : GJ. Dem. AB 2 : CD2 :: EF 2 : GH 2 [V. CD. their three centres of similitudes are collinear. PROP. the four lines are proportional.]. Exercise. XXII—Theorem. and any pair of similar rectilineal ﬁgures (ABK.]. two by two.Cor. xxii. [xx. Cor. AB : CD :: EF : GH.]. and also any pair (EI. [xx. If three similar rectilineal ﬁgures be homothetic.. 1. EF. AB : CD :: EF : GH . 1]. If four lines (AB.—Two similar rectilineal ﬁgures which are homothetic to a third are homothetic to one another. 2. these ﬁgures are proportional. GJ ) on the third and fourth. If ABK : CDL :: EI : GJ .—ABK : CDL :: AB 2 : CD2 . 155 .

Equiangular parallelograms (AD. 156 . since the lines EF . they are equiangular [I. the four ﬁgures should be similar. CBG. be placed so as to form one right line. Hence or Observation. therefore [iv. F C . BC about the equal angles ABD.—Theorem. BD form one right line.]. then it is evident.—Since AB . F C are similar. Z . Def.] AE : EF :: AB : BC . ABC are equiangular.The enunciation of this Proposition is wrongly stated in Simson’s Euclid. Cor. : Y Z :: AB . and all that is required to be proved is. AB . but it is more easily understood as we have put it. EF . BD : BC . xxxiv.—Let the two sides AB . AF have a common angle. CG) are to each other as the rectangles contained by their sides about a pair of equal angles. as in Prop. Now. : Z :: AB . In the same manner the parallelograms AF . are to one another in the ratio of the rectangles of the sides about those angles. therefore the parallelograms AF . respectively. As given in those works. that the sides about the equal angles are proportional. PROP. 2. and in those that copy it. homothetic.. : Z :: BD : BG [i.” which is Euclid’s. Y . BG is compounded of the two ratios AB : BC and BD : BG [V. two by two. XXIV.—Since the parallelograms AC . BD : BC . BD : BC . Exercises. XXIII. “in the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. and the other sides of the parallelograms are equal to AE . Complete the parallelogram BF . AC are. PROP. of compound ratio]. F C ) which are about a diagonal are similar to the whole and to one another. denoting the parallelograms AB .]. we have— X Y XY X : Y :: AB : BC [i. every two parallelograms (AF. Now. Dem. Two quadrilaterals whose diagonals intersect at equal angles are to one another in the ratio of the rectangles of the diagonals. BF . BC : hence the sides about the equal angles are proportional. BG. Triangles which have one angle of one equal or supplemental to one angle of the other. In any parallelogram (AC ). CG by X . xiv. 1. BC are parallel. AC are similar. that GB . the triangles AEF . BG.]. Dem.—Theorem. the enunciation is the same as if we said.—The parallelograms AF .

Hence it is the ﬁgure required.PROP. To describe a rectilineal ﬁgure equal to a given one (A). Def. Therefore the ﬁgure GHI is equal to A. also BC : CF :: rectangle BE : rectangle EF . therefore the rectangle EF is equal to the ﬁgure GHI . therefore BC : CF in the duplicate ratio of BC : GH [V. and on it describe the ﬁgure GHI similar to BCD [xviii. XXV.—The three lines BC . x. and it is similar to BCD. Sol. and similar to another given one (BCD). and since the ﬁgures BCD. but EF is equal to A (const. Dem. Hence rectangle BE : EF :: ﬁgure BCD : GHI . GHI is the ﬁgure required. GHI are similar. 157 . CF ﬁnd a mean proportional GH .]. Between BC . and on CE describe the rectangle EF equal to A.—On any side BC of the ﬁgure BCD describe the rectangle BE equal to BCD [I.].].—Problem. so that BC and GH may be homologous sides. BCD : GHI in the duplicate ratio of BC : GH [xx. but the rectangle BE is equal to the ﬁgure BCD.). GH . CF are in continued proportion. xlv.].

Hence BP is the maximum parallelogram which can be inscribed in the given triangle. Now. xiv. hence EO is greater than F D.” PROP. GD to meet CK in K and J . hence [I. Hence the line AC must pass through the point F .).]. Cor. at P : through P draw P E .]. XXVI. Then because the parallelograms AEF G.].). To inscribe in a given triangle (ABC ) the maximum parallelogram having a common angle (B ) with the triangle. therefore LM N O is equal to GHI .—Take any other point D in AC : draw DG.. they are about the same diagonal.—Bisect the side AC opposite to the angle B .—Draw the diagonals (see ﬁg. XXVII—Problem. but DK is equal to F D [I. BP is the parallelogram required. and therefore the parallelograms are about the same diagonal. xxxvi. has evidently been misplaced. and it is similar to BCD.—Theorem. being the converse of xxiv.—The maximum parallelogram exceeds any other parallelogram about the same angle in the triangle.—Proposition xxvi. therefore EO is greater than DK . GHI is the ﬁgure required. EK is also bisected in P .. Dem. but EF JK is equal to BCD (const. ABCD are similar ﬁgures. LM . and BC [xii. so that BC and GH may be homologous sides. AC . 158 . xliii. they are about the same diagonal. Sol. P F parallel to the other sides of the triangle. which is the corner of the other inscribed parallelogram. The following would be a simpler enunciation:—“If two homothetic parallelograms have a common angle. and CK parallel to AB . LM N O equal to the ﬁgures BCD and A respectively [II. Dem. produce EP .Or thus: Describe the squares EF JK . Therefore GHI is equal to A.]. and we have the parallelogram BP greater than BD.].—Because EF : LM :: BC : GH (const. DH parallel to the sides. Hence the triangle F AG is similar to CAD. and therefore the angle F AG is equal to the angle CAD.) AF . xxiv. If two similar and similarly situated parallelograms (AEF G. Prop. they can be divided into the same number of similar triangles [xx.). the ﬁgure EF JK : LM N O :: BCD : GHI [xxii.]. Dem. On GH describe the rectilineal ﬁgure GHI similar to the ﬁgure BCD [xviii. Observation. since AC is bisected in P .] the parallelogram EO is equal to OK . ABCD) have a common angle. and produce HD to meet P K in I .. but LM N O is equal to A (const. 1. PROP. by the area of the similar parallelogram whose diagonal is the line between the middle point P of the opposite side and the point D. then ﬁnd GH a fourth proportional to EF . To each add BO.

If not. then [xxvii. cutting AC in D. P E parallel to the sides AB . BD is the parallelogram required.—Bisect the side AC opposite to B . at P .] P D is equal to KN . and (const. Sol. hence [xx.] equal to the diﬀerence between the ﬁgure P JCF and X . P D is the diﬀerence between EF and GH [xxvii. 1].—Problem. then cut oﬀ P I equal to KL.—Since the parallelograms P C . and having one angle common with it.—The parallelograms inscribed in a triangle. draw IH parallel to AB . 2. Draw P F . but P C is similar to KP T (const. are proportional to the rectangles contained by the segments of the sides of the triangle. PROP. Now.] BP is the maximum parallelogram that can be inscribed in the triangle ABC . DC .) their homologous sides. Hence GH is equal to X . Cor. produce EP . and draw DG parallel to BC . P D are about the same diagonal. To inscribe in a given triangle (ABC ) a parallelogram equal to a given rectilineal ﬁgure (X ) not greater than the maximum inscribed parallelogram. then describe the parallelogram KLM N [xxv. and draw CJ parallel to P F . and having an angle common with an external angle (B ) of the triangle. Dem. and KN is (const.—Problem. and similar to P JCF . and having an angle (B ) common with the triangle. Cor.) the diﬀerence between P C and X . but EF is equal to P C . therefore the diﬀerence between P C and X is equal to the diﬀerence between EF and GH . XXIX. therefore P D is similar to KN . PROP. BC . XXVIII. P I and KL. and so that the sides P J and KL will be homologous.Cor. the problem is solved. 159 . are equal. made by the opposite corners of the parallelograms.—The parallelogram AC : GH :: AC 2 : AD .). 3. they are similar [xxiv. To escribe to a given triangle (ABC ) a parallelogram equal to a given rectilineal ﬁgure (X ).]. and if X be equal to it.

AB : AC :: AC : BC [xvii. 3. Observation. or the diﬀerence (const. draw IH parallel to AB .” Sol.). and the rest of the construction as before. xi.—Because the rectangle AB . D (see ﬁg. Some writers recommend the student to omit them—we think diﬀerently. BC is equal to the square on AC. The constructions and demonstrations are Euclid’s.—The enunciations of the three foregoing Propositions have been altered. as in II. ii. In the same case the greater segment of the hypotenuse is equal to the least side of the triangle.). and has an angle common with the external angle B . vi.—The construction is the same as the last. the hypotenuse is divided in extreme and mean ratio by the perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse.—Now it can be proved. instead of making the parallelogram KN equal to the excess of the parallelogram P C over the rectilineal ﬁgure X . 1. PROP. equal to the diﬀerence between the parallelograms P D and P C .Sol. BC may be equal to the square on AC [II.—Theorem. The square on the diameter of the circle described about the triangle formed by the points F . xi. is equal to six times the square on the line F D. that is. and BD is escribed to the triangle ABC .]. that is (const. XXX.. 160 . H . If the three sides of a right-angled triangle be in continued proportion. and then make P I equal to KL.] Then C is the point required. so that the rectangle AB .]. except that. Dem. II. Hence AB is cut in extreme and mean ratio in C [Def. To divide a given line (AB ) in “extreme and mean ratio. equal to X . In the form we have given them they are freed from their usual repulsive appearance.—Divide AB in C . that the parallelogram BD is equal to the gnomon OHJ . 2. Hence the thing required is done.) between KN and P C . we make it equal to their sum. in order to express them in modern technical language. but slightly modiﬁed. Dem. Exercises.

Or thus: Let us denote the sides by a. Cor. CDE ) which have two sides of one proportional to two sides of the other (AB : BC :: CD : DE ).] AB : sum of AD and BD :: ﬁgure described on the line AB : sum of the ﬁgures described on the lines AC . but AB is equal to the sum of AD and BD. they are in the duplicate ratio of BA : AC [xx.PROP. 4]. γ c β b2 = 2. If semicircles be described on supplemental chords of a semicircle. Again. BC . XXXI. Hence [V. the sum of the areas of the two crescents thus formed is equal to the area of the triangle whose sides are the supplemental chords and the diameter. PROP. xlvii. because the ﬁgures described on BA. Therefore α + β = γ . If any similar rectilineal ﬁgure be similarly described on the three sides of a right-angled triangle (ABC ).]. the sum of the ﬁgures on the sides is equal to the ﬁgure on the hypotenuse. c. γ c2 but a2 + b2 = c2 [I. and the contained angles (B. D) equal. the ﬁgure on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of those described on the two other sides. Exercise.—Theorem. 161 .]. therefore a2 α = 2. be joined at an angle (C ). b. a. γ . AC are similar.]. we have [xx. that is.] α : γ :: a2 : c2 therefore In like manner. then because the ﬁgures are similar. Therefore [V. the remaining sides are in the same right line. Then because ABC is a rightangled triangle. In like manner.—Draw the perpendicular CD [I. If two triangles (ABC. XXXII. Hence [V. and the ﬁgures by α. BD : AD in the duplicate ratio of BA : AC [viii. Dem. xi. and CD is drawn from the right angle perpendicular to the hypotenuse. so as to have their homologous sides parallel.—Theorem.] BA : AD :: ﬁgure described on BA : ﬁgure described on AC.] the ﬁgure described on the line AB is equal to the sum of the similar ﬁgures described on the lines AC and BC . γ c a2 + b2 α+β = . xii. β . xxiv. AB : BD :: ﬁgure described on AB : ﬁgure described on BC .

EP F ). and we have the sum of the angles BAC . the angle BOC . each equal to BC . Join OG. equal to.. Hence [V.] AC . and other equimultiples of the second and fourth.—Because the triangles ABC . ACD is [I. xiv. and the angle EP F . Then because the arcs BC . according as the arc BH is greater than. 162 . each equal to EF . CE are in the same right line. XXXIII. In like manner it may be proved that the arc EJ and the angle EP J are equimultiples of the arc EF and the angle EP F . it is evident that the angle BOH is greater than. To each add ACD.–Theorem. are all equal [III. In equal circles. or less than the angle EP J . according as the multiple of the ﬁrst is greater than. since the circles are equal. Join IP . or less than the arc EJ . the arc EF . the arc BH . Therefore the arc BH and the angle BOH are equimultiples of the arc BC and the angle BOC . therefore the angle BAC is equal to DCE . IJ . the angles BOC . JP . CG. equal to. Take any number of arcs CG. EDF ) at the circumferences have the same ratio to one another as the arcs (BC. or less than the multiple of the second. GH are all equal. namely. GH in the ﬁrst circle.] two right angles. equal to. the arc BC . PROP. Def. CDE have the angles B and D equal.].—1. and the sides about these angles proportional. v. Hence [I. viz. OH . and we have proved that.] BC : EF :: the angle BOC : EP F . the multiple of the third is greater than. AB : BC :: CD : DE .Dem. xxvii. namely. therefore the sum of DCE and ACD is two right angles. EP F ) at the centres or (BAC. the angle BOH . Dem. and in the second circle take any number of arcs F I . EF ) on which they stand. ACD equal to the sum of DCE and ACD. and we have taken equimultiples of the ﬁrst and third. and so also have the sectors (BOC. they are equiangular [vi. but the sum of BAC . COG. angles (BOC.]. xxix. namely. or less than the multiple of the fourth. the arc EJ and the angle EP J . Again. GOH . Now we have four magnitudes. equal to.

When is a ﬁgure said to be given in species? 7. In like manner the sectors COG. How many to deﬁne similar rectilineal ﬁgures of more than three sides? 6. Hence the sectors BOC . How many conditions are necessary to deﬁne similar triangles? 5. the sector BOH is greater than. xi. Questions for Examination on Book VI. that if the arc BH is greater than. What is the altitude of a rectilineal ﬁgure? 12. sector BOC : sector EP F :: arc BC : arc EF . If two ﬁgures be inversely similar. If both bases and altitudes diﬀer. therefore the arc BH and the sector BOH are equimultiples of the arc BC and the sector BOC . Hence there are as many equal sectors as there are equal arcs. 2.Again. since the angle BAC is half the angle BOC [III. 14] and sector EP F = 2 rectangle contained by the arc EF and the radius of the circle EDF . by superposition. What is meant by ﬁgures inversely similar? 20. 19. 11. how do the areas vary? 15.? Ans. equal to.]. Ex. [V. xx. GOH are equal. their radii are equal. prove that their perpendiculars are reciprocally proportional to the bases. COG are congruent (see Observation. Hence. BAC : EDF :: BC : EF [V. or less than the arc EJ . What is the subject-matter of Book VI. xv. and the radius of the circle ABC Sector BOC = 1 2 1 [xx. The sector BOC : sector EP F :: BC : EF . Deﬁne two mean proportionals. Application of the theory of proportion. If two triangles have equal areas. If two triangles have equal altitudes. Hence [V. v. the angle BOC is equal to COG.].). 1. Deﬁne reciprocal proportion. how do their areas vary? 13.. since the arc BC is equal to CG. How do these areas vary if they have equal bases but unequal altitudes? 14. how can they be changed into ﬁgures directly similar? 163 . Def. therefore they are equal. In the same manner it may be proved that the arc EJ and the sector EP J are equimultiples of the arc EF and the sector EP F . and EDF is half the angle EP F . What is a mean proportional between two lines? 10. what property holds for the lines joining the other pairs of homologous points? 17.] the arc BC : EF :: sector BOC : sector EP F . What do similar ﬁgures agree in? 4. and since the circles are equal. When are two lines divided proportionally? 16. BAC : EDF :: BOC : EP F BOC : EP F :: BC : EF. What are similar rectilineal ﬁgures? 3. Dem. When in magnitude? 8. If in two lines divided proportionally a pair of homologous points coincide with their point of intersection. equal to. Book III. or less than the sector EP J . and it is evident. Proposition xxix. When in position? 9. The second part may be proved as follows:— rectangle contained by the arc BC . but Hence 2.].—The same construction being made. 18.

B . B .21. 7. How many ﬁgures similar to a given rectilineal ﬁgure of sides can be described on a given line? 24. B . d . r . r r 1 1 = + . 3. Ans. r . prove AB . &c. which lie on a circle. If in a ﬁxed triangle we draw a variable parallel to the base. 1. OA B . B . If R. Find the locus of the point which divides in a given ratio the several lines drawn from a given point to the circumference of a given circle. HL = HE . 23. B C . 25. 12R2 = d2 + d 2 + d 2 + d 2 . p p r 1 1 = − . 2. prove DE . B C . n centres. p p r 1 1 1 + − = . LH . r r 164 . d . LE . L the point where the bisector of the angle A meets BC . H the point of contact of the inscribed circle with BC . Two lines AB . p . In the same case. C A. r be the radii of the circumscribed. How many centres of similitude can two regular polygons of n sides each have? Ans. If on a variable line AC . the triangles OAB . prove (m + n)CC = nAA + mBB . then R2 = d2 + 2Rr = d 2 − 2Rr . a point C be taken such that the rectangle AB . How do the areas of similar rectilineal ﬁgures vary? 27. BK = BD . C . Three concurrent lines from the vertices of a triangle ABC meet the opposite sides in A . BC . 22. 11. BB . CC . prove AB . 8. AC is constant. respectively. Ans. and the escribed circles of a plane triangle. XY . If D be the middle point of the base BC of a triangle ABC . CA = −A B . Give an example of two triangles inversely similar. d. the inscribed. 29. How many centres of similitude have two circles? Exercises on Book VI. What proposition is xix. If p . B . &c. If two lines passing through any point O outside a circle intersect it in pairs of points A. are drawn in any direction meeting XY in the points A . which touches the other sides produced. C A. The centre of similitude of the two ﬁgures. 4. A . p denote the perpendiculars of a triangle. are inversely similar. drawn from a ﬁxed point A to any point B in the circumference of a given circle. 9. &c. BC . In the same case. &c. What point is it round which a ﬁgure can be turned so as to bring its sides into positions of parallelism with the sides of a similar rectilineal ﬁgure.. If a transversal meet the sides of a triangle ABC in the points A . 10. What are homothetic ﬁgures? 26. if K be the point of contact with BC of the escribed circle. HD. and parallels AA . the locus of the points of intersection of the diagonals of the trapezium thus cut oﬀ from the triangle is the median that bisects the base. Deﬁne Philo’s line. C . a special case of? 28. E the foot of the perpendicular. CA = A B . 5. the locus of C is a circle. are given in position: AB is divided in C in the ratio m : n. then 1 p 1 (2) p 2 (3) p 2 (4) p (1) + 1 1 1 + = . C . 6. r. d the distances of the centre of the circumscribed circle from the centres of the others..

and the point C . If two circles touch externally. In a given triangle inscribe another of given form. CA. 21. and two ﬁxed points A.12. OC be cut by two transversals in the two systems of points A. OB . 14. = c . ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral: the lines AB . the three rectangles AD . any two secants passing through one of the points are cut proportionally by the circles. The line joining the middle points of the diagonals of a quadrilateral circumscribed to a circle— (1) divides each pair of opposite sides into inversely proportional segments. CF and DE pass each through a ﬁxed point. respectively. 165 . the chord of contact passes through a ﬁxed point on the line connecting the centres of the ﬁxed circles. their common tangent is a mean proportional between their diameters. If there be given three parallel lines. B . AD . 19. ﬁnd the locus of the third. C . and the point B move along a ﬁxed line or circle. the locus of another is a right line or circle. are given in position. are proportional to the sides. CB are two tangents to a circle. about the triangles OAB . (2) is divided by each pair of opposite lines into segments which. the locus of the point C is a circle. prove OB OC OA + + = 1. 23. 20. ﬁnd the locus of the point which divides BD in a given ratio. If three concurrent lines OA. If three lines from the vertices of a triangle ABC to any interior point O meet the opposite sides in the points A . OCA. the locus of any point in its plane is a circle. respectively: prove AB OC BC OA CA OB . measured from either diagonal. A . AA BB CC 24. (2) in terms of its perpendiculars. (3) is divided by both pairs of opposite sides into segments which. (2) in geometrical progression if one base angle be right. 13. = . DB . If CD. B . C . Find a point O in the plane of a triangle ABC . CB . BE is perpendicular to AD. One of the vertices of a triangle of given form remains ﬁxed. 17. BD are proportional to the squares of AD. CD be the internal and external bisectors of the angle C of the triangle ACB . have the same ratio to each other. prove that CD bisects BE . OBC . may be in the ratios of three given lines. B . and having one of its angles at a given point in one of the sides of the original triangle. 26. AD . E and F . AC . measured from the centre. If a triangle of given form move so that its three sides pass through three ﬁxed points. then if the lines of connexion of A and B to any variable point in one of the parallels intersect the other parallels in the points C and D. (3) in harmonical progression if the sum of the base angles be equal to a right angle. 22. AD. AC . C . The angle A and the area of a triangle ABC are given in magnitude: if the point A be ﬁxed in position. B . If a variable circle touch two ﬁxed circles. If a system of circles pass through two ﬁxed points. A B OC B C OA C A OB 25. the diameter through A. 16. 27. 15. and are—(1) in arithmetical progression if the diﬀerence of the base angles be equal to a right angle. Find the area of a triangle—(1) in terms of its medians. 18. such that the diameters of the three circles.

A. Hence C is a given point. 31. Join A O. Now. the locus of the point dividing A B in a given ratio is a right line. xi. Through two given points describe a circle whose common chord with another given circle may be parallel to a given line. 43. d denote the four sides. DD . prove that the sides of the triangle. B be two ﬁxed points on two lines given in position. such that the triangle whose angular points are the feet of the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on the bisector of the vertical angle. and D. DD 2 = AB . 42. &c. each of these is divided by the other in the same ratio as the sides which determine them. such that the ratio AA : BB is constant. and if we denote by 12 the common tangent to the ﬁrst and second. may be a maximum. then 12 . Prove the converse of Ptolemy’s theorem (see xvii. and the line O P is perpendicular to DD . If a variable circle touch two ﬁxed circles. 14 = 13 . Ex. 38. If A. AO. formed by joining the feet of the perpendiculars from any of its angular points on the sides of the triangle formed by the three remaining points. are proportional to the three rectangles ac. ρ . Let AB and OO meet in C . and the foot of the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. 28. the tangent to it from their centre of similitude. 37.—Let O. 30. A B . 35. If a. 32. Describe a circle which shall—(1) pass through a given point.]. describe it so as to cut the legs of a given angle along a chord parallel to a given line. BO meet in O [III. 166 . b. 27) be produced. If four circles be tangential to a ﬁfth. c. the radii of O. If a line EF divide proportionally two opposite sides of a quadrilateral. are such that their nine-points circles have one common point. O the centre of the variable circle.Dem. 33. the choice of sign depending on the nature of the contacts. in a given ratio. B respectively. therefore OC : O C :: OA : O B . 36. Being given the centre of a circle. they meet in a point on the circumference of O . BD (see ﬁg. B two variable points. O AB are isosceles. is of constant length.. bd. If DD be the common tangent to the two circles. 40. 41... B the points of contact. If the lines AD. or pass through a given point. 29. and A . BO . that is. D the diagonals of a quadrilateral. (2) touch three given circles. O be the centres of the two ﬁxed circles. whose sides touch the circle at the angular points of the inscribed quadrilateral. and a line GH the other sides. In a circle. because the triangles OAA . 34. If R denote the radius of O and ρ. through which the chord of contact passes (27). and touch two given circles. and cut the ﬁxed circles again in the points A . The four triangles which are determined by four points. In a given circle inscribe a triangle. O . 13). 34 + 23 . DD 2 : AB 2 :: (R±ρ)(R±ρ ) : R2 . the point of intersection of the diagonals of any inscribed quadrilateral coincides with the point of intersection of the diagonals of the circumscribed quadrilateral. The inscribed and escribed circles of any triangle are all touched by its nine-points circle. taken three by three. Hence OA is parallel to O B . 39. the angle O BA = O AB = OA A. This follows from 28. Ex. 24. Then AO.

If the base and the diﬀerence of the base angles of a triangle be given. 55.—The centre of mean position of any number of points A. so that GH = 1 3 1 divide HD in K . being given two opposite angles. 45. The external bisectors of the angles of a triangle meet the opposite sides in three collinear points. Join G GC . and to a third point C . so that the radii of the circles inscribed in them may have a given ratio. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from its centre on the bisectors of the angle formed by the lines is given. the perpendiculars at P to these lines meet the opposite sides of the triangle in three collinear points. State and prove the corresponding theorem for perpendiculars on the external bisector. Divide a given semicircle into two parts by a perpendicular to the diameter. the lines from the angles of the triangle to the middle points of the segments of the transversal intercepted by those angles meet the opposite sides in collinear points. 52. The sum of the squares of lines drawn from any system of points A. Def. C . C . B . A circle rolls inside another of double its diameter. B . &c. is a point which may be found as follows :—Bisect the line joining any two points A. in the circumference of a given circle are on the same side of a given diameter. and so on. 60. Construct a quadrilateral. the tangents to the circle at its three angular points meet the three opposite sides at three collinear points. The sum of the perpendiculars let fall from any system of points A. such that P C . in G. is equal to the rectangle contained by the external bisector and the perpendicular from the middle of the base on the internal bisector. 58. the sum of the squares of the perpendiculars is a minimum. 51. From a point within a triangle perpendiculars are let fall on the sides. C . Describe a circle touching a given line at a given point. D. whose number is n on any line L. 54. divide GC in H . and the angle between the diagonals. If a triangle be described about a circle. D. 63. 57. P D may cut AB at equal distances from the centre. 64. The centre of mean position of the angular points of a regular polygon is the centre of ﬁgure of the polygon. the lines from the points of contact of its sides with the circle to the opposite angular points are concurrent. Two points. 59. D. on the internal bisector of the vertical angle. is equal to n times the perpendicular from the centre of mean position on L. exceeds the sum of the squares of lines from the same points to their centre of mean position. D. If the sides of any polygon be cut by a transversal.. A transversal being drawn cutting the sides of a triangle. 56. 62. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the vertex on two lines through the middle point of the base. The last point found will be the centre of mean position of the given points.44. 48. and cutting a given circle at a given angle. 47. If a circle make given intercepts on two ﬁxed lines. 167 . 49. when the sum of the squares of the lines joining the feet of the perpendiculars is given. If a triangle be inscribed in a circle. If a point be taken within a triangle. the product of one set of alternate segments is equal to the product of the remaining set. Join H to a fourth point D. AB . 46. parallel to the internal and external bisectors of the vertical angle. &c. If concurrent lines drawn from the angles of a polygon of an odd number of sides divide the opposite sides each into two segments. &c. O. 61. by nOP 2 . the product of one set of alternate segments is equal to the product of the other set. B . is constant. the diagonals. ﬁnd the locus of a ﬁxed point in its circumference.. so as to be the centre of mean position of the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from it to the sides of the triangle. 53. to any point P . B . If lines be drawn from any point P to the angles of a triangle. 50. ﬁnd a point P in the circumference at the other side of the given diameter. ﬁnd the locus of the point. The rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base of a triangle.. so that HK = 4 HD. C .

and s its semiperimeter. Now. If on the sides AB .] equal to the angle GAD. the distance from C to the point of contact on either side is a fourth proportional to the semiperimeter. and if the area be given in magnitude. B . forming a second triangle A B C . If a. The four sides of a cyclic quadrilateral are given. AD CE EF prove the triangle BF C = 2ADE . If two sides of a triangle be given in position. If a quadrilateral be inscribed in one circle. and circumscribed to another. the square of its area is equal to the product of its four sides. B . E . 77. but the third side variable. Hence the lines joining corresponding vertices are concurrent. the angles KLG. in K and L. 67. CA : 2AB . and s the semiperimeter. Join IK . LI .—Join AD. construct it. at each of which the base subtends a constant angle. prove its area = (s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d). CA . Pascal’s Theorem. Being given two circles. CA divided by the area of A B C . 69. such that BD AE DF = = . of a triangle and its circumscribed circle. CD produced. R denote the radii of the circles inscribed in the triangles into which a rightangled triangle is divided by the perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse. CB . Dem. 68. ﬁnd the locus of a point such that tangents from it to the circles may have a given ratio. BC . 72. F CH are homothetic.65. ﬁnd the locus of the point P at which AB and CD subtend equal angles. G are collinear. H . 76. C . I are collinear. If a circle touch internally two sides. H . then. KL. Hence they are equal. D be collinear. C . If four points A.—If the opposite sides of an irregular hexagon ABCDEF inscribed in a circle be produced till they meet. State and prove the corresponding theorem for a circle touching the circumscribed circle externally and two sides produced. and on their line of connexion F . BC . xxi. 78. b. Therefore the points I . B . OD = OB . Describe a circle about the triangle ADI . 168 . 70. 74. OC . 73. cutting the lines AF . CA. and CA. 75. C . 71. 66. ABC : A B C :: AB . If two sides of a triangle circumscribed to a given circle be given in position. F CG are each [III. c. hence the triangles KLI . If A. and the points A . D be four collinear points. two points can be found. ﬁnd a point O in the same line with them such that OA . AC of a triangle ABC we take two points D. Similarly. if c be the hypotenuse. LI is parallel to CH . R2 + R 2 = (s − c)2 . If R. the three points of intersection G. d denote the sides of a cyclic quadrilateral. the circle described about the triangle touches a ﬁxed circle. CB . If three concurrent lines from the angles of a triangle ABC meet the opposite side in the points A . C be joined. B . In the same case the diameter of the circle circumscribed about the triangle ABC = AB . and KI to F H . if necessary. Therefore KL is parallel to CF . BC . 79.

and if the loci of all the angles but one be right lines. one internally and the other externally. Given the area of a parallelogram. the sum of the distances of the orthocentre from the base and from the middle point of the base is equal to half the base. 97. 84. prove Π is a geometric mean between P and P . P denote the areas of two regular polygons of any common number of sides. collinear with the three given ones. Inscribe in a given circle a polygon all whose sides pass through given points. 101. 87.80. Inscribe in a given circle a trapezium. 90. 86. If the altitude of a triangle be equal to its base. 89. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from their centres on AB is equal to CE . the sum of the reciprocals of the perpendiculars from the point upon the tangents is constant. the fourth side passes through a fourth ﬁxed point. DF . 94. E . If a variable circle touch two equal circles. construct the parallelogram. 98. r denote the radii of the circumscribed and inscribed circles to a regular polygon of any number of sides. In the same case. CE . 92. construct the triangle. and Π a harmonic mean between Π and P . DE . (2) inwards—on the sides of any triangle. such that the rectangle BD . the radius of the circumscribed circle is to the radius of the circle which is the locus of the vertex. one of its angles. and double the number of sides. R . 95. 88. If through the middle points of each of the two diagonals of a quadrilateral we draw a parallel to the other. corresponding radii to a regular polygon of the same area. In any triangle. the sums of the alternate lines are equal. If all the sides of a polygon be parallel to given lines. and perpendiculars be let fall from its centre on the transverse tangents to these circles. 81. 93. If a cyclic quadrilateral be such that three of its sides pass through three ﬁxed collinear points. is equal to the area of that triangle. If lines be drawn from any point in the circumference of a circle to the angular points of any inscribed regular polygon of an odd number of sides. Π the areas of the corresponding polygons of double the number of sides. the sum of whose opposite parallel sides is given. the sum of the squares of the sides of the two new triangles is equal to the sum of the squares of the sides of the original triangle. one internally and the other externally. DF are perpendiculars to the diameter of a semicircle. the locus of the remaining angle is also a right line. If two circles X . 100. and Π. and the semicircle. the rectangle of the intercepts between the feet of these perpendiculars and the intersection of the tangents is constant. and the point in the base whose distance from the vertex is equal half the sum of the sides. and the diﬀerence between its diagonals. Given the base of a triangle. 2 91. when the base and the ratio of the sides are given. and two circles are described touching CE . touches a given circle. And the circle described about the triangle formed by drawing tangents to X . and r = √ 169 . the circle inscribed in the triangle formed by joining the points of contact on Y touches a given circle. The diﬀerence of the areas of the triangles formed by joining the centres of the circles described about the equilateral triangles constructed—(1) outwards. prove that any variable tangent to the circle will cut the sides in points D. at the angular points of the inscribed triangle. CE will be constant. If R. the lines drawn from their points of intersection to the middle points of the sides divide the quadrilateral into four equal parts. 85. If the middle point of the base BC of an isosceles triangle ABC be the centre of a circle touching the equal sides. In the same case. an inﬁnite number of such triangles can be constructed. R = Rr. If the vertical angle and the bisector of the vertical angle be given. 96. 82. as the diﬀerence of the squares of the sides is to four times the area. 99. and whose area is given. If P . inscribed and circumscribed to a circle. the sum of the reciprocals of the containing sides is constant. Y be so related that a triangle may be inscribed in X and circumscribed about Y . 83. the vertical angle. If at the extremities of a chord drawn through a given point within a given circle tangents be drawn. prove r (R + r ) . r .

passing through one of the points of intersection of two circles. passes through a given point. 122. (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 119. made by the point of contact of the inscribed circle. ABCD is a square. that the lines joining them to the opposite vertices are concurrent. The product of the bisectors of the three angles of a triangle whose sides are a. 123. are equal to one another. making the angle AEF = EAB . the joining lines cut oﬀ. 107. 104. State and prove the corresponding theorems for the centres of the escribed circles. 110. then AA 2 + BB 2 is constant. if the area of the polygon formed by joining the feet of the perpendiculars be given. C A is equal twice the triangle A B C multiplied by the diameter of the circle ABC . The rectangle contained by the segments of the base of a triangle. Given the base of a triangle. a . If a chord of one circle be a tangent to another. the sum of whose distances from three given points may be a minimum. 113. and through their point of contact two secants be drawn at right angles to each other. on the tangent at the other end. 106. If a triangle A B C be inscribed in another ABC . 109.area . In the same case the product of the alternate segments of the sides made by the bisectors of the angles is a2 b2 c2 . CD subtend equal angles. (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 118. If three of the six points in which a circle meets the sides of any triangle be such. b. If a chord of a given circle subtend a right angle at a given point. prove that EF divides the side BC in the ratio of 2 : 1. c. CA + A B .s. b . is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on the bisector of the vertical angle. bc ca ab 115. 108. and its extremities joined to either end of the diameter. similar to a given one. and the line EF drawn. the side CD is bisected in E . Two circles described to touch an ordinate of a semicircle. ﬁnd a point P at which the segments AB . 112. To construct a quadrilateral similar to a given one whose four sides shall pass through four given points. B . A line drawn through the intersection of two tangents to a circle is divided harmonically by the circle and the chord of contact. 120. 116. If two circles touch. prove AB . 117. whose four vertices shall lie on four given lines. B C . BC . the diﬀerence of the base angles. 111. 105. being given that the sides taken in order are divided in given ratios by ﬁxed points. A . and the semicircles on the segments of the diameter. to its point of contact with the second. 121. B . 124. Construct a polygon of an odd number of sides. the semicircle itself. portions whose rectangle is constant. From a point P in the plane of a given polygon perpendiculars are let fall on its sides. cutting the circles respectively in the points A. Find a point. the locus of the intersection of the tangents at its extremities is a circle. If the external diagonal of a quadrilateral inscribed in a given circle be a chord of another given circle. BC . and the rectangle of the sides. cut the circles again. then ab : bc :: a b : b c . To construct a quadrilateral. the same property is true of the three remaining points. construct the triangle. the line connecting the middle point of each arc which it cuts oﬀ on the ﬁrst. the locus of its middle point is a circle. the locus of P is a circle. If O be the centre of the inscribed circle of the triangle prove OB 2 OC 2 OA2 + + = 1. D are collinear. B . 114.102. 103. and the line through their centres in the two systems of points a. c respectively. C . is 8abc. c. If any chord be drawn through a ﬁxed point on a diameter of a circle. Four points A. If two secants at right angles to each other. b. 170 .

the line BC [I. COPLANAR LINES. I. vi. II. Hence AB and CD are coplanar. If a solid angle be composed of three plane angles it is called a trihedral angle. v.BOOK XI. a tetrahedral angle. The angle which one plane makes with another is called a dihedral angle. ABD lying in one plane have a common segment AB .—Theorem. The point is called the vertex of the solid angle. Then because the points E .]. iv. CB. For the same reason the line BC is in it..—Since AB is in the plane X . if BC be not in X . because the points B . Def. I. THEORY OF PLANES. a polyhedral angle.—Theorem. Therefore. iii. 171 . Then. meeting in a point. but AB and CD are two of these lines. &c. and so also are any three right lines (EC. and if of more than four. A solid angle is that which is made by more than two plane angles. Post. ii. AND SOLID ANGLES DEFINITIONS.—Let any plane pass through EB . vi. Now. let any other plane passing through AD be turned round AD until it passes through the point C . Two right lines (AB. Def.. CD) which intersect one another in any point (E ) are coplanar. BE ) which form a triangle. Therefore the two right lines ABC . the right line EC is in it [I. ii. if of four. and another part (BC ) not in it. CB . C are in this second plane. which is impossible. PROP. When two or more lines are in one plane they are said to be coplanar . One part (AB ) of a right line cannot be in a plane (X ).]. C are in this plane. it can be produced in it [Bk. Therefore the lines EC . in diﬀerent planes. let it be produced to D. PROP. Dem. Dem. and be turned round it until it passes through C .] is in it. BE are coplanar. i.

BF 2 + CF 2 = 2BG2 + 2GF 2 [II. CD. C . 172 . PROP. If two planes (AB. CD). we have BF 2 = BE 2 + EF 2 . and in the plane BC the right line BF D. G. draw in the plane AB the right line BED. Ex. 2]. BF D enclose a space. EC .—Through any point G in GH draw a line BC intersecting AB . Axiom x. x. because EF is perpendicular to the lines EB . Therefore the common section BD of the two planes must be a right line. Then the right lines BED.—If not from B to D.PROP. Dem. and join any point F in EF to B .—Theorem. Dem. Again and and CF 2 = CE 2 + EF 2 . BC ) cut one another. IV.] is impossible.—Theorem. and so as to be bisected in G. III. which is both coplanar and concurrent with them. Then. which [I. their common section (BD) is a right line. ∴ GF 2 = GE 2 + EF 2 . ∴ BF 2 + CF 2 = BE 2 + CE 2 + 2EF 2 . If a right line (EF ) be perpendicular to each of two intersecting lines (AB. ∴ 2BG2 + 2GF 2 = 2BG2 + 2GE 2 + 2EF 2 .. BE 2 + CE 2 = 2BG2 + 2GE 2 . it will be perpendicular to any line GH .

Therefore AE 2 = AB 2 + BE 2 = AB 2 + BD2 + DE 2 .] perpendicular to AB . V. BE ) have a common perpendicular (AB ).. take any point E in DE . Hence DE is a common perpendicular to the three concurrent lines CD. AE . Dem. which is impossible [I. But AB is coplanar with AD. Join BD. it is [XI. Hence AE 2 = AD2 + DE 2 . 1. PROP. ii. is said to be perpendicular to the plane of these lines.). Then [XI. DE is perpendicular to CD. BD. and since the angles ABD. and in the plane X draw DE at right angles to BD.—Theorem. and is called a normal to it. and of all others that may be drawn to it. 173 . If three concurrent lines (BC.—Let AB . BE are coplanar. vi. CD are coplanar.—A line such as EF . Def. because the angle BDE is right. they shall be parallel to one another.]. VI. BDC are right. CD) be normals to the same plane (X ). Dem. CD meet the plane X at the points B . the lines of any system making equal angles with the normal are equal to each other. Hence ABC is equal to ABF . BD. the angle ABE is right. iv. Therefore the lines AD. Then because AB is normal to X . AD. But AB 2 + BD2 = AD2 . v. vii. the line AB is parallel to CD [I. and EF is perpendicular to EG.] BF is a right line. D. iii. BD. BE .].Hence the angle GEF is right. Join BE . since it is coplanar with BD.—For if possible let BC be not coplanar with BD. xxviii. BD [XI. and the angle ABC is right (hyp. BE in the line BF .—The normal is the least line that may be drawn from a given point to a given plane. BE . [I. Cor. and. PROP. 2.—A perpendicular to each of two intersecting lines is normal to their plane. Therefore these lines are coplanar [XI. they are coplanar. the locus of their feet is called the projection of the given line on the plane. And since CD is normal to the plane X . If two right lines (AB. which are each perpendicular to AB . because the angle ABD is right. and let the plane of AB . xlviii].—Theorem. BD.]. AD. Therefore the angle ADE is right. BC intersect the plane of BD. which is perpendicular to a system of concurrent and coplanar lines. Therefore the angle ABF is right. Therefore the lines BC .]. Def.—If from every point in a given line normals be drawn to a given plane. Cor. Axiom ix.

it is perpendicular to the line BE in that plane [XI. Axiom x. Def. The projection on either of two intersecting planes of a normal to the other plane is perpendicular to the line of intersection of the planes. which [I. PROP. which is coplanar and concurrent with AD and BD. Hence the two parallel right lines and the transversal are coplanar. therefore BDC is right. D.)) = AD2 + DE 2 (because ABD is right (hyp. since AB and CD are parallel. VII.]. Join BD. the sum of the angles ABD. but ABD is right (hyp. the line joining these points is in that plane [I. of the parallels draw [I. it is normal to X . therefore AE 2 = AB 2 + BE 2 = AB 2 + BD2 + DE 2 (because BDE is right (const.] is impossible. xxix. draw DE at right angles to BD. Two parallel lines (AB. iv. Now in the plane X .). BDC is two right angles [I. PROP. Or thus: Since the points E . AE . AD. enclosing a space. Therefore [XI. Def. the other line (CD) shall be normal to the same plane. to which AB is normal. vi]. and join BE . If one (AB ) of two parallel right lines (AB.] it is normal to their plane. CD).—If possible let the intersecting line be out of the plane. 2.—Theorem. VIII. 1. that is. BD. ii. Hence CD is perpendicular to the two lines DB . Hence the angle ABE is right. Therefore the angle ADE is right. DE . 174 . And in the plane. CD are coplanar.Exercises. Dem. Post. be normal to a plane (X ). CD) and any line (EF ) intersecting them are coplanar.]. as EGF .] the right line EHF . Then the lines AB . vi. The projection of any line on a plane is a right line. F are in the plane of the parallels. Then because AB is normal to the plane X . CD meet the plane X in the points B .—Let AB . and therefore [XI. Then we have two right lines EGF . Again. Dem.] DE is perpendicular to CD. EHF . iv.—Theorem. Take any point E in DE . Hence DE is at right angles both to AD and BD.)).

EF ). ix. BE . their inclination is the acute angle contained by two right lines drawn from any point of their common section at right angles to it—one in one plane. On this account we have departed from the usual custom of placing them at the beginning of the book.PROP.—If the three lines be coplanar. DF . Ex. AB . iii. Therefore the triangles ABC . CF . Hence [I. and cut oﬀ ED = BA. and EF = BC [I. when the right lines drawn in one of them perpendicular to their common section are normals to the other. Observation. ix. respectively. Then because EF is perpendicular to each of the lines GH . C in the lines AB .—Theorem. Hence [XI. and the other in the other.—Two planes which meet are perpendicular to each other. of this book. DEF . they are parallel to one another. If not. the Proposition is evidently the same as I.]. Dem. the angle (ABC ) between the former is equal to the angle (DEF ) between the latter. Two right lines (AB. If they are not coplanar. X.] AC is equal to DF . AC .. iv. Dem. BC ) be respectively parallel to two other intersecting right lines (DE. BC . xxix. the proposition is the same as I.]. Def. AB is normal to the plane GHK [XI. 175 . And because AB is parallel to EF (hyp. Hence [I. CD. IX—Theorem. AD is equal and parallel to BE [I. GK each perpendicular to EF [I. have the three sides of one respectively equal to the three sides of the other.—These deﬁnitions tacitly assume the result of Props. Then because AB is equal and parallel to DE . CD) which are each parallel to a third line (EF ) are parallel to one another.]. since AB and CD are normals to the same plane. Def. iii.] the angle ABC is equal to DEF .]. it is normal to their plane [XI.] AD is equal and parallel to CF . xxxiii]. Hence. Join AD. xi. We have altered the place of Deﬁnition vi. viii.—If both pairs of lines be coplanar.). xxx. and x. the lines GH . If two intersecting right lines (AB. In like manner CF is equal and parallel to BE . GK . viii.—When two planes which meet are not perpendicular to each other. 2. EF . viii. take any points A. for a similar reason. PROP. xxxiii. In like manner CD is normal to the plane HGK . and EF is normal to the plane GHK . from any point G in EF draw in the planes of EF .

If this line pass through A it is the normal required. Hence it is the required normal. PROP. XI. AD is also normal to it [XI.]. the angle BAE is right. Then because BC is perpendicular both to ED and DA.].—Problem. the thing required is done. XIII. Hence AF is perpendicular to GH [XI. Def. Dem. Then because BA is a normal. it is normal to the plane of ED. Therefore AF is normal to the plane of GH and ED—that is.—1. Dem. Then because AD and BC are parallel. Hence BAE = CAE . and since GH is parallel to BC . xi. Now let the plane of BA. viii.—Draw GH parallel to BC . vi. on the same side. and BC is normal to the plane. from A draw AD parallel to BC [I. To draw a normal to a given plane from a given point (A) in the plane. which is impossible.]. and AF is perpendicular to DE (const. AF is normal to the plane BH . xxxi.]. If not. and if possible let AB .). PROP. AC be both normals to it. from D draw DE in the plane BH at right angles to BC [I.]. and it is drawn from the given point. DA [XI. viii. and from A draw AF [I. XII. iv.—From any point B not in the plane draw [XI. Let A be in the given plane. If not.].PROP. AC cut the given plane X in the line DE . it is normal to the same plane [XI. xii. 176 . and from A draw AD perpendicular to BC [I. Sol. In like manner CAE is right.—Theorem. xi.—Problem. From the same point (A) there can be but one normal drawn to a given plane (X ). then if AD be perpendicular to the plane. to the plane BH .]. xii. To draw a normal to a given plane (BH ) from a given point (A) not in it.] perpendicular to DE .—In the given plane BH draw any line BC . Sol.] BC normal to it.

EF ) on the other. In like manner 177 . Dem. Then because AB is normal to the plane CD.]. and GK to EF . If a line be parallel to each of two planes. but BGH is right (const. EF ) which have a common normal (AB ) are parallel to each other. DF ) are parallel.). if there could be two. Now.] to one another. which is impossible. ix. Dem. Therefore the angle BAK is right. and AB to ED (hyp. Therefore from the same point there can be drawn but one normal to a given plane.—From B draw BG perpendicular to the plane DF [XI. they will meet when produced. therefore ABG is right. which is absurd. it is parallel to their intersection. and let it meet that plane in G. EF cannot meet—that is. XIV. PROP. BGH is two right angles [I. Therefore the planes CD. Hence the sum of the angles ABG. Two planes (AC. vi. PROP. If two right lines be parallel. they are parallel. they would be parallel [XI.]. the sections which any plane passing through it makes with them are parallel. 2. BC ) on one of them be respectively parallel to two intersecting lines (DE.—If the planes be not parallel. since GH is parallel to ED (const.]. Hence the plane triangle ABK has two right angles. if two intersecting lines (AB. If the point be above the plane. 1. there can be but one normal. xxix]. it is perpendicular to the line AK . which it meets in that plane [XI.—Theorem. If a line be parallel to each of two intersecting planes. in which take any point K . vi. they are parallel to the common section of any two planes passing through them. Join AK . In like manner the angle ABK is right. the normals drawn to them from any point are coplanar.2. for. Exercises. xi.). AB is parallel to GH [XI. Def. The angle between two planes is equal to the angle between two intersecting normals to these planes.—Theorem. XV. 4.). 3. Planes (CD. BK . their common section being the line GH . Let them meet. 5. Through G draw GH parallel to ED. If the intersections of several planes be parallel.

Parallel lines intersecting the same plane make equal angles with it.CBG is right. B . XVI. vi. Therefore the lines EF . CD meet in K . If two parallel planes (AB. since they are parallel. CD) be cut by three parallel planes (GH. HG). they must meet at some ﬁnite distance. D). 3. GH must be parallel. Hence BG is normal to the plane AC [XI. C.—Theorem. 1. 178 . and EF is in the plane AB .—If the lines EF . Hence the planes AB .—Theorem. A right line intersecting parallel planes makes equal angles with them. K is in the plane AB . Dem. Now since K is a point in the line EF . GH ) with it are parallel. PROP. their common sections (EF.). therefore they are parallel to one another. Parallel planes intercept equal segments on parallel lines. DF have a common normal BG. Let them meet in K . their segments between those points are proportional. XVII. CD) be cut by a third plane (EF. and it is normal to DF (const. If two parallel lines (AB. F.]. M N ) in two triads of points (A. Hence the planes AC . 2. which is impossible. KL. Def. E. GH are not parallel. In like manner K is a point in the plane CD. Exercises. PROP.

—Join AC . Hence AE : EB :: AX : XD [VI. drawn perpendicular to the common section of the planes DE .] the planes DE . PROP. therefore BF G is right—that is. the angles ABF . BD. If a right line (AB ) be normal to a plane (CI ). any plane (DE ) passing through it shall be perpendicular to that plane. ADC . From any point F in CE draw F G in the plane DE parallel to AB [I.]. Def.] AE : EB :: CF : F D. Then because AB and F G are parallel. Hence every line in the plane DE . the common section of the planes AB . Dem. F G is perpendicular to CE . xvi. ADC . BF G are equal to two right angles [I. PROP. In like manner. hence F G is normal to it [XI. Join EX . to the plane CI .].]. xxxi. CI are perpendicular to each other. these lines are parallel [XI. their common section (BD) shall be normal to that plane. ii. Therefore [V.Dem.—Theorem.]. viii. CI . AD.]. xi.). CI . Dem.—Let CE be the common section of the planes DE . M N are cut by the plane ABD in the lines EX . viii. is normal to the plane CI . Therefore [XI. Let AD meet the plane KL in X . but ABF is right (hyp. draw from D in the plane AB the line DE perpendicular to AD. Now since F G is parallel to AB . XIX. xxix.—Theorem. BC ) be each perpendicular to a third plane (ADC ). the line DE in AB 179 .—If not. and in the plane BC draw BF perpendicular to the common section DC of the planes BC . Then because the parallel planes KL. but AB is normal. XF . XVIII. If two intersecting planes (AB. Then because the plane AB is perpendicular to ADC . AX : XD :: CF : F D. BD.

hence DC is greater than EC . xiii.]. which [XI. the normals drawn to these planes from any point of that line are coplanar. If not. Exercises. BAE have the two sides BA. C . XXI.—If the third angle BAC be less than or equal to either of the other angles the proposition is evident. therefore [I. AC respectively equal to the sides EA. DE . xx. PROP. and let the planes of these angles be cut by another plane in the lines BC . F B .—Suppose for simplicity that the solid angle A is contained by ﬁve plane angles BAC . DC is greater than BC . CAD. But the sum of the sides BD. viii. EAF . EAC have the sides DA. PROP. 3. because the triangles DAC . Dem. CD. Through E draw BC . XX. cutting AB .] is impossible. DAC ) of a trihedral angle (A) is greater than the third (BAC ). then we have [XI. Def. and at the point A in the plane BAC make the angle BAE equal BAD [I. and the angle BAD equal to BAE .is normal to the plane ADC [XI. Therefore from the point D there are two distinct normals to the plane ADC . show that the dihedral angle between the planes is equal to the rectilineal angle between the normals. Then the triangles BAD. DC . DAE . EF . AE in the other. 180 . therefore the third side BD is equal to BE . but the base DC greater than EC . 1. Again. Hence BD must be normal to the plane ADC . AD in one equal respectively to the two sides BA. Join DB .—Theorem. AC in the other. CAD.) forming any solid angle (A) is less than four right angles. Hence the sum of the angles BAD. xxiii. The sum of all the plane angles (BAC. the line of intersection of the former is normal to the plane of the latter. If three planes have a common line of intersection. DAC is greater than the angle BAC . and cut oﬀ AE equal AD. &c. suppose it greater: take any point D in AD.] the angle DAC is greater than EAC . If two intersecting planes be respectively perpendicular to two intersecting lines.].]. The sum of any two plane angles (BAD. AC in the points B . but the angle DAB is equal to BAE (const.—Theorem. Dem. In like manner DF is normal to it. In the last case. xxv. F AB . 2.).

If any plane P cut the four sides of a Gauche quadrilateral (a quadrilateral whose angular points are not coplanar) ABCD in four points. Hence. . If two of the planes of a trihedral angle be equally inclined to the third plane.. then the product of the four ratios Aa Bb Cc Dd . and show that it is the shortest distance between them. we get the sum of the base angles of the ﬁve triangles BAC . 11. and conversely. aB bC cD dA the points a. together with the sum of the plane angles BAC . 1. A solid angle cannot be formed of equal plane angles which are equal to the angles of a regular polygon of n sides. is equal to twice as many right angles as there are triangles BAC . aB bC cD dA is plus unity. B . c.—that is. If through the vertex O of a trihedral angle O—ABC any line OD be drawn interior to the angle. . 9. 2. . a. 5. OAB . d are coplanar. greater than six right angles. forming the solid angle A. but greater than the diﬀerence. OC be taken. 181 . If a trihedral angle O be formed by three right angles. b. Hence the sum of the angles forming the solid angle is less than four right angles.—If at the vertex O of a trihedral angle O—ABC we draw normals OA . respectively. OB . the angles between the containing planes. If on the edges of a trihedral angle O—ABC three equal lines OA. the angles contained in those planes are equal. If O—A B C be the supplementary of O—ABC . and A. equal to ten right angles. OC to the faces OBC . c. may not hold if the polygonal base BCDEF contain re-entrant angles. Exercises on Book XI. of the face angles of the trihedral. CAD. . of the supplements of the other two face angles. 7. the sum of the rectilineal angles DOA. CAD. each of these is greater than the radius of the circle described about the triangle ABC . &c. greater than the sum of the interior angles of the pentagon BCDEF —that is. the planes of these angles are equally inclined to the plane of the third angle. 4. 4. 13. Any face angle of a trihedral angle is less than the sum. b. But the sum of the base angles of the same triangles. or 5. 6.∠ABC + ABF greater than F BC . 10. the orthocentre of the triangle ABC is the foot of the normal from O on the plane ABC . and conversely. d. Through one of two non-coplanar lines draw a plane parallel to the other. 8. = +1. OCA. If in the last exercise the intersecting plane be parallel to any two sides of the quadrilateral. Observation. &c. prove that O—ABC is the supplementary of O—A B C . Draw a common perpendicular to two non-coplanar lines. it cuts the two remaining sides proportionally. The three lines of intersection of three planes are either parallel or concurrent. 12. &c. ∠ACB + ACD . DOB . If two of the plane angles of a tetrahedral angle be equal. but greater than half the sum. OB ... the trihedral angle O—A B C is called the supplementary of the trihedral angle O—ABC . C be points along the edges. in such a manner that OA will be on the same side of the plane OBC as OA.—This Prop. Given the three angles of a trihedral angle. 3. ﬁnd. x. CAD. if the product Aa Bb Cc Dd . BCD.. &c. &c. adding. except in the case of n = 3. Def. by a plane construction. DOC is less than the sum.

Being given an angle AOB . is a plane. 182 . 17. If two trihedral angles be supplementary. Draw a right line parallel to a given line. 15. Through a given point draw a right line which will meet two non-coplanar lines. each dihedral angle of one is the supplement of the corresponding face angle of the other.14. 16. which will meet two non-coplanar lines. such that the sum of the projections of the line OP on OA and OB may be constant. the locus of all the points P of space.

A cylinder is a solid ﬁgure formed by the revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides. A polyhedron is a solid ﬁgure contained by plane ﬁgures: if it be contained by four plane ﬁgures it is called a tetrahedron . iii. A prism whose ends are perpendicular to its sides is called a right prism. ii. the base. A sphere is the solid described by the revolution of a semicircle about a diameter. by six. Right prisms (ABCDE –F GHIJ. SPHERE. The others. A parallelopiped is evidently a hexahedron. PYRAMID. called its side faces. This point is called the vertex . A cube is a rectangular parallelopiped. PROP. and if by twenty. it is called a regular polyhedron. A prism is a polyhedron having a pair of parallel faces which are equal and similar rectilineal ﬁgures.—Theorem. which remains ﬁxed. all whose sides are squares. and the altitude of a prism is the perpendicular distance between its ends. viii. CYLINDER. ix. any other is called an oblique prism. 183 . vi. iv. vii. and the opposite face. are equal. A parallelopiped is a prism whose bases are parallelograms. The circles which terminate a cylinder are called its bases or ends. The centre of the sphere is the centre of the generating semicircle. are parallelograms. an icosahedron . I. which remains ﬁxed. xi. i. and which is called the axis. and which is called its axis. PRISM. v. A B C D E –F G H I J ) which have bases (ABCDE. a dodecahedron . A pyramid is a polyhedron of which all the faces but one meet in a point. The other leg describes the base. If the plane faces of a polyhedron be equal and similar rectilineal ﬁgures. a hexahedron . an octahedron . A B C D E ) that are equal and similar. A cone is the solid ﬁgure described by the revolution of a right-angled triangle about one of the legs.APPENDIX. The altitude of a pyramid is the length of the perpendicular drawn from its vertex to its base. x. AND CONE DEFINITIONS. and are called its ends. which is a circle. and which have equal altitudes. Any line passing through the centre of a sphere and terminated both ways by the surface is called a diameter. which remains ﬁxed. by twelve. by eight.

H . Cor. In the same manner the points G. and since the prism on E F can be subdivided in the same manner by planes perpendicular to the base. B . Hence the prisms are equal in every respect. PROP. For. and re-arranged so as to make them coincide with the other [I. &c.—Right prisms which have equal bases (EF. C . E F ) and equal altitudes are equal in volume. that is. the proposition is evident. and each is normal to its respective base.Dem.—In right prisms of equal altitudes the volumes are to one another as the areas of their bases. 2. II. X can be divided into m prisms of equal altitudes by planes parallel to the base. note]. Hence X : Y :: m : n. EF .—The volumes of right prisms (X. B with B . Parallelopipeds (ABCD–EF GH.. This may be proved by dividing the bases into parts so that the subdivisions will be equal. 184 .—Since the bases are equal. Y ) having equal bases are proportional to their altitudes. Cor. but not similar. then. the point A with A . they will coincide— that is. we can suppose one of them. Cor. In like manner. and then the volumes proportional to the number of subdivisions in their respective bases. And since AF is equal to A F . if the altitudes be in the ratio of m : n. since they are equal and similar ﬁgures. xxxv. having a common base (ABCD) and equal altitudes.—Theorem. J . to their areas. J will coincide respectively with the points G . I . Cor. the: point F will coincide with F . 1. I . 4. 3.—Apply the bases to each other. then these m prisms will be all equal.—The volume of a rectangular parallelopiped is measured by the continued product of its three dimensions. H . divided into parts A. Dem. ABCD–M N OP ). Y can be divided into n equal prisms. are equal.

—The volume of any parallelopiped is equal to the product of its base and altitude. then GH . Let the edges M N . have their triangular bases AEM . 2◦ . and supposing them taken away from the entire solid.—Theorem. and they have equal altitudes.1◦ . M N be in diﬀerent lines. Cor. ABCD–M N OP are each equal to the parallelopiped ABCD–IJKL. K . L. III. Then by 1◦ the parallelopipeds ABCD–EF GH . P M to meet the lines EF and GH produced in the points J . EF be in one right line. Hence they an equal to one another. ABCD–M N OP are equal. the remaining parallelopipeds ABCD–EF GH . and BF N –CGO. BF N identically equal. Now EF = M N . hence they are equal. Let the edges EF . A diagonal plane of a parallelopiped divides it into two prisms of equal volume. OP must be in one right line. therefore M E = N F . then produce ON . I . 185 . therefore the prisms AEM –DHP . because each equal AB . PROP.

N . the sections AB .—Because the plane AOB cuts the parallel planes ABCDE . because it is half of a parallelopiped. Hence ABC –EF G = ACD–EGH . because ab is parallel to AB . ABCD–EF GH . If a pyramid (O–ABCDE ) be cut by any plane (abcde) parallel to the base. In like manner the remaining angles of the polygon ABCDE are equal to the corresponding angles of abcde. 2◦ . To each add the solid ABC –LM E . ab are parallel [XI. and have the sides about their equal angles proportional. Then [I. abcde are equiangular.1◦ . Hence IB = LF . iv. the triangles ABO. Therefore the diagonal plane bisects the parallelopiped.—Theorem.] In like manner BC . bc are parallel. because it can be divided into triangular prisms. : BC :: ab : bc. [Ex æquali. When it is any parallelopiped.—Through the vertices A.] : BC :: bO : bc. Therefore the polygons ABCDE . Dem. In like manner JC = M G. Cor. Hence the angle ABC = abc [XI. K .—The volume of a triangular prism is equal to the product of its base and altitude. &c. 186 . but (1◦ ) the prism AIJ –ELM = AJK –EM N . In like manner AJK –EM N = ACD–EGH . x. the section is similar to the base. the diagonal plane bisects it. E let planes be drawn perpendicular to the edges and cutting them in the points I . because each is equal to AE . which has a double base and equal altitude. xvi. L. PROP. Hence they are similar. 1. hence it is equal to it in volume. Dem. J . When the parallelopiped is rectangular the proposition is evident. M . xxxiv. [VI.—The volume of any prism is equal to the product of its base and altitude. Cor. Hence In like manner therefore In like manner AB BO AB BC : BO :: ab : bO.] : CD :: bc : cd. 2.]. abcde. Again. abO are equiangular. Hence the pyramid A–IJCB agrees in everything but position with E –LM GF . and we have the prism AIJ –ELM equal to the prism ABC –EF G.] we have IL = BF . IV. respectively.

are proportional to their bases. by planes parallel to the bases of the pyramids. and the sum of those on the sections of p–abc greater than p–abc. Therefore the diﬀerence between the pyramids is less than the diﬀerence between the sums of the prisms. p–abc).). Pyramids (P –ABCD. and let ox be the altitude of a prism. Cor. have equal volumes. Now let prisms be constructed on these sections as bases and with the equal parts of the altitudes of the pyramids as altitudes. V.—The edges and the altitude of the pyramid are similarly divided by the parallel plane. above. Cor.—The areas of parallel sections are in the duplicate ratio of the distances of their planes from the vertex. Then it is evident that the sum of the prisms in P –ABCD is less than that pyramid. PROP. and whose volume is equal to their diﬀerence. but the altitude of this prism is less than ox (const. Dem.—In any two pyramids. abc) of equal areas. then let the equal altitudes P O. which divide their altitudes in the same ratio. Hence 187 . po) and bases (ABCD. having equal altitudes (P O. 2. Cor. Then [iv.—If they be not equal in volume. sections parallel to their bases. 1. and in p–abc.—Theorem. that is. let abc be the base of the greater. that each part shall be less than ox. 3] the sections made by these planes will be equal each to each. and let the prisms in P –ABCD be constructed below the sections. po be divided into such a number of equal parts.Cor. with an equal base. 3. less than the lower prism in the pyramid p–abc.

and therefore its volume will be equal to the area of the base multiplied by the altitude. and whose altitude will be the altitude of the cylinder. Then planes perpendicular to the base. Therefore the volumes of the pyramids are equal. O the middle point of the rectangle. and h the height of the cylinder.—If r be the radius. 2. The volume of this prism will be equal to the area of the triangle AOB by the height of the cylinder. which is impossible. X a line in its plane parallel to the side AB . the cylinder will be equal to the sum of all the prisms. so that the arc AB may be regarded as a right line. E –AF D are equal. dividing the circle into elementary triangles. Dem. then the pyramids E – AF C . of cylinder = πr2 h. having a common base and equal altitudes. Cor. OB .—The volume of every pyramid is onethird of the volume of a prism having an equal base and altitude. Hence. whose base will be the triangle AOB . 1. Therefore it is one third of the prism. and the pyramids E –ABC .).—Let O be the centre of its circular base. PROP. Hence the pyramid E –ABC is one of three equal pyramids into which the prism is divided. AF D.the diﬀerence between the pyramids is less than the prism whose base is equal to one of the equal bases. For.—Theorem. and take the angle AOB indeﬁnitely small. vol. having the same base and altitude. and cutting it in the lines OA. having equal bases AF C . Cor. Because it may be divided into triangular pyramids by planes through the vertex and the diagonals of the base.—The volume of a triangular pyramid E – ABC is one third the volume of the prism ABC – DEF . draw the plane EAF . and a common altitude. 1.—If ABCD be a rectangle. Cor. The volume of a cylinder is equal to the product of the area of its base by its altitude . VI. and whose altitude is equal to ox. F –ABC are equal. will be faces of a triangular prism. Cor. the volume of 188 . 2. and the diﬀerence is equal to this prism (hyp.

OG . F inﬁnitely near each other in AC . and it may be applied with equal facility to the solution of several other problems which are usually done by the Integral Calculus. is a simple case of Guldinus’s celebrated theorem. AB . ADC . 189 . when the whole ﬁgure revolves round AB . and since the parallelogram EK is equal to EH [I. the solid described by EK (Cor. Hence the cylinder is equal to three times the cone. Hence volume described by the rectangle ABCD = 2π . The triangle ABC will describe a cone. and whose common altitude will be AB . it is evident that. Now if O. Take two points E . EK be inscribed in the triangles ABC . the sum of the solids described by the rectangles in the triangle ADC is equal to twice the sum of the solids described by the rectangles in the triangle ABC —that is. EK .—Let ABCD be a rectangle whose diagonal is AC . Cor. = rectangle ABCD multiplied by the circumference of the circle described by its middle point O. and rectangles corresponding to EH . DE as radii. the rectangles ABF E . 3. AB . the circumference of the circle described by O will ultimately be twice the circumference of the circle described by O. and since (v. Hence.—Produce the lines AD. AE + DE = 2OG. that is = π (AE 2 − DE 2 ) . the volume of the cone is one-third of the volume of the cylinder. Hence the diﬀerence between the volumes of these cylinders will be equal to the diﬀerences between the areas of the bases multiplied by AB . xliii. O be the middle points of these rectangles. Or thus: We may regard the cone and the cylinder as limiting cases of a pyramid and prism having the same base and altitude.—This Cor. the diﬀerence between the cylinder and cone is equal to twice the cone. AB . having the same base and altitude. if AC be divided into an indeﬁnite number of equal parts. (AE + DE )(AE − DE ). and the rectangle a cylinder by revolving round AB . EH . and form two rectangles. AD.—The volume of a cone is one-third the volume of a cylinder having the same base and altitude. F . Then when the rectangle revolves round X . By its assistance we give in the two following corollaries original methods of ﬁnding the volumes of the cone and sphere. 2) the volume of a pyramid is one-third of the volume of a prism. by drawing lines parallel to AD. Dem. Dem.the solid described by the revolution of ABCD round X is equal to the area of ABCD multiplied by the circumference of the circle described by O. and AE − DE = AD. AB . Cor.]. BC to meet X in the points E . DCF E will describe cylinders whose bases will be circles having AE . Observation. Therefore the volume described by ABCD but = π . 1) will be equal to twice the solid described by EH .

O be the middle points of the rectangles EH . EK . EK ).] EH : EK . draw EG.—If r be the radius of the base of a cone.—Let AB be the diameter of the semicircle which describes the sphere. Hence M E : IE :: 2ρ : ρ. because each is equal to GE 2 . 4. Let R be the centre. and let O. Now the rectangle N G . Take two points E . we have ultimately ρ = GR and ρ = 1 2 (RP + RG). vol. Join EF . Hence N G : GP :: GQ : GR. 3 Cor. of cone = πr2 h . F indefinitely near each other in the semicircle. denoting the radii of the circles described by the points O. GQ.. which will be a tangent. F K parallel to P Q. and produce to meet LN in M and L. EH = 2(2πρ . GR = P G . xliii. ∴ 2πρ . ∴ EH : EK :: 2ρ : ρ. Join RE . that the whole volume of the sphere is equal 190 . and produce it to meet the diameter P Q perpendicular to AB in N . N L parallel to AB . O by ρ. 5.Cor. and EI . but M E : IE :: rectangle EL : rectangle EK :: [I. Therefore we infer.—The volume of a sphere is two-thirds of the volume of a circumscribed cylinder. F H . Now. ABCD the rectangle which describes the cylinder. and h its height. ρ respectively. Dem. as in the last Cor. Hence the solid described by EH equal twice the solid described by EK . or M E : IE :: RP + RG : RG.

]. Let O be the centre. Hence but F E : KI :: OE : EG. the portion of the spherical surface described by EF is equal to the 191 . indeﬁnitely near each other in the semicircle. and circumference of circle described by I — that is. and IG : EG :: circumference of circle described by the point I : circumference of circle described by the point E .—Let AB be the diameter of the semicircle which describes the sphere. Draw EI . Hence the rectangle contained by EF . and produce to meet the tangent CD parallel to AB in N . because the triangles EN I and OEG are similar. VII. EN : IN :: OE : EG.to twice the diﬀerence between the cylinder and sphere. Join EF . Now we have but F E : KI :: EN : IN [VI. F . OE = IG.—If r be the radius of a sphere. F K parallel to P Q. Join OE . Produce EI to meet AB in G. vol. = 4πr3 . 6. Take two points. Cor. E . Therefore the sphere is two-thirds of the cylinder. ii. and circumference of circle described by E is equal to the rectangle contained by IK . The surface of a sphere is equal to the convex surface of the circumscribed cylinder. Dem. Hence EF : IK :: IG : EG.—Theorem. 3 PROP.

11.. If P be a point in the base ABC of a triangular pyramid O–ABC . the sum of the ratios Pa . If any number of lines in space pass through a ﬁxed point. 10. and the circle whose diameter is a mean proportional between the end diameters. we have S× therefore 4πr3 r = [vi. 6]. OB . B . The middle points of two pairs of opposite edges of a triangular pyramid are coplanar. C . if planes be drawn perpendicular to the diameter AB —that the portions of cylindrical and spherical surface between any two of them are equal. 5. 13. OB Pc = 1. through P . The surface of a sphere is equal to the rectangle by its diameter. 16.portion of the cylindrical surface described by IK . then AB 2 + CD2 = BC 2 + AD2 = CA2 + BD2 . The volume of the frustum of a cone. then it is evident that each of these may be regarded as the base of a pyramid having the centre of the sphere as a common vertex. Hence it is evident. c. 1. Every section of a sphere by a plane is a circle. 9. 3. and whose common altitude is equal to one-third of the altitude of the frustum. That is. the area of the surface of a sphere is equal four times the area of one of its great circles. 15. and form a parallelogram. d. 14. 7. If the slant height of a right cone be equal to the diameter of its base. If a point P be joined to the angular points A. The volume of the ring described by a circle which revolves round a line in its plane is equal to the area of the circle. Dd 6. it is a parallelopiped. The convex surface of a cone is equal to half the rectangle contained by the circumference of the base and the slant height. Extend the property of Ex. 192 . 4 to the pyramid. 8. The locus of the centres of parallel sections is a diameter of the sphere. meet the opposite faces in a. Or thus: Conceive the whole surface of the sphere divided into an indeﬁnitely great number of equal parts. and the joining lines. Bb Pc . meet the faces in the points a. D of a tetrahedron. its total surface is to the surface of the inscribed sphere as 9 : 4. If the four perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite faces of a pyramid ABCD be concurrent. Exercises. 3 3 2 S = 4πr . made by a plane parallel to the base. b. multiplied by the circumference of the circle described by its centre. If the four diagonals of a quadrangular prism be concurrent. produced if necessary. OC . the feet of the perpendiculars on them from another ﬁxed point are homospheric. Hence the whole spherical surface is equal to the cylindrical surface described by CD. b. Aa Pb . is equal to the sum of the three cones whose bases are the two ends of the frustum. 2. 12. and if parallels to the edges OA. the sum of the ratios Pa . Hence if S denote the surface. The convex surface of a right cylinder is equal to the rectangle contained by the circumference of the base and the altitude. Therefore the volume of the sphere is equal to the whole area of the surface multiplied by one-third of the radius. c. OA Pb . Cor. OC 4. The surface of a sphere is two thirds of the whole surface of its circumscribed cylinder. Cc Pd = 1. and the circumference of a great circle.

BOC . 23. 18. A plane bisecting a dihedral angle of a tetrahedron divides the opposite edge into portions proportional to the areas containing that edge. 1 1 1 1 = + + . If O–ABC be a tetrahedron whose angles AOB . 28. having a common solid angle. which cut a sphere in πh 2 2 {h + 3(ρ2 sections whose radii are ρ1 . R+h 30. 21. the points of contact are concyclic. Planes which bisect the dihedral angles of a tetrahedron meet in a point. 6 25. If h be the height. its volume is 6 24. ρ2 . 26. p2 OA2 OB 2 OC 2 29. If h be the height of an æronaut. are proportional to the rectangles contained by the edges terminating in that angle. If δ be the distance of a point P from the centre of a sphere whose radius is R. Any plane bisecting two opposite edges of a tetrahedron bisects its volume. and R the radius of the earth. the square of the area of the triangle ABC is equal to the sum of the squares of the three other triangular faces.17. If h be the perpendicular distance between two parallel planes. The volume of a sphere: the volume of the circumscribed cube as π : 6. and ρ the radius of a segment of a sphere. 20. 19. the sum of the squares of the six segments at three rectangular chords passing through P is = 6R2 − 2δ 2 . 22. the volume of the frustum is 1 + ρ2 )} . πh 2 (h +3ρ2 ). COA are right. The volumes of two triangular pyramids. 193 . In the same case. 27. Planes which bisect perpendicularly the edges of a tetrahedron meet in a point. if p be the perpendicular from O on the face ABC . If the four sides of a gauche quadrilateral touch a sphere. the extent of surface 2πR2 h visible = . The volume of a sphere : the volume of an inscribed cube as π : 2.

Two lines which have the same direction cannot meet in any ﬁnite point [I. and AB = AC . These are due to two of the greatest mathematicians of modern times—one. and are parallel. it is self-evident. NOTE A. the sum of the base angles A and C (n+1) is 194 . I. 5]. having the side AC = 2AD. Propri´ et´ es Projectives. In every plane there is one special line called the line at inﬁnity. the discoverer of the Calculus of Quaternions. Book I. (3) The sum of the base angles of any triangle of the series is equal to the angle of the preceding triangle (see Dem. &c. Again. All other points in the line are called ﬁnite points. was known. xvi. This is a fundamental conception in Geometry. the angle B AC is less than half B AC .”—See Poncelet. the other. Hence we may infer the following general proposition:—“Any two lines in the same plane must meet in some point in that plane.—Let ABC be a triangle. when they have diﬀerent directions. MODERN THEORY OF PARALLEL LINES.]. if the annexed diagram represent the triangle AB (n+1) C (n+1) . Hence. when the lines have the same direction. xvi. Now. 1] = the sum of the angles of AB C = the sum of the angles of AB C . NOTE B. (1) The sum of the angles of the triangle ABC = the sum of the angles of AB C [I. the founder of the Theory of Elliptic Functions. (2) The angle B AC is less than half BAC . if produced. We shall give here two demonstrations. independent of the theory of parallels. and form another triangle AB C . and so on. xxxii. each independent of that theory. Two lines in the plane which meet the line at inﬁnity in the same point are said to have the same direction. they meet the line at inﬁnity in diﬀerent points. and two lines which meet it in diﬀerent points to have diﬀerent directions. Join AD. xix. Two lines which have diﬀerent directions must intersect in some ﬁnite point. Legendre’s Proof. &c. hence the angle B (n) A(n) will ultimately become inﬁnitely small. Axiom x. that is—(1) at inﬁnity. (2) in some ﬁnite point. Ex. construct a new triangle AB C . of which the side AC is the greatest. Cor. since. I.). The point where any other line in the plane cuts the line at inﬁnity is called the point at inﬁnity in that line. Then AD is less than AC [I. page 52.NOTES. having AC = 2AD . and AB = AC . The discovery of the Proposition that “the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles” is attributed to Pythagoras. and may be assumed as an Axiom (see Observations on the Axioms. legendre’s and hamilton’s proofs of euclid. Until modern times no proof of it.). bisect B C in D . Bisect BC in D.

Hamilton’s Quaternion Proof. Hence the sum of the three angles of ABC is equal to two right angles. that the sum of the external angles of any convex rectilineal ﬁgure is equal to four right angles. Produce CB to E . Abbott. by a motion of mere translation along the line F C . applied verbatim to a spherical triangle. three 195 . hence A + B + C = two right angles. and make BE equal to BD. through the angle C .equal to the angle B (n) C (n) . the line CA can be brought into its former position. I have reduced it to its simplest form. B . proves that the method is not valid. so that Hamilton was anticipated. Again. Produce BA to D. let the leg BD of the angle B be turned round the point B through the angle B . Mr. and the angle AB (n+1) C (n+1) will become a straight angle [I. then the point D will coincide with E . since rotation is independent of translation. x. and without making any use of the language of Quaternions. let CE be turned round C . it is evident that by these rotations the point C has been brought successively into the positions D.t. followed by a motion of translation. and returns to its original position. xiii. until BD coincides with BE . but A + A + B + B + C + C = six right angles [I. and make CF equal to CE . ﬁnally. Denote the exterior angles thus formed by A . corresponding to these. this angle is an inﬁnitesimal. C . and the point E with F . Def. produce AC to F . The same method of proof will establish the more general Proposition. in which the same point describes a right line. E . Lastly. therefore A + B + C = four right angles.c. In the proof given in the text there are three motions of rotation. Now.—Let ABC be the triangle. On the surface of a sphere we should have. Now let the leg AC of the angle A be turned round the point A through the angle A . until CE coincides with CF . A slight consideration will show that the cases are diﬀerent.]. which being wrong. it would lead to the conclusion that the sum of the angles is two right angles. hence the point B (n+1) will ultimately be in the line AC . then the point C will coincide with D. and when n is indeﬁnitely large. that the amount of the three rotations is equal to one complete revolution round the point A. in each of which a point describes an arc of a circle. It has been objected to on the ground that. and make AD equal to AC . that is. it is equal to two right angles.].—The foregoing demonstration is the most elementary that was ever given of this celebrated Proposition. f.d. F . but the sum of the angles of AB (n+1) C (n+1) is equal to the sum of the angles ABC . hence. Therefore it follows.. Observation. has informed me that this demonstration was ﬁrst given by Playfair in 1826.

—Let A be one of the angular points. . AO the diameter.motions of rotation. OP . in which the point should describe an arc of a great circle to return to its original position. Ex. cut oﬀ OR = ON . A8 the vertices at one side of AO. the proof for a plane triangle cannot be applied to a spherical triangle. 34]. OM. but therefore In like manner. 40]. ON = (ρ3 + ρ5 )(ρ6 − ρ7 ) = ρ 3 ρ6 + ρ 5 ρ 6 − ρ3 ρ7 − ρ 5 ρ 7 = R(ρ3 − ρ8 ) + R(ρ1 − ρ6 ) − R(ρ2 − ρ7 ) − R(ρ2 − ρ5 ) [IV. Again. to inscribe a regular polygon of seventeen sides in a circle. cut oﬀ A6 N = OA7 . and A1 Q = OA4 . Again. in each of which the point would describe an arc of a circle. ON =R 2 [IV. ρ1 ρ2 ρ 4 ρ8 = R 4 OM . OQ =R2 Again. OM . Ex. ON . (1). Ex. Hence. . A2 . Then we have [IV. = R(OM − ON − OP + OQ) = R(M R − P S ) : M R − P S = R. and A2 P = OA8 . P S = (OM − ON )(OP − OQ) = (ρ3 + ρ5 − ρ6 + ρ7 )(ρ2 + ρ8 − ρ1 + ρ4 ). Produce OA3 to M . ρ1 ρ4 = R(ρ3 + ρ5 ) = R . making A3 M = OA5 . (2). . ρ2 ρ8 = R(ρ6 − ρ7 ) = R . Analysis. Lastly. followed by a motion of rotation about the centre of the sphere. and OA2 to P . 40]. A1 . NOTE C. 196 . and OS = OQ. M R .

The line EF is called Philo’s Line.and performing the multiplication and substituting. ON = R2 . CD produced in the points E . to find two mean proportionals between two given lines. it possesses the remarkable property of being the minimum line through the point B between the ﬁxed lines DE . and CE : CB :: DE : DF . and let a graduated ruler be made to revolve round the point B . Again. and so adjusted that BE shall be equal to GF . CE = DF . Hence. Therefore AB . each is given. but M R = OM − ON . ρ6 and ρ7 are each given. We have abridged and simpliﬁed Ampere’s solution. Newton’s Construction. With A as centre and AC as radius. The following is a mechanical construction by the Ruler and Compass. It cannot be solved by the line and circle. In like manner. 197 . therefore OM − ON is given. and describe a circle about it. the rectangle and the diﬀerence of the lines M R and P S being given. AB : AF :: DE : DF . Hence AB : AF :: AF : CE . GE = BF . that is. ρ6 . The foregoing analysis is due to Ampere: see Catalan. Join BD. CE . therefore OM and ON are each given.] AF . so that the intercept EF will be equal to the radius of the circle. ρ7 = R(ρ1 − ρ4 ) = R . DF . we get 4R(OM − ON − OP + OQ) = 4R2 . complete the rectangle ABCD. Produce DA. The foregoing elegant construction is due to the ancient Geometer Philo of Byzantium. and by similar triangles. Therefore DE .—Let AB and L be the two given lines of which AB is the greater. hence M R is given. DE and F A are the mean proportionals required. If we join DG it will be perpendicular to EF . BC . then AF . BC be placed at right angles to each other. Hence. F . and we have the arc A6 A7 between their extremities given. CE are two mean proportionals between AB and BC . Th´ eor` emes et Probl` emes de G´ eom´ etrie El´ ementaire. OP and OQ are each given. and draw by trial through A a line meeting BD. Hence the problem is solved. CE are two mean proportionals between AB . and ρ6 − ρ7 = ON.—Since BE is equal to GF . AF . CB are continual proportions. The problem to ﬁnd two mean proportionals is one of the most celebrated in Geometry on account of the importance which the ancients attached to it. GF . the seventeenth part of the circumference of a circle. and in it place the chord CD equal to the second line L. Hence [VI. since OQ and ON are each given.—Let the extremes AB . Def. therefore we can draw these chords. but is very easy by Conic Sections. DC . NOTE D. OQ. describe a circle. and AF : CE :: CE : CB . AF . the rectangle BE . iv. and we have proved that the rectangle OM . Bisect AB in C . Dem. hence DE : DF :: AF : CE . Sol.

F A. Again. I am indebted to Professor Galbraith for the following proof of the minimum property of Philo’s Line. F A. Now. DE . if AE is equal to DB . EF = CB . CD a perpendicular on AB .Dem. Through the points N . AC + F A2 = F A . on philo’s line. we have AB . 198 . Dem. and is therefore given. CB be two given lines. we have ED . therefore P S = P T . BP is equal to DB . Hence or therefore Hence ED(ED + CD) = F A(AB + F A). but EF = CB . AB FA CD = . DE 2 1+ CD DE = F A . EC = EA2 − AC 2 = (F A + AC )2 − AC 2 = 2F A . It is due to the late Professor Mac Cullagh:—Let AC . it is required to prove. and through P draw P Q parallel to BC . Hence QR is the maximum parallelogram in the triangle SV T . therefore Again. AB . make EN = EM . DE AB DE 2 = F A . AB . F A. produce AB until EP = AB . AB 1+ AF . that AB is a minimum. P T is equal to CD. since OP = AD. NOTE E. RP each parallel to AC . CD are in continued proportion. since the AB . Through P draw ST perpendicular to EP . or ACD is isosceles. and we have AB .—Through E draw EM parallel to BC . It is easy to see from the ﬁgure that the parallelogram QR is equal to the parallelogram M F . E a ﬁxed point. therefore P S = CD. DE . AB + F A2 . Since the line BF cuts the sides of the ACE .—Join AD. CD = DE . since AE = DB . CD . CD = DE . F A. P draw N T .

199 . Hence AB is a minimum. The following mechanical method of trisecting an angle occurred to me several years ago. and therefore equal to QR. because the parallelogram Q R . on the trisection of an angle. or A B is greater than AB . and produced to P . corresponding to QR. if any other line A B be drawn through E . Hence the line EP is greater than EP .Again. NOTE F. will be equal to M F . Apart from the interest belonging to the Problem. it is valuable to the student as a geometrical exercise:— To trisect a given angle ACB . the point P must fall outside ST . so that EP = AP .

while the extremity at C remains ﬁxed. if a and A be known. Let CH . it is evident that the point B will be between the two rulers.—Erect CD perpendicular to CA. Hence. and. It is now known that the value of π is incommensurable. and CIG is right. A are to a. the other extremity at G. IGC is half a right angle. Then. and the angle DCE = ECB (const. a . NOTE G. Then. as a . the angle HCF = HF C . except where great accuracy is required. namely. describe the circle BAM . and the right angles ACD. the angle ACH is one-third of ACB . Therefore. depending on the higher mathematics. conversely. equal to HM B .. if the area be known. Ex. A the corresponding quantities for polygons of twice the number. we can.]. therefore IC is equal to IG. Ex. bisect the angle BCD by CG. until the edge of the second ruler passes through B : it is plain that the pivot moves along the circumference of the circle. A(n) that will agree in as many decimal places as there are in the degree of accuracy we wish to attain. that is. The simplest approximate value of π was found by Archimedes. It diﬀers very little from the ratio 3. This value is tolerably exact. that is [III. Erect BO at right angles to BM .1416 : 1. It depends on a theorem which is at once inferred from VI. that it cannot be expressed as the ratio of any two whole numbers. The following is an outline of a very simple elementary method for determining this important constant. since the area of a circle [VI. Join HM . A. Hence ACH is one-third of ACB . if we use a jointed ruler—that is two equal rulers connected by a pivot—and make CB equal to the length of one of these rulers. therefore the angle ACH is equal to HBO. and is the one used in ordinary calculations. is correct to six places of decimals. but the approximation can be carried as far as we please. if r denote the radius. are known for calculating the value of π . 22 : 7. the area is known. ﬁnd a and A . 87. A related to a . with C as centre and CB as radius. since ICG is half a right angle. HF .—Produce BC to M . then. it is evident that CI will fall between CB and CA. if the value of π be known.” Hence. and since the area of a circle is intermediate between the reciprocals of a(n) and A(n) . and. the circumference will be 2πr. Dem. 355 : 113. and placed so that the pivot will be at I . the area of the circle can be found to any required degree of approximation. 15] is equal to half the rectangle contained by the circumference and the radius. Modern mathematicians denote the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter by the symbol π .). just as in extracting the square root we may proceed to as many decimal places as may be required. Hence.]. therefore IG = CB —equal length of one of the two equal rulers. cutting CG in G. be the positions of the rulers when this happens.” and is one of the most celebrated in Mathematics. Hence the angle HCD = HBC [I. A denote the reciprocals of the areas of any two polygons of the same number of sides inscribed and circumscribed to a circle. Hence. given in our elementary books. xxxii. and one extremity at C . found by Vieta. On this account the determination of the value of π is called “the problem of the quadrature of the circle. by the processes of ﬁnding arithmetic and geometric means. on the quadrature of the circle. viz. and. from a . xxxii. xx. A we can ﬁnd a . namely “If a. the area will be πr2 . In like manner. draw the line CH . A . and therefore that it can be found only approximately. Then. proceeding in this manner until we arrive at values a(n) . Several expeditious methods. and A the arithmetic mean between a and A. but IC equal CB . a is the geometric mean between a and A. and make the angle ECI equal half a right angle. cutting CI in I : at I draw the tangent IG. 200 . CBO are equal. The next to this in ascending order. let the other be made to traverse the line GF . because CH = HF .Sol. if the rulers be opened out at right angles. or to half the angle HCB . the value of π will be known.

653.3183099. equal to 3.3264853. that is. a = . 884. Ten decimals are suﬃcient to give the circumference of the earth to the fraction of an inch. or the value of π correct to seven places of decimals is 3. we ﬁnd a(13) = . A = . and thirty decimals would give the circumference of the whole visible universe to a quantity imperceptible with the most powerful microscope. 592. These numbers are found thus: a is the geometric mean between a and A. is equal to the reciprocal of .3535533. between .3017766. carried the calculation to 707 places of decimals. The following are the ﬁrst 36 ﬁgures of his result:— 3. or between .5 and . 589. a is the geometric mean between a and A . A = .25. 793. The number π is of such fundamental importance in Geometry. Mr.141. 643. that mathematicians have devoted great attention to its calculation.25. and commence with the inscribed and circumscribed squares.1415926.3535533 and . an English computer.1415926. 238. and A is the arithmetic mean between a and A. A = . Hence the area of a circle radius unity. correct to seven decimal places. Proceeding in this manner. a = .3183099. Shanks. and A the arithmetic mean between a and A . Again. we have a = . 383.If for simplicity we take the radius of the circle to be unity. 462.3183099. A(13) = . 201 .25. 502. that is.5 . The result is here carried far beyond all the requirements of Mathematics. 279.3141315.

and points and planes limiting cases of spheres. that points and lines. But it is important to the student to remark. are limiting cases of. circles. If. instead of being distinct from.CONCLUSION. and become one when the radius becomes inﬁnite. 202 . In the foregoing Treatise we have given the Elementary Geometry of the Point. that any portion of its circumference may be made to diﬀer in as small a degree as we please from a right line. but not the circumference. on the contrary. This happens when the centre. the Line. and the Circle. it may have its curvature so much diminished. and ﬁgures formed by combinations of these. Thus. the circle be continually enlarged. a circle whose radius diminishes to zero becomes a point. goes to inﬁnity.

i. 68. 180 supplement of. 4 alternate. 80 diameter of. 3 right. 8 Cube. 3 obtuse. 19. 118 Arc of a circle. 183 Double point. 188 Demonstration. 29. 128 Altitude. 68 Circumcentre. 199 vertex of. 114. 101 concentric. 104 Comberousse. 68 Area. 154 Axioms. 5 of similitude. 5 sector of. 129 Dodecahedron. 7 Cone. 5 re-entrant. 4 solid. 129 Conclusion. 4 adjacent. 183 Congruent. 171 extension of meaning. 16 complement of. 153 Enunciation. 31 legs of. 8 Ex aequali. 171. 5 interior. 105 radius of. 28 middle points of. 69 contact of. 28 Dividendo. 197 Angle. 8 Diagonal. 68 chord of. 197 Centre. 8 Contrapositive. 183. 4 trihedral. 5 circumscribed. 5 arc of. 171 trisection of. 130 Corollary. 17 third of a quadrilateral. i. 104 Circumcircle. 135 Ampere. 1 Circle.Index Abbott. 183 Cylinder. 6. 68 circumference. 3 acute. 82 Chasles. 3 Antecedent of a ratio. 69 exterior. 105 polar. 103 nine-points. 51. 29 bisection of. 131 Ex aequo perturbato. 69 segment of. 4 dihedral. 194 Axis of symmetry. 77 Componendo. 7 Convertendo. 13 radical. 195 Alternando. 5 escribed. 132 203 . 82 Catalan. 153 radical.

183 Identically equal. 135. 121 Homothetic. 15 Plane. 2 Hexahedron. 198 Gauss. 5 Prism. 105 Orthogonal. 1 Gnomon. 69 homologous. 50 Hamilton. 82 row of. 135. 183 Poncelet. 3 concyclic. 195 Harmonic conjugates. 69 Newton. 134 Lines Concurrent. 197 Octahedron. 135 Galbraith. proofs by. 7 Projection. 116 Newcomb. 8 Inscribed. 123 Lardner. 135 given in species. 22 Minimum. 3 directly similar. 49 transversal. 7 204 . 194 Lemma. 28 segment of. 118 means of. 154 Hypotenuse. 3 Polygon. 150. 5 Polyhedron. 2 Playfair. 5 Philo. 74 Multiples. 144 Proportionals fourth. 2 divided harmonically. 171 Incommensurable. 143 two mean. 183 Homologous terms. 28 pencil of. 101 Invertendo. 183 Orthocentre. 118 extremes of. 168 Pentagon. 100 parallelogram. 8 Locus. 150 given in magnitude. 68. 134 Henrici. 28 Proportion. 4 Hypothesis. 74 Mc Cullagh. 183 Problem. 198 Median. 62. 28 complements of. mean. 35 Identity. 183 Pascal. 4 Coplanar. 4 Philo’s. 7 contrapositive of. 198 projection of. 150 rectilineal. 194 Postulate. 143 third. 173 parallel. 5 Maximum.Figures. 4 perpendicular. 117 normal to a plane. 3 similar. 153 inverse. 135 inversely similar. 91 Legendre. 28 Lozenge. 2 collinear. 118 Proportional. 8 Line. rule of. 2. 7 Icosahedron. 39 Parallelopiped. 197 Proposition. 195 Points. 135 given in position.

49 Rouch´ e. 4. 28 Triangle. 4 isosceles. 149 converse of. 200 Quadrilateral. 171 supplementary of. 166 Quadrature of circle. 7 Ptolemy’s theorem. 4 Trihedral angle. 166 extension of. 4 obtuse-angled. 5 Submultiple. 118 Ray. 5 right-angled. 183. i. 181 Vertex of angle. 118 compound. 191 Square. 5 cyclic. 8 Sphere. 3 of pencil. 2 Tangent. 4 205 . 69 Rectangle. 62 of greater inequality. 69 Ratio. 117 antecedent of a. 118 duplicate.converse of. 116. 92 Trapezium. 134 reciprocal of. 4 equilateral. 120 extreme and mean. 7 converse of. i Secant. 7 Propositions identical. 68 Theorem. 134 of lesser inequality. 120 consequent of a. 7 Townsend. 8 Simson. 64 obverse of. 190. 116 Surface. 86 Solution. 4 scalene.

206 .THE END.

Casey has collected together very many properties of these circles. The novelty of this edition is a Supplement of Additional Propositions and Exercises. Pennsylvania. These will be found to furnish very neat models for systematic methods of study. has added several beautiful results of his own. Here the earnest student will ﬁnd all that he needs to bring himself abreast 207 . constructions for a quadrilateral.S. p. “We have noticed (‘Nature. Vice-President. Green. and in Mathematical Physics. and it is important that the student should become early acquainted with them. 1884. The other ﬁve sections contain 261 choice problems for solution. xxvi. and are glad to ﬁnd that our favourable opinion of it has been so convincingly indorsed by teachers and students in general.’ vol.D. an eminent Professor of the Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics in the Catholic University of Ireland.THIRD EDITION.R.’ “Eleven of the sixteen sections into which the work is divided exhibit most excellent specimens of geometrical reasoning and research.” Erie.’ in which he has contrived to arrange and to pack more geometrical gems than have appeared in any single text-book since the days of the self-taught Thomas Simpson. LL.. and. & Co. &c. ‘The principles of Modern Geometry contained in the work are. cloth. p. &c. vol. We only need say we hope that this edition may meet with as much acceptance as its predecessors. A SEQUEL TO THE FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID. has just brought out a second edition of his unique ‘Sequel to the First Six Books of Euclid. as usual with him. He has done excellent service in introducing the circles to the notice of English students. and a full account—for the ﬁrst time in a text-book—of the Brocard. 219) two previous editions of this book. BY JOHN CASEY.. Casey. London: Longmans. it deserves greater acceptance. 52. and (what the author proposes to call) the cosine circles. This contains an elegant mode of obtaining the circle tangential to three given circles by the methods of false positions. “Nature. F.. . xxiv. in the present state of Science. triplicate ratio. Fellow of the Royal University of Ireland. & Co. Figgis. indispensable in Pure and Applied Mathematics.. “Dr. Dr.” April 17. Royal Irish Academy.. Revised and Enlarged—3/6. Dublin: Hodges.” The “Mathematical Magazine. EXTRACTS FROM CRITICAL NOTICES. .

with the amazing developments that are being made almost daily in the vast regions of Pure and Applied Geometry. On pp. 152 and 153 there is an elegant solution of the celebrated Malfatti’s Problem. “As our space is limited, we earnestly advise every lover of the ‘Bright Seraphic Truth’ and every friend of the ‘Mathematical Magazine’ to procure this invaluable book without delay.”

The “Schoolmaster.”

“This book contains a large number of elementary geometrical propositions not given in Euclid, which are required by every student of Mathematics. Here are such propositions as that the three bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent, needed in determining the position of the centre of gravity of a triangle; propositions in the circle needed in Practical Geometry and Mechanics; properties of the centres of similitudes, and the theories of inversion and reciprocations so useful in certain electrical questions. The proofs are always neat, and in many cases exceedingly elegant.”

**The “Educational Times.”
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“We have certainly seen nowhere so good an introduction to Modern Geometry, or so copious a collection of those elementary propositions not given by Euclid, but which are absolutely indispensable for every student who intends to proceed to the study of the Higher Mathematics. The style and general get up of the book are, in every way, worthy of the ‘Dublin University Press Series,’ to which it belongs.”

**The “School Guardian.”
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“This book is a well-devised and useful work. It consists of propositions supplementary to those of the ﬁrst six books of Euclid, and a series of carefully arranged exercises which follow each section. More than half the book is devoted to the Sixth Book of Euclid, the chapters on the ‘Theory of Inversion’ and on the ‘Poles and Polars’ being especially good. Its method skilfully combines the methods of old and modern Geometry; and a student well acquainted with its subject-matter would be fairly equipped with the geometrical knowledge he would require for the study of any branch of physical science.”

**The “Practical Teacher.”
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“Professor Casey’s aim has been to collect within reasonable compass all those propositions of Modern Geometry to which reference is often made, but which are as yet embodied nowhere.. . . We can unreservedly give the highest praise to the matter of the book. In most cases the proofs are extraordinarily neat.. . . The notes to the Sixth Book are the most satisfactory. Feuerbach’s Theorem (the nine-points circle touches inscribed and escribed circles) is favoured with two or three proofs, all of which are elegant. Dr. Hart’s extension of it is extremely well proved.. . . We shall have given suﬃcient commendation to the book when we say, that the proofs of these (Malfatti’s Problem, and Miquel’s Theorem), and equally complex problems, which we used to shudder to attack, even by the powerful weapons of analysis, are easily and triumphantly accomplished by Pure Geometry.

208

“After showing what great results this book has accomplished in the minimum of space, it is almost superﬂuous to say more. Our author is almost alone in the ﬁeld, and for the present need scarcely fear rivals.”

The “Academy.”

“Dr. Casey is an accomplished geometer, and this little book is worthy of his reputation. It is well adapted for use in the higher forms of our schools. It is a good introduction to the larger works of Chasles, Salmon, and Townsend. It contains both a text and numerous examples.”

**The “Journal of Education.”
**

“Dr. Casey’s ‘Sequel to Euclid’ will be found a most valuable work to any student who has thoroughly mastered Euclid, and imbibed a real taste for geometrical reasoning.. . . The higher methods of pure geometrical demonstration, which form by far the larger and more important portion, are admirable; the propositions are for the most part extremely well given, and will amply repay a careful perusal to advanced students.”

209

PREFACE.

Frequent applications having been made to Dr. Casey requesting him to publish a ”Key” containing the Solutions of the Exercises in his ”Elements of Euclid,” but his professorial and other duties scarcely leaving him any time to devote to it, I undertook, under his direction, the task of preparing one. Every Solution was examined and approved of by him before writing it for publication, so that the work may be regarded as virtually his. The Exercises are a joint selection made by him and the late lamented Professor Townsend, s.f.t.c.d., and form one of the ﬁnest collections ever published. JOSEPH B. CASEY. 86, South Circular-road, December 23, 1886.

210

Price 4/6, post free.]

**THE FIRST SIX BOOKS
**

OF THE

ELEMENTS OF EUCLID,

With Copious Annotations and Numerous Exercises.

BY

JOHN CASEY, LL.D., F.R.S.,

Fellow of the Royal University of Ireland; Vice-President, Royal Irish Academy; &c. &c.

Dublin: Hodges, Figgis, & Co.

London: Longmans, Green, & Co.

**OPINIONS OF THE WORK.
**

The following are a few of the Opinions received by Dr. Casey on this Work:—

“Teachers no longer need be at a loss when asked which of the numerous ‘Euclids’ they recommend to learners. Dr. Casey’s will, we presume, supersede all others.”—The Dublin Evening Mail. “Dr. Casey’s work is one of the best and most complete treatises on Elementary Geometry we have seen. The annotations on the several propositions are specially valuable to students.”—The Northern Whig. “His long and successful experience as a teacher has eminently qualiﬁed Dr. Casey for the task which he has undertaken.. . . We can unhesitatingly say that this is the best edition of Euclid that has been yet oﬀered to the public.”—The Freeman’s Journal. From the Rev. R. Townsend, F.T.C.D., &c. “I have no doubt whatever of the general adoption of your work through all the schools of Ireland immediately, and of England also before very long.” From George Francis FitzGerald, Esq., F.T.C.D. ”Your work on Euclid seems admirable, and is a great improvement in most ways on its predecessors. It is a great thing to call the attention of students to the innumerable variations in statement and simple deductions from propositions.. . . I should have preferred some modiﬁcation of Euclid to a reproduction, but I suppose people cannot be got to agree to any.”

211

I have begun to use it already with some of my classes. J.” From Mrs.” From the Nottingham Guardian. by means of which the student is at once enabled to test himself whether he has fully grasped the principles involved. with deductions and other propositions. Harcourt-street.’ which I have found an admirable book for class teaching. J..” 212 . French College. Bryant. within so moderate a compass. F. At the end of each proposition there is an examination paper upon it.. it is far superior to any textbook yet published. . . ”The exercises left for solution are such as will repay patient study. We know no book which.. The propositions suggested are such as will be found to have most important applications. Magee College.P. and variety of demonstrations. . and ﬁnd that the arrangement of exercises after each proposition works admirably. it seems to me a very valuable addition to our text-books of Elementary Geometry. it professes to be. The Academy.” From James A.” From the Leeds Mercury.. Dublin. Principal of the North London Collegiate School for Girls. while giving the unrivalled original in all its integrity.’ ”The book is all. John Casey is a particularly useful and able work. puts the student in possession of such valuable results. and more than all. ”The edition of the First Six Books of Euclid by Dr. . I have ordered ﬁfty copies more of the Euclid (this makes 250 copies for the French College).. Blackrock. stage by stage. and have been selected with great care. Banbridge. . and trains him. Londonderry.” From Professor Leebody. . Dr. They all like the book here. neatness. Reffe ”I am sure you will soon be obliged to prepare a Second Edition. ”I am heartily glad to welcome this work as a substitute for the much less elegant textbooks in vogue here.” From the Practical Teacher.” ´. would also contain the modern conceptions and developments of the portion of Geometry over which the elements extend. From the Rev. and the methods of proof are both simple and elegant. ”The preface states that this book ‘is intended to supply a want much felt by Teachers at the present day–the production of a work which. ”This work proves that Irish Scholars can produce Class-books which even the Head Masters of English Schools will feel it a duty to introduce into their establishments.. M. and those whose solution are given in the book itself will suggest the methods by which the others are to be demonstrated. ”So far as I have had time to examine it. . . Dr. and study it for themselves. to solve them.A. Casey has done an undoubted service to teachers in preparing an edition of Euclid adapted to the development of the Geometry of the present day.C. and a most suitable introduction to the ‘Sequel to Euclid. Esq. The illustrative exercises and problems are exceedingly numerous. E..From H. We recommend everyone who wants good exercises in Geometry to get the book. whilst the exercises are all that could be desired. Poole. ”In the clearness. 29. ”There is a simplicity and neatness of style in the solution of the problems which will be of great assistance to the students in mastering them. Cooke. Casey brings at once the student face to face with the diﬃculties to be encountered.

. ”In the text of the propositions. The use of letters in brackets in the enunciations eludes the necessity of giving a second or particular enunciation. The use of the contra-positive of a proved theorem is introduced with advantage. while the alternative (or. it still survived in one of the College Examinations at St. 1883. and still more valuable suggestions. in some cases.’ is another feature which will commend the book to teachers. to the substance of Euclid’s demonstrations. Hints of other proofs are often given in small type at the end of a proposition. and we make bold to say that no one can study it without gaining valuable information. The notes at the end of the book are of great interest. The combination of the general and particular enunciations of each proposition into one is good. In every way this edition of Euclid is deserving of commendation.” From the Journal of Education. The simpler of these are given in immediate connexion with the propositions to which they naturally attach. and much of the matter is not easily accessible. we think that this work ought to be read by every teacher of Geometry. we do not know. This book has always appeared to us an exquisitely subtle example of Greek mathematical logic. It is not studied in schools. it is not asked for even in the Cambridge Tripos. substituted) proofs are numerous. Some of these are solved in the book. ”The editor has been very happy in some of the changes he has made. 213 . and the shortening of the proofs. Price 6s. giving way to a slavish following of his occasional verbiage and redundance. where necessary. in all but a few instances. &c. John’s. but whether the reforming spirit which is dominant there has left it.” NOW READY. and these include many well-known theorems.From the Educational Times. The book contains a very large body of riders and independent geometrical problems. a few years ago. and naturally the more diﬃcult method has yielded place to the less. is given in an algebraical form. is another improvement. without. short explanations. in place of the reductio ad absurdum . The collection of exercises. To sum up. and can do no harm. but the subject can be made inﬁnitely simpler and shorter by a little algebra. however. ‘of which there are nearly eight hundred. We would also express a hope that everyone who uses this book will afterwards read the same author’s ‘Sequel to Euclid.. A KEY to the EXERCISES in the ELEMENTS of EUCLID. properties of orthocentre. by omitting the repetitions so common in Euclid. 1.’ where he will ﬁnd an excellent account of more modern Geometry. of nine-point circle. Sept. The theory of proportion. the more diﬃcult are given in collections at the end of each book. the author has adhered. Book V. and. many of them being not only elegant but eminently suggestive. The deﬁnitions are also carefully annotated.

) .” in original. p.” in sequence. Def. B are concylic” in original. p.” in original. 84. clearly meant to read [I. p. “Def. p. or touchlng a given ﬁle and a given circle. 99. Prop. 97. D are concylic” in original. Cor. obvious error amended to “touching”. 73. 95. “The remainiug parts of the line” in original. p. misplaced space amended to “these circles intersect”. B . p. amended to “31. p. 98. In (52) “and also en equilateral circumscribed polygon” in original. D. p. p. “OA is equal to OC [I.]” in original.—When a right line intersects . 107. ” in original. xlvi. 70. p. “that which is nearest to the line throuyh the centre” in original. obvious error amended to “triangles”. 1]. from the diagram and following discussion this should be (I ).. p. clearly this is nonsense and must mean “About a given square”. ” in original. The reference is to Prop. “21. XXV. xxii. of the current book and misnumbered. “Then this line [I. “the four points A. The reference should be [I. correction: there is no Cor. “About a given circle (ABCD) to describe a circle. .—Problem.. 56. “4. 1]” in original. Cor. CBO” in original. 214 .]. 84. . 79. 1)” in original. “the points A. p. obvious error amended to “through”. obvious error amended to “remaining”. 2). garbled phrase amended to “then if the”. ” in original. . p. p. In (44) “these circle sintersect” in original. 37. Cor. 3.. 115. 54. AH (I. In (21) “the if then line DE intersect the chords . wrong letter amended to “an”.” in original. . Def.” in original. 87. “The parallelogram CM is equal to DE [I. as p. 12 “bisects the parallellogram” in original. 100. amended to match every other occurrence as “parallelogram”.” in original. 2” following MS. xxxii. amended to “Cor. xliii. “Then the traingles ABO. 3].. . “On CB describe the square CBEF I. 78. C . so amended.]. 97. the preamble to this book says that every Proposition in it is a Theorem and this one seems to be no exception. p. p. I. amended to “Def. viii. C . 78. so it should be [i. Cor. 105. IX. p. What is the locus of the middle points .. 110.Typographical Errors corrected in Project Gutenberg edition p. “(Ex. p.. as p. of the current book. “ ACH is half the rectangle AC . p. evidently intended is “concyclic”. obvious error amended to “the”. 28. p. p. I. 53. The point of bisection (1) of the line (OP )” in original. “Through tho point E ” in original. it should be (i. The reference is to Prop. . 2. 133. Cor. vii” in sequence. . [xlvi. Heading “PROP. .]. 94. p.

p. p.]” corrected to “[xvi. “20. 6]” corrected to “[vi.]” (4 times). 186. These have been corrected (3 times). Prop V. . p. p. 175. obvious error amended to “by”. Reference “[VI. which is not deﬁned. 136. obvious error amended to “it is”. 215 .. obvious error amended to “perpendicular”. header “subtended bg the homologous sides” in original. Find a poiat O” in original. amended to “[i. 192. . 165. p.]” is to Proposition II. amended to “[ii. 137 sqq. p.]”. 150. Reference “[XVI. Reference “[II. “O” when associated with a lower case letter was wrongly printed as o. 139. 147.p. ” in original. “From the construction is is evident . 6]”. “the lines GH . Reference “[I.]” is to Proposition I.. of current book. p. Cor. p. obvious error amended to “point”. Cor.]” (4 times). of current book. GK each perpendiclar to EF ” in original.

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