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4098031 Radio Frequency Identification RFID

4098031 Radio Frequency Identification RFID

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RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Contents

Chapter 1 introduction to Radio Frequency Identification 1.1. A brief history 1.2 .RFID infrastructure 1.2.1. Infrastructure elements 1.2.2. RFID Frequencies 1.2.3. RFID Standards: 1.3. RFID Interference 1.3.1 Common Interference Examples 1.3.2 Types of Carrier Interference Chapter 2. RFID APPLICATIONS IN LIBRARIES 2.1 Introduction (General View) 2.2 RFID application Chapter 3. THE FUTURE AND THE BIGGER PICTURE: TOWARDS AN INTERNET OF THINGS 3.1 Introduction 3.2 From identification to Wireless Sensor Networks 3.3 Spatial identifiers – GPS 3.4 Miniaturization and motes 3.5 Technological implications – information overload 3.6. THE IMMEDIATE FUTURE: THE FIVE-CENT TAG CONCLUSION References

A new technology the Radio Frequency Identification, similar to LAN, WLAN, SAN, MAN, the RFID has the capability to exchange information with each other. Our project is divided into three chapters; each chapter explains a part of the RFID technology. In chapter 1, we are giving a brief introduction of RFID infrastructure and we will explain each infrastructure elements and how they interact together to obtain a scalable and reliable network , we’ll also talk about the protocols that manage the RFID operations , RFID use specific protocols and standards in the process of exchanching information to ensure that the messages are received and understood, these protocols are implemented in software and hardware that is loaded on each network device and network path . At the end of the first chapter we’ll talk about the RFID interference and the problems that affect the message in its way to the destination. Chapter 2 explains the RFID application in libraries; this chapter includes a general view of RFID application in libraries, and a particular example of a library that uses 6 phases of identifications. Finally the last chapter introduces the future and the biggest picture toward an internet of things and shows how RFID becomes a principle element in many future technologies.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Radio Frequency Identification 1.1 A brief history RFID was developed out of the radar experiments and development during the Second World War. The actual date of invention is 1948 but this was followed by decades of development and experimentation before commercial applications were implemented. In July 1963 a passive RFID transponder developed and patended by Richardson ,the device could couple and rectify from an interrogator’s EM field and transmit signals at a harmonic of the received frequency. In January 1967 Vinding developed a simple and inexpensive interrogatortransponder system based on inductive coupling, the transponder used repetitive tuning or loading of its antenna circuit at a rate characteristic of the particular under interrogation. In august 1975 Koelle, DEpp and Freyman introduced the novel concept of transponder antenna load modulation as a simple and effective way for backscatter modulation . In the late of 1960’s the first commercial application of RFID –Electronic Article Surveillance ,was developed by companies such as Kongo, sensormatic and check point. In the 1980s and 1990s , RFID becomes commercial the united states included transportation and personnel access ,while European countries were interested in short range systems for tracking animals, industrial and business applications. In October 1987 in Alesund the first RFID based toll-collection system became operational. The increase in commercial use of RFID prompted a need for standards, which led to many standardization activities in the 1990’s, the international

standards organization (ISO) developed the (ISO-11785) and the (ISO14443) standards for animal tracking. In 1999 , the European Article Numbering International (EAN) and the Uniform Code Council (UCC) of the united states adopted a UHF frequency band for RFID and established the auto-ID center at the Massachusetts Institute of technology. These two organizations also developed the electronic product code (EPC). 1.2 RFID Infrastructure RF technology is used in many different applications, such as television, radio, cellular phones, radar, and automatic identification systems. The term RFID (radio frequency identification) describes the use of radio frequency signals to provide automatic identification of items. RFID is a flexible technology that is convenient, easy to use, and well suited for automatic operation. It combines advantages not available with other identification technologies. RFID can be supplied as readonly or read/write, does not require contact or line-of-sight to operate, can function under a variety of environmental conditions, and provides a high level of data integrity. In addition, because the technology is difficult to counterfeit, RFID provides a high level of security. Radio waves transfer data between an item to which an RFID device is attached and an RFID reader. The device can contain data about the item, such as what the item is, what time the device traveled through a certain zone, perhaps even a parameter such as temperature. RFID devices, such as a tag , can be attached to virtually anything – from a vehicle to a pallet of merchandise.

1.2.1 Infrastructure elements The RFID infrastructure consists of the elements that mange the devices and tag data. The RFID infrastructure comprises tags, readers, RNC’s (reader network controllers) and applications running for example, on enterprise servers. In addition, other devices could also be in the network suck as RFID/bar code readers, I/O devices (such as electric eyes, light stacks...). Transponder/Tag Historically, an RFID device that did not actively transmit to a reader was known as a tag. An RFID device that actively transmitted to a reader was known as a transponder (transmitter + responder). However, it has become common within the industry to interchange the terminology and refer to these devices as either tags or transponders. For the purposes of this overview, an RFID device that actively transmits to a reader is termed an “active” tag; an RFID device that only reflects or backscatters transmission from a reader is termed “passive.” The tags are programmed with data that identifies the item to which the tag is attached. Tags can be either read-only, volatile read/write, or write one/read many (WORM) and can be either active or passive.

RFID tags come in a variety of different types according to their functionality, and these types have been defined in an RFID Class Structure by the Auto-ID Center (and later through EPC Global) (Engel’s and Sarma, 2005), which has been subsequently refined and built on. The basic structure defines five classes in ascending order as follows:

Passive tags Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply. The minute electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming radio frequency signal provides just enough power for the CMOS integrated circuit in the tag to power up and transmit a response. Most passive tags signal by backscattering the carrier wave from the reader. This means that the antenna has to be designed both to collect power from the incoming signal and also to transmit the out band backscatter signal. The response of a passive RFID tag is not necessarily just an ID number; the

tag chip can contain non-volatile, possibly writable EEPROM for storing data. Passive tags have practical read distances ranging from about 10 cm. (ISO 14443) up to a few meters (Electronic Product Code (EPC) and ISO 18000-6), depending on the chosen radio frequency and antenna design/size. But thanks to deep-space technology, that distance is now 600 feel. Due to their simplicity in design they are also suitable for manufacture with a printing process for the antennas. The lack of an onboard power supply means that the device can be quite small: commercially available products exist that can be embedded in a sticker, or under the skin in the case of low frequency (Low FID) RFID tags. In 2007, the Danish Company RFIDsec developed a passive RFID with privacy enhancing technologies built-in including built-in firewall access controls, communication encryption and a silent mode ensuring that the consumer at point of sales can get exclusive control of the key to control the RFID. The RFID will not respond unless the consumer authorizes it, the consumer can validate presence of a specific RFID without leaking identifiers and therefore the consumer can make use of the RFID without being track able or otherwise leak information that represents a threat to consumer privacy. In 2006, Hitachi, Ltd. developed a passive device called the µ-Chip measuring 0.15×0.15 mm (not including the antenna), and thinner than a sheet of paper (7.5 micrometers). Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology is used to achieve this level of integration. The Hitachi µChip can wirelessly transmit a 128-bit unique ID number which is hard coded into the chip as part of the manufacturing process. The unique ID in the chip cannot be altered, providing a high level of authenticity to the chip and ultimately to the items the chip may be permanently attached or embedded into. The Hitachi µ-Chip has a typical maximum read range of 30 cm (1 foot). In February 2007 Hitachi unveiled an even smaller RFID device measuring 0.05×0.05 mm, and thins enough to be embedded in a sheet of paper.[9] The new chips can store as much data as the older µ-chips, and the data contained on them can be extracted from as far away as a few hundred meters. The ongoing problems with all RFIDs are that they need an external antenna which is 80 times bigger than the chip in the best version thus far developed. As silicon prices are reduced and new more economic methods for manufacturing inlays and tags are perfected in the industry, broader adoption and item level tagging along with economies of scale production scenarios; it is

expected to make RFID both innocuous and commonplace much like Barcodes are presently. Non-silicon tags made from polymer semiconductors are currently being developed by several companies globally. Simple laboratory printed polymer tags operating at 13.56 MHz were demonstrated in 2005 by both PolyIC (Germany) and Philips (The Netherlands). If successfully commercialized, polymer tags will be roll-printable, like a magazine, and much less expensive than silicon-based tags. The end game for most item-level tagging over the next few decades may be that RFID tags will be wholly printed – the same way a barcode is today – and be virtually free, like a barcode. However, substantial technical and economic hurdles must be surmounted to accomplish such an end: hundreds of billions of dollars have been invested over the last three decades in silicon processing, resulting in a per-feature cost which is actually less than that of conventional printing. Active tags Unlike passive RFID tags, active RFID tags have their own internal power source, which is used to power the integrated circuits and to broadcast the response signal to the reader. Communications from active tags to readers is typically much more reliable (i.e. fewer errors) than from passive tags due to the ability for active tags to conduct a "session" with a reader. Active tags, due to their on board power supply, also may transmit at higher power levels than passive tags, allowing them to be more robust in "RF challenged" environment with humidity and spray or with dampening targets (including humans/cattle, which contain mostly water), reflective targets from metal (shipping containers, vehicles), or at longer distances: Generating strong responses from weak reception is a sound approach to success. In turn, active tags are generally bigger, caused by battery volume, and more expensive to manufacture, caused by battery price. However, their potential shelf life is comparable, as self discharge of batteries competes with corrosion of aluminates printed circuits. Many active tags today have operational ranges of hundreds of meters, and a battery life of up to 10 years. Active tags may include larger memories than passive tags, and may include the ability to store additional information received from the reader. Special active RFID tags may include temperature sensors. Temperature logging is used to monitor the temperature profile during transportation

and storage of perishable goods as fresh produce or certain pharmaceutical products. Other sensor types are combined with active RFID tags, including humidity, shock/vibration, light, radiation, temperature, pressure and concentrations of gases like ethylene. The United States Department of Defense (DOD) has successfully used active tags to reduce search and loss in logistics and improve supply chain visibility for more than 15 years. Semi-passive tags Semi-passive tags are similar to active tags in that they have their own power source, but the battery only powers the microchip and does not power the broadcasting of a signal. The response is usually powered by means of backscattering the RF energy from the reader, where energy is reflected back to the reader as with passive tags. An additional application for the battery is to power data storage. If energy from the reader is collected and stored to emit a response in the future, the tag is operating active. Whereas in passive tags the power level to power up the circuitry must be 100 times stronger than with active or semi-active tags, also the time consumption for collecting the energy is omitted and the response comes with shorter latency time. The battery-assisted reception circuitry of semi-passive tags leads to greater sensitivity than passive tags, typically 100 times more. The enhanced sensitivity can be leveraged as increased range (by one magnitude) and/or as enhanced read reliability (by reducing bit error rate at least one magnitude). The enhanced sensitivity of semi-passive tags place higher demands on the reader concerning separation in more dense population of tags. Because an already weak signal is backscattered to the reader from a larger number of tags and from longer distances, the separation requires more sophisticated anti-collision concepts, better signal processing and some more intelligent assessment which tag might be where. For passive tags, the reader-to-tag link usually fails first. For semi-passive tags, the reverse (tag-to-reader) link usually collides first. Semi-passive tags have three main advantages: 1) Greater sensitivity than passive tags 2) Longer battery powered life cycle than active tags 3) Can perform active functions (such as temperature logging) under its own power, even when no reader is present for powering the circuitry.

Given below are the primary differences between a Passive and Active RFID tags: Passive RFID External (Reader provided) Only within the area covered by the reader, typically up to 3 meters. A passive tag is energized only when there is a reader present. High, since the tag draws power from the electromagnetic field provided by the reader. Very high, ideally does not expire over a life time. Limited data storage, typically 128 bytes. Cheap Smaller Active RFID Internal (Battery) Can provide signals over an extended range, typically up to 100 meters.. An active tag is always energized. Low, since the tag emits signals using internal battery source. Limited to about 5 years, the life of a battery. Can store larger amounts of data. Expensive Slightly bulky (due to battery)

Power Source Tag Readability Energization Magnetic Field Strength

Shelf Life Data storage Cost Size

RFID Readers The reader is a handheld or fixed unit that can interrogate nearby RFID tags and obtain their ID numbers using radio frequency (RF) communication (i.e. the process does not require contact). When a passive tag is within range of a reader, the tag’s antenna absorbs the energy being emitted from the reader, directs the energy to ‘fire up’ the integrated circuit on the tag, which then uses the energy to beam back the ID number and any other associated information. There are two main classes of RFID readers: read-only, an example being those that operate with the purely passive EPC Class 1 tags, and

read/write, which can write new information back to a tag that has been equipped with a read/write memory. The readers are becoming increasingly sophisticated, acting as gateways into the network centric communication systems of modern enterprises by supporting communication protocols such as TCP/IP and network technologies such as DHCP, UDP/IP and Ethernet or 802.11x (for wirelessly sending data back to the enterprise). Many models of reader are handheld devices and resemble the pricing guns or barcode scanners used in supermarkets, but readers can also be fixed in place (e.g. in doorways or at Vehicle toll gateways) and even hidden, e.g. embedded into walls. There are also readers that can be incorporated into handheld devices such as PDAs and mobile phones (e.g. Nokia 5140, Nokia 3220) .

Readers Network Controller (RNC):

The reader network controller plays the role of the RFID infrastructure layer. It resides logically above the reader layer as an extension of the enterprise network. It transforms a collection of autonomous readers and devices into a reliable and scalable network. RNC functionality includes real time adaptive control and management of readers and devices, location-aware tag and sensor data processing, and standardsbased data services for the applications using the RFID data. This functionality could be implemented in standalone software running in an enterprise server, as software integrated with enterprise middleware or directly with RFID-enabled applications. The choice for deployment would primarily depend on the complexity of device management operations and control, the data load and processing requirement and the application services requirement.

1.2.2 RFID Frequencies Radio-frequency (RF) signals are typically sinusoidal or nearly so that is, the voltage or field is a smooth, periodic function of time. The number of times the signal repeats itself per second, the frequency, varies widely in differing RFID systems. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz): one Hertz is one cycle per second. KHz= 1000's of Hz; MHz = millions of Hz. The figure below shows some of the common and less-common frequency bands in which RFID systems operate. Also shown is the corresponding wavelength - the distance between points at which the field has a fixed value when the signal moves at the velocity of light.

Several issues are involved in choosing a frequency of operation. The most fundamental, as indicated in the diagram, is whether inductive or radiative coupling will be employed. The distinction is closely related to the side of the antennas to be used relative to the wavelength. When the antennas are very small compared to the wavelength, the effects of the currents flowing in the antenna cancel when viewed from a great distance, so there is no radiation. Only objects so close to the antenna that one part of the antenna appears significantly closer than another part can feel the presence of the current. Thus, these systems, which are known as inductively-coupled systems, are limited to short ranges comparable to the size of the antenna. In practice, inductive RFID systems usually use antenna sizes from a few cm to a meter or so, and frequencies of 125/134 KHz (LF) or 13.56 MHz (HF). Thus the wavelength (respectively about 2000 or 20 meters) is much longer than the antenna. Radiative systems use antennas comparable in size to the wavelength. The very common 900 MHz range has wavelengths around 33 cm. Reader antennas vary in size from around 10 to >30 cm, and tags are typically 10-18 cm long. These systems use radiative coupling, and are not limited by reader antenna size but by signal propagation issues. A second key issue in selection of frequency bands is the allocation of frequencies by regulatory authorities. In essentially every country in the world, the government either directly regulates the use of the radio spectrum, or delegates that authority to related organizations. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates the frequencies that radios are allowed to radiate, the power

levels they can use, and other more technical aspects of their operation. For much of the history of radio in the US, every radio transmitter needed a license from the FCC to operate the radio. However, in the mid-1980's, the FCC began to allocate certain frequency bands in which unlicensed operation would be allowed, subject to certain restrictions on the equipment and usage. Many other nations in the world have followed suit. This released a remarkable burst of innovation, including unlicensed cordless phones, wireless local area networks, and other devices. RFID systems are typically operated in unlicensed bands. In the US, unlicensed operation is available in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band at 902-928 MHz, among others. The 900-MHz ISM band is a very common frequency range for UHF RFID readers and tags. It is important to note, however, that bands do not exist in isolation; for example, the figure below shows the various uses to which frequencies near the ISM band are put in the United States.

The practical consequence of this proximity is the possibility of interference: for example, a nearby cell phone transmitting tower may interfere with the operation of RFID readers, due to the finite ability of the reader receiver to reject the powerful cell signal. (Cellular base stations may sometimes use transmit powers of 10's to hundreds of watts.) Other users of the ISM band may also interfere with RFID readers, or encounter interference due to them: examples are cordless phones and older wireless local area networks. Finally, changes in operating frequency affect the propagation characteristics of the resulting radiated fields. Lower frequencies diffract more readily around obstacles, but couple less well to small antennas. Radiated fields are absorbed by many common materials in

buildings and the environment, particularly those containing water. The degree of absorption due to water increases gradually with increasing frequency. Tags immersed in water-containing materials (i.e. injected into or swallowed by animals or people) must use very low frequencies to minimize absorption: this is a typical 125 KHz application. For locating large objects or people outdoors, a relatively low frequency (e.g. 433 MHz) may be desirable to avoid obstacle blockage; when a clear line of sight from the antenna to the tag can be assured, a higher frequency may be useful to reduce the size of the antennas. Spectral allocations vary widely from one jurisdiction to another. Members of the European Union are usually guided by the recommendations of the European Radio Organization (ERO) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Canada and many other countries in the Americas often generally conform to the recommendations of the US FCC. Nations in the Middle East and North Africa often follow European standards. Asian countries differ widely. A simplified summary of RFID allocations in the 900-MHz region throughout the world is shown below.

1.2.3. RFID Standards: The number and use of standards within RFID and its associated industries is quite complex, involves a number of bodies and is in a process of development. Standards have been produced to cover four key areas of RFID application and use: air interface standards (for basic tag-to-reader data communication), data content and encoding (Numbering schemes), conformance (testing of RFID systems) and interoperability between applications and RFID systems. There are several standards bodies involved in the development and definition of RFID technologies including: • International Organization of Standardization (ISO) • EPCglobal Inc • European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) • Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Air interface (frequency) standards RFID frequencies are governed by the ISO 18000–RFID Air Interface family of standards, and a complete set of standards was released in September 2004: ISO 18000-1 – Generic Parameters for the Air Interface for Globally Accepted. Frequencies ISO 18000-2 – for frequencies below 135 kHz ISO 18000-3 – for 13.56 MHz ISO 18000-4 – for 2.45 GHz ISO 18000-6 – for 860 to 960 MHz ISO 18000-7 – for 433 MHz There are also earlier standards relating to, for example, cattle tracking systems (ISO 11785), tag-based payment “proximity” cards (ISO 14443) and electronic toll collection “vicinity” cards (ISO 15693). ISO 14443 and ISO 15693 both operate at 13.56MHz (HF), but the first standard has a read range of about 10cm whereas the later has a read range of 1 to 1.5 meters. The situation regarding frequencies is somewhat confused by the introduction, by EPC Global, of a separate air interface standard for UHF frequencies (covered by ISO 18000-6) for their early class 0 and class 1 tags. These tags are not interoperable with each other, nor are

they compatible with ISO’s air interface standards. EPC Global has subsequently developed a second generation of protocols (GEN 2) that merge the old Class 0 and Class 1 passive tags and should be more closely aligned with the ISO, although disagreements remain between the two organizations at the time of writing. Obviously, supply chain managers and equipment vendors would like to see an agreed, international standard. Data content and encoding As supply chains involve moving goods between large numbers of disparate organizations and locations, there is a requirement for all parties involved to use a standardized form for the identification of products. The Auto-ID Center at MIT was responsible for much of the development of recent RFID technology and standards work, particularly around supply chain management. Some of this work has now been transferred to the EPC Global8 organization (as the Auto-ID Center closed in October 2003, although some of the more researchbased work is continued through a network of Auto-ID labs in universities across the world9). EPC Global has defined standards for a range of features of global RFID systems EPCglobal describes itself as a neutral, consensus-based, not-for-profit standards organization which is owned jointly by GS1 and GS1 USA (two members-based organizations for the supply chain industry) including unique identification system protocols (the Electronic Product Code, or EPCTM) for tag to reader communication, specification of middleware systems to handle EPC codes, a mark-up language (Physical Mark Up Language) and the Object Naming Service (ONS). These are described in detail below:

1- Electronic Product Code A necessary component in the development of RFID was the introduction of the Electronic Product Code (EPC™). In short, this is the unique code number that is embedded into the RFID tag’s memory. It is a

generic, universal numbering scheme for physical objects, similar in scope to the barcode numbering scheme (UPC). However, there is one fundamental difference between the EPC and the UPC: the EPC has the capability to identify every single, individual product item. Whereas the barcode will provide a codification for the manufacturer and the product, it does not provide for identifying a particular object. The Auto-ID Center’s numbering system provides much greater scope for identification than barcodes, and consists of a 96-bit number, structured as follows: 01. 0000A89. 00016F. 000247D Header EPC Manager Object Class Serial Number 8 bits 28 bits 24 bits 36 bits The Header bits define which of several coding schemes is in operation with the remaining bits providing the actual product code. The scheme is designed, in part, to accommodate existing global numbering systems such as the Global Trade Identification Number (GTIN), Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC), and the Global Location Number (GLN). The Manager number identifies the company involved in the production of the item (manufacturer) and the object class defines the product itself. The Serial number is unique (within the scope of the other numbers) for an individual product entity. The 96-bit code can thus provide unique identifiers for 268 million companies . Each manufacturer can have 16 million object classes and 68 billion serial numbers in each class. 2-Alternatives to EPC: IPv6 Some researchers believe that the architecture of the Internet offers a clear series of principles for developing the new communication capability for individual physical items and devices. IPv6 is a network layer standard that governs the addressing and routing of data packets through a network. It is a numbering scheme large enough to give 430 quintillion addresses for every square inch of the world’s surface, in comparison to IPv4 (the current system), which has the capacity to support 4 billion addresses. It has been suggested that IPv6 could be used in conjunction with RFID, leaving the EPC™ redundant, and the US Department of Defense has

already mandated that its battlefield network should use IPv6 by the end of 2006 . However, Daniel Engels of the Auto-ID Center (2002) believes that 'the requirement to interpret an IPv6 identifier as an address for IP communication prevents its use as a permanently assigned identifier on mobile objects. In addition, due to the development of standards and the fragmentation of the RFID market (in terms of both technologies and applications) it is unlikely that IPv6 currently holds a direct threat to the adoption of the EPC™. ISO Testing and Conformance Standards for testing the conformance of RFID equipment to the operating standards and for measuring the performance of equipment are covered by ISO 18047 and ISO 18046 respectively. Interoperability between applications and RFID systems The EPC Network Architecture RFID tags and interrogators are rarely used in isolation; they form part of a supply chain, or a logistics, library or other system. The key concept is that the ID code embedded on an RFID tag can provide what database designers call a 'primary key' into a database of products. All additional data associated with that item can be stored in back-office databases and systems. The Auto-ID Center has developed an architectural overview and vision for the use of the EPCTM unique identifier in supply chain systems, known as the EPC Network Architecture. The architecture is layered, with tags and their associated readers operating at the bottom of an integrated system that is linked to database and manufacturers' back-office enterprise systems. The exact operational details of this complex architecture are beyond the scope of this report, however, we will note of some key components and related standards. Those interested in a more detailed examination of the network architecture, see Synthesis, 2004. Savant Savant is the middleware software system that links reader devices and processes the information streams from tags. It acts as the gateway to

the enterprise systems and database applications, providing filtering, aggregation and counting of tag-based data. ONS The Object Naming Service (ONS) is 'the 'glue' that links the EPC™ with the associated data file'. Working much like the current Domain Naming Service of the World Wide Web it provides a look-up table for translating a unique EPC code into a Uniform Reference Locator (potentially a webpage) where additional information can be stored. The ONS system is built on the same technology used in the Internet’s Domain Name Service (DNS). Physical Mark Up Language The Physical Markup Language (PML) is an XML-based common language designed to provide standardized vocabularies for describing a) physical objects, b) observations made by sensors and RFID readers about these objects and c) the observers (the sensors and readers) themselves and exchanging this data between entities operating within the EPC network architecture. PML uses the W3C XML Schema language (XSD) for its definition. The difficulty in describing physical objects is acknowledged by the Auto-ID Center, but the intention of PML is to give a structure to agreed object characteristics such as volume, mass, temperature, owner, location etc.

1.3. RFID Interference 1.3.1. Common Interference Examples a) Other wireless systems, including mobiles, radio systems and other models of tags and readers have the potential to interfere with and tag and readers operation. b) Tag placement.

Depends on the product being tagged, e.g. metallic products compared to liquid. Bear in mind impact potential! Automatic tag placement ensures uniform positioning, hand placement is too inaccurate. (Joe Jiner, The Kennedy Group) Slap and Ship placement May result in retailers charging back for the cost of unreadable tags. c) Environmental issues, i.e. rain is known to interfere with the signal transmission to active tags.

1.3.2 Types of Carrier Interference Absorption

When a wave hits a solid object, the object may absorb some/all of the wave’s energy. If the object is small, the wave may pass through but will have less power

Reflection / Nulling

Where a signal wave collides with a reflected wave which is out of phase (exactly opposite), the effect is a cancellation of both waves energy Where a signal wave collides with a reflected wave which is in-phase (exactly the same), the effect is a boost in wave energy. Data encoded in the carrier may be affected by reflected data though. Electrical Interference Electrical interference can come from various sources such as vacuum cleaners, starter motors, power cables (pylons) or other domestic/industrial electrical equipment nearby. It is more likely to cause problems with Low-Frequency RF equipment.

Skip Interference & Tropospheric Ducting

Some interference may arise from telemetric systems such as those used to control satellites or track animals and aquatic life. Signals are reflected due to temperature changes in the layers of the atmosphere (in the Ionosphere)

CHAPTER 2 RFID APPLICATIONS IN LIBRARIES

2.1.General View For many years, libraries have used a combination of technologies to reduce the likelihood of theft, improve stocktaking, and speed up issue and return procedures. The advantage of using RFID is that it is capable of incorporating and improving upon existing systems within one technology. For example an RFID reader does not need a direct line of sight, which means that books do not have to be tipped out or even pulled out completely as with barcode scanners, so inventory checking is faster and can be done more frequently. Also, RFID tags do not need to be read individually as barcodes do as RFID scanners can read stacks of books at a time, saving time. Other benefits of RFID include simplified and faster issuing of books, self-return (the ‘ATM approach’ to returning books), and rapid location checking of books. There are two main types of system that can be used in libraries, both of which involve each book being tagged with an RFID chip which either contains bibliographic data (bibliographic method) or a simple reference to detailed bibliographic information held off-chip in the library databases ('name plate' or 'license plate' systems). At the moment, the bibliographic system is not used very much in the UK, although there are discussions taking place around possible data objects for encoding selected bibliographic data within library tags. These systems allow a self-checkout process when books are borrowed: as the books pass a special RFID reader at the check-out desk the tag is scanned and the item is recorded as borrowed by the identified student or staff member. Apart from being faster, this system also frees up library and information staff from carrying out more mundane checkout tasks. So libraries have become early adopters of RFID and in the US more than 300 public and college libraries have adopted RFID. In fact, library implementations are important test for the technology. They have discovered that the 'tuning' of the RFID interrogator's detection field can be critical in a system's security as leaving tagged items in close proximity to an issue/return station can result in them being discharged

or issued unintentionally; in some instances, incorrect tuning of the detection field also meant that it was possible to evade the field completely . There is also a strong economic argument in favor of tagging valuable items such as library books. To date, uptake of RFID in general has been limited because even passive tags are still relatively expensive to produce (around 27 pence or 50 American cents, although this is continually reducing), so it makes no economic sense to tag inexpensive items (such as individual tins of baked beans). Within libraries, where individual books and journals can be worth hundreds of pounds, and will be borrowed and returned hundreds of time, the one-off cost of a tag is more than off-set by cost savings and efficiency gains.

2.2 RFID application
• Library RFID Management System

1 Tagging

An RFID tag is the most important link in any RFID system. It has the ability to store information relating to the specific item, to which they are attached, Rewrite again without any requirement for contact or line of sight. Data within a tag may provide identification for an item, proof of ownership, original storage location, loan status and history. RFID tag consists of an integrated circuit and an antenna combined to form a transponder. RFID tags collect the energy to operate from a radio frequency field emitted by a reader device; therefore they do not need a battery. When energized by a radio signal from a fixed position reader or handheld scanner, the tags returns the stored information in order that the item to which it is attached can be easily located. The chip also has a “multi-read” function, which means that several tags can be read at once. RFID tags have been specifically designed to be affixed into library media, including books, CDs, DVDs and tapes. It is thin, flexible and turns can be laminated between paper and plastic. With special method to attach books, patron is totally unaware that the tag is there. KEY BENEFITS: - No line of sight needed - Allows to check-out and check-in several items simultaneously - Information directly attached to product - Performing both identification and antitheft in one single operation - Different shape and sizes available

- Able to tag almost anything - Accelerate scanning and identifying

2. Counter Station

The LibestTM counter station is a staff assisted station on services such as loan, return, tagging, sorting and etc. It is loaded with arming/disarming module, tagging module and sorting module. Arming/Disarming module allows EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) bit inside the tag of the library material to be set/reset so as to trigger/not trigger the alarm of the EAS gate. Checking of EAS status of library material is easy. The staff puts the item on the reader and click on the view to display the information stored inside the tag and status of EAS. There are also feature of auto arming and auto disarm. Auto Arm/Disarm will automatic arm/disarm library material that is within the reader range. Together with circulation module from library automation software, this station is used for the following services: 1_ editing and updating of patron’s record 2_ add and deleting of patron’s record 3_ generate loan history for a particular patrons 4_ managing of fines incurred by the patron 5_ arm/disarm of EAS bit inside the library material 6_ program of new library material 7_ sort item in accordance to their branch and category number

The features of this station depend on the module loaded by the library automation software. Key benefits: 1_ provide value added customer service instead of manual daily routine 2_ perform media check-in/-out for those patrons who choose not to use the self service system 3_ help patron that need assistance from the staff

3. Self check out- in

The patron self check-out station in basically a computer with a touch screen and a built-in RFID reader, plus special software for personal identification, book and other media handling and circulation. After identifying the patron with a library id card, a barcode card, of his personal id number (pin), the patron is asked to choose the next action (check-out of one or several books ). After choosing check –out , the patron puts the book(s) in front of the screen on the RFID reader and the display will show the book title and its id number (other optimal information can be shown if desired) which have been checked out. The patron then confirms that he has finished the check-out process and a receipt is printed, showing which books have been borrowed and the return date. The RFID tag in the book is set on quiet as a result no alarm will go off at the EAS gates.

It is also possible to use the station for check-in (return) of books. In this case the patron identifies herself, chooses return and then puts one book or a stack of books onto the reader. She will receive a receipt. If the books were to be taken through the gate now, an alarm would sound. One important point for library productivity is that the whole process is significantly less time consuming than with barcode and magnetic strip system; therefore long lines are avoided and fewer stations are needed for the same process. Key benefits: to librarian: _ speeds up book check-in /check-out _frees staff to better service patrons _better space planning _increases membership rate to patrons: _ easy to use: books can be read in any orientation _ reduces queuing time _ provides patron privacy _ encourages patrons to come back 4. Book-Drop (Return Station)

The book drops can be located anywhere, within or outside the library. Possible remote locations outside the library include MRT/train stations, shopping centers, schools, etc. this offers unprecedented flexibility and convenience of returning library items at anytime of the day, even when the library is closed. Patrons insert the library item into the slot. The reader captures the electronic signature and sends to backend system for loan cancellation. Patron is acknowledged by beeping sound and flashlight. Patron’s record is updated immediately> this is possible due to the seamless link between LibBest RFID management system and the host computer system. As such, users who have reached their loan quota can start browsing items once they have returned them through the Book Drop. Key benefits -The ability to return books during off hours. -Loans for the returned items will be instantaneously cancelled so that patron may immediately borrow again. -Librarians are able to allocate more time to customer service, as they are free from the labor-intensive loan cancellation activity associated with barcode system. -Display the return status and printing receipt. -The design of the Book Drops is such that items cannot be retrieved once deposited. Options -Accept special design -Able to integrate with auto-sorting system.

5 Shelf management

The LibBesttm Shelf Management Solution makes locating and identifying items in the shelves an easy task for librarians. It comprises of a portable scanner and a base station The solution is designed to cover three main requirements: - Search for individual books requested - Inventory check of the whole library stock - Search for books, which are miss-helved All these functions are performed by sweeping the portable scanner across the spines of the books on the shelves to gather their identities. In an inventory check situation, the identities collected are compared with the database and a discrepancy report could be generated in situations when search functions is required, whether for a particular item or an item category, the information is first entered into the portable scanner from the base situation, and when a foreign item is found on the shelves, a built-in beeper sound to alert the librarians. Key benefits - Change inventory process - No more book handling: just pass the reader across shelved books to perform an instant inventory. - Accurancy: Book identification numbers are registered in the ShelfManagement Reader. The data is then downloaded to the center database The fastest inventory you have ever made: 20 books per second

- Notifications: books to be pulled are up-loaded to the reader for quick identification . User friendly - Light weight - Wands allows easy reading from high and low shelves Save time and resources Implementers indicate a 75%reduction in human resources required for self-management activities

6. Anti theft detection

RFID EAS Gate is the anti-theft part of the RFID Library Management System using the RFID tags embedded in the library items. Each lane is able to track items of 1 meter or more and would trigger the alarm system when an un-borrowed item passed through them. The alarm will sound and lights on the gate will flash as patron through with the library material

The EAS Anti-Theft Gate is used to detect RFID tag that is equipped with EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance). it can detect the RFID within 1 meter

range without interference of magnetic items, upon detecting of armed RFID tags, the alarm will sound the gate . it has option to trigger a camera to record patrons who trigger the alarm to the surveillance station. the detection is an integral feature of the chip within the tag. it is a standalone technology, which operates independently of the library database. FEATURES : - detect EAS Armed RFID tags - Multi-item detection - Able to integrate camera with the gate (option) - gale to integrate with surveillance station (option) KEY BENEFITS : - Single technology is required for both inventory and theft management of the library. - Library staff are alerted immediately when un-borrowed items passes through the theft detection gates. - Number of patrons passing through the gantry is captured by a counter on the gates Alarm volume can be easily controlled.

CHAPTER 3. THE FUTURE AND THE BIGGER PICTURE: TOWARDS AN INTERNET OF THINGS

3.1 Introduction
RFID systems are part of a bigger picture and are potentially a key stepping-stone in the development towards the vision of ubiquitous computing. In the ubiquitous or pervasive computer vision there will be a multitude of computationally capable, small - sometimes invisible to the human eye - devices that will be scattered throughout our environments, operating silently and largely unseen as they go about their individual tasks to support our daily activities. This will be a device-centric future with highly distributed network control. In a step-change that will be orders of magnitude greater when compared to today’s computing power, a bewildering population of heterogeneous sensors, computers and actuators will be operating. A key concept in this development trajectory is the Internet of Things. A term first coined by RFID developers in the Auto-ID Center in the late 1990s, it is also sometimes referred to as the Product Internet, T2T (Thing to Thing) network, or the M2M (Machine to Machine) network. In this vision, increasingly large numbers of our everyday objects will have some kind of simple communication technology embedded into them, allowing them to be connected to each other within local networks and, ultimately, connected to the wider network of networks – the Internet. In a sense this is a process of extending the Internet beyond computational devices down to a lower layer in the hierarchy of machines – to that of simpler devices and individual items. In order to facilitate this process, three areas need to be developed. Firstly, each of these items must be able to identify itself to other items and to the network in general. This is provided for by the introduction and development of RFID technology. Secondly, these items should include some element of embedded computational power in order to act with some level of ‘intelligence’. Thirdly, they will need to have some sense of their physical environment and geographical location. Continuing developments in computational science and electronics, particularly work on miniaturization, tiny operating systems and wireless communication will make this vision increasingly realistic. The basic RFID system of transponder and interrogator is an important starting point in the process.

3.1 From identification to Wireless Sensor Networks At the lower (passive) end of RFID technology the systems simply provide a tag that can remotely identify an object by returning an ID when interrogated over short ranges. As RFID systems are introduced and find acceptance in business and other environments the functionality provided by these low cost tags will be increasingly seen as insufficient as new applications are developed. There is likely to be a natural progression for RFID that includes the widespread incorporation of sensor functionality. Such devices will be able to make measurements concerning their surroundings and physical location about such variables as pressure, temperature, flow rate, speed, vibrations etc. They will be networked either through RF technologies or through other wireless communications systems and these developments are often referred to as sensor nets, integrated on-chip radios, or wireless networked sensors (WNS). These RFID-based sensors will need to communicate in order to participate in the network of things. However, other computational devices within the likely ubicomp will not necessarily be using radio frequency for communication. Other protocols currently proposed or developed include ZigBee, Near Field Communication Technologies (NFC), Bluetooth and Wifi – all systems that offer local and personal area networks (LANs and PANs). Zigbee is focused on individual devices (such as smoke alarms, lamps and consumer electronics) that need a robust, low bandwidth, low cost, low power, peer-to-peer communication. NFC is designed for very short-range communication (devices have to almost touch for the signalling systems to work). The applications being developed for NFC to date revolve around situations where it is intuitive for devices to touch in order to communicate e.g. allowing mobile phones to act as electronic tickets or electronic cash wallets when pressed against a suitable reader . Some commentators see these developments as tending towards a form of ubiquitous wireless communications network which encompasses lowbandwidth systems such as RFID, computational and peripheral device networking through ZigBee, NFC and Bluetooth (e.g. digital cameras and printers), and higher bandwidth (telecommunication) devices through 4G cellular and WiMax.

3.2 Spatial identifiers – GPS Such networking is part of a wider technological development as fixed networks move to wireless networks, ad hoc networks, and meshes . In the latter, mobile communicating devices form ad hoc networks (in a peer-to-peer fashion) with nearby devices to form meshes of communication that have varying topologies. The development of these kinds of networks will facilitate the increased use of spatial annotation (e.g. leaving personal messages or information within a given space). Most technological projects exploring spatial annotation use GPS (Global Positioning System) and the use of RFID in conjunction with GPS could allow for another layer of context-specific information. 3.3 Miniaturization and motes In the longer term, RFID tags (with some on-board computation) and wireless sensors might become so small as to be almost invisible, constituting a kind of 'smart-dust' (Rheingold, 2005). Research is being carried out into developing computational 'motes', which combine sensors, some element of communication (RF or optical) and the ability to float, even to fly. Such motes may be used in weather front analysis, or as remote sensors from dangerous environments (e.g. outer space, nuclear power plants, oceans etc.). 3.4 Technological implications – information overload In an information-rich, digitally connected world, where much of the knowledge and tools that we make use of are outside our heads ,there will be a need to develop new communication 'senses' that allow us to manage and make use of the enormous amount of information we will be confronted by. This will lead to the development and adoption of new and different types of human-computer interfaces and different ways of communicating with technology. Indeed, part of the ubicomp vision is of seamless interaction with devices, where computers become adaptive and perceptual in their interactions with users and the environment. In addition, communication between people and devices will become implicit (taking place incidentally, whilst the user is undertaking another task) and multimodal (using all five of our senses). In a ubiquitous computing environment, then, the user has to be not only textually, and visually literate, but also has to have 'corporal literacy', that is, an awareness of working knowledge of all the senses.

3.5. THE IMMEDIATE FUTURE: THE FIVE-CENT TAG The potential of RFID ubiquity through item level tagging has hinged around some technical and economic challenges. For global RFID adoption, systems will have to be interoperable (therefore reliant on protocol standards) and economically viable. In 1995 Noel Eberhardt (Motorola) and Neil Gershenfeld (MIT Media Lab) started collaborating in order to achieve a cost effective design for an RF tag, where the goal was to design the ‘penny tag’ (i.e. one American cent). Eleven years later the industry is still struggling with the technical challenges this problem presents. In recent years, the goal has been set a little lower – the hunt for the 5¢ tag is on. Whenever the 5¢ tag is achieved, it is important to understand the most likely characteristics and functionalities of the tag. In short, the tag will need to be passive (manufacturing and component costs means active and semi-passive tags are unviable), with low memory (in the region of 64 bits - smaller memory means less silicon and therefore lower costs) and no re-write functionality.

CONCLUSION
RFID technology uses waves to automatically identify individual items. After sixty years of development, plus the emergence of the Internet, RFID is being used in many fields. RFID used in libraries can save patrons' time and increase library work efficiency; can lessen staff injures; and can do inventory automatically. The greatest advantage of RFID tracking system is its ability to scan books/items on the shelves without tipping them out or removing them. To date, between 300 and 350 RFID systems have been installed in libraries around the world. More than 50 libraries in the U.S. and Canada currently use RFID. Regarding the use of RFID, some of the libraries have given detailed guidelines. There are some hurdles needed to overcome before RFID technology becomes widespread in the world. One major problem is the high costs, the other is privacy issue. In the long run, the RFID technology, when perfected, would eventually be a big help to human.

References
- web-sites
1-http://www.enigmaticconsulting.com/Communications_articles/RFID/RFID_frequencies.html 2-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID 3-http://www.slais.ubc.ca/COURSES/libr500/04-05wt1/www/L_Zhang/conclusion.htm 4-http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/207#Anchor-What-36 5-http://www.ncsl.org/programs/lis/privacy/idfall05.htm 6-http://www.rfid-library.com/images/rfid_e01.jpg

- Articles
1- IEEE magazine Applications and practice RFID paul Hartman, RF SAW inc. Daniel W.engels , university of texas at Arlington Tom kerr, vocollect,inc. 2- RFID standars,frequencies ,adoption ,and innovation www.rfidconsultation.eu/docs/ficheiros/TSW0602.pdf Matt ward Department of design University of London Rob van kranenberg Resonance design/virtueel platform

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