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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIROMENTAL ENGINEERING WATER ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LAB REPORT
Subject Code Code & Experiment Title Course Code Date Section / Group Name Members of Group Lecturer/Instructor/Tutor Received Date BFC 21201 MKA 01 ; BASIC HYDROLOGY AND INFILTRATION RATE TEST 2 BFF/1 31/10/2011 5/2 AFANDI BIN ABD WAHID (DF100122) 1.MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN (DF100018) 2.MOHD HASIF BIN AZMAN (DF100079) 3.MUHAMMAD HUZAIR BIN ZULKIFLI (DF100040) CIK AMNANI BIN ABU BAKAR EN JAMILULLAIL BIN AHMAD TAIB 14 NOVEMBER 2011

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STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE (SEC) DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE) NAME : AFANDI BIN ABD WAHID MATRIC NO. : DF100122 DATE : 14 NOVEMBER 2011

STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE (SEC) DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE) NAME : MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN MATRIC NO. : DF100018 DATE : 14 NOVEMBER 2011

STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE (SEC) DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE) NAME : MOHD HASIF BIN AZMAN MATRIC NO. : DF100079 DATE : 14 NOVEMBER 2011

STUDENTS ETHICAL CODE (SEC) DEPARTMENT OF WATER & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA BATU PAHAT, JOHOR

I declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also declare not receive or give any assistance in preparing this report and make this affirmation in the belief that nothing is in, it is true

.
(STUDENT SIGNATURE) NAME : MUHAMMAD HUZAIR BIN ZULKIFLI MATRIC NO. : DF100040 DATE : 14 NOVEMBER 2011

PART A : BASIC HYDROLOGY 1.0 OBJECTIVE To identify the relationship between rainfall and runoff. 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned to : 3.0 Understand the basic terms in hydrology Understand the concept of watershed area including time of concentration (tc) and outlet or concentration point Understand the factors which influence the runoff

INTRODUCTION Hydrological cycle

The hydrological cycle describes the constant movement of water above, on, and below the Earth's surface. The cycle operates across all scales, from the global to the smallest stream catchment and involves the movement of water along evapotranspiration, precipitation, surface runoff, subsurface flow and groundwater pathways. In essence, water is evaporated from the land, oceans and vegetation to the atmosphere, using the radiant energy from the Sun, and is recycled back in the form of rain or snow. When moisture from the atmosphere falls to the Earth's surface it becomes subdivided into different interconnected pathways.

Precipitation (excluding snow and hail) wets vegetation, directly enters surface water bodies or begins to infiltrate into the ground to replenish soil moisture. Excess water percolates to the zone of saturation, or groundwater, from where it moves downward and laterally to sites of groundwater discharge. The rate of infiltration varies with land use, soil characteristics and the duration and intensity of the rainfall event. If the rate of precipitation exceeds the rate of infiltration this leads to overland flow. Water reaching streams, both by surface runoff and groundwater discharge eventually moves to the sea where it is again evaporated to perpetuate the hydrological cycle. Rainfall characteristics Precipitation in arid and semi-arid zones results largely from convective cloud mechanisms producing storms typically of short duration, relatively high intensity and limited areal extent. However, low intensity frontal-type rains are also experienced, usually in the winter season. When most precipitation occurs during winter, as in Jordan and in the Negev, relatively low-intensity rainfall may represent the greater part of annual rainfall. Rainfall intensity is defined as the ratio of the total amount of rain (rainfall depth) falling during a given period to the duration of the period It is expressed in depth units per unit time, usually as mm per hour (mm/h). The statistical characteristics of high-intensity, short-duration, convective rainfall are essentially independent of locations within a region and are similar in many parts of the world. Analysis of short-term rainfall data suggests that there is a reasonably stable relationship governing the intensity characteristics of this type of rainfall. Studies carried out in Saudi Arabia (Raikes and Partners 1971) suggest that, on average, around 50 percent of all rain occurs at intensities in excess of 20 mm/hour and 20-30 percent occurs at intensities in excess of 40 mm/hour. This relationship appears to be independent of the long-term average rainfall at a particular location.

The surface runoff process When rain falls, the first drops of water are intercepted by the leaves and stems of the vegetation. This is usually referred to as interception storage. As the rain continues, water reaching the ground surface infiltrates into the soil until it reaches a stage where the rate of rainfall (intensity) exceeds the infiltration capacity of the soil. Thereafter, surface puddles, ditches, and other depressions are filled (depression storage), after which runoff is generated. The infiltration capacity of the soil depends on its texture and structure, as well as on the antecedent soil moisture content (previous rainfall or dry season). The initial capacity (of a dry soil) is high but, as the storm continues, it decreases until it reaches a steady value termed as final infiltration rate. The process of runoff generation continues as long as the rainfall intensity exceeds the actual infiltration capacity of the soil but it stops as soon as the rate of rainfall drops below the actual rate of infiltration. The rainfall runoff process is well described in the literature. Numerous papers on the subject have been published and many computer simulation models have been developed. All these models, however, require detailed knowledge of a number of factors and initial boundary conditions in a catchment area which in most cases are not readily available. For a better understanding of the difficulties of accurately predicting the amount of runoff resulting from a rainfall event, the major factors which influence the rainfall-runoff process are described below. 4.0 THEORY Runoff is generated by rainstorms and its occurrence and quantity are dependent on the characeristics of the rainfall event, i.e. intensity, duration and distribution. The rainfall-runoff process is extremely complex, making it difficult to model accurately. There are, in addition, other important factors which influence the runoff generating process like natural surface detention, soil infiltration characteristics and the drainage pattern formed by natural flow paths. The soil type, vegetative cover and topography play as important roles. Rainfall and runoff are very important hydrologic components because of their direct relations with water resources quantity, flood, streamflow and design of dam and hydraulic structure.

5.0

EQUIPMENTS
Experiment tank Filled with sand Sprinkle nozzle 19-tube manometer Plexiglass cover Switch box

Inclination adjustment

Circulating pump

Flow rate measurement

Supply tank

Measurement

weir

Figure 1: Basic Hydrological Instrument

Figure 2: Stopwatch

Figure 3: Rain Gauge

6.0

PROCEDURE Case 1: Flat and sandy soil surface profile (without slope) Case 2: Flat and sandy soil surface with 1:100 slope profile. i. The rail at side of the catchment area must be adjust to get the slope is zero, according the requirement for Case 1. ii. The steel ruler has been used to flat the sand or used our hand. That can be more easy method. iii. Set the time according the computer time. iv. Put the rain gauge inside the rail and close the plastic curtains. v. The pump has been switched on and starts the stop watch at the same time. The time while start of rainfall has been recorded. vi. The discharge and the reading from the rain gauge have been recorded every 30 second (during the rainfall). vii. The pump has been switched off when the peak discharge achieved (after 3 discharge reading with same value obtained) to stop the rainfall. The time while stop of rainfall has been recorded. viii. At the same time, record the discharge for each 30 second until 1020 second. ix. The procedure has been repeated for case 2.

7.0

RESULT AND CALCULATION CASE 1 CASE 2 Rain gauge reading


(mm)
-6

Time, t
(s)

Water Level
(cm) (mm)

Discharge
(liter/min) (m3/s)

Water Level
(cm) (mm)

Discharge
(liter/min) (m3/s)

Rain gauge reading


(mm)
-6

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540 570 600

1.5 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 1.8 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

15 27 29 29 29 29 18 11 8 7 7 6 5 5 5 5

2.5 9.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 4.3 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

41.7 x 10 158 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 71.7 x 10-6 15 x 10-6 8.3 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 3.33 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6

0.6 3.6 6.2 8.8 11.4 14.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.7 1.5 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6 1.7 1.5 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

7 15 28 28 28 28 26 17 15 10 9 7 7 7 6 5 5 5 5

0.3 2.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 8.5 3.4 2.5 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

5 x 10 41.7 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 142 x 10-6 56.7 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6 13.3 x 10-6 11.7 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 3.33 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6

29.8 32.4 35.2 38.0 40.6 43.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

TOTAL FLOW, BASEFLOW AND DIRECT FLOW

CASE 1
TIME, t

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540 570 600

Total flow, Q m3/s 41.7 x 10-6 158 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 71.7 x 10-6 15 x 10-6 8.3 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 3.33 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6

Base flow m3/s 41.7 x 10-6 37 x 10-6 33 x 10-6 29 x 10-6 25 x 10-6 21 x 10-6 17 x 10-6 13 x 10-6 8.3 x 10-6 5 x 10-6

Direct flow m /s (Total flow Baseflow) 0 121 x 10-6 175 x 10-6 179 x 10-6 183 x 10-6 187 x 10-6 54.7 x 10-6 2 x 10-6

CASE 2
Total flow, Q (x 10-6) 5 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 142 x 10-6 56.7 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6 13.3 x 10-6 11.7 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 3.33 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 TOTAL Base flow (x 10-6) 5 x 10-6 4.5 x 10-6 4 x 10-6 4 x 10-6 3.8 x 10-6 3.5 x 10-6 3 x 10-6 3 x 10-6 2.5 x 10-6 2.25 x 10-6 2.1 x 10-6 2 x 10-6 2 x 10-6 1.8 x 10-6 1.7 x 10-6

Direct flow m3/s (Total flow Baseflow) 0 37.17 x 10-6 187.7 x 10-6 187.7 x 10-6 187.9 x 10-6 188.2 x 10-6 138.7 x 10-6 53.7 x 10-6 39.17 x 10-6 11.05 x 10-6 9.57 x 10-6 3 x 10-6 3 x 10-6 3.2 x 10-6 1.63 x 10-6

TOTAL

230 x 10-6

901.7 x 10-6

45.15 x 10-6

1051.69 x 10-6

Calculation For Discharge

Calculation For Case 1

Calculation For Case 2

8.0

QUESTION 1. Plot the discharge (unit m3/s) versus time (second) graph separately from the above values for each cases.

CASE 1
TIME, t (s) (m /s)
3

CASE 2
DISCHARGE, Q (m3/s)

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540 570 600

41.7 x 10-6 158 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 208 x 10-6 71.7 x 10-6 15 x 10-6 8.3 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 3.33 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6

5 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 192 x 10-6 142 x 10-6 56.7 x 10-6 41.7 x 10-6 13.3 x 10-6 11.7 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 5 x 10-6 3.33 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6 1.67 x 10-6

2.

From the graph plotted, determine: a) Time concentration Case 1 : 90 < tc < 180 Case 2 : 90 < tc < 180 b) Rainfall duration Case 1 : 3.30 PM to 3.33 PM So, rainfall duration are 180 seconds. Case 2 : 4.00 PM to 4.03 PM So, rainfall duration are 180 seconds. c) Peak discharge Case 1 : when 180 seconds, discharge will be 208 x 10-6 m3/s. Case 2 : when 180 seconds, discharge will be 192 x 10-6 m3/s. d) Runoff volume Runoff volume = Total Direct Flow Case 1 : DF = 901.7 x 10-6 m3/s = 901.7 x 10-6 m3/s x 3600s = 3.246 m3 Case 2 : DF = 1051.69 x 10-6 m3/s = 1051.69 x 10-6 m3/s x 3600s = 3.786 m3

f) Rainfall intensity Case 1 : Rainfall intensity = rain gauge maximum rain duration = 14 mm 180 s = 0.0778 mm/s Case 2 : Rainfall intensity = rain gauge maximum rain duration = 43.6 mm 180s = 0.242 mm/s g) Storage volume Storage volume = Base flow x 3600s Case 1 : storage volume = 230 x 10-6 m3/s x 3600s = 0.828 m3 Case 2 : storage volume = 45.15 x 10-6 m3/s x 3600s = 0.163 m3

3.

Provide a table for all the results obtained from (2) and make comparison with case 1 and 2. Case 1 Time concentration (s) Rainfall duration (s) Peak discharge (x10-6 m3/s) Runoff volume (m3) Rainfall intensity (mm/s) Storage volume (m3) 90 < tc < 180 180 s 208 3.246 0.0778 0.828 Case 2 90 < tc < 180 180 s 191.7 3.786 0.242 0.163

We conclude that, all of the deferent value in table between case 1 and case 2 because the slope. Case 1 without slope and case 2 with slope. We also observed that the quantity of runoff decreased with increasing slope length.

9.0

DISCUSSION Runoff is generated by rainstorms and its occurrence and quantity are dependent on the characteristics of the rainfall event, i.e. intensity, duration and distribution. There are, in addition, other important factors which influence the runoff generating process. The rainfall-runoff process is extremely complex, making it difficult to model accurately. There are , in addition, other important factors which influence the runoff generating process like natural surface detention, soil infiltration characteristics and the drainage pattern formed by natural flow paths. Factors affecting runoff are: Soil type The infiltration capacity is among others dependent on the porosity of a soil which determines the water storage capacity and affects the resistance of water to flow into deeper layers. Porosity differs from one soil type to the other. The highest infiltration capacities are observed in loose, sandy soils while heavy clay or loamy soils have considerable smaller infiltration capacities. The infiltration capacity depends furthermore on the moisture content prevailing in a soil at the onset of a rainstorm. The initial high capacity decreases with time (provided the rain does not stop) until it reaches a constant value as the soil profile becomes saturated. Vegetation The amount of rain lost to interception storage on the foliage depends on the kind of vegetation and its growth stage. Values of interception are between 1 and 4 mm. A cereal crop, for example, has a smaller storage capacity than a dense grass cover. More significant is the effect the vegetation has on the infiltration capacity of the soil. A dense vegetation cover shields the soil from the raindrop impact and reduces the crusting effect as described earlier. In addition, the root system as well as organic matter in the soil increase the soil porosity thus allowing more water to infiltrate. Vegetation also retards the surface flow particularly on gentle slopes, giving the water more time to infiltrate and to evaporate. In conclusion, an area densely covered with vegetation, yields less runoff than bare ground.

Slope and catchment size Investigations on experimental runoff plots have shown that steep slope plots yield more runoff than those with gentle slopes. In addition, it was observed that the quantity of runoff decreased with increasing slope length. This is mainly due to lower flow velocities and subsequently a longer time of concentration (defined as the time needed for a drop of water to reach the outlet of a catchment from the most remote location in the catchment). This means that the water is exposed for a longer duration to infiltration and evaporation before it reaches the measuring point. The same applies when catchment areas of different sizes are compared. The runoff efficiency (volume of runoff per unit of area) increases with the decreasing size of the catchment i.e. the larger the size of the catchment the larger the time of concentration and the smaller the runoff efficiency. Rainfall-runoff processes Apart from recording and/or forecasting rainfall itself, the next most important problem is understanding and forecasting the runoff generated by the rainfall. This difficult problem has attracted enormous amounts of attention and effort around the world. There are possibly as many models for calculating rainfall-runoff, as there are people who have a direct interest in the subject. Runoff generation from rainfall over a catchment can be assumed to depend on factors such as : Atmospheric conditions over the catchment (wind speed, direction, temperature, humidity) The surface cover (type, distribution, interception, take up, evapotranspiration) Surface soil (type, permeability, porosity) Terrain (slope, surface texture) Geology (structure distribution, permeability, porosity, groundwater levels) Generally the following processes are usually identified as taking place: Evapotranspiration at the surface Surface infiltration Overland flow Unsaturated zone flow Saturated zone flow (groundwater) Rainfall and runoff are very important hydrologic components because of their direct relations with water resources quantity, flood, streamflow and design of dam and

hydraulic structure. To convert discharge volume in liter/min to m3/s , we use this formula. Q, liter 1 m3 1 min min 1000 liter 60 s

Based on the graph discharge versus time in both case, we get the bell shape graph. The value of discharge are increase when the time are increase. In case 1, the storage volume are higest than the storage volume in case 2 but the value of runoff volume in case 2 are higest than case 1.

10.0

CONCLUSION As conclusion of this experiment, we fully understand how to identify the relationship between rainfall and runoff and it process. Besides that, we also can verify that when the rainfall increased, the runoff will also increase until it reached the time of maximum discharge. The slope area has the shorter time of concentration than the flat area. Runoff is one of the most important hydrology component because of it connection with the water source quantity, flood, design of dam and others hydraulic control structure. Using the rain gauge, we can record the discharge and its time for each area which is slope or flat. From this experiment, we can apply this knowledge to design the dam or drain. The applications of the basic hydrology system were very important to control the flood. Besides that, we can also use this application to avoid the high cost for construction the dam or drain. Then, we also have determined all factors that effected runoff such as rainfall intensity, type of surfaces, rainfall duration, and others.

PART B : INFILTRATION TEST 1.0 OBJECTIVE To identify the characteristics of the infiltration rate of water into soils in the field. 2.0 INTRODUCTION Some of the precipitation that falls on land seeps into the ground where it is stored in aquifers and is transported to streams and lakes by subsurface flow. The amount of infiltration is influenced by the permeability and moisture content of the soil, the presence of vegetation and the volume and intensity of precipitation. The amount of water in an aquifer is indicated by the height of the water table (the upper boundary of aquifer). This animation illustrates the effect of soil permeability (large particles have large spaces between them and let more water in) and precipitation volume (large rain events can lead to more infiltration) on the amount of water stored in the aquifer. 3.0 THEORY The volume of water used during each measured time interval is converted into an incremental infiltration velocity for both the inner ring and annular space using the following equations; VIR = VIR / (AIR .t) where, VIR is the inner ring incremental infiltration velocity(cm/hr), VIR is the volume of water used during time interval to maintain constant head in the inner ring (mL), AIR is the internal area of inner ring (cm2) and t is the time interval (hour). For the annular space between rings, calculate as follows; VA = VA / (AA .t) where, VA is the annular space incremental infiltration velocity (cm/hr), VA is the volume of water used during time interval to maintain constant head in the annular space between the rings (mL), AA is the area of annular space (cm2) and t is the time interval (hour). The infiltration rate calculated with the inner ring should be the value used for results if the rates for the inner ring and annular space differ. The difference in rates is due to divergent flow.

4.0 EQUIPMENT Two stainless steels rings measure 12 and 24 diameter x 20 high and some other equipment

Wood block used to absorb the blow from the sludge hammer

Inner ring be inserted inside the large ring

Depth of the ring was measured

5.0

PROCEDURE i. Hammer the outer ring at least 2/5 height ring into the soil. Use the timber to protect the ring from damage during hammering. Keep the side of the ring vertical. ii. Hammer the inner ring into the soil or construct an earth bund around the 2/5 height ring to the same height as the ring and place the hessian inside the infiltrometer to protect the soil surface when pouring in the water. Make sure the ring in the centre outer ring.

iii. Start the test by pouring water into the outer ring until the depth is 10cm. Wait the water down until the depth is 5cm. Then add the outer or large ring with water until the depth is 10cm again. At the same time, add water to the space between the two rings or the ring and the bund to the same depth. Do this quickly. iv. The water in the bund or within the two rings is to prevent a lateral spread of water from the infiltrometer. v. Record the clock time when the test begins and note the water level on the measuring rod. vi. After 1-2 minutes, record the drop in water level in the inner ring on the measuring rod and add water to bring the level back to approximately the original level at the start of the test. Record the water level. Maintain the water level outside the ring similar to that inside. vii. Continue the test until the drop in water level is the same over the same time interval. Take
readings frequently (e.g. every 1-2 minutes) at the beginning of the test until 35munites.

6.0

RESULT AND CALCULATIONS Time, t (s) 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 1200 1320 1440 1560 1680 1800 1920 2040 2160 2280 2400 2520 2640 2760 2880 3000 3120 3240 Inner (mm) 98 96 94 93 91 90 90 89 88 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 80 80 79 78 77 76 76 74 73 73 73 Infiltration Capacity (mm) 0.817 1.217 1.478 1.672 1.824 1.949 2.056 2.149 2.231 2.304 2.370 2.430 2.484 2.534 2.580 2.623 2.662 2.699 2.734 2.767 2.798 2.827 2.855 2.881 2.905 2.928 2.951 Infiltration (mm/s) 0.817 0.400 0.261 0.194 0.152 0.125 0.107 0.093 0.082 0.073 0.066 0.060 0.054 0.050 0.046 0.043 0.039 0.037 0.035 0.033 0.031 0.029 0.028 0.026 0.024 0.023 0.023

Calculation For Infiltration Capacity And Infiltration Rate

6.0

QUESTIONS 1. Plot a graph of: a. Infiltration capacity versus time (Refer graph) b. Infiltration rate versus time (Refer graph) 2. From graph in 1(b), please identify the basic of infiltration rate. From the graph of infiltration rate versus time, the basic of infiltration rate for this soil is wet soils. 3. Sketch a graph of infiltration rate versus time for three different characteristic of soils: i. Dry soil:

For the dry soil, we can see that the infiltration occurred faster than other soil. This is because, water easier to absorb to the dry soil because inside the soil, they have a lot of void.

ii. Wet soil:

For the wet soil, infiltration not too fast. It is slow than saturated soil. This is because they already have a water inside the soil. So, the water was slowly to absorb inside the soil.

iii. Saturated soil:

For the saturated soil, infiltration occurred very slow because they have a lot of water inside the saturated soil that wet soil.

7.0

DISCUSSION From the experiment, we can see that the types of soils influence the infiltration rates. For dry soils, infiltration occurred faster, water can absorb faster than wet soil and saturated soil because inside the soil, they have a lot of void. For wet soil, infiltration occurred in modest time between dry soil and saturated soil because they already contain water inside the soil. So, water slowly absorb into the soil. For saturated soil, infiltration occurred very slowly because they have a lot of water inside the saturated soil that wet soil. From the experiment, we consider that the soil are wet, after plot a graph of infiltration rate versus time. The process of infiltration is not too fast because they already have water inside the soil. So, the water was slowly to absorb inside the soil during the experiment was carried out.

8.0

CONCLUSION As conclusion of this experiment we found that the infiltration rate is affected by the type of soil that we used. The infiltration rate is faster in a dry soil, become slowly in a wet soil and very slowly in a saturated soil. Therefore, the infiltration capacity was affected by the porosity of the soil and moisture content of the soil.

REFERENCES Books 1. John F.D.2001.Fluid mechanics.fourth edition, pp 865-870. London: Prentice Hall 2. Munson, B. R. 2002. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, pp 621-658. John Wiley and Sons, Inc 3. Simon, A. L.1997. Hydraulics, pp 487-490. Prentice Hall, Inc Internet http://www.connectedwater.gov.au/processes/hydrological.html