Neuroscience Syllabus

Atlantic University School of Medicine
September  -­‐  December  Semester  2013

I. Instructor:   • Dr.  Sudhakar  Avancha II. Class  Schedule:   • Monday  –  Friday  →  8:00  AM  to  10:00  AM III. Of>ice  Hours:   • Monday  to  Friday   • Without  Appointment  (Walk-­‐in):  7:  30  AM  to  8:00  AM  and  from  12  PM   to  1  PM • By  Appointment:  1:00  PM  to  3:00  PM IV. Exam  Policy • There  will  be  two  mid-­‐term  exams  followed  by  a  comprehensive  Oinal  exam.   Class  presentations  or  projects,  group  discussion,  &  clinical  case  studies,   which  are  held  throughout  the  semester,  will  also  be  considered   appropriately  while  determining  the  Oinal  grades  of  the  course. • All  Questions  in  the  exams  will  be  typically  in  USMLE  format.  I”  (incomplete)   or  “W”  (withdrawn)  grades  will  be  reported  to  the  OfOice  of  the  Registrar  in   compliance  with  the  policies  of  Atlantic  University  School  of  Medicine. V. Grading:   • Honors  =  92%  and  above  Passing  =  70%  to  91%;  Failing  =  Below  or  70% VI. Textbook: • Required  texts: • Snell,  Richard  S.  Clinical  Neuroanatomy,  7th  edition,  Lippincottt,   Williams-­‐Wilkins,  2010,  ISBN  978-­‐0-­‐7817-­‐9427-­‐5,  or  Westmoreland,   Barbara  and  Snell,  Richard  S.  Clinical  Neuroanatomy  for  Medical   Students,  5th  edition,  Lippincott-­‐Raven,  2001,  ISBN  0-­‐781-­‐72831-­‐2 • Crossman,  AR,  Neary,  D.  Neuroanatomy:  An  Illustrated  Colour  Text,  3rd   edition,  Chrurchill-­‐Livingstone,  ISBN  0-­‐443-­‐10036-­‐5 • Recommended  texts: • Netter's  Atlas  of  Neuroscience,  D  Felton  and  AN  Shetty,  2nd  edition,   Saunders,  2010,  ISBN  978-­‐1-­‐4160-­‐5418-­‐9 Nolte,  J  and  Angevine,  JB.  The  Human  Brain  in  Photographs  and   Diagrams,  2nd  edition,  Mosby,  2000,  ISBN  0-­‐323-­‐01126-­‐8

 their  pathways  and  interdependent  states.   While  any  edition  is  acceptable.  Eric  R.  the  former  including   gross  and  microscopic  anatomy  of  normal  and  abnormal  human  brain.  TM..  Schwartz  JH  and  Jessel.  Neuroanatomy.  James  D.  their   neurotransmission  and  interface  with  glial  structures  will  lead  to  an  understanding  of   disease  states.   cerebellum.  2009.  High  Yield   Neuroanatomy.   The  student  will  then  be  able  to  identify  principles  of  development.   2009.   .  Mc  Graw-­‐Hill  N  0-­‐8385-­‐7701-­‐6 • Learning  Objectives Purpose:  The  purpose  of  this  course  is  to  provide  the  necessary  knowledge  essential  to   understanding  the  complexities  of  the  human  nervous  system.  4th  edition.  spinal  cord  and  peripheral  nerve  states.  ISBN   0-­‐94078-­‐o57-­‐7 Fix.  Emphasis  will  be  based   upon  developing  a  foundation  in  the  basic  and  applied  neurosciences  which  will  permit   understanding  of  both  normal  and  pathological  states  of  the  nervous  system  essential   for  clinical  practice. Objectives:  The  course  investigates  both  anatomy  and  physiology.  differentiate   somatic  and  visceral  components.  Principles  of  Neural  Science.  2000.  4th  edition.  It  is  necessary  to  enhance  both  focus  and  self   discipline  necessary  as  well  as  critical  thinking  through  presentation  of  clinical  material   in  the  form  of  case  presentation  for  the  learning  process. Goal:  Provide  the  student  with  a  Oirm  knowledge.  Lippincott-­‐  Williams  Wilkins.  James  D.   4th  edition.  MedMaster.  Clinical  Neuroanatomy  Made  Ridiculously  Simple.  as  well  as   treatment  of  disease  states.  of  the  human  nervous  system  and  its  pathology  relevant  for  high  quality   medicine.  ISBN   978-­‐0-­‐7817-­‐7946-­‐3 Kandel.  ISBN  0-­‐  7817-­‐7245-­‐1  and/or  Fix.  learn  the  functional  anatomy  of  the  central  and   peripheral  nervous  system.  their  diagnosis  and  treatment.Neuroscience Syllabus • Goldberg.  Lippincott-­‐Williams  Wilkins.  Stephen.  Understanding  normal  and   abnormal  physiological  principles  involved  in  the  "web"  of  neuronal  pathways.  the  latest  one  is  3rd.  brainstem.  based  upon  rote  and  critical  thinking   methodology. Format:  Traditional  lecture  and  discussion  methodology  will  be  used  to  explore  course   material  and  laboratory  assignments.  which  will  lead   to  a  critical  thinking  approach  to  anatomical  and  functional  diagnoses.

 diencephalon.  derivatives  of  the  mature   brain  with  speciOic  understanding  of  the  telencephalon.  both  relevant  to  epilepsy  and  other  disorders.  nerve  Oibers  and  sheath  with  speciOics   in  understanding  neuropathies..  the  neuromuscular  junction.  the  carotid  and  vertebral   circulation.   SpeciOic  concepts  will  be  structure  and  function  as  related  pain  and  analgesia.  synapse  and  central  nervous  system  myelination  with   speciOic  understanding  relevance  to  neurotransmission  and  disease  states  such  as  the   demyelinating  diseases.  meningomyelocele.   fold  and  groove.  the  neural  plate.  drugs  and  toxins   affecting  transmssion  with  consideration  for  the  potential  for  biological  and  chemical   warfare.  muscle   activity.  3  Snell  and  or   equivalent) Basic  structure  of  the  neurone  with  speciOic  understanding  of  function.  myasthenia  gravis  and  its  differentation.  primary  and  secondary  vesicles.  Chiari  syndromes. Week  2  and  3:  Structure  and  function  of  neurones  and  glia  (Chapters  2.  Axonal  terminals. Week  4:  Sensory  receptors:  (Chapters  5  and  6  Snell  or  equivalent) Mechanism  of  sensory  receptors  transduction  and  functions.  mesoderm  and  endoderm  differentiation.  nerve  conduction.  Snell  or  equivalent) Early  embryological  stages  in  formation  of  the  neural  tube.  arterial  and  venous  supply.  common   pathological  states  such  as  craniosynostosis. Early  development  of  the  brain. Week  5:  Blood  circulation  and  supply  to  the  central  nervous  system  (CNS)  (Chapter   28  Snell  or  equivalent  with  angiography  presentation) Review  of  relevant  CNS  development.  mesencephalon  and   rhombencephalon.  the  important  Olexures.  action  of  local  anesthestics.  edema  and  neoplastic  formation  from  glial  cells.  Relevance  of  USMLE  in  this  category.  peripheral  nerve  injury  (Wallerian  degeneration  and  repair  with  concepts  of   nerve  growth  factors).  stroke  and  intracerebral  et  al  hemorrhage.  Concepts   of  the  blood  brain  barrier.  including  the  heel  spot  test  for  inborn   errors  of  metabolism  and  infectious  sequelae  will  be  provided  by  the  instructor.  the  Guillain-­‐Barre  syndrome.  synaptic  integration.  speciOic  objectives:   understanding  the  ectoderm.  refractory  period  with  speciOics  of   neurotransmitter  release.  arteriovenous   malformation  and  aneurysm  formation..  action  potential.  Peripheral  nervous  system.  Structure  and  function  of  the   synapse.  circle  of  Willis  and  other  anastomoses  with  water  shed  concepts  and  speciOic   concepts  of  occlusion  of  major  arterial  branches  in  cerebrum  and  brainstem.   hydrocephalus.Neuroscience Syllabus Course  Outline: Week  1:  Introduction  to  and  Development  of  the  central  nervous  system  (Chapters   one  and  29. Glial  cells  and  their  important  role  in  neural  function  as  in  GABA/Glutamate  metabolism   and  role  in  potassium  metabolism.  axonal  transport   and  pathology.  blood  supply  and  ventricular  system.   .

 amyotrophic  lateral  sclerosis.  11  and  22  Snell  or  equivalent) Structure  and  function  beyond  coordination.  multiple  scerosis.  24  and  25  Snell  or   equivalent) The  diencephalon  with  focus  on  the  thalamus  will  be  noted  with  speciOics  adressing  the   thalamic  pain  syndrome  or  targets  used  in  therapy  for  pain  and  involuntary  movement   disorders.  locked   in  syndrome  and  varied  vascular  syndromes:  Wallenberg.  19  and  27  Snell  or   equivalent) Structure  and  function  of  meninges.  medial  longitudinal  fasciculus.  compressions  and  stenosis.  Pathways  involving  white  and  interface  with  gray   matter  with  speciOics  of  pain  control.  discriminative  touch.  20  and  21  Snell  or  equivalent) Spinal  cord.  CT  and  MRI  analysis.   Friedrich's  ataxia.  myotomes.  neurosyphyllis.  acoustic  neuroma  and  neuroOibromatosis.  stimulation  and  intrathecal   drugs  will  be  noted.  12..  subacute  combined  degeneration.  headache  involving  vasculature.  sources   of  neurotransmitters:  catecholamines  and  serotonin. Week  6:  Meninges  and  Ventricular  System  (Chapters  18  .  conus  and  cauda  equina  with  speciOics  of   spinal  cord  injury.  Radicular  pathology  associated  with  herpes  zoster   and  injuries  will  be  noted  as  well  as  concepts  of  nerve  blocks.  The  cerebello-­‐pontine  angle.  cord.. Week  8  and  9:  The  Brainstem  (Chapters  8-­‐10.Neuroscience Syllabus angiography.  Syndromes  relate  to  varied  sites  and  nuclei  and  involve  motor   coordination  as  well  behavioral  and  sensory  modiOications..  23  Snell  or  equivalent) Structures.  Brown-­‐Sequard   syndrome.  the  blood  brain  versus  cerebrospinal  Oluid  brain   barrier.  gate  theory.  cranial  nerve  dysfunction. Week  10:  The  Cerebellum  (Chapters  10.   .  Ventricles  and  cerebrospinal  Oluid  formation  and  absorption   with  speciOics  of  hydrocephalus.  transtentorial   herniation  and  Kernohan's  notch  concepts.  subarachnoid  space  and  cisterns  with  speciOics  of   meningioma  formation.  Patient  evaluation  tactics  will   be  described.  myelogram.  Pain  relief  with  varied  tactics  including  ablation.brainstem   injury.  cauda  equina  and  conus  medullaris   syndromes.  meningitis.  meningitis.  Multiple  sclerosis.  Divisions  and  nuclei  together  with  peduncular   relationships  and  targets. Week  7:  Spinal  Cord  (Chapters  7..  The  hypothalamus.  The  related  third  ventricle  and  pineal  gland  and  its  melatonin  function  noted   together  with  neoplastic  differential  as  well  as  Vein  of  Galen  pathology.  SpeciOics   will  describe  Parkinsonism  and  disease.   Subarachnoid  hemorrhage.  Benedickt  and  Weber.  nerve  roots.  The  effects  of  trauma. Week  11  The  Thalamus  and  Hypothalamus  (Chapters  13.  Neoplasms  and  hematoma  will   be  addressed  as  well  Chiari  syndromes.  The  lumbar  puncture  and  analysis.  pathways  and  nuclei  together  with  cranial  nerves  ascending  and  descending   pathways  and  decussations.  dermatomes.  the  reticular  formation.

.   speech..  male  and  female  differentiation.. The  syllabus  may  vary  slightly.  role  in  causalgic pain  syndromes.  behavior.  The  student  will  be  informed  in  case  there  are   signi8icant  changes.  sleep.  importance  of   the  amygdala  in  behavior  as  potential  for  violence..  Hirschsprung's  disease   will  be  noted. Week  13:  Reticular  formation  and  Limbic  system  (Chapters  16  with  review  of  9..  Introduction  to  the  autonomic  nervous  system.  dominance.  gastrointestinal)..  pulmonary.  memory  function  to  include  executive  cognitive   functions.  essential   tremor  and  Parkinsonism  will  be  noted  along  with  other  involuntary  movement  disorders   as  well  as  treatment  tactics  that  are  medication.  Means  of  evaluating  the  patient   with  standard  neurological  tactics  and  mini-­‐mental  status  exam  will  be  given.  arousal  and  ageing.  Huntington's  chorea.  SpeciOics  will  be  psychoses  such  as  schizophrenia.  subcortical  degeneration.  olfaction  and  memory.  SpeciOic  pathology  is  noted  in  Wilson's  disease..  stimulation  and  ablation  of  targets. Week  12:  The  Cerebrum  (Chapters  14  and  15  Snell  or  equivalent) Varied  anatomical  sections  will  be  analyzed  together  with  their  function.   neoplasms.  nitric  oxide  and  norepinhrine.  Alzheimer's  versus  treatable  dementias.  The  craniopharyngeoma.  Its  pathways  are  extensive  include  the  thalamus  and   hippocampus  as  well  as  the  cingulate  gyrus  and  prefrontal  areas.  SpeciOics  involving  PenOield's  studies  and   epilepsy.the  treatment  of  behavioral  disorders  with  cingulotomy  and  the  potential  of   amygdalotomy  for  violence.  neoplasm.Acetylcholine.  Visual  Oields.  the  role  of  amygdalectomy  for  complex  partial  seizures..  epinephrine  will  be  addressed   along  with  receptor  concepts  in  pharmacology.. Week  15:  The  Autonomic  Nervous  System  (Chapter  26  Snell  or  equivalent) This  will  be  an  expansion  of  prior  discussions  and  include  the  ganglia..  disorders  of   circulation  will  be  noted  such  as  infarction.  vagal  stimulation  in  epilepsy.  Male  and  female   differences  will  be  noted.  12   and  13-­‐15  Snell  or  equivalent) The  limbic  system  of  Papez  will  be  explored  together  with  its  ramiOication  in  behavior and  arousal.The  Kluver-­‐Bucy   syndrome...Neuroscience Syllabus its  divisions  and  tracts  as  well  as  its  relationship  to  the  pituitary  gland:  anterior  and   posterior  will  be  addressed  noting  homeostasis  and  the  neuroendocrine  system.  Horner's  syndrome. Week  14:  The  Basal  Ganglia  (Chapter  17  with  review  of  Chapter  13  Snell  or equivalent) The  role  of  dopamine  with  type  one  and  two  receptors  as  well  as  the  direct  and  indirect   pathways  including  the  subthalamic  nucleus  and  its  interface  with  globus  pallidus  interior   and  ventrolateral  thalamus/cerebrum.  The  basal  ganglia  have  a  rich  blood  supply  and  therefore  are  susceptible  to   varied  toxins..  epilepsy.  the  role  of   sympathectomy.  visceral  control  (cardiovascular.  Substantia  nigra  and  the  effect  of  oxidative   degeneration.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful