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**Computer Modeling of Projectile Motion
**

Location of Spherical Projectile

25.0

20.0

15.0 Y-Position (m)

10.0

5.0

0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0

-5.0 X-Position (m)

**Frequent User Inputs
**

Launch Angle (degrees) Launch Velocity (m/s) Diameter of Projectile (m) Density of Projectile (kg/m^3) Fluid (Wind) Velocity (m/s)

**Less Frequent User Inputs
**

Density of Fluid (Air) (kg/m^3) Kinematic Viscosity of Fluid (Air) (m^2/s) Acceleration of Gravity (m/s^2) Timestep (sec)

Prepared by G.W. O'Leary and R.J. Ribando

Projectile Motion

ing of Projectile Motion

Plot Scaling

100 25

Delay =

0.1

80.0

90.0

100.0

45 30 0.05 8000 0

1.19 1.54E-05 9.8 0.1

Prepared by G.W. O'Leary and R.J. Ribando

Computed Data

Computed Variables Rhobar 0.00014875 Amass 1.00007438 Bgrav 9.79854225 Ccoef 0.00223125

Time (sec) 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30

Computed Results Position X Y (m) (m) 0.0000 0.0000 2.1178 2.0689 4.2287 4.0332 6.3329 5.8935 8.4307 7.6502 10.5221 9.3037 12.6074 10.8546 14.6867 12.3032 16.7602 13.6500 18.8281 14.8952 20.8905 16.0393 22.9475 17.0825 24.9993 18.0253 27.0460 18.8678 29.0876 19.6104 31.1244 20.2534 33.1564 20.7970 35.1836 21.2414 37.2062 21.5870 39.2242 21.8339 41.2376 21.9824 43.2465 22.0327 45.2509 21.9850 47.2509 21.8396 49.2463 21.5966 51.2373 21.2563 53.2238 20.8188 55.2058 20.2846 57.1832 19.6536 59.1560 18.9263 61.1241 18.1029 63.0875 17.1835 65.0462 16.1685 67.0000 15.0582 68.9488 13.8529 70.8926 12.5528 72.8313 11.1583 74.7648 9.6697 76.6930 8.0873 78.6158 6.4115 80.5330 4.6427 82.4446 2.7813 84.3504 0.8277 86.2504 -1.2178

Velocity

Page 3

Computed Data Page 4 .

Computed Data Page 5 .

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Computed Data Page 9 .

Computed Data Page 10 .

Computed Data Page 11 .

Computed Data Page 12 .

Computed Data Page 13 .

0094 18.9322 -2.6105 -9.1516 19.6580 -8.9294 20.9259 20.8832 16.0217 20.0874 -19.9621 20.4128 -13.6511 11.9426 19.5788 19.6268 19.2027 2.8264 19.0760 19.1651 21.1433 20.4162 19.8874 -3.9459 20.Computed Data mputed Results Velocity Horizontal Vertical (m/s) (m/s) 21.8423 -4.9124 Page 14 .3085 -15.9770 -1.2490 3.9498 20.8589 19.7068 12.0665 0.9767 20.9360 20.4922 8.9936 20.5623 -10.9454 17.1221 21.7639 13.9398 20.0506 20.1569 1.5968 10.8227 14.8890 19.6720 19.0294 -19.0754 19.0126 20.9324 20.4635 -12.2548 -16.3555 19.9592 20.5439 9.9963 18.2233 19.4736 19.7145 19.5277 19.3436 5.9169 19.5133 -11.0217 -0.7048 -7.1443 -18.9762 20.7511 -6.7916 19.4416 7.2132 21.7543 19.2959 4.1116 0.9253 20.9661 19.2912 19.2001 -17.3611 -14.9275 20.0840 20.3922 6.9702 -20.7969 -5.2132 21.9969 20.

Computed Data Page 15 .

Computed Data Page 16 .

Computed Data Page 17 .

Computed Data Page 18 .

Computed Data Page 19 .

Computed Data Page 20 .

Computed Data Page 21 .

Computed Data Page 22 .

Computed Data Page 23 .

0650 0.0008514 Density (kg/m^3) 3.807 998.1176 Volume (m^3) 0.448 409.0560 0.0023 0.1050 0.2400 0.1840 0.341 20.0055753 0. and some are deformable.3800 0.628 68.338 7999.636 78.4370 0.0000446 0.623 54.1000 0.0960 0.5950 0.Sample Data for Alternative Projectiles Type Beach Ball Nerf Ball Kickball Ping Pong Ball Soccer Ball Basketball Tennis Ball Softball Baseball Water Balloon Golf Ball Shotput Mass (kg) 0.8100 Diameter (m) 0.0001796 0.872 801.5230 0.0001438 0.0287309 0.382 82.5630 0.0072382 0.0125 0.1440 0.0006061 0. Most of these are not exactly smooth spheres.0950 0.0000335 0.0460 6.856 1031.0004489 0.2700 0.0440 0.0400 0.202 389.2200 0.0005236 0.030 All diameters and masses are approximate.0700 0. .0103060 0.

All rights reserved.4 in An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics by Chuen-Yen Chow. held at the University of Virginia June 15 . defect or error in the program or in any such documentation or any malfunction of the program or for any incidental or consequential losses. damages or costs. presented at the 1997 Summer Institute of the Southeastern Consortium for Minorities in Engineering. or remedy for tort nor any business expense. This program may be distributed freely for instructional purposes only providing that: (1) The file be distributed in its entirety including disclaimer and copyright notices. Inc. Page 25 . 1997. 310 MEC. Wiley (1979) R. right. liability. DISCLAIMER The author shall not be responsible for losses of any kind resulting from the use of the program or of any documentation and can in no way provide compensation for any losses sustained including but not limited to any obligation. Univ. (2) No part of it may be incorporated into any commercial product. machine downtime or damages caused to the user by any deficiency. however caused. June 1997 Copyright 1997.Disclaimer This collection of worksheets was developed for the Session on Projectile Motion and Computer Modeling.J.June 26. of Virginia. It is based on Program 1.Ribando.

But a computer or even a graphing calculator does provide a convenient means o the solution.Tech Details (1) Some Technical Details (1) If we are willing to ignore the effect of drag on the projectile.Velocity initial ) / Time Solve this for the final velocity: Velocity final = Velocity initial + Acceleration x Time Combining the first. For those cases involving uniform acc ele ration (which it will be shown later is appro air drag is neglected). the equations that gove of a simple.to the point thaqt we don’t even need a com solve them. spherical projectile simplify greatly . second and fourth equations: Distance = Velocity initial x Time + 1 Acceleration x 2 Page 26 . the distance traveled is simply the average velocity times the ela psed tim Distance = Velocity ave rage x Time The average velocity is given by: Velocity average = (Velocity initial + Velocity final ) / 2 The acceleration is the change in velocity over the elapsed time (and is assumed uniform here Acceleration = (Velocity final .

Velocity initial ) / Time + Acceleration x Time Time + 1 Acceleration x Time 2 2 Page 27 .Tech Details (1) ails (1) projectile. the equations that govern the flight t thaqt we don’t even need a computer to es provide a convenient means of visualizing ich it will be shown later is appropriate when rage velocity times the ela psed time: ge x Time al + Velocity final ) / 2 me (and is assumed uniform here): l .

the vertical velocity (V) is then given by V = Vinitial . We’ll include the force due to gr that is. With this uniform acceleration.Tech Details (2) Some Technical Details (2) In order to determine the trajectory of our idealized spherical projectile. but will ignore air drag for now. we consider only the force due to gravity: åF y = ma y = . that is. the weight. the force is equal to the mass times the acceleration. The horizontal position is then given by: X = X initial + U initial x Time In the y (vertical) direction. Y = Yinitial + Vinitial x Time - 1 g Time 2 2 The initial velocity components specified in these equations can be found from simple trigono U initial = Velocity initial x Cosine(Angle initial ) Vinitial = Velocity initial x Sine(Angle initial ) The equations for X and Y are easily input to a graphing calculator in this parametric form so trajectory can be visualized as a function of time. 3 the English system. (The state trooper is interested in your speed. there are no forces in the x (horizontal direction). we’ll apply Second Law: F= ma that is. launch velocity (Velocityinitial ) and launch an (Angle initial ). but if you are trying to get somewhere in particular.0. Since we have ignored air drag. th horizontal a cceleration is identically 0. Forces and velocities are both vector qua is.8 m/s2 in the metric system. wh magnitude of your velocity. Page 28 . your velocity We’ll resolve forces (and accelerations and velocities) into components in the x (horizontal) a (vertical) directions and apply Newton’s 2 nd law separately to each. That mea ns the horizontal velocity (U) will be cons equal to the initial value Uinitial .g x Time Finally the vertical position is given by: .mg . they have both magn itude and direction. the acceleration in the vertical direction is equal to -g (9.

thus the rizontal velocity (U) will be constant and hen given by: ce due to gravity: (9.2 ft/s2 in ical velocity (V) is then given by: me 2 can be found from simple trigonometry: le initial ) ) ial culator in this parametric form so that the ocity (Velocityinitial ) and launch angle Page 29 .8 m/s2 in the metric system. which is the where in particular.Tech Details (2) ails (2) d spherical projectile. and velocities are both vector quantities. 32. we’ll apply Newton’s We’ll include the force due to gravity here. n the x (horizontal direction). your velocity is key. that er is interested in your speed.) omponents in the x (horizontal) and y o each.

respectively. a beach ball. we found that contrary to intuition. while convenient fo implementation on a graphing calculator. which to have only a horiz ontal component and acts opposite to the relative wind. that is. another sheet reports the computed x and y positions and the horizontal (u) and v velocity components as a function of time. All the heavy-duty calculations (the functions Cdrag. Experimental da drag coefficient of a smooth sphere are used. Page 30 . ordinary differe equations). Our experience tells u will be more important for a light sphere. e.no hooks. it never reaches a terminal velocity. which includes boxes for user input and shows the traj graph ically. the vertical velocity just keeps getting more a nd more negative downward) with time.Tech Details (3) Some Technical Details (3) The model of projectile motion developed on the previous sheet. this is a 2-D model only . First of all. FyoverM and the subroutine Kutta) were all implemented behind-the-scenes in Visual Basic f Applications and are automatically invoked when the user hits the Compute/Plot button on th In addition to the main sheet. the t governing equations can’t be solved directly (they are a set of two non-linear. slices or c allowed. To rectify this problem w include the force due to the drag of the air on the spherical projectile. and less so for heavy projectiles l put. Air drag was ignored consequence. Another sheet gives some approximate data for va common spherical projectiles which the user may want to test. (Wiley. Furthermore.. 1979 few highlights are presented here. ha s some obvious problems. Chow. The drag force depends on the velocity of the projectile relative to the wind. So we use a numerical technique called Runge-Kutta integration which ha s been implemented in the subroutine Kutta . This function Cdrag implements curve fits for The accelerations in the x and y directions at each point in time are computed in the functions and FYoverM.Y. the horizontal velocity stays at its initial va never decreases. The air drag model and the solution algorithm implemented in this spreadsheet are f explained in An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics by C.g. Unfortuna tely with the extra terms involving the air drag.

(Wiley. the two f two non-linear.Tech Details (3) ails (3) evious sheet. Experimental data for the Cdrag implements curve fits for this data. Page 31 . slices or curveballs ectile relative to the wind. Chow. To rectify this problem we must rojectile.no hooks. FxoverM. while convenient for problems. me are computed in the functions FXoverM erms involving the air drag. for user input and shows the trajectory ions and the horizontal (u) and vertical (v) ves some approximate data for various t. 1979). which is assumed relative wind. ordinary differential Kutta integration which ha s been calculations (the functions Cdrag. Air drag was ignored and as a ntal velocity stays at its initial value and s getting more a nd more negative (heading ocity. Our experience tells us that drag and less so for heavy projectiles like a shot emented in this spreadsheet are fully mics by C. Only a model only . hind-the-scenes in Visual Basic for ts the Compute/Plot button on the main sheet.Y.

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