# Hydraulic Systems and Applications

Objectives
• Basic hydraulics theory. • Method of determination of output given input and configuration of given hydraulic systems. • Basic operation, principle components, and safety considerations related to hydraulic systems.

References
• INE Chapter 15

Shipboard Hydraulic Systems
• Steering gear (rudder, stern planes, etc.) • Deck machinery: Anchor windless, winches, capstans • Weapons systems: Gun mounts, launchers • Other applications: Hydraulic presses, ramps, elevators, catapult retractor, blast shields, valve operations, etc.

Properties of Liquids
• Shapelessness
– No natural shape – Conforms to the shape of the container

• Incompressibility • Transmission of force
– Force is equally distributed throughout the liquid in all directions

PASCAL’S LAW
Pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions

PRESSURE = FORCE/AREA

Find Pressure Find F2

F2 =

200 lbf
A1 = 20 in2

F1 = 20 lbf A1 = 2 in2

Pressure = 10 psi

Simple Hydraulic System
• • • Reservoir - Storage Tank Pressure source - Hydraulic pump (A-end) Pressure user - (B-end)
– Hydraulic motor - rotary motion – Hydraulic cylinder - linear motion

• Piping systems
– valves, filters, heat exchangers

• Accumulator - stores pressurized oil • Hydraulic fluid (normally oil)

Advantages of Using Oil As a Hydraulic Fluid.
• Non-corrosive • Superb lubricant

Basic Hydraulics

Axial Piston, Variable Stroke Pumps
• Waterbury Pump
– Electric Motor – Rotary Piston hydraulic pump/motor

• Hydraulic pump ("A" end) • Hydraulic motor ("B" end)

Variable Stroke Pump “A End”

“A End”

“B End” Piston
Piston Cylinder RAM

Seal Hydraulic Fluid Supply/Return Ports

“B End” Pump

• Convenient method of power transmission over long distances • Great flexibility • Variable speed control • Safety and reliability

• • • Need for positive confinement Fire hazard if leaks occur Leaks in high pressure systems pose a safety hazard • Adequate oil filtration must be maintained

Electro-hydraulic Steering Gear
• Ram unit
– – – – Tiller Cylinder Hand pump Follow-up Shaft

Electro-hydraulic Steering Gear
• Power unit
– – – – – Electric motor Waterbury pump (A end) Transfer valves Remote steering unit Trick wheel

Steering Unit

Methods of Steering Control
• Normal control from ship's bridge
– Utilizes remote electrical signal to control tiltbox position of hydraulic pump

• Alternate control from after steering
– "Trick wheel” manually operated to control tilt-box angle

• Emergency control
– Hand pump - Manually pressurizes hydraulic fluid to take local control of rudder

Summary