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BEc LLB A Mus A (Piano Performing)
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INTERPRETING CÉSAR FRANCK’S ORGAN WORKS
Franck’s organ at Ste Clotilde The grand organ of Ste Clotilde was completed in 1859 shortly after the completion of the nineteenth century gothic basilica which houses it. César Franck was appointed as organist in late 1858, a position which he was to hold until his death. The organ was built by the great nineteenth century French romantic organ builder Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. It has been rebuilt twice, in 1933 and in 1962, when on each occasion it was modernised and extended. The Basilica of Ste Clotilde is in Paris in the Rue Lascas near the Ministry of War building, not far from the Rodin Museum and Les Invalides. In terms of size it might be described as a large church or a small cathedral. The basilica is neo-gothic in style, like St Mary’s Cathedral, Sydney, and is similar in size to St Andrew’s Cathedral, Sydney, but larger on account of its apse and side altars. The high vaulted ceiling is made of stone and there are a number of richly coloured stained glass windows. The basilica is dimly lit which is emphasised by the darkened interior stonework. As in most French cathedrals, the organ is at the back. There are two galleries, one for the choir and directly above, one for the organ. Access to the galleries and to the organ itself is gained by a stone spiral staircase, the entrance to which is outside the main doors at the back of the basilica. The organ pipes are set high above the galleries in a splendid position from the point of view of acoustics. There is a large rose window behind the pipes but the visual effect is lost as other buildings prevent direct sunlight from entering. The organ case is of dark carved wood in neo-gothic style. The whole effect is severe yet strikingly impressive. Cavaillé-Coll is known to have carefully studied the acoustics of the church as the organ was being built and to have planned it accordingly. The organ is well harmonised and has an extremely beautiful sound. The console is in the same position as it was in Franck’s time. It is not detached any distance from the pipework and, when playing, the organist faces the sanctuary and the three stained glass windows above it. By modern-day standard the Ste Clotilde organ of Franck’s time was not large, although by the standards of 1859 it was, having 46 speaking stops. It had a 32 ft stop on the pedal and a 16 ft on the choir, neither of which was common on Cavaillé-Coll organs of the period. By 1859 Cavaillé-Coll had been building organs for over twenty years and this was his best achievement to that time. Technical and tonal advances were then being made in organ building. While by modern-day standards the registration aids on the Ste Clotilde organ of Franck’s time might seem rather rudimentary they then represented very important advances. Franck was one of the first composers for the organ to indicate precise registrations and in this he was greatly influenced by the possibilities of the Cavaillé-Coll organs and that of Ste Clotilde in particular. The Ste Clotilde organ of Franck’s time was typical of Cavaillé-Coll organs. It had three manuals. The great was nearest the player, the choir was in the middle, and the swell was
It is interesting to note that the pedal reeds are indicated or implied in only six out of Franck’s twelve major works for the organ. trumpet 8ft. Some other Cavaillé-Coll organs of the time had even fewer swell stops. The vox humana is indicated. in 4 . The question arises as to whether mixtures should be used with reeds in Franck’s music. gamba and bourdon and the reeds on the swell were the oboe 8ft. despite the fact that Franck never marked the word ‘mixtures’ in any of his works. There was no swell to great coupler but with both available couplers in operation one could obtain a coupling of both the swell and choir to the great. had no mixtures. The pedal reeds were especially notable in this regard. yet penetrating quality. however. The mixtures were on the reed ventil chest and it is considered authentic performing practice in playing Franck’s music to use deep mixture(s) with reeds. On Franck’s organ there were two pedal couplers: one coupled the choir to the pedals and the other the great to the pedals. with tremulant. for example. The pedals and each of the manuals had foundation stops such as bourdons. as in parts of the Chorale no. having a mysterious golden. and then coupling the choir to the great. The swell trumpet was particularly famous. fourteen in each case. The pedals and each manual had a trumpet. and then only in certain passages. It was not like an English trumpet but was more like an oboe. The swell oboe was on the main windchest. However. and mixtures. The swell oboe was a reed but was treated as a foundation stop. in each case progressively adding reeds to each manual. which may account for the fact that the bass line of the swell sometimes duplicates the pedal. The swell. The great and the choir had similar stops. both manuals were effectively coupled to the Pedals. Franck never indicated the swell foundation stops on their own. gambas and flutes. 2 in B minor. Except for one short passage in the Fantaisie in A major. coupling the swell to the choir. reeds such as oboes and trumpets.farthest away. and clarion 4ft. The swell had two stops for special occasions: the vox humana and the vox coelestis. Pedal coupling was important when the pedal reeds were not being used as there was only one 16ft foundation stop on the pedals. The 32ft foundation (contre basse) on the pedals is similarly a special effect only rarely marked. There was no swell to pedal coupler. The reeds on Franck’s organ were splendid and imparted great colour and fire to the ensemble. There was a swell to choir coupler and a choir to great coupler. and a similar total dynamic level. The 8ft foundation stops on the swell were the flute. when the swell was coupled to the choir and the choir was coupled to the pedals. Both pedal reeds and the 32ft foundation are probably implied by Franck’s marking ‘grand choeur’. On the very soft swell the foundations were not loud or penetrating enough and Franck always indicated that the oboe was to be used (except with the vox humana). There were no mixtures on the swell division of Franck’s organ. so that they create a special effect. having only ten stops. The usual procedure was that the dynamic level was built up from the swell. being more like a gamba. The swell was smaller. The use of foundation stops with mixtures but without reeds is inadmissible in Franck’s music. in several of Franck’s organ works.
This explains the marking at the commencement of a number of Franck’s organ works ‘reeds prepared’. assisted by the Barker lever. however. however. There were two separate windchests on each manual and on the pedals. these not having been invented at that time. It was. One was for the foundation stops and one was for the reeds. There were. The vox humana has a plaintive quality quite unlike the coarse quality of the stop of the same name on many English organs. without disrupting the hands or the foot operating the pedal notes. Franck’s organ had tracker action. The Barker lever gave each note a kind of double action. On Franck’s organ all the speaking stops were ranged in terraces to the left and right of the manuals. which made quite a clatter in staccato passages such as those in the Pastorale. The manual couplers. This could easily take place while the music was in progress. This pneumatically operated lever was of great assistance when the couplers were being used because the coupled notes actually came down and the action would otherwise have been very heavy. The indication to add or subtract the swell trumpet to or from the swell foundations stops and oboe while the music is in progress appears in a number of places in Franck’s organ works and this was easily achieved by the ventil lever. 2 in B minor. Addition and subtraction of reeds and couplers by means of the foot levers described was easy. at the precise moment required for the reeds to be added. that were required but these did not sound at that stage. Other types of registration changes in the course of a piece are indicated by Franck. Franck’s directions to add the 16ft on the great and on the choir for short periods while the music is in progress could perhaps be satisfied by the use of a coupler. The remaining two levers operated the swell box and the swell tremulant. Electric actions were coming in towards the end of his long life but Cavaillé-Coll never used them. They could be released by a similar sideways movement and on release the lever returned to its original position. Franck did not use a registration assistant. and any mixtures. and the pedal couplers were operated in this way. All Cavaillé-Coll organs had an oboe. that is swell to choir and choir to great. but his music is quite often written so as to 5 . They were pushed in and pulled out by hand. vox humana and vox coelestis on the swell. as were the four ventil levers. twelve footoperated levers. At the commencement of a work the organist pulled out the foundation stops that he or she wanted. The mixtures in each case were on the reed windchest. The organist then selected and pulled out the reeds. that is. The system of ventils worked this way. for the great. It is called for in the Grande Pièce Symphonique. respectively. These could be pushed downwards and locked by a sideways movement. There were no finger pistons or toe studs.the two Fantaisies and in Choral no. trumpet. Cavaillé-Coll used the Barker lever in all but his earliest organs. and for the swell to choir (16ft). The vox coelestis had a rather touching gamba-like quality obtained by tuning an extra rank slightly sharp. the actual drawing of one or more 16ft stops being cumbersome on his instrument without a registration assistant. There were levers for sub-octave couplers for the choir. the organist pressed the particular ventil lever or levers required and the reeds selected began to sound. Then. a direct mechanical action.
The console. In view of his expression indications while the pedal notes are playing. This might at times have meant that Franck had some gaps in his pedal legato. During that rebuild the action was electrified and further hitch-down couplers were added. Bearing in mind its location. When one played on the choir with the swell to choir coupler on.facilitate this. of course. became the organist at Ste Clotilde. another Franck pupil. The above problems are. and when one played on the great with both the swell to choir coupler and the choir to great coupler on. expression from the swell box could be obtained on the choir and great as well as on the swell. it seems that Franck may at times have done more pedalling with the left foot only than is nowadays customary as the swell pedal is located in the middle of the console of most modern organs. In Tournemire’s time the organ console was beginning to show signs of strain. which had been bequeathed by Franck to Tournemire. The swell box was controlled by a foot-operated lever located at the extreme right of the console. The number of notes on each manual was increased at the 6 . Fugue et Variation may. been easier to play with the old-style swell lever in view of the high pitch of many of the pedal notes. Fugue et Variation on the Ste Clotilde organ it may have been necessary to use an assistant to add or subtract the extra 4ft or 8ft pedal stop required while the music is in progress as both hands are fully occupied on different manuals at this point. was replaced in 1933 and came into the possession of Flor Peeters. In the Pièce Héroïque the addition of four foundation stops in the section leading back to the recapitulation would have been difficult without an assistant. The box could be completely closed suddenly. The present organ at Ste Clotilde On Franck’s death in 1890. in 1898. On most Cavaillé-Coll organs only the swell was enclosed and the pipes were enclosed in a box covered by a horizontal mechanism like a venetian blind. It was possible. Franck’s swell lever could only be operated by the right foot. On Franck’s organ there were only ten stops on the swell and the swell box was very effective. of course. Gabriel Pierné. He was replaced by Charles Tournemire. an effect used in the chorale theme of the Choral no. His Prélude. When the swell box was closed the swell sound almost vanished and became most mysterious in quality. This type of expression was often expressed by Franck in his works. When playing the Prélude. however. a Franck pupil. easily overcome on modern organs with pistons. A markedly expressive swell could be achieved on fully opening the swell box. 3 in A minor and in other places. however to use a ventil lever to add a 4ft foundation stop. In addition. Tournemire held the position until his death in 1939 when his pupil Jean Langlais took over as organist until he retired in 1987. A rallentando in the cadence before a change prepared the listener for the silence necessitated by the change of stops. sforzandos on single notes could be easily achieved by quickly pushing the lever down and up. The choir was not enclosed. The lever had certain advantages over the modern swell pedals. This lever could be hitched down into one of two slots. was the great. nor.
treble end from 54 to 61 and the number of pedal notes was increased from 27 to 32. None of the original Cavaillé-Coll stops was altered. The number of stops on the great and on the choir was increased from 14 to 15 in each case, the number of stops on the swell from 10 to 16, and the number of pedal stops from 8 to 10. A 16ft was added to the swell as well as mixtures. The increase in the number of swell pipes and consequent rebuild of the swell box impaired the expressive range of the swell division. In 1962 the organ was again rebuilt. The hitch-down pedals were removed and replaced by a comprehensive set of toe studs and thumb pistons permitting further specific and general combinations. The swell lever was replaced by a modern swell pedal, and a crescendo pedal was installed. The number of swell stops was increased from 16 to 18, and the number of pedal stops from 10 to 12. The lack of a swell to great coupler and a swell to pedal coupler had been remedied in Tournemire’s time by Mutin. It is still possible to hear the organ almost exactly as Franck did, although it has been suggested that the reeds in the organ at Ste Clotilde and at other churches were revoiced in the early 1900s. I hope that one day the organ will be restored to its original condition. During Mass on the evening of my arrival in Paris in 1980 I heard Langlais’ assistant Pièrre Cogin, play, in segments Franck’s Prélude, Fugue et Variation and produce the same exquisite sounds Franck himself heard. Dynamics and expression Franck tends not to indicate absolute dynamic levels in terms of ‘piano’ and ‘forte’ because the various terrace levels required are sufficiently marked by indications for the stops and for the addition and subtraction of the reeds and the manual and pedal couplers. Sometimes his dynamic markings reinforce these. In his Cantabile, for example, the uncoupled choir is marked ‘piano’ and this can only be a confirmation of the dynamic level that the flute and the bourdon in fact create. Franck often indicates the use of expression by means of changes in relative levels ranging from a fully closed to a fully open swell box. When one is playing on the swell, or on the choir with swell coupled: ‘pianissimo’ indicates that the box is fully closed; ‘piano’ indicates that the box is partly open; ‘mezzo forte’ indicates that it is half-open; and ‘forte’ indicates that is fully-open. ‘Fortissimo’ never appears for the swell and rarely for the choir when the swell is coupled to it. When one is playing on the great with both the swell to choir coupler and the choir to great coupler on, ‘fortissimo, or sometimes ‘forte’ indicates that the swell box is fully open and ‘piano’ indicates that is fully closed. In the Cantabile, at the point where the swell to choir coupler is added, the organist’s right hand is on the choir and the absolute dynamic level increases substantially, despite the fact that the dynamic marking at this point is ‘pianissimo’ and hence the swell box is closed. Over the next four bars the dynamic level is marked as increasing to ‘forte’, which is achieved by opening the swell box to its fullest extent. In addition, the dynamic level of the pedal suddenly increases at the ‘pianissimo’ marking because the foundation stops, oboe and trumpet of the swell division become coupled to the pedal by virtue of the swell to choir
which are not comprehensively marked. where slurs are absent. a moderate increase in volume achieved by pushing the swell lever down one or two slots. This interpretational tying is the case 8 . with one foot. of course. Legato applies also to inner parts and to the pedal. or course. ‘Cresc’ in Franck’s organ works does not mean an extended crescendo but usually meant. The legato style extends so that in many cases two consecutive notes of the same pitch. and the decrease in volume will only be slight on the ‘dim’ and the swell box will be suddenly further closed just before the ‘piano’. It can be used to good effect in the opening pages of Choral no. The requirement as to legato presents problems even to an organist with a wide stretch. In the main subject of the Pastorale. the unusual but helpful fingering occasionally supplied by the composer makes it clear that a legato style is required. as in the main subject of the Pièce Héroïque and in the middle section of the Pastorale.coupler. or even a fourth. The opening bar of Choral no. There are many examples throughout Franck’s works but particularly in his Chorals nos. although slurs are rarely marked for either. and later by a ‘piano’. is also indicated by rests. In many cases the music can speak for itself without the use of the swell box. ‘Più forte’ and ‘poco rinf’ indicate a small increase in dynamic level achieved as above. a staccato touch must. 1 to enhance the melodic rise and fall and to taper off the ends of phrases. On the original Franck organ when the swell box was closed the reeds hardly sounded so there was a crescendo from a real pianissimo. especially of the pedal notes. In the Cantabile there are places where three notes of the same pitch are to be tied. which is added at this point. There are times. 1 and the chorale theme of Choral no. on his organ. and the existing choir to pedal coupler. because of the ‘lie’ of the notes under the hand. not indicated in the score as tied. be employed. the ‘piano’ is usually sudden. Legato necessitates a great deal of finger changing on notes and consecutive thumb legato. ‘Dim’ had an equivalent meaning. where an extended crescendo is required but these are usually indicated by appropriate words or by a ‘hairpin’. The slurs are sometimes used to emphasise that a legato touch must be employed throughout a particular group of notes where. 3 contain examples of this. One question which arises is whether the swell pedal may be used in Franck’s works in addition to the places so marked by the composer. He also had large feet and may have pedalled intervals of a third. Where there is ‘forte’ followed by a ‘dim’. are in fact tied. Touch and duration The basic touch to be employed in the performance of Franck’s organ music is legato. His slurs. 1 and 3. The use of the swell pedal during legato pedalling often necessitates changes from one foot to the other on the one pedal note. Where staccato dots are specifically marked. This is the rule where the second note is in a different part. alto to soprano. presumably with intervening notes. indicate phrasing as well as legato. and this must be a full and complete legato especially in cantabile passages. Detachment. for example. it would be tempting to introduce breaks. an interval of an eleventh. Franck himself had large hands and is said to have been able to stretch. The above remarks apply to other combinations of relative dynamics.
Phrasing On the organ the most important method of marking the end of a phrase is to shorten the last note. as in the opening subject of the Prière. the instrument and the acoustics of the building. in the final page of the Pièce Héroïque. Identical repeated chords are played staccato. The same applies to consecutive notes in the bass and pedal notes. but where there are two consecutive notes of the same pitch in the soprano. depending on the context. in bar 3 of the Cantabile. or where the pause is over the last chord of a work. A short pause may be implied in other places also. for example. it can be much longer in duration. in the first full organ sections of choral no. such as at the end of the exposition of the Prière and at the end of certain of the opening themes of Choral no. Franck’s separate metronome markings were discovered in the late 1990s and my article ‘César Franck’s Metronome Markings for his Organ Works’ deals with some of the issues raised by their discovery and subsequent discussion in the literature. the first note is always detached and the second note is sounded again. If there is no rest indicated as following the pause. When Franck uses the word ‘long’ in addition to the pause mark. The rule may extend further to the tying or repeated notes in chords where there is no change in the parts. in the middle section of the Pièce Héroïque. Marcel Dupré deleted Franck’s pause marks in his edition and substituted for them a comma indicating a shortening of the note under the pause mark followed by a rest of equivalent value. for example. as in the Final. at the end of the Cantabile. Where phrasing is indicated by a rest then the rest is observed and there is no shortening of the last note or chord before the rest. 1. Franck did not comprehensively indicate phrasing in his organ works. In a quiet flute melody the detachment might be slight but where the melody is on the swell trumpet the detachment might be up to one-half of the written value of the last note under the slur. A metric pause between phrases is also used. and often for sections of them. 1. for example. Where phrasing is indicated by a slur then usually the last note under the slur is detached. the instrument and the acoustics of the building. but did not indicate metronome markings in his autograph manuscripts or original editions. Tempo Franck indicated tempo indications for all his organ works. and is usually the case where the second note is in a lower part. Pause marks often appear in Franck’s organ works. Otherwise a distinct gap in the melody would be heard by the listener. for example. The rule is designed to promote a legato sound. A long pause is often implied at the end of a work.where the second note is in a higher part. for example. The normal practice of Jean Langlais was to treat the pause as adding one beat only to the note over which the pause occurs. especially if the two notes of the same pitch are alto followed by soprano. The precise degree of detachment depends in each case on the context. A particular tempo 9 . then a rest of suitable length can be inserted to permit the reverberation to die away before continuing. to a greater or lesser degree. A staccato touch may be employed when chords with common notes in them are strongly rhythmic in nature.
depends to some extent on the instrument in question, the acoustics of the building, the performer’s musical taste and conception of the work, and his or her technical skill. Franck sometimes used the expression ‘quasi’ [almost] as in ‘quasi allegro’ in the opening of his Choral no. 3, and others such as ‘non troppo’ modifying, by slowing down, an indicated tempo. Moderate tempos often suit the chromatic and contrapuntal richness of Franck’s organ music but the performer must also avoid dragging his music. Franck did not always include all necessary tempo indications. The middle section of the Pièce Héroïque, for example, should be somewhat slower than the exposition. The original tempo would then apply to the return of the opening theme. ‘Rallentando’ and ‘ritenuto’ mean ‘becoming slower’ and ‘being slower’, respectively. Franck seems to have used these terms interchangeably, although at times he seems to have drawn a distinction between the two. Franck usually omitted notating the subsequent ‘a tempo’ but it is implied. Style Franck is known to have played his own organ works very freely. We have this tradition from Jean Langlais through Franck’s pupils Charles Tournemire, Albert Mahaut and Adolphe Marty. Some means of achieving this stylistic freedom are: rubato, involving the hastening and slowing down of phrases; lengthening of a dotted note when it is followed by a shorter note; and lengthening the first note of a two-note interval especially when the interval is falling one. Marcel Dupré, who studied all Franck’s organ works with Alexandre Guilmant in 1908, and received the Franck tradition through that source. Guilmant was a musical colleague and friend of Franck’s and is known to have played Franck’s organ works in his presence. Guilmant must also have often heard Franck himself play his own organ works. Dupré stated that he subsequently confirmed the tradition with Gabriel Pierné in 1917. Dupré partly corroborated the freedom with which Franck himself played his own organ works in the following extract from his preface to his edition published by Bornemann: ‘As an organ virtuoso, he played ... as they played in France at that time, with approximate legato and approximate observance of note values.’ Editions Franck wrote a number of works for harmonium, some minor organ works, and some works for organ in combination with other instruments but his major organ works consist of twelve pieces: Six Pièces: Fantaisie in C major, Grande Pièce Symphonique, Prélude Fugue et Variation, Pastorale, Prière, Final. Trois Pièces: Fantaisie in A major, Cantabile, Pièce Héroïque. Trois Chorals: Choral no. 1 in E major, Choral no. 2 in B minor, Choral no. 3 in A minor.
second edition is available and has been reprinted in the USA by Kalmus. but generally does not tamper with the text. The addition of slurs so that there are sometimes three over any one group of notes is sometimes confusing and tiring to the eye and ultimately helpful. in a series of three recitals in September 1979. alters crescendo and diminuendo markings and otherwise alters the original text. Dupré alters Franck’s registration indications. The evidence of this is in the Braille edition which was approved by Franck. The Bornemann edition by Marcel Dupré is perhaps the best known. The registration of the Chorals was indicated by Vincent d’Indy though Franck did some preliminary work on them. He studied Franck’s twelve major organ works with Maïtre Langlais in Paris and performed them at St Andrew’s Cathedral. Langlais uses the (soft) 32ft where marked. There are many errors even in the ürtexts although not so many in the Chorals. There is now. ‘Anches’ (reeds) implied that some mixtures would be included (but not too shrill). is the only edition known to have been corrected by Franck in his lifetime. a copy of which is owned by Langlais. The Peters edition edited by Otto Barblan is ‘edited’ by addition of many more slurs and some extra registration indications in German. This continues up to and including the seventh bar on page 13 when the right hand joins the left hand on the choir. Some of the autographs have subsequently been made available to the public. Alan Moffat Shortly after I met Sydney organist Alan Moffat I had a conversation with him on Saturday 26 April 1980 and the following are some notes I made at the time. The references are to the second Durand edition. from the last crotchet in the right hand. This give assistance with the fingering and additional interpretational ties to be made to repeated notes. In the eighth bar on page 12 of the first Choral. There was no 16ft on the swell of the organ at Ste Clotilde in Franck’s day. deletes pause marks. There are a number of ‘edited’ or ‘study’ editions. Unfortunately. The manual to pedal couplers were from the great and the choir only (not the swell). Alan Moffat kindly facilitated my introduction to Jean Langlais and was a source of information. The Braille edition of Franck’s organ works. It contains a number of misprints. guidance and inspiration to me. Jean Langlais states that he and two others are the only persons who know where these autographs are. Langlais claims the authentic tradition for Franck and plays him very expressively (he pulls the melodies about a fair bit). consisting of three of the first and second and one of the third. The manuscripts of Trois Chorals have recently been found. the right hand is on the great (it does not continue on the choir). Franck did not use 11 . Sydney.The ürtext Durand & Co. It is known that the registration indications in the autographs of the Chorals are in Vincent d’Indy’s handwriting as may be some of the expression marks. Misprints can be corrected from this source. Autograph manuscripts of the Trois Chorals. were recently discovered. Langlais would not say where they are.
Combination pistons have also been added. My lesson was on Franck’s Choral no. and in all similar places. Paris. The second was at his apartment/studio at 26 Rue Duroc. on Monday 9 June 1980. In the fourth last bar make the pianissimo noticeable. Maître Langlais changed the stops. Play rit at the end of bar 7 on page 3 of the ürtext. There were small foot levers one pushed down and sideways to lock. Paris. In page 6 bars 3 and 5 don’t detach the right hand too soon. Do not hold the legato semiquavers past their written values. Don’t play the chorale melody too slowly. Make a rit in the last three bars of page 3. Besides big hands he had big feet. as it is common. The E in the melody of the first bar is tied to the E in the alto. One should break between phrases: sometimes only in the soprano and sometimes in both hands. In pages 4 and 5 detach the hand playing the trompette at the end of each marked phrase. The ventil levers have been replaced by foot and thumb pistons. the pedal. The reeds desired could be selected and they did not sound until the ventil lever was pressed (hence the ‘Anches préparées indications in Franck’s organ works. The first lesson was at the console of the Cavaillé-Coll organ of the Basilica of Ste Clotilde. References are to the second Durand edition. There were no hand couplers. Taper off and rit at the end of phrases. then accel. On his organ there were no finger pistons. but not the other hand or the pedal. Page 9 bar 3 linger 12 . In page 7 there is no 16ft for the swell. the next day. The organ has had a number of stops added and the console has been replaced but it is still basically the same. The pause sign in the last bar means add one crotchet beat and wait until the reverberation has died away. Jean Langlais I received two lessons from Jean Langlais and the following are some notes I made at the time. The quaver rest at the beginning should be lengthened to emphasise that the melody starts on G sharp. 1 in E major.a registration assistant. First lesson: Choral no. It is a very beautiful organ. For expression use the swell pedal. then about $A80. 1 in E major I met Maître Langlais at 1:50 pm at his apartment and we proceeded by train and on foot to Ste Clotilde. In Pièce Héroïque. in when the melody rises and out when it falls. In bar 4 on page 3 lengthen and underline the harmonic change. Page 9 bar 1 not too slow. His fee was 300 francs per one hour lesson. then rit. Only use staccato when he writes it. Three people at the Blind Institute who were in Franck’s class have independently told Langlais that Franck played his own works very freely. the pedal is played with the left foot: the right foot is used to operate the foot lever to couple the choir to the great. When there is a dotted note and a shorter note lengthen the dotted note. Page 8 no couplers. Page 7 ‘con fantasia’ means slow. The legato style is the style for Franck. at page 6 bar 17. In bar 3 of page 4 linger on the C sharp. By means of ventil levers Franck was able to change stops easily. It is not shown as tied in the ürtexts. In bar 7 of line 2 it is obvious that the tirasses must come off here. In bars 5 and 6 detach the F sharp and G sharp. The organ at Ste Clotilde has been rebuilt twice but none of the original Cavaillé-Coll stops has been touched. although it is not marked.
In page 16 bar 10 detach the first chord both hands. The show pipes are impressive but are not ornamented in any way. The trompette stop has a mystical. The reeds are splendid and the full organ with reeds is very loud but not muddy. thumb and finger pistons. near the console on the organist’s right and another picture of an unascertained person on the left hand side. Page 9 bars 8 and 9 rall but not too much. also bar 7 of page 17. Page 17 last three bars rall. There was no swell to great coupler on the Ste Clotilde organ in Franck’s time. Maïtre Langlais said the organ was a little out of tune today owing to the recent hot and cold changes in the weather. Only three people in France (one being Langlais) know where the autographs of the three Chorals are. the soft accompanying flutes. 3 in A minor 13 . Page 15 right down to bar 3 and the last chord of page 15 do not detach. It is the same staircase that Franck used for thirtyone years and is similar to the one in the Great Hall of the University of Sydney. The dedications in the printed copies are wrong. He was previously a widower. In page 12 bar 8 I made the correction GO and in page 13 bar 8 the correction Pos. The acoustics are reverberant. Franck was very ill when he wrote the third. Maître Langlais did not say that this was wrong. His wife is a lawyer and an organist and they have a baby daughter. Langlais uses it now. When the swell to choir and choir to great were coupled one could get expression on the great. As there was some time left over after going through the First Choral I played some of the beginning again. Maïtre Langlais is seventy-three years of age. The manuscripts are in Franck’s hand. is partially sighted and is very kindly. There are three of the first. soft sound. Before leaving Ste Clotilde I made an appointment for 3:00 pm the following day at Maïtre Langlais’ apartment for a lesson on his two manual home organ to work on the Pièce Héroïque and the Third Choral. The church is actually a basilica. golden. Langlais describes Dupré’s edition as an ‘assassination’. speaks excellent English. Page 9 bars 10 to 13 don’t shorten the pedal notes. three of the second and one of the third. The registrations are written in but not by Franck. The present console has numerous foot. It blends with. It is very beautiful inside with rich stained glass windows. My impressions of Ste Clotilde and its organ and of Maïtre Langlais are as follows. The Edition Durand ürtext is the best. Second lesson: Pièce Héroïque and Choral no. The choir loft is reached by a spiral staircase of stone with a metal rail. wears a black beret and sunglasses. He followed my playing on his bound volume containing the Braille version of the First Choral. One then goes through a round open area then into the loft and to the organ. It is in the same position as the original console and faces the tabernacle. the celebrated one by Mme Rongier. There are no dedications. and at the same time cuts through. Franck indicates hautbois with trompette on the swell manual as otherwise it is too soft.on the second-last semiquaver. Page 16 play the chorale melody legato. There is a picture of Franck at the organ.
Pièce Héroïque Bar 1 pause on the first quaver; last quaver of second bar don’t shorten. Detach last note of phrases indicated by slurs. Page 21 third-last bar can slow down; second last and last bars make melody legato. Page 22 bar 2 semiquavers in left hand are to be played after the third note of the right-hand triplet. Page 23 left hand, and left hand elsewhere, should be clear and not over legato. Page 24 middle section a little slower; tirasses off although not so marked. At sixth-last bar of page 24 don’t tie the D in the soprano. Page 25 first bar detach the minim but not too short. Page 25 bar 9 watch the sixth note left hand. Page 25 third-last bar ‘tous les fonds du GO’ includes 16ft stops. Page 25 last line first three bars slow down. Page 25 fourth-last bar same tempo as opening. Page 26 first bar last quavers of right hand not staccato. Page 28 don’t lengthen the pedal quavers. Page 28 slow down before the Più lento and last chord not too short. Più lento is already full organ; no further stops; hands, but not pedal, to play staccato. Page 29 bars 6 and 9 pedal note is staccato. Sixth last bar detach the minim. Choral no. 3 in A minor Page 33 last bar pause on D. Page 33 and following observe quavers in bass exactly as to length. Page 35 chorale melody do not repeat C or E in third last bar as they are common. Page 36 bar 1 and similar don’t hurry quavers. Page 36 bar 10 lengthen minim in soprano. Page 37 bar 8 chorale don’t repeat G or B. Page 38 bars 9 & 10 lengthen F in right hand. Page 38 bar 13 do not repeat A in soprano as it is submerged by the semibreve. Page 39 bar 5 don’t lengthen semiquavers in middle section, no couplers. Page 40 second-last bar not too slow. Page 41 bar (?) lengthen A here and in similar places. Page 42 bar 2 do not rit. Page 44 bar 5 chords are staccato. Page 47 bar 6 quavers don’t slow down except a little. Page 49 bar 3 slow down. Last chord Franck added 16ft, one could add C sharp in left hand. ‘Anches’ includes mixtures. Play 32ft when ‘grand choeur’ is marke. Don’t play 4ft unless marked. [this is controversial]. As to Maïtre Langlais’ organ works: play as written; modal; follow registrations if possible. In studying Langlais’ works start on number 2 of Poème Évangélique, Te Deum, Esquisse, ... from Mosaics, Cinq Méditations sur l’Apocalypse. Buy score from Editions Bornemann 15 Rue de Tournon, near Ste Sulpice. Points for further discussion Sonority of reeds The reeds at Ste Clotilde, and on other Cavaille-Coll instruments, are said to have been revoiced in the early 1900s. Their sound in Franck’s time was described by André Marchal to Marie-Claire Alain as ‘soft’. This may affect the way we should think today about Franck’s organ sonority. Eight foot reeds Franck’s indication ‘8 ft reeds’ excluded 16ft reeds, of course, but probably included 4ft reeds, and also other stops which although on the reed ventil are not reeds (such as 4ft and 2ft foundations, mutations and mixtures). The swell division at Ste Clotilde had no mutations or mixtures but did include a 4ft reed, and 4ft and 2ft foundations, all of which were on the reed
Dupré wrote that Franck played ‘with approximate legato and approximate observance of note values’. their names being ringed in red. so far as we know. He was a friend of Franck’s from the early 1860s and often heard him play his organ works. Organists and the Franck tradition Alexandre Guilmant (1837-1911) was organist at La Trinité. It also accords with general considerations of acoustic and tonal balance and nineteenth century practice. so we do not know from that source how he played. however. Cantabile and Pastorale. as to whether playing in that style nowadays constitutes authenticity or merely an artificially revived antiquarianism. Tournemire played freely in his own recordings of Franck’s Third Choral. Franck himself did not survive into the recording age. Stylistic freedom (tempo rubato) How freely did Franck really play his own organ works? Franck’s last pupil Charles Tournemire heard Franck play them and maintained in his writings and to his own pupil Jean Langlais that Franck played them very freely. orchestral and chamber music and is regarded as one of the great nineteenth century romantic composers. Reproducing piano roll recordings and disc recordings from the early 1900s show that arpeggiata. It has been suggested that Franck arpeggiated block chords in the playing of his own organ works. and their drawknobs would have been pushed in at the start of the Adagio. This is consistent with Franck’s registration indications. This is not as extraordinary as it might seem. Langlais had played it quite strictly. Guilmant regularly included 15 . Aristide Cavaillé-Coll (1811-1899) was the great French romantic organ builder of the nineteenth century. He composed music for organ as well as piano. melody-delaying and melody anticipation were common among the celebrated piano virtuosos of that time and earlier. If Franck did play as freely as suggested the question does arise. made some years earlier. Guilmant did not leave any recorded legacy. This may have been by way of contrast to the way in which Dupré himself played Franck’s organ works which we know from his recordings employed absolute legato and were played rather metronomically.ventil. Langlais played freely in his own recording of Franck’s twelve major organ works although in his recording. These latter stops would have been added and activated at the start of the Third Choral and thus were present on the swell for the chorale theme. César Franck and Aristide Cavaillé-Coll César Franck (1822-1890) was organist at Ste Clotilde from 1858 until his death in 1890 and was also professor of organ at the Conservatoire. Charles Tournemire was his last and most distinguished pupil. as the drawknobs for all the stops on the reed ventil were on the right-hand side of the console. The above comment accords with the logic of the layout of the stops. of Franck’s Grande Pièce Symphonique on its own. Marcel Dupré was too young to have heard Franck play but he studied all Franck’s organ works with Alexandre Guilmant who had heard Franck play them.
Dupré also recorded them. He won first prize in Alexandre Guilmant’s organ class at the Conservatoire in 1906. He told his pupil Jean Langlais that Franck played his organ works ‘very freely’. Marcel Dupré (1886-1971) was organist at Ste Sulpice. Paris 1931) in which he discussed Franck’s organ works. before the first rebuild of the organ in 1933. Langlais had also recorded Franck’s Grande Pièce Symphonique some years earlier. 1. Marchal won the Grand Prix du Disque in 1959 for his recording of Franck’s twelve major organ works at Saint-Eustache in 1958. He was Franck’s last and most distinguished pupil and was also a composer. He recorded Franck’s Choral no. 3. 16 . Cantabile and Pastorale at Ste Clotilde in 1930/1931. Joseph Bonnet (1884-1944) was organist as Ste Eustache and later at the Conservatoire. He wrote a book ‘Cesar Franck’ (Delagrave. He studied Franck’s twelve major organ works with Alexandre Guilmant. Jean Langlais (1907-1991) was a pupil of Franck pupil Charles Tournemire and succeeded him as the organist at Ste Clotilde. after the second rebuild of the organ in 1962. Marcel Dupré studied Franck’s twelve major organ works with Guilmant.Franck’s organ works on his recital programs. He was professor of harmony at the National Institute for Blind Youths from 1889 to 1924 and gave concerts well into his seventies. He was also a pupil of Franck’s pupils Albert Mahaut and Adolphe Marty. Gabriel Pierné (1863-1937) succeeded Franck as organist at Ste Clotilde on Franck’s death in 1890 but left in 1898 to pursue conducting and composition. Langlais told me this. He was a pupil of Eugène Gigout (1844-1925) dedicatee of Franck’s Choral no. Langlais recorded Franck’s twelve major organ works at Ste Clotilde in 1963. Langlais told me this. Albert Mahaut (1867-1943) was described by César Franck as ‘the perfect student’. Adolphe Marty (1865-1942) was Franck’s first pupil from the Institute for Blind Youths to win first prize in organ at the Conservatoire (1886) and was organist at Saint-François-Xavier for fifty years until his death. He told his pupil Jean Langlais that Franck played his organ works ‘very freely’. In 1955 Bornemann of Paris issued Dupré’s edition of Franck’s twelve major organ works. He played Franck’s Prière at his final examinations and was the first organist to play an allFranck recital (at the Trocadéro on 28 April 1898). He spoke about the Franck tradition to Marcel Dupré. André Marchal (1894-1980) was organist at Saint Eustache. one year before Marcel Dupré. Gabriel Pierné spoke to him about the Franck tradition. Bonnet had been Tournemire’s assistant at Ste Clotilde during his student days and was a lifelong friend and colleague of Louis Vierne (1870-1937) organist at Notre Dame. Charles Tournemire (1870-1939) succeeded Gabriel Pierné as organist at Ste Clotilde in 1898 and remained there until his death in 1939.
reeds including 16ft. couplers and 32ft pedal montre: a principal-like stop 8ft or 16ft hautbois: oboe 8ft trompette: trumpet 8ft clairon: 4ft trumpet 17 .French organ music terms The following is a list of some of the more important French terms found in Franck’s organ works with a translation or explanation of each: l’orgue. les orgues: organ grand orgue (GO): Great positif (P or Pos): Choir récit (expressif) (R or Recit): swell jeu: stop jeux doux: soft stops fonds: foundation stops anches: reeds 8 pieds: 8 foot anches préparés: reeds prepared accouplez: couple dèsaccouplez: uncouple séparés: uncoupled tirasses: pedal couplers ajoutez: add mettez: draw remettez: draw again ôtez: push in des 8ves graves: sub-octave coupler grand choeur: all foundations.
That article was in turn an edited version of notes completed by the author in 1981 following on his lessons with Jean Langlais in Paris and Alan Moffat in Sydney. 18 . 36 no.prestant: 4ft stop voix humaine: vox humana voix célestes: vox coelestis tremblant: tremulant très largement. très lent: very slowly animez: faster toujours: always très lié: very legato Note The present monograph is an edited version of the author’s article in The Sydney Organ Journal vol. 1 Summer 2004-2005 entitled ‘The Organ Works of César Franck: An Introductory Guide to their Performance’.
Dent and Sons Ltd. Alan Moffat’s five articles on the authentic performance of Franck’s organ works in The Sydney Organ Journal in 1990-91. ‘Playing the Organ Works of César Franck’ by Rollin Smith (Pendragon Press. 1970). London. 1978). New York. 191 pages. and a note by Langlais dealing with the registration of Franck’s organ works. ‘The Organ: Its Evolution. Principles of Construction and Use’ by William Leslie Sumner (Macdonald and Janis. London. 1957). ‘La Basilique de Sainte-Clotilde. 312 pages. 19 .. 1957’ by Robert de Courcel (Centenary booklet of Ste Clotilde. ‘César Franck and His Circle’ by Laurence Davies (Barrie and Jenkins. New York. New York. Preface by Marcel Dupré to his edition of Franck’s organ works published by Bornemann (in each of the four volumes). London. translated by Rosa Newmarch (Dover Publications. 1973). Annotations (in French) to Jean Langlais’ LP recordings contain commentaries on Franck’s organ works by Joël-Marie Fauquet. specifications of the organ at Ste Clotilde as it was in Franck’s time and after the rebuilds of 1933 and 1962. 1983.BIBLIOGRAPHY ‘Franck’ by Laurence Davies: The Master Musician Series (J. 1997. ‘Toward an Authentic Interpretation of the Organ Works of César Franck’ by Rollin Smith (Pendragon Press. ‘Cesar Franck’ by Vincent d’Indy. 1965). ‘Le Livre d’Or de L’Orgue Français’ by Gilles Cantagrel and Harry Halbreich (Calliope Marval 1976). Inc.M.
Paris: Erato 1994. 1996. Saint-Étienne of Caen and Santa Maria del Coro de San Sebastian: Calliope 2002. Chicago 1996. Pastorale and two harmonium pieces: Jean Langlais plays Grande Pièce Symphonique: LP Opal. 3. Franck: Complete Works for Organ played by André Marchal on the organ of the Church of Saint-Eustache. Paris: Erato. Cesar Franck L’Oeuvre d’Orgue played by Susan Landale on the Cavaillé-Coll organs of Saint-Sulpice of Paris. Charles Tournemire and Jean Langlais. Paris. Inc. pupils and successors at Sainte-Clotilde. 20 . Cantabile. Franck: Great Organ Works played by Marie-Claire Alain on the Cavaillé-Coll organ of Saint-Étienne de Caen.DISCOGRAPHY The Complete Organ Works of César Franck played on the original Franck organ of the Basilica of Saint-Clotilde. by Jean Langlais: GIA Publications. play organ works by César Franck: Charles Tournemire plays Choral no.
21 . He is a long-time proponent of the ürtext. He holds the degrees of Bachelor of Economics and Bachelor of Laws from the University of Sydney and the Associate Diploma in Music (Piano Performing).ABOUT THE AUTHOR Gerard Carter studied piano with Eunice Gardiner at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music and César Franck’s organ works with Jean Langlais in Paris. He has issued CDs of his piano performances and his performances on historic organs and is the published author of numerous books on law and on nineteenth century piano music and performing practice. historical performing practice and reproducing piano revival movements.
statute law. with tables. based on famous Polish song for voice and piano by Frédéric Chopin. legal concepts and institutions in Australia and its states and territories. the mysterious tradition of the Klindworth D natural in the Liszt Sonata. with three CDs of historic reproducing piano recordings of Liszt’s piano works performed by eleven celebrated concert pianists who studied with him at Weimar. in plain language. words and music by Arthur Hahn SAC 1918 (E flat) arranged for piano by Gerard Carter opus 1 (D flat). paperback 306 pages 190 x 120 mm ISBN 0977517357 RRP $45 Transfer of Legal Rights: Gerard Carter: common law. and some astonishing discoveries about the golden ratio in the Chopin Etudes and the Liszt Sonata. composed for piano by Gerard Carter opus 2 (A flat). in plain language. for those interested in learning about the law. for lawyers and law students. hardbound illustrated 213 pages 230 x 160 mm ISBN 0977517314 RRP $115 Liszt Sonata Companion: Gerard Carter: advanced discussion and analysis of Franz Liszt's Piano Sonata in 123 fascinating articles. forms and precedents. conebound illustrated 310 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 0977517322 RRP $85 The Blue and Gold Forever: Arthur Hahn arranged by Gerard Carter: melodious. flow charts. conebound sheet music 2 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 0977517373 RRP $25 Fantasy on the Maiden's Wish: Gerard Carter: pianistic and effective concert piece. booklet illustrated 36 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 9780977517398 RRP $35 22 . conebound illustrated 213 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 0977517306 RRP $85. diagrams. Tradition and the Golden Ratio in Chopin & Liszt: Gerard Carter: nineteenth century piano interpretative devices by ten celebrated pianists born in the nineteenth century taken from reproducing piano roll recordings of the Chopin Nocturne in F sharp major opus 15 no. stirring and inspirational school song of St Aloysius College. paperback illustrated (seven illustrations are in colour) 159 pages 205 x 145 mm ISBN 0977517349 RRP $115 Australian Law for the 21st Century: Gerard Carter: common law. Sydney.PUBLICATIONS BY WENSLEYDALE PRESS Franz Liszt's Piano Sonata: Gerard Carter (includes CD): discussion and analysis of Franz Liszt's Piano Sonata with CD of historic reproducing piano recordings by celebrated Liszt pupil Eugen d'Albert and Paderewski pupil Ernest Schelling. Milsons Point. paperback 120 pages 190 x 120 mm ISBN 0977517365 RRP $45 Rediscovering the Liszt Tradition: Gerard Carter (includes 3 CDs): Franz Liszt and his pupils. conebound sheet music 12 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 0977517381 RRP $45 Piano Mannerisms. and nineteenth century piano performing tradition. 2. equitable principles and statutory provisions in every Australian state and territory governing transfers of legal rights. the authentic interpretation of his piano works.
Rosenthal and d’Albert. performances. phrasing. Sauer. double-beat theory. pianists.The Piano Book: Gerard Carter: pianos. arpeggiata. markings seem high. Chopin and Liszt tradition through their pupils and disciples. analysis of the results of the survey. conebound illustrated 242 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-2-1 RRP $85 Liszt Sonata Compendium: Gerard Carter (includes CD): Franz Liszt’s Piano Sonata in B minor. 1 and 3 and Pièce Héroïque. sonority of reeds. Liszt pupil Klindworth. cursor theory. editions. Chopin tradition through Mikuli. organists and the Franck tradition. evaluation. melodydelaying. booklet illustrated 37 pages 287 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-5-2 RRP $40 César Franck’s Metronome Markings for his Organ Works: Gerard Carter: discovery of Franck’s metronome markings. Liszt Pädagogium. pedalling. tempo. performing practice. dynamics. rubato. conebound illustrated 260 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-3-8 RRP $85 Towards an authentic interpretation of the Liszt Sonata: Gerard Carter: first edition. melody-anticipation. Liszt pupils Stavenhagen and Kellermann and their pupil Fleischmann. Liszt tradition through Stavenhagen and Kellermann. booklet illustrated 32 pages 287 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-6-9 RRP $30 23 . eight foot reeds. Liszt pupil Motta’s edition. arpeggiata. conebound illustrated 440 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-0-7 RRP $120 Nineteenth Century Piano Interpretative Devices: Gerard Carter: melody-delaying. lessons with Alan Moffat. disc and roll recordings showing the use of nineteenth century piano interpretative devices. repertoire. stylistic freedom. Liszt pupil Friedheim’s performances. interpretation. organists and the Franck tradition. details of historic reproducing piano roll and disc recordings. reception. style. booklet illustrated 45 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-4-5 RRP $40 Interpreting César Franck’s Organ Works: Gerard Carter: Franck’s organ at Ste Clotilde. dynamics and expression. composition. comparisons of markings by Franck. Schelling’s 1916 Duo-Art roll. lessons with Jean Langlais on Chorales nos. Liszt pupil d’Albert’s 1913 Welte roll. rubato. its prototypes. disc and roll recordings. the present organ at Ste Clotilde. analyses. air pauses and accelerando. tempi. Franck performance theory. pianists and teachers. interpretative editions by Cortot and by Liszt pupils Joseffy. touch and duration. expression and interpretation in 207 fascinating articles. recording artists. survey of 100 recorded pianists born before 1900 and their use of melody-delaying and arpeggiata. nineteenth century piano interpretative devices in Chopin and Liszt. French organ music terms. editions. analysis. includes facsimiles in study format of the autograph manuscript of 1852/53 and the Breitkopf & Härtel first edition of 1854. Friedheim’s 1916 Triphonola roll. interactions of Liszt pupils. Tournemire and Dupré and recordings by Langlais and Marchal. conebound illustrated 86 pages 297 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-14 RRP $45 The Authentic Chopin and Liszt Piano Tradition: Gerard Carter: Chopin and Liszt as composers. Liszt pupil Bülow. composers. also includes a CD of the Sonata.
grand organ. accompanying voice.The Reproducing Piano: A Forgotten Musical Revolution: Gerard Carter: reproducing pianos and rolls. top concert pianists recorded from 1905 to 1930. Denis Condon. revival increases our knowledge of nineteenth century piano performance practice. rolls were superseded from 1930s by electric discs. booklet 19 pages 287 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-7-6 RRP $20 Music in My Life: Gerard Carter: piano. 54 pages 287 x 210 mm ISBN 978-0-9805441-8-3 RRP $50 24 . booklet illustrated. rebuilder and restorer of reproducing pianos and their rolls. reproducing piano. collector. more natural sound than early discs. accurately reproduced dynamics and pedalling. includes sheet music for The Blue and Gold Forever arranged for piano by Gerard Carter opus 1 and Fantasy on the Maiden’s Wish for piano by Gerard Carter opus 2.
Figure 11 Marcel Dupré at the console of the organ at Ste Sulpice. This is the only photograph of the original console in situ. Figure 9 Jean Langlais succeeded Charles Tournemire at Ste Clotilde.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Cover The Cavaillé-Coll organ at Ste Clotilde. Figure 4 The Cavaillé-Coll organ at Ste Clotilde. Paris. Figure 10 The Cavaillé-Coll organ at Ste Sulpice. 1888. June 1980. Figure 2 The Sanctuary at Ste Clotilde. Figure 5 Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. Figure 7 Gabriel Pierné succeeded César Franck at Ste Clotilde. sculpted by Lenoir. Figure 6 César Franck at the console of the organ at Ste Clotilde. Figure 1 The Basilica of Ste Clotilde. in front of Ste Clotilde. June 1980. Gerard Carter is holding a volume of César Franck’s organ works. Figure 8 Charles Tournemire succeeded Gabriel Pierné at Ste Clotilde. Figure 2 Alexandre Guilmant at the console of the organ at La Trinité. Figure 3 The monument to César Franck. © Gerard Carter 2009. 25 . © Gerard Carter 2009. He is at the console after the first rebuild.
June 1980. 26 . Paris.Figure 3 The Basilica of Ste Clotilde. © Gerard Carter 2009.
27 .Figure 2 The Sanctuary at Ste Clotilde.
28 . June 1980. © Gerard Carter 2009. in front of Ste Clotilde. sculpted by Lenoir.Figure 3 The monument to César Franck. Gerard Carter is holding a volume of César Franck’s organ works.
29 .Figure 4 The Cavaillé-Coll organ at Ste Clotilde.
Figure 5 Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. 30 .
31 . 1888.Figure 6 César Franck at the console of the organ at Ste Clotilde.
Figure 7 Gabriel Pierné succeeded César Franck at Ste Clotilde. 32 .
Figure 8 Charles Tournemire succeeded Gabriel Pierné at Ste Clotilde. This is the only photograph of the original console in situ.
34 .Figure 9 Jean Langlais succeeded Charles Tournemire at Ste Clotilde. He is at the console after the first rebuild.
Figure 4 The Cavaillé-Coll organ at Ste Sulpice. 35 .
36 .Figure 5 Marcel Dupré at the console of the organ at Ste Sulpice.
Figure 12 Alexandre Guilmant at the console of the organ at La Trinité. 37 .
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