1
DIMENSIONS AND VECTOR ANALYSIS
1.1 DfTRODUCTIOR
All we are aware that the basic purpoee of all sciences is to understand the natural phenomena that occur around us. Amongst all the branches of IlCience, physics is one of the most fundamental. It is the foundation on which the other physical sciences such as chemistry, geology, geophysics, astronomy etc. are based. Physics also plays a very impurtant role in the deve10pment ofbkllogical sciences.
In p~cs we perf'drm experiments, make measurements and then propose theories which predict the results of measurements. In this lesson you will first learn about the units of measurements. Every unit of measurement can be expressed in terms of the basic units. This wi11lead us to the concept of dimensions and their applications in other areas of physics.
We will a1IIo catagorise the physical quantities in two groups namely (i) sealanIlind (nl vectors depending upon their nature. Finally, we will learn the simple mathematical operations associated with scalars and vectors. You will find application of vectors in difl'erent fields of physics which you will learn in other leUons during your COW'IIeof study.
After studyjDa this lesson, you should be able to,
• diStinguiah between theJUndl.unental and derived quantities and thfJir S1
unitIt;.
• • • write tI!e dirrumaions 0/ di,fffJl'81l1 physical quantitiea; apply the dirrumaional equations; tli/ffri'htUJte between scaler and !leCtor quantities with eJCl1mplea; find thIJ resultant o/two vectors, andresolve a vector into its components;
•
•
and compute the produd o/two vectors.
Physics
1.3
UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS
The laws of physics are defined in terms of physical quantities like distance speed, time force, area, volume etc. These quantities in tum are defined in terms of more basic qurntities like mass, length and time and some others which we will study later. If a person measures the quantity of milk, she should express the volume of milk in some accepted units of volume. Likewise if an engineer measures the length of a road connecting two cities, he should express the di.tance in an accepted unit of length. Such a procedure makes the life more comfortable. When we travel we have an estimate of distance and time" which helps us proper planning of the journey. If there were no units accepted by all, the life would be miserable. Such units are much more essential in scientific measurements to facilitate communication of information at internationallevel.
1.3.1 The SII Units
Keeping this point of view in mind, there have been attempts over centuries in SC'Jeral developed civilizations to. suggest standard units of measurements at regional or national level. Without !.~':"'lg into the long histoty of the various stages of development in the system of units of measurements, we come to the year 1967 when the XIII General Conference on Weights and Measures, rationalised the MKSA (Metre, Kilogram, Second, Ampere) system of units and adopted a system based on six basic units. It was called the 'System International units' known as SI system of units in all languages. In 1"971 the General Conference added another b~c unit 'mole' for the amount of sub"tance to the Sl The present SI system of units bas _ n base or fundamental Units. These are listed in Table 1.1: Table 1.1: Ba.. Units of the SI Syiltem
Quantity
rJRft
Metre Kilogram Second Amp.ere Kelvin Candela Mole
Symbol
Length
Mass
Time Electric Current Temperature Lumino1.1.s Intensity Amount of Substance
m kg s A K Cd mol
The yard. and mile as units of length are still in use in USA. These are given in Table 1.2. Table 1.2: Units of leli.gth.till in use in claiIy life (USA). 1 mile 1 furlong 1 yard 1 foot 1 yard 1 inch 1 mile
= =
m
= =
=
*
8 furlongs 220 yards 3 feet 12 inch 0.9144 meter (exactly) 2.54 em (exactly)
1.61km
2
Dimensions and \Lector Analysis The guiding principle in choosing a unit of measurement is to relate it to ~on man's life as far as possible. As an elllllD.ple, take th.\lnit of mass as lei,.", am or the unit of length as metre. In ou!" day to day business we buy food articles in kg or tens of kg. We buy cloth in metres or tens of metres. If gram had been chosen as the unit of mass:or millimeter as unit of length, we would be unnecessarily using big numbers in our daily life. It is for this Fe8SOn that the basic units of measurements are very closely related to our daily life. The SI system is basically a metric system. The smaller and larger units of the basic units are multiples of ten only. They follow strictly the decimal system. These multiples or submultiples are given special names. Theile are listed in Table 1.3.
Table 1.3: Prefbre. lor Po_n ofTen
Po_oJ PreJfx.
ten
AbbntPfatfon
bample
BJImboI
a f p n
1.1
10'·
100's 10" 10"
lQ6
10""" 10' 10' 10' 10' U)3
10"
10" 10'" 10's 10'·
atto femto pica nano micro milli centi deci deca hecto kilo mega giga tera peta
m c d da h
k M
G T P
E
femto metre picofarad nanometre micron milligram centimetre decimetre decagram hectometre kilogram megawatt giga hertz tera hertz
fin
pF nm
!.1M
mg
em
dm dag hm kg
MW
GHz THz
em
1.3.2 Standard. of ••••, Length and Time
Once we have chosen the fundamental units ofthe SI, we must decide on the set of sta· ndards forthe fundamental quantities.
(I) . . . . : The SI unit of mass is ktlogrtUrL It is the mass of a particular cylinder made of Platinum  Iridium alloy, kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France.
This standard was established in 1887 and there has been no change because this is unusually stable alloy. Prototype kilograms have been made of this alloy and distributed to member states. The national prototype of India is the Kilogram no f,7. This is preselVed at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi.
3
Physics
(U, Lellath: The metric system was established in France in 1792. The metre (also written as meter) was defined to be 1/107 times the distance from the Equator to the North Pole through Paris. This standard Ws abandoned for practical reasons. In 1872 an International Commission was eet up in Paris to decide on more suitable metre standard. In 1875 the new metre was defined. It was defmed as the distance between two lines on a PlatinumIridium Bar stored under controlled condition. Such standards had to be kept under severe controlled conditions. Even then their safety against natural dis~ters is not gauranteed, and their accuracy is also limited for the present requirements of science and technology. In 1983 the metre was redefmed as follows;
One metre is the distance travelled by light in vacuum in a time interval of 1/299792458 second. This definition establishes that the speed of light in vacuum is 299792458 metres per second. Following this definition a new prototype of one metre can always be prepared even if all the existing standards are destroyed in a natural disaster. This is the greatest advantage of this definition.
(iii' Time: The time interval second was originally defined in tern1s of the time of rotation of earth about its own axis. This time of rotation is divided in 24 parts, each part is called an hour. An hour is divided into 60 lIiinutes and each minute is subdivided into 60 seconds. Thus one secondis equal to 1 186400 part of the solar day. To be more specific, the mean solar rut, the basic unit of time, was defined as toX t;xf,; part of the mean _far.", for the year 1900. This defmitionwas accepted upto 1960. It is known that the rotation of the earth varies substantially with time and tnerefore the length of a day is a variable quantity, may be very slowly varying.
The XIII General Conference on weights and measures in 1967 gave the following defmition of the time interval 'second.
ane second is the time required for Cesium  133 atom to undergo
9192631770 vibmtions.
This definition has its roots in a device which can be named as atomic clock. The frequency of certain atomic transitions can be measured with an accuracy of 1 part in 101~. Theee frequencies (transitioni are exllem.ely stable and are least affected by the environment,
1.3.3 Derived Units
We have defined the three basic units in mechanics. When these basic units, interact, they give rise to quantities which are melllUred in derived units.. Thus, the units which are obtained by the combination of the fundamental units, are called derftIed· WIlD. For example when distance and time interact, they give rise to speed acceleration etc. The speed is measured in metre per second (ml s). Similarly wheI).'length interacts with length. new quantities like area (m2) and volume (m3) etc result. The following tables give some of the derived units commonly used in mechanics and some derived units with special names.
4
Dimensions and Vector An@!ysis Tabl. 1.4: Bzampl•• of deri...d SI Unite
Quantity
area
BIUnit square meter cubic meter meter per second meter per square se.c kilogram per cubic meter
I
Symbol
wlume speed or velocity acceleration density
m' m3
m/s m/s" kg/m"
Table 1.5: Bzamplee ofden...d SI Unitnrith Special.ame.
QuanttCJI
force pressure energy, work Power
.MmIe newton
pascal
..
Symbol
Unit Symbol
kg
Nm
joule watt
N Pa J W
mis'
N/m'
Jls
The SI system of units form a coherent set in the sense that the product of any two unit quantities leads directly to the unit" of the resulting quantity. When unit mass (kg) is divided by unit volume (m3) we stra,ight way get the unito(density kg/m3. We should be careful in writing the units of certain quantities in proper order. Let us take the example of work. The unit of work is Newton  meter which has been givena special name Joule. It should be written as Nm and not as mN. If written as mN it would mean 'milli Newton". Now. it is the time to check your progress. Solve the following intext questions and incase you have any problem. check answers given at the end of this lesson.
IRTEXT QUESTIORS 1.1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1. 2. 3. '" car ;" moving with a _eel of 80 km/hr. What i. th.. speed in Diatinguillh between the fundamental and the derived unit•.
mI.?
The radius of an atom i. 10'0 m. What will be thiJo value in terms of micro mette?
................................................................... .................................................." .. ..
,

4.
Th. total c:owred area of a h"".. ;" 4500 IqUIU8 fe.t. Expnaa thiJo ..... in «jUare metres.
1.4
DIMElfSIORS OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES
It is useful to assign dimension to physical quantities. The three basic dimensions of the three fundamental units. Lerigth. M8.S$ and Time are sym
bolized respectively as L, M, T. The dimensions of other physical quantities
5
Physics arc expressed in terms of these symbols. See the following exaJllples.
ilJ speed_
(:l!
distance time'
=; =T =LT
m
L
.,
df"nsitv = =, = 
.
mass kg volume m"
M .3 = ML L3
m
(3)
force = massx acceleration =kgx,:: MLT2
s
The dim~siona1 analysis is a very useful tool in checking the correctness of expr~ssions or equations relating various physical quantities. Let us exaJIline a few cases as examples. Exemple 1.1: The mechanical energy of a particle can be written in two difjtmmt forms as fa) l'll mrr and (b) mgh. Are both dimensionally same?
Solution:
la) fbi
>,:, 1m"'" '," M (LIT)' = Y. ML2 'I'"2 mgh = 1M) (LIT') IL) = ML' 'J'"2
We therefore fmd that dimensionally both expressions for energy are equivalent. They differ only by a dimensionless multiplier, (Factor 1/2 in this rase). Example 1.2: Suppose a car starts from rest. The car COuenl a distanoe x in time t while moving with uniform acceleration a. Find an expression.jOr x in terms of t and a. Solation: Suppose the expression for x is of the form,
x ~ an t", (~ . is sign of proportionality) This formula will be correct only if the dimensions on both sides are the same. Left Hand Side (LHS) x= L'  L' MDT" Right Hand Side (RHS) d" t!'  (LIT')"  L"! 'J'"2'" T"  L" '1"'".....  Lm MO T""""
m"
If the two sides must have the same dimensions then by comparing the dimensions of L, M and T seprately we get
m=l,
Hence
x~
n2m n 2 =
n 
0 0
2
IS
at'.
not the proper form of the
We know (may come to know later) that this expression. The correct expression is x· y. at'.
The sign of p.opor1ionality is replaced by th, SlgIl of equality with the help of a dimensionless multiplier (1/2 in this case). Example 1.:J: In an experiment with a simple pendulum we come to a,qualitative conclusion thatthe timeperiod Tofthe pendulum depends on the kngth 6
Dimensions and Vector Analysis
of the pendulum l and theiu:iceleration du8 to grallityg. But we do not know the exact dependance. Find the eKQct expression for Tin terms of land 9
SolatioD : Let us assume that
T~
IT' if
Dimensionally L.H.S.  T  LO M' 7'
RHS =
"'fI' .. L"'(L/1")O 0
L  AI' ~
By comparing the powers of L. M and T on both sides m+ nm.TJ
and 2n1 n¥2 ... m  +Y. and n  Yo
... Tal".r or
T=2k~
You should bear in mind that the numerical constant (2 It ) cannot be deterI!lined from dimensional analysis.
~pIe
1.4: It is known that.a particle moving in a circuWr orbit has an acceleration which depends on the orbital speed II and radius r 'afthe orbit. Determine the powers of II and r in the expression acceleration a  krI"r' where k as usual is a dimensionless quantity.
LHS RHS
SollltioD:
a L/1"  LM' T2 ""r"  (L/7)"'Lo  LM'T"". Comparing the powers of L M and T OJl'both sides, we get
m+ nl and m2
Wegetnl
II~
a  kIP:'  k 
r
Age;" the numerical value of kcannot be obtained from dimensinnalailalvsis. Now, take a pause and do the following questions.
IRTEXT QUESTIORS 1.2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1. A atone ia dropped &om the .........r .. boll buiIdiIIg. The velocity "with which the alOne hila the ground cIepeod. on the 'lei&ht h or the ~ and the """"Ioraticn due '.0 ~ g. Obtain the rior eo.. ...
"*' ................................................. _................................................................ ........ .

2.
(X, t+ K,x) lib_ 'y. A and "' ..... in met.... and tin aeCoRd. Obtain the.dim ...siona or K, and K,
The diaplarement oCa m6'riu& perticleia Jlivenby the _  o n Y A Sin
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '_._ . . . . .
~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u
.................... .
The accel""",tion or a,I"0vmg objeq.ito <tirectly' prpportiona! .to 'the invenoelypi'opOrtion tel ita maaa. What ia the' dimension of Coree?
applied force
8r; i
Pb,ysics
L5
ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
It is quite often useful to know/ calculate the approximate value of a particu1ar quantity. It helps us in checking the results of any lengthy calculation or to know the approximate magnitude of a quantity. The order of magnitude of a quantity is the power of ten of the number that describes the quantity. We know that the speed of light in vacuum is 3 x 10" m/s. We, therefore, say that the order of magnitude is 8 .. If a quantity increases by four orders of magnitude we mean to convey that the quantity has iIicreased by a factor 104 • Ezample 1.S: The size of an average room is 6 x5x 4m:'. The room is to ~ completelyfilled with cricket balls without crushing them. Ifthe diameter of a ball is 5 em, estimate the number of balls that will fill the room. Solution: The volume of the room The approximate volume of a ball
= 6 x 5 x 4 = 120 m 3
= 5 x5x 5 x 10'" m 3
= 125 x lQ6 m 3
(You know that the actual volume of a ball is given by 41fr' where T is the
3
radius of the ball.)
120 6 Hence the total number of balls = 125xl0<i ::1 X 10 balls.
A more accurate Calculation may give a result which may differ by factor of ten only. .
Table 1.6: App1'Oldmate value. of certaiD m_ured CJu. .titiH Mean distance from earth to moon Mean radius of the earth Diameter of a hydrogen atom Diameter of anatomic nucleus Mass of Sun Mass of earth Mass ot a Mosquito Mass of an electron One year Oneday .. Period of a souM wave Period of a radio wave
3.8 x 108 m
6.4 x 106 m 1 i< 1010 m lxlo14 m 2 x 6 X l x 9.1 lO30 kg loo'kg lOSkg x 1031 kg
3.2 X 107s 8.6 X 104 s 1xlQ3s lxlQ6s
Now, check your learning by solving the following questions.
INTEXr QUES'I'lONS 1.3._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
1. A teacher consumes 0.4 unit of electricity per,hour in his bouse. The cost of electric~ ity i. Rs 3/ per unit. Estimate his tots! expenditure on electricity »or year.
................................................................................................................."........ ..
2, Estimate the consumption of salt for the'whole country in one year for a popUlation of 900 x lQ".
8
Oimensions and Vector Anal}'llia
1.6 VECTORS AIID SCALARS / 1.6.1 Scalar Quantities
We know that the physical quantities are always described by some numbers with proper units attached with them. We describe the density of material, the volume of ajar, the distance between two cities, the Speed of a moving car, the force·that pulls all objects towardsthe earth and the torque that ~ens or closes a door. Some of these quantities are ~re8l1ed in numbers with units and it is a complete and correct d.:scription of that quantity. The examples are (i) density of copper  8.9 x loa kg/m3 (ii) mean radius of the earth  6.4xlo6m (iii) one day  8.6 x 10" s; Such quantities do not require any direction to be specified for theif descritpion. These are knoWn as _ _ quantities. '
A _lar CJifAfdlCg has only magnitude and no direction.
1.6.2 Vector Quantities
A vector quantity is a physical quantitY that is described by both the magnitude and the direction. ~is a vector quantity. lfwe apply a fOrce of lOON
Oil an object, we must also SPeci1Y the dfrwctfonin which the force is being applied. Veloc:ftgis an other vector quantity. lfwe describe the motion of an object we mwrt specify how fast it is moving and the directiOn ofits motion.
A IMCCDr .atuwhas magnitude and direction both.
VectorIIcan always be represented graphically. Let us say that a force of 501;)' N is applied on a body in the direction west to east. This vector quantity ~ C'lll be represented graphically all shown in Fig 1.1. below
'=iiri
A
B
ftc1.1: Gnq1Irk:Dl"""""'af"· 'The line AB represents this vector. The length of the line AB, say 5 em, represents the magnitude SOON. The direction of the vector is from A to B (West to 'east). The pOint A is called the ~r and the point B with an arrow Diark is called the tip (head) of the vector. y ADDthervector CD ofmagnitude 300N force is1epresented by CD (3 em length) pointing in a different direction.
Any two vectors A. and B are said to he . ._ ifthey'bave the same magnit~l(le and point in the same direction. Graphically, therefore, all such vectors which are of the tiame length and parallel to ea,ch other are said to be equal all Shown herein Fig 1.2. The three vectors. A.,. B and c:': are of equal
o '_______ x
PI& 103: EqIAal "'PI>
grap}.b~i.!l.
.en(ed
length (magnitude) and are parallel to each other (po1nt in the same direction). We therefore say that A = B =C.
1.6.3 Addition orVectors
When two or more vectors are added together, like scalar quantities, they must have the same units. Graphically, it is very easy tC' "dd two v~ctors and find the resultant sum.
L,,[ liS have 1"\) \~":llIr, A un.i 1\ :;1'01 ',w have 10 rind their veclor sum R =A + B ...
)
A
Ca)
nil
A
Cb)
1.3. Addition oftwo ""ctors, graphlcaUy.
The two vectors are shown in Fig. 1.3. (a). T~ find the sum of the two vectors we adopt the following procedure. First, draw the vector A graphically. Then draw the vector B in such a manner that the tail of the vector B starts from the tip of Vector A as shown in fig. 1.3.(b). We know that a parallel movement does not change a vector. A. vector drawn from the tail of A to the tip oCB is the resultant vector R ~ A + B. Following the same procedure. We can find the sum of more than two vectors also. Let us take three vectors A, B and C and we have to find the vector RA+B+C
A.
Flg 1.4: Addition o/three vt."Cfors in. a graphical manner
DrAwtb,· \Tctor A. nr"wthevectorB such that the tail of B s1:8 tsfrom the
10
DiIlletlSlOnS and V"rtor Ana1~ s". tip of A. Then the vector which starts from the tail of A and ends at the tip of vector B is the sum (A+B) .. Following the same rule we can add the vector C to the Vector (A + B) and get to vector R = A t B + C. You can now appreciate that several vectors can be added together in the same manner. Now, following the graphical procedure illustrated above, you can easily sho.,
that
(i) A + B ~ B + A (commutative oj properly vector addition' (1.1) (ii) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C (Associative property of vector addition' (1.2)
1.6.4 Subtraction of Vectors
We define the negattueofvectoras a vector which has the same magnitude but points in .the opposite direction. If A is a vector of magnibloe '300 unit s pointing towards east, then A is a vector of magnitude 300 units poil1ting towards west. Followmg this defmition of·... negati,'c vector we can evaluate the difference of two vectors in the same way as we evaluated the sum of two vectors. Let us evaluate R = A  B ' Thi.." can also be written as R  A + (Bl The graphical construction of finding A  B is shown in Fig 1.5. First we draw the vector A. We thm draw the Vector B. To find A + IB), we now draw the vector '8 such that the tail of B coincides with the tip of A. A vector wbich I t · joins th.. tail of A to the tip of B is the vector (A  B).
A
1.6.5 Law of Para11.1o....111. ofV.ctor.
We can find sum of two vectors anylitically without graphic'al construction ,also. Let us evaluate It • A + B
•
p
A
Q
F
Let A and B be two v"ctors and e the angie bl't\veen them. We construct a parallelogram. PQED where PQ  D& z A and PDQE· B Let EF be perpendicular to the line PQ. In A PFE
_.11
Physics
'"
~
 (PF)" + (FE)" ..; (PQ + QF)" + (FE)'  (PQ)" + (QF)" +2(PQ) (QFl + (J'E)'  (PO)' + [(QF)" + (FE)") + 2 PQ.QF (PQ)" + (QE)" + 2 1'9. QF (PQ)' + (QE)",+ 2 PQ.QE,(QF /QE)
.A2 + B'
(1.3)
R"
+ 2AB cos e
(1 ..4)
(1.5) This expression for R 4i equation (1.5) gives us .the magnitude of the sw;n of two vectors A and • inclined at an RDgle e between them .
. . . .Ic.ij Wbm. e "0 the twO ~ are parallel to each.other.
thenR A+B
ii)
(1.68)
WbeDen/2, R .JA'+B'
(1.6 bl
iii)
WhflI1e.. n the two vectors are anflparallel to each other. They are directed oppOllite to each other.
R· .JA?+B'2AB,
or RBA
RAB
(1.6 c)
The direction of the vectorR with respect toa reference direction be determined analytically. Let the reference direction be the direct:i.oA Oi one.of the vectors, 1lIIY Vector A and R makes an 8DIle a with ..
•
eM.u.o..
tan or. 
EP" EP' B sin 8 .. . • :...........:. PF PQ+QF A+B cos e . Baine tana=A+Bcose
Since A, • and e' are lcnl)WD. the direction of. R' (angle a) can. be eaaib' calculated• .,.alal _ _ :Wecandiscu.. the same speCiaJ. caseaforwbichwe obtained . the magnitude of R•.
when e 0,
tan a
0, . a 0
,
11.881
The direction of R coincide_ with A
iiI' e .. n/2. tan a  B/A
iii) 8 ft.
tan a 0." will be ~ the vector A:or.
. ( 1.SC)
(Ub)
Again. it i. time to check your understanding.
i.
12
Dimension$ and Vector AnalJo:Sis
INTEXT QUESTION'S 1.4"_ _ _ _~_ _~_ __
1.
There are three vectors of magnitudes 8. 16 and 20 units oriented arbitrarily in the same plane. What are the minimum and m...mnum values of the;,. resultant?
2.
A'man ~ 3.0 Ian toward. east and then 4 km towarda north. (a) How far away he is from the atartmg point? (b) What i. the direction of hi. final position?
.............................................................................................................................
'
3.
There are two vectors A and B of equal magnitude with an angle Df 60' between them.. Determine the following graphica1J,y (a) A + Ii " (b) A  B (c) B A (d) A + 2B (e) A  2Il
............................................................................................................ ,...: ............... .
1.7 PRODUCT OF VECTORS 1.7.1 Scalar Product
The scalar product of two vectors.A and B is defined 11$ a sca1ar quantity which is· B. product of the magnitudes of the two vectors multiplied by the cosine of the lingle between the two vectors A.B  AB cose. (1.9) Where e is the angle between the two vectors .A and Bi Fig 1.7. A dot 'sYJ1,lbol between A and. B is put to indicate the scalar product. For this reason the _far product is also called the dot product. The quantities TepTej!lented by the .Vectors A imd B need not have the same . units. The product AB cos e contairis the magnitudes oCthe veCtors onJ.y and is"a scalar quantity. It is therefore easy to appreciate the following relations. A.B  B:A  AB cos e A.(B +C)"  A.B + A.C
A
(1.10)
(1.11)
We Will find a p~ctical Ulle of~ relations in later Chapter. on mechanic.
___ plel.S: 7he two vectors are o/magnitudes IA I 30 and IB I 40 and the angle 8 55' ,calculate the magnitude and direction ofths Vector II  A + B.
IIoIutJoll I"
~per equation (1.5)
;
IRI .JA~' + B~ +:lAB co~~ .
I
1,
I
 ~(30)~ +(40)~ +2x30x40xcos 55°  (900 + 1600 + 2400 x 0.5736)" IRJ . 62.2 (magnitude) Bain9 40xQ.81923 ::::2::;.;. .7:.,;:6=..8 ~a.. A+ Beas9. 30+40xO.57'36 52.944
=
. 13
Physics
 0.6189,
« 31.80
A.
The l:1!suJl:antR~angleof31.8·withvector
Byemple 1.7 I A carl is being puUed by man A towards e.ast with a force of
of30N.
IN I 70N. Thesomecarl.isbeingpulledby .~ manBtowardsNorthwestwithaforoe 30N ~. 135"
B
"'_..J..._____ A.
~,
(a) CalmlatethBresultantforoeacting on the cart. (hI Find the direction ofthis resultant
forc#l,
I
70 N
Is '
Eblutloll :
In this problem .
A70N, B  30 N,e  135·
. R J(70)~+{30)2+2x70x30c~a135°
 ~4900+900+4200xcoa(90+4S)"  ~58004200ain45·.J2821 . ... R, 53.1 N.
BlliD.9 30x sin (90 +45)· _~30.;;.,C;..;08;.;;.4.;;.,S ... ~.;..._ una A+Bcoa9.  70+30coa(90+45)· .70+30(41145°) 30)(0.7071 21.213 4348  703D<.7071  48.787  O.
c
1.7.~
V.OtM Produot
c
The vector product of two vectors A and B ia defined'" a third vector .C whole magnitude is AB sin 8 where 9 is the ~ between the vectors A and S. The vector product is written .
•
.... I ....
......
"....,...
o....."..".,..~'
l'
LfI/·
AxS"C
The msanltude of the prod,uct is
IC 1 AB sin 9
(1.12) (1.13)
There is a edmpte'rwe w find the dfleceton o/tIw wdor C. Stretchthe fingers of your rilht band along the vector A. Now curl the fingers from A towards S through the smaller ansle 8 between A and S. The Thumbwbich is erect points in the direction of the vector C. If one follows this rule one can easily aee b t
AxS(BXA)
(1.14)
': A and S are in a horilontal plal!.e with an acute angle 9 between them as
~14
y 1.Asine A~ +A.!I'"". the ~rproduct is also called as cross product. (direction) (1..17) The sign of tan e detennines tlle quadrant of the coordinate axis. and A.. are A. Following the definition of unit vector. These are.9 shows a vector A in a rectangular coordinate system.. . The components A. I. " .l and k as unit vectors along the x.. Conversely.. (A cap over the letter represents a unit vector)..y to handle the resolution of more than one vectors in a three dimensional space is to introduce the concept of unit vectors. (magnitude) (1. OF VECTORS A vector can be resl'\ved into components with respect to a particular coordinate system. The process is called ruolutfon o/~r into • com.Di1r. In the rectangular coordinate system we choose t. we can obtain the components A.19) 15 . from the tip of the vector on the coordinate Ax 1'1& 1. '!be vector A can be written as .ensions and Vector Analysis shown in the figure 1. This can be easily extended to three dimensions. and A.e. we can obtain the magnitude and direction of the vector.C will point vertica1ly downwards..0 is 'a unit. .and B.i + Ayj A=ialAl (1.16) tane • A..18) B.1S the ansle which the vector A makes with + X axis. If we know the vector A i. + A.8 RESOLUTION.... A more convenient wa. Let us draw perpendiculars Ay L~ __ ~ _________ X axes.A sin e (1. We will make use of these relations later. A."""'P""0n. The tail of the vector coincides with the origin 0 of the cooTdinate system../A. We get quantities A.porwnta. and A.. ifwe know the components. A. A2(cos29+1Ii. y and z directions respectively. we know the magnitude A and the direction with respect to a reference axis. + I I i Where 1. • A cos e ~ .n 28) A2 = = A.. • Acose A.C will point vertically upwards and B x A .vector in the direction of A.8 then A x B . Fig 1.i+Byl (1. called components of the vector A. Let us do some simple mathematics for a two dimensional system.15) whflre e . Because of a cross ~ between A.. ~A.!fhII_ A aIDng 11M! _gular 00I>I'd/naI8 .. B. A.
3i . e e WI ~J IRIJ{R~+R~) tanB=We solve the following problem to illustrate the efficacy or thiil analyticaJ .. ~)m .4) Find ths awn fJ/ths IIIJCtora A + s.. !II .': 7\uo IIIJCtora are gillen below . ..... 4) m .. IUId t»A ..lO'~~~""'.2 e'· .. method of addition of vectors... 5 16 .."l.willlie 1n the lVquadrant.If. ' .2. ..io_"...'kr _ _ _ . . A.hall8~(.2i+31 and B . .RJR. R=A. 2 + ~.. y n 9 +y ~""""" __ ~ _ _ _ :It I .. WWte... ill _ . . .... 9. ~.10.. (bl BvaluGM (JIA . thl\ .1.~_.. . ~ 9" • wll 1_".pte I... .3.ci1l8l1l.. . make an _ ....l.5 ~341 Bz .1/+5 .. 1•• ' 7\uoJHIirUAG7IdBinthsXYpItme. " ....+Bz .R. .. . cUad B t»A ~. R" . ..+ .. R_.3.1 ' tg'e ..10Cb) A.i.lOfIl} A N "".4 (a) ....)'..JS3 +1 3 ... nl ·th X 8XIS. _ _ ....+B R. e I x y . and~... B.A. "'" """'""" No Suppose ~ attempt to find the sum of the two vectors A and B... 101"': Accordina to our nOtation A" ..This is shoWn in the Fig 1... 1.Let eveCtor VB.ssionaj'or posiCion 1IeCtcQ qf A.J26*5.3.
. . (i) (ii) .uS peI'IIOq B ill ~ it ~ the _ .What ia the direction of•....10: f{avec:tOrCiatldtkdtouedDr. (b) tan .. The cIInaIfaa.t A ill JNlIinI... .ven here e is in the m quadrant... It.167 " AcCOfdinl to the tablea IP.e.~It. ..• ..._____________ 1. .. 13i +2]). 1. ' 0214) By aubtractlnsWellet. d'lll block CIa the 1Ioor... 1/ • 51 • 2J~ .. .(21 +4]) '8j. tan' .ia subtractedfrom C the ~ ia 5i + 4 j lIoIattoa: Given. to . ' )r.111 GiCllm ..:+It.. "'"'" .1. . . (2 i.. it..TIXT QUB&TIOR 1..+".221°. Wbo WiD lie ... .. .  A +.. ...(31 +2J)+{2i +4J) .  21 + 8] . .. . 4j.. tanI (4).. ' .i +4) A..141 12ja • 71 61 7 . '8'. .~ It. e .4•• " .:.."tloal What ia the (oJ ~ and (II) ditlill:JCiDia ofA A. of 'the .Ji7.. the blOClk em the IIoor man uaat\). 2041.... Therefore.. theraultia9i ."51+4) By adding we . 4 1t...1Iitb.. &". I+1J :...61 + 1 (al By addiq Ii) and(ii) we pt 2A. .(2i+6Jt RA  .uS wb:T? ' 17 ...':L4 hin (h) R.~ 1 and A....1Io1atloa: (a) The poai~on vector RA  13 i +2)) W. with .. TMre ill a . . 2. . B.S.. _ . JIg . • + C '91 sl • • 0. to the IIoor ill 30' In' both _ ..6 1. 1. e ' A I' e.
..... E.. A boy i... weat and the"..peed in water? (e) What i. dimen........d as stanaard kilograrn.... in 1 m' a . A force of 200 N is applied on a.ely. component•• 1 1... the aoce1oration of a inbvina....Law of perelle1"11l'&lX'of ""ctora.• Th.p. u i. a u.axis. S.0 that he apin com•• back to the ..... How IIW\Y atop. e...... force S N lind m. The other 'units are cl~lled der... ' If X· At + Elf (where x io diotan....... EvelY physical quantity h . ~ and "" are the base units of the SI foJ' measuring ma.. 1. (i]Scalar product R • A••• AS CO... hi.peed of S Ie nIh .tiIl water.... effe¢ive ....peed of the fute..body at an angle of 120· with the positive X .. The dimensional lll'a'Iyai. 3....._ _ _ _ _ _ __ . relltin& on ... pull... at'..tepa.. A vector A of magnitude 50 m is in the XY plane and makes an angle of 300 with the X .d in the river? IS.......ubtrection of vectora . toward.. (aj Will he be able'to reach the north bank exactly at the oppoaite point? (h) What i. belni pulled? (h) What is the direction of its displacement? A river i.en the floor and the tablit in ..Vt::d UTl1t:" A standard mass ot an alloy material has been acceptp..peed 4 km/h IIIw~ heoding toward. hill field.... ~d t~mp. 299192458 One second i. 120 km/h" in metre per aecond? What Will be the .. A owi2nmer io IWimmina from' the BOUth bank with a .. the boat 1110111 BOUth with a force 12 N mel another mail. tied at the .. IR I • AS oi..... i... What are the X i!lnd Y components of this veclor? . aioter i.... There ere two rope.... One man pull...9. 133 atom to undergo 9192631170 vibratiOn. about 10"· m.. it al0lll eut with a force of lIS N. of A his boat i........... . 2.lengtl ...tarting point.. the time required for c. In mechanics.tep.... in 'another direction .. There ere vector and . WIlY. 3. tho re.. of velocity. where a iii di... A vector eon be re....at iii the ' moanitude of the reoultes)t force which i.olved inte it..e lind t i. • • . 7........eful tool UI check the correctn••• of mathematic expre. walkin& aero. The diameter of lin atom i•.. QUltSTIOIfS.. ...... speed lind a i.... • • • One meter i.....calar quantitie•.. then ah""......tenee...... north......ultes)t force with which'the boat i. pu1lina • table toward. that (A + 3 BI'J h ....e .. The direction of R i. Th.... eut with .olid...... in a cIarIc nicht 10... ' 4..........axi•.. (ii) Vector product R • A • • ..... ....derlllsd.. Addition and . the direction of hi. dimension. the diatance travelled by light in Vl\CUum in secona.' ... 'ii1t...ame .timate the number of atom. What are the directions and magnitudes of the rectangular components of this force? .o..... a force of friction of IN betw.Dectl.lion•... flowina: toward..Physics 2.10 TJtRMUfAJ.. e«ective ape... He wll1ka 100 toward...e~ Show that the expreuion •• ut + y.. r"'!.9 • • • WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT_ _ _ _ _ _ __ Every physical quantity is measured in some system of units.....tep..... dimenaionll1ly correct. ~e dimenaion..... north and then ...... south with . (aj What i.. 60 ...... We in physics adopt the SI.ional1y co......wry direction. and in 18 .ome point on the boat... time) i.... i..... kg......is. e1........lt with a force 4N on the horizontal floor of !I:1e heu"'! .  1. hi..... pu1lina the _ e table toward.... aver....'l 8... particle...t train in India i. movin& the I":1>le? A man 8..ct. i..
A Fill 1..54 10 .O~. Find Fig 1. Find the magni· tude of his displacement.. particle moves with a velocity A 100m 10.The angle between them is 60"..'2 mi.3 a L 9A A sin (K. 1 feet < .1. y~ oe ..2 r  .11. Two vectors .. 19 .. . starting from the point A and ending at the point B.1 sq. are obtained by the combination of the fundamental units and there can be any number of derived units.1 feet .. Y'hl< or ..54 x '2. 3. . .( MO \.~etion he walked in his third movemert? Sol"" the problem graphica1ly. g." I.. .2 1.B) i ANSWERS TO THE INTEXT QUESTIONS latex!: Q1aMtlozuI 1.m' I a _ Quatl. 4 2 m+nl.29 .60 9' ... v along east for 5 seconds and then towards V north with veloCity for 5 seconds. 2.'. A person walks along the paths shown in Fig 1.oa 1. What is the direction of the' acceleration? 11.B (b) A x B and its direction.Dimensions and Vector Analysis what 9.. A block of mass 5 kg is sliding on an in· clined plane making an angle of 30· with horizontal.he m~tude of the' force driving the block along the plane? 12.13 13.418..1 micro metre.~g 1. feet 1)( 12 )( 12 x 2.1 h 60. vocgmhn RHS  rI' Ii' . 1O.11 300m (a) How much is the change in velocity per second. Whereas the derived unit._.. di..22.. 1..12 (oj A.t + K. n . given by A ' 3 2 i j and B2 5 j . What is ..o (RHS) 2m 1 929 10 :. for the following orientation (A and B are in horizontal plane).lndamental unite are independent units and they are only seven in number. 4500 aq feet 45< 9. 4.. I). v 2.4 =.'f. T''''' Compare (LHS) L' 11 Lm+n T"":1m. (b) Change in velocity per second is de· fined as acceleration. Two vectorsare A·"" 8 units and B "" 5 units. nln. Calculate (A i' B) and (A . = 80lan 80 x 1000 =m/a 200 .. The."m .
.44 Wlit." .f.6 unitII . in meter. a .1t... ..~1·1_l___ IO" _ " . A persoR may CODlume ItVmootb •• 10 tVyur. ::I.....t Q I a 1.....1..... Dim.. MiDimumwhen antipanllJel.9.4 unitII per hour.:: 10 Wlite/dIIf.1':' K. 20 .t will be .4 ..... .bo" let Ia..200 ._ IIoaIii: Q 1..L. ......' (III ..: lr. 2. . > (.l . DimenojOll of K..lc .200 .. . 3650 unitII.4 • ~ ..9000 X 10· K• _ Q r at 1. 120" ...A. 16.>. . .. in ( ) mU8t be djrnenoiOllIe...IIboiat 53" (III a. ponIIeI . . . ..111IIId . tile bloc:k ia _tbidl.ti_ all three .YL'M"T" Quanti~ dieplacem""t ia .Ra 10950 .. In one dIIf 0. K. 50 iii! 3f1" . . 120"  roo.lin 30" Pkam . .....t pWI~ 3.. tbN1 pu.L' .~ . 0 1. 3f1"  25.L' Applied f'on:e 3.. ../i .25.. (K. . 8. ~. it . ". IAI .x..a :A 3km 2.t + K.r..3 0.. l. 20 IDIIfPJitude. _ _ _ '.\h.I.50 ... .""ee LHS. .L"M" T".. . t l'IIMrin(Jthtt bled: ~ abOw ficwu it ia cle. . For • popalalion of 900 X 106 Tular la" .33 _ . Per . Gnopbic. ..)("LT". Maximum of ....M L 'f<' A .th. 60"... m F m Fon:e . t> A A .cceJeration Cl. Cooot 3650 • 3 ... (bI __ 4/31....oi"" of K..· RHS .. ')DO • <_ p../i 0\ .A .4 uniU.
. you should be able to. be in a straight line. In this lesson we shall confine our attention to we Illotion in a straight line leading to the description of motion in general.. It is.mve 0" ~ apply equaUons motion with constant acceleration. motion of a car on a straight road. fish.2 i OdJECTlVES recall distance.. 2. motion of a train along its straight rdils.1...:. the study of motion "is very mucb. motion of a lift. animals. ~placement. in a plane or in the space. explain Instantaneous velocity. The birds and aeroplane move in air. For example. Though we do not see but the earth (. speed anq velocity. draw and interpret velocity . draw and interpret position .time graph jor uniform and nOnuniform motio"..1 YO)! INTRODUCTION see a number of things moving around you. vehicles can be seen moving on land. In the next and the following lessons you will study about the laws of motion. ! I ! I i ! • • • • • • • ~ oj . explain relative velocity and average velocity. motion of a freely falling body. To understand and describe the phySlc. and dRscrib~ :flotion ul'lc/f. People.in only one direction.. . define acceleration and instantaneous acceleration. motion in a plane and other various types of motions.2 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE 2. The sun and the moon appear tomove in the sky. quite apparent that we live in 8 world that is very much in motion. and motion o(an athlete running on a straight track. Motion car. frogs and other aquatic animals are seen moving in water.time graph. If the motin'~ lfthe object is .gravity.. which we live also moves. therefore. essential. Mter studying this lesson. world around you. it is said to be the "motion in a straight line'.
"3. The averageveloci13T of an object is defmed as the rate of change of displacement.23 24 . the average velocity is given by the relation Vav 2 = t2 tl x XI Ast. XI 3s 20)( (3 S)2 ms'" = 20mx9s2 180m As t.2 s X.1: An object is moving along the X .20 )( 10. K Solution ~ Given.1) and. understanding the average speed and average veloci13T clearly. ~ 3.e. Thus ~e displacement is a vector quantity' but the distance is a scalar. Example 2. X. 2.. .axis whose coordinate is x 20f' ms2 . 20 fI m!l'2 We lmow. average speed = total distance travelled total time taken For. times respectively. You would also h!!. v=X2 X. ms·l = 120ms·1 U. read the following examples.ve learnt that the ra~ of change of distance with time is called speed whereas the rate of change of displacement of a body is lmown as its uelocUy_ Unlike speed velpci13T is a vector quanti13T. whereas the average speed of an object is obtained by dividing the total distance travelled by the total time taken.. Let XI and X. Hen"e.2 s.3 VELoCITY AND ACCELERATION In your earlier classes you would have studied that the total length of the path travelled by a body is distance whereas the difference between the initial and final position of the body is called its dfsplac4lment. . . its rate of motion is measured by its average veloci13T or average speed. are the positions of the object at tl and t.2 m .2 22 .1 Average Velocity When an object travels with different velocities. Basically the displacement is the Sh~rtest distance between the two position and has a certain direction.20 x (3. where t is the time variable. t2 _ tl or v = At Ax (2. average veloci13T displacement v= time taken i.2 sl" mr . Calculate the average velocity o/the object over the time interval from 3 s to 3.204 m 204180 3.Physics 2.
+ 70 km/h And.. . Letthe train is going due west relative to the surface of the earth. The earth in tum is moving due east relative to the sun.300 m.~.. SupP.Given. ttvA and' lie are the velocities of the two point objects along a straight line. average velOcity= 120 ms' Example 2. 200 300 1 1 o 1 2.2: A man nms on a 300m circular track and comes back on the starting point in 2008... I . The sun itself is moving around our galaxy.. the relative velocjty of B with respect to A will be VB . Hence. The velocity (ve) of car.' due south. It means the girl is moving with respect to the train... it·ttiay be a tedious job. I i . 23 .. What is the velocity of car B relative to the car'A? . theveIocity (v~) of car A = 60 kIn/I. All velocities are thus relative. What is the average speed and average velocity afthe man? Sohtiou : .. Our galaxy is moving relative to other galaxies. ! .0 Total distance travelled = ..5ms 200 displacl!fuent Time taken ==Oms.VA' The rate of change of the ... the velocity of a body is always specified with respect to some other body.latfw locCt. the velocity is relative in nature. average velocity . Thus ifyou want to find the absolute velocity of the girl.3: A car A is moving on roadfrom North to South with a speed of 60 km/ 11... The displacement . 200 s The man comes back to th~ same point :. For example. The relative velocity of an object A with respect to another object B is the rate at which A changes its position relative to B.2 RelativeVeloclty Whim we say that a bullock cart is moving at 10 km h.relative position of an object with respect to the other object is knOwn as the . Thus.Motion in a Straight Line Hence.OSe a girl is walking in the compartment of a moving train in the direction of the motion of the train. average speed Time taken Total length of the track. it means the velocity of the cart with respect to the earth is 10 km h1 .03. Another car B is movingfrom South to North onthe same road with Q speed of 70 km/ 11. ~nsidering the direction from South to North as positive. 2.rI of that object with respect to the other. Infact.. =ms =1.l3 . Time taken to cover this length K and. I .
... Is it pooaible to have some aver. .....3) .. I... the direction is positive.. 6 180 a = 0.....lU::celeration is a vector quantity and its Sf unit is m/s' . ... .....Initial velocity Average acceleration (aa.~ .. ...e dilfVwd as ttrne rt:d:e oJ change oJ velocity. (25) '"6 m/s = 3 miri .....t!on ofthe cyclist... = t2 tl U 2 VI flv = M (2...180 s... Now.... . ... ... the acceleration can b.. In gerteral.. .... .. .compl!1e the accelerQ... .. the velocity of car B relative to car A . ...\cceleration is a vector and therefore has a direction. you would have noticed that some titne it speeds up and some time slows down..celeration is in the same direction as the motion or velocity (notmally taken: to be in the positive direction). ... A womlUl went to the market at a speed of 8 lan/h.. Finding market closed she returned back to her home with a speed of 10 lan/h. ..... . when the aC... This change occurs with time: Just as the velocity is defined as the time rate of change of position.... ....... 2.... ... .. ..... . for horiz!lfJtal motion....O) = 130 lan/h.2) 1 he' fnstantaneotIs ciccelenztion a is dejiried as the limiting value of the average acceleration.. 70  2...1 ____________' ............ I t x 25 1 INTEXT QUESTIONS 2........ Hence. it is time to check your progress. ....... However...Physics Hence..... . as we let t..... for a moW1g object? . .....4: A cyclist starting from rest attains a veloctty of lS'fanI hiP.H .... .3 Acceleration Whiletravelling in bus or car.... Solve the fonowing questions..velocity aa.. 24 .... :.......... ... lim flv dv a = M ~ 0 At = dt (2. acceleration of cyclist = 0... .e taken for change in . f. Final velocity .. speed but avera.. The average acceleration of an object is given by.....v .... ..023m/ s".023 m/s'........... If the market i.. .ge velocity to be . 2 km ~ from her home calculate her average velocity and average speed....... > . . .. ... AcCeleration a =V 21\1 .) = Til......may be in th~ apposite direction ofth~ mo' tion.....ollltion : Given... ...v ...~ ("{.... 3 min...... ... Then the acceleration is taken as negative which is often ca1led a deceleration or ~ hample 2.t approach zero... an acceleration.. thus changing its velocity... VI = 0 ' 15 lanlh t . . ..3..o...... .....
. the time is represented on xaxis whereas the position of the body is represented on yaxis.t to ""other body?· Clive example. ·Such a curve is known as position .a Straigbthme 3.. if the object covers a distance of 10 m in each second for 5 seconds... Generally.T~ GRAPH If you roll a ball on ground. abodyat. JDOVe in perpendicular direebDllll with uniform _de of 30 km/h and 40 km/h reepectiYely. The different positions and corresponding time can be p~otted on graph giving us certain curve.a I motion. Calculate the <eIative speed of A with respect to B. Let us plot a position . you will notice that at different times. Two can· A and B atart. as shown in the following table. the ball has different positions. let us consider a case when an object covers equal distance in equal interval of time.time cwve. .2. It means the speed·of the object 1S uniform...... The positiontime graph will be as shown in Fig 2.. Can a moviDg body have relali'lle velocity . For example.· You see the stationary body does not change its position with time. the positiontime graph for a stationary body comes to be a straight line paralled to the time axis. Ifth~ body was at a position of20 m at a certain time and it is at rest.4 POSITION .. from the same point to !Ill 4. curve comes to be ~ht line CI?ld it shows that the slope of the curve is constonti~e. and position on yaxis with a scale of 1 cm to be equal to 10 m. Hence...1..time graph for a body at rest.. • • • 1'1& a. such a motionfn which too :rao 1.1 PositionTime Gral'h rol' 'Unirorm Motion Now.l. Time(!) in (s) Pasition(~ 1 10 2 20 3 30 4 5 50 in(ml 40 In order to plot this data. I 4 5 1'1& a.. . 40 j The.graph far 2. the graph comes to be as shown in Fig 2. Hence. take time on xaxis assuming 1 em as 1 s. the time rate of change of position oCthe object is constant.Motion in. the positions of the object at different times Will..4. PositIonIima_  5 " for unifOPAl 25 . 2. with .
Ifthe distances covered in successive intervals are increasing.time graph is a straight line inclined to the time axis. the Dlotion is said to be accelerated motion.3) But the straight line having inclination with time axis shows that the motion is unifonn. the position . 2. I TIme(&) 1'I&3.of the body can.Physics the _locft:g of the mOltIng object fa constant fa known as wtfform motion.8. The fnstantcureous ~ can also be determined which will be equal to the slope of the cUrve at that'instant. Be· and CD portions represent uniform motions but with different velocities.  . See the Fig.3 Interpretation of Positlol1 ._graph/ar a~_ l'I&a. th.l'fonUniformMotion Let us take an example of a train wh.4.4. A A B i 0 i I j time (I) D I B ·1 z. 2. you cansav that . be determined.4.2 PositionTime Graph for.. " ~auw.time graph of different moving objects can be different. For uniform motion the position . HoweVer.aph As you have seen. I t .. the positiontime graph can be a coritinuous curve also..ic:h starts from one station speeds up. The positiontime graph for such an object is as shown in Fig. In this case you will find that the d'lstcinca r:ouered In equal fnteroala oftVrur __ not equaL Such Cl motion eanbe called as lionunifOrm motion.e wholejoumey shown by the graph represents nonuriiform motion.. In such a sitUation in any interval of time the average speed . it i's called unVorm motion.Time Gr.e OA. In other words we can say that when the moVIng object covers equal distances in equal intervals of time..straight line parallel to the time axis:. Hence. I C I A I t.4. . 26 . 2. lfit is..3. I . then m()Ves with uniform velocity for certain duration and before stopping at other .. It means the djstances covered in different intervals of time are di!ferent. the velocity of the body is changing continuouSly.station Slows down. From·this graph you will notice that tjJ. _ _ _ " . (Fig' 2. 2. The' portion AB shows the stationaiy position of the body. the body is at rest.
12 with what speeds are travelled by ob. Notice that the slope is also equal to" the tangent of the angle that the straight line makes with a horizonta1line. from Fig. t 2 t.5 20 27 . 1 ! time ii B o """':.'· In such a case the velocity of the particle at some one instant of time or at some one point of its path. At AC Hence. (ii) 5 s to 10 s.£ 4 What is the average speedfo" this total journey in time 20 s? c OL++iii!=::".time graph: The slope of the straight line of position ..5: The position . velocity of object = slope of line AB. is called its instantaneous velocity.6: The position . the velocity ofthe object. What distances . 'ii 8 (iii)10s to 15 s (iv) 15 s to 20s? . As a result the slope or the average velocity varies. choose any two points (say A and B) on the straight line (Fig. tan 6 = lUI At. Taking the limit At~ 0.For determining the slope.3) and form a triangle b'y drawing lines parallel to y axis and xaxis. But in the case of the nonuniform motion the position .Motion in a Straight Line (al Velocity from position .time v X 2 X1 IU BC graph.time graph pf two bodies A and B is as shown in the figure.time graph comes to be a curved line as shown in Fig. depending on the size of the time intervals selected·..time graphfor the motion of a point object is as shown in figure. However.e. (bl Instantaneous velocity: Asyou have learnt that the velocity of the uniform motion in a straight line is same at every instant..5 5 10 time (s) 15 17. more will be the velocity.t graph for body A is greater.2.Ii! ject in tiem (i) 0 s to 5 s. Example 2.~ A E F 2. Thus.3. 2.4. i. Because the slope of the x .5 : Displacementtime grophfar a non~unifonn motion.'+rrr . Any two corresponding IU and At intervals can be used to determine the slope and thus the velocity. 2. Example 2. Which ofthem has larger velocity? Solution: The body A has larger velocity.time graph gives the velocity of the object in motion. 2 3 Time (seconds) FIg 2. It shows that more the slope (lUI At) of the straight line of position . the slope (lUI At) of a line tangeni: to the curve at that point gives the instantaneous velocity. for uniform motion the average and instantaneous velocities are the same.
.... home•..... IlV'tEXT QUBSTIOBS.......:! .. ..pi""""..? ~ ~ : . ................... Time 50 5 .... ...... .. ......ant • time _ h for twa _dent..... ... with .......... (vil Who·.... ~... . . .... ............... . ... .hqti.... ...."........s Sobattoa: iJ . ... ............... . ! •• ~ ..........~and maximUm timeto reacI1....... . =2....==0...ochooilOl1clreed>e......' ..... ...... ~ .. . .. nUl rolb!win& fi&w'e ahowa the m...... ... ....... .. . ........ ... the apeeda of.... ..._·==1........ . c (1)) (e) • 28 .....· WhIch of the follcnriD&_h.......... .... ""'..... ~ . time _h r.. . ..~ ..A and B when they ..... . m........ ! •••••• ......'·nOt ~. .....2 _1bI 3 4 ~ II 6 .... . .. ................_... .. ................2.e?' ' ' . . ... During 0 s to 5 s distance travened • 4 ~ Distance 4 4· The speed ......... ~.....(iVI Who mowa fat? ••• H .. . ....... ..... ....~ .. ..... 2.. ....0 iv) During 15 s to 20 s distance travelled 12~. ......"........ .. u ••••••• .... ......... ........ each other? ... . ............ D) During 5 to 10 s distance travelled .. ~ ••••  ..... ..... . .... .. The speed ..... ..... . .... ...... .."... amotio.......'~ . . . ....... .. ~. . ....... reachea home B ••••••• ! ... .. their .........1' . ...... 2........_......1ce traveiIed ........... .... .... ......6 ~/s 105 5 iii) During 10 to 15 s~taI. .............. ..... ~......... ..8 m Is ....... See..... ............. ........ (vi ~...............'.............. ~~~.. .. . .. ..4 8 ~ 124 8 'The speed ...4 ~ /s Time 2015· 5 Stop.t.......~ 1.... ...... .... . ... ......: . ....d B ...... .... .takea 1.. : ...... .... . ......... and solve the following questions to check your progress..... ..... .... ... ... Distance 12 12 .. ................... ~ ~ aive~ of your .. ................._~.. .. . 12 126 'The speed.. 4. . A "... ...•••••••••• ~ •• .. ................. ...... ... . firat? the fo11cnrin&.. . ~ .. .... ............ .... .............12 .. ........ .... Draw the pooition~. :. ~. airefull:y a n d _ ' ... .............Physic...... ................ .. lOIXieIendion•. Who who _from th.........
 ! • B l~ 10 I 2 3 4 i' u'J 0 m/s ~ f 5 D IiIDc(II n . as shown in the figure 2.. 3. 3.2 VelocityTi~e Graph for NonUniform Motion If the velocity of a body changes uniformly with time. the slope of the straight line is constant. generally the time is taken on xaxis and the velocity on yaXis. 111 IJ. is a straight line inclined to the time axis. Such a graph can be termed as velocity . Since. In such a situation. there may be case of nonuniform motion in which the rate of v.II t.1 Velocity .uia.6.e slope of the velocity . there is no change in the velocity with the change in time..5. . oLt "iii' 3. t. the acceleration of the body is constant and its magnitude is given by a II.5 VELOCITY .7 by the straight line All.time graph. It is clear from the graph that the velocity increases by equal amounts in equal intervals of time. Line 2. The velocj.6. 2.t v However.constant. as shown in Fig 2.5.time graph for such a motion of a body. we can plot a graph between the velocities of the moving body and the corresponding time. as shown in the figure 2.8. 2. For plotting a velocity .time graph. For constant 'acceleration the average and the instantaneous accelerations are equBI. in the uniform motion in a straight line the velocity of the body remain constant i. IJ.Motion in a Straight. motin w:ill wJ¥:bg a _ t i n .7. the acceleration is .time graph.\y .. Velocitytime graph/or .Time Graph for Uniform Motion As you know.. 1h.8. 29 . Velo<:ilytim& graph fOr uniform  n . The velocitytime graph for such a uniform motion is a straight line parallel to the time axis.tionin the velocity is not constant.e.TIME GRAPH Just like the position .timegraph will va!)' at every instant. • Veloc/ty'Timegraphfora motion: with constant aooelero:tion.
..'. the porti!in ~.At + 0 At = dt dv Thus. .3 Interpretation ofVeloo1ty .Physics 2.firJun.. Thus distance . The portion BC represents . .. . can Ia! Detel'lllliDatloa or the dlst_c. whel'eas the portion CD.ine the disUulce travel1edby the body and also the accd.~ "' . lesson:. ' 'bemple 2. ThUll...ceeb:ation.. 4t f ~.tBRlpn  determ. B.it velocity . the instantaneous a. . taken closer and closer to the first.limit Av a . shows the constantly retarded motion....)( (KL + MN) )( KN t.9 the time taken.A. b.ahows the· motion with Constant acCeleration.time graph 9f a body using v .unifom:a motiOll. . Which one htJs the maximum iJccel ation and how tnuch? (ii) Calculate the distances travelled by theSe bodies injirst 3 s.. the acceleration of a body is defined as the ratio of the change in its velocity l.ratfDn at the point A is defined as the .l )( (t. 4V If the point B is taken ClOser and closer to the point)\.l (It) DeteI'iIIl_tioa orthe _"ratioa or the bod.their journey? (iv) What are the vef«:!ties at the instant of2 s? (i) :!:s .__ . .. + v.Yo)( (v.!!.slo'p« oJ the ~t at CI point oft u.. .t. to t.atfon at that fnstant or at that point.fimeGraph As you ha~ seen the.eration of the body at different instants.area " .Y. velocity ..05.area oftrapaziumKLMN . and C are given in the folJm.. . the body: Consider... . tta_Ue.. the ~ _r.ujng.FiaIu. tfyou look at the velocity time graph giVen in the Fig 2.7: 7JteiJelocitytimegraphsfor .: As you haVe relld earlier in this .. and then the average acceleration be computed over shorter and shorter intervals of:time.As you have seen earlier.time graph as shown in the . The average acceleration is represented by the slope of the chord AB..e 2. u.9.7. and t... The distance travelled by the body from time under the cmve between t. which is giv~ by average acceleratlon ((1. is given bythe.' _z. (iii) Which of theSe three bodies cover the maximum di8tcince at the endof. three different bodies. Let us study qpw can we do so. 6 A B· f: 1 c 30 .lodqf .. gfNsu... B ".limiting value of the average acceleration when the seccmd point is .) .
The initial position (x. As yo:u know from the defmitiQIl of accelerat:ion. generally known as equations oJrrwtionJorconstant acceleration or kinematical equations. II. for describing the motion ofan object.. )( 6 x 6 . (iv) At 2 s.t graph for A body is maximum Lin~ . .II. let us take initial time t. = O.. . the velocity of A the velocity of B the yelocity of C ·4m/s ·2m/s . its acceleration is maximum. the velocitY acquired and the distance travelled in a given time can be calculated by using one or mOl"e of three equations.II. x 1 x 3 = 1. . are easy to use and will frod many applications in this course.0.5 m.18 m.Motion in a Straight Solution: (i) Since the slope of the v .) of an object will now be represented by Xu and va and at time tthey will be called x and v (rather than X.tbe the elapsed time. In first 3 s..v = 3 _ 0 = 3 =2 m / s 60 6 2 .e.) and initial velocity (v. to be zero i. In order to derive these equations.6 EQUATIONS OF MOTION WITH CONSTANT ACCELERATION As we have studied earlier.7.. and v..).. the distance travelled by C ..t graph . x 3 x 3 = 4.t fl. For the cases of constant acceleration. (ii) The distance travelled by a body is equal to the area of the v . According to the equation 2.80 mls (approx.) 2. (iii) At the end of the journey. velocity and acceleration are used.. the maximum distance is travelled by the bodyB. We can then assume t. a=vVo t (2.4) 2.5 m.t graph gives the acceleration. a = fl.x6x39m.'hange in velocity (a) T' Acceleration " une taken . the physical quantities like distance. the distance travelled by B = Area OBL .5) 31 . " the distance travelled by A = Area OAL ... As the slope of the v . These equations. • . t...V.1 the average velocity during the time twill be V= xx t 0 (2.1 Jl'irst Equation of Motion The first equation of motion helps in determining the velOCity of an object after a certain time when the acceleration is given.
7) Since. At what distcznoe time wiU the car Bcatch up with A? and SOlution: Suppose the car B catches up car A.. x=x o + ( vo+at+Vo) t 2 (2.2 Second Equation of Motion Second equation of motion is used to calculate the position of an object after a time t when it is undergoing constant acceleration a. For car A. v x=x o +(v+ o}t 2 Putting v· Vo + at. :.(v + vo)/2 (2..y..9) This is known as the second eqllation of mOUon. F'lmn the definition of average velocity.6. we get. v.. the distance travelled in t time is given by . x !Ii. of 70 /ani h. .9: A car A is travelling on a straight road with a Wliforrn speed..Another car B foUowing it is moving with Wlifarm velocity. Bample 2. + v•• t (2. the car B is given (J deacceleration of20 /anlh".you know xxc V. the velocity v = 0 + 10 x 5 v .7) and (2. When the distance betuJeen them is 2.6) This is known as the first equation of motion. the distance travelled in t time • X· 60 )( t For car B.5 Ian.Physics This equation gives I v= va + at I (2. Haw fast will it be going after 5 s? sOlution: Given.8: Ifa car startingfrom rest has an acceleTation of 1 Qm/8'. .8). v.. . at a distance x after t time. 0 Initial vel~ity va Acceleration a = 10 m/s' Time t = 5 s Using first equation of motion v = vo+at Mter...· t So.50m/s 2.. time t = 5 s. of 60 /ani h. will be midway between the ~tial and final veloci~.8) Combining the equations (2. the aver:age velocit. Example 2. the velocity increases at a uniform nite •.
hour :. and the final velocity is desired but the time tis not known. ~ .ist moVes along a srraight road with a constant accelerution 4 ms2 • Ifinitially she was at a position of 5 m and had a velocity of 3 m. Thus. we obtain. a.15 kill.10 t' = 70 x¥. From equation (2. v = vo+at x .6.s'. we get x x x+~· o ( V+vo IVv o ) 2 a } 2a ) On aolving this for Ii'.5 m. Vo .10 f') .n ill a Straight Line x = ~ + vot + Y. (20)x t' = 70t.5 :.~ + v••.10 t' .5).10 t+ 2. = 35 .5 or 10 t' . at' = 0 + 70 x t + y.7).» .2. t or x I I I _~ + (11+2110  )t But from equation (2. you have VVo ·t  I i ! a Substituting this into the above equation.10) This is known as third equation of motion. (70 t.2 s.(60 1) = 2.5 = 0 It gives t ¥.10: A motorcyc1. the three equations for constant acceleration are. x ~ 70 t .Motic.3ms'.~ + vot + Y2 at' and v 2 =II~ +2a (xxol Bxample 3.5 = 32. position and initial velocity are known.xo+ ( v' v~' 11I'=v~+2a(XXo) I (2.4 ms2 • (i) Using equation 33 . : We are given. x But.3 Third Equation of Motion.s'. . = 2.10 X (Y.. you have. (ii) the position of the motorcyclist when its velocity is 5 m. Solutio.. The third equation is used in a situation when the acceleration. x. find (i) the position and velocity at time t . the ~ betweenbvo cars is xx=2.
8m/s· .0 + 0 .1 Velocity. y . irrespective of their size or weight. Such type of motions under the influence of gravity only.10 m.6.S )( (2)' 19.5) We get. (i) distance travelled in 2 s. For our practical use the effect of air resistance and the variation in acceleration with altitude is taken negligible . Using the equation (2. Example 2.. Though'the acceleratl. the yaxis (vertical axis) below it will be negative. 2. Thus. SolutioD : Given.6m.11 : A stone is droppedfrom a height of 10 m and itfalls freety Calculate the following...) (5)'· (3)' + 2 x 4 x (x.9..vot + II. Y . + vot + II. Height(h) .. are also one dimensional or motion in a straight line.8 m/s'rMore precise values. affl We get. Thefreefall ofa bodytowarcb the earth1$one of the most common uample of motion with (nearly) constant acceleration. In the absence of air resistance it is found that all bodies. At or near the earth's surface its magnitude is approximately 9.in the negative.9). (ii) velocity o/the stone when it reaches the ground.direction. at' = 5 + 3 x 2 + II. Do you' knoY\' why they come to the earth and what type of path they follow? It is because of the gravitational force acting on them. x 4 Position. initial position (Yo) to be zero and the origin 0 at the starting point. (Ii) X (2)' Using equation v" = vo' + 2a (xx. the value of ag. fall with the same acceleration at the same point on the earth's surface. (iii) velocity at 3 s.Iia x 9. but for the small distances compared toJhe earth's radius.4 Motion under gravity You must 'have noticed that when we throw a body in the upward direction or drop a stone from a cectain height. Ii .II.The acceleration of a freely falling body due to gravity is denoted fly •d'.. Since. and its variation with height and.Physics x = x. the acceleration is downward . Initial velocity (vo) = 0 Considering.on due to gravity varies with altitude. it remains constant throughout the fall. gff' . Hence position of the motorcyclist (x) = 7 m. in both the cases they come down to the earth.34 (i) . latitude will be discussed in detail in the lesson 5 of this booklet. From equation v = vo:" at = 3+4x:. x ~ 19 m. .Yo + . . x = 7m. v = 11 m .
... .......3. .. . ..... ..time graph gives the velocity. ' A body covering equal distance in equal intervals of tim. The position .. .... ...... .. '. ...7 • WHAT YOU HAVELEARNT_ _ _ _ _ _ __ The ratio of the displacement of an object to the time interval is known as ~ velocity... . The positiontime graph for a body at reat...... .. ...... + 2 a(y... The velocity ..0) v = 14 m. 4.. ....... .... The rate of change of the relative polition of an objeCt with roap8Ot to the other object i. ~ .... .. Compute ita position and velocity at 12 s .. ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.... 2.... . . ......... With what velocity should a body be thrown vertically upward 80 that it reaches a height of 25 m? And how long will it be in air? ....t line parallel to the time axio...10).... ...... ..... 2.. . ..... .. . velocity and position will be positive if Using equation (2... . 'Is its acCeleration greater while it is heine thrown or after it is thrown? . The veloCIty of a particle at Borne one instant of time or at aom.......Motion in a Straight Line The negative sign shows that the distance is below the starting point ill downward direction. .. .. ....the position ...I.4 m. ...... .. ...... 10 ... .. This shows that the velocity of the stone atf m 3 sis 29.... ....... . ...... .... ...... you take origin at the ground Ieve..4 mls and it is in downward direction...... ..... . ... .. . ..... ...... . Compute itlllinal veloci1..... . ....... . ....... . . ... . . ......... ...... . . . ... ./ •.... . ... ........ known as the relauve velocity of that object :nth respect to the Clther.... .............. .... .Y .. . straight line inclined to the time axis...... .... .. ...... . is aaid to be in unitorm motion.. ... . ..... ........... INTEXT QUESTIONS 2.. .. • • • • • The total distance travelled dovided by the' time taken ia a .... . . ....... .. ... 35 . . . i8 a atr..Yo) = 0 + 2 (9 8) (10 ... ..e one point of ita path is called its instantaneous velocity. Take a pause and solve the following questions............ A car moves along a straight road with constant acceleration 5 mt r. . .... . ... .. A ball is thrown upward in the air.... . ... ....... .. .. (iii) Using v = Vo of at at t = 3s v ... v' v....... .. ....... ... ..29... .. . ...... ....... speed... ..... ...time graph for'" ~opn motion i.... A body atarting &:om reat covera a diatance of 40 m in 4 a wttll eonatant IIcceleration along a straight line.. .. . The change in the velocity in unit time io called acceleration. . .time graph for a body moving: with constant acceleration io a straight line inclined to the time axis. ... ... . .. (Ii) At the gro~nd Y = 10 m. . ..ote: It is important to mention here that In the above example sign of the acceleration.. .. . ... The slope of ..l... 3. . ...nd the time i1!quired to cover half of the total distance .... Initially at 5 m its velocity was 3 m/a.. .
oonda. (i) How far doe."iJ 2. • For explaining the motion of a bodyJ fonowing three equation are used...mce between two place. Two objectJo 'Of different in_. (iii) velocitytUne graph. released from reat from the top of a. ". 8. Will thll][ reach the ground at the same time? Explain your answer. is ahe~ef moto<cyde B moWig with the speed of 80 ian/h in the &ame direction.8 1.0 s.X 20 2+2 3. displacementtime graph. falla to the beach below. the winter flies with a """stant velocity of 2P km/h for 25 km. two movine with same velocity in the same directioo. Yea 2: 4 Average speed .a Physics • • The area under the velocity ..time waph. accelerated at 8. (il) distancetime graph. 11. i.. 2 bra and by tl'ain20 hrs. 9.t (ii) X .. Taking \>each . 10. How 10"11 doe.. 'A body ia thrown vertica1ly upwa. Takin8 the top of the.89 km/h. with a velocity of 10 m/a. 4."b + Vo t +Y. clilI.reIaIive to A? 3.50 km.. QIIptl ••• 2. ce. clilI as the 'reference (zero) level and upwards as the positive direction. draw the motion graphs.d..o at' ~) (iii) v  v~ + 2 a. What will be the value of the velocity and acceleration 'of the bolly. A car A moWigwith a speed of 65 ian/h on a straight rooul. at the highest point? 12. 2. Compute the average speed of the motorcycle. average ""Iocity .p". if it accelerates :Cram rest at a rate of 2. Yes. one of 10 g and other of 100 g are dropped from the same height.time waph gives the diatance travell4d.4(30)2 + (40)2 . How long does a car take to travel 30 m. (iv) speed· time grapha. What is the magnitude of it~ average acceleration? 7.. 36 .9 ABSWERS TO THE INTEXT QUESTIONS . A motorcycliat covers hslf of the dist._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Distinguish between average speed and average velocity.0 m/ r? . the relative distance between A and B will be car. If by air it take. (ii) velocity . ata speed of 30 ian/h and the second hslf at the speed of 60 'ian/h. fwd the ratio of the average speed in both ~B. upward as the . (i>') speed time graph. A boll i.. What happens to the unifO("m motion of a body when it i. Draw (i)th.' ' A car accelerates 010"8 a straight road from rest to 50 km/h in 5. B_alore is 1200 ian from New Delhi by air (straight line distance) and 1500 ian by train.(x. TERJIIlNAL QUESTIONS.Vo + a. A 11011 thrown vertica1ly upward. the reference (zero) level.0 .0 mI. 9 11.~ .body with an initiol""locity of 2. 4.1 1.. the body travel during the period of acCeleration? (ii) How far would the body travel if it were initiolly at reat? . between (i) distance ' time.. with a velocity v. v . 8" + 10.ttive direction. 5.... The acceleration of the body can be computed by the slope of velocity.. from the top of the clilI of height II.. 13. the graph.time.0 m/r for 3 . . (iii) displace!nent. After 1 hr. time. Wh81 is the velocity of B . it take for the duck to fly this diatance? 6.. given an acceleralion at right angle to ita motion? 14. What does the slop of velOcitytime graph at any instant represent? 2. A duck flying directly south f.
.. Using eq (2. . speed of B."i.5/ •. (iv) A. Using x . 21 m.22. .vo' + 2" (x fl· "tJ to B is 50 km/h.a:I I 37 I . (2. "0 ms. . using eq.. because the distance covered cannot be less or zero. re1atiye speed of A with respec. . (n) B covera more distance. At maximum height v •.2 lOJ2 ma 1 l.5 km/h. 2.9).Motion in a Straight Line Hence.6 msI • The body will be in air for the twice of the time it takes to reach the maximum height . 2.. 0.1.{. 3.(a) is not poaaible. 7.10).75 (m.4. (2..3 1.2 (i) A.f!!\ (vii) A takes minimum time.0. _Q_2.I . + vot + Y.'.. at' Q 4. . (v) SP"'!d 'It. 1a_~2.JW 3. (iii) B.13 msI. See Fig 2. The acceleration of the ball is greater while it is thrown. and using eq. 4. Sm.1: Next using . In the unifonn motion. x·.6).
But have yo\!.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous lesson you have studied that it is possible to desCribe the motion oCai'!. velocity and acceleration. .:ricket ball has to be hit hard with a bat to send it across the boundary for a six.free body diagrams. order to Send it over a large distance.2· OBJECTIVES After studying this lesSon. A I. Let us study about Newton's laws of motion which enable us to predict the behaviour of iI. impulse and calculate them in a given situation.3 LAWS OF MOTION 3.For example. dlJjfne momentum. particle ·or a sySt~ of particles under the influence of different forces. kinetic • sUggest different methods of reducing . There are. e1qJlain tluf law of conservation of momentUm and illustrate it with examples. • e1qJlain the meaning of inertia and relate it to force. ever wondered what causes an object to move? What causes a ball rolling along the ground to come to a stop. 3. a football has to be kicked in.cti. The concept of foree developed in this lesson will be useful in different branches of physics. and analyse a given situation and apply Newton's laws of motion using. apparently on its own? From our everyday experience we mow that we need to push or pull 'an almirah if we wish to change its position in a room.on and rolling friction. what makes rain drops fali on ground? What makesthe earth go round the sun? In this lesson you will discover a close relation between force and motion in the form of Newton's laws of motion. however. Mate Newton's laws of motion and illustrate them with examples. Sin:l:arly. you should be able to.friction and highlight the role of friction in everythly life. many situations where the action is not visible.friction and distinguish between static. • • • • • fri. object in terms of its displacement.fridioJ1. . Some kind of muscular activity is involved iri these situations and the action and its effect is quite visible. define coefficient of.
1M brov"lat ff _ _ netfore. alWCIJIII In u. Dfrectfon ofIMlodtfI of a bodJf .Laws of Motion 3. Similarly. change thII . and thII afire of an oI#ject.". Force is a vector quantity.r state of rest. forthis reason when several forces act on a body simultaneously. the velocity of the object increases continuously. Similarly an object which is moving at constant velocity has to be forc~J to change its state of uniform motion.3 CORCEPT 0(1' JI'ORCE AND nmRTlA A large number of objects around us are known to remaiI). ___ of thII bocCIt rDfII change dqtmtltng tq.. For example. It is'important to note that_locftg of a bodJf changes _ . Observations show that u. prevwus lesson you have already studied that an object at rest with re.. For example. the velocity of the body will increase in magnitude. Observations show that some force is responsible for change in velociq. 3. We come across many situations where the velocity of an object is gradually increasing or decreasing. In lesson seven you will study about another effect of force . kicking. of unfform lfnecrr motion is CCln.3.. cIumtIe In lodtfI of an oI#ject can on. Ifsome force acts on a body in the direction of its motion..'! : (a) 2'IIeJI . We use it in so m~y situations in our everyday life. In both these cases the object moves in a st:raistlt line..torr. Every fOl' " has a 39 . in the case of a ball rolled on some horizontal surface..d burrtfa.ocityofthe body.. . Wn4ent:tI of an oI#ject to nmudn In Its state of rest or In Its Stat.the rotational or turning effect of force. 1HHIg. hitting etc..D Motion Motion of any body is characterised by its velocity.IOn 'the "" . to another place. A force can set an object into motion or it can bring a moving object to rest.. the magnitude of Velocity of the body remains constant. _ fort:e . aedng on it. a balloon changes shape according to the forces acting on it. the velocity of the ball is seen to decrease gradually to zero. These objects have to be forced to change th~. dfrectfon of its motion. of a body.. You are veIY well familiar with the term force.. be seen and experienced. We are exerting force when we are pulling pushing. na. A force can also change the direction of motion. These objects cannot move on their own from one pJe.CIon offlw.. spect to one observer may appear to be in motion with respect to some other observer.1 Force and Change i. If the direction of force on the body is opposite to the direction of motion the magnitude of velocity will decrease. if some force acts on a body in a direction perpendicular to its velocity. in the case of a body falling freely... their single equivalent foree can be found by vec~or acdition about which you have alreadr read in lesson 1. In the . na.c.... wherever they are placed. The state of rest or the state of motion of an object are not absolute. acts on u. Though a force is not visib~e but its effect car. Forces are known to have two kinds of effect.adfntI on it. ~ ill) cdao frr/IuInu:e thII naotfon of an object. However.. SUch a force is able to change only the direction of veJ.
But the same person is in motion with respect to a person standing on the road. be in the . A person in a running car is at rest ". a horse is seen pulling the cart moving at constant velocity.miformly. It is now known that action of the horse on the cart is needed fOF balancing out 'he force of friction on the cart. Is there any net force acting on the trolley or the cart in the situations mentioned here? Galileo was the first to state that in the absence of anyexternal influence a botly . Galileo drew the ('. Similarly.Physics magnitude and a direc~n. 3. a body such as a cart or a trolley. The effect. Isaac Newton generalised Galileo's conclusions in the form of a law known as Newton's first law of nwtion which states that a body cOlltinues to. A reference frame fIxed to the earth (for all practical pur·· poses) is considered an inc. (b) the poi'nt of application offorce.e state of IIlliform motioll ill a straight lille ulliess and until it is actect IIpCIn by sOllie lIet e. What physical quantity is a measure of inertta of a body? . be continuously pushed or pulled. regarded uniform rectilinear motion also to be natural siate of borlic<. velocity and acceleration and force with respect to a "hosen frame of reference. therefore.3. annot only be at rest but also moves'.. the state of rest or motion of a body depends on its relative position with respect to the observer."1 force. As you know. . He.ftote of rest or in ti.in a straight line . A reference frame relative to which a body in translatory motion has constant velocity if no net external force acts on it is known as an inertial Jrame oj reJerence. when once set in motion would continue to move at constant velocity. 40 . a force acting on a system can pr(Jdu~e.2 Newton's First Law of Motion We see that in order to move a trolley at constant velocity it has to..rtial. nrrEXT QUESTIONS 3. and (c) the duration for which it acts.ith respect to another person in the same car..:orr('ct hi stIlt! that 8 body alnays moves in the direction of net uternal force actinll! nn It 2. Is it . Nowtake a break and try to solve the following questions. Similarly force of friction on the trolley ('an be overcome by continuously pushing <>f pulling it. (a) the mgnitude and direction of the force..ldusion that in the absence of force of friction. For this reason it becomes necessary to record measurements of changes in position. depends on..weri. Such a name follows from the property of inertia of bodies due to which they preserve their state of rest or state of ~nifQrm linear tilotion. . frame of reference.1 1.
· Thus ·. Here negative sign shows that the momentum of the ball changes by 4 kg m/s in the direction of x axis.·e see that the momentum of a freely·falling body increases in magnitude only and points in the same direction. the momentum t'f the object will also be zero.ply momentum p. PI = 2 kg m/s and cha"&'l in momentum . The magnitude of momentum is (0.8 ml s) ward. TIle prod. Now you think what causes the momentum of Ii freelyfalling body to change in magnitude? I. Find the change in momentum of the ball.1: A 2 kg object is allowed to faU freely at t = 0 s.0 s is zero. 2 kg ml s.0Cthe ball. i I ! I If we consider initial momentum vector to be along +x axis.8 m/s [use v = Vo +atJ pointing downward.PI . Momentum is a vector quantity.cta a force is capable of producing? 3. the fmal momentum vector wiD be alongx axis.a speed of 10 m/ s and rebounds along the original path with the same speed. Can a force change only the direction of velocity of an object keeping ita m8f!)litude constant? 4. ml s pointing downward.2 kg m/s pointing downWard.e.. (hI At t = 1 s.2 kg mis.2 kg) (10 m/s) i. Bolutloa : Here the momentum of the ball has same magnitude before and after the impact but there is a reversal in its direction. The direction of momentum vector is the same as the direction of velocity vector. So if 1'.6 ml s pointing down· P.1) In the SI system of units momentum is measured in kgm/s.4 CONCEPT OF MOMENTUM Study of collision of bodies has revealed that there is a quantity mass multiplied by velocity whose net value for the colliding bodies remains unchanged in a collision.P. What are the different effe. = (2 kg)x (9. So P = mv (3. (c) At t = 2 s. What will be its momentum at fa) t = 0 s.2 kg strikes a rigid vertical waU with . What causes this change in mome tum of the ball? 41 . So the momentum of the object will be ~ = 19.w:t oJ _ moJ a body and fta wlocftB 11 U called its linear momentwlt or sfm. the velocity of the object will be 19. (b) t = 1 sand fe) t = 2 s thping its freefall ? Solution: (a) As velocity of the object at t . the Velocity of the object will be 9. Momentum of an object. The following examples illustrate this point. So the momentum of the object will now be Po = (2 kg) x (19. . therefore. _ p i e 30:1 : A rubber ball ofmass 0. can change on accoUnt of change in its magnitude alone or direction alone or both.Laws of Motion 3.(2 kgm/s) .6 m/s) = 39. Bxamp1e 3.6 kg.(2 kg m/s)4kgm/a.
Change in momentum of a body 4uring any time is taken as fInal momentum of the body minus initial momen· tum of the body.1 we have seen that the momentum of a ball falling freely under gravity increases with time. p and t. Change in momentum of the body takes place in tIuI dfrection of net extern4IJorce acting on tIuI body. So there appears to be a connection between change in momentum of an object.1) F = net dp dt (3. From Newton's tirst law of motion it follows that a body at rest. You may recall that if a body has constant velocity.2) From equation 3.F. tive relation between force and acceleratio<"l. rf riue to the application of ~.Phy~ics In actual praotice a rubber ball rebounds from a rigid wall with a speed which is less than its speed before the impact. In example 3.t . Newton's fIrst law also tells us that some net force must act on an object to change its state of motion. 0. So = I1p I1t In the limit !J.t due to some net external force F not on it. It is already known from Newton's fIrst law of motion that no net external force acts on such a body. we can write F net (3. then F ~ net I1p At orF net =k~ At Here value of k.et f"orce. 3. . it can· not change its velocity on its own.1 Newton's Second Law of Motion It is now known that a body moving at constant velocity will have constatit momentum. In the SI system of units p is measured in kg mis. Newton's second law Of motion gives a quantitative relation between these. According to it tIuI rat:. It is well known that such a body falls under the action of gravitational force acting on it. So net force acting on an object is the cause of acceleration of the object. acting on it and the time for which it is acting. Similarly if it·is already moving. the velocity of body changes by dv in time dt. Newton's second law of motion gives a quantita. its acceleration must be zero. tis in s and Fis measured in kg ml s'.depends on the choice of units for .p is the change in momentum of a body in time IJ. it follows that change in momentum of a body is in the direction of net external force on it.. then dp = mdv. the constant of proportionality. You may also recall that by change in veloci.. In such a case the magnitude of the momentum also change .its own. of change of momentum of a body is dfrectly proportional to tIuI net force acting on tIuI body. This means that if IJ. That gives k = 1. 42 .j:a[l not mOve on ..ty we mean change in magnitude of velocity or change in its direction or both. net force...4.1.
So a desired change in momentum can be brought about by a large force acting for a small duration .......1 it was assumed that force Fremains constant over time M of its action.. or by a small force acting for a long duration of time... impulse is also a vector quantity and is in the direction of the change in momentum........ during the impact of a ball and a bat.. Like momentum.. It is evident from the fact that there is a decrease in the momentum of the ball.Sses have same momentum.. You are already aware that the ball comes to rest because' of the action of force of friction on it. In such cases F is considered as the average force. Thus.......1 it follows that it is the product p.....nge in momentum of a......... Which cf them. body is equal to the fmpulse... m=O.8 N Here negative sign shows that force on the ball is opposite to its direction of motion.........Laws of Motion Then the equation 3......8 kg m/s' = 0.. From Newton's second law F m=a The known value offorce and the experimental determination of the acceleration of a body as a result of the force can help us to measure inertial mass of the body....... Solution :Given. Now stop and by solving the following questions check how much you have learnt... 1m pulse: From equation 3... I i t INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.. 43 ......4 kg which starts rolling on the ground at 2Om! s when pushed comes to a stop after 10 seconds...4 kg (Om Is .4kg v = 0 mls m(v ..3) Example 3..... There are many situation where the time of action of force is very small......3: A ball of mass 0.2 gives..... Its SI unit of measurement is kg mls or Ns....... for example.... dv F net =m dt (3. Calculate the force which stops the ball.u) t u =20m/s = 10 s lOs SoF= t = 0..20m Is) = D..... At that determines change in momentum of a body........ In deriving equation 3... The quantity F M is called the impulse.. the cha.... is moving faster? ...2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ L Two objects of different m4..... assuming it to be constant in magnitude throughout...... Inertial Mass: The mass of a body defmed by Newton's second law of motion is called inertial mass of the body.......
........:I ......................•........... 6.. to the thrower with the aame speed of 20 mls only.... Mass of the body.............. I........ A ball i..25 on a 4 kg............................... by 'action' we mean 'force of interaction'.. Haw long will it take the body 10 stop if the force acts Qn it in a direction opposite to its velocity.............. . Thus forces have been found to emerge in Pairs always. 3.._ad...................... The force of interaction could be actionatadistance type or a contact force type..................••.......... Third Law of 1I0Uoll On the basis of his study of interaction between bodies.........1 "ewtoll'..... "..... Does the object also pull the earth? Similarly when wi push an almirah.. will there be any change in (a) momentum of the ball? ......." cu:tfon tIwN ......... 3............................. (bl magnitude of the momentum of the ball? .•............. they exert force on each other....o ) or 50 N 10 kg( Ol~m IS) lOOkgm/s SOkgm /s2' t. When a ball falls from a height........  5... If the ball return............................................. 44 .... (bl A 100 N force act.......... does the almirah also push us? If so.........................S FORCES IN PAIRS It is the gravitational pull of the earth which allows an object to acc:e1era........................ An ob~~·d i.... ~ 4... Newton formulated third law oJ motion which states that to .. Does the object have ... object initially at reat....... ................. In which case will there be larger change in momentum of the object? (al A 150 N force acta for 0.Physics 2....c....... whenever two bodies interact........•.... Bampl_ &4 : A ronstant force of 50 N is applied to a body "f 1 0 kg moving initially with a speed of 1 0 m/ s........... its momentum increases? What caueee increase in ita momentum? 3....................... So.•. .... it conect to say ~t a fast moving object poaaessea more force than a slow m~ object? Why? ...........1 s on a 2 kg object initiatiy at rest......... m F nct Tofind : t " "0 lOkg SON lOm/s =0 =? = Formula(s) F oet = m(" or tlOOkgm/s SON /....... toward earth...... thrown up at a speed of 20 mls by a thrower.............. Here. why don't ?til move in the direction of that force? These situations compel us to asJt whether a single force such as a push or a pull exists? It has been ob c served that actions of two bodies on each other are always mutual.........5.. Solutioa : Given............. for 0......... But generally we are concerned with one of the forces in a pair which is acting on the object of interest......... . moving at a constant speed in c?natant momentum? Why? l\ circular path. ..............
If one goes by the literal meaning of words. Do the forces f. When some external force f is applied to 45 . the table also exerts a force of equal magnitude on our finger in the upward direction as shown in Fig. Thus.2 Internal and External Forces As you have studied that some net external force on an object causes the object to accelerate. . The action and req:ction act on differentbodfes.F'2 is the force which object 1 experiences due to object 2 and F2I is the force which object 2 experiences due to object I. and J.on. a) Consider two blocks A and B. To make the· distinction betWeen in. by the table on the finger. Fig 3..~ F'2 = F2. and m. the force exerted by the first object on the second (the action) is equal fn magnitude and opposite fn direction to the force by the second object on the first (reaction). reaction always follows an action.5. =m. a. It follows from here that a single isolated force does not exist. (3. Vectorially. When we exert some force on a table by pressing our finger against it. if . and J.4) 3. exerted by the finger on table and force J. Can the car be moved by a person who is sitting in the car and pushing it from inside? Such a push is called fntemalforce and has no role to playas far asinotion of car is concerned.breaks down it ~ either be towed by some other vehi~le or pushed from behind.ternal forces and external forces clear. 3. placed in contact with each other on a f=tionless horizontal suril'ce. are the masses of objects 1 and 2 respectively then m. The action and reaction in a given situation appear as a pair of forces.1 : Force f. Whereas action and reaction introduced in Newton's third law exist simultaneously. Here by 'action' and 'reaction' we mean force. If a car .2: Two blocks on a fridtionless horizontal sUrface. Anyone of them cannot exist without the other.1. A a_ t= F A Fig 3. exerted . then If m. shown here cancel out? It is important to note that f. are acting on different bodies.. Here the force exerted on the car by the tOwing vehicle or the push froin behind acts as the external force on the car.I f 1 Laws of Motion equal and opposite reactl. let us look at some specific examples. For this reason it is better to state Newton's third law as when two objects fnteract.
. ... the forces of magnitude f each which these blocks exert on each other are internal to the system of blocks.... Now. Consider a block of mass m resting on some horizontal surface as shown in Fig 3.... Since the block is in equilibrium N mg. (u) force of magnitude mg which the block exerts on earlh.3(b) shows the forces acting on the block..5. _ said to lHI In equilibrium if the 1I8ctor _ oJ all the Jorca is aero. In the situation described above........ Fig... 3. block on the left also exerts force/on the block on the. 2.. b) Whenever bodies collide... the force which accelerate. ..2..3 Forces in Equilibrium Nuntber oJ Jorr:es fICtlng on cui object or a ....... acceleration of such an object or system will be zero.. right. However.... in each of the following situations: (a) A man kicks a football.. 3.a..... .. 3.> » 7 7 >.....31b) (ill) force of magnitude mg which the block exerts on the surface normally on which it is resting.....". both the blocks move to the left with the SI!Jlle acceleration....reaction force..... So the absence of any external force on the system dem~ds that total momentum'of the system should be consenred.. come from ? Identify action ..3_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1... But........ In accordance with Newton's second law. (iv) force of normal reaction N exerted by the surface on the block in accordance with Newton's third law. 46 • . In accordance with Newton's third law.. what causes the block A on the left to accelerate? It is the force / which the block B on the right exerts on it.". "''''."')P r I>" Pia..... 3. where doe.. In this situation we can talk about a number offorces.31_) & 7> PI&.3(a)... .... Such as.. (i) gravitational pull of the earth on the block equal in magnitude to mg... is there any frictional force acting on the block? In the next section you will study problems where more than two forces are in equilibrium. INTEXT QUESTlO:NS 3.. Let us take an example.Physics them in the direction shown in Fig... it is time for you to check how mUch you have learnt.. the jumper upward. the forces involved are 'internal'to the colliding bodies taken as a system... When a high jumper l e _ the ground..
....... the vector swn of the momenta of these bodies remains..... 4............ .................................................... The same has been found to be true for more than two bodies interacting with each other.m remaflul constant..y 1" 3.............. on earth? .... the system is said to be a closed system or an isolated system.. the moon................................................................. it follows that it is the total momentum of the bodies forming an isolated system remains unchanged and the momentum of individual bodies may change in mllgllitude alone or direction alone or both depending upon the tyPe of interaction. explosions...................... 3............ . (e) A pendulum bob suspended from the ceiling with the help of a string................................... •A woman _ _ a large force on an almirah to pueb it forward..................................... Three blocks of JDa8II m each are pieced on top of a table as ebown.. ............................................................................ If the bodies in a system do not interact with bodies outside the system............ nuclear reactions....................... radioactive decay etc. ............. 47 ............ not puebed backward be<:auaa the aJmirah _ a amall' force on' woman" I.... a wall....Dent gMm here ... the BrIIl......... ............... a numb~of bodies interacting with ......each other are said to .......................................etor InIm 0/ the momenta 0/ IIocffa comprising an _raw spn..... The law of conservation of momentum is valid for isolated systems only and can be stated as the .................. 1 2 3 ............. The """""" i.. Name the forces which are in equilibrium in each of the following aituationsi' (a) A book reating on a table ......................... It has been experimentally confirmed and has been proved also that if two bodies interact................................... Here.......... What is the magnitude and direction of the IP"vitationai force which a 60 kg woman exert................6 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM Momentum possesses a very useful property of being conselVed under certain conditions.. unchanged provided the force of mutual interaction is the only force acting on the bodies.............. (b) A cork Boating in water .......... Generally................. 5..........................................Laws of Motion (b) EIorth pun................. What causes the momentum of individ:ual bodies in l'n isolated system to change momentum? Conservation of linear momentum is applicable in wide range of phenomena such as collisions.......... 6...............? Wb......................be forming a system....... (e) A ball hit.. Name & force each which i8 internal and external to the system of blocks..............
applied to a systelll of bodies also. The velocity v. the change in momentum !J. This explanation can be.1 Conservation of Momentum asa Consequence of Newton's Laws According to Newton's second law of motion. in accordance with Newton's third law or FA =F.Pa =0 or !J.6.5 mil 48 . being fired from a gun of mass M. the recoil velocity of the gun is much smaller than the velocity of the b u l l e t . equation 3. b).2 A Few IllustratioDs of the CODservatil)D of Momentum a) Recoil of a gun : When a bullet is fIred from a gun.Ptotal  0 So there is no change in the momentum of the system. of the gun will be such that m VI + Mv~ = 0 or mvI Mv.p. negative sign shows that v. It follows from here that ffno force acts on the body. · . ___ /lpB M M or !J. then the velocity v.p of a body wheh a force F acts on it for time Mis !J. Momentum before collision * 2 mv Momentum after collission .1. If FA and Fa are the forces which they exert on each other then. They collide anq couple with three stationary trolleys also of mass m each. Newton's third law can also be used to arrive at the same result.S : Two coupled troUeys. absence of any external force on the colliding bodies such as the force of friction.6.p~ F M. CoUiHion : In a collision we may regard the colliding bodies as fonning a system. If VI is the velocity of the bullet.p. the gun recoils. What wiUbe the velocity of the trolleys after the impact? Solution: Let Ii be the velocity of the trolleys after the impact.Physics 3. is in opposite direction to VI' As generally m«M.5) Here.forces of interaction between the colliding bodies being internal to the system will not be able to change the momentum of the colliding bodies. Let m be the mass of the bullet. each of mass m.a !J.of the body will remain unchanged. of the recoil of the gun can be f01:IDd by using the law of conservation of momentum. or v2 = M m VI (3. The. + !J. Example 3. In the. 3. Consider an isolated system of two bodies A and B which interact with each other for time M. the change in momentum of the body will be zero. the system can be considered to be an isolated system. are moving with initial velocity v. Therefore the momentum.
.. the combustion of the fuel produces gases at very high pressure and temperature............. these gases escape from nozzle at a high velocit..... 1.. On firing the rocket. their total D.................2 kg each are moving along the same line towards each other with a vel"city of 10 mls just before colliding...... the ejected gases acquire certain momentum...initially at rest.......... In actual practice..... .. explode into (a) two pieces which fty in opposite directions to each other? (h} three pieces which fly in mutually perpendicu1ar directions? ........Laws of Motion In accordance with the law of conservation of momentum 2 mv := 5 mil or v'=v 5 0) E:&plollioD of........ . The fuel in the fuel tank can be considered as the other body.................. A rocket is a twobody system...4_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1... Consider a bomb at rest initially which explodes into two fragments A and B.... Two balls of maoa 0.... Why i........ It consists of a shell with a fuel tank.d? Why? 2... . The rocket flies in the opposite direction..... Due to their high pressure..... As a result of combustion of fuel. the shell acquires a momentum equal in magOitude to the momentum of the ejected gases but in opposite direction. the two fragments will fly off in opposite direction with equal momenta............... Unlike the bullet........ As the momentum of the bomb was zero before explosion..........omentum must also be zero after launching.... the velocities of the two fragments will also be equal in magnitude ........~  .. Can a bomb..................... If the masses of the two fragments are equal.y... 49 ....................... PropUlsion of a rocket is different from the recoil of a gun in atleast one important aspect as far as the conservation of momentum is concerned.... the total momentum of the rocket (shell and fuel) is zero before launching... the velocity of recoil of a gun much smaller than the velocity of the bullet? . bomb: A bomb explodes into fragments through the 2 release of stored energy........ IRTJtXT QUESTIONS 3.. 4.......... 3... Considering the shell and the fuel to be forming a closed system..... the total momentum of the two fragments formed will also be zero after the explosion.. Again it is time to check your progress.............. the rocket loses fuel at some rate which is generally constant.......... The propulsion of the rocket can be explained as follows: Foran earth based observer. Therefcire.... For this reason... The shell is provided with a nozzle through which high pressure gases are made to escape.............. Solve the following questions............................... • ) Rocket propulsion: Flight of a rocket is an important practical application of conservation of momentum...... the momentum of a ball falling freely conse"".......... which can be considered as one body........l.. What will be the total momentum of the balls after the collision? .... the entire gas from the rocket is not ejected at once.........................................................
. We have already studied that some force on the ball is responsible for change in its momentum.. For this reason deliberate attempts are made to make the surfaces rough or smooth depending upon the· requirement. 3. Ftc 3.4.1 Static and Kinetic Friction It is commQn eXperience that certain minimum force is required· to move an object over a surface.. Friction thus plays a dual role in our lives.. aut then. the ball does not continue to travel for ever. the block starts to slide and is then subject to klnatle ..frlctlon and is represented by symbol I.(max).. Such a force called the . To illustrate this point let us consider a block resting on some horizontal surface as shown in Fig. It rather comes to rest after travelling some distance. in magnitude untill it reaches a critical value I.ditection.5 shoWs'the variation of lhe . Ttris is possible only if some· other force is acting on .. f. It is common experience that force needed to set an object into motion is larger than the force needed to keep it moving at constant velocity. f.frlettott fJmax} between a pafr Of stDf.5: Variation offorce of[rictiOTL 50 I .4: Farces acting on the block. between them. When F"".717 (at rest) F. force of friction with the external force..frlctlonalforce emerges whenever bodies in contact tend to move or move with respect to each 'other. drive vehicles and stop moving vehicles.. Let some external force F _ be applied to the block in the direction showns. Thus the momentum of the ball which was imparted to it during initial push changes to zero.')1 rl f_ smooth sliding F. 3.. the block which is ofthe same magnitude as Fext but is in oPPosite. It is the force of friction on an almirah which has to be overcome When we push or pull it along the floor to change its place. Fig. energy. f. also increases and remains equal to F. hnnn77J. Friction opposes the motion of objects. 3.in contact will be larger than the force of kinetfe friction f.7 FRICTION It is well known that when we push a ball to make it roll along the ground. Such a force is called the force of statfe. As Fext is increased. For this reason the maximum force of statU:. Force offrlctWn is a eontactforee and is always db BCted along the MUfaees in contact.7.frlctIon... Fi&: 3. causes wear and tear and is responsible for loss of mechanic:iJ. ill. I. such that the block does not move. It is commonly known that friction is caused by roughness of the surfaces in contact.Physics 3.. 7/'. it is d)le to friction only that we are able to walk. increased further.
= 0.5.frk:flon..lg on a horizontal surface.(0.25) (2 kg) (9.1 N and therefore.7) Where ~ is the coe. >~. the normal force F" of the surface on the block can be found by knowing the..8 m/s2) . but there are exceptions. As f.1N =m Skg 1. (3.(max) and f. 5. Moreover. = 0.9 kg m/s2 . (max).02 mIs' So the block will have an acceleration of 1. (max) is directly proportional to the normal force F".II. mg .25 As f.maJforce on the block.9N . As shown in Fig 3.6) Here Il. S Il. Example 3.. depend? It is an experimental fact that f.(max) = 11.a = F .1. Fill 3.trWtion between a pair of surfaces is fndepende~t of the area of contact.1) (5 kg') (9. the normal force FN on the block will be mg where m is the mass of the block. = ~ F" (3. acceleration ..f.8 m/s2) . Sf. is called the coe. The coefficient of static friction between the surfaces in contact is 0.4. Solutlon: Here F" = mg and 11. mg . f.6: Nor. . force with which the block presses the surface. As discussed earlier.25. humfdity etc. So f.02 externally applied force.6: A 2 kg block is resti.t/fcfent of static . Example 3. ~ FIf where F" .(max) ~ F" or f. Similarly.lON4.(0. .9 N.4. . What will be the ~leratlon o/the block if it is pulled by aID N force acting on it in the horizontal directWn? Solutio'll' . and Il" for a given pair of materials depends on roug""..tficUmt of kfnetfc jrk:tfon. = 11.4.9 N Net force on the block = F"".he maximum force of static friction between the surfaces in contact. Generally Il.Laws of Motion For a given pair of surfaces in contact. f. cleanness. F. F. and ~ are not really constants for any pair of FN surface such as wood on wood or rubber on concrete etc. As f.7:· A 5 kg block is on a horizontal surface for which It. temperature. Value of It..6. 51 mis' in the direction of . Find . (m~) = Il. what are the JaLton on which f. It has also been experimentally found that maxfmumforce of static.mg Therefore f. coefficients Il. F.
That explain.7. foIward force of frIdIon . oDJ.y the centre of the wheel moves forward.Physics 3. Because of the surface deformations.1'!. And interestingly. For example when . 1f the surfaces in contact are harder.>.006 for steel on steel and . 3. why it is difficult for us to walk on a S!llooth/slipper surface. . Which means that some net external force must act on us in the . su. Figure 3. Discussed below is a situation highlighting role of friction.8: Forces on the feet whl1e walking. 0'"" In the case of roIling !llotion of a wheel On SO!lle surface.7.. we must have some acceleration in the forward direction.7 shows the deformation oCthe flat surface during roIling. This mean the point of contact of the wheel has no sliding motion. The origin of roIling friction can be explained as follows. it slightly deforms the surface.04 for rubber on concrete.. As we begin to walk. rolling friction 7T~. the point of contact of the wheel· has zero relative velocity with respect to the surface. When a ball rolls on some flat surface. Fig 3. lesser will be the surface defor!llalions and hence smaller the rolling friction.0. It is rolling !llotion.i>' ~ is about 1/100" of sliding friction between steel and steel. rolling·friction is !lluch S!llaller than sliding friction. The !llotion of a w~eel is different frO!ll the sliding !llotiQn.8 showa the direction in which floor is to be pushed by the feet to experience force of friction on it in the forward direction. 'JYpical values for coefficient of rolling friction It.tion.3 Importance of Friction Friction plays very important role in our life. The friction in the case of rolling !llotion is known as rollfngfrlctfDn. It is due to the friction between the floor and our feet that we are able to obtain the desired force on us. 3.02 .7: Deformation of the jIDt 0. steel wheels roll over steel rails. It is because of frictiOn only that we are able to walk o~ hold a tooth brush in our hand. Appreciable friction is required between the brake shoe and the rim of a bicycle for the purpose of stopping it when required. WaIldDI: When we are statlding on the floor thereis no net force acting on us in the horizontal or vertical direc.2ROlliDg Friction It is CO!ll!llon experience that it is easier to push or pull objects which are on wheels. 3..r/Dce during rolling.forw~ direction.. For the sa!lle nor!I1al force..  backward push on the floor 52 . a roIling ball..?. From where does this force come? We create this force on us by pushing the floor in the backward direction.uI to climb a hill as long as it is rolling.are 0. it is the force of friction only which sets a vehicle driven by an engine IIito motion.
. also reducClsfriction...... 4.... A book i...... noiu of compressed and purl/fBd air between the surfaces in contact ............ 3.....l A!r of solved examples have also been given at the md of t' section................9.......emoved? In pushing a box up an inclined plane...cants such as grease or oil between the surfaces in contact reduces friction considerably.5_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.9: Balls in the ballbearing.. You may try them yourself before go'ing through their solu·tion....Laws of Motion Force of friction~offers hfndrturce too.. Ballbearings fmd application in almost all type of vehicles and in electric motors such as electric fan... 18 aome force: of friction acting on the table? 2....... In a ballbearing steel balls are placed between two coaxial cylinders as shown in Fig.........! also p 'eventS them from getting over heated....... Is some force of friction acting on the book? .......... 'few Guidelines are given which will help you in solving pr lems: A nt.. URe of lubrl.. Do we need to paddle a bicycle to move it at constant speed on a level road? Friction is responsible for great amount of energy loss in machines...... As you will study in lesson 6... It reduces frictional force between moving parts at... A hover crnft is made to run on a cushion of air provided by powerful air pumps........ para11el to the inclined plane? Why? ......... Italso prevents dustand dirt from collecting on the moving parts........... Presence oflubric8:nts such as oil and grease infact........ 3...20 N and F.......... Generally one of the two cyclinders is allowed to tum with respect to the other... i..... With F.. 3. .much easier than sliding... For this reason deliberate attempts are made to reduce friction where it is undesirable.. ididing at constant speed... is t. 53 ... na: 3.............. .......... On the next p"~' .. CIt is the force of friction which brings a moving bicycle to rest on a level road if we stop paddling it........ oil is made to flow over moving parts... Making use of rolling friction are the ball bearings.....7... it better to pu·ah horizontally or to push .... \ying on an inclined plane............. What will happen when F. Here the rotati. INTEXT QUESTIONS 3. ................ ...?n of the balls is almost a frictionless motion......... In h"avy machines... A tal'e is tv< Do on a floor.......... work is required to be done in overcoming force of friction....... 15 N the block of mass 3 kg i....4Methods of Reducing Friction Wheel is considered to be greatest invention of mankind for the simple reason that rolling is much .. changes the nature of friction from dry friction to fluid friction which is considerably smaller than the former.
1m. as perthe given deJocriptIon.oo blocks (assuming it to be horizontal)? SolutloD: Let a be the acceleration of the blocks in the direction of F and let the tension in the ~ be T. Bzemple 3. The"lock of mass m2 is pulled by aforce F acting parallel to the horizontal surface..g and T = m. neat diagram of the system. On applying l:F . The direction of such a force will. 5.. + 11I.m.rna in the component fonn m. What Will be the acceleration of the blocks and the tension in the string connecting the tr. In such situations one has to balance clockwiae m0ments' with antic10ckwise moments about some axis about which the object rotates or tends to rotate. we get N.rna In the Component form to the free body diagram of m.. and.. you must have as many independent equations as the number of unknowus. To. : 111:1) or T=( m... we ~ N . Isolate the objet:tof~ This object will. + m ' S 2 to the free body diagram of On applying rF.rna (or l:F. If the free body diagram of an object is made with reference to a noninertial frame.g .. + m)a fiii.rna once again to the free body diagram of m. = rna.1m.0 and T. m. 2. slso be considered as real fOrces acting on the object in addition to all other external forces. 3. 11X. be opposite to the direction of acceleration of the frame of reference. a N.Physics THE lI'REB BODY DIAGRAM TECBlIIQUB 1. be called the. torque = fOrce x fOrce arm are to be used. . Now apply Newton's second law l:F.m. Iii) For obtaining a Complete solution. and a = m.tF N. and '?12 are connected bya string and placed on a smooth horizontal surface. 6..0 and F 1m. and see whether you get the same expressions fOT a and T. and l:Fy = may) Rememher: (i) Thore must be net force on the object along the direction of acceleration of the object. .8: Two blocks of masses m.)g.1/o4g now.. torque.. 4.)g .( m.  m. Considez all eJil:4rrt4r. Draw a simple.. pseudoforces like the centrifugal fOrce will.+111:1 1Rt }F 54 Apply rF . In some situations you may bave to consider rotationsl motion of the object and hence the experessions.forca acting on the free body and mark them by arrows touching the free body with their line of~ clearly represented. + 11I.
. BKample 3.e...ma .. my . Solutio. m s So a .33 m/s'l So T .. of the variables (i.T. m (g . ny.11'1:2 } ( m.8 mis' .02. M +m t.t_Mi:.. Mg So T11.m.: Fig (b). 0. The coefficient of kinetic fricIion be tween the trolley and the surface is Il• .T" rna (2) On adding equations (1) and (2) we get mg.I1. ... The" aeeelera· tion of mass m. 2 kg (9. + 11'1:2 9 At this stage you can check the prediction of the results thus obtained for the extreme values.ma to" m. we get m g..... . m..Mg" (M+ m)a " _my==Il". (c) shows the free body ·diagrams of the trolley and the block..2 kg with the help of a massless inextensible string passing over a light frictionless pulley as shown in Fig (a). F.ed  pulley..FH . lei (2kg)(9... JL..1.a) . downward..10: A trolley ofmass M = 1 0 kg is connected to a block of mass m .47 m/s' From equation (2) T . b) tension in the string. On applying l:F ..47 m/s'l .. Let T be the tension in the string connecting the two masses.9: Two masses m. = or m. Mgand TMa where JL.. Solution: Let a be the acceleration of mass m..m a • T. g. m.9 or a .. >mJ are 60nnected at the two ends of a light inextensible string thm: passes over a light frictionless fof. and m2 (m. Find a) acceleration of the' trolley. 2 kg (8.8m I S2) (IOkg + 2kg) 2 .o2)(IOkg)(9..66N 55 . For the trolley. a On solving equations (1) and (2) fOil a and Twe get • (1) (2) a= ml .. t.8m 2 I S2) . » and see whether a and Ttake values as "expected.. 1. Ma (1) For the block mg . . Let a be the acceleration of the block and the trolley. Find the acceleration of the masses and the terision in the string connecting them when the masses are released... and m.(o. and Either take m.6kgm/s I. 16. 19. m. (Wh:y?).m. Mg .Laws of Motion Blra:IDple 3.96kgm/s 147 12 "I2kg . will also be a only but upward.
This maximum force 0=0_ when the body i. law states that the time rate of change of momentum of a body is. the cociIicient of kinetic friction for the surfaces in contRct._ _ A block of mass m is held on a rough inclined surface of inclination 8 . given by 1. aYatem • Frictional force i. • • • • Newton'. 3. various forces acting on the black. alOIll! a surface. A force of 100 N acta on two blocks A and B of m .mal force acting on the body or F .Physics IBTEXT QUESTIONS 1.force which body A tixerta on body B will be equal and oppolite to llie fQrce which body B exerts on bodv A.. in contact and oppoaite to the direction of motion of the object. What i. proportiona1ity factor between the net external force and the acceleration it cau. then tho . 2. . syatem of particlea. or roU. • • .8 • WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT_ _ _ _ _ _ __ The fIurrtIa of a body is its tendency to resist any ch~e in its velocity...rna Th.a'."1g on it is Zero. the total momentum of the of particle.. second law. mmoving with velocity called the linear momentum as p _ mv. acceleration produCed in a body of conatant mass i. will remain con'atant reprdie8B of tho natura of foree. JIr. what is the . the force which acta on a bodywh~n the body attempta to alide. 2kg.se. between the particle•. the magnitude of the force of kinetic friction 1. directly proportional to net .Newton'. According to the law of conservation of momentum if no net external force acta on a .! of friction causes motion. . the f~ C'. In the case of objects ~ by oome internal mechanism .. i. The force of friction i.dy? 3. • • • ""N 56 .urface.c __ states that a body remains in a state of rest 'or in a state of unifonn motion in a straight line as long as net external force acti. 3. on the verge of a!id:ng.v. alide.. r II we define a vector quantity p The impulse of a force F on a particle is equal to the change in momentum of the body and is given by the area under the Force~time curve. .6. atate. Show in a diagram. For a body sliding on oome sunace..'act with each other.. • • According to. Naurton:".~_ _ _ _ _ _ _. proportional to the re. parallel to the . inertial mass. alwa. the magnitude of force which block A exert.. For a single particle of mu. .. tJdnf .. where "" i.. (max) between a body and a surface is propor'tional to the normal for"" K acting on the body... . .. the object'. The maximum force of lOtatic friction f.uch aa a wheel driven by an engine. that if two bodies A and B inte.ultant force acting on the body.magnitude and direction of inertial force on the bO. 2 kg and 3 kg respectively placed in contact on a smooth horizontal surface as shqwn. 4. on block B? What will be the tension in the string when a 5 kg object suspended from it is pulled up with (s) a velocity of 2 m/s ? (b) an acceleration of 2 m/s' ? In the reference frame attached to a freely falling body of mas. in any object i.
What will be the. 3. a force acting on a block in the direction shoWn here keep the oIiding down the wall? ucal blQck from 12... What is the II1II8Jlitude of the change in momentum'of the ball? each with a apeed of 900 8.:I kg block is reotiQg on • horiaontal ourface. deftected by a wall ~ the same speed in ilie direction shown. 4 seconds to reach the Calculate the c!>ange in momentum of the ball. Calculate the airdrag 6.2 kg and m. The coefficient· of lllatic friction between the block and the inclined plene i. force of friction on the block when a 5 N extema1 force i.tic friction.. I!. In which case will there be larger ch&nge in momentum of a 2 kg obj<. frame oC reference. in air with an acceleration of 6 on the ball.econdo what will be the velocity of the object after (aj 1 second from start? (bl 3 aecondo from .2 kg fall.. I!. acting on it must be aero. 2. kg ball is dropped from such a height that it tal!:e.9 N (c) 9. When a COI18timt net external force acta on an object... on a body of maoa :I kg initially at reat for 2 . For a block on • surface the maximuut"force of static friction is 10 N. 14.bearings reduces friction and aaaociated eneriY 10ues conoiderably lUI rolling friction i.. tw. for point objecta only. laws of motion are applicable only in an inertial. load of maoa 20 kg is lifted with the help of a rope at constant acceleration.tart? 11. nu. applied to it parallel to the owface on which it is reating? . The coefficient of otatic friction be. 7. applied tt. I!.ct? (aj When 10 N force acta on it for 1 • (bl When 10 N force acta on it for 1 m... 3. tho block P in the directiori shown in Fig Find the following.1 kg moving at 10 mls i. 9.ufficient condition.en the block and the surface is 0.. ": height of 5 m in 2 aeconda. ball of mao.p a 5 kg block at rest on an inclined plene of inclination 30"._ _ _ _ _~_ __ Which of the following will alw"3'll be in the direction of net external force acting <in the body? (aj displacement' (cl acceleration (bl (dl velocity momentum.25. much amaDor than kin.is one in which an ioo1eted object haa zero acceleration.. The load co.. ..8 N 13. Two blocks P and Q oC maoaea .. Maoo of each bullet is 12 g.5. ~ will be the magnitude and direction of the force of friction on the block when the ~de of tho extema1 force acting on the block in the direction shoWn is (aj 0 N (hI 4. CODatantforce of .3 kg reapective1)t are placed in contact with eaqh other on a hoiUontai friCtionie. when _ching • faat moving ball.. 0. ball of maas 0. E>q>lein wb. TERMIKAL QUESTIOIfS. Find the _ _ recoil force on a machine gun that i. 4. · aurfllce.9 1.. I!...Laws of Motion • • • Use 6f rollers and ball .y. drawn back while the ball is being brouaht to reat. 0. is a nocoll8NY and . the vector aum of all the force. 15. 0.und. . .'.. firina 150 bullets per minute. mI •.. which of the following mq not change? (aj pooition (bl apeed (cl velocity (dl acceleration . I!. the handa .5.utude 20 N act.. Calculate change in momentum in each cue. mI. Newton'. How doe. An inertial frame . 5. . For an object to be in static equilibrium.. S~meextema1 Coree FION i. Justify your anower with an example each. I!.. What minimum Coree F is required to keo. Calculate the tension in the rope. 10.. 57 .
. Hence it. 17. 3. 588 N. (e) gravitational force on the bob and the tension in the string connecting the bob. (c) If the force which the ball exerts on the wall is the action then1h& furce which the wall exert. Inertial mass Yea A force can cause translational and rotational motion. S. 3.37· imparting it a speed of 20 mI.10 ANSWERS TO THE INTEXT QUESTIONS IDtext Questwus 1. buoyant force. In """"rdance with Newton'.0. accelerated upward by the force which the ground exerts on the jUlllbp.5.10 mIs' and use am 37· . A 2 kg.Physics (a) acceleration of the blockS (b) force which the block P exerts on block Q. Explam the role of friction in the case of bicycle brakes.. It i... What will happen if a few drops of oil are put on the rim? 18. 4.. Take 9 .tem of blocks : The force with which bloCk 2 pres..0. l1"orce external to the system of blocks: 'nle reaction force of . The statement is true for a body which was at rest before the application of Borne net foree. lutext Questlous 3. Momentum of the falling ball increue. (a) gravitational force on the book and the reaction force qf the table. 2. 4.6. 4. . How much d.0. 6. In caoe (b) the change in momentum will be It i_ the F. on the blocks.. and the incline is "'" . a3 5. 2.t~ be in equilibriUm? The frictional force acting on each block is half the force of normal reaction on it.2 kg and m. (b) gravitational force on the eorkand the upthrust i. because gravitational force acta on it in the direction of ita motion. block i. third law the gravitational force exerted by the woman on the earth will alao be 588 N.2 1.4 kg are connected to a third block R of mass M as shown in Fig. No. Gravitational force on a 60 kg woman i.. [t can al80 deform bodies. Object of smaller m . 3... the reaction to the force which the jumper exert_ on the ground. 60 x 9.lit proauct that give.the table... related with the rate of change of momentum. block 3.. on the earth will be ita reaction.8 N i. I.. a1 2. Two blocks P and. Foree ia not related with momentum.. cos 37· . For what maximum value of M will the SYH. 3. Q of masses "" .. Force internal to the sy. action then the force which the moon exert. Thousb the speed is constant..tance will the block travel before coming to reat? The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block. lutext Questioua 1. No. the velocity of the object change_ due to change in'direction. (e) If the force with which a man kick... 58 . the change in momentum. pushed up "" incline plane of inclination 8 . It will be directed radially outward. on the ball will be ita reaction. momentum Vrill not be constant. a football is action then the foFCC whi!'b the football exerts on the man will be ita reaction. The jumper i.8. (b) 1£ the force with which earth pulls the moon i. 'lhis force 1..e. (e) Yes (b) No. 16.
Such an occurrence is not possible as it violates the law of conservation of momentum. a bomb initially at rest cannot explode into three pieces which fly in mutually perpendicular directions.rticaJJY upward .falling object is under the action of . 2.. In accordance with the law of conservation of momentum.15 1. No. The two pieces formed as a result of explosion will have equal.. and opposite momenta so that the total momentum of the pieces fonned is zero as before the explosion. agun recoil. 3. (e) gravitational force mg. of the gUn i. As a result of thia.direc tion. Moreover another component of this force will press the box on the incline thereby increasing the force of reaction of the inc:1ine on the box. (h) force of friction f No.1oc:ity of the gun i.6 N in the ". 4. with the same ma..6 1.' 3. Fig. shows them in their appropfiate directions. 60N (8) 49 N (h) 59 N. (a) Yes.Laws of Motion IDtext Queatioaa 3.gnitude of momentum u that of the bullet. 4.. Yes. (b) Three momentum vectors ean never produce a zero resultant if t:heJ' are not in one plane.coil ".. IDtext QueRioaa 3. the force of friction on the box will also increase. 59 . generally much larger than the bullet. When the force is applied horizontally. 5 m/s2 It is better to push the box by applying the force parallel to the inclined plane.. ratezt QueRioaa 3. 4.a net external force. only a component of this force will act along the intended direction of motion. the m . 2. The momentu'm of the ball is not conserved because a freely .4 1.. 3. much _aIler. the . Zero. A. Various forces acting on the block are (a) force of reaction N of the inclined plane 2. 19.
dar motion. Certainly these are not eno~_ to describe motion in a plane.that cars t!Ikini a ~ around a CUlVe do not go oft'the road? Wll. • • ~ ..ngeniial acceleration. you should be able to. study abol.2 • • OBJ"ECT1VB8 After studyin& this lesson. . Studyin& this lesson will help you answer interesting questions like the followinl : What should the position and speed of an aircraft be so that tli~_ food or medicine packets dropped from it reach people a1J"ected by fioodiior earthquakes? How should an athlete throw a discuss or ajavelin so ~ft covers the maximum horizontal distance? How should roads be deatg. Can you describe the JIlotion of object<. We will introduce the related concepts 01 ~~ speed. In the next lesson you IidIR.e.4 MOTION IN A PLANE 4. moving in 8: plane using the concepts discussed in these l~nlll':How ever. So we will cany forward from there and introduce certain rteweoocepts in this lesson to descn'le motion in a plane. clerive expresaio"fIJJ /orvelocity. centripetal acceleration. dsjine radial and to. In this lesson.orange and ~ hlJighto/a projec:ftle. dsjine projectile motion and circular motion and give emmples 0/ both. so. dsrive the equation o/the trajectory 0/ a projectile. and acceleration 0/ a pa7ticle in cim.Wd. dsrive expre88W"fIJJforthe time o/flight. centripetal and centrifugal force to eXplain this kind of motion.l): should the speed of a satellite be so that it moves in a circular orbit aro~:r:i the earth? And many other such questions. you will mainly study about projectile !11~ and circular motion. you have also learnt to represent motion graphically in twr· d4nensions. i. _ nam the univ~ law of pvitation.motion in two di mensions.1 mTRODUCTION In the previous ~o lessons you have studied concepts related to moUat' in a straight line and Newton's Laws of Motion. 4.lt ~other law of nature discovered by Iaaac Newton.
Thus. We can characterise the initial velocity of an object in projectile motion by its vertical and horizontal components.1: _ _ I. Then if all other effects.1). every object falls freely with a constant downward acceleration of about 9.Motion in a Plane 4. But we can also launch the body (also called the proJectUe) horizontally without any initial upward component of velocity. Having dermed projectile motion. a food packet dropped by an aeroplane are some common examples of projectile motion.1 Maximum Height.3 PROJECTILE MOTION The motion of a cricket ball hit for a six. Now suppose the projectile is launched with an initial velocity va at an angle 90 . we have to first derme projectile motion. experience only constant vertical acceleration with constant horizontal velocity.4. the acceleration of the ball is equal to g. Can you think of some more examples? In most such cases. known as the angle oJ eleucltion.3. Let us assume that the initial position of the projectile is at the origin 0 at t • o.81 m S·2 due to gravity. a football in the goall 4. of projocIiUr motion. to the xaxis. we would like to determine how high and how far it goes and how long it remains in the air. Its components in the x and y direction are. a speeding bullet. y .m general. \/'1. the acceleration due to gravity. So let us begin by asking : What is a projectile motion? You know that near the surface of the earth. . h · Y\ L x<tV.2). As you know. Time of Flight and Range of a Projectile Let us analyse projectile motion to determine its maximum height. ". stance. effects of wind and friction due to air are ignored. namely. time of flight and range. Now suppose you throw a ball from some initial position with some initial velocity. Hence they ate all examples of projectile motion (see Fig 4. Let us take the positive xaxis in the horizontaidirection and the positive yaxis in the vertical direction (Fig 4. the coordinates of the origin are x cO.. 61 . This kind of motion is called projectile motion. . ~ ". To study their motion. the motion of the ball is motion with constant vertical acceleration and zero horizontal acceleration.for in. we deJfne projectile motion as motion which has constant velocity in a certain direction and constant ac· celeration in the direction perpendicular to that oJ velocity. These factors are important if we want to launch a projectile to land at a certain target . the body moves with an initial vertical component of velocity. In doing so. A football hit by a child. ajavelin thrown by an athlete.O. we will be ignoring all other effects such as wind or air resistance.
time offlight and range of a projectile.3 c) . IIOy . we get 'a' . we can use Eqs (2. time of flight and range of a projectile.0 in Eqs. At tIac tnaCant whim tIac pi rpetlJa .. a.3 a and b) is motion with constant velociW.0 '.9.The vertical position and velociW components are also related through Eq (2. make use. 62 .3 e) You will note that the horizontal motion (given by Eq•.isconatant.. lIy .9) to write expreeaions lor the horizontal and vettica1 components of the projectile'.3 c and d) is motion with constant (downward) acceleration.ximum.rD.~. (4. Notice that .81 ms" (4.10) as (4. 4.'12 ge.'.I (4. height: ". .. 9.6 and 2.2) ·The negative. for fly appears as the acceleration due to graviW is in the negative y direction in the chosen coordinate system.110 COS. sin 90 (4.&fIOf) Now let u... tIac oertic:al c:omporumt oJ fa wloclty This is the instant when the projectile stops to move upward and does not yefbegin to move downward. (Ill ... it climbs upto some maximum height (h) and then begins to come dOMl. Therefore.. Y IIOyt .. at tIac madmwnlutfght. . Let a..1 b) x I'tc 4. . respectively.1 a) (4.II. . .. These are given by "~ Horizontal motion (4.3 d) . (&fly . and a. .IIOy gt (4.g . velociW and position at time t. And the vertical motion (given by Eqs. 4.II.0.3 I Maximum height. of the projectile's· acceleration.3 b) Vertical motion .of these equations to find out the maximum height. The vector·'sum of the two respective components would give us the velociW and position of the projectile at any: instant of time. be the horizontal and vertical components. As the projectile travels through the air. Then a.3 a) since a. '''':'I1S..3 c and d).. (4. putting lIy .
the range is (4. . This is also ca)led its ""'fI& (0) Ran.45°..4) is just the time for half the flight of the ball.Vo (2sin60cos6 0 ) 9 Since. the total time of flight is Time of flight IT ..(II. This is a good approximation for a projectile with a fairly low velocity.7) You can see that the rangeofa projectile depends on • .. its initial ~~ . (b) Time of flight: TM eun. Using Eq. Let us determine these quantities for a particular case.. R will be maxim~ for any speed when sin 2 6.5) Note that in our calculation we have ignored the effects of air resistance.sin 2 8.. 63 .. oJflfghhJ a proJectUtJ fit eM ttm. fnWntal IHttuMen the fIIatant oJ fa ~ an4 the Instant wheft U hits the grormd..gt or t9 VOy vsin6 0 9 (4. The time t given by Eq. R ... ing its time of flight by its horizontal velocity. II and • its direction given by 80 '" Now Can you determine tf. (4..6) Finally we have to fuld out the distance travelled horizontally by the projectile.4) Thus. . 2 sin 6 cos 8 . 2t.) (2t) 211 • 6 ) _ (llocos6 o) ( oam 0 9 2 . 2v0 sin8 9 0 I (4. angle at which a disc or a javelin should be thrown 80 that it covers ma.vOy. (4. the maximum height of the projectile is Maximum height Ih=~S:260 I (4. 8. .Motion in a Plane 0.e : The range R of a projectile is calculated simply by multiply "It' ...  90°.. Thus. for what angle would the range be maximum? Clearly.4) we can also determine the time for which the pr~ectile is in the air..c mum distance horizontally? In other words. This is termed the time oJ flight.1 or 2 60 Thus for R to be nuu:imum at a given speed "0 . Therefore.
We take the origin of the coordinate axes at the launch point..... Putting the value of Vo and sin eo in Eqs (4.......... (e) A boat in a river . horioontal component of velocity ciuonP.5) and (4. (ii) Th. 2........ respectively. of flight depend.. it is equal to the hammer's rangefor eo = 45°. which one h ..... road (dj A bomb i.. ... •••••••••••••••••••• J..... the leut vertical velocity component? ..0S)m2S2 h x(!t 2x9.. Which of the following oiat... (a) Are the vertical componento of the initial velocity the aame for aU the balta? If not...aiI. with time...d from a bomber plan. Three baU.6)m (9..1: In the centennial Olympics held at Atlanta in 1996.....otion and their application. tim.5) and (4. with time..8.". that you have studied some concepts related to projectile :!D........6 m...check your understanding.....8msNow........ calculate the initial speed with which the hammer was thrown... distance...... 4..d from an expIodi"l volcano (c) A truck move.....8 msQ 2x (9.ent..........1 The maximum height arid time of flight are given by Eqs....... Vo =... on a mountainou.... depend.... rel .....5).l.only on initial velocity. (a) An archer ahoot. (iii) Th.. ........ What was the maximum height of the hammer? How long did it remain in the air? Igl.. Try solving the following problems..S ms2 ) _14...... •••••• 3.........7).. (v) Th•.. an arrow at a tarpt (b) Rocke are eject...... ..... you may 1ike to .. Since the distance covered by the hammer is maximum.... .. Solution: We can ignore the height of the thrower's hand above the ground..01:!D..6 m.... lIIIilWrlum.... Assuming this to be the maximum.. Identify example.......1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1. motlorl are true? (i) Th. height ~Fis........... Thus the launch point and the point of impact are at the same height.Physics Bxample 4.... thrown at different angIea reach the earn..... vertical component of velocity ~...43s 9.J2}msl . T= IKTEXT QUESTIONS 4.. (b) Will they aU hove the earne time of fllsht? (e) Which one h ...... (iv) Th.... only on the vertical component of initial ""locity. 64 ...... of flight depend...6)... of projeetile motion from amo"l the followins aituation•......... (4..JRg = = 19.... Thus we have from Eq (4. only on the angle of elevation..2....Ore the height of the thrower's hand above the 9round.. the gold medallist fwmmer thrower threw the hilmmer to a distance of 19... about projeetil...... Putting g 9.......s..... or It is given that R Vo  v~ =Rg.....6) we get (i90...8 ms2 we get ~(19.... tim... tho greatelt horiaontal velocity component? .4Sm 2 xt=1.
.......... Bob Beamon broke the recorc\ for the 1on&:jump with ajump of 8. 4.....3 b) in Eq (4.3 d) for x and y.a Plane ~...9 c) 'Il:ajectory... In the 1968 Olympicain Mexi.2 and4... plete description of projectile motion.9 b) (4. gf' 0.1 a and b)... the path or trajec:oty of the projectile? So let us determine the equation for a projectile's trajectOl. How clo... y .3? It is easy to determine the equation for the path or trajectoty of a projectile. these equations are used to calculate the launch speed and the angle of elevation required to hit a target at a !mown range... ....AU+ (v......va sin e ......3: lhpdorIa ptOj«:II1... You will use this equation in the terminal questions... Now...(tan 601 x  2 "'« Bta_tloaa or JIaooJeatne Motlo...5 to 4.. did he come to the maxinium pollllible ranse in the abaence of air reoiatarice? The value of g in Mexioo city i.g (4..... CI parabola or CI portion· oJ CI parabo'lll.......8 b) 9 2 x 2 (vocos6 o ) This is the equation of a parabo'lll.. "'me hill initia1_ed on take oirto be 9. (4........8a) becomes (4. the path oJ ""II""~ ItIunchM wWa _ _ horl8Ontal and vertfcal velocfl:Jl .. Thus.....9 a) (4. Although we have discussed quite a few things about projectile motion........9 d) 65 .. But you must keep in mind that these equations do not give us a comilia 4.. Substituting the value of t from Eq (4..c:o City..8 a) UsingEqs (4..........3.1... a...... Eq (4.3 b) and (4. let us summarise the important equations describing projectile motion launched from a point (x•• yJ with a velocity va at an angle of elevation.. we have still not answered the original question: What is...90 m.....Motion in......2 The Trajectory ora ProjecWe Do you recognise the shapes of.1...S . For example. 9 .y.O ".gt • x. the projectile trajectories of Figs 4. 4.. cos 9)t Y .. You just have to eliminate t from Eqs (4.3 d) we get x x2 y=vOy_o_tg_o VOJc VOJc (4...... . Eqs 4.3 you can see IIOme ~ectories of a projectile at different angles of elevation.....7 are often handy for solving problems of projectile motion. if air resistance is neg1igible...... In Fig 4....78 m .. 9. : v• • va cos 9 Vy .....Yo + (vosin 9) tV..
P1 . 0). We have said that the speed of the particle is constant. which you will now study. a vehicle turning around a traffic roundabout can all be idealised as examples of circular motion. motion. See Fig 4.he INSAT series of satellites and other artificial satellites. unVorrn circular motton is motton with constant ap. far you have studied motion of such objects in a plane.r. What about the particle's velocity? To find out recall the definition of average velocity and apply it to the points P.. The word 'unifonn'refers to constant speed. In projectile motion. and P2 for uniform circular motion: po.. or along a cfrculczr CII'C.4a.? In particular.. 4. = t2 t. v ~'. The simplest kind of circular motion is uniform circular motion.10 a) The vector !iris shown in Fig 4.4a. which can be put in the category of projectile motion.. This is circular motion.Physics Notice that these are more general than the ones discussed earlier.1 Uldform Circular Motion By definition. and r2 of a particle in uniform circular motion at two different times t. Examples are a point on a rotating fan blade or a grinding wheel moving at constant speed. y.4(a)' Po. pulleys and wheels involves circular motion. The movement of gears.4 CIRCULAR MOTION The motion at constant speed of a phonograph record or a grinding wheel.fP. 4. The initial coordinates ape left unspecified as (x.. Now suppose you make the time interval M smaller and smaller so that it approaches zero.. I'tc 4. !ir !it (4. and t.. haven't we? So let us first learn about uniform circular motion. Can you dirive this general equation of the projectile trajectory? Do it before studying futther? Thus..&.4. We have benefitted immensely from . '"2 . There is another kind of twodimensional motion of interest in which the acceleration is constant in magnitude but not in direction.sitions of" particle in unifonn ci"".l rather than being placed at (0.ed en a clrc. the moving hands of an ordinary clock. what is the direction of lu? It approaches the tangent to 66 .Z". It shows the positions r. One of the most useful applications of uniform circular motion is putting artificial satellites in circular orbits around the earth. respectively. What happens to !i.. the acceleration is constant both in magpitude and direction.
AyE 8 " ~ Vz ~ .r I ./1t~O I1t _ limit I1r = dr dt (4.Motion in a Plane the circle at the point PI as lit tends j.11.5a) you can see the particle at two positions r l and r 2 . i. the angle between VI and 1'3 is also 8. The intetval lit = t. Can you say why? This is because the velocity (which is tangential to the path) is changing direction continuously as the particle travels around the circle (Fig. Because of this change In velocity. we define the instantaneous velocity at the point PI as v .. they an similar.e. {at . I'll: 4.5b). the instantaneous acceleration of the particle. =AD OF EF vv2 v. Our main aim in this section is to determine the acceleration of a particle in uniform circular motion. In Fig (4. This is also termed centripetal acceleration for reasons you will learn in a short while. Now look at Figs. For this. Magnitudeofr  v r V ~ r )( (magnitude of " 67 .5a and b.tl is very small. al~ perpendicular to the position vectors in circular motion. DE AC BC . for uniform circular motion the magnitude of the velocity.angle betweetl the position vectors is 8. respectively. We have to find the value of acceleration at an instant t. Let the constant speed of the particle be v and the radius of the circle be r. i.o zero. Since the velocity vectors are . 4. we have . The velocity vectors at time tl and t. . Since . ·or Mapitudeofv Magnitudeofr We can rewrite this as Magnitude of  ~tudeofv. .. are now placed tail to tail and their difference is The .5). .10 b) Thus. Mathematically.e. Hence. its speed is constant but the velocity vector is not constant.. Centripetal acceleration: Consider Fig (4.5b).. and t. 4.11 •7Wo posiliona ofptJItic/e in circular motion. As we decrease t further. at instants t. we have to consider the change in the particle's velocity in an extremely short time inteIVal 11t.' . ~D.the angles 8 in the' triangles ABC and DEF are equal.. uniform circular motion Is accelerated motion. The difference between these position vectors is I1r= r 2 .i1 . r will become smaller (Fig 4.
Hence.Sb again. Hence the instantaneous acceleration is perpendicular to the instantaneous velocity.: x At?O Now the distance travelled in time At divided by the time At. The magnitude of the acceleration at the instant t is equal to the magnitude of Av diVided by the time interval At. magnitude of v = vir x (distance travelled in time A9. whenever you see a particle moving at constant speed v in a circle (or a circular arc) of radius r. you may be sure that it has an acceleration directedto:ward the centre of the circle. A9 will also be very small. If the ann rellOlves around the ciTcle at a rate of 24 revolutions per minute. Therefore.Sc). Since the acceleration of the particle is directed towards the centre of the circle. it is called centripetal _leratfon. tou the centre o/the clrclcr. We will now work out an example to give you a feel for the magnitude in real life situations. Thus the arc length is simply equal to the distaAce travelled by the particle in an extremely small time interval M.5c).·jf At is made very small. is the unit vector directed from the centre of the circle to the particle (Fig. Hence. Since the velocity vector is tangential to the circle. 'l1lat is why we cannot use the kinematical equations in this case. 11 a) What is the direction of this acceleration? Study Fig. 4. uniform cirClilar motion is not a case of motion with constant acceleration. Then the straight line segplent Ar will approximately coincide with the circular ~ between points A and B. what is the centripetal acceleration of the capsule? 68 . we have a = x v v r or I 2 a=v r 1 (4. To sum up : Particle in uniform cireufar motion has a centripetal acceleration given by a=r. v f2 r • a= v2 r (4. just like we whirl a stone tied to a string in a horizontal circle. (as At is made smaller and closer to zero)is just the speed v of the particle. The capsule is whirled arounda circular path.11b) where . Notice that the 'centripetal acceleration given by Eq.Physics Now. (4. the _leratfon ~r points along the ~fus.11) is changing direction continuously (Fig. Thus. of magnitude rP I r. In their training at NASA in USA for such sitr«d:iDns. 4. as we make At smaller and smaller making it approach zero. 4. they are placed in a closed capsule which is fixed at the end of a revolving arm of rodius15 In. For very small At the direction of Av will be perpendicular to VI and v2 (which will be nearly parallel in this limiting case). Example 4.2: Astronauts eKpe7ience high accelemtion in theirflights in space.. Thus limit magnitude of A v a = At?O At v limit distance travelled in time At At = .
.ttO .1.6 in time M between the two positions r. An athlete runs around a circular track with a speed of 9.5a). What is the centripetal acceleration of these protons? Take ~ .ms 2 r 2 15m) You may now like to work out some problems to fix these ideas in your mind...4.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1. But when you start moving a merrygoround from rest. limit .2 NonUniform Circular Motion To deal with such a situation.1.1. In unifonn circular motion.12 b) 69 . 38 ms' The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration _v _(38m.\ t2 ·_·t\ .Motion in a Plane Solution: The circumference of the circular path is 2Itx(radius)=2ItxlS m.8 Ilt (4.(60 / 24)s = ~~ s.0 Ian at a speed nearly· equal to the speed of light c (99. 2.6/M as M is made approach zero. the velocity constant? (c) Is the magnitude of the acceleration constant? (d) Is acceleration constant? Explain. and r•.1. Ill= defme ~IIS fUlgUlar .12 a) When the angle turned or the angular speed ilia. protons are forced to travel in an evacuated tube in circular orbit of diamete. We define the average angular speed of the particle as III aY = _8.. 2 __8. The particle turns by an angle .1.3 X 108 ms1 a So far you have studied about objects moving in a circle at constahtspeed. What is the velocity and acceleration of such a particle aoving in a circle with 7ariable speed? Let us find out. v . The Fermi lab aCcelerator is one of the largest particle accelerators. the speed of a particle on it varies.d oi light). Since the capsule makes 24 revolutions per minute or 60 s.6 . Therefore. In this accelerator. INTEXT QUESTIONS 4."eed as the limit of the ratio .s"_96 a 1. 4. until it acquires a constant value. it is useful to introduce theconcepts of angular veloCity and angular acceleration. changes with time.!. Consider once again a partide in circular motion (Fig. the time it takes to go once around this circumference is 211: x15m the speed of the capsule.0 ms··] and a centripetal acceleration of 3 ms~. What is the radius of the track? 3.. we Thus.t d8 dt (4. 2.1.99995% of the spe. 4. (oj Is the speed constant? (bl I.
1t limit AID (4.18  or I V" rOll (4. The average speed v•• is given by v ==r··. atIf/I.1t (4. 2 =·.13 a) where AID is the change in the angular speed in the time interval. then 'it has an angular acceleration. If the angular speed of a particle is not constant.1t .. (4~ 13 b) ~ have ~ . ThUs.16.es t.Physics So ifwe know 6(t). For very small values of . AID t 't..1t+b . __ n is the limit of the ratio AID/M as . and co. The units of angular speed are radian per second (00 8""').. " .1t approaches zero. using:J!:q..lar _ l e i oflan is defined as w~ a •• • w. (4. respectively.6 (4. I'D 70 .. ~ first fu}d the average acceleration. the angular speed and angular acceleration.1t The fnatantcIrI80us angular crcc.1t smaller so that it approaches zero and using Eqs.Ie.10 b) and v· .13 b) Nonuniform circular motion is actually an example: of motion with constant angular acceleration..1t = r 4t~0 M limi.1r limit .. .1t app~ zero. To obtain the acceleration.1t . The . be the angular speeds att:iID. the distance M of the particle between the points A and B is related to 6 as follows : M " rA. Let CD. limit AID dw a= . Let us now determine the velocity" and acceleration a of a particle in circular motion in terms of CD and a . and t.1t+O .15) The direction of "is of COU1'8e along the tangent to the circle. T 4f+n M .16) and make . i. dt (4.e. M MJ _ Making . we can find CD.14) where r is the radius of the circle and it is constant.1t ~ ~1~~. a .1v AID =·=r··. Consider Fig 4.Sa once again..
.one directed toward the centre of the circle (called ewtb ptal fir radial _leratfoftl.............. This component is called the ~l_r..IIJ'th'....... it have a tanpntial acceleration? ~c) Do the magnitude of tho....a..... 4.. with time in both cue.........ratfon................... doe....... ..... with conlOtult angular velocity.. the point have .. The velocity is along the tangent to the circle but now the acceleration has two components . Then we will apply NeWton's laws of motion l<' (nUorm 71 .. ~ (h) When the wheel rot_ with conatant angulllJ' acceleration.3_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1..... a child standing at ita ouw edee have? So far you have studied that an object moving in a circle is accclerating.. What ~ntial acc:01eration doe.. radial acceleration? Doe.. work out some problems to fix these...peed increase.... To sum up.... .....1 rad 02........17 b) tangential acceleration ... other along the tangent (called tangentfal _lenition)..5 • 10' m . The .1IJ'th (taken as a particle) about the ...... now.... at a constant rate of 0. JJITEXT QUESTIONS 4. Now you have also studied Newton's laws in lesson 3..un? What i... the linear acceleration of a particle moving in a circle has two components.5b and c)... the point have a radial acceleration? Doe.. orbit about the ... Conoider a point on the edee of • rotating wheel. Note that G r is always present as long as anguJar speed is not zero : ~ is present as long as angular acceleration is not zero...ideas in your mind.... it..one of these is along the tangent to the circle given by Eq.r .. 3....... 4....15)... acoe1arationa ch.....? 2..a. II~ • . be 1.......... You should..... The situation now is as follows: A particle is in circular motion such that both the magnitude and direction of its velocity are changing (Fig..... radial acceleration .................. it have a tanpntial acceleration? ... r (4.17 a) (4. .. ............ (4....16) (see Figs. From Newton's second law you know that since the object in circuIa... In addition you will recall that a particle moving in a circular path has a radial component of the acceleration given by rP/ror Ol"rfrom Eq..... doe.... .Motion in a Plane This is the component of acce1etation which arises when the particle's speed II is changing.. acceleration with reapect to the sun? Aooume the radius of the orbit to................... a net force must be acting on it. Its angu1ar ........ (4.. llilear speed? What i.aJl r .............5a)... (aJ Wh"" tho wheel rotate.... This acceleration has two components .... What is the direction and magnitude of this force? This is what ~ vill find in the next section..... .......r motion' is accelerating.un is nOllJ'ty cir<:ular....... What is the angular speed of the ....or r II where ri is along the tangent to the circular path and is positive by convention for anticlockwise motion... A menySOround of radius 2 m atarto from reot. it..
It should be directed towards the centre of the circle and its magnitude must be equal to m!P I r. the force may be provided by the gravitational attraction between two bodies.18). from Eq. the net external force acting on a particle is related to its acceleration by F= r n a ' (4. Therefore.7). the net external force on the particle must also point toward the centre of the circle. Consider a particle moving with constant speed v in a circle of radius r. mv 2 mv 2 (4.tatiqn or eliectrfcalJorce. . (4. T() keep the car moving uniformly in the circqlar path". 4. Consider a car of mass m travelling with speed v on a curved section of a highway (Fig 4. F=r. orwhy pilots feel pressed to their seats when they fly aircrafts in vertical loops. r r This net external force directed toward the centre of the circle with magnitude given by Eq.5. a points toward the centre of the circle and its magnitude is a = !Plr. Similarly. the centripetal force is provided by the gravitational force between the two. An fmportG"nt thing to understand and remember is that the term 'centripetalJOree' don not refer to a type oJJorce oJ interaction lflee the Jorce oJ grauf.acting on a particle in uniform circular motion is directed towards the centre. y car (a) . the centripetal force for a car travelling around a bend is provided by the force of friction between the road and the car's tyres and by banking the road.. a force must act on it.Physics circular motion. (4.5 APPLICATIONS OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR IIIOTION Let us flrst determine the force acting on a particle that keeps it in uniform circular motion.19) IFI=· .18) For a particle in uniform circular motion. It does not tell us how this force is provided. 72 . Thus. (b) mg J"I& 4~7 : Banking oj roads. ·For example.19) is called the centripetalJorce. This term only tells us that the net force of a certain magnitude. 4. in the motion of a planet around the sun. This will lead us to answers about why road are banked. From Newton's second law.1 Banking of Road. You will understand these ideas better ifwe apply them to certain concrete examples. Here ris the radius of CUrvature of the curved section.
20 a) by Eq. move towards the inner edge of the curved road. roads are designed to minimise the reliance on frictipn. the car will tend to slide down the incline.20 b) We have two equations with two unknowns FN and e to determine e. i.20 b) we get mv /r tane ='mg or 2 v2 rg le=tan 1 ~I (4. the force of normal reaction. move towards the outer edge of the' CUIVed . Eq. it will tend to slide up. So even iarge trucks and other heavy vehicles can ply on banked roads. The centripetal force is provided by the horizontal component of F. (4. cos e . resolving the force FN into its horizontal and vertical components. '" . is adjusted for the sharpness of the CUJVe and the maximum allowed speed..r 2 (4. As a matter of fact.7a). The angle of banking.21) Hpw do we interpret Eq... Roads are banked at curves so that cars can keep on track even when friction is negJigible.21). What is banking of the road? Banking raises the outer edge of the road above the level of the inner edge (Fig.e.e. Therefore. The forces acting on the car are the car's weight mg and F N . 4. Vehicles can maintain a stable circular path around CUIVes if their speed remains Within this range. the coefficient of friction becomes negligible. Such a force is provided by "banking" of road on cUIVed sections.e.. For example. (4.20 a and b). we can write . Let us now analyse the free body diagram for the car to obtain an expression for e. Let us consider the case when there is no frictional force acting between the car lyres and the road. there. e should be pater for high speeds and sharp curves (i.road. For a given e. consider the design of a racetrack of radius 300m which has to allow for speeds 73 . (4. Thus.21) tells us that the angle of banking is independent of the mass of the vehicle. the vehicle will be pushed off ilie road and there may be·accidents. To get a feel of actual numbers. due to frictional forces. And if the speed is more than v. if the speed is less than v given by Eq. Other_wise. Dividing Eq.. from Eqs.21) for limits on v and choice of e? Firstly. when car tyres are smooth or there is water or snow on roads.20 a) Since there is no vertical acceleration. Usually. we eliminate F. is a railge of speeds on either Side of v. (4. it is necessary to provide an additional force so that the sum of this force and the force of friction is equal to the centripetal force.. (4. (4. for lower values of". So a vehicle driver must drive within prescribed speed limits on curves.Motion in a Plane Now the force of friction between the road and the tyres is often not enough to keep the car in a circular path. e_ mv "N Sll1 . the vertical component of FN is equal to the car's weight: F. i. e. Secondly.mg (4.
Itt is the f.8). 4. Explain why airc:ractB are banked.velling at a speed l. pilots may even black out for a while and it could be dangerous.8 : (a) Aircrafts in vertical loops (b) Freebody diagram for a pilot Nmg=ma=miP/r orN=m(g+ u2/ij In actual situations. the radius of curvatul'e of the turn? Take g10 msl . 4.uc:es a tum of radius 100 m on t't horizontal road.Physics upto 50 ms. What i. Let us understand why this happens.7 So the pilots feel as though force of gravity has been magnified by a factor of 3.l makes a tum at a banking angle of 30°. The net v~rtically upward force is N nig and this provides the centripetal acceleration : N Fi& 4. Draw a freebody diagram for this aircraft.7 and say that they are experiencing 3. The forces acting on him are mg and the normal force N exerted by the seat.q.8 b shows the 'free body' diagram for the pilot at the bottom of the loop. v = 200 m SI and r = 1500 m which gives (200ms1 )2 ] N = mg [ 1 + 9.100 ms. TI. . (4.2 Aircrafts in vertical loops On Republic Day and other shows by the Indian Air Force you may have seen pilots flying airhafts in vertical loops (Fig. 4. 74 . 10 ms'.I .L Calculate the maximum speed of a car which ~~_. If this force exceeds set limits. the pilots feel as if they are being pressed to their seats by a fon·e of gravity equal to several g's._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.)2 = tanI (300m) (9. an: usually banked while taking a tum when flying at a constant speed (Fig 4. Fig. INTEXT QUESTIONS 4. at the bottom of the loop. Aircraft.e coefficient of friction betwEt'n the tyres and the roeict· is 0.81ms2 x 1500m = mg x 3.?rce exerted by the air on the aircraft.4.7 9 force.21) and calculate 6.5. Suppose an aircraft tra.81ms 2) You may like to consider another application. Take g.1• What should the angle of banking be? You may like to quickly use F. 1 8 0' tan I (50ms. You may now like to apply these ideas to some other situations.90. In such situations.8a).
Thus.. .. .....r i. on a horisontal table in a train. Will the free ourf...npt aittin&: inaide expl._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1. of _er remain hotUontal .... . outward................... ..e... i... motion? 'How would an observer standing on a rood explain the .pect Imagine you are sitting on a bench in a park and observiJul these activities going around you : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) A child sitting on a rotating menygoround.. 2.....Motion in a Plane 3....... Calculate the speed for R ..d with .......vent? .. In general...... Can you identify which of these frames are inertia1 and which ones noninertia1 with respect to you? Clearly...0 m........... So far you have studied about motion from the point of view of inertial observers. Now that you know what is meant by a noninertial frame of refer ence........... any frame of reference attached to the earth is noninertial.. theframes of ~.......6 NONINERTIAL FRAMES OF REFERENCE Suppose you are standing on a roadside observing the motion of two buses.. ..nce moufng with unVOrm wlocfty wfth .. Then the frames of reference attached to you and Bus A w'e inertial frames of reference with respect to each other.. the elderly man and the youth mentioned in (i) to (iv)............ You can find several examples of noninertial frames in your immediate environment............................. ........ a bus accelerating from rest. A ball thrown up in the air An elderly man sitting on another bench in a park A youth walking leisurely (with a low uniform speed) Suppose you attach a frame ofrelerence with the child. An interesting act performed at variety shows is to swing a bucket.............spect to each other are burnkd and thou acceleratCng with to each other are nonfnerttaL ....... of water in a vertical circle such that water does not pour out while the bucket is inverted at the top of the circle. A a:Jua half fill. kept... And the frames of reference attached to you and Bus B are noninertial frames of reference with respect to each other...... Determine an expression for the minimum speed of the bucket at the top of the circle in terms of ita radius R...8. the ball..... a rotating merrygoround. .......kid... IRTBXT QUESTIONS 4. .. " " .... How .. So for an accurate description of phenomena occurring on the earth we need to use a n~n inertial frame of reference.. the train ltarto? .. For example....... the speed of the bucket must be larger than a certain minimum value... ........ a car rounding the corner and a ball falling freely...... the frames of reference in (i) and (ii) are noninertial as they are acceleratiIlg....75 ...... Do you think we are all inertial observers? Remember that the earth is rotating on its axis..ould a pass........... ..1. For this trick to be performed successful)y. .. any object on it accelerates........... the car'.. . 4.... A and B. When • """ i. Bus A moves with a constant velocity and Bus B accelerates with respect to you....... ...... driven too fut around a cu"'" it .........t..
... 4. The particle is at a distance of 4 em from the axis of rotation. tangent to the circle..... • The Wi'" pearI .of particle m . .g...10 mo' Let us now summarise the concepts presented in this lesson.... circulararc. A body of maas m observed from a noninenial frame of reference undergoing acceleration a ia acted upon by an _ r l ... 4.. r_Lo.. 6 x 10"'9 kg i. m ia acted upon by an inertial force called the cenlJrlfullaJI. " I .'ConI r where mi.7'~76. "........given by ma r r • _...  x>..7 • WHAT YOUBAVELEARNT?_ _ _ _ _ _ __ PIOjectl1a .. VoSln 28 Range g Tr~ectory y=(tan6 oIX g 2(VoCOS 6 0 2 ) x2 CfrcalGr naotfon.. ...9 y..r •...... A particle undergoing in a circle of radius r at constant speed v has a Wi.. .......l. a•  0 a.each oth"" are _ I and the frames accelerating with reapect to each other are ...~'..... a unit vector... motion in a circle or along II........" r e J  moving with uniform velocity with respect to..... given by . defined .............Yo+ (v.... given by F=ma.... r i..v. the angular speed of the rotating frame and r the unit vector directed from the origin of the frame to the particle. .. mar r '~.acting on the mv 2 "" particle i.. _'' _ a........ VO =1' l' where...... c.. in a water auspenaion in a ..'+ (v.ar where a ia the engutu acceleration and n i..cos 9)t vocos... aa n • • _ _ ...Physics 3. .......culate the net centrifugal force acting on the particle . the unit vector directed from the centre of the circle to the particle... a particle of . . sin 9 ) R_VoSln 2 • ~ gl' 28 • Height g • • • • Time of Flight T= 2vosin6 g R= 2 . . i... T A particle executing nonuniform circular motion haa a centripetlll acceleration well as a """.. ... =................... Tbe speed v of the particle is related to ito angular speed CD by . Observed from a rotating frame of reference. ........" pear _Lot all" given by ."irua.... a...." o 8lO9gt v.......trifuge being rotated at an angular speed of 21< x lOS rad ....'. .. . uniform when the speed of the particle ia constant..otiDa i.. A tiny.. i............" .e...... motion which has constant velocity in a certain direction and constant acceleration in a direction perpendicular to that of velocity. What must the annular speed of the earth be so that the centrifugal force makes objects By off ito surface? Take g ..
... An aeroplane drops a food packet from a height of 2000 m above the ground while in' horiaontaillight at a constant speed of 200" Ian h'. m..ms jumping huge gap • .I ~. What path will the stone follow while reaching the ground? A hunter aims exactly at a monk'ey sitting on a tree. (Fig 4..9) Let the angle of incline on either side be 45". if the moneky had not jumped? A string can sustain a maximum force of lOON without breaking.10 12. Will the monkey be shot? What would happen. What vo. A motorcyclist passes a curve of radius 50 m'with a speed of 10 ms·· I .".85 kg? 77 . A bullet i. 4. l. the sp.. Detennine the . . hand of a clock i... the packet 13. 11.. 8. At what distance from the gun will the .1• What is the centrifugal force on a p_nger of mass m .. and its range.!ody can be rotated without breaking 6.. ." ' ' . . A mass m moving in a circle at speed v on a frictionless table is attached to a hanging mass M by a string through a hole in Ih. of the velocity. the monkey jumps from the tree. does a cyclist bend inward while taking a turn a circular path? 2. bullet strike the ground? 9.:In horse backs and motor cycles. You must have seen heroes in Hindi m. 10 em. calculate the widest gap he can cross.. A car i. fired with an initial velocity 300m. In this problem consider a daredevil motor cycle rider tIying to cross a gap at a velocity of 100 Ian h'. 3.. TERMINAL QUESTIONS_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 00 Why. 5..' FIg 4..8 1. The length of the second'.. How long does the packet take to fsll to the ground? How far ahead (horizonts11y) of the point of release Joe.9 land? .' at an angle of 30" with the horizontal.ed of mus m for which the mass M would remain at rest. Explain why the outer rail is raised with respect to the inner on the curved portion of a railway track? If a particle is having circular mOtion _with constant speed.e table (Fig 4.Motion in a Plane 4... rounding a curve of radius 220 m at a speed of 60 lanh. . Calculate the vertical and horizontal component. As soon as the hunter fires the ahot. " . 14. the string? 7..ed of the tip of this hand? 10. .~ : .. the maximum height that the shell reaches. A mass of 1 kg is tied to one end of the piece of string of 1m long and it is rotated in a horizontal plane. Compute the maximum speed with which the I. A shell is fired at an angle of elevation of 30" with a velocity of 500 ms·'. .. What i..p..10). ~ LR~ Ftc 4. will itsacceleration also be constant? A stone is thrown from the window of a bus moving on horizontal road..U be the centrepetal acceleration when tunring the curve? .
the force me Ihould prooric\e the OII1lripeial~. . 4... the tangential acceIoration of the Child ia . 2 1II1&U1'" 'PI. tion .. it.....S • 10" m • 3.. exerted by the air tdong the radius of the circle to provide the centripetal . (300" 1(i4 aI )2 0013 ...lripetlll acceIorUi. ..4 18 boNontal N • Tbue ~• IIIG'..:I • lit' rad I'" • 1.. It..3 .on I "".78 R . Thu... At tho top..t.8...m Refer to JrIc.JunrinIJ the '"' b~ cIi..1:1 .17.. 4.tll IDOYU 211: ~.. f'is.w. ...3 (3) (a) Yea (h) Yea (e) The ball with the DUIXIDlWD . Tbia ia aimi1. In cue (b) the 1I~"'de of .0.. . it baa both radlilll and tIIrIpIn· tilll acceIeratiou...0"w m IDteat Qu••tIolia 4. Therefo...1 The _ _ acceIIIl'Iltion ia 11." • 100 m)" II ·30 maI• • . Maximum !'lid"". :II' rw:l _ :I )( 10. 9.3 m.78ml ms? 2 = 9. ap..tao diIIl aeceIOI'Ui. . (d) (ii). g)(..23m Thua.33m.m for the bucket lit the top of the In order thIIt ___ in the bucket doe.11 (2) The force of rriction pro¥icIll the . .S"lu.17 ndlI.0. 3e5" :14 "SHe t501 Linear aplad v .. r c 2(3"108_1)2 a . 11...1 0.3 (1) acceI.. Since =l0J3m .uon but no taatlCtial .ap. or 1/ • (0. the difference i....90 m .. (a) The point on the whMl baa alUilll . the citcIe. 4.2 (b) N.5 = g 9. (v) lIlteld: Qu••tio_ '4.1 rail .. sea dqe IU'OUnd thl aIUl..... not f. ." (4) Ranae  f)~ (9.n but keepa moviq ill..0 • 10' m ...an ito DDt 'Xlnlltclt but'the mapltude of tanpntid ~118 con_to PI /IoIN.Physics..10..o_ 4....23 m .ot to the eun (3) or"' . (h). are changing continuoualy. ill.4 (1) m.leration..9 (1) (2) ANSWERS TO THE IlfTBXT QUBSTIORS (3) (a)...9..IlT l1li .1/2 IIIG' . If the aircraft banka.·0.. (e) in _ (a) tIu mapltude of radiaI_e1orUi..."..11 ahowa the free body ~ The radiUI of cumoture i. 3m lIlteJIt QaeetJ..cc.... of the circle• circI...11 6. . 4. lIlteat Que... r l..ad ito conet..' Acoe1enIjan' with .n· IItcIt. there i. ..tioD.r IIIinoe the 1'01..13 ..r "'1/ me (2) Thl.d .on ito co.. (2) (3) Q=. to the cue of bllllkillc of roada... • component of the force r.ol...d ..0 1.:1 (1) (8) Yel (h) No (c) Yeo (d) No The velocity and acceleration lU"e not conetant becau8e their direction.. . 10 m ..
mlli'r .10m.u1d IlkII the on..urr.ap.."10 m..2 ma1 where 1ft i. ticle i. Th.y a.ctoIy .. Thu. • 28 COB 4S· mr' • 19.. To an ob_r standing on the road. luqht h • O. N_. lat• • Qu••Uoa4. (Fig 4. II.9.0 m and taking g...8 mr' ·20 mr' · Vortial compcm.:. the minimum value of the bucket'.8 mr' HoriaontaJ componant of wIocIty V.e. the car moving in a curve hu a centripetal acceleration p n by mtP / r. get 11. 4: 1... a Plane orvRg :.28 mr' M. The . ."' ..3.6 " 10laN. The net centrifua:al force on the p .Motion in."'" . the larpr rwill be.83" 10'm or 0 • (20 m'r')t + lit (10 m04 " f or t 4L Thul R· V. a centrifugal force (rmi' /" acta on the car... i. Ranp of the ahell • . wloc'ity • (800 1001az1h I • 100 x 1000 iDaI I5Oxl5O ·27. (800_1 t x . • 19. The greater v io the larger r would 1>6. of refer IIIIC8 attached to the train io J' . opeed at the top of the wrtical circle.. F ...t· 20 ma' "4 I ·80m.(6 " 10" Ira) " (2 K" 10' tad r')'" (0. 10. K/a _.81 .(SOO mr') COl 30· ·2803 mr' The horiaontaJ component of the aheIl'. 2_'" 8... . abown in . the maaa of the water and the glaaa.in~ 30· 2 x 10_:1 . • 3128m. Once again.amum hoqht of the aheIl • 280 ma' mr') Bin 30" · "'~. the greater V i. _ana that in the time it trawIa the diatanca R. Thul the wideat PI' il 80 m.ilia To the paooenger sitting inside. uailli the equation lor Y .'.. the total force · octin&: on water in the from. The vertical component of Ibe shell'l wlocity ......13).ant of wIocIty ·V.. (3) AKSWBRS TO TBB TBRIIIKAL QUJC8TIOKS 6.8 mr' ·20 mr' Por the wid.. · h· V" t + lit ~ .at PI' the ~.. IirIIt conwrt the wIoaity to unita ofm r' .. Let u.. _ down to ita oriainal helaht as it erou•• the fbi. en 1I<X>81• ration.... itretumoto the . For R .. 8.04 m) .& (1) When the train .~=10_:1 • 12800 3 m.1.. v  Jii9 (2) Thi.OlMnt of diatIIn.. 11.... of the water take.. 10 mr' 7.torta it h . (50011181 )~ lin 150" '9 . up a position normal to F as shown.
u 2 =rg M m or u  ~7 mu 2 14..Physics 12.6 rns1. • . The horizontal distance covered by the packet is given by x. In this case the height is 2000 m.'h ge or f .)t. n '" the tension in the string connecting m.y.2000 m (the minus sign occurs because the origin is taken at the aircraft) and 9 0 we get 2000 m .'h g/' . .mV'/r or Mg .Mg and T.mV'fr :. the ten.x" "" L. To fmd the time of flight we use the equation y. If the string is considered massless. The centrifugai fQf"Ce on the car is F _.107 N. T is also o r F .ro.(u.y. The packet is' dropped at a horizontal speed of 200 km h' or (200 x 1000)/(60 x 60) m 8. Thus..ion in the string.1• 55.(55.6 ms') x 20 s. Mg and T.) t=20s. cos OJt . . sin 9. T. Putting y .10 ms. = 1112 m. There are two force on the mass M. 80 . N _ 220 m X 85 kg x (60.000)2 (3600)2 . This provides the centripetal force for m to move in a circle.r r 13. The mass M would remain at rest if the net external force on it is ze..400 s (g.
late the ~ velocity and the escape velocity. British Scientist. analyse the variation in the value of'g' due to differentfactors.1 IRTRODUCTIOK You may recall from your earlier studies that planets move around the sun in concentric circles with sun at the centre. After studying this lesson. find relation between time of rotation and radius of orbit of a planet or satellite: . in this lesson.5 GRAVITATIONAL MOTION 5. satellite motion IIDd phenomenon of weightlessness. 5. ool". This law has helped in thedevelopment of satellites. state Kepler's law$ ofplanetary motion. . Where do they go? These fall on the Earth. space probes and geostationuy satellites. What kind of force keeps the planets in theiJ: orbit? Throw a ball up or let a book slip from your hands.tion. its universal nature and its consequences. In this lesson we shall study the law of gravitl!. It is a common observation that bodies close to the earth fall on it if they are free . you should be able to. You have also learnt in lesson 4 that a centripetal force is required for circular motion. recognise condition for a satellite to be geoSkdionary and recognise the applications of satellites. • distinguish between inertial mass and gmvitational mass and show their • • • • • • equiualeru:e. . We shall also learn the difference between inertial and gravitational masses. replied these questions through his law of gravitation.2 • OBJEC'l'lVES state and explain the uniuersallaw of gravitation. Does the moon also fall towards the earth? Sir Issac Newton a. • identify the force· responsible for planstary ~on. . and ~ the height for a synchronous satellite.
'21 • m2 Ora.al eon.y write DC m l )( '"l '0 'oocr~ or (5.andm. Falling of(a) Masa m and (b) of Moon towczrda Earth 1'1. the other pcII'tU:" wfCh afore. it would move" away tangentially.. ffi2 1'1& 11.luol . • m.  Is there any connection between these two falls? How motion of Moon about the Earth and motion of plaaets about the Sun are connected. The law is stated as ~hptJl'tfc" in the un_. the constant of proportionality.tGnt oJ gn:wttaUon and is the force of gravitation. Newton provided a colierent answer to these... 5. Can you think of some relation between the stars and galaxy.1) 1 Here G. f..3).:1.3 UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION You see that a mango falls from the tree on the Earth..proportional to the aquarw oJ the d~ between them.zc..1] ..eW .. 11.. whfch .r..J Newton used the knowledge of Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his laws of motion to give the famous law of gravitation..)...proportional to the product oJ the rn_a oJ the ptJl'tfc.' .1 . and tnw. ClttrcIct. Gravltational_ b _ ma... • F12 '12 •• m2 . dfr«:tltl .tion Ie .. The force is attractive only and acts along the line joining the masses (such a force is called centralfore... '0 ml ".. _m.Physics 5.. see Fig.it_naj . 82 . The law may also be written as follows (See Fig 5. (rn." m1 ••t· r .. Does the Moon also fall towards the Earth? Yes indeed! (Had there been no centripetal force acting on the Moon.sau m. II. Many more such questions about the position of heavenly bodies come to mind. Mathematically we ma... and m. is known as the unw. m 1 (I) 1m.'m..
67 X 10 6 )2 m 2 Rot. tcznce oj 1 m In afro The value of Gis same for any pair of masses be it stars and galaxies or two shot·put spheres anywhere.. = G m . calculate the value o/G. (b) separated by a distance of 6.m. 83 ..1) to (5.5)2 In case (h) F. Let us see what happens at small distance in the following example. Its value is .67 X1011 Nm' kg2 x 50kg x 4<Jkg = 3 X1021 N (6.s numerlcally equal to the jorce oj CIttrcrctfon between two point masses 1 kg flGCh placed at a df..3) Though this law is universal in nature.67 x 1 (FII Nm2 kg2. point .: G2 .1 Universal CohstaDt of GravitatioD The constant G appearing in eqs.3. "The force is mutual according to Newton's third law of motion that is m. attracts m.=6. a x UJ>· kg and its radius R. Its magnitude is given by 1'01 = Fo = G m. Given the value of gmvitational constant G = 6. Taking mass of the Earth ME = 6..Nm kg2 x SO kg x 4<Jkg G(0. the gravitational constant G f. = 1 kg and r = 1 m in eq.. 5. so that The force of gravitation is very important for large masses.. G S. m 2 G r2 In case (a) 11 2 F.67 X 1011 Nm2 kg"2 and its dimensions are IciJ .2: A mass of 1 kg placed on the surface of the Earth is attracted by a force of 9" 8 N. (5.4) Solution: The force of gravitation is given by (in magnitude) F.1 : TWo girls of masses 40 kg and 50 kg respectively are (a) standing at a distance of 0.67 x 1O.G Thus. (5.3 that '12 points in a direction opposite to r 2and it is the gravitational force exerted by m.67 x 1 ()6 m.336 x 10' N = 6.s throughout this 1e••on.: All bodies are taken .. Example 5. and in turn m. it cannot be used for atomic and subatomic particles.3) is known as the universal constartt of gravitation. calculate the force ofgmvitational attraction between them.m2 r' (S.GraVitational Motion m 1m 2 r '2 " and '21 .3). Example 5.2) It i~ evident from Fig S. by mass m" The gravitationaljorce is always czttracttue.2 (S. .4 x 1()6 m.rI2 (S. Neglecting otherforces. '21 = '. _ 6.". G = 6.1 is the gravitational force on m.. Then Fo . attracts m.s. on m 1 and F.1MI L3 1"2J We can deftne G by taking m.50 m.
37 x 106 m.72 X 103 ms2 = 6. It is infact universal in nature. (27.8 mil"""•.3. 5.84 X 10 m 2.72xl03ms~ Newton overcame the difficulty in the two values of acceleration by hypothesising that force of gravitation decreases with increase in distance from the Earth according to a defmite law. 2.2. =(~J. 6..3) we can write G= MEm SubstitUting the values of given quantities. (5.6.84 x lOS m and the _ radius of the Earth is R. It takes the Moon 27. It was stated in the previous section that falling of the Moon and an object on the Earth have some connection. so that 84 .7 x 1O11Nm2 kg2 F~ 5.3 x 24 x 3600f But the value of acceleration due to gravity acting on a freely falling_body is 9 . L a.4).2 Universal Nature of the Law of Gravitation You may be thinking that Newtons law of gravitation is applicable only for the members of the solar family. Let us assume . we get G = 9.4 I Jfoon retJOIfling _ the  Substit11ting the values of Tand rm' we have.37xl0"m or 3600 .3 days to go round the Earth once in iUt circular orbit.Ph}'Slcs Solution: Using eq.80 ms(3.72X1o' m.(6C..84 x 108 m)m 2. The distance of the moon from the Earth is rm . which gives R. circular orbit) is given by ac . The centripetal acceleration of the Moon (being it.9.8N x (6A x 10" m}2 . 2 9.. (Fig.0 X 1024 kgx lkg 6. We can use it between any two mass points on the Earth or bodies in intergalaciic space..3.Im Which gives m ..• = rm v2 411"2 = T2 r m 8 as v  2n r T PIa 5.J. c a = 411"2 x 3. This may be agitating your mind what connection? Let us explore it.
........................ At a point between the Earth and the Moon.............r ............. The force is directed towards the Sun.... .. the formation of the universe........ ....... The toraional rod is deflected tIaroui!I> an OIlIIIe of 0...6) It shows that the acceleration (centripetal in case of Moon) produced by force of gravi1:Ji!............... spheres of 5.........couple' per unit twiat of the llUapension wire i... 1.r such that ~ :»"'t........s an inverse square law centralJoree....on lOCi· oflength 2m.................... of the Moon and the Earth are balanced...... ~ 4. Thus grrDIitatfonalJoree f. the spheres are displaced through 2mm each........ observation of moons of Jupiter and Saturn have been successfully explained with the help of the law of gravitation..................... ........... Similar conclusion may be drawn about the Sunplanet system.. Wny the 3..5) or U c Ot 1/rm2 (5. each 111....... j••••••••••••••••••• 2...1_~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ State the anumption........G ar2 85 ....... INTEXT QUESTIONS 1.... if any made in the.....tion is inversely proportional to the square of the distance..02 radian....... It is directed towards the Earth. .. Calculate the val....Gravitational Motion (5........... In a cavendish experiment two lead... I 5............ When two lead sphere_ of m ........ Estimate the distlUlCO of this point from the Earth... A mass ~ is accelerated towards another mass acceleration of 7rI. the gravitational pun......66 x 10< Nm.................................. Let us take a pause and solve these questions. masSes 16 g each are IlUspended with a tor· .............. ... of G if the torsional .... ..... . The force of gravitation between two bodies of equal masses...........pheres sa shown in the figure.................... 5....z not seen towards m" ? m. formulation of the law of gr~tation...... The law of gravitation applies not only to the Sun and planet system but also to any two point masses. 10kg each are brought near the ""8pensl"d ................4 IlntRTlALlIIASS AND GRAVITATIONAL MASS You may recall from Newton's second law we have and from Newton's law of Gravitation we have '=ma Mm. It is universal in nature.................. The occurance of tides on sea. placed at distance ris Fa' Find the magnitude of tho force if (i) each body has mass 3 mand (ii) the separation is changed to 4r............
According to this law (m. This force of gravity. is a prototype kilogram.)G (m. and A II. III eaUad tt.. It shows that greater mass offers greater resistance to motion. Thus. Find ra) the weight oj the body a'ld (b) thBspring constant oJthe spring.p.15 x l<r' kg x 9. W. However..8 ms' = 0. __ is an fntrlnsfc proJMrl:ll oJ a bodg but tJht III t:he &drlnafc prop.3 Concept of Weight TheJorce wftla which the krth attracUCI 60. Using Newton's second law of motion you have verified the law of conservation of linear momentum in lesson 3. • 5.). The same result may be expressed in gravitatiorial units in which W15 x 1O3kgwt 86 . IHfght w: Thus. ~ can boo found by measuring changes in velocities.. these are resistance to a change in its velocity and its gravitational interaction with other mass.8) The weights W.71 The masses (m. it is not easy to determine A ". If m. Solutioa: (a)W= mg . W. All.147 N.1 Inertiallllass When we push a chair and a cot with the same forr:e we find that chair moves faster than the cot. (5. and (~I. The Earth's gravitational force is callod ~e gravity. 5.. Thus.9) W= mg (5. .. (~IG can be found. in this equation are inertial masses. t.4.)G 9 =(m.F=mo a=mog=W The magnitude of the weight is given by (5. (mdG 9 Thus.Physics Does m stand for the same property in the two equations? It may be seen that the mass m characterises two different properties of an object.10) We shall see in later section that 9 changes from place to place. So.2 Gravitational Mass In Newton's Law of gravitation you hwe seenthat the gravitational force Fa is proportional to the mass.l. Therefore. the same as the unit of force.(m. 5. mass characterises resistance to motion. according to the Newton's second law ofmntion. All.3 : A mass oj 15 9 is suspended With a vertical spring which is extended by 15 division on a scale placed by its side.. causes acceleration called the acceleration due to gravity '{/ in a freely falling body. If :m. and W. Each division on the scale is equal to 1 mm.4. this mass characterises the gravitational force and is known as the gravttattolUd _ (m"I. weight is a force whose magnitude is proportional to the mass of the body and direction is downward towards the Earth. The unit of weight is.). To measure m" we use the definition of weight.4. the weight is measured in Newton. can be measured by a pan or spring balance.IG is a prototype kilogram.n. = (m. This mass of the body is called the inertial _ m. Bxample 5. Thus .}G (5. the weight of a body also depends on the lOcation of the body.
. . ~ 5. ... . A body is suspended with a spring iba1ance attached to the ceiling of an elevator... . ... ... .... 'tNTEXT QUESTIONS 5. ... .... ... . Do you think that the inertial and gnwitstion mass of the body are equal..5 • to a ericket baIl of weight 3 N. 5... Why the weight of a body does not remain constant? . .. . . (iii) It is conserved during physical or chemical combinations.. .. . . . will it make any difference if mass is measured by applying horizontal force or allowed it to fall freely? . . . ... . . .•••.. ~alance to measure the two masses.. . Taite g .. Distinguish between inertial mass and gravitational mass. . . .. .Ol!lm 2 9. . . . .e.ri.. ..Again. Do you use the same 2.. . .3) which is. If v« c.. .. ..••••• .... .. . .. . ... h . ... . where m" is the rest mass of the body and ~ is the speed . .. . 81 . The l.... .. ...... . (v) It depends on the total quantity of the matter in the body. .. . . . . .4.. .. . . the gravitational force on a'mass is given by equation (5.In the inertial frame of reference.8 NmI 5. .. /ex = mgor k= mg/x k_15X103 kg x 9. . ..following distinct properties....Gravitational Motion 1 kgwt = 9. M = m l + m. ... . (iv) It is independent of the shape. .... . .. Its vallie was determined first of all by Ga1ileo and t. (vi) Its value changes at speeds approaching the speed of light. . . . imparts a velocity of 10 mao' in 0... . ......... then mHmo . ~ 3. .. .. size and the state of the matter. .5 ACCELERATION DUB TO GRAVITY AND ITS VARIATION . . .. . . . (b) The spring exert restoring force F = /ex where k is the spring constant.. (i) These can be added algebraicaD. :. .. . . . .. .. . .. .. .. .... 4.10 ms'. ... ...2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ l.8 N.. .... Find the borizontal force acting on the ball. + m. iii) It remains unaffected by the presence of other body's masses..~ found that it wassame for all bqdies.. ... . .. .. ..1 WI :. ... . . . ....... During downward acceleration of the elevator the balance shows aero reading. . In equilibrium IFI =. . v' 1c2 of light.. . justify your answer...4 Properties of Inertial Mass The inertial mass has. ...8 ms'!hus O. . . . . . . .. . + .... . We know that the acceleratioq due to gravity is the acceleration of a body falling freely.janeie shows a reading of 5 division when the elevator is stationary... . .. A bowler.... . ... take a break and check you progress...
. The value of 9 is not constant.4: 7Wo balls weighing 4.. 0 ' v0 =0] as the balls are dropped.5).1 are measured in opposite directiop.12) Bxample 15.12) reveals that the value of 9 depends on M. independent of mass.1 is independent of m hence it has same value for all masses.=1. more gold for the same money? . • Ii I I . This gives '=Vg t is. and ~.5. The Earth is not a perfect sphere.2 N respectively are dropped • from the same height of 10m. With the precision available in the measurement oflength and time (109). ne 5.5: ~ point P at an _. Would you like to buy 1 p . This is known as the acceleration due to gravity g. Let the value of acceleration: due to gravity at P be gO. the value of gat 45° latitude is 9 .11) The negative sign indicates that rand 1. . Neglecting air friction. (Fig 5. so both balls will take the same time to reach the ground.1=. Solution! The equation of motion of freely falling body is h=Y." .80600 m~ = 9. 88 . find how long each ball will fake to reach the ground. Its distance from the centre of Earth OP = (Ra + h). depth and lattitude.R~ GM E " r (5.9. it is buldging at the equator.at" til. Putting the values of h and 9 we have t= fzh ~2XlO w.[x=vt+Y. CAl Vllriatio.Physics F '" GMEm" r R~ According to the Newtons second law of motion F= ma Comparing these two equations we find 1. It is found that the value of 9 changes by about 0. II. It also changes with altitude. We see that 1.".6 per cent on the Earth. It depends on some factors which are being discussed below.4s 5. of 9 with altitud.. Therefore.1 Variation in the value of 9 A look on equation (5.9 Nand 19.e : Let us take a body of mass m at point P at'height h from the ·Earth's surface.81 ms" We may now write 191= GMs = F R~ m (5. Take g = 10 ms2 . .
9937 .11 AIa. = 0 94 6600' Ilg xlOO=0. We find. g g (RB.above equation shows that g' < g..5.8 m.064% . Solution: (a) g' 9 = ~ =( r2 6400km 6400 + 200 km )2 = (6400)2. the percentage variation = 0.97 x 1024 kg Density of the Earth P _ MB V gRB'/G3 g • 3 ~ 3 n RB . the value on the surface of the Earth.5: Calculate the percentage difference in the value of9 at altitudes fa) 200 km and (b) 40 km.0063 So.Gravitational Motion or g= (RB +h)' On the Earth's surface Il g=.37 x 106m)' Solution: ME = .5. GMIl GM RIl Dividing these equations we have. it is less than 9.13) Since R.06 So.8 ms2. BampJe 5. g R~ 9:8 ms~2 x (6.6..~ Taking ~ of the Earth equal to 6.61% g Ilg=gg·=0. The radius of the Earth is 6400 km.+h)' 2 RB ( 1+h =1++2h (h RIl RB RB J J (5.67 X 10. Bxample 5. that with increase in altitude the value of 9 decreases. the percentage variation g'= ( 6400 km 9 6400 +40 km R (b) )2 = 0. > h.67 x 10" Nm' kg2) . (G . we can neglect (iJ so that g=g(l+ ~) or The .B 89 .. 4 tlGJl./1g = 0.37 >< 1~ m and 9 = 9.= . Note that the value of 9 remains same near the surface of the Earth.97 x 10" kg G 6.s2 find the mass of the Earth..
y Consider a mass point P on the Earth's surface at a latitude A as shown in Fig 5.37x106 km = . = 6356.4 km.. gt':{1 _ GM E .= 6378.= .uP COS2 1e (a) At the equator Ie= 0. and I Ie} at a latitude of 45°. on writing magnitudes mg = mg . (R) E cq T' ..Physics 3x9.14) We see that. its mcvdmum value is at the pole fA. The first part has already been discussed. the radius of the Earth being RE • Had the Earth been stationary FG would act along PO... is the latitude of P. cosO = 1. (i) the rotation of Earth decreases the value of 9 (ii) the increase in the value of Ie increases the value of g..= OJ. Solution: At latitude Ie.mror cos Ie org=gR. Example 5. you have learnt Fe = mror. Given (R. the mass at P experiences a centrifugal force. 9 km. the value of acceleration due to gravity is g = 9 . The mass point P describe a circle of radius r=R.)~q 4ft2 [ .. of g with latitude: Two factors. . The tangential component has no effect along PO.8ms2 4x3.6. (b) the poles.. therefore. w= 2ft/T Therefore. you know that force can be resolved into two rectangular components namely Fe cos Ie alorig OP and Fe sin Ie tangential to the Earth at P. The value of 9 thus changes from place to place on the Earth.}.. (al position of the body above the surface of the Earth and (bl the latitude at which the body is situated affect the value of g.97 x 1 (11< kg. I Fe I = mror From lession 1. 9 =9 E W R 2] 90 .67xlO. Due to the rotation of the Earth from West to East on its own axis running NorthSouth.Th.(R. It is the rotation of Earth about its wn axis which gives rise to the second type of variation. The net force along PO is thus F=FGFC cosle In lesson 4.eosle Fig. ME = 5. It describes a circle of radius r.7: Calculate the value of 9 at (a) the equator.R.. effect ofrotatWn of the Earth Where A. .ll (B) Variatiop.. (RE ). 5.14x6.orcoS' A 15.6. = 90"} and minimum at the equator fA.Nm"kg2 x6. The centrifugal force on P is on the value of 'g'.
where RE is the radius of the Earth.[2 . cos 45· = g= /. .due to gravity at P is g. Therefore. = 90·.(6. will it be the same as on the surface of the Earth? Let us explore it.h).q = . Fig 5.854 ms2 (c) At latitude 45·. then 4 3 Also 9 = Ji2 = E GM G¥R~p R2 E Dividing these two equations we have g' 1nG(RE .78038 ms~2 (b) At the poles A. C.67 x 10. The earth is divided into a shell of thickness h and a symmetrical sphere of radius (R.nGREP RE RE or g=g .·.11 Nm 2kg2 x 5.67 X 1011 Nm 2 kg2 x 5. cos A = 0.3784 x 10 0 m (86400)s 9. Variation of 9 with Depth: If we measure the value of 9 inside a mine.371 x 106 m (86400 s) = 9.97 X 10 24 kg GM :·9pole = (RE )pole = 2 E (6.67 X 10.hlp RE . Consider a point P at a depth h below the surface of the Earth as shown in Fig.)2pol.97 X 10 24 kg or g. The mass at P may be considered to be situated inside a spherical shell of thickness h and on the surface of the sphere of radius (REh). 5.3784 x 10 6 m)' 6.= g = GME /(R.7. =19 1.h).371 x 10 6 mt X 1024 kg 4n 2 x 6. 6. The gravitational effect at P due to the shell is zero as the point P lies inside the shell.3569 X 10 6 )  = 9.97 (6. (1 ) RE hI (5.7.h h = .11 Nm 2kg2 x 5.Gravitaqonal Motion 6.80620 ms·'. A moss pault Pat depthh...15) . 6. The mass of the sphere = 3 n (RE h) P If the value of acceleratior. g. the effective gravitational field at P is only due to the sphere of radius (RE .
1100 km...... To &et maximum gOld for your money wou1d you like it to be weighed by a spring acale at the pole or equator? In the Britiah syatem the unit of length....... 5.... ... 92 (5. Determine the fractional decrease in the value of 9 due to increase in the elevaIiQll by 8 Ian near the aurface of the Earth R.. I..... a nanish astronomer Tycho Brahe made precise measurements of the position of the planets and various ·others bodies of the solar system..... progress.. free to bUll gold from a dealer at the equator or polea.....tational fon:e on an ollject depend_ linearly on ita man... of perlo.......... you ......•• of orbits : The orbit of any planet around the SUn is an ellipse tiiIth the ~ SUn at one oJthe Jodi oJthe elipse.MOO km. slug respectively. I..' 2 2 T.....::) = 0 The uneven variation in the value of 9 with depth is complex in nature and it depends on the density of the Earth at different depths. 2. : The line joining the Sun and the pl............ DlTEX1 QUESTIONS 5.....3..We find that acceleration due to gravity decreases with increasing depth (g < g)........ What ill the value of acceleration due to sravity at ita surface? What would be the' weight of an 80 kg astronaut on this asteroid? .... Throughout the last few decades of the sixteenth century.... Johannes Kepler made a detailed analysiSOiOf the measurements and announced three laws which describe planetary t........... it is time to check your.:met.... : For any two planets in the Solar system. Now.... What will be the ........ ''T... of aateroid Cere. approximately 7 • 10'" kg end ita diameter i...................... The ............. the squares ofthe periods of revolution are proportional to the cube of their average diStance from the Sun.... .............2 . 4.. But it is important to note that variation of gwith depth isnot a simple affair • At the centre of Earth h  R...~ 3. then the acceleraIion of a free1y falling object independent of m .... wily i...........e................ . ' then g= 9(1............... called the mdius vector.....................:................. 5.6 KEPLER'S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION The planet and stars in the sky have always attracted scientists to find out about these heavenly bodies. i.. L ••.otion.......? .....or are....16) ... The m ...._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.... i............... sweeps equal areas in equal intervals oJtime..unit of G in this sytem? and.... mass and time are foot.. These laws are thereafter called Kepler's laWs of Planetary motion...r.......2 r? or 'P' ....
)2 = r. . is taken as the period of the Earth about the Sun which is 1 year. Now for the first hypothetical planet we write ' r' . .33 Solution: From Kepler's third law of motion we have . Area ASB· A .67xlO11 Nm 2 kg2 x 1.. _ . (b) 100 year.. By w/wt factor would your weight be larger than your weight on Earth? Solution: g==~~~~~~~~~~ GM 6.90 X 1 0 27 kg (7.000 m a or r. Calculate the acceleration offreefall on Jupiter.mg = 22.' . 93 .9: Calculate the mean distance from the Sun of hypothetical platlets fJaving periods fa) 50 year. It is explained by the law of areas. PIa: 5.8m Blatmple 5.Gravitational Motion Almost all planets have elliptical orbits and circle is a special case.6 = (149. Mean distance of the Earth from the Sun is equal to 149. We fmd that the speed of comets increases when they come Closer to the Sun. ' F actor = 22.6 x 10' m)' 2500 So. \.90 x 1 (P7 kg and its radius is 7.9m = 2..03 x 10'2 m (a) (b) For the second planet .6 X 109 )3 10. For most practical purposes we take the orbit nearly circular.8). r.2 x 10'2 m.8 mN .(1.. we consider planets in isolation as if the interaction of planets is not there (though the actual situation is different). So. is the case with the planets. '5.(149.8: The mass ofplanet Jupiter is 1.6 x 10' m. in general.>=T! . A Thus.J' 1.': .8. In calculational work. ri =(7. They become slower when they move away from the Sun..9 mN Weight on Earth = mg = 9.6 109 m)" (100 y/1y)2 _ (149. = 2. r. .. ESP Blatmple 5.. r' r: x10' m)' (50 y/ly)' Here T. Consider the Earth as another body at a distance" from the Sun.3.9 ms' Weight on Jupiter .14 x 107 m. T.lT. or r.)' = (149. CSD· A .". T.' = (T.14 R' x10 mf 7 = 22.planets an>wtd the sun in elliptWal ori>it. (See Fig. times 9.
lIber .10. we have our oWn satellites in the same crowed..... Does the Moan obey Kepler's laws of motion? ..................... why is it BO? The ratio of the radii of the two Earth satellites A and B i..... 4 Astronomical Ob8etyations shows that Mercury moves. .. These moons revolve round the respective planet and an............. take a break and solve the following questions....7 MOTION OF SATELLITES Every one of you have seen the Moon...... Let us now find how satellite ....... The orbit will be a circle for a certain velocity of projection... Thus. we can say that the satellite is a body~ moves ...........• What are then¢io 5.the ground like any projectile. An object thrown horizontally from some height hits ....10)... Naptune has one m........  2 ........... Evei·slfille Russia launched its ftrst manmade satellite Spu............... 5. Clmdar 0IbIt E1HpticBloo1JiI n. ... artifk:ial satellites also..... There are....o~...4_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~ 1.. Saturn ten and Jupiter has maximum nlU. r.... ..... of their Cal periods (h) acceleration and (e) speeds..'nikI in October 1957.. 1'Fo~ of object with different speeds at different heights We see that a satellite may be put in an orbit provided(a) it is taken to a certain suitable height and (h) given· a proper h~nta1 velocity so that it falls continuously without hitting the Earth... The object travels in the curved path due to gravity and forward momentum.... What happens when the objected is thrown hard enough? It will escape leaving the Earth and go around in elliptical orbit (see Fig. 5..faster at aphehelion or perihelion? 4... ···················1 3................... You also know th... ............. .t it·revoJiles around the Earth in circular orbit.. 2.. Uranus has four moons......f moons 12... ..... The motion of projectile has been discussed in lesson 4../r... "94 ....... Show that Kepler's second law is the law of conservation of momentum• ......around a planet......... fastest and Pluto slowest.. the sky has been flooded with the artificial satellites... !:'.can move around the Earth at a certain height......~'PhySIcs Now.. Like Earth.................ned the natural satellites.......... Does a ~met move . ..... 11. INTEXT QUESTIONS 5... .
/ r = R.. (5../ Vo = R8 9S . If the hand stops pulling at the string the stone will fly off tangentially. satellites close to the Earth move faster. .. Such a situation can be visualised by whirling a small stone tied at one end of the string. so that using eq.uously falls towards EcUth to remain in circular orbit tangen!ial Fig 5.17) we see that the orbital velocity is (a) independent of the mass of the satellite (b) inversely proportional to the square root of the radius of the orbit. the object wm fly off along a tangent in the direction ofve1ocity.. If the satellite is at a height h from the surface of the Earth then .17).t/. From eq.. Now decrease the length of the string by pulling a part of it in. + h and . we see that the stone now moves faster.... In the absence of centripetal force provided by the gravity. Since gravity provides the centripetal force in the circular orbit of the satellite of radius r. Like the orbit of a planet. Similarly.. (5.12: Satellite launch using a multistage rocket... u  . As pointed out in the preceding section we need a velocity (vo) to put the satellite in a desired orbit.Gravitational M~ The condition (b) is a characteristic of circular motion as shown in Fig 5. velocity with which a satellite or planet reuolves in its orbit is called its orbital velocity....11. we have r mv~ _ GM8m ~ or vo =~G~E gRi.. 5.7.:'"' . for simplicity the orbit of the satellite is also taken as circular..12) we have G~ = I Vo=~ =~J[J ~ R8 +h (5. t .1 (a' Orbital Velocity Th.u: The uolocity is at each point o/the orbit and object contlr. . FIg s.. .
Ra.37x10 6 m 9.(6370 + 70) x 10' km Vo = 6.JgRE D = 0 and r::. so that it goes beyond the gravitational field of earth.27fT/v.. (5..7.17 1) we have or This is the basic equation of motion of a satellite. 801ation: (a) r . 37 x 10 6 m r J¥ 9.19) ""B 9 47r . fC?I" a satellite close to earth. In other words the .8ms6 6.37 x 1(1' m.44 x 10" m 2 = Rg .r ' . thus.e. But when it is liVen greater initial velocity.. then.= 6. 8 km SI which is the orbital velodty for a satellite revolving close to the Earth. Substituting for Vo from eq. equal to the circumfrance of the circular path divided by the orbital speed v.6. it reacher greater height before coming back to the earth.37 + 0.~ + h . 2 5. d4fned _ the III!Jocfty whfeh wm 96 .6 x 10 =6.385kms1 6.2 Bllcape Velocity You m~st have observed that when a body is thrown in the uprward direction.s' Bzemple ~ 10: Find the orbital velocity a/the satellite around the Earth at heights (a) 70 kin (b) 230 km Take the radius a/the Earth 6. ~.44xlO m 783 I =. can ".1ocUy. i.. . The time of revolution is. the velocity is said to be the _ape ..Physics When the satellite moves close to the Earth h vo = .23) x 10' m =. completes Nf/iOfutton CV01I7Id the earth. it reaches a certain height and CQIIles back to the earth. so (5. (b) r Vo Ra + h" (6. the orbital ve10dty of the satellite is nearly same as for a satellite close to the Earth. lb) Time Period of the Satellite It is defined as the tfiRe fn which the :rtrteRfte makes 0". T..6xlO m 6 m We find that even at an altitude of230 lan. 5kms Thus v. When r::.18) i 8km.loc:ftj.8ms: =7. T 2 _ (5. If the· body is given certain IIdnimum initial velocil3' from the ~ ofthe earth.
Hence. = 11.2 km Compare it with the escape velocity for Earth (v. the Earth will appear stationary· hence the name geostationary.5. we have 11. it is much more difficult for a body to escape out of the solar system. mp~. the minimum velocity vea to be given to a body so as to escape earth's pull is given by II. Calculate tts. one day (86400 s). .2 km SI).. 1. To an observer in the satellite. vea = B .11: A body is launched from tM Earth (R~ = 1.lUte whfeh remalns.7.5 X 10" m). We know the work needed to take a mass m from the surface of the earth to infinity is equal to aM m R: ' where ~ is the mass of the earth and R. Let us calculate its value.oJectf.ly over a point Oft the tntrfof the Zarth while rew'blfng in ita orfJtt is know _ ~1UII'Jf or aynchro_ sateRite.18) we have Yes =.22 X 104 msl or v. 5..20) using equation (5.ite distance away aboIte the tntrface oJ the earth when projected upwards.Gravitational t.3 Geostationary Satellite A .. it needs to have at least this amount of kinetic energy at the moment it is projected. Thus.5 X 1011m g1 II 2 . that is. = 4.Nm kg2 .91 km SI. GMEm RE = (2GME)" =~2GME RE RE gRg2. is the radius.«otion take the P.2 km SI./2vo Vo I (5..of the earth. or I Veo  ~I (5./fxed dfret:t... = ~2~:i. we have Since G~ = v.le (body) to the fr!(fn.42.escape velocity so that it gets out of the puu of the Sun Solution: Vea = ~2GM. X 2 X 1030kg]' . m v' = ea V . ReI =[2 X 6. Ifa body is to be able to do this amount of work (and so to escape).21) ·Taking = 7... The e~ape velocity is thus about 3/2 times the orbital velocity. In other words the time period of the satellite is exactly equal to time of rotation of the Earth on·its axis. 97 .67 X 10.
These are used in remote sensing including (a) detection of troops and veblcufar movement. '(5. In guiding and tracking of missiles during war.' J<ostatIonary satellite at height 36.13 .(5. radio telegraphy and radio communication.6380 = 35870 knl or h = 36. ~.000 km over the swface oftheEatth T' g Ri ]1 =[41t" R. are used in 'lV. It . Some of leir applications are given below. r PIg S.:>hysics lie know from eq. Three synchronous satellites can cover the whole lobal communication if they ate placed at 120· with each other at an ltitude of about 36.q. Two positions SandS' oj . + h.38 h = 42250 . INSAT IB is an Indian eostationary satellite. R. olar panels are used to supply energy to the satellite systems. such as INSATseries of satellites of 'India:. Using . 106 m and 9 = 9. on two things (i) infrared photography and (ii) relay. lie can fmd the height over the sur'ace of the Earth of a satellite whose ime period is 1 day that is it becomes I synchronous satellite. otherwise its orbit will not be geostationary.000 knl. 1" lince r = h+Rg =. 7. In other osition the orbital plane changes continuously.22) X 'aking T = 1 day = 86400 s. 98 . The pplications are based.000 knl. = 6.. therefore. Communication satellite. he advent of geostationary satellites have brought a sea change in the eld of communications.19) thatthe pe"iod of revolution and the . [ 41t" gRi ]i Rg or h [ 41t" g Ri = T' ]i  (5.19) we may write.000 knl height over the suiface f the Earth and a booster engine helps in fixing it in the circular orbit. In weather forcasting.dis~ce of he satellite from the Earth are related. worth noting that the geostationary satellite is to be installed in the quitorial plane.81 ms2 36. (h) oil and mineral exploration (c) detection of military hardwares.4 ~ multistage rocket places the satellite at Application of SateWtea he satellites are being used in various fields for diverse purposes.
Gravitational Motion 5. question~.3.84 x 10" m Period of the Moon . IHint : rl = (28.55 days and its orbital radlus is 6. desert and glacier movements.12: Ittakes 7 hour and 3~ minfor the satellite phobos to complete one round about the planet Mars.27.! 99 . The orbital radius of Phobos is 9. These are b.eing used in the environmental studies.8 x 107 Ian. Icarus is an asteroid behaving like a small planet.496 • 10" Ian and ita periud 365 days. pollution and popUlation determination and crop pattern on the Earth.6. find ita mass. Will the orbitaf 10 be stable? 4. Satellites are helping in charting ecology. These are used to locate atmospheric and oceanic disturbances such as cyclones and low pressure regions. Its apbelion distance is 2. 6.1.r2 = 149. Determine the mass of the Earth from the following data Radius of the orbit of Moon ~ .6 x 10 Ian.67 X 1011 Nm' ~' 2. 1/6 times acceleration due to gravity on the Earth. Example 5.67 We have M T= (7 x 3600 + 39 x 60)s. Calculate the period of revolution of Icarus._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ '1. ~ 8.5. forest and jungle cover. 3. How high a man can jump on moon where acceleration due to gravity is. = 411"2 T 2G = 4(3. Take Earth's mean distance from the sun . and check your progress by solving the following ~EXT QUESTIONS 5.4 X 106 m)3 (2. r3 T' X 1011 Nm2 kg2. Solution: The relation between orbital radius and time period is given as r'='GM 41C' Assuming Mars to be stationary and G'" 6. dimensions and atmosphere of other planets and their moons.67 X 1011 Nm 2 kg2 = 0.0 + 294. stationary. 7.4 x 1 Cf' m Find the mass ofMars. Stop. Ita sateJljte Suropa has a period of 3.6606 x 1021 kg.754 x 10 4 S)2 x 6. Assuming Jupiter to be.3 days Gravitational constant (G) . It can have a close approach to' the Earth. 1 6 6 2 Use Kepler's law of motion. These are being used to detennine the exact shape.6) x 10 Ian. 5.71 x loe m.946 x lOS km and perihelion distance is 2.14)2 x (9. Due to some unforseen event the orbital plane of the 10 satellite of Jupiter does not paSs through the centre of Jupiter.
comparable to the speed of light the inertial mass will change.67_10'" Nm' kg" and it has djmenoion... the graVitational force on the body i. ·For a stabl.. the force of attraclion betwee. 1 cJ. 7" '" .~I RJ 111..9 (1 . of (M' L" . average distance from the SWl.J2.. with latitude A.y pn>portional to the cube of it.T4).uch • =~GME r = 1?E ~. Z: 111e line joining the Sun and the plariet """"'P. . This force of attraction ia called gravitalional force.. The.es attract each other anywhere in the universe. value of Gia 6... law.. The period of motion of satellite • no given by • • • Geoatationaly utellite ia a satellite which remains fixed over a certain point on the surface of. equa1 areas in equal interva1. given "1" by r = an.. orbit. 111e acceletal:ion couaed by gravity in a freely fa11ing body i. at a diotance'r i. • • • • • that r.~.: Each planet move. 100 ....coa·A.j2gR" • • . Under ordinasy copditiono the inertia1ll1Uo of a body and it. it act. clooe to the Earth orbital wlocity io • "0 '" .hich a body can eacape out of the gravitational field of the planet or the SWl.. ". .. attraota "" and .rnySlcs 5.. ThInf 1. given by g' ..: The aquare of the time ~od of revolution i. of time. if the speed of motion become.rna ia \mown aa inertial maas . along the line joining !. m.he two point maaaea. law r . However.:_ _ • 111e point mas.y.. law.. The motion of pbineto around the Sun io governed by Kepler'. oppoaition (r. given by "0 m.. gravitalional maaa are equal. I'In1t Z. maNe.8 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARlIT_ _ _ _ _ _..m2 r The force of gravitation i. a central force. the Earth..2k:m . It. According to Newton's law of gravitation.. called the gravitational in_ . both ~ i. f! For satellite. direc:tJ.. 111e 1IaiUf> of 'g at altitude h i. called accaleration due to gravity 'g. around the Sun in elliptical orbito.111e mass which cheracterioe. Weight iathe gravitalional force acting on a body due to the Earth (planet) . The height at which a geootationaty satellite . period of rotation i. The gravitational force i..000 km.J9 RE g 8 k:m 0" Eacape velocity no the valoc:ity of P"'!iecfion on the Earth with . value of g change...e. are equaJly applicable to the motion of satellites aa welL 111e orbital velocity of a satellite i.. ·given by gg Gi'R. . two point • • • • • • • r r 111.. placed ail""" the aurf""" of the Earth ia ailout 36. equal to the period of rotation of the Earth about ito own axia that i... attract. s .1 for Earth.. and i. which characterise. 111e lila...0 1l.. "'2 r = Gr. the geoatationaty satellite should remain in the equitorial plane.oiotancel to accaleration· under a rorce given by Newton'.
SOx 107 kg and 40 x 107 kg respectively are placed at a distance of 6.. 6./16 4. about 3 time. There i. a planet called Egabbac in another solar system whose radius i.41 • 100m ~TBX'l (. of Earth 5. Can gravitationa1 force be repulsive? Two artificial satellite. TERMINAL QUESTIORS. 101 ... one'loner to surface and the other away. on the aurface of earth same ' or ditrerent? 7" S.1 1.r 2 giG.. calculate the value of 9 on the surface of the moon. 11.9 1. . 11_ ME ? 8 18. twice that of the Earth but maaa dewoity is same as that of the Earth. (iilE...011 5. mass of the moon 1.. which one haa longer period of revolution? Which for~e keeps an artificial satellite revolving in its orbits? Does th~ orbital velocity of a satellite depend upon its rnaaa? Is the escape velocity lOr two bodies of different masse..37 • 10· m.and am. The acceleration of gravity at the surface of a planet is half that on the surface of the earth. 15.11 time. Considering the m . are revolving round the e~.force x'moment ann. 9. What is hi.. of a planet is given by m ... 2.Fa I also Torque ~ . (a) What i.2 1. does it obey the law of gravitation? 13.. If the radius of the planet is half the rarlills of the earth. If two muse. If the acceleration of a falling body on that planet is 19...98 x 10" Irg. are measured by different techniques. 16.720 Ian and earth of 12.Gravitational Motion 5. where g i. 6.ttraction between. Find the period of a satellite 40.35 x 1CJ22 kg and radius of moon .S 5. Given. An astronaut weigh.y ... how is its mass related to the mas.1.. that on the Earth? ' 12.01. The acceleration of "\ will be negligible flection couple . law8 using Newton'..13.64 " 10"'" Nm2 lqr' [Hint: In equilibrium condition the de3. Would you be able to stand on Jupiter where the value of acceleration due to gravity i.60 x 10· m.e. Mas. .. ~ '2 . Mars has a mean diameter of 6. i.. 19. of the earth? 17. of. 3. Find ita orbital velocity and the time period of revolution. Show that the m . Calculate the escape velocitr on the surface of the moon. 3.6 ma4. revolving around the earth at height of 800 Ian above the surl'ace of the parth.. of the Moon as 7. 20. Equating we ha"" Fa 1.800 km. the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the planet ofradf'us ~p' p 14. 10· m above ita surface.5.earth. The mass of Mars is 0. Aaauming Earth to be spherically symmetrical.97 x 10" kg and it. 10. the ·ell<:llpe velocity on Mars? In) How does the mean dewoity of Mars compare with that of earth? (e) What is the . laws of gravitation and hi. weight on a planet x which has RE a radius .''C . . 5.67 m. 100 kg on the earth.000 Ian from the centre of Earth. The two mas.. calculate the £orc::e of a._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ State and explain Newton's law of gravitation. the m . All bodiea'we considered to be point muses 2. Take the maaa of the earth M.4 x 10" kg and radius as 1740 • 10' m. laws of planetary motion.uue of g on Mars? 5.. An artificial satellite i.. radius R..6.tonional couple Torque . . 4. State Kepler. detennine the value of g at a height 0.10 ANSWER TO THE INTEXT QUESTIONS iH'BXTQnaTIO..\.. (i19P'a QUBSTlO•• 5. Derive Kepler'. laws of motion..
No. a. . 1. rr. 1. (b) '14.15 mr. 1. Yes 3. 4..a The result shows that a c R2 is constant IBIIiXT QUBsTIOIiS 5. the surface of the earth. TI oc r. 1. lbft' (alug)" 4. proved. 4.. 2.4 1.90 > 10" kg.6N IBIIiXT QUBsTIOIiS 5..5 1. 12 N which proves Keplers third law of motion and also .. 1..E is taken zero at infinity..33 > 10"". 1. 3.... The field intensity is defined as the force acting on a unit mass in the field.5>10'" 5. ..32 > 10"". 5.R2 r . The g. (a) 1. mr2 v2 IBTBXT Q"OESTlOlliiJ 5. . 2. 1. 9 = . 1. So. 2. The general form of the field intensil¥ is GM given by.04 > 10" kg. 0.wfao:e to a far 011 point.ybocI. Weight depends on the value of 9 which varies with place.... vt . ia to be brought from a far 011 point to a point n .. IhT V2 2 mrl (b) Yes ratio r"/T' i. _ body .... (c) Venus and Naptune (d) Mercury and Pluto (e) 1.I'1IIiaPl new inten~ty Gravitational field is defined as some modification or a condition in the space around a point mass.r r3 It has the dimensions of acceleration and is independent of the mass point m but depends on the mass M which ~ created the field.. the. The two masses will be equal as the speed of the elevator is small compared to the speed of light. If a body ia to be taken from any point near ita . .. field to anotIieI' point ..= g m GM./2. 6 times higher compared to the Earth. ../2 So.F/m is constant as Foe m. However...1' "maI ...avitational puU.. Tbe g...327 > 10>0. At the perihelion that is when it is closest to the Sun. altitude depth etc..tational potential at that point. tF GAt" rill PateatW Br .Physics 2. if the _ process i. 6.32 x 10". aa the weight will be mea· sured les8 there. It can be ahown either by numerical method or in~ that the potential energy of a mass m in the field ofmass Jlat a di_ _ .6. worl< ia done on it by the earth... ita centre. 2. 1=l'lm.33 x 10"".33 x 10:10 m 3 .avitational potential energy of a point """'" ia due to ita locaIion in the gravitational field..y to. At the equator. 2. This field acts on any other mass m placed anywhere in the field.rk has to be done on it against earth's g. 102 . EXTENDED LEARNING G••. w.avitationallield intensil¥ or simply field ia thus. 3..34 > 10"'."s third law of mation.st the gravitationallield. Areas of Triangle made by radius 'h " v. 5. 4. the field I Fa i. the surface of earth is called gn".a:·d. to be accomplished i. 5. Because planets obey Kept. No difference. (c) 1/..32 > 10"". know that the earth atI:racaI .. Un . 3.. 409 days. It ia a vector field which acts towards mass M. The force acting on a point mass m in the field j. The tota1 amount of worl< done OIl a unit maasbody to brine it from infinity to a point n .33 x 10"".e. 'm. almost constant.from ilia'given by It must be noted that the P...3 1. .. The potential eneqy difference ia found by calndating the wmk done in taking a unit point mass &om one point in th. . mercury haa minitnum rand Pluto maximum II . On the Earth 1.Newton's taw of gravitation i..21<r1 T.
tt state motion of these objects."'n i _ __ . 1 6..1 ". ' \...".o '1fq nT".J~ 01 lij.tive force and relate the work doMliy'it 01\ a system with the change in its potelltioJ energy..fq::t!i ." '.I' I 3"'}~ll~:':: 'nlSiTI rtf ':. stand a few fOnna.!t~J.6 '(1 " 1[0 s. j . Hf~::')b .j.'. ..._ l'~ ..!~ tl.. of ~'h i..d. .>able"'.. < ~.. 'Y}. "j E.!J "V! :rru ..to. {i . But Sf ~ it is not easy to apply N~'s second law to find the change in. ) ire'.n .. " _ _..'.le in determining th. () • state and apply the prindple ofOllnsenircztionc1/~~oI'G • 'Jttuh CIPPIlI~.. aP'PlilfM l'ciW oJ OIInseT11CmOn OJ energy.~.:'. qR 9~'I6) ')dr~n (.'d 1.hf.' '" h.(:_ rOn!!!n 'Hi' f!·)tb.! .hoW J f .andel/.. .i '/jftq jjff)h .' '" .EDRGY '. V) 3d fHi > ') f!(J! ... gyand·potenli.'..'~:li'_:9.. ~\8l'e'~to W!\u~~&It~1 Ol"ldfteti~~8i\'d\lt@fi\~'1h some physical systems.Jlenergy.i1o(l . \.lUIOW '_l.Jec*.d10'11 ':)riJ .t': ':. t Gib ~ 2"')'IOn:: 'WUO?] dtim f'g{aqr j'f.) i6AI OBJECTIVES Mei'iilu'a.1: \11 ..~dq GL ~. '. Energy and momentum are significant ~cah.i"trrlJ' ino'}! 'J.h""vm ""1". • definepowerofGsystempeifomringworkandrecognisells~ • define consen. \. :La "lq. and ':>liT .!c<o • stateaJfd'~~._ .ti~etlirv.~n !o gl·>r. OO'lo'iJ 1I!.' . '.' [rId"/....'.Hi! :rl. < ' \ '.i lJ~"d~ . ~<f~~~cfm'Ce'i'eDi~'IJy .~ grUfn!..' ! i• define potentio. . ...L(1 .rjJ'~ir.l energy. qu_titjftS as they ankClltns~·.wlecliil)·umtcvatane\iDgrmany processes we observe around us.:. no <:70::t:::lJ'll state .!:T'l fl.in)(fI ~~f1wb T1t.h . s" ·.gil' "...p rT' .J':'[tTfqn .a . 'nJiI .<"."•.' _ " Until now we have sbldied the motion of objects in ter!Iut of Newton's laws of motion.A.:m()~) .."l<3 • ikfine and calculate the work doTfi!"'by\'a'Y6~" .!'Il qu 11 d.~'tIuioriml. ~. r ..'.J") ""oj..: r:..].BkrJlltiWltitj .)f"': uci...!') '."" '.aJ INTROD~CTION . a rU . i.G .[ 1fr <". > ')J:J f.II Jill.oo.l energy and obtain expressions fist' ~tfal potentioJ energy and elastic potentio.:'.' Ii"' 'urff'rnl . ..I'}«mISbOUld' ):jtj. :j .i nl :t\: f~'.tmo~cmdcWiPl!cfollisiim ODns~~l'OW 'Srl:t rl:lirlV{./.'.r t'~J h<}fi')f'id~ . ."'. s:c:.'.) '}VI (One Ilfthe facts about energy is that it has manyfQl'mlilil Weneec:\to lrnder In this lesson we will iLtrod~tbe conc~WDFk.rj!W0RH{).ergy and use them to study the changes oecuring in a .:rho1: lr.jingthia'lCisoll.\ • define and calculmethe k:inetUtfllllliirgg'orandJ.n j(1"hn') )J. Force plays ~ k~_ ~.:i . speed (lnagnitudeofmstantaneous've1ocity).f1 'V...ofa1sys1J!iD.ni?b!J~? )"1J> ~J'N H<~r.RD.'l! ~i .Lawslof vonservation of energy and linear momentum are..'"" "'.
1 Work Done by a Constant Force Let us consider a constant force F acting ouan object that moves a distanced along a straight line.1).d Example 6. The worlle done by a constantforee on an object is the product of the component of the force along the direction of motion and the distance mo'/led. For example.1. We derme the work W done by the constant force F on the object as it under goes the displacement d by the relation I W= Fdcos 61 F (6.Physics 6.. t=.m . We use Eq. n. = (4i + 3J)N in a dis Solution :The displacement d = .1). Accordingly we have W = F..3 WORK We use the word 'work' in many senses. Work done by the given force is 6 J.(2m)).1 : The work done by' on.:'I 6. The force can be 'constant or variable.3) to calculate work done..1: Calculate the work done byaforee F placement of 2 m vertically upward. (6. the work is done only when the object gets displaced in the direction of the force applied. 6. .. d = (4 f + 3 J) . see Fig. Let us study it in detail. (6.. 2 J = (0 + 6) N.3. you push very 104 .2) Where F'l is the component of Falong d (refer Fig . In Vector form the work done is given by W= Fdcos e = F. the object in a displacement d is Fd oos 9. In fact. W= 0 because d= 0 in Eq. component ofF "kong d is F oos We can write Eq (6.6.1) as W= (Fcos6) d=F11d (6. (2 J) = 4 t.1) ~J___ne _[_1_/_ d 0. 6. Fmakes an angle 6 with respect to displacement d. 6 J. For example when we are studying we are doing mental work but when we are carrying a bag of cement upstairs or lift it up we do physical work against gravity.2 The factors on which the work depend If an object does not move under the action of a force " then the work done by the force.3. (2 J)+ 3 J . 6.
(1 Newton) (1 metre) 1 J . one metre in tIw _ "" tiM.49J.a I AJhlo .pe zero.mg(:. (See fig 6. b) a" 0 From Eq (6.2: A person lifts a bag of mass 5 kg.nab1e.coa (180°) (49N) (1 m) (1) . (6. ExertiIig force is not to be confused with work being donel ". ..e. on mqnitudes of .wton iii dt8p1ardng tIw ''II ". We .of.lrish to calcuhite. eJrerled by the man on the bag? b) How1rtUch worIt is done by the man on the bag? c) How much worIt is clone by the gravitatit:mllljoroe on the bag? Boilltloa: 'is the force exerted by the man on the bag...yupward).1'1 .3. .3.(mg) d. Depending 011..m) which is given a special name.. i. force on the bag is . the Joule (J). and d... done by. the work Wpdone ·by the person on·the bag.. the 81 unit of work is' the Newton. .metre iN:. c) The work WI done by the gravitationaHorce on the bag.. ~l'Ce Let llS consider a case in whiCh Jtxj v8Jyjllg with the Jlt)aitioI1 JC of the object(s} see Fig 6. • The work· done is calculated aver a number of intervals of displacement width A chosen small enough so thIlt It"I can be cOnsidered ~t. The w'ork done by the pelSOll on the bag is 49 J. . ou:tJDc on ~16·1)""u the work done by a force on an object am be positive.5 kgx 9. . .and d but also on the angle It latbeworkdoaebyt between the two vectors . but the wall does not move.m. the ''irork. seelig 6. The resultant or net force on the bag .3 a). .. ~ (6.Fdcoa8 • (49 N) (1 m) (cos 0°). Solution: F The force exerted by tile person on the . ... Eq (6. _ _ claD It is esseritialto understand that the work done by a force as given in Eq. dlagramof"'" bag. 105 . is IPven "'" by W.1). negligible acceleration to a height of I m above the ground.2.J .1 N.. negative or even to ._ V. by. :=: f..I mgl.49J. Jtx) in the interval Xjand x. tile value of the angle 8.3 Work Do.Valt of _rk: From the defining equation of work. hard against a wilD. ~. . raising it vertically. bag is 49 N (verticaIJ.Fdcosu • . The work done by the gravitation8J.. a} What is the foree..Work and Energy .8 msa F49 N...n....49 J. 1 Joule .1). with . then you have done no work. 0).. o~ ill ~ _tIw _rlt _ _ . lPI&a. 6. 6.1) is W .1) depends not onlY. .dote IV_I zero. must.
~..saob *.nob (d .p3 ni F It'>'lrn .1 '{d ~(]Ob 1I1ow ~fl' ~i !1.:to Rfli1::>S .ILnis..[11 ..bnll F zi n e .dt . 2('('106 .d 0' jon 'no1 .(3) noltallp3 ! . l ~u ~w U .gni:h"x3 "V.VI ~JJ..s~..n ~ntns f..~"\.~7.t'~~~~l(1..18m. 0" .rl1 .i)) A wt"d .f ~ F nob :...vum 10ft '" b ILsw "ill tud .(do I1R flO '{ji!ClJO~lt£Jrum " ~rl.how cit llB 'Il./it o· 'io e bu' yJno .. 'Ii e~.on ...e "lgllB ..tollo ~t1T It.\. .Ils 's 1znisllS b"lBri I:>~o 8fbd >l"lOW b~eul .=xjawn .:J 0.1 .6 IJO'~ .OW t. .
.!(Jcr"'IJ\'}l(bsf''.I11 G . 10 W...s j to X.1)..2.! 1 10 .." i'rrtrr ~"...'. . :l~i orlw tl"W e"msL 1 "luonod oi (W) 'II taChe to whlfe strererunglt m " ..t5. " .. 8ct1 from Eq (6. .0 slqnmx3. R.fl .·tJlrbl ":liGJTl. .Area of the shaded region in Fig 6..'1 '" ''lOW ""mrbsm fIi ordinates X.'IW~6'P"Wtlli~ di6>~i i".. and x.) II<> i. . \ .Hil'llO[i. 1 1 1 fl" m.. bounded by . _ 1Oi!~!tficfdf.5 .~ ~!I'~ ii. _ .' : /l 7!oq 5lJB"l"VS) "I of the spring is equal to the area.~WJ..olu".qHnl.Work~~q T~. ~..O" 10 lurlJ sJ lrlW. iiik h ji~(I.mmo:) FtfJIi! Rqf6T..JrP8:tLW" " '.oL ..hn !nBJ2nC:l W."'\lJOj' ~. ..~1..:{"if~.. ~~~ 'II 10 acts . ..:)'lloq '10 n~1j!I:'jb . < • 'I? 8. 2 ] .... h. wll.Sum of area of the rectangle and.:n. rlW){ I U!/W"II L J"~(xrUX[J.. . Xi fl : W '~l """Ii'll Tl1erfhet(l~1hyItbt.:1'1SllW' 'l1iiFJarHrt~J&03~OJ1bOL I ai'l"""ofr..brtli"".5) is negative ::I " " "..j O~CM!Mlh.nirbGm s '~d b~silrJU ·~l"n.II4qf)l WI\ .agjimjfJtbei diilpJaccuoqlaJduo[... .Wprk done by the restoring f o r c e .a.. _iH tr \!ll 3non . (extension in Fig 6.... because 'and dare ~6....io d'lRC.. = !1!HWj "l"'Ho . 1>. ...
..... .. . .. ... . .. .10... .. .. . If an amount of work Wis carried out in time t...3 )( 10' W )( 60 )( 60 s . .. Now..... II. ..rte ojdofng _ric.. tfme rr..2j N acta.~' State. 1 W = IJs.. In order to give a measure to a quantity that involves both work and time required to achieve it. then the average power P of the agent doing work is given as P(average power)  W t (6. . ........... Try to answer the fonov8ing questions.. How much UJOJ"k is done by it in 2 hours. . ..... .. We define power as til. 3. .. the unit of power is that ofwotkPj. 2. . (6.... . . .of energy taken from the rate of energy utilized by a machine) is the work done in one hour working at a c:mstant rate of 1 kilowatt 1 kWh· 3. .. . This unit isclilled watt (W) in honour of James Watt who is 'credited with 'the development of steam engine.. . it is the time to check how much you have understood.. . .. .. ...... ... ... a diIp'_t d.pr... .. . ..Physics day. •••••••••••••• . . . .... .. .. . (6.... In SI... u.. ... i...hour (1 kWh) (a unit .... ... .. .. .. ...8)1 W ... .. .. ....e.5 kW )( 2 h ...... .... . . . much work ia done on the box. ..." " . ... sround . . ..... An object UJi.1.. (el . ... . .... " .6 MJ.... .. . ••... (hI ~ it'... the 1UIlt of power is 1 Joule per second. if the fonoWing quantities of worle ere positive. .... . ..... ....'...6 )( 10'J .... . we introduce the concept of po_. . . .. p)( t [from Sq...8 MJ.3... . Power (Watt) = Joules per second... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.~ ".1.. . ...5 Kw. . .. J:ulm. .. quite often time factor involved in work done is to be considered in many situations..lnit time.....l • Commercially kilowatt .... . 6. . .utiits........(4f...J/s.... .. . . However..... . paralled to the lIlll'face? .. .• . ..8) In machines where work is earned out at a constant rate WePt .. ... How much work ia done by the force? . . zero or ne.1. ... . . . . . W...... (II) work done ~ a perSon in 10wering a hac containing food pn. Acco~ tq the definition of power from Sq.. . if the force _lied i. . ....... .. . clearly with reaaon. .ative. .. .. box ia pwohed alcmg a hemtal ourI'ace ~ a force of 5 N OWl' a diatance of 2 m. .. .tloD: Work done W ..< . . ...... " . .. > . .. by the I!J"""itational force on the hac while it is being put down on the .. .. •• .. . INTEXT QUESTIONS 6....Ies ....L5)( 2 kWh 3kWh ...... ...(3t+. . .. ... dane by the force of' friction on a book Jyihg on the table. . .. . . . . .8)...4: A motor has its power rating as 1. lIo1V.... .. . .. . ....4Jmwbi\e a force ..... h ••••••••••••••••••• • . . . .
.........Work and &ergy 4... W.. F"". .1) we have W.........1' ... . by the net force ' ..e."...e' acting along the displacement d of a body of mass m. We defme (~) 1 mri' as the kfnetk: energy(K) of an object of mass m mov ing with speed v... (6.. how much? Can we calculate the amount of work that has been performed on an object in terms of the change in its state of motion? We attempt to relate work with change in state of a body in motion in this section.. How much work does tbe spring do on tbe block? ... ••••••••••••• ~ .9) The left hand side of Eq (6. ...6 : The work done by the force F_ oue. d Fig 6.9) is the difference of the quantity ~ mri' associated with the object at initial and fmal points.......... to P.......100 NmI i............ = Ed cos e = Fnet d cos (0°) i. K a  2 mri' (6.. block to it.. The work done W....... compre8lled by 2 em by ....e..9) is the work done by the net force F Get or the net work W..uu. the displacement d on the object W _ . u attached • .. A spring of apring . ' from Eq........ (6. in the displacement.....6.... 6.... See figure 6... Consider the situation in which a constant net force I'.......... we conclude that a force must have acted on it from Newton's second law....... e....... ~rv2 v 2) (v 2 = v2 + 2 ad) f 1 (6.t k ..... ' ..... ..4 WORK AND CHANGE IN B01WETIC ENERGY: (WorkEnergy Theorem) When we see an object (say a ball) at rest on a horizontal surface and some later see it moving with a certain speed.10) 109 . The right hand side of Eq.. Has work been performed on it? If so.et = Friel d = mad (··F • net = mal = m (ad) Wnet ="~ I 2 ... _ d....... The velocity Dfthe object ~s from v.
= a .L (li10 .sS~~.=.
p~ W..e net force ia Ie..:..:.~ b) Tht:"Work 40ne ~. 8.d...d~e.:* ~ !' ••• ~_ iI •• .. 111 .:k'~~~. So we cOnclude that lIODI. "I.. "'l ' :'1 ~'" .l"tt~. ~.f~~ is42~..... •.*'~ ill'W..~.Fd COli 8 f1:om Eq. ¢.give:q..o .t:' J:!"v!..d aVITAV5!:il. Distance tnoved while the force acts iIiI.. . !. ~'1.:'f~~!~~. !.~~..... (6.~ It"'''' .. W.0 i.iH • (~.J" . H " WM ' oj LGIH_. jsftiom Wmk. c) From enerv theolem ofEq.'ifl.4N. "_ llCr~I~()cl·(·~I .~i.~ \'>: "")1:' Ii l".e~..'"(~".'.9).r.~8'e1i~i~:y'Ails~aII tMh"the{\fotlt dooe by woman..Workand. 'lr'yi. WFdcos 6 We have found that the wor~.."' 0'' '0.v ~~'.:n.. kna 6.."f"So..q...~lO~'.":w.. read the previous aection. _ 0' ~ • ... .. ..'..by Eq (6.~~·.e. ~L)" II. .!'.as by"~'feft!t':m *I!.W_=. ~. " ". '1'II. ~t the force opposing the motion...(6.\W. than the force dertedby"~e 'IIrOIDiIft.. _..11) we have " III tbe·~[irilla1i~fkti. . .Eil.. (6.uu .. t l ..\'' .1) is..VITAV5I38VW:) 23:)S! O~!.io')')' ~ .th..~~~~}l~ ~1. .~. ...l: )jp.i.m..other Coree actini.' •• . ":!' I ...Wf&Y.~O:::>.[. c) Note that work done IS negative.'J . 42J 4 N.W . ~'.{'.".~!~lO:~'2:~' W16Q'J. ..'~i. lind try to 1IO~~!t6~·q\ie~b."180" Subs'tittiting the vaIues ofF. .. (~'.j.ergy given .[ GYfA 3.~. .~tI •• "".~~i"~"~.pinst the Corce oC woman.~. Z''XS ""''''m71ttW 'n.I.e other force is ~volved in the net work...\l101f.. &. • ..lIo ~I..!).by.j) HhC'..._..••. Frictions! force is involvedl Stop.q" " ... d = ~ = 105 m b) The work done by woman.cos (180°) .~.iIr.. .:. rma z .'O)_i. the .2..'i1hableto'u* theae questions correctly.~"AP~jP'F.
Physics
2. How much work is done on a body if the increaae in kinetic energy is 4.50 J .
..................................................................................................................................
3. A block moving With a kinetic energy of 100 J comes to rest while moving on rough horizontal surface
(a) Which froce does work on it?
(b) How much is the work done by it on the block?
...................................................................... ......................... ................................
,
;
6.5
CONSERVATIVE AND NONCONSERVATIVE FORCES
In this section we will examine three forces  elastic force (spring force), gravitational force and the kinetic frictional force with regard, to the work I?erformed by them in a round trip. i.e, let us calculate the work done by each one of them on object,
(a) in taking it from an initial position to a final position, in a path:
(b) bringing it back to the same initial position in the same path, as a
simple situation to deal with.
Aforee is said to be conservative if it does no net work on an object in a round trip for any conservative foree.
W.." =
W; ...2 + W2 ...1
= 0
(6.12)
We have discussed the work done by the spring force in section 6.3 and from Eq (6.7), the work done is given, W = "2k(x, x, ) where Xl and x, refer to the final and initial position coordinates. The work done by the spring in taking it from position 1 to 2 ~
1
2 2
1. Elastic (Spring) Force:
1 ""' 2\. W; ...2 = "2"\X}
Xi
2)
and while it is brOUght back from position 2 to 1 (initial position).
The net work done by the spring in the round trip
W.., = Hi"'2 +~"'1 =0.
Therefore, the elastic force is a conservative force. We could have obtained, the same result, by substituting, Xi for the entire trip, in Eq. (6.7) directly. .
x,·
Consider the motion of a ball, ihrown ver~ tically up; during both upward and downward motion till it comes ba:ck to initial position. In this case also the net work done by the gravitational force on the ball in the round trip is zero, henQC it is a conservative force.
2. Gravitational force :
112
Work and EneI'gy So, when a ball moves up and comes down to its initial position, the net work done by the gravitational force acting on it is zero.. Try to verify it yourself.
3. lI'rictlonal force : If we consider the frictional force acting on a
body, then we find that the frictional force does negative work while moving from postiltn one to second
Jr..... =FdcosfJ=F,dcos(I800)
 F,d. For the return trip
w, ..., =FdcosfJ=F, (d)cas(180")
as frictional force acting on a body always opposes the movement (and therefore against).
The net work done by frictional force on the round trip is non zero. There·fore, the frictional force is a nonconservative force.
~lIIatic:
.
foreean4. ~_lforee ",.. conaeruatfue forces u.frlctfolforee fa CI ftOftoCOIUNtl'llatflleJ_.
whflNl
Thus from the above examples we notice that the work done by a conservative force is ~.. (or recapturable) in the sense that if the work is.. done "" an object on something else in one part of its path, an equivaI.Cnt amount of work will be done on the object in its return path.. For example, in the case 01" a spring force, the work done on the spring ill deforming it is recovered when the spring comes back to its original configuration (shape and size). Simjlarly, in the caSe of a ball moving up, the work done on the ball in raising it to a certain height is equal to the ~ork done by" the gravitational force on the ball (recovered) in its downward journey. The work done against conservative forces are recapturable where as it is not so in the case of nonconservative forces. That is why nonconservative forces also known as ....fpat .... foiea.
are
We will find it useful to relate work done by conservative force and poten·ttal .,..,., of a system where it operates. This is dealt in the next section.
kamp" 6. .,: The spring oonstant of a spring is 16001'lm1 • CalCulate the work done by the spring.
i)·
ii) iii)'
II)
0 (equilibrium pOsition) to x,  0.1 xi Otox,0.2m
Xi 
m
x.  0.2 em to x, 0.1 m
ill) FUu:l the sum ofwork done by the spring in (ii) and (iii),
Comparv it with your CUI8WI!r in (i).
iii) What do you inter from it?
~~hI1H ;hoW ""'uMP~0i1i20q lsillJli 211. oj I1'Nob 2"mOJ btrn qa a!lVom Ilsd B n"dw .08 \1 '(1WRt'~~ I?Yrtkt;,~IIPR8 !fRJB~?1fn7r},n()dBlivBTS "dt '{d "nob >how
. i> f1Us'tf~lJJ?;)1U1thsn~~pil1 k,riJ l:Jbl.flO:J ?wl1 : s~)'Iollsnoi:t:;,h'll .S
W; = t(xf

1
2
x,
2 .
I
.lba'luoy
"JirfIWQ~\~~~(f\tIfi~ia.'1'lIi~oi~ni
_ Y. x 1600 Nm I x 0.01 m'
WI   BJ.
"ill l.mH bail ?W a?ri1 ,~bod bII0""2 01 "no no1iaoq mO"I18ItrJom
("08 OGO~ \) ;.\ = Saw \;';\. = ,... ill
.h (l = qh:l mu:t~,., "ill '10"1
ii)
Similarly for Ai  0 to X.  0.2 m W;  Yo x 1600 Nm I [(0.2 m)'  0')   Yo x 1600 x 0.04 J.
W;   32 J. . iii) Likewise, for ~  0.2 m to
bf!tll\Vi"'~l~'f{o!!{.y... (Wog'~ 8 ni1 ,)B ",:nollsnoi1::lh1 a8
x. O.lm.
(008J)wo(\;) {.\ = S200 \l.\ =
I<'~
'
  800 Nm I (0.01 m'  0.04 m O)
.(:tanis).l8 "'Iol",.,,,ill·
. ,''''''''1 ""fjSV'l52n<J?nofl Ii ai ,,::nollsnoi1oh1 "ill ."'101 Net work, done by the spring in stretching from equilibirum poaition "., .nltirllf8IJ't\ ~Bi'1Md'~ra"l:ft'\d~BtA1!FpIlraf.M.)?:no\ :)lUDl:l.  W, + W.   32 J .p~'lJ;w13n,"9&!~o:).non n 21s::no\!nnolbh\_
.:n"J);JjQ9 ~J~r~rqR\'~~91~ "ill no ,,:nollsnoihhl '{d "nob )['10W hn "ciT
ivl
5'lDOn 5W e"lqlI1Bx5 5vodE "ill mO'I12wfT ....J"''I'tW~~ t!ie §{I_~tI""":addlil~ljltrn "'JII}iolc1siHOdl(6'l:Itm'PtiliSoiti'filtM. . .DttMP.!IUiW~111W<two ........,.e byit~~~iPo ~l>,g9n~dtftDfjft~to~
li<rl:t
'~?f!'l)"i ~ 5nob )how '}cH
111
'>JlJ ,~.ndmdtlDt)Ftlie!JlllllYl ~.ibt:IltiD~llq8rla) noi1s11l8a
vi.,'! Net~igI:th.:apri".~QIIQt~"w'laiwl_""
grHf,~ ttW"flG :mob )/'10W .. nt
.9::nol
~nhq2 S
to 928::1 "ill ni ."Iqm.sx" 'IO"!
)NO N "fl °ti!tigrta ~~m~MM,Qi"l$.tfiea! lIe~a1iIirW'aiiiFa~ ~d~"~!j "'1 n< (')""~'/Oli;i)" rf£cro;illno 5::>'Yol isnoDB1ivE'Il! "ill '{d "no,
,'{"mLJot
mAtlQ~Qll'" e)3 Idl .Judsv 1321105 J21iiBgH 5itub >1 tbW 511 [
"1l,rtllOltillllN . . . . lIfho ri 't"d.1)...,1fiIIcfltlaii&lilL:4uw:Jnon 10 :;.,ll::> "ilia! 02 ion by the 1I'I"'itati...w force on '':''0\ 9IfliDq,t&iUb 2£ nworul oew ,,'IS 2"'l'l01
·"9~
,fIOl r'ji ?
wJult i8 the ,I)~, .1JlII'k clone, by F"1(itatiozW force , "Ill! ''\In,,iIil''wi in ltl1~fd~P9' Qlmq2 n \0 lrm1",,0') \1fmq<, "In: : ~.i' 9! ....................................................,............................ .\!f~nqe ~r\1 \!d 9
cll
i
in m ilon.ontally .!~ AS &om A to B. ~B ·Y).· ,ft~~~V1ciIIIA is'IQi1t:?ill{''1 oJ luhell
Ei'
,
:Ii bna lliw 5 W '
x:l
C
ii{f
W~fi\Olllfc,tcilJ{.n5qo
n 51"rlw
rn"j2,{2
8 10 \!'Q~_91
.
::A"\OI.lJ.h
2.
............................. .. ....... ............................... ,......... ..............................................
~ ~
'
~'
~Jl4
1.r.Drahrp1lrl6.r~ A?l.Oriqf'J«ulisfplbeed<mD~.a.iicrtkaboUe,meftoorii6/
room which is 10 m above the ground.
.C(i5[1<'
IBiJn:>roq 1""00'
< . .
J
Find the potential energy associated with load. . . T T with re~rM:t fQ the ahM ~ . ~ t>.o aMOIT83U9 rX3:TVI.
bJ,,~m~,tg ~lflt~,fPfm)+e,.,;<!".", c) with respect to the sutjace a/the earth.
............ " ... , ...... .,. . . . .
<> M""'!" ';.":
""d',.,.
.c·",,··,·· .. ,,··
"' .... ...
eSblH B
.. ....... U';;"mgy where";;f is' 'the 'inass, .'II' is the liertical' poSitiotf c60tditiate of t!re~tl'Pte.i!t'''I:b; ~I:!e'~t lleirig"ltll¥ kt'1'llmd"levc!l,
"i'1I1~Bifnqa ae_sm 10) '.:a"l~1}~ !FOt1n~JOQ eli 11iw b!:l'n::,h,u'::" ",i ::iniy.f}~ a) Potential energy as gIven by Eq.
!!,.:_ ' ..•.
~
~
me
i.e., Uz 0 (qr.:y=!!=rS"'lQ
.cit .. ,
t10!!",;~q
')({]
"<:0. '1n:~b
>l:J')';'
1c _,:::, __ [~ "')['11 ~;[
!f'i"J'
i,e"
U= 10 kg x 9.8 ms:;J x 12.5 m ':;1j :~n ~fl'oh 141~"J; ......... 9.'.::'..2.45 J ........ ... ......... . .. c) ... U .... !.O.kg.x. 9 •.S.m.«:·..x.12.S..m..... . ...... = 12~SbI!('lq b.~x.shn e"~ moit m':.J Of ~~d b9rf:~1~'12 ~j jrT.~.V; b)
lI'6lifj>:t Pateii:tJIdtBaW*,,"o)
~,Jh:.~~~A~~=~~~~~~:~~;f~~,~~i~.~~;
1~'1J ~dt ....~
f.6t' ...,
(b"~
OO.pI
';,~ _~j,nqe
'l1]
l
t'
cilu;i. ;'til 'cd
0<:01, ", ,b,w "',",,, 'N,,'\
is!
.. Wlumall
. erll.tion}..·......·
"'.',""...
it. say;!!. cpn:;;ider a mass m on the surface.;Q(~F ~NtM Bt;V!~~Jl.Wc f} p,~t siH~~~ (Vfiithout any acclerationl), Then"'the applied force J:, = ' . '/because there IS no accel
see.that.p.QtentW..en~fgymeanaj";!!t.wb.<lt
....... ....
........
..... ..
....
...... .. .
H.ff,,',
~ee~l::)OJq ~dt iIi
~1'9H') :J,lln"~Q'~ ~H ':1~atirl.: ~rit
et
p;
The work done by the external agent from Eq (6.1).
..
~
 my h cos (0°)  myh
•
Physics The external agent does mgh amount of work on the mass m. But the mass m hasn't gained any speed. What happened to the work done by the agent on the mass in lifting it? The answer is the work done mgh has been 'stored'. in the earthmass system. It is potentially available. All we need to do is to extract it to let.go of the mass. The mass will drop down a distance h. The kinetic energy acquired in the fall is,
K= Y. mrf' K= mgh.
= Y.
m (2 gl1)
Thus, the work done by the agent in changing the configuration (relative position of mass  earth system) is recovered during the faIl of mass m (original configuration). The energy potentially _flab,. by the ufrtIa! oj posftfon oj mass m with respect to the earth fa known (IS graDItational potential energy oj mass  earth system. Likewise, a .woundup watch spring, for example, has potential energy. For as it unwinds, it does work to move the hands of the watch. The watch spring acquired its potential energy because work was done on it by the person in winding up (chaning the configuration of spring watch system). Potential energy is associated with a system, and not with a single particle. When conselVative forces perform work in a system, potential energy of a system changes. Only changes in potential energy do count in calculating work done (see Eq 6.13). Now, solve the following questions and check how much you have learnt about potential energy.
IN'rEXT QUESTIONS 6. 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1.
When a maaa spring is compressed will its potential energy increase or decrease?
...................................................................... .........................................................
;
2.
When a mass spring is stretched will it. potential energy (of m ..... spring) decrease?
.......................................................................................................................... ......
~
3.
A body of mass 4 kg is lifted vertically by 2 m at con_tant 8peed, by a penoon.
(a) what i. the amount of work done by the person on the body? (hI how much work is done by the gravitational force on the body? (cl what i. the change in the gravitational potential energy of the system bodyearth. (dl what i.r. the net work done on it?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~o' •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••• \
....................................................................................................................... .........,
~
4.
A .pring (k  1400 Nm·'1 ill stretched by 10 an from ita relaxed position. (al how much work is done by the elastic farce of the spring on the asent atretching it?
.................................................................................................................................
(hI how much wark i. done by the asent on the spring?
..................................................................................................................................
(el what is the change in potential energy in tho PJ:OCe..?
..................................................................................................................................
116
Work and
EneJ:&Y
6.7
CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY
Consider a system in which only conseIVRtive forces perform work (such as mass  spring or ball earth system). We have then, from workenergy theorem ofEq. (6.11).
Wcon =IlK
Where Wro.. refers to the work done by a conservative force. We have from the defining relationship ofEq (6.13).
Wron =Ilu
where Wcon refers to the work by conservative force. Combining the above two equation we have
/lK=IlU
In other words, fora system in which a conservative force does work, we can write ilK + IlU= 0 (6.14) What does the above equation (6.14) mean?
In any process, if the kinetic ensrgy of the sysWin inc:reases, the potential ensrgy decreases by an equal amount and vice wrsa.
We define a quantity E, called the mechanical ensrgy of a sYstem as the sum of kinetic energy K and potential energy U. E=K+U (6.15) We then write Eq. (6.14) in the modified form as IlE = 0 (Conservative forces only) (6.16) The mechanical energy of a system remains a constant. This is called the principle of consenratfon of mechanical ensrgy for conservative forces. In other words, the mechanical energy of a system is comieroed, meaning it neither increases nor decreases. Now we see the reason for the name 'conservative force" : for such forces ~orking on a system the mechanical energy is conserved or remains a constant. Let us now consider an example for the use of conservation of mechanical energy.
Example 6.8 : A toy car comes down a slide (see Fig. 6.7) a/height 1 mfrom point A. Calculate (a) the speed a/the car al the point Band (b) the height at· which it will have half the speed a/the bottom Solution: (a) Applying law of conservation of mechanical energy, from Eq (6.17)
i.e. I;' mvA' + mgy, ~ Y. mvs' + mgyB. Substituting VA = 0; YA = 1 m and Ys = 0,
E, =
E;.
T
~'!by
•
/
6': t:li9.8 ms') (1 m)
= Y. mvs' Cancelling the mass 'Tri, we find Vs' = 1!}.6 m 2 s' :. Ii =4.43ms 1 B Speed of the car at the point B is 4.43 ms I
I
~_~_~__ ="._
FlII6.7:Atoy_ooming
down a slide.
117
_
.r.ft..l~es
..... ".[j., . .}.,."
.

1."., ")
"
"'I

 .
Notice that the ..n"Ah~. I / f ,  A~I, . Jm""".....d· I.. 2 .. the bookj could notb;;;;;:r to'';;l~r\ti.;'~'Il'''J}.t(m;'~w~:H:bn .~n6rrl'J constant . . lllide i. irregular in 1ili~ ~d[lIdi.lI~Hnu,Wrl.'~'.lojlw_n()' illustrate. the ulOefuln_ of the principle of conservation of mech...u..l~,
! ~
.
"
;; .iwritllOi/&li ihto' 'oibMiikiitiiiff Ht'.h~~ itt'et&'fIiI' ~!f..&l.rlJiliNrtlSW.i D
[1
_ d law (work • energy theorem, in particularl "'" can apply this princ:iPl'rw fT.S' i I . """oervation of mechanical energy to solve problema without havit)&tQ JlI>~ fOrce and aa:eleuotion which ""'" ill A compt;~d way. 1
"WE
'\nr<J~rr I,+"
t
.n,
nur1BCj'"') 'j'!OOb
"ift
B'JOb H;d
'
'" IH''IiIWittl ri6r~"tb%!&JA~lBI>lR ~
". For exampie. the b?Y.. car p!<>plem could not ,be ~d u~ Newton'. second
_ _ _ _ ~WIa1M>IIIIAiO.Up9 nn ;;:0
",,,"n~,,,!),,,~. '<':>t!'\an~
~lit ~~ n ID;3n930
dj <~j~'!n \!_"4J!Ii~~iJ!"~~i"'r:ql'l'b'i.~j technique c:annot e uaed.~~ ,!~,RfPt~'¥Jtf~')9{)~~ !~""'l;r} :Jhlli)I '1.; HHJ~ .: i (JIO principle of conservation of eners:r can be used in ~ a wid" ..;ipti ", problem in mechanica ~ ,~'''i~!!f:~ ~o~1be:u.e4f~rl ','
"Note that We have used Eq. (6.191
" .
..J , •. , iF; Fl'"
./)
i (j ~
eli.
AIt:~ O{~~~,OIJlloI:ilM!llvin8·;t!:atqy r. '!W ~blm",·)·,,,,d~'hrr ",iT
.!
,
fl~;"!~~l"~' i'~~~9rc:u~ ~~.l~<:";!l·)r'':)I) ';1; ;: ~·\?h'.!T)r!i ',)(ii!Jn ,;r 'If;iIoB~,(Qrooar~frioIimud """",,,<PIe> t/)o!~:on,tAe< ~!~I(;')'o
.. ;~'rIOm\st:_WIW'IltNt""'~ ""_~1t0t6oal(!i"I\''1<\ ,;n"""'!an~ ........ So RM!~~a..~",{"!¢I~'"",*,~o;l1
oonoervation of mechanical """"IIIfR~~ ,16,· t?ITl'!lffif·l'l' ~,fflI"Jffll4 ~" ' j in Here, in the toycar problem we have ignored frictional forcel "'
.,
. iD8 problema.
'
.£;
:118
Work and Energy
Vertical motioD : Let a body is thrown vertically upward with an. initial speed vO' What is the maximum height attained?
Applying the Eq. (6.15) to the points 1 and 2 (lowest and highest positions in the trajectory). 2
I
We have. Y, mv,' + mgy, = y. mv/· + 1TI!/Y.z or mg (y,  g,) = mg "  = Y. m (v,'  v,'). or h
""'"
= ''
(v;  v~)
29
Substituting the values VI  va and v, = 0 (no vertical velocity). we get h
......
....!!..
/II
1'1&6.8
v
2
29
'Ibis is in confirmity with the result discussed in lesson 2 earlier.
Now. let us check how much you have learnt about potential energy.
Jl'fl'EX't QUESTIONS 6.5,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1.
An obj_ of ....... 2 kg ia ttawoIIiJlB with a speed of 10....' an a horizontal surface Wbat ...... ita (8) What ita Kinetic """'1IY'l (hI· What ia ita Potential v?
u.
2.
(at
I. m"dllmical ener&Y always ~
(bJ I. it .......,. a poailifto quantity?
...................................................................................................................................
3
(8) When a ball ia tilling vm1icaIIy.
doea ita potentia1 _
iru:zoeaM?
4.
AU  AK; Doe. thia ecp.etion
lOp'
•
ld the principle of CODIIOl'IatiOD of
_?
.................................................................................................................................
6.8 TBB LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ElIERGY
you would have noticed that bouncing ball looses height after every bounce and finsIIy comes toresL A swiIlg comes to stop after a number of oscillations. /I. oicketbaD moves on e:horizontaI ground lnosing its speed. Haven't we ohsetved these? What do we eonclude? MeChanical energy of a system is not conserved whe.tc9eI non~ (dissipative) forces operate or perfonn work; What happeos to tbe 'miSsing' energy 4E/ We find a clue in the fact that bo1h the block and swface (1see the figure) aver Which it slides become"slightly W!U'JheI'. ·(thermometer does. find out) A part of the. mechanical =ergy being transfo~ed into kinetic energy of
·119
Physics the disordered motion of the particles (atoms and molecules) that make up the block and the surface over which it slides. We call such energy internal energy (thermal energy) and represent it by Urn" W,ri<liUH = At'.n, (6.17) Now we can rewrite or modify the work  energy theorem of Eq. (6.11).
W=AK not
as W
M
,
=I,w
COl'll
ro•
+ I,w_
=I!J{
where ~ ~ W and ~ .£...t WI'JM refer to the work done by all the conservative forces and nonconservative forces on the system. Substituting from Eq (6.13) and Eq (6.17). we write the work  energy theorem as
(UU) + (.t1U .. ) = I!J{
(6.18) or (!.1U)+(Wint )+I!J{=O This is the statement of the law of the conseroation of energy. This law is more comprehensive than the law of conservation of mechanical energy of Eq. (6.17) which is valid only for conservative forces. In new situations. say involving chemical, electrical, magnetic and I;ludear phenomena, we can always identify new quantities like U;n' (of Eq. 6.18) to expand the scope of definition of energy (Le., to include other forms of energy like chemical, electrical. magnetic and nuclear etc.). So we can always write UU + I!J{ + .t1UinI. + (Changes in other forms of energy) = 0 for an isolated system. This is known as the law of conservation of energy. It can be stated that the energy can be transfonned from one fonn to another fti an fso.. . lated system but it cannot be created or des1:royed; the total enM"fI1J
Of the system always remains constant.
Take a pause and solve the following questions.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.6,_ _ _ _ _ _1.
_ _ __
Energy is transformed from one {ann to another. Name the transformations of energy in the following in the Conn from . ,_ ..........•..... to ...................... .
(a) lifting of a book by a boy ................................................................................... .
(h) burning of candle ....................•••..............................•......••....•••••.......................•
(e) a moving truck on a road ..........••....................••......•.•.............•.•••....••..•......•.•.•.•
(d) emiSBion of light by sun ....•....•.......................................•....••.........•.•...•........ ,.••.
2.
A football kicked by a player leaves the ground and after travelling in air reaches the ground and comes to a stop at some other position on the ground. Identify the energy transfonnation in this process. Is energy of the ball conserved?
6.9
COLLISIONS AND KINETIC ENERGY TRANSJl'ER
In daily experience, when two objects hit each other we speak of collision as an event. The objects that collide might be, a cricket ball and a bat, a
120
Work and Energy hammer and a nail or at times two or more.vdIicles.pn the roadl
A comet approaching the sun, swings around it and continues its course
with an increased speed is also .an example of collision. Here the particles (comet and sun) do not actually 'touch'. However there is an interactive force, gravitational force, that is not a contact force. Our knowledge of the atomic and subatomic world  electrons, protons, neutrons  have come from experiments involving collisions, There are two iInportant laws to be followed in all collisions, namely, laws of conservation of energy and momentum. Here we apply these laws to look at the transfer of kinetic energy from one particle to another.
6.9.1 Inelastic Collisions In One Dimension
In inelastic colli:!lions the kinetic energy of the system is not conserved, although the total energy of the system remains constant. The lost kin~tic energy is transformed into internal energy. A bullet fired into a target getting embedded isan example pf an inelastic collision  sometimes knmvn . as a perfect inelastic collision. We will fiIld answers to questions :" Hpwmuch of kinetic energy transfer takes place? How much of it ~ains in the system? Applying law of conservation of momentum, we get 1n,V" = (m, + ~)vr
or
•
vf =
m1 m1 +rn,
Vli
(6.19)
(a) Before colliSSlon
(b) After collisipn
o~
•
atrest
The final velocity of the combined particle will always be less than that of the incoming particle. The final kinetic energy K; of the system is K; = Y. (m, + m.,) V(
=
(m, +.m,) . I
2
("'i m, +m,
K;
•
Vii
J
(6.20)
(~I m, )•.
K = 1 TIltV~; • I 2{TIlt +rn,) rn,
.
I.e.
K
I 
1 +. ~
'tilt
,
.
. K; is leSser than~.
It depends upon
CUe .) A maaive pIjojectUe: When
rn. »
1I!..i' Eq (6.20) reduces to K; = ~
The loss.in kinetic energy is minimum. In fact the kinetic energy is con121
Physics selVed! This is what would be expected if a large mass hit a dust particle at rest.
Ca_ b) Equal ma._.: When m, = m." Eq. (6.20) becomes
Ki Kf = 2
Half of the kinetic energy of the system is dissipated. Case c) A ma..ive target: When
(6.21)
m,
»
m"
so that 
m2 + IX m,
(6.22)
Eq (6.20) reduces to Ky ~ O!
The kinetic energy of the system is completely ~issipated. This case is like that of a lump of putty hitting the ground and not bouncing back at all! .
6.9.2 Elastic Collisions In One Dimension
Kinetic energy of the system is conselVed in an elastic collision. Consider the collision of two particles one of them at rest before the collision.
Vlj
>
at rest
VII
~
V2f_
0)
~
0)
.0)
>
(a) Before Collission
(b) After Collision
ng 6.8 : Change of velocities due to oollisiJn
Applying the law of conselVation of momentum to the system, we get m, v" = m, v" + m., v'r (6.23) ConselVation of kinetic energy of the system results in Y. m 1 v Ii.2 a Y.m 1 v If2 + Y, .. m (6 • 24) ""'2 v' 2f We have to solve the Eq (6.23) and Eq (6.24) to fmd the values of v, rand v2 f" Rewriting Eq (6.23), we have (6.25) m. (v.;  VI r ) = m., v, r . Eq (6.24) is rewritten as (6.26) m l (v"  Vlf) (v" + v n) = m.,v.r ' Dividing Eq (6.26) by Eq (6.~5), we get
VI;
+ v'r = v.r
(6.27)
Substituting the value of v2 r from Eq (6.25) in Eq. (6.23) and simplitYing, we find +m 2 v2 r is evaluated from (6.25) as . 2m.
1
Vu
m. =m
m2
Vh
(6.28)
V 2f
= ;n~+~
Vii
(6.29)
In
Work anijEnergy .The target will always. be positive value,( i.e., ",. will be parallel to VIf) it moves forward. From Eq (6.28), we fmd that v, ,maybe positive value or negative value. If m. > m" the projectile moves forward after collision, otherwise it rebounds, ifm,<m,. What about the energy transfer from m, to m, ? Eq (6.28) and Eq (6.~~) are rewritten as
v1/
1 ("':! = [ 1+ m
/ m,
/
2
m
l]
1
Vii
(6.30)
and v 2,
= 1 + (m2
2
/ ml) Vii
(6.31)
Three situations are considered
C... a) A ma.uve ,rojectUe :When m l » m, , we have VI'':' vn and V2f .:. 2v,; (6.32) After the collision with a lighter target, the velocity of the projectile is little ch......::.ged, and the target moves with a velocity twice that Qf the projectile.
Ca.. b}BcJ.d.I m ..... : When m l = m, we obtain, v,, = 0 and v2(= ",; (6.33) Particles of equal mass exchange their velocities. Particle m, stops. Particle m, (target) moves away with the velocity of the projectile! Case c) A massive target: When m, » m,
v·   v II. and v 2r = 2v H m li
2
m,
(6.34)
When a pingpong ball moving with a certail1 speed hits a stationary cricket ball, the pingpong reb ounces with the same speed. Cricket ball doesn't gain any noticeable speed. The maximum kinetic energy transfer takes place between two identical masses in an elastic collision. J:xample 6.9: A 1.5 /qJ body is at rest. Itis 'hit' heddon bya body of 0.5 kg moving with a spef:d of 0.2 ms'. aj What is the final velocity of each bo.dy? bj In what direction does each move after the interaction.
SoiutioJl :
Vii _ 0.2 ms'
• m,  0.5 kg
+
V 2;
=0
• Before m,  1.5 kg
Mter m, In drawing the diagram 'after' we assume directions to be similar.
••
m,
+
""
e
. ~,
...
.... ,'
123
We might be proved wrong! Considering velocities 01" motions to the right side as +Ye, let us apply the rules: 1From law of conservation of momentum,
where Pt total 'momentum of the system 'before' and P, total momentum 'after' the event i.e. collision. Substituting, we have 0.5 kg )( 0.2 ms'  0.5 kg " v" + 15 Kg )( v", Simplify we get 0.2 ms'  v" + 3 v.. (1). 2. From law of conservation of Kinetic energy, (collision is assumed to be elastic if not specified otherwise.
K;~
PtP,
i.e. Y. V~i  Y. m, V~I + Y. m., Substituting the values, '10 )( 0.5 kg )( (0.2 ms')'  '10
m.
vi
x 0.5 kg (V~I) + Y. )( 15 kg vi
0.04m· s'  II~I + 3'10 I I i (2) From equations (1) and (2) have two unknowns v" and 11...
On eliminating one of them (v" or v..) from these, we get an equation containing only one variable (Simple equation))
:lnrmy _ _
"'" pouIbIc as [tbccqUa_laa_ c one! (i.e. containa 'C of an uok:ooIm quaDBut In !II\J*'" ._oo\J .... Ia ...,.,...""" cdutklo me""'''· d above
We have one of the solution as v" = 0.10 ms' and 11..  +0.10 ms' What about the other solution? Find the other combination of v" and v... The incident ball m., (0.5 kg mass) bourwes back so that its final velocity is in the opposite direction to its direction of movement before the collision.
So signs do matter as we are dealing with a vector ph,ysical quantiW the momentum)
~"""
Now, solve the following questions and check your progress. 
DtTBXT QUESTIONS 6.7_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _'1.
3kg •
A
15.... 1
eSkg B Coneider motion of ollied to the risbt as positiw.
(aj Wl.at iII_ the momentum of A7 ..........................................................................: ..
(bl What i.the momentum of B? ............................................................................ .
(4 What ill the total momentum of A end B? ......................................................... ..
(d)
Wb.t will the momentum of the .ystom later on? (after collision).......................... .
(e) If aft.... collision. A and B atick together and move. what will be the common velocity? ....................................................... _................................................ :.... ..
(I) I. kinetic energy of the .ystom conaerved? .........................................................
(g) I. it an elastic collision? ..................................................................................... ..
124
Work and Energy
6.11 WBATYOUHAVELEARNT_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
• Wark. done by a constant force F is W = Fd cos 6 = r.d. where e is the angle between , and d . Unit of work is 1 Joule a...."d Work is a scalae. The .ark done by a force is equal to the area bounded by the F versus x (position) graph between two positions. Work done by the elastic force of the spring. obeying Hook's law W  % k {xr:l· Xi.~ where k is the spring constant, as it is stretched or compressed from Xi to .l} cooftlinates of the initial and fmal position. Power is time rate of wOrk and its SI Unit is Watt (W) (a IJs'). When an object with mass m moves with speed v. its kUletic energy K is given by K  % mY'. Kinetic energy is a scalar and positive physical quantity. 'nle worl:c:energy theorem; Wnet "" Kr  1\ = AK. 11lc change in the kinetic energy of an object is eqUal to the work done by all the forces that act on' it. A force is said to be conse1'V8.tive if it does no net work on an object that moves through a round trip. Whereas a nonconservative force (dissipative forcej does non zero net work over a round trip of an obj eet. Work done by a conservative force on a system is equal to the negative of change in potential energy associated at two positions "" and X, (initial ~ and final UJ. W_ (U, U) The reference level  zero level of potential energy is conveninently chosen. Energy 'storedl in a spring is known as Elastic potential energy and it is U;;" 1h kr, where x is the amount of stretching or compression from equilibrium position. 111e energy 'stored' in a mass m. near the earth's surface is known as Gravitational potential energy and it is U "" mgy, where y is the vertical position coordinate of the location of the maas m with respect to the surface of the earth. Whenever only conservative forces act on a system; the total mechanical energy E = U + K remains constant. 'When nonconservative forces work on a system, W "" l1E, the change in mechani.:al energy of a closed system is equal to the work don';'by nonconservative forces. Energy may be transfonned from one kind to another in an. isolated system, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Total energy of a system remains Constant. Collisions are events in which the interaction between two particles or objects lasts for a very short interval of time. Luvs .of conservation of linear momentum and conservation of energy are the ruleF the game in any collision. Pi  P,i In an elastic collision kinetic energy is conser an inelastic collision the kinetic energy is partly dissipated or transfonned in t .... kinds (forms) of energy.
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6.12 TERMINAL QUESTIONS,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1. Why is the work done by kinetic friction force always negative?
Can the normal reaction force on an obje:ct ever do work on it? Explain.
When A doe. work on B, does B also do any work on A? Explain.(Use: Newton's laws of motion) 4. A pebble thrown with a certain speed enters into the water of a pohd below. Will the angle of throw have any relationahip with the speed of the pebl:lle at the instant of enay into the horizontal 1erd of water? Explain. S. Which doe. WOrk : hamm.... or the nail, a cricket bat or a ball? Explain. 6. Identify the forces acting on the book when it is lifted upwards. State whether each of them i. conservat:ive or nonconservative. 7. The earth is eIoRat to the lAm in winter. When is the gravitational potential of the oystem the maximum in the elliptical path of the earth about the sun. S. Can the mechanical anergy of a system be n_tive. Explain. 9. A.te1li.te 1QOWI:8 in an elliptical orbit about the earth. Does the kinetic energy of the satellite change? Explain. 10. An automobile is travelling at conatant speed. What energy transformations are taking place?
3.
2.
125
mgy for an object near the surface. A bo<\y moves along a straight path by {2i + 3jlmwl!ilc a force .. Estimate the l"I1DIling speed 01 a pole. 25..10 21. A 50 kg person runs up a long flight of stair. (a) Find the force exerted by the person if it is carried out very slowly... . VIIIIlter who c\ears a bar 01 II m.. ~ I'tg 6..21 fmd the quantities of {al. The height of the stairs is 4.(aI Find the work done on the bob of mass 100 g in the swing from A to B..9 . in the process. A person lifts a 2 kg book from the table to a shelf 2 m above it...2 kJ? . A force of ION acts on a bag of mass 2 kg at rest on a frictionless surface. (Fig 6.. See Fig 6.. ~ 6. and (bl the angle between the force and displacement of the bo<\y.. (a) How much work is done on the bag? (bl What is the kinetic energy 01 the bag at the end of 3 m? (el What is the speed acquired by it (bag) in the process? If the friction is not negligible J..has dimension of e .t.. (41 + 2jJN_ CIIlit. Th!! force is applied horizontally while it moves 3 m. (dl / T 1 I'tg 6. U{M .. What. A4kg block startsmoviDgwith 128Joliuitialkioeticvona 3O"t>J...wd bet.06 m from tho relaxed position? 20.. Find the speed of 4 kg block {after it is releasedl when it traveIa 2 m? Uoe energy considerations. 126 ... have . lI"egligibJe friction.5 Ill. (negligible ~erationl (b) How much work is carried out by the person on the book? {el Find the net work done on the book? 15.. . in 4 s..10 m and released.. one kg 01 . ARuming it to be W. What height would. A constant f _ 0110 N do.0.5 kg is attached to the free end of a spring on a horizontal frictionless surface.mine the speed at position (a) B (bl C and (e) D (if at all it reacIuoaq 23.. A 0. 19. 12.Physics 11. 17.. Does it mean that potential energy of the system can be positive and negative at the same time? Explain. iavoJ.. . 24. wIocity 01 S . r GlI6n 13..l.. cr.. Justify it. fall tIutrqb to cbange its ~ po~ """'BY by 4. 14.. In CODBervative force acting on the air increaoee its ki:netic """'BY by 200 J. Show that UfrJ :::: ... If it swings in a vettica1 plane with a radiua r • 0. 26. Find the change in potantial """'BY' (b) the .. Find (a) the work done by the force . "nle spring conatant k· 50 Nml. NegIectiaa: frictioDal . A block of mass 0..ergy.. " "". Work is done by a force on a body if on~y it changes the speed of motion of an object already in motion. its speed at B.11).11 11 I'tg 6. . The spring is compressed by 0..' the angle involved between the two vector quantities? 16.101 (bl What i.9. force..ecbmri"'" . 18. Calculate his power output. of 51 system.. (bl and(cl considering the frictional force. 20 J 01 work on a box in moviDg it by 4 m. H _ _ will it go up the plaDe...._ the """'.2 kg ball attached to a string is given an initial. if the spoed at A is zero? 22. U(rl = GM m •• r for au object above the • earth's surface.. (al What is the maximum velocity acquired by the block? (bl What is its speed when it i8 0.5 m.
4J Id) Chemical to kinetic mainly Ie) Nuclear to electromagnetic light.7) 2.+0.5 J (e) . The energy re\eaaed in the process is 4500 J. (a) 100 J (h) Zero (e) 100 J 2. (a) 100 J (h) 100 J 450 J _~(6. comes to rest after travelling a dis· tance of 25 em. The coefficient of friction involved is 0.5 J (h) +0..5.1) (h) 78. :lB. energy and amount). of mass ratios 1: 1. 29. (a) 78.2' 2.. 100 J. at any point in its trcYectory.e. but varies only with the speed of projection.. Find their individual kinetic energy. 3. 3..8) 1.. (c) +mgh (d) Zero 2..2.. (a) Yes (b) No (remains constant). ANSWERS TO INTEXT QUESTIONS _~(6. I a _ ~'J_ (6.5 J (I) Zero I a _ Qwwttuow 1. is independent of th~ angle of projection. A 5 g bullet is fired horizontally into a 3 kg wooden block resting on a horizontal aurface.. with bullet embedded in it.. Friction. 3. (a) Zero (h) mgh (e) 78.4 J 12 kgms' + 12 Icgms' Ie) Zero (d) Zero (e) Zero (h) I&) (f) (g) No No 127 . 4J 2 x 10" N.. An explosion break. F in the direction of displacement (e) 0.S. Show that the magnitude of the velocity of a projectile. 1. ~. What was the speed of the bullet.. (a) No (only when conservative forces work on the system). (a) mgh (h) +mgh (e) mgh 4. (6. (h) Inero.4J L 2. Sunlight fIi. 4. (a) ve..e.4J Zero 4.Work and Energy 27. (a) 0.can 'lbject into two unequal pieces. The block. (d) +mgh (e) No (a) Incre. No (4U+AKO(repreaentationofconservation of mechanical energy). F acting against displacement (h) . Chemical to griMtational Chemical to light ·and heat 1a_~16. 1. (b) No (depends on sign of potential (d) (a) (h) (e) 3..5 J (c) Zero (d) 0. No displacement 10J..6' Ca) (b) (e) . 700 J 700 J 700 J I a _ Qaest:IoDs (6.
However.when we consider phenomena connected with the rotation of the body on its own axis. state theorems ofparallel and perpendiC/llar axes and apply them.7 ROTATIONAL MOTION 7. Such particles are also called mass points./ate the velocity acquired by a rigid body at the end ofits motion on an inclined plane. 7.fcfeshaving only mass and no size. the finite size of the body cannot be ignored.2 • • • OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. However. define the centre of mass ofa rigid body and recognize its importmu:e. recognize that the general motion of a rigid body consists ofboth translational motion and rotational motion. define moment of inertia and realize its physical significance. define torque and compute the direction of rotation produced by a torque define angular momenium and write down the equation of motion of a rigid body. you should be able to. • • ..fcle Involve its mass? The reason that the size of the particle does not appear in its equation of motion is that we ide8llzed the particles as point part. have large number of particles. The bodies that we have to deal with. In this lesson we will study the rotational motion of bodies. when we have to study the rotation of a body. For example the size of a planet revolving around the sun has not been considered and it was taken just a point particle. state the principle of conservation of angu/a. and caIcu. we do take note of its finite size. In real life there are no such particles.1 DlTRODUCTION So far you have studied'the motion of particles under gravitational and other forces. DId u. in the previous lessons we have seen that the size of a body has not been taken in to account. For example. so their finite sizes become important for us. Even a tiny marble consists of millions of particles. • • • • define a rigid body and realize that it is an idealization. equation o/motfon o/the part.r momentum and cite a few exnmp/es in support of this principle.
........... because ifwe apply large pressures the distances between the particles do change.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.. ................... Can you give two examples of such cases where the sizes ofthe bodies are not important? But when we have to consider the rotation of a body about an axis...... in nature there is nothing like a really rigid body... a solid body is a good enough approximation to a rigid body..... However.............1).....M........ Suppose we have a system of two particles of equal masses joined by a rod which has no mass and whose length remains fixed................. In real life we meet systems or bodies which consist of a large number of particles.... a wooden block........ like a point particle a rigid body is also an idealization...... The above definition implies that the shape of a rigid body is preserved d~ ing its motion.. A frame is made of six wooden rods.... described by the particles? 2........... Can this system be considered a rigid body? ............. We tlefUw a rlgi.....4 CEln'RE OF MASS (C.l.......... then the ltody has to be considered as a whole and the size of the body becomes important... Could a bob ofplasticine be considered a rigid body? Now. then their sizes can be ignored............ from a horizontal surface (Fig 7.... we generally assume that during rotation the distances between its constituent particles remain fixed.. even the earth and the moon would all be considered as rigid bodies in this lesson. Can we consider this system of two particles a rigid body? Suppose that the two particles are at heigl. and :z...... .. Therefore.. We have also noted that when these systems interact with other systems which are at distances very much larger compared to their sizes.......... may be by vel)' small amounts.. A cricket ball.ts z.... The rods are attached to each other in such a:WJq that they cannot move.....Rotational Motion 7.............. Zf 129 .... When we consider the rotation of a system. INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.. Such a system of particles is called a rlgi.. a steel disc...3 RIGID BODY We have noted above that point particles or point masses are idealizations.........) OF A RIGID BODY 2 Before we deal with rigid bodies consisting of several particles.. what would be the 'nature of path.....d body as one In which the dlstt:uu:es between the particles do not change as the body mows about..... let us check what you have understood about rigid body.....d body. For most purposes............... 7... If the distances between the particles of a body do not remain fixed as it moves about.............. let us consider a much simpler case...
and the force on the other particle is also mg.) with respect to some coordinate frame." z.. mg each.)gz. Since this must be equal to the combined potential energy of the" two particles. + rn.. has coordinates (X2. =. If the two masses are unequal then this point will not be in the middle. The problem now is to frod a point somewhere in the system so that if a force 2 mg acts at that point. find theloca· tion ofthe eM.). If the mass of particle 1 is m. The force on particle 1 is mg. If the particle with mass m... then we generalize (7. acting on the two particles. y.Physics Suppose. and that of particle 2 is rn.1) (7. then the coordinates of CM are given by Z y • . z. • Suppose the force 2 mg acts at the point C at a height z from the horizontal surface. mass rn.. and that of particle 2 is mgz.3) (7. (7.. The total force acting on the system is therefore 2 mg. (:~~. SUppose that the mass of the particle is twice that of the other.mgz.. then instead of (7. + mgz..) • . 0 • • C"(~"'lk ~ " '" " " "" " • • • X ='M (7..4) The point C is ca1Jed the centre oflD'" (CM)...2) In this case the point 0 lies midway between the two particles. further that the gravitational force is uniform in the smaIl region in which the two particles move about. + rn.2). has coordinates (x" Yl' z. we have 2 mgz .5) 130 . so that (7. The potential energy of particle 1 is mgz. the motion of the system would be the same as with two forces.1) we have (m.4) to de· fme its CM. and so on (Fig 7.. When a body consists of several par· ticles.m. gz.gz.
sum oJ all the a.6) z =''M Lm. In the light of this.d upon IIg the . Tn. and the rate of change of velocity is ac~eleration. where ax is the acceleration of the centre of mass along the xaxis.. Similarly. Ma' .9) But the product of mass and acceleration is force.lorca aCey fng on the body..nual. Similar equation can be written for accelerations along y . gives the net force acting on particle 2. These are called internal forces.. These equations can. Some forces can be due to sources outside thebody..9) in the form sum.. (7. Therefore.. The forces acting on a body can be of two kinds. and it was crc:t. the sum of theinternal forces is zero. Some other forces arise due to the interaction among the particles of the body. thus. of the external forces. These forces are called the _uIILIII forces.. 17...5) we could write (7.. Instead of (7.. L . denotes the sum over all particles and. Ill. The right hand side is. + Tn. A familiar example is the force of gravity.and zaxis. =M the total mass of the body. .Rotational Motion (7. therefore. the accelerations of the individual particles of the body are due to the or resultant.. is therefore the sum of all forces acting on particle 1. If a •• denotes the acceleration of particle 1 along the xaxis. a.z.. m... Normally in the case of a rigid body. we may write (7. the motion of the projectile. You are already familiar with the motion (Jf a body thrown at an angle to thevertical.7) where . a.. The fact that the motion of the CM is detenninedby the external forces and that the internal ExplOSion forces have no role in this at all leads to very interesting consequences. be combined into a single equation using vector notation. (7..1O) This shows that the CJI of a body _ _ as though all the _ _ of the body _ cotu:erd:rat8d at that pofnf.8) we have Ma= m. Why did we go to such length to define CM? Recall that the rate of change of displacement is velocity.. however. the total force acting on the body.\ \ \ x 131 .. Do you recaU what this motion is like?' JI ~PathofCM' . then from (7.8) Lm. + .
0 x 0+2.1 the position of the CM of some regular and symmetric bodies. (1. m.5 m y = 1. Further./Physics puppose the projectile is a bomb which explodes in midair and breaks up mto several fragments. The bodies that we have to deal with have very large number of particles and this simple method does not·work. Form (7.0 =.0. The centre of mass of the projectile. we get.0 x LO m LO + 2. We notice. 1.0+4.0.0 kg are located at the comers of a square whose each side is 1.0+3. (0.0 x 0+3.M.0) and m.0 + 2.0 + 3. y) plane. 0). 1. m" (1. If the body is regular in shape and possesses some symmetry. say it is cylindrical or spherical.0 kg.0 + 4. But keeping in mind the importance of CM. Example 7.0x LO+4.4. Let this plane be the (x.. 132 . Then the coordinates of the foUr masses are: m.I. therefore.0x1. see how the centre of mass of a system can be found by taking a simple example. Where would be ibi'centre ofrrwSs? 801utioa: We can always make the square lie in a plane. we give in Table 7. Have you noticed how important is the centre of mass of a rigid body? More of this importance you are going to see very soon. makes things somewhat simpler.D. Let us. then the calculation is a little bit more simplified.0+3. The fact that the masses of all the particles of a rigid body are equal. (0. y (D.l •• ) / l~o~~~.1: Supposefour masses.0 + 4. What oould be the reason for the eM not being at the centre?.0).0 m. 0. 2.7 m) and is marked C in Fig 7. The explosion is caused by theffiternal forces. 3.complicated affair.D) • 3 t I.4).~. which is the force of gravity.5 m. that the CM is not at the centre of the square although the square is a symmetrical figure. of Some Bodies Was it not simple to calculate the position of the eM? But unfortunately it is true only for very simple systems. But even then these Chlculations are beyond the scope of this unit.3) which the bomb would have described if it had not exploded.5) and (7.0 xO m 1. let one of the corners fall at the origin and the sides are the x y axes. therefore. (0.0 kg.6).0) x = LO x 0+2.0) (1. 0.0) where all distances are in metres (Fig 7. C. The computation of the CM of such bodies is·a.0 =0.7m The CM has coordinates (0. There is no change in the external force.0x 1.1.0. continues on the parabolic path (Fig 7.0 kg and 4.
...f.d E of .. I I ~ I I I Pyramid anti cone On line joining vert'ix with center of base and at ~ of the length meB!J\lnd from the base...6J DlTEXT QUESTIONS 7... grid shown here .Rotational Motion Table 7..... 8("".............0 q... 1'riangularplat'e Point of intersection of the three medians ED . ~ IJodWs Position of Centre of.. 1...(.d 5.. . it is time to cpeck yOUI' progress..... particlea A..ter of symrnetr:y At the center of symmetry Now...'+ &~ I .....zl ..atem..........1 : C8Jdres ofJfa. . 0 . D(1... 3...... .4..............u ofme l'BfIU'lararuJ.. B.....2 1.0 q...0q. . 133 ....0 q.. 2. C............ The... Regular polygon anti cirrular plate t I At the geomtotrical center of the figure Cylinder anti sphere At the geometrical center of the figure ..0 q. ~ ~ ~V FIgure with axial symmetry Some point on the axis of symmetry ~ ~h FIgure with oen.......... FiruI the centre of maaa of the ..
.. something like shown in Fig 7. It is located at the centre of mass and iaacted upon by the sum of all the external forces which are acting on t1)e rigid body.. find the centre of ....uyou didearlier.. 3.5). This shows that the general motion of a rigid body is a comb~tion oftrail. ther. The particle here has mass equal to the mass of the whole body.e ball a twist or spin before tossing to your friend.. This time the points on . you must have seen that the ball rotates while moving forward.2. But this time give t1J. 7. and . .10). m. but this time mark some points on the surface of the ball..the balf would undergo . yon can peifucm a little experiment of your own.2 kg. the centre of mass must also be tracing out an identical path..7.0 metre. Paths IFig 7.~jraDslA. If a rigid body moves in such a way that all its particles move along parallel Ma' Do you now see the advantage of defining a centre of masS of a body? With its help the translational motion of a body can be described by an equation simjlar to that of single particle. of the .5 ROTATIOlfAL MOTIOlf OF A RIGID BODY You must have played a game in which you toss a ball to a friend and the friend tosses it back to you IFig 7.. Notice the pam traced out by each point. Ftay this game once again.11: _ t!1f" _ .:!dation and rotation.1 kg. Notice the movements of the points on the ball carefully. lfyou have not seen this. Therefore.7.looping motiOn. """". th. inveneJy 7.3 kg are situ_ at the ' comers of an equilateral triansle of side 1.. .. Haw are the paths traced by different points related to one an~ other? . . m. DlBIIII i.. thenits motion is called tnmaIation·1 motion. Show that the diatancea of the two particles from their centre of proportional to their 1DUR8..tem.6).. .  Have you ever seen in motion the ball delivered by a spin bowler in the pme of cricket? Ifyou have.60 _ "If" .. The motion of all the particles beingidentical.tiona1 motion of the body may be Iepresented by the motion of its centre of ~ We have seen that this motion is given by (7. With your friend play the pme of ton 'ng the ball... If three particJea of _ .. The earth also performs these two 134 mow .
. A ana:ds. 0 ' " ". You are already familiar with such equations..5. It can then only rotate..  .1 PlaT•• PIa T. If we add the kinetic energies of all the particles. It rotate!' on its axis while advancing it its orbit round the sun.... The handle of the stone moves in a circular path. . is Yo m. You must have seen a grinding stone (the chakki). then we get the total energy of the body. / . The rotation is then about an axis passing through the CM. Imagine a particle of mass m...('. v~.... Let v denote the magnitude of its velocity. known the rotCltfollGl motion. Y.Rotational Motion motions at the same time.9 . Similarly the kinetic energy of another particle of mass m. " ~ ' 1 /._ 4 .8).onaImotion too? Let us find out? 7.9). Then its kinetic energy is.. in this lesson we concentrate only on the rotational motion of a rigid body."". Therefore. the mass of the hody plays a very important role.. rigid bGcIy '*'11 abou' . r" \.. All the points on the stone also move·in circular paths round an axis passing through the centre of the stone (Fig 7.. from the axis of rotation.  J • .  . \ 1 \ . If T denotes the total kinetic energy of the body then 135 AxiS of r01lltion. Is there a similar quantity for the rota.1 lIoment or Inertia Let C be the centre of mass of the rigid body and let the body rotate about an axis through this point (Fig 7... The most convenient point for this purpose is the CM of the body. at a distanCe of r.L to the plane oftlla paper PIa T. For the sake of convenience this point can be the CM. .. We have noted above that the translational motion of a rigid body can be described by an equation similar to that of a single particle.. The motion 0/ G rlg#d bod:g In whkh Gll the parttc_ o/"the bod:g describe cfrcular pczth5 . 0 . In the linear motion of a body that you studied in earlier lessons. 1 ' ''.. it cannot have translational motion. v~... It determines the acceleration acqUI 1 by the body for a given force...T While the general motion of a rigid body consists of both translation and rotation: if one point in the body is fixed.. The rotational motion can be obtained by fixing a point of the body.. "... m. .
therefore 00 is same for all of them.V~ + .. Table 7. axis of rotation must be specified. The moment of inertia of a rigid body is often written as /= MK:' (7. the sum over all the particles of the body.2 shows the moments of inertia of a few regular bodies.v 2 ~2 .. . It is important to remember that the moment oJ fnerlfa is defined with reference to the axis of rotation. (7.11) =~ '!m.. ~' '" You have leri in earlier lessons the relation between the lineaiveloc1ty and the ang\Ilar velooity. (T..14) is called the momem oJ inerlfa of the body. If the body isreguJar andhas the same properties every where (such a body is Caned homogeneous). . In the present case I is the moment of inertia about an axis passing through the point C (Fig 7. II wnere L 1 indicates..12) . ml V. + V. wherever we mention moment of inertia. . What is the relation between v arwf (J) ? Using this relation in (7. W)2 .. . (7. The unit of moment of inertia is obvious from its it~on. Therefore. lUis kg m'. then K Can be computed from its geometry andthe moment of inertia can be easily calculated. Or~D of the body.' Since all the particles have the same angular velocity. The radius oJgyratlon Is that cUstancefrom the axis oJ rotation where the whole mass oJ the body c:art be p'l4t!ed to get the SCUIle moment oJ fnertIa which ·the body aetually Iuu.9).13) The quantity (7.Physics T= II. the. m.11 we get T= r: L~m.· The angular velocity is usually denoted by 0).f 136 .There is certain advantage in writing moment of inertia in this form. =/00 1 2 2 (7.15) where Mis the total mass of the body and K is called the~.. as before. This equation may be rewritten as.
· • + III' I. "" 2 + Ril } Solid cylihder about cylinder axis Solid cylinder (or disk) about a central diameter . The physical Rinni~ o/the momento/inertia is that itperforms the same role in t/1e ~"'.locity.. 'IT Thin rod about axis through centre.13).. ~carefully at equation (7.'n that the mass ~in linetu motiorL Jqst as the mass of a body resists cltange in its sta~ ofiinear n on. 1 (:) ". .2 1II. " .. ~ ... ~ Hoop about cylinder axis Annular cylinder (or ring) about CJlinder axis IlIB" '1 (R.• Hoopabout~ tangent line Compare this with thekinetictnergyofa body in linear motion.1!!f!Hoop about any diameter o.Moment of IIwrtft& of _ _ regular bod. What do you find? In the rotational motion the role of mass has been taken over by the moment of inertia and the angular velocity has replaced the linear ve. \ R. the moment 0/ inertia resists a Change in its rotational motion. This pI' 'erIy of 137 .l to length ~ '"'"""'r "..Rotational Mollotl Tab.".2•• .' Thin rod about axis through one end . Phyaical sign'Seance of ••J..l to leneth· Solid sphere about any diameter Thin spherical sheD about aoy diameter '..2 : . 7.
and allows only a slow !Iecrease in the speed. We have noted that in rotational motion the angular velocity corresponds to tIle linear velocity in linear motion. The other useful theorem concerning the moment of inertial is known the theorem ofperpendicular axes. Let us choose three mutually perpendicular axes. say x and y are in the plane of the body. Any other point can be fIXed and the body can still have rotational motion. We can now writ!' down relations for the rotatIonal motion similar to the ones you have derived for the linear motion. 7. the z axis. with its large moment of inertia. the flywheel rcsi"ts this attempt. These are (i) (ii) the theorem ofparaUel axes. Exam pIes of such machines are the steom engine and the automobile engine.10)..16) We have mentioned above that for the rotational motion of a rigid body its eM is kept ftxed. If 1 denotes the required moment of inertia and {.t CM be kept fIXed. The disc with a large moment of inertia is called. it is convenient to do so. the flywheel.5. The moment of inertia about this axis would be different from the moment of iJlertia about an axis passing through the CM.es the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the eM. tempts to suddenly reduce the speed. lIar to the 138 _. .s perpend. It is not necessary tha. It is applicable only to plane bodies. prevents jerky motions and ensures a smooth ride for the passangers.. Suppose the given rigid body rotates about an axis passing through any point P other than the centre of mass. Because of its large moment of inertia. It allows only a gradual increase in speed. it must corresponds to the linear acceleration in the linear motion. Olot + Yo <X t' (7.. The moment of inertia about this axis can be found from a knowledge of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centre of mass.17) where Mis the mass of the body and dis the distance between the two axes (Fig 7. it works against the at.not. and the thir<l. two of which. What is the relation between these two? Let us ftnd out. This is known as the theorem of parallel *Be . But now the axis of rotation will pass through this ftxed point.aflywheel To understand how a flywheel works. . We explain below th~se theorems and their applications. Thus. e. Most machines which produce rotational motion have as one of their components a disc which has a very large moment of inertia. dc.the moment of inertia has been put to a great practical use. Use similar argument to show that the angle e through which a body rotates corresponds to the distance cauered in linear motion. Since angular acceleration (denoted usually by <X) is the rate of change of angular velocity.. imagine that the driver of the engine wants to increase suddenly the speed. and the theorem ofperpendicular axes.2 Theorems of'lnonlent of inertia There are two theorems which connect moments of inertia about various axes. then l={.+MtP d (7. Similarly.
say rd .18) We illustrate the use of these theorems by the following example.11). It is given by """. Since the moment of inertia about each is the same. Table 7. Now the symmetry of the hoop tells us that the moment of inertia about any diameter i~ the same as about any. z c 4='1 d FIg 1.2 have been computed using the theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes. I.10: Theorem a/parallel axes.Theorema/_ _ axes. 1 = MR' + MR' = 2MR'. Thus. Fie7. The moment of inertia about the tangent is found by the application of the theorem of parallel axes.5. (7.2 shows that its moment of inertia about the cylinder axis is MR'. where M is its mass and R its radius. The theorem states that the sum of the moments of inertia about axes x and y is equid to the moment of inertia abqut the z axis. = 'hMR' .12. 7.11:.18) gives MR' = 2Id and therefore I. other diameter.is parallel to the axis of the hoop. It rilUst be noted that many of the entries in Table 7. For example let us take a hoop shown in Fig 7.Rotational MOtion plane (Fig 7. Consider a tangent to the hoop at this point which. The theorem axes tells us that this must be equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about two diameters which are perpendicular to each other. = Ix + y T (7. This means that all the diameters are equivalent and any two perpendicular diameters may be chosen. Let us now take a point P on (he rim.3 Torque and Couple Have YOll ever noticed that we always open the door by applying force at a pointJ'ar fi'om the hinges? What happens if you try to open a door by apply139 . The distance between the two axes is obviously equal to R.
Ita magnitude is given by or . .20) which gives both the magnitude and the direction of the torque. The farther is the line AD from 0. If AD passes through the point 0. The CUnIIfn..15).. You would also have noticed that for turning a screw we use a spanner with a long handle. force in Fig 7. Apply 0.i&ht band in the direction of T.19) is (7. or Nm.. are ... For the moment suppose that there are two forces of equal niagnitude acting on the body in opposite directions (Fig 7..ing force near the hinges? Carry out this little activity. If we extend the thumb of the o r.r .14). Let a force of ma.B along the line AD.vend torques acting on.Fa.19) The units of torque are Newtonmetre.. the forCe F will not be able to rotate the body. tuming . GI'IticIoc::kwi dnc:Cion.  (a+btF 'C" .s we notice that by the rulea of~ product (refer tolel1aon I).axis through 1hi.13)..aF. The two torques on the body have magnitudes T. What is the direction in which the bodY wolWl tum? .itude F be applied at the point.'I'o find 1hi. 140 . po you _ anycorreapondence between the role of torque in the rotational motion and the role· of force in the 1Inear motion? We will_the coueapondei1c:e better a little later. What is the advantage of a long handle? Let us seek IIDSWe:t'S to these questions. 'ra~ turDiag effects of the two torques are in the oppOsite directions. aboue n(Ie and shoW tMto.Fraine F (7. _n. body then the net torque acting on II\UI1 of all the torques.tr tfecC td fore. Whyis it so? ... the greater is the abilil¥ of the force to tum the body about the axis through O..13 is in 0. You would realize that much more effort is needed to open the door if you apply force near the hinges. The torque is actua1ly a vector quantil¥.. or illperpendicuIar to the plane containing vectors rand' (Fig "'.s poiJit (Fig 7.. th~ the direction of~ of the body is given by the IIOIUIe in which the fin&ers are curled. Suppose 0 isa point fixed in the body so that bodyQU1 rotate about an. TheVectorfonn of (7.JlfICt 0/0. the body is the 11 there...
torque is nu"1X.n quite cjear. radfalforce do•• not prodw:e tIIIIII flo". which in this case is 1: I A B PIc 7. A list of corresponding quantities in rotational motion and linear motion is giVen in Table 7. we can write down any equation for rotationalmotj.rOt.. where a is the tangent:i.16). between them.111 : 7Iuo oppositeforoes ocIIng on a body..a eouple whose torque is equal to the prodw:t of one of the forces and the perpendiculGr distanc:. With the help of this table. If the circular motion is nonuniform. Obviously a par. Consider a ngllj body rotating about an axis through a point 0 (Fig 7.al acceleration.onif we know its correspondi.16 : A rigid body rotDmlg about on axis . the tangent to the circular path.21) in the direction of the larger torque. Ia. (7.force is the familiar centripetal force m(l)"rwhich keeps the particle in the circular path.. The tangential force is required to change the magnitude of v.Rotational Motion Therefore. Th. nil: 7. then the particle experiences forces in the radial direction as wellas in the tangential direction. the magnitude of the . Can you say why? The tangential force produces a torque ofmagnituds mar.. Since a .Dg equation in linear motion. the net turning effect on the body is TT I T • =bF .. If we consider all tf1e particles of the body then . whereOt is the angular acceleration. There is another useful expression for torq~e which makes the correspon~ dence between it and force in the linear motio.3.22) The similarity between this equation and F = ma shows that 't'performs the same role in rotational motion as F doe!! in linear motion. The radial. (7. 141 . ticle like P is rotating about the axis in a circle of radius T. Its magnitude is ma. which at every instant is in the direction of.. Two equal and opposttefo~ are IJafd fIof.
..Ftk YaMV' PFV W=Jd YdD' P"t'(l) Kinetic energy Power I.".Physics ..eletommaofthe disc.y.1. find the tJngUlar atr. .. the angle through Which tlMtdiscllJtutesinOne~ and~angu· lar ueIocity ofthe disc qfter one _ad... Wehave 0) . .4 AIda ... .0 ..3: CotI • .. IX  LOx 0.. " . 7'..itoJIRI.)( 20)( 1.. Disp1acement VeJ..20)( 1.. dt Maaa Force Work Jl FOomtJ I 'fh Torque Wadi: Kinetic energy Power Angular momentum W=J.2•.17.. (7. torque. .22) we can cAlculate the angu1ar acceleration produced. let ua check your progreas..22) DOW . A massless string gOes round the rim (Fig 7.PR/I.0 kg is applied to the string.m.atioa Rotatioa aIIoat • n. ~ 7. For the angle Uhrough which the diac rotates. fnIDIIII .. . Eq..a.. we use Eq7. .lel~.. Since the initiAl angular veloci~ is zero. we use Eq 7~16.010 rad Fortheve1~aftei one second.2: A uniform disc of IIIGSS 1.17).inear momentum Jill 10) With the help of{7. then accordin£ :to Table 7.oci~ x ·11=tit a=eft An&u1ar disp1acement e 0)= • Angularvel~ d8 tit Acceleration drI An&u1ar accele!:iltion RotationAl ina1ia c¥= dO).Olf...2P/ AIR ~x 1.. 1/a pull of 1. atIIl ...PR..0 kg andnxlius 0.tian... we have 1//. If Pdenotes the pun then l' .1 .20 rad/sec. 142 .tlea: If Rand Jldenote the radiua and Jl1lIlII!i Of the disc. ....1 m am rotate about an axle without friditm. body hy a given. Now.0 = 20rlid lsec2 I e.· ..1 .
.. each of maaa m..... Find the l'IIdiua of JIII1IIion of a aolid wil1 bimt to uae TlIb1e 7. • .. Make the stool rotate fut and then let it go... .............. Find the m _ of in'IJ1ia now and """""'"' it with that fGUlld in (a!.rntlteC1d8 am.. Ask a friend ofyours·to sit on the stool with herarm...net llXia throuah the centre of _ .....m. . ~ ............ For this consider once again a rigid body rotating about an 88¥the axis zthrougb a fixed point 0 in the body................_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1... Find the _ t of inertia about an axis P""sing tbroua't one of the camera and perpenc!icul........... .. Its linear vel~ is 'im and its momentum is therefore mr.............. ...3..... _......o the moment of inertia about an axis which ill aloog one of the IIidea.. ofthe stool in the Jut experiment. al Calculate the moment of inmtia of the ...........s folded..cular to the plane of the paper.... Four particle.............. of plll1iclea 4 end 9 are 3r each. 3..ent of inertia about a p ............ tIte ••eau_...t'f6 ........ Consider a particle like P at a distance 'i from the axis (FiI7... . ..... o o o Or Jr' hi cIJao&ed to Suppoa the~........... r / r 'M 2.2 if the axis of rotation _ Calculate the m _ t of Iaertia of the . 80ating in air with its direction fixed and wondered how it is able to maintain a fixed direction? Ifyou'am get hold ofa atoolwbich can rot&te without much mction........ 2 and 7 we . ... .... the moment of Iaertia 4 CIIDIpa'8 with thoae fouad in Ia! and (1)1. ....... Ten particlea....................... All ~he points of the body de8cri1Je CircuJar paths about the axis with the centres of the paths on the u:is. ..OXNTOM Have you ever seen a toy umbrella............... each of _ m.... (You ........ ..... r each &om the axis of robU:ion............ calCulate once ....l to diatanc:ea 31' each... calculate aJ......... ...." Particle._ _......... you can perform an interestins a......... 27wJIIG+JCt.......l!lr to the plane of the aqu........ .....tam IIbown in queation number 1 of Intut thtouah 0 and ill perpencli.....2. •.......6 ARGULAR . and pilrtidea 1 and 6 _ eliopl...1 ta cIiootoGcea 2r each..... fixed at the COI'........ ""own... 4.......... """ •...a.................xperiment...............if the axis iIIa·t..... ..... 143 ..18).... Verify your'reauJt by using the theorem of perpeadicu1ar ............ 7.......tom...: ............... are placed at eli.....apDt ta the 1Opbere.. AskyOur friend to atretcll her anna and notice if there is any change in the speed of rotation of the stooL Ask berto fold her anna 0J1C?I' &pin and observe change in the speed of the stooL Let Wi trY to understand wby we expected a change in the speed of rotation . JI'rom thi1I rmd the mam........Rotational Motion Uil'BXT QUEStiON.. Qudticma 7............... of a oquare who"" eadl aide ill of Iongth r. 7......
there isno torque acting onlt.. ". 7.'i7.' the angular . (It might help you to look at queStion number 4 of Intext Questions 7. Along with the conservation of energy and linear momentum. It is important to remember that [ must refer to the jIU!uwlocily .24) shows that VtheN fa no nritorque acdng on the bo4¥tIutn the angular momentum. when she folds her arms. elL dm (7. the moment ot inertia of the system is decreased. When the person stretches her arms. lfwe sum thisproduct"for an the particles of the body..w' " L~(~mir.. ='C=I. .at"1I'I8 why does the moment o/inertia o/the system (the person Ond the. in milId..1ant.. In the case oCyour friend on the rotating stool.4). .I (7.n... . Eq. _ _ same axis. . This causes the angular velocity to increase. its constancy implies fixed direction an~ magnitude.23) . we get _...18 • A rl/lId body roIaIbIg about an r:a:is. fa the prlnt:ipr. In the case of the toy umbrella the trick is to make it rotate and thereby impart it some angular momentum...the ••Iulu votoc:ity within brackets is the moment of inertia.. .0_  Recallnow that the rate of change of OJ is IX and lot . The units of angular momendo .... The principle of conservation of angular mo'1'e'\Qun allows us to ~ the questions raised in the beginning of Section 5.. . AIoJta ay of (7.23) implies then thattlle angular Vt'locity must decrease.i' '. Once it is let go in air. a ~ L io 1IOI..2} = [OJ .. . ita • rigid Ody wo caD fiad fllJee Like the linear momentum.. Its angular momentum is then co.. Or. .. Let us look at a few more examples of the COftI!IC1'Vllti ofmolflditum: SUppose we have a spherical ball of mass M and radius R.. . ec:&or. . using the full vector notation.. The ballis set rotating· 2'11" 144 .25) which is the equation of motion of a rotating body.23) Remember that the angular velocity is the same for all the particles and the product ..nstant. Similarly.... momentum is also a vector quantity.py~. this is one of the most important principles of physics.. Howwtr. she causes the momentofinertia of the system toin<=ase. oJ COnNI'IICItfon oJ angular momentum.. Thus. .. when there is no torque acting on the stool the angular momentum of the stool and the person on it must be conserved..6... denoted by L....stool) inereasi..1 .1 eoaservatlou of angalar momeutum Eq (7. tho eompoMDfI r upIor __ tor LaIong the axis ofrotation*. the direction of the toy umbrella remains fixed while it is in air.PhysiCs' fa ealled angular momentum. Since angular momentum is a vec~ quantity.=1(% dt cit PII: T.. Eq (7.'to Therefore. When your friend ~ hBr. tum are kgm2 /sec...tap cor.ue...23) gives only the component of the vec. . the rate of cIuuIge oJ angular momentum fa equal to the to.n.. _ .
.... In this way..... ... IIIIIdthat the ... the diver is able to show off her feat before fall.. The two wIlee1e than _ with the ... dIuIIIg ingmto water... .1111 ~jwrJ1Ing..... Find the oamman II\1&Ubor epeed ........ .... . ....... ... ......... the ball must rotate faster...What . ...... time in the put the radius of the .... ... ~ 4. ... ...... .. . . such as those which becomes pulsars (see Box on page 147).. . .. ..... . . ..? .... .. Tbia cIiatance 1'IIIDIIin. . ....th . .... .... .... .... You must have seen on the TV divers jumping off the diving boards during swimming ew:ntsin national orintemational t0urnaments...... IixecL The malecule r o _ about an ... ... by controlq the shape of her body. ..... then ito period of rotation an ito awn ... .. radius but hiolr the man. Suppa... If she folds her body to decrease_moment of inertia (Fig 7.. Find ito 0J>&UIer momentum about the . . ... .. . . 10m.. ... .... .... . . .. Imagine now that the radius of the ball somehow decreaSes.... . ...._ _ __ A IIIOlewle couaiata of two idonac.... ...th . Since there is no external torque" now. .r _entum Of the malecule......... ..... . ito pr8801lt radius... 2... 2. whaeI ia rotatiDs at . .... il oIipped an the .... .... ........ of . ..... ...... .... .. of rotItion.....l atom. 7..w.y between .l1c apeed of 10 red/_e.H .... ....... To conserve its angular momentum. . At the time of jumping the diver gives herself as1ight rotation....... .. by which she acquires some angular momentum. . .. .... .... ... When she is in air....... it has angular momentum given by . . ... ... . . ...... whatever angular momentum the ball has acquired must be conserved. '" soda IODd cliatance II aput.. halftra.. ..... to it The torque is then removed..... ..2)....... This is what really happens to some stars...... ..... If she unfolds herbody then her moment of iaertia increases and she must rotate slower..... ........ ale pntIy... . .. Therefore. .... It . ..... . divers and other sports persons make excellent use of the principle of conservation of angular momenm to show off their feats.... .......... quIlor apeed II about ito uia which ia kept wrtiCal.. ...... . .. .. . . . there is no torque acting on her and therefore her angular momentum must be con· SCl'VCd..0 Iq: IODd radiUI 20 em ill rotated abaut one of ito ~ at mlll1jp.Rotational Motion by applying a te£qw:.. whaeI of the ...... .. skaters.... . .... 2 L=MR'(J} (7.. . . . . ... Calculate the ... . .. .5 time... ... Another .... ~ 3.... . .. II.. ......1... .... '1.. ......4·_~ __. formed &om • contntctincsu claud..."o...... __ i Drl'B'XT QUBSTIOI'... initially at real. A uni!onn cireuIer di8c of _ 2..25) 5 where III is its angular velocity..... . ~ 145 . . .... with III1jp. ... ..19) her rotation must become faster.... . . the two·. . .... . .......... ...... which i. .. .....I1c apeed ..... .... ........ W1UJt would happen if the radius a/the ball were to increase suddenly? Acrobats.. The moment of inertia of the ball is 2/5 MR' (faole 7........... .. .... ............mil speed. ...... .. ....
. Wh!Oi will be ita velocity in term......... .....27) then giVes that "f ......... radtu.. radiusRand moment of inertia L It is moving down an inclined plane of height h (Fig 7....... Yo MtP + YoJail = Mgh If there is no slipping... The principle of conservation of energy then implies that the sum of the kinetic energies d...... a hDop oJ any ".. (7:26) PIa T~.... _ plane............... ":fa rigidl>c>dy ......_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A................. 1Dfth the 1Ip••d 01& the velocftil sam. let us consider the motion of cylindrical and spherical bodies on an inclined plane or a slope....and an angular velocity /I)..... (billnew a<:cleration aoloQg the plane........... ... down a slope without... So..... What fraetion of it.......28) Do you notice any thing interesting in this equation? The linear Iuu tunurd out to be tnapentlent oJ the _ and til........5 1....AN' INCLINED PLANE We have already noted that if a point in a rigid body is not fixed.. Deduce ita (aj ansular accleration..........Physics 7......... 2 2 R2 1 1 112 (7. The general motion of a rigid body consists of both these motions..... ...... 146 ....rlal and any radtu$ ron........... Dn'EXT QUBSTIONS.. a1ippina.... 7... Therefore.............. ..... 3............at............. oJ the hoop.... 2...' fncllnedplane........... then itcan possess rotational motion as well translational motion (Remember the slow motion picture of a spinning ball?).. aolid ophere ron.7 MOTION ON...... At the end of the journey it has acquired a linear velocity II........... and (e) kinetic!'D"'ll3' as it travele 2 m a!on8 the phme ...... kinetic energy i" trano1etiona1? Whet is the maanitude of ita velocity after falliD& throuI!h • heia:ht HI ...27) To take a simple example........ Table 7 A~ shows that ita moment of inertia about its own axis is MR'... (7. A uniform oph••"e of .......... As an interesting examlJIe of the combined motion............ of the heicht of the oIope? ........ Then we get _MII2 +1.......= Mgh .20)... rele"""d from reat on en inclined plane which _ _ 30" q e with the horizontal........ down an inclined pbme witnout a1ippina.......... ... ·2 kg end radius 10 em i.. A aolid cylinder ron....... let the body be a hoop... Suppose the rigid body has mass M..... Eq.......... r. We assume that the loss of energy due to friction is small and can be neglected.... then II ~ RIll............ (7........ d ..ue to translation and rotation must be equal to the potential energy that the body had at the top of the inclined plane............
The radius of a typical neutron star is only 10 Ian.. 1'wo equal and opposite forces constitute a couple. A grincung wheel" of mass 5.asa doe.iaeconda to a few seconds. Find the location of the centre of mass of the molecule..eter 1. Th" distance between the two baUs i. 3.een the • • • • • • • • • • 1. to be when tightening the cylinder head bolta.r. rotalUlg about a fixed axis with an initial angular velocity of 2 rev! sec. are attached. r.13 • 10"'· m apart. The Bun rotates. Through what "distance would it have to drop in free faU" to acquire this kinetic energy? Two identical spheres.ys. forces The application of an external torque changes the angular momentum of the body If the sum of aU external torquea is zero then the angular momentum of the body remains constant When a cylindrics! or a apherics! body rou. in linear motion That the turning effect of a force r on a rigid body is given by the torque T ~ • K .9 2..u JUstify your answer? Manuals for car. 7. I. at the end of a massle •• rod. Find its kinetic enezgy.. each of mass 1.2 The moment of inertia plays the same role in rotational motion as the m.. as' you miglit be knowing. t~" _d bet. The pulses are periodic and the periodicity is extremely precise.ch short time periods show that the stars are rotating very fast. These stars are called 'neutron stars. Does this me"" that the earth does not attract other particles? '?r the centre of DIUII of a body to lie outside the body? Give two exanlPtes .6. TERMINAL QUESTIONS I. The'neutron.Rotational Motion S~RET OF PULSARS An interesting example of the conservatiDn of angular momentum is provided by 1Itars.oith an angular velocity of 490 rad/sec. the magnitude of whoat tl1rIUt1g" effect is equal to the product of one of the forces and trp. 147 . its speed is independent of its mass and radius. In a molecule of carbon monoxide (CO} the nuclei of the two atoms"". Calculate the moment of i'~ertia of the system about an axis passing through the midpoint of the rod and perr "!icUlar to it. which is about 7 x lOS Ian..50 m . down an inclined plane without slipping. Imagine that the sun suddenly shrinks to the size of a neutron star without any change in its masa. on its axis with a period of about 25 da. It is believed that" ".engine requites alwa. You must have heard of pulsars. 7. us pulses of r~ation 0{ great intensity. 0.0 kg and nu:liU8 0. A wheel of ru. Compare this with the P8.. . You can show that in order to conse:rve its angular momentum the sun has to rotate with a period as short as the fraction of a millisecond. 1. The angular accelecation is 3 revI sec2 . Most of the matter of these stars is in the Conn of neutrons. along with the protons are the building blocks o(the 'atoirtie nuclei.d. it the right 'thing to do? Justify your an""". 5. The secret of their fast rotation is their tiny size.ys apecify the torqu!. it possible The weight Mg of a body is shown generally as acting at the centre of mass of the body...0 mi. fixed then it can only rotate The moment of inertia about an axis of rotation is defined as 1: m..10 m. These stars represent the last 'st*te in the life of some stars. 7..8 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT A rigid body has rotational as well as translational motion The equation of translational motion may be written in the same form as for a single particle If a point in the rigid body i..0 kg and diameter 0.diUB of the sun. The time periods range between a few mill. ". 4.20 m is rotating . These are stars which &end tow.
while wheel B is stationary. 12.2 sec? What is the resultant acceleration of a point on the rim of the wheel at r . A clutch now act. 3.2 sse? A wheel rotating at an angular speed' of 20 rad/ sec is brought to reat by a constant torque in 4.2 kg. Cen. Calculate the torque applied to the wheel and the change in its kinetic energy. What is the magnitude..2' kgw'. 13. 3) and their masses are 1 kg. How does the rotational kinetic energy. _QWiti.... 2). 7 . Wheel A i.6) and E (0. 1+2+3+4+5 ~ x lxO+2x1+3x . Show that the foroe of friction acting on it is (2/7) 1119 sin 9. Let the three particle system is as shown in F·ig.5 radianII. A solid sphere of mass m rolls down a slope without slipping. C (7. Wheel A has in_ent of inertia 5 x 10" kgm' and wheel B has moment of inertia 0.t. 4 kg and 5 kg respectiveJ.Physics at b) c) d) Compute the angular velocity after 2 second.ou7. 1 1. find thework done by the torque in the lirat two seeonda.before joining compare with the kinetic· en· ergy after joining? What torque doe~ the clutch deliver if A makes 10 revolutions during the operation of the clutch? 8. Find the angle rotated during the nest second.y.of 1III)lU..97 15 2. Its rotation is uniformly accelerated. After the wheel has rotated through an angle of 100 radians.of the torque acting on the disc? ANSWERS TO THE IlfTEXT QUESTIOn IateJd: QDI.5 6 . I). Hence. Two wheels are mounted on the same axle. It is acce1enUed uniformly from rest. (aj (b) (c) (d) 10. 9.2. The moment of inertia of a wheel is 1000 kgm'. If the moment of inertia of the wheel about the axUo of rotaIion is 0.2 1.. During the first second it rotatee through 2. hoIl9w. 3). At what speed will they rotate? Suppose the clutch act. to join A and B 80 that they must spin together. You are gMm two identically looking spheres and told that one of them is Suggest a method to detect the hollow one. Through what Bngle has the wheel turned in this time? What is the tangential velocity of a point on the rim of the wheel at r . A disc of radius 10 em and mass 1 kg is rotating about its own axis. ~s of centre of mass of the system are ~xl+5x2+7x3+2x4+0x5 y 3kg ~~2~~X Hence.5 1+2+3 m 3.0 seconds. 11.5 Ji) Centre of )tau is ( . Yes. At some instant of time its angular velocity is 10 rad! sec.. the angular velocity of the wheel becomes 100 rad/sec.47and 15 _ lXO+2XO+3X(Ji/2) y 2 x 1 + (1) )( 2 + 3 x 3 + 6 x 4 + 3 x 5 1+2+3+4+5 Y ·1+2+3 44 . B (5.tre .' 4"" 148 . set spinning at 600 rev/min.2..20 kgm'. The coordinates of given five masses are A (2. D (2. 3 kg. gradually. Will the end result be the same as though they were joined suddenly? (Neglect any friction at the bearingll). where 9 is the inclination of the slope.
..mf' + m12f') + ". 149 .. fraction of translational K.30 mf' Intezt Qu_1On• 7.I.5 3 # __ 2 Gain in K. It gives v  ~ fi"·gh ~2 = ~ (bJ M../ L= md2 d) 2 2.1 = 35 rad S4 3. for a solid sphere .25 7" :.E.1. of the system about an axis perpendicular to..2)2 [ :. Common NlgUlar speed "'1 = "~2/3 4.4 ". about the axis along the side mf' + mr' . Accord: ~ to conservation of angular momentuDl " 9..5 1<'. Angular'momentum about an axis of rotation ·(<!iameteIj. . = 6.5 1.... .. .. in vertical descent h (I sin 9) . Moment of inertia of the system about an axis perpendicular to the plane passing point P. past is 'To "'" 2. M. loss in P. To2 2 2 21r ) 2 7 :. Linear acceleration along the p]ane L/{J)= ntx'" 4 . I :.mv+ . To . of a solid sphere about an axis tangential to the sphere = ~M(2. M. 2. K' . Ia_~ 7.3 1. :.. (.8X~ 3. ~mv2 2 '= '3 7.2 .. or Radius of gyration K ..5 ms2 . Total KE 2 3 .X 10 . for sphere K 2 = SR a 2 2 J .!.2 1 =MgI sin 9 ..mv 2 = 1 1 m".27. Using equation 7.. Angular acceleration .5 T 3.6 J.I.. M:I.2 ".!.5R)2 X(21r)2 5 To 7 =  5 Im'.2 v 2 mgh. Angular momentum d2 d . 4. Which should be equal to MK' . .4 1.R ~ Thus.E .SMR x ( T It gives.8 x 2 x 'h = 19.2 x .I.= R 0. the plane and passing through 0 is = 1 xOA2+2xOB2+3xOC2+4xOD:I +5 x0E2 .5 times the present tUne period..Rotational Motion Ia_Qa_7. Let the present period of revolution of earth i. _ m +m ( ·4 4 2 2.2 x 9. of the system .0. (a) M.. For a solid cylinder.) . 1+~ 5 2 3.=mv 2 2 2 R2 4 Hence..2.439 kg m'..10 mf' mv+ 2 2 I 1 2 x  5 rnr.26 mf' (oj M. period of revolution of earth in the ..E. .2kgm 4 3.lx8+2x26+3x58+4x40+5 x9 . To According to the conservation of angular momentum.
It Is our common experience that when a force Is applied on a rubber cord or metal spring along its length.orlgln shape and size whereas others do not? In thls lesson we will be studying about the elasti propoerty of the material. • state the dependence qfthe depression oj a loaded cantIIeuer and girder on various parameters. . dtdfne the terms.8 PROPERTIES OFSOuns 8. distfngulslt between stress and presswe. We will also learn its uses for finding the strength of beams for construction of buildings and bridges. Do you know why some bodies regain the1r. bulk modulus. crane. ThIs PIoperty of the materials is of vital importanCe in our lives. and • explain the peculiar shaRe oj girder having Crosssection in the jonn oj letter I. lift.2 . draw and tnterprete stressstrain cwvefor an elastic solid. s~s. When a weight Is put on thick foam sheet it Is depressed but after removing the weight It regains Its ·orlglnal shape. etc. dejine Young's modulus. . or molten wax it changes its shape or size or both even on application of a very small force and does not· regain its orl. INTRODUCTION In the previous lessons we have studied about force and energy. distinguish between elastic and plastic bodies.glnal condition after removing the force. Further' you can easily see that in case of a ball of wet model clay. In thls lesson we will also study that elastic property of material is for calculating the strength of cables (or strings) \lsed to suspend a body such as a cable car. explain cllaracteristics oj a cantileVer. mod'i1u s oJrigidJty and Poisson's • • • • ratio. When we remove the force.1. the cord regains its ortglnallength. 8. •. dejormtng force. The effect of force applied to a body Is observed either by displacement produced in the body or by change in Its shape or size or both. strain and their types. you should be able to : • • explain molecular theory of matter and distingtdsh between three states oj matter on its basIS. OBJECTIVES After studying thls lesson. the change in length takes place.
Repulsio~ _ distance Ftg. In solids molecules are close to each other very nearly at the equilibrium separation. the separation Is much larger and the moleCular force Is very weak.1 : Graph between intermolecular force and tntemwlecular separation The variation of intermolecular force with the variation of intermolecular distance is shown in Fig. Due to high intermolecular forces they are almost fixed at their positions. when the distance between two molecules is greater than ro' then they attract each other but when the distance between them is less than ro they repel each other. This separation ro is called equilibrium separation. But when the molecules come very close to each other. the' attraction force between them begins to decrease. The molecules attract each other with a certain force. The magnitude of ro is of the order of 1010 m. You may guess why liquids do not have fixed shape.1. and when the distance. the repulsive force increases more rapidly compared to attractive force. Thus. It takes the shape of vessel tn willch It Is filled. 8. the molecules begin to repel each 9ther. a change in 154 . Molecules of a gas are much more free to move tnside as well as outside (if possible) the mass of the gas.4 ELASTICITY As you know that a rubber cord or metalic spring is tied at one end and a force is applied at the other end. The attractive force is week and the molecules are more free to move inside the whole mass of the liquids. by hanging weight there . becomes too small. As the separation between molecules decreases. In gases. If molecules come still closer.3 MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER You are famlliar that every matter is made up of molecules. 8. You may understand why a solid has a fixed shape if no external forces act to defQnn It. In Uquids the average separation between the molecules is somewhat larger. At separation ro net force between molecules is zero. .Physics 8.<. the net attraction force between them increases. not have fixed shape and size? Now can you think why gases do ' 8. nus force is called intermolecular force.
. (to on releasing external defonnlng foret.2.2 Molecular Theory of Elasticity· As you are aware that a solid body is composed of a great many molecules or atoms arranged in a definite order. Properties of Solids . it :is Sllid to be perfectly pJastlc. F. You may see the processes such as stamping. 'It Is stretched and produce deformation in the bow. The body which recovers completely its original state on the removal of the deforming force is called perfectly elastic. No.ed in terms of intermolecular forces. We arefamilfar:with the structure of matter. it is important to note that all . Do not confuse the plastic used in da1l. If in deformation. On the other hand If It completely retaIns its modified fonn even on removl. its shape is changed.).2: Force applied on string oj bow releasing the bow it comes back to Its original shape. the molecules are displaced from their 0rigjDaf. etc. bending and· hammering metal work pieces.Bodles If you pull a spring.Y Iffe with the plastic body. 8. From these examples we infer that : (tJ Whenever an external joret. 8.Oength.4. i.back exa!=tly to its original state ·. On l'ig. Bow Its length and a removing the weight Ucomes in Its original condition. It is extended but on releasing It comes. WJIen the body is deformed. doubt elastic deformations are very important in science and technology but plastic deformations are also important in mechanical processes. The extent oj . The intermolecular distances change. However.! is applied. The phenomenon of elasticity can be explalD. pue to intermolecular forces solid takes such a shape that eaCh molecule remainS iIl. In other words the bOdy is defonned. certain limit of deforming forces quartz may be considered perfectly elastic and above this limit pJaaticlD is taken as perfectly plastic. the body tries to regain its orfgfnal state. The property of matter to restore the natural shape and size or to oppcue the deformation is called elastfclty. .cule is acted upon by the forces due to ne1ghbour1iJg molecules.! is applied on a body its shape or size or both change. Similarly when you apply a force on the string of a bow Fig 8. On pressing a rubb~ ball.aCh mole. These are only possible due to presence of plastic deformations.1 Elastic and Plastlc.• it shows no teiuiency to recover. and on releasing it becomes in its original shape.4. Below a.!. .e .ng the deforming force. deformation depends upon the material and shape oj the body and the manner in which the foret.a stable equilibrium. positions.Qodies behave in between these two l1in1ts. intermolecular I!'eparatlon increases from their equilibrium separation 155 . 8.
displacements from their positions of equilibrium which opposes the defOrming force.... Now you study the manners in which forces are applied to deform the body. 8. IF ~. it undergoes change in shape or size according to nature offorces. IC'. We have explained that In the process of deformation. If the deforming forces are along. Whereas if Intermoleculear separation decreases (r < r01.11len we the stress produced as nomial stress. (ill Normal stress . .. ~ I I· jF : I I • I .. F' F 44i • : I F .. S." ..a_fog . normal or shearing.. internal restoring force is developed due to molecular . the length PIt..8: l..')eO. sue.Il10...1) Fi Ft L _ _L_ _II+. _restodngforee _ deformlng fareel1'l area areaW ..4)... You may produce nonna! stress by applying hydrostatic pressure untformally over the entire surface of body. 8.. (1) Eta The unit of stress is N/m2. These forces called as resto~ folCeS· drive molecules to their original positions so that body" takes its original shape and size.ocmrs. In equilibrium the restoring force is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the external deforming force.. . ·F /bl .Physics (r > rol attraction· forces are developed. 8. j (8) I Longitudinal stress ... The stress may be longitudinal. I I J.ontJftudInaIof the" body (fig.3) then we call the stress produced as longitudinal stress.F.'l7te internal . repulsion forces are developed.:!..wtthout change in shape (fig.. If the deforming forces are applied uniformly over entire surface of the body normally· so that change in volume of the ·body.iorce acting per unit area oft i l 5S sectiOn of dAiforrnsd IJodu Is CGiJed sbess.. . Hence stress is measured by the external force per unit area of crosssection when equilibrium is ajiained.3Stress When an external force or system of forces is applied to a body. F F I .... can the .(8.'If 156 VQ/wQe UJII/lQut cIuInge oj shape) . . .4.....
1IIC.7) Without change of shape of the body.4.8: Shearing slroin \l) . (J through ....6) then linear straln = change Inlength original length III I 4P~ .5) so tllat shape of the In..&: LInear strain ~... In general the strain is dt:fined as the cIumge Ua. () =  6x Fixed y 1~7 1IIC.. ' . As indicated above strains are of three types : (i) linear strain. Corresponding to three types of stresses. (ii)volume (bulk) strain... Deforming force acting per Unit area normal to the surface· is called pressure while Internal restoring force developed per unit area normal to the surface is known as sit<:ss.:i1:::".8.'" Linear strain : If on application of longitudinal deforming force length lof the body changes by 41 (Fig.u~thoutchtmgeqfvolwne} volume. t.. ... 8. V .<lt~n. then volume straln = change In volume = II V original volume V .of Soli" Here you can distinguish pressure and stress._=====:t::::=:~=:. body changes without change in ". 8. (iii) Shearing Stress : If the deforming forces act tangentially or parallel to the surface (fig... these changes are also of three types. 8..4 Strain Deforming forces produce changes in the dimensions of the body.PtopeI1ies.. the volume V of the body changes by 4 V (fig. (i) l...5: Shearing stress chtmge In 8. the stress is called sheaIing stress.. . .) " ~'"'. and (iii) shearing strain.' (ii) VOlume strain : If on application of uniform pressure. .dimension per unit dimension of the body. 1IIC..8. It is the ratio of two similar quantities hence is dimensionless.8.1 A . A I'or small angle.t.d_·F._::_. I I r x.7: Tap Volume s/rain (iii) Shearing strain : "Wn!!D the deforming which 'y F forces are tangential (fig. 8.....~~..8. a line per:pmclicldar to the fixed plane is tuM18d qtler defonnation.8) then the shearing strain is gWen by the angle .. .
.". the Wire still rem8ins elastic i. 8.5 Stre... If it breaks soon after the elastic limit ..and the brealring point.. a The stress corresponding to breaking pointF is called or tens« strength.8reaJdng point IF} : Beyond point E strain increases much more rapidly and near point F the length of Wire increases contliluously even without increase of force or even reduCing the force little.is crossed.. dotted line CD on the ~I>h. 1mtcakfnII.. ..4. Secondly when _ m_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 158 .. a. The stressstrain curve for rubber is distinctly different from that of a metallic Wire. r'lr. thaf is. U'""*'t'I~:" ~ ~PIaIIc'" . it IS called brittle. The material follows. elude propel tal .trafn for U1hfch CI body (U1IreJ .!tly you can observe that· no .t. the stress is not exactly proportional to strain.· " EIIIIIIc A C I . i .8. this region stress is proportional to strain and· bOOy behaves like a'peneetty elastic body•. it will come back to its original length. CON : Portion OA of is a straight line which indicates that in.4... . . after I'elt\OVing the deforming force Uoad}.ortional to strain.. it regains its original state. 8. D I .strain curve for a metalBc wire Fig.~. (iv) . This is called as breaking ~t or fracture point..19aUc _ _ t curve .. even then after removing stretcl:Ung forces. . during contraction and the remaining strain OD is known as a peftaen_t Nt..PhysIcs 8. . if the deforming load is removed. (it) (Uil 1"fe1d point Ie} : When the Wire is si:retched beyond the limit B. The Wire breaks at point F .part of this large deformation stress is ~:. of ProportbuaIU. wire will contract but all the extension is not recoverable.e. (i) ..traIn curve for rubber If you stretch a rubber cord to over several times its original length. There is no region of proportionaUty..· more After point E· on the curve none of the extension is IecoVerable.9 shows a graph shQwing Variation of stress with the variation of strain when a metallic Wire of uniform crosssection is subjected to an increasedlolid. Stress. '"tic Umu lB1 : If We increase the strain a little bit beyond A.." II If large deformation takes place between the elasticlimit. Body' beyond the elastic llmii behaves like a p1listic 'body. I I I .27Ie· madmwn value of . There are two important things to note from fig..nce... However. .. Several regions imd points on this cwve are of great importa.. called elude ifmit. I:FF JIOinI olI I Pfopcio1IaowtJu JIOinI . 8.10. strain increaseS rapidly and body becomes plastic. the material is called ductile..
Thus Lpg . deformtng force Is removed.· .Properties of Solids . WALpg Due to this weight the stress developed is This is the breaking stres.be tPe maximum..break and check your progress.I&' stress·slraln curuefor rubber Blmmple 8..B m/s"J. Thus. 48 8_ slr!lin ..8 7. then weight of the wire is . t o 2 Elastic hysteresis has an Important application in shock absorbers: A part of energy transferred by deforming force is observed in: a shock absorber.:. area of cross·seetlon of the wire.0 x 1(t31t m' The Ums1l stress developed A . the wire when equiUbrIum.. 4.". is achleued..0 x 3.lx·IO6N /m2 Blmmple 8. . length ~f wire suspended without breaktng ·If p be ~d~lty and A the. the original curve is not retraced although the sample ftnally acq~ Its natural length.1 7tm/S' SolUtIon : Tension in the wire F = Mg = 4.9~106 _10 2 m Now it is the time to take a.9x lOS N/m' and density is 7. a certain amount of energy is abSOIbed by the. For this by to solve dfe following questions. Given 9 = 3.0 kg is suspendedJrom a ceUIng through a steel wire of radius 2. Let L.9 X 10 3 x9. FInd the maxfmum length of a steel wire which can be suspended without breaking under Its oWn welg/1t{g = 9.It It N Area of crossaect1on of the wire (2. 7.0 mm. SOlution ..11t N m2 =3.. 0 xl 06 It 4.9 x 1(Jl kg/~. It'" .2 : For steel the breaking s~ss is 7. 1lds phenomenon is called elastic hgsm'.l : A load of 4.S. ·F = 4.1 A . material in cycle ~h1ch appe~ as heat.. the.0x3. Find the tensU s~ss developed iii. only a Iimall part is transmitted to the body.0 x 1()3J' m' . 159 . The work done by the material in returning to Its orlg1nal shape is less than the work done by the defonning force when It was deformed.9 x 10" N/m' W A = Lpg or L= 7.
. .. . . ... . . . ... ... . .. . . A wire is elongated by 8 mm by applying a force of 5 kg. ... .. . . .... .. ... . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4.. . .. . . . . . .. . ..8. .. .. . ..Physics INTEXT QUES'l10NS 8 .HOOKE'S LAW In 1678 Robert Hooke obtaJned the stressstrain curve experimentiilly for a number of solid substances and establlshed a . . .. . .COi I eapmr4fng strain.. . .. . .. ... What must be the nature qf!he interatoniJc forces in this case ? 5. .. ... .... Its value Is independent of the stress and strain but depends on the nature of the material.. .. . .... What type of change occurs in the body when shearing st:il?ss is developed in it ? .. ...... 1 . . .. . . . . ...S.Wt.. ...... .. . . .... .. . .. . 3....5.... .. . . ... . what is the type of strain in this case? ...... ... .e. .. .. .. .. . . . .. ... .. .. . .. ... . 160 .. . . . . .... ... . ... . ... . .. .. .. . .. • • • .. .. .. ... .. . . . . . According to this law: Under proportionality limit the st.. . ... . ... . if a rod is clamped rigidly at one end.. . ... . As stram Is dlmensionless quantity...... ... ..... ... . . . .. . .. .law of elasticity known as Hooke's law after his name. modulus of clasticlty has the same dlmenslons (or units) as that of the stress..1 Modulil of Elasticity In previous sections you have learnt that there are three kinds of stram.2) This constant E of proportionality i$ Ii measure of elastlcityof the substance and is called modu11111 of e1utlclty.•·••••·•••·•·•••••••••••••••••••••••••• . .. . When a rope is used to puR a car it wUl be under oompression. . . . .. .... . ... ... .1. . .. . . 2.. . . (8. . ......... . . .. or Istress/strain = constant IE) stress oc strain .u . . . .... if its radius is doubled (other things rernain. . . . .. . .u . .. 6. . . .. .. ... . . . ... or tensioo. i. . .... .... . .. . The ratio stress/strain iematns constant for snu:zll deformation qf a metal wire. .. .... . ... . . ...~ . .. ... . a force is applied normally to the crosssection at the other end so that there is an increase in length of the rod. . ... . . ..... 8.. .. . .inD the same) the increase in its length will be (a) 8 mm (b) 2mm (c) 32 mm (d) 1 mm ·t· . .. will this iutto increase or decrease ? . . .... . . . . . . . When the deformatiDn is made larger.. . . ... . . . . .. . IS is pruportfonal to the. ... . ... . . .. ... . .. ..... . .. . . . . •••••••• . On applying a deforming force the interatomic separation in a body becomes lesser than that of interatomic seperatiDn in the normal state. . . . .. .. .. u . . . ... . . . .. . . . •... . . . .. ... .. ... . .. .. ... . .. . . .... ... . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . .
. then. (8.. V.from a ceiling through a steel wfre of lengh 20 m and radius 2. thennormal stress = Ap volume strain = AVIV •s B tp . shearing stress F I A F modulus of l1gJdity IJ = sh~..".IR5) (UQ lIoduhw of Rlgtdlty or Shear lIodul1lll:The ratio of the shearing stress tD shearing strain Is called moduhrs ofrlBfdlty of the mat. JJuIk . (I) Yoaag'S Iiodm: The ratio of the lDngitudbwl sIress tD the longitud:inal stmln is called Young's modu'usjor the material of the body. be ~ee modulli ~f elasUcity co•• eaponding to these strams..especttveJy.Properties of Soltds It is therefore clear that there should.0 kg Is suspended. vPlume stram and shearing stmin .11r mls" 161 .. Let us study them one' by one.. then A = 1tr2and F = Mg [Af.. Ffnd Young's mOOuhrsfor ~ :rake 9 =3. Let a ~ of length L and area of CI'OI.0 mm.6 = A6 ~ample 8. . If due to increase In pressure Ap...... compressibility.6) load of 4..ng strain ... The rec1procal of bulk modulus of a substance is ca1ledits _PI! nnlbD't7.. These are Young's ..erla1 of "the body.in shape.. If a tangential force F acts on an area A and 8 is the shesI1ng strain.Ws of rfgldity corresponding to linear stmin...4 : A .I8sectlon A be stretched by a longitudinal force F. ...3) til) Balk lIodabis:The ratio of normal stress to the ooIwne stmln is called bulk modulus qfthe mat. ~'"'"'6 AlII A Al If the wire of radius r is suspended vertically With a dgid support anda _ maSsM hangs at its lower end.erla1 of the body...ll ~ ••• (8.6p Bulk mod. Thus...volume v of the 00dy decreases by AV without cbange. As a result Change in length of the wire is lit Then Longltudinal stress =FIA LongItudinal strain = AI/I Y""~"'s_modulus y= FIA =22.. " ".031 mm as equfifbtium is achIeued.. and mpch... K I= 11 B = ~~ I ." '.. AVIV AV (84) . It Is found that the length of the wire Increased by 0.
0155 x 103 Thus.3xlO"" (U) !itl"ain Y 1. 3.> botlDm of a lake the ~ucttoil in its volwne is 0. x..3 x 10" x 4 m .8 x 10' N.o1.6: When a solid rubber ball is takenfrom the swface Il.2 r!m? is stretched bij:d.5. 1..s modulus .2 x 10"' N m '" '.OO12/l00=1. .0155xl03 .2xl011 Strain . A F := 4. the strain produced to the body Is Small.0 6 0. Ja:ample 8.0xl0 =3.0X3. UYoung's modulI'S of copper is Y = 1.360 x 10" x 10 N/rrr '" 3.11t N 1m2 2 1t(2XlO3) =3.1X10 . 4l/1 increase in length "'l" strain. J vou~"'. Y 3.32 xl()3. 7 (Ui) = Ja:ample 8.2 X 10'J Nlm'.6 x 1()8 N/m2 Volume Ittrain "': =O. m 8. x m _ Stress _ 4.0 meter long copper wire ofaosssectional area 1...2 x 10" 0 10" NI • = 3.5 : A.Physics . calculate (0 stress (II) strain and (iii) tncniase tit length.6xlO· = 1.2 Steel is M~re Elastic tban Rubber A bodrla SIdd to be more elastic If on applying a Isrge defountog force on It. density of lake water is 10' kglrril and acce/emtlon due to gravity is 10 mls'. SOlution : Longitudinal streSs = F I A =Mg Iltr2 4.001296.8xlO· I • 40 10'NI • 1.031 X103 2. Solution : (I) Stress . of the wire...0xlO 11 N/m"'0.1xl0 6 N/m2 Longitudinal strain T41 0.2xlO5 .jorce of 4. Caculate bulk modulus of rubber: Solution: Increase of press~ on the ball p'" hp 9 .. IN/m2 =2. you 162 . The depth of the lake is 360 In.. x I .. Ifwe take two Identical rubber and sieeI wJres and apply equal deformtng forceS On each of them.. pV Bulk Modulus B = AV 3.
then longitudinal strain =~lll lateral strain =lod I d MId ~l /l ". F:= 10 x 163 .er.0 IN/m". Poisson's ratio IS a ratio of two strains.25 =0.5 x 10. the value of Poisson's ratio is greatest.e. Ffnd the emmsion !fYOUllg's modubls of the wile ~ 12. d lol I M .25 .8 N. (8.7: A 10 kg mass is attached to one end of a copper w(re 3 m long and 103 m in QIamet.2 ~d 0.. Poisson pointed out that within elastic llmlt lateral strain is directly proportional to longitudinal strain i. 3 m. r 9. the length of the wire increases in the direction of forces.. 0' = 0. it is elongeted along with a contraction in its diameter. 'SoIIItfMt : Here L . x 10'0 ~/m2. then the Poisson's ratio. It is denoted by a Greek letter (1 (sigma) If ~ and a be the lateral and longitudinal strains respective1y.. O'"=. i.e.5. Also for producing same strain in the two wires the stress is much higher in steel wire than in ruhber wire.5'(or 2)' J!:IrQmpIe 8."When a body unde!. Thus. It was firSt of all pointed out by Poisson.. The" strain perpendlcuIai to the appIled force is Caned lateral strain. This f<let is not oIlly true for wire but for all other bodies under strain. a If a wire (rod or tube) of length 1 and diameter d is plongaled on applyjng a stretching force by an amount ~1 and its dJameter is decreased by amount lod. the body is perffctlY inc:OmpI smble. Poisson's ratio(J .!!.5." tension· suffers no change in volume. 0..5 x lo"m. whereas a contraction occurs in the perpendicular dlrection. it is dlmensionless quantity and is purely 'a number. i. Y:= 12. In defIning linear strain or YOWl!fs modulus we have considered so Iar only increase in length of the wire on applying a stretching force and have CQmpletely Ignored the resulting decrease in the diameter (th1clmess) of the Wire.7) Since.Properties of SoHds ". Clanllate the lateral ~ produced If .I will see that the extension produced in the steel wire is s&aner than the ~ion produced in the rubber wire.e. 8. the ratio oj lateral strain to Iongftudinal strain is a constant far a riulterial body an4 is known as Poisson's ratio..4.AJisson's· n:Ufo is 0.3 Poisson's Ratio You may see that when a wire is stretched along its length. The V"" lue of Poisson's ratio depends only upon the nature of the material and 'for most of the su~tances it Iles between 0..
................. The length oj a wire is cut to half.flnd the ratio oj increase In' their lengths .......2993 x 102 = 2..4987><104 xl03 Lateral compression = 2....5XI03t x12..l ltr2y IOx9..2993xl0~ Poisson's ratio Lateral strain a lateral strain (~) longitudinal strain(a) = 0.. On applying a pressure oj 5 XlfY.......... lateral strain 3 ~=axa d ' Ad=2. ' 1... (c) (d)' 1..2 ......5xl0 =0.• 4....4978 x 104 But....dd qf1ntlJol uolwne 1.. (c) = ! x stress.. 1\00 wires are madeoJthe same meta1...... 3.. The lengthoJtheftrstwire Is half that oj the second wire and its diameter Is double that oj the second wW........IIIder a gipen load? .....~ .25 x 0.. 6 .....•.......... then the younq's ITUlOO"hIS oJthe materlaLoJstrlrig wUl be '(a) = 2 x stress..........49879 x 107 m Now take another . 2. 'INTEXT QUESTIONS 8..1.. Is the unit oJYoung's modulus same as that oJlongitudlnal stress or d!tferent? ....14X(0...5 x10'0 N/rri'..... Bulk modulus qfjfuid Is (a) 7. why? .........8x3 ... (b) 2....•......••....5 x1~rri' cha1lges by 3 x10'.....2993xlO~m Longitudinal strain a=Al/l= 0.... What will be the effect on the increase In its length I......•.break and by to solve the following questions.... if the mension oj a string Is equal to its ortgtnal length...4978x104 ='>.5 xlCP N/rri'......m 1O 3.... (d) = 3 x stress.....••.... Water is I'J1OIIe elastic than air.0 xlCP N/rri'..........Extension produced in the wire 'Al...•••••••••.....•••••.. (b) = stress.5 xl0'3 N/rri'..4979xl04d ~=M=2. •. 5.... if equaL loads are applied on both wtres..........•••••..F.........••••••• :................N/rri' the oolume oj ajb.. 164 ......
14). Elastic properties of matter provide load bearing strength to the beams (girders). Its position on scale is noted.t ~. 8.add 8. industries and also in our daily life. Then load is increased in steps of 50 g and several sets.13 : CWltile"er N I Fit.14 : Depressiowload gruphJQr" a ('Wltile. the length of the cantilever is 165 . One end of it is clamped at the edge of big table and a pOinter Is fixed to the free end which moves on a vertical scale (fig. it gets depressed. 1 ~ l 1I'ig. 8. For this a long beam of length 1 and of uniform rectangular crosssection having breadth D and depth (thickness) d is taken.ger.olids 8. . The difference between two readings gives the depression.~ i~===~~~l~o. 8. Due to weigh( the beam bends and pointer moves downwards. At the free end weights may be suspended with the help of thread and han. position of pointer on the scale for zero load is noted. You may easily observe experimentally the variation of depression of cantilever with the variation of load and length of cantilever. Haridwar and Howara Bridge at Calcutta. A uniform beam clamped at one end and 1000000d at the other end is clalled cantilever. In order to study the variation of depression with length of cantilever i!:eeping the load constant. With the help of these observations depressionload graph is plotted (fig. You would have seen Laxman Jhula in Rishikesh. Then a weight of 50 g is suspended at free end.6 CANTILEVER Beams are important in architecture. These are examples of cantilever.:rer_ line graph shows that the depression produced is directly proportional to load prot/idee! the length qf the cantUeuer is kept constant. of observations are taken. a In order to study the variation of depression with load keeping length of contilever constant.ProperUes of J.13) when it is loaded. You will observe that when a long beam (rod or bar) is clamped horizontally at one end to a rigid support and a load is placed at the other end. A straight ~~.
. Ybd 3 ••..PhysiCS changed in steps of 5 cm.mass M is given by the expr<ssion. of depression of cantilever may also be studied by drawing depressionbreadth and depressiondepth graphs. It is. In this case when the length of cantilever is altered the . . On the other hand if you want that for a given load the depression should be smaIl. depression of loaded end of a beam of rectangular crOsSSection that: (0 for a given beam the devression is directly proporttonalllJ load (Mg.S: DepressIon .. .on of C8DtJleyer For a beam of length I.. ~ b and depth d {flg. directly proportional tD the cube of its length. (iI) . Loaded In the lIIlddle Let us consider a beam of rectangular crosssection having length I. then the length of the cantilever should be !IIDa11.for a given load the depression of the beam is a) .. It is clear from the expression for.8. and the corresponding depressions are noted keeping ltte loadl. ibitia1. The variation. (8. if you want smaIl depression in a given cantilever it should not be load~ heavily. It may be considered as double cantilever 166 .1 .131. i Cube of IengIh . Graphy of depressionlength becomes a straight line .constant. its breadth.lIlon for nep. depth and Young's modulus (of the material) should be large. cJ Irwersel!i proportional tD the cube of its depth (thidmessJ and d) irWerselyproportionnl tD YoUng's morbdlls of the rJUJter1Ql of • beam.. 4Mgl 3 y . horlzonta1ly supported at knife edges k.§ ..LerIf1Ih gmphfor·a _ Expn. bJ inversely proporttonal tD its bn!odth. (fig.. "l. Reaction of eaCh of knife edges be W/2. .14). Thus.6.Beam Supported at the EDds amd. breadthb and depth d the depression of the free end when it is loaded by weight of. and load by wf~ght W at the middle point.. 8.8) where Y is the Young's modqlus for the material of beam.. reading for the zero load is taken each time separately. and Ie.. 8.
us take a beam of rectangular crosssection. 8.1. It undergoes bending. In between these two portions there Is.(8.2 Explanation of Bending of Beams Let.15 ·b) ~ 1'". 8.la} Lay"rs In a beam ) " ~ ~\ . 8.14: Beam In"der! in the middle as double cantUelier Where M Is the mass suspended at the middle 8.6. a layer . the depression of middle point below each of the k:njfe epges is given by W 2 '..15 :(b) FfIamerttS In a la!ier Let the beam be clamped horizontally at end A 'and loaded by ·wetghtW at the other. Sti(!b ·Q'surface is called neutTul surface and is shown dotted m the figures. 8.9) Load FIg. 8 •.and becorri~ in tension while filameI). "' Fill.of length l/2 and having load W/2.ISa). \ ~ \.of.ts··.lit !!urface in which the filaments are neither elongated nor compressed . Also each layer may be considered as made up of a number of parallellongitud1nal filaments or fibres (fig. PropeItles of Solids each . You may consider the beam as made up of a nilinber of thin plane layers parallel to each other (fig. A "N" FI&. 8.. The filaments of outward side of beam are elongated . end B. ..16 :Belldin!J ·167 (~f CWltileuer .. Wl 3 4Ybd 3 _w 2 . .1 5 .16). Thus.innerside are compressed (fig. B.
. Therefore outer layers suffer more strain and stress than inner layers. 17). This cOllsiderably saves the material without sacrificing the strength of the girder. (8... The filaments above neutral surface (middle layer is Which there is neither contraction nor elongation of filaments on bending) are compressed and filaments below the neutral surface are elongated.10) Where Y is the Young's modulus of material of the girder. Th. The increase or decrease . it is depressed tn the middle due to bending.6. bridges and factOries. the girders are manufactured with their crosssection tn the form of letter I (fig. the longer side is taken as depth. 168  . That is why tn the girder of rectangular crosssection.:.tn length of a filament is directly proportional to its distance from the neutral' surface.:. A system of restoring couples is thus formed.' sum of moments of these couples about the neutral axis is called bending moment. 8. l'1li.:. to make outer layers' stronger than inner layers.32bd 3 y . Filaments above neutral surface tncrease tn length and those below it deerease tn length. weight Wat B and reaction force w at'section C of beam form external couple which rotates the beam clockwise.". In equilibriUl. Have you ever tried to know the reason of this? \Vhen a girder is supported at its ends and is loaded. 1hereJore..·seetlt!!' of girder Girders of Rectangular crossSection: You must be' knOWing that in a girder of rectangular cross section the. The depression y of middle point of a girder of length 1 breadth b'and depth d with a certain load W distributed uniformly along the length of the girder is give~ by 5Wl 3 y.'Physics Consider the equilibrium of portion BC of the beam.. Amount of compression of elongation tncreases as the distance from neutral surface increases. That is why. Due to elastic reaetion intern. It is clear that for the same load and length of the girder the depression y of middle point is inversely proportional to one power of breadth b and three powers of depth d. 8..3 Peculiar shape of Girders Girders are used in the construction of bUildings.The compression and elongation are maximum for the upper most and lower most ftIaments respectively. to' reduce the depression increase in depth d Is more effective than the increase in breadth b. You might have noticed that the upper and lower faces of the girders are made of much greater breadth than its middle part which is of smaller breadth. Solve the following' questions." . 8.:::. Now let us check how much you have understood. 8."".n bending moment is equal and Opposlte t. longer side is kept as depth. These are shown with increasing magnitudes tn fig..16.17: Shape of eros.o the external couple. 1 forces are developed.
..:......... • • ...................................._ equals the Internal restoring force per unit area......... Strain has no unit................. Fm: less depreeslonln a canUlever of rectangular cross·sectlon by a load the longer side of Its crosssection Is kept vertical..... • • • • • • The property of matter to restore the natural shape and size after defonrialfon or to oppose the deformalfon Is ca1led elaslfclty..... In the normal state the net Inter atomic force on an atom 15 zero. 4.......... The strain equals the ~e In dimension per unit dimension........ 5..... If a body completely retains Its modified form. ...filaments in a beam wnich remain unstralned during bending? Where do they lie? ..... What is the ratio of depressions? . Young'S modulus Is the ralfo of longttudlnal stress to longttudln:u strain..• For a gIVen canUleverdepresston produced Is directly proporttonal to Ibe load.becomes more than the separalfon In......... ~ ofrectonguku cross·section 8.......... How dJ:Jes tfte extension or contraction of....... • Steel Is moreeiast1c' than' rubber. . • On defonnalfon Internal restoring forces are produced In the ... ..... .. A 5 m long 10 em x 15 em is to be used as a cantileuer.. For constant load depression of cantilever Is directly proportional to cube of Its length.... ...:xIy so that after removal of deforming forces body regatns Its original shape and size........ 3........Properties of Solids INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.... Its units is N/m'. Are there certain. n. it is said to be perfectly plaslfc.. .... • • A canUleoer Is the beam supported at one end and loaded at the other end...............fUament change with different layer? . However. .. .vo identical caitt1leuers are loaded by weights in the ratio 1:2.. The body which recow:rs completely Its orlgtnal state on the removal of the deforming forces Is calledperfedly elasttc..3 . ... • • Modulus of rigidity Is the milo of the shearing stress to shearing strain.. The length of a canttlever is halved.... • • • Hooke's' law states that within proporlfonallty limit the stress developed In a body Is proporlfonai to the strain... the Intc:r atomic forces be\:ome attracIfve......... A body beyond the elaslfc limit behaves like a· plastic body... The maximum value of stress upto which a body shows elasttc property Is called Its elaslfc Ilmit..7 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT • A force whiCh causes deformalfon In a body Is called deforming foree. for smaller separalfon these forces become reJ>ulsive........ The breSIImg stress Is the stress for which a body breaks... A beam supported at ends and loaded In the middle may be regarded as double canUleoer.. ... ' ....nust be kept horizontal in order to have lesser depression? ........ Which side qf the beams cross·section ..... What will be the depression when 'Dad lernatninB'tbe SQme?.... ........................................... •............. Bulk modulus Is the ratio of norma! stress to volume strain... normal state.....1........................ 2............. P\)Isson's rallo Is the ratto of lateral btnlin to longttudlnal strain. If the separalfQn betwo:en the atmns....... _ ..... The........
14. What Is the harm If the crosssection Is made rectangular? 19. 1O"m. In order to produce a longltudlnal strain of 2><10'. 9. What Is the value of young's nlodulus for a perfectly elastic body? ExPlain the elastic properties of matter on the basis of Inter atomic forces. ' The upp"face of the cube of side I Oem IS displaced 2mm parallel to Itself when a tengenttal force of 5 x lOS N Is applied on . Why polsson's ratio has no unit? 1L Define bulk modulus of elasticity. A metallic wIr. Calculate the Young's modulus of the material of the wire. are manufactured with their crosssection In the form ofletter I.Physics To save material without sacrificing the strength of girder they are manufactured with their crossscctlon In the form of letter I. 7.8 m long and diameter 4xlo'm stretched by a Weight of 1. • 8.8 TERMINAL QUESTIONS L Define the term elasticity. on what factors does the depression of the free end depend? 18. Cl\leulate the change In lis volume. What are lateral strain. Given that the Y for the material of the wire . when pulled by a force 2}O'. Give reason.It keeping lowerface lIxed. Another wire of the same material of length 21 and radius 2r. Mark the elasUc limit on the graph. calculate Y for steel. 10. 170 . If the extension produced Is L66 x.Is 13. What are shearlng straIn. strain.. 8. FInd out straIn. what will you do? 20. lis length Is Increased by Al and radius Is decreased by Ar. FInd out expression for Poisson's ratio forthematerial of wire.6 kg. elastic limit and Hooke's law. longltudlnal strain and Potsson's ratio? A cyllndrtcal wire of length I and radius r Is stretched by a longltudlnal force. 6. Girder. When Is a body called elasUc and when Is It called pIasUc? What Is the unit of modulus of elasticity? Explain the terms stress. 4 m In length and 1 mm In dlameter. What is the value 9f bulk modulus for Incomplresslble liquid? Draw a stressstrain graph for a metallic wire under increasing load.78 x 10'· N/m'. A steel wire 2. 4. You ha"e two bars of same length and same material but one of crosssection 6<:m x 6cm and the other of crosssection 4 em x 9 em. WhIch part of the graph Is related to the Young's Modulus of the material of the wire? Which is more elastic iron or rubber? 2 3. Define Young's modulus of elasticity. . 16. A wire of length L and radius r Is clamped rigidly at one end. A solid cube of side 30 em Is subjected to a uniform pressure of5 xlO N/m'.!s stretched by a weight of 4 kg. 12. Given that B = 16.98 xl0 10 N/m'. When the 'other end of wire Is pulled by a force F Its length Increases by x. a stress of 2. 17. What Is a cantilever? lf the free end of the beam Is loaded. what will be the Increase In Its length. 15.4 x 107 N/m' Is produced In a wire. 5. Out of the two which one will you ' use as a cantilever? If you want to have mlntmum depression for it given load. shearlng stress and modulus of rigidity? What Is the unit of modulus of rigidity? 13. Determine the elongation produced.
latezt. 16.3 I.S of Su::d~ ANSWERS TO' THE INTEXT QUESTIONS IIltezt g. They lie In the central layer of the cantilever. Both have. 5.. 1:8 (h) (b) 4. 4. 9.. latezt QaenIou 8. 11. 5. TermIIW gaeoU.. 19. Half. gu. For a loaded cantllever extension Is II\IDdmum at upper most surface. 20 FIlaments In the neutral layer remain unstramed during bending. Therefore water Is more elastlc than air. Cbange of shape. unit... 2. Unear stram Tension. 9 em side vertical.tt_ 8.surface Increases.49 x 1O"'m 2.2 x 10" N/m' 7. 6. . (b) 2. 6.. same. 2. " . 1. 3. '1:2 1/8 10 cm. Contraction Is maximum at lower most surface. 3. Change In. 14.2 1.. Decrease. 6.ProPt"1 Ul. 4.. Repulsive.u_ 8...95 X IO"'m' 14. 3. Extension or contraction of filaments Increased as their distance from the neutral. Air Is more compressible thao water.1 1. 5.105 x 10" N/m' 2 x 0" Bar of 4 em " 9 em crosssection. Bulk modulus Is reciprocal of compressibility. length I. 15.
the elephant standing on the ott ~r platform of the same lift? Can you walk on water? But the mosqUitoes can stand and walk on still water. • explain the property of swface tension of liquids. the stronger have to be the sidewaIls of the container. why? Will it not be surprtztng to see a steel needle floating on water surface? All these amazing observations can be explained if YOll learn the chractelistic propertles of the liqUids. Do you lmow. 9. You would have seen that liquids can flow on the inclined surfaces (under the effect of earth·s gravity) and hence are also called fluids. while f('~ supporting a liquid you have to use a container haVing sidewalls.9 HYDROSTATICS AND SURFACE TENSION 9. The Q. • derive an expression and explain the riseqf~ in the capilIruy tube. In the next lesson. you will learn about the flaw of liquids. you should be able to: • calculate the hydrostaticpressure at Q certain depth _ inside the liquid containers. Do you lmow why? Can you believe that you can lift an elephant by your own body ~eight by standing on one platform (like a pan of a ba1ance) of a hydraulic lift. To support a solid you require only a floor. namely solid.!Xplain the various daUy Ufe • .furu. like hydrostatic pressure.tWning of hydraulic press.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous lesson. • explain the spherical shape of liquid c:lrqps. you have learnt that the combination of intermolecular forces and thermal motion gives lise to three different states of matter. liquid and gas. j/Dating of mosqu.phenomenorL . describe PascqL's law to explain the . it spreads in the form of sphertcal globules. When mercuzy falls on the flat ground. PascaI's law and surface tension.t1Des on water swface.eper the container. Similarly.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. These topiCS form the subject matter of present study in this lesson. • hydraulic l!ft and hydraulic brakes etc. define swface tension and apply it to (. They are_ incapable qf withstanding any shearing forces for any length of time if they deform easily and hence are said to have negligible elaSticity.
Fig. However. • i=:.r unit area of the liquid above the point A.FIg. and not like an ordinary wall of uniform thickness.. the press~ being s¢aH.3: Circular base area "a .. At low depths.. =:. '..·Hydrostatics and S~]£ face Tension 9.represented as Pa .3 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Have you ever got a chance to see the construction of a dam? Figure (9.. . .. _ ...".... which acts vertically downwards can be calculated as being due to the weight p . 9. 9.:. " .. and the study oj liquids at rest is called 'hydrostatics'.1! The strllt:ture oj sldewu/[s oj a dam {length al . the force per unit area p = Force =.••2: Compressional Pressure due to liquid acting on aU sides oj rut iMmerSed body. I _ _ _ __ ~C_7_:1_ F rae surface of the IIqUl(l .1 Hydrostatic Pressure at a point within a liquid Let us consider smallcbject (A) at a depth 'h' below the free surface (level) of the liqUid In the container. LIQuid cylinder of base area 'a' and height 'h a :.ound the polm A at a dePth 'h' PIC. _ .3. The pressure P at the point A..  v i  Liqutd of densny 'd' _!P. . the greater Is the pressure. . __ . they do exert same pressure also on the side 'walls of the container..::Ii:3t_:":... In short. . (9.~~ ~..c.:... Pascal is .. lesser thickness of wall will be suflltient to withstand the side pressure. 9.':' ~ . . the'side walls of the dam are made very thtek.1) shows the walls of a high dam.. . .. They are made thicker at the base. The greater is the d~th below the free surface (level) of water. '.:.2). The pressure exerted by the .stationary liqIiid (filled In a container) at any point inside the liqUid is called 'lyJdrostatic pressure'.. Let us now obtain an expression for the hydrostatic pressure. :. NewtCJ" Area metre' .1) the pressure is measured In Nm2 • which is also called Pascal in honour of the French Scientist Blaise Pascal (l623 c1662) who did a lot of ~'!"rk on fluid pressure... ./1(> (lrtUws at d~(ferenl depths' are tndicatllJe oj the magnilude Qf the waterpressure on the side wall Since presS1tre [P) is defined as. .:. Dams have to store water to great heights and hence tbepressure on the side walls of the dam at the bottom is very large... I  .... It is for this reason that to withstand such a large pressure. . Do you know why? The liquids do exert pressure at the base of the container due to their weight like solids. Thc liquid exerts compression of pressure on all of its sides as shown in the figure (9._.. 173 . _.
18 at a depth 'It below the free surface of the liquid contained in the vessel.3) Imagine a liquid in a cylinder of circular base area are 'ct and height '11: (i. to gravity I I It Is important to note that area 'd does not appear in the final expression for the hydrostatic pressure.tf\ the trough while a column of about 76 cm of mercury above the freesurlace of mercury in the mercury trough remained filled in the tube. inverted It and placedverticalJy in a mercury trough as shown in the figure. extending upto th" free surface) above the point 'i'1.uppose the point A.5 ms2 • = Solution: The pressure on the side wall of the dam at its bottom at a depth 100 metres is given by P=hdg P = 100xl0' x9.3.. (9.B Nm' '" 9. 174 . Thickness of the wall required = 9. Some mercury fell I.8m 9.2 Calculation of Atmospheric Pressure 'Torlsili made use of the formula for hytrostatic pressure to determine the vhlue of atmopherlc pressure as follow: He took a long narrow (not a capillary) tube of about 1 m long. Wha{ should be the thickness of the side wall at jJe bottom qf a water dam of depth' 1 00 metres? Take density of water = 1()' kgm'" and 9 9. The weight of the liquid cylinder = mass x acceleralion due to gravity = W (volume of the cylinder) x (density of the liquid) x (acc.e. due to gravity) h) x (d) X = (a x 9 This weight acts vertically downwards on area ·ct at A.8xlO' Nm' :.2) => p= axhxdxg_hdg a => P = depth x density x acc. filled it with mercury of density 13.. :.. See F1gure (9.pnysics S. Hydrostatic pressure at A weight area .1: A cemented wall ofth1ckness 1 metre can withstand aside pressure of 10" Nm4.8xl0' 10' m =9.600 kgm3 and then after closing Its open mouth with the thumb. Example 9..
alsoknown as the law oftrtmsmissUmqfliquid pressure can be stated as follows: When a pressure ~ applied anywhere on the surface of given mass of an enclosed liquid at rest. That is also done With the help of hydraulic press. 9. (1) Hydraulic Press (or Hydraulic Lift). trucks etc._:: = 1. Theliquid pressure depends only on its density and temperature provided there are no external forces such as gravity. in terms of the molecules means that the momentum transferred by them per unit time to a unit area is the same throughout the fluid. You must have also seen the packing of cotton bales. 9.8 Nm2 P p ~=.Hydrostatics and Surface Tension Since the pressure at the point A = Atmospheric pressure P.4 AppHcations of Pascal's law A recent application ofPascal's law in medical treatment is the water mattress (bed) used to cut down besores by distributing the weight of the body uniformly._ A__  .W.. Atmospheric pressure = P = h d 9 = 0..600 x 9. Pascal's law. There. the liqUid molecules are constantly impinging and rebounctng. .76 x 13.5 .4 Have you ever seen a hydraulic jack? Visit any motorworkshop where they clean the dirt of the car..S. The hydraulic jack and hydraulic press both work on a principle known as Pascal's principle or law.S Pascal's Law FIg.013 X 10 Nm5 2 . (Ii) Hydraulic Brakes: and (Iii) Hydraulic Jack. the pressure at the point B In hOrizontal liDe With A is also = P = Vacuum 76cm=h But hydrostatic pressure at B = Ii d g :. On any surface imagined inside the fluid or on the boundary. The momentum transferred per unit area per second is the Pressure due to the liquid on the boundary. Pascal's law. Some of the important applications of Pasacal's law are.S. 17."'_. an equal un(for~ pressure is transmitted over the whole liquid. . . 9. the vehicle is lifted up to a height of about 5 feet or more With the help of a hydraulic jack and then a man cleans the lower side of the vehicle by pouring a strong stream of water With the help of a water pipe. It gets transmitted through out the liquid and acts in a direction at right angles to the surface qf fhe liquid every where.
e (= 100 kg wt) Is 100 times which is equal to the ratio of area of B to· the area of A In short since Q F. bags of cotton or wood.8 x 102 N: Thus. piston of cylinder B is FB = PB KArea ofB = 9. This Is called the mechanical adIICIntage of the hydraulic press.. If a force FI 9. ~ .8 x 102 xl =9.1 Kg 100 Kg \ ~ . xA•.. F'. P.and the force acting on the .Iquid L .B: Hydmu/Ic_. This prlnctple is applied in the working I of the hydraulic press with which .Physics (I) Hydraulic Press This is a simple device IIi which a small force is magnified fnany t1IDes.8 N magnifies to 9. =p. FIg. =p.fi. J'IC. xA.8xIO' Nm" This pressure is transmitted to the cylinder B.Olm· and cylinder B has larger area 1m". (9. [Q p. a force of 9. FII· B. Suppose the cylinder A has a small crosssectitmal area of O. The whole apparatus is ft11ed With some liquid or oil.·A.Force Area = 9. I 1m' B l: r T/ II T T. are pressed very firmly together by applying a little force.176 ..8 x 102 N i. F. Since pressure is transmitted equally.ed) force on that area. . a small pressure can be made to act on a larger area and so pi"odUceE ·a Iarger (magnl. B. . Fig. the corresponding pressure = P • = .8 N(equal to the weight of I kg) is applied on the P!Btonof cylinder A. throughout the llquid. p. newly printed books etc.. The two cylinders are connected by a narrow tube C. ·A.5: .5) . (9.01 = 9.5) shoWs a principle diagram of such a devtce.8 Nm" 0. =p. oil seeds. and F.c PrIncIple diagram showing the I*/ng of Hydrau/Ic ItJl.l A• A.
............uUc Bnakes Another important use of the Pascal's law Is in the design of hydraulic brakes in motor cars.... .. Here also a slight pressure is transmitted through a liqUid to act on a large surface.. if the container A is filled to a heigh 0... A coffee cup of base area 12 x 1Q4 m' and height 0......... on the 177 ................... .... INTEXT QUESTIONS 9 .. (m) HyclrauUc Jack Have.. when a little force is applied by the foot 1m the brakeplate...... Such a machine is known as hydraulic jack..8 ms2 2....7) """" un Brake Fluid pipofm'~ 1ino~'&J _ .3m" are .....eight can be balanced...  PIg.8: Hydroul/c Jack ........ the pressure so applied gets transmitted through the brake on to act on longer area where pistons are made to mO'.you ever visited a service station for mo~or cars? You must have seen cars and large heavy trucks being raIsed to convenient heights so that the mechanic can work under them Fig. (9... A weight of 50 kg wt is put on . Now.4 m and the container B to the height 0...fiUed with liquids ofdensities 1500 kg m3 'and 2000 kg Ill"" respectively..... Fig........1. 9...................... Here al!?O....... How much maximum u.... 1 .... to what height it can be filled without being to turned? ~ ...07 m can bear a weight of 0......... 9....7: Hydraulic Bmloes . n.........................vo cyliru:lrical containers A and B of base area O. if it is contain a liqutd.....the smaller cylinder of area 0....Hydrostatics and Surface Tension (U) Hyu.31 m.2m2 and 0.................... What is the mechaittcal advantage of a hyraulic press? .' ... thus producing sufficient force to lift up the vehicle.. (9...............'e the brake shoes aginnst the brake drums. stop and try to solve the follOWing questions to check your progress. '4....25 kg of any liquid filled in it.......12..... of density 3000 kgrrr"...........8)...... 3....1 m" of a big hydraulic lift.... which container is subjected to more pressure at its bottom? What are these pressures? Given 9 = 9..
........... Can a ...........e.... AettuftJI (9... Prepare a soap solution.......Physics bigger cylinder oj area 10m" oj this hydraulic lif/:? .........1): 2.... 6.....4 SURFACE TENSION Take small amount of mer~ury.. You would fmd that the mercury gets sprayed into small spherical globules.. Add small amount of glycerine to It..... knowledge of molecular forces... 1.. 3... 5.. i. An elephant oj weight 5000 kg· wt.... Why do the liqUids in small amoUnts gather together into a spherical drop? Also in the rainy season.. they always have a horizontal surface. a molecule qf the liquid and a molecule qf 178 ..... Every substance Is made up of small particles called atoms... air bubbles are formed on the water surface...... 5..... ...molecuZe... Large' size soap bubble Will be formed. . When liquids are contained IIi any open vessel.......05 m" balance or lift the elephant? ..................boy oj weight 25 kg wt standing on the smaller piston oj area 0... You must have enjoyed soapbubblemaking game in your childhood. qf the same substance (in a given sample} ....... Drop it from about a foot on to a· flat plate. 4. Take It out and blow air Into the other end with your mouth....e.... . all molecules do attract each other. Do you know.. 9.......e.. stUdying about this characteristic property of liquids. . Before_..... ... Take a narrow hand plastic tube or glass tube or wooden tube. The force of attraction between two dissfmiiar molecules (i..Why? Have you seen dew drops (waterdrops).. on· the leaves of some plant in the early morning during winter days? Here also small water drops appear spherical. Dip'lts one end In the soapsolution so that SOlile solution flIls In It........ why it is easier to form soap bubbles and not pure waterbubbles by the above technique? All the above life experiences i.......................... when rain drops fall in a pool of water..... The fofYNl of attraction betJwen two afrnBar . called foree qf cohession. GIVe a Jerk to the tube to detach the bubble which then floats In the air......compounds are made up of molecules which are a chemically combined group of atoms........ let us first 'revise our. .... According to molecular theory........ Is standing on the bigger piston of area 10m2 of a hydraulic lift... the liqUid Is In contact with the molecules of the container at the boundary of the vessel. spherical shapes of the liquiddrops and soap bubbles etc_ are due to the property of surface tension of the liquids. ..... .... TIle ...........
of the order of the size of the molecules. Surface energy is a sort of potential energy. the lower half of sphere of influences. fig.9 : Tile molecule ABCD experience a resultant downward cohessive P&S do no! e.e. See.3 Surface Tension and Surface Energy To keep the surface area minimum.1 Surface Energy A thin layer of the surface of the liquid of thickness equal to the molecular range of attraction is called surJace layer.R. However for the molecuies Q. 9.the number of molecules in the upper half of sphere c . The di~tance upto which these forces of cohersion or adhession are effective to are calledrange of molecular attraction.>cpenence any resultant force. 9. Surface film (la_. 0 of influence attracting the molecule Q or R is less ~ li9~ ~<Q::' R··· than the number of molecules attracting Q or R in . if any liquid molecule is of cohessiDn.~. experience .. Now...4. s· _ . Therefore. .4. . 179 . . which increases the potential energy of these molecules in the surface layer.' Hence the resultant cohessive force acting on P's zero.be as small as p0ssible i. The area of the surface must be the minimum or l~t. Obviously a surface with lower area will have lower surface energy. The molecule P lying well within the liquId is attracted in all directions by molecules lying within its sphare of influence (which is the imaginary sphere of radius equal to the range of moleculer attraction drawn with.. . Thus liquid contained in a vessel has planer surf=e because a planer surface having a definite boundary depending upon the shape and size of the vessel has the minimum surface area. The sum oj the energy oj aU the liquid molecules present in the swface is called the Swface Energy. the sphere of influence is partially outside the liquid surface where there are no liquid SpfJeres of mOlecular attracbon molecules. which lie inside the surfacelayer. some work Is done against the downward cohessive force. . therefore. The molecules Q. 9.9). a resultant downward force of cohession.. It is of the order of 10" m i. or surJace film. since any systeni in equilibrium always tries to have the lowest possible potential em:rgy. all molecules lying within the surface layer Fig. the surface of the liquid becomes like a stretched membrane giving rise to surface tension which acts normally at all pOints in all directions. because A / " .e. but the force which increases in magnitude as the position molecules Q & R experience aresultant of the molecule shifts from the layer CD towards the uerticaUy downward force top surface AB. the number of molecules in the surface should . tangential to the surface. brought from within the liquid (below CD) to this surface ABCD.BJ . ThuEo:. R etc. molecule P at its centre. (9.Hydrostatics and Surface TeIlsiOJl the solid vessell is calledforce of adhession.
Is rwrmallD the wall q/"the. The surface energy.10: At !hi.2 x 10"J kg" "C" = = SOlutloa : Volume of . Swface tension 0. At the boundaries.. nco 9. if a bigger drop is sprayed into many tiny drops. therefore.of the liquid•. Fig. if the surface area of tht liqUid is to be increased. therefore.the drop gets heated up. increases. It is measunxlin Nnrl and is denoted by T. .e.4 3 1 (4_0 3) . TIierefore. the airconditioning plants of big buildings. there IS a net increase in the surface area. therefore cooldawn. Calculate the rise or fail in the temperature of each drop. reduces....72 Nrrc': sjlecfJIc flea! oJ water S 4. Can you now explain why thl81s done? ". Similarly. When many tiny drops coalepse together to form a bigger drop.the big drop of radius R is V = 3 lCR 4· 3 Volume of one tiny drop of radius r is = 3 ttr = l()(\ . The balance of energy appears in the form of heat and . i. on· the Ifquidsurface is ~ as the Surface Tension of that liquid. . at the line where the liquid touches the vesse1walls. whJch then gets steered in the form of extra or increased surface energy. Its dimensional formuls is [MT"2J.2 : A water drop oj radius 2 mm is sprayed into 1000 tiny drops oj equal vOlume. 'The value of surface tension for a certain liquid is a function ofihe resultant cohesstve force on the uquid ·molecules in the surface whose magnitude depends upon the intermolecular separation which is a function of temperature. it can be done by doing work againSt the force of swface tension.JOJ.Physics The tangential fon:e per unit length acting perpendicular to GRII fmagimuy line supposed to be dnmm. Force of surface tension tend to reduce the surface area . the direction of T is normal to the walI~ and tangential to the liquid surface. Have you seen cooling of circulating water by spraYing it 10. The surface energy. ThIs extra energyIs derived from the thermal energy ofliqilid drops which. boundary the' suQi:lre Tensfoo. Gtveri density oJ water JOOO 1cgrrr3. Epimple 9. It decreases with increase in temperature (due to increase 1n intermolecular separation). Hence surface tension also varies with the temperature' of the liquid. ISO . there Is no decrease in the surface area. (9. .3 I .
Hydrostatics and Surface Tension .. Small drops of liquids acquire spherical shape because the surface area of a spherical surface for· a given volume is minimum and hence gives minimum potential energy (surface energy) to the. 41t·9R' ..e Jnr'. cool down by temp AS..100 M . the work done for this ipcrease In the surface area 9f magnitude (bcb) is = Force x distance x or or Increase In surface energy E = Tx (I x b) = (T x Q x b = Surface Tension of the fiquid x Increase in area .. given by l000msA9=T·41t·9R' or lOOO(! 1rr )SP...2 I Example of Surface TeDsioD The liquid surface is hOri20ntal. This is then measured in Joules per metre square i. galnlnarea M = 41t (1000 r' . the surface gets cuxved near the line of contact of the . Surface tension may also be defined as the work done per unit increase in area qf the liquid surface.. If S= Total Surface Area of the liquid T . radius oftlny drop Is given by R' r'=:)r= 1000 R 10 R' . Ho~. total surface energy = 7. Surface Tension Then.9R 2 ) 1bis 1f! dertved from the thermal energy of the 1000 drops which therefore..R') = 41t ( 1000 . 181 .e.:18=T ·41r·9 xlOOr 3 2 11l8=2. ~2T2 L2 =[MT.. the dimensional formula is still the same i. drop. T=~= Increase In surfaceenergy (lxb) Increase In area .." xS Joules. Dip your finger In the liquid.7T prs I On substitution of the gJven values A9 = 2 3. workdone increaselnarea Hence. Extra surface energy gained =T ·LlA=T1 (41r . The Uquid gwes it the way.1 X 106 ·C If the boundary line of length 'I' is displaced by a distance 'b' against the forces of surface tension of magnitude T l.
11). (a) (b) FIa. [1henormal to the circumference of a circle is the radial direction). (9. the moment the deforming force Is removed. fbJ The shape oj the thread.3 Application of Surface Tension The water level in a glass capillary tube (fine bore tube) appears concave rather than plannerhorizontal. heat it in a fiame and touch the film in side the thread loop by this hot pin. If now. This shows that the liquid surface is under tension like a stretched membrane. put It gently on the hOI1zontal soap film. capilla1! f82 . These are due the surface tension effects. The film part which was within the thread gets burst and the thread is pulled into a circular loop as if pulled by some radially outward forces acting all along its circumference. A thin film of soap solution is enclosed inside the circularwire. Now make a small circular loop of thin cotton thread. the forces of tension cancelling each others effect.Physics finger. Dip It in a soap solution and 'lake Il out.e. 9. ACTIVITY: Take a circular thin wire with a handle. What do you observe? Fig.12) Fla.ll: fa) A soapfllm with a closed loop oJtIuead on it. On bursting the inner soap film. the film surface. outside film pulled the length of the thread (closed loop) normal to the length of the thread and tengentiaIly to.·S. (9. Now take an alpin. The rise of water in capillary tube above the level of water in the container Is also due to surface tension forces~ Fig. Also the surface ofmercUIY in a fine glass capillary tube appears to have a convex meniscus. the surface again becomes horizontal. the inside of closed thread loop and outside of closed thread loop. the. Initially. which gets changed to concave at the point of touch of the finger and becomes straight or planes. It will rest on it without breaking the film. shows the presence of tangential force of surface tension.12: fa) Plane MenisCUS (No rise or JalI) bJ Fall oJ/eoei in cap/Uary convex Meruscus (t') ConcaLIt:' Mentscus rice In.4. qftH the fnner soap jllm Is brokm.finger. there was soap film on both sides i. wWch sets the closed loop into a circular shape. you take out your . The spherical shape of small liquid drops is due to the forces of surface tension. 9. It.
9."" ==~=:.. the surface Is convex.1y life. "!i"".. .. tlg.... Its vertical component acts upwards. therefore..13). _:..14 (c). T!.:=:.:... the surface becomes concave due to the dip.. 0: (bJ Con_ surft>ce R CICio towcmls the ooncave side: (e) Concave IIUIjba a acts Wwan:Is the oonawe side.e.. FIg. '=:_:=::::C...Spherlcal drop A liquid drop has only one surface I. 9.:~ T _. the forces due to surface tension acttng across the sides of the line PQ will have a resultant force It towards the centre of cuvature of the surface..14} shows). : =_.. At the point where the::legs of the mosqultoe towards the liquid surface...= .. tloats on water....."':.'''''''_'''_=_~~~.. If few of them are described below: (a) lIo8qultoes Slttlll...(1) . III. . the outer surface ('The liqUid area III contact with air Is called the surface fo the liq1.14.:._.e....::: PIC.. .... ...::.. . or concave FIg. the. ".~f:. whenever the surface Is curved (this happens near the boundary In contact with the walls of the container) the surface tension gives rise to a pressure directed towards the centre of curvature of the surface and this pressure IsbaIanced by an equal and opposite pressuJ.:=="\.:.~ T : . forces of PQ and due to surface tension acting on the two sides tangential to the surface are equal and opposite in magnitude and hence the resultant tangential force Is zero. FIg.. _ .:::..: ~=_=_ =_=_"":'. (9.• __ • __ Q ~ R (Resultant forc~) P::   _. . _ . _..Hydrost. S.'_.. the surface tension has wide application in our dal.lied) 183 . _ .  ::Q.. The force of surface tension acting tengenuaIly to the surface.... on watel" ~ Have you seen ~osqultoes sitting on water surfaces.:::. ~Ieg of mosquito :::.. however.14)..14: (oJ Plane 1IUIjba. T T lin 0 cos" ft~ I ~ of the inHc:t II ~T _ lor oIlject) ~9 I T T lin 0 ...=:Inl... Tcos 9 (oJ DIp In the level to form = u e surface (bJ Magnlfled ImDge (b) Ezc_ of Pressure Inslde a Spherical Suri"ace Consider a small surface clement with a line PQ of unit length on it._." T .P. a· Thus. which suPP9rts the weight of the mosqultoe.==. 9. _:::?:~ R:::. The total force acttng vertically Upw8roS all along the line of contact of certain length Is able to balance the vertically downward acttng weight of the small mosquloes Which. Fig.. :.18:The weight qfthe fns«t Is IJaIaru:ed by thefarre of surface tension = 2 ._. If..: : . therefore acts at certain angie to the horizontal. If the surface Is plant: i. (9..   . 'fjley do not sink in water.t' P Q ..=.. Therefore (As the figure {9.. Why? This Is due to the force of surface tension. 9 = 90·. .u_...S.14 (b)..aUcs and Sunace TenSiIll1 In addition to It. _ .{a).e acttng on the surface. . there Is always an era: q/JIi UN on the _ side of the curved liquid surf.
15(a).ns1de a spherical drop of radius . 14....dr)3 1tT 4 3 .Alrl.dr Is given by W=T·(81tT.!allble ill water ~ This also has aslngle surface.dV wh~ 4 (r+..dr) But the work done due to the excess pressure p W'=px..dr p=··r 2 2 2T Le..dr)2 ".dr W'=px41tT 2 .. t .11) (h)..1rl=4nr .dr = T 8nr. Fig. But .:2[ I (Ii. . which is the ~r surfilce. If we assume a small Increase In the radius of the drop by M due to this constant excess pressure p in the spherical drop of radIus r. ..dr)3] Since . of Ilqu1d of surface tension T is given by I. or 3 3 1l'[3r2 .. then . 41l'(r+.surface area of the sphencal drop .  pJ (say) Where P.. Increase in ..1r)2 4nr 2 or dA = BKr. radius of Ute small sphericall1quid drop and p '"' excess of pres8'ilre I.• excess of pressure I.. its higher powers are of still smaller value and hence can be neglected. therefore• ..4r is small.dr W'=W p41r r2 .ns1de ihe drop (Which Is concave on the inner side. but convex on the outerside) .dV=: 1l'[3r .1r+{.dr .4V .B1tT .. and Po are the inside and outside pressures of the drop respectively Fig 9.dr+3r(.. Work done by per unit increase in area (by defintuon) Let T'"' surface tensian of the liquid of the drop then work done to Increase this area8Kr.PhysIC)S\ Let r .dr)2 +(. (P.·9. Increalle In volume '"' 1l' =: .
9. LI V = 41tr2 .Hydrostatics and Surface TerusIOn Hence the excess of press.2 Nm' and !.5 x 1(}'l Nrrr'.ure 'p' inside an air bubble of radius r In water of surface tension T is also given by I I p=2: (In) Soap Bubble JI'Ioatmc In AIr The soap bubble has two surfaces of eqUal surface areas .2 X 102 Nm C2 = I44Nm4 l~lO 3 1SS .81t'r . the outer and the Inner Fig. dA = 2[ 41t'(r+ .Nm2 =100Nm4 lxlO3 (11) Excess of pressure inside an air bubble In water 2 4T r =r 2T' =2 x 7. chang" In voluqte remaining the same i.I. we get work done W' = pLi. ==4x2.3: What is the cIyference oJpressure between Inside and outside oj a (0 spherical soap bubble In (U) air bubble In water.. (9. r hence the excess of pressure inside a soap bubble floating In air = '4fi. 8ol1ltlon: W Excess of pressure inside a soap bubble of radius r is au. .e.r= TI6nrLlr.5XlO.· ' G tGJ . Ll. .2 X 10.9.V = p41t'r Llr 2 Therefore.~ .  iii' .Ulfat:e tension oj soap solutton = 2.. 9.Llr Work done = W=T ·(61t'r· Llr) FIC.15) (c). eadtoJradlus lmm? Given swface tension oJ water = 7.. Therefore. .1r)2)_ 2 [41t'r2 J =2. equating W'to W. 4T which &". Llr.1111b1..e.  . .s p=. its Increase In surface area when the radius Is increased by i!Jr will also be double i.ff p = Excess Inside pressure then. Which is twice that Inside a spherical drop of same raatus ~ or an air bubble In water ElauDple .e. where T =Surface Tension of soap solution .r =I6n r .15 Ie): Soap bubble . we get p41t'r2 Ll. Atrbubble . and (IU) spherical drop oJ water. PII.
..:'. therefore. . r'" lI'tg. .2 x 1O~ Nm2 =144 Nm2 Ix 103 Ezample 9.:'.:l·:j ~~. Given weight oj the disc 1000 N..:. . ... get easily detached on squeezing the clothe . . ...'7..:'. Using Ii detergent dissolved in water makes the catch of dirt particles to the clothe fibres weak. .. . .... .....:.. Ort the swjace oj a liquid oj sw:face tension 2.111 (d): (c) Detergents and Surface Tension Detergents can remove the stains of oil on clothes.. .:.. .. .. . bf momg . Water is used as cleanlng agent.:~ f moIecuIee with . .. . but the surface tension of detergentsolutions is st1ll smaller and hence the detergents are more effective than soap. can now be . .5 x 10' Nrrrl and then raised up.. .. ~. .•~ t. ..'.:(:. . ..:'1. lnett . . What Is the puU required. . This is desirable for washing and cleaning since the high surface tension of pure water protects it from penetrating easily between the fibres of materials where dirt" particles or oil molecules are held up. SMp ri" :·:~~~:~~:~~f.. = Solution: Here a liquid film is fonned when the plate is raised and hence a downward force F due to surface tension acts on it :t==11 besides its weight Wacting downwards. .~). .:'). 186 . .. Soap and detergents have the effect of lowenng the surface tension of water.:... which. to llfl: the disc from the liquid swjace. .Physics (1l1) Excess of pressure inside spherical drop of water 2T' = r = 2 x7.4: A rectangular thin disc ojedge length 20 em Is reslm vertically .. 9.. . .':'i. You know the surface tens' n of soap solution is smaller than that of pure water.
... . ... ..... ' ... .... 187 . ............. .... . .17: Motion qftWdr. .. . Swface tension qfsoap solution 18 • 25 x 1()'J Nm' .. mfneral ores etc.. The water.. (d) WUcluck Floatlq in Water It C....... .... ............ .. .:.. . .. ........... d. tablet of camphor to the bottom of a waxduck and float It on still water surface.. ~ 5.. ..... Thuddndof proceSs using surface active detergents or ..... .... . ..... .... ...... .. .. ... .. 2. . globes of dirt surrounded by detergent and then by water.............. . ....Hydrostatics and Sutrace~• . .. or (a) IA soap bubble In air qfradfus 4 em. . it starts moving this way and'l ~ ...... ........... ... It Is time to work how much you have learnt... . ................ . ............. .. ..ur:raetants Is Important not only for cleaning the' clothes but also in recovering of 011. Do /he solids also show the property of swjaJ:e tension? Why? ... . . .............. thus causes motion of the duck towards the pure water due to the net difference of force of surfaee tension...2 . . ... ..... ............e......... 1 ~ oU (say) on ...... .:. 1N1'EXT QUESTIONS 9. .. ......j. .... ... ... .... reduce drastically the surface tensfon of wateroiL It may even become (avourable to form such Interfaces i. ... . ............... . Swface tension ofwatsr 18 ! 727 )( 1()'J Nm'....... 11.portant thclt the en ..~~~j of water "just below the duck becomes smhller ... 10 . .... . ...... • ••••• ••••• .... ........been observed that though the Uquld surfaces of all the Uqulds contaiiled In the wide mouth vessels appear to be plane and horizontal..... the value of swjaJ:e energy depend? . I . ... ........ .............. 3..... ....the other.. ..... i .. Whll dDes the mercury collect Into globules when poured on plane s~ .. ..causing the duck to move..· Wh4t 18 the thickness of a sUTjace /ayer?On what jadDrs does.1.......... . .... Solve the following questions then go ahead............ .. ...... .. 9... Which has more ela:eSS pressure iilstde It  (0 An air bubble In water qfradfus 2 ern.ur. ........... . ..... . than the surrounding. . ... . . ..... ..... = Now.. . " .. ". .. . .. _ 4... •••••• .. .... . fm..!ace tension qf IfcJufU decreaaes due to dissoluecl impurities If you stick a ~: =p::r:=::~o:a::: Thus the surface tension '~~~~:. ......... Whqt tS the differei1cebetweenjorce of coheSion andjorce qf adhesion? ...... ......................................S ANGLE OF CONTACT It has'. ....... . .....
"Obviously such a surface at the boundary Is concave spherical [since radius of a circle is perpendicular to the circumference at every potnt. Similarly due to symmetry.18. 8'.F.12 shows the various forces acting on a molecule In the surface of a liquid near the boundary contatned In a vessel. and Fa' Case~ 1: If F.e . the angle of contact is obtuse (i.e. cos e acting vertically downwards is In the lower quadrant acting Into the liqUid.) 'Ibis Is true in the case of water filled In a glass tube. upon tIve material of tIve container. The foree F. 9. Obviously. case 2: If Fa < F. therefore. right angles to this F. . adjusts itself at. the surface at the ooundary is convex spherical. Due to the liquid being present only In the lower quadrant. and hence becomes convex spherical. For example. the water is filled In a container of parrafflne wax. comes hOrizontal or plane. sin e and F. the resultant Fit of (F. Fig. and when mercwy is filled In glass jar. and for mercury In contact with glass 9 = 130' . greater than 90')..' all the molecules in it near the boundary adjusts Itself at right angles· to .. sin e. less than 90') and for convex spherical meniscuses.. acting at right angled to the boundary depends upon the relative values of F. cos e lies ·outside the wall. sin 9) and F. the resultant adhesive farce . i I 188 . the resultant cohesive foree FQ acting on the molecule at P acts in a symmetrical direction as shown tn the fig.12(a}. 9. can be resolved into two mutually perpendicular components Fe cos 9 acting vertically downwards and F.1'. concavecspherical or convexspherical. the net horizontal force is acting outward and then the resultant of (Fa . For example for water In contact with glass angle of contact . the waH of the container into the liquid is called angle of contact O. )1'. when water is filled in the gJass jar. the surface is concave spherical at the boundary.e.. the liqUid surface and hence . however. 9.. Since liquids cannot sustain constant shear. If. \ Case 3: If. r . it is thus clear that the shape oftlve liquid sru:face at the boundary depends both. the resultant F.~ . the surface of water appears convex spherical at the boundary. however Fa = F. > Fe sin 9.1 acting horizOntally and F. is . sin 9. RE. and tIve nature of the liquid. for concave spherical meniscuses (surfaces of small area as In a capillary tube) the angle of contact is acute (i. 1\1:rls is true for the case of mercury filled in the glass tube.(er Fig. Fe cos e $ctlng vertically downards and hence the liquid surface near the bouJPdary .. The angle which the tangent to the liquid sw:iace at the boundary makes with.Fa acts outwards at right angles to the walls of the contatner vessel. so that no component of Fit acts tangential to the liqUid surface. sin e .Physics their surfaces at the point of contact of the liquid and the contatner are mostly curved i.. The liquid surface at the boundary.
The water from the' ground seeps in and rlses.a' nco 11. +_. the depression of liquid in capillary tube is observed.. below the lcwel in t.e.. . Thus the actiOn of rise or fall of liquid level In a capUlary tube above or .. 9. .taIner is called capWcuv aetion or phenomenon of capUlarity.89 . The Ink rises Into the narrow alrgaps In the blotting paper and thus gets absorbed COIripletely. up along the narrow lanes· (CIlpUlaries) of air In the wall.:he capillary is dipped in the can. ".apillary tube remains at the same level as·1n the outer vessel. 1 mm is called a· capUiary tube.tube of small crosssection i..any liquid and the meniscus of liquid InBlde It to be concave. tension. ~ tidies .piUcuv action. Similarly you must be using blotting paper to absorb extra Ink which· your Ink pen sometimes spns over your noteoook. 'phenomenon qf . Fig.e.Rhapeo of the /ij1dd menlo"".tqui1 container when . called ca. Let us take a capillary tube dipped In..Hydrostatics and Surface Tension F:.". Cnfu the capfIIarv tidies i. ... as is observed in case of wide bore tubes. it Is the situation of stable eqUilibrium..18: ~t. Further suppose that the' level of liquid inside the c... However. TIt. i_If Such an Important phenomenon of the elevatiOn of a Uquld in an open .. capillary tube Is basically due to surface.• 9. up qf liquid a..6 CAPILLARY ACTION You waul noticed that the walls of some old houses develnp moIsture to some height above the ground duling ralny season...19. A tube with line bore of diameter . in case of liquids having convex meniscus.gainst gravt".. .". This happens In the case of concave liquid {Ileniscus only.. We have to check whether.
20 (b).:. atmospheric pressure =P i. The pressure at A and D ... =~I"'__• G _ _ '_' All· f:= =:. the height to which the liquid rises In the capillary tube to achieve Pc • p. Inside the capillary tube at the same horizontal level. O'he condition necessary to achieve stable equilibrium.) Now.: '. outside the capillary tube and the point C. P =atmospheric preS8ure Pg =PI"=P 2T PI' PE =r 2T r 2T r 190 • . Fig. ': ':: = ":. __ _ . TI1.1 EzpreilioD for rile In capillary tube Let h. But preS!lure at A • PA • Preuure at B .:G: . ..(b) Fall ..::v. there exists a preS!lure difference between the points B. = = ===  • .':.. "".:'11::.. On the same arguments It can be proved that If the liquid meniscus In the capillary tube Is convex.. PA + PD . caplUaty Consider the points A.20) (b). let us consider two more points E &: F as shown in the figure (9....". 9.~ pofnt D and A being exposed to air. P. :: :.... B.6.r : __ (a) _.. Thus. there will be a fa11in the liquid level in the capillary Fig.F A . C & D just near the liquid surface. FIf.. the liquid would rush from the region point B to the region of point C causing a rise of liquid in the caplilaly tube till the preS!lure at C becomes equal to the pressure at the point B. 9...e. preS!lure at C r' 2T 2T .19: Rise and 1a1lln capfila1y tube due '" concave and meniscus respectively fnolde u.p =p ... P (say) Since the preS!lure at the concave side of the liquid meniscus hal to be 2T greater than that on the other side by we can write.....( c) 00I11II!X . 1 hRI.. The polntF Is exposed to atmoephere and Is on the concave side of the liquid sureace: therefore and PI" . PB . 9.. Therefore.20 (c).. 9. ·0 '. p : C • r r or where r· radius of the concave surface.
not plane and h.Angle of contact of the liquid In contact with the matertal of the capillary tube and r . PD = PE + hdg.21). PD. 'lbe rigorous mathematical treatment suggests that h should be replaced by (h + ~): hence from (M R 2TcosB h +"3= Rdg \9\ .. lUse In cap1l1aiy t\.. height to the lowest point of the curved surface..radius of the concave sphertcai meniscus. hdg= 2T r or h= 2T rd·g .p. where d • density of the liquid =(p_2. since the liquid surface in the capillary tube is curved t. Pc (very close together) ... comparing expression (1) and (Ii) p=p_ 2T +hdg r wh1ch gtves..Hydrostatics and Surface Tension Also.he =h= 2TcosB R . a connection ahould be applied for the excess of water pres.. (Ii) Therefore. 9 .. (lv) Q .. If R • radius of the capillary tube and 9..ent In the tube fonnl..:11 S However.. (In the same horizontal plane) • PA (very close together ... T r=cosB R ..e. (1) or PD = P • the atmosphertc pressure .)+hdg But .ng the surface concave. (IIi) Now from the geomoetry of the figure (9... d.
slnce 9 is very very small ..6.6. which gives cos a =* cos 8'+ 1 and R being very very small in comparison to h. the level ofmercury is seen tofall by 3.3: Water rises to a height of B em in a certain capfllary tube. the p.:.!.":". Solution: The rise or fall in a capillary is given by .~ ..45) 8 (1)(1. !2=_8_: cosq.4.41 x 13. Compare the swface tenslonof water and mercury. T2 1( . fall =(h 2 ) =.s'.. and (v) can be approximated to I h = lfg Wld T 9 d = Rh 2 I . Tl = (3..::. and angles of contact of water and mercury as O' and 135' respectfuely.. 2TcosB h = R d 9 : where R = radius of cap1llary tube For water rise =(h ) =2Tl COsBI 1 Rd1g 2T.45 cosq.PhysiCS which gives T = R(h+R)d'9 3 ••• (v) 2cosB Same expression can be obtained for fall of liquid in case of convex meniscus in the capillary. Give specffiJ: gravity qfmercury 13. _.41 and d dens1tyofmercw:y) d~ = 13.. dens1tyofwater ..(}uatlons (iv).::. 3. R~g which gives or 1 We are given.2COSB~ For mercury..45 em.) x 1. For water..L h. (vI) Ezample 9. In the same tube.6 .. speciftcgravttyofmercwy=. cosO 1 1.. = 008135° ".
..... The liqUid molecules In the liquid surface have extra potential energy called surface energy......... with .3....15 .... Ct¢ulate the rqdius of a capillary to have a rise of 3 m when dipped in a vessel containing water of swface tension 7.tty of water = 1000 Jrgrrr.... or IT... .....12T...... ..... 5. air...... Why? 2......... .1) given at the end of thls lesson gives surface tensions of some common liquids at 20·C.. • Hydrostatic pressure 'P at a depth 'h' below the free surface of a liquid of denl!lty d ............lack .... an equal uniform pressure Is transmitted over the whole liquid.. INTEXT QUESTION 9.7 WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNT • • Uqulda are Incapable of withstanding any shearing forces for any length of lime..... Why then the water is not transferred from the ground.. 9 = 10 ms'.. The value of surface tension decreases with increase in tempearture and due to dissolved impurities.. ......• Aeeordtng to Pascal's law of transmiSSion of liquid pressun:.... Uqulds do exert pre8!IUl"<' on lnI!Ide It la given by P ........ Does the uaIue of angle of contact depend on the uaIue of swface tension of a liquid? Water has concave meniscus in a glass capillary.1 Table (9..set and acts In a dtn:ctton at right ang1es to the surface of liqUid there: • • • Hydraulic press....12 66...........=0.............. floor to the first floor by using a capt1la1'y of appropriate radius without using any water pump? Why is It dif1icu1t to enter mercury in a capillary tube by simply dippL'1g it in a trough containing mercury while designing a thennometer? We canform soap bubblesjloattng in air by blowing soap solution til the help of a glass tube. 'when a pressure 18 applied anywhere on the surface of a given mass of an enclosed liquid at rest....... and also angles of contact of some liquids........... It gets tnmIImltted througllOut the whole liquid of the contalnlng...2 x llr' Nm1• Given den..... ........ Angle of contact = zero.. 9.. but not water bubbles. ..........work on the principle of the Pascal's law......... ...... hydrauliC brakes and hydraulic ......Hydrostatlcs and Surface Tension 8 =0... because of which water rises to certain height in the capillary.._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.... 3.............hdg the !!Ide wal1a of the conlalner..................... 4..... A thin layer of the surface of the liquid of thickness equal to the molecular range of attraction 18 called surface layer or surface film.....
angle of contact. < 1". cose .. 1. A liquid Rlled In • caplUaJy tube hall ClOrIWK mcnIacua. 3.PhysIcs • • 11Ie liquid cpntalned In a >essel has planer surface because a planer surface having a definite boundary has th..8m Ie 3Nm". The surface tenSion T of a Ilquld may be deflned as force per unlt length acting em an Imaglnary line supposed to be drawn In the surface. • The surface tension finds Ita Important application In clearing of woven clothes. Angle of contact Is defined as the angle between the tangent to and the wall of the container Into the liquid. Surface tension of any Uquld Is a property by virtue of which the Ilquldsurtacea behave like a stretched membrane. fIbe rIae In capillary h=rpg • • 2T' There exjsts an excess pressure 'p' on the concave 'Side of radius r of the liquid surface given by : for sphertcal water drop p = ~ . • • • the liquid aurface " Surface tension (T) may also be defined as the work done per unlt Increase In area of the Uquld surface and Is measured In Jm.. la the WIIriI: output greater than work Input? Explain.What Is Its Importance In dally uee? 194 . Explain the working of hydraulic preiS. Find Its dlmenslonal formula. 2. What WIll be the hydrostatic pressure at a hole In the side wall of the same _ I at a depth of 0. 5. 4. spheriCIU or convm< spherical.6 m? In a hydraulic press how much weight II needed to 11ft a heavy atone of _ _ 1000 kg? Given the ratio of the areas of crosaaect:lona of the two platona Ia . aID 8 > 1".Force of cohesion and 8 .00 dr'Opl of water of aome radlus coaIlIe to form a larger drop of water. It II measured In Nm'.1". What II peculiar about liqUid preeeure? Derive an expression for hydrostatic presaure due to a column of Ilquld. aln 7. mlnlmum surface area. 9. State Pascal's law. > 1". Detergents are considered better cleaner of ony clothes becauee they reduce the surface tenalon of wateroil.". (aJ 1". If 1". 8.whereT=swjacetenstonqf t h e _ r for air bubble in water p = 2T r jorsoapbubbleinalr p = E r T' • surface tension qf soap solution.5. The liquid surfaces In capillary tube are observed to be conc. The hYdrostatic paressure due to a Ilquld filled In a _ I at a depth 0. e...Foree of adhesion. (h) 1". (c) 1". lhIs curvature Is due to surface tension effect.of the water drop? Why? 10: What happens to the temperature of liqUid when a bigger drop Ia sprayed Into many drope? . 6. 9.. Define surface tenllon. then which one of the f'olIowIJIjI relatlona should hold good? (aJ 1". lin e. 1".8 TERMINAL QUESTIONS I. Deacrlbe an experiment to show that liquid surfaces behave like a atretched membrance. What happena to the temperature .
4xI5OOx9.". Show that the rise In temp (All) of a liqUid drop formed by the coaltslng of 1000 drops each of radius r. 5000 500N .05 m and radius 0. a1 d Output Force _P_x_A.. The air from the bigger balloon will rush into the smaller balloon till the sizes of the two become equal.. Why the detergents have replaced soaps to clean otly clothes? 16. 1\vo spherical balloons have been Inflated with air to different sizes. IPa 6.. Why Is It dlfllcult to blow water bubbles In air whUe It Is easier to blow soap bubble In air? 15. 5 m 72 Consult the text..05 Pressure due to the weight of the elephant = 10 = . . WhIch process Involves more pressure to blow a soap bubble of radius 3 em inside the sopa solution.8 = 5880 Nm' Container B .2 A2 MechaIllC a vantage = = P x Al = Al Input Force = Ratio of the area of the large cylinder to the area of small cyI1nder 4. They are now connected together with a hollow leakproof tube. =0. m .HydrostatiCS and Surface Tension II ~ What Is capillary action? What are the factors upon which the value of rise or fall of a liquid In a capillary tube depends? 12. What do VOll exuect out of the following observations: (I) The air from smaller balloon will rush Into the bigger balloon till whole of Its air tlows Into the later.2:.3Ix2000x9. 10 5. or outside the soap solution In air? Why? ANSWERS TO INTEXT QUESTIONS Intext Questions 9..) rps 17.. I 3. un 18.27 x 10' Nm'.. Pascal or Nm" In 51.. 3. Pressure applied by the weight of the boy =~=500Nm" 0.. Calculate the approximate rise of liqUid level In the cap!l\ary tube of length 0. INm' . Given surface tension of that liquid for the m . spectflc heat s In Joules per kg per ·C and sur face tenSion T Is gtven by All = 2.7(. when dipped slightly In a liquid of density 1000 kg ma.1 1.terlal of that capillary as 7. 195 . What Is the angle of contact for a plane liqUid surface at the boundanes 01 tne container Is 14. p. PA = 0.8=6076Nm" 2...2 x 1()3 m.1 50 = W =>W=5000kgwt. density P. 0.
(I). Due to surface tenSion forces.. Intext QUestions 9.. So 01 tile 8~~. (II) The radius of tile caplllaIy requlrcd for such a high rise Is ve. The value of surface energy depends upon the area 4. 196 _ .. Outside the solution In air.the water 81m breaks down. Force between molecules of the same substance Is called force of cohesion and the force between molecules of different substances Is called fQrce of adheaton.y ve.y Ii1IIIIll slso the radius of the menlscus Increases after reaching the other end "" that water does not come out of the caplllaIy tube of Insuffident 1ength (Le.2 I..= Mr '1 3. A layer of thickness equal to the range of molecular of attraction Is calJed surface layer.. S. they have lightly bound molecules. Because two surface are to be produced for which excess 4T pressure Is ~ r (whl1e excess inside pressure for blowing a bubble In 8Olutton _ = 2..__.) Intext Questions 9. For definition consult the text.2xllf' hpg 3xlOOOxlO m=4. 7. Force MLT' [ Dimensional formula of surface tension = Length ~ . (W)Mercwy has a convex meniscus and there Is a which makes It dlllIcult to enter. 2. (v) r=E. No. smaller length than the rI8el._.. ran In letrel of mercury In a caplllazy (Iv) The excess pressure inside air bubble being more due to large surface tension .= Obviously air bubble In water has more excess pressure inside It.3 (I) No.Physics Hence the boy can balance the weight of elephant... p for air bubble In water 2T =.L .= 2x7.= 4T' 2x727xlO" 2x10" 4x25x10" 4 x \0' p for soap bubble In air =.8xIO"m _.
4.J(a. 3. UAJaids ID coatact with air Surface _ _ wail af AIqIle of contact Nm'" 7.68 x let' 2.1: SURPACB TENSION 011' SOIllt UQUIDS AT :. 197 . 6.Hydrostaucs and ::mrlace 1enslO!I TABLB 9. Meremy"' Soap solution 43. 9. water 2..5 x let' 2.'wpentlne carbon teln! chIOIide Ethanol Melhyle Iodide 10. 8' O' lOT 140' 1.5 x let' 3.27 x let' 1) gIass II) silver Ul) paraffin degree.89 x let' 6.4 x let' 2.73 x let' 2. '.OOC 8. 8. Glycer1ne 7. 1) Soda lime 29' 29' 30' 33' glass II) Pyrex glass IU) Lead glass tv) Fused Quartz • Decreases with age.2 x let' 2.27 x let' soda Ume glass Ollve 011 Bcmene 5.
Now you shall study about some of ·the chracterlstic properties of liquids in motion i. It does not flow contim. That is why.2 OBJECTIVES After studying iliis lesson. based on viscosity t4fects oJUquids. you know that water flows through cylindrical tubes of different crosssections.lously.l INTRODUCTION In the previous lesson you have studied about the hydrostatic pressure and surface tension of liquids. • explain d!fferent daily life phenomena. the liquid spreads on the ground.e hydrodynamics. • state Bernoulli's principle and explain d!fferent dat1y life phenomena based on Bemou!U's principles. while watering the dawn or phints. the stream of water falls at a larger distance away from the pipe held in your hand at a certain height above the ground. The velocity of flow changes when it has to flow from a wider tube to a narrower tube. they do not show elastic behaviour. There are some other 1ri. Do you know why? This can be expjatned on Bernoulli's principle. but comes to rest after spreading to small distance. which deals with the stationaxy liqulds. Many of you must have experienced that when you press. In this lesson you willieam abOut such peculiar property of liqulds. you should be able to: • d!fferentiate between streamline and turbulant rrwtton: • dejlne critical velocity oJjIow oJliquid and Reynol. However.teresting activities which You must have seen or' performed yourselves whOJ!e explanation can be undestood by the study of this lesson.10 VISCOSITY AND BERNOULLI'S THEOREM ( iO. the mouth of a softplastic 01' rubber waterpIpe. You would have noticed that when you tilt a bucket filled with any liquid on to a horizontal ground.. You have also learned that the liquids are incompressible or they nearly zero compressibility.d's number. shF 10.ed Into a smaller volume like elastic solids. They can not be sqUee7. .
When the velocity of flow II is less than the critical velocity lie for a given liquid flowing through tube of given diameter.is touching the upper layer as well as pressed by the weight of the upper layer. before reaching the ground or bottom of the container. but if you drop the same stone. A stream line is defined as the curve whose ~ B':' tangent at any point gives the direction of the AO ~ =t)c liquid velocity at that point. In steady flow. U::"'The two streamlines do not Intersect each other (In a stream line flow). 10.lfIminar flow when the liquid is flowing over a horizontal surface.ViljcOSity and Bernoulli's nieorem '\ 10. ThiS. the streamlines coincide with the line of flow. If every element passing through agivenpointofthe pathfoUows the same line of flow as that of preceedmg elements. Ifthe velocity of flow exceeds the critical velocity ve ' the mlxlng of streamlines /takes place and theflow path becomes zigzag. (besides surface tension about whicll you have studied In the earlier lesson) called uiscosfty of liquids. its velocity continuously increases till it reaches the ground due to the action of acceleratidn due to gravity. 199 .is said to be due to the liquid friction between the two successive layers being operative all along the surfaces of contact. In deep water. because two tangents.3. when In liquid state develops one more characteristic property. The top most layer is moving (sliding over the lower layers of the liquid) with maximum velocity. ' flows turbulantIy. Such a flow Is called laminar flow. Why? Why does the glycerine flow slowly whlle water flows quickly down the same Inclined plane? All these are due to the viscous nature of liquids. can be drawn at the point of Intersection giving two directions of velocities which is not rItI. y'F 10. Hence moves with a slightly lower steady velocity. 10.3. the streamlines cutting each other and the motion is said to be tur1ndant.2 VisFosity as Uquid friction The stream line motion resUltS tn a. If you drop a stone from the top of a high building.e. the velocity of'the falling stone Initially Increases but after certain time. the flow ts said to be strwamline.1: StTeamUnejlDw possible. How it happnes? The liquid when in slow motion moves In layers but when In fast motion.3 VISCOSITY All matter. the motIon Is streamlined.1 Streamline motion The path followed by an element of a moving liqUid is called a line of flow. In such a case we can imagine the entire thickness of the stream of the liqUid made up of Iargenumber of plane layers (laminas) one sliding past the other i. attains a constant velocity showing that the effect of acceleration due to gravity has been made Ineffective. one flowing over the other. the layer just below the top most layer.
j" Suppose. and (III :I' "1 l'clocir y gradient (~~ )of the region in which the layers are moving .:kwanl "'''. the velocIty of a layer of a height x. 111" layds.troy the r!'lative motion bl. .viscousforce..2 : Laminar }low QJ"a Liqurd to this nature. tho' velodt y oft he successive layers goes on decreasing due to this taQgential h . 10.he upper layer i. .'i. . i\u will also be small and <1u du we can write <1x = dx = differential of'u' W.horizontal surface. tend to de>. other. III lammar tlow.t. therefore.proportional to iiJ ifl(: (lre(l of contact (A) of the liquid swfaces.J<>I!'/1 '. TIle rate qf increase of ueloctty with the height (or distllnce from the growul.ix)is(U+AU).e. = velocity gradient. This tendency of the liquid by virtue of which it tends to destroy the relative motion between its adjascent laminar layers is called viscosity. the magnitude of the tangential backward (opposing the flow) viscous fo~e 1.2) shows the lanIinar flow of a liquid ~n. from the ground is u and.{'''llS lim'c till all the layers keep moving with the velocity of the lowest layer. Hut the lowest layer is touching the ground and can be assumed to be "taionary due to large friction between solid ground and liqUid. therefore. some exteqlal force should be applied to counter the effect of viscous force.wcen thti"ln. Due Ground Fl.Phy~lCS " Since the layers are in contact with!. thenitls kn()wnas velOCity gradient and It is given as follows .J = (u+<1\'){u) Au =(x+<1x)(x) <1x If the limit <1x. O.. ' T() maintain the "laminar flow. the upper 1Ii.a . in a streamlined or lanIinar flow of viscous flUids. Similarly.layer and thf' tower layer moving with smaller velocity tends to retard' the mn'. results that the liqUid in larninarflow should stop flowing after covering some distance. It. AC{. a liquid friction force or tangential backward force acts between the two layers and is called the.yer moving with higher velocity tends to accelerate the motion of theioweF.Qrding to Poiseville.r. It IS thus clear that due to this viscous force the velocity of the upper layer gets decreased to the value of the lower layer in contact with it. FIg (1 O. nus isusually done by creating a pressure difference between the two points between which the Jarninar fow ie to be maintained. 'x'. that orlhe next upper layer at a distance (x+.
which Is measure of the viscous nature (or liquid friction) of the liquid. However in SI system... TIle value of critical velocity of any liqUid depends upon the 11 viscous nature of the liqUid (Tl) ill the diameter of the tube (tl) through which the liquid is flowing and iiiJ also on the density of the liquid (p) If Tl = coefficient of viscosity of the liqUid.. which is measure of the viscous nature of the flulds. thenh=F <Ix Hence. Since. when the veloci1¥ of low is small i. Its dimensional formula is 1MI.VlacClOlity and Bemoulll'sTheorem I.: 1 v a ' v a 1 a .. 1 kg m· 1 S·l = h Poise. or FaA adu dx FaA!i2. It is measured in Poise in C.· T1 1 and hence its theroretical unit is ~O Also INm's . As you haVe seen earlier. the floW becOJaes turbulent i.= 11 • R. when the velocity of flow exceeds the critical velocity.e. its practical unit is Nm"s...... A. then it is found experimentally that critical velocity (lI) U 0.a pd Or 11.t!. pd . 0..e. less than a certain value. to tile tangential backward viscous force acti1lg on a Wlit area of a laminar layer moving in a region of W1it velocity gradient.1) where 11 = constant of proportionality and is called the ~t qf viscosiqr. 10.(:J F IfA=lm2.~.. system where 1 Poise z 1 g em' s".. (10.G. the flow remaiM streamlined. coe. dU=ls·I.: u. dx du F=I1Adx .flicWnt of I1Iscosfty of any jIuid is defined 'as equaJ. called critical velocity..2) 201 'f ... p' d ".. and l.2 Critical Velocity and ReynoDd'. (10..!!.S..3. N.e they do not remain well defmed streamlined paths.
2ms. Where 1(' = . = contstant 202 of ne· 10. If.05 1575 .e... or 1)< = 2000xO.3 emsI). R =constant of propertionality and is called BeynoId'sNumber. It has been obselVed that for alI liquids. Since R = udp TJ R = 30x 2x 1.s aixJui 30 cms'. i. .1575 « 2000.8 . the value of Reynold's number corresponding to Vc is nearly the same i. . .flow laminar or turbu1ant? Density of blood 1. another liqUid of density 1.1 :The average speed of blood in the artery.e. Thus.'s cycle i.0 em) dnring the resting pari.25 emsI..' w1Il beCome turbulent while flowing through a tube of diameter O. ems Therefore.Ol lxl T] 20 ems I [using. Fa r. 4. If u =average speed of flow of a liquid on any surface then Reynold number R. s~ei:l of 0. It lias no dimensions. (1O.Iate the Reynold's number to decide about this. Is the.3 Stoke's . can be expresed as..3. the flow is laminar. the critical velocity is =vc 2000xO.0x 102 Stnce.e.~: Experiments show that flow Is la'minar if R has a value less than 2000 but is turbulant when Rexceeds this value. however. (d = 2. Let us caicU. id 1 viSCOUS IIqu I I v 1. According to Stoke's law FaT]._ _ _ _ 1 or FaT] ru F K' 'lrv. however. if the water flows at a.Olm. d=lem. 10.02 poise flows through the same tube of diameter I em.0Ipoise} Thus for water.0 X 102 poise. R = 2000.2 gmt cc 'and coef1lcient of viscosity 0. its mOjion w1Il remain streamlined (because v = 25 emsI < Uc = 33. .05 gm i:rrr". if this liquids also floWs with a speed of 25cms~'. p=lgm/em.j!earl. it IS'c1ose to turbulant flow.Physics Where.fi water . of. law Sir George Stokes gave an expirlcal law for the magnitude of the tangential backward viscous force (F) acting on a freely falling smooth spherical body of radius (n In a highly viscous liquid of coefficient of viscosity (Tf) moving with velocity (v) which Is known as Stoke's law. Ezample 10. the flow of velocity greater than 0. Tf= 4.2xl . from equatio~ R= udp T] .02 33 3 1 1. SoltittuJI. Fa I. its motion through this tube w1Il be turbulant. = .
contained in a long jar as shown in fig. 4 3 . (10.. Thereafter.5) Table 10.3) to fall freely. then it also experiences a tangential backward viscous force 1\. In such a case. called.: where d. the tenninal velocity. where = density of the viscous liquid If u = velocity of the liquid at any instant of time.. is the viscosity of the liqUid.1 gives the values of coefficient of viscosities of some common viscGus liquids: . and the spherical ball then attains a constant velocity v. it has been round that k'=61t.d. due to tnertia of motion.. (10. (10. A situation may arise.. given by The weight = W =( ~ It r3 .4) Let us cons1d~r a smaIl spherical heavy ball of radius r to fall in the highly viscous liquid like glycerine. Experimentally. Initially W> Fv + FB and the spherical ball keeps on falling with acceleration and hence continuously gain in velocity will result continuous increase tn the value of Fv also. The moment the sphere enters the liqUid. = de~sity of solid ballmaterial.' when Fv becomes so large that W=Fv+FB and then a =0.g= 6 1tTjr1)t +ltr 4 3d19 1tr 3 3 Thus.. gives .ro] I . it starts experiencing a buoyant force FB =(~ 1tr 3 ~ )d 9 1 Where d.ViscoSity and Bernoulll's theorem proportionality. hence Stoke's law is given by F = 6... the ball falls with constant velocity v.ds )g acts downwards = mg.
. 6. ... .284 x 2x 1. . ..... . .. ... . .. . . .49 x 6.. . .. . .8x(lOOO1.. . .. _ =2_r2. dl ) 9x 1.. . . . . r 29(d. Glycerine 4. .. ..12 m 2x9. ... ...13 x 4.:. ... 1....12 ms'..1 '...{d~'L_d.No. . let us check how much you have learnt.01 mm Now.. ...!I.TABU!: 10•. .. . .... Air 1<t" 1<t" lOS &¥amp" 10.. 0. .... Choose the COl led answers The value qf" qf any liqUid depends upon (a) r\Qture qfthe liquid: (bJ radius qfthe ball: . .... .for __ ... .. . .. . . .. ~ between s. .. . . . . 5. 1.... .. .) 91) '91)'\).... On what physical quantities does crfttcal ueIocity depend for a viscous liquid? s. .21) I.. .. .. . Given "for air.005 x 0.. .. ..357 x 0. . .1 :" . ... _ . .. ':"1. . .!. . Try to solve the following quetltione. . . radlu8 of the drop • r.5 x 1.. ....2: Determtne the radius ofths dropq{ram waterjailing tl1roug~ air.... . .. .636 x 0...0 x 84 x 1. . . .. .. '\).. Temperature "C S..469 x 0... 3. Since.. . 1N1'DT Q1JB8TION 10.. lOS m.. . 1. .. .treamUnejlow and turbulentjfows ... ... .. 11 ..5 x 149 x 1.. . . .. ..8 x 1<t" kgrrr'tr i and density qf air. .. . 2.. .. . . . ... . . . . ..2 20 20 16 20 20 0 10' 10< lCt2 ~ 9: i 10. . . . . 792 x 1. . ...8 X 1011 xO..e... 0 20 40 60 80 100 20 37 20 l<t" 1<t" 1<t" 1<t" l<t" 1<t" 10' 10< 10. . . . with terminal ueIoctty 0. Honey Blood Turpentine on Benzene Light machine 011 TIn 011 Olive oil . . Uquid8 water Coefficient ofvtscosity kgmIs·' 1.. ... .. .7l x 2...21 1c:grrr3. •. . .::9:.... (I) ... Solutloa: ... . . . .
..... glycerine will take longer than water.e_..... ms' Pre... p.ts of a machine..:....nrr~v t.. t hen It ha......... 4."..e en• ...... ..... (c) air 5..:.... Earlier you have studied about the kinetic r.... however.' city qfJluid glow.4 BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE Have you ever thought..ner~· ancl pnh'nhnl r.4 ........B . __ I. J.pen. how air circulates In a dogs burrow: why smoke comes out quickly out .. ~n a principle worked out by Daniel Bernoulli (17001782)....5 x 10' kg m~'.. 10.or<'m time g= 9...' The jlu.... 10...fd is nonlJisCOUS or the tdfect oj 205 _. the preaure hwh '... The fluid til Incompressible I...of a chimney: or why car's convertible top bullles upw8rtl at high speed? You must have definitely expertenced the bull!1n~ upwards ofyour umbrella on a stonnyratny day. density Q[ copper =B.. .... (b) terpentine oil. Equatlc D Bernoulli developed an equation that expresses this principle quantitatively...f'1 hlllh'....... All these can be undt"rstond ..........1 BerDOuW'.. Which ofthefollowtng will be the better lubricant to be used ill the rotating .... a pressure enrrgy also. Its·A. density.... d Is mavinll under a pressure difference. . density does not change when It passes tube or vice versa. The terminal velocity ofcopper sphere of mdius 4... (d) on all the above physical quantities (iI) Glycerine and water are pushed on the horizontal ground with I.. . ~ ...wlll move through longer distance before coming to rest (c) Both wi1l move through the same distance before coming to rest. ..... .. Pli..he same inltfaljerk by tlIting their containers (a) 1lIe water will move through larger distance before coming to rest (b) Glycerine."nt ot mau • m. pr~ •• "n· enCI'IIY • preaaure difference )( volume =p X ( ~ ) or preuure enertY per unit mass Joule p =d Joule 10...26 ms'....00 mm inJalling through a tank ofoU at 5O'C is 0....... but In case of liquids there t. ... Bernoulli's principle states that 'wh'nt the uelocfty ofJluid whigh.. made to deVelop this equation. (a) water....9 xl ()' kg m " (111r1 Viscosity and Bernoulli's Th<...~_ Three Important assumptions are to be .... the prwauN _low and wherw the....~(c) density of the liquid....4. Density qf oil = 1.Compule the lJiscosity oJ the oil at 50 ·C......from Q wfde boretube to Q natTOwbore 2..i.... p. If • Jiqlltrt clon.:..
A.E.61 . . Suppose at point A The pressure =Pl' area of crosssection = A" velocity of flow = v. :.E. m = A.motCon. . x A..= +mv mp. _ _ enertIJI.h.4". + 2 mv. Therefore. (10.AIAl. wb1ch can now be states as The sum of". d mp. Bernoull1's equation can be written as mp +! mv' + mgh = constant d 2 . Since points A and B can be any two points along a tube of flow. (!mv~. the liquid does work on the liqUid to the right of it by moving through a dista. and at B The pressure =P2' area of crosssection =. The fluid to the left of point A exerts a pressure P. but A.J= W.W2 = (P. 10. We consider a tube of flow.. . . at A) = my(~ . mgh.W2 J+mg(h.1 • m m 2 mv.nce At.. energy = (p.2 AppUcations of. (which is dl(ferent from A~ due to different crosssectional areas at A & BI.BemoulU's Theorem Bernoulli's theorem finds many applicatiOns in our day to day lifes.1: where m = mass of the liquid transferred froJD.) According to the law of conservation of energy.Al2 = 'd= Volume of the liquid flown .. kinetic enerw and Potential cmergy of a fluid remains ccmstGnt in a stream lfne. .Al.~mv. When the liquid at A moves through a distance it forces the liquid at B to move through a distance At.W2 = p.d 2 2 17Iis is Bemou/lt's equation.. velocIty of (low = ·va' height above the ground = ~. or 1· 2. The amount of work done in displacing through a small distance A~ is = W.P. 1 2 +mgh .P2 A 2 AI2 J Since the liquid is not moVing horizontally. work is <. height above the ground = h..P. given by = W 2 = (p2 X A2 ) X ( Al2 ).) +mg(h. +mgh.. . P2 A 2 t1 1.Al. at B . = (P. NetWQIkdone on the liquid = W. The motion ~fthej/JJ1d isstretunlined.. Let AB be a stream1ln~. At point B..lone against gravity also which is stored as the extra potential energy of the liqUid at B NowGaiIi in extra potentlal.4. sum of kinetic energy and potential energy.Physics viscosity is not to be taken into accoWll: in this derivation.u. Some .. on the fluid pushing it in the right d1rectlon. the net work done on the liquid is equal to change in its total energy Le.A to B. d 2 .) x (AI'). h. 3. . =P'"d. 1 2 +mgh 2 +mv.. The total work done on the liquid = (W.11.
e. =A. Velocity is more at narrow ends and vice versa. = hdg . ..7) Thus pOints of higher velocities are the points of lower pressure (because of th.P2) .e. The device is inserted in the flow pipe.. IJ Ai .. at its ends A and the main pipe line..9) A.v. .8) in relation (10... Suppose the main pipe of flow is kept horizontal at a height H above the ground.E and KE remain constant).7). and get Pi. (10. (10. B respectively. and A..If h = level difference between the two limbs of the venturtmeter then P.Viscosity and Bernoulli's Theorem I COIi1monly observed phenomena can also be explained on the Bernoulli's Theorem.!.... Flow Meter or Vellturimeter It is a device used to measure the rate of flow of liquids through pipes. we can write Total Energy at A =Total Energy at B (KE + PE + PrE)" = (KE + PE + PrE)B i.. Using this relation (10. Then applying Bernoulli's theorem for the steady flow of liquid through the venturimeter at its two points A and B. 2 + mgH + mpl !mv 2 I d =!mv~ + mgH + mp2 2 which gives . A..v. This is called Venturi's Principle.p.P2) = !d( u~ 2 vn d .5 Venturlmeter having three uertical manometric tubes is inserted in are'lS say A.P2 1 Al 2J 2 VI 2 =~ d [ . 10. we conclude that pressure is lesser at the narrow ends.v i 2 =. (PI . du'I 2 [A. Fig. Thisgtves \l1=1d(~_1) 2(PI . .8) fThe liquid is assumed incompressibh~1 i. For steady flow through the venturimeter liquid volulne entering per second at A = liqUid volume leaving per second at B . 10.~ .e sum of P.(10. with its two limbs connected to a tube having two different crosssectional FIg. pipe It essentiaIly consists of manometer.. Le...
There Is a IW IIICI peIIaI·J1lP.nciple lells that since A.Jh V = K'. The air. This causes the air from outside to be L.9. = :.t of the narrow orifice with larger velocity creating a region of low pressure In its neighbourhood.: (U) Spray When the piston is moved In.10••: Sprawun TIle liquid (insecticide) Is sucked through the narrow tube attached to the vessel end having Its opening just below '0'. Fig..kro\oll. (tv) Carburettor: The carburettor shown In figure· III1 10. = A. the pressure becomes low In Its vlsclnlty. J'lC. x K.10 II a device used In motorcars for·suppl:ylng a It proper mixture of air and petrol to the cyltnder of I the engine. TUshrA In through the side hole A and gets mIXed with the gas. etc.. FIg.10.I41k1.S.a"~lIiclin decrease In the pressure on the Iisie A due to motion Iml of the piston. when K' '" KA. to give a hot blue name FIg. air blows through the tube B and comes ou. spray B gun. The liqUid (scent or paint) from the vessel Is. r ~ II "'0 t.'71 AtDmIUr the nozzle N.l" = Al'z . 10. it blows L1~ the air out of the narrow hole '0' with large velocity creating a region oflow pressure In Its neighbourhood. 208 . (1) Atomizer: Vvl1en the nl1Jber bulb A is squeezed.Jh ~ where K = constant '\). .I sucked In with large velOCity. 10.1G:CcIrburdDr ~t\l··'" aun : It=:3t"==i Ill. steadily. "HrimreUor.. the pressure L<.7. therefore. Volume of liquid flowing per second V = A.v. The energy Is lIupplled by the explosion II I of this mixture Inside the cyllndem of the engine. (W) BunIOn burner .fh.". lower near a nCUTOW throat when the lfIluidJloWi. Tube I_In. When the gas emerges out of the nozzle N. sucked into the tube) to come out of the nozzle N.Physics This gives or u.thc velocity increases <. The venturi pJ. This causes a low • ..Jh . This prinCiple has many applications in the design of many useful appliances lil~e atomizer. venturlmeter oc . The mIxtUre then burns at the mouth when Ignited. 10.>. its velocity being high.'t narrower throat of the pipe and at the narrower throat the pressure is lesser le. The appmtus can be directly caliberated to give A. The liquid on reaching the end gets spraved by out blown air from the piston. therefore. 10 cyHndtr pressure near the nozzle B (due to constriction. the air stream from the tube B blows it r into a finespray. FfC.. As the liqUid reaches FIC· 10.. 1I~+lIF=dJ Petrol is contained In the float chamber.""'" ( . since all other parameters are constant for a given K. BunsenbuTner.
When the ball shifts to the left.11: C". sucked from the vessel to be evacuated through the tube B: gets mixed with the steam of water and goes out through the outlet.12 (a)] placed one above the other and the upper disc is lifted with the handle... Based on this very principle Le . The nozzle has. tn be opened and cleaned. therefore.. This pr('ssure diefferent'e gives the lift to the aeroplane. After a few minutes.ding Qr st~tne. it keeps on dancing this way and that way without falltng to the ground.] (vI AerofoU : When a solid moves in air. 10.. bill Oft aJet otwater: IMIwHn lie If a llght hollow spherical ball (pingpong ball or table tennis ball) is gently put on a vert1calstream of water coming out of a vertically upward directed . the velocity becomes high and hence a low pressure region is created around the nozzle N.let end of a tube.stream.lg air. the lo~r disc Is attracted to stick to the upper disc and Is Ufted with It. hig!'. therefore.II: Arrracted Jet streams pass by its rI~t side thereby creating dIM ""md". velocity streamlines of air are formed. streamlines are formed. Low_In (b) DIIlc1n.13. The air Is.Viscosity an(' Bernoullfs Theorem velocity of air ·sucked is more near B) and. then mos~ of the ne. a region of high velocity and hence low pressllrl' on Its right side in comparison to that on the left side and the baIl Is again pushed back to the centre of the jet.14 shows the fllter pump used for produdng moderately low pressures. therefore. The mixture of vapour!zed petrol and air fOrming the fuel then enters the cylinder through the tube A [Sometimes when the nozzle B gets choked due to deposition of carbon or some impurities. The water from the tap Is allowed to come out of the narrow Jet end of the tube A Due to small aperture oethe nozzle.• the regions of high velocities due to crowding of steamlines. (0) Water vacuum pamp or AlpJrator or I'Ilter pamp:' FIg. The shape of the body of the aeroplane is designed specially as shown in the fig. ot a pID. the pressure of air in the vessel l'!C. Due to crowding of more streamlines cn the upper side that becomes a region of more velocity and hence of comparatively low pressure region then below it. . 10.. ne.. by the passil.lo. it checks the flow of petrol and the engine not getting fuel stops working.11. Fig. the petrol comes out of the nozzle B which gets miXed with the incoming air.IO. following ar~ interesting demonstrations. are the regions of low pressure. 10.la:DancinR I'fnI/ ""'" baJI .. 10.s OI'J OW upper 5tde (» AUractecl cIllC paradoz: when air Is blown through a narrow tube handle into the space two cardboard sheets [FIg... 10. This Is called attracted disc paradox. When the aeroplane runs on its runway.... pon...
... .2 _ _~__ _ _~_ 1.. ..... ..... If the velocity at each point in space in steady state jluidJlow is constant. .... Example 10. ..5 = 7ms·1 Ans..... .....~tdJ PIt.............~H =helght of the liquid level in the vessel d = density of the liquid water Applying Bernoulli's PrincIple PB = i ' ..... gravitational or pressure dJlference? .. ••• •••••••••• 0 ••• •• ••••••••••••••••••••• ••••• ~ ............ ...8 x2........... Take a pause and solve the foUowing questions....... the COT is sometimes pulled towards the truck.......Illt's theorem say about this? ••••••••••••••••••••••••• ot:. 2........'s the0rem to the problems oJJIowing liuqids? .......~ • • • • • • • • ........ ...... What does Bemo!............. .J2 x 9.......hB I [This formula Is the same as for a solid falling from a height ho to hAl or =...... ... . ... ...•. Imagine a tube of flow A to B for the water to flow from the surface point A to the hole B we can apply Bernoulli's theorem to the points A and B for the streamline flow of smaIl mass m Total energy at B = Total energy at A \)A = 0 ..e.... .. What are the conditions necessaryJor the apPlimtian ofBernoulli.IO.. ... .... .... ~ 210 . ..1 IS (1+ 2 mx (O This gives mp i )2 +mg h A mp 1 2 h =(1+ 2nID +mg B ~mv2 =mg(hA hBI u = ~2g(hA ........ .... P = atmospheric pressure ho = height of the hole above the ground Let hAhy...5 m? solution: Let B be the hole near the bottom.. INTEXT QUESTIONS lO.. ... ..... When a car on a highway is passed by a lmyer tfuck.. .. ..PhysiCS sl decreased to about 1 cm of mercmy by such a pump...... how can a fluid parttcle accelerate without using any force i.... ....... . PIt·IO..... .............(nearly zero) PA = P = atmospheric pressure hA = height above the ground \)B=\)=?  ....I"': FfIIl!r Pump f" ... h...... 3..............3: waterJIows out oj a small lwle in the wall oj a large tank near its bottom What is the speed oj ejJlwc oj water when the height oj water leuel in the tank is 2..... .....
. . . WhIch Is more viscous .mu! +mghA + mpA 10. .u1I1's theorem as applied to any two points A & B of a tube of flow Is • 1 mu~ +mghs + mps =2 2 P P Bernoulli's principle find many applications In our dally life like design of venturlmeier. .. .. ... Why? What is Reynold's number? What Is Its slgnlflcance? Define critical velocity on the basis of Reynold's number. . PE=mp .. . ... . ... .... . .. . Calculate the velocity of wate of density 1000 kgm·3 coming out of a pin 1wle made at a height of 0. Coefficient of viscosity of any liquid may be defined as the magnitude of tangential backward viscous force actlng between two successive layers of unit area in contact With each other moving In a region of unit velocity gradient... . aerofll. . ..5 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT • • The property by virtue of which the different layers of a liquid In its laminar flow tend to destroy the relative motion between them is called viSCOSity.filled to a height of 0.. .. = 9T] • The energy due to pressure (pi In a flowing liquid element of mass (m) and density (p) is given by. . .... ... . State Bernoulli's prlnelple.. .e .. ... . 211 . .. .. . Mathematlcally. ..... . . .. . Why? .. . Stoke's law states that tangential backward viscous force acting on a spherical mass of radius r falling with velocity" In a liqUid of coefficient of viscosity T] Is given by Fy = 6 ""m The terminal velocity Is achieved when weight Is counterbalanced by the tangontial backward viscous force and buoyant forces together i. which Is nearly the • • same for all liquids and Is ~2000... .6 TERMINAL QUESTION 1. d.chen garden. Deline viscosity and coefficient of viscosity.. .. . . . < 1'" The terinInaI velocity is then given by 2r'g(d. .. ...novlng steadfly remains constant thoughout the motion.!.. spray gun. . . . .. Differentiate between Laminar flow and turbulant flow and hence define critical veloelty. . . .. . .. etc.. 3.. .. ... carburettor. . .• ('1.. .. ffiter pump.. .. ••.) ".... 10. Derive the units and dimensional formula of coefficient of visCOSity. .. 4.. .. .. .. P • BernoullI's theorem stat:" that the total energy of an element of mass (m) of an incompressible Hqul" . ..ViscOSity and Bemoulll's Theorem 4. ... . . to I!leasure the rate of flow of liquids In pipes...water or glycerine...... .9 m? ••••••••••••• u .. thejet of water goes to longer distances.. . The flow of liquids becomes turbulant when the velocity is greater than a certain value called critical velocity (ve) which depends upon the nature of the liquid and the diameter of the tube Le... .. When you press the mouth of a water pipe usedfor waterlng the plants in the kiJ. which is . ... 2... .. ... . .. . . .• W = F. . .. ... . p and dl.. ..... . ..5 m above the bottom of a container. .. . ... .. .. atomizer. . Explain Its application In the design of the body' of an aeroplane. Berr ... .. .. .... The critical velocity Vc • • =R p~ where R = Reynold's number... .. ..
the velocity !I1 the constriction.8 emsI] 8.769 8.89 ems" 10. Expl:lln why : (I) A sp!I1nlng tennis ball curves during the fligh t7 . (I) In.t a treely falling body? Iii) What is the terminal velocity of tlle ball? The density of steel and of glycerine art.rtng full ot~water has a cunstrktion of diameter 0.005 x 102 Poise. Ii) With what \reludty in a steel baH I nlm is radius (~uJing in a tank of glY('erine t!t an insnmt whl"n its acceleration i~ onehalf ihat ('. 10. 6. 34. Iii) 0.0. flov. i.0209 cms·'. '.St'cond.8 mm in diameter which rises in a liquid of viscosity of 0.845 em' of Hg 212 . Ifth~ velocity of flow past the lower wing surface 1~ 100 ms.0209 emsI. (v) If mercury i.2 m pipe·l!I1e is 2 m. 9.9 grocm·'.5 gm cm3 and 1. Water at 20~C nows with 3 speed of 50 em s "1 through a pipe of diameter of:'1 mm.~ Poise. What Is ')ress~ energy? DerIve Bcn1oulU's equation for flow of fluids.15 kgro"s" and density 0. and (ii) (he discharg(' rate in <'ubic meters per . 0.32 gm cm3 respectively. 107ms' 12.I • what. IAns. Modern aeroplane design calls for a lift of about 1000 Nm"" of wIIlg area. II) What is the Reynold's NumbeI? (11) What Is the nature of flow? Given.t.·' III 8 ms·'. tllen what is the pressure at another point. If the pressure of water equals 5 em of mcrrury at a point where the velOcity of now Is 28 emsI.  Iii) A ping pong ball keeps un dancing on a jet of waler without fall!I1g on to either ~1de'? \iii) The velocity of flow Increases when the aperture of water pipe Is decreased by squeeztng. 4. viscosity ofwate at 20'C as =1.0628m's' (I) 0. and Density of water at 20'C as = I gm em 3. Find out the terminal velocity of an air bubble with 0. 8. 9. 34. (III Streamline flow 11. ANSWER TO THE TERMINAL QUESTIONS 7.&m. viscosity of glycerine is 8. where the velocity of flow Is 70 ems'? [Tube density of water 1 gut em·J ).2 m in diameter. is the required velocity ovt"r the upper surface to )\Ive a desired lift of 1000 Nm"? The density of air Is 1. Assume that air flows past the wing of an aircraft with streamline flow.Physics .3 kg m·'.1 If the velocity In the 0. Ul 1500. its open mouth? liv) A small spherical 0011 fall!I1g !I1 a vismus fluid attalns a conSlant velocity after some time? . poured on a Ilat glass plate. A pipeline 0. find: . 5. 11. It breaks Into small sphertcal dropleL~? 7. ems" (iiI 1. What will be the term!I1al velocity of the same bubble while rls!I1g in water? Forwatern = 10"' kgro·'s'. Water flows horizontally through a pipe ofvarylIlg crosssection.
a Si.'een them vanishes. lesso'1 you will find the exact explanation of such concepts.uer UIC" the relation C(l . (he inle!llluitnilar rorce bet1.'. and ''_.:. The ga8!!s occupy the shape and size of the container in which they are Iilled. give kinetic inerpretaiion of temperature and compute the mean kinetic energy of a gas. In this lesson yllu will study about the kinetic theory of gases which explain propel ties at' gases You will also study about the kinetic interpretation of temperature and the relationship between the kinetic energy of thc molecules and the temperature.l between the RMS velocity and the average velocity of molecules and establish their relationship with temperature: derive gas laws such as (a) Boyle's law. n.. (e) Pressuretemperature law.·. .11 PROPERTIES OF GASES 11. and Ie) Dalton's law. TI. .ce of two specijic heats ofgas. (b) Charle's law. all the matters art' f(ml1d in three states .!s~~d.1 INTRODUCTION As you have studIed in the previoll» lessons. give reasonsfor the existan. OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. Why the gases have two types of specific heats will also be answered tn this lesson. explian law of equipartition of energy. . This state of matter is said to be gaseous stale.'H. pressure and volume. and derfve the expressionfor pressure P = '3 pc 2 I  • • • • • • dlstinguis/. you should be able to: • • state the assumptions ofldnetic theory of gases.solid.. on the basis of kinetic theory oj gases. In the gaseous state the matters (substances) don't have definite shape and size.Jecollw completely free irum each other Le.2. For example when the temperature of gas is increased at constant volume. However.v. define them. 11.."Y is int'n". gases exhibit different properties. \\l1en the lnean lhernia! ener. (d) Avogadro's law.Cv = R/J.!. of partial pressure. After studying tlur. liquid and gas. its pressure insreases.(~ l"tll1H'~. Can you explain why? Though you may have feeling of such concepts. nw nH)k\ ilks i. Under different conditions of temperature. they have enough chances to collide against each other.ey are composed or molecules. 111e molecules have certain intermolecular for~t's and therm"l "Tlf'rt. wh .
Macroscopic simply means. Each of these molecules show the characteristic properties of the substance of which it is a part. Microscopic on the other hand is confined to quantItI~ concerning with individual molecule.3. This motion of molecules is random. the molecules of velocities making collisions for a short ttme with each other and with the Wa1I. The klnetIc theory makes assumptions. The kinetic theory'of gases attempts to relate the macroscopic properties such as pressure. John Dalton in 1803 wade use of this concept of matter that is.solume and temperature of an ideal gas with its iDtcroscopic properties such as speed and mass of its molecules. Now let us see how a gas fills a container. v) the time taken in a colission is negligible as compared to the time interval by a molecule between two successive collisions. At this potnt the terms macroscopic and microscopic need a little elaboration. Later it was found that the molecules of substance ~ in constant motion. This led to the development of kinetic theory of matter. According to the kinetic theory of gases. The coheSive force (which binds molecules together) between the particles of matter which constitutes a gas is thus extremdy small. 214 . certain 11. (1) a gas consists of a very large number of small molecules which are considered to be rigid. The kinetic theory has been developed in the case of gases. It is due to this reason that a gas fills a container completely in which it is kept. The mathematical basis of the kinetic theory of gases was established by Maxwell and Clausius. pertaining to a whole assembly of a large number of molecules. matter is composed of large number of molecules.Physics n.1 Assumption of Kinetic Theory of Gases Clark Maxwell in 1860 showed that the well known properties of a gas can be explained on the basis of certain assumptions which are called as the assumptions of kinetic theory of gases.s of the container and rebounding from them. tv) 'between collisions the molecules move in a straight line with uni form velocity. In a gas the molecules are so far apart from each other that there is little intermolecular attraction.ble as compared to the volume occupied by the gas.3 KiNETlC THEORY OF GASI!:S We arealreaily aware that matter is composed of very large number of atoms and molecules. and identical in all respects and moving with all possible veloc1tIes in all possible directIons the intermolecular forces are negligible. (Ii) the collisions between the molecules and against the walls of con tainer are perfectly elastic (tIi) the volume of the molecules themselves is negl1gl.
ll 21S . the change in momentum of the molecules Is mu .. the molecules rebounds in reverse direction with the same speed u since the collision has been ll$Sumed to be perfectly elastic.u.+u~) I ' Where. u" u. We know that pressure = Area Force :. are the veloclt3Tof first.. (ll. third and . ox. "'. u :.e total rate of change of momentum or therefore the total force exerted on the wall ABeD due to impact of all the N molecules Is ForceonABCD=!!!(U~ +L4i +u~ + . the pressure P on the wall X of areas 12 is given by P= P= /2 I" ~(U2 +u~+u~++u~) . qf a moIecut.11.. Rate of change of momentum at ABeD= Change in momentum TIme 2mu rnu 2 =2Vu=I o rIC. it covers a distance 2 lin time 21...... u I By Newton's second law of motion the rate of change of momentum Is equal to the impressed force. Hence.. (Ftg. second. .1: .Properties of Gases vi) distribution of molecules is uniform throughout the container. The time interval between successive collisions of the molecules with the wallis 21. therefore. ¢. therefore. Since the mass of the molecules Is m and it Is moving with a speed U.11. its momentum will be mu towards the wall X On striking the wall X.""""""'" This Is the rate of change of momentum due to one molecule. u.(mu) = 2rnu If the molecule travels with the veloclt3T u to the wall opposite ABeD and rebounds back to X agaln without strildng any other molecule on the way. : N" molecule respectlVely along the OX d1recl1on.. Since there are N molecules of the gas. 11. The momentum of the molecule after it rebounds Is (mu)...... Let us first consider motion along the axis.
Nmc2 3 1bis important relationship relates the macroscopic properties i. lbis relation also holds for the mean square values i.!. pressure and volume with the microscopic properties i.!. we can write P=!pc' 3 (Q p=~) •.2) It can be shown by geomeby that C'= Ii'.e. (11.3) can be rewritten as. ufl are equal.21 But P= volume of the container = volume "r .1) we get P mNii2 13 •.the gas. it follows that the mean value of Ii'. (11.• (11.e. v and w are the components of c. mass and mean square speed of the molecules. V . ri'.Nm c2 3 V If P Is the density 01 the gas.2) we get ~=N. U 2 =V2 =W 2 c2 =3u2 or 2 C U = 2 3 Substitutlng this In eqn.Physics If u2 representsthe mean value of the squares of all the speed components In the OX dlreetibn then Substituting the value of (uf+~+u.4) or c2 =3p P \lote: The following points about the above derivation should be noted: 216 .e. PV=.3) :. 111.e.•. i. C2 =U2 +V2 +W 2 Since the molecules show no preference for moving parallel to anyone edge of the cube.+ ___ +u~)1n equation (11. p=. Equation (11..+ Ii" + uP Since U.
So Instead oj a cube we could have taken any other container. • • . . . . Time _2xl02 4 X 104 s 500 5xl0:13 19 X 104 = 1. . . . . . Why is thJs? . . . . (Ii) We ignored the inermoIecular coUision but these would not Suppose we have live mo~es and their speeds are I. . . . .. . This is Ulustrated by the JoUowlng e.11. . 60 . . . . . . .II:qmpIe 11. .Properties of Gases (I) From equation (11. . . .1 Time taken to make successiVe impacts on same side . . 217 . . . have qffected the result. . . . . . .. .1: Co/Ciliate the pressW'ee. . .time to travel 2 xl0 em or 2 x 10'"2 m. . 3. A cube only simpljfies our calculations.. . . . . . 3untts 5 Its square Is 9.mmples. . i. On the other hand the mean square speed Is +32 +42 +52 55 5 5 11 Thus we see that mean square speed which Is II units In the above example Is not the same mean as speed which Is 3 . . Then their mean speed Is 1+2+3+4+5. . . 2. .. . . . . .. .4. . . 5 units respectively. . . . . . 8oIudon: Change In momentum = 2 mu =2 x 5 xIO26 X 500 =5xlO22 kgms. ./ The mean square speed c2 is not the same as tile square oj the mean speed. . . .25xIO N . . It is only the volume which is oj sign!Jlcance. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . because the· average momentum oj the molecules on striking the waUs is WlChanged by their coUisiDn with each other: (flI. . Rate of change of momentum • 4 The force on the side due to one third molecules =lx 1. . .. . .25x 1019 xI022 N =400N 3 Force 400N 4xl04N2m and pressure =Area looxlO=<iII'2 INTEXT QUESTIONS 11. .mrted by 1Cf'2 molecules oJoxygen· each oj mass 5 x 10110 kg In a hoUow cube oj side 10 em where the average translattonal sveed oj molecule is 500 ms'. . . . . . . . . . . I) A gas flUs a container completely but not a llquJd. .e.. 12 +22 . .4) it is dear that In thJs expression the shape oj the container does not play any role in kinetic theory.
...........5) are constant.MC 2 3 When the temperature of a given mass of the is constant... _ . 3.....1 us '·'J!\Sl(i<r (WO difttr<>nl ~ases 1 and 2......... Then from kinetic lheory 218 ... Why? 2....................... Charle's Law From eqn.. the mean square speed Is constant.6) Charle's Law may be stated in two ways: The volume of a gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the temperature OR The Pressure of a gas at constant volume is directly proportional to the temperatunl!•.5) V or PV=!mNC2 PV=............... PVaT (U........ This Is Charle's Law i...... (11............... Thus we can write. (11....... which statros that At COJUItant t8mperatunr........... iii) Avogadro's Law . What is an ideal gas ? ...Physics ii) Solids have nwre ordered structure than gases.. 11.. (11...... How is presswe related to density of rrwlecules ? •••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 ................ the pressure of a gas is frwersely proportional (iI) to the volume qf the gas.MC2 3 MC 2 varies as T varies.........e............!..... Therefore PV should also vary as T vary. Thus both M and c on the r1ght hand side of eqn.!.. PV =Constant fas ThIs is Boyle's Law....5) we know that PV=...................................4 DEDUCTIONS OF GAS LAWS FROM KINETIC THEORY I) Boyle's Law We know that the pressure P exerted by a gas is given by p mN c2 But mN = total mas M of gas .....
.. We mix same volumes of these ltalll'lI.. the aame condi· tIone qf temparaturw a...nd . Let their densities be PI' p...e. Thfa fa DaltOn 'a law qf part(c&lp...V. that would be exerted if eevera. N.P1+p. qf mol· ecule.. p" ..pNall..pfWIUN enrtecI "" the fIaMIoUI mllrture fa the 8Wft qf the Cnc!fllfdual...'7) and by (11.. Then the resultant pressure P Is clearly gtven by l : z I 2 1 .c~ p. are the indlvlUual (or Impartial) . 7) Since the temperature is constant therefore their kim'lic f'nl'!f/.. ..Prnpprtie" of GaSf''' PI VI = ~ mlNlcl' ~ m. in tum.~:. Equal I/Olume qf tdea....we get P. 3 Pl~ I + 3 P2~ 2 I. If we cenote these by p" 1'•• p~. pressure of the dlffc:rent gases or vapours.. and mean squal? speeds ~~.+ . Hence.......= "f their pressure... alone. Graham lnve.. v) Qnbam'.I'M total.3 Ps" 3 I.8) we get NI = N. c~ ..tlgated the dlfCualon of gases throuJ(h poroll" "ubl'llanc!': and 219 ..... . Law of paztlill pre••ure Suppose we have a number oC gases or vapours havlng no chemical reactton With each other.l 11_ IICICIIIpW CJur . volume and temperature are the same. . In other words: '. (11..+P.. law of dlffultOD of ...(11.. Thfa atatement fa AWJgadro'a Law Iv) DaltOD·. 3 1 ~g3 '3 P3 3.preaure contain equal numbe. respectively. .l grua &¥Wtfng unde . 1 2 m1c l=m c 2 1.1g equations (11..!it's Will 11" the same i.........8) DivldL..........L 1 2 1 PI C1 '3 2 PgC g Here. 22 2 2 . then .2 P .
..2 . 1.!i Rate of cWrua1onof other .iXI c =rkT .... Flue gas riIolecules chosen at random t.. respectively at a pressure are Thus. 700.... """ m I 7 3X(1...... ca PI c =p or 3p (11....... Bample 11.....38)( 1~ ..... tIarough a porous partidon Is ~IJI propordonal to tile ... Tfds .......1.square speed qfhydrogen mokcule at3OOK? Mas ofhydrogen molecule • 3............ It thus foUawa that kinetic theory of gases provldes a theoretical buia for Qrabam'1f Jaw of dlft'ualon of gases... ... nJOf tV ie.............48) we know that 2 Em Thus....nfound fD haw speed qf 500.38X 10. The rate qf d(t1Usfon qf a .347 X 10"41 Kt1 =1927ma1 Now...347 )( Solution: . EL= ~. ...... 800 and 900 mr'. ~ ..... Is It the same as die auerage speed? ..9) :. We know 1~ kg • k. From equation (I 1.... Rate of diffuMon of one..... "'tu...... law of ~ On the basis of kinetic theory of gases..)(300K) 3........ FInd the RMS speed......... known as Graham'.. JK. .. • c Rateof d1ffuslonother.. It Is time to check Your understanding IN'I'aT QUESTIONS 11....... 660.. the rate of diffuSion through a fine hole will be proportional to the average or root mean square velocity c......found that.... the root mean square ~loctty c1 and ~ of the molecules of two gus of densities PI and P.2: What Is the root mean....... Rateofd1ffullionof onegaa .
..5 KiiutTIC IN'lERPRETATION OF TEMPERATURE We know that the pressure of a gas is given by the relation Multiplying by V. 2 are I7IiA!!d wft1wut any chemical reaction.4. we have pv.!mNC~ 3 Multiplying both sides by 2 3 "2 we have 3 ImNC 1 2 RT==mN"c 2 2 n 2 N where =N" Auogadro'. we ~ Also'for n mole of a gas.3 J mol' K' nR7'= . lftile same volwnes of two gases 1 aru:!. n RT where R • gas constant.1 Mea KInetic Energy But ! me2 is the mean kinetic energy of molecule. then what wou1d be tile resultant pressure of the miXture? 11.. called Boltzman constant.T 2 2 N" Here 1!. Is a constant Ie. 8.. N" 221 . nWllbtrr n or 3®T=!me2 2N" 2 11. Therefore. mean kinetic 2 energy of a ulOlecule is !me2 =31!.Properties of Gases 2. the volue of 1 gram molecule of the gas.
. Clearly. RT we. Preuure Temperature Re. at T..ouhIp From eqn. 11.8) 3 au conatant W.(11. (11.2. From (1l. mean ldnet1c energy of a molecule of the gas kT Is giVen as Le.. aD molecular motion ceaaea at thla temperature. the mo.15..at. 0 indicating that at the ablolute zero of temperature.'.\ecuIe beJng aD at rat. the ldnet1c energy of a grammolecule of the gas =3 kNAT =3 fBlx NAT 3 KI' 2 2NA 2 !2 mc2 = 3 2 kT = Kinetic energy of a gnun molecule of a gas "3 = 2 KI' Thls relationship tella us that the kinetic energy of a molecule depenoa upon the absolute temperature Tof the gas and It Is quite Independent of its mass. . volume aDd temperature i8 atven by where R • Combininl equation (11. The value of k •.5) we know that pV.. In other words.Ion tor the Iquare root oL e1cdedroot mean aquare velocity. This fact'ls known as the Jd_cto Inc.R k=NA AIIIJIIGI'ro'.11IGIecuJe or • au the relation between preuure. Number: The number of atoms or molecules In a mole of tl substance is called Avogadro number: its value is 6...rpNCcadon td f. . 2 222 . therefore.M .5) and (11.RT or ~·. the kinetic energy of the gas Ie reduced to zero.12) aut 1dnetlc entrRY .023 x l()l' moI.11) !~·. 1 0 ~ Obviously. (II . 38 xlO»J molecuJe1 kI :.!~2 3 From expertmental evidence we krIDW tllat tor one . (l1. .eInper'CItt&N.IO) we have he expreu.!!T .! AmI .
mperature fit that tInraperat1U'W at which the molecular trarlalatfonal wlodtfa qf tl (IG/J cue . S RT 2 2 or or ~aT li2a.c 2 .e atT. .sure).T. 2 li.Jf Let the veloclty at N.".!. .T../I4C2=3 RT 2 2 . In a given mue of gas the mean kinetic energy per molecule la proport1Onal to the temperature of the gu .13) can be wrttten as !. .3. In actual system the molecule may have the same energy for one molecule the Kinetic energy from eqn (11.S: At What ternperaturewUl the root mean square uelocUy qf ~ be ~ qf Its ualue at B.../I4C2.P../I4C2 =RT 3 2 or . pre••ure betng constant (S7P • Standard temprrature and pre.uced to ... Kbe lio• If To I[ Ia the requtred temperature.Properties of Gases So eqn (I 1.12) we see that the meansquare velocity la directly proportional to the Kelvin Scale of temperature T. . hence we can define KeMn zero as 'J'he &IM . the veloc1ty c at the temperature. .T 2 2NA where NA • Avogadro'. U.. (11. .13) From this relation we see that dIe kinetic energy of one grammolecule of the gas la equal to NT. From eqn. (11. u 8lVen In the problem 223 . t... !Ml!2. Oft the IIaIlDfn 8CaJe qfe. " . At T=O.. 80111don: We know that.. .oorc=O..1!.P.12) can be written as 2X!. Number But 1hul.
• E. This implies that average value of the components of velocity c (I.2Ix1O21 J 11.. E.15. • l\.. v and w) along the three directions should be equal or for a molecule all the three directlons are equivalent. + Ey + E. k. E.e. 2 kT Since three velocity components u. E.. we can conclude that.e. 1_21_21_2 mu =nw =mw 2 2 2 1 2 ' But 2 mu =Ex =total mean kinetic energy of a molecule along X axis Therefore E. I. JK'" T= 300 K Average KE= ~ (1. 224 1 . where m Is the mass of a molecule we' have I .. Since T.273 = 8190 ~ample c.. The law of equlparaUtlon of energy There are 3dtrections of motion IX.3. • l\. and T. Absolute temperature and since.! MC2 =::J k:T 2 2 Since k = 1. Boltzmann conatant. 11. the total mean kinetic energy of a molecule 18 3 EkT 2 Where.Physics orT=4T.. u.ture oj 300 K Given k = 1. u=ii=iIi or 2 2 2 12 U =0 =W =c 3 Since c2 =u 2 +V2 + w 2 c 2 =u2 +ii2 +iIi2 Multiplying throughout by 2 m. '" E. = 273K T=4x273= 1092K T = 1092 . .38 X 10"23JK:l. Solution: We know that .1 K3OOK) =6. But. vand w correspond to the three degree of freedom of the molecule.38XIO~ JK. Y and Z &Xes) which are equally probable for the gas molecules.4: Find the average kinetic energy qf a gas at tempea.38 x 10.
...15) E=3(! kT)+~! KT ) ar E. This is the law qf equfpartitfon of energy and was deduced by James Clark Maxwell._1 _ ..14) For a diatomic molecule we can suppose it to be two spheres Joined by a rigid rod.. •· Now the spedal deacrtption of the .T8 01' GASES We know that the temperature of 1l gas can be raised under dl1ferent 22S .tnatomic gas molecule having both translational motion. 3 E=kT. u a . However.(11. for a monoatomic molecule..Properties of Gases Totalldnet1c energy of a dynamical system is equally divided among all its degrees of freedom and it is equal or KTper .3 kT (11.. the rotational Inertia about an exIa along the rigid rod is negUglble compared to that about an axis perpendicular to the rod. Let us now consider rotation too. energy E will be "II. Of course. for a diatomic gus molecule havUig both rotational and tranalational motion. Hence for one molecule of a monoallomic gas total 1 energy.. 2 (11. Let us apply this law for dlfferent types of gases.':"1 i .. 80 that rotational energy consists of two terms such as 1. ·11. 1 . Hence for .8 SPBCII'IC IIBA.16) (Here three de~ of freedom for the translation of the centre of mass of the molecule and three far rotation along three mutually perpendicular axes)."i . Thus.. 2 degree of freedom.. ar Far ~ each molecule contains there spheres Joined together by rods (we can suppose) 80 that the molecule is capable of rotating ~ about each of three mutually perpendicular &Xes.. we have only translational motion because they are not capable of rotation (although they can spin about anyone of the three mutually perpendicular axes If it Is llke a finite sphere). So far we have been considering only translational motion.centre of IlWIII of a diatomic gas modules will require three coordinates. Such a molecule can rotate about any one of the three mutu!illy perpendicular axes.
• 0 m )CAT mxAT • a We observe that In order to Itudy the lpec1ftC heat of a guo either the prenure or the volume of the gu has to be kept constant. For example. To e1aborate. For example specific heat of water Is 1 kilo cal kg"1 K"I • 4.181 Equations (11. there Is a rise In temperature without suplying any heat to the gas from out.Phy~Ir:S conditions of volume and pressure.lde. The unit of specific heat in MKS system Is kilo calories per kilogram per Kelvin (kcal kg"1 K1) It may also be expressed In joules per kg per K. c • . The above definition of specific heat holds good for solids and liquids and not for gases because according to relation (11. Thus z Heat capacity Q heat capacity Speccea ill h t C = m (11.pressure may be kept constant or both may be allowed to vary in some arbitrary manner. Q. if we supply heat to a gas and the gas Is allowed to expand such that there Is no rise In temperature...18) give!' C='L mLlT It may be defined as follows. the volume may be kept constant or the . AT. gasel have two apeclftc beatll. 0 then.2 x loa Joule kg"1 K"I. I.19) Spec(ftc heat of a material ta the heat required to ratae the temperature of unit· maa of that material for unit t!tmperaturw cha~. a gas has different heat capacities.e. (11.17) & (11. mAT mxAT 0 Again. Thus.JL. Hence.19) sp8c1ftc heat of!l gas may vary from zero to Infinity.ifwe compress a certain gas.. we see that for mass m of a gas we have. It we supply an amount of heat Q to a gas to raise Its temperature through T then heat capacity Is defined as (11.17) T The heat capacity of a body per unit mass of the body Is called as specific heat of the substance of which the body Is made and Is usually denoted by C ( or 5). In each of these cases the amount of heat required to cause unit rise of temperature in unit mass IS different. Consequently. 1) Specific heat at C'~mstant volume denoted as c" .e. c.
We know that when pressure is kept constant. (11. This whole work is only external I. FIg. there Is no intermolecular force between Its molecules and when such a gas expands an internal work Is done in separathlg the gas molecules apart. '127 . against the internal pressure rL.1==== V .) is defrned as the amount oj heat required to raise the temperature oj unit mass Q[ a gas through 1 K when its vo!/H1Ie is kept constant.e . This means the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure Is greater than Its specific heat at constant volume by an amount which Is the thermal equivalent of the work done in ~ding the gas against external pressure.6.e. Hence in the second case note that the heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass through 1 degree at constant pressure is made up of two parts: i) heat required to do external work to produce a change in volume of the gas and 11) heat required to raise the temperature of the gas through one degree (C). the volume of the gas increases.~t======p [\.. i..) is defined as the amount of heat required raise the temperature of unit mass of a gas through 1 K when its pr~ssure is kept cosntant... . That Is . 11.(11..V.. 11....21) Note :When. . ~elatloD between Cp and C" Let us consider one mole of an ideal gas enclosed in cylinder fitted With a frictionless movable piston (see Fig.1.22) W+ p IC = cvj 11. Let P be the external pressure and A be the cross sectional area of the piston.(11...l mole of a gas is considered then the amount of heat required to raise the temperature by one degree is called molar specific heat."".2) Since the gas has been assumed to be ideal (perfect).2: Gas heated at constant pressure..Propertlt's of Gases Ii) SpecJfic heat at constant pressure denoted as Cp• The two specJfic heats are defined as follows: ' (a) The speciflc heat of a gas at constant volume (C.20) (b)The speciftc heat at constant pressure (C..
= J R •.(11. x A Now..e. we get Cpc.e .Total energy of gas at 1K E . (11. = P IV. suppose the gas is heated at constant pressure through 1 K and as a result the piston moves outward through a distance X as shown in the figure 11.VI) . diammfc and trIatOmiC gas molecules.28 where. = E.• (11. I = Total energy of gas at (T + 1)" K Then C.' .. if E.ple 11..25) we get P(V. = R (T+ 1) Substntcting (11..5: FInd out the ualue qf C.. Therefore. R where R is in Joules moleI KI Converting Joules into CalOries....25) . distance x.• (11.The force acting on the piston = P.24) pv. pushing the piston through the ..Valent of heat.4.VI) = R .20) and (11.22) that Cp + Cy = Work done (W) against the external pressure in raising the temperature of 1 mole of a gas through 1 K i... against external pressure P is given by W =PxAxx = P x (Increase in volume) = P (v.. (at constant volume) 228 .VI) We know from (11.18 J cal is the mecbanical equI.27) . .I . and CuJOr a rnonoatrmUc.26) •. .2. SoIatfDn: We know·that the average KE for I mole E= 3 Rl' 1 to a gas is glftn as Now CD is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature of I mole of a gas at constant volume by one degree i.r.. Cp  C. be the volume after heating...e before and after heating we have PVI = RT ..• (11.. From (11.24) from (11. J .E. Let VI be the inttJal volume of the gas and V. D:am.23) Now applying perfect gas equatlonto these two stages of the gas i.23) we get Cp C• . (11. . the work W done by the gas in.
... ..66 x lO'''kg • • • Avogadro's number N =6. . ..... .... .... and molecules of a gas and applies the law of mechanlcs to large number of them usIng averaging technIque...... .. .. ..........38 10'" molecule' K' 1 standard' atmosphere = 0. . ...76 m of Hg = 1....u. . . ...... .. . ....m. 2 (ii) For diatomic gases.. total energy = ~ RT 5 5 Cv = 2 R (T+l)R= 2RT 5 7 C =C +R= R+R=R.01 x 10" Nm' 1.. ..... •••• ....... . .. .. ... ... R = 8... .......02 x 1()23 molecules per mole X Boltzmann constant K = 1. . ..) = 1. .. ..... .. •••• h ......... R =8. . ... .... . . p v 2 2 (Iii) You may now find out Cv and Cp for triatomic gas... . ..... .. .. KInetic theory relat..3 J molI KI 1 atomic mass unit (a... ..... . ...... . 2. ..........Properties of Gases (I) We kilow. ..3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.. . ... ........ ..... .... . . ..... ... .~ RT 3 =R. Some Important collltaDu • • Universal gas cosntant... .... 229 .. . ... ................ total ene~ = 3 RT 2 for monoatomic gas Cv = ~ R( T + 1) ..... .. ......7 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT • • KInet1c theory llII8umes the existence of atom.. . INTEXT QUESTION 11. . What is the total energy of nilrogen nwlecu1e? . . . . Calculate the value of Cp and Cv for nitrogen given..es the macroscopic properUes.. .... . .. .. .... . . ...... .. . .. . ..01 xlO" pa = 11.. . ..3 J mol' K' . .. . . ....... 3.. . ... .. .. .. . ..... .. . ... ... .. .. .. Why the gases have two types of specific heats? . . . for monoatomic gas..... ... ..
. • • The keMn zero In the kelvin scalc fa that temperature at wblch the molecular translatlonal veIocIUes of a gas ..alJ. what will happen to Its kIneUc eneray. (UtI * triatomic gas • 3 leT. the ktnet1c energy of a gas Is teducal to zero. C. their colllsions and dliItrlbuUon In a gas. If the absolute temperature of a gas be made tOur u. At absolute zero of temperature.c.~ Hence the heal required to raIae the unit temperature of unit inas8 of a gas at comtant pieasure conststs of two p6rtS: I) heat required to do external work..of hedom lUI(! It Ia oqua1 to 2 ~per degree of Ii'eedom.au...veIocII¥ and pmeaurel 4.. gleT 15 11. Ia... I. the amount of heat requited to ratse the unit temperature of unit mass of a gas Is different. C. to produce a change In volume of the II) heat required to ratse the temperature of the gas through one degree gas..'! • J • The law of equSpart1tlon of energy stats that the total klneUc etUIrII' of a dynamtcal 1 ayatem Is equally divided among aD Its deaz. heat at constant pressure IC~ • When pressure remains constant for unlt clJan&IO In ~ the.. What zero temperature? 3. The molecular motion thus ceaaes at aheolute zero of temperature. rootmean square . Cp • w+ C.. Gas laws can be dertvcd on the basis of kinetic theory. What Is the ratio of averagc: veIocIUes of hydrogen molecules (molecular maSs 2) aDd oxygen rnoIecuIes (molecular maas 32) In a mtxture of two gasea to ha"" the same idnetIc energy ..per molecule? . • Totaleneray tor a molecule of (I) _tIIAmOatopUc gu 3 leT 9 It!) a diatomic 1MB .) II) SpecIflc.• • • • • KineUc theory makes cert. Can we use Boyle'.l . to compare two dIlIerent tdeaI gases? 2.umptlana about the nature of moJecules. DependIng on the volume and pressure.8'l'ERJ111NAL QUESTIONS 1. wm be the l'dOdty and Idndic _ _ of ~ DIIliecWea of a II"bRance at abeoIute ... Hence there are two speclllc heats of gas. The pressure of gas Is the average Impacts per second of the molecules per units _ or the walls of the contain<!%' KInetic energy of a molecule depends upon the absolute temperature T and fa Indep<:Sldent of Its mass. reduced to zero.. I) Spectftc heat at constant volume IC.
what will be their rootmean square ". half this Yaiue? 8.locIty at this new temperature? 10. P.. 9. compared to the molecules In a liquid. = 17.02 x 10'" and molecular weIght of hydrogen 2. 13.0 x 10'" mol' .. =8. the ldnectic theory of molecules Is called as an Idea! gas. If three molecules have velocltles 0.80 x 10'" and the root mean square speed of the molecules Is 1.... Use the concepts of kinetic theory of gases to ~ an expression for the rootmean square velocity of the molecules In terms of pressure and density of the gas.1 1. 3R.. (II) At what temperature does the avt:tage energy ha". aJ At what temperature will It exert pressun: of 180 mm Hg? b) If the root mean square velOCIty of the bydrogen molccu/es at 10. FInd an expression for pressure of a gas. 6. = 16. 7.= 5OO+600+7~+800+900 *=700ms1 ?'ll . The bond.. Is 6.. (~ Bo:cuaae the molecules In a solld are closely packed. (0 Because In a gas the c:ohesM: force between the molecules are extremely small . . A""""e speed c. given R = . 12..5. 2. DelIne specilIc heat of gases at constant volume. mass of I mole of hydrogerunolecu/e = 20 x l(}"kg moI').02.!"cs 3 iHlliJtt Q1JB811Ol11' 11.3 Jmol'K' ANSWER TO INTEXT QUESTIONS JHi&X'l guu!1Ol11' 11. DelIne specillc heat of gases at constant pressure. What Is the interpretation of temperature on the basis of ldnetlc theory of gasea? • 14. 6.O Pa and at a temperature of 27" C.0 mm Hg at a teInpI!rature of 50 OK. . Explain what Is meant by the rootmean square velocity of the molecules of gas.Properties of Gaaes 5..3 J mot' K'. A cloeed container cobtalns hydrogen which exerts a pressure of 20.. (DensIty of hydrogen at 0' C and 760' mm of mer cmy pressure 0. Ca!eu/ate aJ the number of molecules of the gas In the container and b) their rootmean square speed. A oontalner of volume of 50 em' CCIIltaln8 hydrogen at . caIcualte the rootmean square of the molecules of hydrogen at O· C at 100' C. ProYe that for a tlratomlc gas C.90 x 10 ms'. an Cy • 18. "nle gaa which foil.8. OK Is 800 IJIS". caIculate the Pressure In mm of mercury exerted by hydrogen gas tf the number of molecu/es per .pressure of t. 3. Deduce Boyle's Law and Charie's Law from KInetic theory of gases. 11. 19. State the assumptions of ldnetlc theory of gases. I and 2 Ion/s respectively. What Is Avagadro's Law? How can It be deduced from kinetic theory of gases? 15.2 I. Avogadro's no.09 kg m"'J. N= 6. I) CalClllate the averrge translational kinetic energy of a neon atom at 25· C. calculate the ratio of th~ root mean sqUlll"e and avt:tage speeds. Dertve the relationship betwen C. between the moIec:uIea are stronger giving a ordered structure. Calculate C and C. for argon. (R .
= INTEXT QUESTION 11.40 x 103 msI nO) 840 m""1.3J mol'K. c are not sam. 2150 msI 232 .3 0) For each degrees of freedom. for a ~tom1c li kT. TEBMINAL EXERCISE (7) (I) 6. P PI + P. + R = 29..05 J moIlC.OOO1l4ms1 c_ and 2. molecule 5 = '2 R 5 or C.JSlO. for 5 degrees of freedom for a molecule of nitrogen total energy = (2) C.PhysiCS Average value of C' SOO' +600' +700' +800' +§OO' S =SlO.9 x 103 msI (al 1.2 x 1016 (9) (al 450 K (8) (bi (bi 2.l.' = 20.e The resultant pressure of the mtxture will be the sum of the pressure of gases 1 and 2 . energy =1kT :.75J mOlI K' Cp = C.= gx8.18 X IO""J (Ii) 12·C 1.OOOm's" c_ =.ft' =.e.espectl\ I.
When you rub your hands together you get the feeling of warmth.1 INTRODUCTION You are famillar with the sensation of hot and cold tn your daily life. Have you ever thought about the cause of heating in such cases? tn fact it occurs as a result of mechanical work done tn both the above mentioned examples. In this lesson you will also study the prtnciples of thermodynamics In the form of three laws. you should be able to: • • • dgferenttate between heat and temperature and describe c4fferent types of thermome'. concept of entropy and Its physical significance. work and the Internal energy of a system. and discuss the concept of entropy. first and second laws of thermodynamics.unl and • • • discuss the prtncfpIe of caIorfmetry. it is obvious that there is a relationship between mechanical work and thermal effect.mJs stating the three COIl11JlOll f:emperattue scales.. . heat and tnternal energy. These are the zeroth. Here.2 OBJECTIVES Afler studying this lesson. The laws of thermodynamics provide a relationship between heat flow. explain the meaning of the thermodynamic terms and the indicator diagram and show thatarea WIder the indIca1Drdtagram represents work. In this lesson you will also study about the Camot's engine and its efficiency.12 THERMODYNAMICS 12. state second law oft:herrn0dynam4: In differentjorms: describe CamDt cycle for a per:fect gas and derive expresstonJor work done and f@cIency. A quantitative description of thermal phenomena requires a definition of temperature. work and the Internal energy of a system. The subject of thermal effects deals with pehnomena involving energy transfer between bodies at different temperature. 12. explain the concept of fntemal eneJY!J of a system and statejlrst taW of thermodynamics and its limttatfDns: • explain pressuretemperature phase diagram and evolue the concept of triple point. state t:hennodynamfp equl11brtum and&rothlav oftherrnodyru. In this lesson you will study about the prtnctples of thermodynamics which provide a relationship between heat flow..
It is due to the kinetic energy ofothe molecules constituting the body..12. Take two containers having water up to different levels. Heat energy can change into mechanical energy. : . electrical energy etc.PhySics 12.3 CONCEPT OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE 12. Thus we need a reliable method to observe the relative hotness or coldness i.3. The quantity of heat energy required to heat 1 gram of water from 14.5"C is called one calorie. Kilocalorie (k Cal) Is the larger unit of heat energy. Our senses are usually unreliable and misleading. Heat is a form of energy.e.3. the degree ofhotness of a body is its temperature.1: Mercury TIlermometer to a larger tube. a piece "fhl Irning charcoal is very hot. Thus. Scientists have developed various types of thermometers. Forexample. This property can be used for the measurement of temperature by various thermometers. Join these containers through a rubber tube.18J I 12. Now you may ask: What is heat? Heat is aform of energy which produces in us the sensation of warmth. The bulb and a prlrt of the a   • 234 . You know that the property of substance d:anges with temperature. one calorie is defined as. we can divide them in the • • following ways: '" • (i) Mercury Thermometer In such thermometers we use the volume of a fixed mass of mercury to indicate the • temperature. because of temperature difference is called heatenergy. A fine glass tube is attached JI'lg. ' . while a chip of ice is very cold. On the basis of '"':"":the physical properties of a substance used . The unit of heat is calorie. A device used to measure temperature is a thermometer.2. temperature of bodies. Concept of temperature When we talk of the temperature of a body we often think the degree of hotness or coldeness of the body.at higher temperature to the body at lower temperature. Stmllarly. Some bodies are foune! hotter and other colder as compared to a given body. heat also flows from a body. when two bodies at different temperatures are placed in contact. The energy which flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature. and 1 kCai = 103 Cal Also 11 Cal = 4. Flow of heat : You can understand this concept from the following example:. When we touch a body our senses provide us With a qualitative idea of temperature.. Water Will flow from the container having water up to the higher level to the container in which level of water is low. For example: If We remove an ice tray and a package of frozen vegetables from the freezer. Calorie is the smallest unit of heat energy.5 "C to I5.1 Heat You are familiar With the sensation of hot and cold. It is denoted as: I Cal.::in thermometers. This sensation of hOl dnd cold can be understood in terms of heat of the body. the Ice tray feels colder to the hand even though both are at the same temperature.
The Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature.. the mercury expands and rises in the tube.l). Celsius and Kelvin Scale temperatures were defmed. The Interval between the two fixed points Is divided Into 100 equal paris.. is based on the principle that the resistance of a conductor increases 12. Before we discuss about thermodynamics. The interval is divided Into 180 equal parts... is the temperature In CelsIus and T In Kelvin. T = fr. parts.. Its pressue increases or decreases by a constant amount for every ·C rise or fall in temperature. (iI) The Constant Volume Gu Thermometer: Co F32 K273 .. Considering the temperatures of melting ice and boiling water at normal atmospheric pressure as the lowest and highest points for a mercury thermometer. when volume of a given mass of a gas Is kept constant.1) where T. (12.. This closed surface is 235 . (W) The Electrical Realstance Thermometer: It.. we choose two reference temperature and divide the interval between them into some equal numbers... Each part Is equal to 1 K. (12. (a) Centigrade or Celsius Scale: In this thermometer zero is the lower fixed point and 100 Is the upper fixed point. Each part Is equal to I ·C or IOCelsius.. = = 180 100 100 We will also mention about two more types of thermometers.Thermodynamics tube are filled with mercury. (b) Fahrenheit Scale: In this thermometer the lowest fixed point is marked as 32 and the upper fixed point is marked as 212. Each part is equal to 1°F.3.. Following Is the general relation between Celsius (C).3) Where R. Relation between Kelvin and Celsius Scale: Following Is the relation between Kelvin and Celsius scale. (I + ae) . a measure of the temperature of the bulb.1s resistance of conductor at OCC and a Is a temperature coefficient of resistance for the material of given conductor. Hence the height of the mercury in the tube can be used as. The resistance of a conductor at e·c Is given by R = R. Kelvin (K) and Fahranheit (F) Scales.3 Thermodynamic Terms (1) ThermodJDamic system: A thermodynamic system refers to a defmite quantity of matter bounded by some closed surface. To fix up a temperature scale.I2. The Intprval is divided Into 100 equal parts. The scale Is calibrated in termS of celsius or Kelvin.2) It Is based on the principle that. (c) Kelvin Temperature Scale: In this scale the lowest fIXed point is marked as 273 K and the upper point is marked as 373 K. For scientific measurement the stand. let us first define a few baSic terms.. with Increase In temperature..ard temperature scale adopted is the Kelvin Scale. + 273) K ... . As the bulb is heated. The tube Is evacuated and sealed (Fig. (12.
.. • c Yo ' equilibrium. PAV . It 18 found mure useful in the procesa where relationship between P and V 18 not known.. (W) IDcUcator dbpuD: You have studied about clliJerent types of graphs in your mechanics lessons.rea under the P .ynam1c variables or coordinates of a tltennodynamic system. :. (b) Closed sJlftem: It Is a system which can exchange heat and work but not mass With the surroundings.w total work done by the system from VI to Va • Area p:p.. The boundaIY may enclose a solid. Bring Aand B . We can get the work done in any particular case using the indicator d1agram. To describe a thermodynamic system. position and veloci~. AW. V.its volume during a thermodynaml. not even heat exchange. Really. during a process. Generally we use graphs to studytbe variation called the boundaxy of the system..I'hoBe IlCUiables in tenru qf which a thennoclynamlc SfI8teJn. Fig.. After sometime 236 . heat and work With the surroundings. Here we will discuss three types of systems as: (a) Open System: It Is a system which can exchange mass... Suppose the pressure P at the start of a verY smaU expansion AV hence work done by the system (AWl AW. The indicator diagram Is widely useful. volume (V).ontact and surround them by a thick layer glass wool. (12. of a physical quantity With respect to the another one. DI..Physics 'cIescribed.. Area of shaded strip ABeD No.2) shows an Indicator diagram ora thermodynamic system.. density (P) etc.r~e same material) A and B.V diagram.hLO r. we need its temperature pressure (P). (e) Isolated system: It is a system which has no eXchange With the surrounding. (12. Suppose A Is warmerihan B. Now we will show that the &.. we ha. This graph which indicates how the pressure (PJ of a system varies . Indicator d1agram plays very Important role to explain the theory of heat engine 12. (U) ThermodynllDl1e Variables or Coordlilatu: In the first book.4) Approximately.These are called thermod.4 THERMAL EQUALIBRIUM To understand the phenomenon of thermal V.with. To study a thermodynamic system we use a pressurevolume graph.'1.ve studied the metion of a body (or a system) in tenns of its mass. VIP1• The depends upon the shape of ' value of the the indicator diagram. 18 equal to the worlt done by the system. In • calculating the work' done In the process of area expansion or compression. can be m. ~. liquid orgas. let us consider two metal blocks .. '. are called tlIemwcfrInamlc variables or thermocIunamfc c:oorclfnates.c process.. 18 knoWn as an indicator diagram. Th1a graph indicates how the pressure (P) of a system varies With Its volume M. lUt htd1ctllO.
(12. AQMC Where AQ . 237 . requlredto ratse the temperature of unIt mass of the matertaL through 1 K.Thermodynamlcs you will find both the blocks equally warm.mass of the body. It means that the temperature of block A is equal to the temperature of block C.4. This statement is known as the Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Further. suppose that block A is also in thermal equilibrium with block C. Beat ('. Have you ever thought about the cause 'bf such. M ~AT . stirrer and a l1d. 12. requIn!d.B and C.. MathemaUcally we can expresa It as. This Is called as the thermal equilibrium of this system. We can summarize these results in a statements known as Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: qtwo bodies or systems A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third body C.apllolty: The heat c:apac!ty of a body 18 equal to the amount of heat. It isa state of thermodynamic system in which temperature of the system Is uniform. 12:4.. Suppose block A Is in thermal eqUilibrium with block B. Ifheat AQ Is required to raIse the temperature ofmass M of the sol1d through A'r.1.probtem'? You willleam this change of temperature with the help of'caiorlmetery. You may say that the temperature of the mixture of hot and cold water l1es between the teml!Ct:&tureofhot and cold water. let us consider three metal blocks A. lD raise Its temperature through one' degree. then. 'It Is also called as thermal capacity of the body. In SI.the hot water and more than the cold water..&. C. lpeoUlc beat: The specific heat of a matertal (solid or liquid) 18 the amount ofheat. system.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics In order to state Zeroth law of Thermodynamics. then A and B are f1I thermal equUfbrium with each other.2 Prlnclple of Calorimetery You take some cold water In a glass and some hot water In another glass. It Is a cyllndrlcal vessel made of copper and provided with a . And also there Is no temperature difference between the system and its surrounding. You wlll see now. It follows that the temperatures of blocks B and C are equal.heat capacity of the body. the temperature of hot water Is less than.5) 51 umt of C Is J/kg K. It 18 denoted by C. M . It means the temperature of block A Is equal to the temperature of block B. andC • specl1lc heat of the body 'nle unit of AQ Is J /K In 5. caIodmeter. Now mlx water of both the glasses. To study the prindple of caIorlmetery let us first dlscU88 a few terms given as. the specjflc heat of a solid mass 18 equal to the amDUnt ofheat requ!A?d to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the solid through lK...
.... . w. .. . .what temperature do the Kelvtn and Fahreinhett scale coincide? . . equIUbrtum with system· Zeroth law oj thermodynamics provides . ... . Bodies at higher temperature lose heat. . ... ... ... tIuIg exeluUlge heat with each other.. system A wtU CJIso be in thermal. . . .... ... ... .... 3.. . . .. .. . ............t: The water equI..'c' A"'~"" W=MC . . .. . .. .. • . . .. . . .:... .2. . ... . .. . _ .... ..... . . . ... .. .... .. ... .. 2.... .. . .. . . .. ..valent oj a body is de. .. The contenis of the calorimeter are stirred constantly so as to keep the temperature of the contents unlform.. (12. . .. Now it Is time to check you understanding.. Suppose a calorimeter whose water equivalent is W containing mass MI of water at ~perature T. INTEXT QUESTION 12... ... ... . . . . ..... . .. ........... "~. .. . v (ft) ifa sl/sternA is in thennaI equIlIbrfum with .. . . .... I . . .. . . (UI) The W11t qfl1ea:t fs' •••••• . . M = Mass of the body• . ..... where W = Water equivalent of the body. . . bastsJortheconcept oj....'" .. .I\IatJ'Iemat(a U1eQ:Uleq:wess ttas: . ~Ive the following questions._:... .... .. It in caHed the principle oj calrometery or principle of mixture... . • v.<!lld C = Spectftc heat of the body Its SI unit is kg... .. ...... .. .. State the prI1lcfpIe oJmlxture. When bodies at dttJe. dOne. _. Now you Will study about the PrIndpIe oj CaIorImetery.. .... . ... . FlU in the blanks (I) P•• _.. The contents are stfired constantly and the mixture acquires a final temperatureT. •..... . . ..11: i1 system B whUe B is in thennal.. . ...... . . .. .. . .1.... .. . . . ..... .. Suppose C Is the spec1ftc heat of solid to be determined and C' Is the specl1lc heat of water then C= (M1+W)C(TT1) M 2 (T2 T) .. .... .. . . . 238 .. ... . . ..Jfnesasthe mass oj water. .ellt temperatures are mixed together in the Ccdorlrneter... ... . .. . .... . We can express this statement as: IHeat lost • Beat gain I This principle can be used to ftne the speciflc heat of one content If specifiC heat of another is given. In case of mixture.. . ... .. . ... .. . . .n .. .. whlle those at lower temperature galn heat. . . .... .. .. . ..t to surroundinQs the heat lost by hot bodJl must IJe e1UJal to the JaeQt gained by cold bodJl. . ..... . .. ... ~. . .... .... . . . . .. . .. .. .......... .. ... ___ ..hlchabsorbs or emits the same amount oJheat tiS Is '.. . A hot solid at temperature Ta and having mass ~ Is dropped Into the calorimeter....by thegivenbodyforthe same rtseorJalltn temperature. ... . ..equtUbrium with another system C then. . U no heat is ro...6) Spectftc heat of solids can be calculated using above relation. At .. .. .. . .. . . . .. .. ..Water . ... .. ..1"'"l . .
However.. internal energy of final state will be higher than that of Initial state. This energy is released when water changes to ice...Thermodynamics 4. Since work is done on the system....... However.5...system in the process (a) along the path ABCjrom A to C (b) lfthe system is returnedjrom C to A along the same path.. long before the evolution of Zeroth law.. The total kinetic .... The energy of the system may be Increased by causing its molecules to move faster (a gain in kinetic energy). Suppose W amount of work Is done on the system In gOing from initial state ito final state J.... These facts cannot be explained merely with the help'of Zeroth law....3 is shown... Let U.. be internal energies of the system in its Initial ana final state respectively. adiabatically.. . physicists have been working for the explanation of these facts since very early ages. We can discuss the concept of internal energy on the basis of kinetic theory of maUer. which tells us about the equilibrium among different systems in contact. 239 . (8) Internal Kbaetic energy: As you have studied earlier according to kinetic theory of matter. matter is made up of large number of molecules... These .= w 12. According to the law of consesrvation of energy U. and U. The sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the molecules of a body Is called Its Internal energy. how much work is done by the system...........5 INTERNAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM Have you ever thought about the energy which is released when water freezes into ice? Don't you think that there is some kind of energy stored in the water. (b) Internal Potential eneqy: The energy arising due to the intermolecular attraction is called the internal potential energy...... how much work is done by the. 12. Let us consider two examples: (I) two systems at different temperature In contact with each other and (Ii) mechanical rubbing )letween two systems causing change in their temperatures.... This stored energy is called the internal energy....... In thejlgure12... Negative sign indicates that work Is done on the system.. •••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ ••••••••• 'lo .. First we will discuss about the internal kinetic energy then internal potential energy........energy of the molecules is called the internal kinetic enBTflIJ. Generally It Is denoted by the letter U Internal energy of a system = Kinetic energy ofrrwlecules + Potential energy of molecules of the system Let us consider an Isolated thermodynamic system subjected to external force. Zeroth law does not tell us anything about the nonequilibriuin state..... molecules are In a state of constant rapid motion and hence possess kinetic energy. It can also be increased by causing the molecules to move against intermolecular force or both....... These facts were explained by the first law of thermodynamics. u.1 I"ir8t law of thermodynamics We have discussed Zenoth law of thermodynamics. It also introduces concept of temperature..
...... IJ... But first law of thermodynamics fails to explain why heat cannot flow from a cold body to a hot body... Here IJ.U = increase in internal energy of the system..5. Ware known from the following sign conventions: Sign conventions: (i) (Ii) (UI) Work done (.7) This is the mathematical form of the first h............e In internal energy is taken as negntive.. 12....... IJ................. the kinetic energy of the bullet is converted into heat...Q = IJ.........U and IJ.. It means that this law fails to provide the condition under wh1ch heat can be changed into work........ INTEXT QUESTION 12...... Wall are in the same units................ This law does not indicate as to why heat developed 1n the target cannot be changed into the kinetic energy of bullet to make 1t fly....Q. Now take a pause and tIy to solve the following questions..1WJ by a system is taken as positive whereas work done on a system is taken as negative..w of thermodynamics. The signs of IJ..U and IJ.2 Limitations of Pinlt Law of Thermpdynamic8 First law of thermodynamics also asserts the equivalence between heat and work..decreas... (11) This law does nof indicate as to what extent heat ca~ lJe converted into work........... tt indicates that work is done' ...... IJ.............. =w..... we can write: IJ..... 12... the law ojconservation ojenergy.... it fails to explain the following points......• (12. . The increase in Internal energy (ilU) is taken as positive and the .........U + IJ.. and it states that the amount ojheat given to a system is equal to the sum oj change in internal energy oj the system and the external work done. FtU In the blanks (I) ............. the system.. Heat gained (added) by a system is taken as positive whereas heat lost (extracted) by a system is taken as negative.. It means that this law does not indicate the direction of heat flow. injact....2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.... Work done The total ..........Q = amount of heat given to the system.Physics Theflrst law ojthermodynamics is •......ktnettc..........6 THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS If the thermodynam1c variables of a system change wh1le going from one 240 ..... energy oj the molecule ts called (tl) 2...W = external work done by the system .... then according to the statement of first law of thermodynamics....... law ojthermodynami£:s ... . (111) You know that when a bUllet strikes on a target.... (1) You know that heat always flows from a hot body to a cold body... However..................Q....... This law tells us that how much work is obtained by transferring a certain amount of heat.. Suppose IJ. ~tatejirst .............. W ..... and IJ....
lbatic procell: Any thermodynamiC process tbatoccurs at constant heat is an adiabatic process. !O Heat produced during friction." I.8. Spring will elongate (increase in length). ict! (soUd). For example (a) Take a piece of ice in a beaker and heat it. liquid and gas are three states of matter. To draw and discuss three dimensional • . you will see tbat spring retraces to its initial position. l'reIIaretemperature phue dI. \ /1 241 . For example. . If you remove the same quantity of heat of. Now we will define number of thermodynamic processes. (i!1) Ilothermal procell: Any thermodynamic process that occurs at constant temperature is an isothermal process.4 I'hasetflatlmmqfwatrr andEF.. temperature ('l) and volume c\\ ' (V). the system is said to execute a thermodynamic process. water (liquid) and steam (gas) are three states of ~ water. The dUJilrwnt .. (I) Revenlble process: A process which .. example the expansion and compression of a perfect lias in a cylinder made of perfectly insulating walls. For. PB p!c. FIg. ph. For example. Thus. Hence it Is a rever3ible process.lI. (Ii) Irreveralble process: A process which cannot be retraced along the same equilibrtum state from final to the initial state is called irreversible process. (b) Consider a spring supported at one end.4 shows phase dlagram of water. 12. Now remove the mass. I we shall discuss the three phases of matter by drawing a pressuretemperature dlsgram. . A .: . This Is called ph.~ and dlagriun may be dlfftcult for you. heating of water under atmosphertc pressure Is an Isobaric process. . (11) Sugar dissolved in water. 12. For example. .lsing a three d1mens1onai dlagraIr. (Iv) AdJ. In e T. Put some mass at its free end. For example heating of a gas in a vessel of constant volume is an Isochortc process. For example. it again changes to ice..1 Phue Dlaaram You have learnt that solid. FIg.tata qf matter are called it.. (v) Isobaric procell: A thermodynamic process that occurs at constant pressure is an isobaric process. You will see that it changes to water.. We can discuss that three phases \ . dfatlram. It means you have returned back to the initial state (ice). For example the expansion of a gas in a cylinder at lIonstant pressure due to heating in a thermodynamic process.. I you can see three curves: CD.water by keeping it inside a refrigerator. I \ j# '" . 12. 0\ t \\ .ThermodynamIcs equilibrium state to another.:an be returned in the oppoSite diretion from its fmal state to its initial state Is called reversible process. and (i!1) Rusting of iron in the environment. (vi) 'lIochoric procell: A thermodynamic process that occurs at constant volume of the system is an Isochortc process.. the expansion and compression of a perfect gas in a cylinder made of perfectly conducting walls. drawn \ ~" in pressure (Pl.
. . This curve is also· known as Hoarfrost Line. In a heat engine. It is known as afusion CUnlt!. . . . . . shows variation of boiling point of water with pressure. If you extend the curve AB. . . . State one characteristic ofmple point •••••••••••••••••••• 0 . . . . . . . . . . Curve PB. .. .. . without rejecting to the sink. . .. converts a part of It Into work then it rejects the rest of heat to the sink (cold body). . nus point is called triple point. . . .. Here one question may arise In your mind whether heat can be wholly converted Into work or not..0 .. . • • • • • • • • • 0.. . . . . 0 12. . . \ . .. . . . . . . . . . It transfers heat from a colder body to a hotter body when external work Is done on it. . . . you will study KelvinPlanck and Clausius statements of second 1IlW of thermodynamics. A refrigerator is a heat engine working In the opposite direction. liquid and vapour states of matter can COexist.. . . . It is known as a sublimation curve.. . . .. . . .Physics Curve CD shows the vartation of melting point of ice with pres"ure. . . . Triple point: It is a point on the phase diagram which represents a particular temperature and pressure of matter.. 2. .3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1 . . . . .. . to state 242 . . . . in the opposite directionfrom its final state to its initial state. 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••• n o • • o.. . . . . However. . (f) KelvinPlanck's statement is based upon his experience about the performance of a heat engine (heat engine is discussed In next section). . . . . . . . . These observations . .. There are number of ways to state second law of thermodynamics. . (i) A reversible process is that which can be . . .. shows change of ice directly to steam...nglne which converts whole heat Into work.~ . . You will get the answers of these questions by a new principle known as Second law qf thermodynamics. Curve EF. . . . . . ... INTEXT QUESTION 12. . There Is no c. . . is that which cannot retrace along the same equUlbriwn state fromftnal state to the initial state. (if) Clausfsus statement of second law of thermodynamics Is !lased upon the performance of a refrigerator... . . .. Here concept of external work done on the system is Important. .. . . . ..o • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3. .. It is known as vaporization curve. . .. . . . CD and EF (as shown In the Figure with dotted lines) they meet at point P. . (Ii) A . Distinguish between isothermal and adiabatic processes. Fill in the blanks. . . . Stop and try to solve the following questions. .. . Also you would be keen to know the conditions under which this conversion occurs. . . .7 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS According to the first law of thermodynamics you have learnt that heat can be converted Into work. . . . the working susbstance extracts heat from the source (hot body). . .. . . .. To do this external wor~ supply of energy from some external source is a must. At this point solid. . . . . Infact Idea of second body (cold body or sink) Is the basis of KevinPlanck's statement of second law of thermodynamics.. .led KelvinPlanck state second law of thermodynamics as : It is not ~le to obtain a continuous supply of work from a single 6OW'Ce of heat. 0 .. . These observations led Clausius. .. .
which supplies heat to the engine.V.1 e v. let us fill one gIn.. Fig. 12. At point A. To describe four operations of Carnot's cycle. substance 243 1 p c(1'. Thus. Conducting Conducting SOURCE SINK A+T. 12. There are essential components of a heat engine as given below:' (i) Source: A hot body at very high temperature T. steam engine.7. the steam generated inside throws off the lid.Thermodynamics second hw of thermodynamics in the following form. 12. This shows that high pressure steam can be made to do work.t into work is called heat engine. It shows that transfer of heat results in a situation where work can be done. A device which can continuously convert he!J. 1".5 ). Modern engines which we use in our daily life are based on the principle of heat engine.7: IndicatQr Diagrwn . " . Original conditions of the substance is represented by point A on th~ indicator diagram. 12 7)./fow from a colder body to a hotter body without doing _ternal work on the working substance. Fig. H . After supplying any amount of heat its temperature remains constant.8: Carnot Engine (tv) NODconducting stand: A perfectly non conducting platform used as a stand for the cylinder.5: (iii) Working substance: Perfect gas filled in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston (Fig. These may be categorised in three types namely. 12. Sadi Carnot in 1824 conceived a theoretical engine which is free from all the defects of practical engine. Heat cannot.. internal combunstion engine and gas turbines. .After Working Substance receiVing any amount of heat its temperature remains constant. mol of the working substance In the cylinder (Fig.1 CUDl)t's Engine and carnot's Cycle You must have hOtiCed that when water is boiled in vessel closed by a lid. (ii) Sink: A cold body at very low temperature T2 to which any amount of heat can be rejected. The working substance is subjected to a cycle of four operations: (a) isothermal expansion (b) adiabat~c expansion (c) isothermal . heat engine and refrigerator. 12.so. second law of thermodynamics plays an unique role for practical deVices like.5) The sides of the cylindei" are perfecting insulating. compression and (d) adiabatic compression. Such a cycle is known as Carnot's cycle and is represented on the PV diagram (Fig.
substance.Jto the sink during this process is equal to the work done (say W. It is shown by the curve CD (Fig. 12. Suppose WI is the external work done by the gas during isothermal expansion AB. HI is the amount of heat absorbed in the isothermal expanSion process. Hence WI = Area ABGEA (h) Adiabatic expansion: Now remove the cylinder from the source and place it on the perfectly nonconducting stand. it is called as an isothermal COJTqJression process. If p •• V3 be the pressure arid volume of the substance at C. = Area DFEAD During the above cycle of operation. respectively. Decrease load slowly on the piston to P2 • The volume of the working substance increase to V2 • Thus working substance expands and does external work in raising the piston. is the work done during this adiabatic compression from D to A then W. Hence its temperature falls. It has been represented by the adiabatic curve BC on . In order to compress the gas slowly. you see that going from A to B temperature of the system remains constant and working substance expands.. it will absorb a quantity of heat.Physics has temperaturp. Then. The quantity of heat rejected (H. be the work done by the substance from B to C then W2 =Area BCHGB. (c) IsotheJ'lll81 compression: Remove the cylinder from the nonconducting stand and place it on the sink at temperature T•. The expansion is completely adiabatic because no heat can enter or leave the working. then it will be equal to the area ABGEA. Increase the load on the piston slowly. HI from the soUrce at temperature T I • 1his way we get point B. increase the load (pressure) on the piston until its pressure and volume become p. 7).l on the working substance. Further decrease the load on the piston to p •. The substance will go under an adlabatlc compresstoTL This compression continues until the temperature rises to T. In this way the temperature of the working substance tends to fall.7).7). respectively. As it is kept in thernial contact with the source. and V. there is no change in the temperture of the system. 7). 244 . the working substance takes HI amount of heat from the source and rejects H" amount of heat to the sink.12. Therefore. Therefore working substance performs external work In raising the piston at the expense of its internal energy. We call it adiabatic expansion. We call it iBOthermal expansion process. On the indicator diagram (Flg.lfence the net amoulit of heat absorbed by the working substance.12. Hence W. . This gas is thus allowed to expand adiabatically until its temperature falls to T2 • the temperature of the sink. The heat developed (H"J due to co~pression will pass to the sink. Thus. At B the values of pressure and VOlllme are P2 and v. T I • pressure PI and volume VI' (a) IsotheJ'lll81 expanslon: Place the cylinder on the source. and W. It is represented by the PQint D on the indicator diagram (Flg. in accordance with the first law of thermodynamics HI will be equal to the external work done by the gas during isothermal expansion from A to B at temperature T .the indicator diagram. = Area CHFDC (d) AdIabatic compression: Once again place the system on the nonconducting stand. Suppose w.12. and the substance comes back to its original pressure PI and volume V" This is an adiabatic compression process and represented by the curve DA on the indicator diagram (Ftg.
Area CHEADC (see Fig.7. Ali!lb the net work done (say WI by the engine in one complete cycle W = Area ABGEA + Area BCHGB. On the other hand. 12. Hence efficiency of an engine is always below 100%. In practice the efficiency of a heat engine is about 12% to 16%.H2 Therefore. 12.P' j It can be shown that fm arnot's engine.. In practice It Is not possible to fulfill these vital . pressure (~. during the adiabatic process the piston moves extremely fast to avoid heat transfer. . (l2. volume (V] and internal energy (V). It means there should be sufficient time for the heat transfer from working substance to source.. And any amount of work can be obtained by merely repeating the cycle. = T2 Tj I tJ =1 ~ I . But in practice there is no such engine. 12. It is denoted 11 as : tJ= Heat converted in .7. 7) =AreaABCD Thus. vou h<tve also seen that all these variables depend upon each other.Area CHFDC  Area DFEAD (As you have studied earUer in this lesson that work done by the system is positive and on the system Is negative) W =Area ABCHEA . to worl< Heat taken from source or 11 = H j H2 H j = H2 r .7.  You have studied that the Initial and the final states of the substancp are the same. heat has been converted into work done by the system.ThermodynamIcs =H.. Here it is important to note that the Isothermal process will only take place when piston moves very slowly.H. temperature In. 245 .. Now. the work done in one cycle Is represented on a PV indicator dia!:lram by the area oj the cycle.conditions. H2 Hj Hence.4 Entropy Till now you have studied about the various thermodynamic variables namely.ence according to the first law of thermodynamics. Due to these very reasons all practical engines have an efficiency less than the Carnot's engine. (12.3 Limitation of Carnot's Engine You have studied about the Carnot's cycle in terms of isothermal and adiabatic processes. 12. It means its internal energy remains unchanged and I. we know W=H.e .9) If H2 = 0 (i.2 Efficiency of Carnot's Engine It is defined as ratJp of heat converted into work in a cycle to heat taken from the source by working substance.• no heat is rejected to the sink) then 11 = 1 or 11 = 100% It means total heat is converted into work.
...... . .. It is denoted by the letter 8 and defined as: entropy is a lIlBaSIU"e of the unavaUabiUt. ...... Physics you will study about a new variable known as entropy... . (12...... ..... .. . ..... .. . ...... ....emperture.. . Deduce the ualue oJT. . we can say that when heat is absorbed during a process entropy Increases...... ....... ... . ... ......... .. .... . ...... .... .. . . ... ... ........ .....": . Compute the change iTt entropy when 5 kg oj water at 100'C is converted into steam at the same t... ........ . ..... . we can express the change in entropy (AS) during a reversible process.... 2... .... ..... Convert it Into water by heating. . ..... .. ... ... ... let us discuss the fullowing example: Take some quantity of ice in a beaker.. . ...... ... .... . u 4..... . .. Convert water Into steam by further heating... And when heat is rejected during a process. .. . 240 ... ... .. . .. ... . . . . ........ .. .. . ... You will see that disorder of the molecules further Increases. Entropy increases during a reversible process and decreases during a irreversible process... .. ••• u .4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1........... ..... disorder of the molecules Increases... . After studing the earnot's engine and its effiCiency and the entropy take a break.. . ... ... . Mathematically. ..... .. .... .. . . .. ....... ...... .10) Thus.. .. •••••••••••• •••••••••• •••••• .....68.. .... ....... ... ... But we have not analysed whm it physicalIy mean..... . .... ..... Hence we can conclude that entropy is a measure of the disorder of the molecules of the system.... ... . .... . It means entropy of water is more than the ice.. It shows that the entropy of steam is more than water. . .. If disorder is greater... .. .. . entropy of the system will be higher. .. entropy decreases... as to or AS 6.... .... INTEXT QUESTION 12.. ...... (I) In a Carnot engine. .. .... . ... . ... . . .. ... ....... ... .... . ...... . . ..... . . .. Physical slgDiflcance of entropy .. . ... . ........... from a hot SOW"Ce... .... 3. . .... . .... Here you find that going from ice to water. . . .. . . . ..... ... Draw ci typical PV diDgramJor a Canwt cycle and show on it the ann which would represent (i) heat taJcenjrom the sowre (it) heat ~ected to the sink (iii) heat converted into work........... . . ... .... . State whether the folloWing statements are true or Jalse. .. .. . ..... ... (it) A Carnat engine working between an wtknown temperature T and ice point given an e.. .. ........ . ................. the temperature oj the sowre decreases . ... To understand this.. .tflciency oJO..... . (I) A Carnat engine has the same effic/el1c!l between lOOOK and 500K and beteween T K and lOOOK caln"ate T.. . . ... . . .v qf a system's energy to do work. In a wider sense entropy can be discussed as a measwe of a system's disorder.... (it) In a Carnat engine. .nler appi oadl: Till now we have studied entropy In terms of mathematical relation..IIolecular dt.... . . ... ..... ....... . . . .. ... .. . . .. ... when heat is taken by a perfect gas. ..8 = Energy absorbed by the system (Dg) at temperature T T = IlQ T .. . . .... if the temperture ojsink is decreased the ejJiclency oj engine also decreases . . .. .... .. ...
Carnot's engine Is an Ideal engine In which the working substljnce Is subjected to four operauons 1Ilisothermal expansion (II) adlabattc expansion (W) Isothermal compression and 1M adiabaUc compresaton. A process which can not he retraced along the same equtltbrtum state from ftnal to the initial state Is caned trreversslble process but the process that occuis at constant temperature Is an Isothermal process Any thermodynamlc process that occurs constant heat Is an adlabetlc process. • • • • • The most commonly known urilt ofheat energy Is calorie. Such a cycle Is caned Carootcycle.w.u. Work done during expansion or compression of a gas Is ~ P. The first law of thermodynamlcs states that the amount of heat given to a system .!ple of nlIxture. . IDeII8UJ:e The thn:e scales of tempeniture wIddy used are the Celsius.. According to Clausius statement of second law: Heat can not from a colder body to a hotter body without doing external work on the working substance. m Temperature of the sink ' . equa1 to the sum of change In Internal energy of the system and the external work done. The different states of matt.~.. The total kinetic energy of the molecules of a body Is caned the Internal energy and the relation between Internal energy and work U. then they must he In tberma1 equtltbrlum with . lCal a4.12. At this point soUd...IIV R l'I\S. Is caned a phase diagram.V) • • • • • • • Zeroth law of thermodynamics states that If two systems are In thermal equlIIbrtum with a third system. Is known as an tnd1cator diagram.Id T. FIrst Law of thermodynamics teUs nothing about the dlrectIon of the ptouss A process which can he retraced In the opposite direction from Its Ilnal state to initial state Is caned reversstb1e process. 8J." Amount of heat ahoorbed andH" • Amount of heat rejected = 1'. . Heat lost a heat gain. betause of temPf'[ature dlfference Is caned heat energt'. now • The thn:e essenUal requtrements ofimy heat engtne are: (Q source from which heat can he drawn a sink Into which heat can he rejected Ill! • (III) working substance which performs mecban!ca1 work after being suppbed with heat. In the prln.. TrIple PoInt on the phase dtagi'am which I epi esellts a particu1ar temperature and pressure • • • of matt... H. The energy which flows &am a body at higher temperature to a body at Iowa' tanpmdure. Ellldency of a carnot engine Is 1) & H 1. A graph which indicates how the pressure !PI of a system varies with Its W>lume during a thermodynamic process.Vdtagram. are called Its phase and the pressure and temperature dIagrsm showing thn:e phases of matt. Kdvtn and Fahrenheit. .1&J and 1 kCal=IO' CaL The degree of hotness of a body Is Its temperature and the device used to l<:mperature Is a thermometer.:'. EIBcIency does not depend upon the nature 01 the working substance " T" Temperature of the soun:e..each ~... • • According to KdvtnPianck's statement of second law It Is not poastble to obtain . • T.. • • Net worl<done by the Camot's engine In a cycle = area of the curve Indlcattng the cycle In J>.8 WHAT YOU HAVE LBARNT • • Heat Is a form of energy which produces In US the sensation of warmth..conttnuous supply of work from a single source of heat. Uquld and vapour state of matter can coextst.
ExplaIn Carnot's cycle Use the indicator diagram to lind out the efficiency o(Carnot Engtne.. At triple point aD three states of matter I. Distinguish between the terms Internal energy and heat energy. (111 Calculate the efficiency of the engtne. What do you meaIj by entropy of a system. At what temperature do the Celsius and the Fahrenheit scales coincide? What do you mean by an indicator diagram. A Carnot's engtne whose temperature of the source Is 400K takes 200 calories of heat at this temperature and r~ects 150 calories of heat to the sink.VI) Intext Questions 12.VII.25 (I) Temperature (tt) C (11t) Calorie See section 12. State the IIrst law of thermodynamics and Its Ilmltations. Intext Questions 12. (h) PI IV.3 1. 6. A Carn<>t's engtneworking as refrigerator between 260 Kand 300KreceIves 500 calories of heat from the reservoir at the lower temperature. 2.9 TERMINAL QUESTIONS 1. 15. 10. 3. 2. 12. ANSWERS TO INTEXT QUESTIONS Intext Questions 12. Discuss Its physical Significance. 4. \. 5. Discuss "reversible and Irreversible process with examples. What Is the difference between Isothermal. FInd the change In Intemal energy of the system when (a) a system absorbs 2000J of heat and produces 500J of work (hI a system absorbs 1100J of heat and 400J of work is done on It. 3. Calculate the change In entropy when 10 grams of Ice at O'C Is converted tnto water at the same temperature.e.1 1. An Isothermal process occurs at constant temDCmture whereas an adiobatic process occurs at constant heat. 8.. 14. 12.Phystcs • Entropy Is a m~asure of the unavallablUty of system·s energy to do work and "mathematically AS = ~• AS = change In entropy and AQ = energy absorbed by the system at temperature T. Calculate (II the amount of heat r~ected to the reservoir at the higher temperature and (111 the amount of work done In eaeh cycle to operate the refrigerator.4 1. 4. solld. (I) Internal energy (tt) on It states that the amount of heat gI\>en to a system Is equaI to the sum of change In Intemal energy of the system and the extemal energy. adlabettc. 13. State the principle of mixture.4. Intext Questions 12. Derive an expression for the work done during expansion of an Ideal gas. 3. (I) False (II) True . 2. (I) retrace (tt}lrreversIble 2. isobaric and Isochoric processes? State the Second law of thermodynamlcs. (II what Is the temperature of the smk. 11. 7.2 (a) P (V. 574.2 1. 9. Define temperature using the Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Uqutd and ""pour cocx\st.
• Iu) 323. 4. 15. (U) 25'16 (I) 576.~ 3.92 cal.93 cal/K. IbI 700 Joules (I) 300 K. 13.6.1K· See ~ 12.08 Joules As = 2. (a) 1500 Joules.2 7240 cal/K. 249 . (I) 2(lOOK (U) 853. TERIONAL QUESTIONS 11. 12.
We will also learn about the method of finding the temperatures of stars which you lmow. Similarly when you heat water in a pot the water mlecules near the bottom get the·heat first.Boltzmann Law.13 TRANSFER OF HEAT 13. They move from the bottom of the pot to the water surface by a process called convection.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. are very far away from us. In the previous lesson. Do you lmow that each. From the first law of thennodynamics. In the unit we will learn about the measurement of quantity of heat. After turning off the heat you find that the hotter water is near the surface. you should be able to : • distinguish between the three modes of heat transfer I1Ll. In the present lesson we will go on to learn about the processes or ways by which bodies heat or cool. convection and radiation.1 INTRODUCTION . we have studied thennodynamics.Il1ely conductton. • describe the principle and construction ofa perfectly black body and draw graph between intenSity and wavelength of radiant energy at different remperatures. The other processes of heat transfer require the presence of a material medium. The water near the base of the pot might be cooler. We already have some idea regarding these processes of heat transfer. and solve problems based • on these laws. We will learn more about all the processes of heat transfer in this unit. • define the coeffident of thermal conductivity and solve problems based on conduction. This energy is essential for life to survive on our planet earth. When one end of a metal is heated. . the other end also becomes hot. The radiant energy from the sun comes to us after passing through the vacuum space between the earth and sun. explain phenomena based on heat transfer. 13. We will also learn what role heat transfer plays in our liVes.one of us radiates energy at the rate of nearly 70 watts? Here we will study the radiation in details. Heat energy falling on the walls of our homes enters the room through this process called conduction. • state Wlen's Law andStefan . we lmow that the heat energy flows from warmer bodies to cooler bodies.
E.2: Convection bodily move but simply uwrate. 13. These molecules further collide with their own neighboures and transfer some K. This process continues until the kinetic energy is transferred to molecules at the other end B of the rod. They are conduction. The flUid gradually beats up. The transfer of heat continues until the temperatures equalize. In the kinetic theory' of gases..1). convection and radiation.3 PROCESSES OF HEAT TRANSFER We have learnt the laws of thermodynamics in the previous lesson.13. Their kinetic in the melal radjrom A 10 B energy increases. When heated they do not flyaway. takes place from a mass of the gas having higher average }<inetic energy to the mass having lesser average kinetic energy.. molecules of fluids when heated move up bodily. The . Let us understand how this I=' I happens. equivalently. Let us take some water in a flask. The heal from the sun comes to us mostly by radiation. The moelcules in such material are tightly bound."ocesses by which heat transfers.ctfon molecules near the end A become hot first.CI . These waves can pass through vacuum and do not require the presence of any material medium for their propagation.1:HeatCond<. We also know that temperature of a gas is related to its a'O'erage kinetic energy. currents in water when (h) In convection the process is little different. The buoyant force causes its upward movement (Fig. This results in a new average kinetic energy and a new final temperature. The heated.. Thus. . and put some grains of potassium pennangnate (KMnO.).E.Ction currepts can be seen as KMnO4 colours them red. These conVl'. When the two masses are mixed the gas molecules collide with each other many times. We will learn about the character of these waves later (Book 4).id. As the flq. Masses of the same gas at different temperatures have different average kinetic energy. In this process the molecules do not . They are constraint to vibrate about thetrequilibrium positions.. to them. As average kinetic eneI"gy is proportional to the temperature..Transfer of Heat 13.. heat by itself can flow only from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature.) at its bottom and heat. Thus a convection current of hotter fluid goirlg up and cooler fluid going down are set. Let us heat a metal rod at the end A (Fig. the end B gets hot.2) to the surface.. There are three PJ. The transfer of heat. According to the second law. 13.=_____::.13.. Jts space is taken by the cooler and denser fluid which moves down... (c) In radiation heat energy moves in the form of waves.. heat is transferred from molecule to molecule by conduction. Let us study.B molecular motion. In conduction and convection heat transfers through A. They collide with their nearest neighbouring molecules and pass on to them some of thetr kinetic energy (K. (aj The process of conduction is more common in ~ metals. near the bottom gets heated it expands. these processl's in details . the average kinetic energy of g'dS molecules is related dtrectly to its temperature.
T) is greater.. d_auo:ji:oa< . d the lesser will be L • _____ the heat transfer IQ a II d).. Heat transfer will be greater if the temperature difference between the face..fi>cesarelcrptat~ T..0 an.fUll qf ice."""'. . = 104976J The mass of ice melted.IS.60 0. (T . ~ Thus. Also T. (KjOrthermacole is 0.20 0.3). 400 240 .. t allowed for heat transfer .. if outside temperature is 45"C. 'The value ofK for some matertals is gtven in Table 13.. 13. m=Q/L 104976J 3235Jg MateI1al Copper AIumintum. 18. Let us consider all the factors on which the quantity of heat transferred.1 : ~ CondueCfDfeu q f _ . has side 80 em and thickness qf 5.1 : A cublcal therrnacole box. ..ltiscalledthe~qf""'aud~ or simply...n'6"c'. latent heatqfjusfon oftce is 335 J fT').... the Q. and T.2 Glass Water Body Fat Air ~'*termaco1e 08 0.. : ._T~ d Q =KA(Th Te)t •.025 0.1} d Where K is a constant which depends on the nature of the material of whichtheslabismade. T)t h c whenlhe.S.1. Q KA(ThTe)t d '" 0. SoIatIGa: The quantity of heat transferred into the box can be obtsinrd using Eq.. • • thegmlter the thiclmess. A the • A greater will be the heat transfer IQ a AI.3: Heat .1 Conduction Consider a rectangular slab area A and thickness d. or Qo A(T.1... Q from one face to another depends.. Its two faces are mamtaJned at temperatures '1. JI:anpIe 13..01 J s' . We can intuitively fed that the larger the area.. 113. estimate the amount qf ice meUal in 6 II. FlnaIIy h the longer the time. the thermal conduct1v1ty of the material. 13. m can be obtained by d1vIdIng Q by 1. Concrete 1 = 313g 2'aWe J3.01 J sJ m1 "C' x 900 x Io'ni' x 45·C x 6 x 60 x 60s I 5 xlD" m...1.01 252 ..""""'" a the gmlter _<!fll_ .. by two reservoirs ITh > d T) (Fig...
... tpe temperature of water falls.... This again results in convection current in the opposite direction. = ~::::::.. ... . .. . ....3. ... ... . It·s density lowers and It rises due to buoyance. ... . Wool Is a good thermal insulator because alr is trapped between its fibres. ....from water ID the shores is eJtperienced as roo! about the methods of heat transfer. pressure decreases.... . 4) A rectangular slab of swjace area 1 m' and thickness 1 m is made up of a material ofcoefficient ofth. ~ 3) EKpIain.. which is cooler.......... nus results In a convection current which flows from hot region to cold region. ..... ...J there is for conduction. .... We feel a cool breeze... Sometimes we wrap the ice slab with jute bag which also has low thermal conductivity.. ... We therefore put the ice in a ice box which is made of low thermal conductivity material such as thermacol... 13...." ~.... it reduces heat loss from our body.. . ......from the shore rises and surf... . ... .. 2) VerifY that the Wlits of K are J s' m' "C"' ... •••• u . .... Substances having low value of K are sometlmes called thermal Insulators. The c. .. . ~~ ""There is no simple equation for convection as shore =..:. .. why? Due to con!iDuous evaporation of water from its surface. .. ......... Suppose we are walking by the sIde of aIake or ocean On a hot day.. . 13.. • .....: ~ ~ ~~ heat traruifer by convection depends on the temperature difference between the . . . The opposite 253 . . .............. .. .. We feel this breeze wbilewalking on the shore.. . .. ....... This Implies that heat flows with more ease through copper..4). ... breeze... . . ... . ......ermt:d conductivity K Jm' s' "C"'..... . . .... This causes colder fluid to move from surrounding to the low pressure region....1 that metals such as copper have high thennal conductivity.. . . . .. 13.. Hot air . . . . In the summer days when we have a slab of ice.... . . • • • • • • • • • . the rate of .. to water..... .... .. .sc. .2 Convection The process of convection is more common in fluids. .. . moves towards the ocean/lake (Fig. .. why do humans wrap themselves with woolens In winter season? .. .. ~ ~ k INTEXT QUESTION 13.. . ..and also on their areas.. ....' rate of heat transfer.4 : Olrwedion cwnmts...... .. . .. ... .. ...1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1) Distinguish the dUference between conduction and convection.... This creates a low pressure area on the shore....and heating pots are made of copper... Warm air from the shore rises and ..... However.. ..:\ currents is the transfer of heat from the shore. .. .. moves towards cooler water.... . The Nowlet as cheek how much you ba_leanlt conuenctfon CIIJ"ref1t.. depends on many factors. The trapped heat gives us a feeling of warmth. As hot fluid leaves a region.. . This causes cooler air from water surface to move to the shore....... This is the reason why cooking vessels ... We wear woolen clothes during winter because wool prevents heat loss from our body. ... which is hotter. When part of a fluid Is heated it expands. . .. .... • • • • • • • • • • • • • ........ ... On the other hand air has very low thermal conductivity.. . . The net effect of these convection ~ .. . .....Transfer of Heat We can see from the Table 13.. we want to protect it from melting..... ... . ....
. 5} During the summer the land mass of India gets very hot..can be detected oriIy by tl1eIr heafinl! effect 13..... urn.. at 6OOOK. of different wavelengths... .. Gradually inc. 13.. it becomes wbJte. 10"' em or 5pIn{l mk:roIi 11 = 10'lm) for a copper block...Ire clgference....... 254 ... 1bis shows that the wire is just emitting . Until at about 16OO"C.ornpr... .. The earth at an ideal radiation temperature of255K... L"...1 Spec.... The intensity decreases for wavelengths either greater ...ed Ught...the radiant energy emitted by Ii... the colour of the emitted radiation will change from duD red to chenyred (at nearly 9OOO"C).. radiates energymainly in the·far infrared· (heat) .... kcurate observation has shown that thia takes place at nearJy 525"C. C'.. At 4OO"C the 1.. EKplain this phenomenon ofmonsoort scfent:!Ik:al1y.. u . emits eneJgV mainly in the visible spec..Vlceveraa... ...... Take a piece of blackened platinum wire in a dark room.. 1lI~ and _"'tis represents the total rate of radiation at that . After sometime the wire becomes warm and emitS radiant energy....perform a sbnple experiment.4...." The most intense of these waves will have a particular ... • '4.) 1 .fC. body is a mixture of WIlVf:8. but these waves...... with the :Increase in tClDJelature..'..Ik the energy transferred across the swface in one second..... you may argue that when the tempetature of the wire is below 52S"C..eglon of electromagnetic spectunn.... They can easily be retlected from poHshed surfaces and focussed using a lens.J. When you J.... These waves travel with the velo!:1ty of light ( = 3 xlO" BUiI) and are transmitted through vacuum as well as through air. The sun. .faces of the slab are maintained at I"C ternperatz. • ... But the air over the Indian oceondoes rwtget as hot. Secondly...ll~ to yellow (at nearly 125O"C).t .1r . • ..ease the magnitude of the CtII"Ient. to orange (at nearly . Evidently area between each curve and the horizontal ".L"'7'"~....5).... wavelength (~1J.... With Increase in temperature. Pass through it electrical CtII"Ient whi~ serves to heat the wire. ...J or less than this value (FIg.... This results in the onset ofmansoons.) are emitted by a heated body in sufflcle!!t \ntensity.. 13.. 1bis energy is called the radlant energy and is in the fontl of' electxiMiagnetlc wavm.lIlS8 a sllghtfy stronger CU1Te11t the wire wlll begin to glow with duD . The human body • radl"tes energy in the infrared region.perature....." the temperature "of a luminous body can be estimated from its Colour..ltemits waves longer than red...hum of the Radfant Enm:gy At any t .. yellow etc.4 RADIATION The term radiationrefem to the continual emission ofeneJgV from the surfaces of an bpdies. An bodies emit radiation with wavelengths that are chracteriStlc of the body's temJ:wature.......ed radia~n of sufficient intensity to affect the human eye................ will be about 5 x ... .. and henre gfrJe a verbal dejinitfan ofK.. What do you infer from this? FIrstly.. more waves of shorter wavelengths (!lince red light 18 oflonger ~ than orange. Let us now...
emitted by a surface can be best expressed in terms of We will.. a part oftt gets transmitted and rest are absorbed.. It simply stcUes that 1. e. = dEl.Ab8orpttve Powea The curves in F1g. temperature.. is constant.4.. hereafter.l m T or. (i.5 and 1) The rate of radiation at a particular temperature (Iepresented by the area between each curve ~d the horizontal axis) increases rapidly with 2) Each curve has a definite energy maximum and corresponding to that a wavelength i.Y. • the rate of f'IIlis$ion (I. dl = Wavelength interval. at a given temperature).. 13. The radiation spectrum of the moon has a peak at A. shifts towards 1eft. Using Wien's Law (Eq. tnmsmisaionand absorption will be dlfIerent.(I3... per unit wavelength range..ture of an ra~ting bodies including those in the heavens. per seeoruIJ. dl. and. temperature (How?). . ThIs second fact can be expressed quantitatlvely bywhat Is known as Wien's displacement law. for diffOOlt surfaces. (13. 13.. or towards shorter wavelengths with increasing temperature.Transfer of Heat verItY the following two facts.ure and wavelength... the energ. This law is.5 clearly show that at a particular temperature and fOr a particularwavelength range 1 to dA. a t of ftIdiant erw emitted per square metre area qf a $UTfru:e.vaid only for black bodies (about which we are gOing to discuss shortIV). e..4. I' 'TLet. A. You may study the curves shown in FIg.2) we get T= constant A IX.. e. For convenience... T =constantl I 1m = 2884micronK = 206K 14 microns Thus we deduce the temperature of the lunar surface to be 206K. a part of it gets reflected. Hence at a given temperat.3 EmfMhe Powea 1IIUl. dE~ = Amount of energy emitted by A. ThIs furnishes us with a simple method of detenntntg the temper . The A. shifts towanIs shorter wavelenths as the temperature of a body is fncreasecl.S) When radiation Is ii>cldent over·a surface. Of course. We define absOIptwe power a" of 'ZSs . We know from our experiences in everyday life that a bright polished surface reflects most of the radiation incident upon it. = 14 microns.2 Wien's Law ThIs Iawwas actually deduced from thermodynamic considerations.1S. then e. wavelength of the most intense wave). refer to as tbe:~fssfDe power of the surface at a given temperature and wavelefutth. .e. whereas a rough black surface ~ most of the radiation falling on it.. 13. strictly.2) The constant in Eq... e.a" area of a surface in one second Within the wavelerigth range 1 and 1 + dl (of course.e. degreesofIdlect1on. IS. Mathematically . let us put in the form of a derivative. .2 is found to have a vlaue of 2884 micronkelvin. 13.
Imagine the enclosure to be filled with radiation being emitted by the waIls haVing wavelength lying between l and l + dt Let a body A be placed inside it. at low temperatures radiation of long wavelengths and if raised to hIgher temperature radiation of smaller wavelengths. The waIls are first Imparted a uniform temperature and then thermally InsuIated from the surrou. Material substances at all temperatures are found to radiate.= 13.. r.5) For perfectly black body.. since the temperature is constant.. = 1.. Eq. between A and l +d.. 13.ndiDgs..t = Total amount of radiation Incident between land l+ d. LalnP black is the nearest approach to such a body.e... absorptive power is a.. If for the given temperature and wavelength.. a.5 BLACK BODY RADIATION AND KlRCBOW·S LAW As we have already pointed out. 0 and r. Let the energy falling on unit area per second within the same wavelength range and teinperature be dQ. p1atinumpblack absorbs about 98%. do not come under this categOlY.... i. is defined as a body with a. "'.1 Kirchoff's Law We now want to discuss about what is known as Kirchoff. we take an enclosed space and let its waIls be opaque to radiation of all wavelengths. and for a given surface r. The term temperature radiation needs a little elaboration. it will ultimately acquire the temperature of the waIls. = 1. For the given temperatu.(13. t" = fraction of total Incident energy transmitted then obviously. per second. If for a particular wavelength . in contrast. is the! emisstve power of the surface then the energy emitted per square metre. = fraction of total Incident energy absorbed (absorptive power of the surface). the rate of emission of A must be . partly absorbed and partly transmitted. Eq. = fraction of total Incident energy reflected. It Is not difficult to prove that whatever the initial temperature of a body might have been.. ... (13. Apparently. equal to its rat~ of absorption of energy. A will come In thermal equilibrium with its Immediate surroundings. and a. absorbs all. as a. In order to deduce Kirchoffs law. It absorbs about 96% of visible light.t. A perfectly white body. t.4)). Thus. law wbich Is true only for temperature radiation.. or by chemical actions as In flames. It may be partly reflected.t will be e. + t" . when radiation falls on matter. = 0. + a. (at a given temperature and wavelength) Total amount of radiation absorbed betweenl and l + d. for even the lamp black is found to transmit light of long wavelength. radiations inCident over black bodies will be totally absorved. = t" =0.. 256 . Such kind of radiation is temperature radiation.3)..t . Now.5. then the total energy absorbed per uDlt area per second will be a dQ (Ref.(Ref. and hence appears black..(13.. it neither reflects nor transmits the light which falls on it. Other methods of making matterto emft radiation such as by passing electric discharge through tts gilseous state.PhysiCs a surface. 1 = r.•. But the perfectly black body does not exist In nature. A piece of whIte chalk approximates to a perfectly white body.4) 13."e of the body if e.
7) or = e~ a.. This Implies that e. a1 . This law cleapy Implies that bodies with high e. to the energy 8bsorbed and we have. while the emtestve powea ~ the total radiation escaping out Is e.1osure at"constant tmperature containing radiations betweQJ. energy emitted by the body can be equated. let.8) is known as Kircht.10) But from Ktrchoft's Law  e1 al =E 157 .!trs law which can be stated as follows: At an:g temperature the ratio ofemfSsir1e power to the ahsorptille poiWtIr qf a substance is constant aruf equal to the enaissme power qf a peifectly black bodg... triple. 1. E../a.. a. 13. dQwill be constant. .1s a cosntant for any surface. double...8) =&. e~dl = a~dQ ...r+e1r2 +el r3 + . =1r el . (13.. since the emtsslve and absorptive power depend· only upon the physical nature of the body and not upon its surroundings. E. (13. Now let us makI: a sman hole in the enclosure and examine the radiatlon escaping out of It.1.6) a~ eLl. dQ . etc. We have proved the law here for bodies Inside the enclosure.. ~=&. tU. If the reflecting power of the surface of the wallis r. ~ law will hold for aD bodIes under aD conditions for pure temperature radiation.6) for such a perfectly black bexly. We know that for any given temperature.dl=ldQ . So for a fixed range ofwa. (13. (13..(13.... ··} = el n+r+r 2 +r3+ .velength dl. refIectton from the waDs..6) and Eq. (13..This radiation Is made up of single. (13.7) give el . Using Eq.9) Eq. in case of a perfectly black body. be the emlssM: power and be the absorptive power.2 DesIgning A Black Body Kkchoffs law also enables us to design a perfectly black bodyfQr experimental purposes..... the body Is in thermal equllibrtwn. We go back to an en<. a good absorber must be a poor reflector (or good emttter). A Uttle oons!de:ratlonwill showthat. Eq. (13..Transfer of Heat SInce.. Thus.. . (13. wavelength range 1 and 1 + cU. But since each body must either absorb or reflect the radJant energy reaching it.mtss1ve powers /good emitters) will also have very high absorptive powers (good absorbers) since the ratio of these Is constant for a given temperature and wavalength range. '" el+e. where of course. dQ is a constant.5.
e.13) Comparing Eq. called SuuanBoltzmann constant and has the value 5. This is to avoid direct radiation from the surface opposite the hole which would otherwise make the body not perfectly black.=E(lrj . Again such an enclosure behaves as a perfectly black: body towards incident radiation also. if a body is at lower temperature than its surroundings.. (13. opaque (i...11) It now walls are assumed to be .... (13. The answer is that they would do so if energy were not supplied to them in some way. If a body is at the same temperature as its surroundings.5.. Its temperature Will rise till Is equal to the room temperature.672 x 10" J/m"sK". the more completely black the emitted radiation is. For any ray passing into the hole will be reIlected internally within the enclosure and will be unable to escape outside.14) that If the surfaces of all bodies are continually emitting radiant energy.1411... such a black: body due to Fery has been shown.3 StefanBoltzmann Law . In Fig.(13..5. or.10) and Eq.. So we see that the uniformly heated enclosure With a small cavity behaves as a black body towards emission. 13..fronl a surf..11).(13.. the rate of emission is same as the rate of absorption.Physics e.. 18. TIlis may be further improved by blackening the inside. we get e. all the objects are both radiattng and absorbing radiant energy Simultaneously.. Note the conical projection P opposite the hole O. Smaller the hole. However.15) It is clear that the radiation emerging out of the hole will be nearly identical with radiation from a perfectly black emissive surface.(l3. (13.. 13.of ana A could be expressed by the relation IE = Ae (J 1" I . (13.(I3..14) where (J is a constant.. There is a cavity in the fonn of a hollow sphere With its Inside coated with black o material and has a small conical opening O..... t = 0) from Eq. Hence the enclosre is a perfect absorber and behaves as a perfectly black body. Similarly if a 258 . it depends upon the nature of the surface and temperature. In fact.. The value of e lies between 0 and I being small for polished metals and I for perfectly black materials. One may tend to think from Eq. the rate of absorption will be greater than the rate of emission. = Ea.. wby don't they eventually radiate away all their internal energy and cool down to a temperature of absolute zero [where E = 0 from Eq. sometimes called the emfsstrity or relative emittance. (13. Where E is the emission from a black: body. Tis the Kelvin temJ>erature of the surface and e is a quantity.5. (13.6: Fery's bIocIc bod!J On the basis of experimental measurement Stefan and Boltzmann concluded that the radiclnt energy emitted per second.) a1 = 1 . and no change in temperature.12) or i=E Ir . there is not net gain or loss of energy..r Substituting from in Eq..
..... Solution: According to StefanBoltzmann law E= eAO'T' Where...... the amount of net energy loss (T.....6.. compute the radiant power of this person..... 3..........7 x 10"" Wnr' K4..l per second is E""..... 7x10 i! =7.... INTEXT QUESTION/ 13....9 m 2 ........... Hence for such a body at a temR«!rature T............. and emissivity e ofthe... 4) A person of skin temperature 28°C is present in a room of tempeature 22°C...........3x5.... the rate of emission will be greater than rate of absorption...Asswning the emissivity of skin to be unity. and swjace area of the person 1. let us discuss three of them.... > T2 ....2 : Determine the swface area of the .......... A = OOT4 ________~10~°7_~m2 0......fi1mnent of a 100 W incandescant lamp at 3000 K........ forT.....6 APPLICATIONS OF LAWS OF RADIATION IN DAILY LIFE Laws of radiation have many applications in daIly life situations.......... which one can obtainftom the experimental study of the spectrwn of black body radiation..3..... then" 259 ................. with surroundings at a temperature T2 ..... (13.....10) Example 13.. Let the radius of the sun be r.....Transfer of Heat body is at higher temperature.= Aeu (T... .1 Solar Constant StefanBoltzmann law can be used to determine the solar constant at different planets of the solar system...... 13....... ~ 13. Solve the following questior. ... .........>T........25xlO5 m 2 X (3000)4 Now it Is time to check your understanding. ......2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1) At what wavelength does a cavity radiator at 300K emit most radiatiDn? 2) Why do we wear light colour clothinp during swnmer? •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••• ••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3) State the importantfacts... . = Rate of energy emltted = 100 W A = Surface area T = Tempeature of the s11rface = 3000 K E E Hence............'T24).................. Given 0' = 5.. There will be a net energy loss......filament = 0.
Then the amount of energy Ereceived per unit surface ..B. la. 13. The atmosphere whi<.)2 ~ . infrared. If solart:onstant of any other plane is a. Thus.In a greenhouse.52 times that of the earth. 17) I \\ .. .3 Newton's Law of Cooling I. Newton's law of cooling states duIt the rate ofloss ofh8at (cooUngl of a hot body Is cIfnIctfv po GjiGi doual to the mean excess of temperature of the hot IJocfJr ". carbon dioxide layer isopaque to ttifran:d nod\atlOn.(I3. \ • 1 Where."wnaIL .le heat. T =Temperature of the sun 0" z StefanBoltzmann constant . flowers. (13...13.19)J. It is subsequently reradiated In the form of longer wavelength heat radiation.I \ 1. and subsequently emits it as infrared radiation.7: E'= Hence E' 'E (~r aT4 . . (13. Slm1lar effect takes place in our atmosphere.14 is £ = (4 It rA) x (0"1") •••• (13. escape from the greenhouse as glass is effectiVely opaque to heat. The solar constant for the earth is found to be 1. R =Distance between the sun and the earth." / I I ' ".rm.." E = 41tR2 £ =(I)2 R· a T4 I .6. . That heat radiation is thus trapped in the greenhouse keeping it W1i. The longer wavelength radiations are not allowed to co.19) From Eq..Physics total amount of energy £ em1tted by the sun in one second (assuming sun to be a black body) using Eq. 13. the sun's light passes through the atmosphere and falls on the earth's surface: The earth absorbs. duIt qf its surrounding pr1XIided theclVference of teJnperatunr Is .{l3... are enclosed in a glass structure. in the atmosphere. of the earth in one second is (using Eq.. plants..et us deduce Newton's law of cooling. 1~....bIenk8t..... (13..36 x lOS Jm4 9""1. then .h contains a carbon dioxide blanket.18) = (.. The solar constant at mars whose distance from the sun is 1.16) Where. This radiation is absorbed by plant's matter. distant R'from the sun is E'. ·The glass allows short wavelength radiation light to enter. is transparent to visible light..17) gives the solar constant at the earth. Eq.2 Greenhouse Effect . 16) ". 13.will be approxiI!lateIy 6 x 1()2 Jnr" 9""1 [Using Eq..6.  EMno .....Ik an_dIoct It is reflected. The. ... ' . . th1a light ..(13.19) it is clear that tf E and are knawn E' can be calculated.. rather than transmitted.. grass etc. This effect again is the greenIiouse * t I : f e e t .\ . ntafning tl.
.....') !fITT) is very small.. .........tant ( =2880 ~IO· StefanBoltzmann Law........... such that A...... The quantlly of heat transferred by conduction Is given by Q = K(T... ...... In conduction heat Is transferred by collision of molecules which vibrate about their fixed posillons.b) establish Eq.To ) 4To 3 E=k(TTo )..... ~ Using the relation ci' Ii' = (a+ b) (a... There are three pr<}Cesses by which heat Is transferred.• ........ convection gnd radiation.•. 3. ........... The _ power of a surface e" Is the amount of radiant energy emitted per square • \ . ..... T......... .. T' .....................13....... A planet which has rarer atrrwsphere is cooler........ The spectrum of radiant energy by a body at temperature 1lKl has a ....... .... (13.....TIo E=ea(T....................... They ar~ conduction... .. How many watts of power will be received by a regwn 40m wide and SOm long located on the swface of the earth? ....21) To • ....3 .. ~ 2.......maxlma at wavelength A..Transfer of Heat Let a body at temperatureTK be sutrounded by another body at TaK... The rate of energy radiated by a source at 1lKl1s given by E = <!OAT" ........ . where k =4ea To 3 2  •....21 starting from Eq..........To'...13... T2'L'0 ................. ..........20....... Total amount of incident energy between Aand A+ d)...• (13....1.... . In convection heat Is transferred by bodily motion of moleCUles.. . ...7....)At d • WelD's Law...22) Ibis is the Newston's law of cooling..... Inradiation heat Is transferred through electromagnetic waves.T =cons..... ............ ......... a= ............ 3.........T........ Explain.....20) = ea(TTo )(T'+T2 To +TT02 +T......... .. Take a pause and try to solve the following questions INTEXT QUESTION 13............~ WHAT YOUBAVE LEARNT • • • • Heat by Itself flows from a body at hlgh temperatwc (0 a body at lower temperatute...... ...To 4 ) ••• (13.. The rate at which heat is lost per unit area per second by the hot body is E '" ecr( T4 .............. • • The ab80rptlve power a Is deflned as Total amount of energy absorbed betwcm Aand A+ d)............
TJ. Can the water be"bolled by connection inside an earth satellite? 16. A copper pot whose bottom surface Is 0.9) Is made of a douhle walled glass bottle enclosed In metal container. (Note: Thermal resistance Is reciprocal of thermal condUCtivity] 9.ts on a llumer which maintains the bottom surface of the pot at 1 IO·C. 8. The wavelength corresponding to emission of energy maxima of a star is 4000·A. Ust the factors on which It depends. If Ice In bothvessles metls completely'ln 25 mfnUtes and In 20 minutes than compare thermal. Two vessels of different material are Identical In size and In dimensions..have the same thermal resistance of the two rods of these materials of equal thickness.Physics metre area per second per unit wavelength range at a given temperature. FIg. Deline the coeffiCient of thermal conductlvjty. Why Is It more difficult to Sip hot tea from a metal cup than from a chinaclay cup? 13. Calculate the thermal resistivity ofa copper rod 20.5 em thick and 50 cm In dlamter . VdC1/UITl 3. / Distinguish between conduction and convection methods of heat transformer.8 TERMINAL QUESTION 1. 7.36 x 1()3 Jm. Why do who layers of cloth at equal thickness provide warmer coverfng than a single layer of cloth of double the thickness? 15. 4. length and 4.2 s· Newton's Law of cooling. 13. A thermosfllll'k (FIg. (l·A=lO" em). conductlvltles of metals of both vessels. Why does a pelce of copper or Iron appear hotter to touch than a ".the bottle contains some IIquld whole Cork stopper temperature we want to maintain. tn dlamter~ 262 . where water bolls at atmosphenc pressure. The rate of cooling of a body is p'.0cm.. 2...· The solar constant for the earth Is 1. convection and radiation.9: 5.I3. 17. Is placed In an evacuated enclosure whose walls Insulating are kept at IOOO·C. The actual temperatUre of the Inslde surface of the pot bottom Is I05·C. A 500 W bulb Is globtng. Compute the temperature of the star. We keep our one hand 5 em above It and other 5 em below it Why more heat Is experienced at the upper hand? . They are lIlIed With equal quantity of Ice at O·C. Why do we feel warmer on a winter night when clouds cover the sky than when the sky Is dear? II. J'o. Look at the diagram carefully and explain how the CUP construction of the flask helps In mlnlmtztng heat transfer due to conduction. what should be the ratio of their lengths? 10.mllar piece of wood even when both are at the same temperature? 12. • • 13.· Ratio of coefIIc1ent of thermai conductlvlties of the dlfferent materials Is 4:3.'portionalto the excess temperature En IT . 18. Why are the woollen clothes warmer than cotton clothes? 14. 6. Commont on the statement •A good absorber must be a good emitter·. How many kilograms of water bolls off In one hour. A blackened solid copper sphere of radius 2 em . If two or more rods of equal area of cross~section are connected In series.0 em. show that their equlvalent thermai resistance Is equal to the sum of thermal resltance of each rod. A steady heat flows through the bottom Into the pot. At what rate must energy be material ~~~~~~~~ supplied to the sphere to keep Its tempera! ure constant at I27·C.
3 1. ANSWERS TO THE INTEXT QUESTION Intext question 13.1 The energy 1ransferred Is equal to K the coefficient of thermal conductivity Is the amount of heat energy transferred In one second across the faces of a rectangular slab of area 1m'. Hint: woolens trap air which has low thermal conductivity. when they are kept at a temperature difference of I·C.J(T' +T. This causes the moist air from the ocean to move to the land.') = (TT. (T' T:) = (T' T.6" 2. • Solar constant x area =2. 66.2 x 10' acrosss the ends of rod be 50·C. The water content of this air is so large that It appears as clouds and eventually we have monsoon showers over the land.')(T' +T:) = (TToj(T+T.2 I. I Intext question 13. A. and thickness 1m. calculate the rate of heat flow. The moisture laden air over the ocean 1s cooler than the air near the land. Wien's constant Temperature 28801lK 300K =9.Transfer of Heat Thermal conductivity of copper = 9. +TT: +T: 263 . 2.4W.7x I()5W 2. The hot dry air over the land rises up and creates a low pressure region. This causes convection currents. 3.)IT' +T' T. Inten question 13.
radio.ps it oontains. electric trains and elevators stop. T. • slale Coulomb's law and write it in lIf!elal'lIOloIion . p/OIU! sheet ofcharge.. An electric power failure dtmons!ndes our dependence . in village field cannot be inipted lIS pumps titils.lights in our homesIscbooIs go out. Broadly speaking all these~.of whicb our own body aod cnvironmant is made of.opment. We willlllso Jeam about electric forces and Ibeir effects.1 INTRODUCfION In our day to day life. under the beactina of electrostalics which is a bnmch of physics desling wilb cIwges at rat.icdipole and ita _ n t andderiw ~for tlte electricfieidintemity dUt' ta tJiI eleclric dipole. This list is DOt c:ompleIe and you am add liliiii)' more things.. {# define elect. spherical shell. we are dr.lIlIIUre of electric: cIIIage and then about !be electric field produced by them. We knowtbatmatterconsislsofelemeillllrycbargedparticles:eIceIronsandpiOlladand ____ In the following lesson.. • define elpetric field at a point due to an electric charge. • sllde basic properties of the electric t:hiuge'anti expIDiII the _ingofquantiMllion and ("lIIServotion ~fcharges. Our dependet1ce OIl electricity nms evea deepct !ban our niliImce on elcdric:al machinery and home appJiances/pdgeIry.. and computer cannot be opezatN.2 OBJECfIVES After studying Ibis lesson. you sbould be able to : • explain frictional electricity and give the QCCOIII'It ofil8 hi~toricoJ .14 ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD ] 4. fans mdI~ coolers stop worting. . • explain the princ:iple ~fsuperposition. IOllg wire.'t! and use it for determining electric field ofa POint chu'1(f!.•.we will study about the &ictioaal elec:Iri4:ity. As you all know. eIecIricity is inhemn in all the atoms . • Slull! Guuutheorem and Us signijicant. Thus our immediate environmentbebaviour is dominaIed by the behaviour of eIectrU: ct. • drllw electric field lines ofa charge Or two apposite eharges.V. 14..pendent OIl eleetrieity.olid sphere..
other.~iacolourfromye.D . The positive charge in ordinary matter 'RSCI r I •• lel 268 .3. When we rub two substances against each . the material which losses electrons acquires a positive cJ:uuge and !he material which gains elecfrons acquires an equal amount oCnegative charge. There is 00 third kind ofcharge. in all experiments on frictiooal electricity.is 6etIer IIAlIaSlDOtlIUlt by Sll. define it as followS . (a) Charges are of two kinds: There are only two kinds of eharges. In this process. two kind of charges are produced . According 10 him.llowtobrown)acquinls !he. Properties ofEleetric: Cbarges In eleCtroStatics.Qne subst!!1!l'A: and 1IaDSlening them to !he o1her.{w"fIIlt Is 611t 6y w"l11 ittlon".ult question of physics. 14. which is origin of Ihe words electric charge. "What is an electric charge"? It is a diftit.An American scientiest Benjamin Franklin (17061790).electric chatge wilh some properties.. This energy is used in removing electrons from.3 FRICTIONAL ELECI'RlCITY We know that when a glass rod is rubbed wilh a piece of silk cloth.PhYSICS 14. !he process of cbarging a body has been traced to' the actual tnmsfer of electrons. leaves etc.The e1ectrip charge is a basic and characteristics P'opel1y of !he elementary particles SIJch as electron. The knowledge offrictio_ehw:trlcIty~back to 600 B. which are mentioned in the following text. This transfer takes place . Similarly a comb is cbalged on passing through dry bair..1. In 1600 A. We may. .~!'>. The II charges at rest are produced due to friction between two insulating bodi~ which are rubbed against each olber.nnting press and so on. This is because "~ .\ . ~. You are aware ot!he fact that every atom consists of nucleus around which neiatiycly cbalged particles revoive in orbiis. we provide energy to overCOme liiction between them. We can idenlit). in writings of early Greek philosopher Thales that tlIIIber (!he gum that long ago. An electric charge is developed on a sheet of paper moviog through a .YiIIt o. from the material in which electrons are held less tightly to !he material in which 1hey are strongly attached. oozed from softwood trees ~1iIto~Sl'!li4.. proton etc. named Ihese charges as positive and negative. electron etc..C. positive chougc. !he rod develops a property of attracting small pieces of paper. This rod is said to be chargd Dr electrif. towards it. We find. however. These names are followed till today. electricity.!'ttract the ~I pi~ oflightDlll~' when it is rubbed against the furor wool. published a book titled' De Magneta' which may be considered as lUst scientific account on the subject. and negative charge. William Gilbert after nearly 2000 years ofThales observation. The Greek name of amber is "Electrum".
ns constant for 011 tinN8. Thus it is clear that charge can neither be created nor can be destroyed. 10101 charge ofa gillen sysfe". Charges ofsame type.l'le.e .e.s qllumi=r!d: 6. in l/aIrIrt i.• q = ± ne. According to this property charges can be created only in equal and opposite pairs as in case of pair production i. two glass rods will repel each other. There are two and only two type ofcharges t/O/I1f!ly posiJilIe and Mgative. (b) Quaatizatioa ofeJectric charges : Any charge exists only in iategraI multiples of a certain minimum charge. chall!e produced on silk. II = O. production of electron and positron pair from Xrays. 2.. let us lake a glass iod. To show that there are two kind. 4. ±Je• . rub it with silk cloth and suspend it by a duead.:. when a glass rod is rubbed with silk. According to quantization of charge. always repel one another while charges of opposilL kind always attract OM another..... before and after rubbing. :! le. ruling'oul il.e. Charge. ±e. The conservation of electric charge is one of the most fundamental properties of charge and no violation of this. the charge developed on glass rod is laken as positive and that on the ebonite rod as negative. This property which envisage.n in Fig14... All the kno~ fundamental particles have chaJBes that are some integaaJ multiples of fundamental charge i..• in an isolated &. where n ia an integer i....• charges are always O.1 (a). These observations also show that like c/lfII'gG rqeI ~ ot/Ier wIUIe IUIlile duirge6 tItITtICIS each oilier.1o the amount of negati~.' cOli/iII/milS nature. continues to be zero.e .ent in if: 5. rod and silk. 'The algebraic sum of charges on gla. the charge on an electron. . 3. If 8Ik1lbo:r glass rod rubbed by silk is brougltt near to it..V3tem relllD. allY charged body can have opl) an integral multiple ofthe magnitude of charge on an elocunn (also kno".. i.uic Field is carried by proton and negative charge by electron. Similarl) IWO ebonite rod o:ach rubbed with fur repel each other fig. The value oftbis minimum charge (e =1.6 xlQ" coulomb) is so small that the grairiinessofcbaJge (or qnaatimiOll of charge) does not show up in Jarge scale eKperimenlS in real life. Conventionally. is known as ~i=Qtioll of electric charge. These observations show that the cbargesde\'elopedonglusrod are different from the charges deveped on abonite rod. . Properties of electric charge I..:tri~ ('h:Jrge and H... Charge is a scahu quantity: 1. (c) CODservation of electric charge: According to tlUs property the oIgebraic SUIII ~f electric charges on all the bodie. J. Charge is addiU... . Electric charge istbougbl of as the source of electric forcejUst as IJIBSS is the source of gravitational force. The fractional value of charge lying in between these "alues is nOt possible.. But a glass rod rubbed with silk attracts an ebonite rod rubbed with fur as shown in Figl4. I. Charge is t'OlIsen·ed.braic slim ofall the charges "..e.• the discrete _lire of charge.e.n as quanta ofcharge) i. I{c). As you know. It can only be transfered from one body to other. has ever been observed till toda) ~ in any natural event or in the laboratory experiment. uf cbalJ!"S.~ 14 I(b). Ill! sho".. the amount of positive charge acquired by gla.e .. is oI.s rod is exactly equal.. etc.
Accon:IiDg 10 Coulomb's law..: F" =FI2 ....2. 14. b) away fimI ql (or q. r' r' When: 'It is eledJOSIaIic fon:e oousIant. andq. As shown in Fig. Similarly.8 x 10 ''C.(14. q. ~ I If F" =force OIl q.. . _two point c:1uugcs sepiliated in vacuum by a distance or'.Coulo_b's Law When an electric cJ.8 x 10" C ? Give reason.1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1. F.. The experimentally measured value of electrostatic force constant I is 9 x 10' Nm'C·'. . =4':' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 270 ..Physics INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.. due to ql aod PI2 =llllit vector pointing fimlq I to q.ln 81 unit we write I where &. (spoken as epsilon zero) is known as absolute electric: permittivity of tht free space IIIId its value is 8.... ii) inversely pvportioIIal to tile square of tile distanre between them. '" law. r . What type and how tmiCh charp will be gtlined by the sill cluth ? Give an exmnpIe illJI8troting the conservation 0/electriC charge.3. is " A As we know r =r.ges _ o f _ kind. . or F= lq.·t.. 1. A glan rod is rubbed with lIi1k cluth and it giziJu QJ10IIitive charge 0/4. Ifq. Theoacc:ordius to Coulomb's law the force (F) bet"w_1bem is : . 12 . ifthe charges_ ofopposite".r ' . Fa ~ q.) iftllecJ. Fa .uuge is held in tile viscinity of 8D01her charge. tile force on q.(14.1) kind. and iii) a:ts a100g tile stiaisJd line joining tile two cbaIges.I .2 Electrostatic lateradioD betweeD two Charges :.14.. this force ofinlaJlctionlletMcn two point electric c:Iuages is: i) directly popwtionallO tile poduCt of tile magnitudes of the charges. 3. Can Q body have Q charge 0. 2. ql q.. _ _ ~ This slJows that forces exerted by the two charges on each other _ equallIIId opposite... it experiences a force.. ' .85 x 10 ·12 C' N" m·'. due to q.1ben accordiug 10 Coulomb's .2) _ . .. force 'r acts a100g the straight line joining the two c:1uugcs and is directed a) tiJMrdsql (orq)..
and q.2)..) 1 :q::.r.3 Vector Form of Coulomb's Law Let two point charges q. ql % 3 21 '. We then write Coulomb's law in vector form as I F.I' ' '.1 (r .) ir.m . I':u 1 = 41t&... 9" r .) . 13 'f'z '. Then. _. bpt ala given distanc:e ·"'lIpIIrt. be located at points A and B specified by position vectOl'S'.. placed oJ a distance ofJm from an identical charge. will repel it wilh a force of ' . ..3..=4ltE • 1 q.> In case one oft.3. and" respectively (see FigI4... in vacrnun..1 ('1 Here " r == 21 I'n I '.Electric Cbarge and Electric Field a_ strictly speaking Coulomb's law is valid 0ftIy fOl' point charges.'.decJ IISC•• wilen the ~ an: . (14.1 '. Irf .. (. F .:sent in a medium adler !ban vac..be clwges is situated at !he origin itsdf" = 0"1'" (say). 1 q. q..'. . 14. 4 K&. It is true fOl' vel)' large distances to very small distances such as atomic di _ _ (= 10"" iii or sriIall) You can _ thot'M CotIIomb'& law of mectlWtatic ~ between two c'gu is quile similar 10 Newton's law ofgravitaJionaJforet! belovet!n· two mmses os 1l1e Sl Unit of electric charge is CoU/OIffII and it is defined as tM charge which wMn . .pnn In case the charges an: kept in a medium Coulomb's law is written as : F 11 = 1 4 K E.:.. 9 x JO'N.1~qz:.Er .1. q.3) 14. 'Il q.:"!'_==:C ('.4 The "Dielectric CoDStaat" 'of the Medium The fonxlletween twodlalJes 9 1 and 9.
...4 ELECfRlC FIELD AND LINES OF FORCE To explain tile mec:banism ofiDtenM:tion betweal two charges placed at _ ctisl!!r!Ce the idea ofelectric field isc:oocieYed...1: 1'riItdpI... 1bc same disl!!r!Ce1lpll1.=li'. turns out to be _ dallractaiBlic I*opcrty of tile medium and is known as its rtUliNpa iWDi(Jiorits 1" ok _ _" Thedid tJ/c _ _.' tile force OIl any charge 'f. Bl«lrkftlrra".. We often write : Absolute pemlitivity E =6.. 14...=1 Ir.. inespectivr: of tile I*f:SCIXe of 0Ibet ~ in 1he system. in 1bc givenmeclium. :vtIIt1rdulrga...•..a below. aud it has DO uoiL . WMachqcdbody ispllced in the hood of.pticable tocalcul&te 1he interaction of each pair. at positionr" r . .6.. which is exp1'"..The factm e. is _ ctimmsiOD1ess "'.... B Jlvacuum> • Jlmeclium) . 14...' placed at positionrdlJc to 1bese charges (See Fig. _ D)' that tbIn is III elecIric field in the surmomding ofdle dwged body......3..oIS.11/111."... f.. are pa:aent in space.1bcftwt.) (14. " ... not tIItered diu! 10"J I I ..r 'I'1&< 14...6. Note that 6.. ."..5 Forces amoag maar Cltarges and Superposition Principle If _large mDDher of charges f. .... to die fon:c betheal tile same two cbargcs. The total force expeaieoccd by any charge due to die 1* II M'" of the rat of ~ in 1he system can be obtaiDed by tile vector sum ofIII forces of~ on the chaise. ofs".5) • 4.. + li'. new..3) is given by: p.. Thus.pasiliOll tiro ~fon:a _ sIIo'l'n ACCOfding to tile _IfH!rJIDSilitm priIIdpk...' f (rr.tugG ..~. _ fa C!' witj""'lI/wt:t:vr erg. f7 frhh ..li'.tll/ftlNllldr 1 ..+ li'ol +. 14... dwged body.:e 6eIwMI two c1.... The value of clecIric field lit any poiDI is cakuIated in tams of electric field inteosity.f(ornlalivepeawi!Mty)of_mecliummaybedefuwl as tile ratio of tile DI8pbxIe offon:c betuuIIIIl die two ~ placed at_ given ctisl!!r!Ce apart in vacuum.... or I F= I n f ...r..". it expeaieDces III dDellCiiiIaIic fCJn:e. Coulomb's law is . wbal ~ are similarlyPJaced.
. The use of CClIICCpt of electric field is !hilt _ can cakuI... cIIIap pI. I• • .=1 t II.y_.. tire dIrectioII ofJ'.r ~9' E Similarly.1 Elec:Jaie Field latellsity The eIocIric ficId ~ lit .. IEt==x...£• ... ... tile filn:e per __ n h of cIIIap II:IiDa CJO a wr:y positMI.... field due k! a mlDlber ofcharges in space can be calculated. r. e.F. ... I: ~NC' • II.cd by lID)' cIIIap ldd lit !hilt point in tile elec:Iric field i. +E. • .r a wctor and iI6 dIrectioII U _ . radiJ:y tile . + q..... .. cIuap q. .(14.:~ ..4... Iotcosily ofeJcctric field . 4_ • " '2 + II.•.y poiDt is tile . ·..(14..cc:Iric field lit 1bIIt poiDL k is defiled .. IrF = 1 .1It lID)' point usiaa principle of auperposition is givm as.II.. 4 a..e.#: mtejllU. 2 r. and dira:tioo of tile force cxpc:riax.. II tile origin is givm by...... eJcctric field inteasily lit lID)' point is the veckJr IIIIIIl of the iDfcnsitics due k! each iDdi"viduII cbIrge. +1:. q.. . Ili'I 1 1 .. (14... I: is electric field iDlaIsity (1Ilacth) and J' is tile filn:e actiDs CJO tile . .t lit !hilt poiut... .NfI lip It'. • "". r• A J . q.... . . .+E...6) Here..(14. The dira:tioo of fon:c 00 positive cIuap is tile direcIioD of elocIric ficId iDlaIsity.. F=~ 4....7) o O..II. Heace.. . The fon:e expaieaced by .__ of cI.. F = III:....o tlpoiItI .~ .9) 1:=1:.EIec:tric a... a point r due k! a point ct. II/IIiM:IIkJWl.rae ' EIec:tric Fidel :: 14.1)  1  [ 'I..." " +. cIIIap 'II: II !hilt poiIIL 11 f.. :. n F i..*1#. . lhprillclpkD/..+ .
the IDIIgent to any point ofwldch givu the dinctkm oltheJisltl at that point.opposite charges: The lines of force arc: drawn in the field produced by two equal and similar (positi. At the midpoint N of the line joining the two charges.4. The poIitive clJ4rges are sourcell of /ines of force mul negative charges are sinks. It is also clear from Fig.5 (c).5 (d). which is not possible. Why two electric lines offorr:tt can not intersect /lOCh ather? Distingl4i. the lines of forces are straight and radial aDd appear either emerging from or heading towards the centre of the sphere.4.1"'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1. lines of force comes straight from infinity upto negative charge (Fig. 14. the imaginOry smooth CIIrW.: Physics 14. No two lines of force can intersect each other.trlll poi"t'.5 a and b). 3. lines offorce of different systems arc: shown. 14. While dalecting the electric field why the tat cItarge q. In Fig. 14.>h between electricJisld and ekctric field intensiJ:y at a point. because if they do so. INTEXT QUESTIONS 14. 14. in Fig. Lines offorce due to an isolated positive charge go snight into infinity and on the other hand due to • free negative charge. the resultant field is zero and this point is known as "e.5 (a> and (b) that for a charged sphere. 14. ". then at the point of intersection two tangents caD be drawn which would mean two directions of the force at that point. in an eleclrlc Jiskl. (a) (c) In Fig.'e) charges . 1.lines of force are drawn for a system of two equal and . 81roJlld be very smDll ? 274 .1 EIec:trie Liaes of Force Elec:lric field around a cIuage configIiraIion may be depicted in tmms of electic lines of force. An electric liM offorce.
5 ELECfRIC DIPOLE AND DIPOLE MOMENT An electric dipole consisIs ofa pair ofequal and opposite point charges separated by a p very small distance. Its unit is 'coulombmeter'. two position are important (a) electricfield at /I point 0" the tDds ofdipole kIf_If 11$ endoll poDtioIIlIIUI (b) electric fteld at /I point 0" the eqUJllDriaililte /If the dipole kM"''' lis brtHuk. behave :It IE: as!fermanenl electric dipoles.... Obviously..:q) dipole m.r L P ~ ~ ~.J!ate force on this charge due to both the charges of dipole and take vector sum of the two forces. We calr..ensiiydw dipole at md .6: Elwrk dipole IJItd ofelectrk two equal and opposite point charges (:. ·' ." positio". (a) Field intensity at a point on the axis of dipole (endonposition) Consider an electric dipole AB consisting of charge +q and q separated by small distance '21'.6 shows an electric dipole consisting of Fig.. separated by small distance •2t'. positim '0 IE.. H. 14. the centres ofpositive and negative charge distributioos are separated by some small distance (although the net charge on the molecule remains zero).1: FJectrkJWd i". 14.. whose direction is along the axis of the dipole pointing from negative charge to the positive charge.. The product of one of the charge of dipole and distance between the charges is called 'dipolemo_nt' and it is usually denoted by p.1 Electric field ofa dipolt! There exists an electric field around an elecmc dipole. Let E.Electric Charge and Electric Field :: 9 14. 14...I = __ 1_ ~ 411E • (r. U.7).." ( ".5... Several molecules such as HCI. be the intensities of electric field at P due to the charge +q and ~ of the dipole respectively..o. we imagine a unit positive charge held at that point. Fig.. 1 ~'~~14 ~ E BOA . To calculate electric field intensity of a dipole at any point. . This gives us dipole field intensity at that point In dais coonection..(14.. Ammonia etc........fi' (In the direction AP) .". 14. because in these molecules. and E.10) The electric dipolemoment is a 'vector' quantity. • • '>. p=2qt t" .. 2/ .. We have to determine electric field intensity E at a point P on the axial line of the dipole and at a distance OP =r from the centre 0 of the dipole (See Fig. _Oft IPI=q x 2t."..
8).IE..' 4 It &../ield inI"". > E. r' . 14.I (in the direction AP since E...N(..21pl . 14. onposition) lEI a ~ COnsider an electric dipole consisting of two point charges q and +q sepsrated by a small distance AB : 2t with ct':IIIre at 0 (Fig. [2(~J (r'i)" I 41t & • [2 1PI 21pl.. : .IIE..(In the direction PAl 4 Ire (r +t )" • Thus.... resultant electric field intensity E at the point P will be I q lEI : IE... The dislance ofP ftom each FlIJ. 10 dipole III ""Icharge is'J r' + t' sideOI' p(}.Clearly (b) Field iDteDlity at a poillt on the eq_torilllliDeofa dipoie(brolld. electric field intensity at P due to ctipoIe is given by lEI:  I .(14. then I term may be neglected in tbe above expression.11) 4 It & 0 ' " The electric field is in the direction of dipole moment i.1: Eleclrh:... be !he intensities of electric field at P due to the charges +q and q of the dipole (8) respectively.il)" d . and E.cili~' (<</uaJoriai Li"d 276 .e. Again let E.q dipole AB at a distance r meter from its midpoint O.' : (r'i}' ] where Ipi = 2qt : dipole moment • If't' is very small as compared to r. Then.. along the axis of dipole from the negative charge towards the positive change.) j = 41t&.. Suppose !hat tbe point P is situated on the rightbisector oftbe ...
IEI = _1_ 4 It E.cose 4 ItEo (r' + I') 41t& (r'+1') . cose t add up being in the same direction (see Fig.EI••:llie Charge .in the above relation... E is effective in opposite direclion to P E = 4 1t Eo (r' + t' )'" If 'f is very small as compared to 'r' then f can be negiected. the intensity on an axial point is iwice the intensity at the same distance on the equitorialliile.. the components perpendicular to AB (E. 1 q • lEI I =4 1t Eo 2q (r' + I" ) cose OA I From Fig.(14.•. 14. cose and E. parallel and pel pendicular to AB. Hence resultant electric field intensity at P is A __)~~_ Fill: U. we see that for a dipole.I =.icld :: We. and 1:. IEI=41tEo 2q I (r'+I") (r'+1 )"2 2tq = =1 1 1 Ipl wherf' I p I = 2qt = dipole moment p :. The compc ••ents parallel toAB (E. (r') 31! ~ N/C rJ . I p.. 14.1 = _. have IE. sin 9 and E.1=411:& s • On resolving E... Then electric intensity at a point P due to dipole is._1_. we get cos 9 = I  PA Thus.12) 41t Eu FIOIl1 tbese calculations.9: IEI I q cose+ . 217 . sin 9 ) cancel each other as they are equal and opposite.9.. thus.1 1 41t& • q (In the direction AP) (r'+ l') q (In the directioo PB) (r' +1') .9 b). "'"Cbi<: F. 11:.
.. In the field the fuR:cooeharge+qisF=qEalongthedirection ..10). (14..........2 Behaviour of Electric Dipole in a Uniform Electric Field Let an ele\:tric dipole be placed in a uniform extemalelectric fieldE at an angle 6 with the direction ofE (Fig..... .....' CQII two similarly charged balls attract each other? Two free protons tmd twofree eleclrolu QI'fI separaJed by the same ._~ the dipole in clockwise direction and tends 10 align it along the direction of external electric field E... form a couple which rotates ...5.. 0 = 0 t ...... we can rewrite the above relation as I rp x E I lid force 011 dipoIf! is UTo. Compare Coulomb's force ofrepubiOll between a pair ofelectron attd a pair ofp#Jtons..3...7' ofE and the force on change q is F=qE in the ...~~ »=....rtOlfCe. dipole is kept perpendicular 10 external electric field......... .. . why? What 2. Give two basic differences between charge and ma:u.... . that in case the dipole is in the directioo of external electric field.....1': Ir pEsina I ..iIIg through hopperu when Iroir i._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1. F" eQ...di.?'?'!) _ .....L .... thD"f!fon arid then Case I: We see. _ _ _ ? directionappositeloE............. 3.....14) R~ tlu!ftll'a 011 tAe two c6111J:f!8 oftlu! dipoIf! fII'f! t!fruU IIIUI ~..... _ .AF=t~ ...... T _ =p E sin (90) =p E (Maximum Value) INTEXT QUESTIONS 14..~ .=~ E .r wet..~ . 4. 14.L..13) In vecter notations..... A comb Iffter """. 2711 .. ..14. 14.e....... O1/I!'S dry ltDir attracts smoIl bits ofpaper. eq 8·C~ unlike and parallel.9) =(q E)(21 sin 0) Fit". We know Torque(t) = Foree x ann of couple =FxAC =Fx AB sinO ( From Fig 14..ThesefOrcesbeing ual.. (14.= p E sin (0) = 0 (MiniollUJl Value) Case D : Torque will be maximlUJl when 9 =90' i.
: Thus.f"" ~ ..1 Gau'ls Theorem in Electrostatics Gauss's law states that total electric flux linked with a closed surface (8) in vacuum is ~. While selecting such a surface.11.6. c} Dipole moment is a scalar qutmtity.e . (14. Answer whether the foIltlMliltg statemelltS Q1'f! irue orfalse? Electric chorge is additive." ) .(14. j) When dipole u porallel to uniform externai'electricfield. It is usually represented by 'PE .e. netforce acting upon it u =ero hut torque will have small finite value. There is no contribution to total electric tIux due to the charges present outside the closed surface. 'PE= E.) i. h} 10 Coulomb = /0 Ampere sec.. electric tIux through a close surface will be positive or nagative depel. 14.e. (E. times the algebraic sum of charges (i.• I 'liE = Eo' 8 I a n .Electric Cbargc and Eleqric Field S. total charge) GIIllosed by the surfaces l:q i. d} E/ectriJ: line offon:e can cui only at neutral poiIil. =. we should avoid charges on S itself. Note that dUring the ilpplicatioo of GIIUSS'S law. The electric tIux through a surface is defined as the product ofthe area (8)_ thecomponent of the electric field nonnal to the surface. TIle cIosd lI.8 = Q 11 . Q E... Burr ~a ~E 1 Fig. 14.'tjoowbetber the field lines emerge from the surface or enter i!Ito the surtilce. a) 14. or E." tltis iIIw is IGIUIlIy cllllerJ tile GtuaSiIuI nuj.16) • Remember location of Q inside close surface 8 does not alfect the value of tIux . Gaussian surface is usally chosen in such a way so that the electric field intensity may have a single fixed value at eVery point on the surface.15) " E r<. e) ·Intensity ofelectric field due to a dipole 011 till electric axial point u twke tire field at the some distance on irs equitorialline.6 GAUSS THEOREM Total number oflines offorce passing through an area immersed in an electric field (E) U lcntlMln osjlux. 279 .a.
2 Important Applications of Gauss's Theorem <a> Determination of electric field dne to a point cbarge Consider an isolated positive point charge q at O. cos 9 =4ltrE According to Gauss's Law. flux from small area rig..17) and (14./J: 'P E =E./3 280 . 14.13. e. We have to find an expression for elecll'ic field intensity at any point P at a perpendicular distance r from the rod.. Fw1her.:: Physics 14. i. The magnitude of electric field in!ensity E at every Fig. total flux passing through clossed surface.. 4lt"". S= E.(14. (charge per unit length).. 4lt&ol r I] . 14. .8) 47tr lEI = q Eo q IEI= 41t Eor q r or.. To determine field at point P distant' from 0 imagine a spherical Gaussian surfa<:e of radius 'r' with centre 0 [Fig. the direction of vector dS representing a small area element dS on the spherical Gaussian surfa<:e is along E only.(14.18) from (14. let us consider a right circu1ar closed cylinder of radius r and length t. (14. +q 9=0 According to definition.E = .17) q ~=Eo .. 14. Fig. (b) Electric field intensity due to a long line of charge A line charge is in the fonn of a thin charged rod with unifonn linear charge density I. with the infinitely long line of charge as its axis... U..19) This is the electric field entensity at any point at a distance 'r' from an isolated point cbargeq.11] Let E be the magnitude of electric field intensity on the Gaussian surface and it is directed radially outwards.6.
:h"'1pl ~ dHtIl 211 . r4 £=(21t8.14. ali!in spbcncal sbell of radius R _ .U. because all such points are at the same distance ftom !he line cluuge. dS = 1: E .= 1:. 1'bere1br. 00 the edges of!he cyIiDder."'*/WtI.. . .• ". elecIric field iDIcosity at any point P.r) . E IIDd llllit vector ~ normal to curved surface 81!e in !he same directioo. i.  1: E...14: JtriJIJoH. 'PE= E(2xrt) Charge euclosed hi..14 (e) lIedrie fidel mteaaity dae to • lIIlifoIwly dull. ourw. ' wbae OP ='. CODIribulion of curved surface of cylinder toWards electric flux.ds (as is unit vector Ii..p. To caJcu!.... E E (271:rl)=  A.. wiIII~.15... .20) ctemy. Letachllrge+qbedislribubid unifurmly ow:rlbesurface oflbe shell (see Fig. so that 9 = 0" .Electric C~and EIectrie Field :: poiDl on !he curved surface of !he cylinder is the same. so that 9 = 0").egssjm surface at e\ICI)' point of~ch electric \ field iIIIaIsity E is the same.. apbcrc S with cemre 0 I IIDd ndius . directed radially'. Thaebe... Ea! r The Vllrialion of electric field intenty E with distance is shown in Fig.. Cansi... i4.. call1eO. 14.1 spberiCIII . Also. .t I: ..(14. angle ._.I5: U"ifumJ(. The surface of this sphere is • ~ ('... Acconling to Gauss's theorem I 1. ~ is 90"./ / S (Gee _ _ IUlfacw) / CMrged shell F/tt..*elecIric field iaIaJsity E _ IheIIe edges make DO CODIribution to electric flux of Ibe cyIiDder. the cy~ = IiDer cIuuge density x length q=U According to Gauss's theorem q 'P..• dS = E 1: dS = E (2 x rt) wbae (2 x rl) is area of!he curved surface of the cylinder.
.MIl (d) Electric field intensity due to • cbarged solid spbere Suppose a solid sphere ofradius R and centre 0 has uniform volwne density of chart!e P. q E= 4 ?tEo r .21) CIarly.. Therefore the Gaussian surface in the case encloses no chart!e. 14. The variation of electric field intensity E with dists.from the centre of a uniformly charged spherical shell is shown in Fig. electric field inside a spherical shell is always zero. thmpl spherical . E=O i.Physics ELdS = E E.... then Gaussian surface is surface of a sphere of radius r « R). 14.e. as sho". i.I: Ala Point on lire slII'fllCt! ofthe sheU r =R q E= If a is surface denisty of chart!e on the shell.!!. oftJ.. 282 . . der:lric jieItI inmuity lit My POW _ _ lire splruical shdl·/8 SlICh • as if the entire charge were concmlrtlted til lire CDIIre of tlte sheIL LeI_ CDIISider a few special cases..ndS~ .17. (14. q £0 or E :E dS= .n in Fig. 14. as cbargc inside a spherical shell is zero.16: ~""*'fi~/di"MSiIy with di6ItIItco iIr dw c. then q=411R'u 411R'a E= a . i E :. Cue .22) =4 11 to R' to c_n: Iftlte point P lies inside tile spherical shdl.(14..16 ~from cenfnt(r) ".e. q =:0.
14. . magnitude of E is same.. then according to Gauss's law E tI· t E.. q' = volume ofS x volume density ofclwge 4 q'~ . 1#.dS =t LadS = EIdSs s s where E.Eleclric CbIIBe aud EIccIric Field .(14.O.et=5J . r:3 i.(14.. We have to calculate electric field intensity E at any point P.. Rp . is electrical permittivity oftbe material oftbe spbme.. If q' is the charge enclosed by the sphere S.( 14.17: Now.z Clearly. if q' E(4lt . q{U:IrIcjNld illl.23) C_ ·1 :At tII~ «1IIn oftlut IIpIu!N. With 0 as centre and r as radius.E =..R rlt Erna DlllliiCetnlm centre (t) ".. charge inside sphere S. which acts as a Gaussian surface. At every point of S. where OP = r.18 which represents the variation of electric field intensity £ with distance (r) from die centIe oflllliform sphere ofciwge.24) 3E. r . directed radialIy outwards. i E E. £=0 C_ ·11: At tIut sruf(JJ:~ oftll~ splt_.z)= or E = .uy 283 .. We have already proved that outside the sphere.+ ..1': rtrilli.2S) All these results are shown in Fig. E ac r. imagine a sphere S..£ %:14. £ac . 3E. maxlDlum =ll. r .l t r ' xp 3 4xr' p E= rp = 3 X 4x E...
tire surface of tho cylinder =21: dS Total cbaqJe encIoaed by tho eyliDder dB AccordiDg to Gausa'slaw in electrostatics. lfthe iofiDite plane sboet bas lItfiform thlckMu.. 14. To calcu1ato E. Let (J be the surfiK:e density of cb8Ip 011 the sheet (i. I: and /tare para1Icl to each 0Ihcr. chargeI_). infinite p/oM . ContributiOD to electric flux is made by the curved surface of tho eylioder. at a point diJIaDt . Electric flux over these edges = 21:. Therefore to. E is directed away fiom both sides of the Ibio plaDe sheet and vico.diJIaDt . ~ = 21: dB On the curved surface oftbe eyJiDder. _ fiud !bat E em oi1her side oCthe sheet must be pcrpeIIdic:uIarto the ~ oC the sboet.lf: FJectricjWddwt""lhillil!forl/nIrM • • Fig..26) We obseIve that I: is iDdependeDt of r..e Consider a thin. edp P and Q. it is clear !bat ifthe IIbeet carries poeitive .1: are. Webavotocalculatoolec1ric field iDtouity E atllllYpointp. FI'\lIIISYI!IIDeby. piercing through the sbeeL At the two eyliDdrical. the IUI'fiM:e density of c:batJe G is uniform and same 011 both the sure. cIwJe (i.L to each other.. = I1l2s•. Tho electric field intensity at 1lIIY JIOint P due to each sutface Is I.. fiom the sheet (See . 01..1').(e) Eleetrie field iateDtity due to... the distance of the point fiom the plane cb8Ipd sheet.IIi&. fiom the e shoot let us imagine a cy1inder of c:roassoc:tioDal area dB IIJId length 2.19. Both I. . " ··dS 2I:dS":" =  .....~ Furtber.14.(14.e. having same mapitudc at all poiJIIs equiclistaat fiom tbe sbeet. ~: J#. Total oIcctric flux over tho oo.o. 11>0). and' (J :..f eh.hut ofcbarge.. :. dliD bafblite lIleet..I.:es of the sbeet. and ": are perpendicular to the plaae of tho .
40'. Therefore.. We use the equation obtained above to write the field intensity for each sheet and then apply superposition principle to calculate the net field intensity in the three regions. . is uniform surface density of charge on A and ".E.Uy dw 10 tWo "".(14.B 10'.. 14.''' le • a.. .x (" +.lite plane sheet of lIniform thickness is.= . E =.:::::::' Eo" Thereror in reglOD 1 I'Jr.(14. (f) Elec~rie field intensity due to two thin parallel infinite sbeets of cbarge Let A and B be two thin infinite plane charged sheets held parallel to each other as shown in Fig. according to superposition principle. iD reglOD II (S. 2£".. . Suppose (I. 14.. (I (I = •. .. =a i.. Speeial_: Suppose ".20. and. Fig.30) le.. two thin infinite plane sheets with equal and opposite uniform surface densities of charge are held parallel to each other.(14.a) I 2Eo 2Eo ' .) ...' Elec:lric Charge I11III CIccIric FieleI' :: sheet and directed away..21.1." E. iD recioD m = _1_ 2£. net electric field intensity at P due an i'lfi.a..e. is uniform surface density of charge on B.... + a. a field pointing from left to right is taken as positive and the one pointing from right to left is taken as negative.27) Note: That the sheet is supposed to be of iilifinite size so that tbc 'edge e&c:t' due to distortion of electric field at the edges (of a finite sheet) can be ignored.+E. As a matter of convention.<1. We assume that a. (I. IoI..(14. . = . . 1 ..JJ: Elet:ttW jWd"". Ii. 185 .= E...>a.28) EE"= a.29) " . Similarly.. (a..•.110'.>O. [=E.
• The positive cIwge are sOurces of lines of force and negative clwges are sinks. 2.7 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT • ~ to friction.. 1be "dielectric constant" of the medium is defined as the ratio of megnitude offorce between the two charges placed at a givendistance apart in VIlCll1llll. = a = Constant.30). same distance·1IJIIIIt in given • • • • • medium. . Em =0 2a From (14. What is a Gauuian surface? 4. ~. Electricfield ilrten. . State whether the following statements are true or false. i) ii) iii) iv) v) The normDI component of electric field it positive when the electric field is out wardfrom the surface. Charge is CODSel'Ved and quantized.28).29). E. • To derive the expression for the electric field inteniity due to dipole at 1liiy (a) axial point (b) equitillal point.C.1ation between electric. F« the UifinUe sheet the "edge eJfoct" can be ignored. This is bow uniform electric fields ani produced in practice. • To establish relation between lines offorce and electric field intensity. E. • Electric forces produced by different charges combiDcd by vector addition.4_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1..face ofthe sheD. = 2£.sity imide a uniform solid spite. INTEXT QUESTIONS: 14. Electric field ilrtemity due to a lo"g line charge it independent ofthe distance Or". 14. glaas rod can be electrified and this was known to Greek philosopher. • About aD electric dipole and related electric dipole moment.M1d inteiuity due to a uniformal/y charge sphericalllhell ? 3. to the force between the same two cbatges when !bey are similarly placed. Also E does DOt depend upon the distance between the thin sheets. Coulomb's law state that the force of electrostatic interaction between two cbatges is directly proportional to the product of two cbatges and inversely propostional to the sqll8rC of distance between them.:: Pbysic:s From (14. Eo Thus. = 0 From (14. • Electric lines of forces and theit properties.." ofcharge ts always zero. what it the. Electric Charges are of two kinds. Coulomb's law of electrostatic is quite similar to Newton's Law of gmvitation. It is additive in nature.. Locatio" ofcharge 'Q' inside the closed surface decides the value ofjllIX. a uniform electric field is produced. Thales as early as 600 B..e. field intensity in between such sheets having equal and opposite lIIliform surface densities of charge become collSlant i. AI a point 011 the &W. Write the unU ofe1ectricjlllX.
what happens to the force between them ? 2. wbich according to quantization of charge. 7.) of electric field E through sma1I an:a cIS is 'PE =. Draw the lines of force of (i} a point positive charge. \\'hal is an electric dipole? Find an expression for the dipole moment 9. Explain the vector form of Coulomb's law.. State Coulomb's law in electrostatics. Two point charges q.8 XlOil C.K where p is dipolemomenL • Flux (d'P. are 3m apart and their combined charge is 20 "C.2 x 107C on flannel ? 3. Thus. (v) plane sheet of charge.cIS where • How to use Guass's law to obtain the value'of eIectric fieIcl due 10 a long line charge. If one repels the other with a force ofO. 3. (E) 14.K. When are the electric lines of force parallel to each other? 10. and q. 2. liii) a clecllic dipole. ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I. 5. both get equal I11III opposite charge.01SN."Iric lines of force.e. what are the two charges? CHECK YOUR ANSWERS IDtext QuestioDS 14. h«ausc this charge is equal to halfoflbe charge on 8Il electron. the total charge before I11III after rubbiDg remains UDCbarged i. conserved. When a glass rod is rubbed with silk cloth. If a brass sheet is placed between two charges placed at a certain cIistMra apart. Whut do you mean by electric lines of force? Give the characteristic properties of "'. The silk cloth will gain a negative charge of 4. No. is not possible.8 TERMINAL QUESTIONS. What are the limitations or" Coulomb's law? What are dielectrics? What happens to the electrostatic force between two poinI charges if the medium between them is filled with a dielectric medium of dielectric constant? 6. 2ICI"O. (iv) a pair of positive charges. How many electrons should be 1rIIDSfened fiom flannel to the eboDite rod 10 produce a psitive charge of 3. (ii)Pointcbalse (iii)Cbarged sbelI (iv) SJ!ba"eofc:lmBe. Ja other words charge remains.EIecIric Charge and EIcctrie Field :: • Net force on the two charges of dipole when placed in UDifonn electric field is zero but torque ~ = P x. 4. 8. (ii) a positively charged sphere.1 I.
8) True (b) True (e) Fsise (d) False (e) True (f) False laten QUestiODS 14.8=B.4 1. 3. 3. 2. ' where as the electru: field iateDsity is the vslue of field at that point. there may be an eloctric field due 10 test cluuge itself. For maSs. test cluuge can be influenced. lite tengents at two points of intersection will show directions of electric field which is not possible.her. latext QuestiODS 14.3 1. Electric field is the regioIlllt"OUDll • c:harge in 'which. . Yes. 2.Physics IDten QuestioJis 14. 4. (e) Fslse. law of C91JSC[Vation as weU as quantzation principle. If the hair is wet charge due 10 friction will not develop. Nm'C' 2. 0' 3. (fthey do I/O. (b} Fslse.2 I. (a> True. Otberwise. (d) True. This is because comb gets cIuuged by friction. when charge on one is mUch larger 1han the charge on ot. The furces are same because each proton and electron carries same magnitude ofcbaIge. (e) False. not applicable. 5.
capacitor. find the ~ent capacitance .I INTRODUCfION We have already learnt in the previous lesson that an electric field around a given charge ·can be represented by a vector quantity E. der.Iectric potential ". known as intensity of elec1roStatic field.n grouping 0/capacitorl and identiJY the advantage ofgrollfJing.potelllioldtfe.  .from . Beside these we will talk about dielectric IIIIIterials and their role in capacitors. We will calculate electric potential due to point charge and electric dipole. explain the IH!htlvloll1" 0/COfItIivcton in . you should be able to : • • ...1 plat..lectrlcfi. define capacity and iLllII/it tmd delCrlIH! the principle 0/capacitor&. We will establish relation between E and Y.itent. In this lesson we wilileam about electric potentiaJ and electric potential difference.15 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITORS IS./ectrlc dipole. u.ld. . explain lhe role 0/dielectric In increaIing the capacitance 0/a capacitor. IS.lectro8totic field.• • • • • • • • • • describe the meaning 0/electric potential ti1uJ electric potential difference.MI'fl)I pos8uud by a clrtrge in an e1mric field.ld tmd derive a . explain the capacitance 0/para11.ftita/IIDI.2 OBJECfIVES After studying this lesson.ctric materlah tmd uplatn the procell 0/polarisation 0/ dielectric material in an electric fi.w electric potMtiaI dw to point clrtrge tmd due to . It is also possible to describe the same electric field by a scaJar quantity called electric poteptiaJ Yas electric field is a conservative field.ntialll/l'focu and their J1I'Ol¥rtiu. calcuJote energy ltored in a capacitor tmd _lion 1M naIu1"e oftmergy. We will also learn about capacitor&.their worldng principle and grouping.lt1Iion betwHII electric field inlelUUy tmd . explain etectrlc poIMIiaI. These two physical quantities E and Y are closely related to each other and any one of these can be used to describe the electric field.uiMrlttmd eqIIlpot. /ut tlie properties 0/diel...
If one joule of work is done in taking a test charge of I coulomb from one point to the other in an electric field. work is 10 be done by the exlernal agency. The potential at a point is taken as positive when work is done against the field by the positi\'e'Charge but as negative. is moved from the point A to the point B along any path by an extemal force.in the field.l) Flg. 15. potential difference between point A and B. specifYing the potential energy per coulomb of charge in the field. The electric potential at any poilll in' an electric field is eqllQl to the work done against the electric force in moving a unit positive charge from outside the electric field to the given point in electric field.Ph.s.G.I Here. which we call as potentUU.. unit of potential and potantial difference is st6t volt (or e. will be V. =~ W .J:Wori.J5.tben the potential difference betweal these pOints will be 1 volt. and V.u. assuming that the charge q. does not disturb the preeJdsting field E. if work is done against the electric force in moving the positive test charge from one point to the· other. 4 <to Consider two points A and B in electric field (See Fig.. I volt = I joule/coulomb. visuali7Je a S(:8]ar function of position.. the amOWlt ofwark done inmoving the dwge from A to B by the extemal force is given by. therefore. If one joule of work is done in bringing a test c. it will tend to move from higher to lower potential.3 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE When a charged particle is made 10 move in an electrostatic field.S. against the force of field.u._ po/It' A and B (W.1). are the potentials at points A and B respectively. in the electric field.(15.) I stat volt (e. then potential at that point is I volt. An electric charge plaCed al any poini in any electric field.) ~ 300 volt. charge in accordance with the the law of conservation of energy. Different points. .= VBV. Electric potential is a scalar qllQlltity as it is related to work done... If a test charge q.. A~~~ ____~D .. We can. We will see in the next lesson how this conccpt of potential difference leads to current flow in electric circuits. The C. V.(IS. This work is stored up as potential energy oft4e.. may have different potentials and then if a positively charged particle is pll\ced in an electric field. Thus...to minimize its potential energy.sks 15. Due to this reason. An electric potential difference is said to exist between two points in an electric field. thus. the electric field is called a conservative field. done be. It must be remembered that this worl<done in moving the charge from one point to other point is independent of the path.harge of I coulomb from infinity to a point in the field.s.2) q. SI unit of potential and potential difference is WIlt.. when work is done by the electric field in moving the unit positive charge from infinity to the point. has a potential energy which is a function of its posilion.
(15.(15.1 Potential at a Point dut to a Point Charge Due to the point charge. over this region will be F AI = q... ECD (1 1) .6) W.2. .1: CalcNlation 0/ electric potential at P Similarly. I E =x .. 0 15.e..7) Similarly.... done in morning the charge from C to B i." Ptl1t:n[lal and l'ap.5) :.EIt!1. x E Ap. :.(15. ra r(O and so on. =X 41t£0 and wode.....acitar:.... electric intensity at .4. Force on a charge q. (15. =FAp xr = o~p x . work done in moving this charge from B to A w . J 5.3.3) p 41ffi r! q • Fig... The total work done in moving the charge from infinity to point P will be 291 .. Work done in moving charge q. __ I 4 !tEo ) .4) Considering point P and A to be very close to each other the average field between these points P and A may be taken as E =JE. the electric field at point A will be E=~ 47tE 1 q r] ... from A to P .E.[p = jr:Iq=q x 41tEo 1 41tEo r __ q = ... r will be .8) rA rB qq. (15..(15. = ~ x (.:lri.
e. Here AP and BP ='1" 2r =. IiiII til P dw 10 .3.etc.=.... W I q y= _ = . lSJ:}.= = qq.II) or qj y= 1: i= 1 41tEo " We see that YocIt is positive or negative depending upon whether q is positive 01' negative.IO) Note: If there aresevera1 chargesofmagnetudeq" ql' qJ'" . Suppose we have to A and +q at B..x _ _ 411:&0 '1 Potential at P due to the charge at B: I q Y~=.. . .. I "".. separated by smail distanCe • calculate potential at any point P (whose polar coordinates are (. then the electric poteotiaI at a point is the scalar sum of the potentials due to each charge i..2 Potential at a Point due to an Electric Dipole Let us consider.(15..+y.4..(IS. OP = r and L BOP = 9 as shown in Fig 15. ..pWIt cItaiga 15. 4uo r .an e1eclric depoIe consisting of two equal and opposite point charges q at with centre at O. x __ 4XEo '1 Total poCential at P due to both the charges of dipole: Y= Y.._volts /I q. 4K!>o qq. 9) i.. . y= y... Potential at P due to the charge at A : I (q) Y.00 . + y....+ y'+ ..... .9) 1 I 411E' o In ac:c:ordance with the definition of potential...(IS. .. .e. QQ .
eIa:IijL .. ".p=cIipole"" .. qx71 .. ...9 From A BOD.H: When die point lies 011 tbe uialline oftbedipole 011 tbe sideofueplive dIqe..y• • ~8.(1'.ri I r • ... dipole is _ * eq... (1'. .. 4_ ••..13) 0.. 411&0r . SimiIIIrty from A O.. CftI)' ~0Il . ::J =. ..·.. ""8!IO' _ c1II: wma ..IS} i. _ ..4..o..ieI due to.'<. "'" get OD '" lCOS 9.=r+lcos9 r. _ _ 80 • I ....= f. or y z r .e.:.14) oltbeclipole. .<IS. ..(1S. =rlcosO  qx21cos9 4116. 1ben 9 '" 1"_ cos 8 I ""1' y.' c:o......P"OII tile .<r pcos8 .... 1ine ofdipole....(C "'" iet OC From the Fit! IS.. 1ben9=OBDdcos9= 1 I y..SpedaIC CaeI: When !be poim P liesoo the uialline oldie dipoIeOllibe iide olpllllitive cbmJe.12) ~.im"oly r.
is held at a point P. This is called the electric potential energy o/the chorgt! system.e. their pote. IS a result potentiaJ. Ifcharges are ofopposite sign i. q. !hey do not interact as their fields do not extend upto each other. Electric field intensity is al_ys perpendicular to such surfaces. Another point charge q" is at infiuity. in space. at P.lr.. a point charge q.e.fromooto point P. 1 ¥= q. ener&Y of die sy1IIiD will decrease in this process. 4 lIE. If we want to assemble a cllarge system i. Under such situation. Suppose.5.(15. 4 lIE.3.n.. to their respective positions from infinitely large mutual separations . =r 12 as shown in Fig.1 P. J5. one is positive aod other is nepdve.. 15. workdonein bringing charge q. When charges are infinite distance apart. due to a charge . work is dooeby die field.3. with position vectorr. From the definition of potential." them from each other. Eleetric Potential Energy of a System of Point Charges The det:tric potnrtiIJl energy is the energy po3Sessed by a system 0/point charges by virtue o/their position in the electric field. We know that electric potential at P. bring clwges near to each other. is.xq.Note : EqIliputionlial s!ll'/oc is that surface at every point of which electric potential is same.x (q. 1bepotential energy ofdle sysJem decreaseS in bringiDg the charges ncar to CEb other while·increases in sepaniting them from each other. . No work is done in moving a charge from one point of equipotential surface to the other. in the form of electric potential energy U.tial energy is zero because no work is done in II10ving a charge plac:ed at infinity. electric potential energy of system increases. we can define potential eneJgy of a system of point charges as the total amoWlt of work done in bringing the various point charges of the system. This work is stored in the form of potential energy in the system of these charges. . This is to be brought to the point P.5: Potential exr oftwo charge. I r. Ir. . then worl< will be done. where P. . q. COnversely. FIg. eDer8Y spent in doing work) is stored in the system of two point charges q. is W= (potential at P. Hence..e. A plane surface normal to the dipole axis and passinglhrough its equitorial1ine is an example orequipotential surface as potential is zero at all the points on the surface. and q. with position vector r.) x value of ~harge 1 q.J This work done (i. Thus.. 15.. in 1Afpei.P..J 10 case of two charges of same sign.16) U= W= 47tE. = . work is done against repulsive tme to bring them closer and hence.•.) .
... Relatioa betweeD Eleetric Field aad Poteatial GnUtieat Consider any two points A and B in a UDiform electric field E.dr or IEI dY Idrj or E=~ dY dr ....~...e... ) ... By definatiOll.....e#rl) at that point In Ibe direction of field.(15....'1...} Hence. q1. IrIJ1 _....3...... fix unibm electric field: E=d Y.'.....1: .  2..... Ifa pain! charge be rotated in a circle ofradius r around Q charge q..._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.' ~ . Elearic.roa............... INTEXTQ~SroNS 15.=PEcosa I ••••{IS............. . qll. .19) {Negative sign indicates thatwork is done against Ibe electric field.... .. sep"uded by a small d...... at any point in an electric field. ........ vector U it is numerically equaIto e\llc1ric field intensity. '*_ A and B = Wottdone in moving lIIIit i.... Remember electric potef!Ual is a scalar quantity but electric potentiaI sradi~ is. what will be the work done ? . q.Y6 . ..20) Here YA and Y6 are potenl:ials at point A &..tial and Capalln Note (1): In case of a system consisting ofpointcbargesq........18) 15........ potential cIiffi!JeIK:e (dY) positive test chaJge from A to B.. .. r 2' r 3' •••••••• r .... ...........istaDce ~=~ ..4. intensity is equal to negative rate of chIDge of potential with distance (called}Hlfll 'WI....(15.... dY= (Force on UDit positive charge) x (AD) = E. From the above relation.......17) when it makes an angle a. respectively.........4 ltEo all poi...... (dr) =(E)(dr) cos 1110" =E.... . How is force related to chpige and electric field intensity? . . q...1... I 'U=. B respectivly separated by a dlsbmce 'd' meter. at position vectors r l .... is (2) Potential energy of an electric dipole of moment p in Ibe UDifonn eIccIric field (I:) IU.{lS........
j:ommon insulators are ebonite. ..It thaI point.. . it is safer to be inside a car or a bus than 10 be in open. To protect del icatc inslnunents from external electric fields. ... Such hollow conductors are called Faradlly Cages.. .... '. Insulators me also called dielectric. . the field within the conductors will be zero irrespective oCthe shape of the conductor.. Metals are good examples of condll~tots. ... ..Jn solids the conduction of electricity usually takes place due to tree electrons where as in case of fluids it is due to ions. . The substance ~ch bave electrical conductivity between conductors and insulators are called semiconductors. The electric field will be normal to the surface !It any point. 5. Q (a) L_. 15. . we enclose them in hollow conducters..4... These need not to be earthed. .onducter.. (b): . ".sltJlJl in a region.. The metallic body of the car or bus provides electrostatic shielding to you from the lightning.... ...6 (II) &..e14.. . .. What Cart you say about the electric field E there ? 4. The. The ~1e charge always resides on the outer surface of a conductor.._'Q ~) Fig.. That is wh} in a thunder storm accompanied by lightning. When the conductor is placed in an electric field. . when an electric field is applied...ductors. quartz.. P ..... mica etc. . conductors contain free electrolls and these electrons move within the conductor. Field out side the conductor 4:8Il exist "lllis property of conductor is used in dectrosltllic shieJdin. glass.. '...•.. In most of the metals equilibrium is reached in a very short time of thr order of 10" second.... After equilibrium is reached. . there is no electric field inside the conductor.... Substances that have free charge carriers through ~ich eleCtric currents can be established by the application of suitable eleCtrl~'i\etJ are 'callc!c! co'." The electric potential V is con. surface of the conductor is an equipotential surface and there is no electric field along the surl'al:e III any poinL oflhl: I.. . Thus. substances can be grouped into two classes namely conductors and insulators.. . . there is lirift of electrons and this drift continues till the el~ctric field produced due to redistribution of charge (because of drift of electrons) is equal and opposite to the applied electric field. The ratio of electric I:011ductivity between good conductors and good insulators is of the order of 10'" 15.1 Behaviour of Conductors in an Electrostatic Field As we have learnt. .. the complete interior of conduCtor constitutes l1li equipotential volume as net electric field in the interior of conductor is zero. E1«trostatic MN/dinfIsctwing . Therefore..... .r. . .' Can two eqllipolential surfaces interseted? ... T/lus...... . Net charge in the interior of conductor is zero and there is no net charge density within the conductor.. .s the phenomenon ofprotecting a certain region Ofspace from electric f. 15. . ... .3..!lithe electric potential be necessarily zero (.. Ifelectricfield intensity is zero at a point..Substances that bave no free charge carriers are called insulators....4 CAPACITANCE On the basis of charge conduction.
15. If the charge on a conductor is gradually increased. Let the potential of sphere be V. we learn that the capacitance of a spheiica\ conducter in farads is numerically equal to its radius devidecl 9 x 10'...lt also depend. i~ potential also mecca". '15. 1 micro micro farad (J. where radius is _en in metre.' .ial Of conductor I)/lt depends q upon ils shape andsi::e. . Ibe value of C does not depend:upon the mate.. q ex: V or q=CV or C=.1F) or picofarad (pF) = 10. (15. 15. However.' • no ... Usually high voltage generators Isources are enclosed in earthed cages.9 x 10' It gives th. This would prevent the electrostatic field ofthe generater from spreading out of the cage.... Smaller unit of capacitance are : I mlc:ro farad (j. • . an eatd1ed conducter PQ can also act asa screen against die e)e<'tric lieltf:lYbu can understand it from the following [Fig.6 (a) & (b)]..IF) = 10 0 farad.6 (b)]. Hence...charge of one coulomb raises its potential through one volt. upon Ihe nallUe ofmedillm in which 'he cOIid'ltlar is localed The capacitllnce of conductor is defined as the amounl of charge 1"<11 has Iv be gil'"n 10 it to raise its potential by unity. 15. when a.. then C= I farad.. Electrical Capacitance of a conductor is a measure of the ability oj me conduclor III slore cha~e on it. When PQ is not earthed. unit ofC isfarad In the above rdation.6 (a)). = .El~ Potential and Capacitars Further...lf q=1 coulomb and V=I volt. C oc . Then I q V = _ .l. o .2 Electrical Capacitance :. the induced + charges flows to earth and the field in the region beyond PQ disappears [Fig.0. when PQ is grounded.t any instant the charge (q) given to conductor.4.{l5. Thus. capacitance ofaconductor is said to be one farad. 4ltEo· r We know capacitance. q < .. Charge Potential or c=q 14 a. 15.3 Capacitance of Spberi<:al Conductor A sphere of radius r is given a charge q. field of charged body A due to electrostatic induction continues beyonds PQ [See Fig.4.22) =4a.1J. The S. is directly proportional to ils p(.' capacitance dlthe co1Ulllctnr.21) V Where Cis cOllStant of proportionality and is called capifciry 0.12 farad.lential \ V) Le.. bY 297 .
.4.: Physics 64 x 10· C=4I1£r= o 9xl(r = 0:1711 x IIt"F or farad = 711 . ++ potential of A is greatly reduced +t. mica.. an c\ec:tril: field intensity E will set up between the plates..erc'" I ill. for a small interval of time. the induced positive charge 011 B being free. flows to e8rth {Fig. . The induced DCgIIive charge tends to decrease the potential of A and induced positive charge tends to increase the potential of A. Due to +q charge on one plate mel q cl:uqe 011 oIbcI" plate. one charged and the oIbcI" usu8I1y earthed. Now consider. another insulated metal plate B held near the plate A.7). By induction. * To IIIIderstand tile principle of a capacitor.F. CIIIMwcttw. medium like air. iDI:reasiDg its capacity. When the plate B is earthed.$ Capacitaaee of a Parallel Plate Capacitor This is tile type of capacitor wbich is used most cOlDlllllllly. This shows that farad is too big a utait of capacitance as earth's capacitance is very large.+Hence.I). No further charge can be given as it would leak out. ne pritIdple ofa Ct1ptICiIII1r is IfJ u. 15. fringing or distortion of eleclric field at the boundaries of the capllCitor can be nesIected.by placed OIberpiate and. This plate is earthed. a small dilUDCe"' IpCt. glass cIe. h consists of two meIaI plates CKhoflraA andbeld parallel toeacb oIbcI". negative charge is produI:cd 011 the nearfiM:eofB andcqual positive charge develops on the farther fiM:e of B. 15. let us consider an insulated mctaI plate A.. When the ~OII 'd' is small. as explained previously. we wncludc that the capacitmce of an insulated Conductor is increased considerably by bringing near it an uncharged eanhtd conductor. +q is induced 011 the outer fIIce of this plate.. . This is die principle of the capacitor.7 used for storinglugc amounts ofelectric: charge and hence electrical enagy in a small space.4 Capacitor A capacitor consistS of two c:onduI:torS. « of. Due to ~ + dUs induced negative charge on B. Some positive charge (q) is given to il. When a charge +Ii is given to the insulated plate. Que ofthe plate is CoImccte¢ to !lJ"OUDd mel 0Iber is imuletcd ~ Fig. The capacitance of this conducter is q/~.q cl:uqe being free.1+ . a charge q is iDlhvwl on the iunCI: fiM:e of . till its potential (II) becomes IJIIIXimIDll. pJateSare oqaated by an insulm". IS. But negative charge will stay as it is bouDd to positive Charge on A. p8p0". flows to earth. . 1~4. Capacitors IIIf ". 11..
... cr 1'= q Ie  Charge on plate = A Area of plate !. .~ .A d Here. (. C. . (I) 'A'· area of plate should be !up (b) 'd'. II.I.. 7.. or I.. . + . It is clear from tbia relation that to obtain hish capacitallee.• Hence. The caplCitlllCe of dielectric fined parallel plate capacitor bec:omeII /C times die ClplCillDCe with air or VIICUUIII u dielectric.4 C.= I' qdfEnA q q = E. the capacity 'C of parallel plate capacitor separated by d in \I1ICUIIID is aiven by.. then the ClplCitallee of parallel plate capacitor is : cd £. [=.  As we know.23) ul)( 10"1l PmI. IMn the electric field iDfellSi'Y between the plates is. B. . relative permitivi'Y .... Here. sepAration ' * . ... _IKe charge densi'Y on either plate.A .(15.. Note: When the plarea ofcapacitor lie separated by lOme dielectric material ofpermittivi'Y E. We know.sIr. . a E" 1'= Ed~ .plates should ..::. C = capllCi'Y =iI' Hence. E 1... if a b.....A d s• ...a d (Where I'ispotentialdifference E between the plates) • +==) t ... +. ".(15.. A ~ E.24) Where /C is known u " ' ttrk _tut of medilllD.be small.4 C • " dwhere E . '(' .EleclnC: P"'''''1iaI1IId CIqIKita's . other then air or vacCWD.+ ..
..27) KK S = .paralion 'tf....KC. We can also define the dielectric constant of a medium as the r.. ....!ft4lr .. il is the ratio of absolute permittivity of the material medium 10 the absolute pennitti\i~ "ffree space.. .: nllt. tf.lio l1f the declmstalic fon. capaCitor In terms ofQl'fa ofplat" \4' and their mutual dilltlllC' of... ~ "~.: ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I..... permiIIM/)' e... LlI platu .'"..etric belWeen the plates . . aDd q: separ.. ~ ~..:.~ ... .. ~ ...4.......6 INTEXT QUESTIONS H.f: ' where E... ~ ~:.c of interaction belween two givcu point charges held at certain distance apart in air vacuum to the force of interaction between the same two charges hela al the >rune dislance apan in the material medium.. It can also be expressed u Capacitance with diclt. " \ F.1 plat..... Capacitance with vacuum between the plates C..plwrU:tIJ CDIIducIor ofrQl/i~ 10 em...l. sCThus. RelativePerlllittivity or Dielectric CODstaDt Accordina to Coulomb's law.·acuum. C.. .. (15...'. Note: For iqetal.... . or K is relative permittivity .. If the potential diJJiIYnc..... ... paper K:: 3.... ...25) \ Where E... K· ao. is absolute permittivity of free sp.paratld by a di........ . "" .... .l.flPIICi1Qlfl:l of. 2.' .." ...... 1M force of interaction between tWO ciwl!es q.....harges are held at the same distance in a material medium... r '...... of partill... .....181 • C.....Physics 15.. ." .rlons of capacilQ1lt:' 'C'. ... Give Ih' value of capacilanc... From these equations we get (on dividing) F E '==EorK F . .. = ... K. .. '...and for mica K ::.. .led by • dishlnt:e r in vacuum is.. 6... . J..ctrlc oflY/aliv.. . . or dieleCtric Constanl of the medium . If same c. .. QCrosl the plal'l of a parQllel plaIt capacilor Is doubled what will be change In the capaclttlllci ? Writ' lhe di"u"....... . ( 15..26) 0.. . • C. .. (15...... a E.. F' = __ • 4 'It: • I q..6.. ((5... .\s w. then 1M force of interaction between them is.. lhe t:. I. ......
I C ... + ~.q r C. f' = ... + C 1 q q +. fronl the soUrce.. 1 or Cs 1 +·C1 I T n . *' q : Ct. potential difference across the th!"ee capacitors are ~ / =  C· c· v3 q q . 15.... Cl' C.. C· ( .. +q . c.. + ~. c. and +q charge develops on the outer side of the second plate or C" The +q unit of charge flow to the first plate of C. • . each capacitor receives tIie same charge of magnitude q. .andsoon . is less IlIaD the least ofC... .' V... to be groupedsuitably: Two most eo. The second plate of last capacitor of the combmation is connected to the earthas shown ~ Fi&J 5.(15.q .29) V. C. • C. and so on as indicated in Fig... .. as explaiDed in theJlrinciple of capacitor.".5 GROUPING OF CAPMmlORS To obIIIin die. Let +q Unit of charge be given to the fust plate of capacitor C. q ~ As. iunuS! the clear to you that C..'efm:e betweell their plates are inversely proJ'!'l1ionaI to their capacila\lccs.. of C8pflCJton joilled ill _ _ II ""II1II til• • _ of til. From the above relation..(IS. q " C. and (ii) parallel grouping. The second plate oflbis capacitor is again connected to fust plate ofnext capacitor of the combinatio. 15.... .q ... Series combination is used w1ien the high voltage i~ to be divided on several capacitors.... Due to electricel iDduction..1IlwIIMt CtIpIICiIIDt« of""..... .. is the total capacitance of the series grouping then. Remember thst the lowest capacitor of the combination will have maximum potential dlffereiICe '*n its plates.1' $eries Gro1ipiagof Capacitors In the aeries combiDatioB of c&pIICiiors.30) c.n and so on. ... All the ClpllCitors in series grouping have the SIIIIlO amount ofcharge but the potential difl.15. tbe HdpI'ocaI ~f ". 301 .31) Thus.(IS..=1 i C.. As their capacitances are different. rec/prfJctIII of illtIlvIdlltlJ ctIpIldttmt:a.. q charge appear on the inner side ofright plate of C. therefore. the fint plate ofifint capacitor is joined to the electric soun:e: The second plate of this capacitor or is j~ to the first plate of the next capacitor.~ ..de1lile4 valueoteapflCitabce ill mauy electric circuits. + .limon modes of grouping of parallel plate capatitOl's are (i) series grouping. If tq V. + .9.•. capacitors . :... / 1 ' )( +q If c.5..~/ . ~ ... 1 . Thus.9...
.ac1iCifKlCitot tbmefoze.inpil/"QII..15. e. ".1n tIrb I)p ojCOlllbinat/on.f' I. . or Ie. .5. dwp OIl tbIm wiD be di.. liliii1i_ e. .35) 2 C 2 2 Where all terms clllt)' tlleir usual meaning.• ..bhHltl.~. .. _ _ ill Fia 15. in the form of eiectrottalic field or potential eMIlY.. When this cllpllCitor is dischqed throuah a resistance. f.10...f' .32) f. ofCapact. This eiIe~·is obtained from thIi batter)' (stored chlmical ene!J)').. lInIiM COIIIbbrDtfoll. f.. In....the poaitive plate of a capacitor and transfer them to negative plate.(U. This enet"i)' of the dIIIJId capacitormuaias in the dielectric medium between the plates. which i. +. /S..pl.2 Parallel Gro.Cr:· qV jowl . /1 Thus. .1f01IPiaI...a B. Some work is done in IrInIferrina this charp. .h i:epedaor of IJ. Let f'be the poteIIIial dilfereDce appiied 110 tbc combiDlltion botw!jIID poiDt A.). this type Of.3 EDeI'IY Stored iD a Capacitor The chlrJial of a capacitor can be visualized by imapnillll as if some eKlemai agent. pulla electrons from..IO: CtlpGCuDI"... . f . tin! plata of .... e.e... Net electrostatic potential eMIlY of chIrge capacitor II aiven as: 1fT' I I U .5. II)' batler)'. . _ poiDt A IIid all tbc IMICOIId plata 110 MMldwpoiDt . .II of the individual capacitances.. + e. "I. f . joined inpmllel is equal 110 the SIII. Remember in parallel combination all the cllpllCitors have same potenlial difference beNoeen their plates but charge is distributed in proportion to their capacitances.~"I"".. PaD B is cOllMCled 110 the earth.'QIIIIiaa _ Q IIDI ctld 110. stored in tile capacitor. we lee that equivalent capacitance of 1lIIY number of capacitors.. 302 ~ . + e. 1.(1S.. A)' f..f' .1: e. _. 15. Such combination is used for charge accumulations.I... this enetIY is re1eaaed back (in the form of heat etc.
CO" NH. i. is produced within the . In such molecules. the CCIIIre of positive charge in each molecule is pushed in the direction of E and centre of negative charge is displaced in the direction opposite to E. Hence pI_ '"tNIptIIJllor due to the presence of the nonpolar dielectric. bcDzeDe. These molecules are mostly symmetrical such as nitrogen. Let us now consider a nonpolar Ila. reduced. Dielectrics are of two types : nonpolar and polar. increasing the value of caplCltsnce of capacitor (as. (b) Polar dlelectrla These type of dielectrics have asymmetric shape orthe molecules such as water. In fact.l1 . effective electric field in a polarised dielectric Is. . (a) NORpolar dielectrics In the molecules of such Iyj. As shown in Fig lS. 303 . Because ofpolarisatirm. When the nonpolar dielectric is held in an ext~ electric field E.15.dielectric slab gets polarised. The nucleus of dielectric moleculos are displaced towards the negative plate and electrons towards positive plates. . equilibrium is set ) and lIIulecule is said to be polarised.. methane etC.4 Dieleetrics aDd Dielectric Polarization We know dielectrics are insulating materials which transmit electric effects without conducting. an electric field E.E Where oc is a constant of proportionality and is called atomic/molecular polar#:ability. which is opposite to E.e. the potentW difference betw_ the capacitor plates is correspondinaly reduced (as ". E'd. centres of positive and negative charges in the nonpolar dielectric molecules'are separated.HCl etc. oxygen..e.qIJ'). 1. Dielectric is said to be polarized and a tiny dipole moment is induced in each molecule. pocB.c of dielectrics.. Each molecule has zero dipole moment in its IIOIDI&I state.5. the force due to external electric field pulling the charge centres apart balances with the foree of mutual attraction between the centres (i. the centres of positive and negative charges do not coincide and they have 80me permanent dipole moment.lnduced Die' IIeb dipole moment p acquired by the molecule P may be witten as.. C . the field between the plates i.11: DIII_ po/lI1'IItIIItJIt"""" lIN dielectric.Thus. Because of external electric field. ABCD placed in an electric field E mai ntained between two plates of capaciter.). the CCIIIre of positive c1uqe coincides with the centre of negative charge.
.. lhe cqui"alent capacitance is _ . e<JU3II" ~ \\"rIo... Is il a sc.·ap". cenain n:gion ofspace Iiom elc.. 1I""inS .or~ i5 done in i"'.• 15. nlpddll.inl (If which cl.\'(11.'rinl! a charlie. Equipc.dlaDllllltut of any of the indi.1he field between the plata ofa c:apadror is reduced..·..:umcs K limes the caracitance "ith air or vacuum as di(lcclric.tcnlial ..IOO". The e1ecllic Pole~lial an an~ r"inl in al c1edri. A metallic box is placed in the space ha"ina electric field.ilu". 304 . R(lalh c pcnnilli\ il) is the ralio of capacitance wilh dielectric belV.. (. I'lcctn>slalic ~hieldinl! i.'1 :' • TIIr."l!ing a lesl charge nf' one eoulumb from inrmily 10 a ""inl in Ihefield.ha"".t t"lwlJr.c I..I }iF an' !trouped (u) in series and (hI i" (IIlnul/l.3.. in an dcclrU!.n ils ile and nature o(medium. Define electric potenlial. dllne againsl !he elecllic fo"...6 WHAT YOU HAV': • • It:A:...(" palfntial. Won. ? J . The capacilancc IIf ~ ..ft.inllo anolher. In series combinalion of capacilotS. paper and oil an us~d ur dir!rctriL·. remo. the phenomenon nrprolctling. ""bat is the field iDIicIe h ? Explain> our BIIS"cr. ...Jfmm 1M "lIalJr.' t. then pc'lenlial allhal roinl is one \'<111.·trostat. Due ft) the presence ofa nonpolardielectric. apan from eacil oOIIr. apae itan. . lidd j.'.10''< ala "apadlor in .. be.. decrea..urface i~ Ihe surlace at eve". the equivalent capacitance is equal 10 cbt lUll of inc!i\'idual capacitances.e in mewing a unil charlie Irom oUlsidc Ih.:lric field.' .'Clric pc.'me.. he""~~" 111"1'1./iF . is aid 10 be the electrostatic polential energy o(the slslem.lIh:1I ("ure Ih~ o'u/1u".i"K ""ttery and u Ji"l«tric" in..( • dielectric filled panlled "Iale capaci"'..n the rnaterial "f c:emdUl:tor bul depends upc. In parallel combination of capacilors.. / The work done is auembling t\\'o charg(s infinilel). Ifair.if: 5 . idual capacitance.alat or a veclor quantity? 2.'".tcnlial is IIUIIC.bal is meanl b) ·potenlial srac!ienl"? WiU il have the same unit u poIeDtial ? 3.~· ? Will il inC'f'f!(l.'~·'T • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ek'CIl'oS1alic field is a .4 cal'"dltlr i. incn:a.·illin higM.: or a conduclor docs nol dcpcndupc.fl!rteti in ""tu·ten t"" pIOlf.. equal to negalive rale ofchange of poIeI1tlll wilh di!llancc (caUed pnlcnlialll1adienl. (rom one pc. 1111: capacilanl. lew al C\'ery poinlon the equiloriallinc of dipole.eti.. AI an)' poim in an eleclric field. V.. eleclric field 10 Ihe given pllinl in electric field. Whut .. done in Ir~t. pc.lcctric re'tcntial due In a dire. J"nJ~? 15.. If one joule "f".ill happr" t" lilt! ele.lalic rlCld is path indc""ndcnl..nscJ"\·ali\c field.1 TERMINAL Qt:ESTIONS I.lnn· in h"th ".le i.._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _"_ _ I. f. ">l1lI""1." .· CIII'"dlor.f(· or remain th .'I ('''pan lilt: "'1/11. "'hen II/IOther canhed eonductor is brovahI in ils \·icinity. intcnsil)' ._1he plalClto the capacitance \\ith \'Icuum bel\\een the plales...INTEXTQUESTIONS 15.
wh&1 Mppens 10 the encrg)' lost? c.. . Fon:o: . :':". capacitor. the electron and prolan are bound at a distance of about 0. because is rollliina the c:Jwae in. how does the capacitance change and ~ Derin an expression for the equi\'alent capacitance of twu capacilOn (.. The ~Iectric potenlial is + 80 V ala point distant 80 mm from a pow charge."". tile dielectric "MSI'IIt oftile cIieIectric.1QtI.Q.charge x electric field intensity l. :':0.. oefine the SI Unit of capacilance. the "'''rkdone in moving a charge of 10 C ""Iween Iwo pnints "'pc.. 6. factor K.I I. o f Inlul Questions IS. Capacilance will remain same.32 x 10"21. \\bat is diel«lric ? When a dielectric: is inserted in between the plates of a c:apac:itor. 7.~ is charged 10 a potcDtiaJ of 4OOV.. What is their _on potallial dift'crcnce ? What is the final energy stored in the system ? Is IhIIre ..·4lc 10"2J..t•. :\1 :! T" A'. Another capacitor C. 27.. C _ teE. Il.!:I«tric PQlCllliailDd C.B2 . 0 . dislance of6·cm.ero. connected (a. PotcnIiaJ CReIIY dec:reaRa by.'. Two capacitors of ''<Iual capacitance when cOMccted in serieJ. What is the magnitude of charge? In a bydrogen atom.. 8. Write two IIpplication of capacilon in electric circuits. I"'rhe the \aluc ofpolcntial at any point on the equatorial line nfan de"ric dipole. in series (b) ill . 12.""It. explain"'" principle of. Tbe lost energy appears as beat producecl ill the wire. hence E .~ndicular 10 il.1l1li of ? If yes... on"'" equipolential surface of 100 IAV? What i. :!.B..~ cquipolenlisl surface is always normal to electric field iDtaIIiy E. have a net capacitance C. =2~ is cbaIged l'la potential qf200V. As E' and I' is consent. A 3. Q. Fipd is charge and energy stored in cacb capuitor? The t"O cbargc.. have a net capacilanl:e C and when cOMected in parallel. circle. 10.17eV 12. 3.. ESlimate"'" potential energy of the system in i: 1'. oil 2. electric pulo:nlial will nul necessarily be zero. .? .1cI..·16ylO"'C.! hy. 5. 30S ..71 pC II. 35 3.. \\ bat i. 5...)n is p4.0.3 I.. 9.l..2 I. 61J. a.. What is the value ufe A capacitor C.atar . II. deline the tenn .d c:apac:itors are nowjoined in parallel. 10. fon:e is alOIII the I'IIIIIus IUd direction of moti.pF d IRanI Questio•• IS.S3 A. an4 C.t.d. taking "'" zero of potential energy at inlinite separalion of electron from the protun.r CHECK YOUR ANSWERS Inttll Queslions I S... a capacitor" BrieRy.4x lo'C. but it c:an be COIIIIaDt in that reJion.t. 114 13.
16 ELECl'RIC CURRENT 16.t lellSOll you villi study the electric charges in motion.1 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson.. .1 INTRODUCTION In our daily life we read books with the light of electric bulb and tube ~ Iiste:n music on a tape recorder or radio receiver. life is governed directly or indirectly by many applications of electricity.· ID • dedMce Wlleauton. and dl8tIngWlI bfrwun Ohmic andnonohm/c . • calculat.ct/'oIU. and • explain tile principiI ofpotentiorMler and apply It 10 cGlClllfll&tlw e. and apply KJrcIalaojJ'. You will also learn.. r"ut~ on tM lxuu ofcolour cotIa.. You will study the distribution of current in cireuiU.. • stat. /JrldgI eqtIIII/OIIlIIIlkr balfIItCM condltloll and III' find IOIknowII ruutanc. At home you observe that by merely switching on an electric bulb starts glowbJs. laws necessar. see different programes on televiliOn.. In the p..in this lellSOll. and paI'QII" comb/nQtfOli ofruilltn. eqjoy cool breeZe from electric fan or coOler."IIttmcu.(lldllrMrItII resutQl/CI ofQ Clll.Y to understand various electrical circuits and how to calculate current in circuit Mtworka (Kirchhoff's laws). We cannot imagine to live without electricity in the modern world. . 16. you should will be able to.. charge tralUport and . Why does it so happen? WhIt Is the timction of a 5witch? In the previous lessons you have studied about static electric clwp 1114 their etfecta. It is electric current EleCtricity is a unique gift of science to mankind Our every day. • stat. that the rate of flow of charp through a conductor depends upon the nature of material and potential differeDCe (Ohms law).".". what makea theae app1IaDcea work. andprove ohm'. Electric charge is stored in capaciton.1It rul8tanceforu""... • d. Do you know. • ~ lfllllval.I_ ID clDlled electric circllb.lectric CllmlIIt. • vcplaln d71ft velocity ofel. ·'aw t1w.jiM and vcplaln ruuti)rlty and dl8cuu 1Mj'actrn 011 widell ruuti'llity t/epf1rdI.
He expressed this relation in the form of a law known as Ohm's law... Resistanc:c is the property of the material of the conductot wbich opposes the flow of current throught it. electric generators etc. According to this law: the electric CIIITI!IIt tIrroIIglt II ctJIIdMctor is directly proptIrIiofuIl to tile potential difference across it pnwided tile p/lpictd. Voltage (Y) Fig.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT In the previous lessons you have studied that when a potential difference is applied across a conductor an electric field sets in the conductor and e~ in the direction opposite to the field.1) ne electrie clIITetlt throllglt any cmubu:tor is tlte rtIIe of trtIIISfer ofcIuute from o"e side ofany cross sectio" ofco"dllClor to tlte otIter side.1ric Currem 16./ or Y=R/ Y or =R / . coulomb(C) second(s) Commonly used sources of current are electric cells.. The SI unit of current ~ ampere (symbol A).. Ampere (A) =.I6I: VIgraplr/ora _ollie "t Ohm =1 voltllampere """"""'or 307 . we define electric current as 1=At AQ ....El".3. Let "be the potential difference applied across the conductot and lbe the current flowing through it.. U"it of nsi6tlUlce is Ohm. (16. 16.(16. The VI graph for a metallic cooductot is a straight line (Fig 16. Then. jI«. The direction of current it taken opposite to the directionofflowofelectronS (negative charge) and in the direction·of flow of positive charge. Due to electron drift charge flows through the conductor and we say that electric current is flowing through it.1). Let a charge A Q be passing acroSs a conducting wire uuhort'time interval At. colUlitions :ruelt lIS temperatllN are IIIICltanged..2) where constaJU R is the electrical resistanc:c applied by the conductor in flowing the electric current.. It is expressed by symbol n (Omega) .1 Ollm's Law In 1826 German Scientist George Simon Ohm studied the relation between current flowing in a conductor and potential difference applied across it. If one coulomb of charge passes through a crosssection of the conductor per second then the current is one ampere.. According to Ohm's law..
1s .1hcn P(RObm)(Im2)'IIR·R 0Ia )( m Thus. . of he eIec:IroIa coo"".& * * R~t (2) Take ...II1II10 ralJtnece 0/• .# lhose ai...... 0/1... ... R~tIA Ihus on I:OIDbiDill& lIbove two relatiOlll...4e JiO"r"nrlellgtlu u/" .ial unJ "f same length but 0/ diffonnl cross se"/i. proporlion 101M length of1M condJIcIor.. cap RIIiIImty II.ifs""'" IIIIlleriel """s""''' aua.No"".. . r ailllfl"'lA ID.. You .1lIiOD (II) IDII nduaIicJII time ('r) ..undueling wires ofsame_".3) or Rp A t wba'e P is CODSI..·lion..(16. .rttb 011 " .e. R ~  t A ...11.4) U~iofCOlldIledrity is Obm·1 metre I (O'm')ormbometer'...(16.5) 308 .. .....«11)' prt1ptll'limu1llo 'lilt (II of lite CfIIIII_ "''''o.... pcrll>nn IWO simple experimenls : II) r.. ofraistivity is called CMDcIHIyOC 'fJ'CifIc ~ and is represenred by a."... _.(16.IN FaIsWMe of CHilMCItIr.... U .s IItIll.". ). ofllte ..Apply same poIMliai difforence QII(/ nod 1M va/UI! 0/cvrrem/or ea&h 0/ Iht!m.. of ..."..·s lhal 1M resislQllce of 1M conduclor is invrrsely proportianallo 1M JUea ofcross s«Iion (A) i..ou ma)... ReIiIIivity dq. ruu "'iII obserw lhat 1M voJue of ~"""'"1 is in proporlion 101M area ofcross s .iIIJ • cd" .411RI. IUIIIIrr of'" wIIaas ..ss .. 'M fiJr •••.. This sho..r ~ 0/ its diIItIouions.ire . I ap ./ """..co.rlol III .IDt for the matetW at CIJIIIIen! temperature and is calledspecifu: rnisIiura tII'~ pooI RA If..... but II i.Im. R' .111 ulnerw IhDt CinellI changes ilw(rsel).. lite WIIw tlfraistWlly of. II shu.. lei us study !he faclors which elleel lhe rL.' _ 0 /  rW • .islance of a conduclor.. .·/ing . 011 the IIIIIfCriaI ofwbida it is IIIIIde up of.emutel)' """ reod 1M "alllt! of"wrenr/or each CtHIdIICling wire. YOI'!bit.·unt/". cItIpc "'" 011 its dimensioas .. Apply same voJl.
Some ofthe import. A. We have materials like germanium (Zn) and silicon (Si) which have resistivity much smaller than that of insulators but much greater than that of metals... Due to extremely high resistivity ebonite..C.V.3.ty at a temperature is inversely proportional to free electron concentration. fused quartz etc are used as insulators. cotton etc.6) R««. 309 . transistor etc. Thus. (polyvinyl chloride). Resistance wires for electric heater..rootmeansquare speecUncreases(v_« 1)andmeanfree path decreases (because ampJitnde »fvibration ofIattice increases) so that colliSIOns of electrons with the lattice take place more frequently.section A is given by. are made of these alloys. If mean free path (the average distance between two successive Collisions) of electrons is A and root mean square speed is v_.ant alloys are lIllIgI1anin (84%Cu.2Temperatllre Dependence of Resistance You have read in previous section. The resistance of a wire of length eand area of cross .. 20%Cr). constanton (60% Cu.7) With increase 'lftemperature. 16. Silver is rh" best conductor. china clay. Due to very low resistance copper and aluminium wires are used as connecting wires for joining various components is electrical circuits and house hold fittings. for a ccinductor having large number of free electrons resistivity and hence resistance is small. . 2m t 2mt R=PT= niTA FOr a given wire ( A and n are constants.(16.r ]. therefore resistance R«Reloxation time is the average time between successive collisions of electrons with die lattice ions (positive ions of metal). 4% Ni and 12% Mn). In book5 you will study semiconductors in details. mica. 40% Zn) and mchrom (80% Ni. then r= I ... They are called semicondllClors semiconductors are used to make electronic devices such as diode. rubber.. oopper and alumiuium conductors are covered with a layer of some insulating materials like P. Several resistance wires of high resistivity are made of materials obtained by alloying some metals. 1 v_ . As a result resistivity and hence. In household wiring. P=2ne r according to which the resistivity is inversely proportional to relaxation time t. electric iron etc. the following relation for resistivity and relaxation time. The reslSl1v. copper and aluminium are also good conductors.(16.Electric Curren! where e and 'm are respectively charge and mass of an electron.
I 2 . decreases with increase of temperature that is tempe. • '. IeIIipeItIIIJre coefTu:klll of nsisttmce is ~11111 tIJ cll""ges ill ~ Df.C) R tR t I 2 2 I ••.8) Where IX is a constant. then .isttmce Dftlle ".fIlIJn· a npbsr periodic pattern which is called a IIIi1ice: The _ 310' . The ions which_ muchheiM. ious.all tile electrical "PP'imees COIUlCCted to the power atation at once start werking iflOlllll. (1+ at) ••. The free elec:bons CIIIl move about in the eutire volume oftile material. even though power atationis faraway.9) The resistivity of alloys also increases wilh ~ of temperature but increase is very small in comparison to that for metals.. 2 So that a= R.hell IeIIrpet'iltIIn clltutgell by J'C . R.= . win ofre!lisltuu:e _ Oil".. is high. called IDIIperaIIIre coefTu:ieIIt of re!IisItuu:e (~resistivity).tature c:oeflicicat ofl'eliJtivity for these iDateriais is negative. dumlbe elec:lmlscm only vibrate about their fixed positiollll. switdIes are 011...' R i+at. If the resisbmce of a wire at temperature t • C is R. DJaY be obtained by relation R. you note that the resistivity of some materials like carbon.. germani. silicon. Then. " R i+at .a = R.. IIR tho values ofresistance of a wire at O"C IIIId t'C sespecUvely fJlm R.) . hence these 'lire used to l118ke resisbmce wires or standard ruistatrce3. 11rus. then RI =R (i+at)andR =R0 (I+at. and at t ·C. on dividing '. III DtIur WDl'bCIJNIWduity ofcotulMCtor ti«ntIses willi illCIWI8I! Df "'I+a.•(16.im etI:. As we have I~ that a solid COI1Iiuctor CODSists ofionsplaced in a regwllummr_rt and free electrons IIR not bound to any particular atom. R'(per.•(16.. til lie ". and R. .Physics r.3 Drift Velodty of Eleetroos You see that by switchins OIl eleCtricity of a power statiOll. is R .. a= RR ' R . the increase in resistance.3. Haveyouevertbroughtwbatisbappeningliere? OI!switI:bin& charge transport takes place in the form of electron drift in the supply line. poaitiOllS of Ii. For ~oys such as mqpurin ~'"'MI andnicbrome temperature coefficient of resistivity is negIi!itD'y small and resistivity. =R. If R.ire iIIcretIU$ with ~ DflUrpmfllllH. • (per '0C) If Ro=IQ and t = 1°C. Here.
a 1arge number of free electrons l. The speed and directiOti ""uJaeS randomly at each such event.: eE 2 m 't . then drift velocity. The number 1. Then force acting on an electron iI= mass of the electron = eE m .. . Again it starts aftesh with a random velocity and in the· process the velocity component in the direction of field is lost.( eE t AI 1 2 m )'t =.12) It shows that drifi velocity ofelectrons is directly propori:iorwI to electric field.l= 12 (eE)2 TQ r =2" . I!. of electroils crossing an area Ii A from II .. At each collision electron· starts a fresh in random direction with a nmoom speed but gains a velocity component v' due to electric field. Therefore.. • y=d . _'..(16.. a force acts on each electron in the direction opposite to the field.. move in pmdom directions. the displacement ofelectron in the direction offorce..J.. • • .'t 1 The drift velocity is.11) Where e and m are charge and mass ofelectrons.{16.time till next collision occurs.'.. .:(16.__\~ _ __. 16. The electrons get drifted sfowlY in the direction of force. . In a \ metal. This component v' inc:reaaes with. y • = . The drift is much lesser than the actual velocity of the electron. As a result the electrons move in zigzag path (Fig.7 . Therefore. 1\0 net transport of charge across any cross section takes place.1'... If the electron drifts a distance t in long lime t..' y' / ' one side very nearly equals the number x • crossing from other side in 'any given ~~0.. .2).. When electric field is applied accross the conductor. Let T be the average time called as mean...Free eleo:tooa collide 01' interact witb the ions at the lattice positions.free lime between successive collisions and iI be the acceleration due to electric field E..= ./+4 time interval. ~tr >" ( .10) You may define the drift velocity as an avertlf:e velocity colfll1tlMni wltll wAieA eI«trons drift opposite to the dinctIofI of electricfield. t /'.
in which m electric field E exists.0 x 10 x 1.Atoftheoooductot"(Fig 16..&8: 1bc total charge crossing the cross section in one second is.. IOU 501....6 x 10" C 9. All these electrons cross the m:a A in time l!J. is the drift velocity.. I!. 1bc munber of eleclnllJS in tbia J'!Il1ion is 1IifvAt .Q . 501. Therefule..6)( 10 mfs v =_1_= AM =3.3.Q or Current 1= At =Ane v • = 2m Ane 'tE 2 Ane T Y 21111 . 1bc volume of tbia J'!Il1ion is A v. I <r.ire p4r second.. Eu. Y This is Ohm's law..S x . It is clear from this expression that the cmrant is directly proportional to the drift velocily of free electrons in a conductor.a o{Ob. (16. . In lime IJI ~ drifts a disraoce v.00.6 x IO"C 16 19 AQ 9.:e v..2: Calculate the drlq sp4ed of electrons when 1 A of current flows in a copper wire ofc:rou .section 2_.lJI.Thus.'.« there be n tree eleclnllJS per unit volume of cooductor.3).5 x 10 )( 1.1 : A total of6. ill • 1 6 21 19 2 x 10 x8. Find the Clll7"enl. =6.section of a conducting .« lIS comider a cylindriclllawbM1Ol' ofcross sectiODlllareaA..13) .. wbC..plel6.. 16. The number offree electrons in 1 cm J ofCDpp4r is 8. Law I. 16.6 x IO A 1=Is IJI ED..6 x 10 C =9..4 Ato. charge crossing this area in time l!J is. cotfductor. I!. cOnsider a lengthv.6)( Hr' 312 .1e Ex'.0 x J(f' electrons pass through any cross .3: Crous«Iion ofD. l!J. '1. FIg..: From the current and drift velocity relation I=A"ev So tbat..aple 16.
·1beir resistance is called Ohmic resistance or I ineac resistance..'()hmic Resistances You may easily see by drawing graph IK tween voltage and current across conductors that many conduclors obey Ohm's law.missi. 7 2 R.... aodR..Eicclric Cunent SuperC.'.iA PtA = . SciOllliSl$. _n: W..witches mel poWer through superoonducting power lin.3: T. If we replace the resistance wire by a torch bulb in an electrical circuit and note down values of current (I) for different voltages (I') then we see that the entire VI graph drawn is not straight line (Fig 16.... 1be .... TIle . As AB • mass and density of the wires is the same.. r A a RA tA =x RB A t• r =lL r 2 .. aroWld 125K has already been achieved and elfurts are on to impmvC: upCJIl this.. ~=(2) R R • = 16 R=~= •• R 24 = 1.C Example 16.. Sllpaalllduc1ivity.. upin • ...arellyins to prepare COJDpOUDds mel alloys which wnuld be superconduaing at room temperatures (lOOK).ire A is 24f2jind the resistance ofwire B..... WllYlow . Iran.t be lengths of wire A and B respectiwh·. For low values of V.... it . Possible applications of supeR:OIlducton are u1tra IlIst compute!" .n". _ . For high voltage 313 . it remains straight lin~ and then becomes cun'ed..5 Ohmic and Non'..law does not always hold good.'If. Diameter of wire A is halftl101l that of wire B..o wires A and B ofsame mass and material are talcen.. below a_~""'st1vity suddL'Illy becomes . 16 16 16._. If .... = . !fresisJance af.... _ _ fur_material.... ( A r 2 • ~..~ducImty_ .. .......4a)... filrlbisllallSidoa. SupercondUC\On are used to construct very strong magnets. Critical fur ID«CUI)' is 4. Solution: Let r A and rD be radii and 1 ..2K.._ which are djfficult to oblain... 'K Resistances of wires A and B are pt.. Supen:onductivity ..rial in this _ is caII._ _ is coli.. eleclriecurrmti..:e... we have "lr A 'I d=7tr 'I d A B B _ ' .3. Thish:ll1pel'llt1lR is called CI'ItIetd ' .~cbN .... peniIt filrJooatime_filrlDDlllhsmd years alia" mDO!Iingtbe II'PIi"'potaUiaielilf... It was oblem:d fur """"my in 1911 by Kamerleigh Orm.. tewPa. of . But Ohm's .......5 ohm • .
Ina JIInwollJldr : . The value of resistance is indicated by four coloured b8IIds DIlUted onthe surfilceofthe cylinder(Fig 16.3...i. r. ImI1pa'8tUre ofthe .1 : Re8ist~ code.. Its YT curve Is shown in Fig 1(1.. wire WOUIId resistors aud carbon resistors .c\meDt through the fil_t of the.. In vacuum diode ohm'slawdoesDOtholdmm.. Other examples of nonohmic resistances arc vacuum diode.1 0.:e of the filam_ OIan'. for low values of curreut.6....Jad... bulb bceomes large 10 tbat tile filllMllt ofbulb becomes _ aDd_ u current increases in the filllMllt Ratio YR for low Yalue ofT ai.411. JY"U't! leadr an attached to thU cylinderlor _cling it loan electrical circllit. Resistors may be divided into two groups..c¥ b wollllll two fold OWl' bullllltbfg cyllluJa: III llUlke it Mil illdIIctiPe. Resistors For different electrical aDd elccttonic cin:uits we require resistors of ~ VIlues...r (ruisfl1ltce giw1I ill ohIII) Black Brown Red 0raI!ge 0 1 2 3 4 S Yellow Green 1 10 10' 10' 10' 10' 314 Blue VIOlet Gray White • 9 6 7 Gold SiM:t 10· 10' 10' 10· 0.01 S% 10% .low haIcI.. ( ( 1..5) awIl11C1111ing of diffi:reJlt colours are given in table 16.e (e) Tcnhbulb II 1 ·~v v (b) 16. . multiplier • .resi. for 1ow'Ya\ues of curnmt 0DIy.. Teble 16. W"" rttnorlfit:lJroJoftleJlIIiIe' /mrgtII tu:t:OI'tibtg III WIllie 01 " .. scmi.CODductor di~ transistor.. in metallic wires. liquid elcctro1ytes etc.1 the colours and tbcir orders may be remembered by the statement given on the next page. emboli with a suitable bi1rdbtg agent is molded btto a cylinder. = JIlIn! (of 114 To make aubtm 1ubitot...
we define equNalent ra/stimce of _ the comiJinaJion as a single resistance which draws same current as the given combination when same potential difJCrence _is applied across it... 6...07) M!l Some times tolerance is missing from the codeand there are only three bands.. b.....4 COMBINATIONS OF RESISTORS When we WIlDt to increa!Jr. Explain 2.. A potential difference. Same area ofcross section but length in the ratio 2: J ....07) 10· Q =(1..... (iii) d becalMS twice 5. green and gold as read from left to right........ ..........4 ± 0........ In a TV tube the electrons are accelerated from the rear to the front.  315 ........ Here.. For this resistors are combin$ld....... Then the tolerance is 20%. Using the table the resistance is Yellow 4 • • SQ = 14 x 10 + 14 x 10 x _ 100 BI'OWIl I GreeD x 10' Gold ±S% =(1.......S are brown.... Same length but area ofcrossIections In the ratio 2: 1 reQIJOns........ the free electrons drift in the direction opposite to the current..... '. Electrons move continuously inside a conductor even then no current flows through it WI/ess a potential differences is applied across it....... What is the direction ofcurrent? 4... INTEXT QUESTIONS 16...... Two types of combinations are frequently used. . Does the nilmber offree electrons in the wire continuously decreQlJe ? 3.1_ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ __ 1.. When a current is established In a wire.. V is applied across a copper wire of length I and diameter d WhoI will be the effect on drift velocity ofelectrons if (i) V becomes twice (ii) I becomes twice... Why are resistance wires made ofmagamin...4 ± 0.. WhoI will be the ratio ofcurmru flowing through two wires ofsame material if they have: a.. B 8IIu:k B B~ RO Y Great Red Oraage Yellow GreeD Britain Blue Very Violet Good Wife Gray White For example suppose the colours on the resistor shown in Fig............ or decrease the c:urrent of a circuit we have to reduce or increase the resistance of the circuit.. constanton and nichrome? Give two ... 16.................. yellow.Eleclric C_. .. 16.
1'2 and be developed across R.+R.( 16..14) Jilg.. 8_ I. bulb) less than the constant voltage supply source.7 shows the parallel combination of three resistors ofresistancesR"R2 and R. B 'The main current divides into tIuee parts. R.. + v This arrangement may be extended for any number of resistors I R = RI + R.6t1ueeresisklrsofresist. and I. V = IR and V = IR ..iH esR.. c. "2 2 . lespedively. respectively due to Ibis curreDl I. 'The combination can be COIIIICCted to a baUay or other circuit at ends A and D. = VIR.• be the currents flowing through resistors Rt' R.e.Rz. B ut sum 0 f vI' V2 and y] 15 r. + R. A AA . + R. equhtaJellt rnisttmCl! of II series eombintllioll of ruiston is eqlllll to 811m of ruislllllen ofall resiston... .4.. then A 8 c I o 1'= IR = I (RI + R. and ll. .and R. .1 Series Combination You may COIUlect more resistors in series by joining 1hcm cmd to ead IIUCb 1haJ _ CIIIIYlflfHlSJ/GtJuo. are shown connected in series.. then I. "'. AAAA '" y r • • I I IV 1" I . I . 316 .qual to V'I..gl"lIl* nsiskln. 1'= fR.. I. we should connect another resistor in series ofil 16. + IR. Let the combination be c:onnected to a battery of voltage V and draws a current I from the source. = YlRI .R. R. Let a curren1 J flows tbrougb !be series ~ina1im wbe:n it is connected to a battery ofvoltage Y.2 Parallel Combination You may connect the resistors in parallel by joining their ODe end at one point and other ends at another poinl In parallel Combination potentitIJ difference exists IICI'tIS6 all reaiatoTS. In fig 16.4.. Ifwe require to apply a voltage across a resistor (say electri<..Physics 16.6: &ries c_ _ of_aim Thus. .  'The main current is the sum of II' I. + R) or R=RI+R. /6... Fig 16. . and I.. A¥AAA' A 10 J.... If equivalent resistance of this series combination is R. 1'= 1'. = VIR~ Rz AA . + Ill. . Let II' I? I.+ 1'.+ V. Then V = IR . R.. + ... r . Potential diffa~ V.
(16. eqllllllllS_Dflmoersa of"'''. 9 .. In our homes all the clectrical appIi_ bulbs... " ....... R. It wiIIlkawa _ _ of I ampere.I I . increll/ling..""".. :teI . tht:rcS!id.R.''''''' for lWO resistors in p8IBllcl 1 1 1 From this weinferdud: _ _ ~~ . the...1S) 7 WI .. resistor of2 n rcsisIucec:anowm! across a J... / =/.... " .!..8). _. R... ff_goOllmilrg"''''''' of' .. RJ Y=/R or I=YIR Y Y .....".l of the house goes on dec:rNsiII& ad ..JIGI 7" the resistance ofcirCIIil goes 011 tkcrell/lilrg aItd".. ad fans. Thatistolld CDmIIl~~is2 i .. .+I +/ ~ ~ .. + R.... fans. _dell in (Fi~ 16.t!.. i l ... alsodl'awacurrentofllllDjlCie.. 4 / ... iIItlividwJI ruisllJnce.(= Y " ++ Y  R...R. H othe£.of~ tllOlllr".... Ibd'.. As we go 011 swiIIcIIiD& ... rcsistanceoftht:circuitisbalved.  I... " RJ V" RJ OI·~++ ·'·he process may be extended fuc lIlY IIII!J!bao of n:siston 10 .. eKhremaiasSll1lCSO that cumD~ _=1"'''' _'11 parallel IUId CIICh 1ICpII'Idc switda •• ~'r'_ in any oflbem docs DOt .. .. R=:..llwt""".. = ++++ R R I I I J J J RRR: 1 ~ ••. Fe ...•• .(16.. R..... When IIIIOtbern:sistorof 2 ohm msi~ is 01**...16) Note dud: tht: trqllillalmt ruis'... • 317 .. current drawing from DWiDS goes on increasing..~_ _ _ _ _.... J>ottntial clifli:aCD£ am. Y R Y RI " R. ' =+or R R. C. You may CIISily see this filet by uilllpluh CIrbl~""...tIayof~2 wit...""". . .....pI cin:uit .i.: /==++R RI R. h:areas dI: . :eof1bce'..
Physb
16.4.3 Division of Current in Resistors Connected in ParaDel
Let the two resistors of resistanc:es R and R be connected in parallel between points A and B (Fig. 16.9). Themaincurrent/tie divided intotwoparta/,andl tlowingtbroughR and R respectively. The main current 1 is swn of I and I i.D. 2 ,
2 , 2
1+1= 1 , 1
...(16.11)
According to Ohm's law YY"'1 R II B I I
and also
I,
YY=/R If • , 1
:. 1R.=IR
I I
,
I I
~
:/
~
I.
y'~
:;:
R,
I
B
•
~
2 1
,
From eq (16.17) I R = (lf)f
n,. IIU: DfW.r/Off ofCfInYIfI in _ulon
1I (RJ +R') =IR'I
R 1  L J, , R+R
I 1
...(16.18)
Similarly,
l='J 1 R+R
I 1
R
... (16.19)
bampl.16.": For.p circuit lhown in FI, 16. 10. jind the value ofresiatance R1 and . . cJU'rent I. flo,""i", twough Rj
SoIlI~ll: .l( equi~;Uent reJi~ of paralIel COmbil)APOO of R ~ R is 1l. then .'" ' I 2
. ... R,R,·
'1
lOR' R=   =1. R +R 10+R
1
1= ilIA
P
According to Ohm's law,
50 R==5D 10
1
+ '
,
IOV
"
:.
,
IO::j:.,R
2
1~3
=5
Q
R=IOQ.
I 2
,.". 16.lIJ :An Eloclrical Ctrctdl
2
The current is equally divided into R and R , hence 1 = 5A.
o .',
.
,~~~~~~318
E1ectricCmnat
Example 16.5: Find equivalent resistance of the network shown inj/g 16.11 between points Ii) A and Band (ii) A and C.
100
SolutioD: (i) The to 0 and 30 0 resistors arc COJJDeCted il) parallel between points A and B. The equivalept resistance between A and B
is
A
B
30a A,,./V\A
C
10 x 30 RI =    obm=7.50 10+30
(ii)
.

7.50
Fl,r.16.11
The resistance R is connected in series with resistor of7.S 0, hence the equivalent resistance betwe4!:n points A and C is, R, =(R I +7.5) obm =(7.5+7.5) olUII'=I5 0
Eumple 16.6: Find potential difference between points A and B of the network shown in Fig 16. J2 and distribuJion ofgiven main current through different resistors.
Solution: Between points A and B resistors of40,60 and BO resistances sre in series and these sre in parallel to 90 resistor. Equivalent resistance of series combination is R=(4 + 6+8)obm=IBO
I
If equivaJept resistance between A and B is R = 9><181 (9+18) ohm =60
40·
1=2.7A..
•
'80
PoteptiaJ difference between A and B is Y=IR=2.7><6 Y =16.2.Y Current through 9 0 resistor = 16.2I9=1.8A CutreDt through 40, 60 and 80 resistors
, A
:; s
=2.71.8 = 0.9A
F/g.16.1Z
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.2._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1. Which ofthe following is stl1nefor each ofthe resistors cOIIMcted in series (a) potential difference (b) CU1'1'e1II (c) power (d) heat generated
2. Which ofthe jollowinlP is same for each ruistors connected in parallel (a) potential'differe (b) cummt· (c) power (d) heat generated
3. Three ruistOl"8luNing rufsta11ce8 In. IOOD and 10 ()()()D _ What will be the order ofeqIIivQJent ruUtance.
ctmneCted in parallel.
4. A rmi{orm wire of ruistance SOD I.r cut into S equal parts. Thue ports are now , connected in parallel. The equivalent ruistan.ce ofthe combination is (a) 2 D (b) IOD(c) 2S0D(d) 62SD
119
16~
KIRCHHOFF'S LAW
Ohm's JaW gives current  voltage relation in simple eIectrical circuits. But when the circuit is complicated, you will face difficulty in finding current distribution by Ohm's law. Kirchhaffin 1842 fonnulab:d the following two Jaws wbich enable us to find the distribution "f curredt in complicated e1ectticaI circuits or electrlcaI netwud<s.
(i) Kirc"ofl's Fint Law (.JuBetio. Law): It states that tile IIof IIiI
tile cIlTrell1ll directed tow.,.ds " jllllClioll (poillt) ill l1li electriclll IU!ItIfoI'j is qlllll to tile 11_ of IIiI tile clll7"t!lIIII dirt!dd tIWfZYfrom tile jlllldiolL
11
A
12
Thus, in Fig 16.13,
1+1=1+1 I 1 J ., orlI +11 11 =0 J 4
Fig. 16.13: Dimib_ Ifft:rmY!IIlllI ajNN:liOft in
t.cin:flil
Ifwe take currents approaching point A in Fig 16.13 as positive and that leaving the point as negative, then the above relation may be written as
1+1 + (1J ) + (1) I! 4
=0
..••{l6.20)
Hence the fust Jaw may also be stated in other words that tile ~ 11II1II ofclII7"eIIIII til "jfmditHt is UTO.
lGrc:bhoff's fust law tells \IS that there is no accwnulation of charge at auy point if sIeady
current flows in it The net charge coming towards the point should be equal to that going
away from it in the same time. (il) Kirc:Waofl's Seco.d Law (Loop Law): This law is generali::atiOil of Ohm s law. It te/Is that tile lllgebralc 11_ of tile prodtICIII of tile CIll7"elllllIIIId ,eSiStIUU:£S ill 1119' closed loop (or mn/t) ill l1li electric", IIdWOI"t is eqlllll to tile IJ/gebralc s_ of electrome forces IICtiIIg ill tile loop.
While using Ibis law we stan from a point on the loop IIIId go aIoog the loop eidIeI: dockwise or anti clock  wise toreach the same point again. The product ofcumut and lesiid • •,~ is taken as positive when welJaverse in the cIirecIioa of CUIl1IIIlIIIId e.m.! is taken positive when we IJaverse from negative to positive eleebode Ihrough the ceIl. ~ yru can write the Jaw as
'EJR=f.E
Let \IS take an electrical net:wod sbown in fig 16.14. For closed mesh AOCBA
••.(16.21)
320
IR IZR =EE If Z • Z
For IIICIfb DHGCD
A
D
,.
E.
1Z R,+(1I +If lR ~E J Z
,.
" +t.
I
I
:;::r
R.
Ib
G
H
IR+(I+IIR=E
111
fJ
I
""1''4'
JHl'AdM tIiJIlIIoIrg. d.t IIIOp ill. c:frarit is _
AIr" ,P'iaJI_
of l1li tile
In IIIOI'egenml form Kirchhoff's scc:ood law is Slated lIS: 7h "'e6~ 
Ex.pIe 16.7: Consider the nstworkar sitawtt ill Fig. 16. 15. C1In"eIII is ntppIietl to the network by two hotteri(!8 OIISirawn. Find the vaIries oft:IIITMIIll. I • I. 17re tiiret:tioID of
the ClllTt!1IIs are as indicated by the arrows.
I
>
J
Solutio. : Applying KirI:bboff's 1st law to junction C, we get 1+/1=0 I , J
Applying Kirchhoff's lind law to the closed meshes ACDA and BCDB, we
••...(1)
get
51,+21, = IU 3I,+21,=6A
....(2)
.. , ....(3) .
'.
50
12V
c
I.
t.
3D
subtracting eq (3) limn eq (2) we get
51 31 =6A
2IJ
, ,
...(4)
A~
8
fN
Multiplying eq.( I) by 2 and adding with eqn.(2) we get
0
71 +21
, , = IU
•.••(5)
,...16.1S
Multiplying eq.(1) by 2 and eq.(5) by 3 and adding them we get .
31/, = 4&«
1 = l.54&«
I
Putting value of I, in eq.(5) we get
1,=O.5&«
and
from eq.1 we get 1= 1+1= 2.12BA
J , •
321
INTEXTQUESTIONS 16.3_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I. Foracircuitshownin.Fig. 16.16j1ndthe~alue of current jlowing in the circuit and potential A difference between points A and B.
•...•••.....•........••••.•••••.•••••.
L!::I3
2V 1U
1(2
1B
2. Apply Kirchhoff's law to jlnd the value of currentlJjlowing through R in the circuit of Fig 16.17 J
to 2V
""''
T
Fig. 16.16
3. FOr/he cirCuit shown in Fig 16.18, evaluate the currentjlowing through resistance RJ'
•
16.5 WHEAT STONE BRIDGE
As you have learnt that a resistance can be measured by Obm's law using a voltmeter and an ammeter in an electrical circuit. But this measureznent is not accurate. To measure it more accurately Kristie devised and Wheat Stone popularized a special network desrgn called Wheat Stone Bridge. It is an arrangement of four resistances which can be used to measure one of them in terms of the
rest.
B
I
L..! E
1
0
11  ; (
Consider the circuit as shown in Fig 16.19 where:
K FI,. 16.19: Whe"'.I·w"e Ilridg.".,,, "rk
(i)
S is a unknown resistance to be measured. Arm CD of the bridge is called unknown
arm.
(ii) P and Qare two adjustable resistances connected in two ratio anns AB and Be of the bridge. (iii) R is adjustable known resistance. Ann AD is called known ann. (iv) A sensitive galvanometer G is connected in one of the cross ann BO orthe bridge. (v) A battery E along With a key Kisconnected in other cross ann AC. Ann AC and BO are called conjugate arms.
'322
Electric Cwrem
On closlngthe key, ingenaiU there will be some CUl'IeIlti flowing Ibroughthe galvauometer and you will get some deflection in the galvanometer It indicates that 1Iicn is some potential difference between points B & D.
We sbaII now consider the following three ~: (i) Point B is at higher potential than point D: Current will flow from B towards D and galvanometer will show deflection in one direction. (ii) PoiDt B Is at lower potential tlaan poiat D: Current will flow from point D towards B and galvanometer will sbow deflection in opposite direction: (iii)Both points B and D are at same potential: In this case no cummt flows through the galvanometer which will show no deflection i.e. the galvanometer is in oxmditioll. In this condition the Wheat stones bridge is said to be in the Idt* o/lHIJaat. The points B and D will be at the same potential only when the potential drop across P is equaI to that across R. Thus at the nnll State
I,P=IJl
Applying Kirchhoff's first law at junction B and D we get and /11 =0 I ~ G
...(16.22)
/+11=0 3 G ,
M the null state JG = 0
:. 1= J1 ,
....(16.23) .... (16.24)
and I3 =1• Also potential drop across Q will be equal to that across S. So that
I'p=IS

.
.... (16.25)
Dividingeqn.(16.22) by eqn.(16.25)
I P _'_=
J R
_3_
If!
IS ,
Using eqns (16.23) and (16.24) we get
I~ I
= :
.....(16.26)
This is the condition for which a Wheat stone Bridge is balanced
From eq.( 16.26) W1known resistance S is
I I
S= QR
P
.
....(16.27)
r ....ysics
You can easily see that the measurement ofresistance by Wheat Stooc's Bridge meIhod has the fullowing merits.
(i) The balance condition given byeq (/6.26) at null pruition irindependentoftlre applied voltage E. In otlrer words if you change tire e.m.f. of tire cell, the balance wi/I 1101 change.
(ii) The meosurement ofnrutilllce does not depend (HJ tire ~ ofcalibratimJ oftire galvanometer. Galvanometer ir IISed only as a mdl indiCotor.
The main factor affecting the accwacy of measurement by Wheat stone Bridge is its sensitivity with which the changes in the null c:oodition can be detecu:d. It has been foUnd that ihe bridge has the greatest sensitivity when the resistances are as nearly equal as possible.
EumpIe 16.8 : Find the value of R In Fig 16.20 so that there is no current in the 50 a resistor.
Solation: This is the Wheat Stone bridge with the galvanometer replaced by 50ilresistor. The bridge is balanced. because there is no current in 50a resistor, bence,
c
20/Hp401R 40x
R=
lOa
20=20
20a
Fig.16.11J
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.4,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I. Consider tire circuit shawn in Fig. 16.21 wlren tire bridge is balanced tire resistances are given: P=20fJ, Q=50D and R = lOa What will be tire value of tire unknown resistance?
Fig. 16.11
Fig. 16.1J
2
In Q circuit given In Fig 16.22,find current through 2Dresirtor
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ': • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • a , ••••••••••
3 In Q Wheot Stone Bridge circuit P and Q. I1re ratio armr being~Iy«plfll. I1re
bridge ir balancedwlren R=500a On interchanging P and QtIre vailll! ofRfOr tire balance ir 510fJ, find.the value oftire unbrow1I ruirtance s.

. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... ............................................... .
324
Elecuic CIIITeIIt
16.6 ELECfROMOTIVE FORCE (EM.F.) AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
EMF is the short name of electromotive force. EMF of a cell or battery equals the potential difference between its terminals when the terminals are not connected exlerna/Iy. You may easily understand the difference between e.m.f. and potential difference of a cell. For this CODD"!'t a cell in a circuit having a resistor R and key K. A voltmeter of very high resistance is connected in parallel to the cell as shown in Fig 16.23. When key is closed voltmeter reading "ill decrease. Do you explain the reason for this decrease in voltmeter reading? Actually when key K is opened no siguificant current flows through ihe loop having cell and \'oltmeter due to very high resistance of voltmeter. Hence, voltmeter reading is equal to e.m.f. E of the cell which is the potential difference between tenninaIs of the cell when no current is drawn from it. When key K is closed current flows outside and inside the cell. The cell introduces a resistance r, called internal resistance to the circuit. Let current I be flowing in the circuit. Potential drop Ir across internal resistance r due to current flow acts opposite to the e.m.r. of the cell. Hence, voltmeter reading will be E/r and is equal to V. But V = IR
E, r
It
K R
, I
~~K
+
\  r +
V
... A
T
.... _ /I
,
••_ _ _R _ _ V ___ "
Fig. 16.13: ("in·uil Jiugram canneL'led with }VAlmeler
Fig. 16.24: = i l diagram ,howing in/emal resistance
EIr = IR= V or V + Ir
.,
IE 
I
... (16.28)
Thus, e.m.f ofa cell is always greater than the potential difference across external resistance unless internal resistance is zero. E.m.f of a cell depends on: H) the liquid Used in the cell (ii) the material of the plates, and (iii) temperature of the liquid. Note that the e.m.f. of a cell does not depend at all on the size of the cell i.e. on the area of plates and distance between then. This means that if you have two cells of different size one big and one small, can the e.m.f.s be the same? Yes the e.m.f. will be the same if the cells are made up of same material and liquid. Then what is the difference? Ifthe cell is of large size it will be of less resistance to the passage of current through it.
125
Physics
E:umple 16. 9 : When a current drawnjrom a balU!ry is 0.5A. its tmninaI potential difference is 10V. And when current drawn from it i3 1. OA. the terminal voltage reducu to 16 V. Find OUI e.mf and internal ruistance ofbattery. Solutiou : Let E and r be the e.m.f. and internal resistance of battery. When a current I ampere is drawn from it. then potential drop across internal resistance or· inside the cell is = lr. then Y =£:...lr For /= 0.5A. Y=20 Volt. we have 20=E0.57 For I = 2.0A. Y=16 volt we have. 16=E27 From eqs (i) and (ii) 2E7=40 E2r= 16 solving we get E=21.3 Y,r=2.67
..... (i)
. .... (ii)
n
16.7 POTENTIOMETER
You have already studied how to measure. e.m.f. of a source or potential difference across a circuit element using voltmeter. An ideal voltmeter should have infinite resistance SO that it does not draw any current when connected across a source of e.m.f. Practically it is ""t possible to make a voltmeter which will not draw any current To overcome this difficulty a circuit devised by Pnggendorf and known as potentiometer is used for measming the e.m.f. of a . source or the potential difference across a circuit clement without drawing any current from it. It employs a null method. The potentiometer can also be used for the measurement of the internal resistance of a cell, the current flowing in a circuit and comparison of resi$tances.
16.7.1 Description of the Potentiometer
The potentiometer consists of a wooden board onwbich a number of resistance wires (usually ten) of uniform cross  sectional area are stretched parallel to each other. The wire is of maganin or nichrome. These wires are joined in series by thick copper slrips. In this way these wires together act as a single wire of length equal to the sum of the length of all the wires. The end terminals of the wires are provided with connecting screws.
A meter scale is fixed on the wooden board parallel towires. A joCkey ( a sliding contact iDaker) is provided with the arrangement. It makes a knire edge ~t at any desired point on the wife. Jockey has a pointer which moves over the scale. It determines the position of the knife edge contact. In Fig. 16.25 a ten wire potentiometer is shown. A and Bareendsof the wire. Kis a jockey and Sis a scale. Jockey slides over a rod CD.
326
ElectriC Currenl
8
•
8
o
~/"ZS:~
16.7.1 Theory o(M. .uremeDt by Poteatiemeter
Let us consider that a steady soun:e of e.m.f. E (say an lCCUDlulator) be ClOlIDeCted across the uniform resistance wire AD bfleug1h I. Positive terminal of aa:umulaIor is connected at end A(Fig 16.26). A steady cumntltlowsthroughthe wire. Potcntialdifferenceaeross AB is given by Y,a = Rl ...(16.29)
Ifr is the resistance per lIDit 1eug1h oftile wire, II1II lis the potential fall across unit length of the wire,
E K 4~':I tf.( ,...........
   I,  _______ ...
.. Y.. =kl=E
or
E 1=.
I
. ,
...(16.30)
For a 1eug1h t ofebe wire, potential fall
1 .
F Y= II =  1
I I
I
.....(16.31 )
I
Thus, poteoSiaI fillls linear,~ nth the .Jistaoce along the wire from A to B.
.. _' ...~....~
~1.,~
· Physics Let us measure an unknown voltage V lillY a cell of e.m.t:E. The positive terminal of the cell is CODDeCted to end A of die .wire and neptive terininaI through a galvanometer to jockey having variable contact Y. Note that V mUst be less than E. Let you start jockey moving from A towards B. Suppose at position Y potential fall across the length Ayl of the wire be less I:bJII! voltage V. Than current in the loop Ayl XA due to voltage V exceeds the current due to potembd diff=ce across AY". Hence galvanometer shows some deflection in one direction. Then jockey is moved away say at Y' suc:h that potential fall across AY' is greater than the voltage V, then galvanometer shows deflection in other direction. Now in be' yo and Y· the jockey is moved slowly. The stage is reached say point Y such that potential fall across A Y is equal to voltage V. Then point X and Y will be at same voltage _ bonce the galV11JlO11lC1er will nOt show any deflection i.e. null point is achieved. If'l is the length betWeen A and Y, then
V=At =_1
I ,
Et
Thus, the unknown voltage V is measured when no current is drawn from it. The potentiometer has certain advantage. They are as follows :
(i) When the potentiometer is balanced, no current is drawn from the circuit on which the measurement is being made. (ii) It produces no change in condition in any circuit to which it is connected. (iii) It makes use of null method for the measurement, the galvanometer used need not be calibrated.
16.7.3 Comparison of the E.M.fs of two Cells by Potentiometer
You have aJready studied how to measure the e.m.f. of a cell using a potentiometer. We shall now extend the same technique for comparison of C).m.fs oftwo cells. Let us take, for example, a Daniel cell and a Leclanche cell and let E and E be their e.m.f s.
~+~
+
E
'
1
•
J"K .......,....,
A
y.
y,
B
E,
1
.1_
Eo
0
o~
2
0"
G.
j
FIg. 16.17: C_ _OfO <I. oftwo Ml
Potentiometer connections are made as shown in Fig 16.27. One cell say of e.m.f E is connected in the ,circuit by connecting terminals of 1 and 3 ofkey K. The balance POin~ is obtained by moving the jockey on the potentiometer wire as expl~ earlier. Let the balance point on potentiometer be at point Y and let the lengtbAY, = ',. Then other cell of e.m.f. E, is connected in the circuit by conn~tiDg terminall: 2 and 3 ofthe key K, . Again baJanc~ is obtained at point Y and let length AY = t . 2 , 2
, ElecDic Current
Applying potentiometer principle,
E =/d and E =kJ
/ I .2
2
Where 1: is the potential gradient along the wire AD
=£,
I,
·EI
(,
"
If e.m.f. of one cell is known, say E" the e.m.f. of other cell can be determined
E=E
, I
,
.... (16.32)
'
16.7.4 Determination orInternal Resistance of the Cell
You have learnt that cells always offer resistance to the flow of current through them, which is often very small. This resistance is called the internal resistance of the cell and depends on the size ofthe cell i.e. the area ofthe plates immersed in the liquid, the distance of the plates and the strength of the electrolyte used in the cell. Let us now learn how to measure the internal resistance ofthe cell using a potentiometer. Connections are made as shown in Fig 16.28. There is a cell of emf E and internal resistance r. A resistance box R with a key K, is connected in parallel 'with the cell. Rest of the circuit +E
~
(~
At______________ y_2_y~t~4
~II
..._R_.,
R.B
E"r
~
,
G!'
H· • K,
F/g.16.1I: /Jet.",.ination ofi.,,,,,,,,, ui8IQIIC, of"1I
is similar to that in preYious seeUOD.. First of all key X is closed and a current I flows thrOugh wire AB. The key X, is kept open and on moving jockey balance is obtained with
the cell at point say Y . Let A Y
I I
= I, then
...(16.33)
E =Jt
,
I
Now key X, is closed.This introduces a resistance across the cell. A currens say I, will flow in loop E RK E due to cell E . This current I is given by Ohm's law as,
I I
I
I
I
,
:
I
E
R+r
.... (16.34)
1='
n?
: PhySIc,
Where r is the intemal resistance of the cell. Now. terminal poteDliai difference V, oft"e cell will be less than E, by an amount I, r. The value of V, is V=IR=   R
I
I
E,
R+r
....(16.35)
Then. potential difference V, is balanced on the potentiometer wire without change in current I. Let the balance point be at point Y, such that AY,= e, then
v, =kt,
From eqs (16.33) and (16.36)
..... (16.36)
'=' V, t,
From eq (16.35)
E
t
'=V R
E
R+r
,
R+r t _ _ =_1
R
t,
e,
.....(16.37)
or r=R( i.I) Thus. by knowing R. e,. ande, the value ofr is calculated.
Example 16.10: Length o/apotentiometerwire i.r 5 m. It i.r eonnectedwith a battery 0/ fixed e.mj. Null point i.r obtalnldfor the Daniel cell at 100 em on it. Jfthe lell1!fh o/the wire is kept 7 m. then what will be the position o/null point?
Solntion: Let the e.m.f. of battery be E volt. the potential gradient for 5 m length is E k,=SV/m When the length of potentiometer wire is 7 m potential gradient is
E k =Vlm
,
7
Now. ifnull point is obtained at length E=kl=I V
I
I,. then
:.2
E 7
2
Here same cell is balanced in two arrangements, hence
=t.
5
E
E
7'
1.4 m
e,= 7/S =
330
Elec:tric Current:
INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.5_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
2. Is it possible that potential difference between, p/atu ofa eell becomes zero ? 3. In the J6.i9 shown, ifr i.I the resi.ltance per lI1I;t length of the wire AB. The value of potential difference between A and B due to cell ofe.m.f.E is given by (a) rill (h) ril (c) rUt (d) Ur.t
E
Jm~~~~u.l
4. Potentiometer circuit is used to compare e.m.ft of Ji7r. 16.29 two cells EI and E7 The balance point on potelltiomete,. wire is obtained at a distance IJIII/fll'8 and 112 metflrs for EI and E, ,.flSpectively. VEl  2 vo/ts•./bId 1M value ofE1"
e
......................................................................
16.8 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT
Drift velocity i. the lverliJe velocity componeat with which electroDI move opposite to the field when an elec1ric field mats in • coaductor. • Electric current throuah lIlY CI'OII*tional_ ia.the rate oftralllfer ofcbarge from one side to other side of the area. Ullitof current ia IlllpenlI denoted by A. • Ohm's law state. that the cummt flowlni tbrouah_ coaductor it proportional to the potential difference when physical conditioas, ~ etc remain uncb8 Df1ed. • Resistivity (or specific resistance) of I material eql!lls the resistance of a wire of the material of 1m lenglh and 1m2 _ oferou lectioa;, Ullit of resistivity it ohm meter. • Ratio Yllia called and ia deIIoted by R. Ullit OfresiSlanre is o.bm (denated by 0) • ResillfUCe ofaconductor for which Wiratioianotctibstant but depends on the value of voltage applied, is called nonobmic resistance. • For a serie. combination ofreslstors the equivalent tesistance ia sum of resistances of all reslltorI. . • For paralIel combination ofresiaton inverse of equivalent resi8tlDce is sum of inverse of all the resistances. • Kirchhoff's laws to study systematically the complicated electrical circuits are: Law I: The sum of all the currents directed toWll'ds a point in an electrical network is equaJ to the sum of all currents directed away from the point. Law II: The algebraic sum of all potential differences a10Df1 a closed loop in an electrical network is zero. • The \\'heat Stone Bridge cin;uit is used to meaaure accurately an unknown resistance (S) by comparing it with known resistances (P.Q and R). In the balanced condition •
_stance
PIQ = R'S
•
•
The e.m.f of a cell ia equa1 to potential difference It its termina1s when a circuit is not connected to it i.e. it is open. A poteatiometer_a voltages without drawins current. Therefore, it can be used to mouure e.mi. of source that has appreciable internal resistance.
331
Find ' Gold out equivalent resistance of combination in F/k. Define electric =ent and discuss Olun's law. I I.f of two celis.... What. 10.. externaI resistor. drift velocity "" concentration of conduction electrons n and electronic charge e. Discuss the theO!)' of the potentfbmeter. Write it.:3~32~ . Explain the difference between olunic and nonolunic resistances. from I~ft to rIght. lUO' . Define resistivity of a conductor. What are Kirchhoff's laws governing the cUlTCnts and electromotive forces in an electrical network? Give thcol)' of Wheat Stone's Bridge method for measuring resistances. ~. and R. . 17. 16. ' What is the diff=e in e.31 calculate the value3~2A 40 of current / and resistance R. Define electrieaI conductivity.. The colours on the resistor' shown in Fig.. 16 . 16..m. 5.8V when connected across an external resistor.the resistivity of its material.J are connected (i) in series (ii) in parallel.L'I..m. Oive some examples of lIOnohmic resistances.' '/. Find the resistance of the ' I n .. gree~ and. ..30 are red ?range. 6...lL. Find the resistidty of the material.mJ..._ _. 15. £2:"'" .gold as rea~!.  ..1S resistance ofl~ accordmg to colour code? .9 TERMINAL QUESTIONS I.. The potential difference between the terminals of a battery of e.0V and internal resistance I n drops to 5. If each cubic meter of the material contains 10" free electrons find' the average time taken by an electron to cross the length of the wire. Suppose you have three resistors each of value 30n. c _ carrying conductor establish relation between current. ' How will you find the internal ~sistance ofa cell \\ith the help ofa potentiometer? What are the factors responsible'for the internal resistance of the cell? A wire oflength 1m and radius q. 2.16. What is the effect of temperature on the resistivity of the material? Why does the electrical conductivity of a conductor decrease with rcrease in temperature ? Red Orange Green 7. How does the resistance of a wire cIepcmd upoIl.J: each case.. 2 Consider a wire oflength 4m and crosssectional area I mm Carl)'ing a current of 2A. 14.f 6.. its length and area of crosssection? 4. 12.. What is drift velocity offree electrons in a 1II4ltalli~ condudor? For. R. 3. and potential difference between electrode of a cell Derive relation between the two. 19.2A A For the circuit shown in fig 16.LI ili:. 8. 18. Three resistors of resistances R .l mm has a resistance of 100 n. . "''.e FIg. .. 9... unit. How does elec1rieal conductivity depend. How wUl you measure unknowdlpotential difference \\itb the help ofa potentiometer ? Describe potentiometer method of comparing thee.31 20. List all the different resistances you can obtain. +  I '_ I. upon free electron concentration of the conductor ? 5. 13.
.5 I. Q.0.\ 2. ~ x 10" 0 m 19.250 . ~. In.f "fthe cell X. [r increase resulting decrease of V. 12.f of a cell X.(a) 3. 2 and 3 ohms respect. \\ihen the unkno\\ll cell X is connr.m.4 0.6. "btatn~d at a distance 01'0.•. when cell is short circuited 3... Ion.4 1. 200.m. = ..Sm mark and cell £.1 I. the null . 23.20m. R and X whose values area 2. 2. When a standard cdl of e.02 volt is connected to the circuiL the null point is obtained at a distance of I. On <'onnecling Jl)0 resislance across the cell. 0. 60. Vue 10 high resisti vii). I. wid low temperature coellicient of resistance S. (b). 22.02m on the potentiometer wire. . 900. Potentiometer circuit is used tor c(}mparing c. VD·=V .ts of cells E and E . 2. I. . 290.f oft\\o cells £ I and £ ! . 20. gil es null when the jockey is at U.l11. (b) 2.4A .cted. Keen ~ives n~ deflection in a galvanometer connected with potentiometer cireuit when jockey is at 1... (a) 1:2 ' (b) 2:1 Intext Questions 16. 23.115) MO. 2A.8.:! m mark on the third wire.Electric ClUT~n\ 21. . Compare the e. Four resistors P. lr 17.fr. 450.f 1. (b) Intext Questions 16. Temlinal Questions 7.4=IA 42 3.3 I. Using/ lntcxt Questions J6.5050 Intext Questions 16. Calculate the value of resistance with which the reslSIance X must be shunted in order that the hridge ma~ be balanced. 2. I I 2. . Cell £ gil es null when the jockey is placed on the second wire opposite to O. 2A. R +R I = !30 R / . l11e potentiometer setup has been used for measuring the e. the null point is al 1m.6111.:E. Calculate the internal resistance oflhe cell . CHECK YOUR ANSWERS IllteAt questions 16. V=£ .4A 3. Yes. =5:2 333' .. IS.2 I.9 hours 21. (2. E. 4. Calculate the e~n. 6.x 1.m.).0. With increase of current.vely are joined to form a Wheat Slone Bridge.40 16.
refer 10 Ihe behavior of charges at macroscopic level." Mating ~Sll: • dlacrlb.17 THERMAL AND CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 17.tric 1I1/fct!J. In this lesson we shall learn aboul chemical and thermal effect. We must remember that these features. • slale Seebat:k.tro/y!Ii!I: • mention tilt practical applications of.I. i law ofhealing: • calculate electric paw.e/.troly!lls: • explain lhe Faraday i law.r. said to constitute an electric current. The flow of charge i. for example the electric field and electrostatic potential."".tro/yll.II: • molce distinr:tion b.r. you should be able to : • explain Joul.r comlmNd .l.re".r.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson.r and Thonuon ~r.. We have also learnl thaI when a charged body is connected 10 another uncharged body via a metal wire.t. flow caule.' ..1 INTRODUCfION In the earlier lessons we have learnt about the various characteristics of electric charges when at rest. process ofIII. The flow of current and resiltance In it. variety of interesting phenomenons luch al chemical effect. the charge of the fonner h transferred to %be latler through the metal wire. 17.ctrlc ~r. thennal effect etc. tMrmoe!er. Palti.r: • underSland lilt tM. of currenl and some of their applications in our daily life.tw"n 1M dljf. (If .. However the electric resistances have an ability to oppose the flow of current througb them. .
= Id =charge of each electron e . J7.. These free electrons frequently collide with the atoms of the metals in lattice. total charge Thus. . As ~ou are familiar that the flow of electrons is in opposite direction of current. electric iron etc. . Let a potel)tial difference' JI" exi~ls across the two ends 'a' and 'b' of the resistor and current I is flowing through il from ' . to 'b'. 17. the energy used in overcoming electrical resistanc:. as the current flows through a wire or a conductor. it increases the kinetic energy of vibrations of the atoms and hence. it generates the heat in metal wire.: is transformed into heat energy. we consider a circuit consisting of a resistor ha\'ing resistance 'R' and a battery as shown in Fig..V. or or W=I(lR) ~ I( . It Woo [.IV= (Y.1. I .' is. + 1 .Electrons entering at'b' possess more energy than electrons leaving at 'a'.' is. "y. Thus. the number of electrons crossing the section ofwire in time '.)].. Loss of potential energy per electron =[eV. To calculate the heat produced due to flow of current.(eVj]._ _ _ _' I ". The electric resistance of the metal is due 10 the aloms of lattice obstructing the drift of electrons.(. Further. and Yb are the potentials of ends 'a' and 'b' respectively...3 THE THERMAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT Many modem household appliances such as electric heater. W=I V.Vb . Because of the resistance of the conductors the work must be done to maintlrin the flow ofelectrons (cunem) through them.Vb) Thus.Thennal and Chemical Effects . when an electric current is pllSsed through a resistor.1) From Ohm's law V= IR) IH::=~Rt I 335 .. Just like the mechanical energy us<:d in overcoming mechanical friction. of Electric CUlTont 17.VI As you see from tfIe Fig. =It(V.v. Hence there isa 1058 in potential energy of the electron while passing from 'b' to 'a' and this loss of potential energy appears as the heat energy during the flow of current through resistor' R' . the total loss in potential energy of electrons in time '... work is done against the resistance resulting a heating effecting. So electrons are flowing in the circuit from 'b' to 'a' . utilize the hearing effect of an electric current. (17. 17. At each collision they lose some of their kinetic energy and give it to the atoms which they strike. Thus.J R B You know that the potential energy of an electron at 'b'ooand the potential energy of electron at 'Q' =eV" Where 'e' is the charge on the electron and V. We know that in metals electriccurtent is due to free electrons.
1000 watts = I Kilowatt 746 watts = 1 Horsepower 17.. Similarly. if one kilowatt ( 1000 watts) is used for one hour.6 x 100000 W s It kwh 36 x 10' J I . using the Eq 11. This relation is kno'Wn as Joule's law ofiJealing... Electric energy used in kwh = Power (kw) x time in hr_ 1 kwh = 1000 Wh = 1000 W x 60 x 60 sec. When appliance is in use..3. .. The electrical bulbs (incandescent lamps). It clearly expressed the following facts that the heat produced is proportional to. therefore the heat produced due to tlow of electrons (electric current) through the resistor in time 'f will be. are some of the examples.. an'clectronic iron at 2000 watts. The electric PO"''ef P. it requires for the time you use it. i) ii) iii) the square of current strengtli ( the resistance (R).1 W= IVt) i R (where V=IR.1 Electrical Power You know that power is the rate of doing work.====. safety fuse. Ohm'slaw) H<lre power P is in watt when I is in ampere. the consumer pays for 1 wattbour of energy. . Ohm'slaw) V:!/R (where 1= VIR. Electric iron. 60W or lOOW or even higher. the time (t) for which the current tlows. electric arc.(17.Physic. p= p= p= ~ = I V (Equation 17. a small radio receher at 25 Wand a television set at 350 W. whereJ=4.2 Calculation of Electrical Energy Consumed You know that almost all housebold appliances are marked with their powerrating. This heating effect of electric current has many applications. you pay' for the account of power. 25W. fl. then you have to pay for one kilowatthour (kwh) of energy.2) J .2J/cal. As already said above. electric fans. 17...1 can be written as. = 3600 x 1000 W s : _.. An automatic transistor may be rated at 1250 W. thus energy liberated per second in an electric device is called electric pawer.. this work done is converted into heat. may be marked 15W. the incandescent lamp (electric hulb). R is in ohm and V is in volt: larger units of power are often found to be more useful. electric furnace/oven. H= WIJ. electric welding. If the power of one watt is provided for one hour. Jismechanical equivalent of heat H=F RrJoule= IRtcal.3.
1. is reversible effect.. If a circuitcontains conductors of different materials...4 THERMOELECTRICITY We know that electric energy can be converted into heat energy.. As you know 'thaI healing effect 0/ an electric current is an irreversible effect while thermoelectric effect.. it is natural to expect the existence of phenomenon in which heat energy can be converted into electrical energy. b) Electrical energy is.... . Because P = IV..." 2..h cost = I x 1.. P=4x220=880W =0.... 4. 76 rupees...rwer whether the following statements are 'True' or 'False . They are: a) Seebeck effect . dl Electric appliances are IIsually marked in watt as per their power rating. 17.. h). This effect. .16 kwh Nov.... The electric energy costs one rupee per leilowatt hour.. and the junctions between those ~onductors are maintained at different temperatures.l0ssible.88 kW Electric energy used in 2 brs = 0.. is known as thermoelectric effect. then electric current are found to flow in tbe circuit....1~ _ _:_ _ _ _ _ _ __ Which oJthe two bulbs 25Wand 100 W will hm'e more resistance whm both are operating at same voltage ? . al Fuses work on the heating effect ojan electric current...... .Thermal and Chemical Effects ofEleclric Current Example....measl/red in kilowatt...76 = I..... 17.. An.. the cost of operating the iron = Rs...88 x 2 = 1.. V = 220 volts.t = 2h...76 kv. 3. It turns out tbat such process is J. current depend? Li$t three appliances that works on the healing effect ojan electric current in your haUSII... iJitdraws 4 A on 220 volts circuit..76 INTEXT QUESTIONS I... On whatJactors does the thermal effect ojelectric. . 17.Peltier effect.~ 1. c) Electric power P={IR where I is current In Ampere and R i$ resistance in ohm.. Three related effects of this kind are found.. and c) Thomson effect 337 . where electricity is produced by the direct conversion of heat energy into electrical energy. From the principle of physical s}mmetry........1 : Find the cost oJoperalingan~/ectric'ironJor 2 hours..' . Thus. Solution: /= 4 A...
~ The pair or metals in Fig..connected to form a thennocouple. J01j.erles is : am~M~~~~n_~_~_~~~4k~~~. the neutral temperature will remain the lime t 1 338 . 17. which can be determined from the ClUTent and resistance. 17. The Seebeck . The temperature T..2 and one of the junction is heated. The T. is called the therm0electric emf and is of the order of a few millivolts. the CIII'mIt at the hot jllllCti01l WQ8 from the _tal OCCIII'rlIrg IIQ1'l/lIr ill the lerie! to the one occlII'1'ing later.J: ~. there is a current in the circuit. . of the hotjunctinn It wbich then i is maximlllll cunent in the circuit. depeDda upon the extent of separation of the metals in the series.4. It O· C.1: SHbocI:Effect metals and arranged them in a series in such iI way that when two metals from thtJ series were .. This current is known as thermoelectric current.·T~at~ioft temperature T. If one of the themiocouple junction il kept at a fixed temperature and other ODe il heated. C. Te. This series indicate that Bismuth (Bi) and Tuapton (Tc) thermcM:ouple is the most _itive as it will produce Jarse thennoemf. is called the IDtfIeI'atIlH o/illvenitm.1 Seebeck Effect Seeback discovered in 1826 that an electric current could be produced by thermal meaDS alone. If the " . when the cold junction i. the neutral temperature ia o~~~~'. the Seebeck thermo emfinthecircuitwlll vary with temperature difference of the junctions.sa. .. 17. " MeWS Seebeck studied the behavior ofmmy pairs of ".. i. variation of thermo emfwith this difluence of temperature is shown in FiB 17. The C1DTCIIIt in this thermocouple will flow from Bismuth to TlIIliston aeross the hot junction. AI. . The' T• • NeutrII_PII.2 constitutes a thermocouple. 17. 27S o C and the inversion temperature is 55()o C. The emf developed in the circuit. This effect is ca1ledS«beck effect..: Physics 17. .wi""'" temperature of the cold junction is raised to 100 fa aM. Sb.3. For copperiron thermoc:ouple. called ~ "lIlIIJ'al tetnpfll'fllllH. of the hot junction at which there is 2lml current at which reversal of cumnt is about to bezin. Further its II1Ig1Iitude. When two dissimilar metals are connected as in Fig..
) I . 7.2 and pass a current as shown in 17.4.)'" 2 (T.3 and 17. 17. It is observed that heiIt is absorbed at MeIaIB junction I. Thus.f the cold junction.." \>"I"r. rhe rale llfchange of thermo electric emf(E) with temperature difference Tis known as the.Thennal and Chemical Effects of Electric ClUlem . £~aT+br .4. while it is generated at junction 2. For majority ofthenno<:ouple. is the ttmper. rhus P varies with Tin 3 linear way. Currant Battery The phenomena on of Peltier effect is the under Ffe. To study the Peltier effect. Thus. 1<7. Head up 1 On campiring Fig. insert a battery in the circuit of Fig.T. to measure c1wge in coulomb and heat injoule and hence 71 will be expressed 3J9 . thermoel<!ctric power (Pl. Thi3 absorption or e)'Oiution of heat at u junction when a CIIITfmt is sent through a thermocouple is known as the PeIIin e. dE dT dwT+bT) dT P=a+ 1hT.. heat is absorbed al the hot j unction and liberated at the cold junction. but the inversion temperature will become 540° C.3) Where T ~s the temperature difference of two junctions in K and a and b are constants.2 Peltier Effect Peltier in 1834 discovered that wbevever a cummt flows in a tbermocouple. In general the Seebeck ~mf (E) can be expressed as.. the temperaturethem)" emf graph (as shown in Fig." of invenil'n for a given thenno<:ouple then.· '.4 you may note 2 MeIalA that particular junction is cooled which IIIWlt be heated in order to give a tbennocouple cummt in the same direction as the battery current.(17. and they show the characteristics~fthe given tbermocouple. .. 17. It T.lLlf.3) is very nearly a parabola.. when a unit charge passes through it is called the PeIIiu coeffu:ieIrl and is denoted by It the usual practice i. 17. .4) 11. neutral tem···raturefor " giwn thermocouple is constant while the inversion temperature is as much above it as the cold junction temperature is below it. . J 1. it is found that .. The energy absorbed (or evolved) at a junction.4: Peltier eJlet:t lying principle of thermoelectric refrigerators.fft!Ct.(17. T is the neutral temperature and T the temperatu.
then the absorption or evolution of heat can take place in the conductor itself. Thus.. when current flows from hot to cold parts.Cli as joule/coulomb i.. Let a symmetrical temperature gradient be maiptained along the and keeping the length of the rod by heating it at the central pointe (0 a temperature ends A and B at the lower temperature T. Consider a copper rod AB.. bismuth.e. of heat due to current in the cfiltrtbutton flow direction. is absorbed at one junction and evolved at other. when current flows from cold to hot and heat is absorbed.r as that shown by copper. heat is always generated while in Peltier effect heal. This phenomenon is known as Tlromson effect. 340: . shows similar behavio.3 Thomson Effect Thomson discovered that when a temperature gradient exists along the conductor and a current is allowed to pass through the conductor.. b) Peltier effect is reversible while the Joule heating is irreversible. zinc. The rate at which Peltier heat i~ transferred is proportional to the power of the current or equal to tr It.e. Obviously.A I said to posses a poJitillt! IThomson t!Jftct. c) Heat generated is proportional to f1 in Joule heating effect while it is proportiol1al to I in Peltier effect. for such metals. (see Fig. the tnuiSfer of heat due to passage of current take place in the direction opposite to the direction of current flow. Now if the current is passed along the copper rod in the direction ACB. platinum and nickel FIg. When the direction of the current is reversed. Copper lOCI Healing _ PJIj Copper r I J j I' Atmt~7/P1. Metals like silver. All these metals are B B A. the Peltier heat is same but in the opPosite direction. The Peltier effect is reversible. volt.. there is a transfer AIymmetrIcaI temp. In this figure. antimony and I:8dminium etc. Important difference between Joule heating effect and Peltier thermoelectric effect are listed below: a) Peltier effect takes place at a junction only but the Joule heating is distributed along the entire length of the conductor. it is observed that heat is absorbed when the current flows from A to C i. d) In Joule effect. t'romhotto cold Symmetrlcaltemp.e. 17. 17. cobalt.4.5 evolve heat. m (a) (b) Metals like iron.mA . dl8trlbutlon parts. These metal behave differently then copper and ef(ect shown by them is termed as negatille naomson effect.5). the height of ordinates at each point is a measure of temperature of the rod at that point..Phy'. from cold to hot parts whereas heat is evolved when current flows from C to B i. This coefficient depends on the temperature and material of the junction. 17.
..5 ELECTROLYSIS Aqueous solutions of inorganic salt... . conduct electricity and these are called electrolytes.· .\iously evolved or viceversa.. heat is absorbed in the region where it was pr. If the cold junction of a thermocouple is O·C and the temperature of inversion in 60·C.....Thelma! and Chemical EffectS oflilectric CUrrent II is worth wbile to note that in either of the two cases (i.. (17. Thomson's eftect gets reversed when the current flows in reversedirection. I) Flow of CWTent causes a chemical reactions. ".. Distinguish between seebak effect and Peltier effect.. Conduction in electrolytes is due to ions which are produced by the dissociation of ele. here matter is actually transported through the solution. It the direction ofcurrent is reversed. The phenomenon of electrolysis i.~.5) Where Cf is Thomson coefficient.. Chemical reactions at the anode are ditTerent from those at cathode.....r metals like copper it is positive and for metal like iron it is negative.. is proportional to Id T i... (iii) The Thomson coefficient is characteristic of a particular metal under consideration.. ······ .2_ _ _ _'_~_ _ _ __ I 2.e. What. It is regarded as positive when a current opposite to the direction of temperature gradient causes an absorption of heat by the conductors. INTEXT QUESITONS 17.~. A. what is the value ofneutral temperature ? 17. The Thomson coeflicienl for lead is practically zero. It is measured in joule and some time called the specifIC heal of electricqy.··· . Unlike conduction in metal.•..... .. H=Cf/dT .1rolyte in the solvent. positive or negative).. (i) The rate at which Thomson heat is transferred (H) into a small region of a "ire carrying current I and ... having temperature difterence dT.e. ·· .do you mean by the fact that the Pelter effect is reversible? 3. the ~sage of current through a conducting liquid solutions. (iv) Thomson coefficient is a function oftemperature and is not constant..e.. is different from the conduction of electIi city through metals in foilowingtwo important aspects. Following important point had been established on the basis '1f extensive experimental studies.. acids and bases... h. ···. (ii) The Thomson effect is rever .' 2) 341 . The process of conduction of electricity through solutions and through molten salts is called electrolyis.
17. currenught(1) waslallowed to flow the ~~metertha Fig..6) (since 1 x t = Q where Qis the amount of charge flowing thro~ the electrolyte) Thus... From result. and to the time (I) for which the .< • Rheostat Key   ... Faraday observed that the mass of copper (m) deposited on the cathode is proportional both to current (1). generally of glass.5. These are known as Faraday's Laws of electrolysis...17.6. 17. radicals liberated at the electrodes art! in the same ratio af their chemical equivalent weights 34? . Battery The Fig. 11 . .. When he measured the amounts of element liberated in such a situation. surroUnded by two electrodes (connected together) which form the anode. the masses ofthe elements or. It is known as FIII'IIIIIlyIs Finlltlw ofelectrolysis. He was thus led to frame his second Itlw in the COJDl as : Whm the same quantity ofelectricity po3ses through the solutions ofdifferrmt electrolytes. it was always found them to be in the same ratio as their chemical equivalent weights. The ch\>ice of the metal electrodes depends upon the nature of the electrolyte lind chemical change it is likely to undelgo..(17.6 shows a setup called voltameter consisting of the cathode in centre. m oc II m =Zll =ZQ where Z is the constant of proportionality.11 11111. Faraday connected number of voltameter in series so that the same quantity of electricity could pass through all the electrolytes placed in different voltameter. The outer vassel... The constant Z is known as the eJectrocllemiCld eqllMrlMt of the element or radical and may be defined af the maJS liberated by the po3sage ofa unit quantity ofelectricity through the electrolyte.6: Copper Vollam"'er thro the vo tameter. contains the electrolyte.0Uows t. Using the copper voltameter as shown in Fig 17. the moss ofan element or radical deposited or liberated at an electrode is proportional to the quantity ofelectricityflowing through the electrolyte.1 Laws of Electrolysis The pbenOlilenon of electrolysis was first studied in detailed and systematic way by Faraday. whose observations led him to make two statements.
5.. E... Some of these are mentioned below: (i) Electroplating. I!sing this value of Z in Eq.. £" E. . Thus.••• ..2 Expbination of the Process of Electrolysis The theory of ionic dissociation can be used to explain Faraday's law of electrolysis.. The article to be electroplated is made the cathode and the metal to be deposited is made anode. m"~ :. 17. the mass ofCuSO.. electroplating_ The article of cheap metals are coated with precious metals III make their look more attractive... ... Z.e' ) Faraday ~ 96500 x 103 coulomb Form the I'.. Th~ process a/depositillg a thin layer of one metal over another metal by the method ofelectro~ysjs is known «. .5. ions... From Faraday's second law of electrolysis it follows that the same quantity of electricity is needed to liberate I kg equivalent at any substance..' You all have seen sbinning handle ofyolU' bicycle made of iron... A soluble salt of the precious metal is taken as the c1ectwlyte. .. Precise measurements have sbown that this quanti 1)'. the eleccroc/temica/ equivalent is the omOUltt ofsubstance Iiberwed by passage of" 1 coulomb of cbarge.6 we can easily obtain: E m=Zlt= xlxt 3 96500 x 10 AIllve relation may be considered as the expression incorporating both laws ofelectrolysis. When current is passed.•... a thin layer of metal is deposited On Ihe article made cathode.~ of cathode. FW1her.lbmnal and Chemical Effects ofElecuic Curnml Thus. it dissolves one copper atom from the anode. Now every time a SO.. 17.6 we get Z = mlQ Thus. the mass of copper deposited in this case is proportional to the number of ions reaching it.. Hence.. we know that this molecule will split into Cu" and SO. the mass deposited will be proportional to the quantity of electricity depositing lh~m as stated by Faraday's first !a\\. E Z=96500 x loJ kg where E is the chemical eqUWuJelft weight..is 96500 x 1()3 coulomb which is also known as one FtUOIIay i. Do you know how it is made to shine? It is electroplated with cromium or Ilickel..EI • ••••••••• . Considering the case of CuSO. in solution is unaltered and the loss in mass of the anode equals to the gain in mas..qge of the same quantity of electricity. oftheequivale. are liberated by the pas. We have mol' m.143 . 17.••.q. . one copper atom is deposited at the cathode.3 Applications of Electrolysis Electrolysis is one of the very important chemical effect of electrical current and has many applications..: 17...~ •••••••••. if masses mr mt inJ .E. At the same time... Since all the ions carry the same charge.~tweights£. ions reaches the anode under the influenced of electric field.
o The unit of po.is. 4. In dilute sulphuric acid as electrolyte. 3.6 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT o The electrk current through the conductor can produce heating. ('oppcr l~ puritied in thi!oo manner.u \\illieam more about it in yourchemis!I: lessons. In each c. m/Ulmeter. a) b) c) d)./)' is equal To how man)' coulomb? In ellso. for removing unwanted hair on any part of the body etc. An~·. (vi) iI1ellical Apl'licatians : Electrolysis is finding applications in medical science too.}Jhysu. kinetic energy is 10'i1 and cc.. It is L1scd nerve stimulation especially for polio..ln. Cu etc. • Ileat generated in a simple electric circuit is proportional to 0) square of the current (ii) the resistance.. current is maintained hy the flow '?f electrol/. 5. 344 . pure metal oW of anode dissoh es inll> dl!ctrol) te solutiom..ver is watt. on which elecTrode willihe copper ions will deposit .~ (ii) Ex"1l<. When current is passed. INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.. Sometime.' : 'VIetals can be puritied 'b)' electrolysis.. 17.1ion oj metals from th ./IIld!'he "ngra.. The impure metal sheet IS made the anode and a pure metal sheet as the cathode in a large electrolytic cell. Electroplating is based all electrolysis.. of electrolysis.er whelher thefollowing statement are True or False. Mg. and (iii) the time during which current flows. dyes l\I'Il mixed in the electrolyte. The malltr is oCllla/(v transported through the solation in electro~vsis. o The difTerencc hetween conductio" of electricity through a metallic wire and lin dcctrol~ te. The soluble salt to the pure metal is used as electrol)te. There are only two lllws ofelectrol). At. Ca.. On whatjaclOrs does the mass l?/.radical deposited at electrode depends ? For an electrolysis process if we pial a graph hellVeen mass deposited and time. atl: extracted from their ures by electrolysis.. The impression optained on wax is made conducting by coating it wifh graphite powder. In an elecII'lJ~\'Ie soilltiol/. (v) Anodising: It is the process of coating aluminium with its oxide. the aluminium article is made the anude.ofwax is tirst pressed against the type sel or block. . and get deposited on the pure metal sheet acting as cathode.mvt!ned into heat cnerc~y. Then it is copper plated by the process of electrolysis. electrochemically to pmt"c! it against corrosion.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I. A sheet.~d blocks un the metal can be prepared b) the proce. (iv) ELeL'trotypinK: fhe "xaclcnp":s offhe metallic t>pe used in the printing worl. thell what will he Ihe shape ofcurve? One Farad. The sheet so obtained is a copy of the type of the block.)lIision. t. Hii)Purificatitlns oj metal. to give Ihe surlace of the article beautiful colours. Y. ores : Certain metals like Na. Ores solution acts as electrolyte /IIld metal ions are ooll"cted at dectrode. ollie electron on their way collide lrequently with atoms.
The variations of Seebeck emf "ith temperaturP difference of the junctions is generally parabolic. The neutral temperature. Is it a constant? 6. State and explain the Faraday's law of electrolysis. S.. electrolyte.Thermal and Chemical Effects of Eleclric Cun~m • • • • • • • • • • • • The definitions of Faraday. 7. 3. ThermoeiectricitypbenOlpenon involves the conversion of heat energy iroo electrical energy. The electrolysis has various pnu:tical application. What is meant by Peltier effect? How does it differ from Joule effect? What is Thomson effect? Explain it by giving proper diagram. 8. is the maximwn temperature beyond which thermo emf starts decreasing. Peltier effect is reversible and different from Joule's effect. State and explain Joule's law for the rate ofproduction of heat for a coil ofwire carrying an electric clirrent. Thomson effect is again reversible effect. Explain some practical applications of electrolysis. The Thomson coefficient is a function of temperature and not constant. voltmeter. electrodes. 17:7 TERMINAL QUESTIONS_ _ _:_ _:_ __ I. heat is absorred at one junction and liberated at the other jUI!Ction. 2. How does tbeconduction of electricity in a metallic conductor differ from that in electrolyte? Vi/hy is the conductivity of an electrolyte law as compared to a metal at room temperature? What is a Seebeck effect? Discuss the variation of Seebeak emf with temperalUre. Define Electric power and state its units. Discuss the phenomenon of electrolysis. Define Thomson coefficient of an metal. A~cording to thomson effect when temperalUre gradient exist along the conductor and current is allowed to pass through the conductor then the absorption or evolution of heat can take place across the conductor itself. The Thomson coefficient can be positive or negative depending upon the nature of metal. Give its unit. According to Seebeak effact if two junctions of a thermocouple are kept at different temperalUrS an emf is generated in the circuit. This is called Peltier effect. "345 . 9. It is practically zero lor lead. 4. If an electric current is passed through a tbennocouple. electrocbemical equivalent.. Explain the tenos : Electrolysi.
and • e. Youwill also study the principle of v.II law and its application to find the magnetic field due 10 current in solenoids and toroitls.w"l." • describe the behuviour of a current loop in a magnetic field." • difine ampere in terms ofmagnetic field: • explain the motion of a chal'ged particle in a magnetic field and uMuTstand Lorent= force.lorking of current measuring and detecting devices like galvanometer. ammeters and voltmeter.1 INTRODUCTION In everyday situations one hardly lhinks of the connection between electricity and magnetism. dif/ne 8iot Savart's law and understand its applications. In the previous lesson you have studied about the thermal and chemical effects of electric current. This principle is used in many modem day gadgets like electric meters.'plain the principle of working of current measuring and dettcling instruments slIch as galval/ometers. explain Ampere's circui/. which ~ different from eleclrostatic forces due to charges at rest.=e magnetic effect of electric current. Oersted by a series of experiments established an important result that moving charges exert forces. you should be abletci: vi.18 MAGNETIC EFFECT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 18. motors. ammeters and voltmeters" . In 1820. In the present lesson you will study about the magnetic effect of current and their applications in ollr day to day life. and generators. " 18.2 • • • OBJECTIVES AJkr Slud) :111' dlis iesson.
n/ bettary. susceptibility etc..2 (d) shows concentric circles around the wire. The needle deflects. ILl. this legion is known a magnetic: field.2(a. 18. a win: about 1m long..2(a. Take 1he matd1 box base md wrap tho o1ec:trie 1We on it about l()'IS times..wIroe IUIlI1ing alons the North • South cIirectIon. The 1.. such as magnetic permieability.". the match box so as to have the. You will Jearn about ~ and more term.ognel.18. a campusl!eedJe and a maIch box. is called dectrlc clll7'Mt. by the magnitude and direction of the field given by magnetic induction vector B or nuwnetIc lntensIiy...18.Fig. J} ~~ +~=~~~~1 no dlllllOIIon e G) I .Connect the free ends of the 1We to !be baUeIy. ""'I*!*ldlcullir .. When there is no current in the win: the campus needle points in 1he North· South direc:tinn. The CUI'I'CIIt flowing in 1he conductor exerts fo~e on a free magnetic needle in a region. Place the campus needle at ita bile. The maglU!tlcfleld is characterised. at the appropriate place in this lesson. Dm"""l'tIllon qf. Fig..e. due to a potential difference across it.i8tl"n Ocr.3.CORE CONCEPTS You have studied earller that1he IIow ofe1eclroPs in a c:oJIductor. 18.wtre Fla. 1\Im wt. The fieJd is visualised by 1IIIIpetiefleId lbus which give the direction of the field at a point in the space.1 Magnetic Field Around an Electric Current We will do a simple experimmt.18.Magn~!ic EtTec! of Electric Currenl :.. (d) 347 ..5 volt battery.b. this IIINIIII there Is a magnetic fotce arouod 1he ooiIed up 1We..3 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM . ) 7 . +  In 1820 Hllns Ch.•• Professor of Physics at Copenhager in Denmark perfOimed similar experiments and established thatthere is a magnetic field around a current .._ _ _ _~ (II) '.c/l. SeeFJ.ld dUIO of current by changing the temIinals of the 1M _ _ c. d III I". 18.b &. c).a. you will require a 1.(e) I. Watch what happens to the needle.1.. FOI'Ibis.1IV' deflec:tionrevenes ifyou chanse!be direction .
e .{I8.:!. e . Acconling to the experiment as shown in Fig.11 BrHere. : r is the distance of point P X~~~~~~__~~_x {. and B magnetic field at apoint with a mentioned medium of permeability j1.. J IlI.in 471 . 11 represents.2 Biot Savart's Law We noW present a law that gives a quantitative relationship between the currcot in any conductor and the resulting magnetic field at a point in the space II1'OUIId it.J: I III sin 9 IlB CIC .Z' JIIf.. The net value of B at a point is the combined effect of all the individual parts of the conductor.II. JI.  DlrectioD or B : Magnetic field is a vector.. 18. As shown in the Fig..lion oj'magntl/eJl6ld 3411 . is the permeability orVllCUlllllll or air.3 we can say that the magnetic field due to any Z current carrying conductor is the vector sum ofthe contribution due to.  + Ie) FIg.fiere the field is to be calculated from the element III (d) 9 : is the angle between the element and the line joiDa the element to the point p.3. with your band grasp the wilre.7 WbA"' m" If the conductor is surrounded by • medium then the value of the field is altered and it becomes B . (b) Ill: length of the element: (c) .4. Each part of the conductor con1ributes towards a magnetic field.. the current in each minute element oflength LJI. 18..Physics 18. The field IlB due to an element III depends upon (a) I: current through the conductor. the permeabilty ofthe medimn which is diffimml fulm maptic field al a point in vacuum.2 II. Let us conaider the direction of the field produced in some simple cues. JJ/1. Its value Is 471)( 10." I Di.1 ) r2 This is an imperical result and II. so thai the thumb points (bl cullllllt Into the pImIe d the~.
C.. by Iwilhria9 90°.. This element u well u yo 1lIIY other are It a difta1:Ice . This is called the right hand grip rille.5.IIIN of Q circlllar coil carrylllg CIlI"nllt.3. 18. In Fig. acid up the <1 B contribution duecunductor to each 0IIe CalulUi lIlIkes it very 011)'. of cunductol'l. the plane containing 01} B is perpendicular to it along the direction of the curl of the fingers of the right band. ". "4K 1. This would look Ilke PJa. However.Magneric EITect of Electric Curran: in the dim:toin of the current.CQ/J CGr/)IIIIIThe .. 18. A few applicstiOlll ofBi.4(b) check ifthe direction ofmagnetic field matches Ibis description. Since the field due to every element ofthe cin:ularcoil ia in the IIIIDICI direction. it can be used to find the field around cIIff_nt shape. &om till centze O. . I sin 4J 9 48411 ... the resultlnt is found by adding all tile 48 coatributions It the centre of the loop. II.t Savart's law are jiven below.tlc /I.p. 4J 149 . the curled fingers of the hand point in the dim:tion of the IIUIgIletic field. InFig.18.2 X Z' t of the circular coil. .Iaw. 18. The direction of 48 ia perpeadicular to the xy pllDe along Zaxis.e... the field It the centze 0 clue to t .ld aJ til.6 To lind the field at 0 due to C1II'I'OIIt element d ''::X':'::2~::~~/~~:t:__. COIIIidet a wire stifF eI10IIih to form acimllll' loop Ilke 1ll1ee11l111&1e. . UIiDa Biot Savan'..l. to find the net field clue to cIIft'ezent z scsmcnts of the weoftbem.. .1&6: CImI/". J. M.3 Applications of Biot Savart's Law As Biot Savart's la~ jives the lllllpitude of the masnetic field. IS . the thumb is along I i..
in the clock wile _ than face oCthe coil behaves like the SoUlh pole of the equiVlleat mapet.traight wi.mp will the IIIIIgMtic field be equal to J )( HI'S 1i. EUlJlp.3 ) B is measured in teala (T).. IT . Solution: 2nr B 3)(105 T B~ '3nS~O~ ..".2 ) •. carylng a Clll'lWIII 0/12 A.IN AI mI You can cleek the direction of the net field usinaFIg.t what diltance fro". (Another simple quick rule to find the diJeetiOll ofllllpetic field due to. directed towarda younelf.. directed in wards. coil is as tho1lVllin FiS.b). finds the cUrrent to be flowm. On the other band If the CIJmIIt is _ to flow in the anticlock wile sense the face of the coil behaves like the North pole of the equivalent mapt or the field i.. or B i.(18.1: A. 18..7 (a.ia.: Pbysica Therefor. 18. a 10llg . /&1:FIIIdbtf. . You can use reghtllaDdruie in any sesment oCtile coil and obtain the 8IIIle result. 4111" m_ 47t1" or B at the centre oC coil oC radius r having a current I in it is .. (a. "" 2r 2111' In cue there are more then one loop of wire. B =~4B = III !AI .(18..4. say there are n turns BII 2r • IB~ ~l I "" .tIf1wrttJ'''J/'''~jIo/d When an observer looklDa at the clrcuIlI' coil.. 11.
.. Ampere's circuital law states that the line integral of the masnetic field B around any closed path or cin:ult is equal to 1'0 times the total current lthreading this closed circuit This i.... Consider acircular loops ofndius r.. as a circular coil of on. 18....... We have alresdy 351 .... 1fIlIp..... .. . ." a pot.J of small... to appll...4) In order to understand this conslder an infinitely lona Slraisht conductor carrying • current I Fig.8... A cll17Vnt is flowing In a long wi".. Elecl1'O/U In a conductor are In COII8tant motion due to tempfratv7t..... .. ..r raiJllI..... WhaJ Is the 1ItIIIIrI of the field developed by ? (i) a 3tatlonary electron? . QCI'O&3 II ? 4... independent of the size or shape of the closed path or cirult......... III 2lt B = 2 It x 3 )( 10' =0.......t/c field at the centre stronger and by how much? On what factors do" the field around a Cur"lIt carrying cOllductor depend upon ? Us. .........t18m lUll...... In which cas' Is th...2Sm 4~ )( 107 )( 12 INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.. tUl'll.. It Is firlll IIhaplti. Qlld then Into a coil of two tIIm..... .. .... wily do they not ... 3........... This can be used to find the field in some simple situations. Blot Savartf Law...=4 r ...... ...d (ii) a moving electron? . 2. ..'J..(18...... X 10 TmK 7 I =? r=!... propert)l of lfIlIp..ntlal diJfertnc.. ..4 AMPERE'S CIRCUITAL LAW Ampere's circuital law is another property of magnetic field around a current carrying conductor.. 18.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I.....how th.Magnetic Effect of Electric: CUmDI 1 = 12 Amp 1l...
de along the circular loop will be =B2 x r But B from Siot savart's iaw 1& de z_O_ 111 21t r I B... 2xr =111 o Thus.5) In case.. tbillaw it valid for any . der9 !be Fla. = IB de cos 9 (9=0) =IBde Now IB. wbere I I!Id de lD&y DOt be aloua the same line. e1emom. 352 . Then magnetic field is parellel to de every where 00 the loop. 10 to tnce the eadJe loop 1'bis law II valid for any "M'DhIy ofcurrent I!Id for any arbitlry closed loop lB. COl 9 . + I. Ampere's law is derived usina Biot Savart's law.2 1r.seen that the lines ofB also form cmles around tile wire. •.. I B.dII•.dI COl e I.cII. the imasined loop in not circular. DlYidiq the clOMd loop into many IIIII1l dI. ++.dt  I'J 2K 2K n.1 But eIl the centre 0 .1.dl1l every point. 'CIl.dI = 11/ 2'op. The wire puaes 1brouah O. we CIID cansjder dot product ofB. (18..9 shows any Imapwt Ibape of clOMd loop.. But. Since I II pmllel to dill each amaIl lDIDIeIIt. 18. Further the magnitude ofB is also same st all points ofthe loop.' dI..Illy of current I!Id for any arbiuuy c10Md loop.
dl = B. Both the8e results . aDd PQ'R' are two amperian loops one inside the toroid aDd tbe other outside it. Take a circular loop of radius . (a) Mapetic tleId dae to .eIl I' I • • B " cIIlJ'e 110118 die SIIIIO directioa.. CireaiDl Law 1be Ampcre'l law Cllllbies us to obtain die ~" field in two situatiolla in a v«)' simple maJIII«. We have .. 18.4.1.... l B.JJ. lU "".211" 9IJ I (e cIn:uII) p Itt 1&11:..P NI • or I  !'oN! llll' 353 .llll' .10 shows a CODductor POQ C8II')'ina a current I. if I is the ClIITeIII tbrouah tbe toroid aDd if tbere are H IllIIIIber of tums.2l11' = IIJ by die law :.vea 1be fie\d II:'OIDl a IIIIiabt CIJIIdI.. around it in the pl_ as sbown. M""... It wouIdlooltIlkeFij. PQR..ifIIII/IIIy""... a totsl of HI current flows in tbe inlier riDI!._ or B . iDfbdtelyloq Q coadactor carr:JiB& e~t Fig./. aDd into 1be 1"oftbe peper at die iDDer rim Fig. Ittl&II: ."'1'"'' as This ai... of praetiea1 value and are odJerwiJe difficult to obIIIiD. 18. The current loops SO out ollbe 1"ofthe paper at 1be outeI rim. II'~rl (b) Toroidal SoIeaold : 'like a lup IOleaokL Brina toptber its euda A "B. B.18. B.1l.12. .. 1 Applieatiou of Ampere'. This CID llso be piClUriJecl by tIkiDa a bqIe aDd wrappiDa I wire on it.2. all 110lIl its circumference..fIk FWiluib • rIII: COIIIider I section or cut of die toroid in tbe PD of 1be JIIIIIII'.18.
SDtce NI pawaln IIId out It the imler IIld outer rima oftile toroicla..If.IPo!iC field seta up around it.. .• _ wilen: n .13. Thua. It can be seen mathematically that fur soleooidl oflllll1l ftIdiuI.fW4 B depetu/811pt111 (a) C\J!reIlt (J) (b) number oftumperuaitlqlh(n} What about the field 0IdIidc the toroicl ? We can tID IIIDti. should be correct W\\ll inside the soJeooid. it II1II endI.a con:uit PQ'R. What will be the dbeetloa ofB .6) 17te 1IfIIgIIeIk. B .~.or IU1I11her oftuml perllllit ___ 2111' or B"~l11 _(11..13.. near ita ceal:ftIlIld at points close te the axis.. ... A BAldI B/JolN. B It the aadI is IIpJlI'OXiJIIal ..IN The direction of the field is a10118 the lXis of tile solenoid. a10118 the axis in Fia11..'B Il" IN 2 2 . The net curnm p"lIi"i wi1hin this cin:uIar diJc is . A and B ue two eDdJ of the solenoidof1ength/baviDaNnumberoftlll'lll. A atraisbt solenoid is finite.1 to tile circle. we can COIllIicler It te be a sectiO/l ora toJOidaI solenoid of a very 1arp Jadius. but wiIh centre '0. B is :rMO. (e) Map..(18. tlekl dae to • IOIIllOId So1eDold ilallrliabt con bavh!a IIrp number ofloopI_ in allrllabt Uae wiIh. Ifa current I flows· tbrouab the wire a . N .IIIIQICR'i. Therefore..14. 11. is the radius oftorokl . JS4 . 1bIt will be tanpnd..' out side the toroid . 11..7) The solenoid behaves like a bar mapetllld themapedc field due tea solenoid isDlUChlike the bar magnet as shown in Fig. gommO/l axis alllbown in FIg. To find IIIIIpOtic field insicki.
. . Estimate the magnilUte of B..... toys. What is common between Biot Sovart s law and Ampere s circuital law ? ..Mings Example 18...: ___________ I.....\'u!enoiJ field is nm('/.. for 3 layers it would be 3n or tor 3 layer total nwubcr of turns....... '... transformers. ISlt x 105 Tesla (c) Outside the solenoid the field isnegtigible..' .. Soleooids and Toroids are widely used in motors.... Thit" radius of the lowest layer is lcm.... .....f{1I1!1 Solution: (al at the centre or near it B= Iln' to find n • n = 250 for 1 layer 50 . .. . IlL14: .. . fc) outside the solenoid /lear the middle.0 A.....Magnetic Effect of Electric Current.. = ~~O x 3 = 15 emI '" 1500 mI B=4ltx10 x 1500 x 4 = 16)( ISlt x (05 Tesln ·7 Same about the a. like Ihe bar "'ll. =8x 2 INTEXT QUESTIONS !~. ' " ............ .. ... B ....... generators.field (d) the force of tlU! field . A solenoid 5()cm long lUIS 3 layers of windings of 250 lUrns each.1:.... fa) near the centre of the solenoid on and about the axis.. A drawing of the lines afforce qf (J magnetic field provides illfol'malioll on (a) direction of............... (b) near the ends on its axis.../ield only (b) magnitude of field ani)...... If the current through it is 4. ' ' ' 35..... Sometimes to increase S different materials may be placed within the "..... (b) at the ends Bends = .......xis also.... They are used to provide uniform magnetic fields...... 2.... fan windings.. (e) bath the direction and magllittlde of the ..". . Fig. . elecb'Omagnets etc.
U is suspended from the JICI1cil like a swing... JUS 4. Now tie one end of one of the flexible wires to the ~U"..... .. a jhora pin Uclip ( or a .~ • Berid the stiff wire into a ~U"shape and slightly bend its ends. A solenoid /Ocm long is meant to have a magnetic field O. 25cm of flexible connecting wire.....OO2T inside it. we are now going to see what happens if a magnet is brought close to such a conductor.. Flng the required turns ......... . In the following drawing of line offorce of a nonlIIIi!orm magnetic field at which point is the field (0 uniform? (ii) weakest? (iiiJ alrollgest? A ) )  FIg. . 18... ... Connect the other wini to the other end of the U. ....16.. ... wlwlt a current of 3A flows through it.... To support your imagination we can .... a battery.. ... You can make your guesses. piece of copper or awminium wire about IScm long)..3.. two glasses of equal size: See the set up as shown in Fig...... Pass current through the wire. 18..5 INTERACfION BETWEEN A CONDUcrOR CARRYING CURRENT AND A MAGNETIC FIELD We have understood that a current canying cinductor generates a magnetic field aroUlld it... For this you need a pencil... Loop the wire over the pencil. .. ... .•pe! fonn a simple experiment......
It islikc..1 Foree on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field When a cIwgod body is moved in a magnetic field. oftheupperfold(Fig..(IS. B 18.S} .. Righ..17).9) 357 . F B Take a paper and fold it. we consider it and later extend the idea to the eurrmts. it experiences a force.....Magnetic Effect ofEIec:uic Cumm Next tjdce the magnet and bring it close to the U. F If the U wire was fixed. Stretcb the right hand palm sucb that the thumb is perpendicular to the fingers and points in the direetion of current I. tIUIrlt I along the fold. The U.wire swings.ISY: 18... What do you think is the reason for this? Stop the current and see if !he swing again takes place.creating an attraction or repulsion. Well.yl1f/f .IS.. According to this the Lorentz force on a particle with a charge +q moving with a velocity 'v in a magnetic field B is given by. exerting a meclJaoica1 force on it. sinee the Lorentz force and its magnitude was determined for moving charges. the force would have been there but its effect unseen. or IFI F=q(vxB) = q v BsinO .". B aIong the edge of the wr fold then the direction of'Fis along the edge n. (18. The reason is tbat like tbe interaction between two magnets here also field due to the magnet and the one produceded by the eurrent in the U interact ./Drce.. the fingers point in the direetion of extemal magnetic field Bo Then the force F on the conductor will be perpendicularto the palm in the direetion of pushing by the palm.5. 1&1' : DlrtetlOII o[[orce 011 G curmrl.. experienced by a moving charge is called the l. hlJlld ptdm rule : The direetion of force on a conductor canying cUlTCnt when placed in a magnetic field is given in a simple way by right hand rule (Fig.ormIr. Such a force You might wonder that we have been talking about currents and now suddenly we are saying a 'moving charge'.
ill """ offlllgatlwt cIuup ..otIon to ..u.5. ......tcJronIcaIf_l'aIIltingiu]1lll1 Of'ap1Uh. Some important points 1. 11M diTw:IiOil off./tn• .1II.!>t' Ilt v=Ilt or F=q .. 3... 1.Dp8. Fiu "....) 358 .. rate oftlowofcharge} III IFlIllal If conductor makes 111 angle 9 with a the 11 F = IAI B sin 9 .. 4. ) ) ) ) ) <b) (c.10) .IM rlr/tt It<md role.ovtng.wJkwJIII'totMjWd ~ by F lIqll 18.ipilutlllllly.._al_tMjWd B.... Q'tMcIuup. to F.. F__ to ..!/tMcIItirge"...(18.IMtIiTw:ti"" ofib ".is Biwn by. 6. j. IFIqvB Suppose the charge 'q' travels a distlux:e •AI' in time ...:Pby~cs where 9 is the angle between the diRction of v aud 8 the diRction of F is aivCD by riPt band palm rule... F"""..8 III Ilt => => F=qAlB III {Ie~... tJr. I/cIuupJHI'P.to...2 Force on a Conductor Carrying Cnrrent in a Magnetic Field The idea in the above section can be extended to current canying conductors for fon:e on a chaIJe q moving with velocity 'v' perpendicular to '8' is.....
If I m long cooductor.5. UDit of IJUl8lldic field '8' can be expressed. The. The fur\le is mutual. and because of thl~ nearby exert forces upon nearby current carrying conducter.lIIIIp8lic •. 2~ ~=2~ .  r"'" FiB 18. rapectively.. 18.3 Foree Between two ParaDel Wires Carrying Current EIICl)' CUJrent carrying conducter is surrounded .Bel4 is fiuIB· the resioa of stroDg field to the reQion ofweak field. f.. From equ. tben the unit of 8 will be NA" m". 8~. expericoces a force of lnewton tbeil the IJUl8lldic field is 1 tesIa. and I. a cummt carrying wire bas no net electric cbarge.20 IIbows two panillel wires separated by distaw:e r aad carrying cum:nt I.n. The forces are magnetic is origin . I tesia = 1 newton )( (amperer' )( (metref' IT=lNK'm' 18. as the force experienced by a cum:nt carryIna ooocIuctor in the field. I in ampere and A I in metre. The magnetic fields due to e8cl! wire at distance r are Po I. carryIna I ampere current is placed perpendicular to ~ maptic field. and hence cannot intenct electriOlty with another such wire.10. .lo I. ctinIcIicm of the fwee OIl a eumm carryIna c:coductor in a. Iz rI If I" I I I I I ·(e. a magnetic field. F 8= IAt F is taken in newton. I.
=1.1.1NIt1Mllforr% of 2 x [(J7 N Ifrl. =4x x I . . A c!1arged particle moving perpendicular to a magnetic field follows a circularl'ath as ~"own in Fig."qvBsinO'1 obcius the angle I". even . and .4 Motion of a Cllarged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field We cin now lhinkofvarious situations in which a charged particle or current carrying coaductor. when v is perpendicular to E.. If two ptll"lll1eI wins canybrg tllJlIIII CIUI'eIU8 lITe p/l...rced 1m tIptIrt ill vaclUUfl or IIIr ~ce .21tr . On the other haDd.1. . Hence. or i. 18.1m. .IlJ The fon:es are IIItTaC1iw when !he currenIS are in the same direction and repulsive when !bey are in 0J1P081lf! diredions.411: x 107 IIr' Wb A' m' F== 2lt 2lt =2xIO7N 11k... The work done b) a force on a body depends on the components of the force in the direction the body IIIOYCS. .I L 2lrr 2 ". The direction of the force 'F' is given by die right baodrulc. ""II F=BlL=>. When the force on a charged particle in a 1fKlgnelic field is pe. .21..pendicular 10 its dlnction of motion. 1m fl. the speed and energy of charged particle in an electrical field are always affected by the interaction between the field and particle.The tie&ds are perpeadil:1Ilar to the ICIIIJIh of the wiles and therefore !he fun:e OIl a iengbl L ofCUI'I'aJt is.ce does no work 011 il.pen : We know that F" if 1'0 .tween 'v and 'B'...•(IS.though it is deflected.. Wbeu placed in a magnetic field... tlrm tire cwunt br each wire is one IIIIIJ1t!re. 18.= IA.1. = 1. Fon:cperunitlengtb= .. The force on die particle of charge 'q' moving with velocity 'v' in a magnetic field B bas the 1'. DeIhddoa fIIa. moves due to L01'r!nt= foice: maaniJUde .5... the particle keeps the same speed v and energy it had when it entered the field.c. lhe/O. .1 2lU' 1 I.
22 361  . lIIIIIe 10 B. T= ..(18..8..{1. <e) !be panicle in DIldo to OIItor Ihe IIIIgIlOIic field at. EUlllpH 18. .) fioI4 B _ 1 0 exist. hiBb'" speed. portic!e_itJcharge.. (c)!be ..r force? SoIudoD: When cumnts flow in two long parallel wires in die same directions.. we note that die magnetic force qvB provides the particle with the centripetal force mY' that keeps it moving in a R circle. P =I 21tr I' Jlo I.. (eI) dinoc:Iica of Bill .... R oc v. are same this T remains <:ODSt8nt even if 1/ and R are different.. ..... ! <. (b)fioIdBisDlldo ... q. What if the natI/1'e of tlri.. the larger the circle. and the stronger the ~Id. I.. (I) !be panIeIe .21 : Path ofa cluugedpomcl...13) We see that the time period is independent of velocity and radius which means once the particle is in die Jll88Detic field it would go round and round in a circle... in a uniform magnetic field is directly propoI1ional to its momemum (ml) and inversely propoI1ionaI to its charge and to die magnetic field. I T= .f ofthe charged particle's orbit 1'1g.' . die wires exert a force of lIltraction OIl each other. qvB~ ·lIIrJ • R 2 Solving for R we have IIIV R~ qB . wlultlaappeas te R aad Tlftbe foIIowIDge.Magnetic Effect of Electric Current To find die radius R of the circular path ofdle charged particle. . Equating the magnetic and centripetal forces we have..)fioIdBisDlldo .12) The mdil4..I) 2!tR ~ I)Bq 21t 1111) 21tm Bq I 2. If III. Now . 18... B. D...4 : Using the figure gillen below ca/cuIQle the force acting over a length of j III of the wires... (.....b.. The time period ofrotation ofdle particle in circular path is given by.... .. . q are constant The 8f'eIIler the momeDtum. if III.. 18. the smaller die circle.. lOA Fig.."l"'Sft .
3.2xI. perpendicular to it. . Two long. Does it depe/Ili upon the direction of current in the spring? 4. JX1rallel wires are hanging freely. What is the difference 3. (b) in JX1rallel. A body in suspended from the lower end of 0 vertical spring. One face of the loop becomes as North pole while the other as South pole. Both the electl beMeen them ? and magneticfield can deflect an electron. we had considered the field at the centre ofa coil. A stream ofprotons is moving parallel to a stream of electrons what is the natwe of force between them ? 2. 2r This also means that a cwrent canying coil behaves like a magnetic dipole having north and south poles.6 x IO"·C 0 e R=Bq mv 9xlO'll x 3xlO7 =0. 101 Nm" ~ 0.S: An electron with velocity 3 x /0 7 m Sol describes Q circular JX1th in magnetic Jield ~r (). . what would be the effect on their positions ? 18. Example 18. It was given by 1l.2T.6 CURRENT LOOP AS A DIPOLE In section 18.. What is the radius of the path? Solution : m.' What shall be the effect on the position of the body when a current is sent through the spring.I B'.: I'hysics = = 2x 10".3 lor 5m length. If they are connected to a battery (a) in series.3.6xIO'. F = 5x I 04)0.i9 INTEXTQUESTION 18.3 :::_ _::_ _:~' I. = 9 x 10'" kg = 1.
1 Magnetic Moment of a Dipole This is defiDed as the moment of the o:mple which acts on tbe dipole when it I.II' )( b This is also oJ./tltwI /ICIIIt. Jll8lllCtie ~~3 .Fig. lU4 : EqIIII1 .I' Moment of tile couple . Let us examine tbe force on each side of.. kept perpendicular to uniform magnetic tieldofunitlltlellgth(Fig. 18. '\ "'F. simple exmceisc lIllY • bar mapet is suspeuded by • Cbread ~ the horse shoe IIIIgIIde as shown in Fig.C8IIIIidrz.)" (F.6. .24). s What do you tbink will happen IIDdwhy? There i!I' repulsi.on between like poles beDce the bar JIUI8IICt will rotate IIDd turn through 180" to alip.coiI to briDg its plane pezpendicular to B. adJpde 18. A couple is a pair of oqual IIDd opposite fcm:es for which the line of action is DOt the same.""". 18. 18. rectaDguIar..23. . meten etc.Ied torque (t). 18. Siniilarly a cummt carrying coil will rotate to align its dipole in the extmIal field. This is the principle that Ullderlines the operauon of all electric motors.2 Torque on a Current Loop A loop of cummt in a uniform magnetic field (B) experi_ DO net force bllt instead a torque acts on it This tends to rotate the loop.current carryina loop where pIaae is parallel to a uaiform field B.25 (a).23 (b).6. 18.force )( pcrpeodiculardistance ~ the line of action oCtbe force.1ike in Fig.. F . • :t• b ~ (F...) . Moment of the couple .
.. 364 . .becornes a perpendicular to the field. The torque is then. In case the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the ~ field inNad ofparallel to it.. A current carrying loop in a magnetic field always tends to turn so that its _. Side B and D are perpendicular to B. r=NBILbsine N is the n.18.(1"'14) .98 :: Physics Fe I ~a~Hi (hI FIg... = FD . and the normal to the plane ofthe coil D. . C Tarque = force x perpendicular distance 4~ID~ between the forces B e is the ansJe between the magnetic field B. 18..A++..gnetic Iaop (coil). audN. . aud FD do ROt IIi:t aloog the _Iiue and hence they exert a torque on the loop that tends to turn it. there is neither a net force nor a net torque on it..(IUS) Thus.so there is no net force on the loop. See Fig.2S(b). We can find the directions of the force on B and D. F. however. A.15: (a) (1)) The sides A and C of the loop are parallel to B heru:e there is no force on them. But F... This holds good for a cumut loop of any shape in a magnetic field..umber of\Unlii of the coil r= NBI A sin e A is area of the coil = Lx b r= NB m sin e Where m = fA is known as the magnetic moment of1hD .. e. we see that the torque :is directly proportional to B.. I. and each tberefure experiences a force..
G =K K 1.. If it is free to move it rotates Until the S· pole of the coil is'opposite to the N·pole of the JlUll!llet and vice versa.11. m8gneuc field is to remember that as soon as the CUITCIlt flows through the coil. NBMsin& NBM = INBA or = Ku (9 = 90" for radial field) . A divice doing precisely this is c:aJled a gUv_ter.. it becomes a magnet.e . a more simple way of understandjng the rotation of a coil in a rill 111. it rotstes due to the torque acting on it. Perhaps.16) Ka. The principle of a galvanometer is that when a currient corrying coil I. we need to have a constant torque.Magnetic Effe. This is achieved by making the pole pieQesofthemagnetcurvodtogivearadiai field If inside the loop or a coil a soft iron core in placed. a If a.4 GalVanometer From what we have learnt so far. we can thiok of an instrument to detCct and _ current in any circuit. K =a a =Go.27 : C _ ' . Where. _ YII. The assembly is supported on two pivots altaChed to spriDp with 8 pointer.(1 •• 11) or i...:t ofElednc ClIfmlt .:re always parallel to the magnetic field. The c:auple would be approximIItely coastant ifthe plane of the coil w. I '18... is the angle of twiill and k in the reSlaring torque per uai.NBA is cded N&f the'__1IIIrI . This is placed betwmt the radial poles of a b.one shoe JBIIgI"IOt. Theory: When CUITCIlt is passed through the coil..ed in a magnetic field it experiences a torque. hence ~e the torque greater (Fig. i 18.t twiCr ~ COIUtIIIIt.21).(18. CoJlStnletioll : k corisists ofa coil wound on 8 soft iron tame..6.6. The spring sets up restoring force and bence. 8 restoring torque.. this would l\IlIke the I118j!11Ctic field stronger. 10.3 Keepiag the Torque Constant Ifa unifOJm rotation ofthe loop is desired in a magnetic field..r p{at. A soft iroa eyIiDder il pbIcecl inside the coil.28.11 xl II ilpropartioaaItol . 011 D <tJIl.
Large values of N and A will increase the electrical and inertial resistance and the size of the galvanometer.1CI'OI!8« die torque and the coil turns more. • 8 I. Fig. 18. 1&28: ConstruC/ion '!Igalwmonrettl1' Condition for a sensitive galvanometer: In order to have a more seasitive galVllDllllllller. face area A of the coild should be large. . . 2. B. I. Galvanometers c~ be constructed to respond to very small current of the order ol~. B should be large and uniform.rtDl'l« ~ 10 II galvanOllleter 3~·~ .. The values of N and A cannot be increased beyond a certain limit. . Shunt: Shunt is a low resistance connected in parallel with the galvanometer. B can be increased using a strong horse shoe magnet and by mounting the coil on a soft iron core.~ f'· .' It is defined as the diflection of the coil per unit current. ' . K should be small. 4. oc  I is known as current sensitivity.. It is used to protect the galvanometer from strong I ~ !. 3. N shollid be large.29 : Shunt resi.1 microampere (10A).i>hysi~ ¥i Deflection produced in a galvanometer is proportiooa1lO theClln'Cllt fIowina tbrougbit provided N. A and K are cOlI$tant. Fig. The more the current. The value of K can be decreased by the material such as quartz or phospher bronze. .
G.et I is the total current in the circuit.Magnetic Effect ofEledric CurrcIIt cummts.) . we have. shUDt) is connected io parallel with the coil. or~ =cs. m = resistance of galvanometer. (18. 18.) S or. Then. shunt) ~ only a small portion passes through the instrumenL Due to this the coil remains safe.5 Ammenter and voltmeter (a) Ammeter: An Ammeter is a low resistance galvanometer. I. curreot \Wich produces full scale deflection in the galvanometer is.•.. is resistance of the galvanometer. therefore the effective resistance R. I...G G =l{} G+S 16. S  111 (II. 1=1.17) .et.29). fa = /11K. K = figure of merit or current for one scale deflection in the galvanometer. The major portion ofthe current passes through' this low (i. G = (/1.17) we can get. S is resistance "f the shunt. .6. A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter by shUllting it.. N = number of scale divisions in the galvanometer.. current through the shUllt From your knowledge in the lesson 16.(See Fig. a low resistance (i.lS ... resistance CurreBt tltrough the plvanometer circuit I.. I.+1. Its stale is calibrated to give the value of current in the circuit. Let I be the maximum current to be measured by the galvanometer.(18. For this a low resistance wire is connected in parallel with the plv8llOlDCler.18).(18.e. As G endS are in parallel to each other.29 and using eq: (18.. Refer to Fig. The resistance of the shUllt depends on the range of the 8llIDIeW and can be calculated as tollows. I. 18. oftbe _ .19) Where S is the shunt resistance \Wich can be calculated using eq. A strong current maydamage the g&tvanomcter by producing a IaJBe torque. To over come this.e.18) Is I•.(18. is current through galvanometer. and I.S (1 I.
hence.21) This means. I ~ I '. It is always CODDeCted in series with the circuit SO that all the current passes through it without increasing the circuit resistance. It is·tbal expa:lOd DOt to cIraw Illy CUIl'eIII and yet the galvanometer coil to detlect. the combined ruistance of the galvano_ter and the shunt is very low and. The value ofthe resistance depends upon the range ofvol1meter ) and can be calculated as follows. Now.. G before conversion will record the potential yafter conversion into vol1meter. it is connected is pamIlel acrOss the points. The resistance of the voltmeter is bigber than the I.  .'Va11mt18 . An ideal _eter bas zero resistaance. Total resistance of the voltmeter =G + R From Ohm's law I. say R is connected in series with the galvanomter coil. (b) Voltmeter : A voltmeter is a high resistance galvanometer. Effec:tive resistance of the vol1meter. 8}Wffl. . wbOae potentia1 diffeRaI:e is to be found in .ilvanometer. the same scale of the galvanometer wbich was ~ the wum pokIIltia1/. (G+R)=V G+R=.=G+R I The resistance of an ideal voltmeter is inliDity.30. .. It is used to measure the potential difference between two points in a circuit A gaivanometer can be converted into a vol1meter by connecting a suitsble high mJistance in series with the galvanometer as shown in Fig 18.~~B•  R _ _ ol A high resistance. Seems quite impossibleZ Think about it 361 . The scale can be calibnlted accordingly.. ". =1 R = f.=+RA 1 1 1 G S S + G =GS S+G R=• GS As the shunt resistance is small. I.E . I Rp.(18..._. r . if a resistance of R is connected in series with the coil ofthegalV8llOlDeter. ammeter resistance Is lower tlran the galvano_ter.. ma:m.. G I _. Ifthc potential difference across AD is Y volt. it works as a vol1meter of raage 0V volts.
of range 0 ."" is SlISpeUd vertically m Q /I1Iiform horicontal magnetic field of magnihlde 1.5 x' 103 A.2A? (b) voltmeter of range 0 .0.0 n shows a full scale deflection for a CJlTN!nt of 2. for converting a galvanometer.0.T. SolutioD : N = 30.5 rnA =2. a resistance 00988 0 should be connected in series to convertinto voltmeter. I = 6.61 NIl'I = = Example tll. 0= 9IJO r = 8. The field /ilJes moire an angle of 9(JD with lhe norma/to tire coil Calculate the magnitude of the counter torqu<' that must he applied to prew:nt the coil from hmling.0 em. 369 . a shunt of! S x 103 n resistance shooId be cODDeCted in parallel to the coil (b) For convemOIlmto voltmeter.0 x (2.5 mAo How will you convert the meter into (a) an _re.7: A galvanometer with a coil of resistance J2. S=? I. B = 1.5 x 10']  12 = 4000 120 39880 Thus.J = 3x 12 225x 10 = 15 x 103 0 Thus. S =( . I = 2 A.01 x 102 ) x sin 90" 30)( 6)( (2.0 A. 2.0 T.0 em = 8)< 102 m Area (Al of the coil = = 1t r2 = if x :8x 102P 2. I. leI R be the resistance to he COIIIIeCted 'in series.6.0 n.01 x 102) 3.Magnetic Effect of Electric CWl'CDI Eumple 11.10 volt? l>olutiOD: (a) G= 12. A eircular coil of J{) turns ond raditlS 8. =2. carrymg a CIIn'SIIt of 6. V R=G I• • 10 = 2.5 x IO.) G II.0\" 10'2 m! Torque = = NIB A SIn fI 30 x 6 x 1.
...!:L r o o o o • Moving charges have a magnetic field around them.. What is radial magnetic field? What. The Lorentz force on a moving charge q is F=q(v x B) and its direction is given by right hand palm rule. AI sin fl 4lt r' The direction of magtle!ic field is given by right hand grip rule.... A galvanometer havi/lg a coil of resistance 20 n neeils 10 rnA current for fidl scale deflectio".' ~ /. . is givcnby F ~. .4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ J. 2 =.ammeter..Physics . .and gal. A mechanised force acts on a current carrrying conductor in a magnetic field.. . .. tit B.. The value of magnetic field strength is given by Biot Savart's Law.nJ...I.l!ol. nI n = number of turns per uni: lenght for a long II> r} solenoid Thefield at the edges is =.7 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT o • o Every current carrying conductor has a magnetic field ~und it.. I. what resistance should be added and how? 18.. . The mechanical force on a wire of Icnghl L and carrying a current of I in a magetic field B is F=BIL Mutual torce per unillength between parallel striaght conductors with currents I.< INTEXT QUESTIONS 18... 48 =..JJ....... this B due to a toroid and solenoid are calculated =)I. 2.. Which olle has the lowest resistance .. 3....... . . explain.qB mv 370 .. ..dl = J. L 2lt I' • A charged particle traces a circular path ifit enters a magnetic field at right angles Radius of the path R =.s the main function of a soft iron core used in a moving coil galvanometer? . Field at the centre tor a flat coil is B • • Ampere's circuital law also gives the magnitude ofthe magnetic field ~und a conductor.. In order to pass a maximum of 3A througlJ the galvanometer.. I...I I " using. Unit of magnetic field is tesla and IT = INA 'm". voltmeter. ' " .va1Wmeter.
B and C.OOSA. A current cmying coil placed in magnetic field exPrleru:es a torque given by • • =NBIA sinO T=NBIA. 6.ammter. 10. An electron is moving in a circu1arorbit of radius 5 xlO'II m attheratcof7. 9.16m and carrying a current of 4. 2.OSm from each other. Of the two identical galvanometers one is to be converted into an ammeter and the other into a milli . How mucll force will act on the wires? What will be its nature? • The magnetic field at the centre ofa sOcm long solenoid is 4.aguetic Effect ofElec:lric CumDt . TwoparaIIel wires. of radius 0. 3. • • A current loop behaves like a magnetic dipole. It iskeptpeqxmdicularto amagnetic field of ST. is a sunted galvanometer and voltmeter is a galVIlDOllleter with a high resistance in series. 8. 12.3J 371 . Why? At any instant a clwged particle is moving parallel 'to a long. A long straight wire carries a current of 12 amperes. Find the force on its lito m length. are situated at a distance ofO. 18. A 1amp >  [1m ". A current of SA flows in each ofthe wires in the same direction. Calculate the magnetic field at the centre ofa flat circular coil containing 200 turDs. Find the value of shunt requited to change it into an ammeter to measure lA What is the resistance of the ammeter? .11. Current is measured by an ammeter and potential difference by voltmeter. See the following Fig.".0 x to·2 NA1 mI when a current of8. 5. T 18.31 and calculate the magnetic field at A. 7. Does it experience any force? A current of 10 ampere is flowing througba wire. Which ofthe shunts will be ofa larger resistance? The resistance of a galvanometer is 200 and gives a fiill scale deflction for O.0A flows through it. find the number of turDs in the solenoid. Howwill you show that a CUllent carrying conductor has a magnetic field arrourid it? How will you find its magnitude and direction at a particular place?' A fon:e acts upon a charged particle moving in a magnetic field.0 x lOIS revolutions per see. each 3m long.8 TERMINAL QUESTIONS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ l. II.8 ampere. An ammeter.M. 4. Calculate the magnetic field B at the centre of the orbit. straight current carrying wire. Calculate the intensity of the magnetic field at a distance of 48 em from it. but this force does not change the speed of the particle.ifO=90° Galvanometer is an instrument used to detect electric current in a circuit.
:: r. ===B. TherefQre. ~II Field due to the coil B = '1.2 C Both give B value due to current inconductors. Butt. 1. In fustcase length of wire t = 2 lrr. .=e.no net eleettical field. = 2(2lrr. (ii) (iii) B.= r. (i)elcctrical (ii)magnelic Cooducters an: netlb"al and have. 2. (i) A. (. x 10 x 8 .0  B a a (material) • (curreot) a 5.! ...distance from the wire) r = 110 / 21fr 4. 7 Field at C due to straigbt wile B = 211: X 10 x IIr' = 16x 10 NA . .) 3. 4. IO' T 372 . r.3)( 10 I.1 I. B..pulIingtbegivenvalues\WsetN = 5.J!. N " B =~ /.. T Inte:lt questions 18.1)(16 x 10") a = 34. = 4B.r6 = 1611: x 10 Net field = BI = NA m 1·1 (If .) 4 " Heuce. . 4. In second case 1eug1h ofwile e. " 2(u. 2. Using B = ~: B.CHECK YOUR ANSWERS Inten q"UestiODS 18. heace no net magnetic ficld. 3. B =. :. ..l 2lrr / "". The IbermaI eleclroDs CIUlCel the magnetic effect prochx:ed by 1bem due to random moIion.3 x I c.
hence they repel each other moving farther apart.Magnetic ErIect of Electric Current loten questioos 18. 2.3 373 . In series.e. always lies in the" direction ofthe magnetic field.. 4. II = . Since parrallel currents in the same direction exert force of artraction.therefore repulsion 2. (ii) This increases the strength of magnetic field due to the crowding of the magnetic lines offorce through the soft iron core. hence the work done by the force on the charge is = O. The force exerted by a magnetic field on a moving charge is perpendicular to the motion of the charge. whatever be the direction of the current in the spring.. accelerates on a sttaight track. Using. Intext Question 18. . Ammeter has the lowest resistance where as voltmeter has the highest resistance. So the KE ofthe charge does not change. In mICh a magnetic field the plane of the coil is always parallel to the direction ofmagnetic field. The direction of cmrent in each turn ofthe spring is the same. the turns will come closer and the body shall be lifted upward. 3. the currents in them "ill be in the same direction. (i) This makes the magnetic field radial. In parrallel. which in tum increases the sensitivity of the gIavanometer./.c field is one in which B remains constant for the plane of the coil 1.the cmrent in them will be in opposite directions.4 Radial magpeti. 3.I 4. In an electric field the deflection is in the direction of the field.3 I + p t . hance. S S+G S=O. Hence they will artract each other and come closer.
computers etc. recordings. Magnetic tapes are used in solll1!l recordin&. • understand the magnetic effect ofelectric current. ·. The phenomenon ofmagnetism was known to Greeks as early as 600 B. In this lesson you willieam about the laws of magnetic forces. After the year 1819 wilen Ham Oersted discovered the relation between magnetism and electric current we c!o not look at magnetism as a separate force. • ~ classify the materials on the basis o/their behaviour in magneticfiekb. transformers. . T.19 MAGNETISM 19.loud speakers etc. small magnets are used in instruments such as ammeter. motors.voItmeters. They fouDd Ihat some stones called magnetite (Fe. • define the magnetic field and magnatic field liRa. the bebaviOlD' of the earth like a huge magnet and the various classes of magnetic materials.C.of a magnetic dipole in a uniform magneticfield. Iarge IJIa8llCI5 are used to lift heavy loads.) attract iron pieces.O. It is one of the effects of electric current.V.. • describe the behaviour . you should be able to : • explain current loop as a magnetic dipole. 19. very'bigh intensity magnetic fields are being employed in fusion research. • describe the magnetic field due to a dipole in two dimensions.1 INTRODUCfION There are some materials (fouod in nature or artificially made) whida aaract iron pieces and they have some important uses in our day to day life like.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson..
. (iii) A magnetic dipole in a uniform magneticfield behaves Ihe same W<!Y as an electric dipole in a unifOl'lrJ electric field..{19. 411 x' and at (b) an equitorial point .3 CURRENT LOOP AS A MAGNETIC DJP()LE YouJmultady llludied tile folIowingequations in 1he lesion IlIl elcctIOiIlatio:s.(19..•(19. The electric fielct of a dipole at a far point 0l11he axis of tile dipole is I.. ~ 4u" r If the dipole is placed in a uniform electric field E.5) (ii) The two poles of a magnetic dipole.4) for current loop.4) or /'t I = IMIID! sine The symbols in these equations cany the usual meaning. & . Situated on the line passing through its centre and nmmaI to its plane is given by 11.1) or·· .. Thus magnetic field due to a magnetic dipole at (a) an axial point is given by 11 2M B= _ . 41t The compariSion leads us to the conc:lusions that : (i) a CUlTent loop behaves as a magnetic dipole with dipole moment MNIA ..1) and (19.3) and (19.2) for electric dipole with theequatioos (\9.=pxE r=pE sin6 . You will observe the similarity between them with the difference that the COlllIUInt in the electric' field equation is _1.2) wbjIe studying the magnetic effects of electric current you have learnt about tile magnetic field B of a circular coil carying current at a point.. If tbia dipole is ~ in a unifol'l1l magtJetic field B it experiences a torque 't=MxB . being lhe two faces of a currenl loop are upa1'I1bIe.a = 41t xl 41t r .{19..=!. 2M B=...7} 375 ...(19.6) B=~ 41t .3) \WereM is the magnetic dipole mOment... Now you compare the equations (19.while that in magnetic field equation is (J!o) 4~. 19. (1\1) A magnetic dipole also has a magnetic field around it similar 10 the electricfield around an electric dipole. 2NU 1\ 11.(19.... (19. It experiences a torquc 1. ..
(iv) The two poles of a magnet are inseparable. 4n x 107 Wb AI mI . 1'.e. DiclreI..DOD tbe two poles.. .  (vi) Induc:tion preceeds attraction of a piece of iron by a magnet. FIg.. The direction of magnetic field vector. are the SIIenIdw of the two poles aud ris the sepIrItion ben. The field lines are closed curves.. I.. A very convenient method to visualize the direction and magnitude of a eld is to draw the field lincs.•. These points are_called as the poles of the magnet.. I. • 19.alal mto stroDgpenilanent magnets.. (v) The force between tWo magnetic poles obeys inverse squase law. ml m.8 at any point is tbe tangent to tbe fieltlline at that point. They ~1art from the north pole aodend at north pole itself via south pole.3..1: Magnetic Mid lilla ptWing through .. The force of at1raction is maximum at two points _ the ends of the magnet. OIl i1s CCIIIIe of mass. 1ics. S.19. (vii) Repulsion is the surest test for disIinguDishina bmv~ a magnet aud a piece of iron. Some of the properties of magnets are : (i) Dinetive property: A small bar magnet when suspended freely.aO ' magnetic field. "376 .•(19.• magnetic poles axist in pairs. i.These lines point in the direction of the magnetic field tell us about tbe field in tbe following way. All JD88IIdSnatmal audartificWhave same pr.e. cobalt may be ~. nicked. 2. cobalt.3. but III8Ieriala • iron. IFIIl.ak.1 Magnets and their Pmperties Naturalllllipels are wt. • is larger where the field lines are close together and smaller where they are far apart.o ptRWI/<d :fa 3. The number of field lines that paslitbrough UDit area of a surface held FJIClIdicular to the lines is proportional to the stnmgth of magnetic field in that region. the pole which points towards the geographical north is called is north pole aud the one which points towards the south is called south pole. II" . (iii) Unlike poles of two magnets attract each other aud like poles repel. so as to rotate about a verlical axis always scays in approximately geoantphicaI NorthSouth direction.2 Magnetic Field Lines We have already defined the nwgnitlltk auddirectitm:. Ina freely 81'Sp"t"1ed magnet. (li) AJtrtu:tive Property : A magnet attracts small pieces of ferromagnetic materials like iron.8) 4n r where m1 and m.
"Jt u " IiItgk "'" JIUIgMI.. (bl .(t:) "lito .Fi&... The III1"liK:c area of 8 is smaller than and the same IIUlDbcr oflilles pass through both 1 III1"liK:ca !bat of~..... 1 2 3.3.~fc) Is J77 .. 1!}.... similarity between the two suggests !bat a bar magnet can be thought of as a combined effect of a Iarge number of loops placed side by side closely packed about the same common axis. the number of lines per unit area passing through S 1 is greater than !bat through~. ~ g/It ' .1'3: (...JI 1 2 3 N) ".3 Eqtiiv8lenee of a M. tr..... This 6ilauganeut is equivaIeDt to a Iarge DUIIl\Ierof small magnets ammged along a stIaight line in allJlllllel' shown in Fig. __ _deMY peclri«Il1l""..3.gnet to Current Carrying Solenoid The field lines of a bar magnet are shown in Fig. 19. along with the field lines of a cwrent loop Fi&.o plll'rlllol I. 1M _ _ 1M . therefore.2 (a).. ."" _ __'.... .. 19..... (b) &pdwIImt""" INr _ _ hi to 1M 1IiIW. say !bat the magnetic field in the region around A i.. rru..19.. stronger than tbat around B.1 shows a certain IIUlDbcr of field lilies plssiog tIJrousjJ two parallel surtiIces SI and ~ . 19.2 (b).. We can. (a) (b) ILS_ _ N.. Hence. . .
A thread of SO em length i./Y each (lfIe? (Do not consider mosses) . magnet IIhown in Fig.+ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • :. Similarly plaoe passing through the magnetic axis of the earth i.1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I.e.. How will youjind 0tII i13 NjIole end? Three identical rectangular rods are given to you. passing thrOugh the center of tile earth. M=m/ where m . This plane cuts the surface of the spherical earth in a circle. We assume tbat the eu1hiS a spbere and it rotates about its own axis which is a diameter of the sphere.SAflows in a fectangular coil oflength 10cm andbreailth J~ W1rtit will be the pole strength ofa bar magnet oflength JOem which has the:fame inagnetic moment as the coil? 4.3( c).r a bar magnet. Circular lines parallel to the equator are called latitudes measured in terms ofangles 6° ~ reference to equator at 0". eo eo a 178 r . INTEXT QUESTIONS 19. A plaDe plissing through tI:ICl rotation axis of the earth at a given point P on the surface o(theearth is called tile geographical meridilUJ.4 MAGNETIC FIELD OF mE EARTH Before we discuss the magnetic properties associated with the earth. thus.r the mily additional item available for doing any experiment. we ~certain facts and definitions associated with the earth. Two identical bar magne13 are given to you. This imaginaty circular line drawn on the sutface of the earth is called the equator. 19. We. The dipole moment of the magnet being given by .A. )'UIlhave aImIdy studied in the pervious lesson. The anangement of close packed loops is·equiNaient to'a solenoid. called the geographical north pole and the other end is called the geographical south pole.will)lOll mark the S pole of each magnet? A current ofO. 1.diamCter ill.plane normal to this northsouth axis. You are given a bar magnet.. The equatorial plaDe divides the earth into two hemispheres.The north and. 19. One end ofthis. the plane which passes through the magni:W: poiesoftlleearthaada point P on the sutface of the earth is called the MLi & _ ' r • IldlepoilllP.r of iron and rod C is a nonmagnetic material like wood. The result is a single bar. rod B i..9) = pole strength and I = magnetic length of tile magnet. How . • • • 3. Rod. How will you identi.(19. i. Let us assume a. (i) The northern hemisphere and (ii) The southern hemisphere.sOuth poles of the magnets neutralize each o1ber's efl'ec:t fur aIlJII88IICIS except the two magnets at the two ends. at the point P. see that a magnet can also be visulised as alliagnetic dipole. The latitudes are north or south.
the oorth pole of the needle points vertically downwat'd. This evidence is provided by the stody.4. the soU\h pole of the needle dips downward and points vertically doWnwards at a point 2100 km east of the .. to describe all the parameters which determine the field CIlmpletely at any point pn the surface of the earth..' ..the earth's tnagIletic field does not remain conStant.ulITtir t . roh.tiJiS .The directive ptoperty ofmagnets could be possible only if there is another magnet inside the earth whose south pole is located near the geographical north pole.MIpetic uis .1Ele81eats oftbeEarth's Magnetic Field In dJe last section _ have only qualitatively discussed some parameters of the earth's magnetic field wbic:h change tiom p~ to place. If the needle is near the equator on earth's surface it.IIOOyears ago. ur... . m8gnet.. We now wish. Nos.4 below GeoppIW:aJ NG Sa axis of . Reversal ofthe direction· ofthe field has taken place many urnes in the history of earth. The needle is freely suspended in such a lD8IUler that it can rotate in horizontal as 'Well as vertical plane. magnetic needle or a compass needle. 1'be'1ieCdle rotates in the vertical plane and the north pole dips more aad IIIOI'I! ~ eIirth as we move mote aad JI1OR! towards geographical north pole.. g~lPds. Let us perl'oliD a dIought eKperimeiIt (you can actually perform the expepment) with a .): Mtlg!td/t:fo!J"'. its magnitude and<llrection both chaDge with time. 19. These parameters are commonly known as Elements of the Earth's Magnetic Field. RR' is the rotation axis of earth and MM' is the magnetic axis of the earth.et. Ibm is ani~ aspeet of earth's magnetic field and it is ~. Suppose this needle is taken to places in the northern IacmispIIerC. .f1eldis not well understoodinrCD wday.91 coincide witll the .. is consideted to be the south pole of the earth's . . Finally at a point very near to Hudson bay inCaniW.19.. This place. This symbolic pict\R is IhoWD in Fig. geogriIpbical soudL This point· conld be considered as the N pole of the _ " Fro". located in 1832. We therefore conclude that the huge earth behaves as if a big bar /llagMt were placed inside it. If we take the same magnetiC naedle to plaCes in the southern hemisphete. The latest reversaJ is believed to bave~l'faee aboull0.ofrocks "Wt!ich came out during volcanic activity. oorecliule tIuIt I/u! mGpeIk cis of I/u! etirdt doa . The theory of the earth's magnetic . These are <a> inclination (b) declination (c) horizontal component of the earth· 5 fiela 379 .o/d. 19. This place is abom 2100 kmaway from the earth's geographical north pole.resta in horizontal plane. F/tl.. The south pole of earth'smaganet is near the geIlgtlIpbical Dorth pole and the magnetic north pole is near the geographical soUih pole..4 (.
C :i The angle which the earth's magnetic field makes with the horizontal direction in the magnetic meridian is called the l1li61# 0/dip or Inri'"?tf ...13) )  ..·: Pbysial (a) Inclination or Dip: A magnetic needle when freely sll8JlCllded at a place does.. Fig. PR makes an angle II with the horizontal.12) or B . of_Ir'sI1ltlglWl/l:/Wd j .."11'H + BV• B ___ BH_ cos II and Y:tanll BH B .". The horizontal eomponem BH .D ""..S shows that PR is tbe I'\lsultant magnetic field at the point P. (b) Declination : In Fig 19... A ~T~~~p F R B ..: 19. this pllllC which ains the magnetic field vector (PR) oftbe earth.. This angle II is known as lI. PH Itpleseutl the borizoatal camponent and PF the vertical component oftbe earth's magnetic field in magnitude IIId direction.5: EI. In the northern hemisphere the N pole of the needle will dip down and in the southern hemisphere the S pole will dip down. not rest in the horizontal pillru:.(19.clbrtdlo" or Dip at a place P on the surface of the earth. 19.B cosll The vertical component . The angle between tbepllllCS PCDE IIId PABC it called the declination at the point P. F1S.(19. The angle which the mllDetie maridian at a place makes witb tbe geographical meridian is called the li«:IbttIlIIHIat that plaee... (19.".5 we have shown two vertical planes (i) The plane PABC is the posraphlcaI meridian (ii) the plane PCDE is the magnetic meridian.10) ..19. It i. PR represents the magnitude and direction of the earth's magnetic field at the point P.19. .11) By" B sin II I1'H + Bv' : 11' . It islhown u angle 9 in the Fig. It will point in the direction of the resultant intensity of the earth·s field..•. Let the magnetic field at the point P be B.~~~380 .5.(19.. direction..5 shows the plane PCDE which is the magnetic meridian at the point P on the surface of the earth and PABC is the geographic meridion. (e) Horizontal Component: It it the horizontal component ofthe earth's IIIIpIIic field in the mallD"'i': mericlim.
......amagnetic... 2.... You have also seen that a coil carryin& cwrent behaves like a masnetic dipole which when freely suspended... . How many neIltral points will be obtained? • • • • • • • • '0 ••• sellm to go into the ground or come ow ofthe ground? ~ • • • "0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• ••• • • • • • • • • • •• •• • ••••••••••••••••• 3...1T INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.1 : Tht! earth's magnetic field at a place is 45 pT..I T Bv = Bsinli = 45 x 106 sin 60 = 45 x 10< x..... hence a '" 30' Bn =B cos Ii =45 x 10"' cos 60 = 45 x! x 2 I!T" T =22.14) 3RI . ofangle ofdip be more in Delhi o3r in Btil:ing ? 4. All solids are made up of atoms and molecules and every atom haa a number of electrons revolving around the nucleus.t i. Based on strength of the masnetic field in matter.~ MaID..... A bar mop....... 19... ofdip at thl·plac.Euapte 19. wowd the lines . The angle of dip is 60". At a certainpl. There ia a IJlIIIIive D\ICll_ and electI'OlllI move in cirCu1ar orbitnbout the nucleus. T~ v .r held vertically on a drawing board and magneticfield lines are drawn. wUl IhI va/...J3 2 =39J. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• I ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 19.I T = 45 x I!T" T .. SolrioD: B = 45 J...r the value ofangl......... We shall discuss some of these points in detail in the cominS part of the lesson.tie MOJ]Jeat of Atom Let IIII1t1rt wid! simple model of an atom. q YO'" make a map ofmagneticfield lines at Melbourne in Awtraliea... Calculate the WlriOUil parameters. Let R be the radius of the orbit and v the orbital speed of an electron.and (iii) the ferromasneticmaterials..... . (ii) p... Ii = 60'. All this knowledse put tosether suggests that this' misht be the orisin of weak or strong masnetism in certain materials... we divide material.! MAGNETISM IN MATTER You have already ·studied the ma8lletic effects of electric currents....... .. You are also aware that the movement of electrons in a wire constitute an electric current. The time period T of the election to complete one round in the orbit is..5 J.. .(19. ~rqadly into threecatesories (i) diamasnetic •. What i.2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.!......" horlzanlal compo"'''' ofearth's ~tlcfield" 312 times the vertical compoMnt... WIle. always rests In a particular direction....
5. Sucn atoms will have their intrinsic magnetic mommts. We will use these results in later discussions.. completes 2 ~ rounds per second. 19. there can bo: other atoms where the total magnetic moment of all the electrons is not zero.6. It is a vector quantity... youwiH find that it attracts an iron piece '. moment of their own.. The magnetic scate ofany substanc:o: is descn"bed by a quantity called Magnetization I. The magnetic moment of the electron is (1:' ) times the angular momentum. However.(19. and each electron has a magnetic moment.L)L 2m .(l!!..19) 382 .. then 11'=(. Lc:t us assume that there ale atoms where the magnetic moment of the· electrons are so lI1g 11.l = fA = e v 1tR' 2TrR f.2 Magnetic Properties of Materials (a) Magnetization: If you take a magnet. The effective CUII'CIlI: due to Ibis motion of electron is J. vR 2 •••(19.. tblrefore.l8) the magnetic moment vector is always opposite to the angular momentum vector and both vectors are perpendicular to the plane of the orbit as shown in Fig 19. Its 1IIIlgIfitude is deftned Q.6. The spinmotion of the electron also constitutes a magnetic moment which is of the same order of magnitude as orbital magnetic moment.. In an atom we have several electrons. Such atoms do not have a IWIgIlCtic' oIllCIroII • .An electron.f tire ~tic moment per unit volume.(19.17) where m is the mass of the electron and L is its angular momentum (L = m v ~. MagMic M _ ifI1Ir oriented in space that the total sum of all the IWIgIlCtic' momentis zero. The total magnetic moment ofthe atom is the vector sum oftho: magnetic mommts of all o:lectrons.. J.'15) 1t R' The area of the orbit or you can say the area of the current loop. ev J=2TrR •. A = The magnetic moment...•.16) .•(19. IlJ = Magnetic moment Volume of the substance •. If you take another IIIlIgnet you may find that Ibis one attracts the same iron piece with a greater furce. If we take into account the nature of charge on the electron. with some force. In addition to the orbital motion the electron also has a spin motion.
H and I both are measured in Ampere per meter (AIm)...23) Since J and Hba~e the samediinensionsthe quantity Xis dimensionless. Wehave B = Il.Magnetism You have·already studied the magnetic field of solenoid. = B B.20) where B. (19.(19. the magnetization I is proportional to the magnetic field strength H.24) 383 ..21) . It is called msgnetie S~ity" Tile tMgnnhtltioli per lI/Iltjleld stre"gtll is called tile SlISceptibility .. J =+' I flo Il.22) It is called the magnetic jieid3trenglh. The total field. (b) Magnetic: SUseepdbility: For a large number ofmagnetic materials. NowfiU the core with a magnetic substance:..isthe. (I + X) H =KH where K. (19.:=H or B···HandH • . + Il.. at the same point will be B. be the magnetic field produced by a. Let B.field produced by the magnetic substance and can be expressed as BM =fl I . Magnetic substance are . (H+I) = 11. (H+xH) =" 1'.1=. = I'D (I + X) is called the permeability of the substance. ..J..:ategcrizedinto different groups based on the values of X and Km' The various groups are iveD in ~ table 19:1.l. fa H f= X H: or I '"/.. . now.=H .. (19.• B .. This field is because of the current in the solenoid.  . B (!.. solenoid in the core region.. (19...
Experimentally we find that the magnetization I of a paramagnetic substaw:e is directly proportional to the applied field B and inversely proportional to the absolute temperatureT. The Susclptlbllity i. You can say that '[' hIS. Cotrllllllft. 384 . (lis always opposite to the applied field H). CltuS Susceptibility( r) PennabiIJty (lCj K". then the atom bas a peramanent dipole moment associated with it. Let us cousider an atom with severaielectrons.orcfer or random arrangement of dipoles increases with increase of temperature thus decreasing the value of/. Magnesium are examplu o/pa1"iIIIKlgMltc IIUbstIInce5. alway. When placed in an external field the paramagnetic material moves towards the regions ofstronpr field.(19. From a microscopic point of view you can appreciate this magnetism with the help orlbe following example. The direction of the induced magnetism is always opposite to the applied field. The magnetic moment of each atom is randomly oriented in the solid.5. The temperature ofthe substaw:e prevents complete ordering of the dipoles.I. Chromium.the external field only.rlUlgtltlw. Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic <0 >{l >>0 But no linear relation between I and H 19. The atomic dipole in paramagnetic materials do not interact with each other.4 Diamagnetism The atoms of diamagnetic materials do not have a permanent magnetic depole moment.» ). It is understandable why the magnetization decreases with increase oftemperature. This gives a non zero value of magnetic susceptibility. There is now a resultant magnetic mOmeDt in the dIrection of the applied 'ield.The dis. The solid piece as a whole has no resultant magnetic moment.. K".· . One dipole is unaware of the presence ofanother dipole.1: Susceptibility and permeability o/magnetic substances.3 Paramagnetism Paramagnetic substances are those substances whose susceptibility is quite small but positive (O<X «I). a non zero value and the direction of I and Hare parallel. They are all independent. > )..25) This is known as Curi~'11 Law and C is called the ClU'le'.r therBj'tJH.I. . K". Ifthe Vector sum oftbe magnetic moment of all the electrons does not cancel out. They intenM:t with. 19.5.. < ".!'hysics Table 19. When we put slich a material in an external field a torque acts on the dipoles and tries to orient them along the direction of the applied field. /=CT B . now.
Let us cousider an orbital of an atom consisting of two electrOns. For simplicity we take a two dimensional example. because they have opposite spins • The magnetic moment ofODe electron is equal and opposite to the magnetic moment ofthe other electron. It consists of electrons With opposite spins.e and so directed that the total magnetization of the sample ia ' Fig.l9. A correct explanation oflhis interaction can be given only on the basis of quantum meclwli. This is the diamagnetic character. HelICe.t9. Bismuth. but the orientation ofthe domain also ch8nges slightly resulting in greater magnetization Fig.cs: r~r~~7r'~~ We can qualitatively understand the fetromagnetic cIIIlacter alooa the followiDa lines.g.19. A feaomapetic substInce contains snWl regions calJed DOMAINS. the domains slightly rotate and align themselves in the directionpfthe field giving rise to resultant magnetic moment. maximum. You can easily appreciate that such an induced magnetism aUIli. F. giving rise to a net magnetic moment of the atom.field hIS become larger at the cost of others. The magnetization of domalna i.a1s in nonuniform megnetic field move towards the regions of weaker intensity.8 (a) shows four domains. is 119. The zero. This is 'induced magnetic moment and is always opposite in direCtion to inducing field. Diamagnetic mateli. four domaiDa are equal in si7. Under the action of very strong applied field almost the entire '385 . When we apply an external magnetic field. copper and silver are the examples ofdiamagnetic substances. 19. This additional force due to magnetic field will increase the orbital speed of one electron and decrease the orbital speed of the other electron. The dipoles are not independent of each other. The magnetic moment of one electrons will become larger than tltst of the other.7. The effect •h~ermay be extremely small compered to the permanent magnetic moment present in materials. But the domains are randomly oriented.versai property ofali materials.16). On increasing the strength of externat field not only the size of favourable domains increases. Any dipole ~ngly feels the presence ofa neighbouring dipole. The boJndaries of the domains (DOMAIN WALLS) have moved in such a way tltst the size of the domain having magnetic moment in the direction of the . The electrons will experience a force (e V < B) in addition to the electrostatic centripetal force. even in a weak extemaJ field. All magnetic depolet in a domain _ fully . The procelS can be easily understood with the help of a simple diagram shown in Fig. Now suppose we apply an external magnetic field B.ligned. The atomic dipoles tend to align parallel to each other . The magnetic moment is proportional to the orbital speed ( Eqn. the total magnetic moment of the atom is zero. These electrons move with the same orbital speed' in an orbit but in opposite direction.8 (b) shows the state after the application of an external magnetic field. 19.8 (c).5 FerromagnetismFerromagnetic materials When placed even in a weak magnetizing field acquire some what permanent magnetic dipole moment.5. The total magnetic moment of the sample is zero.
/. the directiOJi ofIbe applied field. /9.' .· ..}. so is Ibe total field B in the spec. By increasing B. The value oflbe applied field B in reverse B __.... Such· a d behaviour by a ferrotolIgnetic III8IeriaI is known as rrtIIpdlc "~_curve of a "'" 1"':Jl.9).vily of the specimen.H specimen to Ibe point 'a' again. At the point the applied field is zero. the sample retains a net magnetization.9. The field B is created by passing a current in a toroidal coil The BH curve is shown in Fig. The direction of it bas to be r. The domains get IIlQ1'e and more aligned with the applied field. It is DOt a hypotbdicallllOdel.19. corresponding to point 'c'.1: FJfot:t o/cxumaI ~fiekJ m d _ ill aftlr_ulit:~ An experimental set up can be arranged to measure the magnerio: IieId B as a function of the applied field B.. The point 'a' coliesponds to the state ofMturatioo when almost all domains are aligned with the field 8:!Ui no change in B takes phK:e even ifB is increased..a direction (oc in the curve) which makes B zero.. You can see from the curve that B does not become zero when B ">mes zero (Point b).. So (II) FIg.versed to make' B _ ..volume behaves like a· single d\lmain giving rise to saturated masnetizatjoo.. TIle BH curve does not retrace its path except for very lmaII values ofB as sbowII (Fig. When Ibe external field is removed. It (e) So . The domains in the specimen are randomly arranged.. it is a reality. There is always a finite area enclosed within the BH curve. The magnetic field B is brought to zero by reducing B slowly IOd RVerSing . A further increase in H in reverse direction takes the specimen to the point 'd' .. the field B increases but not linearly as is obvious from the curve.. 386' . The domain in ferromagnetic sampies can be easily _ with Ibe help ofbigh power 1IlierosccIpe.. The magnetic field 'ob' is known PIiTJI __' M~. is kno. 19. a saturation point Reducing the value ofB slowly and Chen reversjng the direction again and then increasing B takes the I'14"::..HC.wn as coerc.imen.
ferromagnetic SIJbstaoj:e. r.1: Ferromognetic sulMtances and their CIII'k temperotures ~ CIIrie Ullrpa rIIioIIT.alue. 387 . Their discussion is beyond tbe SCOpe ofthis book. ~ hysteresis loop encloses a smaI1 area indicating smail enough energy loss per cycle. Fe. The thermal energy at higher temperatures is large enough to cause randomimtion of dipoles so that tbe substance becomes paramagnetic.: 19.K) Iron Nickel 1043 631 1394 317 893 Cobalt Gadolinium . . The BH curve of a ferromagnetic substance is vCI)' useful in choosing materia1s for specific purpose. There lie devices where tbe cunent din:ction is reversed with a fiequencey.10 (_) is suitable for making permanent magnets. tbe substance is fCl1'Olllllflliec and above it becomes paramagnetic.O. and Cobalt are examples of ferromagnetic ma1erials. There lie some olber materia1s also known eanliferro magnetic and fenimagDetic. The core of the tranSformer is of a soft/erro"""M1ic IItIlIDial wbosC BH curve is VCI)' thin.. Nickel. 19.. Table 19. B B H la) FiK. This critical temperature is known as CIIrie ~Tc' Below tbe curie temprature T. A vCI)' common example is trtuu/orme . as ohown in Fig: 19. When tbe temperature of a ferromagnetic substance becomes greater than a certain critical .1': BHC16W!ojlwo/ypel ojmdpetif: . tbe substance becomes paramagnetic. Such materials are known as btli'd /erromapetic _itlIs . It can be sOOWn!hat tile area of tile hysteresis curve is the energy required to take tile materia1 through tbe hysteresis cycle (loss of CJIeIBY). Iron.IO(b). _erial. (IJ) A material whose BH curve is ~ one shown in Fig.
... f············· Give one example each ofa dia... ". 3...........x10lx63x75 ...r.. eh It is aftmdamental constant.. T = 191 mT Example19.....".....magnetisation of its moltem iron core..._ __ I.lfthe current in the winding is 311 Calculate B.. ferromagnetic materia~.......lbstance.. 388....... =J!L = 2ltm 1........3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _.. 4..4'... ' .. Give one point ofdifference between dio........1 x 10" = 9. ...Physics Example19.. CalcUlate the magnetic moment ofhydrogen atom.6 x 10" x 6.2:... Calculate this Va/lUI... 2n:m Solution: 11.. .... ....... fema mag1retic sl... The electron in the hydrogen atom is moving with a speed of2. Suppose a person proposes a theory that the eurth's magnetic fold is due to the permanent..... Solution: Ilo = 4lt x 10 7 H=nI= 630x3 =63x3xlOO 2ltx20x 10' 4 xlt = 63 x 75 A turns It m J!0 (lxv)H= 4ltx10...2 x 10>' Iff INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.. Will you accept this theory? Give reason for your answer. It 7 X 7 B = K m H= = 10 404 x 63 x 75...... 5........ What type ofmaterial is usedfor making (0) an electromagnet (b) permanentl1lilg1let? .. ...3 x J(I ms1 in tin orbit ofradious 0.53.. para...'.6 xlO'" 2xlt'x9....4 toroidal solenoid with a mean radius of 20cm and 630 turnI is filled with steel powder whose magnetic SUsCeptibility is 1OO.. 2......... para. .3: 1'he smallest value ofmagnetic moment is called the Bohr Magneton 11..
. 41t r A magnetic dipole behaves the same way in a uniform magnetic field as an electric dipole does in a uniform electric field • i._ __.._.7TERMINALQUESTIONS. (i) diamagnetic..• Earth has a magnetic field which can be completely discribed in terms of three basic quantities called elements of earth's magnetic field. (iii) fi. T the substance at kelving scale. 11 M 41t x' the eqUlton e ~J B=" ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I. The term magnetic dipole may imply (i) a magnet with dipole moment M = ml (ii) a current carrying coil with dipole moment M = NlA . • Magnetic behaviour of substances may be explained in terms of magnetic moments developed in atoms due to motion of electrons.19. Every magnet has two poles. A small piece of the material is brought near a magnet.. Complete the following by filling up the blanks by writing Yes or No.. They are : (i) angle of inclination (or angle of dip) (il) angle of declination..1 ~ s s OR ~I 38!1 . • Acwrding to Curie Law the intensity of magnetisation of a substance Where C = Curie Constant. T= temperature of I = fd!. permeability and magnetisation. The two poles of a magnets are inseparable.rromagnetic which are strpngIy attracted by magnets such as iron. cobalt. substances may be devided into three broad categeries .Magnetism 19. How will you pack and why? . You have 0 Reptdsion Attraction weak strong keep two identical bar magnets packed together in a box. (iii) horizontal component of earth field. magnesium. (il) jIIII'IIIlI8gIIcwhich are feebly attracted by magnets such as charomiwn. Materilll Diamagnetic Paramagnetic FCITOmagnetic 2.. copper.. and B= net magnetic field in the substance.• it ekperiences no net force but a • • • torque c=M xB. • The quantities used to describe magnetic behaviour of a substance are : susceptibility. • On the basis of their behaviour in rruignetic fields.e . 2M Magnetic field at the axis of a magnetic dipole is given by B = fl. . . and on .which are fetbly repelled by magnets such as bismith.6 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT • • Magnets may be natural or aruflcal as well as temporory or permanent.. nickel. silver. ·allin..
If a bar magnet oflength 10 cm is cut into two equal pieces eadl oflength 5 _ then what iS'the pole strength of the new bat magnet compare to that of the old one. The magnetizatioo I = 10' Nm.m. 6. Draw the lines offorce. mree If nonuniform force is experienced reverse is the case. Find the magnetic field ata point on the axis at a distance ofJO em ftomthe center of the bar magnet. the one which is not atracted at all is non magnetic. 9. are called neutral points (a) Locate the nellttal points when the bat magnet is placed in IIllIgnetic meridian with north pole pointing north.10 Am. 4.5x. Now lay down one of these bars on the table and stroke along its length with the 0Iher ifuniform is c. 7. Bring the ends of any two bars closer together.0 em'.Pbysic:s 3.1 I. The end of the magnet which points towards geographical north is its north . (b) Locate the neutral points when a bar magnet is placed in magnetic meridian with north pole pointing south.2x. What is the force between them? The lUlJ!le of inclination is 40" at some place in northern hemisphere. attaching the tbreadto its centre ofmass.ofa magnet is equal and opposite to the horizantal component of magnetic field of the eartfi. 4. 390 . The separatiOn between 1be poica is doubled. The length of a bat magnet is 10 cm and the area of ciOsssection is 1. Ifyan move to a ' place farther away from equator. Suspendingbne ofthe batmagncts with thread we can lind its south pole. 2. The points. 8. The bar which is attracted by magnet is ferromagnetic. How will the value of aogIe of inclination cl. where the magnetic lieId. a CHECK YOUR ANSWERS Intext Questions 19. Calculate the pole strength. 3. A!O cm long bat magnet has pole strength 10 A. In case there is no at1raction between two bars the third one is a magnet.l=mx. The magnetic force between two poles is 80 units. If1here is auractiQII between 1hem one of the bar is a magnet the other a ferromeagnetic material.pole end. Then the end of the second magnet which is repeued by the first is the south pole ofi!. U=ml+.Kpetienced then the bat in band is a magnet and that on the table is made offerromagnetic mateial. Suspend the magnet with a thread. Two identical bat magnets are placed 00 the same line end to end with north pole facing north pole. . No otber field is present.nge. Let is stay in equilibrium.l + m =0. 5.
M=I A =I1e. . Because. 2.= . B=€B !. In Beijing. ver 2. lnrext Questions 19.Silver 2. Only one central point wil(be obtained. (a) Soft iron or any other material having low retentivity and high penneability.=1t r. because. Example of diamagnetic material paramagnetic material ferromagnetic material .2 I. 8 = tanI k ..Steel or any other material having high retentivity and high penneability.21tr 2 to . 2 ~ € Bcos8=Bsin8 2 .3 x 10 x \. The field lines will come out of the ground as the magnetic north·pole of earths field is close to that place and field lines emerge out of north pole.6 x \0 Iq x.1t r. the curie poinl lor iron is 77('/C and the temperature al the core being much higher than this the molten iron there can not retain magnetism. (b) Carbon . 3.53 x 10 _ttl 2 391 . 3. it is closure to the pole.Magnetisn. 4.3 1.. v . Chromium Iron 4.J3 Intext Questions 19. No.
• derive the relationship between voltage and current in a. you should be able to: • state and explain Faraday's law ofelectromagnetic induction. circuits along with some of their applications. the electric generator and transformer are essential for large scale generation and distribution ofelectrical power today. the inductance of coils and a. circuits containing resistallce: capacitance. Have you wondered what makes this possible? To find an answer to this question we suggest that you follow the wires connected to the switches. . • explain the phenomena of selfinductance and mutual inductance and distinguish between them. in a sense. • define alternating current and voltage. At many places between your homes and these generators. We shall study some consequences of this phenomenon.20 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS 21U INTRODUCTION Nowadays you can illuminate a dark room instantly by merely turning on a switch. there are several substations containing transformers. It was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry: more than 250 years ago. • derive expression for powf!rdissipated in a. at the end of which you will find an electric generator situated in a Rydro or thermal power plant. This phenomenon may. and represent them graphically. their peak and rms values. 20. Both these are based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic indllClion.c.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. • apply Lenz's law and explain conservation of energy on the basis ofLen::'s law. be called the electric effect of changing magnetic fields. Where do they lead? To transmission lines outside your homes. Both these devices. In particular.c. In the next lesson you will study about generators and transformers which form the cornerStone of electrical power generation and its transmission. Faraday's law and Lem's law.c. namely. circuits. In this lesson we shall discuss electromagnetic induction and the laws governing it.circuits and define power factor alld discuss applications ofa. • discuss applications ofeiectromagnetic induction. inductance ani).c. and in an LCR circuit.
iron ring. the oppIlsite sense appears for a moment. :l1J. awayfrom Ihe coil...''lit. G G FIg. then a current is induced with the opposite sense. an induced current with switch is open«J or clmed. An induced current also exists in the coil if it is moved relative to the magoet.2a.Elec:tromagDetic Induction and Alternating CWTeIlIS .]: (a). Some of Faraday's investigations on . 20.. A current in the coil on the left produces a magOetic field concentrated in the . (b) tiro iNhlcI1Ii_ has lire opposite . as shown in Fig. which indicates the presence of any induced current in that circuit. 193 .I: Two coil. energy must be supplied to the charge carriers' that make up the current.1. iflM mOgMI .8 magnetically ipduced currents used an arrangement similar to that shown in Fig. is cIt/lllflllg. If the magnet is st rest relative to the coil. Notice that in either case the magnetic field is cbanging in the neigbbourhood of tile coil.. 20. But an induc~ FIg. Faraday initially (and mistakeoly) thought that a steady magnetic field could produce a current. You know that an emf is the energy per unit charge given to a charge carrier that travels JIlQImd the ci'. then a current is induced with a sense as indicated in Fig. 'I7re ga/vanOfMler right when switch S is closed in the circuit on the G deflects for a' moment when the left. 20. are w._Iowanls tiro coil. This iIuIuced emf is present wlren tire ItUllfnetic field is clrtmgillg.2. The importance of a change is also demonstrated by the arrangement shown in Fig.1I. _ .4 _ Is iNhlcllli in lire co/I ifllre m~ . But if the magnet is moved toward the coil.3 ELECI'ROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Since a steady c:uiTent in a wire produces a steady magnetic field.. The coil on' the right is connected to a galvanometer G.. When switch S is opened. There is no induced current for a steady magnetic field. the induced current exists only when the magnetic field. The presence of such currents in a circuit implies the existence of an indued electrorruJrlve /oroe(emj) • That is..2b. due to the current in thC: circuit on the left. Thus.appe4 current does appear for a moment in the circuit on the armord an iron ring.20.. If the magnet is moved away from the coil. as described above. then no induced current exists. 20.
Thus.lb) The magnetic flUX over the surface for a surface is the surface integral of the magnetic field. Let us learn about it.ZO.4.3b. 20.(20. for the area element dS is defined as +. (a) (b) Flg. d+. The magnetic nux fur a surface can be iDteipieted in tams ofthe ~ lines that leplesent the distribution of the magnetic field in space. 20. ~ B.dS .3a..•. as the area element dS ranges over the surface. 20.3 (a)The magnetic flux for an infinitesimal area dS is gWen by ci+.dS . 20. the number of magnetic lines intersecting a surface i$ proportioDa! to the magnetic nux for the surface.3.(20. A typical element for a surface is shown in Fig. The I11118Detic nux fur a surface bounded by the loop is given by the surface integral ~= SB.m'. let us consider a fine loop ofconducting wire and an open... The SI unit of magnetic nux is the weber(Wb). The magnetic nux 11+.. You will now ask: What is magnetic flux? Let us first define the magnetic flux of the magnetic field for a surface. It was a mark of Faraday's genius that he recognised the significance ofhis discovery and fullowed itop.IIIIIhematicaJ surface bounded by the loop such as the one shown in Fig.dS . The direction of an area element dS at a point on the surface is perpendicular to the surface at that point. with 1 Wb = 1 T.1 Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction The relationship between the changing magnetic field and the induced enif is expressed in terms of the magnetic flux +B for a surface.=B.Physics This phenomenon of a changing magnetic field inducing an emf or an electric field is termed electromagnetic induction. In analogy with electric lines and as suggested in Fig. Now for simplicity. He also gave the quantitative deScription of this phenomenon.Iines interucting the nuface. We now know it as Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. I. = B. +. dS: (b) The magnetic flu for a nuface is propOl'flonai to the nllllther '.la) The magnetic flux for a general surface is obtained by integrating (summing) the contributions 11+. Imagine dividing a mathematical surface into infinitesimal area elements. along with the magnetic field B at a point.
.'ICeII Thus. Fig. You willieam about its iD!portance in the next subsec:tion on Lenz's law.21) is the flux of the total maptic field for Ii surface bounded by the loop. The induced emfis given by. 3 A changing magnetic flux linking a loop and the indw:edemfin the loop are related by Farodtzy's 14w: An emf is intIuced in a loop of wire whe.(20.1: 'I'M axis 0/ a 7j·llUn circular coil of radius 35 mm is paraiielto a IpatIaIly lmiform lffIIIPIeticft.ble compared with the flux due to the other SOUI. in aeries.2a) was developed long after Faraday's work. we shall always aaaume that loops or coils are part of a circuit with • Wae reallIIMce SO that the induced current is sznall. Then the same emfs ia induced in each tum. Each tum in such a coil behaves approximately aa a single loop. the magnetic fluxfor a swf~e bounded by the loop changes in time.2b) dt dt wbIre ..4: A cont!uctingl00p farms lhe boundary ofa surface dt The emf "depends on the rate of change of the magnetic flux with time. +. 20. the total induced emfBr in a coil is the swu of the emfi induced in each turD.a) __ N d.dS =B 118 cos 9 is the flux for the surface element 118. In dIis leetion.2a) key discovery and I've the quantitative re1atioDabip. There is a contribution to the magnetic flux for • loop due to the loop's own current in addition to the contribution due to an external aource. Now consider the induced emf in a cloaely wound coil.theunitofemf: IV=IWbls.. such aa a I!IIIIIDCI. The magnetic flux is said to IiDk the loop.'1s the masnetic flux linking to a single tum (or loop) in the coil. ami we can apply Faraday's law to determine the emfinduced in each turD. the unit ofmagnetic flux. The maptic flux linking a loop or tum of a coil in Eq. From Faraday's law. You will read about it in the next aec:tion.20..ld. We suppoae that the coil is so closely wound that the magnetic flux linking a tum of the coil at a givOll instant baa the aame value for each tum.H ( d.Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating CumnlS : where d+" = B .' .. 'I'M lffIIIPIitude ofthe fteld chDnges at a constant ratefrom 19S . e= . Indllced current is aaawned to be nesliiJ. we obtain the relation betweeB the weber (Wb). or the current in another circult.M em£ Let us DOW apply Faraday's law \0 some concrete situations : Eumple 20. and the volt (V).. This psrti~ular mathematical form of the law (Eq. but the law is named after him because he made the dA. Then the flux contribution due to the lilii8ii.. Notice the negative sign in Faraday's law. Since the turns are. 0Ild the total induced emffor a coil with N turns is given by Bra He . (20.(20. we sha1l neslect the effect oftho induced current in determining the magnitude of the indl".
050 T .2 T.S: (a) A 1000g . . the flux linking each tum is given by +.0.8 x 10'4 m~(1. (20. d(BnR') =NnJ(l dB dt The magnitude of the magnetic field changes at a CODStaDt rate given by  dB dt =.030 V" 30 mV This example explains the concept of emf induced by • time cMngiq mqaetic: field.'0 Hz and the ring rulltance R ..rtant. e"" axil ' ] ({ ·(e) Ring FIg. e. c_ .025 T 0. . ./requ..035 mf (0. .0/2 Calculate the and the current (1) Induced in a ring o/radill8 r concentrlf lflth tM o/the solenoid.. 50 s·'. Example 20.cos 21M / The current in the ring is 1= sill. IJ'tth v .5b) .. ..1.ney o/the magneticjield. 0.2 =. 0.oIMoid. 'J7JetjrKmlityv II.2n. . Solution: Since the magnetic field is spatially uniform IDd parallel to the axis ofthe coil. .2b)!be induced emf in the coil is a.5a and 20.25 s .o1.sin 21M ."oid fl!td cOlfCOlfll'ic rlIrg : (l ~ Yi..  ~. .=B1tR' where R is the radius ofa turn. 20.2 :Conrider a long 80knold with a CI'088&ectiOllQ/ ana of 8 t:ttt' (Figs.=O riIIg 0III8IU tIttJ.=2 1111."oiI/ IIIfIi II (b) So/. and eqllQ/to 1.25 to 50 mT in 250 ma.250 cos 21111tV n . Here B0 II con. 11J. Tbcrefon:.4 d IlIB IDdso E = . Determine the magnitUde o/induced em/in the coil during tlda time interval.4 B•coS 21M dt z +.=N=N dt dt ci+.10 TIs)" 0. FromEq.4 ttmedependent current in the wire wlridiRg mate8 a timedependent magnetfcjield B(t} =B 8in 21rvt.10T/s The magnitude of the emf induced in·the coil is then "r" 7S n (0. Solution : The JD8&Mtic flux is equal to B.. the.0.
... making the flux more and more negative. A.......:_ __ 1. (b) Evaluate the flllX linking each turn attG= 0..ld.....ma. ...... . Why is die minus sign there ? What are its implications? To answertlJese questi~ consider a bat magnet approaching a CODducting ring (Fig. ..1IIt6: (4lA '1IIqIIIII "'" ..... ./h.'1.ed angle 9with a IpatkJ/1y lI1Iiform magneticfi. ..2....... WhereA.'1.... . This example explains the conecpt of electromagnetic induction by a time dependent field. .... . 1000 turn coil has a radius of 5 cm....... Leu's Law 20~3.... . What emf i3 developed acr03S the coil if the magnetic field through the coil i3 reducedfrom lOT to 0 in (a) 1 s (b) 1 ~ ? 2........ (c) EvalllQle the inducedellifin the coil at each ofthue iNtants......0..t V /= =.'1.0 INTEXT QUESTIONS 20..... giNn by GI (dBIdl) S COl 91..qJfH1IIfIS the "'" iMMog ' .....ElectromagDetic Induclion and A1taDllliag Cumms .. Let us take the direction from z to x as positive.25 cos 27tVt A The induced current oscillates with frequency 50 Hz and bas an amplitude ofO. .0.. The current I is ditected as shown. ....0..0... .. ..........25m A... Thus d+"Jdt is negative. ..i...pot The cmrent induced in the ring creates an induced secolldary magnetic field that is opposite to the orijjnal field inSide the ring..direction and the magnetic flux is negative. 1. " NId'" (b) IN mngtIIIIiefiMd QjIN Induc. .... To apply Faraday's law to this system we first chOOIC a positive direction around the ring.. The perpe1Ullt:ular to the pllme of a condIIt:ting loop main a'....... .. v .........n. .1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _....J. (Either choice is fine.... ..lhnJ:VbandD =15 ml'Ybls' are constants. more and more field lines go through the ring..0..6a).... +Dt'.2 Let us look again at Faraday's law.1.. .03.. As the distance between the conducting ring and the Npole ofthe bar magnet decreases. This induced magnetic field is similar in form to the 397 . You may like to Po a few exercises before you study further.. /ftlN loop has area S and the mapihlde ofthe field changes at a rau dBIdl.... 20. '8(t) =A. By Faraday's law Gis positive relative to our chosen direction. ~_z (a) (b) . show that the map/hide of tIN induced emf in tIN loop i3 ..25 cos 2. (aj Show thoJ the mapihlde ofthe induced emfittthe coil i3 giwn by G = (2ND)t. For what or/entation (8) ofthe loop i3 ~ amm:imum? and a ml1ltmum? . The magnetic jIlJX linking each loop of a 250tum coil is given by the expression =. and . as long as we are consistent) For our choice the positive normal for the area of the ring is in the Y..
an Induc. 20... Me directioll ofMe clII7'ent wlll be "lICh tlrat tlJe clII7'ent'" ".. what is the __ of the induced emf? It is clockwise becsuse ou1y then the maSnctic field due to It (directed downward by the ~haD(hule) will oppose the cbqina magnetic flux.... shown dotted in Fig. This opposition is a consequence of the minus sign in Faraday's law.Idt would incrcQe. Wiell /I CIII7'ent is bubicedill /I C01UhIctDr.hown In F/g 20. we must do work on the magnet to move it inward. ••••••••••••• 0 0 ••••••••• 0'0 • 0 • 0" ••• .... /71 which oltM cONJ1ucting 1001" 18 ther.1... tIuIt iIUbM:etIlt."..... 3.nold '" 2. 8pat/ally II1Iljorm'jl. The work ~ do shows up as electrical energy in the ring. the lol.8.. consider the coil in EXlmp1e 20. Lenz's law tells us tharifwe wint to set electrical energy out ofthia 1)'SIem. .. minus siga...11CIrlc~ld In the ring? b "". 801. You lIhouid set familiar with Lem:'. mapnetic force on die bar JIIIIIIIl'l BxplIin. Lenz's law thus follows from the law of conservation of energy. And the magnetic field produced by the induced current would reinfOf'ce the originsl field Thus d+. '" mowd along I".. The magnetic field of the induced current wuuld attract the incoming magnet.d c"wr.it tells us that we are not going to get something for nothing. A bar ".. This induced magnetic field repels the incoming magnetic field.. ~ the lnclt. Thus.. the wnrld does no(work in this way. 'fly the following exercises.20..nt? What '" the """.. ..l. we will have to do work.1_ _ _ _ _.. When the bar magnet is pushed toward the ring. .. FlI'IIday's law will have. The mapltllde olth.Suppoee its axis is vertical and the magnetic field is directed vertically upward.t.brd current ill the ring ? /8 there QIf induced ...no/d.ced emf and hence the induced current... and is formalized as Lenz's law... ..nold and B • 0 out8ld. tndIIcMcrrrrmt /71 the ltatitJnary loop A? In loop B? A crOll·I.. INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.ngth toWanJ 1M ring._ 0111.0J1P06e tlJe eIItlIIg. law before IItUdyiq further.al 801. T~ oblerVer located directly above the coil. ~ . al/gMdwlth I".cl/on 011111 Id..: Physics field of a second bar magnet.wver. Suppvse that Faraday's law did not have the minJJS siga.ld II iIIcrflQlIng /""Ide th. What II 1M .. The magnetic field produced by the induced current repels the incoming magnet Ifwe push the magnet toward the ring..7 movu to tIN right. The key word in this statement is opptJ:Je.nk eff. /ZIt1l along tM /ZIt'" 01 a eDPf1'/' ring. l. TIre bar magnel ill FIg. Then the current in the ring would be in the reverse direction..6b. Hov.. of'ilCh current? • . b there QIf . As an application of Lem:'s law.....~==398 ... the current induced in the ring creates a magnetic field that opposes the change in flux. In effect we would have CIeated energy out of nothing violating the law of COIIArVItion ofeneraY. the magnet would do mechanical work and we would get electric current in the conducting ring...
ii) for a pair of coils situated near so that the flux associated with one coil passes throllgb the other. a changing current in one coil induces an'emfin tI1e other.ecall that the concepts of resistance and capacitance help us to evaluate energy conversion and energy storage in electrical circuits. B. ..4) Thus.. An induced emf can appear in a circuit element called an induetor which possesses an indlldlUU:e. an induced emf appears in that coilthis property is calied selfinductance of the coil. The current produces a magetic field. However. we are usually interested in circuit elements that are disigned to exploit inductive effects. .4 INDUCTANCE When a current changes in a circuit.1 SelfInductance Let us consider a loop of a conducting material. Thtis.. The total magnetic flux linking the loop is In the absence of any external source of magnetic flux (for example.3) «l + The proportionality constant between magnetic flux and current is called the selfbtductance ofth!\loop. In this case we speak of IIJIIIlIIlllnduclance of the coil.. If a part of this field passes through the circuit itself then an emf is induced in it. For example. an acljacent coil carrying a current). R.(20. Now suppose there is another circuit in the neighbourhood ofthis circuit. a changing magnetic field is produced around it.f"l)~OOO\o If the coil is around an iron core so as to enhance its magnetic effect. induced emfs can appear in circuits in two ways: i) by changing the magnetic field linked to a coil. Let us stody more about the phenomenon. Therefore the flux threading the loop is also proportional to the current (I) in the loop .. The loop contains an electric current. Then the magnetic field through that circuit changes.. Selfinductance can exist in wires. the loop might be an intricate connection of components in an integrated electronic circuit or it might be a carefully engineered coil of wire.< to evaluate the amown of magnetic energy sotred by a solenoid. The concept of inductance helps u. Now. The magnetic field gives rise to a magnetic flux. electrical transmission lines. The symbol for an Inductor is .. and is defined by . Selfinductance is given the symbol L. and arbitrarily shaped loops. 20. 20.+=Ll .4. selfinductance is a very important characteristic of a coaxial transmission line. (20. Such circuit elements ire called Indllctors and generally are coils of wire of varied shapes and sizes. inducing an emf in it.E1ec1rOmagnetic Induction and A1ten1111iD& CurraIIs One of the applications of Faraday's Law is to determine the behaviour of simple circuit elementS in circuits with currents that change. the current in the loop and the magnetic flux threading the loop are related by the property of selfinductance of the loop. An inductor can store magnetic energy. the BiotSavart's law requires that the magetic field be proportional to the current in the loop. it is symbolized by .
This induced emf is also called the back emf. You have just studied that the selfinductance of an inductor is a measure of the opposition to the change in current through it. therefore. A solenoid is a device with a simple geometry andis widely . In principle. Thus. Let us.. the magenetic flux threading the loop changes... the henry is a rather large unit. (20.6). We begin by difIerentating Eq.solenoid. tells us that the back e"lf ill an inductor depends on the rate of change of the inductor current and acts to oppose that change ill ClU'1'ellt.5) ~ Using Faraday's law ofinduetion. This is the form ofFaraday' s law that is applicable to electrical circuits. an instantaneous change in the inductor current cannot occur. (20. In acCordance with Lenz's law. . (20.used in electric8I circuits. we can calculate Ibe selfinductance of any circuit. but in practice it is difficult unless the geometry is pretiy simple.banging rapidly produces a large induced emf. At any moment the current in the loop is detennined by both the selfinduced emf and the potential difference created by the imposed ertlf(a baltety.6).. for example) between the ends ofloop. whereas a current r. the Induced emf is proportional to the time rate of change of current in the loop. abbreviated H... we can say that. mH (10"' H). Since an infinite emfis impossible. the'selfinducedemfin this case (closing the switch) opposes the change that produces it. How do we determine the magnitude ofthe selfinductance of an inductor'? . we can replace dcZlldt with the negative of the induced emf (&) so that .4) with respect to time to obtain =dt . produces zero induced emf. The current through an indlldor cannot change lnstantIIneollSly. Eq. volts units of units ofdIldt =amperes/second = ohmsecond An ohmsecond is called a henry.:~. The inductance of an inductor depends on its geometry..(al Faraday's Law in Terms of SelfInductance: So far you have studied that if the current in a loop is changed. and microhenry ~ (l~H) instead. called a selfinduced emf.. so from Eq. For most applications. ·~oo . For selfinduced emfs in a drc6lt. This change in magnetic flux is accompained by an induced emf in the loop..(20.. and we often use the more convenient units millihenry. Note that a constant current. The units of selfinductance are· units of L = ..6) According to this equation.. let us now obtain a form of Faraday's law relating the induced emf to the rate of change of current. (20.. no matter how large. determine the selfinductance of a .
In previollS 'Iullon you have 118M Ampere's law to determine the mag"etic field ofa long 1I01enoid.....(20....0ms.3 (I) you would realise that you have to be extremely cautious in closing switches in FIg. 7 mH solenoid produces a selfinduced e"" of As we have said earlier. .1.. L" T ... which co1lSis13 ofN IIInIs ofwire..... (cj wtnmd wi.(b) SelfiDduetallee of.. What i.(20. ..9) Given tbis information you may like to determine the self·inductance and the baok emf for a typical solenoid to get an idea of their magnitudes.7b) ..1. ... foldIng. INTEXTQUESTIONS10..5 Ajlowing in Itia reduced steadily to zero in 1.8) Here. For our problem 'I =NIL. This is why switching off inductive devices. dlldt is very large and a very large back emf appears..26 )( IfP6Hm ".....ire bflfonfoldlng.. (bj wire. which is giwn as B =J..........r of length I/2 is wound on to a cylindrical i1lSuiator toform a type ofwlrewoundnontnductive resistor (Fig. can result in the destruction of delicate electronic devices by induced currents. which gives I B = Il/V L The total flux through the N turns of the solenoid is IlJ'{'A NBSdS=NBdS=NBAL ••... 20. Why can this configW'alion be callednon·lnductive? 35m V? 2...r the map/Illde of the back e""ofthe inductor while the CUlTent is being switched off? Take Po = 1.7a) where 'I is the number of turns per unit length an I is the current through the solenoid. A certain length (1) of wire folded into two parallel. the back emf in an inductot opposes the change in current and its magnitude depends on how rapidly the current ( changes.. A current of 2. 401 ..... (20.9)....n I .. J. such as solenoids...3.. Ifwe try to stop current in a very short time..._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I. since the magnetic field of the solenoid is unifurm 8IId perpendicular to the crosssection ofthe Individual turns. Even in your i""'~Q/or. adjacent strip.. The selfinductance !lfthe solenoid is '.... (a) ".(20......000 turns ofwire.. Z(U: Fold«! wire wowtd on loa cylindrical circuits containing large inductors.....N'A L .WWlntl on Intullllor Question 20. Having worked out lntext WI. 3. Solenoid: Cmuider a long solenoid ofcrousectiono/ ana A and length L.".= . To find il3 Inductance we _ t relate the current in the solenoid to the magnetic jlux through it. What rate of change of current in a 9.... A solenoid 1m long and 20 cm in diameter contains 10. we have written R dS = BdS.............
That is. A circuit. Why does this happen? This is due to electromagnetic induction which tries to keep the current going. there is a selfinduced emf & = .c~ f. Now. A solenoid L c R has inductance (L) and resistance (R) • and each of these influences the ... The net effect ufthe inductance is to moderate between Ihese extremes so that the current changes.. 20: 10.(20.\\rilch S is of the battery.0). Beginning at t = O. The instantaneous value of the current depends on the values of L.10) On solving this equation we can obtain the e)(preSllion for I (I) as given below : 1(/) _ _ B. the battery causes 'charge to move in the circuit..) R .. but not too abruptly.L  dl df =IR •..11) 402 . Let us consider the example of an LR circuit to understand this role.1. such as that seen in Fig. The total emf in the circuit is the sum of the emf provided by the battery and the back emf of the inductor. e• . dOled at I· . 20. is represented by R. containing resistance and inductance in series is called an LR circuit.4. .mftl" .20..istDnC'C R in the circuit. 20. 1 .111: An jnJl". On the other hand..R and the emf of the battery. dildt is very small). the sense of the induced emf opposes that increase. when the switch is closed.. 20.... For S to simplicity we assume that all of the resistance Fig.) conne~ted to a risistance R and an inductance L. Collsider once again the ciruit in Fig.10).(20. The inductive and resistive effects ofa solenoid A are shown schematically in Fig. thert would be little opposition to a change in the current. You may have seen that you often draw a spark when you unplUg an iron.10 which has a battery (a source of constant emf E. Therefore. (l_r RIIl. Ohm's law gives.2 LR Circuits Suppose that a solenoid is connected to a battery through a switch (Fig... The B sYll\bol for inductance( . even if it has to jump the gap in the circuit.. What current flows in the circuit when we close the switch? Let us analyse this current quantitatively.J 00000 ~ ) is shown 'I in series with the resistance symbol." L includes the selfinductance ofthe connecting wires. This opposition to the increase in current prrevents the current from rising abruptly (prevents dildt tiom becoming very large).".1O. Similarly.L dildl in the' inductance whose sense is opposite to the sense of the increasing current...current in the circuit. including the internal resistance tire in seri~s witlr tI bullel')! qt'. since the current is increasing./ The role of the inductance in detennining the current in the circuit can be understood qualitatively: As the current i (t) in the circuit increases (from i = 0 lind 1. if the current is changed negligibly (that is. E•• Let us now obtain these results quantitatively. you may wonder what happens when you plug in the iron and put on the switch? This bring us to the role of inductors in circuits.Physics daytoday experience. /lnJ .' 20.
11. After sometime the current reaches it steady state value of72 rnA. With an inductance in the circuit. I &jR t Fig. The plot of the current with time is shown in Fig. t!le greater L is in a circuit. In an I. &L = L dildt. INTEXT QUESTIONS 6. and the longer it takes the current to build up. the role of an inductance in electric circuits is somewhat similar to that ofmass in machanical systems.2 ms after the switch is closed. The tiD.le inductance? (2) (3) lei us now consider the second situation in which the changing current ina circuit induces a current in an adjacent circuit. 20.4. the current would have jumped immediately to &jR. the magnetic flux linking each tuin of the coil is due to the magnetic field of the current in that circuit._ _ (1) A light bulb connected to a ballery and a switch comes to full brightness nearly instantaneously when the switch is closed. 10. the larger is the back emf." The magnetic 'field also extends outside the coil and may influence another nearby circuit. several seconds may pass before the bulb achieves full brightness. In an LR circuit how 101lg does it take the current to reach half of its steady state value? . Explain why. ifa large inductance is in series with the bulb.4. the current rise~ gradually and reaches a stead) state value of&/R as t ~ O. the harder it is to change the current in the understanding of these ideas. However. Significant changes in current in an LR circuit cannot occur on time scales much shorter that VR. As we have seen.12 : A changing currenl in each coil inJut:es an em/in Ihe other coil. 20. the harder it is to change its velocity. In the same way. 403 .hence the use of the term "self induced._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.Electromagnetic Inductioo and Alternating Currents Had there been no inductance in the circuit. 20.R circuit. If the resistance in the circuit is 68ll.le it takes the current to reach about twothirds of its steady state value is given by VR.current changes in a coil in a circuit. What is the value of t/. the current reaches 36 rnA ill 2. You know that the larger the mass of an object is. This is the phenomenon of mutual induction which gives rise to the proerty of mutual inductance. Thus.11 : Current in an LR eireu. which is called the inductive time constant of the circuit.3 Mutual Inductance When the.1 You can see that the greater the L is. there is a selfcinduced emf in the coil. Fig.
.. turns is the same.. &" =. Thus. coil 2. . and these currents and the magnetic field they produce can be changing. ..d (+. due to a change in the current i. and the effect is called mutlUll induction.] induced iricoillby the changing current i. ..eld of coil 1 to the magnetic flux linking a turn in coil 2.. in' coil l. We assume that the flux linking each of the N.• dt di =M21 . the interaction is mutual between the coils.i:. It turns out that the dependence on geometry of M" and M" is also mutual.& &. (10. The minus sign is used to determine the sense of the induced emf from Lenz' slaw.The'humber of flux linkages for coil I is proportional to the currerlt N.. The coefficient M" depends on geometrical factors such as the shapes of the coils.)=.(M.. These contributions to the flux changes and the corresponding induc~d emfs are in addition to the selfinduced contributions. in coil2. Consider the induced emf in one of the coils say. we can consider the emf 6. 20. We and i. The induced emf in each tum is E = . +" +" +" +" mutlUll inductance: .. The induced emf in coil I is given by di. of coil I.• ..·M ~ di.12 shows stationary coils belonging to separate circuits.14) i. by introducing a constant M". By reversing the roles of the two coils. We let the symbol 11>" represent the contribution of the magnetic p.. = N .. If no magnetic material product N] such as iron is around.The flux linking each turn of coil 2 has a contribution due to the magneticfield contribution B. we can drop the subscripts and let Mrepresent the mutual inductance of the pair. The coefficients M" and M" can be calculated easily for only a few simple arrangements.15) "'14 .. Thus the flux linking each tum of coil 2 changes because of the changing current in coil I. where M" is a coefficient determined by the geometry.Physics Fig. changes.. and the total emf &"induced in coil 2 is N . . the way they are wound. and their relative separation and orientation. Since induced emfs appear in each coil because of a change in the other coil.'" =M.+. It is this flux that changes when the current i. (20. are proportional to i.(20... (N. d d.13) Thus.that is. the induced emf &" in coil 2 is proportional to the rate of change of the current di. .ldt in coil I.(20.12) We now apply Faraday's law to detennine the induced emf due to coil I in a turn of coil 2. Each coil carries a current. Then the emfs induced in each coil by the changing current in the other are given by &/1 =..M dI di. M" =M". = .. I) dt · dt·' .. the /ield contribution B. The values can be generally determined from mea~urements on the circuits. which produces it (from the BioSavar! law). Similarly. the flux linking each tum of coil 1 changes because of the changing current in coil 2. The is called the nllmber offlUX linkages for the coil. a coefficient of write the linear relation between N. is proportional to the current i.dt d".. E" =M" ~ . Then both and N.) I dt.
Let us consider LC circuits which give rise to periodically varying currents. the clll'rent in coil 1 changes steadily from. Inductors can be used in combination with capacitors to produce currents that change direction with time at regular intervals.13 ). jill LC 'cirCuit (Fig.3 Als FromM. A' changing current in each element induces an emf in the other element. Suppose the capacitor in the circuit of Fig. Such currents are called alternating currents. so that at time there will be a current: iii the circuit and a charge q on the capacitor. 20.Electromagnetic Induction and Altemating CluTenIS This result applies generally to any pair or circuit elements. Ordinary circuits contain resistance.=15 ms 16mA36mA 1.3 : A coil in one circuit is close to another coil in a separate circuit. Example 20. The mutual inductance depends onl} on the geometry ifno magnetic materials are nearby.fer to the sense of each induced emf. When the switch is closed..13 is charged l:!y an external battery and then the battery is taken away..23mA IS ms = 2. but for simplicity we begin:by discussing an idealized circuit with negligible resistance. The SI unit of mutuBllnductance isthe henry .3 Als dil dt . 230 to 57 nul.begin to discharge through the inductor I. We will discuss about these devices briefly. (6.45 V Remember that the minUs signs in Eq.405 . the capacitor will . and the current in coil 2 changes steadi/} from 36 to 16 mAo Determine the em/induced in each coil by the changing clll'rent in the other coil. The mUlUal inductance ofthe combination is 340 mH During a 15ms lime interval. Some other commonly used devices based on selfinductance are the choke coil and the ignition ~oil.15) I\. 20.(H). the magnitudes of the induced emfs are E" Ell =(340 mH) (2.1 LC Circuits Letus examine that behaviour of a circuit containing only a capacitance C and an inductance . YQy should now work out a few problems quickly.15. The choice of plus or minus depends on ..77 V =(340 mH) (1.. The charge aod the current are related because the current gives the rate at which charge is transferred from one plate to' the other: i =:t: dq/dt. L.3A1s) =0. the same as the unit of selfinductance. the currents in the coils change at the constant rates of  di l dt = 57 mA .3 A/s) =0. . 20.. 20. So/utipn: During the I5ms time interval.5.5 SOME APPLICATIONS OF INDUCTANCE One of the most important applications of the phenomenon of mutual inductance is the transformer about which you will study in lesson 21. 20.
V. is the angular frequency ofthe oscillation. the potential difference across the capacitor is V. You can veriI). lights. have i +q <i c we B . V... (20. From Kirchhotrs loop rule. 406 .. Then the current is given by .16a) dr C dq eli ..17b) .. <l> is the phase constant..(20. TVs. refrigCrators run on ac.i6b) dt' LC This equation bas the same mathematical fonn as the differenlial equation that describes a simple harmonic oscillator (see lesson 22 of book 4). F/g... The list of such devices is long.) + (V.. cos «(1)/ + .. Practicaily every day of oUf lives we use elec¢cal devices that operate with a1terna1ing current. = V..(20. So let us now learn more about alternating currents and voltages. where the algebraic sign is A..lJ : .V. With our sign convention for q.V) + (VaV.. From our experience with the motion of a simple harmonic osciIIator.(20..'varies withtimo with a period 2n. we bave Since i ='.we have ... telephones..l6b). dr' dt d'q I =q . (20.. :(J).>V•. The induced emf opposes the change that causes it. (1) . Suppose we !eli be positive when the current is clockwise and let q be positive when the charge on the upper 1'Iate is positive. An example of a simple bannonic oscillator is the onedimensional springmass system where frictional forces'are negligible. the potential difference across the inductoris (V.. Thus. Thus.2O. With this choieoi. Therefore. and «(1)/+ +) is the phase.V) + (P..'~"t':l:9 D L S P:> determined by Lenz's law. JLC dt d = I Here.. LC circviJ di q l=+ =0 .17a) . (1).. =L(elildt). Fans. i". the cbarge on the capacitor in the LC circuit varies sinusoidally with time : q = q.dq i= dr = or [qmcos«(1)/++)]={I). qm is he maximwn charge on the capacitor...qm is the maximwn current.=im sin«(1)t+"') 0 'I' where.Physics our sign convention for i and q.. when dildr > 0.) = 0 A. radios.4. = V.. q increases when i is positive: i = dqldt.. the sum oithe potential differences around the loop is zero: (V. = qlC.that Eq..qmsin«(1)/++) . V. ... and V.. Notice that .17) isa solutions ofEq..18) ..(20..(20. it is an alternating current.= d'qMaki' dt' ng this sub" stitution and nHIITIIIlgIDg. we expect that..) with.
.(20... is parti. tor example.. 2... • • ....... • '....1I... A cos WI (or equivalendy.6 ALTERNATING CURRENTS .. e~p. .:uiady signifu:ant. and modem electronics exploits a number of different ones." . charge flows through the resistor in only one direction.19b) y y Saw tooth wave fi!nn +Vm Sine wave form oHt+lI+t+Vm (a) o V .. It is related to the 6equency..WI: could systematically interchange the battery connections... 20.... is the sense ofemf&" clockwise or conlerclockwise ? (b) At an instanl when i2 is decreasing.20.AND VOLTAGES When a battery is connected to a resistor. A sin WI). 407 .for a given physical situation. Among the many mathematical fiutctions that describe alternating potential differences.. ntrrent SOIlCC4 Sources of poteJltiaI difference whose polarity changes with time are called alternating The types of alternating potential differences are limited only by our imagination and ingenuity.. v.20.• • ' • . 20.. Consider the Sense ofthe mUlual1y induced emfsAh Fig. &4l A !IIId 00 are CODWlt. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ... The angular 6eq1lCAq has the same inlelpnltatioo as in simple hannoluc motion.19a) ... is the sense of &'J clockwise or counterclockwise? . If. Here.."enl eilher valtage or cu1lN!nl .< 1. • .ressed ill hertz. ...... the sawtooth potential difference shown in Fig. we must interchange the battery Connections..! • • • • • . In general.14 b. and 00 is the II!IlPIiu: fi:equeJ1cy." . alternating voltages and currents are J1Iathematic~lyexp~ssed ~ . .· EJec:IrolD&gnelic Induction aud AJtenuIIiog 0  " i .L.. • • • • ~ • • ..~ ( . Ifwe want to reverse the directicin ofthe current..tIlte? 'IIi"... .....U (b) Sint~:roiJu' fiuu:tton which could rrpre.14a is used across the horizontal deflector plates ofa 1V tube to sweep the electron beam back and forth across the screen. We call such a current an . (oj AI an insltintwhen lhe currenl i. is increasing...12 is rotated so thOt the axes of the coils are perpendicular rather than parallel.• • • • ... . J1 according to an observer rlDcated to the righl oflhe coils... • • • ..... .. • '• • • • .. 20. by 00 = 2lt v The function a sin WI is shown in Fig..!be amplitude. t (b) Ftg.... we would produce a current in the resistor that periodically changes direction.. A i. Would the mutual inductance remain the some..(20. Supp03e that one of the coil in Fig. ilfCrease or deerf!Q3e? Explain...• • • • . For example.....
cIepeuda on the circuit el. prllllll in the circ:uIt. Resistor Ifwe COl1llCCt a resistor to an ac gmerator as sbown in Fig.. IIDII (iii) an iIIducfor ooly.=s .' XIS: A.we have J = l .1 AC Sou. The il'stantaneous value . Subotj'lJcjns I•. wrt. Fig 20.. then for R = 10 olnns.21a) R The quantitY I'jR lias units of volts per ohm..(20...16 Shows the time variation ofthe potential difference between the ends ofa resistor and the current in the resistor.. V J= n.16... = 2201' and v = so Hz.•••(20. Let lIS now study AC circuits cxmtainjng (i) a resistor (ii) a caplCitor..1S we establish in the ciIcuit a current that changes dUcction with time.nll". Note that the potential difference and current are in pbasethe peaks and valleys occur at the same time ....· Physi.ofthealtcmatiagwlrqe8llll!:lIIRDL Inllddition..COS fill or 1= . R V...} I . It rqIIc:seuIS the IlIIXimum vaJuc of the current in the circuit.. 1= "" I!" •.. The cUrrent changes direction with time. 20. we have 1'..(20. for YjR in Eq.IIDII I.1t 220 22 FIg. we also define the root mean square values of V 8Dd I as I'  ~ ~ J2 " .(20... In India. :J8. A. (20... of the current js given by the instanlaneous value of the potential difference across the resistor divided by the resistance.:: ~ ~ 0 1 25 I(. "..2Ob) The relation between I'. jpvpIr <if" ami I ••i/h Ii"". cosmt 220 ~ . ._t:tJIfMdfI/ 10 II rwiItor."" tin:w. or amperes.1IDII so we _ positive and negative values ofthe ClIImII to iepicscnt the t\WJIOSIIi'ble c:umIII diJectioos. and 1m are known as the.20 a) I. 10. the maximwn c~ in the ciIcuit. we get V =c 220 cos (2lt SOt) V .6.21b) 22 .....21a). Coueeted to.
'  i20 60 40 30 t (sei:Oods) Mg. tIUtr'. or any inteanal Dumber of cycles...._____ _ _ ......(20......DOt zero because the iJISII..:k ofthe _Itt. The ~ 3000I 2000! II 1\ f\ values oftbc CIIITenI and potential diffaaw:e......Jl.... ...I.". .. ...• I.. P_......resisIDr to a potential diffmlK:e quamities1J'UIDII J'/.(20... BecauR P is periodic.. The . lwnIsehold.... . ..... =RP. developed in theteliaor i. two.....23) Note !bat Ibc same power would be produI:ed by a CODSIBIIl de curredI of 1. .... I" ofight bulb connecIed to . we cao dete.. (cos'. _ _ pmNr I 1 I 1 INTEXTQUESTIONS10.1I. • constant .. . Therefore... ..17)...(PR).... by considering a single cycle : ' p. .na" ....220 I""cos (2K 50t) 10 =22 cos (2K 5Ot) A 11» cycles of J' and I are shown in Fia._ _.... value of Y.Boih yand 1Il1'0 proportiODal to cos (2K SOt). = 220\1.. ....)... 20.nOOIlS power P PR}a alwaya positive (Fia. 50 II:...... '... ill • ........... ./II QC source tire bultR· ~ CIII7'fIIII U U1'O ill eC/Ch c:y... An electric iron having u resistance 25D is COIIIUIcted to Q 220 Y... ...... which IIIeIl\II "Ibc &qUIft root of Ibc _ value of~sqtaareoflbcqutllJlilyofiDlaest.22) FCII' deIamiDiDg aVCJI'IIIC values.1'. _nt........ .16•. Ibc OIlS value of die JI'*""iaI M 1 1000 I diffia... The avlll'llp CWTeIlt is zero over one. 20..... we have 01' .. . R(P).... 2. Forao eIecIrie oudctinlll Indian home wbae ~...... Wouidn'... their peaks and valleys OIlClII" at the _ e time. outlet.. Let us ~ consillef IIlUc circuit with a capacitor only.6.". ....... ...rJiIine the IVCJI'IIIC power.J:J................ ........ _......... h would also result if we were to COIIIIec:t Ibc .. cvrrtIIfI ill it.. ' The term JIIIS is sbDrt ir 1OOtmelllMllJII81'e../ ~ in Ibc resistor...... INtermine tire overoge in8tontoItea/lS Cfll'MllIIfIIi tire .....e called Ibc lUIS ha..... Why Is IIOt the Indb oJ!during thue timu of::era CIII?VIt? twO...... and we say that they Il1'O in phase......... nw _ _ _ q{...¥.. .. you_ibID dO 80IIJecxadsesID wdaiilaldlbcle i4e1slletaar'l .' This is Ibc value gencnlIy quoted ir the poIalIiaI diffiwute.. . 1S " J' J'/~IS6V ...
5 .25) V = 220V and v =SOHz. Thus. . 20. .l difference plot Hence we say that the capacilll' current leu capacilll' potential difference by one qllD11er ofa period. .6. The first peak of the current plot occurs one quarter ofa cycle hem the first peak in the potcDtia. . we abo say the potential difference 1ags the curreaI by 90" • . the cUrrent I and potential cIiflinnce V for a capacitor are lUll in piwe.. Then.18 shows a capacitor connected to an ac generator.1&I': An tIe _ _" CdS.(20.. %~ • .. Then (J) =314rad1s V = 220 cos (2lt SOt) V J = .19. n... The instantaneous charge on the capacitor equals the instantaneous potential difference across the capacitor niultiplied by the capacitance (q = Cr). ' I Unlike the situation for a resistor.phase dl'l'etan. ro = 2 It (SO) r&d Is = 314 radls and assume that C= 1O'F. This follows from the defioitipn of capacitance.25) as I" I I I 0.Rewriting Eq. One quarrerOCa period WllespoillLs to a phase diff~ of1C/2. let us again take the standard household values .24) J=roC V sinIDt In order to compare V and J.20.220 (2 It SO) lit" sin (2ltSOt) =0. or 90". Accordint!IY.I1IPNOCIi ltitijj • 80" . we have ..691 sin(2ltSOt)A Two cyc1esof V and J are'shown in Figure 20.• 0.•:(20.r to iI CtIptJCItrlr q = C I'm cos rot Relating current and charge byl = dqldt. We assume that the capacitor has been connected for a sufficiently long time to avoid any transient effect that might take place when the capacitor is first connected to the generator.(20. I I I I..2 AC Source CODDected to a Capacitor Fig..
6.. I. then. such as a baIteJy.28) The instantaneous power delivered to the capacitor is the product of the instantaneous capacitor CUITellt and the potential difference. energy is being released by the capacitor. .(20.. When P is negative.Ll_l..EIcc:uomagndic Induction and Alternating Cumnls . '·40·· .11: TIN ffllCItmt:. 20.ic. The ~ 10' .tbeinfinitecapacitivereactance ~ 1(t"1 for zero frequency in consistent with the I (t"2 '.(20.I. = IlO'· "'at "" .e beccmes infinilil......... I !r 1If'/ limitations to ae eurrents. While both the current and the potential difference vary with angular F"f/r..OlCpt sbl4. On the average.. and P are shown in Fig. The average power is zero.. (Fig. ilf Ire":. ola coptlCiior (C .20) d « _ l1li11. the capacitive reactaDc. Graphical lepic:aedalioos of V.os"""" 1= . When P is positive. Not. VX c .ncy .the generator implies 1hattbae 101 is a de source. Zero I ()2 frequency fix.L.. 20.l.m. electric energy stored in the capacitor during a charging cycle is complelilly recovered when the capacitor discharges.t . mlistance. 71.. P = VI = . emrgy is beios IlIOn!d in 1he electric field of 1he capacitor.oo .. coptlCitiw rructunCf: the frequency ofthe Be generator. In \he ~ limit as !be frequency goes to zero.27) Capacitive l'eacta"."uriuI..~·'he poIenlwl di/le'"nce. capacitive reaitanCe depends on SCJJl.of a capacitor connected to a de 10" 10 1 J()2 lOll 0" 10' 10" 10' 10' source. Because no· . CQaGi6vereaet..fIMn is no energy stoJed or lost in the capacitor in a cycle•. behaviow.I. fUO logarith"..~ charge 1IdUaIly flows between tbe plates of 'j 10" acapacitor.Q) CY' sin 2QJt '2 The sign of P deIermiJles \he dim:tion of energy flow with lime.21 : 1lte '.(20.lsa_ofhow1hc capacitor Iimi1s tbe IU: cumm in the cirouit. frequency (I)" the power varies with angular t:urrml. but unlike l1li afimcll"" oftire ftwqo..... Resignee and capacitive reactance Frequency (Hz) are similar in the sense dlat both measure Flf. 6. The concept of capacitive ~tance aII0\lliS us to introduce an equation aoaIogous to the equation 1= VIR involving resistance R.frequncy ill<"roo. and f/OM'erfOl' a capacilor con"ected If) all ac frequency 2m. The gmerator ...21 .t~4. lO" It depeudson boIh 1he of1he capaci1ance and the frequency of the generator.29) 1 =~ .nce ~s if eilher c~ 10" ftequmcy or alpllCiUlnce increases..
.6.. .'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.....••... Acapacitor is ClJfrMcttd to anllC gearator ItaviIIg ajbudJ»ak Val.92 Cos tiN A The rIDS current is...... (Y..... Solutio.cycimdl6........ · .•••••••• t •••••• '. WIry would you cpect "" . ...•••....80 2.. "Ie J1OWffI' delfNrwd to a ctlfJGCltor by_ tIC . 1IO effiictOlltbe'ewrent JIIO instantaneous cumnt in tbe capecitor.....1NIl1 IIIIrJgIt/Nqwr.. ...... In temu 0/tbe ~r III which a copocItor c/iargel and dlscltargu.....8 ...' ""':4~12::: .' •• .. 1M.". Wlrydo capacitative nact_ beco_.COS t i N = . in series with tM capacitor... Assuming that tile 1IIDJIIeter .•••..... 2.91 A 6.liICItlll..Ex• ...htto ~'" III tireftwqllillfCJl~?' • • wouldyou < t ~ • •... ~ 3.......rrtIUr toM~'ro? ' • •••••••• ~ • • • • • • • • • • • • '! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4.•..... if'" "" crill MI. ~....y. TIM' amplitude 0/220 V...costiN Xc 31... pirIk did by an ""..111. : At this fIeq\JeIII.. Use your knowldge 0/ how a copacilor /uItclloM to uplain wily tlw _ f i t ill a capacitOracpMl"fllor circuit incretuu III tlw CllfKlCltatu:..... U: "'I(J1). ilia TY"t? Finally let 111 dilCUSS an Ie cll'l\uit c:omainins an illductor 0DIy.... _ ' 1 "_iMC_ trUI$OIb at: SWiM.. y 220 _have fir1le ' 1 = .pF a ....... tIC _ t e l ' CfIIJIItJCItId 'lII0I'. wily expect"" CIIII ........1be capamtive _Iiiiiu of tile capecitcr is X =_= < I roC ' = 31... ...•.. freQIltlllC)1.) hilt _iobl..........••••..92 Now II')! the following exen:iles INTEXTQUESTIONS6. (SO) ~ lOOx 10""F s U .. 1""5za~ 1m ?2 4...•••••....
(20.0. This is MIat we would expect &om Lenz's law... 1M _ l i t I.... For (lII inductor.lrI2 pbasedifference for 1 _ thalllags I'by 7fI2.20. and we have .22). 2&12 : An ilJdOClor C61ftt«led 10 on tIC SOIIr'Cf!. This is in eoa\rUt to the current in a capacitor. the constant of inleption.31 b) as DeclO. Calling J'the poteDIial dilfmencc &mISS the induc:tor. Another wtI)' of seem..is. 220 sin (111:. 220V and OF 2l1('O)ndls. SO Two cycla oCY111411l'01bown in Fi&. and assume that L 1 H. The tint peak in 1he potential difference plot occurs onequarter I:)'clc before the tint peak in the CI11'mlI plot.. there is no timeindepende.6.30) Integration ofEq.. (20.. J'L=" • COSOlt . which leads the potential difference. 20..20. die peaks and valleys of cummt and potential difference occur at diffenat Ii.220 cos (21t SOt) V 1. We say thal the inductor current lags the inductor potential cIiffermce by 7fI2 rad (or 90'). Coaaected to •• ladaetor We consider next an ideal (zeroresistanl:e) inductur connected to lUI ac generator. Y~ I'. we can write : dI dt V·~··OL ".(20.01) .(20.. 1M poUllttlll dJjforellC#. tbe. Because thin is oaIy 111 ac fIO\II\\e..3 AC Source.30) results in I =~ sin UK + QOOSIant DJL " .701 lin (2ltSOf) A lit. K I' .23 •1'be inductorCl11'mll and potential difference _ DOt in pbIIe.. Hence.nt CIll'mlt.3la) The WIIIIIItJt (ofintqp'alion) IeptCSClltS a circuit CUITCIIt not depcmdiDg on time.. JnsIeiIcI. (20. this is to rewrite Eq. '4J~ . (Fig.3Ib) To COUIpIl'C Y IUd /let us tske If..cos.
Ji. .osponding piIIen/iQI ~ ~ . Indllctive re. repn:senbng a 90" ~ 'difference I .1 Rt!tldJllfce . pH) tM a/lllH:liOif oftheftwqwricy ___.11 : n.I "IO "j 12 I . Nol._..uiC4l1111i _ tIN . "~hepMlri"IIN_I1Ccrii7_ ~.11). t1roJ lhe poIIItIiaI .f". .. JAwFrqwm:y limit R ~ Hip~ limit Resistor X=R • " Il 0 Capacitor I X= cae 00 Inductor XL =wL 0 co . (20.]12. 2s ' I (secoods) 0 fII'I_. N_ """ lIN 8Ct1I# 1ft /i..111.~.' 0... a.ct.~"~'~"".: PhysICS The quantity flJl in Eq. III.. capacitive reactance becomes infinite (see Table 20. 10' zero. In the Iimi! as the frequency goes to zero. (setonds) .cp.xc• inductive reactance.. voriaIion of lhe polenliQ/ diff~ bOlW. """"" in I/lf InftcJor. 1'.. Ii"".£~. . XL' has units of ohms. IIf. 10'" 10'" ~~~~~~~~~~~ H).. Inductive reactance increases if either frequency or inductance increases.'. 10' 10> '10' 10' 10' 10' 10' 10' Frequency (Hz) "'1U! : n.~.N..32) ..fler lhe cOI.' __~i. :y... 1 ' XL" ."_a:~:~.7 4cycle.Ill~ Ul)its of resistance and is called the ilfdllCtitle re4Cllllfct!.nce is a measure of how the inductor limits the ac current iii the circuit."" III.74. 101 10'" Ht' 10..(20."_... symbolized l!Y .grtrllJwlr1t:.m Iwtz. l! ._. II+ I ! ~ 0. emb qf an illduclor and.. !>' 2ZOC I + ~ As with capacitive reactance. This is just the opposite ofcapacitive reactance. ~ oftii' 1IttIwt" (L ..VjfeI.t"" . UTO Inductive reactance for zero frequency is consistent with the behaviour of an inductor connected to a de source. ~~4f..7 Ff6.frwp Table 10..' .. 7IN: i1rtIoc_ ~bIc. the in inductive reactance goes to the same limit. Because Inductive effects vanish for a dc source sud! as a battery. '.__ •• J .3 J. It depends on both the size ofthe inductance and the frequency of the generator.
00n.(20. Energy is IIltemately stonlClmd released as !he magnetic field alternately grows and dwindles. I '!" The ooncept ofindactiw~..] = YlR involving resistance R. and contains I()()() closelyspaced 1/Inf8. Enmple 20.. AltbouPboch die cum:at aud the potentia1 difference vary with anpl.. the power vmu widl angular fi'equency 14'.lsllllrCe o/theeoilwQI . 17re r. The average power delivered is zero.] audP are _ _ . .2S. FialO.(20.. .•. sin (Qf cos {IX = rot V' Y' 2wL sin 2 (Qf .lIlIows usto.iDtroduce aD induetoraaaloa tolbecqulllion ==X L Y . Compare tlte inductive 1WM:1tIIrI.•.red to be 1.S em.e at /00 Hz with tlte ruisllllrCe 0/ tlttcoU.!.33) The instantaneous power delivered to the inductor is p= Yl =.Jtfr~tbat ~}I'd~e of a solenoid ~ IeDgth is large c:ompared to II: Ji2" A1 L L=_o 41~ . :::. ... and diQlMJerill.34) ~~ oCr.6: A ceriailr &olerwid with Mtlling III /18 Interior ""' a length o/2Sc".'. Aluwrey 6!. .
... ...'....«"necled 10 an IC .. .~? .. a... ....... COl tilt wefiudthat qsiu(Qf+.4 LCR Cireaits Let . 111 DOW conclude our di l e"011 of imped_ by COI1Iideriua III line eJemeuts ..8_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2.) t»Z Y...r aguide........ ..ctrlcaI fNrtIa. INTEXT QUESTIONS 20.t... ... . ........1IIIde\enaiued JIlt....3S} This equatioa is identical in fonD to 1IuIt of I forced bannoiIic OlK'j11ltor. why lIIIJJlId)'OllGptCI ilreClll'tlllIn QIIIn i6 :M to QII ac.. J 8'I/~C' 'WGI cltt. QJIII_'" . We write .2"(100 ~) (2.. .. . AnI1ysiI of1bU cIrcut it .. ..a. ...able 10 ..... .. A....2Sm =2..rcicfRiRd1# QII...) HIm (1000)2" (0....012S)2m 2 0.. .r 1M I/"""""'.... .. R C L '"siu(Qf+.. .. .1s the ndios.1)H (~) =I. to Ikc..SS 0 The iJiduelive reII:tIIIce of1bU IOhIIoid lit 100Hz . . .26 ).. . N is lh«Iumber oftums.... ...47 x 10. an iDductor. .20... hr "ction 20. .... .... ... ....r.. . ..3. . .... ad L is the .... flltlliuaie residw..a resistor. .6...·JorwIO that for !be RC audRL circuits... .. '416...... In a cin:uit dia&nua it wou1ct 110 _ _ u ~ You may bOW like to test your wlealllliDll oflbeee idea Try tbe 1bIIowiuc eun:iIes.(20.... and a ClplCitor ... (Pia. AII!!I!Ii"l that...... . . Ulbrg tIIiI a.. . Such circuits are vt:ty useful in electronics.. Y..) with q and......Physics wheTe. a:e L ~~~~~~ (4x x 10. 20.. ... ....i... . ...47 x 10'H The inductive reactaqcc at a frequeucy of 100Hz is XL = wL . .
.. and c ••. X..(20.t+') R ' " ».. (20... R /1Ifd 1M flliJJJlltJ.  J Y.40) z y VL = .36b) Fig.(20.t +. ... meaning that there is no capacitor in the circuit.pp .42) . meaning that there is no inductor in the cin:uit.(20..{20. &lid Xc tend to cancel in !he impedance eqlliltioJi is a consequence ofthe phase relations discussed earlier. then we arrive at Ihe solution we obtained for the RL cireuit.X. That X..•(20.) "Consequently. .II rf "'"". RLe _ .368) aad tan.(20.(20.fiz ... "'" ' .37) ..= ~Rcos(o. . Ibm we arrive at the solution for an RC cirellit. is " " " ' ' .(QL [ JJ ita .. .... for this LCR cireuit are identicat in form to those for the RC and RL circuit.. the relations for Ihe lIDS values for current and potential differences are Ullaltered: .41) ~ 1_ R for the resistor.: ". =  Xcx.38) ...17: oil "rutI/rtI" . 20.27 shows the "useful" triangle for an RLe circuit..)IRJ.(20."pilau tIIIg/.)( L sin (o..· X..... R .39) ....: COS(II¥+.. Note that ifXL = O.lI rf'""..t+') Z y V.43) 417 ...X .by ..) Z V V.Here. we define the impedance Z as 1 Z = R'+CI1C ."'" [(}Ct. = )(Csin(o. And ifXe =O. Y 1= . The C4iifiUions for current and potential d i f f _ .
an inductor. and angular frequency co play important roles in the power delivered.. If the impedancde Z is large at a particular anguIar frequency. Average power = 2Z _M_ [ '" cos • + sin (rot + q/2] . Simi1arly. We can confinn this by calculating the power delivered by the generator. COS((l/t++)] .44) These relations involving all three components also include the RC and RL circuits and the singly connected elements as special cases. However. For example.1 when only a resistor was connected tot!te ac ge. =_M_COS+ V' 2Z 2 418 .ndIM:tor connected to an DC generator reversibly stores and releases )D88JIeti<. (20. " Let us now calculate the power in an LCR circuit.J>hysics v =  =J~ XL for the inductor.~ measures how the combination of elements impedes (or limits) ac current. an ac scneratQr deUvClfS anet amount of en«gy whOl connected to a resistor.. When a resistor.Jl!I. There is not net CDCraY delivered by the generator. P = VI ~ v~cos CLI/[ .(20. (a) Power in the LCR Cireuit You know that a CBpal:itor connected to an ac pnerator reversibly stores and rele8sese1ectric energy.. implyingthat+=O. .. an i.nerator. ThenZ= Randtan+ =0.:  . it is still only the resistor that causes a net energy transfer. and we tindthat . removing the inductor and capacitor is equivalent to setting Xc =0 and XL =0. The instantaneous power is the product of the generator output and the current that results.:xadly as in Sc'Ction 20..4.etgy. .45) The phase angle.. The enCf8Y is transformed into thermal energy in the resistor.. and a capacitor are connected in series with an ac generator. '. then the powa' will be small fot all values of the time.. There is no net ener8Y delivered by the generator. This is consistent with the idea that imped.
~ . (i)R = 1000.. " (I) = II ~= II" (1. . C= 1.natura1 frequcoc:y for swiqiDg . =X sotbatthe imp' t ... [ hare Mradls =Mega radls = 10' radls} 1.00 Mradls. Since the product LC is the same for each case.. fur tbe • 0• c. CandY'> fixed:Eq...wD by C8C IOUI1:C it the pbmomenon of Resonanc:e is a comlllOll· feature of systems duIt haw a ~ to oscillate at a particular natura1 froqucacy. L = 1.ou. a circuit is predominantly. then the amplitude of tbe Cl"Ci"·tjno is 1!Il'&C' A fiunjljar ""amp!o: is a dWd OIl _ pIaygmuod ~ The c:biJd ~ on.00 mH)(l. " "CI.._X c . c:b¥ Suppose we haW _ .itivc. Fig.11 However.....' . tile ODIylarge component of the " C1ltI'!!Ilfis the~ dIat~De8t ".H. IIDIl in the lower curve.so 'i lne ramo tbIt ciu:uitis..4riven at !DIlDY freclIIeIIi:iflS. The IllltenQ' is the soun:e in the tuDin& ci'rcuit.l1Je cirmit ". (It) RltJtJQ.. I a ..&JMt~.L =/Iw. . L. If lIIJdI _ . Consider. Thereisa'paI1icularfrequenc:yatwbichK. • u for ..'.yllealci. drivea by III energy source 'at a ftequenc:y that is near the DatUral frequcoc:y. and the current is limited maiply by its inductive reactBDee. .c' 'J}. as.athe aJDplitude of the ~ will be Jarac. . = lOOV.I = Y IR. The tuning ~ of _ radio or television set 13 an example of _ circll1t with . If the pulls ontbe ~.l. Notic:c that m.. tilc.~.pl~ 1.37 shows duIt tbe c:umDt amplitude fslimited by the~oftbecircuit.IR.series LCR cimlit driven by an ac: source whose fioequeIiI:y c:aa be Yllried.2Q. = JlaC.." . MadIa .00 nF. _/I1ICe.It is often c:alle4 the cimlit's MllIItlIlIIfIlldIIr frefllDlCY. Ifill Y. . 20. = Y. 0.reso&IIIlJ O. The other quantities arc the same for each curve : Y. ..S • &equency.at. L 1.00 nF) = 1.iI __ .S tAW """'1 . This angular frequenc:y is represented by the symbol CD. 101'" O.~ .F. vht:reZ =[It' + (XL Xcf'Jf siDl:eXL =et.ompared with tbe circuit with R =200 OAt li'eq1"'Mies IIIIdlleas circuit with R =100 than (I). in the upper curve.C_. aDd the c:urnut is limited IIIIinIy by ill capacitive reaclallU.JIas . .20. At ~ce .."' An interesting aDd useful characterii&ic of~~ RLC c:in:uit dri.SMent ~is also the same. and is eaIled the reso_4IIgl11tu~UIfcy. eisminimum c at Z = [R' + (0) 1]"1 = R. • cimIIt is JMecbninandy inductive.:z 0 thc'cimntll _ _nt bqu!rocy~.1IDIl forth.!be current amplitude is maximlDll at I. is given by the . 419 JI.UsingK. tbe ".the c:mreut amplitude I .0 (i) ..oo. we haw w.28 shows graphs of 1m versus ro for two cases. _ 01. = YjZ. (ii) R = 2000. of a acCeptI signals from Il\lIIlY nearby statio!!s.id~.. discriminates _piasa signals not near ita Y. Eac:hcurve exhibits a maximum cumul at_fC1O!UII!l frequency.(20.oo.**. anten. . =Xcat w= w... Thus the cwrent amplitude at resonance is twice as . (Q R lfIIID. we chimge tbe tiequeDcy wbilebepiDg OIlIer quantities (R.car '~ When CD =(l)o.. At frequencies much greater thaD CD.00 mH.~~ aDdtbe freq~ of the pulls iI~ die sapIC as the natura1 ~ ofswiDgjng.~ .46) same expressi6D as the angular frequency of oscillation for the LC circuit with DO resistor or source '(Eq.l 7b) .
... . 1hus btet.It. prvrided by the 7 I. die . IlUrl'IIIt." monet fiequeacy.. die ~ peak.\ _in It. we have "'''wed J" craar P ... fi:equeDcy CII•• Tbe IiIouII1IiJI. you V8lY the CllpllCiIllllce of. iDEq.45) for die mui_ JICMW cooditiaa... .. flequu:y equalsdlellllturll ~. . . we obiain die avenae JICMW delivered by die a:rator for differatt of die liIgular fIequeacy enlhown in Fig. ftequaIcy en•.. Driviaa die c&cait It die IIIturIl hquIIIcy of OIClDIIdm produI:ft a m . . a ndio is limed ia to a pII1icuIar IIIIIioa by die . I.. A 1IIIrOW~ peak _ _ tliat ~ is efficiently cIelivend to the cimJit for oa1y avery nmownmp ot~iea.ctlll like R .. aDdlllJlllOllllbea. JICMW i I _ wIIIIl die ... 0). 1'1nIiDIa Radio AI WI IIIid .. ""15 D7li. a madwnj<:all)'lllmit ib IIIIInI ftequIa:y of OIClI!ldbt in to pIOcIuce a maiIDuIn wlocity. TiiIs IitIaIioa iIJ~ ""1J8OUI todrMJla . 4NItIW.'. . 7 ~ boI:oInaI WQ' IIq (. condition in a resonant ~ Fex:a )IIII'ticuIIIr LCR tImiag c:ircuit. . . .. (20.... ~iI die _ ~iciI . vu The power falls off sharplya•..for Ibis LCR c:ircuit iI . Tbe . .. .. ofOlCl)!et!on of lID LC circuit.45)....u die . This VIIriea the ftIIIMWII fiequaacy of the cimJit so tim it matcbea the III1d14iItiDa hqueacy ofthe IIIdiaa yua'Wilh'fO~.N L 420 .. ~ illiwayapoGtiw(ex: _)... let III detIrmIne the·eurrcai. (d.47) WCHIOWllbowbrietly that it iladVmtageousto have J(Z qL« I...." what an rma potential diffeietic:e or.•.. (e) Power DiUYend lit . . ... . IIIId C 3. 1.{20. ...29. O.OS V i..SO Q ...mt of a capacitive reactance or an illductive reactance to achieve a ..bove or below the n:scw.. . . i. . f'requmcy 'III) i I . YoabavejIJIIlllUdie4thatdlereaoa. TIkiDsJ(Z ClL =10'"'.. 20.tier. . (20.4S rE..~ R . ' frequencies .. . _ III" 0 aDd o+a mailDlQ ~ Tbe D'IlI'P'Q ~ occun benen. 11'1' •. . Wbm you tuDe • ndio...nee I 7 I t 7 7 I "": ' . fw Qlaldmu~. EveJuetbtcEq.• tuaiDa cireuit. like appearauce of the power venus fIoequeaI:y plot iDIpires its name.... ....jmumin tbeamplftude ofdle cumat. J1IO"!.
4.2 x IO'HZ produces only 13..05 V ata tiwqueul:y of7.2 x 10'Hz. fI x 3. the nus current for this IIOllNSOIIIIII: frequcPcy is . '" 2x x 7.4S X 10" F) 112 then o .._ O. .2 j!A when connected 10 the sam\! LCR circuil.407 x 10' 6.~d. I =  "R = .)'] III =[ IS()2 + (6. There is a sharp response of the circuit at the resonant frequency.786 x 10'0 x me c 1 1 21t x 7..00)( 10'Hz ClI This frequency lies in the amplitude modulated broIdellSl band.40 '" 1()6 J1Id is v·!. A 0.0 )( IO'HZ produces a current of333 j!A.=( IS x 10 . x.05 V signal at a frequency of7.05 V signal at the resonant frequency of 7.78S )( 10')2] 112 =37930 Then.407 x 10'0 Z =[R' + (XcX. At _nee !be impecI_ 'equals the cimlit resistance Z '" R = I SO 0 . First we dctermiiIe the impedance at this frequency.45)( 10 IlF 6.=333 0. Hence !be nus c:urreat is.2 "A I A 0.2 x 10' radls x IS )( IOJH =6.2)( 10 ' radis )( 3.OSV 1==  Z 3793W = 13. .05 " ISO "A To see how the current chanaes for a sJisbdy different tiwqueul:y• let us oompute !be cumnt in the same: cin:uit for an rms input of 0. 2x = 7.
.7 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT • An emf or a cum:nt is induced in a COIx!UCting surface if the IJI&8I1eIic flux linking the surface changes.. source. cross . L. is giVeD by : . .~ and the current lags the v~ltage by a phase of 90". • = =. In """ rwb 1be average poweris P = V ... r If the angular fre~uency ro of the source is the same as Ihe circuil'5 I'C5Oll8Ilt angular frequency (0..• I Q) ~ • vLC • • • In a circuit with an a. The changing currents in two near by Co. ' ..12R In a purelY:CIIpIlCitive circllit. this is the phenomenon of eI«trt1l1ff1gl1Cfic ""'wid8.e . In an LC circuit.: tR' where Z is Ihe impedance of the circuil: Z= [R2 + (XLX. such as a coil.!lfthe induced emf(induced c:um:nt) is such as to ~ the chanae in flux which produces it. • The CUI1'eIII in an LR circuit with.) R • • Where UR is the inductive time co. a selfinduced emf exists. the cuntnt leads the voltage by • phase of 90'. If the C1lI'mII ~ in a circuil element. = II Le. .c... = + 2 . ".. tigbtly·woundsolenoid oflength t.. (1. L·CR·· In a senes CircUli connect.scillate sinusoidally with the same anguIar frequency 0>.. = 0 and the impedance has a minimw:q valUe Z= R with a maximum cUITCI\llm =1'JR. 10. then X. In a purely inductive circuit. the ai: voltage and c_ _ are in phase. the . + 1be average power in such a ciieuit is p. 1flM = (f )R . (rot + +> In a purely resistive circuit = 0... & I (I) = . dt • • • is Ihe IIIII/lIldic flux linIQng the 1oop. = + (XI' ~ X ) ') If! + l! • • + I!.nstant o...ils mutually induce an emt in each other. soorce of ~ emfs. For a long. . According 10 ~'s~.. The induced emf sin a single loop is given by FfII'IIIItIy'lIll1w: E= • d+. JV1A L= . " I.section A baYing Nnmnber of turns it· is given by where+.X. an ac source ••.ltage across the source is given by I' = 1'_ coSto/and I = I. Thus. the charge on the capacitor and the cum:nt in the circuit o.20.. =.% z.f the circuit.)')'" • .!. 1be average power in such a Circuit is zero. the vo. 1be average power in such a circuil is zero .
Fig. Determine (a) the reactance of the capacitor.30 b when a clockwise current as seen from the left is suddenly established in the larger loop. 20. (d)' the phase difference between the voltage across the source and the current.6 TERMINAL QUESTIONS I. what is the mutual inductance of the ignition coil? •. The amplitude and angular frequency of the source are 6S V and 33 kradls. This current is interrupted periodically by a switch. .30 (b) a) If the number of turns in a solenoid is doubled."rrp .30a what is the direction ofthe induced current in the loop when the area of the loop is decreased by pulling on it with the forces labelled F? B is directed into the page and perpendicular to it. b) Calculate the maximum and rms currents in a 22/lH inductor connected to a 5V (rms) 100 MHz generator.0 X Io! m' . b) What is the direction of the induced current in the smaller loop of Fig. 20. If the current in the coil is interrupted every 0. A series RLC circuit with R = 5800 • L = 31 mHo and C = 47 nF is driven by an ac source. The sudden change in current induces a large emf in the coil with more turns. by a battery not shown? ? x:)x F:C> F i x x x x x x x x x ) x x x x x x (a) I.4. (c) the impedance of the circuit. which is an arrangement of two coils wound tightly one on top of the other.IF capacitor connector to an ac . : 28.71 sin 377 t JIA Determine the maximum voltage across the capacitor.. by what amount will its selfinductance change? b) Petrol in a vehicle's engine is ignited when a high voltage applied to a spark plug causes a spark to jump between two conductors of the plug.a) Calculate the capacitive reactance (for C = 2 /IF) and the inductive reactance (for L = 2mH) at (i) 2S Hz and (ii) 50Hz. Current from the vehicle's battery flows through the coil with fewer turns. (0 does the current lead or lag the voltage across the source? ~:  423 . and this emf drives the spark. a} In Fig.0 A and supplies an emf of 24 k V to the spark plugs.5 V'! (b) Ifthe flux is due to a uniform magnetic field at 45° from the axis of the coiL what must be the rate of change of the field to induce that emf? 2..Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current. and (e) the current amplitude. A typical ignition coil draws a current of 3. 6.8.< mven by /= .10 ms. 20. Each loop in 112S0twn coil has face area S = 9. This high voltage is provided by an ignition coil. (a) What is the rat~ of change of the flux linking each twn of the coil if the induced emf in the coil is 7.. a) Why is the rms value of an ac current always less than its peak value? b)1be current in a 2.5 J. (b) the reactance of the inductor..
7.
8.
What is electromagnetic induction? ExplaiJI. the Faraday's laws ofeIecttomagnetic induction. State Lenz' s law. Show that Lenz's law is a consequence of law of conservation of energy .. What is self  induction? Explain thephysic:al significance of self  inductance. Distinguish between the selfinductance and mutualinductance. On what factors do they depend? What is the source of induced e.m.f. in electromagnetic induction? Explain. How much e.m.f. will be induced in a 10 H inductor in which the current charges from lOA to 7 A in 9" 10" s.? Explain why the reactance of a capacitor decreases with increasing frequency. whereas the reactance of an inductor increases with increasing frequency? What is impedance of an LCR series circuit? Derive an expression for power dissipated in a.c. LCR circuit.
9. 10. II. 12. 13. 14.
424
21
ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND ITS TRANSMISSION
21.1 INfRODUcnON
. Electricity is by far the most popular fonn of energy.. It exists in nature but in nonusable fonn. You must have observed dwing rainy days the douds producing lightning thunderbolt that c;ontaiDs millions of volts, you know that this type of electricity cannot be used. How do you get the electricity at your bome? At once you will say that it is from electricity boards, power houses, like Delhi Vidyut Board, Bombay Electric Supply and Transport etc. Tbese are the supply undertaking. They only distribute the electricity received from generating stations which convert different foons ofenergy into electrical energy e.g. thermal, bydroelectric, nuclear power etc.
As you know that geocration of electricity may take place some bundereds of kilometer'.s a\''llY from your place, at sites, where the facilities are available' like dams, coal mines, natural ps and oil reserviors. eel. From generating station to power bouses (distributing agencies) and from !here to your bouse. transmission of power is done througb wires (transmission lines) and transformers whicb carry them from one place to the other. In this lesson you will learn on how the electricity is produced using different sources and bow the electric power is being carried from generating plants to your home?
21.2 OBJECfIVES
After studying this iesson,you will should be able to :
• • • • • •. • •
#xpIain principle. COIIStruction aJfd working ofA. C. genuators (alternators) aJfd D.C. . generators (dynamo); differentiate between the two types ofgenerators; differentioJebetween motor and generator; state the principle on which trtmsformerworks; explain'the COft3truction and working ofa tran.Jjormer; differentiate between a steplip aJfd a stepdown transformer; write the uses oj fran.Jjormer; aJfd understand the problem ojlow voltage and load sheding.
21.3 A.C. AND D.C. GENERATOR (ALTERNATORS AND DYNAMO)
One of the most important SOUl'Ce$ of electrical power is the electromagnetic soun:e called genel'lllOl'. A generator is a device that converts _chemical energy into electrlcal.energy with the help of magnetic field No other source of electric power can produce as 1arge amounts ofel~~wer as the generators. A conductor or a selofconducton isrotaredin a magneti~ field and voltage are lieveloped in the rotating conductor due to elemomagneti.c induction (about which you have studied in the previous lesson). The CIICIBY for the rotaIion of the conductors can be suppl~ by diesel. steam, water falls or even by nuclear _tots. Accordingly. we have diesel generators, hydrogenerators, thetmal generators and atomic generators. There are two types ofgenertlfOrs (iJ alternating current generator or A.c. generator also called alternators. (ii) direct current generator or D.C. generator or dynamo. Both these generators wor\.s on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
21.3.1 A.c. Generator or Alternators
Basic principle: A generator basically involves a loop ofwire rotating in a magnetic field. In Fig 21.1 we show a rectangular loop of wire H placed in a Wliform magnetic A field. As the loop is rotated along an horizantal axis. the o magnetic flux through the loop changes. To see this. recall that the magnetic flux through the loop as slown in the fignre in given by
o
• (t) = B.
6A
Where B is the field. ~ is a Fig. 21.1 : Reclangvlar loop "1fIDIJjWd. unit vector normal to the plane of the loop and A is its area. If the angle between the field direction and the loop is denoted bye,
p1"
q,(t)=ABcos6
1
When we rotate the loop with 8 constant angu1ar velocity CD, the angle 9 eiuonps as
6=6 +rot •
Thus. the flux through the loop c'8es in the following _
.
• (t) =AB cos (8. + rot)
426
Now, using Faraday's law of el~c induction, we can csJcuIate the emfinduced in the loop to be, .
..
E(t) ='d(=mABsin(9. +Cllt)
iI+
Thus, a sinusoidal emf is produced in the loop. In this 1D8IIl1eI", the mechanicsJ energy of rotation is converted into an emfwbich can be used to derive current in an external circuit. The emf induced through a coil with N IlUDlber oftums is given by, e(l) =N m.4B sin (9. + rot)
COlUtnlCtioa : When a loop of wire is rotated in a JIIII8IIdic field it develops a, voltage across its terminals as discussed above. The natun: ofout put voltage hss the form of a sine
wave.
An A.C. geacratorconsists offourparts as shown in Fig. 21.2, (i) Armature. (ii)Fieldmagnet, (iii)SIiprings. (iv)Brushes.
(i) Arm 'or: AmIaIure is a coil oflaJge number of turns of insulated copper wire ,,'ound on a cy1indricsJ soft iron drum. It is capable ofrotating at right angles to magnetic field on a rotclI' abaft passing tIuoush it along the axis ofthe drum. This dnim of soft iron scn.es two purposes (I) support the coil. and (ii) increases the IIIIIgIIdic induction through the coil. Arllflltfln
I'I1II* ill " ",.1U!Ilc jNld
*IIdWIJy " coII«tIDII 0/iIIdiIcItJn (coil) _1UIIaI 011 " ,"tift ""d IImIIfgor to wltlt "JII'Ol'I6/OI' coII«:tIttg "or Cllrrtlllt ;IIduad ;11 ,"or
iIIdtrdiOII coli. A Simple loop or tum
of wire connected to rings may be conSi~d as the simplest form of
armature
J
Annat1ire coil
~
.
.'ic!d II1lISDct
(li)Fltild MQlld : Field magnet provides a magnetic field. through R, (Slip rin&) which the COIIductin& loop IU'I'III8Cd on Load rcUar a central hub aad formilIa the armalure RoIatiq shall are carried, or the flux amed through them. so tbatthey are successively filled and emptied of mapetic lines.· The HaIKII. m'aanotic field i. produced by a ,.,.. 11.J: C<Wlru<1;"" oj .4.C'. ge"""''''' pem!llleD.tmapet In case ofvCl)' ~ low power Le. pnmators and by olectromljplet in the case of big altcmators.
1M I'fQ/ dbtbri:titRr hetw«11 Oil arrrttIIIftandj/.Idmagn.r II drat 1M _j/tlldmagnflt II pI'Ope,.1y I' to tIrlIt pt which wMIM,.lItat101fQ1)' 01' _MlIg. IffIlIIttaIns its magntttilm 8tt1ady tIvrbtr opmlIion. tM _ ",.maturelll' to tM part which. whettrer ",vo{vl", orfix __ 116 "."",.tt.rm changed ill Q ",pI",.1y ",pear_jallhioll Whell the IffIlChillfl is ill "rOtiOrI.
(Ill) . . . . . : A device for c,!Jsjng a1ler11ating current .ated in lImalure to flow in the cin:vit. 'IbeIe are two metal rings to which the two ends oCthe armatures L"e connected. Theac rings _ fixed to the abaft as shown in Fig (21.2), They are insulated from the shaft as well .. rr each odIen.
..,..1IrUIh
427
(Iv) BrllSlta: These are two ftexiblemetal Ol"QI.'bon rods (B, audBz{Fia 21.2), whichue fixed and coustantly in touch widt revolving rings.Jt is widt !be help of.... \IruaIIcs!hat the current is passed on from !be annature aud rings to !be main wires which supply !be
current to me outer cin:uit. Wol"Idag : The PIiDFiple of1lVOl'lduttof an AC. ~ will be made cleansing Fig.
21.1 and Fig. 21.3 (a), (b) & (c).
.
Suppose !be armature coil AHCD rotates in !be IIDIiclockwise dIn=eIim. As it rotates, !be magnetic flux linked widt it changes aod !be current is jnchvwf in !be eoiI, !be dim:Iion of which is given by Fleming's Right band rule. Cooaidaing!be IIfIIIIIIUIe to be in !be vertiele position and as it rotates 8IIIiclockwise, !be wire AH move cI!Jwa 'MIld liliiii DC .es upwards, the diJection of Wduc:c4 emf is from H to A liliiii D to C i.e., in !be coil it flows along DCHA. In the external circuit !be current tlowa aloog B, L 0. VIS. 21.3 (a). This direction of current ~ the same durIns!be tint half tum ofthe 8I1IIIIIure•. During the second balfrevolution, Fig. 21.3(b), the wireAH·_ upward while the wires CD moves downwards. The current flows in the directionAHCD in the IInIIIlIft coil i.e~ !be diroction of induced cumnt in !be coil is Je'IIer8ed. In !be external cin:uit !be current flows along B2 L BJ• Therefore, the 4irection of the induced emf IIId the current cbaDges in !be extemaI circuit also after every half a revolution. Hmee, the current thus producecl is altemating in nature Fig. 2 t.3 (c).
v
~TrTrt
n.. 21.3 : WorIdIrg of"" A..c. ... _.
The arrangement of slip rings and brushes creates· problems of insulation and sparking when large output powers are involved~ Tberefore, in most praetical geoerIitOrS the field is rotated and the lU'DIature (coil) is kept statiorwy. In such a genintor 8I'III8ture coils are fixed permanently aroll1ld!be inna circumferaJI:e of!bellousius of!be geDellItOI while !be field coil pole pieces are rotstedon a abatl wi1hin !be statjorugy armatun:.
21.3.2 Dynamo (D.c. Generator)
A dynamo is a machine in which the mochanlcal energy i.r changed Into electrical e1lllrgy in theform ofdirect current. You m"usthave seen dynamo attached to the bic:yc1e fur lightening purpose. In CIlCIKY automobileedyuamo ba &dual fiIIICIioo fw ligbtnriD8_dwqjiag the batterey.
The essential parts of dynamo are : (1) field magnet, (2) armature II1I(I (3) ~!!1!""Ol"split rings. .
 .··.. . ..·":":428::
A"_JIf'I"" JlM...""'" 1It.._ ....... _ ._. ""atBw _, .",/rik '" tII/ttJnJot",. •
lIt<ItioIIdry
c..... .. _ fIIIrnMP., tJ/etatlw:ton tJ/_IoJl '" pipG. Tfw,..,.. .... atIIJIi '" dttIa,.. _ " , . _ q f l l i  , to 1_10" JriaIwr_ ..",. ........ _jiwldttlfIIa/. Notlo.'_ _ iIIdttI _ _, _
~
obtained ie.. _ _ ill ~ (R«er; _
....,. ctlllflitlotl ill .....ny dttIjWJ....., (nJttw;_. A a,.. . . orprot/wa ... 1IttbtcItI _ _ whicIr _ . _ tJ/««:triciIy 10
ill.
fIr""~""jWJ"'!I'¥
lIt. _.,fone_,,_ _fl.,
Ib
iIIllte_.
;"'0
............... MMric",......wikllu •• ' ....... '''.r .W:osifiGnlOdwt:lll7Wlljlow
an""""',....;or qpirut"" Not _ _ dw to
Tfw_prtJduca_"rWI_~for
_ _ _ N _101_
...,.111.
Basic prindple: Basically all generators are A.C.geumators, but !be A.C. wave form or the sine wave produced by an A.C.ge:nerator cen be converted into D.C. fOnD by the commutator and brushes. A commutator consists of two semicylinderical pieces of conducting materials sperated by an~ 1JIIIterial. The brusbes are made up of soft conducting material tbat cen euiJy slid 011 1bc c:omm'JIafor surfate.. Each half of 1bc commutator is connortM pa,,_"11y to 0IIII cad of1bc loop and 1bc c:ommutator rotates with the·loop. Each blush presses against one sep1eDIlJf 1bc commutator. The brushes remains statiCllllty while 1bc ~ lalor rotales. The brushes press against opposite segments of the. commulalor and every time the voltage reverses polarity. brushed also switch from one segment of commutatmto 1bc oCher. This means IInt8MI that one brush always developes positive polarity and the other. negativepo1arity with lWIIpOI:tlo eM:h ~_ _ _ ClOIMIIMta' 0 olher. Although the voltage . dWeloped 1ICRl!III1bc bnIsbes wiD be tluctuatiDg. It will a1ways have 1bc same polarity and a D.C.1'luctuatin8 voltage. The varialiaIs in 1bc volIage produced by a sin8l~ roIaIin& loop is ca1led a ripple which m8kea 1bc output ua'lUitalMror any practical applications. The ripples cen be reduced either by !be use of a filler neawdt (]I' by !be use of' rotating loops 8I1'IIIIgecl at right angles to each other. The '  ends of each loop are connected to two sepemIe segments on the commuIaIoI' wbich now bas four segDIe"ts SiDce 1bc 'loops are positioiled at right. angles to each otherwben 1bc voltage in one loop is dec!easing, 1bc voltage in the other loop is increuiDg, and vice __ This makea _output voltage 8CI03S 1bc two brusbes mare steady willi lea variation and less ripples than in 1bc case of a single loop. By using mare and _loops instead of one, 1bc ripple in 1bc generator 0UIpUt cen be further reduced .
CoIIIti iidIoa of D.C. paentor: Direct cumut Dynamo or a DC dyJuuno bas almost the same alIIIIrUCtion u tbat of an A.C. dynamo but it dift'ers from 1bc latter in one respect. In place of slip rings we have sot '  split rings R,and It,'Which sre 1bc two half of the same ringu sbownln Fig.21.5 (a). Theendof1bc atmature coil are~ to these rings and the ring rotates wilb 1bc annatun: and chuIge 1bc contact with the brushes B, and B2 • This part of the dyJuuno is known U CMIIIIJ fF' ".
m
t
429
Physics .
Workbag: The workiDgofaD.C. dyomnois similartotbat ofanAC ODD. Let1hccoil be rotated in tbe clockwiao dim:tica. .The c:umrIlI: procluI:ed in 1hc _ .... is AC.· .... commutator changes it intoD.C. in 1hc out« eimlit. fa 1hc first baJf cycle, Pia 21.5 (a). cmrent flows along DeHA. The ClII"ftlIIt in tbe extemaI circuit flows aloag B] L B:Jo In 1hc second half, FiS. 21.5(b), cUt'reIit in 1hc armature is revened and flows aJona AIICD and aa the ring R, comes into Contad withfhe brush b, \IDd 1hc ringRz comes into ~ withB. the current flows from B, toB, aloagAHCD. Thec:ammtin1hcextlDrnalcin:uit . . . 1iCIID B, to B2 • Thus, the current in 1hc extanal circuit always flows in __ dilec:tioo. The cmrent produced ir the outer cfrcuit is graphic:ally .cpt (IN in Fig. 21.5{c) aa 1hc coil is rotated from the vertical position. perpcmdicolarto the III8Jl1dic:Ws offon:e. The c:ammt generated by a such a simple D.C. dynaino is unidirec:tiODal but its value wries cmsidcrably and even falls to zero twice during each rot8tioD of1hc coil.
~j l i~ elat.! ~~, . \.. I .. ,
BnaIM
~15 ",,", ."
"'a
.E
1;
E.N.F.
/   ' of RubIIiot. ' or Coil
.
\ ,,' \.
(.,
'
o u.:
I
(E.N.F. In 2CoII O.c.
~(b)
o,n.no,
I
I
ui
2
One step towards overcomi!lg this objec:tion would be to IJIIe two c:oils, at riJbt angles, and to divide the commutator riug into four sec:tioaB, tlOIIIIDCtecIlO the · __ oftbo coils. In such a case both these coils produce emf oftbo __ type but they cilfer ia pbue by It 12. The resultant current or emfis oblaiaed by IIIIpeI'pOIitio oftbo two .. sIIowa(Fi&21.5 (c». In this way the fluctuations are much reduced. Similarly, in order to get allilldy current. we use a large numberofcoila eachconsistiDgofgooclmany turDs. The cmnmUlOr ring is divided into as many segwenl8lS tbo nomher of. . of ooiJa, SO tbat tbo CoII...wdt indepentlently and IeIICIs a eurrent into the 0\lIer clmdt. 1be l'tIIIltaat 0IImIDt obtaIaed is shown in Fig. 21.S (c) which is practically parallel to tbo time axel.
Fig. 21.5. : (a) &: (b) Working ofD.c. g,,,.raIOl', (c) Groph/cQl ~~~;~ :;D,t:~'C:!
INTEXT QUESTIONS 21.1,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
1. Dlsttnqui.rh betwUII fIIIA.C _ D.C.gMW1IIfW;
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ' •••••• ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ••••••••••••
2.
,
WhaJ are the tIr1w .u.ntial ptII16. qfa p1WI'tItar ?
, • , ••• , •• , •••• , ••••••••••••••• '0 ........ 0.0 ............
o ••••••••••••
3.
Why do lH ",. Q conrmtdatOl' in Q D.C. pnllratOl' ?
• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 0 ••••
4. 5.
In which type ofpnerator Ilip rhtg or Q Iplltring C01IIIIfIItQIor.are II.bw IIHtI1
· .............................................................. ,
Where do you the "', ofdy1Iamo in daily lifo? , find .
•••••••••••• _• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 • .............................. ,
.... .
•••••
,
.
21.4 TRANSFORMER
TransfOrmer is a device that increases 01' decnasu the ~ 0/Q vol;' 01' t:IIt'mII through electromagtU!tic induction, A transfonru:r,bIS atleast two windiDgs IiDked by • connnon magnetic flux but turns are electrically iDsttlatcd 1iom one'aootbcI'. The traosfurmer windJDg c:oonected across a supply source, which may be an Ie main power or. output of. generator, is called primJI1y witulUrgs. The transformer windingconneded across the load RL is called a st!comIiuy winding. In this winding emf is induced when A.C. is applied 10 the primary. The primary and secondmy windings are said 10 be elcctrically isolated &om each other but magnetically connected or coupled to one another with magnetic flux.
Rasically. a transfonneris a device which transfers electric energy (or power) from aprimary winding to a secondary Winding, There is no electrical connection between the primary winding and the secondaJy winding (s), The primary converts the changing electrical energy in to magnetic energy. The secondary converts the magnetic energy back inlO electric energy.
An ideal transformer is one in which
(i) the resistance of the primary coil is zero; (ii) there is no ftux leakage so that there is the same magnetic flux throughout eacb twn of
the primary and sec:ondary coils; (iii) the secondary coil is an open
circuit.
Construction : Figure (21.6) illustrates the configuration of a typical transformer. It consists of two coils called primary and secondary wound on the core (former) Here. coils of insulated wire are wound around a ring AC ofiron made of the isolated laminated current'il&) sheets instead of a solid core. The source .....>.L.+ff lamination minimize eddy currents in the iron. Energy loIS in a transformer call be reduced by using tbis laminations ofvery "soft" (low carbon) ,(a, iron and wire with langer crosssection or b&' winding tbe primary and secondary circuibl with conductors that ".. : 11.6: 1'rlIrcfpI. d/tJgrGM. G ~ have very low resilltallce.
(b,
Theory: The aecondaty coil of a transformer can have two cases, which are diacussed
(a) SecoDdary DO OpeD eirealt : Suppose the current chanae in the primary. cbanges the . flux through the core at the rate d IIdt. . Then the induced (back)emfin tbeprimarywithN. turns is giveaby.
below.
E,
=N. ~ N: (;,;,) Pdt • (t,t,)
431
Pbysics
and the indnced emf in the secondaIy coil is
E =N '¥=N (;'...:;) , 'dt '(I, I,)
Applying loop equation to the primary
E.
f. ~
,
)=IR=O. =N
~
(,'. R=Oopencirw:it)
:.E =N
d;
(;,;)
'dt
(I, ''2)
From which,
E
...L
='
N,
N
E,
The minus sign indicates that the twoemf"s are in opposit phase.
(b) &ctnu/Juy lUll 011 opm cintdt: Suppose a load resistance R,. is CODIIeCted across tIie secondary, so that the secondaiy current is I, and the primary cummt becomes 1f1hae' it no enetgy loss from the system. .
I..
Power input = power output
E.I=.E.I,
, ,
. I,E,N, So that,  =  = I, E, N,
.r:'=~"
In practice, a nonideal transformer shows some pmwr losses. Euagy "s results from the following causes,
(a) Resistive heating in the copper coils  eoope!' IOID. (b) Eddy current losses in the form of heat of iron core  Eddy CllJ7'enll08e
(c) MagnetisatiOD heating of the core ducing repeabed revenal of magnetization hysleresis loss. (d) Flux leakage from the core. Coefficiut of Coapliac : The portion of the flux that links one c:uiI to the other coil is referred to as the coefficient of coupling. The coefficient of coupling can range from 0 to I. When all the tux is coupled, the coefficient ofci>upliDg is 1. Souletimes it is expressed as a percentage. Thus, 100 percent coupling means coefficient of coupling of 1. Coupling in transformers with lamiMted' iron core is vee)' close to 100 pen:ent. This is • because all 'the flux is CODI:entrated in the hi&h permeability core on wbiI:h the coils are wound. On the other band. air core transformers can have vee)' low coefficient ofcoupling. Coefficient of coupling in an airoore transformer can be CODIrolled by splICing between the coils.
'432
Electric I'm<... GeoeraIion aud irs Tnm!fllission ,
21.4.1 Efficiency of Trauformers
The iron core and the copper coils of a transformer both convert some electric energy into heat energy. ThiS. of course. is why a'transformer heats up when in operation. The purpose of a transformer is not to provide heat but to transfer enell!Y from the primary to secondary. Therefore, any heal proauced by the transformer represents inefficiency. Since, the energy is equal to power times time, the efficiency ofa transformer (expressed as a percentage) is calculated by the following formula: Percent efficiency
1');   x
P
100
p ..
Eumple 21.1,: What is the efficiency of a transfonner that requW$ 1880 '" ofprimory power 10 provide 1730 Wof secondary power?
SoI.do. :
Given
P,=1880W P ..... 1730W
...
. p ..
Pm:cntage efficiency =  . x 100 , , l'pri
%afficiency
=
1730W
1880W
)( 100= 92
Thus. the transformer is 92 % efficient.
In the above example p ..  p .. = (1880  1730) W '" ISO W. the dift'aence bet",_dIe received power and deliVered power is loSt in the tnwsformer. The power Joss ina1lausbmer is caused by l. Hysteresis loss 2. Eddy mm:nt loss
3. Copper(PR)loss
The first two of these losses occur in the transformer core material. The last occurs in die windings. All three convert eleclric energy to heat energy.
As the eDCIIY cannot be created, if transformer works efficiently than as many WIIIts are dev~ in the .........ru..y as . . putidto the pimary; tberefoil:. we have
(E.. l,,) or .Y,I, = "/, (or E,I')
4Y. I, ==ll. ", I,
Where I, and I, are the currents Ihroush the primary and secondaJy coils NSpeaively.
... I, = N, =X ~E,I,N. , Thus when the induced e.m.f. becdines K li!nes the applied c.m. f., the current indw;ed .' . , is 11K the original current.
~ =~
_5
: 433
In 0\: ler words what is gained in voltage is lost in cmteDt.
, ••e efficiency of a transformer is very high. it being between 90 and 96~. It is one of the most efficient machine known. Maximum efficiency is obtained from a transformer when it is fully loaded. For small transformers (less than 10 W), maximwn efficiency may be less than 70 percent. With transformers larger than 1000 W, it is more than 95% efficient.
As the load in the secondary circuit is decreas~ the efficiencyoflhe tranformerde~l'r!ase.J. This is because current flow in a transfonner's primary does not decrease in direct proportion to decrease in the load. The primary current still causes substantial core losses and copper
losses even when the secondary is lightly loaded.
21.4.2 Types of Transformers
There are basically two types of transformers. stepup or stepcIown. Step lIP transformer increao;es the voltage (decreases the current) in the secondary windings. Where as a steptransformer decreases the voltage (increases the current) across the secondruy windings.
do..,,,
Here. you must keep one thing in mind that a transformer doesn't create more energy at the out put (secondary) of a stepup transfonner.. This is because, when voltage increases.. the current decreases in tbe same proportion to keep the power saine.
It should be recalled that mutual induction takes place only when the current/voltage in the primary is varying. If this current/voltage remains constaDt then the transformer can 110\ work. A transformer is a mutual inductor specially tHsignedfor the effiCient ID.change of energy between the two coils.
21.2 : A transformer has /00 turns in its primary winding and 500 turns in irs secondary, winding, If the primary voltage and Cll17'ent are respectively 120 V and J A. what are the secondary voItagtl and current ? Solution: Given N,  100, N,  500. V, = 120 V and 1/ .. 3 A
N, V, =  V,
~xample

N,
=
SOOtums lOOtums
x 120 V =
600 V
N, lOOturns 1,=/, = x3AO.6A. Nz 500 turns
Example 21.3: A trans/ormerrat«i at a maximum power 0/10 kW is wed to conMct SOOO V transmission /I". to a 240 V cl1'cuit.
(a) What is the ratio o/turns in t" windings 0/1" transformer ? (b) What is the maximum current in t" 240 V cl1'cuit ? Solution: Given, VI = SOoov. Yl  240V, .p .. 10 kW = 10,000 W,
(a) 
N,
Nz
I:
= V
V,
V,
SOOOV
E  
z
240V

20.8
(b)
Since,o;,IV to,OOOW
=
=
240 V
434
41.7 A
Electric Power Generation and ilS Transmi....,
':x_pkllA : Mransjormer for .240:}''A.c. input has a primary coil whichwilh 120 rums ClUI laIt~ tiI_m·of 1.5 A witlroutover1reoting.WIrat is the moximUifl ctIn'ent that lhis Ittll1sfQrmer clJll.suppf}·... (A•.• ume Ihal you ccm chome any Icind ofsecondary coil tmd Iltot the outpulload has a Vt!"'low f't!llistonce.) Solution: Ma.ximul1l current can be supplied by Ii onetum secondary. Tran..,lormer ratio 120 : I ; N, : N,
N,
N,
=. J,=120/,=180A
I,
I,
INTEXT QUESTIONS 21.2,,,,.,..,=..,._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I.
2.
Can a /ransfonrierwork on D.C.? Why?
3.
Wio/d;';'; ~;ep;q, i~~~si;;"~; ~ ~'ft i,;;1.; ;;;,;,;d~ 't;;';"',;;;, ;f~? /;in' ~ 'tr~jo;~~' 'h~';e~~' ',~ p,:;;,;;,j, '~u~;';~i~d;~ ~~;';e' ~ i;'; ~~~~~. i~
primary yo/tagera1;"? · .' ................;. .................................................. How do Iheedd}' currellt effect the efficiency ofa transformer? · ................................................................. . Why are high voltage transformers used in pOlI'er lransmission? Why are the high YO/luges from power lines reduced to lower voltages in the city? Who, kind oftrQ1UJformers an used? '
'
i.
5. 6. 7.
.................................................................... ....................... ........................................... ..
Toy trans often use a transformer to supply powerfor the /rains tmd controls. Would this trculsformer be stepup "r a stepdown? · ........................... ' " .................................. ' "
The basic actiOIl of. tronsfonner bas been outlined but th.... are some lII)1Ieries. One straaae mystery is dtat of a doorbell trimsfonner oonnected. dayin. dayout. to mains willi !be primary current ftowing without. we hope. anydillipaDon ofen"'ll)'. Thinkofall th. millioos oflrlllSCannas connected to mains supply waitihg ready to be used ....... some switcb is closed in !be.........,.. En", when !be transformers a.., 'SIaIldin8 by' with the .......doJy cin:uit open•• curreat is ftowiDs in the primary. creaIing flux in the core. BUI, liII1un*Iy, PO OIICIJIY is being COIIIIIIIIed (if we ...ume tbelt1lllsfonner i. 'ideOJ') .......... in a ~primorycoil wbicb bashiab iDcIucuace but th. current is ",2 out ofphase willi the emf ond .... oItho..... curreat is ftowiD&, no power is conswned.
no...mance.
21.5 ELECfRlC POWER TRANSMISSION·
The tirstcentral electric generatiug and distn'butiQg faCility in the world went irIro operation in 1882. It was built by Thomas Edison on Pearl street in New York. city and supplied direct CW'rent at 100 V. ~undeilPOUDd mains to anarearougbly 3.2 Ian (2 miles} in cIiamctIIr. For some years. D.C. eItctricity. was practically the ollly type in use. but today almost all elc4;tricity aeneratedisA.C. (alternating current). .when A.C. systems first appealed. then: were some definite opinions against alternating current. Advocates of D.C. bJ:aoded A.C. as dangerous because of 1he high voltage used.
The development of the transformer and of the induction motor led 10 a change over to A.C. electric poWer system. The transformer provided a convenient WIly to Vary voltages and made high voltage power transmission possi"'e. The A.C. induction molor is simple and
._,
435
_icaL InyclUl'bmnot.dleJllQ4DrSOIldle~"""fiImBnee.&o.lIIIhei·£ . . are i+rle,.".".. In luclulIClWD, theC\llTC!llt in the ailbllwe Of rotClI" i8 inducc6 by Ibe "'8in8l111181""ic field of .....tins CUl"NIlt in the Utionary (statie) field c:oib. .With II current in rotor on a magnetic field, die rofOrI ~ a bee_ rocama.
11.S.1 Transmission of Eleetric Power
You have lesmt about the process ofgeneration ofelectricitytbrougb device known &II AC. .or D.C. generater. You must have come across small unit ofaealiDi" inabops, offices and cinema hall MIen power goes, the maioI is' swi1Ched 0Vet to aeIIII:I. In commereial geoerators which produces power ofmillion ofwatts at about IS kV (kilo volt) is common. These geneniting plants are hundreds killIIII.IIIIIrlIlIWlI)' iam )'OIa' 1DWn or viJJages. Vet)' IaIge tnechanical power (kinetic energy) is, tbezefore, necessary to roIate the rotor which produces magnetic field inside enonnously IaIge coils. The rotors are roIated by wbat are ~. twbioes. These turbines are driven by varioua sources of aIeIKY.
In onIer to minimise C1IITCmt in the ttansmission 1ioes and stilllrlDSmit the desired ~ of electrical energy. power compm:aies use transformers.. As youhave studied in eadiet secIim 1bat with a transformer AC. potential differences can be raised or 10\WI"ed as ~ At a power plam, poten1ial dilferences are made huge (typically 330 kV) and etamIIs are made smaDforpowertrausmission; ThenattheCOllSUDJereudofthetmwnission.lioes,tbepotaJlial di1feraM:es can be lOwered still fuIther fur 1lIe operation of doorbells, nigbt lamp CIX:.
21.5.1 The Role of Transformers in Transmitting Eleetrie Power
Let us see how transfurmer help to minimize thennaI energy Iqsses in tmwnission.lines. In essence, an electric power system consists ofa transfmmerto "stepup" emfattbe aeneraUng site. a transfmmer to "stqHIown» the emf at the consumer end, and a tnmsmissioo. Iioe connecting the two facilities (Fig. 21.7). Atthe generating site, the potentisl dlfl"eaax:e across
Supergrid
1"
...
'ZISW
Superglnj or 400kV
2SlV
..... .w Ii"
Po
33kV
436
Elecuic Power Generation and its Tie, minion
me secondaly winding ofa powerttaofonner is practically 4,00,000 V and in some instauces it is close to 1,00,000 V. If for example, the power from !he generator is 100 MW (I o'W), and !hepotmtial dill:tcn:e across !he secondary windingis4,00,OOOV (=4 x 10'V) , lhena"""mIDg no energy loss, we have for.!he cummt in !he se<xJDdaty winding:
p W'W J==
=250A
V
4xW'V
Ifthe resistance ofa transmission line in II n, then !he thermal power prodw:ed in'!he lines, I'R is (250 x 250 x II) =6875 W. This means that 0.69%of!he powerdelivenled by !he generator is lost as heat Bec:ause of the resistance of !he lines, a potential ditrorem:e is produced across !he ends of each line. This amounts to V = IR = 250 A x 110 = 2750 V. Thus, the potential difference across !he primary winding of !he slepc;\own transformer is 40,000  2750 = 37, 250V. In practice. at the con!\l!Dler end potential difference reduced to 230 V (rms). If!he 100 MW had been produced al 230 V at the power plant then the current would be /"=P/V= HtW1230V=4.35 x 10'A. A wireofsufficienl size tocany this current would be proportionatly heavy and expensive. A diagram ofa typical A.c. power transmission system is shown in Fig. 2.1.7. Notice that til<' bigh voltages used in !he transmission lines. Line losses are due to I'R (Joule heat) losses of the power lines themselves. Although metal wires are used. there is still appreciable resistance, particularly over long distances. For example, heavy ahuniniwn wire has a resistance ofabont 0.3 n per kilometre. Aluminium has almost, ifnot completely, replaced copper in long distance transmission lines because of its lightness, streilgtb and cost. An important point to notice is that the (I'R) Joule heating losses depends on the square of me current and hence our aim would be to keep current minimum so as to keep joule heating losses to be minimum. Therefore, bigh voltages at low currents would be preferable for transmission of power over long distances. Long distaaee Traasmissioa of Elec:trical Power' [n Ihe largest modem power stations, electricity is generated al about 25 k V (50 Hz) and stepped up in !he transformer 10 275 kV or 400 kV for transmission over long.distances. The polential difference is subsequently reduced in substations by o!her transformers for distribution 10 local users at suitable potential difference: 33 kV for heavy industries. 11 kV for light industry and 220 V1230 V lor homes, schools, shops, farms etc. (Fig. 21.7).
21.5.3 Problem of Low Voltage and Load Shading
(a) Low Voltagn: For normal operation ofany electrical device proper voltage is essential. If the voltage supplied by !he suppliers is less then !he desired Voltage, WIl say that the problem oflow voltage bas been developed. In tact low voltage is not hannful to the appliance a.the high voltages. However. due to low voltage almost me appliance will not work properly. .,,, overcome the low voltage problem one can use voltage stabilizers. If the low voltage is with in !he range ofthe stabilizer, you will get constanl voltage. You can use CVT (constant. voltage transformers) also to get COnstant voltage.
(b) LlJtld SlrtUling : As you know that !here· is some supplier of electricity and you are the
consumer. In order to avoide the dangers of burining off'!he transformers the supply undertakings will try to keep !he load 011 the transformer to be within the specified rating. If
4~7
... but on ..JlOwer over long distances? Let us take and examples...... currents of2500 A are typical and the power loSs is about 200 k W per kilometer of cable.. .C... the supplier will either shade off the load by. 230V and 50 Hz)... ...• 0. or they will request the consumefli to decrease· the load by switching off the unnecessaty equipments for lighling and decorati~ healing eqqipmeots ofhigberwattages.. suppose electrical power P has a to be delivered at a potential difference I' by supply lines of total resistance R.. D. Genet. This process is known as load shading.e. .the supply from the power source. wi9> not /ransmit elec/ric power at even higher voltages than thqse normally used since the steJrup depends only OIl the relative number ofwindings on the /ransformer core? 2. IfI400 kV supc:rgrid.. 438' . What is a major disadvantage oflong distance D. V'" Eleclrical power is.... transmitted more economically at high potential difference.the transfomc:r Ihrough which you receive the voltage is heavily loaded than the speoified value.e.induction. A transformer is a static elec1ric device used to \:oovert one alternating voltage to another alternating voliage or voltages at the same frequency by mutual . qUlll1\m. power lransmission? J.... In the case ofload shsding....02% (percent) loss per kilometer.C. genera!i>r (or dynamo) has two pairs ofhalfsplit rings orcommutalor instead of slip rings.The current I=PII'(since P = IY) more correctly (P =1_1'. .ltor works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.... in fact doubling Y.....c/ric pow"r /ransmission are reduced by stepping up the voltage....... i.. Inverters are low frequency circuits which convert direct currrent from battery to alternating current or to voltages of desired value and frequency (i. W1ry is it economical to produce and /rOnsport power through /ransmisaion lines at high voltage rather than at low voltages? 21. The ease and efficiency with which alternating potential dilferences are steppedup and steppeddown in a transfOtmer and the filet that alternators produces muchhigherpotential difference than D..C. the smaller is the loss. thus.. Does the weather qffect power line losses? Explain? 4. the gi'cater 1'.6 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT • • • • • Generator IS a device which converts mechanical energy into eJec1rlcal ellelKY.... the loss... you can use inverters..3_'_ _ _ _.."lJttins. generators (25 kV compared with several thousands volts). .... INTEXT QUESTIONS 21.. Coefficient of coupling between two coils is the fraction of total flux from one coil linking another coil. ._ _ _ _ __ I.the other hand thiscreatesfusulation problem and raises instaJlationl:osl.. " .. are the main considerations influencing the use Clf high alternating rather than direct potential difference in most' situations. Why high potential differences are used to transmit electrical. . Ifthe line losses in eip. cosO) and the loss in the lines = I'R = (P"~R • 'Clearly......... '.
2. why will a steady potential difference not appear across the secondary windings. 6. The power supply for a picture tube in a colour televisiQII (lV) set typically requires \5. 3. < I. The secondary to primary voltage ratio is in the same proportion as the secondary to primaf)' turns ratio i. • • Main sources of power losses in a transfonner are (i) Heating up of the windings which is avoided hy a cooling agcnt or hy using wires which are thick and heavy with less resistance such that iRis less. • V . Suppose the frequency of a generator is increased from 60 H to 120 H. = N ~ Vp Np • In a stepup transformer N. such as a resistor. the bulb in the primary winding will brighten.C.7 TERMINAL QUESTIONS 1.000 V A.inding ofa transfonner. (ii) Secondary winding connected across a load. 21. glows dimly when the secondary leads are connected to a load... why? If the terminals of a battery are connected to the primary winding of transfonner. Two types of transformers li) Stepup: used to increase the voltage (ii) Stepdown: used to decrease the voltage. S. What effect would this have on output Voltage? A motor and a generdtor basically perform oPPOsite functions" Yet some oile makes a ~1atemenl that a molor really acls as a motor and a generator al the same time? Is this really true? Give three ways the voltage output of a genemtor could be increased?' If the line losses in electric power transmission are reduced by stepping up the voltage.l<l P . How can this potential. generator ~ the primary ".e. 10. :J ~. This is greater at higher fr~quencies when air core transformers are used instead. In a stepdown lransf'onner N>N. 9. At low frequencies laminated core is used to reduce eddy current. <ii) Eddy current i. difference be provided if only 230 V are available at 3 household electric oUtlet? 43'1 . > and I. 7.. (i) Primaf)' winding connected across a supply source.e.• • • The transtimner has two windings connected by a common magnetic tlux but e1ectricall) insulated from each other.whetheraftectpowerlinelosses? Explain? Explain how electricity is distributed from the power plant to the user? A Iigbt bulb in series with an A.C. F"r transmission of puwer from a power station to your house transformers and transmission Jines are used. 4.V>V. why not transmit electric power at even higher voltages 1han these normally used since the stepup depends only on the relative number of windings on the transformer core? What is a major disadvantage oflong distance D. 5. current produced in the iron core by the indtlced voltage. > N" r.J. II.C .J p P Y. power transmission? Where are stepdown transformers used in electric power transmission system? Doesthe.
If the secondary is to deliver 15. The secondary delivers 10. generators. field magnet. 4. 23.C. line. Would two coils acts as transformer without an iron core? If so.Physics 12.sA.C line. find flor " . 20. Attached to the bicycle for lightening purpose. why not omit the core to save money? 18.armature. If the secondary is to supply 5 volts at its terminal and electron current of 3. wave form to D. (i) The A.l I. What is the ratio oftums in the transformer? and How much current . and the slip rings. 19. generator. 11. 22. produces direct currente Three essential parts of a generator are . A particular circuit requires only a 2 V A.000 III"'" '" 'he secondary coil.C power line and delivers 400 A.C. 14. The primary ofa stepup transformer having 125 turns is connected to a hOlI"<' hghting circuit of 220 V A.5 volt at the output teIDlinals.C.C. line. 15.line. 21. (a) How many turns are in the secondary? (b) What is the current in the primary? (c) What poweris drawn from the line? CHECK YOUR ANSWERS Intext Questions 21. 24.C. 2. Does transformer operate on self induction or mutual induction? Does it have both? If so. generator produces current/voltage in sinusoidal fonn but D. generator .C. 3. Is this a stepup or a stepdown transformer? Explam. find the number ofturns in the secondary and the electron current in the primary? A stepup transformer with 350 turns in the primary is cOl1WX'ted to a 220 V A. and split rings in a D. 13. input.C. generator has slip rings whereas the D.. If the secondary is to deliver 2..C. What is the potential difference across the secondary of the transformer? A 240V.C: wave form.000 volts.C.C. What would be the effect( s) if the primary and the secondary of a transformer had the same number of windings? What kind of "step" transformer would this be? An ac source has a IOvolt output. 16. 400 W electric mixer is connected to a 120V power line through a transfoIDler. The commutator is converts A..000 volts at its terminal and a current of40 milliampere. I 7. what are the effects? Some transformers have various tenninals or "taps" on the secondary SO that connecting to different tap puts ditTerent fimctions of the total number of secondary windings into a circuit'? What is the advantage of this? A trans/omler in an electric welding machine draws 3 A from a 240V A. . How would you accomplish this? Explain? A person has a single transformer with 50 turns on one part of the core and 500 turns on the other. (ii) A. If the primary is connected to a 220 V A. generator has two split rings or a commutator.C. Slip rings in an A. drawn from the power line? A stepup transfoIDler has 150 turns in the primary coil and 25. 44U .C. S. how many turns must it have? The secondary of a stepdown transformer has 25 turns of wire and the primary is connected to a 220 V A.1'" delivered at the secondary terminals. how many turns should the primary have? The primary of a stepdown transformer has 600 turns and is connected to a 120 V A.
By die _fbf 199495 it . tk 4. KcraJa. Since Yii '"' YI.3 uoit from bydroelec:lric: stations. 3.. " No. 1994. : There an: about 60. NQ. . diesel.164. wind etJCl'IY power generation. D. the beat losses will be IIlOlC in D. 80 places have been idallified and it is expected to give 3. beatdissipatiOll will be more and duriD& rUns sparking also cause power loss.37 MW 'is thermal (lWich include. and 83 wind mooitoring centres at work. 2. . To supply raw material for this purpose nearly 420 old IDII 90 new supr mills have been identified. can not be produced at very high voftases aad DO IraDsformer ell! be iIIIed in it. etc) 1UH12. Because. plant to produced electric power is in MupandaI (Tamilnadu). The country bas a upacity of 870 MW...225 MW is atonrlc power (nuclear power).a 11.C...t. h«ausedleWorkingofluldIsfbu&rdepelldsCllldleprineipleofelecll'M' . Because.000 MW wind enera. Kamataka. die eddy aII'ft!IIts _ Intest Queatto. 3. Stepdown transformer.Inren Qu8tiou %102 I. "SO% subsidy :185 been p'Vell to promote this alternate soun:e of ~k'Celric power. 5. induetiue wIJieh requires time YIIIyina curren. (r) Solar pboto voltak sy. 1'be cost of inataIIatlon is my high. In Asia the largest i 150 MW. Mabarasbtra I:.C..000 MW. IDII tbeIe are ch_' ofbrealW!g ofinmleMD. Special cables have to be iDsIaI1ed for my high wItages. Of 200 kW capacity partial grid 441 . In 199596 target was 377.y power. Line 10_ Will be tess because die curmlt will be low. Heilce. "1. dangerous to die liviDa beioss. Yes. (8 Wind eaellY : In India the potential for wind energy is 20.. . out ofwbich20.6()() MW. JII'OPOI'IionaI to the ratio of number of their 1UI'IIS. SoUReS in india For the remaining period of eight five year plan the target for noncunventional power is kept to 2000 MW against original S()().. WU8F tif emqy through heating.S units from atomic power plants. During eight five year plan the rarget was 30P MW. In India there are 179 ". Andbra Pradesh. Solar cells (panel) COIlven di=t sun light into electricity. (b) Biom_ elleFlY: The electrical power programme based OIl biomass was initiated in Jan.400 MW. gas. In Tamilnadu.Jcing capacity at die time of independence was only 1.110. 72. 4.. M. die ratio of the voltage in ~ aDd secondsI}' coils . IraDsmission.. NonConvention. Stcpdown frlIIIIformer is used. This target was 7.. 6.000 photo voltaic systems woddng whose lotal capacity is 4 MW.. 58.Itiey_~toeachOlhcr. 7. sod 78. Laksbyadeep.3 I.s inC:reased to 81.4% more than die targel of 1''14'5.P.41 MW.829. . IEXTENDED LEARNINGI STATUS OF POWER IN INDIA : In India the power proih.ind IlllIppins.04 MW is bydroe1ectric. SO as to miliimisedlelolls of~ due to "'US Because they .15 ( units)1lUt of"Nhich 297 uoit from 1hcrmaI power sJatioos. During eight the year plan 25 MW tolal upacity will be installed.
(I) waves: Energy generating capacity in India is to be 40. aee. Government is phmpina to setup 3S MW capacity pIaot ~·solar healer electric. and another is UIIda' construction in Andaman&. (U..oOoMW. Bay ofKutc:b 900 MW. fuel cell ClI" ~ Itolap bllltmies. GoVernment is exploring the possibilities to install 7000 MW plat at Khambat.) aod Samcdi in Mhow cIisIrict. (d) Chemical eaerv 8 1 1 0 _ : There are two types oCc:bemH:U . . (e) Tidal eDeI'IY : udal waves carry CDIlnDOUS potaJIia1 to generase electricity. Whether SQCh schemes _ economically viable or DOt.In Maitb.) capacity..ia in Jodhpur Disu.y _ QIl be converted into electrical enetBY from either.igarll DiIIl. ocean wave plate formto generate eleebic power bas beeu installed in V ghinjrun near TIllIIIIIlIIU puraoi. 2. Government is considering to install a Unit of 900MW cap8eity costing 4000 crores rupees at Bay of Kurch.5 kW capacity phosphoric acid fuel cell have been cic'VeIoped aad _ _ _ experimental stage.9O.interactive solar pbotovoltaic electricity generating unit (scbcmes)bave been iDsIaIICldat KalylUlJlUl'in Al.P.000 MW. of Rajasthan. Based on W C 150 MW (Max.. 442 . In India the estimefec!capacity oftidal powaidOOO MW . Nicobar Islands of capactiy I MW. power.
their chracteristics and uses. the osctllatory motions with examples from your dally Me. In this lesson you will study about the periodic motions partlcularly .xplain perfcidic motton. • • • e.22 HARMONIC MOTION 22.2 OBJECTIVES After studying thls lesson.types of motion like motion In a straight line. • • • • . explain the basic concepts of simple harmonic motfDn: derive expressions of time ]JE!rtods of harmonic osdllators. For example the motion of the hands of a clock. you should be.able to. But there are some motions which repeat after a certain interval of time. derive expressions for the potential and /cinetic energy of a simple harmonic oscUlator. The next lesson on elastic waves will deal With different types of mechanical waves. with examples. 22. show that an oscillatory motion Is necessarily per1Ddic but a periodic motton mily not be necessarily osc!Ilatory.1 INTRODUCTION In your first book of Physics you have studied about different. deftne simple harmonic motion and show simple harmtmtc motion as prqjection of uniform ctrcular motion on a diameter of a circle. '!xplain damped harmonic oscUlations. projectile motion and circular motion which are mainly determined by the path followed. You will also study about the simple harmonic ·motion and related concepts. to and fro motion of the swing and pendulum's bob.
90". we must hasten to add that a periodic motion can be shown as a combination of a number of oscillatory motions.: Suppose that the displacement y of a particle. both the motions are periodic. we shall perform an activity.. executing simple harmonic motion. 330" and 36()o. Similary all the planets move around the Sun in elliptical orbits and each completes its revolution In a fixedinterval of time. 3()o. At this stage of learning you are aware of the fact that the Earth completes its rotation about its own axis in 24 hours. Conclusion 1s inescapable that a certain type of osc11latory motion can be represented by an expression containing sine or COSine of an angle or by a combination of such expressions. Remember that a motion which repeats itSelf In equal intervals of time is periodic and if it is also to and fro over the srune path it is oscillatory. from its· mean position can be represented by the equation : y = asln6 " (22.S PERIODIC MOTION You would have observed a pendulum dock and noticed. However. We shall lirst consider simple harmoniC motion (abbreviated as SHM). Thus.lrt)'here are two classes of periodic motion . We shall see that the diSplacement from the equilibrium poSition of an oscillatory motion can be represented by expressions containing smt's and cosines of angles. It also revolves around the Sun and completes Its revolution in 365 days. Notice carefully that each of the two graphs represents an oscUlation between +Q and a. Actir1Iq. 60". The second hand completes its journey around the dial in one miriute but the minute hand takes one hour to complete one round trip. Harmonic Motion: However to and fro motion of a pendulum is oscillatory and also periodic. (i) nonoscillatory (ii) oscillatory. Such a motfDn or a phenomenon which repeats itself after a jixJed Interval of time is called periodic motil'.2) or y ncos6 From your book of mathematics find the values of sin 9 and cos 9 for Il . _____ J . This second motion of the Sun produces a sequence of seasons.2 Physk:8 22. determine the values of y corresponding to each angles using the relation y = a sin 6 choosing a suitable scale plot graph between !I and 6. a particle executing a motion of this type· is known as harmonic oscillator and its to and fro motion is dilled harmonic motion or harmonic osciUation. Then assuming that a 2. D. Such expressions In mathematics are known as harmonic JUnctions. But before discussing this type of motion. However. 160". Similarly )lslng the relation y a cos 9 plot another graph between yand 6. = = . 27()o. It is imQOrtant to note that an oscil!ato'Y motion is necessarily periDd. Therefore. 24()o. 12()o. The motions of the hands of the clock are circular and nonosciUatory but the to and fro motion of the pendulum's bOb is oscillatory.11 122.ica/ but a periodic motion is not necessarily osci!lato'Y. alternate days and nights are formed.5 em. 150'. that the pointed end of its second hand and that of its minute hand move' around'in a circle each with a fixed period. However. 300·. the pendulum's bob moves to and fro or back and forth 'lIld completes its motion from one end to the other and back to its first end in a fixed time.
oflthe point M Is rf'la = cwO towards the centre 0. questions.0 ••••••••••••••••• .. At t O.1_t X M moving with a constant speed v In a CIrcle of radius a (FIg. We define simple hannonic motion (abbreviated as SHM) as under : A particle fa said to execute Simple hannonic motion if it IJlOI7eS to and fro about a jixed point under the action qf a force (or torqae) directly proportional to the dt. point be at M. If the displacement of an._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1. What is difference between motion? a periodic motion and an oscillatory 2. A and B are constants.Hannontc Motion ~ Now take a break and check your progress by solving the fotlowing. The acceleration . where a.placement qf the particle. INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.4 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION It has been stated that the oscillations of an harmonic oscillator can be represented by the terms containing sines and cosines of angles. What is a harmonic oscillator? •• 0 •••• 0. Which of the following examples represent a periodic motion? (I) A bullet. v To derive the equation of simple hannonic Il\Otion.11. Is an oscillatory motion periodic or nonperiadic? 4.from the .!. let the point be at x and at t t the.. •••••••••••••••••••• 0 •••••• ••••••••••••• 0 •••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ' 22. let us consider a point )( ~_ _~. fThis \ repreSentation Is also used In analysis of ac clrcuits). t.1 : SImple harmonic tnovJng point at the tIIl\e t . then the partlcle executes simple harmonic motion. AI the time t = t. 22. oscillatOIY particle from its mean position can be represented by an equation !J = a sinO or !J = a cos 0 or y = A sin 8 + B cos 8. = = . (Ii) An electron revoluing around the nucleus in an atom. We shall restrict our discussion to linear oscillations.Ibced point and the direction qf fon:e fa opposite 'eo that of dt. i ca11fott the phaaBr rotates with a constant angular velocity w= vIa. (iv) A comet moving around the Sun. The position Vl'!Ctor OM spec1fles the position of the PIg. 3. It Is motion of P along YOV' I obvtous that the position vector OM..fired from a gun. and centre O. (ut) A vehicle moving wtth a wiiform velocity on a road. (v) Motion of an oscillating mercury colwnn in autube. 22.plaeement.
OM describes an angle 21t and it takes a time T to complete one rotation.. The force on the particle P is therefore. a constant. Hence III = 21tIT (22. therefore. Frequency: It is the number of Vibrations (oscillations)completed by the oscillator in one second. this force is directed toward O. 22.5) ail = kim In one complete rotation. therefore (22. Its SI unit is hertz .ular at a gtven instant of the harmonic oscillator from its mean or equilibrium position. P (see the negative sign) Since.4.linear or anl1.4) F= Icy The constant k which is force per unit displacement is caUec. sin Illt = Y I a. then from eq.7) This is the time taken by P to move from 0 to Y.l tli. then through 0 to Y" and back to O. Then P can be regarded as a particle of mass m moving with an acceleration CJIJY.. F= Therefore. F = maw'' sin rot. Time period: It is the time taken to complete one Vibration (oscillationl It is denoted by T. Let us put mw" = k.3) we get. (22. T = 21t.3) The displacement is measured from 0 towards. Let lUI· draw MP perpendicular to YOY. hence. Amplitude: It is the maximum displacement of the oscillator from the mean position on either side of the mean position.1 Basic Concepts of a Simple Harmonic Motion Let us now define the basic concepts of a simple harmonic motion.Jmlk (22. the particleP is executing simple harmonic motion. therefore.4 PhysiCS the component of this acceleration towards OY = CJIJY. (22. It is denoted by ~. and proportional to the displacement 'y' of P from'O.r yla = mw''y (22.e force constant As mail= k. F =mc02y TIllll.6) But ro = .sin rot. towards 0 But.Jk 1m. These are the folloWing: Displacement: It is the distance.sin rot.
8 ~ x 400 • ~ ms11. Hence T = 1 I~. When a bIDck of mass M is placed on the tray the perIDd increases to 2_0 s. . These are the folloWing : a. through a dfstance of 4.0 kg attached to the.tI_: The angular frequency of the system Is w=. Calculate the mass of tile blDck. aa. V . 3.. (22..04 l=cnU7WH 16 ms". .0 em and then set free.7) we get 2 4r .Jklm w = 21t IT.t of the sprfng is pulled horfzontaIly toWdlds the rlIJht. It is expressed In radians.S). ExcuRpIe 22. It is expressed In radian per second..20/21C .H. as such wt: nt:ed two more Important concepts. m = 9 + M and T = 2 s. the rate of change of phase angle is w = 2 It IT = 21t v or Cll = 2 It".aw .M. 801 . As harmonic oscUlations can be represented by expressions containing sin e and f or cos e . it executes S.Jklm. On pJaclng the block.a • hQrlzontal 'lpte 22.IT" When the = kIm or m=2 41t kT tray Is empty m 9 = k. 8oblt1cm: w = .12 4r =9 kg and T = Is M Therefore.2: A spring offorce constant 1600 Nm' is nwunted on table as shown (Ffg. therefore.HarmOnic Motton 5 liJiymbot 'Hz). 22_2. the time taken to complete one vibration Is 1 I y.. 04 x 20 = 0. position and dIrection of motion of the oscillator. M .JI600j420rads1 ./fiiB enc.". On pressing the tray slightly downward and then releasing.. from eq. therefore. u_ . Therefore. 9 + M = k x (2)'/4x" From the above two equations we get (9+M) 4 9 Therefore. of periDd 1.w=....0s.late (0 the jrequency (Ii) IJldXfmum acceleratton and (f1fJmaxfmum speed of the mass.1: A tray of mass 9 kg is supported by·a spring of force constant k as shown in Fig.Jk/m=. Angular ~ w: It is the rate of change of phase angie.27 kg.. where m is the mass of the osclllatoxy system. f_ .aw" . Since '\) is the number of Vibrations per second.18 Hz.Angle '" : It is the angle whose sine or cosine at a given Instant Indicates the. therefore.A ~s m . Cab. 4. SInce In one complete Vibration the phase angle • changes from 0 to 21t radians •. or v = 1 IT s'. 22.
. The circle around which the point moves is called the reference circle. the point is at a poSition. .y.omc Motion .. X.4(a).. the~.4: SlfM as piqlectJD. {22.or.2 Simple BanD. lIS. From M drop MP (I) 'I' perpendicular to YOY'. M is at Mo such that Ii . al . 22. mt and the displaceinent of P from 0 is...22.t. Let us suppose that at 1 t =0. +J (22.... bllland~jmrngraphafll). 22. II • a sin (rot + .4) moving anticlockwise With constant speed m In a circle of radius a..8 (a) we get . the frot P of the perpendicular MP too moves to and fro along yOY'. Let us consider a point M (Fig. 22..O. MOX. In time t the phasor OM too deecMbes C22... 22.'~ With x and at t = t. mt. From POM. Let us refer to Fig. fA quantity which varies sinusoidally With tfme may be represented as theprQjectiDn qf a rotating vector called phasor. . But OM is a vector which speclftes at the given time t ....... We find that II = a sin mt In Fig. Projection of U~ CIrcular· Motion on. In this position of the rotating vectDr.. . As the point M moves.. oP • y.10) drCUIIIr .~y the posltlon of the moving point M relative to the centre O. bllO the displacement y of P from 0 is the component of the vector OM.91 CIIIt but the displacement x of P 'from 0 is x=acosu Eq.. (22... or the phasor.l qj .4 a(il} and Fig.4 (b)...j:rl (II) repIe8ent the conespond!ng graphs between the displacement y and x verus the time y t Now let us suppose that at y t .. I. Fig.shown In the figure. aa: SHMatbe . The rotating vector OM whose component represents the actuaI motion of P along YOY' is called the pha... 22.4 b >f f~i'=~~ 11~~:JI...Then from Fig.". ctrcults}.. 22. This representation you w1ll also use In the analysis of a....4. Then MOX =.S) represents simple y harmoniC motion of P along V YOY' and equation (22.9) simple harmonic motion of P along XOX:.8J 8n UlgIe . the point P coincides x'I~t':'.c.".tr<:uIar moaan a At any given Instant of time III. DIuneter of • Ckde Let us proVe this fact using trigonometry.
rigid wall.1 Horizontal OsciUatktns of a Mass Point Attached to a Spring' Con:. m I . the block is at rest (FIg.6 a(l1)I. • 22. Such a eirele is called the n~ferellc<: Circle. at t 0. 22.".~ 22.5 x == u cos lwt + '0'\) (221 II From the loregoing dist'lISsioll we lind that simpl. that Is.Jm /k. to Inertia of motion it continues moVing towards left till it arrives at the poSition shown in (FIg.5 EXAMPLE OF 88M In order to clarify the concept of SHM. harmonic motion can be regarded as projection of a uniform circular motion on a diameter of circle. some very given belpw.. 22.e kinetic energy K = (1/2) nuf'. Initially.Iiarmonlc Motlon and from Fig. 22. In this position. equals to loss in potential energy. Y 1 I TJ2 (i) (ii) (iii)' x' X 3TJ4 ~Ir'fTJ4 (v) (a) (b) 4TJ4 y! 9 22.5. 22.. 22. (Fig.8(b): osciUalions oj point mass Pas prqJection' of uniform circular motion on the dtameter Xox" Let us suppose that the spring is massless and there occurs no loss of energy against air resistance and friction. 22.6 ali11l1 It acquires a velocity v and henc:. ~omon f'xamples are 22.6a).6 (al vJ.. the block continues oscillating to and fro. As the spring has undergone an extension a. Owing. The time period of Oiitillation is 2Jt:. the block agalnexpenences a force /ex which brings it back to the initial position [FIg.>n a smooth horizontal plane. 22. The work done against the elastic force changes into the potential energy of the blockspring system.. thereafteJ.6 la) Ivl. The mass of the spring.. It exerts on the block a force kx towards left tending to restore the block to Its equUibrtum position. As the block returns to Its initial poSition [FIg. And. is negligible in comparison with the mass of the block. The other end of the spring is attached to a .6 a(l)) and then pulled horizontally through a small dlstapce a to the right (Hooke's Law) [FIg.. The block can be made to move .8 (~ : OscUlattons oj a point mass attached 10 a spring . where k s the force = .otder a horizontal elastic spring of spring constant k attached to a small block P of mass m.
It is I. 81Upeuded &om a SpriDg (e) Let us suspend a spring of force constant k from a rigid support [Fig. pendulum. It is called the (flee constant of 22.. 4  \ \ . However. 22. The weight mg is resolved into components : (a) mg cosS along the string and (hI mg sinS perpendicular to the string as shown.7: Sfmple Pendulum string. T and the comDonent mg sinS produces acceleration in the bob in the . m inO Fig. 1 fiJ.fixed point about which it can oscillate freely. the spring. (22. a small Spherical bob suspended by a long cotton thread held between the two halves of a clamped split cork in an stand is approximately a simple pendulum I " When the ·bob is dtsplaced through a smaH distance from its equilibrium position and then set free.22.7). Thus I the time period T.Ied ftom the frw end ofa spring.5.5.21t ~ ••.8 PhysIcs per unit extension ill the spring. .8: Vertical osdIIalIon of a block 5"'<pomc. the restoring force is mg9 = mg x/I.. Such an ideal pendulum is dlfIlcult to construct. 22. Time for / II \ about 20. Note that the weight mg and equal and opposition reaction by the cork in the equilibtrum poSition constitute a tension.direction of the arrow.fk = ~mgll = /g or 21t = m m VI T :Ii I Hence. The distance between the ~' point of suspension and the centre of gravity of the bob is measured.12) 22..  '. The forces acting on the bob of the ~ pendulum tn the displaced position shown In . the time for one complete I oscillation is determ1r.2 Simple Pendulum It consists of a point mass suspended by an inextensible.3 Vertical OsClDatlOD of a ..tension.. 22.. ·massless string from a .. 'CJ (1) mg the weight of the bob vertically downwards (it) T is the tension of the string upwards along the J'I&. the '. For smaH displacement x of the bob. Then let us attach a block of mass m to the free end PII. T = .d. the length of. 22. oscillations' is measured using a stop I \ watch reading upto one tenths of a second. The component mg cosS balances the tenston. r. The force per unit displacement is k = mg /1 and hence 0>= .7 are : mgCll86" (F1g.' In the displaced poSition mgcos8 and equal and opposite reaction of the bob constitute a .8(al). the I \ pendulum executes angular oscillations in a vertical \ plane about its eqUilibrium position.
 Solution: Let x. • y. and m" joined by a massless spring qf spring constant k. the liqUid column begins to oscUlate.8 (c)). If . Therefore. The liqUid column in the left arm is pushed down through a small vertical A:: distance y by a piston. now acts a force kiJ vertically upwards.8 (all. period of oscillation is (22. As a result of this the spring undergoes an extension say .10. 22.5. Let us find the period of oscillation of the liqUid column.the block.. oj two blocks oj mqsses m. 22.9: Vertical density of the liqUid.13) We have assumed that the lliass of the spring is negligible In complU'1son with the mass of the block. therefore. Obviously the force constant of the spIing Is k = mg/L Let us now pull down the block through a small verti. . ·The blocks are pulled apart each with a Jorce F and then released.frequency oj each mass.' . difference of level of the liquid In the two arms of the Utube is 2y.". Thus.Since the liqUid is incompressible it rise up in the other arm through the same distance. If a be the area of C!"Osssection of the Utube.W= ~29 I and hence the time .'ld again the block overshoots the equilibrium position by 'almost the same· vertical distance y.cai distance Y (Fig. Th" block are on a smooth horizontal pIane.figw'e 22. What is the angular .~ ".[g7i Hence T=21t{f (22. On the block. the . . the vertical oscillations of the block continue. The angular frequency of this vertical oscillation is W =~klm.=. As . Now. 22..3: The. and p be the FIg. Consequently. It overshoots the equilibrium posltion almost by y. Asoi' is the return force per unit mass per unit displacement..Hannonlc MotiOD of the spIing. and p the denSity of the liquid then the mass of the liqUid column is m = lap. on releasing. downwards.thlf block returns to its initial position it continues moving upwards odaccount of the velocity It has ginned.'  2. .9). the force ky pulls it upwards. be the length of the liquid column. [Fig.each block when pulled . if the piston is taken out from the left arm.. 22. then the force on the oscUlatiOns oj a liquid column liqUid on the right is 2y pga verticallyin aUtube. . The gravity again pulls it downwards &.' ::".4 Vertical OscUlations of a Liquid Column in aUTube ConSider a liquid column in a Utube (Fig.14) T=2~ Ezamp1e 22.and ~ be the displacement of . or . 22.!J9OP. shows an'oScaztltory system comPrfsi1Jg.
. . Thus the acceleration of the ' a spring. 3.. .. ' 0 ' •••••••• 0 22.. (22.... The length of the cylinder inside the liquid is L Find its time period of osclllation..15) Now. is k ('] + xJlm. period of oscillation of the ball."\ C I .. ••••••••• " ••••••••••••••••• ....~ :::::  :::::    mg \ ..' bands as shown In the figure. Therefore .. .. the two masses..1S: 2... m> + xJlm.. A small spherical ball of mass m is placed on a smooth spherical bowl of radius r a little away from the bottom point.. .. one form of the equation of is sinlpl~ harmonic motion 122... . (Fig.l of the mass m connected to two robbe!.... A cylinder of mass m floats vertically in a'liquid of density p...x..22...16) .x.. y = a sin' rot when t changes to t + At • /J.....+. 22..0 ... is the extension of the sPring and Il is the reduced mass of the system gtven by 11m = 11m.. .. "'.....y..... 22. + .. (FIg.. ..2.... • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 •• 0 •• 00' .. PIC. " '~~ o PIC· 22. .... 22.12) ..12: 1... 22.y changes to y + tl... + . The force constant of ~c/.. system is' ktx.... The angular frequency of each mass of the system is therefore .+ 11m...nntni:1::" F restoring force to each mass....22...... Since the same spring provides the C}=lI .11: r~ ~ r' \ I ~=~<~~=:~:~~ PIC... (Fig..' .J = kxlll where x=x.. 131 ••••••• . Find the time . '0 •••••• 0..111 I . The extension produced in the spring in x..x.. Find the frequency of oscillatioJ.. hence the net F acceleration of the system comprising of the two masses and the massless spring equals PIC.... • • ......... ... Thus the acceleration of m.6 ENERGY OF SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATOR As you have seen.. + l/m....~ Physics apart...l of the two bands is k.._ _ _ _ _ _~_ _ 1. . is ktx...1 [11m. CIl = kill .... and the acceleration of m.........10: QsctIJatmy to the sum of the accelerations produced in system ofTTIJJSSes attached to ...0... take a pause and check your progress INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.
.14. therefore. the restoring force is kyo where k is the force constant.19) Let us now calculate the potential energy of the oscillator at tlJat time.. Then y + Ay = a sin rot + a cos rot.18) where v = AU/Mis the velocity of the oscillator at time t = tHence . the potential energy of the oscillator when the displacement is Y·is. As the points P and 9 are 0 "'. The dlspku:ement y anti the area of the traIngle OBC is. therefore U" . let us take . 22.201 we get Further as y = a sin lOt. y As M ~ 11 + Ay = a sinm It + At} = =a sin (rot + mAt I a{slnrot cos mAt + cosmt sin roAt I (22. 22.clcse to each other. Thus. 1 22. On the straight line graph OC. therefore.mAt Subtracting eq. 22. This work done against the conservative force is the potential energy U of the oscillator. equal to the restoring force ky work done in the time the displacement changes i 1 from 0 to OB (=y) = 4kif. cos mAt ~ 1 and sin wi: At ~ ro At. When the displacement is y. 22.201 But co2 = kIm.17 we get Ay '" At roa cos rot or or Ay/M = macos·rot rot v = roa cost (22. I U = 2 kif (22. the kfnetic energy of the oscillator at th. . This area equals to the FIg..e IL ky two points P and 9 and drop PM and gN perpendicular to Oy. PgNM can be MN B Y regarded as a rectangle.19 is cos' wt 2 Therefore. = I11!Ji2 in the eq. the total energy of the oscillator at any instant Is 1 1 E = U + K = . 2 U = 2 mrov .(22. K = 1/2 rnv2 =(I/2}oo2a2 cos2 .1l'lWci' (22.a'L.!. We get a stralght line graph shown in Fig. 2 l11I1l"a"sln'mt . The area of this Yrectangular strip is kyo Ay..nw" a" (sin'rot + cos'cotl = mci'CJ:il 2 2 K = . therefore.·t (22.16 from eq.______~~~Hunw~=~M~..14: Graph work done against the restoring force ky when the between the displacement changes by a small amount Ay.17) O.!.lt instant of time is. As the kinetic energy when the displacement is y from eq..21) . For this purpose we shall plot a c graph of restoring force ky versus the displacement y . substituting k 1 .
........ At the· extreme positions....... \1 a y 1'11........ ....j..22.... vlbmtfons attached to 1)1e block.. Push the (0) experimental setup block a few cel....... the energy Is wholly Potential.... K " E and U " O... with tfme? What happens to the energv of the pendulum when· its ampUtude decreases? .22. E .......7 DAMPED HARMONIC OSCILLATIONS Take a simple harmonic oscillator comprising of a metal s block B suspended from a fixed .16: The uaritJtIon oj potenfiDl energy U and kI1:retJc energy K wlth disp/Dcement from !!qU1l1brlwn position 7 \' a INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.... support S by a spring G.. ........ Place below the block a tall glass cylinder filled two thirds With water so that the ~ HfWl~ block Is about 6 cm below the :':''::': surface of water and about the (a) (b) same distance above the bottom of the beaker...................... ~ 22. potential ...... .K ...16(al). When is the kinetic energy of a harmonic oscUlator maxImUm: tn its equilibrium positfDn or when the displacement Is maxfmwn? When Is the acceleration maximum? •••••••••••••• II . energyU and the total energy E versus the displacement y is shown in' Fig.... .....16(b1J showS that the amplitude decreases with tiIne.. 22.. Such oscillations are called damped • :~t·(u oscillations...ltimetres down(hI damped oscIIIiltfDns wards and then release It.... As the displacement y fro~ the mean position increases the kinetic energy decreases but· pOtential energy· increases. .. From the graph It is evident that...  . for y ..............3 1.. Paste a millimeter scale on the side of the cylinder just opposite to the pointer 1'11. After each oscillation note down the uppermost position of the pointer on the millimetre scale and the time.....15. At the mean position the potential energy Is zero but the kinetic energy Is maximum.. [Fig........ ~ . ·22... Why does the amp/1tI........ ..... .......12 Pbyak:a The graph ofldnetic energy K.... However the sum K + U ........ E is constant................ The graph [Fig...... ... 2....Ide of a sfmp/e pendulum decrease.. .....18: Damped... Then plot a graph between time 'f and the amplitude a of oscillation.. ... 0.. ............... 22......
This too is a case of forced oscillations.. . .that depends upon certain parameters of the system only and not upon any external oscillating foree. INTEXT QUESTIONS· 22.17: El<per1mental arrangem.To swn up when the molJlng part of an oscalatory system is displaced . . As a consequence of this. From a flexible support (Fig. . 05cillation. . . .. ... Distfhgutsh between resonance and forr:ed lJibratton . .. .. 2. This phenomenon Is known as reSOD8DCe • . . Both C and D are forced to oscillate with the frequency of B.. Set pendulum B Into oscillations. . The particular case in which the natural . .frequenCy of the driller. C and D. However. . . .. . .is known as natural frequency of the system. . . frequency you desire.. 22. . . . .free vibrations. 22. B. . .frequency with which the system oscUlates. . . .frequency of the driuen..4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1.. ..from Its equUibrtum position and then set.. o By holding the bob of anyone of these pendulum you can I'll... .1 Free. . Such. . it oscUlates to and from about Its equUibriiun position with a. the pendulum A on which too the oscillati9ns of the pendulums B ~e Impressed.. . . . The pendulum B which has a large mass transmits Its vibrations on each of the pendulum A. . . . The pendulums A and B are of equal lengths. . . equals the natural . When the stem qf a lJibrating tuning fork is pressed against· the top of a table a loud sound is heard. . The . You will observe that after a few minutes the other three pendulums too begin to oscillate. and· D. C has a shorter and D has a longer length. Forced Vibrations and Resonance To understand the difference between these phenomena. C. . .entjor fotce it to oscillate with any forced vibrations and resonance.7. oscUlations are known as. •••• •••• ••••• ••• •••••••••• . . .ncy of the A penduZwn B.. . .17) suspend four pendulums A. . u . . . . let us perform the ~olloWing actMty.. . . . oscillates with a relatively large amplltude with its natural frequency. . The frequency of the force impressed by the pendulum B on the pendulums C and D Is different from the respective natural frequency of C or of D.Hnrrnonic Motion e 22..frequency . is known as resonance.. The pendulum B has a heavy bob. the amplitude of A Is the largest... the pendulums C and D are forced to oscillate not with their c respective naiural frequency but · 9 with the· freque.. . The phenomenon is called forced. The oscillatory system on which the oscillations are impressed is caUed driven and the system which applies the oscillating foree is known as the drtlJer.. Does this obseroatlon demonstrate .. Why? Each pendulum is anoscillatoty system with natural frequency of its own. . However.free.
A simple hlumonic motion has only a single frequency of vibration and constant amplitude. . . ~ . . Why are certain musical instruments provided with sound boards or sound boxes? . • When an oscillatory system vibrates of its own. . Time period is the time taken by the given particle to complete one oscillation. . is the intilai phase angle (at t = 0). .. . . . HarmOnic motion is an oscillatory motion in which the displacement of the oscillator from its mean position can be represented by expressions containing sines and cosine of angles. . . In general. . . . .. . or first harmonic plus higher harmonicS 'of frequencies 2))' 3i)) 4'\1 . . Frequency is the number of vibrations completed by the oscillator in Is. Equation of simple harmonic motion is y • • =a sin (rot + t... . .. . . are said to be free. . .called the fundamental. ((I. . . . .. . . If.. . . . An oscillatory motion is essentially periodic but a periodic motion is not necessarily oscillatory.. . .. . .. . . . . . . U is the cyclic frequency in hertz (symbol : Hz) and T is the time period in seconds. . . . . . its vibration. . P~e angle is the angle whose 'sine or' cosine at the given instant indicates the position and direction of motion of the particle. . . the vibrations produced may consist of a mode of lowest frequency 'v . . . Simple harmonic motion is to and fro motion under the action of a restoring force or torque proportional to the displacement" of the particle from its' equilibrium position and directed towards the mean position. . . . . .. .. . . . . . 22. . . . Simple harmonic motion can be regarded as projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter of the circle. . . What is thE cause oj the loud soWld produced? 3. ... =_ 21t/T = 2:". . . .. . . . Note 'that ro . . . . .. . . . . . . .11 ~_P_hrs_IC_S~_ _ the pherwmenon oj resonance or Jorced vibrations? Give reasons Jor your answer. .....)or y =a cos (mt + 41.. . . .8 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT • • "eriodic motion is a motion which repeats after equal intervals of time. . • • • • • • Angular frequency is the rate of change of phase angle. displacement from the mean position at a timet. . . an oscillatory system A is driven by an outside system B' called the driver and the system A is forced to . . . Oscillatory motion is to and fro motion on the same patzh. .. . . . 0 . . . without the influence of an external oscillatory system. . . where m is the angvlar frequency in rads!. .) Where y is the. . . . . however. . .
. if the frequency of the drtver equals to the natural frequency of the driven. The time period. '9. amplitude phase. calculate the. Cilt (2) 1 +w + CI!'t (3) 3 cos lCilt .. of the following functions represent (i) simple harmonic motion (ii) periodic but not simple harmonic liii) non periodic motion? Give the period of each penodlc motion. frequency of B. of a simple harmoniC oscillator is T.tions of A are said to be forced vibrations. the vibra. In an oscillating simple pendulum. angie rot a fixed point at any Is the motion of the no. 22. Why is the time period of a simple penqulum independent of the mass of the 'bob. When is the magnitude of acceleration of a particle executing simple ._.clllator. of oscillation of mass 0. The displacement of a moving particle from' Instant is gtven by x = a cos Cilt + b sin particle simple harmoni(!? If your answer is your answer is yes. What is phase angle? How is it related to angular frequency? 6.ll' motion on a diameter of the circle. Obtain an expression for the mne per:iod of a simple harmonic oscillator in terms of mass and force constant. the amplitude is 0.1 kg suspended from a Hooke's law Spring is Is what would be time period of oscillation of mass 0. Show that simple harmonic motion is the projection of a uniform circull. 11. (l) sin Cilt + cos. 2.9 kg when suspended from the same spring? .harmonic motion maximum? When is the restoring force maximum? 8. Show graphically how the'potential energy U. Such vibratiofi\l whose amplitude decreases owing to loss of energy' as heat in overcoming fnctional and viscous forces are called damped vibrations.41 11: 4. such as a pendulum.= 21r . An O\l. Distinguish between a periodic and oscillatory motion.Harmonlc MotiOn: fs vibrate with the. Obtain expressions for the instantaneous kinetic energy potential energy and the total energy ?f a simple harmonic oscillator. 5.Jm/k? 7. What is a simple harmonic motion? 3. while osCillating' has to overcome the viscous resistance of air. when the period. the phenomenon is known as resonance. As a consequence of this. QUESTIONS 1. Which. explain why? If of vibration and the 12.04 m and . energy is lost as heat. 1:0. Hence the amplitude of vibration decrease with time. the kinetic energy K and the energy E of a Simple harmonic' oscillator vary with the' displacement from equilibrium position. However.9 TERMlNJ)!.
Is displaced by 0. . On being pushed down through.. PiC· 22.1 frequency of osclllation In each case? n.1 1. 15. 2.. Assuming that changes In pressure and volume are isothermal. aP • yarglJPTL From the law of flotation m • air.18 CHECK.. Ib) its maximum . The block. 1M lEU QUBSTlOlif. CalcUlate (a) The angular _lks frequency (l) of the blOck. . (22. and total energy dissipated against damping when it comes to rest. TherefOp. Calculate the maximum velocity. Hence. 13.Jklmdisplaced.. 14. Periodic . 3.mg e • mg x/r.. 3.oapg. A motion which repeats after fixed Interval of time Is a periodic motion. aP • gIl or T ~ 2Ir~11 g. 2.16 . to a block of mass m. (ii). a distance II. calculate the period of oscillation of the ball. (iv) (v). aP . In the figure 22. Obtain an expression for its time period In terms of radius r of the Earth and the acceleration due to gravity 'g on the surface of the Earth. only one of the banda emu the rertorlng force). In Fig.. A particle whose motion can be represented by expressions containing sines 8I1d ~ cesines of angles..82. If· the block in each ". Return force on the ball when displaced a distance x from tbe equilibrium J?Osltion is mg sin e . A ball of mass m can move freely in the neck of area of crosssection a of an air chamber cif volume V.l/2"'.~'" arrangement is displaced a little downwards (II) and then released... aa.. Physics the time period Is 10 s.Imaglne a ball dropped In a frictionless tunnel cut across the Earth through its centre. kIm and hence. I 16..18 speed. 22. YOUR ANSWERS INTEXT QUESTION. the cylinder experiences an upthrust J.05 m from equilibrium position'D6IS'~ and then released. what would be the angular (0. 4.18 is shown a block of mass m = 2 kg connected to two springs each of force constant k = 400 NmI.a 1. (c) its maximum acceleration. When pressed down a little and then released the ball executes simple harmonic motion. !!lote that when the maR .19) (a) andlb) are shown two different arrangements ot two springs joined . 'A to and fro motion on the same path is an oscillatory motion.
(1) periodic and SHM.0 s 11. 2. As the pendulum oscillates it does work against the viscous resistance of air and friction at the support from which it is suspended.. this observation demonstrates forced vibrations. table top is forced to vibrate not with its natural frequency but with the frequency of the tuning fork.. acceleration is maximum when displacement.tXT QUESTIONS 22. Ther x =A sin (rot + +l and 2 12. 0. When an oscillatory system called the driver applies its oscillations of force on another oscillaltory system called tlie driven and the second system is forced to oscillate with the frequency of the first system. Put a = A sin .E is maximum at mean position or equilibrium position. hence the intenSity of the sound increases. 2. . known as resonance... Hence oi' = 91rand T = 21tJr I 9 . aro . the phenomenon is. "_ .. Therefore.Harmonic Motion 17 l1n'J. Iii) noli periodic . [Hints At a depth d below the Earth's surface 9d = gildIn = 9 (r . in which the frequency of the driver equals to the frequency of the driven system. Q) .025 ms. INTEXT' QUESTIONS 22. (iii) periodic and SHM.4 1. K. the intensity· of ~e note produced increases an4 its duration decreases.d) = 91 r x r where x is the distance from the centre of the J I ! Earth. 2n 2lf T=OJ 4.. This work done is disSipated as heat. Since a large !iI'ea is set into vibrations. The sound board or box is forced to vihrate with the frequency of the note produced by the instrument. the phenomenon is known as forced vibrations. TERlIONAL QUESTIONS 3. The. Since a large area is set into vibrations. 3. In the particular case of the forced vibration:.I 13.. is maximum. 3. As a consequence of this the amplitude decreases. "0 +0 and b = A cos "'\I = tanI ~ b' and A = 'a +b 2 '0 .3 .
change In volume is AV = ya.0 ms' (d) 1.18_~_~kS .I1V a2 F Ea 2 · force Is then F=i\o. For a displacement y.Oms' . (a) (J) = 20 rads'. 11J2=_= __ and hence. (hI 1. leI 20.:.0 J. . The restorng ..__________________________~ 14.a = Ea=EJ. IT V my mV T" 21t~:: 15.
Consider a straw piece floating on the surface of water. We call it a wave. Here is something other than a particle which moves. It also moves back and forth. you should be able to. When a stone is dropped ·lnto the calm water In a pond.s les. we observe concentric rings of ·alternate elevations and depressions emerging out from the point of impact and spreading on the surface of water. explain the· PrinciPle of superposttion of the waves. You will observe that the straw piece moves up and down.son about the mechanical waves prop~ating In elastic media. However. ELASTIC WAVES '. These waves like light waves do not need a material.. Laplace's CO/. explain formatiDn of st(ttionary waves or standing waves and e>. we shall restrict our discussion In j:hl. phcise change of a u. . .2 OBJECTIVE After studying this lesson.the terms node and anI:inodes. 23. . 23.re on nd/ectfon. In this age we are well aware of the fact that radio waves cany sound from one place to another with the speed of light.23 .rat.1 INTRODUCTION In our dally life we . . derive the relation for the velocity of a longitudinal LIX.observe that material particles and objects are In motion. derive the equation oia simple harmonic wave.pIGtn . .from a denser medium. derive an expressWn for the velocity of a transverse sound waVe on a stretched strtng.lIJe5 in a gas and to explain. explain the phenomena of beats. • • • • • • explain propagation of transverse and lOngitudinal LIlaues and establish the relation v = \l A. medium for propagation.~ a¢ to discuss the jactors on which this velocity depends. interference. .
ev~ spaced and connect~ together by strfng pieces.. . owing to Inertia of rest (~)t=Tt4j~ will not begin to oscillate at the same time. ball 2 is In its mean pqsitlon...2 tuJ. explain characteristics of musical soWld..1 Propagation of Transverse Waves Let us consider (Ftg. After t. in a direction perpendicular to. intensity oj. discuss Doppler effect and its applicatiDns. (hI a contlnuous wave traln on a rubber travelling towards the fixed tube or a sliIlky erid.. all the balls are at rest ann occupy theposttions a.hoWn In #t&.M./2· Let us suppose that the time taken by the disturbance to travel from one ball to the next 2x 311. 23.on and' the disturbance just arrives (V)t=4Tl4s~ .20 PhysJ. ball 3 has maximum displacement in the negative direction...cs • • • • discuss harmDnics of organ pipes and stretched strings.. ball 3 has maximum displacement in the positi~. from left. 23.Sowtd wi:wes. that is. (l. All the (i)t=O 0 0 00 a ()Q balls. This kink is a waVe of short duration./2 Is T/4s.. Hold its 'free end In your hand.1:(11) Wave pulse on a rubber tube or a sllnky.. (a) You will observe that a 'kink' is produced which travels towards the fixed end with definite speed. Tie its one end to the stem of a tree or handle of a diX>r.. dlrectl.2 ) a row of sphertcal ballS of equal masses. The motion will be (11i)t=T~~ handed over from one ball to (iv)t=3T/4s~ the next after a certain time.. the row of balls with a period T.. ball 2 will have maximum displacement in. n ••~~~i I 23. give it Ii.H. Initially. 23. positive direction and ball 3 will just start moving up (FIg. Jerk downward.. After t = T/2s. its unit and threslwld intensity..3.2..23. 23. 11. Go..2 HI. at t = .}". 23.3 WAVE PROPAGATION Let us take a long coil spring called slinky or a long thick rubber tube...xlmum displacement In the positive dtrectlon and the disturbance will Just arrive at ball 2 (FIg. is made to execute S. . 23.. (Ftg.. 3T/4 s.. ball 1 will be at its mean position. on moving the free end (b) continuously up and down you will observe a wave train Fig. Let us imagine that by means of a suitable device.. the..2: Propagat/D/l' qf a FIg: 23.. After t = T/4s ball 1 transuerse will have ma. and discuss rwise poUutiDn and shock waves. ball 1..
21t' (23.• is 2n that of ball 2 is 3n 12. Let us note the phase angles of' the five balls at t = 'IS. 23. denoted by A. In a wave motion thB dfstcmce between the two ~ particles vibrating in thB same phase is called a wavelength. the phase change per unit distance. is 2n hence Cd ==2Ir\l T .2).. '\)=\lA (23. Therefore. as the phase difference between the two vibrating particles in the same phase is A. (See fig. We say that ball 1 and 5 are vibrating in the same phase. =V or Cd k = v>. You remember that Q) is the phase change per unit time. the velocity of the wave. (23. 5.ElaRtlCWaves 21 at ball 4.1) lIT =.' Note cm:efully thal ball 1 and 5 at this time are in the mean position .phase angles of n/2 and zero respeCtively. therefore. Thus.4) we get Cd k = 21t')I 21t'1 A.4) Dividing eq.4.)1. (23. Fig. . It is evident that time taken by the wave to travel a distance A = T. But the phase change in time T. k = 2n A (23.3) by eq. The phase angle of _ball no . V== k Cd vI).3) We call '/C the propagation constant. the cyclic frequency.2) Further. have to think of mechanical model.and at the point of moving upwards.5) Again we Let us now explain how the logitudlnal waves propagate.2 (iv). have . that of ball 3 is n and ball No. (23. After t = 4TI4 s the positIOns of the ballS is as shown 'in In this mimner the disturbance moves ahead. Therefore the velocity of the wave is Distance TIme But = \I = A T (23. 23.
12'~. hence the phase. where k Is lmown as propagation constant.3(v).' I CI . . FIt. '. equally spaced and connected by means of spring pieces of equal force constant. wcwelength as the distance between the two nearest particles ufbratfng in the same phase. As ball 1 returns to its Initial position: o:W1ng to inertia of motiQn. ': I "''W"7' .1'R'~ I C I t 3T 1'+ (v)t=4T14's 'tffl"n~ . After 4T/4.W9~1it.3. Hence.3(iv)). Note that ball 1 ana 3 arc passing through their mean positions and moving In the opposite directions. ball . the wavelength.• x t =TI2 • • ~+~.= T/2. 23. a3. In this position'ball 1 and 5 are in the opposite phases of vibration but ball 1 and 3 are In the same phase of vibration.. 23. I' t=T . I I RI .2 Propagation . 23.1 t I I I .of Longitudinal Waves Let us consider a row of balls (Fig.. We define. change per unit distance Is k = a '/C/A.'«i'" ••• 'Br' . Now thl spring piece between ball 1 and 2 expands. the positions of the baIls ts as shown in Fig. it overshoots and has a maximum displacement on the negative direetion [FIg. . After t. T/4 ' .~ += . 23. The distance between 1 and 3 is A.x ) x 23.3 (iill. (iV)t=3T14S~~ . I '. As the phase difference between ball 1 and 3 is 21r and the. 3 . (III) t=TQ S. As a result.1 In the row from left is made to execute simple harmonic vibration parallel to the row of baIls.. distance between them is A..U ~ ______________________~_______________ o 1Y I (i)t=o (ii) t=T/4 S : .II'~ +~. 1 mov(:s toward left and ball a moves towards rigpt. After a time t =T/4 ball NO:twill have maximum displacement in the 'positive direction and the disturbance will just arrive at ball 2 [Fig. 23. the phase difference between them Is A . C I I . We get all oth~ relations same as obtained in the previous subsection for transverse waves. )( I I I.3 (i) of equal niasses. ball 1 returns to its original position and 2 has a maximum displacement towards right [FIg. 'W> I. Let us suppose that T is the time period of vibration of each ball.3 (iii)) and the others are unaffected so far.. 4 : 5 I. 6 I ~ 7 t::O "X := .3: Propagatjon of Iongttudina[ waves R f C.. By a suitable device ball No.
But the waves produced on a coll spring or on a stiing are waves in one dimension. _ ... .Elastic Waves + ___ :11.. +"'.61 represent the vibrations at a given instant..ssume that the wave Is transverse and the vibrations of the' particle are along YOY. Let us now derive the equation of a simple harmonic. UJ(1ve IraveUlng along xdlrection Let us consider a simple harmonic wave propagating along OX (Fig.. 23.. the light waves emanating from a point source too travel in all directions.+i C •t /f"\ ..waves. We shall 'restrict our discussion to the waves in one dimension only. ____ . . (23.. The wavelength is shown in Fig. Then the vibrations at OIat at the POint p'lags behind by a phase angle time .5: SImple harmon".4: (iJ C ~\J7 T T ~.____ I o~ p ____ (f' ____ ____________ ~ ~ ~~~. y PIa. We .~ 23 IIi1·11i11111i i111I< . sound waves are ·produced in three dimensions ..l..~ /T\ /f'\ _ C LorlJlllUdinal wave deptcting A.. t = 0 at the point O. (U) transverse wave deplcting.3 Equation of a Simple Harmonic Wave in One Dimension When we speak..shall a.:t. 23. y _. the waves produced on the surface of water are ..51.3. Let !I = a sin rot. (23. In two dimension.4' for Doth longitudinal and transverse waves. wave.. 23. 23..
e between transverse and longitudinal waves. at a given point equals to 2K/A times the path difference at that point.x) 211' T (vt .1 (23. .12) then the phase difference between them Is 21t = k.9) or or Y ./aI and (23.erse Versus Lcmgitudinal Waves Now we shall be s~mmar1s1ng the' pOints of dlfferenc.t . the vibrations at that time at the point P 15 gtveD by Y = a sin (rot . a sin 2n (.x) (23.two waves.4 Tran.11) Thus. (23.24 Physics say +. Y = asID 2. if the in1tial phase angle at 0 Is then the equation +..8) we have assumed Initial phase of the wave. x) t(23. . Since phase change per unit distance Is Ie. if two simple hannonic waves travelling along OX are represented by the equations y '" a sin (rot ... y = asin (~ 2.3. ..1x = T'&: + (23.8) Further as ro = 21t IT and k = 21t/). therefore y = a sin (rot  /aI (23. at 0 Is zero. . • therefore.sln [rot .+) (23. However.~) T )..7) +'" kx Let us put OP I Hence. of the wave would be y'" a sin ((rot . =x.8) ~) y'" a.13) where Ax Is called the path difference RrmmJber 1hat phase angle of a wave is the angle whose sine or cosine times the amplitude gives the djsplacemem Y at a giwn 1ocation lit a giwn time 8Ild the phase difference between the .k (x+ (23.!.kx) + +.10) or Y = a sin Phue cUffenace between two wave_ : In deriving eq. Thus. 23... (.
..... Ener!IY transmfssfon by tnwe.. where m is... liquids and gases........ However......... Lcmg1tudblal waves (i) Displacements of the particles are perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave.. Transverse waves look as crests and troughs propagating in the medium... The intenSity 1 of the wave is the energy that flows per second across a unit area. (2314) .. Transverse waves can only be transmitted in solids or on the surface of the liquids..... mru:imum kinetic energy of a particle of the medium is 1/2 m vo'= 1/2 rrw?ai'... the intensity of the wave is proportional to the square of the frequency of the wave and the square of the ampUtude of the wave......... If v be the wave velocity then the volume of the medium that the wave sweeps in 1 s when it moves normally across a unit area is V.llfng _ : Let p be the density of the medium. Thei:efore... .... Longitudinal waves for propagation in a medium require volume elasticity..1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 1...... the displacement distance graph is the actual picture of the wave itself........ but transverse waves need shape modulus or modulus of rIgtdity.. a.... (iv) In case of longitudinal waves... (11) the medium must possess elasticity..... the mass of the particle. Displacements of the particles are parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave.. In case of a transverse Waves........ (tv) (II) Eueatlal properties of the mecllum for propagatlonof longitudi nal and transverse mechanical waves are given below: These are (i) the particles of the medium must possess mass... the graph only represents the displace ment of the particles at different points at a gtven time... light waves and other electromagnetic waves which are essentially transverse do not need any materlal medi\lm for their propagation..... Longitudinal waves giVe the appearance of alternate compressions and rarefaction moving forward...... INTBXT QUESTIONS 23.... The maximum velocity of an oscillating particle Is Vo = am.... therefore....Elastic Waves: 25 TraDwene •••• (I). State the cijfference between longitudinal and transverse waues? .. the amplitude of the particles.. Thus....... (11) (11) (111) (111) Longitudinal waves can travel in solids.. and 01 be the angu(bJ lar frequency of the particles of the medium.....
. Under such conditions the velocity of sound wave in a gas was given.. J. The reason .... 123. The difference in the value predicted by Newton's fonnula and that determined experimentally is 1333280}/ 333 x 100 = 16%. the velocity of $Ound in air has been detennined as 333 m s·.by Newton as...29 1    When a gun is fired at the top of a c\1stant mountain.... Obviously there is something wrong With Newton's assumption that during the passage of sound. ... =a nvo simple harmonic waves are represented by theequatfDns y sin ((0/: .. 3.... at S. E = elasticity of the medium.. This error is too high to be regarded as an experimental error... State the relation between phase difference and path difference.. This means that the changes in volume and pressure take place at constant temperature. what is the phase difference between the two waves? ..16} we get 280 ms' v= 1 1:01 x 10"/1....... the velocity of sound in air <:an be determined. By measuring the time interval between observing the smoke and hearing the sound............... Using an improved technique...16) For air...... 23.. that is at standard pressure and temperature.. State the factors on which the intensity of a wave depends............29 kg ~ m3 On substituting these values in eq.s that the veloctty of light is very much greater than the velocity of sound in air... 4........ 23...2... (23...4....... We first see the smoke and a few seconds thereafter hear the sound....15) Where.. What is meant by the intensity of Ethe wave.. at O"C......T.. P = 1.P..........kx) + .. the compression and the rarefaction of air take place isotherma1ly.4 VELOCITY OF LONGITUDINAL WAVES IN AN ELASTIC MEDIUM Newton's fonnula for the velocity of a longttudlnal wave in an elastic medium of infln1te extent is v = ~ (23... Formula for Velocity of Sound ma Gu Newton assumed that compression and rarefaction caused by the sound waves during their passage through a gas take place under isothermal condition....1 Newton'.01 x lOS Nm2 and p = 1.....kx) and y = a sin [(rot .
.. 2 ..61 ms"........ ~ 2...01 x 10"/1. 4. Under adiabatic conditions E = yP Hence.2 Laplace's Correction Laplace pointed out that the changes in pressure of air layers caused by passage of sound take place under adiabatic condition owing to the following reasons....... We shall focus our attention on the part pq of the wave pulse.4... .... (ll) Compression and rarefactions caused by the sound are too rapid to permit heat to flow out during compression and allow heat to flow in during rarefaction... What was wrong with Newton's fonnu1a? 3. 23................... What was the assumption made by Newton in deriving his formula? ........... Consider a wave pulse (Fig.6 lal travelling along a stretched string with a velocity v in a direction from left to right.. ........ The string along with .. the velocity of sowui in air increases by 0......... ... at STP v "'N 1............ v = ff 1.the wave pulse ts moved with a velocity v in a direction from right to left so that the wave pulse remains stationary relatiVe to an observer on the Earth....Elastic Waves 23........... therefore.. The part pq can be ........17) For air 'Y = 1...4 x INTEXT QUES'HONS 2 3 ... Show t1wt for every 1°C rise in temperature. Find the tempemture' at which the lJelocity in air is velocity of sound at 7"C? 3 times the. 2 23.....4.. (i) Air is bad conductor of heat..1...5 VELOCITY OF TRANSVERSE WAVES ALONG A STRETCHED STRING We shall now derive an expression for the velocity of a transverse wave along a stretched ltaut) ·strtng..29 = 333 ms· l (23.
what would be the relation betWeen n..regarded as an arc of a circle. . The two . . as shown In' Fig. but the forces Tsin9 and Tsln9 having a (b resultant equal to 2Tsin9 provide the necessary centripetal force for the element of the wire in the arc pq to move in a circular path of radius r = OP. T and m? Further if A = 21. m? be the wavelength of the wave and n be the frequency of the wave then what would be the .. . 3 .relatton between n. .:Tc0s9 ~ 1:::.' .ie point of the '. or slinky. . . T arc.. The forces acting on the arc pq are T. . What happens when they meet and thereafteI'? Do they knock each other out? To answer these questions. T is resolved into two components Thin9 towards PO and T cos9 perpendicular to PO. T and ' 0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 • • • • • • • • • • 0 • • • • • • • • • • • 0 • • • • • • 0_ • • • • • 0 • • ' " • • • • • • 0 . . . (23. element pq then 2T sin9 = mOl V'/r: As 9 is small.." •• .6 SUPERPOSmON OF WAVES Suppose two wave pulses travel in the opposite directions on a rubber tube or a sliky.. Fig. A magnified form of the arc pq shown in FIg. . Each of the two forces T. The tension of the string _in the direction of arrows. therefore sin 9 =9. What is the formula for the velocity of a wave on stretched string? 2. .18) 2W =mV'29 or I = ffjffi v INTEXT QUESTIONS 2 3 . . The . I. Further 51 = 29. ••••• 0 23. 23...1. 23. ":. therefore.. . . 23. .6 (h): The point 0 is the centre of the circular are pq and 9 Is the angle subtend by the half arc at O. perpendil:ular to OP cancel out. T. . 28 Physics p q T IS) .. If A... A. . Produce two wave crests on a stretched thick rubber tUbe. ToosII The point P Is the mid. .forces T cos9 and T cos9 . ::.7 and watch carefully what happens.. let us consider an experiment.6ia): TransueTse wade If IT be the mass per unit length of the pulse travel/ing from left to right on a string (bJ Forces acting on the wire and Iil be the length of the arc pq. .
......7 (e) 8I)...Ill) the waves are in the opposfte..............2..7 (e)......7............... what happens then and thereqfter? ... ..7: JUusInltlng prfndpiII oJ shape as it was haVing before crossing............ 1___ in Fig..... Hereinafter we shall make use of this principle to explain the phenomena of interference of waves......crests are moving in the opposite directions... 1\110 $ImIIaT wave pulses traveIUng in the opposite dfrectbls on a string meet......waves are in .... (d).... This Important property of the waves enable us to tune to a particular radio station as if the programme at other frequencies of the other stations was not being broadcast............. 23. 23..................... supi............... overlap and then SC{larate \ (I) \ 'I out. the resultant d1spIacement is the vector sum of the displacements due to each of the two wave pulses......... 23.. Each one travels as if the other waves' were not present...each one moves in the same direction in which it was moVing before crossing and each one is having the same shape as it was having before crossing (Fig. When two waves traveUing in the opposltei:lirection meet...........same line' meet? .7 (e)): (b)~_ _ (e) ...23..... 3. This is Called the princfple of superposftfmt.......................... Thereafte~................. TIley meet and overlap at the point midWay between 1bI:m (Fig.. the twopu1sesoverlap \ [ (Fig....: crossing and each one has the same PIC... The two are moVing \~ ......... .J~.........../ in the opposite directions.... (Fig.........thesame phase? ....... ....7(b) and then separate out....... Each one 'moves in the same \...phQses? .............................." direction in which it was moVing before ......d (f) ]........ 23......... They meet ...  Now produce one crest and one trough on the rubber tube or sitnky as shown (8) _ _>:1. What happens (I) when the ...rposftJon qf JJJCWeS.. 23..... formation of beats and stationary or standing waves..~\.. What happens when two marbles each of the same mass tnweIl!ng with the same ve/ocUy aJong the ........ ....... Now let us lind out what happens wh~ _ ..4 ................ The above experiment not only' demonstrates the principle of superposition but also shows that two or more waves can travers the same space Independent of each other.. ~ At the points where the' two pulses overlap.............1..... IIn'EXTgUESTlONS 23........
utge qf sign NOW the. can be regarded as. In the opposite direction. Activity 2: Suspend a fIXed rubber tube from a fixed support (Fig.! V only reverses the direction of propagation of the wave pulse but· also reverses the direction . As it bounces back.1 : Fasten one end of a thick rubber tube to a fixed support (Fig. 23. Activity 23. a denser medium. 23.8 (Q: RejlediDn. Why? As the wave pulse reaches the free end of the tube. You will observe that the pulse bounces back from the fixed end.. What happens and why does it happen when a transverse wave crest propagates towards the fixed end of a string? Only the experiment will provide the answer. The support being much heavier than stdfers a phDse nruersal the tube. Note that air Is rarer than the rubber tube. Let us now see what happens on reflection from a rarer medium.9 al. Only experim(!nt can provide the reason and as such le.6. queStion ariSes : Do the logitudtnal waves too behave sifflllarly'? • Watch a row of bogies arranged as shown in Fi~. Then send a wavepulse travelling down the tube.~ Ibll. The wave pulse moving in the opposite direction is called the reflected wave pulse. phase reversal.. the crest becomes a trough whlch traveIs bak c ~ ~ ~. another activity.from of the displacement of the wave pulse (Fig~ a denser medium (b) waue .. 23. give a jerk to its free end so as to produce a transverse wave pulse travelling towards the fIXed end of the tube (Fig.t us perform . perform the following activity.. 23. J'Ig. Let U!$..23. 23. the wave undergoes a phase change of 1r: • that is. Hence there is no change in the direction· of displacement of the wave pulse.10(aJ.1 Reflection ~d Transmission of Waves We shall confine our discussion in respect of mechanical waves produced on strings and springs.itedium. Now suppose that the engine E moves a bit towards the right. therefore. Why? As the pulse meets the fixed end. 23.8 (a)" keeping the rubber tube horizontal. So whenrejlection takes place from a· denser .. The equal and opposite reaction not (b)' :.10: Long{tudInal waues are rejlectedJrom a denser medium without change of type but with cht. it causes the free end to overshoot. it suffers· a =======. no phase cIumtJe takes place. it exerts a force on the F'==~'% support. 23. the wave pulse travels upward but without any change in the directlon of its displacements. The buffer spring between the engine E and the first bogie in the row ~f"ts .8 (all. Thus on ~tkm:from a rarer medium. On reflection from the free end.
the longitudinal waves are relfected without change of type but with change. The buffer.' ()) = 2ft/T and k = ).free end of the string? 3.2 Interference of waves Let us compute the ratio of maximum and minimum intensities in an interference pattern obtained due to superposition of waves. the buffer spring between the next two bogies on left is compressed. What happens when a wave of compressiDn is reflected. and a. What happens when a wave pulse travelling along a string meets the..19) (23. = a. By 'change of type' we mean that rarefaction is reflected back as compression and a compression is reflected back as rarefaction. As a result of this.lex) sin [(rot . spring and the bogies form a medium. then the equation of the other wave is !J2 = where 211" and. simple harmonic waves of amplitudes a. In this manner the compression arrives at the last buffer spring in contact with the fixed stand D.. in sign. both propagating along ox.6.' . the second compressed spring expands. end of the string? 2. INTEXT QUESTIONS 2 3 . v = oo/k but differing in phase by a constant phase angle cI>. This process continues. Iv. a compression returns as·a compression. till the compression reaches between the engine and the first bogie on its right.20) the phase ULl1' be the equation of one wave. it moves a hit towards the 3rd bogie. the spring between the 1st and the 2nd bogie gets compressed. But the bogies then move towards the· left. betWeen the two waves.expands.... With the same velocity·. each of angular frequency ro. The bogies are the particles of the medium and the spring between them shows the forces of elasticity.from· (i) a rarer medium (ii) a denser medium? 23. Iv. Consider two.ElastICWaves 31' compressed. only the last bogie moves towards the left. And on reflection from a rare medium a logitudinal wave is nifIected back without change of sign but with change of type...lex) + $ I l'S (23. sin (rot . If Y.. """erence . 5 . this compressed spring . Thus. when reflection takes place from a denser medium.. the spring between the fixed stand and the last bogie expands. Thus.1. Iv. a... What happens when a transverse wave pulse travelling along a string meets the fixed.
(23.' + 2a./Ix) = 0 ./2./Ix) + a" sin [(rot .}. + a"... + a" COS+)2 + (u" sinO)' = 2a.. the amplitude and the intensl. that is an even multiple of ~ then e\! = 2n /').' sln<. sinO + a" sinO cos+ + a" cosO sine\! or Y= .22) Hence.then Y = a..\li: cose\! + a. Thus.11: Ca/cuIatIng resultant amplitude A... sin (rot . 8.hi + al Pig.' + a. 2 + ai cos" +: 2a1~ cos+ .superposition the resultant displacement at the given location at the gtven times Y =Y. (23. Since cos2n = +1.. /2 = 2m". + Y..' + 2a. PhysIca. then the phase difference· between them is 2np T' where 2n T is the phase change per unit distance.·~ between the two supperposed waves.32 . + II:> cos . + a" cos+ = A cos a Then y = A cosa sin 0 + A sin a cos 0 =Asin(O+a) Substituting for 0 we get or y = A sin ((rot .a.21) or N = a. (23. ./Ix) + e\!1 Jf we put (wt .a" = la. = a.' + a.y of the resultant wave is maximum. When the path difference p = 2m ). If p is the path difference b~tween the two waves.21) e\! is the phase differen. x 2m. the resultant wave is of angular frequency ro and has an amplitude A given by N = (a.2) we get A' = a. 23.Sinq>= A Sin u. a" a.a" cos e\! In eq... c~) sinO + a" sln+ rose . from eq. According to the prindple of . Since•. (a. + a"l' (23. = A coa. Let us put a" sine\! = A slna and a.. the two waves are travelling In the same dJrect10n with the ~ velocity along the same line they overlap. therefore. sinO + a" sin (0 + til) or Y =a.
the beats would not be heard as separate. vibrations over A in Is and hence it gainsI vib. become Illiniffium.. lriftially. you will find that beats become more rapid. (a) PJ:oductioo of beats : Let us suppose we have two tUning forks A and B of frequencies Nand N + n respectively: n is smaller than 10. The beat frequency 1s n and beat period is lIn. thenumber' of beats heard tn 1s equals to· the difference tn the .a" = (a. (112n) s. On further loading the prongs of B no beats will be heard. the two forks again vibrate in the'. Then (23. opposite phase and hence the intensity would' again.a"l Hence./2. You will observe that the intensity of sound alternately becomes maximum and minlmum. The reason Is that our ear Is unable to hear two sounds as separate prodUCed in an tnterval less than one tenths of a second. and half vibration over A in . This process would continue. Load the prong of the tuning fork B with a little wax. The intensity observed would become maxlmum. 2 + a. . . in (lin) s. . On loading the prong of B with a little more wax. Now sound them together by a rubber hammer.)2. after Is the tuning forks A arid B will vibrate in the opposite phase. ACuvlty: Take two tunlng forks of saIQe frequency 512 Hz.2 . Let us now explain how beats are produced. Let us now fuvestigate what would be the outcome of superposition of waves of nearly the same frequency. then from eq. both the. In one second. Aft~'(312n)s. and hence n beats in Is. The observer woUld hear 1 beat in (lin) s.'Elastic Waves 33 From eq.. +a2)2 Imax  (a. Suppose at t = 0 s.e. B gains n. i... A completes N vibrations but B completes N' + n vibrations. Thus.. Thus. In other words. = (2m +1) It and cos~ = 1. Hence.3 Beats We have seen that superposition of waves of the same frequency propagating in the saine direction produces interference. These alternations of maxima and mlnlma of intensity are called beats. Let us name them as A and B. then I = I . If A sends a wave of compression then B sends a wave of rarefaction to the observer.a.the resultant jntensity as received by the' ear would be zero. One alternation' df a maximum and a mInlmum Is one beat. After (lIn) s.. If now A sends a wave of compression. tuning forks were vibrating in the same phase.' Press their stems agalnst a table top and note what you observe. B too would send a wave of compression to the obserVer.6.21) N = a. + a.frequencies oj the two tuning forks. Thus k_ (a.2a. If more that 10 beats are produced in Is. Then after (1I2n)s.a 2 ) 2 23.22) we have I = Imax = (a.)2 ~ When p = (2m + 1)A. First let us perform an activity. in 1s B completes n more vibrations than the tuning fork A does.'B will' gain half vibration over 'A Thus. (23. . B would gain one complete vibration over A and hence the two forks will be again in the same ' phase of vibration. = (a.
? min .... (bl tHsp1cement time graph ojJrequency 10 Hz..frequencies are. Thus..... 23........ crest and troughs are formed or rarefactions and of the compressions medium travel forward w1th'a "........=10 Hz ... Ih_... SuperpositWn oj the two waves produces 2 beats per second.. and they produce interference..J and !V + 4? 3. .. again 5 beats per second are produced..frequency of beats? 4... INTEXT QUESTIONS 2 3 .... 23............. 23.. (b) Graphic method : Draw a 12 cm long line.. Fig."..2 cm .. This represents a wave of frequency 12 Hz: On the line (h) draw 10 wavelengths each of length.5 em... Two tuning forks A and B produce 5 beats per second.. If {he intensity ratio oj two waves is 1: 16. Ic) rep'resents the resultant 'wave..... under particular conditions of the medium. This represents a wave of frequency 10 Hz. 1.......5 cm. On 'this line draw 12 wavelengths each 1 cm long and height 0......and .1...12: ra') Displocement time graph ojfrequency 12 Hz............ 6 . . what would be the .. In such waves.. Two Waves of ..... the resultant intensity a1tef!late1y becomes maximum and minimum.. Divide it into 12 equal parts of 1 cm..7 SUPERPOSITION OF WAVES OF SAME FREQUENCY TRAVELLING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS So far we have discussed travelling waves...12 is not the actual waves but the displacement time graphs..34 Physlrs (b) ....  2...+ L1V are supperposed.... What was the . v...... On loading one prong of A with a small ring..Beals Fig... Hence the beat frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the waves superposed.. .frequencies v and v.. What happens when waves emanating jium two sources oj sowtd are superposed when their ........ Give reason for your answer..... The number of beats produced in 1 'second is L1y.frequency of A before loading if that of B is 512 Hz.height 0. what will be the ratio Imnx /I..
r Standing Waves Let us ~ the formation of ~_I ~ . shown N.N. ... lt can be seen that the resultant displacement at each point is maximum.::r__. [Fig..' . each after T/4 s that is.13 (H))..:. "..)<"~ __ .13: Showing formation of statlDruuy waves due LO superPosition of two waves of same dashed curve. 23. All the TlIIrticles are in their respective mean positions. (tv) At t = 3T /4 s [Fig. __ ~ (ill the incident wave.. Hence the resultant displacement at Cl'ch ooint is zero. . .. . 23.'T! inCident. ... ! €t·_·· (ill) At t = T /2s [Fig. point P. At each point the displacements being in the opposite dtrections. __ _ stationary/standing waves.1" 1__ ' . TO". oppoJlte directions. l'Ol •• 1""! !.. 23. as shown by the shift of the point P and the reflected wave has advanced to the left by A/4 as shown by the shift·· of the. 23. __ 1. In these waves crest and troughs or compressions and. have a zero resultant shown by a thick line. >.::..' . '.. same ampIi1ude travelling in opposfle direction along the same line opposite phases.. rarefactlon remain stationary relative to the observer. By :_.:'" to superposition of two waves of . .. at t = O./2 to the left as shown by the shift of the point PO. ..I.. . The resultant wave form has been shown by the thick continuous curve.13(ill))..p.13livJl. 23. IJ4 A.... The incident wave has advanced a distance 'A..J4_. . the same wavelength. 23..I4 N3 "" Aa lI4... The two waves are again in the .. (H) At t =T /4s [Fig.~ =. IJ4 N2 IJ4 A:. .d ampUtude travelling with the ~ p p' same speed along the same line :=...7. Hence the particle velocity at each point is zero and the strain is maximum. by dotted curve.' I" '10' / 'p' that these waves are fonned due" ...:./4. . are in the wave length. N2A:. _ _ ___ _ l _.:. You will now study statloruuy or standing waves.now it sbould be clear to you ~J. ' .:'~i \ I k==i:~ shown the positions of the . same :'(:: ::::/ ..._ '. l..13 where we have ~\.13 .* ___ ... __ _ in the same medium but in the e __. ". understand their formation referI' ' I to Fig._"i" :./2 to the right as shown by tlie shift of the point P and the reflected wave has advanced a distance· 'A...Elastic Waves 35 velocity depending upon certain properties of the medium. vibration.. shown by PIg../' waves. and the reflected wave." .p' P Initially. :!!: ! after quarter of a period of! " >··i'" '. f':'.N. .". 23. '. '~•• '1. the incident wave has advanced to the right by 'A. reflected and resultant .~". r=.".1 Formation of Stationary Or NA o 11 .
a stn (cot + lex) Let us use the trigonometrtc identity. (v) the time period of oscillation of a stationary wave equals the time period of the two travelling waves whose superposition bas resulted. in fonnation of the stationary wave.a sin (00/. (III) That the distance between two successive nodes or between two. y = a stn (cot . The' equation of the reflected wave is therefore. The resultant" wave form is a straight line (shown by an unbroken thick line). the amplitude is maximum but the strain is minimum. owing to the superposltion of the two waves the result'ant displacement at a given point and time is Y = !/. Therefore. The energy merely surges back and forth and on the average the.2 Equation of Stationary Waves The equation of a Simple harmonic wave travp!ling with a velocity v = (J}/k in a medium y\ = . and A. successive antinode is 'A/2.36 Physics same phase. because the wave form does not move forward. !/2 = a sin (cot + lex) Thus. N2 • N3 and N•• the. Due·· to their superposition stationary waves are produced. The resultant displacement at each point· is maximum. It is to be noted : (1) (ii) That at pOints N. amplitude is zero but the strain is maximum. The particle velocity is zero but the strain is maximum possible. They are called stationary waves.flow of energy past a point is zero..kx) On reflection from a den~r medium' let the wave travel along the same line that is ox in the opposite direction with phase change of It. Such points are called nodes. + !/. but alternately shrinks and dialates. The strain Ayl tu at each point is zero. A. The two similar waves travelling with the same speed in the opposite directions on the same line overlap.13(vll the incident and reflected waves at each point are in the opposite phases.7.. 23. These points are called IlDt'node=. (iv) That the distance between a node and next antinode is AI 4. that at points A.lex) . (vi) the energy alternately surges back and forth about a point but on the average the energy flow past a point is 7~ro. (v) At t = 4T /4 s [F1g. 23.. .
At . ObViously the spacing between two such neighbouring pOints Is ').. cos (A + 8)/2 which gives y = 2a sin lex cos {JJ/: (23.= m ')./2 or x = (2m + 1) '). Hence. then y = A cos {JJ/: .. These points where the amplitude is maximum but strain is zero are called antinDdes. at nodes where the strain is maximum the particle velocity is zero and at antinodes where the strain is zero the particle velocity Ay/ At = max. that is strain is maximum../2 ./4 sin lex = sin (2m +1) 1r. oscUlates In space with an angular frequency k = 2n/. Hence A is maximum. (23.24) Eq. It follows that the average flow of energy across any point is zero. At those points where lex = (2 m + 1) 1r.23) Let us put 2a sin lex = A.. . At these poJnts Ay / Ax = maximum.. Hence A =0 These points where the amplitude Is zero are known as Dodes. At these points the strain Ay / Ax is zero./2.t which is the phase change per metre.7. Obviously the spacing between two nearest points is 'J. nus is the equation of stationary simple harmonic wave. The energy merely surges back and forth./2 = ±I. Therefore.. It may be pointed out.sin B= 2 sin (A .BJ/2./2 x '). 23./2. these waves have been named stationary or standing waves.25) sin lex = sin m n = O./2n = (2m + 1) 'J. which is A...t 2n (23.23) represents the resultant wave of angular frequency III but of amplitude A = 2a sin lex at a location x = x. The amplituae of the resultant wave.Elastic Waves 37 sin A . that.3 Distinction between TraveUing and Standing Waves Let us swnma:rise the main points of difference between travelUng and standing waves.such points where lex = m n or x = m n/k = mtr:/. (23.
. 3..... il.. same.... and what Is the distance between a node and next antlnode? . .. 3.......... INTEXT QUESTIONS 23....... There is no point where there is no change of denSity........ At nodes the amplitude is zero but at antinodes the amplitude is maximum.... Antinodes are points of no change of density but at nodes there is ma·xlmum change of denSity........ In a stationary wave the mi:rximum velocity ·isdifferent at different points It is zero at nodes but maximum at antlnodes_ But all the particles atta........... one after the other...........7_ _ _ _ _ _"'_ __ I....... ticle to particle with a definite speed. 38 Pbysics..............