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This document is part of the notes written by Terje Haukaas and posted at www.inrisk.ubc.ca.

The notes are revised without notice and they are provided “as is” without warranty of any kind. You are encouraged to submit comments, suggestions, and questions to terje@civil.ubc.ca. It is unnecessary to print these notes because they will remain available online.

Euler-Bernoulli Beams

The   Euler-­‐Bernoulli   beam   theory   was   established   around   1750   with   contributions   from  Leonard  Euler  and  Daniel  Bernoulli.  The  work  built  on  earlier  developments  by   Jacob   Bernoulli.   However,   the   beam   problem   had   been   addressed   even   earlier.   Galileo  attempted  one  formulation  but  misplaced  the  neutral  axis.  Leonardo  da  Vinci   also   seems   to   have   addressed   the   problem   of   beam   bending.   The   two   key   assumptions   in   the   Euler-­‐Bernoulli   beam   theory   are   that   the   material   is   linear   elastic   according   to   Hooke’s   law   and   that   plane   sections   remain   plane   and   perpendicular  to  the  neutral  axis  during  bending.  The  latter  is  sometimes  referred   to  as  Navier’s  hypothesis.   In  contrast,  Timoshenko  beam  theory,  which  is  covered  in   another   document,   relaxes   the   assumption   that   the   sections   remain   perpendicular   to  the  neutral  axis,  thus  including  shear  deformation.  In  the  following,  the  governing   equations   are   established,   followed   by   the   formulation   and   solution   of   the   differential   equation.   Thereafter,   the   computation   of   stresses   and   cross-­‐section   constants  is  described.   A  number  of  sign  conventions  are  adopted  in  the  following:   § § The  z-­‐axis  is  increases  upward     Displacement  w  is  positive  in  the  direction  of  the  z-­‐axis  

 acts  in  the  downward  direction.  while  the   z-­‐axis  is  in  the  upward  direction.ca § § § § § Distributed  load  qz  is  positive  when  it  acts  in  the  downward  direction   Clockwise  shear  force  is  positive   Bending   moment   that   imposes   tension   at   the   bottom   of   a   horizontal   beam   element  is  positive   Counter-­‐clockwise   rotation   θ   is   positive   so   that   it   can   be   interpreted   as   the   slope  of  the  deformed  beam  element   Tensile  stresses  and  strains  are  positive.   q M V V+dV M+dM dx   Figure  1:  Equilibrium  for  infinitesimally  small  beam  element.ubc.  compression  is  negative   Equilibrium   The   equilibrium   equations   are   obtained   by   considering   equilibrium   in   the   x-­‐ direction  for  the  infinitesimal  beam  element  in  Figure  1.     Section  Integration     Integration  of  axial  stresses  over  the  cross-­‐section:   M = $ !" # z d A   A (3)   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 2 .   Vertical  equilibrium  yields:     Moment  equilibrium  about  the  rightmost  edge  yields:     q=! dV   dx (1)   V= dM   dx (2)   In  Eq.  Notice  that  the  distributed   load.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.   q.inrisk.  This  essentially  means   that   terms   with   dx2   (the   multiplication   of   an   exceedingly   small   value   by   itself)   are   considered  approximately  equal  to  zero.  (2)  it  is  noted  that  “second-­‐order  terms”  are  neglected.   The  notation   qz  is  employed  in  other  documents  to  identify  the  case  where  positive   load  acts  in  the  positive  z-­‐direction.

    z •  Negative compression stress •  Positive z-values M M x Minus sign is cross-section integral is necessary to get positive bending moment •  Positive tension stress •  Negative z-values   Figure  2:  The  reason  for  the  minus  sign  in  Eq.   the   use   of   Eq.e.   (4).   However.  i..  Figure  2  is  intended  to  explain  this  further.  bending  moment   with  tension  at  the  bottom.  The  alternative  “plane  strain”  version  of  the  two-­‐dimensional  Hooke’s  law   is   more   appropriate   in   cases   where   the   beam   is   only   a   strip   of   a   long   rectangular   plate  that  is  supported  along  the  two  long  edges.  substituted  into  the  material  law  in  the  x-­‐direction  yields:   ! yy = " yy #$ % " xx =0 E (5)   " yy " xx ($ % " xx ) = " xx (1 # $ 2 ) & " = E % !   (6)   " xx #$ = #$ xx xx E E E E E 1# $2 All   the   derivations   and   results   in   the   following   are   based   on   the   material   law   σxx=E.       ! xx = Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 3 .   Material  Law     The  material  law  throughout  linear  elastic  theory  is  Hooke’s  law:   ! = E " #   (4)   In   the   context   of   two-­‐dimensional   theory   of   elasticity.  In  that  case  the  strain  is  restrained   in  the  y-­‐direction:     & " yy = $ % " xx   E Which.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.  E..   (4)   implies   a   “plane  stress”  material  law.εxx   from   Eq.ca where   the   minus   sign   appears   because   it   is   compressive   (negative)   stresses   in   the   positive   z-­‐axis  domain  that  gives  a  positive  bending  moment.  (3).ubc.   the   plain   strain   version   is   easily   introduced   by   replacing  the  Young’s  modulus.  air  on  the  sides  of   the  beam.  It  implies  that  there  is  zero  stress.  in  any  equation  by  E/(1-­‐ν2).  i.e.inrisk.

ubc.   Fibres   on   the   tension  side  elongate.   The  starting  point  for  the  considerations  is  to  link  the  axial  strain  to  the  change  of   length   of   the   imaginative   fibres   that   the   cross-­‐section   is   made   up   of.     != z.   consider  two  points  on  a  beam  that  is  dx  apart.  each  fibre  in  the  cross-­‐section  change  length  proportional   to  its  distance  from  the  neutral  axis.   The   amount   of   shortening   or   elongation   depends   upon   the   rotation   of   the   cross-­‐ section.  of  each  infinitesimally  short  fibre  is     du = ! d" # z   (8)   Finally.   the   axial   displacement   u   is   related   to   the   rotation   of   the   cross-­‐section.   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 4 tan(! ) = dw " !   dx .e.   The   same   consideration  as  in  kinematics  of  truss  members.  it  is  noted  that  dθ  is  equal  to  the  curvature.  namely  that  strain  is  “elongation   divided  by  original  length”  yields:   du   (7)   dx   Next.  It  is  first  recognized  that  bending  deformation  essentially   implies   shortening   and   lengthening   of   “fibres”   in   the   cross-­‐section.  as  shown  in  Figure  4. u   Figure  3:  Navier’s  hypothesis  for  beam  bending.   A   geometrical   consideration   of   to   Figure   3   shows   that   the   shortening   and   lengthening.   For   this   purpose.  κ.  while  fibres  on  the  compression  side  shorten.  axial  displacement.  The  relative   displacement   is   dw.   In   particular.ca Kinematics   The   relationship   between   the   axial   strain   and   the   transversal   displacement   of   a   beam  element  is  sought.   Consequently.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.  i.  In  passing.   a   geometrical  consideration  of  Figure  4  shows  that:   (9)     where  the  equation  is  simplified  by  assuming  that  the  deformations  are  sufficiently   small  so  that  tan(θ)≈θ..   consider   the   infinitesimal   rotation   dθ   of   the   infinitesimally   short   beam   element  in  Figure  3. w d! z x.   which   is   measure   positive   upwards.inrisk.  Under   the   assumption   that   plane   sections   remain   plane   and   perpendicular   to   the   neutral   axis  during  deformation.   the   rotation   θ   is   related   to   the   transversal   displacement.

 curvature  is  defined  as     !" 1   R (11)   where   R  is  the  radius  of  curvature  of  the  beam.   The   first   alludes   to   the   fact   that   differentiation  is  carried  out  with  respect  to  the   x-­‐axis.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.inrisk.ca     !               ! dw dx Figure  4:  Rotation  of  the  cross-­‐section  of  a  beam  element.  the  kinematic  equation  for  beam  members  is  obtained:     d 2w ! = " 2 # z   dx (10)   This   expression   implies   an   approximation   of   the   exact   curvature   of   the   beam.  the  curvature  is  approximated  by     !" d# d 2 w "   dx dx 2 (12)   Notice   that   there   are   two   approximation   signs.  differentiation  should  be  carried  out  with  respect  to  the   “s-­‐axis”  that  follows  the  curving  beam  axis.   Mathematically.   (9).ubc.  From  that  equation  it  is  observed  that  the  accurate  expression  for  θ  is:     # dw & ! = tan "1 % (   $ dx ' (13)   If   this   expression   was   utilized   in   the   derivations   above   then   the   differentiation   of   the  inverse  tan-­‐function  yields     !" d# =   dx $ $ dw ' 2 ' ) ) &1 + & % % dx ( ( $ d 2w ' & % dx 2 ) ( (14)   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 5 .  The  second  approximation  is  due  to  Eq.  In  the  Euler-­‐Bernoulli  beam  theory   that  is  presented  here.  Unless  the  deformations  are   negligible  this  is  inaccurate.   By  combining  equations.

ubc.   the   solution   of   the   differential   equation   is   the   starting   point   for   the   selection   of   shape   functions   in   the   finite   element   method.  section  integration.   To   obtain   the   solution   for   a   specific   beam   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 6 .   (14)   is   still   approximate   because   the   differentiation  is  carried  out  with  respect  to  the   x-­‐axis  and  not  the  beam  axis.   (12)   when   the   slope   dw/dx   is   small.ca which   reduces   to   the   expression   in   Eq.  For  beam  members.  while  the  solution  of  the  differential  equation  reveals  the  exact  shape   when  the  member  deforms.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.  the  exact  curvature  expression  is:     != " d 2w % $ # dx 2 ' & " " dw % % ' ' $1 + $ # # dx & & 2 3 2   (15)   Differential  Equation   The  governing  differential  equation  for  beam  members  is  obtained  by  combining  the   equations  for  equilibrium.   Those   shape   functions   are   often   approximate.  material  law.   In   particular.   the   displaced   shape   is   a   fourth   order   polynomial.   the   displacement   shape   of   a   beam   member   is   a   third-­‐order   polynomial.  From   mathematics.inrisk.  The  general  solution  of  the  differential  equation  reveals   whether  the  finite  element  shape  functions  are  exact  or  not.   the   curvature   expression   in   Eq.   However.   Without   any   distributed   load.  and  kinematics:   q=!   dV d2M d2 = ! 2 = 2 $ " # z dA dx dx dx A (16)   d2 d2 d 2w 2 = 2 $ E # % # z d A = ! 2 $ E # 2 # z d A   dx A dx A dx = ! EI d 4w dx 4 where  the  modulus  of  elasticity  is  assumed  constant  over  the  cross-­‐section  and  the   moment  of  inertia  is  defined:     I = ! z 2 d A   A (17)   General  Solution   Although   solving   the   differential   equation   is   not   part   of   typical   structural   analysis   it   is   instructive   to   study   its   solution   for   simple   reference   cases.  the   general  solution  of  the  differential  equation  is  obtained  by  integrating  four  times:     w( x ) = 1 qz 4 ! ! x + C1 ! x 3 + C2 ! x 2 + C3 ! x + C4   24 EI (18)   Given   a   uniform   distributed   load   qz.

 boundary  conditions  are  specified.  and   V(x)  for  a  simply  supported  beam  with   uniformly  distributed  load.   with   one   exception:   plotting   M(x)   yields   a   diagram  drawn  on  the  compression  side.   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 7 .ca problem.   M(x).   θ(x)..   notice   that   the   plots   of   M(x)   and   V(x)   are   identical   to   the   respective   section   force   diagrams.   With   reference   to   Figure   5.  while  in  these  notes  the  bending  moment   diagrams  are  consistently  drawn  on  the  tension  side.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.  To  prescribe  a  rotation.  shear  force.   Figure  5  shows  plots  of   w(x).e.inrisk.  The  illustration  is  made  with  qz=L=EI=1.       Figure  5:  Example  of  response  functions  for  beam  element.   notice   that   the   displacement   w(x)   is   negative.  or   bending   moment.   i.ubc.   Furthermore.   downwards  and  that   θ(x)  correctly  shows  that  the  slope  is  negative  left  of  the  mid-­‐ span.   the   following   equations   are   useful.   obtained   by   combining   the   governing  equations  that  are  established  earlier:         != dw   dx d 2w   dx 2 d 3w   dx 3 (19)   (20)   (21)   M = EI V = EI As   an   illustration   of   the   solution   to   the   differential   equation   for   beam   bending.

  the   neutral   axis   passes   through   the   centroid   of   the   cross-­‐section.  For  homogeneous  cross-­‐sections.ca Cross-­‐section  Parameters   The   only   cross-­‐section   constant   in   fundamental   2D   beam   theory   is   the   cross-­‐ sectional  moment  of  inertia.   In   practice.  the  integral  is  evaluated   analytically:   h /2   I = b! " h /2 # z2 dz = b ! h3   12 (22)   For  more  complicated  cross-­‐sections  the  following  procedure  may  be  helpful:   1.   first   select   a   reference   axis   in   the   cross-­‐ section  that  is  parallel  to  the  neutral  axias  and  let  zo  denote  its  distance  to  the   true  neutral  axis.   z  is  the  distance   from   the   neutral   axis   of   the   cross-­‐section..e.   most   prominently  the  rectangular  one  with  width  b  and  height  h.  (10):   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 8 . Determine  the  location  of  the  neutral  axis.   I. Determine   the   local   moment   of   inertia.”   i.  let   zi  denote  the  distance  from  the  arbitrarily   selected   axis   to   the   centroid   of   each   sub-­‐area. Add   contributions   to   the   global   moment   of   inertia   from   each   cross-­‐section   part  according  to  Steiner’s  formula:     I= All parts of the cross-section ! I i + zi2 ·Ai   (24)   where  zi  is  the  distance  from  the  neutral  axis  of  the  entire  cross-­‐section  to  the   centroid  of  the  part.     For   example.   Ai   that   the   cross-­‐section   consists  of.   they   originate   in   the   centroid   but   they   generally  do  not  coincide  with  the  principal  axes.  defined  in  Eq.  (17).   As   a   starting   point.  Furthermore.   of   each   sub-­‐area   of   the   cross-­‐ section  about  the  local  centroid  axis  of  that  part..Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.  i.     3.   a   double-­‐symmetric   cross-­‐ section   bends   around   the   two   symmetry-­‐axes.ubc.   additional   analysis   is   necessary  for  general  asymmetric  cross-­‐sections  to  determine  the  “principal  axes.   For   simple   cross-­‐sections.   However.  In  the  formula.  The  total  axial  strain  at  a  location   of  the  cross-­‐section  is  expressed  in  the  following  extended  version  of  Eq.   when   the   coordinate   z   has   its   origin   at   the   centroid   then   the   static   moment   ∫z   dA   is   zero.   suppose   two   axes   directions   y   and   z   are   arbitrary   selected.inrisk.   Principal  Axes   This  document  describes  bending  about  one  axis.  The  distance  to  the  true  neutral  axis  is  determined  from:     A·zo = All parts of the cross-section ! Ai ·zi " zo = ! A ·z i i   (23)   A 2.     In   other   words.   the   bending   axes   of   the   cross-­‐section.e.   Ii.  bending  of  2D  beams.  With  the   most   common   cross-­‐sections   it   is   straightforward   to   understand   which   cross-­‐ section   axis   the   beam   will   bend   around.

 compression.     (Material  to  be  added  here.ca   d 2v d 2w ! = ! o " 2 # y " 2 # z   dx dx (25)   From   this   strain.”  Iyz.   i.   which  yields:     ! = "E # d 2w # z   dx 2 (29)   Then   substitute   the   differential   equation   without   equilibrium   equations.   tension   at   the   bottom..   beam   bending   involves   both   axial   and   shear   stresses.  has  been  defined  as:     I yz = " y ! z d A   A (28)   It  is  relatively  straightforward  to  establish  formulas  for   Iyz  and  compute  stresses  in   term  of   Iyz.   In   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 9 .  it  is  also  always  possible  to  rotate  the  axis  system  so  that   Iyz   is   zero.   (3)   to   obtain   the   following   expression   for   the   bending   moment   about  the  y-­‐axis:     d 2v d 2w M = ! E " # o " $ z d A + E " 2 " $ y " z d A + E " 2 " $ z 2 d A   dx A dx A A (26)   The  first  integral  vanishes  because  z  originates  at  the  centroid.  while  the  shear  stress  is  directly  related  to  the  shear   force   as   described   shortly.  (20).  As  a  result.  i.  where   z  is  positive.)   Stresses   Although  the  Euler-­‐Bernoulli  beam  theory  is  formulated  in  terms  of  axial  stress.inrisk.   This   is   advantageous  because  the  elementary  formulas  for  beam  bending  remain  valid..   the   material   law   in   Eq.   σ.   (30).   One   way   of   obtaining   an   expression   for   axial   stress   in   terms   of   the   bending   moment   is   to   combine   material   law   and   kinematics   equations.e.   Eq.ubc.   which   also   correctly   gives   positive   tension   stresses   at   the   bottom   when   a   positive   moment   acts   on   the   cross-­‐section.e.  However.   and   the   stress   is   integrated   by   Eq.  This  is  the   reason   for   the   minus   sign   in   Eq.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.  to  obtain:     ! =" M # z   I (30)   It   is   noted   that   a   positive   bending   moment.   The   axial   stress   is   directly   related  to  the  bending  moment.  while  the  last  term  is   the  ordinary  bending  moment  from  Eq..  (26)  is  rewritten  as:     M = EI yz ! d 2v d 2w + EI !   dx 2 dx 2 (27)   where  the  “product  of  inertia.  Eq.  etc.   then   the   axis   system   is   referred   to   as   the   principal   axes.e.   correctly   yields  negative  stresses  at  the  top.   i.   (4)   provides   the   stress.   (20).

  The   anomaly   is   customarily   addressed  by  recovering  the  shear  force  by  equilibrium  once  the  bending  moment  is   computed.ca summary.   the   beam   theory   presented   in   this   document   consists   of   the   governing   equations  shown  in  Figure  6.   Furthermore.  (2)  the  shear  force  is  equal  to  the  derivative  of   the   bending   moment.   this   is   the   equation   that   recovers   the   shear   force.   in   terms   of   the   shear   force.  this  prevents  shear  strain.  In  fact.   which   adds   up   to   zero   shear   force.   Shear  Stress  and  Shear  Centre  for  Open  Cross-­‐sections   When   approaching   shear   stresses   from   bending.   consider   the   infinitesimally   short   beam   element   in   Figure   7.   In   other   words.   V.   the   only  strain  that  takes  place  is  the  axial  shortening  or  elongation  of  the  fibres  in  the   cross-­‐section.   The   theory   is   based   on   the   assumption   that   plane   sections   remain   plane   and   perpendicular   to   the   neutral   axis.ubc.   an   anomaly   in   Euler-­‐Bernoulli   beam   theory   is   first   noted.inrisk.  because  shear  force  will  develop  even  in   simple   beams   that   are   subjected   to   transversal   load.   Another   document   on   Timoshenko   beam   theory   describes   an   approach   to   further   extend   the   beam  theory  to  include  deformation  due  to  shear  forces.     Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 10 .   τ.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.   the   shear   force   is   not  part  of  the  theory.  This  is  an  anomaly.  With  no  shear  strain  there  is  no   shear   stress.  according  to  Eq.   To   obtain   expressions   for   the   shear   stress.  Effectively.   consider   a   “cut”   in   the  cross-­‐section  and  let  qs  denote  the  “shear  flow”  at  that  location.     q dV dx dM V= dx q=! q = ! EI d 4w dx 4 w M = EI d 2w dx 2 M M = $ !" # z d A A M ! = " #z I !=" d 2w #z dx 2 " ! = E "# !   Figure  6:  Governing  equations  in  Euler-­‐Bernoulli  beam  theory.   In   other   words.

  t.   The   simplest   case   is   double-­‐symmetric   cross-­‐ sections.ca Axial stresses M V V+dV M+dM dx Shear stresses (“shear flow”)   Figure  7:  Shear  flow  by  equilibrium  of  infinitesimal  beam  element.   The  shear  flow  is  the  force  per  unit  length  of  the  beam  that  ensures  equilibrium  with   the  axial  stresses.   for   a   rectangular   cross-­‐section   the   maximum   shear   stress   is   at   the   neutral  axis.   and   there   are   several   techniques   to   determine   them.  Given  that  V=dM/dx.  which  are  greater  on  one  side  than  the  other  due  to  dM:     qs ! dx = # d " dA = As dM ! z dA   I As # (31)   where  As  is  the  cross-­‐sectional  area  outside  the  cut.   The   coordinates   of   the   shear   centre   are   denoted   by   ysc   and   zsc.  In  fact.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.ubc.  of   the  cross-­‐section  at  the  particular  location:     != (34)   For   example.  is  the  point   where  the  resultant  of  the  shear  force  must  act  to  avoid  rotation  of  the  cross-­‐section.  with  value  equal  to     3 V   (35)   " 2 A The  shear  centre  of  a  cross-­‐section.  this  yields     where     qs = V   !S I (32)   S= As ! z dA   V "S   I "t (33)   The  shear  stress  is  calculated  by  distributing  the  shear  flow  over  the  thickness.  sometimes  called  the  centre  of  twist.inrisk.   if   a   cross-­‐section   has   an   axis   of   symmetry   then   the   shear   centre   is   located   on   this     != Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 11 .  for  these  cross-­‐sections  the  shear  centre  coincide  with  the  centroid.

Write   the   equation   that   expresses   the   moment   of   the   shear   flow   in   Item   2   about  the  trial  shear  centre.  where  the  “omega  diagram”  is  utilized.  one  approach  to  determine  ysc  and  zsc  is  described  in   the  document  on  warping  torsion.  However.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.ca axis.   and   let   ysc   and   zsc   denote   the   coordinates  of  the  shear  centre  relative  to  the  centroid. Select   an   arbitrary   point   as   trial   shear   centre.   both   ysc   and   zsc   will   appear   in   this   expression   4.  For  general  cross-­‐sections.   the   shear   centre   coordinates   are   first   determined.   in   general.  when  the  consideration  of  warping  torsion  is  off  the   table.   write   the   equation   that   expresses   the   moment   of   the   shear   flow  in  Item  4  about  the  trial  shear  centre   6.. Similar   to   Item   3.   (32).  and  the  shear  flow  at  all  other  locations  are  determined  relative  to  this   value  in  accordance  with  Eq. Set  the  equations  from  Items  3  and  5  both  equal  to  zero  and  solve  these  two   equations  for  the  two  unknowns  ysc  and  zsc   Only   one   moment   equation   is   needed   for   single-­‐symmetric   cross-­‐sections.   using   the   “omega   diagram”   as   described  in  the  document  on  warping  torsion.  originates  at  the  cut.  let  ysc   and  zsc  denote  the  distances  from  the  centroid  to  the  shear  centre   2. In   accordance   with   Eq.  the  moment  of  the  shear   flow  about  the  shear  centre  must  be  zero.ubc. In   accordance   with   Eq.  the  new  coordinate   s.    The  unknown  shear  flow  at  the  cut  is   denoted   qo.   i.   determine   the   shear   flow   in   the   cross-­‐section   due  to  a  shear  force  in  the  z-­‐direction     3.  e  will  appear  in  this  expression   4.  is  offered  here. Select   an   arbitrary   point   along   the   symmetry   axis   as   trial   shear   centre.   determine   the   shear   flow   in   the   cross-­‐section   due  to  a  shear  force  in  the  direction  perpendicular  to  the  axis  of  symmetry   3.  a  “cut”  in  the  cross-­‐section  is   made  to  yield  an  open  cross-­‐section.    This  leads  to  the  following  procedure  to   determine   the   coordinates   of   the   shear   centre.   In   the   first   approach.  which  traces  the  cross-­‐ section  around  the  cell.  determine  the  shear  flow  in  the  cross-­‐section  due  to  a  shear   force  in  the  y-­‐direction   5.   provided   y   and   z   are   the   principal   axes  through  the  centroid  of  the  cross-­‐section:   1. Set  the  equation  from  Items  3  equal  to  zero  and  solve  for  e     Shear  Stress  and  Shear  Centre  for  Closed  Cross-­‐sections   The   determination   of   shear   stress   and   shear   centre   for   closed   cross-­‐sections.   a  somewhat  simpler  approach.    Next. Write   the   equation   that   expresses   the   moment   of   the   shear   flow   in   Item   2   about   the   trial   shear   centre.   and   let  e  denote  the  distance  from  the  centroid  to  that  point   2.   can   be   approached   in   two   ways.   The  principle  is  simple.e.   (32).  (32):     q = qo + V ! S   I (36)   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 12 .  in  other  words.   cross-­‐sections   with   cell. Similar  to  Item  2.inrisk.  by  definition.   in   that   cases  the  procedure  simplifies  to:   1.

  Figure   8   illustrates   the   two   following   contributions   to   shear   strain   in   an   infinitesimal  element  of  the  cross-­‐section:     ! = !1 +! 2 = du d" + # h   ds dx (39)   where  φ  is  the  rotation  of  the  cross-­‐section.   By   definition   the   moment.   Also   this   approach   introduces   a   cut   in   the   cross-­‐section.  Material  law  states  that:   Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 13 .  the  shear  flow  is  determined  at  other   locations  by  Eq.   ds du !1 !2 dx d! h   Figure  8:  Two  contributions  to  shear  strain.   about  the  shear  centre  must  be  zero.  (36).   Am.  and  h(s)  is  the  distance  from  the  shear   centre   to   the   tangent   line   of   the   cross-­‐section   at   s.  The  second  approach  to  determine  the  shear  flow  and  shear   centre   in   closed   cross-­‐sections  entails   determining   the   shear  centre   at   the  end.inrisk.ubc.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.   T.ca Once   q  is  determined  at  all  locations  of  the  cross-­‐section.  and  solving  for  qo  yields:     qo = ! V ! # S " h ds = ! V " S " h ds   " # I ! 2 " Am " I ! # h ds (38)   where  the  last  equality  expresses  that  the  integral  of   h  around  the  cross-­‐section  is   twice  the  cell  area.   but   now   compatibility   is   considered  instead  of  moment  equilibrium.  consider  Figure  8.  the  moment  of  the  shear   flow  about  the  shear  centre  is  computed:     T =! " q ! h ds = ! " qo ! h ds + ! " V ! S ! h ds   I (37)   where  the  integrals  are  made  around  the  cell.  To  this  end.  Having  the  value  of   qo.

 From  that  equation  it  is   of   interest   to   solve   for   dφ   /dx   because   the   cross-­‐section   should   not   rotate   due   to   shear  force:     d! = dx ! # G " t ds ! # G " t ds = = 0   2A ! # h ds m q q (43)   Eq.  (39)  and  (40)  yields     du = q d# ! ds " ! h ! ds   G !t dx q d$ ds # ! ! h ds   " G !t dx (41)   Integration  around  the  cell  yields  the  total  “gap  opening”  due  to  the  cut:     u=! " (42)   To  ensure  compatibility.inrisk.  (36).  this  gap  opening  must  be  zero:  u=0.ca   ! = " q =   G G #t (40)   and  combination  of  Eqs.ubc.Terje Haukaas University of British Columbia www.  the  expression  simplifies  to:     qo = ! V " I ! # t ds 1 ! # t ds S   (46)   Having  the  value  of  qo.  (36)  provides  the  expression  for  the  shear  flow.     Euler-Bernoulli Beams Page 14 .  the  shear  flow  is  determined  at  other  locations  by  Eq.  q.  which  yields:     Solving  for  qo  yields:     ! " G ! t ds + ! " I ! G ! t ds = 0   S # G " t ds V ! qo = ! "   1 I ! # G " t ds qo V !S (44)   (45)   When  the  material  is  homogeneous.

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