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Keflaio 5

Pargwgoc
SFI yrism th prggou
yrism SFIFIF 9istw f : (a, b) R mi sunrthsh ki stw x0 (a, b)F vme ti h f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 n uprqei to rio
f (x0 ) := lim
xx0

f (x) f (x0 ) . x x0

o rio f (x0 ) @n uprqeiA lgeti prgwgo th f sto x0 F ttont h = x x0 lpoume tiD isodnmD

f (x0 ) = lim
n to teleuto rio uprqeiF

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) h0 h

hmewshF en f : I R pou I disthm ki n to x0 I eni rister dexi kro tou I D tte orzoume thn prgwgo f (x0 ) @n uprqeiA msw tou pleuriko orou )f (x0 ) )f (x0 ) ntstoiqF limxx+ f (xx limxx f (xx x0 x0
0 0

rdegmt SFIFPF @A 9istw f : R R me f (x) = c gi kje x RF r f eni


prgwgsimh se kje x0 R ki f (x0 ) = 0F rgmtiD

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) cc = =00 h h


kj to h 0F @A 9istw f : R R me f (x) = x gi kje x RF r f eni prgwgsimh se kje x0 R ki f (x0 ) = 1F rgmtiD

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) x0 + h x0 h = = =11 h h h

108 Pargwgos kj to h 0F @gA 9istw f : R R me f (x) = |x| gi kje x RF r f den eni prgwgsimh sto 0 @ki eni prgwgsimh se kje x0 = 0AF rgmtiD
h0+

lim

f (h) f (0) |h| h = lim+ = lim+ = lim+ 1 = 1, h h h0 h0 h h0

en
h0

lim

|h| h f (h) f (0) = lim = lim = lim (1) = 1. h h h h0 h0 h0

f (0) efo t do pleurik ri eni diforetikD to limh0 f (h) den uprqeiF h 2 @dA 9istw f : R R me f (x) = x gi kje x RF r f eni prgwgsimh se kje x0 R ki f (x0 ) = 2x0 F rgmtiD

(x0 + h)2 x2 2x0 h + h2 f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) 0 = = = 2x0 + h 2x0 h h h


kj to h 0F @eA 9istw f : R R me f (x) = sin x gi kje x RF r f eni prgwgsimh se kje x0 R ki f (x0 ) = cos x0 F rgmtiD

sin(x0 + h) sin x0 1 h h f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) = = 2 sin cos x0 + h h h 2 2

cos x0

h/2) kj to h 0D fo limh0 sin( = 1 ki limh0 cos(x0 + h/2) = cos x0 F we nlogo h/2 trpo mporome n dexoume ti h g : R R me g (x) = cos x eni prgwgsimh se kje x0 R ki g (x0 ) = sin x0 F x2 n x Q @stA 9istw f : R R me f (x) = F r f eni prgwgsimh sto 0X 0 n x /Q prthrome ti f (h) f (0) h n h Q = 0 n h /Q h f (0) 9ipeti ti limh0 f (h) = 0F hhldD f (0) = 0F rthrste ti h f eni suneq h se kje x0 = 0 @ki eni suneq sto 0AF x3 n x 0 @zA 9istw f : R R me f (x) = F r f eni prgwgsimh se kje x2 n x < 0 x0 RF qi to shmeo 0D jewrome to

f (h) f (0) = h

h2 h

n h > 0 n h < 0

f (0) 9ipeti ti to rio limh0 f (h) uprqei ki eni so me 0F hhldD f (0) = 0F ikol h 2 elgqoume ti f (x0 ) = 3x0 n x0 > 0 ki f (x0 ) = 2x0 n x0 < 0F

5.2 Kannes paraggishs 109

terhm SFIFQF 9istw f : (a, b) R ki stw x0 (a, b)F en h f eni prgwgsimh


sto x0 D tte h f eni suneq sto x0 F epdeixhF qi x = x0 grfoume

f (x) f (x0 ) =
efo
xx0

f (x) f (x0 ) (x x0 ). x x0

lim

f (x) f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) ki x x0

xx0

lim (x x0 ) = 0,

sumpernoume ti limxx0 (f (x) f (x0 )) = 0D ki sunepD limxx0 f (x) = f (x0 )F eut podeiknei ti h f eni suneq sto x0 F 2 eni prtht prgwgsimh sto x0 F qi prdeigmD h f (x) = |x| eni suneq sto 0 ll den eni prgwgsimh sto 0F

rtrhsh SFIFRF o ntstrofo den isqeiX n h f eni suneq sto x0 D tte den

SFP

unne prggish

rhsimopoint ti ntstoiqe idithte twn orwnD mporome n podexoume tou siko {knne prggish} se sqsh me ti lgerik prxei metx sunrtE sewnF

terhm SFPFIF 9istw f, g : (a, b) R do sunrtsei ki stw x0 (a, b)F pojE toume ti oi f, g eni prgwgsime sto x0 F teX
@A r f + g eni prgwgsimh sto x0 ki (f + g ) (x0 ) = f (x0 ) + g (x0 )F @A qi kje t RD h t f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 ki (t f ) (x0 ) = t f (x0 )F @gA r f g eni prgwgsimh sto x0 ki (f g ) (x0 ) = f (x0 )g (x0 ) + f (x0 )g (x0 )F @dA en g (x) = 0 gi kje x (a, b)D tte h
f g

eni prgwgsimh sto x0 ki

f g

(x0 ) =

f (x0 )g (x0 ) f (x0 )g (x0 ) . (g (x0 ))2

epdeixhF e dome gi prdeigm thn pdeixh tou @gAX grfoume

(f g )(x0 + h) (f g )(x0 ) h

= f (x0 + h)

g (x0 + h) g (x0 ) h f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) +g (x0 ) h

gi h = 0 @kont sto 0AF

110 Pargwgos
)g (x0 ) )f (x0 ) 9iqoume limh0 g(x0 +hh = g (x0 ) ki limh0 f (x0 +hh = f (x0 )F ipshD h f eni prgwgsimhD r ki suneqD sto x0 F unepD limh0 f (x0 + h) = f (x0 )F efnont to h 0D ki qrhsimopoint ti sik idithte twn orwnD prnoume to zhtomenoF qi to @dA rke n dexoume ti h 1/g eni prgwgsimh sto x0 ki qei prgwgo g (x0 ) sh me g (x0 )2 @ki n efrmsoume to @gAAF rthrste ti

h0

lim

1 h

1 1 g (x0 + h) g (x0 )

g (x0 ) g (x0 + h) 1 h g (x0 + h)g (x0 ) 1 , = g (x0 ) g (x0 )2


h0

lim

pou qrhsimopoisme to gegon ti limh0 g (x0 + h) = g (x0 )D pou isqei logw th sunqei th g sto x0 F 2 9emese sunpeie tou prohgomenou jewrmto eni oi exX @iA uje poluwnumik sunrthsh eni prgwgsimh se kje x0 RF io sugkekrimE nD n p(x) = am xm + am1 xm1 + + a1 x + a0 D tte

p (x) = mam xm1 + (m 1)am1 xm2 + + a1 .


@iiA uje rht sunrthsh eni prgwgsimh se kje shmeo tou pedou orismo thF

SFP

unn th lusd

rtsh SFPFP @prtrhsh tou urjeodwrAF 9istw f : (a, b) R ki stw x0 (a, b)F r f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 n ki mnon n uprqei sunrthsh : (a, b) R )f (x0 ) pou eni suneq sto x0 ki iknopoie thn (x) = f (xx gi kje x (a, b)\{x0 }F x0 teD f (x0 ) = (x0 ).
epdeixhF pojtoume prt ti h f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 F yrzoume : (a, b) R w exX f (x)f (x0 ) n x = x0 xx0 (x) = f (x0 ) n x = x0 r eni suneq sto x0 X prgmtiD
xx0

lim (x) = lim

xx0

f (x) f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) = (x0 ). x x0

entstrofD upojtoume ti uprqei : (a, b) R pw sthn rtshF efo h eni suneq sto x0 D qoume limxx0 (x) = (x0 )F hhldD uprqei to
xx0

lim

f (x) f (x0 ) = lim (x) = (x0 ). xx0 x x0 2

ep ton orism th prggouD h f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 ki f (x0 ) = (x0 )F

5.2 Kannes paraggishs 111

terhm SFPFQ @knn th lusdAF 9istw f : (a, b) (c, d) ki g : (c, d) R

do sunrtseiF en h f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 (a, b) ki h g eni prgwgsimh sto f (x0 )D tte h g f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 ki

(g f ) (x0 ) = g (f (x0 )) f (x0 ).


epdeixhF tloume n dexoume ti to rio
xx0

lim

g (f (x)) g (f (x0 ) x x0

uprqei ki eni so me g (f (x0 )) f (x0 ). ttoume y0 = f (x0 ) (c, d) ki jewrome th sunrthsh

: (c, d) R pou (y ) =

g (y )g (y0 ) y y0

g (y0 )

n y = y0 n y = y0

r eni suneq sto y0 D diti h g eni prgwgsimh sto y0 F 9istw x (a, b)\{x0 }F en f (x) = f (x0 )D tte

(f (x)) =
r qoume

g (f (x)) g (f (x0 )) , f (x) f (x0 )

()

f (x) f (x0 ) g (f (x)) g (f (x0 )) = (f (x)) . x x0 x x0

en gi to x isqei f (x) = f (x0 ) tte h () exkolouje n isqei @t do mlh mhdenE zontiAF hhldD h () isqei gi kje x (a, b)\{x0 }F )f (x0 ) uprqei ki isoti me f (x0 )F ipshD rthrome ti to rio limxx0 f (xx x0 h f eni suneq sto x0 ki h eni suneq sto y0 = f (x0 )D r h snjes tou f eni suneq sto x0 F unepD to rio limxx0 (f (x)) uprqei ki isoti me (y0 ) = g (y0 ) = g (f (x0 )). ipistrfont sthn () ki prnont to rio kj to x x0 D lpoume ti
xx0

lim

g (f (x)) g (f (x0 )) = (f (x0 )) f (x0 ) = g (f (x0 )) f (x0 ), x x0 2

dhld to zhtomenoF

SFP

rgwgo ntstrofh sunrthshF

terhm SFPFRF 9istw f : (a, b) R mi 1 1 ki suneq sunrthshF pojtoume oti


h f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 (a, b) ki ti f (x0 ) = 0F teD h f 1 eni prgwgsimh sto f (x0 ) ki 1 (f 1 ) (f (x0 )) = . f (x0 )

112 Pargwgos epdeixhF ep to terhm RFTFI gnwrzoume ti h f eni gnhsw montonh ki qwr periorism th geniktht mporome n upojsoume ti h f eni gnhsw xousF r f (x0 ) uprqeiD dhld f (x) f (x0 ) = f (x0 ). lim xx0 x x0 ipiplon qoume upojsei oti f (x0 ) = 0D r
xx0

lim

1 x x0 = . f (x) f (x0 ) f (x0 )

9istw > 0F wporome n rome > 0 ste [x0 , x0 + ] (a, b) ki n 0 < |xx0 | < tte

()
ttoume

x x0 1 < . f (x) f (x0 ) f (x0 ) y1 = f (x0 )


ki y2 = f (x0 + ) .

teD to (y1 , y2 ) eni n noiqt disthm pou periqei to f (x0 )D r uprqei 1 > 0 ste (f (x0 ) 1 , f (x0 ) + 1 ) (y1 , y2 ) = (f (x0 ) , f (x0 + )) . 9istw y pou iknopoie thn 0 < |y f (x0 )| < 1 F teD y = f (x) gi kpoio x (a, b) me 0 < |x x0 | < F 9erD

x x0 f 1 (y ) f 1 (f (x0 )) = , y f (x0 ) f (x) f (x0 )


opte h () dnei

f 1 (y ) f 1 (f (x0 )) 1 < . y f (x0 ) f (x0 )

efou to > 0 tn tuqnD peti oti

f 1 (y ) f 1 (f (x0 )) 1 = . y f (x0 ) f (x0 ) y f (x0 ) lim


hhldD h f 1 eni prgwgsimh sto f (x0 ) ki (f 1 ) (f (x0 )) =
1 f (x0 ) F

knn th lusd h prgwgo th snjesh f 1 f sto x0 j uprqeD ki j eqme

rtrhsh SFPFSF en f (x0 ) = 0 tte h (f 1 ) (y0 ) den uprqeiF elliD p ton


(f 1 f ) (x0 ) = (f 1 ) (f (x0 )) f (x0 ) = 0.

9ymwD (f 1 f )(x) = xD r (f 1 f ) (x0 ) = 1D opte odhgomste se topoF

5.3 Pargwgos ekjetiks kai logarijmiks sunrthshs 113

SFPg

rgwgoi nterh txh

yrism SFPFTF 9istw f : (a, b) R prgwgsimh se kje x (a, b)F r prgwgo sunrthsh th f eni h sunrthsh f : (a, b) R me x f (x)F en h sunrthsh
f eni prgwgsimh sto (a, b)D tte h prgwgo sunrthsh th f orzeti sto (a, b)D lgeti deterh prgwgo th f D ki sumolzeti me f F ipgwgikD n qei oriste h nEost prgwgo f (n) : (a, b) R th f ki eni prgwgsimh sunrthsh sto (a, b)D tte h prgwgo th f (n) D orzeti sto (a, b)D lgeti h (n + 1)txh prgwgo th f sto (a, b) ki sumolzeti me f (n+1) F wi sunrthsh pou qei prgwgo txh n lgeti n for prgwgsimhF wi sunrthsh f : (a, b) R lgeti peririst prgwgsimh sto shmeo x0 (a, b) n h f (n) (x0 ) uprqei gi kje n NF

rdeigm SFPFUF uje poluwnumik sunrthsh p(x) = am xm + + a1 x + a0 eni

peririst prgwgsimh se kje shmeo x0 RF yi suntelest tou poluwnmou p {upologzonti} p ti

ak =

p(k) (0) , k!

k = 0, 1, . . . , m.

r pdeixh gneti me didoqik prgwgsei ki upologism th p(k) (0)F en k > mD tte h p(k) eni mhdenzeti se kje x0 RF

SFQ

rgwgo ekjetik ki logrijmik sunrthsh

e ut th sntomh prgrfo podeiknoume ti h ekjetik sunrthsh exp(x) = ex eni prgwgsimhF th sunqeiD qrhsimopoint to genik m potlesm gi thn prgE wgo ntstrofh sunrthshD rskoume thn prgwgo th logrijmik sunrthsh lnF yi tpoi gi ti prggou twn uploipwn ekjetikn ki logrijmikn sunrtsewn prokptoun me pl efrmog tou knn th lusdF prgwgsimh ki gi kje x RF epdeixhF heqnoume prt ti

rtsh SFQFIF r ekjetik sunrthsh exp : R (0, +) me exp(x) = ex eni


exp (x) = exp(x)

et 1 = 1. t0 t lim
ekinme p do nisthte pou sunntsme sti esksei tou ueflou IX n a 1 1 tte (1 + a)n 1 + na @nistht BernoulliA ki n 0 a < 1/n tte (1 + a)n < 1 na @dexte thn me epgwg w pro nAF 9istw s rht rijm sto (0, 1)F wporome n

114 Pargwgos gryoume a = p/q D pou p < q fusiko rijmoF qnwrzoume ti e > qrhsimopoint thn prth nistht lpoume ti
q

1+

1 q

D opte

es >

1+

1 q

qs

1+

1 q

1+

p = 1 + s. q

ipshD fo 1/q < 1/pD p thn deterh nistht lpoume ti

1+
gi kje k ND r

1 kq

kp

<

1 1 = 1 p/q 1s

e =
we ll lgiD

lim

1 1+ kq

kq p/q

= lim

1+

1 kq

kp

1 . 1s

()

1 + s es

1 1s

gi kje s (0, 1) QF 9istw tr t (0, 1)F tewrnt kolouj (sn ) sto (0, 1) Q me sn tD ki qrhsimopoint thn rq th metfor gi ti trei sunrtsei sthn ()D sumpernoume ti 1 1 + t et 1t gi kje t (0, 1)F ssodnmD mporome n gryoume

0
ki fnont to t 0+ prnoume

et 1 t 1 , t 1t

t0

lim +

et 1 = 1. t

qi to rio kj t 0 jtoume u = t ki qoume

et 1 eu 1 eu 1 = = eu 1 1 = 1, t u u
pou qrhsimopoisme to prohgomeno rio ki th sunqei th ekjetik sunrthsh sto 0F

5.4 Antstrofes trigwnometriks sunartseis 115 9istw tr x RX qoume

ex+t ex ex et ex et 1 = = ex ex 1 = ex t t t
kj to t 0+ D r h exp eni prgwgsimh sto x ki (exp) (x) = exp(x)F

to prohgomeno ueflio edme ti h exp : R (0, +) eni sunrthsh gnhsw xous ki epF wporome loipn n orsoume thn ntstrof thD h opo sumolzeti me lnF hhldD ln : (0, +) R ki ln y = x n ki mno n ex = y F

rtsh SFQFPF r logrijmik sunrthsh ln : (0, +) R eni prgwgsimh ki


ln (y ) =
gi kje y > 0F epdeixhF idme ti h exp eni prgwgsimh ki exp (x) = exp(x) = 0 gi kje x RF 9ipeti ti h ln eni prgwgsimh sto (0, +) ki

1 y

ln (y ) =

1 1 = , exp (x) exp(x)


1 y

pou exp(x) = y F we ll lgiD ln (y ) =

gi kje y (0, +)F

SFR

entstrofe trigwnometrik sunrtsei

@A xo hmitnou
r sunrthsh sin : R [1, 1] eni periodikD me elqisth jetik perodo sh me 2 F y periorism th sto [/2, /2] eni mi gnhsw xous sunrthsh me snolo timn to [1, 1]F wporome loipn n orsoume thn ntstrof thD h opo lgeti txo hmitnou ki sumolzeti me arcsinF hhldD arcsin : [1, 1] [/2, /2] ki arcsin y = x n ki mno n x [/2, /2] ki sin x = y F rthrnt ti h sin eni prgwgsimh sto [/2, /2] ki sin (x) = cos x = 0 n x (/2, /2)D sumpernoume ti h arcsin eni prgwgsimh sto (1, 1) ki

arcsin (y ) =

1 1 = , cos x sin (x)

pou x (/2, /2) ki sin x = y F rhsimopoint thn sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 ki to gegon ti cos x > 0D lpoume ti

cos x =

1 sin2 x =

1 y2 ,

116 Pargwgos dhld

arcsin (y ) =

1 1 y2

y (1, 1).

@A xo sunhmitnou
r sunrthsh cos : R [1, 1] eni periodikD me elqisth jetik perodo sh me 2 F y periorism th sto [0, ] eni mi gnhsw fjnous sunrthsh me snolo timn to [1, 1]F wporome loipn n orsoume thn ntstrof thD h opo lgeti txo sunhmitnou ki sumolzeti me arccosF hhldD arccos : [1, 1] [0, ] ki arccos y = x n ki mno n x [0, ] ki cos x = y F rthrnt ti h cos eni prgwgsimh sto [0, ] ki cos (x) = sin x = 0 n x (0, )D sumpernoume ti h arccos eni prgwgsimh sto (1, 1) ki

arccos (y ) =

1 1 = , cos (x) sin x

pou x (0, ) ki cos x = y F rhsimopoint thn sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 ki to gegon ti sin x > 0D lpoume ti

sin x =
dhld

1 cos2 x =

1 y2 ,

arccos (y ) =

1 1 y2

y (1, 1).

@gA xo efptomnh
r sunrthsh tan : (/2, /2) R eni gnhsw xous ki epF wporome loipn n orsoume thn ntstrof thD h opo lgeti txo efptomnh ki sumolzeti me arctanF hhldD arctan : R (/2, /2) ki arctan y = x n ki mno n x (/2, /2) ki tan x = y F rthrnt ti h tan eni prgwgsimh sto (/2, /2) ki tan (x) = 1/ cos2 x = 1 + tan2 x = 0 n x (/2, /2)D sumpernoume ti h arctan eni prgwgsimh sto R ki 1 1 arctan (y ) = = , tan (x) 1 + tan2 x pou tan x = y F 9ipeti ti

arctan (y ) =

1 , 1 + y2

y R.

5.5 Krsima shmea 117

SFS

ursim shme

kop m sti epmene rgrfou eni n podexoume t kri jewrmt tou hiE foriko vogismo ki n dome p efrmzonti sth melth sunrtsewn pou orzonti se kpoio disthm I th prgmtik eujeF t xekinsoume me kpoi prdegmt pou deqnoun ti h monoton h prxh kpoiou topiko krttou mi prgwgsimh sunrthsh dnoun kpoie plhrofore gi thn prgwgoF o mondik ergleo pou j qrhsimopoisoume eni o orism th prggouF

vmm SFSFIF 9istw f : (a, b) R prgwgsimh sunrthshF en h f eni xous sto


(a, b) tte f (x) 0 gi kje x (a, b)F
epdeixhF 9istw x (a, b)F prqei > 0 ste (x , x + ) (a, b)F en loipn |h| < tte h f orzeti sto x + hF efo h f eni prgwgsimh sto xD qoume

f (x) = lim+
h0

f (x + h) f (x) f (x + h) f (x) = lim . h h h0

9istw 0 < h < F efo h f eni xous sto (a, b) qoume f (x + h) f (x)F unepD

f (x + h) f (x) f (x + h) f (x) 0 r f (x) = lim+ 0. h h h0


rthrste ti dexme to zhtomeno qwr n koitxoume ti gneti gi rnhtik tim )f (x) eni pli mh rnhtikD tou h @elgxte mw ti n < h < 0 tte h klsh f (x+hh opte odhgomste sto dio sumprsmAF 2 eni gnhsw xousD den mporome n isquristome ti h f eni gnhsw jetik sto (a, b)F qi prdeigmD h f : R R me f (x) = x3 eni gnhsw xous sto RD mw f (x) = 3x2 D r uprqei shmeo sto opoo h prgwgo mhdenzetiX f (0) = 0F o vmm SFSFI m exsflzei fusik ti f 0 pnto sto RF

rtrhsh SFSFPF en upojsoume ti h prgwgsimh sunrthsh f : (a, b) R

rtrhsh SFSFQF o ntstrofo erthm ditupneti w exX n f (x) 0 gi

kje x (a, b) tte eni swst ti h f eni xous sto (a, b)c r pnthsh eni {ni}D ut eni m p ti sik sunpeie tou jewrmto msh tim @lpe SFTAF rhsimopoint mno ton orism th prggouD mporome n dexoume kti pol sE jensteroX

vmm SFSFRF 9istw f : (a, b) RF pojtoume ti h f eni prgwgsimh sto x0


(a, b) ki f (x0 ) > 0F teD uprqei > 0 ste (x0 , x0 + ) (a, b) ki
@A f (x) > f (x0 ) gi kje x (x0 , x0 + )F @A f (x) < f (x0 ) gi kje x (x0 , x0 )F

118 Pargwgos epdeixhF 9iqoume upojsei ti lim


f (x)f (x0 ) xx0

xx0

= f (x0 ) > 0F ifrmzont ton

(0) orism tou orou me = f 2 > 0D rskoume > 0 steX n 0 < |x x0 | < tte x (a, b) ki f (x) f (x0 ) f (x0 ) > f (x0 ) = > 0. x x0 2

9ipeti tiX @A qi kje x (x0 , x0 + ) qoume

f (x) f (x0 ) >

f (x0 ) (x x0 ) > 0 r f (x) > f (x0 ). 2

@A qi kje x (x0 , x0 ) qoume

f (x) f (x0 ) <

f (x0 ) (x x0 ) < 0 r f (x) < f (x0 ). 2

rthrste ti t @A ki @A den deqnoun ti h f eni xous sto (x0 , x0 + ) sto (x0 , x0 )F 2

yrism SFSFSF 9istw f : I R ki stw x0 I F vme ti h f qei topik mgisto sto


x0 n uprqei > 0 steX
n x I ki |x x0 | < tte f (x0 ) f (x)F ymowD lme ti h f qei topik elqisto sto x0 n uprqei > 0 steX n x I ki |x x0 | < tte f (x0 ) f (x)F en h f qei topik mgisto topik elqisto sto x0 tte lme ti h f qei topik krtto sto shmeo x0 F eut pou qreistkme gi thn pdeixh tou vmmto SFSFI tn h prxh th f (x) @o orism th prggouA ki to gegon ti @lgw monotonA h elqisth tim th f sto [x, x + ) tn h f (x)F ipnlmnont loipn to dio ousistik epiqerhm prnoume thn kloujh rtsh @FermatAF

terhm SFSFT @FermatAF 9istw f : [a, b] RF pojtoume ti h f qei topik


krtto se kpoio x0 (a, b) ki ti h f eni prgwgsimh sto x0 F teD

f (x0 ) = 0.
epdeixhF wr periorism th geniktht upojtoume oti h f qei topik mgisto sto x0 F prqei > 0 ste (x0 , x0 + ) (a, b) ki f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) gi kje h (, )F en 0 < h < tte

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) 0, h

h0

lim+

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) 0. h

5.5 Krsima shmea 119 unepD f (x0 ) 0F en < h < 0 tte

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) 0, h

h0

lim

f (x0 + h) f (x0 ) 0. h 2

unepD f (x0 ) 0F ep ti do nisthte peti ti f (x0 ) = 0F

yrism SFSFUF 9istw f : I RF 9in eswterik shmeo x0 tou I lgeti krsimo shmeo gi thn f n f (x0 ) = 0F rdeigm SFSFVF krsim shme mi sunrthsh eni pol qrsim tn jloume
n rome th mgisth thn elqisth tim thF 9istw f : [a, b] R suneq sunrthshF qnwrzoume ti h f prnei mgisth tim max(f ) ki elqisth tim min(f ) sto [a, b]F en x0 [a, b] ki f (x0 ) = max(f ) f (x0 ) = min(f )D tte ngkstik sumnei kpoio p t prktwX @iA x0 = a x0 = b @kro tou distmtoAF @iiA x0 (a, b) ki f (x0 ) = 0 @krsimo shmeoAF @iiiA x0 (a, b) ki h f den eni prgwgsimh sto x0 F hedomnou tiD sthn prxhD to pljo twn shmewn pou nkoun se ut ti {trei omde} eni sqetik mikrD mporome me pl upologism ki sgkrish merikn timn th sunrthsh n pntsoume sto erthmF rdeigmX x reje h mgisth tim th sunrthsh f (x) = x3 x sto [1, 2]F r f eni prgwgsimh sto (1, 2)D me prgwgo f (x) = 3x2 1F shme st opo 1 1 ki x2 = t opo nkoun sto (1, 2)F mhdenzeti h prgwgo eni t x1 = 3 3 9erD t shme st opo mpore n prnei mgisth elqisth tim h f eni t kr tou distmto ki t do krsim shmeX

x0 = 1,
yi ntstoiqe tim eniX

1 x1 = , 3

1 x2 = , 3

x3 = 2.

f (1) = 0,

2 f (1/ 3) = , 3 3

2 f (1/ 3) = , 3 3

f (2) = 6.

ugkrnont ut ti tsseri tim lpoume ti max(f ) = f (2) = 6 ki min(f ) = f (1/ 3) = 2/(3 3)F 2

120 Pargwgos

SFT

terhm wsh im

9istw f : [a, b] R mi stjer sunrthshF hhldD uprqei c R ste f (x) = c gi kje x [a, b]F qnwrzoume ti f (x) = 0 gi kje x (a, b)F entstrofD upojsoume ti f : [a, b] R eni mi suneq sunrthshD prgwgsimh sto (a, b)D me thn iditht f (x) = 0 gi kje x (a, b)F ini swst ti h f eni stjer sto [a, b]c o erthm ut eni prmoi fsh me ekeno th rtrhsh SFSFQX n mi prgwgsimh sunrthsh qei pnto mh rnhtik prgwgoD eni swst ti eni xE ousc ini logik n perimnoume ti h pnthsh eni {ni} st do ut erwtmtF keftete n kinhtX f (x) eni h proshmsmnh pstsh p thn rqik jsh th qronik stigm x ki f (x) eni h tqtht th qronik stigm xF en h tqtht eni suneq mhdenikD to kinht {mnei knhto} ki h pstsh prmnei stjerF en h tqtht eni pnto mh rnhtikD to kinht {pomkrneti p thn rqik tou jsh} ki h pstsh uxnei me thn prodo tou qrnouF qi thn usthr mw pdeixh utn twn do isqurismnD j qreiste n sunduE soume thn nnoi th prggou me t sik jewrmt gi suneqe sunrtsei se kleist distmtF o sik teqnik m eni h pdeixh tou {jewrmto msh tim}F 9istw f : [a, b] R suneq sunrthshF pojtoume oti h f eni prgwgsimh sto (a, b)X dhldD gi kje x (a, b) orzeti kl h efptomnh tou grfmto th f sto (x, f (x))F tewrome thn euje ( ) pou pernei p t shme A = (a, f (a)) ki B = (b, f (b))F en th metkinsoume prllhl pro ton eut thD kpoi p ti prllhle j efpteti sto grfhm th f se kpoio shmeo (x0 , f (x0 ))D x0 (a, b)F r klsh th efptomnh j prpei n isoti me thn klsh th euje ( )F hhldD

f (x0 ) =

f (b) f (a) . ba

to prto mro ut th prgrfou dnoume usthr pdeixh uto tou isqurismo @terhm wsh imAF epodeiknoume prt mi eidik perptwshX to jerhm tou RolleF

terhm SFTFI @RolleAF 9istw f : [a, b] RF pojtoume ti h f eni suneq sto [a, b] ki prgwgsimh sto (a, b)F pojtoume epiplon ti f (a) = f (b)F teD uprqei x0 (a, b) ste f (x0 ) = 0.
epdeixhF ixetzoume prt thn perptwsh pou h f eni stjer sto [a, b]D dhld f (x) = f (a) = f (b) gi kje x [a, b]F teD f (x) = 0 gi kje x (a, b) ki opoiodpote p ut t x mpore n pxei to rlo tou x0 F 9istw loipn ti h f den eni stjer sto [a, b]F teD uprqei x1 (a, b) ste f (x1 ) = f (a) ki qwr periorism th geniktht mporome n upojsoume ti f (x1 ) >

5.6 Jerhma Mshs Tims 121

f (a)F r f eni suneq sto [a, b]D r prnei mgisth timX uprqei x0 [a, b] ste f (x0 ) = max{f (x) : x [a, b]} f (x1 ) > f (a).
iidikterD x0 = a, bF hhldD to x0 rsketi sto noikt disthm (a, b)F r f qei @olikA mgisto sto x0 ki eni prgwgsimh sto x0 F ep to terhm SFSFT @FermatA sumpernoume ti f (x0 ) = 0F 2 o jerhm msh tim eni mesh sunpei tou jewrmto tou RolleF

terhm SFTFP @jerhm msh timAF 9istw f : [a, b] R suneq sto [a, b] ki
prgwgsimh sto (a, b)F teD uprqei x0 (a, b) ste

f (x0 ) =

f (b) f (a) . ba

epdeixhF t nqjome sto terhm tou Rolle w exF tewrome th grmmik sunrthsh h : [a, b] R pou prnei ti die tim me thn f st shme a ki bF hhldD

h(x) = f (a) +
yrzoume mi sunrthsh g : [a, b] R me

f (b) f (a) (x a). ba

g (x) = f (x) h(x) = f (x) f (a)

f (b) f (a) (x a). ba

r g eni suneq sto [a, b]D prgwgsimh sto (a, b) ki p ton trpo epilog th h qoume g (a) = f (a) h(a) = 0 ki g (b) = f (b) h(b) = 0. mfwn me to jerhm tou RolleD uprqei x0 (a, b) ste g (x0 ) = 0F 9ymwD

g (x) = f (x)

f (b) f (a) ba 2

sto (a, b)F 9erD to x0 iknopoie to zhtomenoF

mopoijhke sthn pdeixh ki eni prththF tewrsteD gi prdeigmD thn f : [0, 1] R me f (x) = x n 0 x < 1 ki f (1) = 0F r f eni prgwgsimh @rD suneqA sto (0, 1) ki qoume f (0) = f (1) = 0F 9ymw den uprqei x (0, 1) pou n iknopoie thn f (0) = 0D fo f (x) = 1 gi kje x (0, 1)F o prlhm eni sto shmeo f (x) = f (1) 10 1X h f eni suneq sto 1D dhld den eni suneq sto [0, 1]F o jerhm msh tim m epitrpei n pntsoume st erwtmt pou suzhtsme sthn rq th prgrfouF

rtrhsh SFTFQF r upjesh ti h f eni suneq sto kleist disthm [a, b] qrhsiE

122 Pargwgos

terhm SFTFRF 9istw f : (a, b) R prgwgsimh sunrthshF


@iA en f (x) 0 gi kje x (a, b)D tte h f eni xous sto (a, b)F @iiA en f (x) > 0 gi kje x (a, b)D tte h f eni gnhsw xous sto (a, b)F @iiiA en f (x) 0 gi kje x (a, b)D tte h f eni fjnous sto (a, b)F @ivA en f (x) < 0 gi kje x (a, b)D tte h f eni gnhsw fjnous sto (a, b)F @vA en f (x) = 0 gi kje x (a, b)D tte h f eni stjer sto (a, b)F epdeixhF t dexoume nn p tou prtou tsseri isqurismoX upojtoume ti f (x) 0 sto (a, b)D ki j dexoume ti n a < x < y < b tte f (x) f (y )F tewrome ton periorism th f sto [x, y ]F r f eni suneq sto [x, y ] ki prgwgsimh sto (x, y )D opte efrmzont to jerhm msh tim rskoume (x, y ) pou iknopoie thn

f ( ) =

f (y ) f (x) . yx

efo f ( ) 0 ki y x > 0D qoume f (y ) f (x) 0F hhldD f (x) f (y )F qi ton teleuto isqurism prthrste ti n f = 0 sto (a, b) tte f 0 ki f 0 sto (a, b)F 9erD h f eni tutqron xous ki fjnousX n x < y sto (a, b) tte f (x) f (y ) ki f (x) f (y )D dhld f (x) = f (y )F 9ipeti ti h f eni stjerF 2 wi prllg @ki genkeushA tou jewrmto wsh im eni to jerhm msh tim tou CauchyX

terhm SFTFS @jerhm msh tim tou CauchyAF 9istw f, g : [a, b] RD suneqe sto [a, b] ki prgwgsime sto (a, b)F teD uprqei x0 (a, b) ste
() [f (b) f (a)] g (x0 ) = [g (b) g (a)] f (x0 ).

hmewshX rthrste prt ti to jerhm msh tim eni eidik perptwsh tou jewrmto pou jloume n dexoumeX n g (x) = x tte g (x) = 1 ki h () prnei th morf [f (b) f (a)] 1 = (b a) f (x). r prxh kpoiou x0 (a, b) to opoo iknopoie utn thn istht eni kri o isqurism tou jewrmto msh timF tumhjete tr thn id th pdeixh tou jewrmto msh timF ifrmsme to jerhm tou Rolle gi th sunrthsh

f (x) f (a)

f (b) f (a) (x a). ba

5.6 Jerhma Mshs Tims 123 ssodnm @pollplsiste thn prohgomenh sunrthsh me b aA j mporosme n qoume prei thn [f (x) f (a)] (b a) [f (b) f (a)] (x a). t jewrsoume loipn sunrthsh ntstoiqh me utnD {ntikjistnt thn x me thn g (x)}F epdeixhF tewrome th sunrthsh h : [a, b] R me

h(x) = [f (x) f (a)] (g (b) g (a)) [f (b) f (a)] (g (x) g (a)).


r h eni suneq sto [a, b] ki prgwgsimh sto (a, b) @git oi f ki g qoun ti die idithteAF ikol elgqoume ti

h(a) = 0 = h(b).
wporome loipn n efrmsoume to jerhm tou RolleX uprqei x0 (a, b) ste h (x0 ) = 0F efo

h (x0 ) = f (x0 ) (g (b) g (a)) g (x0 ) (f (b) f (a)),


prnoume thn ()F

rtrhsh SFTFTF o endifron shmeo sthn () eni ti oi prgwgoi f (x0 ) ki


g (x0 ) {upologzonti sto dio shmeo} x0 F
ol suqnD to jerhm msh tim tou Cauchy ditupneti w exF pojtoume epiplon ti @A oi f ki g den qoun koin rz sto (a, b)F @A g (b) g (a) = 0. te uprqei x0 (a, b) ste

rism SFTFUF 9istw f, g : [a, b] RD suneqe sto [a, b] ki prgwgsime sto (a, b)F

f (x0 ) f (b) f (a) = . g (b) g (a) g (x0 )


epdeixhF ep to jerhm msh tim tou CauchyD uprqei x0 (a, b) ste

(f (b) f (a))g (x0 ) = (g (b) g (a))f (x0 ).


rthrome ti g (x0 ) = 0X n eqme g (x0 ) = 0D tte j tn (g (b) g (a))f (x0 ) = 0 kiD fo p thn upjes m g (b) g (a) = 0D j prepe n qoume f (x0 ) = 0F hhld oi f ki g j eqn koin rzF wporome loipn n diirsoume t do mlh th istht me (g (b) g (a))g (x0 ) ki n proume to zhtomenoF 2

124 Pargwgos

SFU

eprosdiriste morf

o jerhm msh tim tou Cauchy qrhsimopoieti sthn pdeixh twn {knnwn tou L Hospital} gi ri th morf 0 0 F upik prdegmt th ktstsh pou j suzhtsoume se ut thn prgrfo eni t exX jloume n exetsoume n uprqei to rio f (x) lim xx0 g (x) pou f, g eni do sunrtsei prgwgsime dexi ki rister p to x0 D me g (x) = 0 n x kont sto x0 ki x = x0 ki
xx0

lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0


xx0

xx0

lim f (x) = lim g (x) = +.


xx0

te lme ti qoume prosdiristh morf 0 0 @ ntstoiqA sto x0 F yi knne tou lHospital m epitrpoun suqn n rome ttoi ri @n uprqounA me th ojei twn prggwn twn f ki g F upik jerhm uto tou edou eni to exF

terhm SFUFIF 9istw f, g : (a, x0 ) (x0 , b) R prgwgsime sunrtsei me ti ex idithteX @A g (x) = 0 ki g (x) = 0 gi kje x (a, x0 ) (x0 , b)F @A lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0F
xx0 xx0

en uprqei to lim

f (x) xx0 g (x)

= RD tte uprqei to lim lim

f (x) xx0 g (x)

ki

xx0

f (x) f (x) = = lim . xx0 g (x) g (x)

epdeixhF yrzoume ti f ki g sto x0 jtont f (x0 ) = g (x0 ) = 0F efo


xx0

lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0,


xx0

oi f ki g gnonti tr suneqe sto (a, b)F t dexoume ti

xx+ 0

lim

f (x) f (x) = = lim+ . g (x) xx0 g (x)

9iqoume

f (x) f (x) f (x0 ) = g (x) g (x) g (x0 )

5.7 Aprosdiristes morfs 125 gi kje x (x0 , b)F yi f , g den qoun koin rz sto (x0 , x) git h g den mhdenzeti poujenF ipsh g (x) = 0D dhld g (x) g (x0 ) = 0F ifrmzont loipn to jerhm msh tim tou Cauchy mporome gi kje x (x0 , b) n rome x (x0 , x) ste

f (x ) f (x) = . g (x) g (x )
9istw tr ti limxx0 x0 < y < x0 + tte
f (x) g (x)

ki stw > 0F wporome n rome > 0 steX n

f (y ) g (y )

< .

unduzont ti prpnw sqsei lpoume ti n x0 < x < x0 + tte

f (x) g (x)
@git x0 < x < x < x0 + AF 9erD
xx+ 0

f (x ) g (x )

<

lim

f (x) f (x) = = lim+ . g (x) xx0 g (x)


0

we nlogo trpo deqnoume ti limxx

f (x) g (x)

= F

y ntstoiqo knn tn x0 = + eni o exF

terhm SFUFPF 9istw f, g : (a, +) R prgwgsime sunrtsei me ti ex


idithteX @A g (x) = 0 ki g (x) = 0 gi kje x > aF @A lim f (x) = lim g (x) = 0F
x+ x+

en uprqei to lim

f (x) x+ g (x)

= R tte uprqei to lim lim

f (x) x+ g (x)

ki

x+

f (x) f (x) = = lim . x+ g (x) g (x)

1 epdeixhF yrzoume f1 , g1 : 0, a R me

f1 (x) = f
yi f1 , g1 eni prgwgsime ki

1 x

ki g1 (x) = g

1 x

12 f f1 (x) = x1 g1 (x) x2 g

1 x 1 x

f g

1 x 1 x

126 Pargwgos 9iqoume lim f1 (x) = lim f (x) = 0 ki lim g1 (x) = lim g (x) = 0 @gitcAF ipshD

g1 = 0 ki g1 = 0 sto (0, 1/a)F loD lim

x0+

x+

x0+

x+

x0+

f f1 (x) = lim + g1 (x) x0 g

1 x 1 x

= lim

x+

f (x) . g (x)

9erD efrmzeti to terhm SFUFI gi ti f1 , g1 ki qoume

x0

lim+

f1 (x) f (x) f (x) = lim+ 1 = lim . g1 (x) x0 g1 (x) x+ g (x) f1 (x) f (x) = lim , g (x) x0+ g1 (x) 2

efo
x+

lim

peti to zhtomenoF

prqoun rket km periptsei prosdiristwn morfn gi ti opoe mporome n ditupsoume ktllhlo {knn tou lHospital}F hen j dsoume lle podexeiD F dome mw th ditpwsh en knn gi prosdiristh morf

terhm SFUFQF 9istw f, g : (a, b) R prgwgsime sunrtsei me ti ex idithteX


@A g (x) = 0 ki g (x) = 0 gi kje x (a, b)F @A lim f (x) = lim g (x) = +F
xa+ xa+ f (x) g (x)

en uprqei to lim

xa+

= RD tte uprqei to lim+


xa

f (x) g (x)

ki

xa

lim+

f (x) f (x) = lim+ . g (x) xa g (x)

SFV

sditht Darboux gi thn prgwgo

yrism SFVFIF vme ti mi sunrthsh f : I R qei thn iditht Darboux @iditht


th endimesh timA nX gi kje x < y sto I me f (x) = f (y ) ki gi kje prgmtik rijm nmes stou f (x) ki f (y ) mporome n rome z (x, y ) ste f (z ) = F ep to terhm indimesh im peti ti kje suneq sunrthsh f : I R qei thn iditht DarbouxF t dexoume ti h prgwgo mi prgwgsimh sunrthsh qei pnt thn iditht Darboux @n ki den eni pnt suneq sunrthshAF iditht DarbouxF

terhm SFVFPF 9istw f : (a, b) R prgwgsimh sunrthshF teD h f qei thn

5.9 Gewmetrik shmasa ths deterhs paraggou 127 epdeixhF 9istw x < y (a, b) me f (x) = f (y )F wr periorism th geniktht mporome n upojsoume ti f (x) < f (y )F pojtoume ti f (x) < < f (y ) ki j rome z (x, y ) ste f (z ) = F tewrome th sunrthsh g : (a, b) R pou orzeti p thn g (t) = f (t) tF teD h g eni prgwgsimh sto (a, b) ki g (t) = f (t) F 9erD qoume g (x) < 0 < g (y ) ki zhtme z (x, y ) me thn iditht g (z ) = 0F

ssqurismF prqoun x1 , y1 (x, y ) ste g (x1 ) < g (x) ki g (y1 ) < g (y )F


epdeixh tou isqurismoF r g eni prgwgsimh sto xD dhld
h0

lim+

g (x + h) g (x) = g (x) < 0. h

ipilgont =

(x) g 2

> 0 lpoume ti uprqei 0 < 1 < y x ste g (x + h) g (x) g (x) < g (x) + = <0 h 2

1 qoume x1 (x, y ) ki g (x1 ) < g (x)F gi kje 0 < h < 1 F rnont x1 = x + 2 9ymoiD h g eni prgwgsimh sto y D dhld

h0

lim

g (y + h) g (y ) = g (y ) > 0. h

ipilgont =

g (y ) 2

> 0 lpoume ti uprqei 0 < 1 < y x ste g (y + h) g (y ) g (y ) > g (y ) = >0 h 2

gi kje 1 < h < 0F rnont y1 = y

1 2

qoume y1 (x, y ) ki g (y1 ) < g (y )F

unqei th pdeixh tou tewrmto SFVFPF r g eni prgwgsimh sto (a, b)D r suneq sto [x, y ]F ipomnwD h g prnei elqisth tim sto [x, y ]X uprqei x0 [x, y ] me thn iditht g (x0 ) g (t) gi kje t [x, y ]F ep ton ssqurism lpoume ti h g den prnei elqisth tim sto x ote sto y F 9erD x0 (x, y )F efo h g eni prgwgsimh sto x0 D to terhm SFSFT @FermatA m exsflzei ti g (x0 ) = 0F 9ipeti to zhtomenoD me z = x0 F 2

SFW

qewmetrik shms th deterh prggou

thn SFS edme ti o mhdenism th prggou se n shmeo x0 den eni ikn sunjkh gi thn prxh topiko krttou sto x0 F r sunrthsh f (x) = x3 den qei krtto sto x0 = 0D mw f (x0 ) = 0F uoitzont th deterh prgwgo st shme mhdenismo th prth prggou mporome poll for n sumpernoume n n krsimo shmeo eni ntw shmeo krttouF

128 Pargwgos

terhm SFWFIF 9istw f : (a, b) R prgwgsimh sunrthsh ki stw x0 (a, b) me


f (x0 ) = 0F @A en uprqei h f (x0 ) ki f (x0 ) > 0D tte qoume topik elqisto sto x0 F @A en uprqei h f (x0 ) ki f (x0 ) < 0D tte qoume topik mgisto sto x0 F

hmewshX en f (x0 ) = 0 n den uprqei h f (x0 )D tte prpei n exetsoume ti sumnei me llo trpoF epdeixhF t dexoume mno to @AF 9iqoume

0 < f (x0 ) = lim

xx0

f (x) f (x) f (x0 ) = lim . xx0 x x0 x x0

ipomnwD mporome n rome > 0 steX @iA en x0 < x < x0 + , tte f (x) > 0F @iiA en x0 < x < x0 tte f (x) < 0F 9istw y (x0 , x0 + )F @iA en x0 < y < x0 + D tte efrmzont to jerhm msh tim sto [x0 , y ] rskoume x (x0 , y ) ste f (y ) f (x) = f (x)(y x0 ) > 0. @iiA en x0 < y < x0 D tte efrmzont to jerhm msh tim sto [y, x0 ] rskoume x (y, x0 ) ste f (y ) f (x) = f (x)(y x0 ) > 0. hhldD f (y ) f (x0 ) gi kje y (x0 , x0 + )F 9erD h f qei topik elqisto sto x0 F 2

SFW

uurt ki kole sunrtsei

e epmeno ueflio j sqolhjome susthmtik me ti kurt ki ti kole sunrtE sei f : I RF e ut thn upoprgrfo podeiknoume kpoie pl protsei gi prgwgsime sunrtseiD oi opoe m ohjne n {sqedisoume th grfik tou prstsh}F tewrome mi prgwgsimh sunrthsh f : (a, b) RF en x0 (a, b)D h {exswsh th efptomnh} tou grfmto th f sto (x0 , f (x0 )) eni h

y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ).


vme ti h f eni kurt sto (a, b) n gi kje x0 (a, b) qoume

()

f (x) f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 )

5.9 Gewmetrik shmasa ths deterhs paraggou 129 gi kje x (a, b)F hhldD n to grfhm {(x, f (x)) : a < x < b} rsketi pnw p thn efptomnhF vme ti h f eni gnhsw kurt sto (a, b) n gi kje x = x0 h nistht sthn () eni gnsiF vme ti h f eni kolh sto (a, b) n gi kje x0 (a, b) qoume

()

f (x) f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 )

gi kje x (a, b)F hhldD n to grfhm {(x, f (x)) : a < x < b} rsketi ktw p thn efptomnhF vme ti h f eni gnhsw kolh sto (a, b) n gi kje x = x0 h nistht sthn () eni gnsiF loD lme ti h f qei shmeo kmp sto shmeo x0 (a, b) n uprqei > 0 ste h f n eni gnhsw kurt sto (x0 , x0 ) ki gnhsw kolh sto (x0 , x0 + ) gnhsw kolh sto (x0 , x0 ) ki gnhsw kurt sto (x0 , x0 + )F

terhm SFWFPF 9istw f : (a, b) R prgwgsimh sunrthshF


@A en h f eni @gnhswA xous sto (a, b)D tte h f eni @gnhswA kurt sto (a, b)F @A en h f eni @gnhswA fjnous sto (a, b)D tte h f eni @gnhswA kolh sto (a, b)F epdeixhF 9istw x0 (a, b) ki stw x (a, b)F pojtoume prt ti x > x0 F ep to jerhm msh timD uprqei x (x0 , x) me thn iditht

f (x) f (x0 ) = (x x0 )f (x ).
efo x0 < x qoume f (x ) f (x0 )D ki fo x x0 > 0 lpoume ti

f (x) f (x0 ) = (x x0 )f (x ) (x x0 )f (x0 ).


pojtoume tr ti x < x0 F ep to jerhm msh timD uprqei x (x, x0 ) me thn iditht f (x) f (x0 ) = (x x0 )f (x ). efo x < x0 qoume f (x ) f (x0 )D ki fo x x0 < 0 lpoume ti

f (x) f (x0 ) = (x x0 )f (x ) (x x0 )f (x0 ).


e kje perptwshD isqei h ()F ilgxte ti n h f upoteje gnhsw xous sto (a, b) tte prnoume gnsi nistht sthn ()F @A we ton dio trpoF 2 r deterh prgwgo @n uprqeiA mpore n m dsei plhrofor gi to n h f eni kurt kolhF

terhm SFWFQF 9istw f : (a, b) R do for prgwgsimh sunrthshF @A en f (x) > 0 gi kje x (a, b)D tte h f eni gnhsw kurt sto (a, b)F @A en f (x) < 0 gi kje x (a, b)D tte h f eni gnhsw kolh sto (a, b)F

130 Pargwgos epdeixhF @A efou f > 0 sto (a, b)D h f eni gnhsw xous sto (a, b) @terhm SFTFRAF ep to terhm SFWFP peti to zhtomenoF @A we ton dio trpoF loD dnoume mi ngk sunjkh gi n eni to x0 shmeo kmp th f F

terhm SFWFRF 9istw f : (a, b) R do for prgwgsimh sunrthsh ki stw


x0 (a, b)F en h f qei shmeo kmp sto x0 D tte f (x0 ) = 0F
epdeixhF tewrome th sunrthsh g (x) = f (x) f (x0 ) f (x0 )(x x0 )F r g den qei topik mgisto elqisto sto x0 X qoume g (x0 ) = 0 ki g > 0 rister tou x0 D g < 0 dexi tou x0 to ntstrofoF ipshD g (x0 ) = 0 ki g (x0 ) = f (x0 )F en tn g (x0 ) > 0 g (x0 ) < 0 tte p to terhm SFWFI h g j eqe krtto sto x0 D topoF 9erD f (x0 ) = 0F 2 hmewshF r sunjkh tou tewrmto SFWFR den eni iknF r f (x) = x4 den qei shmeo kmp sto x0 = 0F ini gnhsw kurt sto RF 9ymw f (x) = 12x2 D r f (0) = 0F rdeigmF weletste th sunrthsh f : R R me

f (x) =
r f eni prgwgsimh sto RD me

1 . x2 + 1

f (x) =

2x . (x2 + 1)2

9erD h f eni gnhsw xous sto (, 0) ki gnhsw fjnous sto (0, +)F rnei mgisth tim sto 0X f (0) = 1D ki lim f (x) = 0F r deterh prgwgo th f orzeti pnto ki eni sh me
x

f (x) =
1 9erD f > 0 st , 3

2(3x2 1) . (x2 + 1)3


1 D en f < 0 sto , 13 F 9ipeti ti h 3

ki

1 , 3

1 1 f qei shmeo kmp st ki eniX gnhsw kurt st , 3 3 1 , 13 3

ki

1 , 3

gnhsw kolh sto F eut oi plhrofore eni rket gi n sqedisoume {rket pist} th grfik prstsh th f F

5.9 Gewmetrik shmasa ths deterhs paraggou 131

SFW

esmptwte

IF 9istw f : (a, +) RF @A vme ti h euje y = eni oriznti smptwth th f sto + n


x+

lim f (x) = .

x+1 rdeigmX h f : (1, +) R me f (x) = x 1 qei oriznti smptwth thn y = 1F @A vme ti h euje y = x + @ = 0A eni plgi smptwth th f sto + n x+

lim (f (x) (x + )) = 0.

rthrste ti h f qei to pol m plgi smptwth sto + ki ti n y = x + eni h smptwth th f tte h klish th upologzeti p thn

= lim
ki h stjer upologzeti p thn

x+

f (x) x

= lim (f (x) x).


x+

entstrofD gi n dome n h f qei plgi smptwth sto +D exetzoume prt n x) uprqei to lim f ( x F en ut to rio uprqei ki n eni diforetik p to 0D to sumolzoume me ki exetzoume n uprqei to lim (f (x) x)F en ki ut to rio to pome uprqeiD tte h y = x + eni h plgi smptwth th f sto +F rdeigmX h f : (1, +) R me f (x) = y = x + 2F rgmtiD
x2 +x1 x1 x+ x+

qei plgi smptwth sto + thn

f (x) x2 + x 1 = lim = 1, x+ x x+ x2 x lim


ki
x+

lim (f (x) x) = lim

2x 1 = 2. x+ x 1

PF we nlogo trpo orzoume ki rskoume thn oriznti plgi smptwth mi sunrthsh f : (, a) R sto @n uprqeiAF QF loD lme ti h f : (a, x0 )(x0 , b) R qei @rister dexiA ktkrufh smptwth sto x0 n lim f (x) = lim f (x) =
xx 0 xx+ 0 1 ntstoiqF qi prdeigmD h f (x) = x qei rister ki dexi smptwth sto 0 thn 1 1 euje x = 0D fo lim x = ki lim x = +F x0 x0+

132 Pargwgos

SFIH

esksei

irwtsei ktnhsh
Exetste an oi paraktw protseic enai alhjec yeudec (aitiologste plrwc thn apnths sac).

IF PF QF RF

An h

f f f

enai paragwgsimh sto

(a, b)

, tte h

enai suneqc sto

(a, b)

An h

enai paragwgsimh sto

x0 = 0

kai an

f (0) = f (0) = 0

, tte

lim nf (1/n) = 0
, tte

An h

enai paragwgsimh sto

[a, b]

kai parnei th mgisth tim thc sto

x0 = a

f (a) = 0
.

An

f (x) 0
h enai ste

gia kje

x [0, )

kai

f (0) = 0
sto

, tte

f (x) 0

gia kje

x [0, )
,

SF f x0 (0, 2)
An

do

forc

paragwgsimh .

[0, 2]

kai

f (0) = f (1) = f (2) = 0

tte

uprqei

f (x0 ) = 0

TF UF VF

'Estw

kje

f : (a, b) R x (a, b) \ {x0 } f :RR

kai

stw

kai an uprqei to

x0 (a, b) f lim f (x) = R


. An h

enai

suneqc

sto

x0
.

paragwgsimh

se

xx0

, tte

f (x0 ) =
ste h

An h .

enai paragwgsimh sto

, tte uprqei

>0

na enai suneqc sto

(, )
An

enai

paragwgsimh

gnhswc axousa sto

x0 R (x0 , x0 + )
sto .

kai

f (x0 ) > 0

tte

uprqei

>0

ste

na

enai

esksei ymd e9 IF
Upologste tic paraggouc (sta shmea pou uprqoun) twn paraktw sunartsewn:

f (x) =

1 x2 , 1 + x2

g (x) =

1+

1 , x

h(x) =

1+x . 1x

PF

Upologste tic paraggouc (sta shmea pou uprqoun) twn paraktw sunartsewn:

f (x) = sin (x + 1)2 (x + 2) ,

g (x) =

sin(x2 ) sin2 x , 1 + sin x 0

h(x) = sin

cos x . x

QF
(a) (b)

Exetste an oi sunartseic

f, g, h

enai paragwgsimec sto

f (x) = x g (x) = 0

an

x /Q x /Q

kai

f (x) = 0 g (x) = x2

an

xQ

an

kai

an

xQ

5.10 Askseis 133

(g)

h(x) = sin x
Exetste

an

x /Q

kai

h(x) = x f, g, h R
.

an

xQ

RF
(a)

an

oi

sunartseic

enai

paragwgsimec

sto

An

enai,

exetste

an

pargwgc touc enai suneqc sto

f (x) = sin g (x) = x sin

1 x 1 x

an

x=0

, kai

f (0) = 0

(b)

an

x=0

, kai

g (0) = 0

(g)

h(x) = x2 sin
Dexte ti h .

1 x

an

x=0

, kai

h(0) = 0
me

SF TF

sunrthsh

se kje

x0 R

Exetste an h

f :RR f (x) = f :RR

sin x x

an

x=0

kai

f (0) = 1

enai

paragwgsimh

enai suneqc sunrthsh.

Brete (an uprqoun) ta shmea sta opoa enai paragwgsimh h sunrthsh

f : (0, 1) R

me

f (x) =

0
1 q

, ,

x /Q x= p , p, q N, q

MKD

x=0 (p, q ) = 1

(f 1 ) (3)

UF

'Estw .

f :RR

me

f (0) = 3

kai

f (x) = sin2 (sin(x + 1))

gia

kje

xR

Upologste

thn

VF WF

'Estw .

f :RR

me

f (x) = x3 + 2x + 1

Upologste thn

(f 1 ) (y )

sta shmea

f (0) f (1)
,

kai

f (1)

f : (a, b) R a < x0 < b M |x x0 | x (a, b)


'Estw kai gia kje . (a) Dexte ti h

Upojtoume

ti

uprqei

>0

ste

|f (x) f (x0 )|

enai suneqc sto

x0

(b) An

>1

, dexte ti h

enai paragwgsimh sto

x0

Poi enai h tim thc

f (x0 )

(g) Dste pardeigma pou

=1

all h

den enai paragwgsimh sto

x0

IHF

Dste pardeigma sunrthshc

f : (0, 1) R

h opoa:

(a) enai suneqc sto

(0, 1) (0, 1)

all den enai paragwgsimh sto shmeo

x0 = xn =

(b) enai suneqc sto

all den enai paragwgsimh sta shmea

1 . 2 1 , n

n2

IIF
(a) (b)

Dste pardeigma sunrthshc

f :RR
. .

me tic exc idithtec:

f (1) = 0 f (2) = 1
,

kai

f (1) > 0 f (1) < 0


m

f (1) = 0 f (2) = 1
, , ,

kai

(g)

f (0) = 0 f (3) = 1 f (1) = 0 f (m) = 0


'Estw kai

kai h

enai gnhswc axousa sto

[0, 3]

(d)

f (m) = (1)
kai

gia kje

m Z |f (x)|
, Upojtoume ti h ti:

1 2

gia kje

xR
,

IPF
sto sto

x0 x0
.

kai

f, g : R R g
enai

stw sto

suneqc

x0 R x0
.

f (x0 ) = 0
ginmeno

Dexte

sunrthsh

f f g
h

enai enai

paragwgsimh paragwgsimh

134 Pargwgos

IQF
(a)

Gia kajema ap tic paraktw sunartseic brete th mgisth kai thn elqisth tim thc sto

disthma pou upodeiknetai.

f (x) = x3 x2 8x + 1 f (x) = x5 + x + 1 f (x) = x3 3x


sto

sto

[2, 2]
.

(b)

[1, 1]
.

(g)

sto

[1, 2]

IRF
(a) (b)

Dexte ti h exswsh:

4ax3 + 3bx2 + 2cx = a + b + c 6x 7x + 1 = 0


4

qei toulqiston ma rza sto

(0, 1)

qei to pol do pragmatikc rzec.

(g)

x3 + 9x2 + 33x 8 = 0
Dexte ti h exswsh

qei akribc ma pragmatik rza.

ISF ITF IUF

xn + ax + b = 0

qei to pol do pragmatikc rzec an o

enai rtioc

kai to pol treic pragmatikc rzec an o

enai perittc.

'Estw

f (x) = 0

qei akribc

a1 < < an n1

sto

kai

stw

f (x) = (x a1 ) (x an )

Dexte

ti

exswsh

lseic.

Sqediste tic grafikc parastseic twn sunartsewn

f (x) = x +
jewrntac oriston. san pedo

1 , x

f (x) = x +
touc to

3 , x2

f (x) =

x2 , x2 1
tou

f (x) = R
sto

1 1 + x2
opoo mporon na

orismo

megaltero

uposnolo

IVF
(b)

(a) Dexte ti:

ap la ta orjognia parallhlgramma me stajer diagnio, to tetrgwno

qei to mgisto embadn.

Dexte

ti:

ap

la

ta

orjognia

parallhlgramma

me

stajer

permetro,

to

tetrgwno

qei to mgisto embadn.

IWF PHF PIF

Brete .

ta

shmea

thc

uperbolc

x2 y 2 = 1

pou

qoun

elqisth

apstash

ap

to

shmeo

(0, 1)

Pnw

se

kklo

aktnac

jewrome

do

antidiametrik

shmea

A, B

Brete

ta

shmea

tou kklou gia ta opoa to trgwno

AB

qei th mgisth dunat permetro.

Dnontai pragmatiko arijmo

a1 < a2 < < an

Na breje h elqisth tim thc sunrthshc

n k=1

f (x) =

(x ak ) a>0

PPF

'Estw

Dexte ti h mgisth tim thc sunrthshc

f (x) =

1 1 + 1 + |x| 1 + |x a|

5.10 Askseis 135


2+a . 1+a

enai sh me

PQF

Upojtoume ti oi sunartseic .

kai

enai paragwgsimec sto

[a, b]

kai ti

f (a) = g (a)

kai

f (b) = g (b)

Dexte ti uprqei toulqiston na shmeo

twn grafikn parastsewn twn

kai

sta

(x, f (x))

kai

x (a, b) (x, g (x))


sto

gia to opoo oi efaptmenec

enai parllhlec tautzontai.

PRF
gia

Dnontai kje

do

paragwgsimec . Dexte ti

sunartseic anmesa se

x (a, b)

f, g : (a, b) R f (x)g (x) f (x)g (x) = 0 f (x) = 0


ste do rzec thc brsketai mia rza thc

g (x) = 0

, kai antstrofa.

PSF PTF

'Estw

ti uprqoun

f : [a, b] R x1 = x2 (a, b)
,

suneqc ste

sto

[a, b] f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) = 0


,

paragwgsimh .

sto

(a, b)

me

f (a) = f (b)

Dexte

'Estw

f : (0, +) R

paragwgsimh, me

x+

lim f (x) = 0

Dexte ti

x+

lim (f (x + 1) f (x)) = 0.

PUF PVF
ti

'Estw .

x>1

Dexte ti

f : (1, +) R lim [f (x + x) f (x)] = 0


paragwgsimh

sunrthsh .

me

thn

idithta:

|f (x)|

1 x

gia

kje

x+

f, g f (0) = g (0) = 0
'Estw do

sunartseic kai

suneqec ,

sto

f (x) > 0 g (x) > 0 (0, a)

sto

[0, a] (0, a)
f (x) x f g

kai .

paragwgsimec

sto

(0, a)
.

Upojtoume

(a) An h

f
f g

enai axousa sto

, dexte ti h

enai axousa sto

(0, a)
.

(b) An h

enai axousa sto

(0, a)

, dexte ti h

enai axousa sto

(0, a)

eskseiX ekjetik ki logrijmik sunrthsh trigwnometrik sunrtsei ymd e9 PWF


(a) An

0<a<1

a>1

, dexte ti

(loga ) (x) =
(b) Dexte ti, gia kje

1 . x ln a

a>0

(ax ) = ax ln a.
Epshc, h

enai kurt sto

kai h

loga x

enai kolh sto

(0, +)

QHF

(a) Dexte ti gia kje

xR

isqei

ex 1 + x

(b) Dexte ti gia kje

x>0

isqei

1 log x x 1. x

136 Pargwgos

QIF

Dexte ti gia kje

x>0

kai gia kje

nN ln x n n x 1 n x ln x.
isqei gia

Sumpernate ti

limn n ( n x 1) = ln x xR
isqei

x>0

QPF

(a) Dexte ti gia kje

lim n ln 1 +

x n

= x.

(b) Dexte ti gia kje

xR

isqei

lim

1+

x n

= ex .

QQF
sto

Meletste th sunrthsh

f (x) = (0, +)

ln x x
Poic enai megalteroc, o

kai sqediste th grafik thc parstash.

QRF

Dexte ti oi sunartseic

ln

kai

exp

ikanopoion ta exc:

(a) gia kje

s>0

x+
kai (b)

lim

e = + xs ln x = 0. xs
opoiadpote (meglh) dnamh tou

x+
Dhlad, h

lim

auxnei sto

exp +

auxnei

sto

taqtera

ap

en

ln

bradtera ap opoiadpote (mikr) dnamh tou

QSF QTF

'Estw

f :RR

paragwgsimh

sunrthsh

me

thn

idithta

pou

mia stajer.

Dexte ti uprqei

aR

ste

f (x) = aecx (a, b)


,

f (x) = cf (x) xR
gia kje

gia .

kje

xR

'Estw

gia kje

f : [a, b] R R

suneqc,

paragwgsimh me

sto

ste

f (a) = f (b) = 0

Dexte

ti:

, h sunrthsh

g : [a, b] R

g (x) := f (x) + f (x)


qei mia rza sto disthma

(a, b)

QUF
+

'Estw .

a, b R

me

Dexte ti uprqei

a<b (a, b) x 0,
2

kai stw

ste

f : (a, b) R f ( ) > f ( )

paragwgsimh sunrthsh ste . [

Updeixh:

Jewrste thn

limxb f (x) = ex f (x)


.]

QVF

Dexte ti gia kje

isqei

sin x

2x .

5.10 Askseis 137

QWF
kai thn

f :RR f (x) + f (x) = 0 g = f 2 + (f )2


(a) 'Estw .] 'Estw

do forc paragwgsimh sunrthsh.

Upojtoume ti

f (0) = f (0) = 0
Jewrste

gia kje

xR

Dexte ti

f (x) = 0

gia kje

xR

Updeixh:

(b) kai

f :RR f (x) + f (x) = 0


'Estw

do

forc

paragwgsimh .

sunrthsh.

Upojtoume gia kje

gia kje

xR

Dexte ti

f (x) = cos x

f (0) = 1 f (0) = 0 xR
ti , .

RHF

f :RR

h sunrthsh

f (x) = sin x x +
(a) Dexte ti: gia kje , , ,

x3 . 6
.

x 0 f (x) 0 f (x) 0 f (x) 0 xR 1


,

(b) Dexte ti, gia kje

x 2

cos x 1

kai, gia kje

x0

x3 sin x x. 6

RIF
(b)

(a)

Dexte

ti

exswsh

tan x = x

qei

akribc

ma

lsh

se

kje

disthma

thc

morfc

Ik = k
'Estw

, k 2
h

rio

ak limk (ak+1 ak )
lsh

thc

parapnw

exswshc

sto

disthma

Ik k N
,

Brete,

an

uprqei,

to

kai dste gewmetrik ermhnea.

esksei ymd f9 RPF


Dnontai pragmatiko arijmo

a1 < a2 < < an

Na breje h elqisth tim thc sunrthshc

g (x) =
k=1

|x ak |

RQF RRF RSF


sto sto

'Estw

nN

kai

stw

diaforetikc lseic, lec sto disthma

f (x) = (x2 1)n (1, 1)


.

Dexte .

ti

exswsh

f (n) (x) = 0

qei

akribc

Na brejon loi oi

a>1

gia touc opoouc h anisthta

xa ax

isqei gia kje

x>1

'Estw

(0, 1) [0, 1]

kai

f : [0, 1] R 0 f (x) 2f (x)

suneqc sunrthsh me gia kje

f (0) = 0 x (0, 1)
.

Upojtoume ti h ti h

enai paragwgsimh kai sh me

Dexte

enai

stajer

RTF
kai

f :RR f (0) = 0
'Estw . 'Estw

paragwgsimh

sunrthsh.

Upojtoume .

ti

f (x) > f (x)

gia

kje

xR

Dexte ti

f (x) > 0

gia kje

x>0

RUF

>0

Dexte ti h exswsh

ex = 1 + x + x2 /2

qei akribc ma pragmatik rza.

138 Pargwgos

RVF

'Estw

Dexte ti:

f : (0, +) R >1
gia kje ,

paragwgsimh

sunrthsh.

Upojtoume

ti

enai

fragmnh.

x+

lim

f (x) = 0. x
sunrthsh

RWF
kai

a>0 f (x) a
'Estw 'Estw

Dexte

ti

den .

uprqei

paragwgsimh

f : [0, 1] R

me

f (0) = 0

gia kje

x (0, 1]

SHF SIF
to

f : (a, b) R

paragwgsimh

sunrthsh. sto

An

enai

asuneqc

se

kpoio

shmeo ).

x0 (a, b)

, dexte oti h asunqeia thc

x0

enai ousidhc (den uprqei to rio

xx0

lim f (x)

'Estw

f : (a, b) R

paragwgsimh

sunrthsh

me

xb

lim f (x) = +

Dexte

ti

an

uprqei

xb

lim f (x)

tte enai so me

SPF

'Estw

f : (0, +) R
x+

paragwgsimh

sunrthsh

me

x+

lim f (x) = L R

Dexte

ti

an

uprqei to

lim f (x)

tte enai so me