US ARMY AMMUNITION SPECIALIST MOS 55B SKILL LEVELS 1 AND 2
DEMOLITION FIRING SYSTEMS
US ARMY MISSILE AND MUNITIONS CENTER AND SCHOOL
US Army Ammunition Specialist MOS 55B Skill Levels 1 and 2 Course
DEMOLITION FIRING SYSTEMS SUBCOURSE MM2605
US Army Missile and Munitions Center and School Fort Lee, Virginia
This publication is provided for nonresident instruction only. It reflects the current thought of this school and conforms to published Department of the Army doctrine as closely as possible. Users of this publication are encouraged to recommend changes and submit comments for its improvement. Comments should be keyed to the specific page and line of the text to which the change is recommended. Reasons will be provided for each comment to insure understanding and complete evaluation. Comments should be prepared using DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forwarded directly to Missile and Munitions, United States Army Combined Arms Support Command, Fort Lee, Virginia 23801-1809.
22 Step 1: Lay the Ring Main. 12 Step 1: Test the Blasting Cap Test Set or the Galvanometer for Serviceability. 24. Step 2: Test the Firing Wire for Shorts and Continuity. 29. 18. Preparing a Detonating Cord System. 20. Step 7: Test Operate the Blasting Machine and Connect It to the Firing Circuit. Step 5: Prime the Charge. Step 2: Lay the Branch Lines and Connect Them to the Ring Main. Step 4: Splice the Electric Blasting Cap to the Firing Wire. 1 Step 1: Test the Burning Rate of the Time Blasting Fuse. Step 4: Insert the Time Blasting Fuse in the Priming Adapter. Step 3: Prime the Charges. Step 2: Inspect the Nonelectric Blasting Cap. Step 3: Install and Crimp the Nonelectric Blasting Cap to the Time Blasting Fuse. v DEMOLITION FIRING SYSTEMS (Tasks 093-400-1257 and 093-400-1258). Step 6: Prime the Charge. 14. Preparing an Electric Firing System. 28. 3. REVIEW EXERCISES. Step 5: Attach the Fuse Igniter to the Time Blasting Fuse. 6. Step 6: Test the Firing Circuit. 10. 26. 31 EXERCISE SOLUTIONS.MM2605 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. 21. 37
. Step 4: Attach the Firing System. 15. 1 Preparing a Nonelectric Firing System. 10. 10. Step 3: Test the Electric Blasting Cap for Serviceability. 22. 19. 8.
There are no
Standard. you will learn how to prepare a nonelectric firing system. Perform Emergency Destruction of Ammunition in an ASP by Burning. In this subcourse.MM2605 INTRODUCTION An ammunition specialist may be required to help destroy unserviceable ammunition by detonation. the detonating cord system must be used to assure that the charges fire at the same time. Credit Hours. Conditions. you will need a means of ignition to detonate primed charges. Instructions that could lead to personnel injury or death if not followed are emphasized by warnings in the text. This subcourse Demolition Firing Systems. You must score at least 70 on the end-of-subcourse examination (answer 9 of the 12 questions correctly). You will have this subcourse book and work without supervision. an electric firing system. Objectives. In both of these situations. supplementary requirements in material or personnel for this subcourse. The detonating cord system is used to initiate explosive charges as a component of an electric or nonelectric firing system. In a combat situation. consists of one lesson in support of the following tasks from soldier's manual FM 9-55B1: 093-400-1257. 093-400-1258. an ammunition specialist may have to perform emergency destruction of ammunition to prevent enemy use. When you have completed this subcourse. and a detonating cord system for the destruction of ammunition. an electric firing system. The destruction of ammunition is hazardous and requires special instructions. Three credit hours will be awarded for the successful completion of this subcourse.
. Both electric and nonelectric firing systems serve this purpose. Tasks. If the nonelectric firing system is being used with more than one charge. you should be able to identify the correct procedures for preparing a nonelectric firing system. and a detonating cord system. Perform Emergency Destruction of Ammunition in an ASP by Detonation.
6. 5. 1
. a watch. The tools and equipment needed to assemble the system--a crimper. Upon activation. Nonelectric Firing System. There are six steps in assembling a nonelectric firing system with a demolition block: 1. Install and crimp the nonelectric blasting cap to the time blasting fuse. a computing tape. and a nonelectric blasting cap. Prime the charge. 3. 4. Insert the time blasting fuse in the priming adapter (if required). a fuse igniter. and a nonelectric blasting cap-are shown in figure 2. the fuse igniter initiates the time blasting fuse. which transmits the flame that fires the blasting cap.
Figure 1. Test the burning rate of the time blasting fuse. time blasting fuse. The blasting cap provides a shock adequate to initiate the explosive charge into which the cap has been installed. Attach the fuse igniter to the time blasting fuse. time blasting fuse. A threaded priming adapter (figure 3) is required when the system is used with a demolition block that has a threaded cap well. Inspect the nonelectric blasting cap. 2.MM2605 DEMOLITION FIRING SYSTEMS
PREPARING A NONELECTRIC FIRING SYSTEM A nonelectric firing system (figure 1) consists of a fuse igniter.
Figure 3. Tools and Equipment for Assembling a Nonelectric Firing System. 2
Figure 2. M1A4 Priming Adapter.
Cutting Time Blasting Fuse.
Figure 4. use your computing tape to measure three feet of time blasting fuse. Next. 3
.MM2605 Step 1: Test the Burning Rate of the Time Blasting Fuse You test burn the time blasting fuse to find out how much fuse you will need to give you time to reach safety after you have activated the firing system. Warning: A time blasting fuse with a rough. Cut it off square across with your crimper. This is done to prevent a misfire occurring because moisture has been absorbed from the air by exposed powder in the fuse. jagged cut across the end can cause a misfire of the blasting cap. Using the cutting (inside) jaws of the crimper. Make sure that you cut the fuse square across. cut off a six-inch length of fuse from the free end of the roll of time blasting fuse (figure 4) and discard it. This is the piece you will use to determine the burning rate of the time blasting fuse.
remove the safety pin and then pull hard on the pull ring. Removing the Shipping Plug from the M60 Fuse Igniter. Use your watch to start timing the burning of the time fuse.
Figure 6. 4
. To activate the fuse igniter (figure 6). Activating the M60 Fuse Igniter. You should see a little smoke coming from the fuse and smell a burning odor. (Check the fuse to make sure that it is burning.MM2605
Loosen the fuse holder cap on the M60 fuse igniter and remove the shipping plug (figure 5). You will hear a snap.) When you see flame at the free end of the time blasting fuse (figure 7). Then. stop timing.
Figure 5. insert the three-foot length of time fuse into the fuse igniter as far as it will go and tighten the fuse holder cap. which indicates that the fuse igniter has functioned.
time (orange color). and fuse. if it took 135 seconds to burn 3 feet of fuse. with a single yellow band every 18 inches and a double yellow band every 90 inches). divide 135 by 3 to get a burning rate of 45 seconds per foot. Divide the total burning time by the length of the fuse. time. and you get 8 feet for the length of time blasting fuse you must use in your firing system. This will give you the burning rate per foot. For example. blasting. M700 (olive drab color. any significant difference in the burning rate is cause to discard that roll of fuse and use another one. which has a burning rate of 30 to 45 seconds per foot. blasting.
Figure 7. When you test burn the fuse. 360. After you have determined the burning rate of the time blasting fuse. to get the total time in seconds. 60. which has a burning rate of 36 to 44 seconds per foot. and divide it by the burning rate of the time fuse. you can compute the burning rate.
. For example. Two types of time blasting fuse are presently in use.MM2605
Once you know how much time it takes to burn a three-foot length of time blasting fuse. Divide 360 seconds by 45 seconds per foot (the burning rate). or someplace a safe distance away from your demolition. Multiply 6 minutes by the number of seconds in a minute. you can determine the length of fuse that will be required for your demolition. To do this. take the time in seconds required for you to walk to the shelter. Warning: Test burning time blasting fuse and crimping a blasting cap to the fuse must be done downwind at a minimum distance of 25 feet from blasting caps or other explosives. Timing the Burning of the Time Blasting Fuse. They are fuse. you need 6 minutes to walk to the shelter.
Never blow into a cap.MM2605 Step 2: Inspect the Nonelectric Blasting Cap The standard Army nonelectric blasting cap is the cap. Cap. Blasting. Remove one nonelectric blasting cap from the cap box. If the cap contains any dirt or foreign matter. Do not drop caps or handle them roughly--by tapping them with a hard object or against a hard object. for example.
Figure 8. or sunlight. flame. observe the following safety rules: • • • • • Do not expose caps to heat. dispose of the cap by placing it with the material to be detonated. holding the cap by the open end (figure 9). or follow the procedure shown in figure 10. M7. hold the cap with the open end down and shake it gently. Nonelectric. Dirt or other foreign matter in a blasting cap can cause a misfire. Inspect the cap by looking into the open end. Do not insert anything into a cap to remove dirt or foreign matter. 6
. blasting. When handling blasting caps. M7 (figure 8). If the dirt or foreign matter does not come out. The open end of the M7 blasting cap is flared to make the insertion of fuse easier. nonelectric. Do not carry caps loose in pockets--always use a cap box.
Figure 10. 7
. Removing a Blasting Cap from the Cap Box. Removing Dirt or Foreign Matter from a Nonelectric Blasting Cap.
Placing a Blasting Cap over Time Fuse. After you start the crimp. If the fuse is not in contact with the explosive in the cap. Warning: Never force the fuse into the blasting cap. Keep a slight pressure on the closed end of the cap with your forefinger to keep the cap in position.
. Then. When the time fuse is properly seated within the blasting cap. grasp the fuse just below the cap with the thumb and middle finger of your less-favored hand (left or right) and place the forefinger over the closed end of the cap.MM2605 Step 3: Install and Crimp the Nonelectric Blasting Cap to the Time Blasting Fuse Hold one end of the time blasting fuse up at about eye level and at arm's length away. Position the crimper's crimping (outside) jaws (see figure 2) around the cap not more than a quarter of an inch from the open end. Warning: A crimp too near the explosive in the blasting cap may cause detonation. holding the cap and fuse by the crimper at arm's length from your side. a misfire may occur. complete the crimp
Figure 11. remove the hand holding the blasting cap. Start the crimp (figure 12) at this time by crimping--tightening the crimping jaws--just enough so that the fuse will not fall out of the cap. Gently slip the blasting cap down over the fuse (figure 11) so that the explosive in the cap is in contact with the end of the fuse.
Never point the cap toward other personnel or explosives. Starting the Crimp.
Figure 12. Warning: When crimping a blasting cap. Completing the Crimp.MM2605 (figure 13). always keep your head turned away from the cap so as to avoid injury if a detonation occurs.
Step 6: Prime the Charge Priming the charge consists of attaching the nonelectric firing system to the demolition block to be detonated. Be careful not to tie the string so tightly that the powder train in the time fuse breaks. tie the loose ends of the string around the time fuse near the blasting cap. screw the priming adapter into the threaded cap well hand-tight to complete priming the charge (figure 17). Then. When priming a demolition block that has a threaded cap well without using a priming adapter. Leave about six inches of loose string on each end after making the tie. Then. carefully place the priming adapter over the blasting cap until the adapter stops (figure 15). follow the instructions in step 1 (page 4). Priming Adapter Placement. If they are available. Insert the assembly into the threaded cap well of the demolition block.MM2605 Step 4: Insert the Time Blasting Fuse in the Priming Adapter If a priming adapter (figure 3) is used. wrap a string around the demolition block tightly near the cap well end and tie it securely. priming adapters should be used to secure nonelectric blasting caps and time blasting fuse to demolition blocks with threaded cap wells.
Step 5: Attach the Fuse Igniter to the Time Blasting Fuse To attach the M60 fuse igniter to the free end of the time fuse. pass the free end of the time fuse through it so that the threads of the adapter are facing the blasting cap (toward the charge) (figure 14). When priming a demolition block that has a threaded cap well and using a priming adapter.
Figure 14. Insert the assembly into the threaded cap well of the demolition block (figure 16).
. Demolition blocks may or may not have threaded cap wells.
Figure 17. Priming Adapter Pulled over a Blasting Cap. Primed Charge.
. Inserting a Nonelectric Firing System into a Demolition Block.MM2605
7. Test the firing wire for shorts and continuity. Test the blasting cap test set or the galvanometer for serviceability. Test the firing circuit. Never try to force a blasting cap into an expedient cap well.
PREPARING AN ELECTRIC FIRING SYSTEM An electric firing system (figure 19) consists of an electric blasting machine. 3. Test operate the blasting machine and connect it to the firing circuit. and an electric blasting cap. the firing wire and reel.
. it generates an electric impulse that travels through the firing wire and cap lead wires to fire the electric blasting cap. When the blasting machine is activated. an electric blasting machine M32 or M34. 2. Initiation of the cap detonates the explosive charge into which the cap has been inserted. an electric blasting cap.MM2605
When priming a demolition block that has no cap well. There are seven steps in assembling an electric firing system to a demolition block: 1. Wrap string several turns around the demolition block. 4. and a blasting galvanometer or the M51 blasting cap test set--are shown in figure 20.
Figure 18. Splice the electric blasting cap to the firing wire. Then. 6. the firing wire and reel. Tie the loose ends of string around the time fuse near the blasting cap at the top of the hole with two half hitches. The tools and equipment needed to assemble the electric firing system--a penknife. Prime the charge. 5. use the pointed leg of the M2 crimper to make a hole in the end of the demolition block large enough to contain the blasting cap (figure 18). Test the electric blasting cap for serviceability. If the hole is too small to admit the cap easily. remove the cap and enlarge the hole. Making a Cap Well in a Demolition Block with a Crimper. insert the assembly into the cap well you have made. Tie it leaving about six inches of loose string on each end. an M2 crimper.
Tools and Equipment for Assembling an Electric Firing System. 13
. Electric Firing System.
These instruments are used to check circuit continuities by checking the electric blasting cap. the firing wire. the blasting galvanometer or the M51 blasting cap test set. You can use the crimper for this (figure 21). It is delicate and must not be opened except to replace a weak battery. the firing wire connections. Blasting Galvanometer.
Figure 21. the flow of current from the dry-cell battery moves the needle across the scale.MM2605 Step 1: Test the Blasting Cap Test Set or the Galvanometer for Serviceability Either of two instruments can be used to test the electric firing system. This test is required to reduce the possibility of misfires. and two external terminals. When the two external terminals are connected in a closed circuit. Testing the Blasting Galvanometer. the battery is weak and should be replaced. The blasting galvanometer consists of a meter with a needle and a scale. hold a piece of metal across its two terminals. To test the blasting galvanometer for serviceability.
. The galvanometer must be handled carefully and kept dry. If this procedure does not cause a wide deflection of the needle on the meter (23 to 25 units). a small special silver-chloride dry-cell battery. and any firing wire splices.
It must be retested after unreeling. Test Set. two binding posts.9 V total voltage. make sure that only the appropriate silver-chloride dry-cell battery is installed. you must take special care in wiring a circuit to avoid shorting. (Note: Since the M51 blasting cap test set can not discriminate between a firing circuit that is properly set up and one with a short. It is a self-contained unit with a magnetotype impulse generator. unreel the firing wire and lay it from the location of the charges to be detonated (blasting site) to the firing site. 0. This test set was developed to replace the blasting galvanometer for testing electrical firing circuits. 15
The two types of dry-cell batteries authorized for use with the blasting galvanometer are the BA-245/U special silver-chloride dry-cell. the lamp will flash. If the set is serviceable. connect a piece of bare wire to the two binding posts. an indicator lamp. and a handle to activate the generator. Any other battery may produce enough voltage to detonate blasting caps. however. and the BA-2245/U special silver-chloride dry-cell. because uncoiling may separate broken wire that was undetected when reeled. M51. Testing the M51 Blasting Cap Test Set. Depress the handle sharply while observing the indicator lamp.9 V total voltage. To preclude testing the firing wire twice for shorts and continuity.
Step 2: Test the Firing Wire for Shorts and Continuity The firing wire could be tested on the reel. Blasting Cap. Warning: Before using the galvanometer. 0. To test the M51 blasting cap test set (figure 22).
When using the M51 blasting cap test set to test for shorts. Connect the conductor wires at one end to the test set binding posts and actuate the test set (figure 23). If the indicator lamp does not flash. Actuate the test set (figure 24). The indicator lamp should not flash. If this happens.
Figure 24. Testing for Shorts Using the M51 Blasting Cap Test Set.
Figure 23. the firing wire has a short circuit. there is a break in the firing wire. 16
. twist the firing wire conductors together at one end and connect those at the other end to the test set binding posts. To test for continuity. separate the firing wire conductors at both ends. locate it and repair as required. Testing for Continuity Using the M51 Blasting Cap Test Set. Locate it and repair as required. The indicator lamp should flash. If the indicator lamp does flash.
twist the conductor wires together at each end of the firing wire.MM2605
When using the blasting galvanometer to test for shorts. which could be caused by several broken strands of multistranded wire or by dirty wires. This should cause a wide deflection of the needle (about 23 to 24 units for a 500-foot length of wire). The needle in the meter should not move (figure 25). If there is no movement of the needle. To test for continuity. A slight movement of the needle indicates a point of high resistance. 17
. Locate it and repair as required. a break in the firing wire is indicated. Testing for Continuity Using the Blasting Galvanometer. separate the firing wire conductors at both ends. If the needle does move. Touch conductor wires at one end to the galvanometer posts.
Figure 25. If this happens. the firing wire has a short circuit. locate and repair the break as required.
Figure 26. twist the firing wire conductors together at one end and touch those at the other end to the galvanometer posts (figure 26). Testing for Shorts Using the Blasting Galvanometer. When testing has been completed.
the blasting cap is satisfactory. M6 (see figure 27) is the standard Army electric blasting cap and will initiate any standard demolition charge. blasting. You are then ready to test the blasting cap for continuity using either the M51 blasting cap test set or the blasting galvanometer.MM2605 Step 3: Test the Electric Blasting Cap for Serviceability Each electric blasting cap to be used in an electric firing system must be tested individually for continuity. Straighten out the lead wires by hand. If the indicator lamp flashes. When using the blasting galvanometer. Do not throw. Warning: When uncoiling blasting cap lead wires. Squeeze the test set handle. It is electrically uniform. with Lead Wires and Shorting Clip. Connect the lead wires to the two binding posts on the test set. Carefully extend the cap lead wires to their maximum length. remove the shorting clip from the blasting cap lead wires. electric. Cap. The distance between personnel and the blasting cap will be the maximum allowed by the length of the lead wires. the cap is defective and should not be used. Blasting. with the lead wires fully extended. Personnel must use available protective cover and keep their backs toward the blasting cap when caps are being tested for continuity. Hold the cap by the wires about six inches from the cap. The cap. so any lot of M6 caps may be mixed with any other lot in a firing circuit without fear of misfires.
. Place the electric blasting cap in a hole. Hold one cap lead wire to one post of the galvanometer and touch the other lead wire to the other
Figure 27. Make sure not to disturb or remove the shorting clip. or snap the wires to loosen them. Keep them shunted until you connect them to the firing circuit. wave. Shunt (short) the lead wires by twisting their ends together immediately after testing. and explosives. Always point the explosive end of the blasting cap away from yourself. do not hold the cap directly in your hand. other personnel. behind a barricade. remove the shorting clip from the blasting cap lead wires. If the indicator lamp does not flash. or under a sandbag. When using the M51 blasting cap test set. Electric. M6.
Twist these ends together to form a pigtail at right angles to the connected wires (figure 28c). Point the free ends of the lead wires and the free ends of the firing wire in opposite directions (figure 28a). Tape each connection to insure complete insulation. the galvanometer needle will deflect slightly less than it did when the instrument was tested (23 to 25 units). Join the opposite-facing wires with a few tight twists around each other. Splicing the Electric Blasting Cap to the Firing Wire. or weakened when they are bared. Shunt lead wires by twisting their ends together immediately after testing. Bend the remaining ends up.
Figure 28. Remove any foreign matter by carefully scraping the wire with the back of the knife blade.MM2605
post. Multiple-strand wires of the firing wire should be twisted lightly after scraping.
. The wires should not be nicked. Use a penknife to expose about three inches of bare wire from each end. See figure 28e. If the blasting cap is satisfactory. Step 4: Splice the Electric Blasting Cap to the Firing Wire The ends of the firing wire and the blasting cap lead wires must have the insulation material stripped from them so that the splice can be made. Tie with twine or wrap with friction tape or electrical insulating tape. Push each pigtail to one side so it will lie along one of the wires (figure 28d). If pairs of wires are spliced. cut. stagger the two separate splices. away from the joint (figure 28b).
They should be supported on rocks. to secure the blasting cap to the demolition block. The person making the connection must work as far from the blasting cap as the cap lead wires allow. use tape to secure the blasting cap inside the demolition block (figure 31). insert the electric blasting cap into the cap well of the demolition block and tie the cap lead wires around the block by two half hitches (figure 30). insert the cap and the priming adapter into the cap well and screw into place (figure 29). or sticks so that only the insulated portions of the wires touch the ground. keeping their back turned to minimize injury in case of a premature detonation. Warning: Never try to force a cap into a cap well that is too small to admit it easily.
Figure 29. As an alternate method. Allow some slack in the wires between the blasting cap and the tie to prevent any pull on the cap. When using a blasting cap with a priming adapter. Then. Warning: Shunt the firing wire at the initiating point before connecting the blasting cap wires to the firing wire. When using a blasting cap without a priming adapter. As with the nonelectric firing system. blocks. Priming a Charge Using a Blasting Cap with a Priming Adapter. pass the electric blasting cap lead wires through the slot of the priming adapter. making sure the threaded end of the adapter is toward the cap. if available.
Step 5: Prime the Charge Basically.MM2605
Circuit splices that are not insulated should not lie on moist ground. the procedures for priming the electric firing system to the demolition charge are the same as those for priming the nonelectric firing system. Pull the blasting cap into place in the adapter. a priming adapter (figure 3) should be used.
Step 6: Test the Firing Circuit When using the M51 blasting cap test set. Depress the handle. If the test indicates a break (the needle does not move) or a high resistance (slight movement of the needle). If it does not. 21
. (Note: The M51 blasting cap test set will react the same way-lamp will flash--when testing either a properly set-up circuit or a shorted circuit. The degree of deflection will depend upon the number of caps and the length of the firing wire. Recheck the circuit for shorts or defective splices or wires. move to the firing position and separate the free ends of the firing wire.MM2605
Figure 30. Priming a Charge Using a Blasting Cap Without a Priming Adapter.) When using the blasting galvanometer. Touch the free ends of the firing wire to the two terminals on the galvanometer. Alternate Method of Priming a Charge Using a Blasting Cap Without a Priming Adapter. shunt the firing wire and repair wire or connections as required. This should cause a wide deflection of the needle. move to the firing position and separate the free ends of the firing wire. Connect the free ends of the firing wire to the binding posts of the test set. The indicator lamp should flash.
Figure 31. the circuit is defective.
before connecting the blasting machine. and the M34 can initiate 50 electric blasting caps. To prevent a misfire. free the D ring holding the plunger handle against the machine's body. The plunger is spring-loaded. and that the number of blasting caps in any circuit does not exceed the rated capacity of the blasting machine being used.MM2605 Step 7: Test Operate the Blasting Machine and Connect It to the Firing Circuit The standard blasting machines currently in use are the M32 and the M34 (figure 32). Testing procedures are also the same. The M32 can initiate 10 electric blasting caps. Both machines are the same in size and operation. Connect the blasting machine to the firing circuit by fastening the ends of the firing wire to the two terminals of the blasting machine. Give the handle three or four strokes. that all connections between the blasting cap wires. so the handle is in the ready-to-fire position when freed from the D ring. Warning: Do not connect the blasting machine to the firing wire until all prefiring tests have been completed and a signal is received from the supervisor that the area has been cleared of all personnel and equipment.
Figure 32. and firing wire are properly made.
PREPARING A DETONATING CORD SYSTEM A detonating cord system (figure 33) consists of two or more branch lines of detonating cord primed to demolition charges that are connected to the ring main. To test either blasting machine for serviceability. The neon indicator lamp located within the plastic housing between the two terminals should glow briefly. make sure that all blasting caps are included in the firing circuit.
. connecting wires. M32/34 Blasting Machine.
Make the angle formed by the branch lines and the cap end (initiating point) of the ring main at least 90 degrees. Prime the charges. but not stretched taut.
There are four steps in assembling a detonating cord system: 1. If a nonelectric firing system is being used with more than one charge. Do not remove any part of the outer covering. Insure that branch lines and the ring main touch only at the connections when making branch line connections. At a smaller angle. 4. The initiation of the detonating cord is achieved by an electric or nonelectric blasting cap located above ground or above water. 23
. Handle with special care to avoid breaking the outside covering or the explosive train inside. Lay out lines as straight as possible. Lay the branch lines and connect them to the ring main. 2. A detonating cord system is used to initiate explosive charges as a component of an electric or nonelectric firing system. Lay the ring main. the precautions listed below must be followed strictly when using detonating cord: • • • • • • Avoid kinks and sharp bends. Attach the firing system. Detonating cord forms a spiral as it is unwound from the spool. Detonating Cord System. In addition to general safety requirements. 3. It must be straightened out carefully before firing to avoid a misfire. the detonating cord system is required to insure that the charges fire at the same time. the branch lines may blow off the ring main without detonating. Detonating cord is usable underground or underwater.MM2605
Cord. Cord. The M1 detonating cord clip (figure 34) is a steel device used to hold two strands of detonating cord together parallel or at right angles to each other. Discard it. Connections are made more quickly with these clips than with knots. place the main line (detonating cord on the ground) from the point of initiation (where either firing system will be attached) and pass it near each charge to be detonated. This will prevent misfires caused when exposed explosive absorbs moisture from the air. Overlap the free ends of the cords by 12 inches.
Figure 34. get another spool of cord and splice it to the ring main using one of the methods that follow. To lay the ring main.
. Bend the tongues over both ends firmly. Detonating. making sure the clips are separated by 6 inches (figure 35). Then. Take two detonating cord clips and place the overlapping ends of the detonating cords in the tongues. If you do not have enough detonating cord left on the spool to complete the ring main. Clip.MM2605 Step 1: Lay the Ring Main Use the cutting jaws of the M2 crimper to cut six inches from the free end of the detonating cord.
Figure 35. M1. M1. bring the main line back to the point of initiation in the form of a loop. Splice Using the Clip. Detonating. Cut and discard 6 inches from the ends of the detonating cords to be joined. The connection is made secure by bending the troughs back over the tongues. Splice Using Detonating Cord Clips.
either electric or nonelectric. at least six inches of detonating cord should be left free beyond the tie (figure 38).
Figure 36. If detonating cord connectors or clips are not available. Pass one free end of detonating cord through the connector from the slotted end.
Figure 37. 25
.MM2605 Splice Using the Connector. Detonating Cord. When a square knot is used. Insert it through the connector from the opposite end until it is all the way through and its free end extends at least six inches beyond the end of the connector (figure 37). Take the other detonating cord and bend its free end back parallel with the rest of the cord. Connector. leaving six inches of cord extending beyond the opposite end. Detonating Cord. to the detonating cord. the splice can be completed with a square knot. It may be used to connect detonating cords end to end or at right angles. The detonating cord connector (figure 36) is a cylinder made of either white or blue plastic molding material. Splice Using the Detonating Cord Connector. It may also be used to fasten a blasting cap. Splice Using a Knot.
Pass the free end of the branch line through the unslotted end of the connector. Splice Using a Square Knot. Pass the free end of the branch line through the trough of the M1 detonating cord clip so that the line extends six inches beyond the tongue. never connect at a point where the ring main has been spliced. Pull the branch line tight against the ring main. the connection can be made with a girth hitch with one extra turn (figure 41). Knot Method.
Step 2: Lay the Branch Lines and Connect Them to the Ring Main Lay the branch lines (detonating cord) from where the charges are located to the ring main. The free end of the girth hitch should be on the opposite side of the branch line from the initiating point on the ring main. Place the ring main in the detonating cord holes. Slide the ring main into the tongue of the clip. When making branch line connections to the ring main. The branch lines should be positioned so that the angle formed when they are connected to the ring main will be 90 degrees (a right angle). If detonating cord connectors or clips are not available. Leave enough line so that the charge can be primed and the connection made to the ring main. Detonating Cord Clip Method.MM2605
Figure 38. Connecting the branch lines to the ring main may be accomplished by any of the methods that follow.
. Secure the connection by bending the trough and the tongue of the clip against the cords (figure 39). Detonating Cord Connector Method. Wrap the branch line around the ring main and reinsert the free end back through the connector from the slotted end. At least six inches should be left free beyond the tie. making sure that the free end extends six inches beyond the end of the connector (figure 40).
Branch Line Connection Using the Detonating Cord Connector. 27
Figure 40. Branch Line Connection Using a Girth Hitch with One Extra Turn.MM2605
Figure 39. Branch Line Connection Using the M1 Detonating Cord Clip.
Noncapped Detonating Cord Priming. (The procedures for using capped detonating cord are the same as those used for capped time blasting fuse.)
Figure 42. Handling and inspecting nonelectric blasting caps and priming charges having a threaded cap well with or without a priming adapter have also been covered earlier in this subcourse.MM2605 Step 3: Prime the Charges The charges may be primed by a capped detonating cord (above-ground charges only) or by wrapping the charge directly with noncapped detonating cord using one of the three methods shown in figure 42 and described on page 29. 28
See figure 43. Place the blasting cap in the tongue of the clip. Then. Wrap the free end over the cord and around the charge three times. Place a loop of detonating cord on the charge and wrap detonating cord around the charge four times. Pass the free end (initiation point) of the detonating cord through the connector from the slotted end.
Figure 43. Draw the free end of the detonating cord through the loop and pull until tight. Lay detonating cord at an angle across the charge. Method 3. See figure 44. Secure by bending the trough over the tongue.MM2605 Method 1. slip the free end under the three wraps and parallel to the cord laid at an angle. At the fourth turn.
. and by a nonelectric blasting cap when a nonelectric firing system is used. Attaching a Blasting Cap to the Detonating Cord System Using an M1 Detonating Cord Clip. Tie the detonating cord securely around the charge using a clove hitch with two extra turns. Using the Detonating Cord Connector. Step 4: Attach the Firing System The detonating cord system is initiated by an electric blasting cap when an electric firing system is used. Using the M1 Detonating Cord Clip. Fit the cord snugly against the charge and push the loops close together. place the free end (initiation point) of the detonating cord system in the tongue beside the cap. This will secure the connection. The blasting cap of either firing system is attached to the detonating cord system at the initiation point using one of the methods described below and on page 30. Press down firmly on the tongue. Insert the blasting cap into the connector from the slotted end. bend the free end back parallel with the rest of the cord and pass it back through the connector to extend six inches beyond the end of the connector. Make sure the free end of the detonating cord extends six inches beyond the crimped or wire end of the blasting cap. Then. Method 2. Draw tight.
Make sure that the free end of the cord extends six inches beyond the tie. Bend the free end (initiation point) of the detonating cord back parallel with the rest of the cord and place the blasting cap on top of the two parts. See figure 45. Using Electrical or Friction Tape.MM2605
Figure 44. Attaching a Blasting Cap to the Detonating Cord System Using Tape. Attaching a Blasting Cap to the Detonating Cord System Using a Detonating Cord Connector. 30
. Secure the blasting cap by making several wraps around the two strands of cord and the blasting cap with electrical or friction tape.
5. Three feet. c. Behind the charge. priming adapter. 3. When a priming adapter is used with the nonelectric firing system. priming adapter. Place the cap in a solution of sodium sulfide and detonate it. Four feet. Fuse igniter. With the thumb and index finger of less-favored hand. Place the cap with the material to be detonated. time blasting fuse. b. Five feet. and electric blasting cap. b. What are the three components of the nonelectric firing system? a. d. Fuse igniter. and nonelectric blasting cap.MM2605 REVIEW EXERCISES Circle the letter of the correct answer to each question. Place the cap in water and burn it. b. and nonelectric blasting cap. With the thumb and index finger of favored hand. How should you dispose of the cap? a. 4. c. b. and electric blasting cap. d. d. c. c. in which direction should the threaded end be? a. 2. Toward the charge. d. d. how do you hold the time fuse? a. Fuse igniter. With the thumb and middle finger of less-favored hand. c. Detonate the cap immediately upon discovery of the foreign matter. You are inspecting a nonelectric blasting cap and you find foreign matter inside that will not come out. To the left of the charge. time blasting fuse. Fuse igniter. 31
. Seven feet. 1. When crimping a nonelectric blasting cap to time fuse. b. How many feet of time blasting fuse are required for timing the burn rate? a. With the thumb and middle finger of favored hand. Away from the charge.
Test set A/E 24T-80 and blasting galvanometer. What are the two testing instruments used in testing the electric firing system? a. 7. Blasting galvanometer and M51 blasting cap test set.
. b. A break in the firing wire. About three inches. b. Use tape to secure the blasting cap outside of the demolition block. b. Can any lot of M6 electric blasting caps be mixed in a firing circuit without fear of a misfire? a. How many inches of bare wire must be exposed on the ends of the electric blasting cap lead wires to make a splice? a. c. About five inches. Test set AN/TJM-1A and blasting galvanometer. c. About two inches. What is indicated if the indicator lamp does not flash when you are testing the firing wire for shorts using the M51 test set? a. c. What is the alternate method of priming a charge with an electric blasting cap without a priming adapter? a. 9. d. There are no shorts in the firing wire. No. Separated conductors. b. M8 to secure the blasting cap to the demolition block. Use tape to secure the blasting cap to the cap well to prevent blasting cap withdrawal. M1 to secure the blasting cap to the demolition block. c. Use the blasting cap holder. d. Use detonating cord clip. c. d. Yes. Blasting machine and dry-cell battery. Loose conductors. 10. 8. Maybe. b.MM2605
6. d. About four inches.
check your answers against the Exercise Solutions. you should retake the entire subcourse. d. Two half-hitches. c. A clove hitch. Flared end. A girth hitch with an extra turn. d. 12. When you are satisfied that you have answered every question to the best of your ability. c. What type of knot is used when making a branch line connection to the ring main in a detonating cord system? a. in which end of the connector is the blasting cap inserted? a. b. paying particular attention to the areas in which your answers were incorrect. When using the detonating cord connector to attach an electric or nonelectric firing system to the detonating cord system. b. Smaller end. Slotted end. If you missed four questions or more. Go back over the questions and recheck your answers.
11. A square knot. Open end.
a (see page 18) 9. a (see page 6) 5. a (see page 3) 3. a (see page 29)
. c (see page 16) 8. b (see page 8) 6. b (see page 1) 2. c (see page 14) 7.MM2605 EXERCISE SOLUTIONS
1. b (see page 10) 4. b (see page 19) 10. d (see page 26) 12. a (see page 20) 11.