This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

1

Module 1

Algebra

Since the dawn of civilization, man tried to have a count of his belongings–goods, stones, animals, trees, etc. Whenever the animals were taken out of the enclosure for grazing, for each animal taken out, a scratch was put on the ground/stone. Thus, the number of animals taken out for grazing were equal to the number of scratches. (This is analogous to tally marks used now a days). On return, for every one animal returning to the enclosure a scratch was erased. In this way, even without knowing the counting, they used to save their belongings. Slowly the civilizations advanced and first came the counting numbers (natural numbers). You will be happy and proud to know that the present system of numeration, including numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., 9 and place value system were the discoveries of our ancient Indians to the world. From India, these numbers reached the reign of Arabian king Al-mansur whose wise man Al-khowarizmi, translated the works of Indian scholars and mathematicians. From Arabia, the numerals reached the western world. Therefore, these are called Hindu-Arabic Numerals. You know that Algebra is generalised form of Arithmetic in which variables are used for numbers. Aryabhatt (476 AD) and Brahmgupta (578 AD) were the first Indian Mathematicians who used variables for numbers and called them “Yavat-Tawat”. They illustrated the sum, difference, product and division of expressions using variables and even found their squares, cubes, square-roots, cube-roots. Aryabhatt and Brahmgupta worked on solving linear, quadratic and indeterminate equations also. They called the method of solving indeterminate equations as “Chakrawal” and gave “Avyakat Ganit” to algebra. Bhaskaracharya and Mahaviracharya also contributed a lot to this, especially ratio and proportion and extended the works of previous Mathematicians on equations and indices and surds. The name “Beejganit” was given to Algebra by Bhaskaracharya. The credit of calling this as Algebra goes to Al-khowarizmi, the wise man of Al-Mansur. In this module, we shall study about number system, polynomials, factorisation of algebraic expressions, simplificaiton of rational expressions, solving linear and quadratic equations, indices and surds, Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions.

2

Mathematics

1

Number Systems

1.1 INTRODUCTION One of the greatest inventions in the history of civilization is the creation of NUMBERS. You can imagine the state of confusion, if you did not know about natural numbers or counting numbers. The introduction of those numbers enabled us to answer the question ‘How many’? You may recall your familiarity with the concepts of natural numbers, whole numbers, integers, fractions and rational numbers. These helped us to count, to know about the number zero representing nothingness, parts of a whole, describe opposites like profit and loss, rise and fall, going towards east and west etc. But one could have easily got along without the introduction of these numbers except the natural numbers. However, the working out of problems became easier with the introduction of numbers upto rational numbers. All these numbers mentioned above are rational numbers. Recall that a natural number is a rational number, a whole number is a rational number, a fraction is also a rational number and so also is an integer. At this stage, it is pertinent to ask ourselves a question. Are all numbers rational numbers ? Is it possible to solve all mathematical and life problems with the help of rational numbers? The answer to this question is an emphatic ‘NO’. For example, given a unit of length, we are not in a position to exactly measure all distances if we have with us rational numbers only. Likewise, it is not possible to find out the square root of an arbitrary natural number as a rational number, as for example, you know that 2 is not a rational number. To overcome such difficulties, it is essential to extend to the system of real numbers. In this lesson, you will be able to recall all that you may be knowing about rational numbers but also extend the same to the system of real numbers. This is a big leap forward in the study of Mathematics. 1.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson, the learner will be able to :

z

illustrate the extension of system of numbers from natural numbers to real (rational and irrational) numbers. identify different types of numbers. express an integer as a rational number

z z

Number Systems

3

z

express a rational number as a terminating or non terminating but recurring decimal and vice-versa. find a rational number between two given numbers. represent a rational number on the number line cite examples of irrational numbers represent 2 , 3 , 5 on the number line

z z z z z z z

find an irrational number between two given numbers. round off a rational or irrational number to a given number of decimal places. perform the four fundamental operations of Arithmetic i.e., addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on real numbers.

**1.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
**

z z z

Concept of Natural numbers, whole numbers, fractions, integers and rational numbers. Prime and composite numbers and co-prime numbers. HCF and LCM of two or more natural numbers.

1.4 RATIONAL NUMBERS You may recall your familiarity with rational numbers. For example 1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 4 , 4 , 0 , −9 , 22 , ... 2 5 7 4 4 are all rational numbers. 1, 2, 3, 4, ... are counting numbers or Natural Numbers. With the help of these you are able to answer the question ‘How many’ ? If we introduce another number ‘zero’ into the system of natural numbers, we get the system of Whole Numbers as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ... Notice that 0 is not a natural number but it is a whole number. All natural numbers are whole numbers as well. By introducing into the system of whole numbers the opposite (negatives) of natural numbers, we get the numbers ... –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... called integers. Similarly, the numbers 1 , 2 , 6 , 5 , ... 2 3 4 7

4

Mathematics

are called fractions. You may have a look at some numbers like −2 , 5 , 6 , ... 3 −8 −21 These numbers do not fall into the categories mentioned above. If we include these numbers as well in our system of numbers, we get what is known as the system of ‘Rational Numbers’. Thus,

A number of the form numbers.

p where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0 is called a rational q

Here p is called the numerator and q the denominator of the rational number. You may notice that all natural numbers, whole numbers, fractions, integers are rational numbers but a rational number may not be a natural number, a whole number, a fraction or 11 an integer. For example, the number is not a natural number. It is not a whole number. −7 11 It is neither a fraction nor an integer. But certainly is rational number. Can you justify −7 11 p this statement ? Surely, you may see that is a number of the form where p = 11, q −7 q = –7 and q ≠ 0. A rational number whose numerator and denominator are both positive integers or both negative integers is a positive rational number. Similarly, if in a rational number, one out of its numerator and the denominator is positive and the other is negative is a negative rational number. Thus, for examples 2 , −7 are positive rational numbers 3 −11 and −2 , 11 are negative rational numbers. 7 −7

0 is the zero rational number. 1

Notice that 0 =

**It may be noted that
**

−2 4 −6 2 = = = , and −3 6 −9 3 −33 11 −11 22 = = = −7 −14 7 21

Number Systems

5

**14.1 Rational Number in its Lowest Terms Consider the rational number
**

24 . Here its numerator and denominator are 24 and 36. But these 36 two natural numbers have a Highest Common Factor, namely 12 and so the number could as well as be written as 2 × 12 2 or simply 3 × 12 3 −12 2 is said to be rational number in the lowest terms. Similarly, the rational number , could 48 3 easily be rewritten as −1 × 12 −1 = 4 × 12 4

The numerator and denominator of a rational number in lowest terms are co-prime numbers. Note : The number

12 −12 is as well written as − . 48 48

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1 1. From the following numbers, pick out (a) natural numbers (b) integers which are not natural numbers (c) whole numbers which are not natural numbers (d) fractions which are not natural numbers (e) numbers which are neither whole numbers, nor integers not fractions 1 , 7 , − 3 , 7 , −4 , 0 , − 23 , 2 , −15 , 11 . 8 3 7 3 6 2. Express the following integers as rational numbers : (i) – 4 (ii) 23 (iii) 0

−21 6

(iv) 1

(v) – 1

**3. Express the following rational numbers in their lowest terms : (i) −
**

15 36

(ii)

44 14

(iii)

(iv)

8 −12

1.5 DECIMAL REPRESENTATION OF A RATIONAL NUMBER You may be familiar with the process of representing a rational number in the form of a decimal. We illustrate this process with the help of a few examples.

6

Mathematics

Example 1.1 : Represent the numbers

1 3 ,− , in the decimal form. 4 5

**Solution : By actual division, we know that (i)
**

1 = 0.25 4

4) 1.0 (0.25 8 20 20 0 5) 3.0 (0.6 30 0

(ii) −

3 = – 0.6 5

In the cases above, we see that in the process of repeated division by the denominator, we end up after a finite number of steps, when we get the remainder as zero. But this is not always so. To illustrate this we consider another example. Example 1.2 : Express the following rational numbers (i) −

2 3

(ii)

6 7

**in the decimal form. Solution : (i) −
**

2 = – 0.6666 ..... 3

Please note that in this case, the process of repeated division never comes to an end. In fact at every step, we get the remainder 2. (ii)

6 = 0.857142 857142 ..... 7

In this example, we find that the remainder at each step keeps changing till we arrive at a stage that the remainder repeats and then on further division the quotient will start repeating. In examples, 1.1 and 1.2 above, we see that either the remainder will be zero after a finite number of steps or it will start repeating after a finite number of steps. In the first case we say that the decimal is terminating and in the other we say that the decimal is non-terminating but repeating. In fact we have the following important statement.

3) 2.0 (0.66... 18 20 18 20 18 2 7) 6.0 (0.857142 56 40 35 50 49 10 7 30 28 20 14 6

Number Systems

7

A rational number is either a terminating decimal or a non-terminating but recurring (repeating) decimal. In the following examples, we try to represent a decimal (terminating or non-terminating but repeating decimal) in the form

p . q

**p Examples 1.3 : Express (i) 0.72, (ii) 0.125 in the form q .
**

Solution : (i) (ii) 0.72 = 0.125 = 72 = 18 100 25 125 = 1 1000 8

Example 1.4 : Express (i) 0.33....., (ii) 0.234 234 .... in the form Solution : (i) You may write a = 0.33 .... Multiply both sides by 10 to get 10a = 3.33 .... Subtracting (1) from (2), we get 9a = 3.33.... – 0.33.... =3 ∴ Thus, (ii) Let a= 0.33 = 1 3 1 3

p . q

...(1) ...(2)

b = 0.234234....

...(1)

**Multiplying both sides by 1000 to get 1000 b = 234.234.... Subtracting (1) from (2), we get 999 b = 234 ∴ b=
**

234 26 = . 999 111

...(2)

The examples help us to assign at a result which can be stated in the following form.

8

Mathematics

A terminating decimal or a non-terminating but recurring decimal is a rational number. Note : Recurring decimals such as 0.66..., 0.234234..., 3.142857142857... are also written as 0.6 , 0. 234 , 3.142857 . In fact a digit or a group of digits which repeat are put below a bar to indicate that these repeat again and again. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2 1. Represent the following rational numbers in the decimal form : (i)

21 40

(ii)

16 25

(iii)

13 8

(iv)

15 6

(v)

91 35

**2. Represent the following rational numbers in the decimal form : (i)
**

5 7

(ii) −

5 6

(iii)

15 11

(iv) −

27 13

3. Represent the following decimals in the form (i) 2.3 (ii) – 7.12

p : q

(iv) 8.146

(iii) – 0.315

**p 4. Represent the following decimals in q form :
**

(i) 0.333... (ii) 3.12 (iii) – 0.315315...

1.6 RATIONAL NUMBERS BETWEEN ANY TWO RATIONAL NUMBERS Given two rational numbers, can you find a rational number between them ? To answer this question, we consider the following examples : Example 1.5 : Find a rational number between two rational numbers 1 3 + Solution : Consider the number 2 4 2

1 3 and . 2 4

Number Systems

9

2+3 5 You may simplify this to get 4 i.e., 8 2 Surely, 5>1 3 5 5 1 3 5 and > . You may verify this by computing − and − which come 8 2 4 8 8 2 4 8 5 is a rational number such that 8

**out to be both positive numbers, Thus,
**

1 5 3 < < 2 8 4

Think for a while, what we have done. We added the two numbers and divided their sum by 2. The resulting number is between the two given numbers. It will be greater than the smaller of the two numbers and less than the larger number. Let us now consider the following question : “How many rational numbers lie between two given rational numbers ?” Can you guess the answer ? In fact you can find as many rational numbers between two given numbers as you like. Can you think of as to how you may find many rational numbers lying between two rational numbers ? Example 1.6 : Find a rational number between 0.12 and 0.13. Solution : Consider the number

012 . + 013 . 2

= 0.125 It is a number greater than 0.12 and less than 0.13. Can you find some other rational numbers between 0.12 and 0.13 ? How many such like numbers you can find ? These are some of interesting aspects of the study of rational numbers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3 1. Find a rational number between the following rational numbers (i) 7 8 and 8 7 (ii) 2 and 3 3 1 (iii) − , − 4 3

10

Mathematics

2. Find two rational numbers between the following rational numbers : 2 1 (i) − and 3 2 (i) 0.23 and 0.24 2 1 (ii) − and − 3 4 (ii) 7.31 and 7.32

3. Find two rational numbers between the following rational numbers

1.7 THE NUMBER LINE Rational numbers can be represented on a line which is known as the number line in the following manner. Consider a line as shown in Fig 1.1. We fix a point O on its line. We choose a convenient unit of length and mark points on the line on both sides of O at fixed distances equal to the unit of length chosen. These points represent the number 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, .... –1, –2, –3, –4, ..... 7 on the line. We as shown in the Fig 1.1. Suppose now we have to represent the number 4 divide the distance between 1 and 2 into four equal parts and mark the point after three equal parts as shown in the figure.

Fig. 1.1

In this way we can represent any positive rational numbers by a point on the number line to the right of the point O. Similarly if we were to represent the number −

1 on the number line, we divide the line segment 2

between –1 and 0 into two equal parts and mark the point −

1 as shown in the Fig 1.1. In 2 this manner you may see that any given rational number can be represented by a point on the number line. You may also note that the number 0 is represented by the point O on the number line.

Example 1.7 : Represent the number 1.2 on the number line. Solution :

Fig. 1.2

Consider the number line with points on it marked as –2, –1, 0, 1, 2 as shown in Fig. 1.2 above. Divide the line segment between 1 and 2 into 10 equal parts. Mark a point P as 1.2, as is shown

Number Systems

11

in the Fig, 1.2, 2 steps ahead of the point representing the number 1. P is the point representing the number 1.2 on the number line. You may note that any rational number whether in the form be represented by a point on the number line. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4 1. Represent the following numbers by points on the number line (i)

3 2

p or in the decimal form can q

(ii) −

1 3

(iii) 1.5

(iv) – 1.3

2. Find the numbers corresponding to the points O, P, Q and R on the number line as shown in the Fig. 1.3.

Fig. 1.3

1.8 IRRATIONAL NUMBERS In section 1.5, you have seen that when a rational number is represented as a decimal, then either this decimal is terminating or it is a non-terminating but repeating decimal. The question that arises is this. Are there decimals which are neither terminating nor non-terminating but repeating decimals ? The answer to this question is ‘Yes’. Consider for example the decimal 0.101001000100001 ... This decimal has been written in such a manner that it has a definite pattern and so you can keep on writing it indefinitely. But this pattern is such that no block of digits repeats again and again. It is an example of a non-terminating and non-repeating decimal. Similarly, you may consider the decimal 0.123456789 10 11 12 13 ... Can you write the next nine digits in the decimal ? Note that, all that has been done is that we have written successively all natural numbers in the ascending order. The next six digits will be 14 15 16. Note once again you can continue this process endlessly. Thus, there is a definite pattern to write the digits but no block of digits is repeating again and again. This is another example of a non-terminating and non-repeating decimal.

12

Mathematics

The two examples we have discussed above indicate that there are decimals which are not rational numbers. Why ? We conclude that if we have to possess in our fold all decimals, namely. (i) terminating decimals (ii) non-terminating but repeating decimals (iii) non-terminating and non-repeating decimals then the system of rational numbers is not adequate and so we must extend this system to include numbers which are not rational i.e., irrational numbers.

**p Note that the name rational is derived from the word 'ratio', as a number q , q ≠ 0 is the ratio
**

of two integers p and q. Also number which is not a ratio of integers p and q, q ≠ 0 is named as an irrational number. 1.8.1 Inadequacy of rational numbers You may recall that we would not have been able to answer the question 'how many' ?, if we did not know counting numbers or natural numbers. Let us now try to examine what we shall not be able to do if we have in our possession the rational numbers only. We put to ourselves the following question. Can we measure the length of any given line segment in terms of a prescribed unit of length, with the help of rational numbers ? The answer to this question is an emphatic ‘No’, as is clear from the following example. Consider a square ABCD of each side of unit length. The diagonal AC of this square has its length 2 units. You also know that 2 is not a rational number as there is no rational number whose square is 2.

Fig. 1.4

We conclude that we cannot exactly measure the length of the line segment AC in terms of rational numbers, if the unit of length given to us is AB. It is this inadequacy which necessitates the extension of the system of rational numbers to a system which includes in it rational as well as irrational numbers. There is yet another point which necessitates the extension of rational numbers. We discuss the same in the following paragraph. Recall that you have seen in section 1.7, that to each rational number these corresponds a unique point on the number line. Let us now consider the converse of it. Given a point on the number line, will it always correspond to a rational number ? The answer to this question is also a 'NO', as is clear from the following example.

1. there is a point namely P. In fact.5 Construct a square on the line segment. The diagonal of the square has length as centre and radius OA. again an irrational number. the point P on the number line corresponds to the number 2 which is irrational. p 1 2 3 you can get points on the line corresponding to number like 2 2 .6 Similarly. there are infinitely many points on the number line which do not correspond to rational numbers. 3 3 . Fig. q 7 . etc. on the number line which does not correspond to a rational number. − 4 5 . Fig.Number Systems 13 On the number line mark the points corresponding to the number 0 and 1. 1. . The diagonal of the rectangle will be OQ = 3 . Thus. How many such points are those on the line which do not correspond to rational numbers ? In fact there are many such points and their number is infinite i. 1. With O as centre and OQ as radius draw an arc cutting the number line in the point R. This point P 5 . if P corresponds to the number 2 as in Fig 1. 5 etc. Then the point R corresponds to the irrational number 3. Thus.e.7 Once you have the points on the number line corresponding to irrational number 2 .5. draw an arc cutting the number line in P. by constructing the rectangle with sides 2 and 1 as shown in Fig 1. draw an arc cutting the number line in P. as shown in Fig 1. Then OP = 2 . Fig.6. 3 . With O 2 . we construct a rectangle with one side OP and the other side 1.7 and with O as centre and diagonal OA = corresponds to 5 .

2 is . All these points correspond to irrational numbers. We may therefore say that the rational line is not complete whereas the real line is complete.8 : Find an irrational number between the numbers 1 and 2. This discussion leads us to the following conclusion.. Write down the next three digits in the following numbers : (i) 0..9 IRRATIONAL NUMBER BETWEEN TWO GIVEN NUMBERS Recall that you had found rational numbers between two given rational numbers. 2. It is the square root of the product of the two numbers 1 and 2.14 Mathematics p where q is any rational numbers. Represent the following numbers on the number line : (i) 1 2 3 (ii) 1 + 2 (iii) − 3 (iv) − 2 + 3 1. We have thus extended the system of rational numbers to include in it all irrational numbers as well. The number line consisting of points corresponding to rational numbers has gaps on it. Example 1. This number line is called the real line and the one corresponding to rational numbers is known as the rational line. In other words it is not complete.35 .e.. 1 × 2 i. You may refer to Fig 1.246 ..6912 . (iv) 0. The system of numbers consisting of all rational and irrational numbers is called the system of real numbers or the Real Number System. Solution : Consider the number 1 × 2 . But the number line consisting of points corresponding to all rational and irrational numbers is without any gaps and therefore is complete. (ii) 1.11011110 . In the following examples we illustrate how do we find irrational numbers between any two numbers... (iii) 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. So an irrational number lying between the number 1 and 2.5 and see that the point P corresponding to 1 and 2 and so 2 lies between the points 2 is such that 2 is greater than 1 and less than 2.5 1. This system is called the Real Number System....

178.6 1. 2 ∴ The required number is CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 1. Solution : We look up the 4th place after the decimal point. 3+ 2 . it is less than 3. We illustrate this process with the help of the following examples.178473. In this case. 2 Also. Example 1. you can verify than 3 is greater than the number 3+ 2 . it is 4 which is less than 5. So The approximate value of 2. 3− 2 is a positive real number 2 3+ 2 is greater than 2 ∴ 2.9 : Find an irrational number lying between the number 3+ 2 2 2 and 3.Number Systems 15 Example 1. . upto three places of decimal is 2.10 : Express the number 2. Solution : Consider the number We have As ∴ 3+ 2 3+ 2 − 2 2 3− 2 − 2 = = 2 2 2 2 is less than 2.10 ROUNDING OFF NUMBERS TO A GIVEN NUMBER OF DECIMAL PLACES Quite often it is convenient to write the approximate value of a real number to a specified number of decimal places.178473 approximately by rounding it off to three places of decimal. How many irrational numbers are there between 1 and 2 ? Give three examples of irrational numbers between these two numbers. Find an irrational number between the following pairs of numbers : (i) 2 and 3 (iii) (ii) 3 and 2 2 and 8 2 and 3 (iv) 2.

in the form q (i) 0.. we observe the next digit in the decimal part of number.... So.e.. we observe that.34567 . Write down the approximate value of the numbers.11 : Find the approximate value of 2.. (iii) 1. (iii) 0.. With the help of real numbers..14159 .3125 (ii) 0..1111 .142857 LET US SUM UP z z (ii) 7.7 1. we add 1 to the preceding digit to get the required number. there are no gaps on it.1785 Thus. when represented as a decimal is either terminating or non-terminating but repeating decimal.9999 .. TERMINAL EXERCISE z z z z z p 1. (ii) If the digit is 5 or more than 5. correct upto 4 places of decimal. we can measure exactly any length in terms of a unit of length.. correct upto 4 places of decimals (i) 0. Solution : The fifth place of decimal (one after the fourth) is 7.. ∴ The required approximate value of the number is 2.16 Mathematics Example 1. there lie an infinite number of rational as well as irrational numbers. An irrational number is a non-terminating and non-repeating decimal. (iv) 12. we add to 4 the fourth place 1. (iv) 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. . There are gaps on the rational line.7777 ..325444 .... because 7 is greater than 5.01101 . Express the decimal. we ignore it and give the answer. A rational number. The real line is complete i. to round off a number to some decimal places.178473. (iv) 3.. Between any two given numbers. The Real Number System consists of rational and irrational numbers. (i) If the digit is less than 5.

..7326 (iv) 3..333. Find two rational and two irrational numbers between the following pairs of numbers : (i) 2 and 3 (iii) 1.3 (ii) (iv) 3 and 2 2 and 3 4.142857 (iv) 0.Number Systems 17 2.99999. Find the value of the following numbers correct upto 3 places of decimal : (i) 2 3 (ii) 2 (iii) 1.2 and 1... Express the following numbers as non-terminating but repeating decimals : (i) 2 7 (ii) 4 13 (iii) 6 11 (iv) 1 3. (iv) 2 + 5 (iii) 2 2 5. Represent the following numbers on the number line : (i) − 3 2 (ii) 1.

2 . 2 .6912151821.076923 (iv) 4073 500 (v) 2.. (iv) 0.24681012. (i) (iii) Check Your Progress 1.5 Check Your Progress 1.363 (iii) −63 200 35 11 (iv) 2. –23. 1..5 (iv) – 2.6 1. − 3 (ii) 23 1 22 7 (c) 0 0 1 −7 2 (d) 7 .. (i) 23 10 1 3 (ii) 0. 2. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Check Your Progress 1. (i) 0.5.525 2.357911. 1+ 2 .625 (iii) –1. –1...5 1. Infinite number. (ii) 1.1 1. (a) 1. Check Your Progress 1.833 168 (ii) − 25 (ii) 103 33 (iii) 1.18 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 1. (iii) 3.714285 3.6 4. 0.. (i) 0.4 1. 7 15 (b) –3. (i) 5 (ii) 3+2 2 (iii) 2 +2 2 2+ 3 2 (iv) 3 2 2 2.64 (ii) – 0.. 0.. (i) 0. 11 8 7 6 1 1 −2 3 (e) None −1 1 2.110 11110 1111110 111111110.2 1. 2. (i) −4 1 −5 12 (iii) (iv) (v) 3.5.

7778 (v) 3.54 (iii) 1.143 (v) 1. (i) 5 16 (ii) 1 9 (iii) 1 (iii) 0.Number Systems 19 Check Your Progress 1.285714 5.414 .1416 (iii) 1.733 (iv) 1 (iv) 3.7 1.0110 (iv) 12. (i) 0. (i) 0.667 (ii) 0.1429 Terminal Exercise 1. (i) 0.3254 (vi) 3.3457 2.307692 (ii) 1.0 (ii) 7.

seven is being multiplied by itself 4 times.1 INTRODUCTION You have learnt. 2. In 5 × 5 × 5. Isn’t it difficult to write 15 × 15 × . simplify expressions involving exponents using laws of exponents. 2. five is being multiplied by itself three times. We shall explain its meaning. express a natural number as a product of powers of prime numbers uniquely.. In 7 × 7 × 7 × 7.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. identify the base and the exponent of a number in the exponential notation. 20 times? In this lesson we shall try to overcome this difficulty by the introduction of Exponential notation. We shall learn the application of laws of exponents.. In the end of the lesson we shall also learn how to express very large and very small numbers using scientific notation. Think of the problem when 11 is multiplied by itself 10 times or 15 is multiplied by itself 20 times. explain the meaning of a0. state the laws of exponents.20 Mathematics 2 Indices (Exponents) 2. We shall express real numbers as product of powers of prime numbers. p q z z z express very large and very small numbers using scientific notation.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z Multiplication of numbers Division of numbers Prime Numbers . the learner will be able to : z z z z write a repeated multiplication in exponential notation and vice-versa. You can easily write the product 5 × 5 × 5 = 125 or 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 = 2401. a–m and a . state and derive laws of exponents. how to multiply two or more real numbers.

. 6 is the base and 5 is the exponent. in (iii) multiply 4 by itself 6 times. 11 times as 811 and (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × . the number 5 is called the base and 2 is called the exponent or index. We write 5 × 5 as 52. The notation for writing the product of a number by itself several times is called the exponential notation. Similarly 34 is read as ‘three raised to the power 4. yes. 52 is read as ‘five raised to the power 2’ or ‘second power of five’ In 52. Again in 46.. and 6 × 6 × 6 × 6 × 6 as 65. Similarly (–2) × (–2) × (–2) × (–2) = (–2)4 where –2 is the base and 4 is the exponent. and in (iv) multiply 6 by itself 5 times. You can now write 8 × 8 × 8 × . or ‘fourth power of three’.. 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 as 46. 2. Write the base and exponent of (–3)7 Base : Exponent : . In 811. 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 as 34.Indices (Exponents) 21 z z Rational Numbers Four fundamental operations on rational numbers. 4 is the base and 6 is the exponent and in 65. 7 times as (–3)7. the base is 8 and exponent is 11. in (ii) multiply 3 by itself 4 times.4 EXPONENTIAL NOTATION Let us consider the following products : (i) 5 × 5 (ii) 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 (iii) 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 (iv) 6 × 6 × 6 × 6 × 6 In (i) we have to multiply 5 by itself 2 times. Can you identify base and exponent in 811 ? Of course. 3 is the base and 4 is the exponent..

then a × a × a × . 4 Similarly 6×6×6 = 5 5 5 FH 6 I 5K 3 and 1I × F − 1I × F − 1I × F − 1I FH − 2 1I K H 2 K H 2 K H 2 K = FH − 2 K 4 In general. It is read as ‘ 3 raised to the power 4 3 is base and 2 is the exponent. Here 3× 3 is written as 4 4 3I FH 4 K 2 .. two’.. The plural of the word index is indices.. Solution : (a) (b) FH 2 I 3K 3I FH 5 K 2 = 4 2 × 2 = 2×2 = 4 3 3 3× 3 9 3×3×3×3 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 81 = 5 5 5 5 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 625 = 3 (c) × b −3g × b−3g 3I × F − 3I × F − 3I 3I FH − 7 = − 27 K H 7 K H 7 K = b−3g7 K = FH − 7 ×7×7 343 Example 2.2 : Express each of the following in the exponential form : (a) 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 (b) (c) 5 × 5× 5 11 11 11 FH − 4 I × F − 4I × F − 4I × F − 4I × F − 4I 9K H 9K H 9K H 9K H 9K (b) (c) 5I FH 11 K FH − 4 I × F − 4I × F − 4I × F − 4I × F − 4I F − 4I 9K H 9K H 9K H 9K H 9K = H 9K 5 × 5× 5 = 11 11 11 3 Solution : (a) 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 = (7)7 5 . if ‘a’ is any rational number.1 : Evaluate each of the following : (a) FH 2 I 3K 2 (b) 3I FH 5 K 4 (c) 3I FH − 7 K 3 . Example 2..22 Mathematics Exponential notation can also be used for writing the product of a rational number by itself several times. m times = am. a is called the base and m is called the exponent or index. Note. For example. a ×a = a2 is known as square of a and a × a × a = a3 is known as cube of a.

Indices (Exponents) 23 Example 2. 3 b g b g b g F I F I F I = F − 2I H K H K H K H 3K 3 1 in exponential form. 3 Example 2.4 : Express − 243 Solution : − 1 = −1 243 243 = b−1g × b−1g × b−1g × b−1g × b−1g 3× 3× 3× 3× 3 5 3 3 3 3 243 81 27 9 3 b−1g = FG − 1IJ = H 3K 3 5 5 Here Base = − 1 and Exponent = 5. Write down the base and the exponent. (b) 25 5×5 = 5 × 5 = 5 = 81 9×9 9 9 9 FH IK 729 243 81 27 9 3 2 5 and Exponent =2 Base = 9 (c) −2 × − 2 × − 2 −8 = −2 × −2 × −2 = 27 3× 3× 3 3 3 3 2 Base = − and Exponent = 3.5 : Simplify 3I FH 2 I ×F K H 3 4K 2 3I FH 2 I ×F K H 3 4K 2 3 3 Solution : = = 2 2 × 33 32 4 3 4 × 27 3 = 9 64 16 Example 2. Base = 3.6 : Find the reciprocal of each of the following and express them in exponential form : (a) 52 (b) 3I FH 7 K 4 (c) FH − 4 I 5K 9 . Example 2.3 : Express each of the following in exponential notation and write down the base and exponent in each case : (a) 2187 (b) 25 81 (c) −8 27 3 2187 3 3 3 3 3 Solution : (a) 2187 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 37. Exponent = 7.

5 PRIME FACTORISATION You may recall how to write the factors of a given natural number. 2.1 1. Any composite number can be expressed as a product of prime numbers. 3. we observe that 9 = FH IK b g 59 = − 5 9 4 −4 9 . Write the base and exponent in each of the following : (a) 37 8I FH 13 K 2 3 (b) 73 2I FH − 11 K 4 2I (c) F H 11 K 8 5I (d) F H− 9 K 20 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2. Simplify each of the following : (a) (b) FH 2 I × F 5I 5 K H 3K FH − 2 I ×F − 1I K H 3 2K 3 2 4. p If q is any non zero rational number and m is any positive integer. Let us consider the following examples. given a natural number. Also. Find the reciprocal of each of the following : (a) (3)4 (b) (–5)3 (c) 3I FH − 7 K 4 . Evaluate each of the following : (a) (b) 3 (c) 5I FH − 2 K 5 (d) FH −43IK 3 . it is either the number 1 or it is a prime number or it is a composite number. . then the F pI reciprocal of H q K m F qI is H p K m .24 Mathematics Solution : (a) Reciprocal of 52 = (b) 3I FH 7 K 4 1 1 = 1 = 2 5×5 5 5 FH IK 4 2 = 34 74 ∴ Reciprocal of 3I FH 7 K 4 = (c) FH − 4 I 5K 9 b−4g = 59 74 = 7 3 34 FH IK 9 F 4I ∴ Reciprocal of H − 5 K From the above. in finding the HCF and LCM of numbers.

we see that any given natural number can be expressed as a product of powers of prime factors. This product is also unique apart from the order of occurrence of factors. (c) 3 3 7 11 7623 2541 847 121 11 ∴ 7623 = 3 × 3 × 7 × 11 × 11 = 32 × 7 × 112 From the examples given above. Any natural number other than one. is expressible as a product of powers of prime numbers in a unique manner apart from the order of occurrence of factors. This result is known as the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic which is formally stated as follows. Example 2.Indices (Exponents) 25 (a) 2 2 2 24 12 6 3 ∴ 24 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 = 23 × 31 (b) 2 2 5 7 980 490 245 49 7 ∴ 980 = 2 × 2 × 5 × 7 × 7 = 22 × 51 × 72.7 : Express each of the following in exponential form : (a) 16200 Solution : (a) 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 16200 8100 4050 2025 675 225 75 25 5 ∴ 16200 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 5 × 5 (b) 49392 = 23 × 34 × 52 .

26 Mathematics (b) 2 2 2 2 3 3 7 7 49392 24696 12348 6174 3087 1029 343 49 7 ∴ 49392 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 7 × 7 × 7 = 24 × 32 × 73. Express in the exponential form each of the following : (a) 243 729 (d) − 64 (b) 1024 (e) 1331 4096 (c) 1296 2. Express the following as products of powers of prime numbers : (a) 39 (d) 320 (b) 36 (e) 216 (c) 91 (f) 3024 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2.2 1.6 LAWS OF EXPONENTS Let us study the following : (a) 22 × 23 = (2 × 2) × (2 × 2 × 2) = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 25 = 22+3 (b) (–3)3 × (–3)4 = [(–3) × (–3) × (–3)] × [(–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3)] = (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3) = (–3)7 = (–3)3+4 (c) FG 2 IJ × FG 2 IJ H 5K H 5K 2 4 = = FG 2 × 2 IJ × FG 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 IJ H 5 5K H 5 5 5 5K 2 2 2 2 2 2 × × × × × 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 2+4 F 2I F 2I = G J =G J H 5K H 5K .

we have the following : Law 1 : If a is any rational number and m and n are two positive integers. then am × an = am+n 3 Example 2. get added. we 4 add the exponents ∴ 3I × F − 3I 3I FH − 4 K H 4 K = FH − 4 K 2 +5 3I = F H− 4 K 7 2187 = − 16384 Let us the study the following : 35 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 3 × 3 × 3 = 33 = 35–2 (a) 35 ÷ 32 = 2 = 3× 3 3 (b) (–2)7 ÷ (–2)3 b−2g = b −2 g 7 3 = b −2 g × b −2 g × b − 2 g × b − 2 g × b − 2 g × b − 2 g × b −2 g b −2 g × b −2 g × b − 2 g = (–2) × (–2) × (–2) × (–2) = (–2)4 = (–2)7–3 .8 : Find the value of − 4 3 Solution : − 4 3I FH IK × FH − 4 K 2 5 FH IK 2 2 3 and − 4 FH IK 5 5 3 have the same base − . Therefore to find the product. we observe that in each case the base is the same but the indices.Indices (Exponents) 27 (d) FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ H 5K H 5K 3 4 = LMFG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ OP × LMFG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ OP NH 5 K H 5 K H 5 K Q NH 5 K H 5K H 5K H 5K Q F − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ × FG − 2 IJ = G H 5K H 5K H 5K H 5K H 5K H 5K H 5K 7 3+ 4 F 2I F 2I = G− J = G− J H 5K H 5K From the above. Thus.

we observe that Law 2 : If a is any non-zero rational number and m. n are positive integers such that m > n. then am ÷ an = am–n Example 2.9 : Find the value of FH 7 I ÷ FH 7 I 5K 5K 11 8 Solution : FH 7 I ÷ FH 7 I 5K 5K 11 8 = FH 7 I 5K 11−8 = 7 5 FH IK 3 = 343 125 Let us study the following : 5×5 1 1 (a) 52 ÷ 53 = 5 × 5 × 5 = 1 = 3− 2 5 5 (b) (–3)3 ÷ (–3)5 = b−3g × b−3g × b−3g b−3g × b−3g × b−3g × b−3g × b−3g b g b g b g = 1 1 = −3 × −3 −3 2 = = b−3g 1 5− 3 3I ÷ F 3I (c) F H2 K H 2K 2 4 3×3 2 2 = 3×3×3×3 2 2 2 2 1 = 1 2 = 3×3 3 2 2 2 1 3 e2 j ej 4−2 .28 Mathematics 3 e2 j 3I ÷ F 3I F (c) H K H K = 2 2 3 e2 j 6 4 6 4 3× 3× 3× 3× 3× 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 3×3×3×3 2 2 2 2 3I = F 3I FH 2 K H 2K 2 6− 4 = 5I ÷ F − 5I (d) F H− 7 K H 7K 3 3× 3 = 2 2 −5 7 = −5 7 = 3 2 5 × −5 × −5 e j = e− 7 j e 7j e 7j 5 × −5 e− 7 j e 7j e j 2 1 3− 2 5I = F − 5I FH − 7 K H 7K From the above.

Indices (Exponents) 29 − 2 j × e− 2 j × e− 2 j e 3 3 3 I ÷F − 2I (d) F = H− 2 K H K 3 3 × −2 × −2 × −2 × −2 e− 2 3j e 3j e 3j e 3j e 3j 3 5 = e j e j e j 1 = 1 2 2 − × − −2 3 3 3 2 = e j 1 5− 3 −2 3 From the above.10 : Find the value of 5 I ÷F 5 I FH 11 K H 11K 7 9 Solution : = 1 5 e11 j 9−7 = e j 1 5 11 2 = Let us study the following : 1 = 121 . we observe that Law 3 : If a is any non-zero rational number and m. . n are positive integers such that m < n. LF 2 I O 2 I × F 2 I × F 2 I × F 2 I × F 2 I (c) MH 9 K P = F N Q H 9K H 9K H 9K H 9K H 9K I I = FH 2 I = F = F H2 H2 9K 9K 9K LF 4 I O − 4 I × F − 4 I × F − 4 I × F − 4 I (d) MH − 3 K P = F N Q H 3K H 3K H 3K H 3K I I = FH − 4 I =F = F H− 4 H− 4 3K 3K 3K 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3 15 2 4 2 2 2 2 2+ 2+2+2 8 3×5 2×4 . 25 25 121 (a) (22)3 = 22 × 22 × 22 = 22+2+2 = 26 = 22×3 (b) [(–5)3]4 = (–5)3 × (–5)3 × (–5)3 × (–5)3 = (–5)3+3+3+3 = (–5)12 = (–5)3×4. then 1 am ÷ an = n −m a 5 I ÷F 5 I FH 11 K H 11K 7 9 Example 2.

. we get b−5g × b−5g × b−5g × b−5g = 1 = (–5) b−5g × b−5g × b−5g × b−5g 4–4 = (–5)0 3 3 × 3 × 3 13 13 13 = 1 = 3 = 13 3 × 3 × 3 13 13 13 FH IK 3− 3 = 3I FH 13 K 0 − 3 j × e− 3 j e 7 7 3I ÷ F − 3I F 3I − and (c) F = 3 × − 3 = 1 = H − 7K H 7 K H 7 K e− 7 j e 7j 2 2 2−2 = −3 7 FH IK 0 . then (am)n = am×n = amn LF 1I O Example 2. 2÷2 =1 7 7 5I ÷ F − 5I FH − 9 K H 9K = 1 Again Now 23 ÷ 23 = 1 23 ÷ 23 = 23–3 = 20 20 = 1 Similarly.6.(ii) From (i) and (ii). what will happen when the index is negative or zero? We shall take up negative exponents at a later stage.(i) . (a) (–5)4 ÷ (–5)4 = 3 I ÷F 3 I (b) F H 13 K H 13K 3 . We will now see what happens when exponent is zero.11 : Find the value of MH 3K P . Do you know.. which were for positive integers. i. the result is 1. . N Q LF 1I O 1I = F 1I = 1 = 1 Solution : MH 3K P = F N Q H 3K H 3K 3 729 3 2 3 2 3× 2 6 6 2..1 ZERO EXPONENT You have seen that so far we have established four laws of exponents..30 Mathematics From the above we observe that Law 4 : If a is any rational number and m and n are two positive integers..e. You are aware that if a rational number is divided by itself.

Simplify and express the result in the exponential form : (a) (–11)8 ÷ (–11)6 (c) (b) 11 5I ÷ F 5I FH 7 K H 7K 8 5 FH − 4 I ÷ FH − 4 I 3K 3K 18 3. Simplify and express the result in the exponential form : (a) (3)3 × (3)4 (b) 5 FH 2 I × F 2I 3K H 3K 4 5 (c) FH − 2 I × F − 2I × F − 2I 5K H 5K H 5K 2 2.12 : Find the value of : (a) a0 = 1 FH 7 I 2K 0 0 Solution : (a) FH 7 I 2K = 1. Which of the following are true statements ? (a) 2I 2I FH 2 I ×F = F K H K H 5 5 5K LMF 4 I OP = F 4 I NH 9 K Q H 9 K 2 3 6 (b) 5 4 9 (c) (d) 3I ×F 3I 3I FH 11 K H 11K = FH 11 K LMF 9 I OP = F 9 I NH 19 K Q H 19 K 3 3 6 6 5 30 . Simplify and express the result in the exponential form : (a) (36)3 (b) LMF 5I OP NH 9 K Q 4 5 LF 3 I O (c) MH − 17 K P N Q (b) 9 I × F− 9 I FH − 11 K H 11K 0 15 3 4 4. 5I (b) F H − 19 K 5I (b) F H − 19 K =1 0 0 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2.Indices (Exponents) 31 From the above. we get Law 5 : If a is any rational number other than zero. then Example 2. Simplify and express the result in the exponential form : (a) 11I × F 15 I FH 13 K H 17 K 8 0 5.3 1.

e. Similarly. We write it as 3–2 and read it as ‘3 raised to the power 32 b−5g is 1 4 .7 NEGATIVE INTEGERS AS EXPONENTS In the previous sections. 1 is written as a–m and is read as ‘a raised to the power (–m)’. We know that : The reciprocal of 3 is 1 . we have been taking non-negative integers as exponents. am 1 = a–m am . We write it as (–5)–4 and read it as ‘–5 raised to the power b g 1 . 4 7 and − are 1 and 1 respectively. We write them as 5 9 45 −7 9 −1 −1 4 7 7 4 and − and read them as ‘ raised to the power (–1)’ and ‘ − raised to the 9 5 9 5 power (–1)’ respectively. We write it as (–4)–1 and read it as ‘–4 raised to the power −4 The reciprocal of –4 is (–1)’. the reciprocals of FH IK FH IK Similarly reciprocal of 32 is (–2)’. From the above we get.. then the reciprocal of am i. The reciprocal of (–5)4 is (–4)’. We write it as 7 5 18 7 18 FH IK −5 and read it as ‘ 7 raised to the 18 If a is any non-zero rational number and m is any positive integer. Thus. The reciprocal of power (–5)’.32 Mathematics (e) FH 8 I 3K 0 =0 4 0 (f) 8I = F H 25 K 4 FH − 4 I 5K 2 16 = − 25 (g) 8 I ×F 7 I FH 25 K H 19 K 2. Now we shall try to assign meaning to negative integers as exponents. 3 1 . We write it as 3–1 and read it as 3 raised to the power (–1). 7I FH 18 K 5 1 .

we get the following result : p If q is any non zero rational number and m is any positive integer. FH 4 I 7K FH − 5 I 6K −3 = FH IK 3 (b) −7 = e j b g 7 1 −5 6 1 67 = 6 = 7 7 −5 −5 −5 67 FH IK b g 7 6 = − 5 FH IK 7 From the above example. (a) −3 I (b) F H− 5 6K ej 1 = 1 73 = 7 = 3 4 43 43 4 3 7 7 = −7 . let us see whether the rules of exponents learnt earlier in this chapter hold for negative exponents also or there is any need to modify them.14 : Simplify FH 2 I ÷ FH 5 I 3K 3K = 3I FH 2 K 3I FH 5 K 3 −2 Solution : FH 2 I 3K FH 5 I 3K FH 2 I ÷ FH 5 I 3K 3K −3 −3 and −2 2 = ∴ −2 = 3 I ÷ F 3I FH 2 K H 5K 3 2 = 3 I ÷ F 3I FH 2 K H 5K 3 2 = 3× 3× 3 × 5×5 75 = 2 × 2 × 2 3× 3 8 2. Let us study the following examples : .13 : Convert the negative exponents to positive exponents in the following : I (a) F H4 7K Solution.Indices (Exponents) 33 Example 2.8 LAWS OF EXPONENTS FOR INTEGRAL EXPONENTS After attaching meaning to negative integers as exponents of rational numbers. then Fp I q HK −m qm q = pm = p −3 FI HK m Example 2.

15 : Show that (a) 3I × F 3 I 3I FH 5 K H 5K = FH 5 K −5 4 −5+ 4 (c) FH IK FH IK −3 4 −3 ÷ −3 4 −7 = FH IK −3 4 −3+ 7 FH − 2 I 3K LF 3 I (d) MH 11K N (b) −2 × −2 3 FH IK −3 = FH − 2 I 3K −2 − 3 −2 3 OP = F 3 I Q H 11K −2 × 3 (e) (5 × 3)–3 = 5–3 × 3–3.34 Mathematics Example 2. Solution : (a) 3I × F 3 I FH 5 K H 5K −5 4 = ej 1 × 3 5 5 3 5 FH IK 4 = 1 3 e5 j 5− 4 3I b =F H 5K 1 −2 3 3 − 5− 4 g 3I = F H5 K −5+ 4 (b) FH − 2 I × FH − 2 I 3K 3K −2 −3 = e j e j 2 1 −2 3 2 × 3 = 1 × −2 e− 2 e j 3j e 3j = 1 2+3 −2 3 −2 − 3 = 3I ÷ F − 3I FH − 4 K H 4K −3 −7 FH − 2 I 3K 1 −3 4 − 2+3 b g ÷ = −2 3 FH IK 7 (c) = = e j e j 1 × F − 3I H K 3 e− 4 j 4 3 7−3 3 1 −3 4 7 = (d) LMF 3 I OP NH 11K Q −2 3 = 3I 3I FH − 4 K = FH − 4 K LMF 11I OP = F 11 I NH 3 K Q H 3 K 2 3 2 −3+ 7 2 3 112×3 3−2×3 = = = 32 ×3 11−2×3 FG 3 IJ H 11K −2 × 3 . .

Indices (Exponents) 35 (e) (5 × 3)–3 = b5 × 3g 1 3 = 53 1 = 5–3 × 3–3 × 33 From the above examples we see that Laws 1 to 5 hold good for negative exponents as well. Simplify each of the following : (a) 3I × F 3I FH 2 K H 2K −3 5 (b) FH − 2 I × FH − 2 I 3K 3K −3 4 (c) 3I ÷ F − 3 I FH − 5 K H 5K −3 5. Express as a power of a rational number with negative exponent (a) FH 7 I 8K 3 (b) (53)4 2 5 (c) 4. Express as a power of a rational number with positive exponent : (a) FH IK 2 9 −3 (b) 127 × 12–4 (c) LMF 5 I OP NH 17 K Q LMF − 7 I OP NH 4 K Q −5 −2 5 3. am × an = am+n am ÷ an = am–n (am)n = amn (a × b)m = am × bm CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2. 3. 2. Which of the following statements are true ? (a) a–m × an = a–m–n (b) (a–m)n = a–mn (c) am × bm = (ab)m (d) am ÷ an = am–n (e) a–m × a0 = am . Express as a rational number : .4 4I FH − 11 K −1 1. n be any integers. if a. b be any non-zero rational numbers and m. 4. 2. then 1. In general.

e.. Let us consider an example to illustrate this point.. Thus.. If a is a positive rational number.. then a Now p q = q ap a × a × a × ... 4 3 means cube root of 42. Let us multiply a 1 1 q. We state that a q is the qth root of a and is written as q a . p is an integer and q is a natural number. We know that am × an = am+n for all integral values of m and n. a q means the qth root of ap. We observe that if the exponent is a rational number.36 Mathematics 2..9 MEANING OF a . how should we define a q ... q factors = a ∴ p p q p q p q p p p q + q + q . qth power of a q = a.. 2 . Thus. 3 ×3 ×3 ×3 ×3 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 = 3 1+1+1+ 1+ 1 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 =3 5 5 = 31 = 3 or 3 1 5 is the fifth root of 3 which is written as 3 = 5 3 Now we define a rational power of a.. × a q = aq = a aq q q = q times 1 1 q In other words. 1 + 1 + 1 + . its numerator denotes the index and the denominator denotes the root. 1 1 1 i. q times p q =a pq q =a p a = q ap . q times a q × a q × a q × . If a is a positive real number. and q is a natural number. 1 p q q times...

2 5 (b) (c) b243g b g d i 2 × 2 × 2 × 2I FH 16 I = F K H 81 3× 3× 3× 3 K L 2 I OP = F 2 I e j = MF NH 3K Q H 3K 3 I = 27 I = FH 2 = F H2 K 8 3K = 3× 3× 3× 3× 3 = 35 −3 4 −3 4 3 4 −4 4× − 3 4 −3 3 2 5 2 5 =3 5× 2 5 = 32 = 9 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2. the laws of exponents are as follows : (i) am.Indices (Exponents) 37 For rational exponents. Simplify each of the following : (a) 125 b g −1 3 ÷ 25 −1 2 (b) −3 4 13 I ×F H 16 K 7 4 .an = am+n (ii) a m ÷ a n = am–n (iii) (am)n = amn (iv) (ab)m = am bm F aI (v) G J H bK m = am bm Let us take the following examples and verify the above laws : Example 2.5 1.16 : Find the value of : (a) 16 b g 1 4 (b) b243g 1 4 4 (2 ) 2 5 1 (c) FH 16 I 81K −3 4 Solution : (a) b16g 1 4 = (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) 4 = = 2 4× 1 4 = 21 = 2. Simplify each of the following : (a) 8 bg 2 3 (b) FG 64 IJ H 125K 13 I FH 16 K − 2 3 2.

where A is terminating decimal lying between 1 and 10 i. A × 10n is in scientific notation.e.0 = 1. 10000 1 = 3.7 = 1. Let us write 0.7 × 10 = 1.1 × 10–5.7 × 101 1.38 Mathematics 2. multiplied by an integral power of 10.7 × 101 170 = 1. (ii) 170 17 = 1.7 × 1 = 1.7 × 100 0. 105 (iii) 1700 (iv) 17000 ? 0.7 to get (i) 17 Clearly.17 = 1. Sometimes it is also referred to as writing a number in standard form.7 × 102 1700 = 1. Now we shall see how to write a number less than 1 in the scientific notation. A number is said to be in scientific notation. in (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Similarly.7 × Similarly.7 × 10–1 10 1 = 1.7 × 103 17000 = 1.0017 = 1.7 × 10 5 1700000 = 1.7 × 104 170000 = 1.017 = 1.7 × 0. In symbols. 1 < A < 10 and n is an integer. 17.1 × .7 × 10–2 100 1 = 1.7 × 106 and so on.00017 in the scientific notation. when it is expressed as a number between 1 and 10.00017 = 1. 0.7 × 10–3 1000 1 = 1.7 × 10–4 and so on. Scientists and Engineers often find it convenient to write numbers in this form.7 × 1 = 1.000031 = 3.10 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Let us consider the following problem : Can you calculate what powers of 10 should be multiplied to 1.7 × 0.

57 (b) 143000 (d) 0. Express each of the following numbers in scientific notation : (a) 0.43000 × 105 = 1. Write it in scientific notation.6 1. 4. Express it in scientific notation. Example 2.00000567 (b) 0. Express it in the scientific notation.00031 = 3.18 : It is said that the distance of earth from the sun is 149000000 km. Solution : The distance of earth from the sun = 149000000 km = 1.49 × 108 km CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2. The diameter of the earth is said to be 13000 km.1 × 10–4 Example 2. .43 × 105 (c) 0. (b) The exponent of 10 is a positive integer equal to the number of places.7 × 10–1 (d) 0. we observe that a number written in scientific notation has the following characteristics : (a) There is only one digit to the left of decimal point. the decimal point has been moved when the given number is greater than or equal to 10 (c) The exponent of 10 is zero when the given number is greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 (d) The power of 10 is a negative integer equal to the number of places the decimal point has been moved when the given number is less than 1.Indices (Exponents) 39 From the above. Express each of the following numbers in scientific notation (a) 15 lakh (b) 72 × 106 (b) 3730000 (d) 317 × 104 Solution : (a) Seven thousand = 7000 = 7.00079 (c) 0.0 × 103 2. It is said that distance of moon from the earth is 380000 km.00031 (b) 143000 = 1.11 (d) 33 × 10–5 3.17 : Write each of the following in scientific notation : (a) Seven thousand (b) 0.57 = 5.

How long will it take to cover a distance of 3.11 LET US SUM UP z z a × a × a × .. An aeroplane flies at 7. m times = am is the exponential form. Express each of the following in the exponential form : (a) 3 × 3 × 3 × 5 × 5 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 (b) 5 I × F− 5 I × F− 5 I × F− 5 I FH − 11 K H 11K H 11K H 11K 2. where 1 < A < 10 and n is any integer TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. Simplify each of the following : (a) 3 I × F 1I × F −8 I FH − 4 K H 3K H 27 K 3 2 (b) 3I FH 7 K 2 × 35 × − 1 27 5 FH IK 2 3.. where a is the base and m is exponent.bm FH a I bK m = am bm (am)n = amn a0 = 1 a–m = a p q 1 am z z = q ap Very large and very small numbers in scientific notation are written as A × 10n.40 Mathematics 5. Laws of exponents are am × an = am+n m–n am ÷ an = a (ab)m = am.5 × 104 km? 2.0 × 105 metres per hour. Simplify and express the result in the exponential form : (a) (8)2 × (6)3 × (15)2 (b) 37 I ÷ F − 37 I FH − 19 K H 19 K 26 20 (c) LMF 9 I OP NH 43K Q 5 7 .

write the answers of each of the following in exponential form : (a) 19440000 (c) 605000 (b) 172872 (d) 35591400 9. Express it in scientific notation. Simplify each of the following : (a) 50 + 30 + 170 – 31 5. find how long. Express each of the following numbers in the scientific notation : (a) 0. Assuming that light travels at 3. Simplify each of the following : (a) (35)12 ÷ (35)–3 (c) (b) (101)6 × (101)–4 4 (b) (70 – 30) (70 + 30). The number of haemoglobin molecules in a single red cell is 270000000. . 11. light from sirus takes to reach the earth.Indices (Exponents) 41 4. Write each of the following numbers in the scientific notation : (a) 50 lakh (c) 4500000 (b) 3030000 (d) 720 × 106 10. 12. Find x so that 7. Expressing as a product of primes.00029 (c) 860 × 10–5 (b) 0.0 × 105 km per second.00000399 (d) 301 × 10–4. The star sirus is about 8.1 × 1013 km from the earth. FH − 2 I × FH − 2 I 9K 9K −3 6. Find x so that FH 7 I × FH 7 I = FH 7 I 8K 8K 8K −3 11 −9 x 3 I ×F 3 I FH 13 K H 13K −2 = 3I FH 13 K 2 x +1 8.

(a) 35 3 (d) − 2 (b) 22 × 32 (e) 23 × 33 (b) 210 6 (c) 7 × 13 (f) 24 × 33 × 7 (c) 24 × 34 FH IK 113 (e) 12 2 Check Your Progress 2. (a) 3 × 13 (d) 26 × 5 2. (a) 37 2.2 1. − 11 4 . (a) Base = 3.42 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 2. (a) 4. 9 (b) 16 14641 27 (d) − 64 2 (b) − 27 4 FH 1 I 3K (b) FH − 1 I 5K 3 (c) FH − 7 I 3K 4 Check Your Progress 2.4 1.3 1. Exponent = 3 (d) Base = (c) −3125 32 −5 . (a) 318 11I FH 13 K 8 4. Exponent = 7 (c) Base = 2. (a) 512 2197 20 27 2 . Exponent = 8 11 (b) Base = 7. (a) 5I FH 9 K 9I (b) F H − 11 K (c) 15 3I FH − 17 K 12 5.(b). Exponent = 20. (a) 3. (d) and (g) Check Your Progress 2. (a) (–11)2 I (b) F H2 3K 5I (b) F H7 K (b) 9 (c) 3 (c) 20 FH − 2 I 5K FH − 4 I 3K 8 7 3.1 1.

(a) 4.3 × 10–4 (b) 3.0 × 101 hour.8 × 105 km 3. (a) 33 × 52 × 74 2.5 × 106 2. (a) 29 × 35 × 52 4. (a) 54 × 35 × 27 . (a) 1 72 (b) (b) (b) 5I FH − 11 K 1 105 37 I FH − 19 K 6 4 (b) (b) 25 16 13 16 (c) 7. (b) 3. (a) 5. 3. (a) (35)15 6.67 × 10–6 5.17 × 106 (d) 3.5 1.6 1.99 × 10–6 (c) 4. (a) 1 Check Your Progress 2.2 × 107 (c) 5.3 × 104 km Terminal Exercise 1. b. (d) 7. c and d 2 (b) − 3 Check Your Progress 2.Indices (Exponents) 43 2. 5. (a) 7. (d) 3.9 × 10–4 11.03 × 106 (b) 3. (a) 2.73 × 106 (d) 1. 1. (a) 3.5 × 106 (c) 8.6 × 10–3 12.01 × 10–2 (c) − 2 9 8. – 6 (b) 23 × 32 × 74 (d) 23 × 34 × 52 × 133. 2.5 × 104 hours (c) 9I FH 43 K 35 (b) 0 (b) (101)2 7.1 × 10–1 4.0 × 106 10.9 × 10–4 3.2 × 108 (d) 3. (a) 1. (a) FH 9 I 2K FH 8 I 7K 3 (b) 123 (b) (c) −12 −3 FH 1 I 5K (c) (c) FH 17 I 5K FH − 4 I 7K 25 9 10 −10 9 4 5. 8 (c) 23 × 54 × 112 9.7 × 108. (a) 4 2. 7. (a) 0 5.

In the last lesson we gave meaning to the number a q as the qth root of a.1 INTRODUCTION In the last lesson. In this lesson we shall call q a or n x a radical. you have learnt the laws of exponents for positive integral indices and negative integral indices. We shall find the rationalising factor of a radical and rationalise the denominator of a radical and also simplify expressions involving radicals. We shall also discuss the laws of radicals. In this lesson we shall study about a special type of numbers a which are irrational numbers. We shall find the simplest (lowest) form of a radical. . q or n as index and a or x as the radicand.44 Mathematics 3 Radicals (Surds) 2.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. You have also learnt the meaning of numbers of the type a . the learner will be able to : z z z z z z z z z z z p q p q 1 identify radicals from a given set of irrational numbers identify index and radicand of a surd state the laws of radicals (surds) express a given surd in the simplest form classify similar and non-similar surds reduce surds of different orders to those of the same order perform the four fundamental operations on surds arrange the given surds in ascending/descending order of magnitude find a rationalising factor of a given surd rationalise the denominator of a given surd simplify expressions involving surds. We shall also name this as surd. 3.

3 . In 7 ..Radicals (Surds) 45 3. 5 . in the 3 5 . 4 32 and 4 50 are all surds. π are not surds. When the order is not mentioned it is taken as 2. Similarly 5 + 3 .5 PURE AND MIXED SURDS A surd which has unity as its rational factor. 3. For example. A surd having rational factor other than unity along with irrational factor is called a mixed surd. Again 2 + 2 . is not a surd because it is the square not of an irrational number. 3 3 5 and 4 7 are mixed surds. where it is not possible to find exactly the nth root of x. Similarly. 4 4 For example 2 3 .. as the radicands are not rational numbers. then if a is irrational. A surd is defined as a positive irrational number of the type n x . but 3 8 is not a surd as its value 2 is rational. that surd is an irrational number in which the radicand is a positive rational number. If n is a positive integer and a be real number. type of the radicand should be kept unchanged.4 SURD You have already studied in lesson 1 that numbers of the type 2 . then also n a is not a surd. Thus a number n x is a surd if and only if (a) it is an irrational number (b) it is a root of positive rational number In the surd n x . 5 It may be noted that in the cases of conversion. We may repeat. order relation in numbers Laws of exponents Meaning of a0. 6 8. other factor being irrational is called a pure surd. where x is a positive rational number. 27 . order of the surd is 3 and 5 is the radicand.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z Four fundamental operations on numbers Prime numbers. the order is 2 and the radicand is 7. a–m and a . . the symbol is called the radical sign. Again if n a is rational. . Now we shall study irrational numbers of a particular type called radicals or surds. though it is an irrational number. 5 112 and 3 50 are pure surds. For example n a is not a surd. p q 3. Definition. The index n is called the order of the surd and x the radicand. are irrational numbers. Note.

6 ORDER OF SURDS In the surd 7 3 2 . 3 is order of the surd and 2 is radicand. ∴ 3 128 is a surd. ∴ (d) 3 81 is not a surd 3 128 = 4×4×4×2 = 4 3 2 . 2 × 5×5 = 5 2 50 = ∴ 50 is an irrational number Hence 50 is a surd. (i) 21 (ii) 3 18 (iii) 3 125 (iv) 2 7 141 (v) 5 5 1125 Solution : Pure surds (i) and (ii). which is an irrational number. which is a rational number. (iv) and (v) . 25 is not a surd.2 : Identify index and radicand of each of the following surds : (a) (c) 5 6 17 123 (b) (d) 82 11 517 Solution : (a) Here index is 5 and radicand is 17 (b) Here index is 2 and radicand is 82 (c) Here index is 6 and radicand is 123 (d) Here index is 11 and radicand is 517. Example 3. mixed surds (iii). Example 3.1 : State which of the following are surds and which are not : (a) (c) 4 25 81 (b) (d) 3 50 128 Solution : ∴ (b) 25 = 5 which is a rational number.46 Mathematics 3. When there is no coefficient in a surd. (c) 4 81 = 4 4 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 3.3 : Identify the pure and mixed surds from the following. 7 is called coefficient of the surd. Example 3. it is assumed that coefficient is 1.

= ∴ 2 15 ÷ 4 10 is a surd .Radicals (Surds) 47 3. (b) 2 15 ÷ 4 10 = 2 15 4 10 2 × 2 × 15 4 × 4 × 10 60 160 = = 3 8 which is an irrational number. find which of the following are surds and which are not : (a) (c) 3 10 × 40 2 ÷3 4 10 × 40 = = = (b) (d) 15 ÷ 4 10 48 ÷ 27 Solution : (a) 400 20 × 20 d 20 i 2 = 20 which is a rational number.4 : Using laws of radicals.7 LAWS OF RADICALS We state here some laws of radicals which are used to simplify surds : (i) (ii) n a n n =a n a b = n ab (iii) n n a =n a b b where a and b are positive rational numbers and n is a positive integer. Example 3. ∴ 10 × 40 is not a surd.

(i) n x n y = n xy or x1 n × y1 n = xy b g 1n .8 LAWS OF SURDS It has been seen that the surds can be expressed as numbers with fractional exponents. which is a rational number.1 1. We recall these laws here. State which of the following are surds ? (a) (d) 3 49 500 1+ 3 (b) (e) 4 625 5 × 45 7 169 (c) 6 216 (f) 3 2 × 5 6 (g) (h) 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.48 Mathematics (c) 3 2 ×3 4 = 3 2×4 = 3 2×2×2 = 2. out of the following : (i) 15 (ii) 2 12 (iii) 3 3 7 (iv) 35 3. Laws of indices studied in the last lesson are applicable to them also. Identify pure and mixed surds. Write the index (order) and the radicand in each of the following : (a) 5 125 (b) 6 343 (c) 19 2. ∴ (d) 3 2 × 3 4 is not a surd 48 27 = = = 48 27 16 9 4 which is again a rational number 3 48 ÷ 27 = ∴ 48 ÷ 27 is not a surd.

3. Let us illustrate these laws in the following examples : (a) 3 2 3 7 = 2 3 . For example 3 2 = 6 2 2 = 6 4 and 4 3 = 8 32 = 8 9 . whatever coefficients they may have. 3. that order of a surd can be changed by multiplying the index of the surd and index of the radicand by the same positive integer.9 SIMILAR (OR LIKE) SURDS Two surds are similar (or like) if they can be reduced to the same irrational factors. n and p are positive integers. be expressed as 5 3 and 2 3 OR as similar surds.10 SIMPLEST (LOWEST FORM) OF A SURD A surd is said to be in its simplest (lowest) form if it has (a) the smallest possible index of the radical (b) no fraction under the radical sign 75 and 12 can .Radicals (Surds) 49 n (ii) n x =n x y y or x1 n = x y y1 n FI HK 1n (iii) (iv) (v) mn x = mn x = n m x or or or dx i dx i dx i 1n 1m = x1 mn = x1 m d i 1n n xm = xm n x p = mn x pn m 1n = xm n = xp m m p 1m = x pn mn = x pn d i 1 mn In these results x and y are positive rational numbers and m. 7 3 = ( 2 × 7) 3 = 14 3 = 3 14 17 17 1 1 1 1 b5g (b) b9g (c) (d) 5 3 = FG 5 IJ H 9K 17 =7 5 9 15 3 = 5 13 3 = 31 3 d i = 31 15 = 15 3 = 5×3 3 = 3 5 3 5 3 43 = 4 d i 15 = 4 3 5 = 4 9 15 = 4 9 d i 1 15 = 15 4 9 = 3×5 4 3×3 You must have observed from the above. For example 2 5 and 7 5 are similar surds.

50 Mathematics (c) no factor of the form an where a is a positive integer is under the radical sign of index n. 6 5 Similarly.5 : Express as a pure surd in the simplified form. (a) 2 7 Solution : (a) (b) 2 7 = 34 5 = 4 (b) 3 4 5 2 2 × 7 = 4 × 7 = 28 (c) 34 . 3 32 4 Example 3. no prime factor of which occurs to an exponent as high as n. Such a surd is said to be in lowest term.6 : Express as a mixed surd in the simplest form : (a) 128 (b) 4 567 (c) 6 320 (d) 3 250 Solution : (a) 128 = = 64 × 2 8 × 8 × 2 = 82 × 2 =8 2 (b) 4 567 = 4 81 × 7 = 4 34 × 7 = 34 7 . 4 5 = 4 34 × 5 = = (c) 3 32 = 4 4 4 81 × 5 405 3I FH 4 K 2 × 32 = 9 × 32 = 18 16 Example 3. the simplest form of the surd 3 × 2 2 is 5 12 . Thus a pure surd of index n may be reduced to a rational multiple of nth root of a positive integer. Thus for example 3 125 = 18 = 3 125 × 12 18 × 12 5 3 12 is the simplest (lowest) form of the given surd.

11 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF SURDS We have studied addition and subtraction of rational numbers. We can add and subtract similar surds in the same way as we added and subtracted like terms of an algebraic expression. 3 18 (d) 20 . 125 2. For example 50 + 72 = 5×5× 2 + 6× 6× 2 = 5 2 + 6 2 = 5+ 6 2 = 11 2 b g . Express as a mixed surd in the simplest form : (a) 50 (b) 3 81 (c) 5 128 (d) 3 270 (e) 4 512 3.2 1. Express as a pure surd : (a) 7 3 (b) 33 2 (c) 5 5 (d) 5 12 2 3. State which of the following are pairs of similar surds : (a) (c) 2. 8 75 .Radicals (Surds) 51 (c) 6 320 = 6 64 × 5 = 6 2 6 × 5 = 265 (d) 3 250 = = 3 3 125 × 2 53 × 2 = 53 2 (e) 3 27 = 25 3 27 × 5 3 3 = 5 25 × 5 5 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. 5 3 + 7 3 = 5 + 7 b g 3 = 12 3 and 8 5 − 3 5 = 8 − 3 5 = 5 5 b g Thus for adding or subtracting the surds we change them to similar surds before performing addition and subtraction. 48 (b) 5 3 . Now we shall perform these operations on surds. For example.

= b g 3 6 98 − 18 7 × 7 × 2 − 3× 3× 2 = 7 2 −3 2 = 7−3 2 = 4 2 Example 3.52 Mathematics And 3 48 + 3 162 = 3 2 × 2 × 2 × 6 + 3 3× 3× 3× 6 = 2 3 6 +33 6 = 2+3 = 53 6 Similarly.8 : Simplify : 2 3 250 + 8 3 16 − 3 3 54 + 4 32 Solution : 2 3 250 + 8 3 16 − 3 3 54 + 4 32 b g b g 3 b g .7 : Simplify each of the following : (a) 4 3 + 6 27 (b) 45 6 − 3 216 Solution : (a) 4 3 + 6 27 = 4 3 + 6 3× 3× 3 = 4 3 +6×3 3 = 4 3 + 18 3 = 4 + 18 = 22 3 (b) 45 6 − 3 216 = 45 6 − 3 6 × 6 × 6 = 45 6 − 3 × 6 6 = 45 6 − 18 6 = 45 − 18 6 = 27 6 Example 3.

3 Simplify each of the following : 1. 12 18 + 6 20 − 6 147 + 3 50 + 8 45 .9 : Show that 8 45 − 8 20 + 245 − 3 125 = 0 Solution : 8 45 − 8 20 + 245 − 3 125 = 8 3× 3× 5 − 8 2 × 2 × 5 + 5× 7 × 7 − 3 5× 5× 5 = 8 × 3 5 − 8 × 2 5 + 7 5 − 3× 5 5 = 24 5 − 16 5 + 7 5 − 15 5 = 24 + 7 5 − 16 + 15 5 = 31 5 − 31 5 = 0 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. 5. 2.Radicals (Surds) 53 = 2 3 5× 5× 5× 2 + 8 3 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 − 3 3 3× 3× 3× 2 + 4 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 2 ×5 3 2 + 8× 2 3 2 − 3× 3 3 2 + 2 4 2 = 10 3 2 + 16 3 2 − 9 3 2 + 2 4 2 = 10 + 16 − 9 b g 3 2 + 24 2 = 17 3 2 + 2 4 2 Example 3. 6. 3 108 − 75 500 − 80 24 + 3 81 − 2 3 3 7. 3 50 + 4 18 4. 2 3 40 + 3 3 625 − 4 3 320 10. 6 3 54 − 2 3 16 + 3 128 9. 3 50 − 4 8 + 7 18 8. b g b g 175 + 28 32 + 50 + 128 3.

we proceed as follows : The order of the surds are 2 and 3. LCM of 2 and 3 is 6 ∴ We shall change both the surds to surds of order 6.12 MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION IN SURDS In the last section. we change them to the surds of the same order. Similarly two surds can be multiplied or divided if they are of the same order. For example 3 × 2 = 3× 2 = 6 12 = 6 2 Q 3 and 2 both are surds of order 2 and 12 ÷ 2 = Q 12 and 2 are surds of order 2 But if we have to multiply 3 by 3 2 .10 : (a) Multiply 5 3 16 and 11 3 40 (b) Multiply 5 3 16 and 5 4 3 Solution : (a) 5 3 16 × 11 3 40 = 5 × 11 × 2 3 2 × 2 3 5 = 55 × 2 × 2 × 3 2 × 3 5 = 220 3 2 × 5 = 220 3 10 . before multiplying or dividing. ∴ and ∴ 3 3 = 6 6 33 = 6 27 22 = 6 4 2 = 3×3 2 = = 6 6 6 27 × 6 4 27 × 4 = 27 = 6 27 4 4 6 108 and 3 3 = 2 6 Example 3.54 Mathematics 3. we can perform the operation directly. Thus. However if the given surds are of the same order. you have seen that operation of addition and subtraction can be performed when the surds are similar surds. You have also studied that order of a surd can be changed by multiplying or dividing the index of the surd and index of the radicand by the same positive number.

6 132 = 66 5 2 65 Solution : = 5 6 169 5 = 2 65 2 6 169 5 Example 3.13 COMPARISON OF SURDS It is difficult to calculate actual value of surds.Radicals (Surds) 55 (b) 17 3 5 × 5 4 3 The surds 17 3 5 and 5 4 3 are surds of order 3 and 4 respectively.12 : Simplify and express in the simplest form 2 50 × 3 32 × 4 18 Solution : 2 50 × 3 32 × 4 18 = 2 5× 5× 2 × 3 4 × 4 × 2 × 4 3× 3× 2 = 2 ×5 2 × 3× 4 2 × 4 × 3 2 = 10 2 × 12 2 × 12 2 = 1440 2 × 2 × 2 = 2880 2 3. To know this we change both the surds to surds of same order. That is why we cannot tell which of the two surds is greater in value. LCM of 3 and 4 = 12 ∴ We change both the surds to the surds of order 12 Now and ∴ 17 3 5 = 17 12 54 = 17 12 625 12 12 5 4 3 = 5 33 = 5 27 17 3 5 × 5 4 3 = 17 12 625 × 5 12 27 = 85 12 625 × 27 = 85 12 16875 Example 3. Then we can compare them by the value of the radicands alongwith their coefficients.11 : Divide 15 3 13 by 6 6 5 15 3 13 5 . .

Multiply 2. 6 5. Multiply 3.13 : Which is greater 1 or 2 3 1 ? 3 Solution : The two surds are of orders 2 and 3. Which is greater 4 4 ? .4 1. LCM of 2 and 3 is 6 ∴ and Q FG 1 IJ H 2K FG 1IJ H 3K 6 12 = 13 6 = 6 FG 1IJ H 2K FG 1IJ H 3K 1 9 1 3 3 =6 2 1 8 1 9 =6 1 1 > 8 9 ∴ i.e. 2 and 6 respectively. Divide 3 3 32 and 5 3 4 3 and 3 3 3 5 5 135 by 24 by 320 5 or 3 5. 3 and 6 5 2. Divide 4.14 : Arrange in ascending order : Solution : The surd ∴ 3 3 2. 3 2 = 3 = 5 = 4 < 2 < 6 6 22 = 33 = 4 27 and Now ∴ ∴ 6 6 3 6 6 6 5 5< 6 27 5< 3 3 Ascending order of given surds is 2 . 1 > 8 1 > 2 6 3 Example 3. 3 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. 6 6 LCM of 3.56 Mathematics Example 3. 3 and 6 5 are of orders 3. 2 and 6 is 6.

Arrange in descending order 3 2. Their sum and product are always rational 2. In such cases each surd is called a rationalising factor the other. 3 4 3. we search a factor which when multiplied by the given surd gives us a rational number. Thus (i) (ii) (iii) and (iv) 3 3 is a rationalising factor of 3 is a rationalising factor of 3 3 9 and vice versa 11 7 5 11 4 5 is a rationalising factor of 4 and vice versa 4 7 is a rationalising factor of 7 3 and vice versa. 31 2 = 3 (b) 32 3 . The process of converting the surds to rational numbers is called rationalisation. For example. Rationalisation is usually used to rationalise the denominator of a rational expression involving irrational surds. 71 4 = 7 We observe that on multiplying the two surds we get the result as a rational number.Radicals (Surds) 57 6. 6 3. Which is smaller : 5 10 or 4 9 ? 7. 31 3 = 3 (c) 57 11 .14 RATIONALISATION OF SURDS Consider the following products (a) 31 2 . . Thus we see here. Arrange in ascending order 3 2. how to multiply a surd by another surd in such a way that the product is a rational number. The quantities x − y and x + y are called conjugate surds. 4 3. 54 11 = 5 (d) 7 3 4 . 3 4 8. the rationalising factor of x is x and rationalising factor of 3 + 2 is 3− 2 Note : 1. Thus to rationalise.

58 Mathematics Example 3. by rationalising factor of 3 − 5 ] = d 3+ 5 2 i 2 2 d 3i − d 5i = 3+5+ 2 3 × 5 3−5 = 8 + 2 15 = −4 − 15 −2 Example 3.17 : Rationalise the denominator of 3+ 5 = 3− 5 3+ 5 × 3+ 5 3− 5 3+ 5 3+ 5 3− 5 Solution : [Multiplying and dividing by 3 + 5 i.16 : Find the rationalising factor of Solution : 5 800 800 = = 5 5 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 ×5× 5 25 × 52 = 2 5 52 ∴ Rationalising factor is 5 53 or 5 125 Example 3.15 : Find the rationalising factor of Solution : 27 27 = 3× 3× 3 = 3 3 ∴ Rationalising factor = 3 5 Example 3.e.18 : Rationalise 4+3 5 4−3 5 4+3 5 4−3 5 = 4+3 5 × 4+3 5 4−3 5 4−3 5 Solution : .

.Radicals (Surds) 59 d4 + 3 5 i = b4 g − d 3 5 i 2 2 2 = 16 + 45 + 24 5 16 − 45 = 61 + 24 5 −29 61 24 5 = − − 29 29 Example 3.19 : If a = 3− 2 and b = 3+ 2 a= = 3− 2 3+ 2 3− 2 × 3− 2 3+ 2 3− 2 3+ 2 ..(ii) 1 3 − 2 +1 1 × Solution : 1 3 − 2 +1 = d 3 − 2 +1 i d d 3 − 2 −1 3− i 2i −1 .20 : Rationalise . show that a + b = 10 3− 2 Solution : = 3+ 2 − 2 6 3− 2 = 5− 2 6 and b= = = 3+ 2 3− 2 3+ 2 × 3+ 2 3− 2 3+ 2 3+ 2 + 2 6 3− 2 .. we get a + b = 10 Example 3.(i) = 5+ 2 6 Adding (i) and (ii)..

a and b are rational 3− 2 3+ 2 2 3+ 2 2 3+ 2 × = 3− 2 3− 2 3+ 2 = 9+6 2 +3 2 +4 b3g − d 2 i 2 2 = 13 + 9 2 7 . Solution : 3+ 2 2 = a + b 2 .21 : If numbers. find the values of a and b given.60 Mathematics = d 3 − 2 −1 3− 2 2 i − b1g 2 = 3 − 2 −1 3+ 2 − 2 6 −1 3 − 2 −1 4−2 6 3 − 2 −1 4 + 2 6 × 4−2 6 4+2 6 4 3 − 4 2 − 4 + 2 18 − 2 12 − 2 6 = = = b 4g − d 2 6 i 2 2 = 4 3−4 2 −4+6 2 −4 3−2 6 16 − 24 2 2 −4−2 6 −8 = = 2 −2− 6 −4 2+ 6− 2 4 = Example 3.

. find rational number x and y. Simplify by rationalising the denominator in each of the following : (a) 2 5 11 − 5 11 + 5 (b) 3 17 3 +1 3 −1 (c) 235 3 7 (d) (e) 3. Simplify : 2+ 3 2− 3 + 2− 3 2+ 3 4.5 1. z z x . If 2 + 5 7 = x + 7y .(Given) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. If a = 3 + 2 2 . Rationalise the denominator of 1 3 − 2 −1 1 5. 2−5 7 LET US SUM UP z An irrational number In n n x is called a surd if x is a rational number..Radicals (Surds) 61 = ∴ a= 13 9 + 2 = a+b 2 7 7 13 9 and b = 7 7 . other factor being irrational is called a pure surd . n is called index and x is called radicand A surd having unity as its rational factor. find the value of a + a 6. Find the rationalising factor of each of the following : (a) (c) 3 7 49 54 (b) (d) 3 2 +1 x 2 + 3 y 2 + 3 xy 2.

b > 0) n a n n =a n a b = n ab a na = n b b z n Operations on surds x1 n × y1 n = xy x1 n x = 1 n y y b g 1n FG IJ HK 1n dx i dx i m z z 1n 1m = x1 mn = x1 m d i 1n m 1n = xm n x a = mn x an or x a d i 1m = xa m = x an mn = x an d i 1 mn Surds are similar if they have the same irrational factor. The order of n x is n Laws of radicals (a > 0. the radical has the smallest possible index with no fraction under the radical sign and no factors of the form an under the radical sign Similar surds can be added and subtracted Orders of surds can be changed by multiplying index of the surd and index of the radicand but the same number Surds of the same order are multiplied and divided. we change the surds to surds of the same order. Then they can be compared by their radicands z z z z z z x + y is called rationalising factor of x − y and vice versa.62 Mathematics z z z z A surd having factor other than unity along with irrational factor is called a mixed surd The order of the surd is the number that indicates the root. If the product of two surds is rational. In the simplest form of a surd. . then each is called rationalising factor of the other. To compare surds.

7+4 3 1 12. Which of the following are pairs of similar surds : (a) (c) 6 112 . b are rational numbers. 343 250 (b) (d) 3 125 . 3. Simplify each of the following : 5 1 +4 3 (a) 3 48 − 2 3 (c) (b) 63 + 28 − 175 8 + 32 − 50 6.Radicals (Surds) 63 TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. 4 5 (b) 2. Express as a pure surd : (a) 2 3 5 (b) 3 4 4 (c) 5 5 2 (d) 7 3 7 3. Simplify each of the following by rationalising the denominator : (a) 11. Simplify by rationalising the denominator : (a) 5 6− 5 (b) 12 7+ 3 (c) 3 −1 3 +1 (d) 3− 2 2 3+ 2 2 10. 6 320 9. 12 . find the values of a and b where a. 3 4 8 Arrange in the ascending order : 3 16 . If 1 1+ 2 − 3 (b) 1 7 + 6 − 13 5+ 2 3 = a + b 3 . Arrange in the descending order (a) 3. If x = 7 + 4 3 . 135 . 216 . Express as a mixed surd in the simplest form (a) 4 405 (b) 5 320 (c) 3 128 (d) 3 686 4. find the value of x + x . 3 4. 3 500 625 5. Which is greater ? 2 or 3 (d) 4 3 81 + 5 3 375 − 3 3 192 (b) 3 (a) 3 6 or 4 8 7. State which of the following are surds : (a) 25 289 (b) 12 729 (c) 3 5 +1 (d) 5 625 2.

3 2 Check Your Progress 3. c. radicand 19 2.2 1. d. d 2.4 1. 6 675 3. (iii) are mixed surds. 3 3 5 3 7 28 2 10. 3 6.5 1. 18 3 2 3. 5 27 200 3. a. 27 2 6. 17 2 5. (a) (e) 147 5 2 44 2 (b) 3 54 (c) 125 (d) 75 (b) 3 3 3 (c) 2 5 4 (d) 3 3 10 Check Your Progress 3. 3 4 3 4 4.1 1. f and h 3.64 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 3. a. 3 3 3 9. (i). (a) Index 5. 4 10 6 3 3. 6 5 8. 36 5 − 42 3 + 51 2 Check Your Progress 3. Check Your Progress 3.3 1. radicand 125 (b) Index 6. 8. 7. (a) 3. 3 2 . 6 2. (iv) are pure surds and (ii). (a) 3 7 (b) 2 −1 (c) 53 7 (d) 3 x −3 y . c. 10 3 4 4. radicand 343 (c) Index 2. 7 7 4. 2. 5.

(a) 3. b. 6 Terminal Exercise 1. 14 6. 4 5 (b) 2 10 (c) 4 2 (d) 7 2 4. (a) (e) 3. (a) (b) 5 6+ 5 d i (b) 3 7 − 3 d i (c) 2 − 3 (d) 17 − 12 2 2+ 2 + 6 4 7 6 + 6 7 + 546 84 12. (a) 7. (a) 3 40 (b) 4 324 5 (c) 5 6250 3 (d) 3 2401 3 3. (a) 10. 4 5 2 16 . a = 11. 3 91 3 6 3 (b) 0 (b) 3 3 3 (c) 2 (d) 25 3 3 3 3. 6 6 4. a. 3. d 5. 12 9. x = 2 5 5 (b) 51 17 (c) 2 3 245 7 (d) 8 − 55 3 2+ 3 4. 320 .y= 171 171 5. (b).Radicals (Surds) 65 2. b = –6 . (a) (b) 8. 2 + 2 + 6 −4 −179 −20 . 14 11. 4. (d) 2. (a) 6.

2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. p represents an unknown quantity. z. Variables are generally denoted by alphabets x. you will have to pay Rs 10 × 2 or Rs 20 three pens. p. you will have to pay Rs 10 × p or Rs 10p. c. Thus. then for one pen. In this lesson. The branch of mathematics which deals with variables and four fundamental operations on them is called Algebra.66 Mathematics 4 Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 4. you will have to pay Rs 10 two pens. Here p can take different values from one onwards. the learner will be to able to : z z z z z identify a variable cite examples of algebraic expressions classify algebraic expressions into monomials. takes different values which you assign to it and behaves like that (those) numbers (s). y. b.1 INTRODUCTION If you go to the market to purchase pens for your class and suppose each pen is available for Rs 10. binomials and trinomials perform four fundamental operations on algebraic expressions evaluate an algebraic expression for given values of the variables . q etc. called a variable. Therefore. a variable p or x. you will have to pay Rs 10 × 3 or Rs 30 In general for p pens. a. you will learn about some basic concepts of algebra. algebraic expressions and polynomials and four fundamental operations on them. 4.

15 . 15 3x . x. y and are real numbers 3x . 17 You can see that p. z . –14 etc. y and z respectively. 4a . 8 z 21y 3 4 . Thus. − 14 . x. 2 . 3 . 2 − 4 . . subtraction. − 3z .4 IDENTIFYING A VARIABLE Consider numbers of the type 4 . 3z + 6 . say x state the degree of a polynomial perform four fundamental operations on polynomials 4.Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 67 z z z z z understand and identify a polynomial as a special case of an algebraic expression write examples of polynomials in one and two variables define a polynomial in one variable. Can you pick up variables from the following ? 13 . . a and b are variables and all others are constants. − 2 15 8 z respectively and therefore do not have a fixed value like 4. as their values do not change. etc. 2x + y 4 The expressions of the above type. − 14 . y – 3 . which involve variables and constants connected by operations of addition.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z Different number systems and four fundamental operations on them 4.5 ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS Consider expressions of the form 3 . An algebraic expression is a number or a combination of numbers including variables joined by the four fundamental operations. 7 b . 4. multiplication and division are called Algebraic Expressions. 21y . − 14 . z contain unknown x. 2 . A variable is a number which can have different values whereas a constant has a fixed value. x + 4 . x . y. y and z are called variables. z. p 4 4 y . You know that 4 . Their values will depend on x.

Identify variables and constants in the following : 2x. x and 3y. namely. (ii) 2x+y 3 (iv) x2 + 2xy + y2 . Binomial : An algebraic expression which has two terms is called a binomial. x – 3y + 3 has three terms. in the following algebraic expressions : (i) 3x2 – 4y 5 (iii) 3x + 4 y − z 2 x 8 (v) 7 − y 4. namely 3x. namely. x – 3y has two terms. For example. there are two terms 4x and 3y and the coefficient of x in 4x is 4 and coefficient of y in 3y is 3. Coefficient : The constant in a term is called the coefficient of the variable. Similarly 4x2 + 3 has two terms 4x2 and 3 and x has only one term. Monomial : An algebraic expression which has only one term is called a monomial. For example. 3 3 3 3 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4. 3 Thus a term contains either a variable or a constant or both variables(s) and constant connected by the operation of multiplication. 2x – 3y + z is a trinomial.6 TYPES OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 1. 41.1 1. Trinomial : An algebraic expression which has three terms is called a trinomial. the coefficient of x2 in x is because x = 1 × x 2 . 3x has only one term. Thus. For example 4x – 3y is a binomial : 3. each of which is called a term. 4y. 3t. 3y and 3. x. 4x is a monomial. For example. in 4x + 3y. Write the terms and the coefficients of the variables in the terms. 2.68 Mathematics Term : When one or more of the symbols + or – occur in an algebraic expression. 2 2 1 Similarly. 17 2. they separate the algebraic expression into parts.

3 2 x + 2x + 1.e. 5x – 2y2 . in the algebraic expression 3xy – 9x + 8xy – 7x + 2x2. Example 4..7 LIKE AND UNLIKE TERMS The terms of the algebraic expression having the same variable (s) and the same exponent(s) of the variables are said to be like terms.8. 4. –9x and –7x are like terms. For example. – 3x.8 OPERATIONS ON ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS Let us now define the four fundamental operations of addition. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4.1 : Add –3x + 4 and 2x2 – 7x – 2 Solution : (–3x + 4) + (2x2 – 7x – 2) = 2x2 + (–3x – 7x) + (4 – 2) . x + y + z. binomials and trinomials. Step 2 : Add the like terms grouped together. to get the sum. The terms of the algebraic expression 2x2 – 3xy + 9y2 – 7yz are all unlike i.3 Write the like terms in the following algebraic expression : (i) 3x2 – 4xy + 5x2 – 9 (ii) xyz – 5xy + 6zx + 15xyz – 1 (iii) x3 + y3 – 3xy + 6yx – 4y3 (iv) abc + bcd + cda 4.1 Addition To add two or more algebraic expressions.Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 69 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4. Let us take some examples. p 2 4. subtraction.2 Classify the following algebraic expressions into monomials. multiplication and division on algebraic expressions. 4y2 – 3y. there are no two like terms in the given algebraic expression. the terms 3xy and 8xy. the following steps are to be followed : Step 1 : Group the like terms of the given algebraic expressions together.

of the group of like terms) are added.2 : Add 5x + 3y − 3 and −2x + y + 7 4 4 Solution : 5x + 3y − 3 4 −2x + y + 7 4 + 3 7 (5 – 2)x + (3 + 1)y + − 4 + 4 = 3x + 4y + 1 ∴ FH IK (5x + 3y – 3 7 ) + (–2x + y + ) = 3x + 4y + 1 4 4 Example 4. and (ii) the coefficients of each column (i.e.3 : Add 17x + 10 + 9xy and 3 − 7 x − 18xy 7y 3 y Solution : 17x + 10 + 9xy y −7 3 + 3 x + 7y − 18xy 3 I 1 + 9 − 18 xy FH17 − 7 I x + FH10 + 7 Ky b g 3K 44 73 = 3 x + 7 y − 9 xy ∴ F17x + 10 + 9xyI + F 3 − 7 x − 18xyI H y K H 7y 3 K 44 73 = 3 x + 7y − 9xy . Example 4.70 Mathematics = 2x2 – 10x + 2 ∴ (–3x + 4) + (2x2 – 7x – 2) = 2x2 – 10x + 2 Algebraic expressions can be added more conveniently and accurately if : (i) the given algebraic expressions are so arranged that the like terms are in one column.

we go through the following three steps : Step 1 : Arrange the given algebraic expressions so that the like terms are in one column. Let us understand the procedure by means of some examples. Step 3 : Add the coefficients of each column separately.5 : Subtract : 2 2 2 2 (i) −4 x + 3x + from 9 x − 3x − 3 7 .4 : Add 3 3 x3 + x2 + x + 1 and x 4 − x − 3x + 1 2 2 Solution : 3 x3 + x2 + x + 1 2 + x4 − x 2 3 − 3x + 1 x4 + 3 − 1 x 3 + x 2 + 1 − 3 x + 2 2 2 or x4 + x3 + x2 – 2x + 2 FH IK b g CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4.Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 71 Example 4. Example 4.4 Add the following pairs of algebraic expressions : (i) (ii) 2 x2 + x + 1 3 2 1 and x + x + 5 3 7 4 7 x3 − x2 + 1 and 2x2 + x – 3 5 z z (iii) xy + y + zx and 3xy − y (iv) 4 y 3x 3y x + + z and − xz + 2 y − z xz 2 y 4.8.2 Subtraction In order to subtract one algebraic expression from another. Step 2 : Change the sign (from + to – and – to +) of each term of the algebraic expression to be subtracted.

each of the terms of one algebraic expression is multiplied by each term of the other algebraic expression and the result simplified by adding the like terms. .3 Multiplication In order to multiply two algebraic expressions.72 Mathematics 2 2x 2 3x (ii) 5x + y − 1 from 7 x − 13 − y Solution : (i) 9 x 2 − 3x − 2 7 − 4 x 2 + 3x + 2 3 + – – − 2I b9 + 4gx + b−3 − 3gx + FH − 2 7 3K 2 2 20 = 13x − 6x − 21 ∴ (9x2 – 3x – x 7 x 2 − 13 − 3 y x 5x 2 − 1 + 2 y – + – 2 2 )– 7 FH −4x 2 2 20 + 3x + 2 = 13x − 6x − 21 3 IK (ii) b7 − 5gx + b−13 + 1g − b3 + 2g x y x = 2 x 2 − 12 − 5 y CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4.5 Subtract : (i) 7x3 – 3x2 + 2 from x2 – 5x + 2 y 2y + 7 + x2 (ii) x + − 3 from 3x − y z y z (iii) ax2 + 2hxy + by2 from cx2 + 2gxy + dy2 48.

6 : Multiply 2n + 3 by n2 – 3n + 4 Solution : (2n + 3) (n2 – 3n + 4) = 2n(n2 – 3n + 4) + 3(n2 – 3n + 4) = 2n × n2 + 2n (–3n) + 2n × 4 + 3 × n2 + 3(–3n) + 3 × 4 = 2n3 – 6n2 + 8n + 3n2 – 9n +12 = 2n3 – 3n2 – n + 12 ∴ (2n + 3)(n2 – 3n + 4) = 2n3 – 3n2 – n + 12 9 by − x + 7 . The steps involved in the division process are explained with the help of the following example : .7 : Multiply 2x2 – 3x – 2 9 Solution : 2 x − 3x − x FH IK FH − x + 7 I xK FH IK FH IK FH IK 2 2 7 7 9 9 7 = 2 x × − x + 2 x × − 3x × − x − 3x × − × − x − × x x x x x b g b g b g = −2 x 3 + 14 x + 3x 2 − 21 + 9 − 63 x2 = −2 x 3 + 3x 2 + 14 x − 12 − 63 x2 ∴ FH 2x 2 − 3x − 9 x IK FH − x + 7 I xK = −2 x 3 + 3x 2 + 14 x − 12 − 63 x2 4.4 Division Try to recall the process when you divided 20 by 3 6 Divisor ← 3) 20 → Quotient → Dividend ( 18 2 ∴ → Remainder 20 = 3 × 6 + 2 Algebraic expressions are also divided in the same way. x x = 2 x 2 − x + 7 − 3x − x + 7 − 9 − x + 7 x x x x Example 4.Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 73 Let us take some examples : Example 4.8.

2x ÷ 2x = 1 x+1 ∴ 2x + 3) 2x2 + 5x + 3( 2x2 + 3x – – ––––––––– 2x + 3 Step 4 : Multiply the divisor by the second term of the quotient and subtract the result from the resultant dividend of Step 3.e.74 Mathematics Example 4.8. x+1 2x + 3) 2x2 + 5x + 3( 2x2 + 3x – – 2x + 3 2x + 3 – – 0 Step 5 : Repeat this process i. Step 3 and 4 till you get the remainder zero or the highest exponent of the remainder is less than that of the highest exponent in the divisor in the above example. Remainder = zero. (2x + 3)x = 2x2 + 3x x 2 2x + 3) 2x + 5x + 3( 2x2 + 3x – – 2x + 3 Step 3 : Divide the first term of the resultant dividend obtained in Step 2 by the first term of the divisor and write the result as the second term of the quotient. Quotient = x + 1 . Divide 2x2 + 5x + 3 by 2x + 3 Step 1 : Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor and write the result as the first term of the quotient. 2x + 3) 2x2 + 5x + 3 2x2 ÷ 2x = x 2x + 3) 2x2 x + 5x + 3 ( ( Step 2 : Multiply the divisor by the first term of the quotient and subtract the result from the dividend.

6 1. on dividing an algebraic expression by another. Find the product of (x – 1) and (x2 + x + 1) : 2.9 : Divide x4 + 2x3 + Solution : x2 + 1 3 2 1 1 x– by x2 + 3 3 3 x2 + 2x – IJ K 1 3 x4 + 2x3 + 2x 1 – 3 3 IJ K 1 x4 + x2 3 – – 2x3 − 1 x2 + 2 x − 1 3 3 3 2x3 – + – − 1 x2 – 1 3 3 − 1 x2 – 1 3 9 + + – Quotient = x2 + 2x – 2 9 2x 3 1 2 and remainder = – 3 9 Thus you see that.Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 75 Let us take one more example. Find the remainder when x2 – x + 1 is divided by x + 1 5. . Example 4. Find the product of FH x 2 + 2 x+ 5 3 6 IK and FH x − 7 I 4K x 3 y + 2z 3. Find the quotient and remainder when 6x2 – 5x + 1 is divided by 2x – 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4. Find the product of 2 y − 4 z + 7 and 2x 4. the remainder may not always be zero.

Let us take another example. Example 4. 2 x3 + 4 x2 − 7 at x = –1 3 5 5 1 2 x2 7 3.7 Evaluate each of the following algebraic expression for the indicated values(s) of the variables : 1.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4. i. (3 × 32 – 3 × 3 + 1) (3 – 1) = 2(3 × 9 – 9 + 1) = 2[19] = 38 (ii) Substituting –1 for x in (3x2 – 1) + (4x3 – 4x – 3) we get. 3 × 22 – 2 + 2 = 3 × 4 – 2 + 2 = 12 – 2 + 2 = 12 or 3x2 – x + 2 = 12 when x = 2.e.76 Mathematics 4. 3 × (–1)2 – 1 + [4(–1)3 – 4(–1) – 3] = 3 – 1 + [–4 + 4 – 3] = 2 – 3 = –1.10 : Evaluate : (i) (3x2 – 3x + 1) (x – 1) for x = 3 (ii) (3x2 – 1) + (4x3 – 4x – 3) for x = –1 Solution : (i) Substituting 3 for x in (3x2 – 3x + 1)(x – 1) we get. 3x + 4 − 2 at x = 3 x . Let us understand the steps involved by evaluating 3x2 – x + 2 for x = 2 Step 1 : Substitute the given value(s) in place of the variable(s).9 EVALUATING AN ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION We can evaluate any algebraic expression for given values(s) of the variable(s) occurring in it. x2 + 3x – 5 at x = 4 2. 3 × 22 – 2 + 2 Step 2 : Simplify the numerical result obtained in Step 1.

. 3x − y .8 1. a1. 3 3 x z 4. .10 POLYNOMIALS Polynomial : An algebraic expression in which the variable(s) does (do) not occur in the denominator and the exponents of the variable (or variables) are whole numbers and the co-efficients of different terms are real numbers is called a polynomial. + an–1x + an where a0.11 GENERAL FORM OF A POLYNOMIAL IN ONE VARIABLE An expression of the form a0xn + a1xn–1 + a 2 x n− 2 + . a2. . y = 1 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4.. 3x3 – y3z. and x − 2 y 2 are all polynomials whereas x 3 − x is not a 3 3 polynomial.Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 77 x2 4. x −9 4 . an are real constants. The degree of a constant is taken as zero. y = 1 5.. 5 x + y .. 4 − 3y. 3xyz – x3 – y3 + z3 at x = 2 .. y + 3xy − 11 at x = 2 . the degree of the polynomial 2x3 – 9x + 3 is 3. 3x 3 + 4 y 2 + 2 . z = –3. 4. x is a variable and n is a non-negative integer is called a polynomial in the variable x.12 DEGREE OF A POLYNOMIAL : The degree of a polynomial in one variable is the greatest exponent of the variable occurring in the various terms of the polynomial. Which of the following algebraic expressions are polynomials ? 1 2 x 3 + 1 5x 2 − y 2 . Also 3 x + y is not a polynomial. 3 1 a −b For example 5 . 4. For example.. Similarly the degree of is 1 and the degree of 3 is zero.

13 OPERATIONS ON POLYNOMIALS We have already learnt four fundamental operations on algebraic expressions. 7 x − 3x + 4 + 3x + 5x − 4 x + 3 = 3x + 12 x − 7 x + 3 d i FH IK . hold good in case of polynomials also. the same rules and steps. 2 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4. Let us illustrate these with the help of examples Example 4.78 Mathematics Note : A polynomial in one variable is written in decreasing powers of the variable and this is called the standard form of the polynomial. with like terms coming in the same column.9 Write the following polynomials in standard form and specify their degree : (i) 5x2 + 1 + 2x (ii) 3x4 + x5 – 3 2 x +1 2 (iii) 4x3 – 7x2 – x – 2 4. As polynomials are special types of algebraic expressions.11 : Add 7x2 – 3x + 4 and 3x3 + 5x2 – 4x + 7 3 Solution : Writing the polynomials in standard form in columns. stated in case of operations on algebraic expressions. For example. we have + 7x2 – 3x + 4 3x3 + 5x2 – 4x + 7 3 3x3 + (7 + 5)x2 – (3 + 4)x + 4 + = 3x3 + 12x2 – 7x + FG H 7 3 IJ K 19 3 7 19 2 3 2 2 2 Thus. 4 x 3 + 5 4 x + 3x + 4 is written as 2 5 4 x + 4 x 3 + 3x + 4 in standard form.

2 x2 + 0.7x + 3) – 3x(0.25 x3 – 0.5 – 2.12 : Subtract 3x – 5x2 + 7 + 3x3 from 2x2 – 5 + 11x – x3 Solution : Rewriting the polynomials in standard form in columns. (2x2 + 7x + 2) (3x – 1) = 6x3 + 19x2 – x – 2 Example 4.1x4 – 0.1)x2 – 9x = 0.7x + 3) and (0.5x2 – 3x) = 0.5x2 (0.35 x3 + 1.7x + 3) = 0. we have –x3 + 2x2 + 11x – 5 + 3x3 – 5x2 + 3x + 7 – + – – –(1+ 3)x3 + (2 + 5)x2 + (11 – 3)x – (5 + 7) = – 4x3 + 7x2 + 8x – 12 Thus.2x2 + 0.7x + 3) (0.5x2 – 0.6x3 – 2.1x4 – 0. (2x2 – 5 + 11x – x3) – (3x – 5x2 + 7 +3x3) = –4x3 + 7x2 + 8x – 12 Example 4.2x2 + 0.7x + 3) (0.1x4 + (0.1x2 – 9x = 0.13 : Find the product of (2x2 + 7x + 2) and (3x – 1) Solution : (2x2 + 7x + 2) (3x – 1) = 3x (2x2 + 7x + 2) – 1(2x2 + 7x + 2) = 6x3 + 21x2 + 6x – 2x2 – 7x – 2 = 6x3 + (21 – 2)x2 + (6 – 7)x – 2 = 6x3 + 19x2 – x – 2 Thus.35 – 0.5x2 – 3x) Solution : (0.Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 79 Example 4.2x2 + 0.25x3 – 0.6x2 – 9x Thus.6x2 – 9x . (0.6)x3 + (1.5x2 – 3x) = 0.2x2 + 0.1x4 + 0.14 : Find the product of (0.

Remainder = 0 Example 4.16 : Divide 2x3 – 3x2 + 5x – 11 by 2x – 5 Solution : 2x – 5 7 45 x2 + x + 2 4 ) 2x3 – 3x2 + 5x – 11 ( 2x3 – 10x2 – + 7x2 + 5x – 11 7x2 – – + 45 x – 11 2 45 x 225 – 2 4 – + 181 4 35 x 2 ∴ 45 2 7 Quotient = x + x + 2 4 Remainder = 181 . 4 .15 : Divide x3 – 1 by x – 1 Solution : x–1 x2 + x + 1 ) x3 – 1 x3 – x2 – 1 x2 – x–1 x–1 – + 0 – x2 + –x + ∴ Quotient is x2 + x + 1.80 Mathematics Example 4.

. + an. In case of division of polynomial.Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 81 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4. The process of substituting a numerical value of the variable in the algebraic expression is called evaluating the algebraic expression for that value of the variable. Subtract 12x3 – 3x2 – 11x +13 from 5x3 + 7x2 + 2x – 4 5.. Find the remainder and quotient for each of the following : (i) Divide x4 –1 by x – 1 (ii) Divide x3 – 3x2 + 5x – 8 by x – 2 LET US SUM UP z z An unknown quantity. x is a variable and n is a non-negative integer is called a polynomial in x of degree n in standard form. The terms which are not like are called unlike terms. a1. where a0. Find the product of FG 2 x H3 2 5 + x − 3 and (3x2 + 4x + 1) 4 IJ K 7... Subtract 2x3 + 7x – 5x2 + 2 from 5x + 7 – 3x2 + 5x3 4. the degree of remainder is less than that of divisor. . is called a variable. Four fundamental operations on polynomials yield another polynomial. The terms of an expression having the same variable with same exponent are called like terms.10 1.. which can have various values. a binomial and with three terms is called a trinomial. The degree of a constant is zero. Add 7 3 7 3 2 2 2 3 x + x − 3x + and x3 + x2 − 3x + 5 5 3 5 3 5 3. An expression of the type a0xn + a1xn–1 + . Add 2x3 + 7x2 – 5x + 7 and –2x 2 + 7x3 – 3x – 7 2. An algebraic expression with one term is called a monomial. an are real numbers. The degree of a polynomial in one variable is the greatest exponent of the variable occurring in the various terms of the polynomial. Find the product of (x2 + 1) and (x3 – 1) 6. z z z z z z z z . with two terms. An expression which has one or more terms involving variable joined by + or – sign is called an algebraic expression. Four fundamental operations on algebraic expressions yield another algebraic expression.

5 x2 –3x – 0. 3xyz 2. 4x + 3z + 2.7) by (0.3) 5. Find remainder and quotient for each of the following : (i) Divide (x6 –1) by x – 1 (ii) Divide x3 + 1 by (x + 1) (iii) Divide x6 + 5x4 + 3x2 – 1 by x2 – 2 . Perform the indicated operation on the following polynomials and find the value of resulting polynomial at x = 2 (i) Add 7x4 + 3x3 – 2x + 1 and 3x4 + 2x – 4x3 –1 (ii) Subtract 3x2 – 4x3 + 7x – 1 from 6x3 + 3x2 + 6x – 1 (iii) Multiply (3x2 + 2x + 1) by (2x + 3) (iv) Multiply (0.7x – 0.82 Mathematics TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. 3z2 – 9. Identify like terms and unlike terms in the two algebraic expressions given below : (i) 3 x3 + 5x 2 − 7 x + 4 3 and 5x + 7 x 3 − x 2 − 30 2 2 3 5x 2 3 7 3 (ii) 2 x + yz − 3x − 12 xyz and 17 xyz + x 3 + 5xy − 2 3x 3. 3z. Identify monomials. binomials and trinomials in the following : 2x + 3. Perform the indicated operations on the following algebraic expressions 3 (i) Add 3x2 + 7x + 4y and 6x 2 + x 3 − x − 7 y 2 (ii) Add 3x 2 2x 2 + 7 x3 − 3x 2 yz and 2 x3 − + 5x 2 yz y y (iii) Subtract 3x3 – 5x4 + 6x2 – 2x + 1 form 2x + 3x4 – 2x3 + 5x2 –1 (x3 (iv) Multiply dx + 1) by 2 + x +1 y i 4. 5x5.

4. 17 2.2 1. coefficients are 3.6 1. 3t . respectively 2 2 (iv) Terms : x2. 7 Check Your Progress 4. 1 3 yz 7 y xz 3 2 − + + − z + 14 z 4 8x 2 x y 2 2 x 3y 2 (ii) y − z + 10 + x 13 x 35 2. 8. p Binomials : 4y2 – 3y. coefficients are 1. coefficients are . x 8 1 (v) Terms : 7 . 6xz. 1 respectively 3 3 5z 5 . 5x2 (iii) y3.5 (i) –7x3 + 4x2 – 5x (iii) (c – a)x2 + 2(g – h)xy + (d – b)y2 Check Your Progress 4. Monomials : –3x. 5x – 2y2 3 Trinomials : x + y + z. –4y3 . 4y. 4y. 4 respectively (ii) Terms : 2x 2 . y . –3xy.4 (i) 23 x 2 + 5 x + 6 21 4 7 x3 + x2 + x − 2 5 y 2x (iv) − xz + y (ii) (iii) 4xy + zx Check Your Progress 4.3 (i) 3x2. Quotient : 3x – 1. y2. 2. x2 + 2x + 1 2 Check Your Progress 4. Variables : 2x. y . 7zx (iv) no like terms involved Check Your Progress 4. 3 5. 2xy. 0 (zero) . 15xyz .Algebraic Expressions and Polynomials 83 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 4. 6yx (ii) xyz. constants : 41. coefficients are . remainder . (i) Terms : 3x2. x3 –1 3. x 3 − x 2 − − 12 3 24 4. coefficients are 3.1 1. 1 respectively (iii) Terms : 3x. 4y .

2 2 3 . x5 + x3 – x2 – 1 7.39 (i) Quotient : x5 + x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1 . 2 x3 + 1 . 5. − x 2 . 11 (i) x 3 + 9 x 2 + x − 3y 2 (iii) 4. x 3 . remainder : –2. Monomials : 3z. – 12xyz.7 x 3 . remainder : 33 .10 1. – 7x. 5x5. 119 + x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1 (iv) y 3 (ii) 10x – x . 3x3 – y3z 3 19 2. 8x4 – 5x3 – x2 + 4x – 2 3 x 2 (ii) 9 x + y + 2 x yz 2 (i) 10x4 – x3 (iii) 6x3 + 13x2 + 8x + 3.36 x2 + 0. remainder : 0(zero) (iii) Quotient : x4 + 7x2 + 17 . –3x3. 4. 2195 36 Check Your Progress 4. – 30. 3xyz Binomials : 2x + 3. 2 (iii) 4x3 – 7x2 – x – 2. 3x3 + x2 –6x + 2 4. 2. 5 2 (i) Quotient : x3 + x2 + x + 1.21.35 x3 – 0. 2 x 4 + 12 3 4 (ii) x5 + 3x4 – 3 2 x + 1. 5x2.8 1. 5x. remainder : 0(zero) (ii) Quotient : x2 – x + 1 . remainder : 0 (zero) (ii) Quotient : x2 – x + 3 . 9x3 + 5x2 – 8x 3. 3z2 – 9 Trinomial : 4x + 3z + 2 3 3 2.41 x + 0. –1 Check Your Progress 4.− 7 3 (ii) Like terms : .84 Mathematics Check Your Progress 4. − 15 5. Terminal Exercise 1. –54 3. 17 xyz 2 x 3x 2 5x 2 . 3 Check Your Progress 4. 5x2 – y2. 3x3 + 2x2 – 2x + 5 5.9 (i) 5x2 + 2x + 1. –7x3 + 10x2 + 13x – 17 77 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 43 x − 3 6. (i) Like terms : x 3 . 78 dx 5 i (iv) 0. 23 4. 5xy Unlike terms : yz 3. 2.7 1.

Try to recall how you would find the square of a number.e. Simply you have to multiply 103 with itself. Now. Method 1 : Direct Multiplication 103 × 103 309 000 103 10609 or 1032 = 10609 ∴ or ∴ The answer is the same in both cases. Notice carefully the expression in the box in the second method. This can easily be generalised to the square of any binomial (or an algebraic expression with two terms).Special Products and Factorisation 85 5 Special Products and Factorisation 5. how would you find the cube of a number.. say. This is the most important step in this calculation. Is this the only method ? No! Here is another method. i. algebraic expressions and polynomials in a previous lesson. 993 ? 1032 = 1002 + 2 × 100 × 3 + 32 1032 = 10000 + 600 + 9 1032 = 10609 Method 2 : Breaking up 103 103 = 100 + 3 1032 = (100 + 3)2 = (100 + 3) (100 + 3) = 100 × 100 + 100 × 3 + 3 × 100 + 3 × 3 .1 INTRODUCTION You have already studied different number systems. say 1032. 1032 = (100 + 3)2 = square of the first term + two times the product of the first and the second terms + square of the second term.

99 = 100 – 1 ∴ 993 = (100 – 1)3 Thus.86 Mathematics Direct multiplication will surely make the calculations lengthy and difficult.4 SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL (a) Consider a binomial say. In this lesson.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson.. the learner will be able to : z z z z z z z z write formulae for special products calculate squares and cubes of numbers using special products factorise a given algebraic expression and a polynomial in one variable factorise a given quadratic polynomial by splitting the middle term determine the HCF and LCM of two or more polynomials cite examples of rational expressions in one or two variables express a given rational expression in the simplest form perform four fundamental operations on rational expressions. you can easily calculate 993 if you know the formula for the cube of a binomial. 5..x + x.y = x2 + 2xy + y2 .3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z Knowledge of four fundamental operations on numbers and algebraic expressions GCD and LCM of numbers Polynomials and operations on them Area of squares and rectangles. x + y Let us find (x + y)2 (x + y)2 = (x + y) (x + y) = x (x + y) + y(x + y) = x.y + y.(i) .x + y. you will study these as well as many other useful results which will make calculations simpler and also help you to understand polynomials better. but if you write. 5. 5.

Two methods are given below: Method 1 : Direct Multiplication (x – y)2 = (x – y) (x – y) = x(x – y) – y(x – y) = x. in such a way that AP = AQ = ‘x’ (say) and PB = QD = ‘y’ (say) [See Fig.1] Fig. intersecting ‘BC’ at S.. 5.2 [Using the formulae for the areas of a square and a rectangle] ∴ (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 (b) Consider the square of the binomial (x – y) There are many ways of finding this product. Method Step 1 : Take a square piece of cardboard ABCD and mark points ‘P’ and ‘Q’ on sides AB and AD. ‘l’ and ‘m’ divide ABCD into two squares and two rectangles.Special Products and Factorisation 87 The square of a binomial is equal to the sum of the square of the first term. 5. (–y) = x2 – xy – xy + y2 ∴ (x– y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2 .x + x (–y) – y.. or (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 .2) ∴ Area of ABCD = x2 + xy + y2 + xy Fig.(i) You can easily make a model and verify this formula geometrically. (See Fig.(ii) . two times the product of both the terms and the square of the second term. Step 3 : Through ‘Q’ draw a line ‘m’ parallel to ‘AB’. 5.. 5..x –y.1 Step 2 : Through ‘P’ draw a line ‘l’ parallel to AD. respectively. intersecting ‘DC’ at ‘R’.

Let us take some examples...(i) . Example 5. we get .(ii) On subtracting (ii) from (i). (4x – 1)2 = (4x)2 – 2(4x).1 : Find each of the following products : (i) (2a + 3b)2 (iii) (4x – 1)2 (ii) (3x + 4y)2 (iv) FH x + 1 I xK 2 Solution : (i) We know that (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 Replacing ‘x’ by ‘2a’ and ‘y’ by ‘3b’. we get (3x + 4y)2 = (3x)2 + 2(3x)(4y) + (4y)2 = 9x2 + 24xy + 16y2 ∴ (3x + 4y)2 = 9x2 + 24xy + 16y2.88 Mathematics Method 2 : Using (x + y)2 x – y = x + (–y) or or ∴ (x – y)2 = [x + (–y)]2 = x2 + 2x(–y) + (–y)2 (x – y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2 (x – y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2 Deductions : What happens when you add the two sides of Formulae (i) and (ii) (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 + (x – y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2 (x + y)2 + (x – y)2 = 2x2 + 2y2 or (x + y)2 + (x – y)2 = 2(x2 + y2) .. we get (x + y)2 – (x – y)2 = 4xy These formulae are very useful in finding the squares of binomials as well as of numbers.. we get (2a + 3b)2 = (2a)2 + 2(2a)(3b) + (3b)2 = 4a2 + 12ab + 9b2 (ii) Using Formula (i).1 + 12 (iii) Using Formula (ii) above.

given that x − x = 1 2 x 1 Solution : It is given that x − x = 1 ∴ or or ∴ FH x − 1 I xK 2 = 12 − 2.2 : Calculate each of the following without actual multiplication : 2 = x + FH x + 1 I xK 2 (a) 1012 Solution : (a) We can write 101 as 101 = 100 + 1 ∴ (b) 982 1012 = (100 + 1)2 = 1002 + 2 × 100 × 1 + 12 = 10000 + 200 + 1 ∴ (b) 982 1012 = 10201 Writing 98 = 90 + 8 and using Formula (i) will make the calculations a little lengthy. x. we get FH x + 1 I xK ∴ 2 + 1 = x 2 + 2. 1 x x = x2 + 2 + FH IK 2 1 x2 1 +2 x2 Example 5. x. even though this method is correct. 1 = 1 x2 + 1 2 x x 1 x2 + 2 − 2 = 1 x 1 x2 + 2 = 3 x .3 : Evaluate x2 + 1 1 . Let us write : 98 = 100 – 2 ∴ 982 = (100 – 2)2 = 1002 – 2 × 100 × 2 + 22 = 10000 – 400 + 4 2 ∴ 98 = 9604 Example 5.Special Products and Factorisation 89 ∴ = 16x2 – 8x + 1 (4x – 1)2 = 16x2 – 8x + 1 (iv) Using Formula (i).

x + x(–y) + yx + y(–y) = x2 – xy + xy – y2 = x2 – y2 ∴ (x + y)(x – y) = x2 – y2 This is one of the most commonly used formula in algebra. given that x + = 2 x x2 (ii) a 2 + (iii) x2 + 1 1 .90 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5. Without actual multiplication calculate each of the following : (i) 972 (iv) 492 (ii) 2012 (v) 9992 (iii) 9982 (vi) 1022 3. . given that x + y = 5 and x – y = 3 (v) xy given that x + y = 3 and x – y = 1 (vi) x2 + y2 and xy.5 THE SPECIAL PRODUCT (x + y) (x – y) Let us find the product (x + y) (x – y) (x + y) (x – y) = x(x – y) + y(x – y) = x. 1 given that x − = –3 2 x x (iv) x2 + y2. Find each of the following products : (i) (5x + y)2 (iv) (ab – c)2 (vii) (ii) (x – 3)2 (iii) (ac + bd)2 2 (x) FH x + 1IK 3 FG x + y IJ H y xK 2 FH x − 1 I xK (viii) F H z − 1IK (v) 2 (vi) (2x – 5y)2 (ix) (a2 + b2)2 2 2 2. Find each of the following : 1 (i) x2 + 1 . given that a − = 2 a a2 1 .1 1. given that x + y = 10 and x – y = 6. 5.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5.x2 + x.y2 = x3 + 2x2y + xy2 + x2y + 2xy2 + y3 (ii) (xy – 1)(xy + 1) (iv) (x– y2) (x + y2) (vi) 85 × 75 .2 1. (x + y)3 = (x + y) (x + y)2 = (x + y) (x2 + 2xy + y2) = x(x2 + 2xy + y2) + y(x2 + 2xy + y2) = x.y2 + y. Solution : 47 × 53 = (50 – 3) (50 + 3) = 502 – 32 = 2500 – 9 = 2491 ∴ 47 × 53 = 2491 The answer has been found without acutal multiplication.6 CUBES OF BINOMIALS Consider a binomial ‘x + y’.x2 + y.2xy + y. Examples 5.4 : Find each of the following products : (i) (3x + y)(3x – y) (ii) (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2) Solution : (i) (3x + y)(3x – y) = (3x)2 – y2 = 9x2 – y2 ∴ (3x + y)(3x – y) = 9x2 – y2 (ii) (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2) (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2) = (x2)2 – (y2)2 = x4 – y4 ∴ (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2) = x4 – y4 Example 5. Calculate each of the following : (i) (y + 2)(y – 2) (iii) (a2 + 5)(a2 – 5) (v) 98 × 102 5.5 : Evaluate 47 × 53 without actual multiplication.Special Products and Factorisation 91 Let us consider some examples.2xy + x. Let us find its cube.

2y + 3. (i) (3x + 2y)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x)2 2y + 3(3x)(2y)2 + (2y)3 = 27x3 + 3. we get (x – y)3 = x3 – 3xy(x – y) – y3 Let us take some examples.4y2 + 8y3 = 27x3 + 54x2y + 36xy2 + 8y3 ∴ (3x + 2y)3 = 27x3 + 54x2y + 36xy2 + 8y3 .6 : Find each of the following products : (i) (3x + 2y)3 (ii) (x – 4y)3 (iii) 1013 Solution.(–2xy) – y. Method 1 : Direct Multiplication (x – y)3 = (x – y) (x – y)2 = (x – y) (x2 – 2xy + y2) = x(x2 – 2xy + y2) – y(x2 – 2xy + y2) = x.x2 – y.y2 = x3 – 2x2y + xy2 – x2y + 2xy2 – y3 = x3 – 3x2y + 3xy2 – y3 ∴ (x – y)3 = x3 – 3x2y + 3xy2 – y3 Method 2 : Using (x + y)3 x – y = x + (–y) ∴ or (x – y)3 = [x + (–y)]3 (x – y)3 = x3 – 3x2y + 3xy2 – y3 Writing this formula in another way. Let us study them.y2 – y.x2 + x.9 x2. Example 5.3x.92 Mathematics = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 ∴ (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 Observe that there is another way of writing (x + y)3 : (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 =x3 + 3xy(x + y) + y3 ∴ (x + y)3 = x3 + 3xy(x + y) + y3 Consider (x – y)3 : There are two commonly used ways of finding this product.(–2xy) + x.

you will get x3 – y3. on simplifying (x – y)(x2 + xy + y2).16y2 – 64y3 (x – 4y)3 = x3 – 12x2y + 48xy2 – 64 y3 101 = 100 + 1 1013 = (100 + 1)3 = 1003 + 3 × 1002 × 1 + 3 × 100 × 12 + 13 = 1000000 + 3 × 10000 + 3 × 100 + 1 = 1000000 + 30000 + 300 + 1 ∴ 1013 = 1030301 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5.7 SOME OTHER SPECIAL PRODUCTS Besides the squares and cubes of binomials.3 Calculate each of the following : (i) (2x + y)3 (iv) 993 (ii) (5x – y)3 (v) 973 (iii) (xy – z)3 (vi) 483 5. there are some other special products which have useful applications. (x + y)(x2 – xy + y2) Now.x2 + x(–xy) + x. The reader is advised to multiply the above and check the result (x – y)(x2 + xy + y2) = x3 – y3 Consider the following product : (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 – xy – yz – zx) . (x + y)(x2 – xy + y2) = x(x2 – xy + y2) + y(x2 – xy + y2) = x.Special Products and Factorisation 93 (ii) ∴ (iii) 1013 We can write ∴ (x – 4y)3 = x3 – 3x2(4y) + 3x(4y)2 – (4y)3 = x3 – 12 x2y + 3x.y2 + y. Let us now study some more special products.y2 = x3 – x2y + xy2 + x2y – xy2 + y3 = x3 + y3 ∴ (x + y)(x2 – xy + y2) = x3 + y3 Similarly.x2 + y(–xy) + y.

94 Mathematics Now. Find each of the following products : (i) (2x + 3y)3 (ii) (4x – 5)3 (iii) (xy – 1)3 (iii) (4x + y + z) (16x2 + y2 + z2 – 4xy – yz – 4zx) (ii) (x – 2) (x2 + 2x + 4) .4 1. (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 – xy – yz – zx) = x(x2 + y2 + z2 – xy – yz – zx) + y(x2 + y2 + z2 – xy – yz – zx) + z(x2 + y2 + z2 – xy – yz – zx) = x3 + xy2 + xz2 – x2y – xyz – zx2 + yx2 + y3 + yz2 – xy2 –yz2 – xyz + zx2 + zy2 + z3 – xyz – yz2 – xz2 = x3 + y3 + z3 – 3xyz ∴ (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 – xy – yz – zx) = x3 + y3 + z3 – 3xyz Let us take some examples.7 : Find each of the following products : (i) (2x + y) (4x2 – 2xy + y2) (ii) (x – 2) (x2 + 2x + 4) (iii) (4x + y + z) (16x2 + y2 + z2 – 4xy – yz – 4zx) Solution : (i) (2x + y) (4x2 – 2xy + y2) = (2x + y) [(2x)2 – (2x)y + y2] = (2x)3 + y3 = 8x3 + y3 ∴ (2x + y) (4x2 – 2xy + y2) = 8x3 + y3 = (x – 2) (x2 + x.2 + 22) = x3 – 8 ∴ (x – 2) (x2 + 2x + 4) = x3 – 8 = (4x + y + z) [(4x)2 + y2 + z2 – (4x)y – yz – (4x) z)] = (4x)3 + y3 + z3 – 3(4x)yz = 64x3 + y3 + z3 – 12xyz ∴ (4x + y + z) (16x2 + y2 + z2 – 4xy – yz – 4zx) = 64x3 + y3 + z3 – 12xyz CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5. Example 5.

Note : If you divide x2 – y2 by x + y. The polynomial obtained by multiplying two other polynomials can be factorised. Thus each one of the two x + y and x – y is a factor of x2 – y2. Definition The process of writing a polynomial as a product of two (or more) polynomials is called factorisation. Calculate each of the following without actual multiplication : (i) 513 5.Special Products and Factorisation 95 (iv) (xy + z)3 I (v) F Hx − 1 xK 3 (vi) (ax – by)3 (viii) (y – 3) (y2 + 3y + 9) (vii) (2x + 1) (4x2 – 2x + 1) (ix) (1 + x) (1 – x + x2) (x) (2x + y + 3z) (4x2 + y2 + 9z2 – 2xy – 6xz – 3yz) 2. the quadratic binomial x2 – y2 has been written as a product of two linear binomials x + y and x – y. Each polynomial in the product is called a factor of the given polynomial. Let us take the following : 1. you get x – y and vice versa. (ii) 1023 (iii) 953 Thus factorisation is the reverse of the process of finding products. Let us take (x + y) (x – y) = x2 – y2 You can also write it as x2 – y2 = (x + y) (x – y) In other words. ∴ (x + y) (x – y) is the factorisation of x2 – y2 and x + y and x – y are the factors of x2 – y2. Factorisation of difference of two squares As (x + y) (x – y) = x2 – y2 ∴ (x + y) and (x – y) are factors of x2 – y2 ∴ x2 – y2 = (x + y) (x – y) 2. Factorisation of a perfect square trinomial We know that (x + a)2 = x2 + 2ax + a2 or x2 + 2ax + a2 = (x + a)2 Thus (x + a) (x + a) is the required factorisation of x2 + 2ax + a2 .8 FACTORISATION You have studied some special products.

1 + 12 i. Let us take some examples. consider the expression (x – a)2 (x – a)2 = x2 – 2ax + a2 Thus. (vi) x2 – 6x + 9 .e.3x.8 : Factorise each the following polynomials : (i) x2 – 4 (iii) 9x2 + 6x + 1 Solution : (i) x2 – 4 = x2 – 22 This is of the form x2 – y2 ∴ x2 – 4 = (x + 2) (x – 2) (ii) x2 – 2x + 1 (iv) a2c2 – b2 (ii) x2 – 2x + 1 = x2 – 2. x2 – 2x + 1 = (x –1) (x – 1) (iii) 9x2 + 6x + 1 = (3x)2 + 2. 9x2 + 6x + 1 = (3x + 1) (3x + 1) (iv) a2c2 – b2 = (ac)2 – b2 This is of the form x2 – y2 Hence a2c2 – b2 = (ac + b) (ac – b) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5.5 Factorise each of the following : (i) 4a2 – 9 (ii) 4a2 – b2 (iii) a2c – b2c (Take ‘c’ common first) (iv) 9x2 – 25y2 (v) 25x2 + 40x + 16 (vii) x2 + 12x + 36 We can also evaluate some numerical expressions by using factorisation. (x – a) (x – a) is the required factorization of x2 – 2ax + a2 Let us take some examples Example 5.1 + 12 = (3x + 1)2 i.96 Mathematics (ii) Now.x.e.

FACTORISATION INVOLVING CUBES Some of the cubic polynomials can be factorised using specials products.Special Products and Factorisation 97 Example 5. These are discussed below : (a) Factorisation of perfect cubes (i) Consider the special product (x + y)3 (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 ∴ x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 = (x + y)(x + y) (x + y) (ii) (x – y)3 = x3 – 3x2y + 3xy2 – y3 ∴ x3 – 3x2y + 3xy2 – y3 = (x – y)(x – y) (x – y) (b) Sum and difference of two cubes (i) We know that (x + y)(x2 + xy + y2) = x3 + y3 ∴ (ii) We know that (x – y)(x2 + xy + y2) = x3 – y3 ∴ x3 – y3 = (x – y)(x2 + xy + y2) is the factorisation of x3 – y3 x3 + y3 = (x + y)(x2 – xy + y2) is the factorisation of x3 + y3 .9 : Without actual multiplication. find the value of each of the following : (i) 1022 – 982 (ii) 512 – 492 (iii) 272 – 732 Solution : (i) 1022 – 982 = (102 + 98) (102 – 98) = 200 × 4 = 800 ∴ 1022 – 982 = 800 (ii) 512 – 492 = (51 + 49) (51 – 49) = 100 × 2 = 200 ∴ 512 – 492 = 200 (iii) 272 – 732 = (27 + 73) (27 – 73) = 100 × (–46) = –4600 ∴ 272 – 732 = – 4600 3.

Example 5.6 1.11 : Evaluate a3 + b3 given that a + b = 7 and a. Factorise each of the following polynomials : (i) u2 – v2 (ii) 25a2 – 1 (iii) x4 – y4 (ii) 8x3 – 36x2y + 54xy2 – 27y3 .4y + (4y)2] = (5x – 4y) (25x2 + 20xy + 16y2) ∴ 125x3 – 64y3 = (5x – 4y) (25x2 + 20xy + 16y2) Example 5.10 : Factorise each of the following polynomials : (i) x3 + 64y3 + 12x2y + 48xy2 (ii) 8x3 – 36x2y + 54xy2 – 27y3 (iii) x3 + 27 (iv) 8x3 – 1 (v) 125x3 – 64y3 Solution : (i) x3 + 64y3 + 12x2y + 48xy2 = x3 + 3x2(4y) + 3x(4y)2 + (4y)3 = (x + 4y)3 ∴ x3 + 64y3 + 12x2y + 48xy2 = (x + 4y)(x + 4y)(x + 4y) = (2x)3 – 3(2x)2(3y) + 3 × 2x(3y)2 – (3y)3 = (2x – 3y)3 ∴ 8x3 – 36x2y + 54xy2 – 27y3 = (2x – 3y)(2x – 3y)(2x – 3y) (iii) x3 + 27 = x3 + 33 = (x + 3)(x2 – 3x + 32) = (x + 3) (x2 – 3x + 9) ∴ (iv) x3 + 27 = (x + 3)(x2 – 3x + 9) 125x3 – 64y3 = (5x)3 – (4y)3 = (5x – 4y) [(5x)2 + 5x.98 Mathematics Let us take some examples.b = 12 Solution : a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 – ab + b2) = (a + b)(a2 + b2 + 2ab – 2ab – ab) = (a + b)[(a + b)2 – 3ab] ∴ ∴ a3 + b3 = 7(49 – 3 × 12) = 7(49 – 36) = 7 × 13 = 91 a3 + b3 = 91 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5.

6 2. i. 3 Sum of factors 7 5 .b = 4 1 1 given that a + = 2 3 a a 3 3 (vii) a – b given that a – b = –1. ab = 6 3 (v) a + (vi) 63 – 53 5. . a. Evaluate each of the following without actual multiplication : (i) 852 – 152 (ii) 1012 – 992 (iii) 832 – 172 (iv) a3 – b3 given that a – b = 1. we get a + b = 5 and ab = 6 Factors of 6 1. the product of the constant and the quadratic term.Special Products and Factorisation 99 (iv) x3 – 8y3 (vii) x8 – 1 (v) a3 + 216 b3 (viii) a3 + 6a2 + 12a + 8 (vi) a3 – 343 (x) x2 + 22x + 121 (ix) x3 – 33x2 + 363x – 1331 (xi) 9x2 – 30xy + 25y2 (xii) 81y2 – 36xy + 4x2 2..(i) ∴ The required pair of values of a and b are 2 and 3 respectively.9 FACTORISING A QUADRATIC POLYNOMIAL BY SPLITTING THE MIDDLE TERM Let us consider the product (x + a) (x + b) = x(x + b) + a(x + b) = x2 + (a + b)x + ab We can write (i) as x2 + ax + bx + ab and factorise by taking common factors from first two and last two terms separately ∴ x2 + ax + bx + ab = x(x + a) +b(x + a) = (x + a) (x + b) This gives us a method to factorise a quadratic polynomial.. Let us take some examples and illustrate x2 + 5x + 6 = x2 + 3x + 2x + 6 = x(x + 3) + 2(x + 3) = (x + 3) (x + 2) What have we done ? We have splitted the middle term 5x into two factor 3x and 2x such that their product is equal to 6x2. We could have done in the following manner also : Comparing x2 + 5x + 6 with (i).e.

–6 –2.100 Mathematics As x2 + (a + b)x + ab was factorised as (x + a)(x + b). therefore x2 + (2 + 3)x + 2 × 3 can be written as (x + 2) (x + 3) ∴ x2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 2)(x + 3) (ii) x2 – 5x + 6 (iv) x2 – x – 6 Example 5. –6 –2. –3 ∴ The required numbers are –2 and –3 x2 – 5x + 6 = x2 + (–2 – 3) x + (–2)(–3) = (x – 2)(x – 3) ∴ x2 – 5x + 6 = (x – 2)(x – 3) (iii) x2 + x – 6 Here the product of the numbers is negative and the sum is positive ∴ One of the two factors is negative and the other is positive Factors of –6 –1.12 : Factorise each of the following polynomials : (i) x2 + 3x + 2 (iii) x2 + x – 6 Solution : (i) x2 + 3x + 2 We need two factors of 2 whose sum is 3 Factors of 2 2 and 1 ∴ ∴ = (x + 2)(x + 1) x2 + 3x + 2 = (x + 2)(x + 1) (ii) x2 – 5x + 6 Here. Sum of the factors (–1) + (–6) = –7 (–2) + (–3) = –5 Sum of the factors 2+1=3 x2 + 3x + 2 = x2 + (2 + 1) x + 2 × 1 The required pair of numbers is –2 and 3. 6 1. 3 2. we need two factors of 6 whose sum is negative and product is positive. . –3 ∴ Sum of the factors (–1) + 6 = 5 1 + (–6) = –5 (–2) + 3 = 1 2 + (–3) = –1 Right (√) or wrong (×) × × √ × Hence. ∴ Both the numbers should be negative Factors of 6 –1.

BY SPLITTING THE MIDDLE TERM Consider the polynomial : 2x2 + 3x + 1. –6 2..7 Factorise each of the following polynomials by splitting the middle term : (i) x2 + 7x + 6 (iv) x2 – 4x – 5 (ii) x2 – 7x + 6 (v) x2 – 2x – 8 (iii) x2 – 10x + 21 (vi) z2 – 2z – 15 5.10 FACTORISATION OF QUADRATIC POLYNOMIALS OF THE TYPE ax2 + bx + c. So. Factors of –6 1. Here. not just ‘c’). –3 ∴ Sum of the factors 1 + (–6) = –5 2 + (–3) = –1 The required pair of numbers is 2 and –3.e. we can : but now we need to consider the factors of 2 × 1 (i. ∴ (iv) x2 – x – 6 x2 + x – 6 = x2 + (–2 + 3) x + (–2) × 3 = (x – 2)(x + 3) x2 + x – 6 = (x – 2) (x + 3) Here the sum and product both are negative ∴ One number (smaller one) has to be positive and the other number has to be negative. ‘a × c’) not one (i. the coefficient of x2 is 2 and not one. ∴ ∴ x2 – x – 6 = x2 + [2 + (–3)]x + 2 × (–3) = (x + 2)(x – 3) x2 – x – 6 = (x + 2)(x – 3) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5. can we follow the method of splitting the middle term ? Yes.Special Products and Factorisation 101 Hence.e. ∴ 2x2 + 3x + 1 = 2x2 + (2 + 1)x + 1 because 2 + 1 = 3 = 2x2 + 2x + x + 1 = 2x(x + 1) + 1(x + 1) [By taking 2x common from the first two terms and 1 from the last two terms] = (2x + 1) (x + 1) ∴ 2x2 + 3x + 1 = (2x + 1)(x + 1) Let us take some more examples. . WHERE a ≠ 0 OR a ≠ 1. The factors of 2 × 1 are 2 and 1 only.

102 Mathematics Example 5. –28 –2. you get back 3x2 + 5x + 2. Can you guess these ? Yes. 7 Sum of the factors 1 + 21 = 22 3 + 7 = 10 Right or wrong × √ ∴ 3x2 + 10x + 21 = 3x2 + (3 + 7)x + 7 = 3x2 + 3x + 7x + 7 = 3x(x + 1) + 7(x + 1) = (3x + 7) (x + 1) ∴ 3x2 + 10x + 7 = (3x + 7) (x + 1) (iii) 2x2 – 11x + 14 Product of 2 and 14 = 2 × 14 = 28. –14 –4.13 : Factorise each of the following polynomials : (i) 3x2 + 5x + 2 (ii) 3x2 + 10x + 7 (iii) 2x2 – 11x + 14 Solution : (i) 3x2 + 5x + 2 The product of the coefficient of x2 and the constant term = 3 × 2 = 6 We need two factors of 6 whose sum is 5. both the factors have to be negative. Factors of 28 –1. (ii) 3x2 + 10x + 7 The product = 3 × 7 = 21 Factors of 21 1. they are 2 and 3 ∴ 3x2 + 5x + 2 = 3x2 + (2 + 3)x + 2 = 3x2 + 2x + 3x + 2 = x(3x + 2) + 1 (3x + 2) = (3x + 2) (x + 1) ∴ 3x2 + 5x + 2 = (3x + 2) (x + 1) Note that if you multiply 3x + 2 and x + 1. –7 Sum of the factors (–1) + (–28) = –29 (–2) + (–14) = –16 (–4) + (–7) = –11 Right or wrong × × √ 2x2 – 11x + 14 = 2x2 – (4 + 7)x + 14 . Also since the sum is negative and the product is positive. 21 3.

. It is the largest number which divides all the given numbers.11. the next common factor is 3 and it occurs at least once in both the numbers ∴ The H. 24 = 23 × 3 and 36 = 22 × 32 The first common factor is 2 and it occurs at least twice in the factorisation of the two numbers and so it must occur twice in the H. the H.C. x2 – x – 56 8. 5.C.F.F. x2 – 2x – 8 6. of 24 and 36 = 22 × 3 = 12 Similarly. 4x2 + 12x + 5 7.F.F. 3x2 – 2x – 5 10. you can find the H.F.F. of Polynomials We already know the meaning of the term ‘H. 6x2 + 7x – 10 5. x2 + 4x – 60 9. of two or more polynomials is the polynomial of the highest degree which divides all the given polynomials completely. We used the method of prime factorisation. of 12 and 18 is 6 The H.F.C.’ of any given numbers.C.C.C. Let us recall how to find the H.F. of two numbers.1 H.C. say 24 and 36.Special Products and Factorisation 103 = 2x2 – 4x – 7x + 14 = 2x(x – 2) – 7(x – 2) = (2x – 7) (x – 2) ∴ 2x2 – 11x + 14 = (2x –7)(x – 2) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5.11 APPLICATIONS OF FACTORISATON Factorisation helps us not only in expressing a given polynomial in terms of simpler polynomials. Let us take some examples and illustrate. x2 + 9x + 20 3. For instance. x2 + x – 20 4. of two or more polynomials.C. but also enables us to generate new polynomials using the given polynomials.8 Factorise each of the following polynomials by splitting the middle terms : 1. 9x2 – 12x + 4 2. Similarly. 15x2 – 14x + 3 5.

C. (2) Check that the H. Now 2x – 3 is the next common factor and it occurs only once in the first polynomial. The next common factor is 2x + 5 and occurs at least once.F. of 4x2y and x3y2 is x2y Example 5. Example 5.F. of x2 – 4 and (x + 2)2 is x + 2. The second polynomial can be written as (3x – 1)3 (2x + 5)(2x – 1) The first common factor is 3x – 1 and occurs at least three times.F.16 : Find the H. ∴ H.C.F. occur in the first polynomial and so does not occur in the H. of (3x –1)4 (2x + 5)2 and (3x –1)3 (2x + 5) (2x – 1) = (3x – 1)3(2x + 5) Note : (1) 2x – 1 does not.F.C. It must occur two times in the H. ∴ H.F. x2 – 4 = x2 – 22 = (x +2) (x – 2) The only common factor is x + 2 and it occurs at least once ∴ H. ∴ The H. .15 : Find the H.F.104 Mathematics Example 5. of the given polynomials = (x – 2)2 (2x – 3) Let us take some more examples.F.C. divides both the polynomials completely.14 : Find the H. of each of the following pairs of polynomials : (i) (3x – 1)4 (2x + 5)2 and (2x – 1) (2x + 5) (3x –1)3 (ii) x2 – 4 and (x + 2)2 Solution : (i) (3x – 1)4 (2x + 5)2 is the first polynomial.C. of (x – 2)3(2x – 3) and (x – 2)2(2x – 3)3 Solution : The first common factor is x – 2 and it occurs at least twice in the given polynomials.C.C.C.F.C.C.F. of 4x2y and x3y2 Solution : ‘x’ occurs as a factor at least twice in the two monomials and ‘y’ occurs at least once. (ii) x2 – 4 and (x + 2)2 Now.

M. . 3 occurs twice and 5 occurs once.M.9 Find the H.C.C. at the most ∴ L.C.Special Products and Factorisation 105 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5.M.11. you can easily find the L. of (x – 2)3 (2x – 3) and (x – 2)2 (2x – 3)3 = (x – 2)3 (2x – 3)3 (ii) (3x – 1)4(2x + 5)2 and (2x – 1)(2x + 5)(3x – 1)3 The L. say 36 and 40. of two or more polynomials is defined as the polynomial of the least degree which is a multiple of all the given polynomials. of two numbers. The L.M. using each prime factor the maximum number of times it occurs in the factorisation of any of the numbers. ∴ L.C.M. of Polynomials Recall how we found the L. of the given polynomials = (3x – 1)4(2x + 5)2(2x – 1). We write the prime factorisation of the numbers and find the product of all the different prime factors of the numbers.M. Let us take some examples to illustrate.M.C.M. Similarly.17 : Find the L.C. 36 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 and 40 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 2 occurs three times.C. of 36 and 40 is 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 5 which is 360.F. (i) (x – 2)3 (2x – 3) and (x – 2)2 (2x – 3)3 x – 2 occurs 3 times at the most and 2x – 3 also occurs 3 times at the most.2 The L.C.C. of each of the following pairs of polynomials : (i) (x + 1)3 and (x + 1)2 (x – 1) (iii) (x + 2)3 and x3 + 8 (ii) x2 + 4x + 4 and x + 2 (iv) (x + 1)2 (x + 5)3 and x2 + 10x + 25 (v) (2x – 5)2 (x + 4)3 and (2x – 5)3(x – 4) 5. Example 5. of polynomials. of each of the following pairs of polynomials : (i) (x – 2)3(2x – 3) and (x – 2)2(2x – 3)3 (ii) (3x – 1)4(2x + 5)2 and (2x – 1)(2x + 5)(3x – 1)3 (iii) x2 – 4 and (x + 2)2 Solution.

C. = (x – 2)2(2x – 3)(x – 2)3(2x – 3)3 = (x – 2)5(2x – 3)4 which is the same as the product of the given polynomials.C.M.C.M. of the given polynomials is (x – 2)2 (2x – 3) and the L.C.M. of the given polynomials is (x – 2)3(2x – 3)3.10 Find the L.F.F.C.F. and their L.12 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN H.C. of 6 and 4 ? What is their L.F.C.F. and the L.18 : Is the result given above true for each of the following pairs of polynomials ? (i) (x – 2)3 (2x – 3) and (x – 2)2(2x – 3)3 (ii) x2 – 1 and x3 – 1 (iii) (x – 1)3 and (x + 1)2 Solution : (i) (x – 2)3 (2x – 3) and (x – 2)2 (2x – 3)3 The product of (x – 2)3 (2x – 3) and (x – 2)2(2x – 3)3 = (x – 2)3 (2x – 3) (x – 2)2(2x – 3)3 = (x – 2)3 + 2 (3x – 3)1 + 3 = (x – 2)5(2x – 3)4 The H. is 12.C.C.C.M.M.M. of 6 and 4 is 2. Example 5.C.C. AND L. × L.C. what is 2 × 12 ? Is it not the product 6 × 4 ? Yes! The product of the H. Hence H. of each of the following pairs of polynomials : (i) (x + 1)3 and (x + 1)2 (x – 1) (iii) (x + 2)3 and x3 + 8 (iv) (x + 1)2( x + 5)3 and x2 + 10x + 25 (v) (2x – 5)2(x + 4)3 and (2x – 5)3 (x – 4) 5.M.106 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5. The same result is true even for polynomials. (ii) x2 – 1 and x3 – 1 x2 – 1 = (x + 1)(x – 1) (ii) x2 + 4x + 4 and x + 2 . Let us verify this result with the help of some examples. is the same as the product of the numbers. What is the H.F. Now.? You know very well that the H.

C.F of (x – 1)3 and (x + 1)2 is 1 and the L.C.C.M.F.M.M.C.F.C.F..e. = 2 − 2x + 1 i x −1 = x2 – 2x + 1.20 : Find the L.M. Hence H. of given polynomials.M. of x2 – 1 and x2 – x – 2. Example 5. ∴ dx − 1idx L. = 1 (x – 1)3 (x + 1)2 = (x – 1)3(x + 1)2 = Product of the given polynomials. of the given polynomials is x – 1 and the L.F.F. × L. = 2 2 −x−2 x −1 x +1 x − 2 = x +1 x +1 2 i b gb g b g = (x2 – 1)(x – 2) = x3 – 2x2 – x + 2.19 : Find The L.C. of the given polynomials is (x + 1)(x – 1)(x2 + x + 1) ∴ H.C. and L. is x – 1.C.C. = (x – 1) (x + 1) (x – 1) (x2 + x + 1) = (x + 1)(x – 1)2 (x2 + x + 1) which is the same as (x2 – 1)(x3 – 1). of x – 1 and x2 – 2x + 1. is x + 1. Example 5. In the other words.M.C.M. Solution : x2 – 1 = (x – 1) (x + 1) and x2 – x – 2 = x2 – 2x + x – 2 = x (x – 2) + 1 (x – 2) = (x + 1) (x – 2) ∴ H.F.M.C.C. Solution : x2 – 2x + 1 = (x – 1)2 and x –1 = x – 1 ∴ H.C. . i. (iii) There is no factor common to (x – 1)3 and (x + 1)2 ∴ H.Special Products and Factorisation 107 and ∴ x3 – 1 = (x – 1) (x2 + x + 1) (x2 – 1)(x3 – 1) = (x + 1)(x – 1) × (x – 1)(x2 + x + 1) = (x + 1)(x – 1)2 (x2 + x + 1) The H.M. You can also use this method to find the L. × L. × L.M of (x – 1)3 and (x + 1)2 is (x – 1)3(x + 1)2. and bx − 1gdx L.C.M.C.C. Product of two given polynomials = Product of their H.C.C.C. First polynomial × Second polynomial = H.F.

∴ H. If one of the polynomials is x3 – 8. Example 5.C.C.M.C.C.C.F.M.C.C.C.M. of A and x3 + 8 is x + 2 and their L.108 Mathematics Thus finding the L. and the L. Find the unknown polynomial. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5. Then.11 1.F. × L.F.F. find the other polynomial. of two polynomials is not difficult and can be done in either of the two given ways besides many others. = (x – 2) (x4 + 2x3 – 8x – 16) = x5 – 4x3 – 8x2 + 32 ∴ ∴ A(x3 – 8) = x5 – 4x3 – 8x2 + 32 A = (x5 – 4x3 – 8x2 + 32) ÷ (x3 – 8) = x2 – 4 Thus A = x2 – 4.F. The H. of two polynomials and also given one of the polynomials. product of the polynomials = A(x3 – 8) H.M.F. Solution : Let the polynomial be A.C. of two polynomials is x – 2 and their L.M.M is (x + 2)3 (x2 – 2x + 4). you can find the other.C. × L.M. Thus.M of each of the following pairs of polynomials : (i) (x + 2)2 and (x + 2)3 (ii) (x + 3)2 and x3 + 27 (iii) (x + 3)3 (x + 1)3 and (x + 1)2 (x + 3)4 (iv) x2 + 4x – 60 and x2 + 5x – 50 . the required polynomial is x2 – 4. = (x + 2)(x + 2)3(x2 – 2x + 4) = (x + 2)4 (x2 – 2x + 4) Product of the polynomials = A(x3 + 8) = A(x + 2) (x2 – 2x + 4) ∴ A(x + 2)(x2 – 2x + 4) = (x + 2)4(x2 – 2x + 4) ∴ Thus A= bx + 2g dx − 2x + 4i bx + 2gdx − 2x + 4i 4 2 2 A = (x + 2)3. Next given the H. of an unknown polynomial and x3 + 8 is x + 2 and their L. Find the H.C.22 : The H. Example 5. Solution : Let the other polynomial be A.C.21 : The H. is x4 + 2x3 – 8x – 16.C.F.C. is (x + 2)3 (x2 – 2x + 4).C. and the L.

Yes.C. If one of the polynomials is x2 – 2x + 1. the denominator of 1 a polynomial can be written as 1.. x 2 − 3x + 5 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5. is (x – 1)2(x + 1). and (b) two variables. 2 x + 2x − 7 x 2 − y2 . and so it is a rational expression. The H.C. find the other polynomial. of two polynomials is 1 and their L. 2x + 3y 2x 2 − y 2 + 3xy . 3. find the other polynomial.e.12 1. x2 − 5 x−3 . 7x4 − 3y 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 1 p 2 − 2p and are all rational expressions in one or two variables.13 RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS An algebraic expression which is the quotient of two polynomials is called a rational expression. Are the polynomials. Identify the rational expressions from the following : (i) 2x − 3 4x − 1 (ii) 3x 2 − 4x + 3 3x 3 + 11 2 3x 2 − x + 5 (iii) x2 + 1 3x 2 − y 2 (iv) x+y 2. If one of the polynomials is x3 + 1. x −1 For example.Special Products and Factorisation 109 (v) x2 – 2x – 35 and (x – 7)3 (vii) x3 + 1 and x3 – 1 (ix) 3x2 – 5x + 2 and x2 – 4 (vi) x2 – x + 1 and x3 + 1. x +1 .F. (viii) x2 – x + 1 and (x + 1)2 (x) x3 – y3 and x2 + xy + y2 2.C.M.C.M. a polynomial is a rational expression because x2 + 1 = But a rational expression need not be a polynomial. Cite three examples each of rational expressions in (a) one variable. p−3 x2 +1 and 3x2 + 4y rational expressions ? x2 + 1 i. 5. . The H. of two polynomials is x + 1 and their L. is x6 – 1.F.

(i) and ∴ x3 + 1 = (x + 1) (x2 – x + 1) x2 + 3x + 2 = (x + 1) (x + 2) x3 + 1 = 2 x + 3x + 2 bx + 1gdx − x + 1i bx + 1gbx + 2g 2 = x2 − x + 1 x+2 . Example 5.23 : Reduce each of the following rational expressions to lowest form : x 2 + 2x − 3 (i) 2 x + 4x − 5 (ii) dx − 4ibx − 1g . dx − 3x + 2ibx + 2g 2 2 Solution. which can be cancelled out and the resulting rational expression is said to be in lowest terms. Let us take some examples to illustrate.14 REDUCTION OF RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS TO LOWEST FORM Sometimes the polynomials in the numerator and denominator of a rational expression have common factors.24 : Reduce each of the following rational expressions into lowest form : (i) x3 + 1 x 2 + 3x + 2 (ii) b gd x4 − 1 x − 1 x2 + 1 i Solution. Examples 5. (i) x2 + 2x – 3 = x2 + 3x – x – 3 = x (x + 3) – 1(x + 3) = (x + 3)(x – 1) and x2 + 4x – 5 = x2 + 5x – x – 5 = x(x + 5) – 1(x + 5) = (x + 5) (x – 1) ∴ x + 3 x −1 x+3 x 2 + 2x − 3 = = x +5 x −1 x +5 x2 + 4x − 5 b gb g b gb g (ii) (x2 – 4) = (x + 2) (x – 2) and 2 x2 – 3x + 2 = (x – 1) (x – 2) ∴ dx − 4ibx − 1g = bx + 2gbx − 2gbx − 1g dx − 3x + 2ibx + 2g bx − 1gbx − 2gbx + 2g 2 = 1.110 Mathematics 5.

Let us take some examples to illustrate.15 OPERATIONS ON RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS The four fundamental operations on rational expressions are performed exactly in the same way as in the case of rational numbers.Special Products and Factorisation 111 (ii) x4 – 1 = (x2 – 1) (x2 + 1) = (x – 1) (x + 1) (x2 + 1) ∴ bx − 1gbx + 1gdx + 1i = bx − 1gdx + 1i bx − 1gdx + 1i x4 − 1 2 2 2 = x + 1. x −1 x +1 x2 − 1 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5. x −1 x +1 Solution : 2x + 1 x + 1 + x − 1 x + 2 2x + 1 x + 2 + = x −1 x +1 x −1 x +1 2 2 gb g b gb g b gb g d2x + 3x + 1i + dx + x − 2i = x2 − 1 b 3x 2 + 4x − 1 = x2 − 1 ∴ 2x + 1 x + 2 3x 2 + 4x − 1 + = .25 : Add 2x + 1 x+2 and .13 Reduce each of the following rational expressions into lowest form : (i) (iii) 3x 2 + 2x − 5 6x 2 + x − 15 x3 − 1 x4 + x2 + 1 (ii) (iv) 8x 3 + 1 4 x2 − 1 bx − ygdx x 8 − y8 4 + y4 i (v) bx + 4gdx + 5x + 6i dx + 7x + 12ibx + 2g 2 2 5. Example 5.

112 Mathematics Example 5. x −1 x + 3 x+3 .26 : Subtract x −1 3x − 2 from . 3x + 1 x + 1 3x 2 + 4x + 1 Example 5.27 : Multiply (i) 5x + 3 2x − 1 with . x −1 x+3 (ii) Solution : (i) 5x + 3 2x − 1 5x + 3 2x − 1 × = 5x − 1 x + 1 5x − 1 x + 1 b b gb g gb g 10x 2 − 5x + 6x − 3 = 5x 2 + 5x − x − 1 = 10x 2 + x − 3 5x 2 + 4 x − 1 ∴ 5x + 3 2x − 1 10x 2 + x − 3 × = . 5x − 1 x + 1 5x 2 + 4x − 1 2x + 1 x − 1 × = x −1 x + 3 (ii) b2x + 1gbx − 1g bx − 1gbx + 3g = 2x + 1 x+3 ∴ 2x + 1 x − 1 2x + 1 × = . 5x − 1 x +1 2x + 1 x −1 with . x +1 3x + 1 Solution : 3x − 2 x + 1 − x − 1 3x + 1 3x − 2 x − 1 − = 3x + 1 x + 1 3x + 1 x + 1 b gb g b gb b gb g i d 3x 2 + 4x + 1 g d3x = 2 + x − 2 − 3x 2 − 2x − 1 i 3x 2 + x − 2 − 3x 2 + 2x + 1 = 3x 2 + 4x + 1 = 3x − 1 + 4x + 1 3x 2 ∴ 3x − 2 x − 1 3x − 1 − = .

3x + 4 = ∴ 2x + 1 3x + 4 2x + 1 ÷ = x −1 x −1 3x + 4 (ii) x2 + 1 x − 1 x2 + 1 x + 2 ÷ × = x −1 x + 2 x −1 x −1 = dx + 1ibx + 2g bx − 1gbx − 1g 2 x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 2 = x 2 − 2x + 1 ∴ x2 + 1 x − 1 x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 2 ÷ = . Subtract the first rational expression from the second : (i) 2x + 3 2x − 3 .14 1. Add the following rational expressions : (i) 2x + 3 x+2 and x+2 2x − 3 2 2 (ii) 3x + 1 and 2x − 3x + 1 x +1 x −1 2. x −1 x + 2 x 2 − 2x + 1 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5. x + 2 2x + 1 (ii) 2x 2 + 1 3x 2 − 2x + 1 . x −1 x+3 .28 : Divide (i) 2x + 1 3x + 4 by x −1 x −1 x −1 x2 + 1 by x+2 x −1 (ii) Solution. (i) 2x + 1 3x + 4 2x + 1 x − 1 ÷ × = x −1 x −1 x − 1 3x + 4 = b2x + 1gbx − 1g bx − 1gb3x + 4g 2x + 1 .Special Products and Factorisation 113 Example 5.

Multiply the rational expressions in each case : 7x + 2 x +1 and 2 2 7x − 5x − 2 2x + 3x + 1 (i) (ii) x3 + 1 x3 − 1 and x4 + 1 x4 − 1 17x + 3 3x 2 − 15x + 18 and (iii) x 2 − 6x + 9 2x − 4 4. Divide x 2 − 11x − 26 x 2 + 7x + 10 by x 2 − 4x − 45 x 2 − 12x − 13 6x 2 + x − 1 4x 2 + 4x + 1 by . 4x 2 − 9 2x 2 − 7x − 15 (i) (ii) LET US SUM UP z z z z (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 (x – y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2 x2 – y2 = (x + y) (x – y) (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 = x3 + 3xy(x + y) + y3 z (x – y)3 = x3 – 3x2y + 3xy2 – y3 = x3 – 3xy (x – y) – y3 z z z z z x3 + y3 = (x + y) (x2 – xy + y2) x3 – y3 = (x – y) (x2 + xy + y2) x3 + y3 + z3 – 3xyz = (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 – xy – yz – zx) x2 + (a + b)x + ab = (x + a) (x + b) HCF × LCM = Product of Two Polynomials HCF of two polynomials = z Product of Two Polynomials LCM of the Polynomials .114 Mathematics 3.

if any. Find each of the following products : (i) (x + 2)3 (iii) (2ab – 3cd)3 (ii) (2x – 1)3 (iv) FG 2x + 1 IJ H 2x K 3 6. from the polynomials in the numerator and denominator. Reduction of rational expression into lowest forms means cancelling a common factor. Evaluate each of the following : (i) (3x – 1) (3x + 1) (iii) 97 × 103 (ii) (2x – 3y) (2x + 3y) (iv) 1001 × 999 5. Find x + (ii) 992 (iv) 952 1 if x2 1 (b) x − x = 3 1 (a) x + x = 5 4.2)2 2 3. Find each of the following products : (i) (3x + 4)2 (iv) 1I FH x − 2 K 2 (ii) (4x – 3)2 (v) (iii) (2ab + 3c)2 FH 2x + 5I K 3 2 2. Evaluate each of the following. TERMINAL EXERCISE z z 1. without actual multiplication : (i) 493 (ii) 1053 .Special Products and Factorisation 115 z LCM of two Polynomials = Product of Two Polynomials HCF of the Polynomials z HCF × LCM Unknown Polynomial = Given Polynomial A rational expression is an expression obtained by dividing one polynomial by the other. Calculate each of the following without actual multiplication : (i) (105)2 (iii) (10.

13. 11. The HCF of two polynomials x2 – 5x + 6 and x2 – 7x + 12 is x – 3.116 Mathematics 7. Find the HCF and LCM of each of the following : (i) x2 – 8x + 7 and x2 – 10x + 21 (ii) (2x + 1)2 (4x – 3)2 (x – 2)3 and (2x + 1) (4x – 3)4 (iii) 8(x – 2)2 (4x – 1)3 (3x + 1) and 12 (x – 2)3 (4x – 1) (3x + 1)4 10. The HCF and LCM of two polynomials are (x2 – 1) and (x4 – 1) (x4 + x2 + 1) respectively. 12. Reduce each of the followng rational expressions to their lowest forms : (i) 6x 2 + 5x − 6 12x 2 + 7x − 10 (ii) 4x 2 − 25 2x 2 + 11x + 15 x6 + a 6 (iii) 2 x + a2 14. If one polynomial is x4 – 1. Find the HCF of the polynomials. Factorise each of the following by splitting the middle term : (i) 2x2 + 17x + 8 (iii) 8x2 + 6x – 5 (ii) 3x2 + 2x – 8 (iv) 8x2 – 6x – 5 (ii) a3 + 343 (iv) x6 – 1 9. Find the LCM of the polynomials. Factorise each of the following : (i) 64x2 – 1 (iii) x6 + 1 (v) 25x2 – 90xy + 81y2 : 8. find the other polynomial. Perform the indicated operation : (i) x8 − y8 (iv) 6 x − y6 (ii) 2x − 1 − x − 3 x+5 x+2 bx + 3gdx 2 − 8x + 15 x2 − 9 i × 2x + 5 x+5 (ii) 3x 2 − 6x + 3 2 4x 2 + 12x + 5 ÷ 6x 2 + x − 35 (iii) 2x + 3 4x 2 + 8x + 3 (iv) FG x Hx b3x + 3g × 2b x + 1g bx − 5g 3 2 2 − y 3 x 2 + xy + y2 x+y ÷ 2 × 3 + y3 2 x−y x − xy + y IJ K . Perform the indicated operation : x+2 + x+3 x+3 x+2 2 (iii) x + 1 − 2x + 1 3x − 3 x − 1 (i) 15. The LCM of two polynomials (2x + 1)3 (3x – 5)2 and (2x + 1)(3x – 5)3 is (2x + 1)3 (3x – 5)3.

(i) 2 (iv) 17 Check Your Progress 5. (i) 9409 (iv) 2401 3.3 (i) 8x3 + 12x2y + 6xy2 + y3 (iii) x3y3 – 3x2y2z + 3xyz2 – z3 (v) 912673 Check Your Progress 5. (i) 132651 (ii) 1061208 (iii) 996004 (vi) 10404 (iii) 11 (vi) 68 and 16.1 1.Special Products and Factorisation 117 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 5. (i) y2 – 4 (iv) x2 – y4 Check Your Progress 5.2 1. (ii) x2y2 – 1 (v) 9996 (iii) a4 – 25 (iv) 6375 (ii) 125x3 – 75x2y + 15xy2 – y3 (iv) 970299 (vi) 110592 (ii) 64x3 – 240x2 + 300x – 125 (iv) x3y3 + 3x2y2z + 3xyz2 + z3 (vi) a3x3 – 3a2bx2y + 3ab2xy2 – b3y3 (viii) y3 – 27 (x) 8x3 + y3 + 9z3 – 18xyz (iii) 857375 3 1 − x x3 . (i) 25x2 + 10xy + y2 (ii) a2c2 + 2abcd + b2d2 2 (v) x + (ii) x2 – 6x + 9 (iv) a2b2 – 2abc + c2 (vi) 4x2 – 20xy + 25y2 (viii) (x) (ii) 40401 (v) 998001 (ii) 6 (v) 2 z2 − z +1 4 x 2 y2 + +2 y2 x 2 1 −2 x2 (vii) x 2 2x + +1 9 3 (ix) a4 + 2a2b2 + b4 2.4 (i) 8x3 + 36x2y + 54xy2 + 27y3 (iii) x3y3 – 3x2y2 + 3xy – 1 (v) x3 − 3x + (vii) 8x3 + 1 (ix) 1 + x3 2.

(x + 5) (x – 4) 4. (i) 7000 (iii) 6600 (v) 2 (vii) –19 Check Your Progress 5.118 Mathematics Check Your Progress 5. (x – 8) (x + 7) 8. (x – 4)(x + 2) 6. (x + 10)(x – 6) 9. (2x + 5)(2x + 1) 7. (x + 5)(x + 4) 3. (3x – 2)2 2.6 1.7 (i) (x + 6)(x + 1) (iii) (x – 7)(x – 3) (v) (x – 4)(x + 2) Check Your Progress 5.8 1. (6x – 5)(x + 2) 5. (3x – 5) (x + 1) 10. (i) (u + v)(u –v) (iii) (x2 + y2) (x + y) (x – y) (v) (a + 6b) (a2 – 6ab + 36b2) (ii) (5a + 1)(5a –1) (iv) (x – 2y)(x2 + 2yx + 4y2) (vi) (a – 7) (a2 + 7a + 49) (ii) (2a + b) (2a – b) (iv) (3x + 5y)(3x –5y) (vi) (x – 3) (x – 3) (vii) (x4 + 1) (x2 + 1) (x + 1) (x – 1) (viii)(a + 2)3 (x) (x + 11)2 (xii) (9y – 2x)2 2. (5x – 3)(3x – 1) (ii) (x – 6) (x – 1) (iv) (x – 5)(x + 1) (vi) (z – 5) (z + 3) (ii) 400 (iv) 13 (vi) 91 (ix) (x – 11)3 (xi) (3x – 5y)2 .5 (i) (2a + 3)(2a – 3) (iii) c(a + b)(a – b) (v) (5x + 4)(5x + 4) (vii) (x + 6)(x + 6) Check Your Progress 5.

x3 – y3 2. (x + 3)2(x2 – 3x + 9) (ii) x2 + 4x + 4 (iv) (x + 1)2(x + 5)3 (ii) x + 2 (iv) (x + 5)2 (iii) (x + 3)3(x + 1)2 . (3x2 – 5x + 2) (x2 – 4) 3.13 (i) (iii) x −1 2x − 3 2 (ii) 4 x − 2 x + 1 2x − 1 x2 x −1 − x +1 (iv) x 3 + x 2 y + xy 2 + y 3 1 (v) 1 .Special Products and Factorisation 119 Check Your Progress 5. x4 + x3 – x – 1 (b) x2 + y2 .10 (i) (x + 1)3(x – 1) (iii) (x + 2)3(x2 – 2x + 4) (v) (2x – 5)3(x + 4)3(x – 4) Check Your Progress 5. (ii) 2 2 2. x +1 x +1 x −1 (vii) 1 . (x – 7)3(x + 5) (vi) x2 – x + 1 . (i) (x + 2)2 . 2 x etc. (x2 – x + 1)(x +1)2 (x) x2 + xy + y2 . x − 1 . x + 1 Check Your Progress 5. x3 + 1 (viii)1 .12 1. x+y x + 2y x3 + y3 . (a) For example x + 1 . (x + 2)3 (ii) x + 3 . (i). (x + 3)4(x + 1)3 (iv) x + 10 . 3x + 5y x − y etc Check Your Progress 5. (x2 + 4x – 60)(x – 5) (v) x –7 .11 1. x6 – 1 (ix) 1 .9 (i) (x + 1)2 (iii) x + 2 (v) (2x – 5)2 Check Your Progress 5.

(i) x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8 (ii) 8x3 – 12x2 + 6x – 1 (iii) 8a3b3 – 36a2b2cd + 54abc2d2 – 27c3d3 3 1 (iv) 8x3 + 6x + 2 x + 3 8x 6. (i) 51x + 9 2x − 6 bx + 1gbx − 13g bx − 9gbx + 5g 2 (ii) b3x − 1gb2x − 3g bx − 5gb2x + 1g Terminal Exercise 1.04 3. (i) b gb b 5x 2 + 4 x − 5 x + 2 2x − 3 g (ii) 5x 3 − 4 x 2 − 2 x x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 7 x − 9 2x + 1 x + 2 gb g 3 2 (ii) x − 11x + 2 x − 4 x + 3 x −1 3. (i) (8x + 1)(8x – 1) (iii) (x2 + 1)(x4 – x2 + 1) (ii) 1157625 (ii) (a + 7) (a2 – 7a + 49) . (i) 2. (i) 11025 (iii) 104. (i) 9x2 + 24x + 16 (iii) 4a2b2 + 12abc + 9c2 (v) 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 9 3 (ii) 9801 (iv) 9025 (b) 11 (ii) 4x2 – 9y2 (iv) 999999 (ii) 16x2 – 24x + 9 (iv) x2 – x + 1 4 2. (i) 117649 7.14 1. (i) 9x2 – 1 (iii) 9991 5. (i) b 1 2x + 1 x − 1 gb g 2 (ii) b gb g dx − x + 1idx + x + 1i dx + 1idx + 1i 2 2 4 2 (iii) 4.120 Mathematics Check Your Progress 5. (a) 23 4.

10. (i) b g b2x + 5gbx − 5g x+5 2 x 2 − 6x − 2 3 x −1 (ii) b g 2b x − 5g 2 2 (iii) b2x + 1g 3x − 7 (iv) 1 . (i) (iii) 2 x 2 + 10x + 13 x+3 x+2 b gb g (ii) b gb g 27 x − 1 x 2 + x + 13 x+5 x+2 15. (x2 – 1)(x4 – x2 + 1) 13.Special Products and Factorisation 121 (iv) (x + 1)(x – 1)(x2 – x + 1)(x2 + x –1) (v) (5x – 9y)2 8. (i) x – 7 . (x – 2)(x2 –7x + 12) 11. (i) (2x + 1)(x + 8) (iii) (4x + 5)(2x – 1) 9. (3x – 5)2(2x + 1) 12. (i) 2x + 3 4x + 5 x4 – x2a2 + a4 (ii) 2x − 5 x+3 (iii) (iv) d dx x2 2 + y2 x4 + y4 2 + xy + y 2 id idx i − xy + y 2 i 14. (x2 – 8x + 7)(x – 3) (2x + 1)2 (4x – 3)4(x – 2)3 24(x –2)3(4x – 1)3 (3x + 1)4 (ii) (3x – 4) (x + 2) (iv) (2x + 1)(4x – 5) (ii) (2x + 1)(4x – 3)2 . (iii) 4(x – 2)2(4x – 1)(3x + 1) .

For all other values of x. whereas and (ii) and (iii) are equations in two variables. (ii) and (iii) can be true for some specific value of the variables involved. (ii) is true for x = 10. it is true. The same thing can be said for (iii) also. some are true. y = 2. (i) is false. Thus. because they involve two statements involving variables and constants connected by a sign of equality. Now consider the statements : (i) x + 10 = 22 (ii) x + y + 2 = 14 (iii) 2x – y + 4 = 20 Statements (i). if x equals 12. (ii) and (iii) are all called equations. involve two variables x and y. (iv) and (v) are true statements whereas (ii) and (vi) are false statements.1 INTRODUCTION Consider the following statements (i) 6 + 5 = 11 (iii) 8 × 7 = 56 (v) 16 ÷ 4 = 4 (ii) 7 + 6 = 18 (iv) 6 – 17 = –11 (vi) 18 × 7 = 116 Of the above statements. (i) is an equation in one variable. (i) involves one variables x. (i). Further. (iii). Similarly. Can you say which of them are true and which are false ? Of course. your reply will be that (i). whereas (ii) and (iii).122 Mathematics 6 Linear Equations 6. Can you see that (ii) is true for some other pairs of values of x and y. We are able to call them true or false after finding their value. In (i). whereas the others are false. . All the above statements (i) to (vi) are called numerical statements.

write a linear equation in one variable and also give its solution.4. 6. Linear polynomials in one or two variables. translate a word problem into a linear equation in one or two variables. it is said to be an equation in one variable or one unknown. solve real life problems involving linear equations in one or two variables. Knowledge of exponents. Four fundamental operations on numbers. We shall also solve word problems involving one or two variables.Linear Equations 123 In this lesson. . Plotting of points on a graph. 6. You will learn about them later. find the solution of a system of two linear equations graphically. the learner will be able to : z z z z z z z z z z identify a linear equation from a given collection of equations.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. We shall also solve system of two linear equations graphically and algebraically.4 EQUATIONS IN ONE VARIABLE If one equation has only one variable. write a linear equation in two variables draw the graph of a linear equation in two variables. check-the consistency or otherwise of systems of linear equations solve system of equations algebraically. Four fundamental operations on algebraic expressions.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z z z Algebraic expressions and polynomials in one or two variables. cite examples of linear equations. 6. Each of these is an equation in one unknown. 6. namely x. There are equations having more than one unknown.1 Degree of an Equation Consider the following equations (i) 3x – 4 = 8 (iii) x2 – 16 = 0 (ii) (x – 4) – 8 = 2(x + 3) (iv) x3 – 3x = x. we shall study about linear equations in one and two variables and discuss about methods of finding their solutions – algebraic as well as graphic.

6. For example. Thus. is called a linear equation. Let us take some example to identify linear equations. By solving an equation. x = 2 is a solution of the equation x + 3 = 5 because on substituting 2 for x we get. Thus. In equation (iii). the degree of equation (iii) is 2 and of the equation (iv) is 3. the greatest exponent of x is 2 and in equation (iv) it is 3.6 SOLUTION OF A LINEAR EQUATION The value (or values) of the variable (or variables) which make the equation a true statement is (are) called solution(s) of the equation. Example 6. the degree of equations (i) and (ii) is one whereas. the degree of a linear equation is one. An equation in which the greatest exponent of the variable after simplification is one.1 : Which of the following equations are linear equations ? (i) 5x – 3 = 5 (ii) 8m – 3 = 12 (ii) 4x + 4 = 4 (iv) 2(x + 3) – 1 = x2 Solution : (i) .124 Mathematics You will observe that the greatest exponent of the variable in (i) and (ii) is one. . 6. Equation (ii) can be simplified as follows : x – 4 – 8 = 2x + 6 or or or x – 2x – 12 – 6 = 0 –x –18 = 0 x + 18 = 0 The greatest exponent of the variable in an equation in one unknown is called the degree of the equation. (ii) and (iii) are equation of degree one and hence linear equations whereas equation (iv) is of degree 2 and hence is not a linear equation.5 GENERAL FORM OF A LINEAR EQUATION A linear equation in one unknown can be written as : ax + b = 0 where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are real numbers and a ≠ 0. we mean finding the solution (or solutions) of the equation.

. Check : Substituting 19 in place of x in the given equation. we get. Does it satisfy the given equation ? This can easily be checked. we have 36 +1 = 7 6 or ∴ 6 + 1 = 7 which is true. y = 36 is the required solution. x = 19 is a solution of the given equation. Let us now solve some linear equations in one unknown. (ii) y +1 = 7 6 or or or or y =7 – 1 6 y =6 6 (Subtracting 1 from both sides) y=6 × 6 y = 36 (Multiplying both sides by 6) Check : Substituting 36 for y. x – 12 + 12 = 7 + 12 or x = 19 Thus. Example 6.2 : Solve each of the following equations : (i) x – 12 = 7 (iii) 3(x + 5) = 24 Solution : (i) x – 12 = 7 Adding 12 on both sides. A solution is also called a root of the equation. Note. 7 = 7 which is a true statement. 19 – 12 = 7 or ∴ (ii) y +1 = 7 6 (iv) 5(m – 3) = 19 + 3(m – 2). x = 19 is a solution of the given equation.Linear Equations 125 2 + 3 = 5 which is a true statement. we get.

(iv) 5(m – 3) = 19 + 3(m – 2) or or or or or or or ∴ 5m – 15 = 19 + 3m – 6 5m – 15 = 13 + 3m 5m – 15 – 3m = 13 2m – 15 = 13 2m = 13 + 15 2m = 28 m = 28 ÷ 2 m = 14 Thus. a . we see that A linear equation in one variable has only one solution. From the above examples. m = 14 is the required solution of the given equation. we get a b a × − + b=0 a or –b + b = 0 which is true for every value of b.126 Mathematics (iii) 3(x + 5) = 24 or 3x + 15 = 24 or or or or 3x = 24 – 15 3x = 9 x= 9 3 (Subtracting 15 from both sides) (Dividing both sides by 3) x = 3. ∴ b x = − is the solution of the equation ax + b = 0. (a ≠ 0). we get ax = 0 – b or ax = –b Dividing both sides by a (a ≠ 0). Similarly. you can solve the general equation ax + b = 0. b x= − a b Check : Substituting − for x. we get. ax + b = 0 Subtracting b from both sides.

Which of the following algebraic statements is false for p = 3 ? (i) p – 7 = – 4 (iii) 4p + 1 = 13 5.25 (iv) 0. The degree of a linear equation is : (i) 1 (ii) 2 (iii) 3 (iv) 0.5 (ii) 3 (iii) 2. The degree of the equation 2z – 4 = 3(z – 4) is : (i) 16 (ii) 8 (iii) 1 (iv) 0 10. The root of 2m – 1 = 17 is : (i) 18 (ii) 16 (iii) 9 (iv) 8 9.Linear Equations 127 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. The value of ‘p’ for which the equation 2p – (4 – p) = 5 – p becomes true is : (i) 4. Which of the following is an open statement ? (i) 7 + 7 = 14 (iii) 3 × 4 + 1 = 13 (ii) 6 – x = 5 (iv) 8 × 3 + 1 = 25 3. Which one of the following statements is a numerical statement ? (i) 65 + 1 = 70 (iii) x + 2 = 3 (ii) 7 × 2 + x = 3 (iv) x – 16 = 8 2. Which of the following equations is of degree one ? (i) x2 – 1 = 0 (iii) 2x = 3 (ii) x3 – 1 = 0 (iv) x0 = 1 7.5 11. Which of the following open statements is true for x = –1 ? (i) x – 2 = 4 (iii) 3x = 3 (ii) x – 5 = – 6 (iv) 2x – 7 = 0 4. Which of the following numbers is the root of the equation 2(x + 3) = 18 ? (i) 21 (ii) 13 (iii) 12 (iv) 6 8.1 1. Solve each of the following linear equations for x : (i) 2x + 4 = 14 (ii) 2x + 6 =x 3 (iii) 4 − 2x + x + 1 =1 3 2 . (ii) p + 3 > 0 (iv) 5p – 2 = 5 6.

Example 6. and 4. Solving it for x. Example 6. To do so. Then. this is true ∴ The required number is 2. we come across many problems which can be solved using equations. Find its side. Perimeter = 4x ∴ The equation becomes 4x = 64 or or x = 64 ÷ 4 x = 16 ∴ The side of the square is 16 cm.3 : Which number when added to 6 gives 8 ? Solution : Let x be the given number 6 added to x mean x + 6 According to the question x + 6=8 This is a linear equation in x.5 : Renu is 20 years younger to her mother. Translate the given statement into an equation 3.t etc. by putting it in the original problem.. . her mother will be twice as old as Renu will be then. 2. follow the steps given below : 1.7 WORD PROBLEMS In our day-to-day life. Represent the unknown by an alphabet say x.4 : The perimeter of a square is 64 cm. Yes. Her mother’s present age = (x + 20) years After 10 years.z. Example 6.e.y. we get x = 2 i.128 Mathematics 6. Let us now take some examples. 2 added to 6 gives us 8. After 10 years.p. Solve the equation.. Solution : Let the side of the square be x cm. Check the value found.n. How old is Renu now ? Solution : Let Renu’s present age be x years.

Renu’s mother will be 2 times as old as Renu after 10 years. Solution : Let the number be x Then.2 1.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6.6 : Twice a certain number increased by 10 equals 32. twice the number = 2x ∴ The equation is 2x + 10 = 32 or or or or 2x = 32 – 10 2x = 22 x = 22 ÷ 2 x = 11 Thus. 3 . the required number is 11. the 2 fraction becomes . A man is 20 year older than his son.e. Find their present ages. Example 6. Renu’s age = 10 + 10 = 20 years After 10 years. Find the fraction. Renu’s mother’s age = 30 + 10 = 40 years and 40 is twice of 20 Thus. After 10 years his age becomes twice the age of his son. The denominator of a fraction is 2 more than its numerator. Renu’s present age is 10 years.Linear Equations 129 Renu’s age will be = (x + 10) years and her mother’s age will be[(x + 20) + 10] years According to the problem. If 1 is added to each. 2. Find the number. ∴ (x + 20) + 10 = 2(x + 10) x + 20 + 10 = 2x + 20 x + 30 = 2x + 20 x – 2x = 20 – 30 x = 10 or or or or i. Renu is presently 10 years old Check : Renu’s present age = 10 years Renu's mother's age = 30 years After 10 years.

e.e.8 A LINEAR EQUATION IN TWO VARIABLES Recall that ax + b = 0 is the general form of a linear equation in one variable. a pair of numbers taken in a fixed order. 3. The sum of three consecutive natural numbers is 42. and its graph is the diagrammatic form of this representation. 4 added to 5 times a number equals 2 subtracted from 7 times the number.130 Mathematics 3. Let us now understand how to represent a point in a plane. 5. 6. Find the number. A linear equation in two unknowns is an equation which after simplification contains two unknowns. The angles of a triangle are such that sum of two angles equals the third and the ratio between the acute angles is 2 : 3. a point on a plane represents an ordered pair of numbers i. Given below are some linear equations in two unknowns : 1. For that we go through the following steps : . each one of them in a separate term and having the exponent one. 6.. x – y = 5. (1) Representation of a Point in a plane In order to draw the graph of any equation. on a sheet of paper). Similarly. your must first know how to plot points in a plane (i. 2x = 5y – 7 2. 4. Find the numbers. Find the angles of the triangle. 3 3 x = 5− y 2 2 2 x + 3y = 6 π 2 4. This plane is called the coordinate plane or cartesian plane.9 THE GRAPH OF A LINEAR EQUATION IN TWO UNKNOWNS An equation in two unknowns represents a relationship between the unknowns. b and c are real numbers with a ≠ 0 and b ≠ 0. 2x – 1 = (y – 3) + (2y – x) A general linear equation in two unknowns is written as ax + by + c = 0 where a. You already know that a point on the number line represents a real number.

Fig.3).4 Along the x-axis.3 Fig. These two coordinate axes divide the plane into four parts. positive integers are marked to the right of O. 3).1). 6. They are called the x-axis and y-axis respectively. 6. 6. the two axes can be taken as two perpendicular number lines. Fig. and O is called the origin (See Fig. (See Fig. Along the y-axis. positive integers are marked above O. 6. each of which is called a quadrant (See Fig. Thus. 6.2) Step 3. 6. To represent on ordered pair say (2. and negative integers below O. we proceed as follows : . The integers are marked along both the axes with O representing as zero on both the axes.2 Step 2. and negative integers to the left of O. 6.1 Fig.Linear Equations 131 Step 1 : Two perpendicular lines XOX′ and YOY′ are drawn intersecting each other at O.

6. 5) on the coordinate plane. ‘l’ and ‘m’ intersect each other at point P.7 Similarly.132 Mathematics Step 4.5 Fig. Step 5. 6. P represents the point (2. 6. The first number in the ordered pair is –3. you can represent any ordered pair (x. Let us take another example. and so we will take 3 units along the x-axis to the left of O. Let us first draw the x-axis and the y-axis and mark points on them representing integers as in Fig. Similarly take 5 units along the y-axis above O and draw lines ‘l’ and ‘m’ parallel to the y-axis and the x-axis. The point A represents (–3. y) by a point in the cartesian plane. respectively. Mark a point B on mark 3 on y-axis and draw a line ‘m’ through B parallel to the x-axis (See Fig.5). 3) because P is at a distance of 2 units measured along the x-axis and 3 units measured along the y-axis. Note that : 1. Mark a point A on mark 2 on x-axis and draw a line ‘l’ through A parallel to the y-axis (See Fig. Solution. .7. 6.7 : Represent the point (–3. Example 6. 6. 6.6. The first number in the ordered pair tells us the number of units to be taken along the x-axis and is thus called the x-coordinate or the abscissa of the point. Fig. 5) as in Fig. 6.6 Fig.4).

you can easily find the point in the plane which corresponds to this ordered pair. 2). Similarly. given an ordered pair of numbers. 5) and (–5.Linear Equations 133 2. a point on the y-axis will have the x-coordinate equal to zero. then P lies in : (i) the first quadrant if both ‘x’ and ‘y’ are positive real numbers. Thus. (iv) the fourth quadrant if ‘x’ is positive and ‘y’ is negative. (–3. (ii) the second quadrant if ‘x’ is negative and ‘y’ is positive. The second number in the ordered pair tells us the number of units to be taken along the y-axis and is thus called the y-coordinate or the ordinate of the point. Example 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. If (x. –2). (3. 0). and will thus have the coordinates (0. “What happens to ‘P’ if y = 0 ?” Obviously ‘P’ is then ‘x’ units along the x-axis and zero units along the y-axis and thus lies on the x-axis. draw a line ‘l’ parallel to the y-axis and mark A as the point of . 0). O has the coordinates (0. 0) and (0. y) is a point ‘P’ in the cartesian plane. –2). 2). –4). (iii) the third quadrant if ‘x’ and ‘y’ both are negative. 0). 3. (–2. ∴ Any point on the x-axis has the coordinates (a. (3.8 : ‘P’ is a point in a plane. Let us take an example to illustrate this. Therefore. can we associate an ordered pair of numbers with it ? Yes.10 FINDING ORDERED PAIR CORRESPONDING TO A POINT IN THE PLANE Given a point in a plane. 4) 6. b). –5) (ii) (–5.3 Represent the following ordered pairs as points in the cartesian plane : (i) (5. we can find its coordinates with respect to a given pair of axes. –4). Find its coordinates with respect to the coordinate axes XOX′ and YOY′. (2. (3. Solution : Step 1 : Through ‘P’. (0.

Fig. along the y-axis. the ordered pair associated with ‘P’ is (a. GRAPH OF A LINEAR EQUATION Let us draw the graphs of some linear equations. If OA = a units.134 Mathematics intersection of ‘l’ with the x-axis (See Fig. 6. ∴ The y-coordinate of ‘P’ is ‘b’. b). Step 2 : Through ‘P’ draw a line ‘m’ parallel to the x-axis and mark B as the point of intersection of ‘m’ with the y-axis (See Fig. i.11. 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6.9 If B is ‘b’ units from O.10. (ii) If a point is not on the graph of an equation.8). Hence the coordinates of ‘P’ are (a. its coordinates do not satisfy the equation. 6. Here are some examples of graphs of linear equations. 6. 0). b). its coordinates satisfy the equation..10 . Fig. then B has the coordinates (0.e. 6. Q.9). R and S in Fig.8 Fig. Remember that : (i) If a point lies on the graph of an equation.4 Find the coordinates of the points P. b). the point A has the coordinates (a. 6. 6.

1) and (6.11 6. 3) (0. A and B and extend the line segment to get the line ‘l’ (as Fig. 0) (2. 6. (i) x – 2y = 0 (ii) 2x – 5y – 10 = 0. Solution : In order to draw the graph of a linear equation. Step 2 : Substitute three values of x to get the corresponding three values of y. Step 4 : Plot the ordered pairs (0. 3) in the same cartesian plane. 3) are three solutions of x – 2y = 0 Table x 9 0 0 2 1 6 3 Step 3 : Write the ordered pairs satisfying the given equation in the form of a table. 0). The steps followed are as given below. (2. 1) and (6. required graph of the equation x – 2y = 0. Fig.Linear Equations 135 Example 6. Equation (i) x – 2y = 0 Step 1 : Transform the equation into the x-form or the y-form. 0). ‘l’ is the.12 . 1) and (6. 6. (2.9 : Draw the graphs of the following equations. (See Fig.11) Step 5 : Join the point O.12). we plot at least three ordered pairs satisfying the equation. y-form of the equation is : y = (i) x = 0 gives y = 0 =0 2 2 =1 2 6 =3 2 x 2 (ii) x = 2 gives y = (iii) x = 6 gives y = ∴ Three ordered pairs satisfying the equation are (0. 6.

–2).136 Mathematics Equation (ii) 2x – 5y – 10 = 0 or 2x = 5y + 10 or x = 5 y+5 2 Table x y 10 2 5 0 This is the x-form of the equation. (2. some of the ordered pairs satisfying it are (2. (5. we an draw the graph of a linear equation by plotting two ordered pairs only because two points determine a line uniquely. But what happens if out of ‘a’ and ‘b’ one of them is zero ? Let us take an example. 2) and (2. (5. In fact..y = 2. Example 6. 3).13).. . The graph of a linear equation in two unknowns is a straight line which is neither the x-axis. 2). say (2. –2). –1). Plotting the third pair helps us to verify the correctness of the graph. nor the y-axis and is not parallel to either of the axis. 6. 2). 2. Three of its ordered pairs are (10. Hence.10 : Draw the graphs of each of the following equations : (i) x = 2 (ii) 2y + 5 = 0 Table x y 2 0 2 2 Solution : (i) The equation x = 2 can be written as x + 0. This is because for a linear equation in two unknowns. 0) and (0. 0). –1) 2 –1 . Q and R to get the line ‘m’ (as shown in Fig. ‘m’ is the required line which is the graph of the linear equation 2x – 5y – 10 = 0 Fig. 6. 0). Join the points P. 0) and (0.13 Notes 1. (2. We plot three ordered pairs. (2. 2). (2. we get the three points P. 0 –2 Plotting the ordered pairs (10. ax + by + c = 0. neither ‘a’ nor ‘b’ is zero. Q and R.

5 –2.14 y = –2. ‘l’ is the required graph of x = 2.5 –2. B (2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. –1) on the cartesian plane.Linear Equations 137 We get three points A (2. 6. N and R. 2. –2.5 y –2. or is a line parallel to either of the axes. –2.5 ∴ Any point whose y-coordinate is –2.5) Plotting these ordered pairs. Three of the ordered pairs satisfying the equation are (–1. Join them to get the line ‘l’ as in Fig. Note that ‘l’ is parallel to the y-axis. we get the three points M. The x-axis is the graph of the equation y = 0. 3. 6.14. Join them to get the line ‘p’ (See Fig. The graph of a linear equation in one unknown is either the x-axis or the y-axis. Thus.15 .5 1.5). The y-axis is the graph of the equation x = 0. –2. (0. 6. (ii) 2y + 5 = 0 This equation can be written as 0. Draw the graphs of each of the following equations : (i) 2x – 3y = –1 (iv) 2x + 3 = 0 (vii) x = –5 (ii) 3x + y = 4 (v) x + y = 0 (viii) 2x – 3y = 8 (iii) y = 5 (vi) 3x + 3y = 6 (ix) x – y = 0 Fig. Notes : 1.5) and (1. Draw the graphs of x = 0 and of y = 0.15) p is the required graph of the equation 2y + 5 = 0 This is a line parallel to the x-axis. 0) and C (2. 6. 2).5 is a solution of this equation. 2.x + 2y + 5 = 0 and the y-form of this equation is y= or −5 2 Table x –1 0 1 Fig.

6.12 THE SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO UNKNOWNS You know that ax + by + c = 0 (where a. 4) (iii) (8.16). –2) Also. or x + y = –2 y = –x – 2 x y x y Table 1 x – 2y = 7 1 –3 7 0 3 –2 Table 2 x + y = –2 0 –2 –2 0 1 –3 Three of ordered pairs satisfying it are (0. x – 2y = 7 x = 7 + 2y Three of ordered pairs satisfying it are (1. Example 6. b. 0) and (1. a'. 0). 2) (ii) (5. 0) and (3. –4) (ii) (0. –2). 6. The graphs of these equations are straight lines. b ≠ 0 and a. b. 16) 4. GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF A SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS In order to solve a system of linear equations in two unknowns graphically.138 Mathematics 3. (7. b' and c' are all real numbers and a. (–2. Which of the following ordered pairs make the equation 2x + y = 10 a true statement? (i) (0. 8) (iv) (0.13. a' and b' are non-zero. (i) (7. 10) (iii) (8. 6. A system of linear equation in two unknowns is given as : ax + by + c = 0 a'x + b'y + c' = 0 where a. b. 8) (iv) (–3. c. c are real numbers) is a linear equation in two unknowns (variables). –3). State which of the following ordered pairs are not the solutions of the equation 4x = 3y + 8. .11 : Solve the following system of linear equations graphically : x – 2y = 7 x + y = –2 Solution : You have already learnt how to draw the graph of a linear equation in two unknowns. Let us now learn to solve a system of linear equations in two unknowns. –3) By plotting these ordered pairs we get a pair of straight lines as the graphs of the given equations (See Fig. we draw the graphs of the equations in the same cartesian plane and find the point(s) of intersection of their graphs. Let us take some examples.

x = 1 and y = –3 is the solution of the given system of equations. Example 6. 8) and (3. how many points are common to both the lines ‘l’ and ‘m’ ? From the graph. Now. 4). ‘P’. (0. 4) and B (0.Linear Equations 139 Fig. 6. 0) and (3. Also. namely. we get line ‘l’ as the graph of 4x + 3y = 24. P (3. Thus. 2). 4) x y 6 0 0 8 3 4 Plotting these ordered pairs. 0). whose coordinates are (1. 8) and on joining them. or 3y – 2x = 6 y= 6 + 2x 3 x y Table 2 3y – 2x = 6 Three of ordered pairs satisfying it are (0. we get three points A (6.12 : Solve graphically the following system of linear equations : 4x + 3y = 24 3y – 2x = 6 Solution : 4x + 3y = 24 or y= 24 − 4 x 3 Table 1 4x + 3y = 24 Three of ordered pairs satisfying it are (6. –3). how many ordered pairs are the solutions of both the equations ? In other words. 0).16. it is clear that there is only one such point. (–3. 0 2 –3 0 3 4 .

2x = 3 Table y – 2x = 3 x 0 1 2 or y = 2x + 3 y 3 5 7 ∴ On plotting the ordered pairs (0. 2). (i) y– 2x = 3 4x = 10 solution. 7). The only point common to both the lines ‘l’ and ‘m’ is point ‘P’ with coordinates (3. Fig. 0) and P (3. Draw the graph of : y– 2y – and find their common Solution. and on joining them. 3) (1.13. In other words x = 3 and y = 4 is the only solution of the given system of linear equations Example 6. we get the line ‘m’ as the graph of 3y – 2x = 6 (See Fig. we get the straight line ‘p’ as the graph of y – 2x = 3 (ii) 2y – 4x = 10 Table or y = 2x + 5 2y – 4x = 10 x 0 1 2 y 5 7 9 . 6.17 To get the common solution of both the equations.17). 4). 5) and (2.140 Mathematics Plotting these ordered pairs in the same cartesian plane we get three points M(0. 4). we look for the points that are common to both the lines ‘l’ and ‘m’. if any. 6. N(–3.

we get the line ‘l’ as the graph of y – 2x = 3. (See Fig. Hence. 7) and on plotting these we get three points P. 9). (1. 3). 2y – 4x = 6 . Similarly. Fig.18 It is very clear from the graph that the straight lines ‘p’ and ‘q’ are parallel.Linear Equations 141 ∴ On plotting the ordered pairs (0. 5) (1. the given system of equations has no solution. and hence do not have any point common. 7) and (2. Example 6. 6.18). if any Table 1 y – 2x = 3 Solution : or y – 2x = 3 y = 2x + 3 x y 0 3 1 5 2 7 Three of its solutions are the ordered pairs (0.14 : Draw the graphs of : y – 2x = 3 2y – 4x = 6 and obtain the common solutions. 6. Thus. we get. the straight line ‘q’ as the graph of 2y – 4x = 10 in the same plane. 5) and (2. there is no solution common to both the equations. Q and R. On joining them.

Solve graphically each of the following system of equations : 3. 5y – x = 14 and y – 2x = 1 respectively. This means that all the points of the line ‘l’ are also on the line ‘m’ and all the points of line ‘m’ are also on the line ‘l’. Thus. it is clear that the lines ‘l’ and ‘m’ coincide or are the same. Find graphically the vertices of a triangle whose sides have the equations 2y – x = 8. Thus all points of the lines ‘l’ and ‘m’ are common.19. From Fig. 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6.19). Draw the graphs of each of the following systems of equations : (i) 2x – y – 3 = 0 4x – 2y – 10 = 0 (i) 2x – y = 5 x + 3y = 6 (ii) x + y = 7 2x + 6y = 14 (ii) x + y = 8 2x – y = 1 2. 6.142 Mathematics or y = 2x + 3. 6.6 1. (Hint : Draw the graphs of the three equations using the same cartesian plane and scale. Fig. these two equations have an infinite number of common solutions. and so the same ordered pairs satisfy the second equation also (See Fig. .19. 1 cm = 1 unit on both axes and find the points of intersection of two lines at a time).

are coincident straight lines. and hence is an inconsistent system. This is also called a consistent system of equations. then the system has one and only one solution. Equations 1. The system in Example 6. (iii) are one and the same. the system has a unique solution and is said to be a consistent or compatible system.12 had a unique solution. Example 6. These three examples help you to conclude that : If the graphs of the pair of equations ax + by + c = 0 and a'x + b'y + c' = 0: (i) intersect each other. then the system has no solution.14 of this lesson. whereas the system in Example 6.Linear Equations 143 6.14 and put the result in the form of a table.14 CONSISTENCY AND INCONSISTENCY OF A SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS You now know.e. There are other algebraic methods to do so. Example 6. the system of equations had no solution. (ii) are parallel straight lines. let us study the examples solved in Section 6. Comparison of y-forms Let us compare the y-forms of the equation in Examples 6.e.14 y – 2x = 3 2y – 4x = 6 y= y= 24 − 4 x 3 2x + 6 3 No solution Inconsistent Unique solution Consistent y-forms Solutions Type of System y = 2x + 3 y = 2x + 5 y = 2x + 3 y = 2x + 3 Infinite number of solutions Dependent .12. To understand some of these methods. Example 6.13 y – 2x = 3 2y – 4x = 10 3. Notes : Any system of two linear equations in two unknowns has to be one of the types of systems described above.13 and 6. In Example 6.12 4x + 3y = 24 3y – 2x = 6 2. i. how to solve a system of equations graphically. Solving the system graphically is not necessary if you want to determine whether the system of equations is consistent or not.11 and 6..13. i. the system has infinite number of solutions and thus is a dependent system. Method I.6.14 had infinite solutions.

and a ′ 7 b′ 2 c′ a ≠ b . the system of equations has a unique solution. find whether the system is consistent. The coefficients of ‘x’ and the constant terms are the same. the two y-forms are identical. The coefficients of x are different (even if the constant terms are the same). the system of equations has no solution. (b) Method 2 : The Ratio Method Here a = 5. The coefficients of x are the same but the constant terms are different. b′ = –4 and c’ = –2 ∴ a = 5 b =−1 c =8 .144 Mathematics From the above table you can easily conclude that if in the y-forms of the equations : 1.. Method 2.15 : In each of the following. 2. the system of equations is consistent. The Ratio Method This is another method to determine whether a system of equations is consistent or not. . i. the system of equations is consistent. b = 2 and c = –16 and a′ = 7.e. inconsistent or dependent : (i) 5x + 2y = 16 (ii) 5x + 2y = 16 (iii) 5x + 2y = 15 7x – 4y = 2 6 3x + y = 2 5 15 x + 3y = 24 2 Solution : (i) (a) Method 1 : Using y-forms The y-forms of the two equations are : 5 y = − x+8 2 and y= 7 x− 1 4 2 Since the coefficient of ‘x’ are different in the two y-forms. a ′ b′ Since. 3. A system of linear equations ax + by + c = 0 and a'x + b'y + c' = 0 is : (i) consistent if a ≠ b a ′ b′ a = b ≠ c a ′ b′ c′ (ii) inconsistent if (iii) dependent if a = b = c a ′ b′ c′ Let us take some examples and illustrate : Example 6. the system has infinite number solutions.

Linear Equations 145 (ii) Using y-forms of the two equations. inconsistent or dependent : (i) 2x + 3y = 13 5x – 2y = 4 (ii) y−2 = x+5 7 x + 10 = y − 3 3 (iii) 3y = –7x + 21 5y + 2x = –23 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. we have 5 5 5 y = − x + 8 and y = − x + 2 2 3 Since the coefficient of ‘x’ are the same and the constant terms are different. (i) x+y=6 2 2x + 4y = 24 (ii) x = 5 2x – y = 9 (iii) x + 3y = 3 2x – 5y = 0 2. (i) x + y = 1 4 = – 4x – 4y (ii) y = 2x – 3 x= y 3 + 2 2 y (iii) x − 1 = 3 2 x+y=1 3. whether each of the following systems of equations has : (a) a unique solution. a′ = b′ = 3 and c′ = –24 ∴ 15 2 5 2 a = 15 2 = 3 a′ b 2 = b′ 3 and ∴ −16 2 = −24 3 a b = c =2 = a′ b′ c′ 3 Hence. the system of equations is dependent. b = 2 and c = –16. In each case.7 1. or (b) infinite number of solutions or (c) no solution. Using the Ratio Method find out whether each of the following system of equations is consistent. the system is inconsistent. inconsistent or dependent. Find without drawing the graphs. draw the graphs of the system of equations and state whether the system is consistent. (iii) The Ratio method Here a = 5.

Substance the value of ‘x’ in one of the equations and get the value of ‘y’ 3x + 15 = 8x – 10 5x = 25 x=5 2y – x = 5 or or or 2y – 5 = 5 2y = 10 y=5 Thus.H.1 Elimination by Comparison Let us understand this method with the help of an example.S.16 : Solve : 2y – x = 5 4x – 3y = 5 Solution : Method 1. Equate the right hand side (R. Example 6. x = 5 and y =5 is the solution of the system of equations : 2y – x =5 and 4x – 3y = 5 . Write the y-forms (or x-forms) of the given equations. Solve for equation for ‘x’ or or or 4. Some algebraic methods are used to solve the system of equations and these are usually called elimination methods. Find the values of ‘k’ for which the system of equations given below has infinite number of solutions : 3x + y = 0 x – ky = 2 6.15. Solution of the Example y-forms are : 2y – x = 5 or y = x 5 + 2 2 4x 5 − 3 3 4x – 3y = 5 or y = x 5 4x 5 + = − 2 2 3 3 2.) of the y-forms 3. Some of these methods are discussed below.15 ALGEBRAIC METHODS OF SOLVING A SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS It is not always possible to find the exact solutions of a given system of equations graphically.146 Mathematics 4. 6.

x= or 33 11 x=3 .17. Solve : For x and y 3x – 7 = y 4x – 5y = 2 Solution : Method 1.15. Solution of the example (i) 3x – 7 = y or 3x – y = 7 (ii) 4x – 5y = 2 or 4x – 5y = 2 (i) × 5 gives 15x – 5y = 35 (ii) gives 4x – 5y = 2 Eliminate y : 15x – 5y = 35 Subtract : 4x – 5y = 2 – + – 11x = 33 11x = 33 ∴ 4. Multiply the equation by suitable constants so that the coefficient of one of the unknowns has the same numerical co-efficient. Do it for Example 6. Example 6. 2x + 3y = 3 3x + 2y = 2 6. Find the value of the unknown left. x + 2y = 3 x – 2y = –1 2.Linear Equations 147 Check : Substitute the values ‘5’ for ‘x’ and ‘5’ for ‘y’ in both the equations and check whether the solution is correct or not. you can write them in the x-form also and solve them. 3.2 Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Let us take an example to understand this method.16 and check. 1. 2. 2x + y = 1 3x – y = 4 3. Eliminate the unknown whose coefficients have the same numerical value by : (a) adding if their signs are unlike (b) subtracting if their signs are like.8 Solve each of the following pairs of equations by comparing the x-forms or y-forms. 2y – x = 5 4x – 3y = 5 gives gives 2×5–5=5 4×5–3×5=5 True True Note : It is not necessary to write the equations in y-form only. Arrange the equations so that the like terms are in the same column. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6.

.148 Mathematics 5. Hence. we get 10 × (–2) + 4y = 20 or or 4y = 40 y = 10 Thus. .(1) . x = –2 and y = 10 is the solution required. ‘y’ can be eliminated by adding the two equations 10x + + 13x – 23x or x = –2 4y = = 20 –46 4y = – 66 Substituting the value of ‘x’ in (1)..(1) ..e. 10) is the required solution. 2) is the required solution.. Find the value of the other unknown by substituting the value of the unknown found in either of the two given equations.(2) Here. Here are some more solved examples.. we get. .. Examples 6. x = 3 and y = 2 is the solution of the given system of equations.18 : Solve by addition or subtraction each of the following system of equations : (i) 10x + 4y = 20 13x – 4y = 66 Solution : (i) 10x + 4y = 20 (ii) 13x – 4y = –66 (ii) 3r – 5s = 19 2r – 4s = 16 .(2) Here neither the coefficients of ‘r’ nor of ‘s’ are the same. we get 3 × 3 – 7=2 or 9–7=2 True and 4 × 3 – 5 × 2=2 or 12 –10 = 2 True x = 3 and y = 2 i. Find ‘y’ : (ii) is 4x – 5y = 2 or or or or 4 × 3 – 5y = 2 12 – 5y = 2 5y = 10 y=2 Thus. ∴ x = –2 and y = 10 or the ordered pair (–2.. the ordered pair (3. the coefficient of ‘y’ in (1) and (2) are numerically the same but opposite in sign.. (ii) 3r – 5s = 19 2r – 4s = 16 Multiplying (1) by 2 and (2) by 3. Check : Substituting the values of ‘x’ and ‘y’ in the two given equations.

Substituting the value of ‘s’ in (2) we get 2r – 4(–5) = 16 or or or 2r + 20 = 16 2r = –4 r = –2 Thus.(4) Now.. subtracting (4) from (3).19 : Solve for x and y : x – 2y = 7 3x + y = 35 by elimination by substitution.3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6.(3) ..(2) .9 Solve each of the following systems of equations and check your answers : 1. x + y = 7 3x – y = 11 3. the coefficients of r are numerically the same and have the same sign....(1) .. 3x + 2y = 11 2x + 3y = 4 2. r = –2 and s = –5 is the required solution. Elimination by Substitution Let us take an example to understand this method.Linear Equations 149 6r – 10s = 38 6r – 12s = 48 Thus. 7x – 2y = 1 3x + 4y = 15 6.15. Example 6. Solution : The equation are : x – 2y = 7 3x + y = 35 ... we get 6r – 10s = 6r – 12 s = – or + 2s s = –5 – = –10 38 48 .

Find the value of the first unknown by substituting the value of the second unknown found in either of the two given equations.. we get x – 2y = 7 or x = 7 + 2y 3(7 + 2y) + y = 35 2. Solving for ‘x’ we get Thus..(2) Expressing ‘y’ in terms of ‘x’ from equation (1) we get y= 2 x − 14 3 3 Substituting the value of ‘y’ in terms of ‘x’ in (2).(1) . Example 6. Solving for ‘y’. Solve the resulting equation for the second unknown. ∴ x = 11 and y = 2 is the solution of the given system of equations. Express one unknown in terms of the other unknown form either of the equations.150 Mathematics Method 1.. we get 3. Substitute the value of the first unknown in the other equation. Solution of the Example Expressing ‘x’ in terms of ‘y’ from (1).20 : Solve by elimination by substitution the following system of equations : 3y = 2x – 14 and x – y = 10 Solution : The system of equations is 3y = 2x – 14 and x – y = 10 . we get 3(7 + 2y) + y = 35 or or or or 21 + 6y + y = 35 21 + 7y = 35 7y = 14 y=2 x – 2 × 2 = 7 from (1) or or x–4=7 x = 11. we get x − 2 x − 14 3 3 or FH IK = 10 x − 2 x + 14 = 10 3 3 . Substituting for ‘x’ in (2).. 4. x = 11 and y = 2.

5x + 3y = 17 x + 3y =1 6.Linear Equations 151 or or or 3x – 2x + 14 = 30 x = 30 – 14 x = 16. 3y = 2 × 16 – 14 Substituting the value of ‘x’ in (1).. x = 16 and y = 6 is the solution of the given system of equations.10 Solve each of the following system of equations by substitution : 1.21..(1) . Example 6. Solution. but it can be reduced to such a system and then solved.(2) 2.16 EQUATIONS REDUCIBLE TO ax + by + c = 0 a'x + b'y + c' = 0 Consider the system of equations given below : 1−2 =1 u v 3+2 = –5 u v This is not a system of linear equations. Reduce 1−2 =1 u v 3+2 = –5 u v to a system of linear equations and solve the same. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. we get or or 3y = 18 y=6 Thus... y x + =1 3 2 3x+ y =1 5 2 ∴ The system of equations becomes : . Let 1 1 = x and =y u v x – 2y = 1 3x + 2y = –5 .

. a and b are constants (iv) p = 2q –1 q = 5 – 3p . Adding (1) and (2) we get.. (i) 4x – 3y = 8 x – 2y = –3 (ii) 3y = 12 – 2x 3x – 8y = –7 2. Solve each of the following system of equations by substitution and check your answers : (i) y = 3x – 5 6x = 3y + 3 (iii) y = 2x – 6 y= 0 (ii) x + y = a x – 2y = b. v = –1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. 4x = – 4 or Now or ∴ x = –1 –1 – 2y = 1 –2y = 2 1 = –1 u .[Substituting for ‘x’ in (1)] or or y = –1 u = –1 and or y = –1 1 = –1 v or v = –1 ∴ The solution is u = –1.11 1. Solve each of the following system of equations by addition or subtraction and check your answers : (i) x + 2y = 24 x–y= 4 (iii) 13x + 11y = 70 11x + 13y = 74 (ii) 7x + 6y = 71 5x – 8y = –23 (iv) 13x – 4y = 57 5x + 2y = 29 3. Solve each of the following system of equations by comparison of x-forms or y-forms and check you answers.152 Mathematics This is a system of linear equations which can easily be solved by the methods you have learnt so far.

“The perimeter of a rectangle is 52 cm. For solving these problems. you will have to (i) first express the statements given in the problem algebraically. substitute (iii) x – y = 0. [Hint : Find ‘x’ and ‘y’ by solving the given equations and substitute their values in ‘A’ and ‘B’] 5.1 Expressing the Statements Algebraically Example 6. Solution : This is the problem discussed in the beginning of the lesson. Find the solution for each of the following systems of equations and check your answers : (i) 3 − 3 =1 u v 1 + 1 =1 u v 6. then (ii) find their common solution. Let us take some examples to understand these two steps. First simplify the second equation] 6. If 2x + y = 23 and 4x – y = 19.Linear Equations 153 4. 6 (i) 4 p + q = 15 6p − 8 = 14 q [Hint. find the value of A = 3x – 2y and B = 5y + 2x. The breadth of the rectangle is 2 cm more than one third its length. Solve each of the following system of equations and check your answers. Let ‘x’ denote the length and ‘y’ denote the breadth of the rectangle (ii) 8 − 9 =1 u v 10 + 6 = 1 u v (iii) 2u + 3v = 6uv 5u – 2v = 3uv .9 1 = y in (i)] q y (ii) x + = 4 3 4 3x – y = 23 11 2 x+y = 1 b g [Hint. 6.17 WORD PROBLEMS You already know that there are many problems in daily life which can easily be solved by using the methods you have learnt in this lesson.17.22 : Express the following statements algebraically : 1.

154 Mathematics Statement (i) The perimeter is 52 cm (ii) The breadth is 2 cm more than one-third the length Equation 2 (x + y) = 52 x y = 2+ 3 Thus. the system of equations representing the statements in the problem is : 2(x + y) = 52 y = 2+ x 3 or x + y = 26 –x + 3y = 6 2. If the digits are reversed. Then : Statement (i) The larger number is ‘3’ times the smaller number (ii) The sum is 8 more than twice the smaller number y = 3x x + y = 2x + 8 3. the new number is 10u + t Statement (i) The sum of the digits is 11 (ii) The new number is 20 less than twice the given number ∴ The given statements can be expressed as : u + t = 11 Equation y = 3x x + y = 8 + 2x Thus. When the digits are reversed. Let ‘x’ represent the smaller number and ‘y’ represent the larger number. Their sum is 8 more than twice the smaller number. the system of equations representing the statement given is Equation u + t = 11 10u + t = 2(10t + u) – 20 and 10u + t = 2(10t + u) – 20. Solution. . ‘The larger of two numbers is three times the smaller number. the new number is 20 less than twice the original number. Let ‘t’ represent the digit in the ten’s place and ‘u’ represent the digit in the unit's place of the number. the given number is 10 t + u. Then. Solution. The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 11.

we have x = 4y – 9 Substituting in (2).(2) Substituting y = 7 in (2).24 : The length of a rectangle is 5 cm less than twice its breadth. Solutions : Let the present age of Atul be ‘x’ years and Parul’s age be ‘y’ years Then. Five years hence (from now) Atul’s age will be two times Parul’s age then.2 Solving the Word Problems Let us now find solutions to word-problems by taking some examples..[Ages 5 years from now] . we get 2(2y – 5 + y) = 110 or 2 (3y – 5) = 110 .. we get x – 2 × 7 = 5 Hence. Three times its breadth exceeds twice the length by 3 cm....17. the conditions in the problem can be expressed as follows : x – 3 = 4(y – 3) and or and From (1). Example 6.(2) Substituting the value of ‘x’ in terms of ‘y’ from (1) in equation (2).. 6. Solution : Let the length of the rectangle be ‘x cm’ and the breadth be ‘y’ cm.(1) .. find the area of the rectangle.[Ages 3 years ago] ..23 : Three years back (ago) Atul’s age was four times Parul’s age then. Examples 6. (ii) The sum of two numbers is 64 and the larger number is three times the smaller number.Linear Equations 155 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. Then... If the perimeter is 110 cm..(1) .12 Express each of the following statements as a system of equations : (i) The perimeter of a rectangle is 72 cm. Atul’s present age is 19 years and Parul’s present age is 7 years.. or 2y = 14 x + 5 = 2(y + 5) x – 4y = –9 x – 2y = 5 . we get 4y – 9 – 2y = 5 or or y=7 x = 19.. the statements in the problems can be expressed as : x = 2y – 5 and 2(x + y) = 110 . Find their present ages.

Solve each of the following problems by writing each of them as a system of equations : (a) The sum of two numbers exceeds three times the smaller by 3. Thus. Find the numbers.y cm2 Also. 2. the area of the rectangle = x. it is equal to the area of the plot given).13 1. Five years ago ‘A. was twice as old as ‘B’ was then. perimeter = 2(35 + 20) = 2 × 55 = 110 cm. If the length is increased by 2m and the breadth is reduced by 1m. Hence. (b) Two numbers are in the ratio 4 : 7. (c) 2 pens and 5 note-books cost Rs 16 and 3 pens and 4 note books cost Rs 17. the area of the plot remains unchanged (i. ∴ The first condition is verified.. If three times the larger number is added to two times the smaller.156 Mathematics or ∴ 6y – 10 = 110 y = 20 or 6y = 120 Substituting the value of ‘y’ in (1).e. we get. the second condition is also verified. The number obtained on reversing the digits is one more than twice the given number. (e) The perimeter of a rectangular plot of land is 32 m. (b) ‘A’ is five years older than ‘B’. the sum is 59. Express each of the following statements as a system of equations (a) The sum of two numbers is 12 and their difference is 2. . The difference of the numbers is 5. x = 2 × 20 – 5 or x = 35 = 35 × 20 cm2 = 700 cm2 Check : Here. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. Find their present ages. (d) The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 10. length = 35 cm and breadth = 20 cm 2 × breadth – 5 = 2 × 20 –5 = 40 – 5 = 35 = length.

b are real numbers is the general form of a linear equation in one variable. z z z z z z To solve a word problem. a ≠ 0 and a. c are real numbers is called the general form of a linear equation in two variables. ax + b = 0. (e) 400 people attended a school fete. To solve a word problem. find the length and breadth of the rectangle. Find the number of people who gave Rs 100 each. we translate it into linear equations and solve them. inconsistent or dependent : (a) 2x + 3y = 1 y–x=2 (c) x – y = 1 3y – 3x = 6 (b) 3x + y = 4 x + 3y = 4 (d) x + 3y = 2 2 x + 6y = 4 . TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. it is translated to algebraic statement(s) and then solved. The weight of the son is one-sixth that of the father. LET US SUM UP z z An equation in one variable of degree one is called a linear equation in one variable. b. (d) The sum of the weights of a father and his son is 105 kg. To draw the graph of a linear equation. we find three ordered pairs and plot them. The algebraic methods of solving a system of linear equations are (i) elimination by substitution (ii) elimination by equating the co-efficients. Draw the graphs of each of the following system of equations and state whether they have (i) a unique solution (a) x + y = 2 x–y=4 (d) x + 2y = 2 2x + 4y = 4 (ii) infinite number of solutions (iii) (b) 2x + 3y = 5 3x – 2y = 1 (e) x + y = 0 2x – 3y = 0 no solution (c) x + 2y = 2 2x + 4y = 6 2. a ≠ 0. find whether the system is consistent. The equation ax + by + c = 0. If the difference between the length and the breadth is 4 cm. Solution of a linear equation is also called its root. Without solving the system of equations. The line joining the points is the graph of the linear equation. Find their respective weights. Some people gave Rs 100 as a donation and some gave Rs 50. The total collection was Rs 34000.Linear Equations 157 (c) The perimeter of a rectangle is 20 cm. b ≠ 0 and a.

Find the values of ‘k’ for which the system of equations 2−1=2 . The sum of the present ages of ‘A’ and ‘B’ is 85 years.158 Mathematics 3. Also find out its area. If 18 is added to the number. Solve each of the following system of equations : a b (i) x + y = 2 a −b =0 [a. Also. The perimeter of a rectangular is 48 cm. ‘A’ was twice as old as ‘B’ was then. 5. y ≠ 0] x y 1 (ii) 3x + y = 4 2x − 1 = 1 . 8. What is the fraction ? 2 5 times the breadth. x. 9. If its length is the length of the rectangle. its digits are reversed. y ≠ 0 y (iii) 1+1 =4 u v (b) x – 4y = –3 x+y=2 (d) x + y = 4 x – 4y = 4 4. u. (b) infinite number of solutions. Find their present ages. the cost of a table is Rs 5 less than twice the cost of a chair. 7. it becomes is increased by 5. Five years ago. Find the number. find out 2 10. If the numerator of a fraction is decreased by one. but if the denominator 3 1 . . the fraction becomes 2 . The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 10. Find the total cost of 10 chairs and 3 tables. Solve each of the following system of equations : (a) 3x + y = 2 x – 2y = 1 (c) 5x−y =1 2 4x + y = 5 4x + y = 5 x + ky = 20 has (a) a unique solution. b are non-zero constants. v ≠ 0 u v 6. Six chairs and two tables cost Rs 240.

(i) 5 2. 2. (iii) Check Your Progress 6. –2) and S(2 –1) Check Your Progress 6. x = 1.10 1.5 3. y = 1 (ii) Consistent (ii) Infinite number of solutions (ii) Consistent (iii) Consistent (iii) Unique solution. (iv) (ii) 6 3. 3 5.Linear Equations 159 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 6.9 1.6 1. 5) 3. (i) Dependent 2.4 P(1. 1). (iii) (iii) 5 4.y=5 2 3. Check Your Progress 6. (i) 6. 36°. x = 1. 13. (ii) 7. x = 1. x = 10 . Check Your Progress 6. 1).7 1. y = 1 Check Your Progress 6. x = 4.8 1. y = 1 3. (i) 10. y = 3 2. (i) and (iv) Q(–2. (iii) Consistent . 90° Check Your Progress 6. (iii) 11. (i) Consistent (iv) Inconsistent. 14. 1) (ii) (3. x = 9 . (i) (3. 2). (i) No Solution 3. Father : 30 years. (ii) and (iv) 4. 15 4.1 1.2 1. 3) and (2. 3 5 3. Son : 10 year 2. R(–2. y = –2 Check your progress 6. (iii) 8. Graphs to be drawn. x = 0. (iii) 5. (–4. x = 5. (iv) 9. 5) Check Your Progress 6. 54°. (1. y = –1 2. y = –2 3 2.

y = 4 (ii) u = 46 . where ‘x’ is the unit’s digit and ‘y’ the ten’s digit of the number.. x = 3y. where x is larger number. 3y = 2x + 3. y = 6 (iv) x = 5. where ‘x’ is length and ‘y’ is breadth.. (i) u = (iii) u = 3 .12 (i) 2(x + y) = 72. y = 2. y = 2 (ii) x = 5. 5. (c) 2x + 5y = 16 and 3x + 4y = 17.11 1. y = 0 4. A = 3.13 1. Breadth = 3 cm. (i) x = 5. (d) x + y = 10 and 8x – 19 y = 1.q= 7 7 (iii) x = 2. (a) x + y = 12 and x – y = 2 (b) 7x – 4y = 0 and 3y + 2x = 59. (ii) x = (iv) p = 2a + b a−b . y = 4 2 (i) x = 32 20 . (b) A’s age = 15 years. 24 21 Check your Progress 6. (d) Father’s weight = 90 kg. son’s weight = 15 kg. B’s age = 10 years. (i) p = 3. 2.3 6. y = 7 (iii) x = 3.y= 3 3 9 8 .y= 3 3 (ii) x = 3.v=3 2 (ii) x = 9. B = 59. v = – 69 5 19 19 . larger = 7. Check Your Progress 6. (c) Length = 7 cm. q = 2 (iii) x = 3.2. . (e) x + y = 16 and 2y – x – 2 = 0.v= . y = 2. (a) Smaller number = 2. (e) 280 people. y = 4 3. (i) x = 4.160 Mathematics Check Your Progress 6. where x is length and y is breadth (ii) x + y = 64.

v= 2 2 7. y = b (iii) u = 6. y = 1 7 7 (d) x = 4. (a) x = (b) Consistent (c) Inconsistent (c) x = 12 17 . (a) Consistent 3. A : 55 years: B = 30 years 8. Area = cm2 7 49 1 (b) k = 4 (ii) x = 1. (i) x = a. Rs 385 10. 35 9. y = 0 1 4. y = 1 .Linear Equations 161 Terminal Exercise 2.y= 13 13 (d) Dependent 5 1 . (a) k ≠ 4 5. 7 9 1 1 . Length : 120 5760 cm. y = − (b) x = 1.

The above type of problems can be solved by a systematic method. form a quadratic equation with given roots. it becomes difficult to answer the problem by a guess. It is again difficult to answer the problem by making a guess. similarly if the product is 56 again we can find the number as 7 and 8. b and c. If we put different conditions on the length and breadth. For example in the first case if the numbers are x and x + 1.162 Mathematics 7 Quadratic Equations 7. Again in 2nd case. write quadratic equations in standard form. and in this lesson we shall deal with solutions of such equations. (ii) Similarly suppose we are to find the dimensions of a rectangle with area 168 square metres and the length exceeds breadth by 2 m. 7. For example (i) Suppose we are to find two consecutive natural numbers whose product is 12. solve a quadratic equation by (i) factorisation and (ii) using the quadratic formula. Such type of equation is called a quadratic equation.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. we have to solve the equation x (x + 1) = 552 or x2 + x – 552 = 0.1 INTRODUCTION Many times in life we come across problems whose solution we find by hit and trial method with the help of available information. the length will be x + 2 and we will have to solve the equation x (x + 2) = 168 or x2 + 2x – 168 = 0. but if the product is 552. . we shall again get an equation of the type ax2 + bx + c = 0 but with different values of a. we can easily guess that the numbers are 3 and 4. the learner will be able to : z z z z identify a quadratic equation from a given collection of equations. when we take breadth as x.

where a. Thus. you will find that for x = Thus. consider a quadratic polynomial p(x) = 2x2 – 5x + 2. 2 The values of the variables for which a polynomial p(x) vanishes are known as zeroes of the polynomial p(x). In particular. 7. Can you find some more values of x for which p(x) becomes zero ? After some more trials. 3x2 – 5x + 7 = 0 is a quadratic equation in x and 2y2 + 3y – 7 = 0 is a quadratic equation in y. 2 3 a 2 + 5 = 0 . using quadratic equations. b and c are real numbers. x ≠ 0. is called a quadratic equation in x. Can you find a value of x for which p(x) = 0 ? By hit and trial method you can find that for x = 2. Example 7. You know that for every real value of x. where a ≠ 0 and a. For example p(x) = –1 for x = 1 and p(x) = 5 for x = 3.Quadratic Equations 163 z z translate a word problem into a quadratic equation. 7. For example. 3 x2 – 5x = 0.e. p(x) has a real value. x2 = 0 are some other examples of quadratic equations. b and c are real number and a ≠ 0. An equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. b and c are real numbers and a ≠ 0 be a quadratic polynomial. x = 2 and x = 2 and 1 are the numbers for which p(x) = 0. p(x) becomes zero. 2 1 are called the zeroes of p(x).3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z identifying and solving Linear equations in one or two variables finding square root of natural numbers factorisation of polynomials. ax2 + bx + c = 0 is called a quadratic equation. p(x) = 0. .4 QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Recall that p(x) = ax2 + bx + c is the general form of a quadratic polynomial where a. (i) (x + 3) (x – 2) = 5 (ii) 2x2 + 3x = 2x(x – 7) (iii) 3x2 – 5x = 5(x2 – x + 3) 1 (iv) x − x = 0. then p(x) = 0 i. Quadratic Equation : Let p(x) = ax2 + bx + c. solve word problems. 2 1 .1 : Determine which of the following are quadratic equations in x.

(iv) or or x − 1 = 0. x d 3x − 5 = 0 i 4. x ≠ 0 is a quadratic equation. x 2 + 1 =0 x 2. 3x − 1 =0 3x 8. x2 – 3x + 7 = 5 3. Hence. x2 + 3x + 1= x(x + 5) . x CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 7.x + 15 = 0. 2x2 + 3x = 2x(x – 7) is not a quadratic equation.164 Mathematics Solution : (i) (x + 3)(x – 2) = 5 or or x2 + 3x – 2x – 6 = 5 x2 + x – 11 = 0 which is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. Hence 3x2 – 5x = 5(x2 – x + 3) is a quadratic equation in x. (iii) or or 3x2 – 5x = 5(x2 – x + 3) 3x2 – 5x = 5x2 – 5x + 15 2x2 + 15 = 0 which is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0.1 which is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. (ii) or or 2x2 + 3x = 2x (x – 7) 2x2 + 3x = 2x2 – 14x 17x = 0 This is not of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a ≠ 0. a ≠ 0 as 2x2 + 15 = 0 can be rewritten as 2x2 + 0. 2x 2 + 5x + 7 = 0 6. x ≠ 0 x x2 − 1 = 0 x x2 – 1 = 0 x − 1 = 0. a ≠ 0 Hence Determine whether the following equations are quadratic equations : 1. x(2x + 5) = x2 + 5x + 7 7. 3x2 − 5 x + 9 = 0 5. a ≠ 0 Hence (x + 3) (x –2) = 5 is a quadratic equation in x.

2 : Determine whether x = 2x2 – 5x + 3 = 0.S Hence x = 1 is not a solution of equation 2x2 – 5x + 3 = 0 2 3 in 2x2 – 5x +3 = 0. a ≠ 0.S = 2 2 = FH IK 2 −5 1 +3 2 FH IK 1 5 − +3 2 2 1− 5 + 6 2 = =1 which is not true as L. 2 Note : L. then x = α is called the solution of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.H.S = 2 2 = = Again. we get 2 1 3 and x = are solutions of the equation 2 2 1 L. In other words. putting x = FH IK 2 −5 3 +3 2 FH IK 9 15 − +3 2 2 9 − 15 + 6 2 = 0 = R. a ≠ 0. Solution : Putting x = 1 in 2x2 – 5x + 3 = 0.S stands for Left Hand Side and Right Hand Side of the given equation respectively. .Quadratic Equations 165 7.5 SOLUTION OF A QUADRATIC EQUATION If p(x) = ax2 + bx + c.H.S and R. we get 2 3 L.H.H.S Hence.H. x = 3 is the solution of the equation 2x2 – 5x + 3 = 0.S ≠ R.H.H. a ≠ 0 and x = α is such that p( α ) = 0. Example 7. (x – α ) is a factor of the polynomial ax2 + bx + c if ‘ α ’ is a solution of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.

5 and –4 are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 – x – 20 = 0. we say that α and β are the roots of the corresponding quadratic equation p(x) = 0. Solution : (i) (x – 5) (x + 3) = 0 Either x – 5 = 0 or ∴ or x + 3=0 x=5 x=– 3 Thus the equation (x – 5) (x + 3) = 0 has two roots. x = 5 or x = –4 are also called the solutions of x2 – x – 20 = 0. x = –6 and x = 3 are the solutions of the given quadratic equation.3 : Solve the following equations : (i) (x – 5) (x + 3) = 0 (ii) x2 + 3x = 18. (ii) x2 + 3x = 18 or or x2 + 3x – 18 = 0 (x + 6) (x – 3) = 0 Either x + 6 = 0 or x – 3= 0 ∴ or x = –6 x=3 Hence.166 Mathematics 7. The value (s) of the variable (x in this case) which satisfy an equation is (are) called the root(s) or solution(s) of the equation. For example 5 and –4 are the zeroes of the polynomial x2 – x – 20. we generalize the following steps to be followed in finding solution of a quadratic equation by factorisation . Here is an example : Example 7.1 ROOTS OF THE QUADRATIC EQUATION If α and β are two zeroes of the quadratic polynomial p(x). We can find the solutions of a quadratic equation by the following methods : (A) FACTOR METHOD Let us now study how to solve quadratic equations by the factor method (whenever possible).5. x = 5 and x = –3. Thus. From the above example.

(c) Equate each factor to zero. Example 7. (i) x2 – 4x – 5 = 0 The first two terms on the L. In such cases.4 : Solve the following equations by the method of completing the squares (i) x2 – 4x – 5 = 0 (ii) 3x2 – 4x – 7 = 0 Solution.Quadratic Equations 167 (a) Write all the terms on one side by making R.H. .S.H. ⇒ or (ax + b) (cx + d) = 0 Either ax + b = 0 cx + d = 0.e. are the first two terms in the expansion of (x – 2)2 ∴ x2 – 4x – 5 = 0 can be rewritten as x2 – 4x + 4 – 4 – 5 = 0 or or (x – 2)2 – 9 = 0 (x – 2)2 – (3)2 = 0 (x – 2 – 3) (x – 2 + 3) = 0 (Adding and subtracting 4) (By factorising the polynomial on the L. i. (b) Resolve into linear factors of the type (ax + b)(cx +d) of the terms on the L. (B) THE QUADRATIC FORMULA Sometimes.) or ∴ or ⇒ or (x – 5) (x + 1) = 0 Either x – 5 = 0 x + 1= 0 x= 5 x = –1 Hence x = 5 and x = –1 are the two solutions of the given quadratic equation. we solve the equation by completing the squares.H. solving a quadratic equation by factor method is difficult or too lengthy. (d) Get the required solution.S.S. zero.H. then either of them is zero or each of them is zero.S. Remarks : If the product of two polynomials is zero. Let us solve some quadratic equations by completing the squares.

). We have ax2 + bx + c = 0 . a ≠ 0 by the method of completing square(s) and find its roots. we have 4a(ax2 + bx + c) = 4a × 0 or or 4a2x2 + 4abx + 4ac = 0 [Adding b2 to both sides] (4a2x2 + 4abx + b2) = b2 – 4ac or or or or or (2ax + b)2 = b2 – 4ac (2ax + b)2 = or (4a2x2 + 4abx + 4ac) + b2 = 0 + b2 {e ± b 2 − 4ac j} 2 2ax + b = ± b 2 − 4ac 2ax = − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x = − b ± b − 4ac 2a This is known as quadratic formula and is the most convenient tool to solve a quadratic equation. 7 and x = –1.168 Mathematics (ii) 3x2 – 4x – 7 = 0 Multiplying the equation by 3 We get 9x2 – 12x – 21 = 0 On completing the square (by adding and subtracting 4 in the L.H.S. . 3 Hence the solutions of the given equation are x = Now let us solve the standard quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. we get 9x2 – 12x + 4 – 4 – 21 = 0 or or or 9x2 – 12x + 4 – 25 = 0 (3x – 2)2 – (5)2 = 0 (3x – 7) (3x + 3) = 0 (The co-efficient of x2) or (3x – 2 – 5) (3x – 2 + 5) = 0 Either 3x – 7 = 0 or 3x + 3 = 0 or or x= 7 3 x = –1. a ≠ 0 Multiplying both sides by 4a.

a quadratic equation can have maximum two roots. we get 2a . b = 1 and c = –15. Solution : We have 6x2 + x – 15 = 0 Comparing with ax2 + bx + c = 0 we get a = 6. 2a b gb g 2b6g = −1 ± 361 = −1 ± 19 12 12 = 3 . We denote (b2 – 4ac) by D and it is called DISCRIMINANT. b =4 and c = 1 Using x = − b ± b 2 − 4ac . the equation will have two real and unequal roots (ii) If D = 0. if (i) D > 0. Using the quadratic formula.5 : Find the roots of quadratic equation 6x2 + x – 15 = 0 using quadratic formula. − b − b 2 − 4ac 2a 2a Here b2 – 4ac is a factor on which the nature of roots depend.Quadratic Equations 169 It is clear from above that a quadratic equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. the equation will not have any real roots. Solution : Here a = 4. the two roots of the equation are Example 7.6 : Solve the quadratic equation 4x2 + 4x + 1 = 0 using quadratic formula.− 5 2 3 3 . the equation will have two equal roots both equal to (iii) D < 0. a ≠ 0 can have two roots which are − b + b 2 − 4ac . For a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.− 5 . Thus. 2 3 Thus. Example 7. the roots are − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = −1 ± 1 − 4 6 −15 −b . a ≠ 0.

5 = –15 ∴ The quadratic equation is x2 – (2)x + (–15) = 0 i. the equation becomes x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 . Solution : Here. x2 – 2x – 15 = 0 Example 7. Example 7. 7.e. find the value of ‘a’ and also find the other root of the equation. Solution : Here sum of roots = (–3 + 5) = 2 and product of roots = (–3). sum of roots is 2 + 3 + 2 − 3 = 4 and product of roots = 2 + 3 2 − 3 = 4 – 3 = 1. Solution : Since 3 is a root of the equation x2 – ax + 6 = 0 ∴ (3)2 – a(3) + 6 = 0 ⇒ a=5 Thus.6 TO FORM A QUADRATIC EQUATION WHEN ITS ROOTS ARE GIVEN Let a and b be the roots of a quadratic equation in x. then (x – a) and (x – b) are the factors of the quadratic equation ∴ We have(x – a) (x – b) = 0 or or x2 – (a + b)x + ab = 0 x2 – (sum of the roots)x + (product of roots) = 0 Example 7.9 : If 3 is one root of the equation x2 – ax + 6 = 0.8 : Form a quadratic equation with two roots as 2 + 3 and 2 − 3 .170 Mathematics x= = −4 ± 16 − 4 4 1 8 −4 ± 0 = − 1 8 2 b gb g 1 ∴ x = – 2 is the solution of the quadratic equation.7 : Form a quadratic equation whose roots are –3 and 5. ∴ The equation is x2 – (4)x + 1 = 0 d i d i d i d i d id i or x2 – 4x + 1 = 0.

solve the following equations : (i) x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 (iii) 4x2 + 8x – 5 = 0 (i) x2 – 4x – 5 = 0 (iii) 4x2 – 8x + 3 = 0 5. One root of the quadratic equation 3x2 – 10x + 3 = 0 is 8. 3 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 7. Solve for x : (i) 6x2 – 19x + 15 = 0 (iii) 3x2 – 10x + 3 = 0 (v) 21 + x = 2x2 (ii) x2 + 3x – 5 = 0 (iv) 3x2 + x – 2 = 0 (vi) 9x2 – 16 = 0. (ii) 6x2 + 7x – 5 = 0 (iv) 2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0 (ii) 4x2 – 12x – 16 = 0 (iv) 2x2 – x – 6 = 0. Form the quadratic equation whose roots are given below : (i) –3 and –5 (iii) 3 + 2 and 3 − 2 (v) 6 and 5 (ii) –3 and 7 (iv) 3 and 1 3 (vi) 3 and –3 1 . Show that x = 2 is one of the roots of the equation 3x2 – 7x + 2 = 0. Find the other root. If 1 is one root of the equation 3x2 + kx –3 = 0. Determine whether the value x = 3 and x = 2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0.2 1.Quadratic Equations 171 Comparing with x2 – (sum of the roots)x + Product of roots = 0 We have sum of roots = 5 Since one root is 3. Using factor method. 1 are solutions of the quadratic equation 2 2. 7. find the value of k.7 WORD PROBLEMS In the following discussion. 3. 4. other root is 5 – 3 = 2. Solve the following equations by method of completing the squares : 6. . you will learn to apply the methods you have studied in this lesson to solve some problems of daily life. Hence find the 3 other root.

As per problem.172 Mathematics The steps in solving them are the same as the ones you have learnt earlier. (3) Interpreting (verifying) the solution obtained. (2) Solving the equation obtained. Example 7. Example 7. They are : (1) Translating the given problem into algebraic form.10 : Find two successive natural numbers whose squares have the sum 221. x2 + (x + 1)2 = 221 or or or or or or ⇒ or ∴ or we get x = 10 ∴ Ist natural number = 10 x2 + x2 + 2x + 1 – 221 = 0 2x2 + 2x – 220 = 0 x2 + x – 110 = 0 x2 + 11x – 10x – 110 = 0 x(x + 11) – 10 (x + 11) = 0 (x – 10) (x + 11) = 0 Either x + 11 = 0 x – 10 = 0 x = –11 x = 10 Rejecting x = – 11. Find the two numbers. 1 1 3 + = x 15 − x 10 or or 3 15 − x + x = 10 x 15 − x b g 3 15 = 10 x 15 − x b g . which is not a natural number. 2nd natural number = 11. If the sum of their reciprocal is 3/10. Solution : Let one number = x Other number = 15 – x As per problem. Solution : Let the two successive natural numbers be x and x + 1.11 : The sum of two numbers is 15.

Either 4x – 1 = 0 x – 4=0 . Find the number. x + = x 4 or or or or or or ∴ or 17 .12 : The sum of a number and its reciprocal is Solution : Let the number = x 1 ∴ Reciprocal of x = x 1 17 As per problem . 4 x 2 + 1 = 17 4 x 4x2 + 4 = 17x 4x2 – 17x + 4 = 0 4x2 – 16x – x + 4 = 0 4x(x – 4) – 1(x – 4) = 0 (4x – 1) (x – 4) = 0.Quadratic Equations 173 or or or or or or or ⇒ ∴ or 150 = 3x (15 – x) 150 = 45x – 3x2 50 = 15x – x2 x2 – 15x + 50 = 0 x2 – 10x – 5x + 50 = 0 x(x – 10) – 5(x – 10) = 0 (x – 10) (x – 5) = 0 Either x – 10 = 0 or x – 5 = 0 x = 10 x = 5 When x = 5 Other number = 15 – 5 = 10 Or When x = 10 Other number = 15 – 10 = 5 ∴ The required numbers are 5. 10 Example 7.

x = 2 . 10x + y + 36 = 10y + x or or or From (1) and (2) xy = 12 or or or or or (y – 4)y = 12 y2 – 4y – 12 = 0 y2 – 6y + 2y – 12 = 0 y(y – 6) + 2(y – 6) = 0 (y + 2) (y – 6) = 0 Either y + 2 = 0 or y – 6 = 0 ⇒ y = –2 or y=6 10x – x = 10y – y – 36 9x = 9y – 36 x= 9 y−4 =y–4 9 xy = 12 . Also.174 Mathematics ∴ x= 1 4 or 1 ∴ The required number is 4 or 4 x=4 Example 7. product of digits = 12 i. Determine the number. we get y = 6 When y = 6. the new number = 10y + x As per problem..(1) b g ...e. When 36 is added to this number the digits interchange their places..(2) Rejecting y = –2.13 : A two-digit number is such that the product of the digits is 12. Solution : Let digit at ten’s place be x and digit at unit’s place be y ∴ The number = 10x + y When digits are interchanged.

x2 + (x – 1)2 = (x + 1)2 or or or or ∴ x2 + x2 – 2x + 1 = x2 + 2x + 1 2x2 – 2x + 1 – x2 – 2x – 1 = 0 x2 – 4x = 0 x(x – 4) = 0 x – 4=0 x=4 Since x ≠ 0 or . Solution : Let the two consecutive even positive integers be x and x + 2. x = –14 is not possible. Example 7. Find x and hence the sides of the triangle. As per problem. 14. Hence.15 : The sides (in cm) of a right angled triangle are x – 1. the two consecutive even positive integers are 12.14 : Find two consecutive even positive integers whose squares have the sum 340. x + 2 = 12 + 2 = 14 Since – 14 is not a positive integer. x and x + 1 Q x + 1 > x – 1 and x + 1 > x ∴ x + 1 is the hypotenuse (largest side) By Pythagoras Theorem. Solution : The sides (in cm) of a right angled triangle are x – 1. x and x + 1.Quadratic Equations 175 ∴ The required number = 10 × 2 + 6 = 26 Therefore. the required number is 26 Example 7. x2 + (x + 2)2 = 340 or or or or or ⇒ ∴ [As sum of their squares is 340] 2x2 + 4x – 336 = 0 x2 + 2x – 168 = 0 x2 + 14x – 12x – 168 = 0 x(x + 14) – 12(x + 14) = 0 (x – 12)(x + 14) = 0. or Either x + 14 = 0 or x – 12 = 0 x = –14 or x = 12 x = 12.

17 : By increasing his average speed by 10 km/hr a motorist saves 36 minutes in travelling a distance of 120 km. ∴ His new speed = (x + 10) km/hr speed = Distance Time ∴ In the first case. Example 7. ∴ 45x – x2 = 126 x2 – 45x + 126 = 0 x2 – 42x – 3x + 126 = 0 or or or x(x – 42) – 3(x – 42) = 0 or ∴ (x – 42) (x – 3) = 0 Either x – 42 = 0 x = 42 x=3 or x–3=0 ⇒ or We reject x = 42 because Ashu’s age cannot be greater than her mother’s age. Solution : Let Ashu’s age = x years ∴ Her mother’s age = (45 – x) years The product of their ages = x(45 –x) = 45x –x2 It is given that the product of their ages is 126. 4 cm and 5 cm. Let the actual speed of the motorist be x km/hr.176 Mathematics ⇒ ⇒ x – 1=4 – 1 = 3 x + 1=4 + 1 = 5 ∴ The sides of the triangle are 3 cm. Example 7.16 : The sum of ages of Ashu and her mother is 45. He increases his vehicle's speed by 10 km/hr. The product of their ages is 126. Solution. ∴ ∴ x=3 Ashu’s age is 3 years and her mother’s age = 45 – 3 = 42 years. time = FH 120 I x K hours . Find their ages. Find out his actual speed.

2. Two successive natural numbers are such that the sum of their squares is 145. Find the numbers. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 7.3 1. Find two consecutive natural numbers whose product is 240. = 3 hr) 5 or 120x + 1200 − 120x 3 = x x + 10 5 b g or or or 1200 3 x x + 10 = 5 b g 6000 = 3x 2 + 30x x2 + 10x – 2000 = 0 or x2 + 50x – 40x – 2000 = 0 or x(x + 50) – 40(x + 50) = 0 or (x + 50) (x – 40) = 0 ∴ ⇒ Aliter ∴ Either x + 50 = 0 x = – 50 or or x – 40 = 0 x = 40 −10 ± 90 x = −10 ± 8100 = 2 2 x = x = 80 2 −100 2 ∴ or or ∴ x = 40 or x = –50 x = 40 Rejecting x = –50 as speed cannot be negative. 3 120 − 120 = x x +10 5 FH IK hours (36 min. time = x +10 By the given condition we get. .Quadratic Equations 177 120 In the second case. ∴ The actual speed of the motorist is 40 km/hr.

(ii) If D = 0 then the quadratic equation have two equal roots. The age of father is 10 times the age of his son. LET US SUM UP z An equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. A two digit number is such that the product of the digits is 12. A quadratic equation whose roots are α. (i) If D > 0 then the quadratic equation have two real and unequal roots. It is usually denoted by D. x2 – 8x + 15 = 0 4. find the age of father. (iii) If D < 0 then the quadratic equation have no real roots. 6x2 + x – 15 = 0 . 7. Find two consecutive odd positive integers whose squares have the sum 290. If one side of a right triangle exceeds the other by 7 cm and the hypotenuse is 13 cm. 2x2 – 5x = 0 3. Find the number . Roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. 8. a ≠ 0 are given by z − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a z b2 – 4ac is called discriminant of the quadratic equation. When 9 is added to the number. a ≠ 0 and a. Determine the number. the digits interchange their places. (x – 8) (x+ 4) = 13 2. If the product of their ages is 160. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 50 . β is given by x2 – (α + β)x + αβ = 0 The value (s) of the variable which satisfy an equation is (are) called a root(s) or solution(s) of the equation.178 Mathematics 3. TERMINAL EXERCISE z z Solve the following equations by factorisation method : 1. b and c are real numbers. Find the sides. 9x2 + 15 x – 14 = 0 5. If the length of a rectangle exceeds the breadth by 4 cm and its area is 525 cm2. 5. find its dimensions. 7 4. 6. is called a quadratic equation in x.

Find their ages. 3a2x2 + 2abx – b2 = 0 10. 13. Form a quadratic equation whose one root is 1 + 2 and the sum of its roots is 2. . The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 25 . Solve for x : (a) (x + 3)2 + 5(x + 3) + 4 = 0. 12. 2x2 – 3x + 1 = 0 11. 12 d i 15. ax2 + (a + b)x + b = 0 8. Find the numbers. x2 – 11ax + 28a2 = 0 9. (b) (x + 1)2 – 8 (x + 1) + 15 = 0. Form a quadratic equation whose root are : (a) –1 and 3 (b) –2 and 3 (c) –3 and 4.Quadratic Equations 179 6. x2 − 1 + 2 x + 2 = 0 7. 14. The sum of the ages of a father and his son is 60 years and the product of their ages is 576.

(ii) x = −3 ± 29 (iii) a = 3. 12 cm 2. (vi) . 11. Age of Father = 48 years.1 1. No 7. 15.5 2 3 (ii) x = 4. x = 1 2 4.180 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 7. 21 × 25 cm 3. 40 years. 7 or 1 7 4. (i) x + 8x + 15 (iv) 3x2 – 10x + 3 = 0 (v) x2 – 11x + 30 = 0 (vi) x2 – 9 = 0.3 1. (a) x = –4 or x = –7 (b) x = 2 or x = 4. Check Your progress 7. Yes 5. x = 1 2 (ii) x = 1 . Age of Son = 12 years 14. – 1 3 (iv) x = 2. x = –1. (i) x = 3.x= − 2 3 2 8. 2 3 5 1 (iii) − . x = − 3a a (b) x2 – x – 6 = 0 (c) x2 – x – 12 = 0 15. x2 – 2x – 1 = 0 13.−3 2 3. Yes 6. x = 7a b b 9. x = 5 2 3. x = 5. 2 2 (iii) 3.2 1. x = . x = 5. . . x = 3 5 . 13 Terminal Exercise 1. 4 3 or 3 4 2. Yes 8. (i) x = 2. (a) x2 – 2x – 3 = 0 12. x = 3 6. x = 11. x = − . x = 0. (i) x = 5.− 2 1 2 (iv) x = − 1. x = –5 2 7 . x = 1. Yes Check Your Progress 7.x= − 3 3 b 7. 2 3 3 2 (ii) x2 – 4x – 21 = 0 (iii) x2 – 6x + 7 = 0 6. No 2. 7. 7. 8.− . 16 5. 3 8.− 5 . k = 8. the other root is –3.1 2 2 (iv) 1 . –1 5. 3 4. No 4. 9 6. Yes 3. 34 8. 3 3 2 7 4 4 (v) x = − 3. x = − a 1 10. x = 9. 5 cm. x = 4a.

(ii). (iii) and (iv) ? A little careful study of the above patterns shows that the next figures in (i).Number Patterns 181 8 Number Patterns 8. They make the learners motivated to form such new patterns. This becomes a topic of interest and knowledge to predict the next figure in a pattern.1 INTRODUCTION In our day-to-day life. and respectively.1 Can you predict the next figures in (i). Think about these and try to find the reasons for those. pictures. we see patterns of geometric figures on clothes. Consider the following patterns : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Fig. posters etc. . 8. . (ii). (iii) and (iv) are .

.4 RECOGNITION OF NUMBER PATTERNS Suppose you want to purchase a handkerchief whose cost is Rs 5. 6. 4.. 2 2 (iii) 10. In this lesson. Number patterns play an important role in the field of Mathematics. . 8. It is an interesting study to find whether some specific names have been given to some of the above number patterns and the methods of finding some next terms of the given patterns.P. 8. . 11111. If you want to purchase two handkerchiefs..2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. 4... 16. (vi) 1.. . 8. 2 16 128 1 1 1 . z z 8. you will study about number patterns called Arithmetic Progressions and Geometric Progressions. –2.. . 1 1 1 . . then you have to pay Rs 10. 2 3 4 (vii) 1. 2.182 Mathematics Likewise number patterns are also faced by learners in their study. ... 1 .3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z Idea of numbers Idea of the number line Knowledge of various number systems Four fundamental operations on numbers 8. 32. 1111. 2 .. Let us study the following number patterns : (i) 2. 7. determine nth term of an Arithmetic progression (A.. .. the learner will be able to : z recognise number patterns and identify those which are Arithmetic or Geometric progressions. (v) 4. 3. . (iv) 2.P) find the sum to ‘n’ terms of an A. 10. . 1 1 (ii) 1. . 11. . 4. 111. .. You will also study methods of finding general term and sum to ‘n’ terms of an Arithmetic Progression.. 1.

three. . can be obtained by subtracting a constant number 2 and 4 respectively from the preceding term.. 15. 1 and 5 respectively. 6. .. the respective costs of one. –4. 10. 2. 8.. In number patterns (a). (b) 4. But in the number patterns (f).Number Patterns 183 Therefore. .. 0. 9. you will find that each successive number. if the number of handkerchiefs is increased by one successively. (c) 3. 12. other than the first term.. 3. these numbers form a number pattern. . (d) 13. other than the first number.. . 1. Therefore. Can you recognize the relationship between any consecutive numbers of the above pattern ? If you observe the pattern carefully. Some examples of numbers patterns are given below : (a) 1.. 1. can be obtained by adding a constant number 1. other than the first term... 4 (h) 5. ... each term.. 4.5 ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION You are all aware that salaries of employees are often calculated on the basis of their basic salary. the respective cost (in Rs) would increase by 5 every time. 2.. Each number of the number pattern is called a term. 14 . .. plus fixed increments (increases) for each year of service and all other usual allowances. –3. 4. handkerchiefs would be 5. 3 and 4 respectively to the preceding term.. (c) and (e). can be obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a constant number 2. 8. is obtained by adding a constant number to the preceding number. 5. 6 . 4 . Suppose a person begins to work for a firm in the scale of Rs 4500-125-7000. 125. 4 4 4 4 (f) 1.e. 625. 1 1 1 1 (e) 2 .. two. . In the number patterns (b) and (d). 10 ... 4. each successive term. . other than the first term. –7. (g) 16... each successive term.. 1 . . 16. 25. i. –2. 2. (g) and (h). 9.

. 4. . 4. 2. 25. 8. The constant number is called common difference. The first term of this pattern is 4500 and each successive term.2 . . 16. Probably the simplest arithmetic progression is of natural numbers : 1. 7.P)... 6. 19.. 4625.. 9. as in the A.. 14 1 . 3. 4. 6. 8. 6. A progression is said to be an Arithmetic Progression (abbreviated as A. except the first. An arithmetic progression can be represented on the number line by a series of points placed the same distance apart.P 10. 17. other than the first term. Fig. 10 1 . –5. . –2... 4 4 4 4 –7.. The multiplication tables are all familiar A.... Rational numbers can serve as the common difference. 4875. Such a number pattern is called an Arithmetic Progression (abbreviated as A.. 8.184 Mathematics Then in successive years his basic salary (in Rs) will be 4500. –2. if the difference of each term. 17. 15. from its preceding term is always the same.. 5000 and he will get usual allowances on the basic salary. 4. 20. 21.2. .. An arithmetic progression can start from any number. . For example. 5. 10. the progression 13. 8.. 1.P : 1 1 9. 12. 6 1 . 2 2 and negative numbers.. 2. 11 . 2 1 . 14. .P). 3. We can say that the terms of the pattern progress arithmetically. 3.. as in the A. 8. can be obtained by adding a constant number (here increament in Rs) 125 to the preceding number. is shown in Fig.P's. 11. 4750. . 14. . positive or negative for example : 5. 16 . ... 12. 8..

. . . 10 1 . . a + 3d .. (c) 13. 19. ? (a) 3.. (d) 21.. 12. 6. 22. 18.P : 3. .. t3.. 13 1 .P are usually denoted by t1.P in the following manner : In general. 14. 15. 12. It is clear from the above A.. 5. .. ... a + d .P.. 13. the common difference may be negative in which case the terms of the progression would decrease. t2. . 2 2 The first term of this A.P is 15. 7. . 24. 17. 6...P that its first term is 3 and the common difference is 2 (usually denoted by ‘d’) You can rewrite the above A. the standard form of an Arithmetic Progression would be a ..1 : Which of the following progressions are A. 9.. . Observe the following A. For example : 15. 9. 11.Number Patterns 185 The successive terms of an A. 1 1 1 1 The common difference = 13 – 15 = 12 – 13 = 10 – 12 = –1 2 2 2 2 Let us take some examples to illustrate : Example 8. Solution : (a) The given progression is 3. It should be noted that. 9.. The common difference is usually denoted by ‘d’. if the first term is denoted by ‘a’ and the common difference by ‘d’. .. 12. (b) 9. 9. a + 2d ..

. 18. as far as the required term by adding 2 successively to the first term.. Here the first term is 9 and the common difference is = 14 – 9 = 19 – 14 = 24 – 19 = 5 ∴ The given progression is an A.6 THE GENERAL TERM (OR nTH TERM) OF AN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION If we need to find a particular term of an A. We can find an easier method if we look at the progression more closely. Here the first term is 21 and the common difference is 17 – 21 = 13 – 17 = 9 – 13 = – 4 ∴ The given progression is an A.. . 13. 22.. But its common difference is not the same as 15 – 13 ≠ 18 – 15 ≠ 22 – 18 ∴ The given progression is not an A. we can. 10. . 24. of course. . The first term (a) for an A. The successive terms can be formed by adding 2 to the first term. 27. 14... . (c) The given progression is 13. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESSION 8. 12.P.P. But this method would become rather laborious if you had to find. 29. Here the first term is 13. 18..P. as 3.P is 3 and the common difference (d) = 2. 12... (b) 7. 9. (b) The given progression is 9. 15. . 24.P.P’s ? (a) 6.P.186 Mathematics Here the first term is 3 and the common difference = 6 – 3 = 9 – 6 = 12 – 9 = 3 ∴ The given progression is an A. 14.. . .1 1. –3. say 102nd term of the progression.. for example 12th term whose first term is 3 and common difference is 2... (d) 31. 19. –7. 5.P.. 9. 17.. . Which of the following progression are A. (d) The given progression is 21. –5.. 25. build up the A. (c) –1. 7. 8.

..P.2 This suggests us a formula for finding any term of the progression..2 = 3 + 1.. We know that the standard form of an A..... a + d. In the similar manner...2 ..e. ? i. th term = 3 + ( ? – 1). nth term can be written as : nth term = a + (n – 1)d or tn = a + (n – 1)d where ‘a’ and ‘d’ denote the first term and the common difference respectively.. Without completing all the step-by-step calculations. a + 2d.Number Patterns 187 ↓ 1 ↓ 2 ↓ 3 ↓ 4 st term = 3 term = 3 + 2 term = (3 + 2) + 2 term = (3 + 2 + 2) + 2 .2 . = 3 + 0.2 = 3 + 3. a + 3d.. .2 = 3 + ( 12 – 1). = a + ( 1 – 1)d → → 2 = a + ( 2 – 1)d → → 3 = a + ( 3 – 1)d .. ..2 12th term = 2 + 11 × 2 We generally denote 12th term by t12 and write the above result as t12 = 3 + (12 – 1) × 2 Thus the general term i.d = a+d = a + 2d .e. ↓ 12 th ↓ term would be 3 + 11..2 ↓ = 3 + ( 4 – 1). i. eleven times to the first term.P.2 nd ↓ = 3 + ( 2 – 1)... we can write → → 1st term 2nd term 3rd term .2 = 3 + 2. We will get the same formula for the nth term if we use the standard form of A. we can find straight away that the 12th term by adding 2.e.2 In particular writing number 12 in each box we can find the 12th term : 12th term = 3 + (12 – 1).2 ↓ = 3 + ( 3 – 1).. is a.. rd th .. = = = t t t 1 = a = a + 0. ↓ = 3+( 1 – 1).

.. tn – 1. .P’s : (i) 6. (ii) 12. Example 8. whose first term is ‘a’ and common difference is ‘d’.. 14. ∴ a = 5 and d = 8 – 5 = 3 tn = 5 + (n – 1). –15...188 Mathematics If you see the above pattern. 10.. 8.. a + 2d. a + d. (ii) –7. 11. 18. the formula for the nth term or tn would be a + (n – 1)d Hence.P. 6. –19. –15. the first term (a) is 12 and the common difference (d) = 9 – 12 = –3. (ii) The given A... 14.. is 12. 8. is given by tn = a + (n – 1)d Here..P..P is 5. we can rewrite the standard form of an A...P is given by tn Here.. .2 : Identify the first term and the common difference of each of the following A. ∴ =a + (n – 1)d a = –7 and d = –11 – (–7) = –11 + 7 = –4 tn = –7 + (n – 1).P's and find the 100th term of each of the following : (i) 5. 18.. –11. a + (n – 1)d where tn–1 denotes the (n – 1)th term of the A.. 14. 6.3 = 5 + 3n – 3 = 3n + 2 ∴ 100th term = t100 = 3 × 100 + 2 = 302. the first term (a) is 6 and the common difference (d) = 10 – 6 = 4 (ii) The given A.P as a. . 11. We know that the nth term of an A. ... 10. – 19. .P.3 : Write the expressions for nth terms of the following A. Solution : (i) The given A. . Solution : (i) The given A.P is –7. –11. . Here. 14. nth term of an A.(–4) . 9. Here.P is 6.. Example 8. 9.. ...

14.. . t2 – t1 = 8 – 5 = 3 t3 – t2 = 11 – 8 = 3 t4 – t3 = 14 – 11 = 3 Here.4 : If the nth term of a progression is given by show that it is an A. .. t2 = 2 + 3 × 2 = 8 3rd term. 2. . ∴ The progression is 5. Example 8.P... we get ∴ 1st term.. .. t4 = 2 + 3 × 4 = 14 . t2 = 8.. t3 = 11. the above progression is an Arithmetic Progression. the first term.Number Patterns 189 =–7 – 4n + 4 =–3 – 4n ∴ 100th term = t100 = –3 – 4 × 100 = – 403.. t1 = 5.. Since the common difference is always the same. t1 = 2 + 3 × 1 = 5 2nd term.. Solution : Given that nth term tn = 2 + 3n Putting n = 1. Solution : Here. ..P whose first term is –3 and common difference is 5. . 3. a = –3 and common difference d = 5 ∴ nth term = tn= a + (n – 1)d = –3 + (n – 1) × 5 = –3 + 5n – 5 = –8 + 5n ∴ 21st term = t21 = –8 + 5 × 21 = –8 + 105 = 97 ∴ The 21st term of the given progression is 97. 4. . t4 = 14. Example 8.. 8... t3 = 2 + 3 × 3 = 11 4th term. 11..5 : Find the 21st term of an A. tn = 2 + 3n.

. Find the first term and the common difference. 5 1 .P be ‘a’ and ‘d’ respectively. It’s nth term is given by tn = a + (n – 1)d ∴ 2nd term = t2 = a + (2 – 1)d = a + d 6th term = t6 = a + (6 – 1)d = a + 5d By the given condition a + 5d = 0 and a + d=4 .P is 6 . ..7 : Which term of the A.(i) . Solution : Let the first term and common difference of the A. we get a + 5(–1) = 0 or a=5 or d = –1 ∴ The first term of the A.(ii) Subtracting (ii) from (i).P.. 1 . Example 8.. is 6 ? 4 4 2 4 4 Solution : The first term (a) = Common difference (d) = 1 Let the nth term be 6 4 or 1 + n −1 1 25 = 4 4 4 1 4 1−1= 1 2 4 4 b g or 1 + (n – 1) = 25 or n = 25 1 Hence.P is zero and the 2nd term is 4... 1. is 5 and the common difference is –1..190 Mathematics Example 8.. 4 . 25th term of the above A. 3 .P 1 . we have 4d = –4 Putting d = –1 in (i).6 : The 6th term of an A.

(i) t3 = a + 2d . that of 2nd brother is 30 years and of the eldest brother is 45 years.(ii) .(ii) Putting a = 30 in (ii).(i) 3a – 3d = a + d 2a = 4d a = 2d (a – d) + a + (a + d) = 90 3a = 90 a = 30 30 = 2d . t4 = a + 3d t7 = a + 6d and By the given condition a + 3d = 3a or and or or 2a – 3d = 0 a + 6d = 2(a + 2d) + 1 a – 2d + 1 = 0 a = 2d – 1 .9 : The fourth term of an A.. Find the ages of all. The age of the youngest brother is onethird the age of the eldest. a + d By the given condition a – d = or or or and or or 1 (a + d) 3 ..... we get or d = 15 Putting the values of a and d in (i).P is equal to three times its first term and 7th term exceeds twice the third term by 1. Solution : Let the first term and common difference of the A. Find the first term and common difference. we get a – d = 15 a = 30 and a + d = 45 ∴ The required age of the youngest brother is 15 years. be ‘a’ and ‘d’ respectively.P... Example 8. a .8 : The ages of three brothers are in A. Solution : Let the ages (in years) of three brothers be a – d .P.Number Patterns 191 Example 8.. if the sum of their ages is 90 years.

P is equal to n times its nth term.192 Mathematics Putting the value of a in (i) we get. d = +11.P. Solution : Let the three terms of the A.. 2(2d – 1) – 3d = 0 or 4d – 2 – 3d = 0 or d=2 2a = 6 or ∴ Substituting d = 2 in (i) . Solution : Let the first term and common difference of the A. 7. a + d By the given condition (a – d) + a + (a + d) = 21 or or and or or or or or or or 3a = 21 a = 7 (a – d)2 + a2 + (a + d)2 = 389 a2 – 2ad + d2 + a2 + a2 + 2ad + d2 = 389 3a2 + 2d2 = 389 3 × 72 + 2d2 = 389 147 + 2d2 = 389 2d2 = 242 d2 = 121 d = ± 11 [using (i)] . the three numbers are 18.P be ‘a’ and ‘d’ respectively ∴ tm = a + (m – 1)d tn = a + (n – 1)d By the given condition m × tm = n × tn . Example 8. 18 When a = 7. –4. d = –11. the three numbers are –4.11 : If m times the mth term of an A. prove that its (m + n)th term is zero. 7. are 3 and 2 respectively.P whose sum is 21 and sum of their squares is 389.we get a=3 The required first term and common difference of the A. a.. Example 8.(i) When a = 7.P be a – d.10 : Find three numbers in A.

(b) 5 . 11. 5. Find the next two terms of the following A.. 21. 85. 95. Which term of the A.. is 334 ? 6.. 4. If the mth. − 5 . .. .P.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESSION 8.P.Number Patterns 193 or m{a + (m – 1)d} = n{a + (n – 1)d} or or or or m{a + (m – 1)d} – n{a + (n – 1)d} = 0 (m – n)a + {m (m – 1) – n (n – 1)}d = 0 (m – n)a + {(m2 – n2) – (m – n)}d = 0 (m – n)a + {(m + n) (m – n) – (m – n)}d = 0 Dividing throughout by m – n. − 1. . nth and rth terms of an A. are x. 3 . − 3. of the following A.P.. y and z respectively.P. 19.. we get or a + (m + n – 1)d = 0 We know that ∴ tm+n = a + (m + n – 1)d tm+n = 0 Hence the result.P : (a) 100. The angles of a triangle are in A. 16. Write the formula for nth term. 22.P is 23 and 12th term is 37. find the angles.P.... .. 27.. 10. . (b) 3.P. 4 4 1. 7. Prove that x(n – r) + y(r – m) + z (m – n) = 0. 1. . 16. 2 2 2 2 2. . Find the first term and common difference of the A. The 5th term of an A. is –20 ? (b) 4. If the least angle is one-third the largest angle.’s (a) 11.’s : (a) 6. 90. The nth term of a progression is given by the relation : (a) Tn = 10 – n (c) Tn = 1 − 2n 3 (b) Tn = 7n + 2 Show that each of them is an A.2 1.

+ 1} = n {2a + (n – 1)d} 2Sn = n{2a + (n – 1)d} Sn = n {2a + (n – 1)d} 2 . we get ... (3) can also be rewritten as Sn = = n a + a + n −1 d 2 m b gr [Q nth term = tn = a + (n – 1)d] n a+t n 2 b g Sometimes nth term is named as the last term and is denoted by the letter ‘l’. + (a + 2d) + (a + d) + a Adding corresponding terms of (1) and (2).. a + 2d . a + d .. Let Sn denote the sum of first n terms of the A..... ..(2) 2Sn = {2a + (n – 1)d} + {2a + (n – 1)d} + {2a + (n – 1)d} + .P. .12 : Find the sum of the first 10 terms of the following A.. 11..(4) Example 8..P We know that the standard form of an A.P’s : (a) 1.P is given by : a .P.(3) which denotes the general formula for finding the sum of the first n terms of the A. ∴ Sn = n a+l 2 b g ..(1) ... –185. a + (n – 1)d tn–1 tn where ‘a’ and ‘d’ are the first term and the common difference respectively.194 Mathematics 8. 16...7 THE SUM OF THE FIRST n TERMS OF AN A. we get Sn = {a+ (n – 1)d} + {a+ (n – 2)d} + ... + {2a + (n – 1)d} = {2a + (n – 1)d} {1 + 1 + 1 + . (b) –193.P.. and tn–1 and tn denote the (n – 1)th and nth terms of the A. 6. .. ∴ We can write Sn = a + ( a + d) + (a + 2d) + . a + (n – 2)d . .. . –189. + {a + (n – 2)d}+ {a + (n – 1)d} Writing the terms in reverse order.

is : 1. 16. + 146 Here a = 2. Here a = 1.P. d = –189 – (–193) = 4 n = 10.’s : (i) 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + . .P.. Example 8.. Here and a = –193. d = (4 – 2) = 2 and the nth term = tn = 146 mb g b gr . 6. –185.. (b) The given A. d = 6 – 1 = 5 Number of terms = n = 10 We know that the sum of the first n terms of an A..P.. is : 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + . is : We know that.Number Patterns 195 Solution : (a) The given A... . 11.P. + 146 1 1 3 (ii) 5 + 4 + 3 + .P whose first term is ‘a’ and common difference is d . is given by Sn = ∴ n {2a + (n – 1)d} 2 10 2 × 1 + 10 − 1 5 2 S10 = m b gr = 5(2 + 45) = 235 ∴ The required sum is 235 –193. –189. + (– 3) 4 2 4 Solution : (i) The given A....13 : Find the sum of each of the following A. Sn = = n {2a + (n – 1)d} 2 10 2 −193 + 10 − 1 4 2 = 5(–386 + 36) = 5 × (–350) = – 1750 The required sum is –1750.

P. 4 2 . + (–3) 4 2 4 Here Here nth term is –3. is 73 The required sum of the first 73 terms is given by S73 = m b gr 73 2 + 72 × 2 l q = 2 73 2 + 73 − 1 .2 = 146 2n = 146 n = 73 ∴ Number of terms in the above A. We know that tn = a + (n –1)d = –3 or or or or or 21 3 –3 = 4 + n − 1 − 4 21 − 3 n − 1 = –3 4 1 1 21 1 3 a= 5 = .P. S N n = n a + tn 2 l qOQP 9 27 = 6× = . is 5 1 + 4 1 + 3 3 + . is –3 b g FH IK b g 21 – 3n + 3 = –12 24 + 12 = 3n n = 12 The required sum of the first 12 terms is given by 12 21 S12 = 2 4 − 3 FH IK LMusing.P.2 2 = 73 × 146 2 = 5329 (ii) The given A. d = 4 −5 = − 4 2 4 4 4 Let us find out which term of this A...196 Mathematics We know that tn = a + (n – 1)d = 146 or or or 2 + (n – 1).

+ 1002 (b) 25 + 28 + 31 + . –1.. are needs to get the sum 104 ? 3..5 = 1015 or or ∴ The required sum 5n = 1015 n = 203 203 5 + 1015 2 5 + 10 + 15 + 20 + . 1015 We have to find the above sum i. .. 7. ..Number Patterns 197 Example 8. Find the sum of the first 10 odd natural numbers. 4.. + 1015 Here a = 5. 15. d = 10 – 5 = 5 and tn = 1015 S203 = = l q LMUsing.P. Find the following sums : (a) 7 + 12 + 17 + 22 + .. If the Ist term is –5.. 10. 4. We can write a + (n – 1)d = 1015 or 5 + (n – 1). 8. Sum of first 6 terms of an AP is –45.. S N n = n a + tn 2 l qOPQ 203 × 1020 2 = 103530 CHECK YOUR PROGRESSION 8. Solution : The multiples of 5 upto 1017 are : 5. : (a) 1. + 328 2. 10. –7. 20.14 : Find the sum of all multiples of 5 upto 1017. –4.e. A progression can also . How many terms of the A... find its last term and common difference..3 1. .8 IDEA OF A GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION So far we have learnt that an Arithmetic Progression can be formed by repeatedly adding/ subtracting a constant number to/from a given first number (term). are needed to get the sum 715 ? (b) –10...

It is shown by following figure : Step 0 : ........ In this case it is 3 : 1 as 9 = 27 = 81 = 243 = 3 3 9 27 81 1 It is usually denoted by ‘r’ Such a progression is called a Geometric progression (abbreviated as G....... 27......... .. 243......... .(i) If you observe each term of the above pattern/progression............... Consider that he/she conveys this message to two persons and both of them pass on this message to two other persons each and so on.. Step 1 : . 81.........) Let us take another example to consolidate : Consider that a person reads from the newspaper that the Government is stressing on more security for the railway passengers.......................... If we consider that the starting prize in a game of ‘Triple Your Money’ is 3... then repeated tripling (multiplication by 3) would form the progression of possible prizes as 3.P.... 9..... Step 2 : ..... Step 3 : ............... .198 Mathematics be formed by repeatedly multiplying or dividing its preceding term by a non-zero constant............ you will find that there is a common ratio between two consecutive terms.....

.. (ii) 5. 12.(ii) The ratio of any two successive terms of a Geometric Progression is called its common ratio.. 27. Both can be rewritten as as follows : In general if ‘a’ be the first term and ‘r’ be the common ratio. A progression is said to be a Geometric Progression (abbreviated as G.. 16.. 8.. 8.P’s : (i) 3.). if the ratio of any two successive terms is always the same. . You can verify that common ratio in (ii) is always the same as 2 = 4 = 8 = 16 = 2 1 2 4 8 . The following progressions are all examples of G. .P.P’s in (i) and (ii) 3. 20. and 1... 2. 10. This type of progression are called a Geometric Progression.. 1. 40. Now observe the G. . you will get the following progression. 192. 2. the standard form or general form of a Geometric progressions would be a .. 9. ar2 .. 48. . ar3 . If you calculate the number of persons informed at each step.. 16. . . . ar . 81.. 4. 4.Number Patterns 199 Generally rumours spreads in this manner..

1 . .... .. Example 8. 125. 42. the common ratio is not the same. 14. . 2 4 8 1 Here the first term is 1 and the Common ratio is = − .16 : Find the common ratio of the following G.... (b) 7. Here the first term is 7 but the common ratio is not the same as 14 ≠ 21 7 14 Since. 15. Solution : (a) The given progression is 11.. 1..P’s from the following progressions : (a) 1. this is not a geometric progression. − . 25.. − . 1 . 121. Here the first term is 1 and the common ratio = ∴ The progression is a geometric progression. 25.’s : (a) 11. –75.... . . 21. 16. 1 . . . Here the first term = 11 Common ratio = 121 = 1331 = 11 11 121 . 5. 2 4 8 Solution : (a) The given progression is 1. 1331. 42. ... − . (b) –3. 64.P. 125.200 Mathematics (iii) 1. .. . . 21.. 5. 1331. 2 8 32 128 1 1.15 : Identify G.. Example 8.. . (c) The given progression is 1. − 1 (iv) 1. − 1 . 256.. 1 1 1 (c) 1.. 4 16 64 (v) 4. . 5 = 25 = 125 = 5 1 5 25 (b) The given progression is 7. 14.. − 1 . 2 ∴ The progression is a geometric progression.. . 121..

. . 15.). LET US SUM UP z A progression is said to be an Arithmetic Progression (abbreviated as A.P will decrease.. The successive terms of an A. (d) 45. except the first. .P.P. Identify Geometric Progressions from the following progressions : (a) 4. ... tn where ‘a’ and ‘d’ are the first term and common difference respectively. 5.. Find the common ratio of each of the progressions given in Question Number 2... .P is given by a . Here the first term = –3 Common ratio = +15 −75 = −5 . 20. 500. = −3 +15 CHECK YOUR PROGRESSION 8. 17. .. The common difference in usually denoted by ‘d’. 25. 15. (b) 24.. 4.. from its preceding term is always the same.. 8. . .P’s : (a) 16. the terms of an A... . 3 9 27 (c) 125... –75. 2. 6..4 1. 1. a + 2d . In that case. t2. The standard form of an A. 20.Number Patterns 201 (b) The given progression is –3. are usually denoted by t1. 5. .. 12.. .. The general term (nth term) of an A. z z z z The common difference may be negative also.P is given by tn = a + (n – 1)d.. 100. a + d . Show that the following progressions are in G. z . 14. 1 1 1 (b) 1. tn–1 . . 1. . 2... if the difference of each term. (c) 11. 3. t3.

z The ratio of any two successive terms of a G. 3 . 8.. TERMINAL EXERCISE z 1.P. ar2 . . 2 b g z A progression is said to be a Geometric Progression (abbreviation as G... 8 . .'s ? (a) 13 . 19 . .. 2 2 22 . ar . 20 . .P is called its common ratio and is usually denoted by ‘r’. 2 . is 56 ? . : (a) 5...P whose first term is ‘a’ and common difference is ‘d’ is given by Sn = = n 2a + n − 1 d 2 m b gr n a+l ... 1. 2. 3 3 3.. . 1. (c) 3 .. .. 11.P whose nth term is given by (a) n (c) 2n +1 3 (b) 3 – 5n n (d) – + 1 2 4.P. 52. 2. Show that the following progressions are in A. Which of the following progressions are A... –5. 7 7 5. The standard form of a Geometric Progression is given by a .. .. where l is the last term... Which term of the following A. 4.P’s : (a) –1. .. . 1 1 1 (d) 1.. 2 3 4 (c) (e) 22. . . where ‘a’ and ‘r’ are the first term and common ratio respectively. 5 ..) if the ratio of any two successive terms is always the same. 7 7 (b) –1.. Find the general term (or nth term) of the following A. 13 .202 Mathematics z The sum of the first n terms of an A. 2 2 (b) (d) 15 . . . –3. 82.P. –1. 1 . ..

9. 25... 4 16 (c) 16.P are 8 and 14 respectively.P. 125 25 5 .. 28. − . as 1625 ? 6. 11. 11. –186. . 49. 10.. 12. 6.. . The sum of three consecutive terms of an A. is –14 ? 5.. is 506 ? (c) –190.... –182.P is twice its 8th term.. Find the sum of the following A...Number Patterns 203 (b) 1. How many terms are needed to make the sum of the A. 7.. 9. If its 6th term is –8.. 16 terms (c) 1 + 9 + 17 + .000 in 10 years. 8. . The 14th term of an A.P’s for given number of terms : (a) 7 + 3 – 1 – 5 .. 20 terms (b) 15 + 13 + 11 + . 20 terms 7. find the first term and the common difference.. Find the terms. 1 1 (b) 1. .. A man saved Rs 20. Show that the following progressions are in G.. If 5th and 9th terms of an A....P.. Find the sum of all even numbers upto 1001. . If the saving of each year is Rs 100 more than the saving in the preceding year. 31. 1 . find the first term and common difference. .P is 36 and their product is 1428. find his saving in the first year. . 1 . . : (a) 1. 12. (d) 1 ..

Rs 1550 . 3 2 9. (a). 7. (c) and (d) are in A. (a) and (c) 2. 250500 11. (a) 18th term 6. –10.4 1. (a) 22 terms 4. –2 10. (a) 1 – 2n 4.204 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 8.–1 Check Your Progress 8. (a) 25th term Check Your Progress 8. 26 7.P Check Your Progress 8. (a) t n = 5n + 1 5. (a). (a) –620 (b) 16 − n 7 (c) 2+n 2 (d) 6− n 3 3. and 90° (b) tn = (b) 56th term (b) 18003 (b) 13 terms 3. 15. (b) and (d) Terminal Exercise 1. (a) 100900 2. 100 (b) 1 3 (c) 1 5 (b) 102th term (b) 0 (c) 45th term (c) 1540 5. (a) 35. 2.2 1. 43 2. 2 6. 60°. 12 and 17 or 17. 2. 30°.3 1.1 1. (a) 1 2 (b) 1. 12 and 7 8. 1 2 4 3 − 2n 2 4.

. For that they levy certain taxes on citizens. Sometimes when we are not able to return loaned money on time. called interest. Sometimes we have to buy articles on instalments because of non-availability of adequate funds.e. the financer starts charging interest on interest also. Due to greater supply of goods or sub-standard goods they are to be sold on loss. Due to this the students are taught to calculate interest when they buy articles on instalment plan. The formulae of compound interest is also used in finding increase or decrease in prices of things.) worked on fractions and ratio and proportion.. In 900 A. Brahmgupta. Taking the lead from this. in their nest or caves. The latent meaning of this is to save something for difficult times. there is a description of levying taxes. This encourages citizens to save and keep the money safe.D. Banks and other financial institutions keep the money of their customers and on the expiry of the period pay extra money. This is why calculation of interest on deposits in banks is included for teaching. This is also taught under “Appreciation and Depreciation” of value. The learners are. Bakshali Manuscript was discovered which had a number of problems on Arithmetic. Due to this the study of compound interest has been included in this module. introduced to percentage and profit and loss. Sridharacharya). . The Government provides a number of facilities to the citizens. Yodoksu (370 B.C. the students have been told about the importance and need of savings in this module. keep your expenditure less than your income. In the reigns of Ashoka and Chandragupta.208 Mathematics Module 2 Commercial Mathematics It is a common saying by elders “spend within your limits” i. To keep your savings safe is another tough task. Two of these taxes are sales tax and income tax to which the learners are introduced in this module. Mahavira. There is a description of many mathematicians working on practice and proportion (like Aryabhatt. Financial transactions about buying and selling are generally done for profit. therefore. Many Indian mathematicians have worked on the topic of commercial Mathematics. You must have seen birds and animals saving eatables for rainy season. which is called compound interest. in addition to the money deposited.

9.Ratio and Proportion 209 9 Ratio and Proportion 9. direct and inverse proportion (variation) and use these concepts to solve real life problems. 9. we talk of the ratio of two numbers. Another way is to see one number is how many times the other number.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z Four Fundamental operations on numbers Comparison by division Knowledge of different units of measures and their conversions. we say that we have formed a ratio of the two quantities. partnership. we compare the numbers by difference and in the second we compare the numbers by division. In this lesson we shall study to write a ratio in the simplest form. work and wages etc. 9. time and work. In the first case. the learner will be able to : z z z z write a ratio in the simplest form determine whether given four numbers are in proportion illustrate the concept of direct and inverse proportion (variation) solve real life problems pertaining to time and distance. work and wages and partnership. introduce the concept of proportion. pertaining to time and distance.4 CONCEPT OF RATIO When we compare the two quantities by division.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. In the second case. time and work.1 INTRODUCTION You are aware of the concept of comparison of numbers in two different ways. . One way is to see which number is larger and which is smaller.

Here. For example. the order of two terms in a ratio is very important. Example 9.e. . Remarks : From Example 1 given above.. we do not compare 5 boys and 6 cows or 10 kg and 500 m or 5 toys and 3 fruits.2 : A labourer earns Rs 3200 a month and spends Rs 2500. is 90 : 37.1 : In a class. we compare (3 × 30) days and 37 days. thus. b In the ratio 90 : 40. This is also written as a . to compare 3 months and 37 days. the ratio of any number ‘a’ and ‘b’ is written as a : b. there are 28 girls and 16 boys. we can say that the ratio of the weight of a bag of wheat to the weight of a bag of rice is 90 : 40 (read as 90 is to 40) The symbol ‘:’ is used to denote a ratio. Find the ratio of his (i) expenditure to income (ii) savings to income (iii) savings to expenditure Solution : Here Income = Rs 3200. Remark : We cannot compare two quantities if they are not of the same kind i. it is necessary to express the two quantities in the same unit. It may be noted that in the above examples ratio is not 3 : 37. 90 and 40 are called terms of the ratio. Thus. Hence. the ratio a : b is different from the ratio b : a. Find (i) the ratio of the number of boys to that of girls (ii) the ratio of the number of girls to that of boys. The ratio. Solution : (i) The required ratio is 16 : 28.210 Mathematics Consider an example of a bag of wheat with weight 90 kg and a bag of rice with weight 40 kg. Expenditure = Rs 2500 ∴ Savings = Income – Expenditure = Rs 3200 – Rs 2500 = Rs 700 (i) Ratio of expenditure to income = 2500 : 3200 (ii) Ratio of savings to income = 700 : 3200 (iii) Ratio of savings to expenditure = 700 : 2500. The first term (90) is called the antecedent and the second term (40) is called the consequent. (ii) The required ratio is 28 : 16. Example 9. To compare two quantities as a ratio.

Hence. because 10 is a common factor of its two terms. Solution : (i) Since the given quantities are in different units. Hence. Divide each of the terms by the H. How to obtain the simplest form of a given ratio ? For a given ratio.4. getting 1000 ml.C. obtained. The simplest form of the ratio 20 : 50 is 2 : 5. 9. or 4 : 10 or 2 : 5. getting 7000 m. find the H. i. other than 1. the required ratio is 7000 : 750. the required ratio is 250 : 1000.F. the required ratio is 5 : 7.F.2 Ratio in the Simplest Form A ratio a : b is said to be in the simplest form if its two terms do not have a common factor.Ratio and Proportion 211 Example 9. therefore first convert 7 km into m. Hence. of its two terms a and b. For example.1 Equal Ratios A ratio remains unchanged when both of its terms are multiplied or divided by the some nonzero number. Note : A ratio can be expressed in several ways. The ratio 20 : 50 can be written as 10 : 25. 9. the ratio 20 : 50 is not in the simplest form. HCF of the two terms is 1. The ratio formed of the two new numbers obtained is the simplest form of the given ratio. say a : b. (iii) The two quantities are not in same units.C.4. the two terms 2 and 5 do not have a common factor other than 1. etc. we convert 1 week into days. We. we therefore convert 1 litre into ml. as seen above. Hence. .e. (ii) The two quantities are not in the same units. getting 7 days. 20 : 50 is equal to 10 : 25 or or 4 : 10 2:5 Note that in the ratio 2 : 5.3 : Find the ratio of (i) 5 days to 1 week (ii) 7 km to 750 m (iii) 250 ml to 1 l.

F. of 150 and 400 is 50. because 2 minutes = 120 seconds.C. ∴ 24 : 30 = 24 30 : =4:5 6 6 (ii) The H.F. ∴ 150 : 400 = 150 400 : =3:8 50 50 Thus. (iv) The H.of 480 and 576 is 96 ∴ 480 : 576 = 480 576 : =5:6 96 96 Thus. Example 9. 3 : 8 is the simplest form of the ratio 150 : 400. 17 : 45 is the simplest form of the ratio 85 : 225.C.F.C.5 : Find the simplest form of the ratio of each of the following two quantities: (i) 65 km to 91 km (ii) 45 seconds to 2 minutes (iii) 6 hours to 1 day Solution : (i) The ratio of 65 km to 91 km is 65 : 91 The H. (iii) The H. ∴ 65 : 91 = 65 : 91 =5:7 13 13 Thus.C.F.C.C.212 Mathematics Example 9. . of 45 and 120 is 15. The H. 5 : 6 is the simplest form of the ratio 480 : 576. the simplest form of the ratio is 5 :7. (ii) The ratio of 45 seconds to 2 minutes is 45 : 120.F.of 85 and 225 is 5 ∴ 85 : 225 = 85 225 : = 17 : 45 5 5 Thus.4 : Express each of the following ratios in the simplest form : (i) 24 : 30 (ii) 85 : 225 (ii) 150 : 400 (iv) 480 : 576 Solution : (i) The H.F. of 24 and 30 is 6. of 65 and 91 is 13.

is (v) The ratio 5 : 4 is of the ratio 100 : 80. Narmita earned Rs 84000 and paid Rs 1200 as income tax. 49 of them are men and the rest are women.C. Find the ratio (in the simplest form) of : (i) the number of men to that of women (ii) the number of women to the total number of workers . Fill in the blanks to make each of the following a true statement : (i) In the ratio 3 : 7. ∴ 6 : 24 = 6 : 24 =1:4 6 6 Thus. 5.50. 2. Find the ratio (in the simplest form) of : (i) 45 cm to 5 m (iii) 90 paise to Rs 3 (v) 1 hour to 15 seconds (ii) 200 g to 5 kg (iv) 35 minutes to 45 seconds (vi) Rs 38 to Rs 9. . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 9.32 : 1. In a year. in the simplest form. Find the ratio (in the simplest form) of her (i) income to income tax (ii) income tax to income. Express each of the following ratios in the simplest form : (i) 39 : 65 (iv) 120 : 144 (ii) 200 : 350 (v) 0. the simplest form of the ratio is 3 :8. of 6 and 24 is 6.Ratio and Proportion 213 ∴ 45 : 120 = 45 : 120 =3:8 15 15 Thus. (iii) The simplest form of the ratio 15 : 20 is (iv) The ratio of 2 months to 2 days. So.1 1. 4. the simplest form of the ratio is 1 :4.2 (iii) 172 : 528 (vi) 4860 : 8370 3. (iii) The ratio of 6 hours to 1 day is the same as the ratio for 6 hours to 24 hours (1 day = 24 hours). the antecedent is (ii) The ratio 3 : 5 is and consequent is from the ratio 5 : 3. Total number of workers in a factory is 196.F. . the ratio is 6 : 24 The H.

Solution : We have Sum of the terms of the ratio = 3 + 5 + 7 = 15 ∴ 3 × 1050I FH 15 K F5 I B’s share = Rs H 15 × 1050K A’s share = Rs C’s share = Rs 7 × 1050I FH 15 K = Rs 210 = Rs 350 = Rs 490. l + m. and . Example 9. the two parts of 144 with given ratio are 63 and 81. we follow the procedure given below : Step 1 : Find the sum of the two terms of the ratio. A rectangular sheet of paper is 30 cm long and 21 cm wide. Solution : We have Sum of the two terms of the ratio = 7 + 9 = 16 ∴ First part = second part = 7 × 144 = 63 16 9 × 144 = 81 16 and Thus. Step 2 : Use the following formula to obtain the two parts of the given number x. Find the ratio (in the simplest form) of its (i) width to length (ii) length to perimeter. First part = Second part = l ×x l+m m ×x l+m Remark : The same procedure is followed even if the given number is to be divided in more than two parts in the given ratio.5 DIVISION OF A NUMBER IN THE GIVEN RATIO To divide a given number x in the given ratio l : m.e.6 : Divide 144 in two parts in the ratio 7 : 9. 9. i.214 Mathematics 6. Example 9. C in the ratio 3 : 5 : 7.7 : Divide Rs 1050 among A. B.

If the perimeter is 36 cm. Thus. On expressing these ratios in the simplest form.2 1. PROPORTION An equality of two ratios constitutes a proportion. The ratio between two quantities is 2 : 7. [Hint : Sum of the three angles of a triangle is 180°] 5. then find the number of teachers.e. (i) Divide 15 in the ratio 2 : 3. 2. c. (ii) Divide 184 in the ratio 3 : 5 (iii) Divide 7780 in the ratio 7 : 8 : 5. d (in order) are said to be in proportion. If the total number of persons in the camp is 159. b. Divide : (i) Rs 140 in the ratio 2 : 5 (ii) Rs 154 in the ratio 3 : 4 (iii) 9 cm 8 mm in the ratio 2 : 5 (iv) 10 cm 5 mm in the ratio 1 : 4. . 3. Find the angles. if the ratio of the first two is equal to ratio of the last two i.Ratio and Proportion 215 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 9. the ratio of the number of clerks to the number of officers is 17 : 2. Consider two ratios 8 : 14 and 20 : 35. the ratio of the number of teachers to the number of students is 3 : 50. we find that 8 : 14 = 4 : 7 and Therefore.8 kg. 9. find the number of clerks in the bank. 6. The sides of a triangle are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 4. In a camp.6. we define proportion as follows : “Four numbers a. In a bank. a : b = c : d”. If the total number of persons working in the bank is 57. how much is the first ? 4. 7. 20 : 35 = 4 : 7 8 : 14 = 20 : 35 8 : 14 = 20 : 35 is a proportion. Similarly. If the second quantity is 9. 20 : 70 = 2 : 7 is a proportion. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio 3 : 5 : 7. then find its sides. Thus.

30. 5.8 above. 10. 60 are in proportion. Example 9. a : b=c : d ⇒ a=c b d or ad = bc. 5 Solution : (i) Here. 25. 60 in proportion ? Solution : Ratio of first two terms is 5 : 10. we find that the order of four numbers for a proportion is important. which is equal to 1 : 2 ∴ 5 : 10 = 30 : 60 Hence. (ii) Here. then we write a:b::c :d which is read as “a is to be as c is to d” or “a to b as c to d”. second. c. . b. 5.9 : Are. 15. 10. In other words a : b : : c : d if and only if ad = bc. Example 9. Aliter Here. b. The product of extremes = 3 × 25 = 75 The product of means = 5 × 15 = 75 Since the two products are equal. the second and third terms are called means. 5. 25 (ii) 3. c and d are the first. 30. In a proportion a : b : : c : d. the four numbers are not in proportion. Note : In a proportion. which is equal to 1 : 2 Ratio of last two terms is 30 : 60.8 : Which of the following four numbers constitute a proportion ? (i) 3.216 Mathematics When four numbers a. d (in order) are in proportion. third and fourth terms of the proportion. the product of extremes is equal to the product of means. then given numbers are in proportion. The first and fourth terms are called extremes. Product of extremes = 5 × 60 = 300 Product of means = 10 × 30 = 300 Since the two products are equal. Remark : From Example 9. The product of extremes = 3 × 5 = 15 The product of means = 15 × 25 = 375 Since the two products are not equal. the four numbers are in proportion. 15. a.

We know that for a proportion. then find the other mean. 8. ⇒ ⇒ 5 × 30 = 10 × x x= 5 × 30 = 15 10 Thus.Ratio and Proportion 217 Example 9. In this case. Example 9. If one of means is 24.0 : 4.10 : The first. if a. 8. c are in proportion. 8. Thus. the four numbers 4. we say that a. 10 and 30 respectively. we say that 4. Solution : Let the other mean be x. x.12 : Are 4. product of means = product of extremes ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 24 × x = 12 × 28 x= 12 × 28 24 x = 14 Thus. 16 are in proportion. b. Which of the following statements are true ? (i) 4 : 6 = 8 : 12 (iii) 16 : 24 : : 30 : 20 (ii) 4 : 28 = 7 : 1 (iv) 6. 16 are in continued proportion. Remark : In Example 5 above. 30 are in proportion.6 . 8. 8. c are in continued proportion. Solution : Let the third term be x so that 5. Find the third therm. b. b2 = ac and b is called the mean proportional of a and c. Example 9. 16 in proportion ? Solution : Here.11 : The two extremes of a proportion are 12 and 28.5 : : 4.3 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 9. Product of means = 8 × 8 = 64 Product of extremes = 4 × 16 = 64 Since the two products are equal. second and fourth terms of a proportion are 5. the third term is 15.8 : 3. In such a case. 10. the means are the same. b. the other mean is 14.

12. you see that as the number of pens purchased increases. 27. more money you have to pay. you will have to pay only Rs 8. find the value of x. 12 are in continued proportion. Here you see that more the number of pens purchased. where k is a constant. less the number of pens purchased. lesser the number of days. 10 (iv) 40. We say that the number of persons employed to complete a job and the number of days taken by them are in inverse proportion (variation). 9. x. the number of days required to complete the job decreases. if you buy 4 pens. 10. 16. 7.7. where k is a constant of b . the price you have to pay also increases. 50 are in proportion. 30. Thus. If 3. called the constant of variation or proportionality. We also say that a varies directly as b and write a = kb. x. we say that the number of pens purchased and the price paid are in direct proportion. 15 (ii) 12. 6. Determine which of the following numbers are in proportion : (i) 18. 9.7 DIRECT PROPORTION (VARIATION) If you buy 6 pens for Rs 12. if x : 6 : : 5 : 3. 4. Thus. Find the mean proportional between 5 and 125. Find the value of x. two quantities a and b are said to be in direct proportion if increase/decrease in one quantity results in the corresponding increase/decrease in the other. less money you have pay. k or ab = k. Again. we see that lesser the number of persons employed. if a = proportionality. In general. x. 18 (iii) 2. 18.1 Inverse Proportion (Variation) If two persons. then 4 persons employed to do the same job will take 12 days to complete it. We may note that as the number of persons employed increases. 35 and 42. To indicate the above situation. take 24 days to complete it. Likewise. 5. 6 persons will take only 8 days to complete the job.218 Mathematics 2. employed to construct a wall. 60. We say that a varies inversely (indirectly) to b. 45 3. you will have to pay Rs 16 for 8 pens and Rs 24 for 12 pens. 14. find x. more the number of days Or more the number of persons employed. 3. In general. Set up all possible proportions from the numbers 15. two quantities a and b are said to be in inverse proportion if increase/decrease in one quantity results in corresponding decrease/increase in the other quantity. If 18.

Example 9. How many pages can he type in 7 days? Solution : Let y denote the number of pages that the typist would type in 7 days Since the number of pages vary directly as the number of days.Ratio and Proportion 219 9. the cost of 8 books is Rs 112 Example 9. we get the following : Quantity 5 8 5 : 8 = 70 : x ⇒ ⇒ 5 70 = 8 x Cost (in rupees) 70 x Since the cost varies directly as quantity. we get 5 : 7 = 70 : y ⇒ ⇒ 70 5 = y 7 y= 70 × 7 = 98 5 Number of days 5 7 Thus. Equating the two ratios we get x= 8 × 70 = 112 5 Thus. how many men should be employed to build 120 m long wall of the same height in the same time.8 APPLICATIONS OF DIRECT PROPORTION We will take some examples to illustrate the application of direct proportion (variation) in daily life situations.15 : If 15 men can build a 100 m long wall in some days. we get the following : Number of pages 70 y Equating the two ratios. Example 9.14 : A typist types 70 pages in 5 days. Since the number of men varies directly as the length of the wall. the typist will type 98 pages in 7 days. how much will 8 books cost ? Solution : Let Rs x denote the cost of 8 books.13 : If 5 books cost Rs 70. we get the following : . Solution : Let n denote the number of persons to be employed to build a wall 120 m long.

220 Mathematics Number of men 15 n Equating the two ratios. 60 Thus.17 : If a deposit of Rs 3000 carries an interest of Rs 900 in some time.16 : A jeep travels 50 km in 1 hour. Example 9. we get 100 : 120 = 15 : n ⇒ ⇒ 100 15 = 120 n Length of wall (in metres) 100 120 n= 15 × 120 = 18 100 Thus. the jeep would travel 10 km in 12 minutes. 18 men will build 120 m long wall in the same time. what interest would a deposit of Rs 5000 earn in the same time ? Solution : Let I denote the interest that Rs 5000 would earn. Since the distance travelled and time taken vary directly we get the following : Time (in minutes) 60 12 Equating the two ratios we get 60 : 12 = 50 : d ⇒ ⇒ 60 50 = 12 d Distance (in km) 50 d d= 50 × 12 = 10. Since the interest earned and the amount deposited vary directly. we get the following : Principal (in Rs) 3000 5000 Interest (in Rs) 900 I . How much distance would it travel in 12 minutes ? Solution : Let d denote the distance (in km) travelled by the jeep in 12 minutes. Example 9.

In partnership. If 7 pens cost Rs 98.e. 2. we get 3000 : 5000 = 900 : I ⇒ ⇒ 3000 900 = 5000 I I= 5000 × 900 = 1500 3000 Thus. how many erasers can be bought for Rs 50 ? . These individuals are called partners. all or some partners invest money in business for same or different periods of time. and that of B is Rs (35000 – 14000) i. 21000. The following examples illustrate the above concept.9 PARTNERSHIP When two or more individuals enter into business jointly we say that they enter into a partnership.18 : A and B start a business by investing Rs 40000 and Rs 60000 respectively. we get 40000 : 60000 = x : (35000 – x) ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 40000 x = 60000 35000 − x 2 x = 3 35000 − x 2(35000 – x) = 3x 70000 – 2x = 3x 5x = 70000 x = 14000 Thus A’s share is Rs 14000. 9. If the cost of 12 erasers is Rs 30. Then B’s share is Rs (35000 – x). equating the two ratios.4 1.Ratio and Proportion 221 Equating the two ratios. Since share of profit varies directly as the investment. the deposit of Rs 5000 would earn an interest of Rs 1500 in the given time. Solution : Let A's share be Rs x. The profits or losses of a partnership business are shared among the partners in the ratio of their investments. find the share of each in the profit. Rs. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 9. If at the end of the year they earn a profit of Rs 35000. Example 9. find the cost of 35 pens.

If 5 litres of petrol cost Rs 140. find the thickness of a pile of 30 similar cardboards ? 16. A and B start. A and B start a business with Rs 70000 and Rs 80000 respectively. Rs 18000 paid for the rent from the profit of Rs 50700. They earn Rs 50700 as the annual profit. In how many days would 15 men dig the same trench? 14. A man earns Rs 1750 per week. In how many days would he prepare 27 such chairs ? 5.222 Mathematics 3. 19. should be appointed. 4 taps of equal capacity can fill 6 tubs in a given time. How many tubs can be filled by 10 taps in the same time ? 9. A carpenter prepares 18 chairs in 4 days. they earned a profit of Rs 40500.e. A car travels 160 km in 4 hours. A woman can pack 270 bundles in 3 days. Find the sum invested by each. how many meters of cloth can be woven by 240 men in a day ? 8. How much will it earn in 5 years ? 17. a business with Rs 60000 and Rs 75000 respectively. [Hint. If the thickness of a pile of 20 cardboards is 50 mm. At the end of the year. Subtract Rs (1500 × 12) i. find the share of each after paying the rent. If the interest on Rs 3000 is Rs 150 for a certain period. If 30 men can weave 40 metres of cloth in a day. How long will it take to travel 400 km? 11. 20 farmers plough a field in 8 days. How much will he earn in 4 days ? 13. one gets Rs 35000 and the other gets Rs 18000 as profit. 15. How many bundles can she pack in 7 days? 7. If a family of 5 members consumes 50 kg of cereals in a month.12 lakhs in a joint business. After a year. How many teachers. 3 teachers are appointed. How many days will 16 farmers take to plough the field. Two partners together invested Rs 2. what quantity of cereals would be consumed by family of 6 members in a month ? 10. How many trousers can he stitch in 10 days ? 6. A deposit earns Rs 120 in 24 years. The balance of profit will be shared in the ratio 70000 : 80000] 20. A tailor stitches 10 trousers in 4 days. when the rate of interest remains the same ? 18. Find the share of each partner in the profit. . For every 50 students. what will be the interest on Rs 4500 for the same period. If Rs 1500 per month out of the profit is paid as rent. if a school has 1250 students ? 12. how much will 8 litres of petrol cost ? 4. 10 men dig a trench in 9 days.

we get the following : Speed 55 40 The ratios of like terms are 55 : 40 and 4 : t. the car will cover the same distance in 5.5 40 Thus.5 hours. How many days will 6 girls take to do the some work ? Solution : Let x be the number of days in which 6 girls can do the work. to cover the same distance. Equating the ratio with the inverse of the other. How much time will it take to cover the same distance at an average speed of 40 km per hour ? Solution : Let t (in hours) denote the time that the car will take at the speed of 40 km per hour. we get the following : Girls 4 6 The ratios of like terms are 4 : 6 and 3 : x Equating ratio with the inverse of the other.20 : A car takes 4 hours to cover some distance at an average speed of 55 km per hour. Example 9. Since the number of girls varies inversely as the number of days.10 INVERSE PROPORTION We will now take some examples to illustrate the application of inverse proportion (variation) in daily life situations. 6 girls will complete the work in 2 days. t= . we get 4 : 6=x : 3 ⇒ ⇒ 4 x = 6 3 x= 4×3 =2 6 Days 3 x Thus. Example 9. travelling at a speed of 40 km per hour. Since speed varies inversely as time.Ratio and Proportion 223 9.19 : 4 girls can do a work 3 days. we get 55 : 40 = t : 4 or or t 55 = 40 4 Time 4 t 55 × 4 = 5.

a is the first term (antecedent) and b the second term (consequent).5 km per hour ? 7. how much time will it take to cover the same distance ? 4.F. b. A man deposited Rs 5000 in a bank for one year to get a fixed amount of interest.C. b. c are said to be in continued proportion. After 5 days. 120 men had provisions for 200 days. b.5 km per hour. If 60 more men join them. of its two terms is 1.5 1. how long will the provisions last ? 3. If 3 men can build a wall in 15 days. If a : b = b : c. d are in proportion if and only if ad = bc. The order terms in a ratio is important a : b is not the same as b : a z z z z A ratio is said to be in the simplest form if the H. 6 taps of equal capacity can fill a reservoir in 15 minutes. 400 men have provision for 23 days. In a ratio a : b. how long will 5 men take to build the same wall? 2. Two quantities are said to be in inverse proportion if an increase/decrease in one results in a corresponding decrease/increases in the other. How many taps can fill it in 10 minutes ? 6. c are in continued proportion.5 hours. then a. How long will the remaining provision last ? LET US SUM UP z z z Ratio is a comparison of numbers or quantities of the same kind. If a. A journey takes 21 minutes if I walk at 4. a and d are called the extremes and b and c are called the means. To cover some distance. c. Two quantities are said to be in direct proportion if the increase/decrease in one results in a corresponding increase/decrease in the other. If the same interest is to be earned in 8 months at the same rate of interest. then b2 = ac and b is called mean proportion of a and c. what sum head to be deposited ? 5. A proportion has four terms. a train.224 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 9. In a proportion a : b : : c : d. Four numbers a. A statement indicating equality of two ratios is called a proportion. running at a speed of 80 km per hour. If it runs at a speed of 100 km per hour. z z z z z . How long will it take if I walk at 3. takes 12. 30 men left.

If the second quantity is 9. Are 5. 5 km (iii) 16 mm. Find the ratio of the following in the simplest form : (ii) 50 minutes. Write each of the following ratios in the simplest form : (i) 64 : 160 (i) 450 m. In how much time will it gain 2 minutes 6 seconds ? 12. A and B started a business by investing Rs 50000 and Rs 75000 respectively. 5.5 : 9 2.12 kg. . 6 kg 400 g. what will be the sales tax on the purchase worth Rs 1500 ? (ii) 216 : 384 (iii) 1. Find the share of each out of a profit of Rs 15000. How many cups of sugar are needed for 150 persons ? 9. 45 in proportion ? 8. how many boxes will be required to hold 105 dozen ? 10. A 12 m length of an angle iron weighs 24. How many litres of diesel are needed for 600 km ? 13. Divide (i) Rs 154 in the ratio 5 : 9 (ii) Rs 9292 in the ratio 1 : 3.Ratio and Proportion 225 TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. The ratio between two quantities is 2 : 5. A is a working partner and gets Rs 300 per month for the same. 1 hour 5 minutes (iv) 5 kg 600 g. A mini bus uses 35 litres of diesel for a journey of 420 km.5 kg. Determine the value of p if 20 : p : : 25 : 450. If 12 boxes are required to hold 60 dozen apples. find the first quantity. 81. 9. 14. 6. What will a piece of length 8 m of the same weigh ? 11. Find the share of each in an annual profit of Rs 13500. 15. A and B entered into a partnership investing Rs 35000 and Rs 42000 respectively. A watch gains 42 seconds in 3 days 8 hours. If the sales tax on a purchase worth Rs 600 is Rs 42. 3 cm 3. A dish for 250 persons uses 15 cups of sugar. 4. Find the angles. 7. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio 3 : 7 : 8.

(iii) 43 : 132 (vi) 18 : 31 (iii) 3 : 10 (vi) 4 : 1 (iii) 3 : 4 6. (i). Rs 140000.4 1. 8 cm. Rs 225 20. 60 kg of cereals 12. Rs 72000. 630 9. (i) 7 : 10 Check Your Progress 9. (i) 3 : 5 (iv) 5 : 6 3. 25 3. 10 days 17. 6 days 16. (iv) 5. 18 : 15 : : 42 : 35 Check Your Progress 9. Rs 490 4.1 1. (i) Rs 40 and Rs 100 (iv) 21 mm and 84 cm 3. (i) 9 : 100 (iv) 140 : 3 4. x = 30 2. x = 6 7. Rs 22500 . Rs 18000. 320 metres 10. Rs 1000 15. (iv) 4. 15 11. 9 (ii) 69 and 115 (ii) Rs 66 and Rs 88 (iii) 2723. 7 (iv) 30 : 1 2. (i) 6 and 9 2. 6 days 7. (i) 70 : 1 5. x = 10 4.8 kg 6. 10 hours 13. Rs 15260. Rs 25 19. 12 cm and 16 cm 5. 20 5. 3112 and 1945 (iii) 28 mm and 70 mm (ii) different (v) simplified form (ii) 4 : 7 (v) 4 : 15 (ii) 1 : 25 (v) 240 : 1 (ii) 1 : 70 (ii) 3 : 4 (ii) 5 : 17. 51 Check Your Progress 9. Rs 224 6. Rs 17440 2.2 1. 25 8. 2. (i). 3. (i) 1 : 3 6. 75 mm 18. 15 : 18 : : 35 : 42 . (i) 3. 84° 7. 36°.3 1. 60°. 75 14.226 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 9.

3. 9 days 4. (i) 2 : 5 2. No 10. 360 9. 10 hours 6.Ratio and Proportion 227 Check Your Progress 9. 9 11.5 1. Rs 6000. Rs 5400 6. 27 minutes . 70°. Rs 9000 (ii) Rs 2323 and Rs 6969 5. 80° 8. 30°. Rs 8100. 16. 260 days Terminal Exercises 1. Rs 105 (ii) 9 : 16 (ii) 10 : 13 (iii) 1 : 6 (iii) 8 : 15 2. Rs 7500 7.8 kg 7. 50 litres 15. 20 days 5. 10 days 14. 9 3. 21 12. (i) 9 : 100 (iv) 7 : 8 3. (i) Rs 55 and Rs 99 4.08 kg 13.

you see a banner in the market. you come across situations in which the word ‘percent’ is made use of very frequently.2 OBJECTIVES After studying the lesson. and the rate of discount z z z z . no.5 percent” There are many such situations in different walks of life where the concept of percentage finds its use. instalments etc. more than three) find a single discount equivalent to a given discount series calculate the discount and the selling price of an article. sales tax.1 INTRODUCTION In every day life. 10. the learner will be able to : z z z z z write a fraction and a decimal as a percent and vice-versa calculate specified percent of a given number or a quantity solve problems based on percentage solve problems on profit and loss calculate simple interest and amount when a given sum of money is interested for a specified time period on a given rate of interest. given marked price of the article. discount.5 percent to 6. “Sale upto 50 percent off” You read news in the newspaper “Votes turnout in the poll was over 65 percent” “Banks have lowered the rate of interest on fixed deposits from 7. For example. In this lesson we shall study percent as a fraction or a decimal and its application in solving problems of profit and loss. state the need for given discount define discount and discount series (successive discounts.228 Mathematics 10 Percentage and its Applications 10.

10. This means that she has secured 80 marks out of 100 or 40 marks out of 50. when we say a man has spent 20% of his income on food. given the marked price of the article and the rate of sales tax or commission solve inverse problems pertaining to sales tax solve inverse problems on commission determine the amount of each instalment when goods are purchased under investment plan (case of equal instalments only) determine the rate of interest when equal instalments are given z z z 10. for example percent. For instances 3 out of 4 equal parts. A ratio whose second term is 100 is also called a percent. we wish to compare two fractions 3 4 and . fractions and decimals. Fig. The symbol ‘%’ is used for the term percent.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z Four fundamental operations on whole numbers. it means that out of every hundred rupees of his income. 4 5 Since these are fractions having different denominators we need to convert them into fractions with common denominator. 33 out of 100 small squares are shaded. . This means 33 of the larger square is shaded. he has spent Rs 20 on food.’ 10.1. A fraction denotes part of a whole.Percentage and its Applications 229 z z solve inverse problems pertaining to discount calculate the sales tax on commission and the selling price of an article. In Fig.1 When we say Anita has secured 80% marks in mathematics. Suppose. 10. Similarly. 100 5 is read as five 100 3 means 4 7 17 means 7 out of ten equal parts and means 17 out 10 100 The word ‘percent’ is abbreviated form of the Latin word “per centum” which means “per hundred” or “hundredths”. A fraction whose denominator is 100 is read as a percent.4 PERCENT You have learnt a lot about fractions. Similarly. of 100 equal parts.

7 = = 70%. we convert if possible each fraction into a fraction with denominator 100.00 212% = 2.35 3% = 0.1% = 0. we get 4 3 > . = 4 4 × 5 20 5 5 × 4 20 Since ∴ 16 > 15. = 4 × 25 100 5 5 × 20 100 4 Since 80 > 75.37 99% = 0.12 35% = 0. 16 > 15 4 3 . As a convention. 3 3 × 25 = 75 4 4 × 20 = 80 = . 0.10 89% = 0.37 = 37 7 = 70 146 = 37%.5 CONVERSION OF A DECIMAL INTO A PERCENT AND VICE VERSA Let us consider the following examples : 0.230 Mathematics 3 3 × 5 = 15 4 4 × 4 = 16 = .5 = 45 100 1000 13% = 170% = 13 100 170 100 3% = 216% = 3 100 216 100 .03 0.1 = 10% Conversely. 69% = 4. we have converted each of the two fractions into fractions with least common denominator. we drop the % sign and insert or move the decimal point two places to the left. For example. To write a percent as a decimal.37 = 37% 1.4 = 140% 10. we drop the % sign and divide the number by 100. we move the decimal point two places to the right and put the % sign.5% = 69 100 4.25 = 25% 0.89 100% = 1.61 = 61% 0.001 0. For example. 37% = 0. to write a decimal as a percent.99 110% = 1. 1. 5 4 10.6 CONVERSION OF A PERCENT INTO A FRACTION AND VICE VERSA To write a percent as fraction. and so > 20 20 5 4 Here.46 = = 146% 100 10 100 100 Thus. 0. In the above example.07 = 7% 0.

A class of a school had 45% girls.02 (h) 1. Kavita read 84 pages of 100-page book. What percent of the class were boys ? 10.8 (b) 14% (f) 25% (b) 40% (c) 0. What was her percentage of marks ? 6. 100 To write a fraction as a percent. Write each of the following decimals as percent : (a) 0. x% = Conversely. What is the percentage of cotton in the suit piece ? 8.56 (e) 0.03 (f) 0. What percent of the book did she read ? 9.75 (g) 0. What percent of the shoes were there on normal price ? . Aruna obtained 19 marks in a test of 25 marks. A suit piece consists of cotton and rayon fibre in which cotton is 3 out of 8 parts.1 1. Gurmeet got half the answers correct. Write each of the following percents as fraction : 4. x . Convert each of the following fractions into percent : (a) 3 4 (b) 1 5 (c) 3 10 (d) 4 25 5. One-fourth of the shoes in a shop were on sale. simplify it and suffix the % sign. For example 1 1 = 4 × 100 % = 25% 4 2 FH IK 3 F3 I = H 2 × 100K % = 150% 3 3 = 5 × 100 % = 60% 5 FH IK CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10.Percentage and its Applications 231 In general. we multiply the fraction by 100.04 (c) 3% (g) 400% (c) 70% (d) 0.4 (d) 115% (h) 350% (d) 85% 2. Write each of the following percents as decimal : 3. What percent of their answers were correct ? 7.97 (a) 75% (d) 2% (a) 35% (b) 0.

Y spent Rs 500 out of Rs 800 every week.1 : A family spends 35% of its monthly budget of Rs 7500 on food. Example 10.70 135% of 80 = 1. 60 candidates appeared in an examination and 45 of them passed. There are 20 eggs in a fridge and 6 of them are brown.35 × 500 = 175 Number of shrubs = 20% of 500 = 0. 16.35 × 80 = 108 Example 10. there are 500 plants of which 35% are trees. What percent of eggs are brown ? 14.45 × 90 = 40. what per cent of students of the class do not wear glasses ? 13. What is the percentage of students that failed ? 10. The rest are creepers. In a class of 40 students. Compute their spending as percentages and state who spends higher percentage. we first change the percent to a fraction or a decimal and then multiply with the number.7 CALCULATION OF PERCENT OF A QUANTITY To determine the percent of a number or quantity.00 or Rs 2625.50 100 60% of 120 = 0. and 13 just qualified. what percent of the letters are E’s ? 12. What percent of candidate passed ? 15.232 Mathematics 11. Mr.18 × 215 = 38. X spends Rs 310 out of Rs 500 and Mr. 15 secured second division. shrubs.50 45% of 90 = 45 × 90 = 40.25 × 500 = 125 Since the remaining plants are creepers.2 : In a garden. herbs and creepers. How much do they spend on food ? Solution : Expenditure on food = 35% of Rs 7500 = 0. Solution : Number of trees = 35% of 500 = 0. For example.35 × 7500) = Rs 2625. 10 secured first division.60 × 120 = 72.00 18% of 215 = 0.35 × Rs 7500 = Rs (0. Find out the number of trees.20 × 500 = 100 Number of herbs = 25% of 500 = 0. 20% are shrubs and 25% are herbs. Number of Creepers = 500 – (175 + 100 + 125) = 500 – 400 = 100 . If three fourths of students of a class wear glasses. or 45% of 90 = 0. In the word PERCENTAGE.

7 : If 80 is increased to 125.25%. 60 Example 10. of boys in the school = 1240 – 434 = 806 Aliter Since 35% of the students in the school are girls. Example 10. (100% – 35%) i.Percentage and its Applications 233 Example 10. then Reduction = 60 – 45 = 15 Reduction percent = 15 × 100 % = 25%. then find a. Solution : We have 27% of a = 54 27 ⇒ 100 × a = 54 ⇒ a= 54 × 100 = 200 27 Thus.5 : If 27% of ‘a’ is 54.4 : What percent of 240 is 96 ? Solution : Percent = 96 × 100 % 240 = 40% Example 10. 65% of the students in the school are boys. What is the reduction percent ? Solution : Let 45 is less than 60 by x%. what is the increase percent ? Solution : Increase = 125 – 80 = 45 Increase percent = 45 × 100 % = 56.6 : 60 is reduced to 45. 80 .35 × 1240 = 434 ∴ No.e.3 : 35% of students in a school are girls. Solution : Number of girls in the school = 35% of 1240 = 0.65 × 1240 = 806 Example 10. ∴ Number of boys = 65% of 1240 = 0.. If the total number of students is 1240. find the number of boys in the school. the value of a is 200.

Thus. Find : (a) 15% of 440 (c) 47% of Rs 1200 (b) 16% of 1250 (d) 39% of 1700 metres. Solution : Since Ramesh secures 178 marks and fails by 22 marks. Example 10.. So. 56% of the students are boys. By the given condition. If the number of girls is 6 less than the number of boys. Find the maximum marks. Example 10.10 : Raman has to secure 40% marks for passing. 12 of the number of students = 6 100 ∴ Number of students = 6 × 100 = 50 12 Thus. they collected Rs 29000. Let x be maximum marks.8 : A voluntary organisation was collecting money for a relief camp. but they exceeded their target by 45%.45 × 20000) = Rs 20000 + Rs (9000. there are 12% less girls than boys.234 Mathematics Example 10. how many students are there in the class ? Solution : Given that 44% of the students are girls. the maximum marks are 500. there are 50 students in the class. How much money did they collect ? Solution : The money collected = 20000 + 45% of 20000 = Rs 20000 + Rs (0. Their target was Rs 20000. .2 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10.00) = Rs 20000 + Rs 9000 = Rs 29000 Hence.e. He gets 178 marks and fails by 22 marks. the pass marks are 178 + 22 = 200. (100 – 44)% i. then 40% of x = 200 or or 40 × x = 200 100 x= 200 × 100 = 500 40 Thus.9 : 44% of the students of a class are girls.

On a particular day 12. If 70000 people cast their votes. In the following. A candidate secured 40% of the votes polled and was defeated by 900 votes. What amount does he save per month ? 6. If a piece of this alloy weighs 150 kg . we discuss applications of the concept of percentage in different fields. find the original price per kg. During a general election. It takes me 45 minutes to go to school and I spend 80% of the time travelling by bus. A rise of 25% in the price of sugar compels a person to buy 1.5% of them were absent. .5 kg of sugar less for Rs 240. What percent of 160 is 64 ? 11. 15% for his personal expenses. 14. What is the net increase or decrease percent ? 17. If he has Rs 11704 with him now. how much zinc it contains ? 5. At a school. By what percent did the cost increase ? 10. 16. then find the C’s income. A man donated 5% of his monthly income to a charity and deposited 12% of the rest in a bank. Naresh earns Rs 15400 per month. If A’s income is Rs 4050. Find the increased price as well as the original price per kg of the sugar. An alloy is a combination of zinc and copper with 30% zinc and 70% copper. A number is first increased by 10% and then decreased by 10%. What is the reduced price per kg of tea ? Also. 25% for expenditure on his children and the rest he saves. 15. what was his monthly income ? 10. 25% voters did not cast their votes. 40% of the students come on foot to the school. A’s income is 25% more than B’s and B’s income is 8% more than C’s. If 120 is reduced to 96. How many are boys ? How many are girls ? 4. A reduction of 10% in the price of tea enables a dealer to purchase 25 kg more tea for Rs 22500. There are 600 students in the school. He keeps 50% for household expenses. 13. How many boys were absent on that day ? 7.8 APPLICATIONS OF PERCENTAGE We come across a number of situations in our day to day life wherein we use the concept of percent. Find the total number of voters. How long does the bus journey last ? 8. The cost of a saree was Rs 450. There are 32 boys in a class. 70% of the population voted. what is the population of the town ? 9.Percentage and its Applications 235 2. Its cost has increased to Rs 495. In an election. How many students come on foot to the school ? 3. There are 36 children in a class 25% of them are boys. what is the percentage reduction ? 12.

P.P. > S. F Loss I Loss% = H C. = FG 100 − Loss% IJ × C. – S.P. Cost Price (C.× Loss% 100 C. = C. × 100K % .P.P. Profit = S.P.. Formulae and Formula (1) gives Profit = or or or S. is called its cost price.P.× Loss% 100 C. = C.8. = Pr ofit % I × C.P.P. P.× Profit % S.. then there is a profit.P.. Profit (Gain) : When S... P. Selling Price (S..× Profit % 100 Profit% = ofit × 100I FH Pr K% C.(2) C.(3) Similarly. then there is a loss. FH 100 +100 K . – S. P.× Loss% 100 S. H 100 K .(4) Let us now consider some examples to illustrate the applications of these formulae in solving problems related to profit and loss.P.P.236 Mathematics 10.(1) . P. – C.− or S. P.P. = C. P. Formula (2) gives Loss = or or C..P. is called its selling price. .P.P. Loss = C. P. P.P = C.>C.) : The price at which an article is purchased.1 PROFIT AND LOSS Let us recall the terms and formulae related to profit and loss that we have learnt earlier.. Note : Gain or Loss is always calculated on C.× Profit % 100 C.) : The price at which an article is sold.. P. – C.P. P.P. P.P.+ 100 S. Loss : When C..

11 : A shopkeeper bought an almirah from a wholesale dealer for Rs 4500 and sold it for Rs 6000. there is a profit Profit = Rs 4400 – Rs 3850 ofit × 100I % FH Pr K C. 3 3 Example 10. 14 % . F 1500 × 100IJ % = G H 4500 K = 1 100 % i.P.13 : By selling a scooter to a customer for Rs 22400 an auto-dealer makes a profit of 12%. 33 % . of the cooler = Rs (3800 + 50) = Rs 3850 S.P. > C. = Rs 6000 – Rs 4500 = Rs 1500 ∴ Profit % = ofit × 100I % FH Pr K C. of the cooler = Rs 4400 Since S.P. Find the cost price of the scooter.P.. Solution : Here.P. of the almirah = Rs 6000 Since S. P.P.e.e. Solution : Here C.P. Solution : Here.P.P. = FG 100 + Pr ofit% IJ × C.. S.P. – C. 7 7 Example 10. F 550 I = H 3850 × 100K % = = Rs 550 ∴ Profit % = 100 % 2 i. of the almirah = Rs 4500 S. If he sells the cooler for Rs 4400.P. we have S. Profit % = 12% Using formula (3). Find his profit or loss percent.Percentage and its Applications 237 Examples 10. P. > C. H 100 K . of the scooter = Rs 22400. C. P.12 : A retailer buys a cooler for Rs 3800 and overhead expenses on it are Rs 50. determine his profit percent.P. there is a profit Profit = S.

= = Pr ofit % I × C. P. Example 10..15 : If the cost price of 15 articles is the same as the selling price of 12 articles. the cost price of the scooter is Rs 20000.P.P.14 : By selling a cycle for Rs 2024. what will be the selling price of the cycle ? Solution : First Part : S. = S. Then C. of 15 articles = Rs 15x .P. = Rs 2024 and Loss % = 12% From formula (4). Example 10..238 Mathematics or C. we have C.×100 100 − Loss% 2024 × 100 100 − 12 2024 × 100 = Rs 2300 88 = Rs = Rs Second Part : C.P.(i) .P. Solution : Let C.P. P.P. we have S. a cycle merchant loses 12%. FH 100 +100 K 100 + 12 × 2300 100 112 × 2300 100 = Rs = Rs 2576 Thus. of the cycle = Rs 2300 and Gain (Profit)% = 12% Using formula (3). find the gain or loss percent in the transaction.×100 100 + Pr ofit % 22400 × 100 100 + 12 22400 × 100 112 = Rs = Rs = Rs 20000 Thus. If he wishes to make a gain of 12%. = S. P. the selling price of the cycle will be Rs 2576. of an article be Rs x.

Percentage and its Applications

239

or or

S.P. of 12 articles = Rs 15x S.P. of 1 articles = Rs 15 xI FH 12 K ...(ii)

Since S.P. > C.P., there is a profit (gain) in the transaction Gain = Rs x − xI FH 15 K 12 F 3x I F xI = Rs H 12 K or Rs H 4 K

or

Gain % =

FH Gain × 100I K% C. P. F x 4 × 100IJ % = G Hx K F1 I = H 4 × 100K % = 25%

Thus, the gain in the transaction is 25%. Example 10.16 : By selling 45 oranges for Rs 160, a women loses 20%. How many oranges should she sell for Rs 112 to gain 20% on the whole ? Solution : First Part : S.P. of 45 oranges = Rs 160 Loss% = 20% So, by formula (4), we have C.P. of 45 oranges = S. P.×100 100 − Loss% 160 × 100 100 − 20 160 × 100 = Rs 200. 80

= Rs = Rs

**Second Part : C.P. of 45 oranges = Rs 200 Gain% = 20%
**

∴

S.P. of 45 oranges = =

100 + Gain% × C.P. 100 100 + 20 × Rs 200 100

240

Mathematics

= Rs

120 × 200 100

**= Rs 240 Now, number of oranges for Rs 240 = 45 Number of oranges for Rs 112 =
**

45 × 112 = 21 240

Thus, the women should sell 21 oranges for Rs 112. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10.3 1. A shopkeeper buys an article for Rs 320 and sells it for Rs 240. Find his gain or loss percent. 2. A dealer buys a wrist watch for Rs 450 and spends Rs 30 on its to repairs. If he sells the same for Rs 600, find the profit per cent. 3. A dealer sold two machines at Rs 2400 each. On selling one machine he gained 20% and on selling the other he lost 20%. Find the dealer’s gain or loss percent. 4. A sells an article costing Rs 1000 to B and earns a profit of 6%. B, in turn sells it to C at a loss of 5%. At what price did C purchase the article ? 5. By selling 90 ball pens for Rs 160, a person loses 20%. How many ball pens should he sell for Rs 96, so as to have a gain of 20% ? 6. If the selling price of 20 articles is equal to the cost price of 23 articles, find the loss or gain percent. 7. A watch was sold at a profit of 12%. Had it been sold for Rs 33 more, the profit would have been 14%. Find the cost price of the watch. 8. By selling a book for Rs 258, a publisher gains 20%. For how much should he sell it to gain 30% ? 9. A vendor bought bananas at 6 for 5 rupees and sold them at 4 for 3 rupees. Find his gain or loss percent. 10.8.2 Simple Interest All the transactions that take place around us involve money. Sometimes, a person has to borrow some money as a loan from his friends, relatives, bank etc. He promises to return it after a specified time period. So, he has to give back not only the money he borrows but also some extra money to the lender for using his money. The money borrowed is called the principal, usually denoted by P. The extra money paid is called interest, usually denoted by I.

Percentage and its Applications

241

The sum of principal and the interest is called the amount usually denoted by A. A=P + I Interest is calculated on the principal Interest is mostly expressed as a rate percent per year (per annum). Interest depends on how much money (P) has been borrowed and the duration of the time (T) for which it is borrowed. Interest is calculated according to an agreement, which specifies a certain percent of the principal for each year’s use, called the rate of interest. I=P × R × T Interest as calculated above is called simple interest. Example 10.17 : A man borrowed Rs 50000 from a finance company for buying a motor bicycle for a period of 2 years. If the finance company charged simple interest at the rate of 15% per annum, how much interest was paid by the man to the finance company. Solution : Here, Principal (P) = Rs 50000 Time (T) = 2 years Rate (R%) = 15% = 0.15 We have I=P × R × T = Rs (50000 × 0.15 × 2) = Rs 15000 Hence, the man paid Rs 15000 as the interest to the finance company. Example 10.18 : A certain sum of money was deposited for 5 years. Simple interest at the rate of 12% was paid. Calculated the sum deposited if the simple interest received by the depositor is Rs 1200. Solution : Let the sum deposited be Rs P. Given that I = Rs 1200; T = 5 years; R = 12% We have I = P × R × T or P= I R×T 1200 = Rs 2000 012 . ×5

= Rs

Thus, the sum deposited was Rs 2000.

242

Mathematics

Example 10.19 : At what rate of simple interest will a sum of Rs 3000 become Rs 4920 at simple interest in 4 years ? Solution : Here, P = Rs 3000; A = Rs 4920; T = 4 years We have I = A – P = Rs 4920 – Rs 3000 = Rs 1920 Now, ⇒ I=P × R × T R= = I 1920 = Rs P×T 3000 × 4 16 = 16% 100

Thus, at the rate of 16%, Rs 3000 will become Rs 4920 in 4 years. Example 10.20 : In what time will Rs 8000 amount to Rs 12000, if simple interest is charged at the rate of 6% per annum ? Solution : Here, P = Rs 8000; A = Rs 12000; R = 6% = 0.06 We have Now, ⇒ I=A – P = Rs 12000 – Rs 8000 = Rs 4000 I=P × R × T T= = I 4000 = P×R 8000 × 0.06 1 100 = 8 years 3 12

= 8 years 4 months Thus, in 8 years 4 months, Rs 8000 will amount to Rs 12000 at the rate of interest 6% per annum. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10.4 1. Ramesh borrowed Rs 7000 from his friend at 8% per annum simple interest. He returned the money after 2 years. How much did he pay back altogether ? 2. Jaya deposited Rs 15600 in a bank. The bank pays interest at 8% per annum. Find the interest she will receive at the end of 3 years. 3. Subnam lent Rs 25000 to her friend. She gave Rs 10000 at 10% per annum and the remaining at 12% per annum. How much interest did she receive in 2 years ? 4. Nalini borrowed Rs 5000 from her friend at 8% per annum. She returned the money after 6 months. How much amount did she pay to her friend ?

Percentage and its Applications

243

5. Find the interest received by Anil if he deposits Rs 16000 for 8 months at the rate of 9% per annum. Also, find the amount. 6. Shalini deposited Rs 14500 in a finance company for 3 years and received Rs 4785 as simple interest. What was the rate of interest per annum ? 7. In how many years will Rs 8000 amount to Rs 16000, if simple interest is earned at the rate of 12% per annum ? 8. In how much time will simple interest be annum ? 9. In which case, is interest earned more : (a) Rs 5000 deposited for 5 years at 4% per annum (b) Rs 4000 deposited for 6 years at 5% per annum ? 10. At what rate of interest will simple interest be half the principal in 5 years ? 10.9 DISCOUNT You must have seen all around advertisements of the following types, especially during the festival seasons. SALE Discount upto 50% A discount is a reduction in the marked (or list) price. “25% discount” means a reduction of 25% in the marked price of an article. For instance, if the marked price of an article is Rs 100, it is sold for Rs 75, i.e., Rs 25 less than the marked price. Note. Discount is always calculated on Marked Price. Marked Price (or list price) : The marked price (M.P) of an article is the price at which it is listed for sale. Discount : The discount is the reduction from the marked price of the article. Net Selling price : In case of discount sale, the price of the article obtained by subtracting discount from the list price is called the Net selling Price. Let us consider the following example to illustrate. Example 10.21 : A shirt with marked price Rs 165 is sold at a discount of 10%. Find its net selling price. Solution : Here, Marked Price (M.P.) of the shirt = Rs 165, Discount = 10%

∴

1 th of the principal at the rate of 10% per 4

Net selling price = Marked price – Discount

244

Mathematics

= Rs 165 – 10% of Rs 165 = Rs 165 – Rs 10 × 165I FH 100 K

= Rs 165 – Rs 16.50 = Rs 148.50 Thus, the net selling price of the shirt is Rs 148.50. Aliter Since the discount offered is 10% S.P. = M.P. – 10% of M.P. = 90% of M.P. or S.P. = 90 × Rs 165 100

= Rs 148.50 Example 10.22 : A pair of socks is marked at Rs 40 and is being offered at Rs 32. Find the discount per cent being offered. Solution : Here, M.P. = Rs 40; and S.P. = Rs 32 So, Discount = M.P. – S.P. = Rs 40 – Rs 32 = Rs 8 ∴ Discount % = = Discount × 100 M. P. 8 × 100 40

= 20 Hence, the discount being offered is 20%. 10.9.1 Discount Series Sometimes a manufacturer, offers a discount of 10% on discounted price in addition to a previous discount of 20%, because suddenly he gets a supply of cloth at a very low price. He may allow another discount of 5% on the discounted price, to some of his customers for prompt payments. In other words, he allows a discount series. In a discount series, the first figure denotes the discount on the list price, the second denotes the discount on the discounted price and so on. If a shirt is marked for Rs 120 and a discount series 20%, 10% and 5% is offered, then computation for calculating net selling price is as under :

Percentage and its Applications

245

Marked price Rs 120 with a discount series 20%, 10% and 5%. 20 20% discount on Rs 120 = Rs 120 × = Rs 24 100 ∴ Discounted price = Rs (120 – 24) = Rs 96

10 = Rs 9.60 10% discount on Rs 96 = Rs 96 × 100 ∴ Discounted price = Rs (96 – 9.60) = Rs 86.40 5 = Rs 4.32 100

5% discount on Rs 86.40 = Rs 86.40 ×

Net selling price = Rs (86.40 – 4.32) = Rs 82.08. 10.9.2 Conversion of Discount Series to a Single Discount Instead of computing a series of discounts one by one, it is sometimes more convenient to reduce the series to a single discount. Let us take some examples to illustrate : Example 10.23 : Convert the discount series 20%, 10% and 5% to an equivalent single discount. Solution : Let the list price 20% discount on Rs 100 Discounted price 10% discount on Rs 80 Discounted price = Rs 100 = Rs 100 × 20 = Rs 20 100 = Rs (100 – 20) = Rs 80 10 = Rs 80 × = Rs 8 100 = Rs (80 – 8) = Rs 72

5 = Rs 3.60 and 5% discount on Rs 72 = Rs 72 × 100 Discounted price ∴ = Rs (72 – 3.60) = Rs 68.40 Single discount on Rs 100 = Rs (100 – 68.40) = 31.60 or 31.6%

Example 10.24 : An old scooter is sold at three successive discounts of 10%, 5% and 2%. If the marked price of the scooter is Rs 18000, find the selling price of the scooter. Solution : Here, list price = Rs 18000 First discount of 10% = Rs 18000 × 10 = Rs 1800 100

Price after first discount = Rs (18000 – 1800) = Rs 16200

246

Mathematics

Second discount of 5% = Rs 16200 × Price after second discount

5 = Rs 810 100

= Rs (16200 – 810) = Rs 15390 Third discount of 2% = Rs 15390 × 2 = Rs 307.80 100

Price after third discount = Rs (15390 – 307.80) = Rs 15082.20 Thus the net selling price of the scooter is Rs 15080.20 Aliter Net selling price of the scooter = (100 – 2)% of (100 – 5)% of (100 – 10)% of Rs 18000 98 95 90 = Rs 18000 × 100 × 100 × 100 = Rs 15082.20 Example 10.25 : Find the single discount equivalent to the discount series of 20%, 15% and 10%. Solution : Let the marked price = Rs 100 Price after the given discount series = (100 – 10)% of (100 – 15)% of (100 – 20)% of Rs 100 = 0.90 × 0.85 × 0.80 × Rs 100 = Rs 51.20 Hence, the total discount = M.P. – S.P. = Rs 100 – Rs 51.20 = Rs 48.80 Hence, the equivalent single discount = Rs 48.80 on M.P. of Rs 100 = 48.8% Example 10.26 : A dealer buys a table listed at Rs 1500 and gets successive discounts of 20% and 10%. He spends Rs 20 on transportation and sells it at a profit of 10%. Find the selling price of the table. Solution : Here, list price of the table = Rs 1500 Price after a discount series of 20% and 10% = (100 – 10)% of (100 – 20)% of Rs 1500 = 90 × 80 × Rs 1500 100 100

FH

IK

= Rs 1080

Percentage and its Applications

247

**Since the dealer spends Rs 20 on transportation C.P. of the table = Rs 1080 + Rs 20 = Rs 1100 Profit = 10%
**

∴

S.P. of the table = = =

Profit % I × C. P. FH 100 +100 K 100 + 10 × Rs 1100 100

110 × Rs 1100 100 = Rs 1210 Thus, the selling price of the table is Rs 1210. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10.5 1. A coat is marked at Rs 1200. Find its selling price if a discount of 15% is offered. 2. A man pays Rs 2100 for a machine listed at Rs 2800. Find the rate of discount offered. 3. An article listed at Rs 2650 is sold at a discount of 10%. Due to festival season, the shopkeeper allows a further discount of 5%. Find the selling price of article. 4. Find a single discount equivalent to a discount series given in each of the following discount series : (a) 25%, 20% and 10% (b) 20%, 15% and 10% (c) 20%, 10% and 5%. 5. Which of the following discount series is better for a customer ? 20%, 10% and 5% OR 10%, 5% and 20%.

6. The list price of a table fan is Rs 840 and it is available to a retailer at 25% discount. For how much should the retailer sell it to earn a profit of 15% ? 7. The marked price of a TV set is Rs 25000. A discount series of 20%, 10%, 5% is allowed on it. How much money does one have to pay for the TV set ? 8. If a shopkeeper marks his goods 50% more than their cost price and allows a discount of 40%, find his gain or loss per cent. 9. The list price of a watch is Rs 320. After two successive discounts it is sold for Rs 244.80. If the first discount is 10%, what is the rate of second discount ? 10. A retailer buys shirts from a manufacturer at the rate of Rs 75 per shirt and marked them at Rs 100 each. He allows some discount and gets a profit of 30% on the cost price. What percentage discount does he allow to his customers ?

248

Mathematics

10.9.3 Sales Tax Government levies some taxes to have earning called revenue. One such tax which is levied on the sale of goods is called sales tax. The rates of sales tax are different for different commodities. Some essential commodities are exempted from sales tax. This tax is charged on the net selling price of commodities and its rate is expressed as a percentage. For example, if an article is sold for Rs 750 and the rate of sales tax is 8%, then Sales tax = Rs 750 × 8 = Rs 60 100 Price inclusive of sales tax = Rs (750 + 60) = Rs 810 The customer will have to pay Rs 810. Example 10.27 : The marked price of a pair of shoes is Rs 320. If the rate of sales tax is 4%, calculate the amount to be paid by a customer for the purchase of the shoes. Solution : Marked price of shoes = Rs 320 Rate of sales tax = 4% ∴ Sales tax = 4% of Rs 320 = 4 × Rs 320 100

= Rs 12.80 Thus, the customer has to pay (Rs 320 + Rs 12.80) = Rs 332.80 for purchasing the shoes. Examples 10.28 : Anita purchased a shirt for Rs 594 including sales tax. If the rate of sales tax is 8%, find the list price of the shirt. Solution : Let the list price of the shirt be Rs P Then P + 8% of P = 594 or or or 108% of P = 594

**108 P = 594 100
**

P= 594 = 550 108 .

Thus, the list price of the shirt is Rs 550. Example 10.29 : Hari Om bought a radio set for Rs 1870, after getting 15% discount on the list price and then 10% sales tax on the reduced price. Find the list price of the radio set. Solution : Let the list price or the radio set be Rs P. Thus, selling price of the radio after discount= Rs P – 15% of Rs P = 85% of Rs P

Percentage and its Applications

249

= Rs

85 P 100

85 I FH 100 K P

Sales tax = 10% of Rs =

10 × 85 P 100 100 85 P 1000

= Rs

The net price to be paid for the purchase of the radio set is Rs 85 P + 85 PI FH 100 935 1000 K = Rs 1000 P

Equating it to Rs 1870, we get 935 P = 1870 1000 or P= 1870 × 1000 = 2000 935

Thus, the list price of the radio set is Rs 2000. Example 10.30 : The list price of a washing machine is Rs 9000. The dealer allows a discount of 5% on the cash payment. How much money will a customer pay to the dealer in cash, if the rate of sales tax is 10% ? Solution : Here, list price = Rs 9000 and discount = 5%

∴ Cash price of the washing machine

**= Rs 9000 − 5 × 9000 100 = Rs (9000 – 450) = Rs 8550
**

∴

FH

IK

Sales tax = 10% of Rs 8550 = 10 × Rs 8550 100

= Rs 855 Hence, the customer has to pay Rs 8550 + Rs 855 = Rs 9405 for the purchase of the washing machine. Example 10.31 : The list price of the air-conditioner is Rs 25630. The rate of sales tax is 10% The customer requests the dealer to allow a discount to such an extent that the price of the

250

Mathematics

air-conditioner amounts to Rs 25630 inclusive of sales tax. Find the discount in the price of the air-conditioner. Solution : Let Rs P be the net price exclusive of sales tax. 10 P 110 P = Then, price + sales tax = P + 100 100 This is given as Rs 25630

∴

or

∴

110 P = 25630 100 P = 23300 Discount allowed = Rs (25630 – 23300) = Rs 2330 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10.6

1. The marked price of a sewing machine is Rs 3500. If the sales tax on sewing machine is charged at the rate of 6%, find how much a customer has to pay for purchasing the machine. 2. Amita purchases a pair of socks whose list price is Rs 44. The shopkeeper charges sales tax at the rate of 5%. Find how much money Amita has to pay for purchasing the socks. 3. Mrs. Mohini purchased a saree for Rs 1100 including sales tax. If the list price of the saree is Rs 1000, find the rate of sales tax charged. 4. A refrigerator is available for Rs 13915 including sales tax. If the rate of sales tax is 10%, find the selling price of the refrigerator. 5. Radhika purchased a car with a marked price of Rs 2.1 lakhs at a discount of 5%. If the sales tax is charged at the rate of 12%, find the amount Radhika had to pay for purchasing the car. 6. Dayakant bought a set of cosmetic items for Rs 345 including 15% sales tax and a purse for Rs 110 including 10% sales tax. What percent is the sales tax charged on the whole transaction ? [Hint. C.P. of cosmetic items = Rs (345 ÷ 1.15) ; and C.P. of purse = Rs (110 ÷ 1.1)] 7. Kamal wants to buy a suitcase whose list price is Rs 504. The rate of sales tax is 5%. He requests the shopkeeper to reduce the list price to such an extent that he has to pay Rs 504 only. Calculate the discount given in the price of the suit-case. 10.10 COMMISSION Manufacturers of goods, farmers and owners of properties, frequently uses the services of a middle man to find a buyer in order to sell their goods or properties. The middle man is called an agent, who gets some money for the services rendered by him. This money paid is called commission. In general, commission is expressed in terms of percentage.

the book agent earns Rs 700 as commission. Then amount of commission = 3% of Rs (1500 × x) 3 = Rs 1500x × 100 But this is given to be Rs 427. At what price per bag did he sell the salt ? Solution : Let the selling price per packet be Rs x. the selling price per packet of salt was Rs 9.32 : A book agent sold 140 books at Rs 20 each.7 1 1. 45x = 427.50 45 FH IK = Rs 45x or x = 9.5 Thus.34 : A commission merchant charged Rs 427. Example 10.Percentage and its Applications 251 Example 10.50. For what amount did he sell the goods ? Solution : Let the amount be Rs x Then ⇒ x × 8 = 300 100 x= 300 × 100 8 = 3750 The sales man sold goods worth Rs 3750. at 3% commission.33 : A salesman earns Rs 300 as commission at the rate of 8%.50 for selling 1500 packets of salt. 2 Find the amount of the commission. Also find the net proceeds. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10. Example 10. His commission was 25%.50.50 or x= 427. Thus. How much money did he earn as commission ? Solution : Total price of books = Rs (20 × 140) = Rs 2800 Amount of commission = 25% of Rs 2800 = 25 × Rs 2800 100 = Rs 700 Thus. A commission merchant sells 1200 tins of oil at Rs 270 a tin on commission of 2 %. .

This extra amount is actually the interest charged on the amount of money which the customer owes to the seller at different times of instalments paid. His commission was 1. colour TV etc. Solution : Cash payment price = Rs 2600 Cash down payment = Rs 1000 . Find the rate of interest charged under the instalment plan. Instalments : It is the amount which is paid by the customer at regular intervals towards the remaining part of the selling price of the article. which are needed by him and his family. it is a part of the selling price.25%. Cash Price : It is the amount for which the article can be purchased on full payment i. scooters etc. A commission merchant charged Rs 4212 as commission at rate of 3% for selling rice at Rs 450 per bag. The remaining payment is made in easy monthly. video cameras. The remaining part of the cost is paid on subsequent dates.1 What is Instalment Buying ? Instalment purchase scheme. refrigerator. but makes a partial payment in the beginning and takes away the article for use. how much did he sell altogether ? 10. enables a person to buy costly goods like colour TV sets. His commission is then raised to 12%. Cash down Payment : It is the partial payment made by the customer at the time of signing the agreement and taking away the article for use. fridge. Example 10.e. It may be noted that in the instalment plan only part payment of the total cost is paid by the customer at the time of purchase. on convenient terms of payment. An auctioneer sold a property worth Rs 17. We shall study about instalment purchase scheme.35 : Bimla buys a sewing machine. the customer does not make full payment of the cost of the article at the time of purchase. In the following. the selling price of the article. which is available for Rs 2600 cash payment or under an instalment plan for Rs 1000 cash down payment and 3 monthly instalment of Rs 550 each.. 10. How much did the auctioneer earn as commission ? 3. In this scheme. quarterly or half yearly instalments. If his total earning (commission) were Rs 8000.252 Mathematics 2.8 lakhs. and therefore the seller charges some extra amount for deferred payments. we solve a few examples to illustrate the process. A commission merchant sells a certain amount of goods at a commission of 10% in the first two weeks of a month.11. Such articles are available on easy instalments. In fact. and he sells an equal amount of goods in the remaining part of the month. How many bags of rice did he sell ? 4. as per the agreement signed between the customer and the shopkeeper.11 INSTALMENT BUYING With the cost of articles going up day by day it has become difficult for the common man to buy some articles like scooter.

36 : A computer is available for Rs 34000 cash or Rs 20000 cash down payment together with 5 equal monthly instalments.a. Example 10. ∴ 3150 × R= = 1 × R = 50 12 100 50 × 12 × 100 % 3150 400 % 21 1 = 19 % 21 1 ∴ Rate of interest paid by her in the instalment plan is 19 21 %.Percentage and its Applications 253 Balance to be paid in instalments = Rs 1600 Amount paid in 3 instalments = Rs 550 × 3 = Rs 1650 Interest charged in the instalment plan = Rs (1650 – 1600) = Rs 50 The buyer owes to the seller for the 1st month = Rs 1600 The buyer owes to the seller for the 2nd month = Rs (1600 – 550) = Rs 1050 The buyer owes to the seller for the 3rd month = Rs (1050 – 550) = Rs 500 Total = Rs 3150 ∴ She has to pay interest on Rs 3150 for 1 month. But the interest she has to pay = Rs 50 If R% is the rate of interest p. then. calculate the amount of each instalment. Solution : Cash price = Rs 34000 Cash down payment = Rs 20000 Balance to paid in 5 equal installments = Rs 14000 Let each instalment be = Rs P Interest charged under instalment plan = Rs (5P – 14000) The buyer owes to the seller For the 1st month = Rs 14000 Fr the 2nd month = Rs (14000 – P) For the 3rd month = Rs (14000 – 2P) For the 4th month = Rs (14000 – 3P) For the 5th month = Rs (14000 – 4P) Total = Rs (70000 – 10P) . If the rate of interest charged under the instalment plan is 30% per annum.

simplify it and suffix the % sign. A T. set is available for 21000 cash or for Rs 4000 cash down payment and 6 equal monthly instalments of Rs 3000 each. LET US SUM UP z z z z Percent means ‘per hundred’. 3.a. we drop the % sign and divide the number by 100. we multiply the fraction by 100. Calculate the rate of interest charged under the instalment plan. If the rate of interest charged is 22 % per annum.254 Mathematics Thus. Percents can be written as fractions as well as decimals and vice-versa. To write a percent as a fraction. . A scooter is available for Rs 30000 cash or for Rs 15000 cash down payment and 4 equal 1 monthly instalments. find the 9 amount of each instalment. 3 find the amount of each instalment. To write a fraction as a percent. ∴ (70000 – 10P) × 1 × 30 = 5P – 14000 12 100 1 = 5P – 14000 40 or or or or or (70000 – 10P) × 70000 – 10P = 40(5P – 14000) 70000 – 10P = 200P – 560000 210 P = 560000 + 70000 P= 630000 210 = 3000 ∴ Amount of each instalment = Rs 3000. 2. 4. Anil purchased a type writer priced at Rs 6800 cash payment under the instalment plan by making a cash down payment of Rs 2000 and 5 monthly instalments of Rs 1000 each. he had to pay interest on Rs (70000 – 10P) for 1 month at the rate of 30% p. Find the rate of interest charged under the instalment plan. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10. If the rate of interest charged under the instalment plan is 33 %.8 1.V. A microwave oven is available for Rs 9600 cash or for 4000 cash down payment and 2 3 equal monthly instalment.

– S. When the selling price is more than the cost price of the goods. P.3% (c) 11. (Marked price – discount).P. = Gain × 100 C. Sales tax is charged on the sale price of goods. P. – C. gives the price.P. 100 z z z The simple interest (S. Write each of the following as fraction : (a) 0.P. TERMINAL EXERCISE z z z z z 1. there is a profit (or gain) When the selling price is less than the cost price of the goods.4 (d) 0. Two or more successive discounts are said to form a discount series.3% (d) 113% .3% 3. Loss = S.P.13% (b) 1.I.I.Percentage and its Applications 255 z To determine the specific percent of a number or quantity. .25 (c) 1. A discount series can be reduced to a single discount. is calculated. Commission is paid to an agent for his services in arranging the sale or purchase of goods from some one else.P. we change the percent to a fraction or a decimal and then multiply. 100 + Gain% × C.07 2. . = Loss × 100 C. Discount is always calculated on the marked price of the goods.P.) on a principal (P) at the rate of R% for a time T years. An Instalment plan enables a person to buy costlier goods. which a customer has to pay while buying an article. using the formula S. there is a loss Profit (Gain) = S. P. Write each of the following as a per cent : (a) 7 20 (b) 0. P. Write each of the following as a decimal : (a) 63% (b) 13% (c) 3% (d) 0. 100 − Loss% × C. Gain% = Further S. = P × R × T z z z Discount is a reduction in the list price of goods. Loss = C. 100 .

Find the price of one bag at which it was sold ? 13. Find the rate of interest. What number increased by 10% of itself is 352 ? 9. . At what rate per annum. What percent of 700 is 294 ? 6.a. Find each of the following : (a) 37% of 400 5. Ahmad purchased a bicycle by making a cash down payment of Rs 400 and 3 monthly instalments of Rs 275 each. The bicycle was also available on cash payment of Rs 1200. For what amount did he buy the scooter ? 12. was interest paid to him ? 14.5% of 800 15. By what percent is 60 more than 45 ? 7. Find the amount of each instalment. If the rate of interest charged in the instalment plan is 18% p. Find the number whose 15% is 270 ? 8. Rita purchased a washing machine for Rs 4000 cash down payment and 4 equal monthly instalments.74 ? 10. Simple interest on a sum of money is 1 rd of the sum itself and the number of years is 3 thrice the rate percent. Arun at the beginning of a year had a bank balance of its 17500 and at the end of the year he had a balance of Rs 21350. The washing machine was also available for Rs 15000 cash payment. (b) 3. Shalim deposited Rs 14000 in a bank for 2 years and received Rs 4200 as simple interest.256 Mathematics 4. Find the rate of interest per annum charged under the instalment plan. A man loses 25% by selling a scooter for Rs 8400. By what percent did his balance increase ? 11. What number decreased by 7% of itself is 16. 16. A commission merchant charged Rs 700 as commission for selling 100 bags of cotton at 5%.

Rs 1540.3 1. 1 lakh 12.5 . 36 ball pens 9. Rs 16960 8. (a) 56% (e) 97% 2. 9. 20% 15. 15% gain 3. 45 kg 7. 9 boys . (a) 66 (b) 200 (c) Rs 564 (d) 663 metres 5. 62. Y16. 30% 15. 6000 votes 16. 40 : 100 (c) 4.02 3.25 . 62% .03 (g) 4 (b) 40 100 85 100 (d) 2% (h) 140% (d) 1. 36 minutes 11. Check Your Progress 10. 240 students 6. 75% (d) . 4 boys 10. 8 years 4 months 10. 35 : 100 (c) 75% (g) 4% (c) 0. Rs 3744 6. 84% 12. (b) 3. Loss 25% 5. Profit 25% 6.4 1. 76% 9. 40% 14.2 1. Rs 5600 7. Rs 279. 25% (a) 75% (c) 30% 7. 75%` 14.50 . 50% 10. Rs 1650 4. Rs 960 . Rs 14000 2. 85 : 100 (d) 16% 8. 10% 4. 70 : 100 (b) 20% 6. 10% 13. Rs 3000 17. (a) 35 100 70 100 (b) 3% (f) 80% (b) 0. 4% loss 7.Percentage and its Applications 257 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 10. Rs 90 .5% 11.15 (h) 3. (a) 0. 10% loss Check Your Progress 10. 55% 13. Rs100 3. 2 years 6 months 2. 1% decrease Check Your Progress 10. Rs 1007 8.5 %. 37.75 (e) 0. .14 (f) 0. Rs 8120 5. Rs 5200 2. 30% 5. 5%.1 1. Rs 40. 27 girls 4. Rs 32 8. 11% 9.

15% Check Your Progress 10.13 (b) 13 1000 (c) 140% (c) 0. Rs 2000 2. 2. 17 % 7 3. 19 % 21 .23.6 1. Loss 10% 5.86 1 15.50 10.8 1 1.440 Check Your Progress 10. Rs 80. 1800 11. Rs 2850. Rs 17. 15% 16.5 1.63 (a) 13 10000 (b) 25% (b) 0. Rs 140 1 14. Rs 1020 4. 42% 9. 320 12. Rs 8100 Check Your Progress 10. Rs 4000 4. Rs 12650 (a) 148 (b) 28 8. Rs 2. 10% 7. Rs 24 4. Rs 3710 5.75 (c) 31. 46. 3.8% 6.20 3 6. Rs 724. Rs 11200 13.5% 3. 3 % 3 5.003 (d) 113 100 1 2.03 (c) 113 1000 (d) 7% (d) 0. 25% (b) 38. 18 1 6.6% 7. (a) 35% (a) 0. 312 bags 4.258 Mathematics Check Your Progress 10. 21 % 19 Terminal Exercise 1. 4.000 2. 22% 7.100 8. Rs 22250 3. 13 % 4 3. 2265.7 1. Both same 9. 2. (a) 46% 2. 33 % 3 10.

calculate compound interest. forecast the population of a town when rate of growth of population is given for a specific period of time.4 THE CONCEPT OF COMPOUND INTEREST Recall that interest is the extra money paid by the user to the bank for the use of money. The money which has been borrowed is called the principal (P). you will learn to calculate compound interest. 11. a vehicle. the user will have to pay more interest for the second period of time. This type of interest is called compound interest. Recall that interest is the extra money paid by the user to the bank or money lender for the use of his money for some specified time period. the time interval for which the .1 INTRODUCTION You have already studied about simple interest in your earlier classes.Compound Interest 259 11 Compound Interest 11. the user will pay interest on the amount borrowed as well as on the interest accrued for the first time period. calculate amount of a sum invested for a given time. a building etc.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z Knowledge of percentage Knowledge of simple interest.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. If the money is retained by the user for the next time period also. calculate the depreciated value of a machine. 11. z 11. the learner will be able to : z z z z z illustrate the concept of compound interest. Thus. find the difference between simple interest and compound interest. In this lesson.

The interest charged in this way is called the compound interest. Therefore. The interest is calculated for the next time period on the new principal. then it becomes a part of principal for the second year. then it becomes a part of the principal and added to the principal for the next time period. The time period after which the interest is added to the principal for the next time period is called the conversion period. This is expressed as percentage of the principal. the interest due after every year is added to the principal and then the interest is calculated for the next year on this new principal. half yearly. the interest is called simple interest and is given by S.I = PRT But if this interest is due (not paid) after the decided time period. This way of calculating interest is called compound interest. .260 Mathematics money has been taken is called the time duration (T) and the extra money paid by the user to the bank upto the time the principal amount is returned is called the rate of interest (R). The total interest to be paid at the end of two years = Rs (200 + 220) = Rs 420. three months or a month and the interest is said to be compounded annually. 10 Interest for one year = Rs 2000 × 100 × 1 = Rs 200 If this interest is not paid at the end of one year. six month. When the interest is calculated on the principal for the entire time period of loan. quarterly or monthly respectively. Let us go through the following example : Suppose you borrow Rs 2000 from a bank at the rate of interest 10% per annum. the principal for the second year becomes Rs (2000 + 200) = Rs 2200 Now interest for second year 10 = Rs 2200 × 100 × 1 = Rs 220 ∴ Amount payable at the end of two years FH IK FH IK = Rs (2200 + 220) = Rs 2420. Thus for calculating the compound interest. The conversion period may be one year.

FH IK n If A represents amount and R represents A = P (1 + R)n Also Compound Interest = A – P r . The unit of time after which interest is compounded is called Conversion period.5 FORMULA FOR COMPOUND INTEREST Let a sum P be borrowed for n years at the rate of r% per annum. then 100 = P(1 + R)n – P = P[(1 + R)n – 1] Note : (i) Simple interest and compound interest are equal for the first year. Here Principal = P Rate = r% Time = n years Pr r ×1 Interest on P at r% for the first year = P × = 100 100 Pr r ∴ Amount after one year = P + 100 = P 1 + 100 r Interest on P 1 + 100 FH IK FH IK FH IK r r at r% for the second year = P 1 + 100 × 100 r r r Amount after two years = P 1 + 100 + P 1 + 100 × 100 IK FH IK F r IF r I = P H 1 + 100 K H 1 + 100 K r = P 1+ 100 FH FH IK 2 (In compound interest. The interest can be compounded yearly. amount after n years = P 1 + 100 FH IK 3 and so on. We shall calculate the compound interest payable after n years. (ii) The time period is generally taken in years but this is not necessary.Compound Interest 261 11. amount after one year becomes principal for second year) r Similarly. amount after 3 years = P 1 + 100 r Thus. quarterly (after 3 months) or even monthly. . half-yearly (semi-annually).

3 : Calculate the compound interest on Rs 10000 for 1 year at the rate of 8% per annum when the interest is compounded quarterly. = Rs (10824.32 Example 11.58 C. = Rs (11698.1 : Calculate the compound interest on Rs 10000 for 2 years at 8% per annum.I.I. R = 10% and n = 1½ years . R = ∴ 8 or 4% Half yearly and n = 4 Half years 2 A = P (1 + R)n 4 = 10000 1 + 100 FH IK 4 ∴ = Rs 10000 × 26 × 26 × 26 × 26 25 × 25 × 25 × 25 = Rs 11698. = P[(1 + R)n – 1] LMF I − 1OP NH K Q 27 27 O = Rs 10000 L NM 25 × 25 − 1QP = Rs 10000 1 + 8 100 2 = Rs 1664. Solution : Here P = Rs 10000. Solution : Here P = Rs 10000. Example 11.58 Example 11. R = ∴ 8 or 2% quarterly and n = 4 quarters 4 A = P (1 + R)n = Rs 10000 1 + 2 100 FH IK 4 51 × 51 × 51 × 51 = Rs 10000 × 50 × 50 × 50 × 50 = Rs 10824. Solution : Here P = Rs 12000.58 – 10000) = Rs 1698. ∴ R = 8% and n=2 C.262 Mathematics Example 11.32 ∴ C.32 – 10000) = Rs 824.4 : Calculate the compound interest on Rs 12000 for 1½ years at the rate of 10% per annum when the interest is compounded annually. Solution : Here P = Rs. 10000.I.2 : Calculate the compound interest on Rs 10000 for 2 years at the rate of 8% per annum when the interest is compounded half yearly.

= Rs (13860 – 12000) = Rs 1860 Example 11. the amount will be given by A = P (1 + R)1 = Rs 12000 1 + 10 100 FH IK This A becomes the principal for the next 6 months or half year. when the interest is compounded quarterly. Find the sum. after 1½ year will be given by A' = A 1 + 5 100 IK 10 I F 1 + 5 I = Rs 12000 F H1 + 100 K H 100K = Rs 12000 × 11 × 21 = Rs 13860 10 20 FH ∴ C. The rate per half year will be R 10 = % = 5% 2 2 ∴ The amount say A'. is Rs 183.I. Solution : Let the sum be Rs 100 ∴ S. A = Rs 26010.6 : The difference between simple interest and compound interest for a certain sum of money at the rate of 10% per annum for 1½ years when the interest is compounded semi-annually. Solution : Here P = ?. = Rs 100 × 10 × 3 = Rs 15 100 × 2 . R = n = 2 (two quarters) ∴ FG 8 IJ % H 4K or 2% quarterly and 2 26010 = P 1 + 100 2 FH IK 51I = PF H 50 K 2 ∴ P = Rs 26010 × 50 × 50 = Rs 25000 51 × 51 Hence the required sum = Rs 25000 Example 11.Compound Interest 263 We note that the interest is compounded annually and therefore at the end of one year.I.5 : Find the sum of money which will amount to Rs 26010 in six months at the rate of 8% per annum.

then sum = Rs 100 80 If the difference is Rs 183.264 Mathematics C..– S. Solution : In compound interest..I.I.(i) . we have 1 + R= ∴ 18522 17640 18522 − 1 18522 − 17640 = 17640 17640 882 = 1 5 or 17640 20 100 R= = ∴ Rate = 5% Substituting the value of R in (i).7 : A sum of money becomes Rs 17640 in two years and Rs 18522 in 3 years at the same rate of interest when the interest is compounded annually. then sum = Rs = Rs 24000 Hence the required sum = Rs 24000 Example 11. Find the sum and the rate of interest per annum. we have 5 17640 = P 1 + 100 ∴ FH IK 2 P = Rs 17640 × 20 × 20 21 × 21 = Rs 16000 Hence the required sum is Rs 16000 and the rate of interest per annum is 5%. = Rs 100 1 + 5 100 = Rs ∴ R FH S T IK − 1U V W 3 1261 80 Difference = C.I.. we know that A = P (1 + R)n Here and 17640 = P (1 + R)2 18522 = P(1 + R)3 .. (ii) Dividing (ii) by (i). . = Rs FH 1261 − 15I K 80 100 × 80 × 183 61 = Rs 61 80 If the difference is Rs 61 .

Find the sum. it would have fetched Rs 5201 more than in the pervious case.e. If the interest were compounded quarterly.8 : A sum of money is invested at compound interest for a year at 8% per annum when the interest is compounded half yearly.Compound Interest 265 ALITER Interest for 3rd year = Rs (18522 – 17640) = Rs 882. 5% 17640 × 1 20 100 Amount after 2 years is given by 5 17640 = P 1 + 100 ∴ FH IK 2 where P is the principal 20 20 P = Rs 17640 × × 21 21 = Rs 16000. Solution : Let the sum be Rs x Here. Example 11. R = 8% or 4% half yearly and n = 2 half years 2 ∴ Compound interest in Ist case LF 4I = Rs Mx H 1 + 100 K N = Rs 51 x 625 2 −x OP Q Compound interest in 2nd case LF 2I O = Rs Mx H 1 + 100 K − xP N Q 51 × 51 × 51 × 51 O = Rs x L NM50 × 50 × 50 × 50 − 1QP 4 = Rs ∴ Difference = Rs 515201 x 6250000 515201 x − 51 xO LM 6250000 625 P N Q . Principal at the end of 2nd year = Rs 17640 If R is the rate % then R= 882 1 5 = or i.

266 Mathematics = Rs If the difference is Rs 5201 x 6250000 5201 x . A = Rs 9261.a. 2 Example 11. Solution : Here P = Rs 8000.e. Find the time.9 : A sum of Rs 15625 amounts to Rs 17576 at 8% p. Solution : Here P = Rs 15625. n = 3 Let the rate of interest be R% Now A = P (1 + R)n 9261 = 8000 ( 1 + R)3 ∴ i. ∴ ∴ 8 % or 4% semi annually 2 A = P (1 + R)n 4 17576 = 15625 1 + 100 FH IK n 4 I FH1 + 100 K = 17576 15625 26 I FH 26 I = F K H 25 25 K n n 3 ∴ n=3 1 Hence time = 3 Half years = 1 years. 1 + R= .e. (1 + R)3 = = ∴ 21I FH 20 K 9261 8000 3 21 20 1 = 5 i. the sum = Rs x 6250000 x × 6250000 × 5201 5201 × x If the difference is Rs 5201. if the interest is compounded annually. the sum = Rs = Rs 6250000 Hence the required sum is Rs 6250000 Example 11. R= = 5% 20 100 ∴ Rate of interest is 5%. A = Rs 17576. compounded semi-annually. R = Let the conversion periods be n half years Now.10 : Find the rate at which Rs 8000 amounts to Rs 9261 in 3 years.

50) = Rs 4630. Calculate the compound interest on Rs 8000 for 3 years at 5% per annum when the interest is compounded annually.50 4000 i. Calculate the compound interest on Rs 390625 for 2 years at 8% per annum when the interest is compounded half yearly. 3. on Rs 8000.11 : Find the rate at which Rs 4000 will give Rs 630. 5.50 as compound interest in 9 months. 7.50 and n = 3 quarters Let the rate of interest = R Now ∴ A = P(1 + R)n 4630. the interest being compounded annually. Find the difference between simple interest and compound interest for 2 years at 10% per annum. A = Rs (4000 + 630. Calculate the compound interest on Rs 62500 for 1 year at 8% per annum when the interest is compounded quarterly. 2. The difference between simple interest and compound interest for a certain sum of money at 8% per annum for 1½ years when the interest is compounded half-yearly is Rs 228.50 = 4000 (1 + R)3 (1 + R)3 = 4630.a. 4. How much money will become Rs 194481 after 2 years at 10% per annum when the interest is compounded semi-annually ? 6. 9261 = 21 = 8000 20 ∴ FH IK 3 1+R= R= 21 20 1 = 5 = 5% per quarter. Solution : Here P = Rs 4000. . when the interest is compounded semi-annually. 20 100 ⇒ ∴ Rate of interest = 20% p. Find the sum. Find the sum of money which will amount to Rs 27783 in 3 years at 5% per annum.e. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11.1 1.Compound Interest 267 Example 11. interest being compounded quarterly.

cars etc. 10. we observe about growth of population. Find the sum and the rate of interest per annum.. it would have earned Rs 881 more than in the previous case. 9..268 Mathematics 8. If the rate of growth/depreciation for period is denoted by r%. If the interest were compounded half yearly. then Vn is given by Vn = V0 1 + Vn = FG r IJ FG1 + r IJ FG1 + r IJ . (For growth) H 100K H 100K H 100K F r IJ FG1 − r IJ FG1 − r IJ . (For depreciation) V G1 − H 100K H 100K H 100K 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 We solve some examples to illustrate the above concepts.. r = 4% and n = 3 ∴ Vn = 281250 1 + 4 100 FH IK 3 26 26 26 = 281250 × × × 25 25 25 = 316368 Hence the population of the town after 3 years = 316368.. interest being compounded half-yearly ? 11. Find the sum. If the rate of growth/depreciation varies for each conversion period. after use.. A sum of money is invested at compound interest for 2 years at 10% per annum when the interest is compounded yearly... A sum of money becomes Rs 18522 in three years and Rs 19448.. What will be its population after 3 years if the rate of growth of population is 4% per year ? Solution : Here V0 = 281250. and depreciation of articles like machinery. plants.5 RATE OF GROWTH AND DEPRECIATION In our day to day life. then Vn is given by : r Vn = V0 1 + 100 r Vn = V0 1 − 100 FH FH IK IK n in case of growth and n in case of depreciation. .12 : The population of a town is 281250. V0 is the value of article in the beginning and Vn is the value after ‘n’ conversion periods.10 in 4 years at the same rate of interest when the interest is compounded annually. Examples 11. viruses etc. At what rate of interest per annum would the compound interest on Rs 12500 be Rs 9100 in 1½ years.

14 : The cost of machinery is Rs 1360000 today.Compound Interest 269 Example 11.13 : The cost of a car was Rs 35000 in January 2000.000. r Solution : We know that Vt = V0 1 + 100 ∴ FH IK n Vt = 3.15 : The application of manure increases the output of a crop by 10% in the first year.2042 tons So the production of crop in the year 2003 = 4. the cost depreciates by 15% and subsequently. Solution : Here V0 = Rs 350000. find the production of crop per hectare in 2003. first year & then 10% for next years.2042 tons/hectare. 5% in the second year and 4% in the third year. The cost of car will be Rs 255150 Example 11. n = 4.5 1 + 10 100 FH 5 I F1 + 4 I IK FH1 + 100 K H 100K tons 11 21 26 = 3. Find the value of the car in January 2003. Its value depreciates at the rate of 10% each year. ∴ Vt = Rs1360000 × 1 − 15 1 − 10 100 100 = Rs1360000 × 17 × 9 × 9 × 9 20 10 10 10 = Rs 842724 FH IK FH IK 3 ∴ Depreciation = Rs(1360000 – 842724) = Rs 517276 Example 11. By how much. rate = 15%. In the first year. Vn= ? r = 10%. Solution : Here V0 = Rs 1360. n = 3 ∴ 10 Vn = Rs 350000 1 − 100 FH IK 3 9 9 9 = Rs 350000 × × × 10 10 10 = Rs 255150 In January 2003. .5 tons per hectare.5 × × × tons 10 20 25 = 4. the machinery has depreciated after 4 years. the price depreciates by 10% each year. If the production of a crop in the year 2000 was 3.

was 3. 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11. A tree gains its height at the rate of 2% of what it was in the beginning of the month. The value of property increases at the rate of 20% of what it was in the beginning of the year.00 A. then r Vn = V0 1 + 100 Vn 0 z z FH IK r I = VF H1 − 100 K n in case of growth and n in case of depreciation.00 A.5 × 108. Rate = r%. The population of a town is 50000.270 Mathematics Example 11. the rate of growth of the population was 5%.M. the value of property will be almost double ? LET US SUM UP z If Principal = P. find the virus count at 11. 3. The population of a city is 2. . In the third year. 4. on the same day.2256 × 108 FH IK 2 Hence virus count at 11. In the second year. R = 4% and n = 2 ∴ 4 Vn = 3. find its height at the end of the April of the same year (Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places). Find the population of the town after 3 years.16 : The virus of a culture decreases at the rate of 4% per hour due to a medicine. the population growth rate was noticed as 4%.2 1.5 × 108 1 − 100 = 3. 2.7 × 108.5 m in the beginning of January 2002. If the rate of depreciation is 15% for the first year and 10% for the subsequent years. Solution : Here V0 = 3. is 3. Time = n conversion periods then Amount = Principal + Compound Interest = P (1 + R)n C.M. It its height was 1. In how many years. If the virus count in the culture at 9.I. If V0 is the value of article in the beginning. find its population after 3 years. Vn is the value after ‘n’ conversion periods and r be the rate of growth/depreciation per period. find its cost after 3 years.2256 × 108. The cost of a car was Rs 215000 in January 2001.M. the population decreased by 10%. If the rate of growth of population is 5% of what it was in the beginning of the year. because of some epidemics. In the first year.00 A. = P [(1 + R)n – 1] Compound Interest is greater than simple interest except for the first conversion period.5 × 108.

. If the cost of scooter is 15625. if the present population is 16000 ? 6. The price of a scooter depreciates at the rate of 20% per annum of its value at the beginning of each year. During second year.. the population decreases by 10%. interest being compounded half yearly. = V G H 100K H 100K H 100K 2 3 0 1 2 3 TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. Find the population at the end of 2 years. 5.. for growth H K H 100K H 100K F1 − r IJ FG1 − r IJ FG1 − r IJ . The population of a town is 20000. 3. when the interest is compounded quarterly. The population of a town increases at the rate of 5% per annum. Find the rate of interest per annum if Rs 31250 amounts to Rs 35152 in 1½ years. for depreciation. find the time period.Compound Interest 271 z If the rate of growth/depreciation varies for each conversion period. A sum of Rs 1000 amounts to Rs 1331 after some time. 4. what will be the population of the town after two years. Find the sum of money which will amount to Rs 26460 in six months at 20% per annum. what will be its value at the end of three years ? 7. If the rate of interest is 10% per annum compounded annually.. It increases by 10% during first year.. 2. then r1 Vn = V0 1 + 100 and Vn FG IJ FG1 + r IJ FG1 + r IJ . when the interest is being compounded annually on Rs 2500. Find the difference between simple and compound interests for 2 years at 10% per annum.

3 years 6. 1261 5. 3. 19800 4.272 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 11. 49140 3.000 2. Rs 24000 8. 17640 2. 40% p. Rs 160000 9. 1. Rs 148027.50 4. Rs 124.000. Rs 46875 4.05 10. Rs 8000 3.60. Rs 5152. 3. Rs 1.a. Rs 66351 7. 5% Check Your Progress 11. 24000 7.62 m .1256 × 108 5. 8% 5.1 1. 4 years Terminal Exercises 1.2 1. Rs 25 2.01 6. Rs 16.

4. . 5. banks also help the people in various kinds of financial transactions. 8.1 INTRODUCTION All of us need money to meet our day-to-day expenses. 10. For the convenience of customers. Issuing/Encashing travellers cheques in Local/Foreign currency. 6. Exchange of Foreign currency etc. Giving loans to the borrowers on interest. 2. 3. Keeping money of the depositors and pay interest on deposits. Transferring money from one place to another. Collection of taxes – income tax. Receiving payments – Telephone bills. We earn money. We would like to keep the money in safe custody. save some money. Providing All Time Money (ATM) facility to the customers. Besides this. sales tax. school fees etc. the banks offer different types of accounts (deposits) some of which are : (i) Savings Bank Account (ii) Current Account (iii) Fixed deposit Account. Issuing credit cards. water bills. Buying and selling security bonds. Electricity bills. 7. house tax etc.Banking 273 12 Banking 12. Banks are the institutions where we keep the money in the form of deposits and those who need money can borrow as loans on payment of interest with certain conditions. (iv) Recurring deposit Account. Some of the functions of a bank are : 1. 9. spend money and also.

12. S. 12. for which money was invested are given i. The general format of a page of the savings bank passbook is as given below : .. calculate interest/maturity value of fixed/term deposit given the rate of interest compounded yearly. (ii) Compound interest when P. deposits and withdrawals can be made and the record is maintained by the bank in a ‘Pass-Book’ given to the Account holder (i. n is number of conversion periods. = A – P where A = P(1 + R)n. the person who holds the account).I.e. In this account. The bank pays interest for the money that an account holder keeps in the account. Some of these are : (a) Savings bank account (b) Fixed or term deposit account (c) Current account 12. Anybody can open this account with a minimum sum of Rs 1000 with cheque book facility. n are given i. C. a pass book is issued to the account holder.e. It contains date wise entries of deposits withdrawals and the interest earned. The rate of interest changes from time to time. calculate interest for a saving bank account.4. On opening a savings bank account. It bears savings bank account number also. the learner will be able to : z z z state different types of accounts.274 Mathematics 12. The prevailing rate of interest is 4% per annum compounded half yearly. given the rate of interest. = PRT. rate of interest (R) and time (T).I.e.4 TYPES OF ACCOUNTS You can open different types of accounts in a bank depending upon your needs. R.1 Savings Bank Account This is the most popular account offered by the banks.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. semi-annually or quarterly (not more than four conversion periods).3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE (i) Knowledge of simple interest when principal (P). This account encourages people to develop the habit of saving.

12. . (ii) The interest is credited to the account every six months. (i) The bank pays interest for the month on the minimum closing balance from the 10th day of the month to the last day of the month. (iii) The present rate of interest is 4% per annum compounded semi-annually. Fi.2 Sample of Cheque Note : In a savings bank account. (iv) Usually not more than 25 withdrawals are allowed in a quarter from Savings Bank account.1 Sample of Withdrawal slip Fig.Banking 275 Date — — — Particulars — — — Amount withdrawn Rs P — — — Amount Deposited Rs P — — — Balance — — — Money can be withdrawn from the bank through a withdrawal slip (sample shown) or by a cheque (sample shown below).g 12.

1/12 year.e.00 5000. Solution : Balance on 5th March. Find the principal for which he will earn interest for March 2003. 2003.00 — 20000. (ii) Add all the minimum balances for each month as per step (i) to obtain principal for one month. . (iii) Calculate the simple interest on this sum for one month using the formula Interest = P × R × 1 12 where P is Principal.00 10000.1 : Sidharth opened a savings bank account in State Bank of India on 5th March 2003 with a deposit of Rs 5000. He deposited Rs 1500 on 10th March 2003 and withdrew Rs 3000 on 29th March.4. no interest is payable for that month.00 20000.2 : Anisha’s savings bank account pass-book has the following entries : Date 2002 Jan 6 Feb 11 April 5 April 27 May 3 June 15 By Cash By Cash By Cheque To Cheque By Cash To Cheque — — — 18000.00 30000. Let us illustrate the above with some examples. (iv) If account is opened after the 10th day of month.00 17000. the principal for which interest is earned for the month of March 2003 is Rs 3500.276 Mathematics 12. 2003 = Rs 3500 Here minimum balance between 10th and 31st March.00 Particulars Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Balance Rs P Rs P Rs P Find the sum on which Anisha will earn interest from January to June 2002. (v) No interest is paid for the month in which the account is closed. 2003 = Rs 3500. R is rate of interest per annum and time 1 month i. Example 12. 2003 = Rs 5000 Balance on 10th March. Example 12.00 30000. Therefore.2 Computation of Interest (i) Write down the minimum balance between the closing balance on 10th to the last day of the month.00 — 20000.00 10000.00 — 13000. 2003 = Rs 6500 Balance on 29th March.00 35000.

10 April 3 June 5 June 25 B/F To Cash By Cheque To Cheque By Cash By Cheque By Cheque — Rs 7000.00 20000.00 10000.00 20000. find the interest earned by Ritu at the end of June on her savings bank account.00 15000. 11 Feb.00 .00 — — — — — 20000. Feb.00 30000. 9 Jan. the sum on which Anisha will earn interest for one month = Rs 127000. Solution : Details of qualifying amount for the calculation of interest are as below: Month Jan.00 30000.00 5000.00 — 5000.00 20000.00 15000.00 25000. Principal for January = Rs 20000 20000 30000 17000 30000 10000 Principal for February = Rs Principal for March Principal for April Principal for May Principal for June Total = Rs = Rs = Rs = Rs Rs 127000 Thus.00 105000.00 Particulars Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Balance Rs P Rs P Rs P If the rate of interest is 4% per annum.00 12000.00 35000. March April May June Total Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Amount 5000. Example 12.00 — Rs 10000. 1 Jan.00 5000.00 15000.3 : Ritus’s pass book has the following entries : Date 2002 Jan.Banking 277 Solution : The qualifying amount for the interest is the minimum balance between the 10th and the last day of the month.

00 1 year 12 Here P = Rs 54000.00 20000.00 10000. His passbook has the following entries: Date 2002 July 11 Aug 12 Sept 5 Sept 21 Nov 9 Dec 10 Dec 29 By cash By Cheque By Cheque To Cheque By Cheque By Cheque To cash — — — 8000.00 6000.00 12000.00 20000. 12 ∴ 105000 × 4 × 1 = Rs 350.00 12000. if the rate of interest is 4% per annum. Find the amount received by Ashok. R = 4% and T = ∴ Interest = PRT = Rs LM 54000 × 4 × 1OP N 100 × 12 Q = Rs 180.00 20000.00 — 6000.00 4000.00 ∴ Amount received = Rs (4000 + 180) = Rs 4180.00 54000. Interest = PRT = Rs Example 12. .00 4000.00 4000. Solution.00 Particulars Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Balance Rs P Rs P Rs P The account is closed on 3rd January 2003.00 10000. 100 × 12 Interest earned by Ritu = Rs 350.278 Mathematics Here P = Rs 105000.00 10000. R = 4% and T = ∴ 1 year.00 — 8000.00 12000.4 : Ashok has a savings bank account in a bank.00 30000.00 — — 26000. Details of qualifying amount for the calculation of interest are : Month July August September October November December Total Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Amount — 6000.

2003 March 2003 Total Here P = Rs 30000.5 : The dates and respective balances in the pass book of David’s savings bank account are given below : Dates 2002 October 5 October 25 December 8 2003 January 11 February 5 February 9 February 11 March 15 March 29 Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs 8000.00 Rs Rs Rs 1500. Solution : Details of qualifying amount for the calculation of interest are : Month Oct. . 2002 Dec. 2003 Feb.00 7500.00 Balances Calculate the interest earned upto March 2003 if the rate of interest is 4% per annum. R = 4% ∴ Interest = PRT = Rs Amount Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs 1500 3500 5000 5000 7500 7500 Rs 30000 and T = 1/12 year 30000 × 4 × 1 = Rs 100 100 × 12 ∴ Interest earned by David = Rs 100.00 6000.00 5000. 2002 Jan. 2002 Nov.00 3500.Banking 279 Example 12.00 10000.00 20000.00 10000.

6 : Salim opened a savings bank account with a bank on 9th January 2002 with a cash deposit of Rs 10000.00 2000. By cash By Cash — — — — 3000.00 15000.00 11250.00 2000.2002 By Interest — 250. His pass book has the following entries : .280 Mathematics Example 12.00 2000.00 10000.00 14000.7.00 13000.1 1.00 — — 6000.00 — 10000. If the bank pays interest at the rate of 4% per annum.00 16000.00 17000. Write all entries of the passbook. Subsequently he deposited Rs 2000 on the 8th day of every month. calculate the interest upto the last day of 30th June 2002 and make the entry in the passbook alongwith the balance. Solution : The entries in the passbook are as below : Date Particulars Amount withdrawn Rs 2002 9th Jan.00 12000.00 P Amount Deposited Rs P Balance Rs P 8th March By Cash 8th April By Cash 25th April To Cash 8th May 8th June By Cash By Cash 28th June To Cash Details of qualifying amount for the calculation of interest are : Month Amount (in Rs) January February 10000 12000 March 14000 April 13000 May 15000 June 11000 Total 75000 ∴ Interest upto 30th June. Krishna Murthy opened a savings bank account in State Bank of India on 7th July 2002.00 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 12. 8th Feb.00 — 2000.00 2000. He withdrew Rs 3000 on 25th April and Rs 6000 on 28th June 2002.00 11000. 2002 = Rs 75000 × 1 × 4 = Rs 250 100 × 12 The interest entry is made on 1–7–2002 as below : 1.

Banking 281 Date 2002 7th July 11th July 25th August Particulars Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Rs P Rs P Balance Rs P By cash By Cash By Cash — — — — 1100.00 — 16000.00 5000.00 4000. August and September 2002.00 5000.00 20000.00 10000.00 30000. together.00 — 5000.00 1100.00 5000.00 5000.00 Particulars Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Balance Rs P Rs P Rs P .00 10th September By Cheque Calculate the principal for which he will earn interest for the months of July. The entries in the savings bank account pass book of Kamlesh are as under: Date 2002 1st January 10th January 9th February 9th March 11th April 25th June B/F By Cash By Cheque By Cash By Cash By Cheque — — — — — — — 5000.00 1500.00 20000.00 — 15000.00 1500.00 5000.00 15000.00 400.00 Particulars Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Rs P Rs P Balance Rs P Calculate the interest at the end of June 2002 at 4% per annum.00 15000. 9th March 6th June 10th June 26th June By cash By Cheque By Cheque To Cheque By Cash To Cash — — — 10000.00 5000.00 40000.00 35000.00 1000. 3.00 25000. The entries in the passbook of a savings bank account holder who opened his account of 11th January 2002 are as follows : Date 2002 11th January 11th Feb.00 5000.00 2500.00 5000.00 4000. 2.

00 — 6000. 2002 To Cheque December 19.00 10000.00 20000.00 5000. 5.00 Particulars Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Rs P Rs P Balance Rs P If the rate of interest is 6% per annum.00 — — — 9000. She withdraws Rs 4000 on 3rd April and Rs 12000 on 10th June 2002. 2002. . 2000 By Cash The account is closed on 2nd January 2003. write all the entries. Find the amount received if the rate of interest is 4% per annum.00 November 25.00 Balance Rs P 2000. including interest.00 10000.00 — 4000. 2002 July 11. 6. If the bank pays interest at the rate of 5% per annum. payable at the end of June and December. 10 Sept. calculate the interest entry on 1st January 2003 in the passbook alongwith the balance.00 1500.00 10000. Subsequently she deposited Rs 6000 on the 6th day of every month. find the interest earned if the account is closed on : (i) 30th June. 2002 (ii) 3rd July.00 — 15000. Madhu’s Savings Bank Account passbook has the following entries : Date 2002 July 1 July 9 Sept.00 1000. Kavita opens a savings bank account with a bank on 8th January.00 — 4000.282 Mathematics If the rate of interest is 4% per annum. 2002 Particulars B/F By Cheque By Cheque Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Rs P Rs P — — — 15000. 2002 August 9.00 11000.00 4500. 2002 with a cash deposit of Rs 10000.00 9500.00 — — 8000. which are made upto 1st July 2002.00 20000.00 2000. A page from the pass book of savings bank account is given below : Date July 1. 14 December 5 December 10 December 23 B/F By Cheque To Cheque By Cash By Cash By Cash To Cheque — — 9000.00 5000. 4.

For this account. government organisations etc.80 Example 12. (iii) For one year and more. (ii) For six months and above but less than 1 year. 5% 6% 6. find the amount she receives at the end of 60 days. Rather.4. they charge some money as service charges. Here the depositor agrees to keep the money with the bank for a fixed time. Hence the banks offer higher rates of interest on such deposits depending upon the period of deposits. Solution : Here P = Rs 2920. banks allow the current account holder to get money over and above their deposits called overdraft. The rate of interest per annum on term deposits is as below : (i) For 46 days and above but less than 179 days.4 Fixed Deposit Account Suppose you have some money which is not required for some time. the bank can use this money more freely than the money kept in the savings bank account. If the bank pays interest at 6% per annum. The total amount receivable after the expiry of the time is called maturity value. there is no limit on number of withdrawals or on the amount of withdrawals but the banks do not pay interest. the minimum balance for individuals account is Rs 5000 while for big concerns. Depending upon the goodwill of the individual/company.80 FG 2920 × 6 × 60IJ H 100 × 365 K ∴ Amount Received by Anju = Rs (2920 + 28. 12..5% For senior citizens. it is Rs 10000. The scheme suitable for depositing such money is the Fixed Deposit or Term deposit.5% is given on deposits.Banking 283 12.80) = Rs 2948. Big business concerns. have to do a number of transactions every day. .7 : Anju deposited Rs 2920 in a fixed deposit scheme in a bank for 60 days. R = 6% per annum and T = 60 year 365 ∴ Interest = PRT = Rs = Rs 28. find the maturity value of the money deposited by him. For them banks offer a different type of account called current account. Obviously. sometimes. If the rate of interest is 8% per annum compounded half yearly.8 : Joginder makes a fixed deposit of Rs 31250 in a bank for 1½ years.4. and additional interest of 0.3 Current Account In a saving bank account. Here. the account holder is allowed to have a limited number of withdrawals in a half year. companies. Example 12.

In example 8. 20000.08 × 1.284 Mathematics Solution : Note here that the interest for the first half year also forms a part of principal for the second half year and likewise for the third half years well. T = 1 years. Time = 4 quarters ∴ FH IK 4 I IK FH1 + 100 K FH = Rs 31250 × 1. R = and T = 1 8 = 4% per half year 2 1 year = 3 Half years 2 n = 3. find the maturity value of the money deposited by him. R = 8%. Example 12. Here P = Rs. ⇒ ∴ 4 Amount = P(1 + R)n = Rs 31250 1 + 100 = Rs 35152 FH IK 3 Maturity value of the deposit = Rs 35152 Example 12. we shall make use of the formula for compound interest. the interest is compounded half yearly while in Example 9. R = 2% per quarter. If the rate of interest is 8% per annum compounded yearly. the maturity value = Rs 35100.04 = Rs 35100 2 A = P(1 + R)n = Rs 20000 1 + 100 = Rs 21648. find the maturity value of the money deposited by him.64 FH IK 4 = Rs 20000 × 1. Note : Note the difference in the maturity value in Example 8 and Example 9.02 × 1. 1 Solution : Here P = Rs 31250. Thus.02 Hence the maturity value = Rs 21649 (approx.02 × 1. the interest is compounded yearly.9 : Amit makes a fixed deposit of Rs 31250 in a bank for 1½ years.02 × 1. Solution : Here P = Rs. If the rate of interest 8% per annum compounded quarterly. 31250.10 : Kapil makes a fixed deposit of Rs 20000 in a bank in a year. 2 8 Amount after one year = Rs 31250 1 + 100 1 and amount after 1 year 2 8 A = Rs 31250 1 + 100 Hence.) .

How much money should Shanta deposit in a fixed deposit account in a bank so as to enable her to receive a sum of Rs 9261 after 1½ years. Find the amount at the end of 9 months if Rs 50000 is deposited and the interest 8% per annum is compounded quarterly. 3. n = 4 We know that A = P(1 + R)n ∴ 456976 = P 1 + 4 100 P = Rs FH IK 4 = P 26 25 FH IK 4 456976 × 25 × 25 × 25 × 25 26 × 26 × 26 × 26 = Rs 390625 Hence amount to be deposited = Rs 390625.Banking 285 Example 12. 4. A = Rs 456976.e. 2. R = 4% per half year and T = 2 year = 4 half years i. Some of these are : (i) Saving bank account (ii) Fixed or term deposit account (iii) Current account . It the rate of interest is 10% per annum and the interest is compounded half yearly. Pankaj deposits Rs 75000 in a fixed deposit account for 3 years. find the maturity value of the money deposited by him. Charu makes a fixed deposit of Rs 8000 in a bank for 1½ years. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 12. the rate of interest being 10% per annum compounded half yearly ? 5. find the maturity value of the money deposited by her.11 : How much money should Nirmal deposit in a fixed deposit account in a bank so that she gets Rs 456976 after two years. Solution : Here P = ?. the rate of interest being 8% per annum compounded half yearly. the rate of interest being 8% per annum compounded quarterly ? LET US SUM UP z There are different types of accounts in a bank. If the rate of interest is 10% per annum compounded annually.2 1. How much money should Kamal deposit in a fixed deposit account in a bank so as to enable him to receive a sum of Rs 1061208 after nine months.

z Step for computing interest are : (i) Write down the minimum balance between the closing balance on 10th to the last day of the month. (v) No interest is paid for the month in which the account is closed. (iii) Calculate the simple interest on this sum for one month using the formula Interest = P × R × 1 12 where P is Principal. Dass’s Saving bank Account in a particular year is given below : Date Particulars Amount withdrawn Amount Deposited Rs P Rs P By Cash By Cheque To Cheque By Cash By Cash — — 20000. (ii) Add all the minimum balances for each month as per step (i) to obtain principal for one month.00 — — 15000. 9 Feb.00 3000. 1/12 year. 10 April 25 June 7 June 11 If the rate of interest is 4% per annum. (ii) the interest is credited to the account every six months. . R is rate of interest per annum and time 1 month i.00 8000.00 5000.00 Jan.00 23000. no interest is payable for that month. TERMINAL EXERCISE 1.00 12000.00 — 2000. A page for the pass book of Mr.00 Balance Rs P 15000. (iv) If account is opened after the 10th day of month. Dass at the end of June on his savings bank account. find the interest earned by Mr.286 Mathematics z In a saving bank account : (i) the bank pays interest for the month on the minimum closing balance from the 10th day of the month to the last day of the month.e.00 17000.

00 Particulars Amount withdrawn Rs P Amount Deposited Rs P Balance Rs P The account is closed on 10th January. Sujata has a savings bank account in a bank. Vandana makes a fixed deposit of Rs 62500 in a bank for 1½ years.00 — — 2500. Smith makes a fixed deposit of Rs 10000 in a bank for a year. 20 Dec. 27 B.00 — 9600. find the maturity value of money deposited by her. Her passbook has the following entries : Date 2002 July 1 July 9 August 10 October 19 November 2 Dec. How much money should Sarla deposit in a fixed deposit account in a bank so that she gets Rs 194481 after two years. If the rate of interest is 8% per annum compounded half yearly.00 4000.Banking 287 2.00 12600. If the rate of interest is 8% per annum compounded quarterly. 5.F. By Cheque By Cash To Cheque By Cash To Cash By Cheque — — — 6000. Find the amount received if the rate of interest is 4% per annum.00 — 9200.00 — 10600.00 3400. 2003. the rate of interest being 10% per annum compounded half-yearly ? . find the maturity value of the money deposited by her.00 3000.00 9000.00 14000. 4. 3.00 2500.00 5000.

5 Feb.66 5. 6 March 6 April 3 April 6 May 6 June 6 June 10 July 1 By cash By Cash By Cash To Cash By Cash By Cash By Cash To Cash By interest — — — Particulars 10000. Rs 240 2.00 24525.00 6000. Interest Rs 165.33 3.00 6000.00 24000.00 — — — 12000.1 1. Rs 1000000 .00 30000.00 22000.00 16000. Date 2002 Jan.00 10000.00 6000. Rs 9261 3.40 Terminal Exercise 1. Rs 20240 Debit Rs P Credit Rs P Balance Rs P (ii) Rs 180 4. Rs 6600 2.00 18000.32 5. Rs 8000 5.00 4000. Rs 53060. Rs 99825 4. Balance Rs 2165 6.00 — 6000.00 24000.00 6000. Rs 10824.00 — 525. Rs 70304 4. Rs 14140 3.00 36000. (i) Rs 166.2 1.288 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 12. Rs 160000 2.00 — Check Your Progress 12. Rs 583.

Since then efforts have been made to give it a perfect logical shape.Lines and Angles 1 Module 3 Geometry Geometry is a branch of Mathematics which deals with the study of different types of figures and their properties. is a difficult task. Euclid a Greek mathematician collected all available knowledge in geometry till his times (330 B.). Egyptians and Babylonians discovered many formulae for finding the areas of different rectilinear figures and used them practically. . quadrilaterals and circles along with their properties. In this module on geometry. arranged it in a systematic way and gave it a logical approach based on deductive reasoning.C. who profounded and proved. To study geometry in its full and complete logical form. we shall study about lines. verifying and stating properties of figures and proving logically only a few important properties known as theorems. As such we shall be studying geometry in a very informal way. As such geometry originated in ancient times when man started measuring land for making his home and boundaries for his fields. angles. what is now known as Pythagoras theorem are contributions to geometry worth mentioning from the glorius past of India. triangles. Sulbasutras used during vedic period. and the work of the great mathematician Baudhayan. The Indian Mathematicians also had contributed a lot towards development of knowledge of geometry as is evident from the civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. defining terms with suitable examples. Geometry means measurement of earth.

1 . angle. 13. rays and angles. plane. you have studied about a point. illustrate and verify properties of parallel lines prove that the sum of angles of a triangle is 180° explain the concept of locus and find the locus of a point under certain conditions. 13. Let us quickly recall these concepts. a plane and an angle. LINE AND ANGLE In earlier classes. intersecting lines. plane.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. we get a fine dot. Fig.2 Mathematics 13 Lines and Angles 13. the learner will be able to : z illustrate the concepts of point. its corner that of a point and the edges meeting at a corner give an idea of an angle. line. parallel lines. intersecting lines and pair of angles made by them. Its edges give an idea of a line. which is called a point. It gives an idea of a plane.4 POINT.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE We assume that the learner is familiar with the geometrical concepts and figures such as : z z point. Now move your hand on the top of your table. a line. Point : If we press the tip of a pen or pencil on a piece of paper. parallel lines 13. z z z 13.1 INTRODUCTION Observe the top of your desk or table. line.

6 . (See Fig. A line is named using any two points on it. This gives us a straight line or simply called a line.4) Fig.3 Plane If we move our palm on the top of a table. Join them with the help of a ruler or a scale and extend it on both sides. Fig.2 Ray If we mark a point X and draw a line. starting from it extending infinitely in one direction only.5 X is called the initial point of the ray XY. (See Fig.13. 13.4 13. 13.1 Line Now mark two points A and B. then we get a ray XY. 13. viz. 13. m etc.4.3 The part of the line between two points A and B is called a line segment and will be named AB. Fig. Fig. 13. Observe that a line segment is the shortest path between two points A and B. B. 13.2 In geometry a line is extended infinitely on both sides and is marked with arrows to give this idea.4. we get an idea of a plane.3) Fig.4. 13.Lines and Angles 3 A point is used to show the location and is represented by capital letters A. AB or by a single small letter l. 13. C etc.

at some distance from A. . floor of a room also gives the idea of part of a plane. we talk of collinear points only when their number is three or more. For example points P. Take another point B. only one passes through B. We conclude that one and only one line can be drawn passing through two given points.4 Mathematics Similarly. If a line can not be drawn passing through all three points (or more points) then they are said to be non-collinear. B and C in the Fig.9.9 We observe that a line may or may not pass through the three given points. Since two points always lie on a line. We can again draw an infinite number of lines passing through B. For example. Plane also extends infinitely lengthwise and breadthwise. Mark a point A on a sheet of paper. Fig.9 are collinear points. 13. 13.7 In fact we can draw an infinite number of lines through a point. then these points are said to be collinear. points A. 13. Now we take three points in plane. 13. Fig. Thus. If a line can pass through three or more points. Fig. Q and R in the Fig. How many lines can you draw passing though this point ? As many as you wish. 13.8 Out of these lines how many pass through both the points A and B ? Out of all the lines passing through A. only one line passes through both the points A and B.

or or (ii) They may intersect in one point only as in Fig.4 Angle Mark a point O and draw two rays OA and OB starting from O. [In such a case they are called intersecting lines] or (ii) no points in common as in Fig. Now observe three (or more) distinct lines in plane.4.Lines and Angles 5 Let us now take two distinct lines AB and CD in a plane. In such a case they are called concurrent lines.10 How many points can they have in common ? We observe that these lines can have. In such a case they are called parallel lines. 13.10 (a) and (b). The figure we get is called an angle. 13. Fig. an angle is a figure consisting of two rays starting from a common point.11(b). .11 What are the possibilities ? (i) They may interest in more than one point as in Fig.11(c). Thus. either (i) one point in common as in Fig. 13.10(c). (iii) They may be non intersecting lines parallel to each other as in Fig.11(a) and 13. 13. 13. 13. Fig. 13. 13.11 (d).

. [see Fig.13 Two lines or rays making a right angle with each other are called perpendicular lines.6 Mathematics Fig. An angle less than 90° is called an acute angle. 13. If we take any point O and draw two rays starting from it in opposite directions then the measure of this angle is taken to be 180° degrees. 13.11] An angle is measured in degrees.14(a). ∠XOY is an obtuse angle in Fig. written as 180°. 13. 13. 13. In Fig. Fig. we can say OA is perpendicular to OB or vice-versa. Fig.12 This measure divided into 180 equal parts is called one degree (1°). An angle of 90° is called a right angle.14(b). For example ∠POQ is an acute angle in Fig. For example. An angle greater than 90° but less than 180° is called an obtuse angle. and is written as ∠AOB or ∠BOA or ∠O.13. 13. 13.11 This angle may be named as angle AOB or angle BOA or simply angle O. for example ∠BOA or ∠BOC. Angle obtained by two opposite rays is called a straight angle.

(a) Fig. Each pair has a common vertex O and a common side OA in between OB and OC. .14 (b) 13. A pair of angles.16 (b) Observe the angles in each pair in Fig.5 PAIRS OF ANGLES Fig. is called a pair of complementary angles.15. 13. whose sum is 90°.16[(a) and (b)]. Such a pair of angles is called a ‘pair of adjacent angles’. Each angle is called the complement of the other. They add up to make a total of 90°. 13. 13. 13. 13.Lines and Angles 7 (a) Fig.15 Observe the two angles ∠1 and ∠2 in each of the figures in Fig.

8 Mathematics (a) Fig. Note that they also make a pair of supplementary angles. The pair of angles so formed as in Fig. Draw two intersecting lines AB and CD. Each angle is called the supplement of the other. 13. 13. Fig. Draw a line AB. whatever be the position of the ray CD. 13. Fig. is called a pair of supplementary angles. From a point C on it draw a ray CD making two angles ∠X and ∠Y. 13.18 is called a linear pair of angles. A pair of angles whose sum is 180°. These add up to make a total of 180°. 13. We conclude If a ray stands on a line then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180°.19 . intersecting each other at O.17[(a) and (b)]. we will always find the sum to be 180°.17 (b) Again observe the angles in each pair in Fig.18 If we measure ∠X and ∠Y and add.

13. You will always find that ∠AOC = ∠DOB. Fig. Measure them. keeping the other in position and observe that the pairs of vertically opposite angles thus formed are always equal.22 . Fig. Attach two strips with a nail or a pin as shown in the figure. 13. 13. you will again find ∠AOD = ∠BOC We conclude : If two lines intersect each other. eight angles are formed. These make a pair of vertically opposite angles.21 When a transversal intersects two lines. For example line l in Fig.20 Rotate one of the strips. ∠AOD and ∠BOC is another pair of vertically opposite angles. Activity for you. A line which intersects two or more lines at distinct points is called a transversal. 13. Fig. On measuring.21 is a transversal. the pairs of vertically opposite angles are equal.Lines and Angles 9 ∠AOC and ∠DOB are angles opposite to each other.

. 13. lines m and n are not parallel. that is. which we study in the following. we shall always find that ∠1 = ∠5. You may also verify the truth of these results by drawing a pair of parallel lines (using parallel edges of your scale) and a transversal and measuring angles in each of these pairs. Some of the useful pairs are as follows : (a) ∠1 and ∠5 is a pair of corresponding angles. ∠3 = ∠6 and ∠4 = ∠5 ∠3 + ∠5 = 180° and ∠4 + ∠6 = 180° that is. Hence we conclude : When a transversal intersects two parallel lines. 13. there may not exist any relation between the angles of any of the above pairs.22 above. angles in each pair of alternate angle are equal. when lines are parallel. In Fig. Also. ∠3 = ∠7 and ∠4 = ∠8 that is. then (i) each pair of corresponding angles. whatever be the position of parallel lines or the transversal Fig. ∠3 and ∠7 and ∠4 and ∠8 are other pairs of corresponding angles.23 If we measure the angles. are equal (ii) each pair of alternate angles are equal (iii) each pair of interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary. However. (b) ∠3 and ∠6 is a pair of alternate angles. When a transversal intersects two parallel lines. (c) ∠3 and ∠5 is a pair of interior angles on the same side of the transversal. ∠4 and ∠6 is another pair of interior angles. Also ∠2 = ∠6. ∠4 and ∠5 is another pair of alternate angles. eight angles are formed. there are some very useful relations in these pairs. ∠2 and ∠6. as such. sum of angles in each pair of interior angles is 180°. angles in each pair of corresponding angles are equal.10 Mathematics These angles in pairs are very important in the study of properties of parallel lines.

as shown in Fig. 13.24. we shall find that they do not intersect each other. Fig.24 At C and D. 13. Example 13.1 : Choose the correct answer out of the alternative options in the following multiple choice questions. 13. say 50°. Hence we conclude that When a transversal intersects two lines in such a way that (i) any pair of corresponding angles are equal or or (ii) any pair of alternate angles are equal (iii) any pair of interior angles on the same side of transversal are supplementary then the two lines are parallel. To verify the truth of the first converse. they are parallel. we construct two angles ACF and CDH equal to each other. that is.Lines and Angles 11 Converse of each of these results is also true.25 . In a similar way. On producing EF and GH on either side. we draw a line AB and mark two points C and D on it. we can verify the truth of the other two converses. Fig.

(c) (b) complementary angles (d) a linear pair of angles (b) supplementary angles (d) adjacent angles Ans. 13.12 Mathematics (i) In Fig. ∠BOD is equal to (a) x° (c) (90 – x)° (a) 36° (c) 108° (b) (90 + x)° (d) (180 – x)° (b) 72° (d) 144° Ans. 13. 13. (c) Fig. (vi) ∠3 and ∠5 form a pair of (a) Alternate angles (c) vertically opposite (b) interior angles (d) corresponding angles Ans. (d) . ∠COE and ∠BOE are (iv) An angle is 4 times its supplement.27 In the above figure. ∠FOD and ∠BOD are (a) supplementary angles (c) vertically opposite (a) complementary angles (c) a linear pair (iii) In Fig.25. the angle is (v) What value of x will make AB a straight angle in Fig. (d) Ans. (d) Ans. 13.25. 13. 13.25.26 (a) 30° (c) 50° (b) 40° (d) 60° Ans. l is parallel to m and p is parallel to q. (b) (ii) In Fig.26 Fig.

. ∠BOL + ∠BOM = 2∠BOA + 2∠BOC ∴ ∠LOM = 2(∠BOA + ∠BOC) = 2 × 90° = 180° = straight angle ∴ L. ..1 1.(i) . 13.28 OA bisects ∠LOB.29 In Fig. Choose the correct answer out of the given alternative in the following multiple choice questions : .Lines and Angles 13 (vii) In Fig. Solution : ∠BOL = 2 ∠BOA and ∠BOM = 2∠BOC Adding (i) and (ii). AB || CD and PQ intersects them at R and S respectively.. (c) Fig. 13. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13. 13. if ∠1 = 80° then ∠6 is equal to (a) 80° (c) 100° (b) 90° (d) 110° Ans. OC bisects ∠MOB and ∠AOC = 90°.27. 13.. Show that points L.28 (viii) In Fig. O and M are collinear. O and M are collinear. 13.(ii) Fig.29.

Find angles 1 to 7. Fig. In fig 13.14 Mathematics (i) ∠ARS and ∠BRS form (a) a pair of alternate angles (b) a linear pair (c) a pair of corresponding angles (d) a pair of vertically opposite angels (ii) ∠ARS and ∠RSD form a pair of (a) Alternate angles (c) Corresponding angles (iii) If ∠PRB = 60° then ∠QSC is (a) 120° (c) 30° (b) 60° (d) 90° (b) Vertically opposite angles (c) Interior angles Fig. 13. Find x 3. 13. In Fig 13. AB is a straight line.31 2.31 above.32 below. ∠COB is equal to (a) 36° (c) 108° (b) 72° (d) 144° Fig. 13. l is parallel to m.32 .30 (iv) AB and CD intersect at O.

namely three angles (i) ∠ABC or ∠B (ii) ∠ACB or ∠C (iii) ∠CAB or ∠A and three sides : (iv) AB (v) BC (vi) CA It is named as ∆ ABC or ∆ BAC or ∆ CBA and read as triangle ABC or triangle BAC or triangle CBA. [∆ABC in Fig.34(ii)].33 It is a closed figure formed by three line segments having six elements.34 (iii) (i) Equilateral triangle : A triangle in which all the three sides are equal is called an equilateral triangle. 13.Lines and Angles 15 13. ITS TYPES AND PROPERTIES Triangle is the simplest of all the closed figures formed in a plane by three line segments. (a) On the basis of sides (i) (ii) Fig.34(i)] (ii) Isosceles triangle : A triangle in which two sides are equal is called an isosceles triangle. 13. 13. is called a scalene triangle [∆LMN in Fig. 13. 13.1 Types of Triangles Triangles can be classified into different types in two ways.35 (iii) . (iii) Scalene triangle : A triangle in which all sides are of different lengths. Fig. 13. 13. [∆DEF in Fig.34(iii)] (b) On the basis of angles : (i) (ii) Fig.6 TRIANGLE.6.

13. 13.36 (a).35(ii)] (iii) Acute angled triangle : A triangle in which all the three angles are acute is called an acute angled triangle or acute triangle [∆XYZ in Fig. We will prove this result in a logical way naming it as a theorem.36 (b). ∠Q = 40°. What do you observe ? Sum of the angles of triangle in each case in 180°. Fig. ∠A = 80°. Fig. 13.16 Mathematics (i) Obtuse angled triangle : A triangle in which one of the angles is an obtuse angle is called an obtuse angled triangle or simply obtuse triangle [∆PQR is Fig. Theorem : The sum of the three angles of a triangle is 180°. [∆UVW in Fig 13.37 Given : A triangle ABC To prove : ∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 180° Construction : Through A draw a line DE parallel to BC. 13.2 Angle Sum Property of a Triangle We draw two triangles and measure their angles. ∠ R = 110° ∠P + ∠Q + ∠R = 30° + 40° + 110° = 180° In Fig. ∠B = 40° and ∠C = 60° ∴ ∴ ∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 80° + 40° + 60° = 180° ∠P = 30°. 13.35(iii)] Now we shall study some important properties of angles of a triangle. . 13. 13.35(i)] (ii) Right angled triangle : A triangle in which one of the angles is a right angle is called a right angled triangle or right triangle.6.36 In Fig.

13. We measure these angles.38. ∠5 and ∠6.39 In Fig. Fig. there are two interior opposite angles. Interior opposite angles are the angles of the triangle not forming a linear pair with the given exterior angle.3 Exterior Angle of a Triangle Let us produce a side BC of the ABC to a point D.. 13.Lines and Angles 17 Proof : Since DE is parallel to BC and AB is a transversal. namely ∠1. (Angles making a straight angle) (pair of alternate angles) (pair of alternate angles) . ∠2. observe that there are six exterior angles of the ∆ABC. For example ∠A and ∠B are the two interior opposite angles corresponding to the exterior angle ACD of ∆ABC. 13. 13. Thus. .. ∠ACD so obtained is called an exterior angle of the ∆ABC. (1) Now adding ∠A to both sides of (1) Fig.38 In Fig. ∠3.6.39. ∴ Similarly ∴ ∠B = ∠DAB ∠C = ∠EAC ∠B + ∠C = ∠DAB + ∠EAC ∠A + ∠B + ∠C = ∠A + ∠DAB + ∠EAC = 180° 13. Corresponding to an exterior angle of a triangle. The angle formed by a side of the triangle produced and another side of the triangle is called an exterior angle of the triangle. ∠4.

Examples 13. Thus. 2 .3 : Choose the correct answer out of the given alternatives in the following multiple choice questions : (i) Which of the following can be the angles of a triangle ? (a) 65°.41. (c) (iii) In a triangle. Ans. 13. (d) Fig. 45° and 80° (c) 60°. one angle is twice the other and the third angle is 60°. 60° and 60°. Then the largest angle is (a) 60° (c) 100° Example 13. (b) Fig. we may conclude : An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles. 13. 13. 60° and 59° (b) 90°. 13.40 (ii) In Fig. bisectors of ∠PQR and ∠PRQ intersect each other at O.18 Mathematics ∠A = 60° ∠B = 50° and ∠ACD = 110° We observe that ∠ACD = ∠A + ∠B.41 In Fig.40 ∠A is equal to (a) 30° (c) 45° (b) 35° (d) 75° Ans. 30° and 61° (d) 60°. This observation is true in general. Prove that ∠QOR = 90° + 1 ∠P.4 : (b) 80° (d) 120° Ans.

2 2 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13. In Fig.42 In Fig. 13.2 1. Choose the correct answer out of given alternatives in the following multiple choice questions: (i) A triangle can have (a) Two right angles (b) Two obtuse angles (c) At the most two acute angles (d) All three acute angles (ii) In a right triangle. one exterior angle is 120°.43 ABCD is a trapezium such that AB || DC. 3. . Prove that the sum of the four angles of a quadrilateral is 360°. 13. The smallest angle of the triangles is (a) 20° (c) 40° (iii) (b) 30° (d) 60° Fig. Find ∠D and ∠C and verify that sum of the for angles is 360°.42.Lines and Angles 19 Solution : 1 1 ∠QOR = 180°− 2 ∠PQR + 2 ∠PRQ 1 = 180°− ∠PQR + ∠PRQ 2 FH IK b 1 = 180°− b180°−∠P g 2 g 1 1 = 180°− 90°+ ∠P = 90°+ ∠P . find the three angles. CD is parallel to BA. 13. 4. ∠ACB is equal to (a) 55° (c) 65° (b) 60° (d) 70° 2. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5.

Find the angles of the triangle.20 Mathematics Fig. 13. 13. before being caught or touching the ground. ABC is a triangle such that ∠ABC = ∠ACB. In Fig. when a player hits the ball. 13.44 The path described is called Locus.44 13. 13. Fig. also a point P between them equidistant from both the lines . Prove that if one angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the other two angles. 13. Fig. For example : (1) Given two parallel lines l and m. it describes a path.7 LOCUS During the game of cricket. Fig. A figure in geometry is a result of the path traced by a point (or a very small particle) moving under certain conditions. 6. then it is a right triangle.45 If the particle moves so that it is equidistant from both the lines.44.43 5. what will be its path? .

Fig. 13. 13. 13.49 .46 The path traced by P will be a line parallel to both the lines and exactly in the middle of them as in Fig. 13. 13. Strike it hard with a pencil or a stick so that it leaves the table with a certain speed and observe its path after it leaves the table.48 The path of the moving point P will be a circle as shown in Fig. what will be its path. Fig. Fig.48. (3) Place a small piece of chalk stick or a pebble on top of a table. (2) Given a fixed point O and a point P at a fixed distance d. 13.Lines and Angles 21 Fig.47 If the point P moves in a plane so that it is always at a constant distance d from the fixed point O.46.

it can easily be verified that every point on PM is equidistant from A and B.1 Locus of a point equidistant from two given points. every point of which satisfies the given condition(s). Joint AB.49. we may conclude the following : The locus of a point equidistant from two given points is the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining the two points. Activity for you : Mark two points A and B on a sheet of paper and join them.50 We have to find the locus of a point P such that PA = PB. .51 Thus. 13. Fold the paper along mid-point of AB so that A coincides with B. Fig.2 Locus of a point equidistant from two lines intersecting at O Let AB and CD be two given lines intersecting at O. Make a crease along the line of fold. Also ∠AMP = ∠BMP = 90° That is. This is the locus of the point equidistant from the given points A and B.7. 13. 13.22 Mathematics The path traced by the pebble will be a curve (part of what is known as a parabola) as shown in Fig. locus of a point moving under certain conditions is the path or the geometrical figure. Mark mid point of AB as M. PM is the perpendicular bisector of AB. This crease is a straight line.7. Using a pair of divider or a scale. Let A and B the two given points. 13. Join PM and extend it on both sides. It can be easily checked that every point on it is equidistant from A and B. Fig. Mark another point P using compasses such that PA = PB. 13. Thus.

13.54 In a similar way find the other bisector by folding again and getting crease 2. on a sheet of paper.Lines and Angles 23 Fig. Draw bisectors of ∠BOP and ∠BOC. that is. 13. 13.53 If we take any point P on any bisector l or m. Any point on this crease 2 is also equidistant from both the lines. . Take a point P on this crease which is the bisector of ∠BOD and check using a set square that PL = PM Fig. we will find perpendicular distances PL and PM of P from the lines AB and CD are equal. Fold the paper through O so that AO falls on CO and OD falls on OB and mark the crease along the fold. we may conclude : The locus of a point equidistant from two intersecting lines is the pair of lines. PL = PM Thus. Activity for you : Draw two lines AB and CD intersecting at O. Fig.52 We have to find the locus of a point P which is equidistant from both AB and CD. bisecting the angles formed by the given line.

show in a diagram the locus of the point P. Find the locus of the centre of a circle passing through three given points A.5 : Find the locus of the centre of a circle passing through two given points. Show in a diagram the possible locations of the post.24 Mathematics Example 13. 13. Find the locus of a point which is always at a distance 5 cm from a given line AB. 4. 2. Solution : Let the two given points be A and B. Representing the villages by points A and B and the well by point P. 3.56 CHECK YOU PROGRESS 13. There are two villages certain distance apart. .55 Point O must be equidistant from both the points A and B. As we have already learnt. Fig. Two straight roads AB and CD are intersecting at a point O. 3. Fig. the locus of the point O will be the perpendicular bisector of AB. We have to find the position or positions of centre O of a circle passing through A and B. A well is to be dug so that it is equidistant from the two villages such that its distance from each village is not more than the distance between the two villages.3 1. An observation post is to be constructed at a distance of 1 km from O and equidistant from the roads AB and CD. B and C which are non-collinear.

then they are called collinear points. whose sum is 90° is called a pair of complementary angles. Two rays starting from a common point form an angle. 13. TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. Fig. A pair of angles. If three or more lines intersect in one point only then they are called cocurrent lines.Lines and Angles 25 LET US SUM UP z A line extends to infinity on both sides and a line segment is only a part of it between two points. 13. (ii) alternate angles are equal. B and C. if x = 42.57. A pair of angles whose sum is 180° is called a pair of supplementary angles. Two distinct lines in a plane may either be intersecting or parallel.57 2. An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles. Find ∠1 and ∠2. 13. If a line passes through three or more points. When a transversal intersects two parallel lines. z z z z z z z z z z z The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180°. then determine (a) y (b) ∠AOD Fig. then (i) corresponding angles in a pair are equal. . If a ray stands on a line then the sum of the two adjacent angles. In Fig.58 In the above figure p. q and r are parallel lines intersected by a transversal l at A. If two lines intersect each other the pairs of vertically opposite angles are equal. so formed is 180°. (iii) interior angles on the same side of the thransversal are supplementary.

13. What type of triangle is it ? 4. Find the third angle. 13. 13.61 ABC is a triangle in which bisectors of ∠B and ∠C meet at O. 6.60 In Fig.60. Fig. 5.26 Mathematics 3. Fig. sides ABC of the triangle ABC have been produced as shown. 13. Show that ∠BOC = 125°.59 In Fig. The sum of two angles of a triangle is equal to its third angle. 13. Fig. Show that the sum of the exterior angles so formed is 360°.61 In Fig. 13. Find the angles of the triangle.59 sides of ∆ABC have been produced as shown. .

Fig. . in ∆PQR. AD is perpendicular to BC and AE is bisector of ∠BAC. 10. ∠C. 8. 12. ∠A.62 In Fig. Fig. 9.62 above. Prove that the sum of the (interior) angles of a pentagon is 540°. Fig. 13.64 In Fig.63 in ∆ABC. ∠F. 13. PT is bisector of ∠P and PR is produced to S show that ∠PQR + ∠PRS = 2∠PTR. 13.64 above. 13. find the sum of the angles. ∠B and ∠E. ∠D.13.Lines and Angles 27 7.63 In Fig. Find ∠DAE.

(a) y = 27 (b) = 126° 3.1 1. ∠B = 75° ∠C = 70° 8.28 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 13. Fig. 13. Check Your Progress 13. ∠ABC = 45°. ∠1 = 48° and ∠2 = 132° 4. . 36°. 54° and 90° 4. perpendicular bisector of AB such that AP = BP = QA = QB = AB Fig. Let the villages b A and B.Two on either side of AB and lines parallel to AB at a distance of 5 cm from AB.2 1. then locus will be the line segment PQ. x = 17°. Possible locations will be four points two points P and Q on the bisector of ∠AOC and two points R and S on the bisector of ∠BOC.65 3. (i) (b) (ii) (a) 2. Terminal Exercise 1. Right triangle 7. 2. 360° 2. (i) (d) (ii) (b) (iii) (b) 2. Third angle = 90°. ∠D = 140° and ∠C = 110° 6. 13. ∠ACB = 45° and ∠A = 90°.66 4. (iii) (b) (iv) (c) Check Your Progress 13. Only a point. ∠1 = ∠3 = ∠4 = ∠6 = 110° and ∠2 = ∠5 = ∠7 = 70°. 3. which is the point of intersection of perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC. 12°.3 1. ∠A = 35°.

Lines and Angles 29 .

Congruence of Triangles 29 14 Congruence of Triangles 14. the learner will be able to : z z z z z verify and explain whether two given figures are congruent or not. prove that angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal. In this lesson you will study congruence of two triangles. 14. prove that if two sides of triangle are unequal.1 INTRODUCTION You might have observed that leaves of different trees have different shapes. solve problems based on the above results.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z z Recognition of plane geometric figures Equality of lines and angles Types of angles Angle sum property of a triangle Paper cutting and folding. The geometrical figures which have same shape and same size are called congruent and the property is called congruence. state and verify inequalities in a triangle. then the longer side has the greater angle opposite to it. z z 14. but leaves of the same tree have almost the same shape. prove that sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal. . state the criteria for congruency of two triangles and apply them in solving problems.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. some relations between their sides and angles in details. Although they may differ in size.

14. 14.2 (iii) Which have same shape and same size as shown in Figures 14. (i) Which have different shapes and sizes as shown in Fig.1 (ii) Which have same shapes but different sizes as shown in Fig. 14.2 Fig. (a) two' one rupee coins Fig. 14.4 and 14.30 Mathematics 14.1 Fig.5.3. 14.4 CONCEPT OF CONGRUENCE In our daily life you observe various figures or objects.4 .3 (b) two postage stamps or post cards Fig. 14. These figures or objects can be categorised in terms of its shape and size in the following manner. 14.

1 ACTIVITY FOR YOU Take a sheet of paper.Congruence of Triangles 31 (c) two photo prints of same size from the same negative.4. These appear to be one. Two figures. when they are of equal length.6 (2) Two squares are congruent if their sides are equal. 14. In other words. 14. on the upper part of the sheet. these are congruent figures. For example : (1) Two line segments are congruent. Fig. Now draw a figure of a leaf or a flower or any object which you like. two figures will be congruent. Fig. The figure you drew and its carbon copy are of the same shape and same size. You will get a carbon copy of it.5 We will deal with the figures which have same shapes and same sizes.2 CRITERIA FOR CONGRUENCE OF SOME FIGURES Congruent figures when placed one over the other. 14. on the sheet below. exactly coincide with one another or cover each other. which have the same shape and same size are called congruent figures and this property is called congruence. 14. if parts of one figure are equal to the corresponding parts of the other. Thus. Fig. Observe a butterfly folding its two wings.4. 14.7 . fold it in the middle and keep a carbon (paper) between the two folds.

32 Mathematics (3) Two circles are congruent. 14. 14. if all the sides and all the angles of one are equal to the corresponding sides and angles of other.5 CONGRUENCE OF TRIANGLES Triangle is a basic rectilinear figure in geometry.8 14. Two triangles are congruent. if their radii are equal. having minimum number of sides. ∠Q = ∠Y and ∠R = ∠Z Thus we can say ∆PQR is congruent to ∆XYZ and we write ∆PQR ≅ ∆XYZ Relation of congruence between two triangles is always written with corresponding or matching parts in proper order. implying their circumferences are also equal. Fig. PR = XZ.9 PQ = XY. Q corresponds to Y and R corresponds to Z. Here ∆PQR ≅ ∆XYZ also means P corresponds to X. For example. QR = YZ ∠P = ∠X. As such congruence of triangles plays a very important role in proving many useful results. . 14.9 Fig. in triangles PQR and XYZ in Fig. Hence this needs a detailed study.

∠Q = ∠B and PQ = AB. 14. (elements) are equal.11). QP = YX. we need to know that all the six parts of one triangle are equal to the corresponding six parts of the other triangle. We shall now learn that it is possible to prove the congruence of two triangles. 14. Consider a triangle ABC in Fig. we will observe that one covers the other exactly. we may say they are congruent. 14.11 If we trace or cut out triangle ABC and place it over triangle PQR. ∠Q = ∠Y.10 Construct another triangle PQR such that QR = BC. Fig. ∆RPQ ≅ ∆ZXY but NOT as Or NOT as ∆PQR ≅ ∆YZX.6 CRITERIA FOR CONGRUENCE OF TRIANGLES In order to prove. even if we are able to know the equality of three of their corresponding parts. ∆PQR ≅ ∆ZXY.Congruence of Triangles 33 This congruence may also be written as ∆QRP ≅ ∆YZX which means. and observe that . Thus. ∠R = ∠Z and ∠P = ∠X. we can also measure the remaining parts.10 Fig. (See Fig. RP = ZX. whether two triangles are congruent or not. R corresponds to Z and P corresponds to X. Q corresponds to Y. This congruence may also be written as 14. namely QR = YZ. 14. It also means corresponding parts. Alternatively.

13) Fig. It should be noted here that in constructing ∆PQR congruent to ∆ABC we used only two pairs of sides PQ = AB. we observe that ∠P = ∠A.13 By superimposition or by measuring the remaining corresponding parts. QR = BC and the included angle between them ∠Q = ∠B. which again means that equality of the three corresponding parts (two angles and the included side) of two triangles results in congruent triangles. 14. 14. then the two triangles are congruent. (See Fig. Fig. This criterion is referred to as ASA or AAS. This criterion is referred to as SAS (side angle side). QR = BC. Again.12. . We also know that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is 180°. as such if two angles of one triangle are equal to the corresponding angles of another triangle. Thus we have Criterion 1 : If any two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to the corresponding two sides and the included angle of the other triangle. consider ∆ABC in Fig. then the third angles will also be equal. ∠Q = ∠B and ∠R = ∠C. 14. the two triangles are congruent. This means that equality of these three corresponding parts results in congruent triangles. Thus instead of included side we may have any pair of corresponding sides equal.34 Mathematics AC = PR. ∠A = ∠P and ∠C = ∠R Showing that ∆PQR ≅ ∆ABC. PQ = AB and PR = AC establishing that ∆PQR ≅ ∆ABC. Thus we have Criterion 2 : If any two angles and a side of one triangle are equal to corresponding angles and the side of the other triangle. 14.12 Construct another ∆PQR such that.

side. we find that. . ∠P = ∠P′ = ∠A.14 Now take three thin sticks equal in lengths to sides AB. 14.15 By measuring the corresponding angles. This is referred to as SSS (side. results in congruent triangles. 14.14) Fig. then the two right triangles are congruent.1 ACTIVITY FOR YOU In order to explore another criterion we again take a triangle ABC (See Fig.15).6. we can establish one more criterion which will be applicable for two right triangles only. Similarly. then the two triangles are congruent. ∠Q = ∠Q′ = ∠B and ∠R = ∠R′ = ∠C. Fig. Thus we have Criterion 3 : If the three sides of one triangle are equal to the three corresponding sides of the other triangle.Congruence of Triangles 35 14. 14. side). establishing that ∆PQR ≅ ∆P′Q′R ≅ ∆ABC which means that equality of the three corresponding sides of two triangles. 14. BC and CA of ∆ABC. Place them in any order to form ∆PQR or ∆P′Q′R′ near the ∆ABC (Fig. Criterion 4 : If the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are respectively equal to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle.

36 Mathematics This criterion is referred to as R.16. (b) Example 14.2 : Two rectilinear figures are congruent if they have only (a) all corresponding sides equal (b) all corresponding angles equal (c) the same area (d) all corresponding angles and all corresponding sides equal. (Right Hypotenuse side). Example 14.S. 14. (d) Example 14.1 : In which of the following criteria. Using these criteria we can easily prove. (a) All corresponding sides are equal (b) All corresponding angles are equal (c) Two corresponding sides and their included angles are equal (d) All corresponding angles and any pair of corresponding sides are equal.H. Show that AX = AY. PX and QY are perpendicular to PQ and PX = QY. two given triangles are NOT congruent. whether two triangles are congruent and establish the equality of remaining corresponding parts. Ans. knowing three corresponding parts only. Ans.16 Solution : In ∆PAX and ∆QAY ∠XPA = ∠YQA (Each is 90°) . Fig.3 : In Fig 14.

14. ∆ABC is a right triangle in which ∠B = 90° and D is the mid point of AC.18 In ∆ADB and ∆CDE.Congruence of Triangles 37 ∠PAX = ∠QAY and ∴ ∴ PX = QY ∆PAX ≅ ∆QAY AX = AY.4 : In Fig. 14. 2 Fig.17. AD = CD DB = DE and ∴ ∴ Also ∠ADB = ∠CDE ∆ADB ≅ ∆CDE AB = EC ∠DAB = ∠DCE (D being mid point of AC) (By construction) (Vertically opposite angles) . (Vertically opposite angles) (AAS) Example 14.. Prove that BD = 1 AC..17 Solution : Produce BD to E such that BD = DE Fig. 14.(i) But they make a pair of alternate angles ∴ AB is parallel to EC ∴ ∴ ∴ ∠ABC + ∠ECB = 180° ∠90° + ∠ECB = 180° ∠ECB = 180° – 90° = 90° (Pair of interior angles) .

19) if ∠B = ∠C and AD ⊥ BC.20.38 Mathematics Now in ∆ABC and ∆ECB. In Fig. . Fig. 14.19 (a) RHS (c) SAS (b) ASA (d) SSS 2. AB = EC BC = CB and ∴ ∴ But ∴ ∠ABC = ∠ECB ∆ABC ≅ ∆ECB AC = EB BD = 1 EB 2 1 AC 2 (From (i) above) (Common) (Each 90°) BD = CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. 14.20 (a) ∆BAC ≅ ∆RPQ (c) ∆BAC ≅ ∆RQP (b) ∆BAC ≅ ∆QPR (d) ∆BAC ≅ ∆PRQ. then ∆ABD ≅ ∆ACD by the criterion. In ∆ABC (Fig. This congruence may also be written as Fig. ∆ABC ≅ ∆PQR. 14.1 1. 14.

Fig.Congruence of Triangles 39 3. (c) Two angles and a side of one are equal to two angles and the corresponding side of the other (d) One angle and two sides of one are equal to one angle and two sides of the other. Fig. If O is the mid point of BC. ∠B = ∠C and AB = AC. Two triangles are congruent.. show that it is also the mid point of AD.22 . In Fig. 14. 5. along with equality of two corresponding angles. AB is parallel to CD. In order that two given triangles are congruent. if (a) All three corresponding angles are equal (b) Two angles and a side of one are equal to two angles and a side of the other. 14.21.22.21 6. we must know the equality of (a) No corresponding side (b) Minimum one corresponding side (c) Minimum two corresponding sides (d) All the three corresponding sides 4.14. In Fig. 14. Hence show that CD = BE. Prove that ∆ABE ≅ ∆ACD.

14.24 14. In ∆ABC (Fig. BE is ⊥ AC and AD = BE. Theorem : The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal. From Fig. show that the triangles are congruent and make pairs of equal angles.23 8.24. Proof : In ∆ABD and ∆ACD. AD is ⊥ BC. Prove that AE = BD.40 Mathematics 7. Fig. 14. Given : A triangle ABC in which AB = AC.25 . Fig. To prove : ∠B = ∠C.23). 14. Construction : Draw bisector of ∠BAC meeting BC at D. 14. we shall now prove some important theorems. AB = AC ∠BAD = ∠CAD and AD = AD (Given) (By construction) (Common) Fig. 14.7 ANGLES OPPOSITE TO EQUAL SIDES OF A TRIANGLE AND VICE VERSA Using the criteria for congruence of triangles.

27 (Angles opposite equal sides) (Given) . 14.Congruence of Triangles 41 ∴ Hence ∆ABD ≅ ∆ACD ∠B = ∠C (SAS) The converse of the above theorem is also true. Example 14.. Proof : In ∆ABD and ∆ACD. Example 14.(ii) . Solution : Given : An equilateral ∆ABC To prove : Proof : ∴ Also ∴ From (i) and (ii). 14.26 AD = AD ∆ABD ≅ ∆ACD AB = AC ∠A = ∠B = ∠C AB = AC ∠C = ∠B AC = BC ∠B = ∠A (Given) Fig. 14.7.1 The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal Given : A triangle ABC in which ∠B = ∠C To prove : AB = AC Construction : Draw bisector of ∠BAC meeting BC at D... ∠A = ∠B = ∠C Hence the result. 14..6 : ABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC (Fig.(i) . Solution : In ∆BDC and ∆CEB ∠BDC = ∠CEB (Each is 90°) Fig.28). 14. prove that BD = CE.28 (Given) (By construction) (Common) (AAS) Fig. If BD ⊥ AC and CE ⊥ AB. ∠B = ∠C ∠BAD = ∠CAD and ∴ Hence Hence the theorem. We prove it as a theorem.5 : Prove that the three angles of an equilateral triangle are equal.

then prove that BD = CE. 14. The result can be extended to an equilateral triangle after which we can say that all the three altitudes of an equilateral triangle are equal. and ∠C = 62°. D and E are mid points of AC and AB respectively. 14.30 ∠A = 56°. ∠B = 62°.(i) [By (i)] (Common) (Q AB = AC) Fig. If AB = AC.8 : In ∆ABC (Fig. 14.30) AB = AC and ∠DAC = 124°.7 : In ∆ABC (Fig. 14. and ∠EBC = ∠DCB ∴ ∆BEC ≅ ∆CDB CE = BD Hence Example 14.. Solution : BE = 1 AB 2 1 AC 2 and ∴ CD = BE = CD BE = CD BC = CB . Example 14. find the angles of the triangle..42 Mathematics ∠DCB = ∠EBC and ∴ Hence BC = CB ∆BDC ≅ ∆CEB BD = CE (Angles opposite equal sides of a ∆) (Common) (AAS) This result can be stated in the following manner : Perpendiculars drawn to equal sides from opposite vertices (or altitudes) of an isosceles triangle are equal. Solution.29 In ∆BEC and ∆CDB. .29). ∠BAC = 180° – 124° = 56° ∠B = ∠C (Angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle) Also ∴ Hence ∠B + ∠C = 124° ∠B = ∠C = 124° = 62° 2 Fig.

In Fig.31 2. Fig. 14.34 . Prove that ∠BCD is a right angle. Fig.32).Congruence of Triangles 43 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. Prove that ∆ABC is a isosceles triangle. ∆ABC is an isosceles triangle such that AB = AC. 14. If the line l in Fig. Fig.33 4. 14. Side BA is produced to a point D such that AB = AD.32 3. Prove that ∠PQS = ∠PRS.31.33 is parallel to the base BC of the isosceles ∆ABC find the angles. Fig. 14.2 1. 14. PQ = PR and SQ = SR. 14. if the altitude AD bisects the base BC (Fig. 14.

36. Prove that ∆ABC is an isosceles triangle. 14.38).38 . D is the mid point of BC and perpendiculars DF and DE to sides AB and AC are equal in length.36 7. P is any point in the interior of the triangle such that ∠ABP = ∠ACP.35. Fig.37 8. 14. Prove that ∠PQS = ∠PRS.35 6. 14. 14. 14. PQ = PR. QS and RT are the angle bisector of ∠Q = ∠R respectively Prove that QS = RT. 14. Fig. Fig. ∆PQR and ∆SQR are isosceles triangles on the same base QR (Fig. Prove that AP bisects ∠BAC. 14.44 Mathematics 5. In ∆ABC. Fig. In Fig. AB = AC (Fig. In Fig.37). 14.

Again compare ∠C and ∠A and measure sides AB and BC opposite to these angles.39.1 Theorem If two sides of a triangle are unequal. ∠ACB > ∠ABC Fig. To prove.Congruence of Triangles 45 14. i. It is clear that ∠C is greater than ∠B. You will find that these angles are not equal and ∠C is greater than ∠B. 14.8 INEQUALITIES IN A TRIANGLE We have learnt the relationship between sides and angles of a triangle when they are equal. (Fig. 14. AD = AC ∴ But ∠ACD = ∠ADC ∠ADC > ∠ABC (Exterior angle is greater than opposite interior angles) Again ∴ ∠ACB > ∠ACD(Point D lies in the interior of the ∠ACB). A triangle ABC in which AB > AC. when they are unequal.41 . Now compare sides AB and AC opposite to these angles by measuring them. Mark a point D on the side AB such that AD = AC and join DC. We observe that ∠C > ∠A and AB > BC.41) compare ∠C and ∠B.39 In Fig. Let us examine. Fig. In ∆ABC.40 (Angles opposite equal sides) What can we say about the converse of this theorem. This can be proved easily. then the longer side has the greater angle opposite to it. 14. as follows.e. We shall now study some relations among sides and angles of a triangle. We observe that AB is longer than AC. Measure ∠B and ∠C. 14. triangle ABC has side AB longer than the side AC. Given. Proof : In ∆ADC. 14. If you repeat this experiment. side opposite to greater angle is longer. Fig. 14.8. you will always find that this observation is true. ∠ACB > ∠ABC Construction.

we observe that (i) AB + BC > CA (ii) BC + CA > AB and (ii) CA + AB > BC.. and CA + AB separately and compare each sum of a pair with the third side. we shall now study whether the three sides of a triangle are related in some way. . Measure any pair of angles in a triangle.46 Mathematics Comparing ∠A and ∠B. Compare them and then compare the sides opposite to them by measurement. 14. the sum of the three angles of a triangle is 180°. which we state as a property. side opposite to greater angle is longer. ACTIVITY FOR YOU Fix three nails P.e. BC + CA. In a triangle. Now find the sum of different pairs AB + BC. Observe that in a triangle if one angle is right or an obtuse angle.e.42 Measure its three sides AB. You can also verify this property by drawing any type of triangle. i. the greater angle has longer side opposite to it. we observe a similar result. Draw a triangle ABC. a right triangle or an obtuse triangle. ∠A > ∠B and BC > AC. BC and CA. You will find the above result always true. Q and R on a wooden board or any surface. Fig. You have already learnt the relationship among the three angles of a triangle i. then the side opposite to that angle is the longest. Thus we conclude that Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.

2 > 3.5 and 2.44.5 + 5. In (a) 5 + 3 > 8.44 Fig. Ans. BD = CD .10 : In Fig. is construction of a triangle possible from the given measurements : (a) 5 cm.2 cm (d) 20 cm. 14. Compare the two lengths. in (b) 6 + 7 > 14 in (c) 3.5 cm. 14. 14. Fig.5 + 5. (c) Example 14. AD is a median of ∆ABC.2.45 Solution : Produce AD to E such that AD = DE and join C to E. Example 14. you will find that the length corresponding to QP + PR > the length corresponding to QR confirming the above property. 2.2 > 2.9 : In which of the following four cases.Congruence of Triangles 47 Fig.5 > 5. 14.5 cm and 5. Consider ∆ABD and ∆ECD Here. Solution.43 Take a piece of thread equal in length to QR and another piece of thread equal in length QP + PR. 3. 25 cm and 48 cm.5 and in (d) 20 + 25 > 48. 8 cm and 3 cm (b) 14 cm. Prove that AB + AC > 2AD.5 + 2. 6 cm and 7 cm (c) 3.

48 Mathematics ∠ADB = ∠EDC AD = ED ∴ ∴ Now in ∆ACE. D is any point on the base BC of a ∆ABC. In Fig. BC = 6. 14. Fig. If AB > AC then prove that AB > AD.8 cm.47 5. (Use Example 14. if ∠CBD > ∠BCE then prove that AB > AC.2 cm and CA = 4.10) . 14.3 1.46.7 cm. AB = 5. In Fig.47. 3.46 4. PQRS is a quadrilateral in which diagonals PR and QS intersect at O. 14. In a triangle ABC. Fig. Prove that the sum of the three sides of triangle is greater than the sum of its three medians. 14. Name the greatest and the smallest angle. EC + AC > AE or AB + AC > 2AD (Q AD = ED ⇒ AE = 2AD) ∆ABD ≅ ∆ECD AB = EC CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. Prove that PQ + QR + RS + SP > PR + QS 2.

49 LET US SUM UP z z Figures which have the same shape and same size are called congruent figures. If two sides of a triangle are unequal. In Fig. if AB = AD then prove that BC > CD. Sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal. Fig. AB is parallel to CD. 14. 14. Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side. when placed one over the other completely cover each other.Congruence of Triangles 49 6. then the longer side has the greater angle opposite to it. z z . 14. the greater angle has the longer side opposite to it. 14. In a triangle. (iii) SSS (ii) ASA or AAS (iv) RHS z z z z Angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal. In Fig. These corresponding parts must satisfy one of the four criteria (i) SAS.48. To prove that two triangles are congruent we need to know the equality of only three corresponding parts. [Hint : ∠ADB = ∠ABD]. If ∠A > ∠B then prove that BC > AD.48 7. Fig. Congruent figures.49. All parts of one figure are equal to the corresponding parts of the other figure.

51. Prove that ∠C > ∠A and ∠D > ∠B.53.52 5. 14.50) 2.50 Fig.51 3. Fig.50 Mathematics TERMINAL EXERCISE 1.52. 14. Prove that CA = BD (Fig. If AC is parallel to DB then prove that O is also the mid point of CD. In a right triangle. if the median AD is perpendicular to the base BC then prove that the triangle is an isosceles triangle. Prove that the hypotenuse is twice the side opposite to the angle of 30°. then prove that the two triangles are congruent. 14. In Fig. Fig. In Fig. 7. 14. Fig. If ∠B = 60°. [Hint : Join AC and BD]. 4. one of the acute angles is 30°. Prove that ∆ABC ≅ ∆PQR. ∆ABC and ∆CDE are such that BC = CE and AB = DE. In Fig. 14. In a ∆ABC. 14. Line segments AB and CD intersect each other at O such that O is the midpoint of AB. two sides AB and BC and the altitude AD of ∆ABC are respectively equal to the sides PQ and QR and the altitudes PS. 6.53 . 14. 14. ∠ACE = 30° and ∠D = 90°. AB is the longest side and DC is the shortest side of a quadrilateral ABCD. Two lines AB and CD bisect each other at O.

54 9. Prove that BD = DC.Congruence of Triangles 51 8. 14. Fig. 14. [Hint : Show that ∆DBC ≅ ∆ECB) Fig.55 . Prove that the medians bisecting the equal sides of an isosceles triangle are also equal. ABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC and AD is the altitude from A to the base BC.

(a) 3. ∠B = ∠C = 65°.52 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 14.2 3.3 2. ∠P = ∠C ∠Q = ∠A and ∠R = ∠B. Check Your Progress 14. . Greatest angle is A and smallest angle is B. (b) 2 (b) 4.1 1. ∠A = 50° Check Your Progress 14. (c) 8.

Congruence of Triangles 53 .

15.Concurrent Lines 53 15 Concurrent Lines 15. 15. we shall study the concurrency property of these lines. (a) (b) Fig. which can be drawn in a triangle. i.1 (c) . medians.1(a)] or intersecting [See Fig. right bisectors of sides. z 15. the learner will be able to : z distinguish between an angle bisector and perpendicular bisector of a side. angle bisectors and altitudes. altitudes and medians of a triangle. state and apply the concurrency property of angle bisectors. 15. an altitude and a median of a triangle. In this lesson.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. such as : z Two lines in a plane can either be parallel [See Fig. You have also studied about triangles and some special lines. which are quite useful. in the lesson on lines and angles. perpendicular bisectors of sides.1(b) and (c)].e. 15.1 INTRODUCTION You have already learnt about concurrent lines.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Properties of intersecting lines.

2(b).3 (c) 15.2(d)] (a) (b) Fig. or (ii) intersect each other in exactly one point [Fig. 15. 15. 15. intersect in no point [See Fig 15.2(a).1 ANGLE BISECTORS OF A TRIANGLE In triangle ABC.54 Mathematics z Three lines in a plane may : (i) be parallel to each other..4 .4. 15. or (iii) intersect each other in two points [Fig. 15.2 (c) (d) 15. i. the line AD bisects ∠A of the triangle.2(c). 15. 15. (a) (b) Fig.15.3). (See Fig.4 CONCURRENT LINES Three or more lines in a plane which intersect each other in exactly one point or which pass through the same point are called concurrent lines and the common point is called the point of concurrency (See Fig.4) Fig.e. or (iv) intersect each other at the most in three points [Fig.

Can you reason out. (See Fig. 15. We may take any type of triangle— acute.5).7) Fig. 15. why the name incentre for this point ? Recall that the locus of a point equidistant from two intersecting lines is the pair of angle bisectors of the angles formed by the lines.Concurrent Lines 55 A line which bisects an angle of a triangle is called an angle bisector of the triangle.5 Fig. How many angle bisectors can a triangle have ? Since a triangle has three angles.7 Thus we conclude the following : Angle bisectors of a triangle pass through the same point. The point of concurrency I is called the ‘Incentre’ of the triangle. and draw its angle bisectors. Let us draw second angle bisector BE of ∠B (See Fig 15. 15. AD is one of the three angle bisectors of ∆ABC. Also I is a point on angle bisector of ∠ABC. that is they are concurrent. In other words they are concurrent and the point of concurrency is I. (see Fig.8). we will always find that the three angle bisectors of a triangle are concurrent. we can draw three angle bisectors in it. Since I is a point on bisector of ∠BAC. We observe that this angle bisector of the triangle also passes through I. 15. 15.6 The two angle bisectors of the ∆ABC intersect each other as I. it must be equidistant from them. right or obtuse triangle. Fig. it must . Let us draw the third angle bisector CF of ∠C (See Fig. 15.6).

15. Since a triangle has three sides.10 Fig. we have IL = IM = IN (Fig. In other words. Fig. DP is one of the three perpendicular bisector of ∆ABC (Fig.9).11). 15. then we observe that it also passes through the point O (Fig. 15. called ‘Incircle’ of the triangle. line DP bisects side BC at right angle. I being the centre of the incircle is called the Incentre and IL the radius of the incircle is called the inradius of the triangle. Thus this point of concurrency I is at the same distance from the three sides of the triangle. we can draw a circle touching all the three sides. we can say that the three perpendicular bisectors of the sides are concurrent at O. Taking I as the centre and IL as the radius. 15. 15.8).9 Fig. We draw the second perpendicular bisector EQ.11 . 15.10).8 Thus. 15. Now if we also draw the third perpendicular bisector FR. so we can draw three perpendicular bisectors in a triangle. of the triangle. intersecting DP at O (Fig. 15. A line which bisects a side of a triangle at right angle is called the perpendicular bisector of the side. 15.56 Mathematics also be equidistant from them. Fig. Note : That incentre always lies in the interior of the triangle.2 Perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle ABC is a triangle.4.

15. we have AO = BO = CO.12 (b) Thus we conclude that : The three perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle pass through the same point. (a) Fig. Thus.13 The point O also lies on the perpendicular bisector of AC.13). why the name circumcentre for this point ? Recall that the locus of a point equidistant from two given points is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the two points. so it must be equidistant from both A and C. they are concurrent. that is. that is.Concurrent Lines 57 We may repeat this experiment with any type of triangle. so it must be equidistant from both the point B and C. AO = CO. Fig. . The point of concurrency O is called the ‘circumcentre’ of the triangle Can you reason out. 15. 15. so that BO = CO (Fig. but we will always find that the three perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle pass through the same point. Since O lies on the perpendicular bisector of BC.

AL is one of these altitudes. 15. This shows that the three altitudes of the triangle pass through the same point.14 Perpendicular drawn from a vertex of a triangle to the opposite side is called its altitude. 15. 15. We also draw the third altitude CN and observe that it also passes through the point H (Fig. How many altitudes can be drawn in a triangle ? There are three vertices in a triangle.4. so we can draw three of its altitudes. 15.3 ALTITUDES OF A TRIANGLE In ∆ABC.16 . we can draw a circle passing through the three vertices. 15.11) 2. called ‘circumcircle’ of the triangle.16).14) Fig. the line AL is the perpendicular drawn from vertex A to the opposite side BC. 15.58 Mathematics If we take O as the centre and AO as the radius. Note that the circumcentre will be 1. on the hypotenuse for a right triangle [(Fig.12(b)]. which intersects the first altitude at a point H (see Fig. in the interior of the triangle for an acute triangle (Fig. O being the centre of this circle is called the circumcentre and AO the radius of the circumcircle is called circumradius of the triangle. B and C of the triangle. Fig.15). in the exterior of the triangle for an obtuse triangle [(Fig. 1515 Fig. 15. 15. A. (Fig. 15.12(a)] 3. Now we draw the second altitude BM.

that is.19) (a) Fig.4 MEDIANS OF A TRIANGLE In ∆ABC. Again observe that the orthocentre will be 1. The point of concurrency is called the ‘Orthocentre’ of the triangle. 15.4. in the interior of the triangle for an acute triangle (Fig.16) 2.19 (b) . in the exterior of the triangle for an obtuse triangle (Fig.18) 15.18 Thus we conclude that : In a triangle. at the vertex containing the right angle for a right triangle (Fig.Concurrent Lines 59 We may take any type of triangle and draw its three altitudes. Fig. they are concurrent. 15. the three altitudes pass through the same point.17 Fig. 15. We always find that the three altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. 15. 15.17) 3. 15. 15. AD joins the vertex A to the mid point D of the opposite side BC (Fig.

On measurement.20 (c) Here in each of the triangles ABC given above (Fig.20 (a). Try to balance the triangle by placing the tip of a pointed stick or a needle of compasses below the point G or at G. 15.21 . 15. the point of concurrency G divides each of the medians in the ratio 2 : 1 Thus we conclude that : Medians of a triangle pass through the same point. we always find that the three medians pass through the same point [Fig.60 Mathematics A line joining a vertex to the mid point of the opposite side of a triangle is called its median. (c)] (a) (b) Fig. BG = 2GE and CG = 2GF that is. which divides each of the medians in the ratio 2 : 1. Fig. Clearly.21). If the position of G is correctly marked then the weight of the triangle will balance at G (Fig. 15. (b). The point of concurrency G is called the ‘centroid’ of the triangle. 15. In each triangle we measure the parts into which G divides each median. If we draw all the three medians in any triangle. ACTIVITY FOR YOU Cut out a triangle from a piece of cardboard.20) the three medians AD. 15. AD is one of the medians. BE and CF are concurrent at G. we observe that AG = 2GD. three medians can be drawn in a triangle. Draw its three medians and mark the centroid G of the triangle.

Example 15.3 : Find the circumradius of circumcircle and inradius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a. AD is also the angle bisector of ∠A. why the point of concurrency of the medians of a triangle is called its centroid. the angle bisector of ∠A is also a perpendicular bisector of BC.22 ⇒ AD is perpendicular bisector of side BC [Q ∠ADB = 90° ⇒ AD is an altitude also] Example 15. altitudes and medians of the ∆ABC. Solution : We draw perpendicular from the vertex A to the side BC.1 : In an isosceles triangle. since AB = BC and BC = AC ∴ BE and CF. Solution : In ∆ABD and ∆ACD AB = AC ∠BAD = ∠CAD AD = AD ∴ ∴ ∆ABD ≅ ∆ACD BD = CD (Given) [Q AD is bisector of ∠A] ⇒ AD is also a median ⇒ Also ∠ADB = ∠ADC = 90° Fig. perpendicular bisector of side BC and a median joining vertex to the midpoint of BC . an altitude and a median of the triangle. an altitude and a median of the ∆ABC (Refer Example 1 above) Similarly.2 : In an equilateral triangle. show that the three angle bisectors are also the three perpendicular bisectors of sides. three altitudes and the three medians of the triangle. It is the point where the weight of the triangle is centred or it is the point through which the weight of the triangle acts. 15. Solution : Since AB = AC ∴ AD. show that the bisector of the angle formed by the equal sides is also a perpendicular bisector. We consider some examples using these concepts.Concurrent Lines 61 Can you reason out. are also perpendicular bisectors.23 Example 15. 15. Fig. angle bisectors of ∠B and ∠C respectively.

15.8 cm. an angle bisector. If AG is 4. .62 Mathematics Fig. 3 2 6 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 15. In an equilateral triangle show that the incentre. 15.25 2.1 1.24 ∴ AD = 3 a as BC = a. find BE. In an equilateral ∆ABC (Fig. G is the centroid of the triangle. 3. In the given figure if BF = FC. 15. ∠BAE = ∠CAE and ∠ADE = ∠GFC = 90° then name a median.26). 2 2 3 3 × a = a 3 2 3 ⇒ AG = circumradius in this case = and GD = inradius in this case = 1 3 3 × a = a. the circumcentre. and altitude and a perpendicular bisector of the triangle. Fig. the orthocentre and the centroid are the same point.

26 4. In a triangle (i) Angle bisectors are concurrent and the point of concurrency is called incentre.Concurrent Lines 63 Fig. (ii) Perpendicular bisectors of the sides are concurrent and the point of concurrency is called circumcentre. 15. then show that A is the orthocentre of the ∆HBC. the point equidistant from vertices of a triangle is called its (a) centroid (c) circumcentre (b) incentre (d) orthocentre (ii) In the plane of a triangle. (iii) Altitudes are concurrent and the point of concurrency is called orthocentre. If H is the orthocentre of ∆ABC. A line which bisects a side of a triangle at right angle is called a perpendicular bisector of the triangle. z z z z z . which divides each of the medians in the ratio 2 : 1. A line drawn perpendicular from a vertex of a triangle to its opposite side is called an altitude of the triangle. A line which joins a vertex of a triangle to the mid-point of the opposite side is called a median. 5. A line which bisects an angle of a triangle is called an angle bisector of the triangle. (iv) Medians are concurrent and the point of concurrency is called centroid. the point equidistant from the sides of the triangle is called its (a) entroid (c) circumcentre LET US SUM UP z (b) incentre (d) orthocentre Three or more lines in a plane which intersect each other in exactly one point are called concurrent lines. Choose the correct answers out of the given alternatives in the following questions : (i) In a plane.

the incentre. ABC is an isosceles triangle such that AB = AC = 17 cm and base BC = 16 cm. 4. Draw an equilateral triangle. Show that the centroid. Also draw the circumcircle of the triangle. all lie on AD. . ABC is an equilateral triangle of side 12 cm. 15. the circumcentre and the orthocentre.27 D.28 3. If G be its centroid. Draw a triangle ABC and find its circumcentre. 3. Draw the circumcircle and the incircle for an equilateral triangle of side 5 cm. E and F are the mid points of the sides of ∆ABC. 2. 15. Show that BE + CF > 3 BC. ACTIVITIES FOR YOU : 1. In the given Fig. Draw its incircle and circumcircle.64 Mathematics TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. ABC is an isosceles triangle such that AB = AC and D is the midpoint of BC.27 2. 15. If G is the centroid of ∆ABC. 2 Fig. Find its incentre and circumcentre. Fig. find AG. find AG.

1 1.2 cm also BE = 7.Concurrent Lines 65 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 15. Median–AF. AD = 7. Angle bisector AE Altitude – AD and perpendicular bisector – GF 3. (ii) (b) . AG = 10 cm 4. (i) (c) Terminal Exercise 3.2 cm 5. AG = 4 3 cm.

you will find many objects bounded by four lines. rectangles. the floor of your room are all examples of a closed figure bounded by four line segments. 16. z z z z z z z . such a figure is called a quadrilateral. verify that triangles on the same or equal bases and between the same parallels are equal in area and its converse. window door. prove that parallelograms on equal (or same) bases and between the same parallels are equal in area. verify that the line drawn through the mid-point of a side of a triangle parallel to another side bisects the third side. slice of bread.1 INTRODUCTION If you look around. verify properties of different types of quadrilaterals. verify that a diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area. enclosing a part of the plane. the learner will be able to : z describe various types of quadrilaterals viz. verify that if there are three or more parallel lines and the intercepts made by them on a transversal are equal. Thus. trapeziums. a quadrilateral is that geometrical figure which has four sides. we shall study about terms and concepts related to quadrilateral with their properties. A book. verify that in a triangle the line segment joining the mid-points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and is half of it. rhombuses and squares. some parts of window-grill. parallelograms.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. the corresponding intercepts on any other transversal are also equal. In this lesson.66 Mathematics 16 Quadrilaterals 16. The word quadrilateral has its origin from the two words “quadric” meaning four and “lateral” meaning sides.

angles denoted by 1. C and D. ∠2. then the closed figure made up of four line segments is called a quadrilateral with vertices A. 16. (iii) AB and BC . ABCD. BC and CD are two pairs of consecutive sides or adjacent sides.4 QUADRILATERAL Recall that if A. B. both the quadrilaterals can be named as quad. Can you name the other pairs of consecutive angles ? (v) AC and BD are the two diagonals. ABCD. In Fig. Angles denoted by 5. Four fundamental operations on numbers.2. B. CD and DA do not intersect except at their end points. 16. ∠3 and ∠4 .Quadrilaterals 67 16. 6. Drawing parallel and perpendicular lines. 3 and 4 are the interior angles or the angles of the quad. C and D is generally denoted by quad. 2. 16.1 (i) and (ii). BC and AD are two pairs of opposite sides. ABCD.1 (ii) (i) AB and DC . (i) Fig.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z Drawing line-segments and angles of given measure. A quadrilateral with vertices A. 16. B. 7 and 8 are the exterior angles of the quad. ∠B and ∠D are two pairs of opposite angles. Drawing circles/arcs of given radius. (ii) ∠A and ∠C . ABCD. BC. In Fig. C and D are four points in a plane such that no three of them are collinear and the line segment AB. In quadrilateral ABCD. ∠B and ∠C are two pairs of consecutive angles or adjacent angles. Measure ∠1. Can you name the other pairs of consecutive sides ? (iv) ∠A and ∠B .

. sum of exterior angels of a quadrilateral is also 360°.3 Trapezium Kite Rhombus Let us describe them one by one. You also know how to name them. In Fig.5. 16.3 below : Quadrilateral Parallelogram Rectangle Square Fig. 16.68 Mathematics (i) Fig.2 (ii) What is the sum of these angles ? You will find that ∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 = 360°. A family tree of quadrilaterals is given in Fig. However.e. sum of interior angles of a quadrilateral equals 360°. Also what is the sum of exterior angles of the quadrilateral ABCD ? You will again find that ∠5 + ∠6 + 7 + ∠8 = 360° i. 16. 16.1 Trapezium A quadrilateral which has one pair of opposite sides parallel is called a trapezium. we will now study different types of quadrilaterals in a systematic way. 16.5 TYPES OF QUADRILATERALS You are familiar with quadrilaterals and their different shapes. 16.e. . i.4 [(i) and (ii)] ABCD and PQRS are trapeziums with AB || DC and PQ || SR respectively.

In Fig.6 .5 [(i) and (ii)] ABCD and PQRS are parallelograms with AB||DC and AD||BC.3 Rhombus A rhombus is a parallelogram in which any pair of adjacent sides is equal. 16.5 (ii) 16. 16.5. Fig. 16.5.6 ABCD is a rhombus.4 (ii) 16.Quadrilaterals 69 (i) Fig. (i) Fig. These are denoted by ||gm ABCD and ||gm PQRS. 16. is called a parallelogram. 16.2 Parallelogram A quadrilateral which has both pairs of opposite sides parallel. In Fig.

ABCD is a square in which AB||DC.5.8. each pair of adjacent sides is equal. a parallelogram having all sides equal and each angle equal to a right angle is called a square.5. Fig.8 In Fig. 16. Let us take some examples to illustrate. AD||BC and ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 90°.7 16.e.. Fig. with a pair of adjacent sides equal. 16.70 Mathematics You may note that ABCD is a parallelogram with AB = BC = CD = DA i. AD||BC.7. 16. 16.4 Rectangle A parallelogram one of whose angles is a right angle is called a rectangle. and AB = BC = CD = DA and ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 90°. ABCD is a rectangle in which AB||DC. In other words. In Fig. 16. .5 Square A square is a rectangle.

PQR is a triangle.1 : In Fig.9.2 : The three angles of a quadrilateral are 100°. the measure of fourth angle is 140°.9 Solution : Quadrilateral STRQ is a trapezium. 16. S and T are two points on the sides PQ and PR such that ST||QR. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Fig. Name the type of quadrilateral STRQ so formed. 50° and 70°. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Find the measure of the fourth angle. Then 100° + 50° + 70° + x° = 360° 220° + x° = 360° x = 140 Hence. Let the fourth angle be x. Fig.10 (v) (vi) . Name each of the following quadrilaterals. because ST||QR. 16.1 1. Example 16. 16. Solution : We know that the sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360°.Quadrilaterals 71 Example 16.

The angles of a quadrilateral are in the ratio 5 : 7 : 7 : 11.72 Mathematics 2. (vi) A square is a parallelogram. all its angles are equal. (iii) A rectangle is a parallelogram.1 Properties of a Parallelogram We have learnt that a parallelogram is a quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel. 3.11 (ii) . States which of the following statements are correct ? (i) Sum of interior angles of a quadrilateral is 360°. If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary. (vii) A parallelogram is a rhombus. (viii) A trapezium is a parallelogram. 16. 4. Find the measure of each angle. PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF QUADRILATERALS 16. Find the measure of each angle. Draw a pair of parallel lines l and m as shown in Fig.11.6. (i) Fig. 5. angles and diagonals of a parallelogram. what can you say about the other pair of angles ? 16. (ii) All rectangles are squares. (ix) A trapezium is a rectangle. 16.6. (iv) A square is a rhombus. Draw another pair of parallel lines p and q such that they intersect l and m. (x) A parallelogram is a trapezium. You observe that a parallelogram ABCD is formed. In a quadrilateral. They intersect each other at O. (v) A rhombus is a parallelogram. Now let us establish some relationship between sides. Join AC and BD.

What do you find ? You will find that OA = OC and OB = OD Draw another parallelogram and repeat the activity you will find that (i) The opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal.12. Now place ∆ADC on ∆ABC in such a way that the vertex D falls on the vertex B and the side CD falls along the side AB. 16. In other words ∆ABC ≅ ∆ADC. What do you find ? You will find that AB = DC and BC = AD. BC. Thus. (iii) The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. the parallelogram has been divided into two parts and each part is a triangle. ∠BCD. Also measure ∠ABC. Draw its diagonal AC as shown in Fig 16. Now cut this parallelogram along the diagonal AC. Also AB = CD and BC = AD and ∠B = ∠D. What do you find ? You will find that ∠DAB = ∠DCB and ∠ABC = ∠CDA Again.Quadrilaterals 73 Now measure the sides AB. ∆ABC and ∆ADC. you get two triangles.12 (ii) In other words. Where does the point C fall ? Where does the point A fall ? You will observe that ∆ADC will coincide with ∆ABC. OB and OD. ∠CDA and ∠DAB. Draw any parallelogram ABCD on it. . CD and DA. (ii) The opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal. (i) Fig. Cut the parallelogram ABCD from the cardboard. The above said properties of a parallelogram can also be verified by Cardboard model which is as follows : Let us take a card board. OC. Measure OA.

You may also verify the following properties which are the converse of the properties of a parallelogram proved earlier. Draw its diagonals PR and QS which intersect each other at O as shown in Fig. 16.14.e. . (ii) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its opposite angles are equal. ∆POS and ∆ROQ. Where does the point S fall ? Where does the side OS fall ? Is ∆ROS ≅ ∆POQ ? Yes.. (i) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its opposite sides are equal. In Fig. what do you observe ? We find that RO = PO and OS = OQ You may also verify this property by taking another pair of triangles i. We know that a rhombus is a parallelogram in which a pair of adjacent sides are equal. 16. Now cut the parallelogram PQRS. the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Now you can prove the third property of the parallelogram. ABCD is a rhombus. 16. you will always get the same results as verified earlier.e. (iii) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its diagonals bisect each other. proving the above two properties of the parallelogram. 16.13. Fig.2 Properties of a Rhombus In the previous section we have defined a rhombus.74 Mathematics You may repeat this activity by taking some other parallelograms. You will again arrive at the same result. Now place ∆ROS and ∆POQ in such a way that the vertex R coincides with the vertex P and RO coincides with the side PO. Draw any parallelogram PQRS on it. So. it is.6. i. Again take a thin cardboard.13 Also cut ∆POQ and ∆ROS. thus.

(i) All sides of a rhombus are equal (ii) The opposite angles of a rhombus are equal (iii) The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles. Thus. the diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles. we have the following properties of a rhombus. You may repeat this experiment by taking different rhombuses.. What is the measures of these angles ? You will find that each of them equals 90° Also ∠AOB = ∠COD and ∠BOC = ∠DOA ∠AOB = ∠COD = ∠BOC = ∠DOA = 90° Thus.. (Each pair is a vertically opposite angles) . i. therefore all the properties of a parallelogram are also true for rhombus. (i) Opposite sides are equal. i.14 Thus.e.e.e. the diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other. you will find in each case. i.Quadrilaterals 75 Fig.e. all the sides of a rhombus are equal. ∠A = ∠C and ∠B = ∠D (iii) Diagonals bisect each other i. AB = DC and AD = BC (ii) Opposite angles are equal. Since every rhombus is a parallelogram.. Measure ∠AOD and ∠BOC. ABCD is a parallelogram with AB = BC. AO = OC and DO = OB Since adjacent sides of a rhombus are equal and by the property of a parallelogram AB = BC = CD = DA Thus. 16.

Also measure AO. Also measure AO.76 Mathematics 16. BO and DO. with a pair of adjacent sides equal. it is You will also find that AO = OC and BO = DO. Join AC and BD in each case. OC.6. ∠BCD and ∠ADC. Join AC and BD as shown in the Fig.15 Measure ∠ΒAD.e. OC and BO.15 Fig. Label them again by ABCD. can you conclude from definition of a square that a square is rectangle and possesses all the properties of a rectangle ? Yes it is. Do you find that AC = BD ? Yes. 16. Thus. we can conclude that ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 90° i. we have the following properties of a rectangle : (i) The opposite sides of a rectangle are equal (ii) Each angle of a rectangle is a right-angle. OD for each rectangle.6. Can you say whether a rectangle possesses all the properties of a parallelogram or not ? Yes it is.4 Properties of a Square You know that a square is a rectangle. Thus. 16. Draw some more rectangles of different dimensions. Let us now study some more properties of a square.3 Properties of a Rectangle We know that a rectangle is a parallelogram one of whose angles is a right angle. (iv) The diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other. (iii) The diagonals of a rectangle are equal. each angle of a rectangle measures 90°. what do you find ? What are the measures of these angles ? The measure of each angle is 90°. Let them intersect each other at O. In each case you will find that The diagonals of a rectangle are equal and they bisect each other.. Now. . Now measure the diagonals AC and BD. Let us study some more properties of a rectangle Draw a parallelogram ABCD in which ∠B = 90°. 16.

∠BOC. we conclude that the diagonals AC and BD of a square bisect each other at right angles. Now measure ∠AOB. Fig. Thus. ∠COD and ∠AOD. we have the following properties of a square (i) All the sides of a square are equal. (ii) Each of the angles measure 90°. therefore a square ABCD is a rhombus also. AD = BC (ii) ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = ∠D = 90° (iii) AC = BD and AO = OC. 16. What do you find ? Does each angle measure 90° ? Yes Thus.16 Since ABCD is a rectangle.16. therefore we have (i) AB = DC.Quadrilaterals 77 Draw a square ABCD as shown in Fig. (iii) The diagonals of a square are equal. (iv) The diagonals of a square bisect each other at right angles. ∠AOB = ∠BOC = ∠COD = ∠AOD = 90° Thus. BO = OD But in a square we have AB = AD ∴ By property (i) we have AB = AD = CD = BC. Let us study some examples to illustrate : . You may also observe that since a square is a parallelogram also with AB = AD. 16.

ABCD. ∠BCD = ∠3 = ∠4 = 60° . Solution : In rhombus. Example 16. 80° and 100°. 16. 16. Fig. then i.e.e. ABCD is a parallelogram. Find the measure of all its angles. Solution : We know that the sum of two adjacent angles of a rhombus is 180°.4 : Two adjacent angles of a rhombus are in the ratio 4 : 5. Also.18 Since ∠A = ∠C ⇒ ∠C = 80° ∠B = ∠D ⇒ ∠D = 100° Hence..5 : One of the diagonals of a rhombus is equal to one of its sides. 100°. ∠A = 80° and ∠B = 100° Fig.3 : In Fig.. ∴ ∠DAB = ∠1 = ∠2 = 60° . ∴ It is given that ∠A = 80° ∴ Q ∠A = ∠C and ∠B = ∠D. Solution : As ABCD is a parallelogram.. 4x + 5x = 180 9x = 180 x = 20 ∴ The two angles are 80° and 100° i.(ii) Fig.17 ∴ ∴ ∴ Hence. 16. ∠B = 100° and ∠D = 100°.78 Mathematics Example 16. Find the angles of the rhombus. Example 16. ∠C = 80°. find the measures of the remaining angles. 16.17. Let the two angels be 4x and 5x.(i) . AB || DC ∠A + ∠D = 180° ∠D = (180 – 80)° = 100° ∠B = ∠D = 100° ∠C = 80°. the angles of the rhombus are 80°. If ∠A = 80°.19 Similarly.. AB = AD = BD ∴ ∆ABD is an equilateral triangle.

the perimeter of the rhombus = 48 cm.. ∴ ∆DAB is an equilateral triangle (ii) Now OD = 6 cm ⇒ ⇒ Since.e.6 : The diagonals of a rhombus ABCD intersect at O. we have 60° + 90° + ∠OAD = 180° ⇒ ∴ ∠OAD = 30° ∠DAB = 60° ∠ADO = ∠ODC 2∠ADO = 120° ∠ADO = 60° ∠DOA = 90° . = (4 × 12) cm = 48 cm Hence. we know that the diagonals of a rhombus bisect each that at 90°.. 16.(i) .(ii) (∆AOD ≅ ∆COD) Fig.e. If ∠ADC = 120° and OD = 6 cm. Example 16. (iii) Now Perimeter = 4 × side .. find (i) ∠OAD (ii) side AB (iii) perimeter of the rhombus ABCD.20 Also. Solution : Given that ∠ADC = 120° i.. ⇒ OD + OB = BD 6 cm + 6 cm = BD BD = 12 cm AB = BD = AD = 12 cm AB = 12 m.. in ∆DOA ∠ADO + ∠DOA + ∠OAD = 180° From (i) and (ii). ∠A = 60°. ∴ Now. ∠B = 120°.Quadrilaterals 79 Also from (i) and (ii) ∠ABC = ∠B = ∠1 + ∠3 = 60° + 60° = 120° ∠ADC = ∠D = ∠2 + ∠4 = 60° + 60° = 120° Hence. ∠ADO + ∠ODC = 120° But ∴ i. ∠C = 60° and ∠D = 120°.

∠A = 62°.7 MID POINT THEOREM Draw any triangle ABC. DE = 1 BC 2 Fig. Find the value of x. 2. Find the measure of ∠CAB.80 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. You will always find that DE = Thus.22. 16. it is. ABCD is a parallelogram in which ∠DAB = 70° and ∠CBD = 55°. find the measure of ∠OPS. 3. AC is one diagonal of a square ABCD.21 Again. In a parallelogram ABCD. If ∠ROQ = 40°. the diagonals of a rectangle PQRS intersect each other at O. we conclude that 1 BC and DE || BC. they are equal. Mark them as D and E respectively. 16. In a parallelogram ABCD. the lines are parallel. Find ∠CDB and ∠ADB.22 Fig. 6. 16. 5. Find the mid points of the side AB and AC. Find the measures of the other angles. measure ∠ADE and ∠ABC. 16. Join DE. Find the measure of ∠ACD. 7. as shown in Fig.21. ∴ DE || BC You may repeat this experiment with another two or three triangles and naming each of them as triangle ABC and the mid points as D and E of sides AB and AC. Are these angles equal ? Yes.2 1. 16. In Fig. ABCD is a rhombus in which ∠ABC = 58°. Measure BC and DE. Find all the angles of the parallelogram. you know that these angles make a pair of corresponding angles. 4. What relation do you find between the length of BC and DE ? Of course. ∠A = (2x + 10)° and ∠C = (3x – 20)°. You know that when a pair of corresponding angles are equal. 2 . The sum of the two opposite angles of a parallelogram is 150°.

You may repeat with different triangles and by naming each of them as PQR and taking each time L as the midpoint RQ and drawing a line LM || PQ.e. We can also verify the converse of the above stated result. Show that F is the mid-point of BC. 16. 16. ABCD is a trapezium in which AD and BC are its non-parallel sides and E is the mid-point of AD. DE || BC and D is the mid point of AB ∴ E is also the mid point of AC i.Quadrilaterals 81 In a triangle the line-segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and is half of it. Measure PM and MR. EF||AB. we conclude that Fig.25.24 = 4 cm Hence AE = 4 cm.25 . Solution : In ∆ABC. Solution : Since EG||AB and E is the mid-point of AD ∴ G is the mid point of DB In ∆DBC. If AC = 8 cm. they are equal.24. 16. GF||DC and G is the mid-point of DB. ∴ F is the mid-point of BC. AE = 1 AC 2 = FG 1 × 8IJ H2 K cm [Q AC = 8 cm] Fig. From L. D is the mid-point of the side AB of ∆ABC and DE || BC. Example 16. 16. Example 16.8 : In Fig. and mark it as L. PR at M. Are they equal ? Yes.23 “The line drawn through the mid point of one side of a triangle parallel to the another side bisects the third side. Let us consider some examples. Thus. 16. Draw any ∆PQR. you will find in each case that RM = MP. Fig. which intersects. find AE. Find the mid point of side RQ. draw a line LX || PQ.7 : In Fig.

3 1. 16. QR = 4 cm and PR = 3. find the sides of the triangle PQR. Solution : P is the mid-point of AB and R is the mid-point of AC ∴ PR||BC and PR = = 1 BC 2 1 ×7 2 1 AC 2 1 × 6 cm 2 [Q BC = 7 cm] = 3. 16. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. If AB = 8 cm. Fig.5 cm. 16. in which P.82 Mathematics Example 16. In Fig.27 .5 cm Similarly. Hence.27. the sides of ∆PQR are PQ = 3 cm. Q and R are mid-points of the sides AB. BC and CA respectively. E and F are the mid-points of the sides AB.9 : ABC is a triangle. Prove that DEF is also an equilateral triangle. and CA = 6 cm. PQ = = [Q AC = 6 cm] Fig.25 = 3 cm and QR = = 1 AB 2 1 × 8 cm 2 [Q AB = 8 cm] = 4 cm. BC = 7 cm. BC and CA respectively. ABC is an equilateral triangle D.

DG||EF.31. 16. Fig. 16. In Fig.28. 16. In Fig. find DE. 16. 16.28 3. Fig.30 5. M is the mid-point of AB and MN||BC. Show that ∆AMN is also an isosceles. AD is a median of a ∆ABC and E is the mid-point of AD. In Fig. meets AC at G.30. . AB||CD||QR.29 4. A and C divide the side PQ of ∆PQR into three equal parts. find AF. If AC = 9 cm.Quadrilaterals 83 2. BE is produced to meet AC at F. 16. In Fig. Prove that B and D also divide PR into three equal parts. Fig. D and E are the mid-points of the sides AB and AC respectively of a ∆ABC. 16.29. ABC is a isosceles triangle in which AB = AC. If BC = 10 cm.

16.33 (ii) .32.8 INTERCEPT THEOREM Recall that a line which intersects two or more lines is called a transversal. 16. The segment cut off from the transversal by a pair of lines is called an intercept.31 16.84 Mathematics Fig. Thus.33 (ii).32 The intercepts made by parallel lines on a transversal have some special properties which we shall study here. 16. Fig. (i) Fig. in Fig. 16. there will be two intercepts AB and BC as shown in Fig. If there are three parallel lines and they are intersected by a transversal. Let l and m be two parallel lines and XY is an intercept made on the transversal “n”. 16. XY is an intercept made by line l and m on transversal n.

On a page of your note-book. q. Repeat this experiment by taking another set of two or more equidistant parallel lines and measure their intercepts as done earlier. r and s as shown in Fig. A. Fig. they are equal. 16. These transversal make different intercepts. Z respectively such that XY = YZ. Thus.35. measure LM. Y. Measure the intercept AB. Solution. Given that XY = YZ ∴ and AB = BC LM = MN (Intercept theorem) Thus. M. the other pairs of equal intercepts are AB = BC and LM = MN. Are they equal ? Yes. You will find in each case that the intercepts made are equal. 16.Quadrilaterals 85 Now let us learn an important property of intercepts made on the transversals by the parallel lines. MN and NX. Let us illustrate it by some examples : Example 16. B. draw any two transversals l and m intersecting the parallel lines p.35 . we conclude the following : If there are three or more parallel lines and the intercepts made by them on a transversal are equal. p || q || r.34 Also. Name the other pairs of equal intercepts. N. Fig.34. The transversals l. BC and CD. 16. m and n cut them at L. they are. C and X. the corresponding intercepts made on any other transversal are also equal.10 : In Fig 16. Do you find that they are also equal ? Yes.

l || m || n and PQ = QR. YZ = 10 cm. 16.37 2.11. 16. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. If XZ = 20 cm. In Fig. 16.38. when can you say that AB = BC and XY = YZ ? Fig.38 .5 cm and AD ||PQ. find MS and MN. PQ and GH are three transversals.36. We have PQ = QR ∴ By intercept theorem. AD. From Fig 16. ⇒ YZ = 10 cm Fig. find YZ. 16. In Fig 16. If BC = 2 cm and LM = 2. Solution. m and n are three equidistant parallel lines. XY = YZ Also ∴ XZ = XY + YZ = YZ + YZ 20 = 2YZ Hence.86 Mathematics Example 16.4 1.36 Fig.37. l.

(ii) Fig. AB = 3.2 cm. XP and BZ. Draw DP ⊥ DC and QC ⊥ DC. are said to be on the same or equal bases and between the same parallels. 16. Let us prove it logically.. LM = MZ = 3 cm. Now. 16.(i) .39 16.4 cm. Fig.Quadrilaterals 87 3. Area ∆ADC = Area of ∆ACB = As ∴ 1 DC × PD 2 1 AB × QC 2 . Join its diagonal AC. we conclude the following : A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area. therefore PD = QC.40 AB = DC and PD = QC Area (∆ADC) = Area (∆ACB) Thus.5 cm and YZ = 3. 16. Because AB || DC. find XY.9 THE DIAGONAL OF A PARALLELOGRAM AND DIVISION OF AREA Draw a parallelogram ABCD..10 PARALLELOGRAMS AND TRIANGLES BETWEEN THE SAME PARALLELS Two parallelograms or triangles. having equal or same bases and having their other vertices on a line parallel to their bases. We will prove an important theorem on parallelogram and their area Theorm : Parallelograms on the same base (or equal bases) and between the same parallels are equal in area. In Fig..39. Given that l || m || n and PQ = 3.. Consider the two triangles ADC and ACB in which the parallelogram ABCD has been divided by the diagonal AC. . 16.

16. on the same base and between the same parallels.11 TRIANGLES ON THE SAME OR EQUAL BASES HAVING EQUAL AREAS HAVE THEIR CORRESPONDING ALTITUDES EQUAL Recall that the area of triangle = 1 (Base) × Altitude 2 . 16..(iii) Fig.41 (Opposite sides of a parallelogram) (Opposite sides of a parallelogram) (Corresponding Angles) Area (||gm ABCD) = Area(∆ABP) + Area(Trap.88 Mathematics Given : Parallelograms ABCD and PBCQ stand on the same base BC and between the same parallels BC and AQ.41. BCDP) From (i). Result : Triangles... we have and ∴ ∴ Now.. To prove : Area (ABCD) = Area (BCQP) Proof : Consider two triangles ABP and DCQ.(i) . we get Area (||gm ABCD) = Area (||gm BCQP) Note : ||gm and Trap. stands for parallelogram and trapezium respectively. Thus.. ∴ and ∴ Area (∆BCQ) = Area (∆PBQ) Area(∆ABC) = Area (∆CAD) Area (∆ABC) = Area (∆BCQ) Parallelogram on the same base (or equal bases) and between the same parallels are equal in area.. 16. Join the diagonals BQ and AC of the two parallelograms BCQP and ABCD respectively. BCDP) Area (||gm BCQP) = Area (∆CQD) + Area(Trap. AB = DC BP = CQ ∠1 = ∠2 ∆ABP ≅ ∆DCQ Area (∆ABP) = Area (∆DCQ) . We know that a diagonal of a ||gm divides it in two triangles of equal area.are equal in area Consider Fig. (ii) and (iii).(ii) . we also conclude the following : Triangles on the same base (or equal bases) and between the same parallels are equal in area.

Area of ||gm BCEF = Area of ||gm ABCD = 40 sq cm 40 = BC × Altitude of ||gm BCEF 40 = 8 × Altitude of ||gm BCEF 40 cm or 5 cm. ∆DBC and ∆PQR are equal in length.(i) Draw perpendiculars DE and PS from D and P to the line m meeting it in E and S respectively. Altitudes of ∆ABC.. 16.(ii) 1 QR × PS 2 Also.. having equal areas have their corresponding altitudes equal.e. find the altitude of parallelogram BCEF.. we get 1 1 BC × DE = QR × PS 2 2 (Given) . BC = QR From (i).Quadrilaterals 89 Fig.(i) we know that Area (||gm BCEF) = EF × Altitude ∴ Altitude of ||gm BCEF = Fig. 16. Thus.12 : In Fig.(iii) or. (ii) and (iii). Solution : or or. 1 1 BC × DE = BC × PS 2 2 ∴ DE = PS i. Let us consider some examples : Example 16.43..43 ... Now Area (∆ABC) = Area (∆DBC) = and Area (∆PQR) = ... 16.. the area of parallelogram ABCD is 40 sq cm. If BC = 8m. 8 .42 Here and BC = QR Area (∆ABC) = Area (∆DBC) = Area (∆PQR) 1 BC × DE 2 1 BC × DE 2 [Given] . we conclude the following : Triangles on the same or equal bases.

Solution : Area(||gm ABCD) = Area(||gm ACED) The diagonal AC divides the ||gm ABCD into two triangles of equal area. find the area of the trapezium ABED. If area of ∆ABC equals 12 cm2. ABCD and ACED are two parallelograms. 16.14 : In Fig. 16. If the altitude DL equals 4. When are two parallelograms on the same base (or equal bases) of equal areas ? 2.5 cm. and the length of CE and BC are equal.44.45. 16.44 Example 16. 16.5 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. find the base of the ∆BCD.5IJ cm H2 K F 9 xIJ 18 = G H4 K F18 × 4 IJ cm = 8 cm. The area of a triangle formed by joining the diagonal AC of a ||gm ABCD is 16 cm2. Find the area of the ||gm ABCD. .13 : In Fig. the area of ∆ABC is given to be 18 cm2.90 Mathematics Example 16. x= G H 9K Fig. ∴ Area (∆ABC) = 1 Area (||gm ABCD) 2 Fig.45 ∴ Area (||gm ABCD)=Area (||gm ACED) = 2 × 12 cm2 = 24 cm2 ∴ Area of Trapezium ABED = Area (∆ABC) + Area (||gm ACED) = (12 + 24) cm2 = 36 cm2. Solution : Area (∆BCD) = Area (∆ABC) = 18cm2 Let the base of ∆BCD be x cm ∴ Area of ∆BCD = = 1 x × DL 2 2 or ∴ FG 1 x × 4.

z In a parallelogram : (i) opposite sides and angles are equal.Quadrilaterals 91 3. z Triangles on equal bases having equal areas have their corresponding altitudes equal. 16. enclosing some area of the plane. Fig. find the altitude of ||gm BCFE. Which of the following are trapeziums ? (i) Fig. z A parallelogram is a rectangle if its one angle is 90°. The area of ∆ACD in Fig 16. z The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angle.46 is 8 cm2. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if both pair of sides are parallel.47 (ii) (iii) . z The diagonals of a square intersect at right angles. (ii) diagonals bisect each other. z A parallelogram is a rhombus if its adjacent sides are equal. z The triangles on the same base (or equal bases) and between the same parallels are equal in area. z The diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area. TERMINAL EXERCISE 1.46 LET US SUM UP z z z z A quadrilateral is a four sided closed figure. The sum of the interior or exterior angles of a quadrilateral is each equal to 360°. A quadrilateral is a trapezium if its one pair of opposite sides is parallel. If EF = 4 cm. z The diagonals of a rectangle are equal. z Parallelogram on the same base (or equal bases) and between the same parallels are equal in area. z A rectangle is a square if its adjacent sides are equal. 16.

92

Mathematics

2. In Fig. 16.48, PQ || FG || DE || BC. Name all the trapeziums in the figure.

Fig. 16.48

3. In Fig. 16.49, ABCD is a parallelogram with an area of 48 cm2. Find the area of (i) shaded region (ii) unshaded region.

Fig. 16.49

4. Fill in the blanks in each of the following to make them true statements : (i) A quadrilateral is a trapezium if ... (ii) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if ... (iii) A rectangle is a square if ... (iv) The diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other at right angle. If none of the angles of the quadrilateral is a right angle, it is a ... (v) The sum of the exterior angles of a quadrilateral is ... 5. If the angles of a quadrilateral are (x – 20)°, (x + 20)°, (x – 15)° and (x + 15)°, find x and the angles of the quadrilateral. 6. The sum of the opposite angles of a parallelograms is 180°. What special type of a parallelogram is it ?

Quadrilaterals

93

7. The area of a ∆ABD in Fig. 16.50 is 24 cm2. If DE = 6 cm, and AB || CD, BD || CE, AE || BC, find

Fig. 16.50

(i) Altitude of the parallelogram BCED. (ii) Area of the parallelogram BCED 8. In Fig. 16.51, the area of parallelogram ABCD is 40 cm2. If EF = 8 cm, find the altitude of ∆DCE.

Fig. 16.51

94

Mathematics

ANSWERS Check Your Progress 16.1 1. 2. (i) Rectangle (v) Rhombus (i) true (v) True (ix) False 3. 90° (ii) trapezium (vi) Square (ii) False (vi) True (x) False 4. 60°, 84° 84° and 132° (iii) True (vii) False (iv) True (viii) False (iii) Rectangle (iv) Parallelogram

5. Other pair of opposite angles will also be supplementary Check Your Progress 16.2 1. ∠B = 118°, ∠C = 62° and ∠D = 118° 2. ∠A = 105°, ∠B = 75°, ∠C = 105° and ∠D = 75° 3. 30 5. ∠ACD = 61° Check Your Progress 16.3 2. 5 cm Check Your Progress 16.4 1. MS = 2 cm and MN = 2.5 cm 2. l, m and n are three equidistant parallel lines 3. XY = 3.4 cm, XP = 3.2 cm and BZ = 3.5 cm Check Your Progress 16.5 1. When they are lying between the same parallel lines 2. 32 cm2 Terminal Exercise 1. (i) and (iii) 2. PFGQ, FDEG, DBCE, PDEQ, FBCG and PBCQ 3. (i) 4. 24 cm2 (ii) 24 cm2 (i) any one pair of opposite sides is parallel (ii) both pairs of opposite sides are parallel (iii) pair of adjacent sides is equal 6. It is a rectangle 7. (i) 8 cm (ii) 48 cm2 8. 5 cm (iv) rhombus (v) 360° 5. x = 90°, angles are 70°, 110°, 75° and 105° respectively. 3. 4 cm 3. 3 cm 6. ∠OPS = 70° 4. ∠CDB = 55° and ∠ADB = 55° 7. ∠CAB = 45°

Similarity of Triangle

95

17

Similarity of Triangle

17.1 INTRODUCTION Looking around you will see many objects which are of the same shape but of same or different sizes. For examples, leaves of a tree have almost the same shape but same or different sizes. Similarly, photographs of different sizes developed from the same negative are of same shape but different sizes, the miniature model of a building and the building itself are of same shape but different sizes. All those objects which have the same shape but different sizes are called similar objects. Let us examine the similarity of plane figures : (i) Two line-segments of the same length are congruent but of different lengths are similar.

(ii) Two circles of the same radius are congurent but circles of different radii are similar.

(iii) Two equilateral triangles of different sides are similar.

96

Mathematics

(iv) Two squares of different sides are similar.

In this lesson, we shall study about the concept of similarity, especially similarity of triangles and the conditions thereof. We shall also study about various results related to them. 17.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson, the learner will be able to :

z z z z z z

identify similar figures distinguish between congurent and similar plane figures cite the criteria for similarity of triangles viz. AAA, SSS and SAS. verify and use unstarred results given in the curriculum based on similarity experimentally prove the Baudhayan/Pythagoras Theorem apply these results in verifying experimentally (or proving logically) problems based on similar triangles.

**17.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Knowledge of
**

z z z z z

plane figures like triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, rectangles, squares, etc. criteria of congruency of triangles finding squares and square-roots of numbers ratio and proportion internal and external bisectors of angles of a triangle.

17.4 SIMILAR PLANE FIGURES

Fig. 17.2

Similarity of Triangle

97

In Fig. 17.2, the two pentagon seem to be of the same shape. We can see that ∠A = ∠A′, ∠B = ∠B′, ∠C = ∠C′, ∠D = ∠D′ and ∠E = ∠E′ and AB = BC = CD = DE = EA . We say that the two pentagons are similar. Thus we say A ' B' B' C' C' D' D' E' E' A ' that Any two polygons, with corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides proportional, are similar Thus, two polygons are similar, if they satisfy the following two conditions : (i) Corresponding angles are equal (ii) The corresponding sides are proportional. Even if one of the conditions does not hold, the polygons are not similar as in the case of a rectangle and square given in Fig. 17.3. Here all the corresponding angles are equal but the corresponding sides are not proportional.

Fig. 17.3

17.5 SIMILARITY OF TRIANGLES Triangles are special type of polygons and therefore the conditions of similarity of polygons also hold for triangles. Thus, Two triangles are similar if (i) their corresponding angles are equal, and (ii) their corresponding sides are proportional

Fig. 17.4

We say that ∆ABC is similar to ∆DEF and denote it by writing ∆ABC ~ ∆DEF

98

Mathematics

The symbol ‘~’ stands for the phrase “ is similar to” If ∆ABC ~ ∆DEF, then by definition ∠A = ∠D, ∠B = ∠E, ∠D = ∠F and 17.5.1 AAA criterion for similarity We shall show that if either of the above two conditions is satisfied then the other automatically holds in the case of triangles. Let us perform the following experiment. Construct two ∆’s ABC and PQR in which ∠P = ∠A, ∠Q = ∠B and ∠R = ∠C as shown in Fig. 17.5. AB = BC = CA DE EF FD

Fig. 17.5

Measure the sides AB, BC and CA of ∆ABC and also measure the sides PQ, QR and RP of ∆PQR.

**AB BC CA Now find the ratio PQ , QR and . RP
**

What do you find ? You will find that all the three ratios are equal and therefore the triangles are similar. Try this with different triangles with equal corresponding angles. You will find the same result. Thus, we can say that If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal the triangles are similar. This is called AAA similarity criterion. 17.5.2 SSS criterion for similarity. Let us now perform the following experiment : Draw a triangle ABC with AB = 3 cm, BC = 4.5 cm and CA = 3.5 cm

Similarity of Triangle

99

(i) Fig. 17.6

(ii)

Draw another ∆PQR as shown in Fig. 17.6 (ii)

**AB BC AC We can see that PQ = QR = PR
**

i.e., the sides of the two triangles are proportional Now measure ∠A, ∠B and ∠C of ∆ABC and ∠P, ∠Q and ∠R of ∆PQR. You will find that ∠A = ∠P, ∠B = ∠Q and ∠C = ∠R. Repeat the experiment with another two triangles having corresponding sides proportional, you will find that the corresponding angles are equal and so the triangle are similar. Thus, we can say that If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional the triangles are similar. 17.5.3 SAS Criterian for Similarity Let us conduct the following experiment. Take a line AB = 3 cm and at A construct an angle of 60°. Cut off AC = 4.5 cm. Join BC

Fig. 17.7

Now take PQ = 6 cm. At P, draw an angle of 60° and cut off PR = 9 cm. Measure ∠B, ∠C, ∠Q and ∠R. We shall find that ∠B = ∠Q and ∠C = ∠R Thus, ∆ABC ~ ∆PQR

100

Mathematics

Thus, we conclude that If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of the other triangle and the sides containing these angles are proportional, the triangles are similar. Thus, we have three important criteria for the similarity of triangles. They are given below: (i) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, the triangles are similar. (ii) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, the triangles are similar. (iii) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of the other triangle and the sides containing these angles are proportional, the triangle are similar. Example 17.1 : In Fig. 17.8 are given two triangles ABC and PQR

Fig. 17.8

Is ∆ABC ~ ∆PQR ? Solution : We are given that ∠A = ∠P and ∠B = ∠Q We also know that ∠A + ∠B + ∠C = ∠P + ∠Q + ∠R = 180° Thus, according to first criterion of similarity ∆ABC ~ ∆PQR. Example 17.2 :

Fig. 17.9

In Fig. 17.9, ∆ABC ~ ∆PQR. If AC = 4.8 cm, AB = 4 cm and PQ = 9 cm, find PR.

Similarity of Triangle

101

Solution : It is given that ∆ABC ~ ∆PQR ∴ Let ∴ ⇒ ⇒ i.e.,

AB AC PQ = PR

PR = x cm 4 4.8 = 9 x 4x = 9 × 4.8 x = 10.8 PR = 10.8 cm. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17.1

Find the values of x and y if ∆ABC ~ ∆PQR

(i)

Fig. 17.10

(ii)

Fig. 17.11

(iii)

Fig. 17.12

102

Mathematics

17.6 BASIC PROPORTIONALITY THEOREM We state below the Basic Proportionality Theorem : If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle, the other two sides of the triangle are divided proportionally. Thus, in Fig. 17.13, DE || BC, According to the above result AD = AE DB EC We can easily verify this by measuring AD, DB, AE and EC. You will find that AD = AE DB EC We state the converse of the above result as follows : If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to third side of the triangle. Thus, in Fig. 17.13, if DE divides sides AB and AC of ∆ABC such that DE || BC. We can verify this by measuring ∠ADE and ∠ABC and finding that ∠ADE = ∠ABC These being alternate angles, the lines DE and BC are parallel. We can verify the above two results by taking different triangles. Let us solve some examples based on these. Example 17.3 : In Fig. 17.14, DE || BC. If AD = 3 cm, DB = 5 cm and AE = 6 cm, find AC. Solution : DE || BC (Given). Let EC = x ∴ ∴ ⇒ ⇒ ∴ ∴ AD AE = DB EC 3 6 = 5 x 3x = 30 x = 10 EC = 10 cm AC = AE + EC = 16 cm.

Fig. 17.14 Fig. 17.13

AD = AE , then DB EC

Similarity of Triangle

103

5 Example 17.4 : In Fig. 17.15, AD = 4 cm, DB = 5 cm, AE = 4.5 cm and EC = 5 cm. Is 8 DE || BC ? Given reasons for your answer. Solution : We are given that AD = 4 cm and DB = 5 cm. ∴ Similarly, AD 4 = DB 5 4.5 AE 9 8 =4 = 45 = × EC 2 45 5 8 DE || BC. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17.2 1. In Fig. 17.16 (i), (ii) and (iii), PQ || BC. Find the value of x in each case.

Fig. 17.15

∴ According to converse of Basic Proportionality Theorem

Fig. 17.16

2. In Fig. 17.17 [(i), (ii) and (iii)], find whether DE is parallel to BC or not ? Give reasons for your answer.

Fig. 17.17

17.7 BISECTOR OF AN ANGLE OF A TRIANGLE We now state an important result as given below : The internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side in the ratio of sides containing the angle

5 cm. we may verify the result. The bisector AD of ∠A intersects the opposite side BC in D such that BD = 4.104 Mathematics Thus. AB and AC and finding the ratios. Example 17. Find the lengths of the line-segments into which the smallest side is divided by the bisector of the angle opposite to it. ∴ ⇒ BD 36 = 3 = DC 48 4 4BD = 3DC or BD = 36 DC = 3 DC 48 4 Fig. we have BD AB = DC AC (Q AD is the internal bisector of ∠A of ∆ABC) or ⇒ 4.e. 17.5 6 = x 8 6x = 4. 17. Example 17. the length of line-segment CD = 6 cm. 17. Solution : The smallest side is of length 28 cm and the sides forming the angle. DC. then BD AB = DC AC We can easily verify this by measuring BD.6 : The sides of a triangle are 28 cm.5 × 8 x=6 i.20 .5 : The sides AB and AC of a triangle are 6 cm and 8 cm. Let the angle bisector AD meet BC in D.18 Repeating the same activity with other triangles. Solution : According to the above result. Let us solve some examples to illustrate this. 36 cm and 48 cm.19 BC = BD + DC = 28 cm ∴ DC + 3 DC = 28 4 Fig. according to the above result. A opposite to it are 36 cm and 48 cm. Find the length of segment CD. We will find that BD AB = DC AC Fig. if AD is the internal bisector of ∠A of ∆ABC..

Similarity of Triangle 105 ∴ ∴ 4 DC = 28 × 7 FH IK cm = 16 BD = 12 cm and DC = 16 cm CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17.3 1. Fig. Fig. RS is the internal bisector of ∠R of ∆PQR. In Fig.23. find x. DC = 5 cm. BD = 3 cm. express p.21 2. In Fig. AD is the bisector of ∠A. 17. 17. In Fig.22. 17. If AB = 4. The dimensions of some of the sides are given in Fig.22 3. 17. 17. 17. For the given dimensions.21.5 cm. PS is the internal bisector of ∠P of ∆PQR.23 . y and z.22. Fig. the length of QS in terms of x. Find x. 17. meeting BC in D.

Draw a ∆ABC. ∴ ∆ADB ~ ∆CDA ~ ∆CAB Also.24 ∆ADB and ∆CDA are similar. As ∠ADB = 90°. ∠BAD = 90° – α ∠BAC = 90° and ∠BAD = 90° – α . meeting it in D.e. 90° and 90° – α Another important result is about relation between sides and areas of similar triangles. the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to each other and to the triangle. the angles of ∆BAC are α .106 Mathematics 17. as it has all the corresponding angles equal. Draw two triangles ABC and PQR which are similar i. ∠DAC = α ∠DCA = 90° – α Fig. Let ∴ As Therefore Similarly. Fig. Let us try of verify this by an activity.. 17. 17. their sides are proportional. right angled at A. We state the result below and try to verify the same. ∴ ∠DBA = α . It states that The ratio of the areas of similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on their corresponding sides Let us verify this result by the following activity.8 SOME MORE IMPORTANT RESULTS Let us study another important result on similarity in connection with a right triangle and the perpendicular from the vertex of the right angle to the opposite side. Draw AD ⊥ to the hypotenuse BC. If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse.25 .

Example 17. BP 3 Solution : In Fig. PQ || BC and intersects AB and AC at P and Q respectively. If AP = 2 . find the ratio of areas of ∆APQ and ∆ABC.Similarity of Triangle 107 Draw AD ⊥ BC and PS ⊥ QR Measure the lengths of AD and PS.5 cm and 5. PQ || BC ∴ ∴ ∴ AQ 2 AP = QC = 3 BP BP 3 = AP 2 Fig.8 : In a ∆ABC.. Solution : Let the two triangles be ABC and PQR Let BC = 2..26. Let us illustrate these results with the help of examples. Find the product AD × BC and PS × QR You will find that AD × BC = BC2 and PS × QR = QR2 Now AD × BC = 2.7 : Find the ratio of the area of two similar triangles if one pair of their corresponding sides are 2.5 Area ∆ABC 1 BC 2 = = = 2 2 4 Area ∆PQR QR 5. 17.0 cm.26 b b g g b g b g 2 1 + BP = 1 + 3 = 5 AP 2 2 .5 cm and QR = 5. Area of ∆ABC PS × QR = 2. Area of ∆PQR ∴ As ∴ BC 2 Area of ∆ABC AD × BC = = Area of ∆PQR PS × QR QR 2 .(i) BC AB = AC QR = PQ PR BC 2 AB2 = AC 2 Area of ∆ABC = = Area of ∆PQR QR 2 PQ 2 PR 2 The activity may be repeated by taking different pairs of similar triangles.0 Example 17.0 2. 17.

If AB = 6 cm and AD = 2 cm. if the corresponding altitudes AD and PS are in the ratio of 4 : 9. Q and R are the mid-points of the sides AB. 17. ABC is a triangle in which DE || BC.27. . 17. P. If the ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is 16 : 25. find the ratio of the areas of ∆ABC and ∆PQR. Fig. find the ratio of the area of ∆ADE and trapezium DBCE. In Fig. 17. ABC is a right triangle with ∠A = 90° and ∠C = 30°.27 2. find the ratio of their corresponding sides. Find the ratio of the areas of two similar triangles if the corresponding sides are of lengths 3 cm and 5 cm.28.28 4. 3. BC and CA of the ∆ABC respectively. In Fig.4 1. 25 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17.108 Mathematics ⇒ AB 5 = AP 2 ⇒ AP 2 = AB 5 2 2 ∴ Area ∆APQ AP 2 = = Area ∆ABC AB2 b b g g FG AP IJ = FG 2 IJ H ABK H 5 K = 4 . Fig. LMHint : Use AB = AD = BC = CA OP PQ PS QR PR Q N 6. Show that the area of ∆PQR is one-fourth the area of ∆ABC. 5. Show that ∆DAB ~ ∆DCA ~ ∆ACB. 17. In two similar triangles ABC and PQR.

Draw a triangle ABC with side 3 cm.e. called Baudhayan/Phythagorus Theorem using the concept of similarity.1 Converse of Pythagoras Theorem The conserve of the above theorem states : In a triangle.9 BAUDHAYAN/PYTHAGORAS THEOREM We know prove an important theorem.29 ..DC AB2 + BC2 = AC (AD + DC) = AC.. 4 cm and 5 cm.. we get .(ii) ..Similarity of Triangle 109 17. BC = 4 cm and AC = 5 cm. if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two sides. Theorem : In a right triangle. 17. From B. Baudhayan about 200 years before Pythagoras.. 17. To Prove : AC2 = AB2 + BC2 Construction. This result can be verified by the following activity. i. You can see that AB2 + BC2 = (3)2 + (4)2 = 9 + 16 = 25 Fig. we get ⇒ From (ii).. we get ⇒ ∆ADB ~ ∆ABC ∆BDC ~ ∆ABC AB AD = AC AB AB2 = AC..29) Proof : BD ⊥ AC ∴ and From (i).(B) Adding (A) and (B). draw BD ⊥ AC (See Fig. AC = AC2 The theorem is known after the name of famous Greek Mathematician Pythagoras.. AB = 3 cm.(A) Fig. 17. 17. in which ∠B = 90°. the angle opposite to first side is a right angle.AD BC DC = AC BC BC2 = AC.30 . Given.(i) . This was originally stated by the Indian Mathematician.9.. A right triangle ABC. the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.

Find the length of the hypotenuse. and of sides 7 cm. Solution : Let ABC be the right triangle. Join the diagonal BD.. verify that three times the square on one side is equal to four times the square on its altitude.30 satisfies the condition of the above result. Solution : The altitude AD ⊥ BC and Let and Let BD = CD AB = BC = CA = 2a BD = CD = a AD = x Fig. right angled at B ∴ AB = 5 cm.110 Mathematics AC2 = (5)2 = 25 ∴ AB2 + BC2 = AC2 The triangle in Fig. AC2 = BC2 + AB2 . Example 17. Example 17. Construct triangles of sides 5 cm. ∴ BD2 = BC2 + CD2 = 42 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 BD = 5 i.11 : In an equilateral triangle. is a rectangle ABCD. 17. Solution : In Fig. Let us solve some examples using above results.9 : In a right triangle. Now DCB is a right triangle. 17. the length of the hypotenuse is 13 cm. 17. the sides containing the right angle are of length 5 cm and 12 cm. the length of diagonal of rectangle ABCD is 5 cm. You will again find that the angles opposite to side of length 13 cm and 25 cm are 90° each. 12 cm and 13 cm.. Example 17. 24 cm. BC = 12 cm = (12)2 + (5)2 = 144 + 125 = 169 ∴ AC = 13 i.e. you will find that ∠ABC = 90°.32 Fig. 17.e.31 Also. 25 cm.10 : Find the length of diagonal of a rectangle the lengths of whose sides are 3 cm and 4 cm.31. Measure ∠ABC.

the length of perpendicular from C on AB is p. BC = a. b = 5 cm. Two poles of height 6 m and 11 m. 3a2 = 12a2 Hence the result. AB2 = AC2 + BC2 c2 = b2 + a2 Fig. Determine which of them are right triangles : [AB = c. c = 4 cm (iii) a = 9 cm. If CD. AC = b and AB = c. right angled at C. Example 17. b = 16 cm.Similarity of Triangle 111 ∴ x2 = (2a)2 – (a)2 = 3a2 3.5 1.(Altitude) = 4.12 : ABC is a right triangle. find the distance between their tops. CA = b] (i) a = 4 cm. BC = a. show that (i) pc = ab 1 1 1 (ii) p 2 = 2 + 2 a b Solution : (i) CD ⊥ AB ∴ ∆ABC ~ ∆ACD ∴ ⇒ (ii) or a c = p b pc = ab. c = 3 cm (ii) a = 1.8 cm. b = 3. b = 24 cm. (2a)2 = 12 a2 4. c = 25 cm 2.33 F ab I H pK or 2 = b2 + a2 1 1 a 2 + b2 1 + = = 2 a b2 a 2 b2 p2 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17. c = 18 cm (iv) a = 7 cm. 17. If the distance between their feet is 12 m.(Side)2 = 3.6 cm. stand on a plane ground. . The sides of certain triangles are given below.

find the length of the ladder.34 5. 8. DC Fig. Show that AB2 = AC2 + BC2 – 2BC. . with corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides proportional. 4. Find the length of the diagonal of a square of side 10 cm. Two triangles are said to be similar. LET US SUM UP z z Objects which have the same shape but different sizes are called similar objects. Show that 4LC2 = AB2 + 4BC2 6. Prove that PR2 = 2PQ2.34. right angled at C. P and Q are points on the sides CA and CB respectively of ∆ABC. 17. L and M are the mid-points of the sides AB and AC of ∆ABC. A ladder is placed against a wall such that its top reaches upto a height of 4 m of the wall. Any two polygons. right angled at B.112 Mathematics 3. PQR is an isosceles right triangle with ∠Q = 90°. ∠C is acute and AD ⊥ BC. If the foot of the ladder is 3 m away from the wall. if (a) their corresponding angles are equal and (b) their corresponding sides are proportional z z Criteria of similarity – AAA criterion – SSS criterion – SAS criterion z If a line is drawn parallel to one-side of a triangle. In Fig. Prove that AQ2 + BP2 = AB2 + PQ2 7. 17. are similar. it divides the other two sides in the same ratio and its converse.

then the angle opposite to the first side is a right angle – converse of (Baudhayan) Pythagoras Theorem. From the dimension given in the figure. CA = 3. RP = 7. In Fig. In Fig. ∠C = 60°.5 cm. QR = 7. The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of squares of their corresponding sides. DB = 4. 17. ∆’s ABC and PQR are similar (i) ∠A = 40°. 2.Similarity of Triangle 113 z The internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side in the ratio of sides containing the angle. ∠Q = 60° and ∠R = 70° (iii) AB = 2. BC = 4. Fig. ∠B = 70°. In a right triangle. 15. ∠C = 80°.0 cm (iv) AB = 3 cm.35 Fig. Enumerate different criteria for the similarity of the two triangles. . RP = 6. ∠P = 40°.36. QR = 9. 4. the square on the hypotenuse is equal to sum of the squares on the remaining two sides – (Baudhyan) Pythagoras Theorem In a triangle. 17. given that DE || BC.0 cm. AD = 3 cm. DE || AC.35.0 cm.0 cm.5 cm. 3. AE = 4. CA = 5. ∠Q = 60° and ∠R = 80° (ii) ∠A = 50°.5 cm. the triangles so formed are similar to each other and to the given triangle. ∠P = 50°. ∠B = 60°.5 cm. 17. find CE. TERMINAL EXERCISE z z z z 1. if the square on one side is equal to the sum of the squares on the remaining two sides.5 cm.0 cm. In which of the following cases. find the value of x. BC = 4 cm.36 5. If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right angled triangle to the hypotenuse.0 cm PQ = 4. Write the criteria for the similarity of two polygons.5 cm PQ = 5.

17. BC = 2ab.50 cm and EC = 1. BC = 6 cm. BC = 12 cm. 8. Find the ratio of area of ∆ABC to that of ∆PQR.39. 15. show that AB2 = AC2 + BC2 + 2BC. CA = 6 cm (iv) AB = 25 cm. A ladder is placed against a wall and its top reaches a point at a height of 8 m from the ground. 17. Find the area of an equilateral triangle of side 2a. Find the distance between their tops.5 cm and 3.114 Mathematics 6. DB = 3 cm. CA = 13 cm (ii) AB = 8 cm. Is DE || BC ? Give reasons for your answer.39 . Fig. CA = 7 cm (v) AB = a2 + b2. In Fig. The altitudes AD and PS of two similar ∆’s ABC and PQR are of length 2. 12. 13. stand on a plane ground and the distance between their feet is 12 m. find x. find the length of the ladder. In an equilateral triangle.38 7.37 is shown a ∆ABC in which AD = 5 cm. 17.38. BC = 24 cm. In Fig.5 cm. BC = 5 cm. 17. From the given dimension. Two poles of height 12 m and 17 m. AE = 2. CA = 10 cm (iii) AB = 10 cm.CD 14. CA = a2 – b2 11. Find the ratio of the area of ∆ABC to that of ∆DEF. 17.37 Fig. Which of the following are right triangles ? (i) AB = 5 cm. 17. The perimeter of two similar ∆’s ABC and DEF are 12 cm and 18 cm. 9. show that three times the square of a side equals four times the square on medians. If the distance between the wall and foot of the ladder is 6 m. 10. Fig. In Fig. AD is the internal bisector of ∠A of ∆ABC.5 cm.

13 m 14. yz x 2. 4 cm (x = –1 is not possible) Check Your Progress 17. (ii). 1 : 8 5. 4. 16 : 81 (ii) No (iii) No 3. (i).5 cm 3. 10 m . 13 m Terminal Exercise 3.4 2.2 1.5. 4 : 9 10.3 1.1 1. AD AE = DB EC 3. 6 cm 7.5 (ii) x = 70.5 cm 9. y = 3.5 cm 3a 2 12. 25 : 49 5. 2. 4. (i) Yes (iv) Yes 2. (i) and (iii) 6. Yes : 8. 4 : 5 Check Your Progress 17. (iv) and (v) 11. 10 2 cm 8. (i) x = 4. y = 50 (iii) x = 2 cm.Similarity of Triangle 115 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 17. y = 7 cm Check Your Progress 17. 9 : 25 6. 5 m 4. 7. (i) 6 (i) No (ii) 6 (ii) Yes (iii) 10 cm (iii) Yes Check Your Progress 17.5 1.

Perimeter of a closed figure Region bounded by a closed figure Congruence of closed figures 18. alphabet O.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson.1 INTRODUCTION You are already familiar with geometrical figures such as a line segment. the learner will be able to : z z z z z z define a circle give examples of various terms related to a circle illustrate congruent circles and concentric circles identify and illustrate terms connected with circles like chord. etc. an angle. In this lesson we shall study in some details about the circle and related concepts. a bangle. 18.1 Circle : A circle is a collection of all points in a plane which are at a constant distance from a fixed point in the same plane. Examples. segment. quadrilaterals polygons. etc verify experimentally results based on arcs and chords of a circle use the results in solving problems 18. of a circle are a wheel.116 Mathematics 18 Circles 18. .4 CIRCLE AND RELATED TERMS 18. a quadrilateral and a circle. etc.4. a triangle. sector.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z z z z Line segment and its length Angle and its measure Parallel and perpendicular lines Closed figures such as triangles. arc.

Such a chord is called a diameter of the circle. In Figure 18.3 Fig. Diameter is usually denoted by ‘d’. the diameter of a circle = twice the radius of the circle. 18. Activity for you (a) Take a point Q in the inner part of the circle (See Figure 18. 18. It is customary to write radius instead of the length of the radius. Activity for you : Measure the length d of PQ.2 Chord A line segment joining any two points of a circle is called a chord. the inner part of the figure. Thus All radii (plural of radius) of a circle are equal The length of the radius of a circle is generally denoted by the letter ‘r’. In Figure 18.3).Circles 117 Radius : A line segment joining the centre of the circle to a point on the circle is called its radius. the radius r and find that d is the same as 2r. In Fig.4 Fig.1 . 18. there is a circle with centre O and one of its radius is OA.2 the shaded portion is the inner part of the circle. The inner part of the circle is called the interior of the circle. the boundary is the circle and the unshaded portion is the outer part of the circle. Activity for you : Measure the length OA and OB and observe that they are equal.4 AB and PQ and CD are three chords of a circle with centre O and radius r. (b) Now take a point P in the outer part of the circle (Figure 18.2 Fig. 18. The outer part of the circle is called the exterior of the circle. A chord passing though the centre of circle is called its diameter.4. 18. Fig.1.3).e. 18. Measure OQ and find that OQ < r. Measure OP and find that OP > r. OB is another radius of the same circle. A closed geometric figure in the plane divides the plane into three parts namely. Thus we have d = 2r i. the figure and the outer part. The chord PQ passes through the centre O of the circle.

118 Mathematics Measure the length PQ. PAQP is called a minor segment and PBQP is called a major segment. 18. If this point moves along the circle once and comes back to its original position then the distance covered by P is called the circumference of the circle . In Figure 18. the shaded portion is a sector formed by the arc PRQ and the unshaded portion is a sector formed by the arc PTQ. PQ is a diameter and 18. Fig.4. the shaded region PAQP and the unshaded region PBQP are both segments of the circle. each known as a semicircle. In Figure 18.5 (b) 18. or (a) Fig.4.4. 18. 18. 18.6 Segment A chord divides the interior of a circle into two parts.4. we may conclude Diameter is the longest chord of a circle. In Figure 18.5(a) ABC is an arc and is denoted by arc ABC .6 Choose a point P on a circle. 18.7.5 Sector The region bounded by an arc of a circle and two radii at its end points is called a sector. In Figure 18. each called a segment.4 Semicircle A diameter of a circle divides a circle into two equal arcs.5(b).7 Circumference Fig. 18.7 is a semicircle and so is .6. AB and CD and find that PQ > AB and PQ > CD.3 Arc A part of a circle is called an arc.4.

The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is always a constant. To measure its length we put a thread along PAQ and then measure the length of the thread with the help of a scale. MEASUREMENT OF AN ARC OF A CIRCLE Consider an arc PAQ of a circle (Fig 18. Measure the distance between the Ist and last position of P along the line. Rotate the wheel along a line till the point P comes back on the ground. 18. In fact this number π is an irrational number. Therefore. 18.Circles 119 Fig. The length of the boundary of a circle is the circumference of the circle. where c is the circumference of the circle.8 Activity for you : Take a wheel and mark a point P on the wheel where it touches the ground. Similarly.9). This constant is universally denoted by Greek letter π . Observe that in each case the ratio of the circumference to diameter turns out to be the same.9 . This distance is equal to the circumference of the circle.5.5. Aryabhata–I (476 AD).1416. 18. you may measure the length of the arc PBQ. Activity for you Consider different circles and measure their circumference(s) and diameters. 18.1 Minor arc An arc of a circle whose length is less than that or a semicircle of the same circle is called a minor arc. a famous Indian Mathematician 7 gave a more accurate value of π which is 3. radius. 18. 22 An approximate value of π is . PAQ a minor arc (See Fig. Thus.9) c = c =π . d its diameter and r is its d 2r Fig.

18. arc PBQ is a major arc. 18.12 if arc PAQ = arc RBS then ∠POQ = ∠ROS and conversely if ∠POQ = ∠ROS then arc PAQ = arc RBS. In Figure 18.9.13.8 SOME IMPORTANT RULES Activity for you : (i) Draw two circles with centre O1 and O2 and radius r and s respectively (See Fig.10 Two circles (or arcs) are said to be congruent if we can superpose (place) one over the other such that they cover each other completely.10). 18.120 Mathematics 18.2 Major arc An arc of a circle whose length is greater than that of a semicircle of the same circle is called a major arc. 18. In Figure 18.6 CONCENTRIC CIRCLES Circles having the same centre but different radii are called concentric circles (See Fig. 18. Two arcs of a circle are congurent if and only if the angles subtended by them at the centre are equal. 18.5.7 CONGRUENT CIRCLES OR ARCS Fig.11) (i) Fig. 18. In Figure 18.11 (ii) (ii) Supeimpose the circle (i) on the circle (ii) so that O1 coincides with O2 (iii) We observe that circle (i) will cover circle (ii) if and only if r = s Two circles are congurent if and only if they have equal radii. if arc PAQ = arc RBS then PQ = RS and conversely if PQ = RS then Fig. 18.12 .

18.13 Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre and conversely if the angles subtended by the chords at the centre of a circle are equal. ∠AOB = 30° and ∠AOD = 70°. chord PQ = chord RS. the arc QR. Solution : Since arc AB = arc BC ∴ ∴ Since ∠AOB = ∠BOC (Equal arcs subtend equal angles at the centre) ∠BOC = 30° ∠COD = ∠COB + ∠BOA + ∠AOD = 30° + 30° + 70° = 130°.16 arc AB = arc BC. Activity for you : (i) Draw a circle with centre O (ii) Draw equal chords PQ and RS (See Fig. 18.14) (iii) Join OP. OQ.16 Fig. then the chords are equal. OR and OS (iv) Measure ∠POQ and ∠ROS we observe that ∠POQ = ∠ROS Conversely if ∠POQ = ∠ROS then PQ = RS Fig. Find ∠COD. 18. Show that chord PR = chord QS. yielding arc PQR = arc QRS ∴ chord PR = chord QS Example 18. 18.15. 18.1 : In Fig. Fig. Note : The above results also hold good in case of congruent circles. Two arcs of a circle are congurent if and only if their corresponding chords are equal.2 : In Figure 18.15 . Solution : The arcs corresponding to equal chords PQ and RS are equal.14 Fig. We take some examples using the above properties : Example 18. Add to each arc. 18.Circles 121 arc PAQ = arc RBS.

122

Mathematics

Activity for you : (i) Draw a circle with centre O (See Fig. 18.17). (ii) Draw a chord PQ. (iii) Draw ⊥ ON from O on the chord PQ. (iv) Measure PN and NQ You will observe that . PN = NQ. The perpendicular drawn from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. Activity for you : (i) Draw a circle with centre O (See Fig. 18.18). (ii) Draw a chord PQ. (iii) Find the mid point M of PQ. (iv) Join O and M. (v) Measure ∠OMP or ∠ OMQ with set square or protractor We observe that ∠OMP = ∠ OMQ = 90°.

Fig. 18.18 Fig. 18.17

The line joining the centre of a circle to the mid point of a chord is perpendicular to the chord. Activity for you : Take three non collinear points A, B and C. Join AB and BC. Draw perpendicular bisectors MN and RS of AB and BC respectively. Since A, B, C are not collinear, MN is not parallel to RS. They will intersect only at one point O. Join OA, OB and OC and measure them. We observe that OA = OB = OC

Fig. 18.19

Now taking O as the centre and OA as radius draw a circle which passes through A, B and C. Repeat the above procedure with another three non-collinear points and observe that there is only one circle passing through there given non-collinear points. This gives us a method to draw a circle passing through three non-collinear points. There is one and only one circle passing through three non-collinear points. Note. It is important to note that a circle can not be drawn to pass through three collinear points.

Circles

123

Activity for you : (i) Draw a circle with centre O [Fig. 18.20(a)]. (ii) Draw two equal chords AB and PQ of the circle. (iii) Draw OM ⊥ AB and ON ⊥ PQ. (iv) Measure OM and ON and observe that they are equal. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. In Fig. 18.20(b) OM = ON. Measure and observe that AB = PQ. Thus, Chords that are equidistant from the centre of a circle are equal. The above results hold good in case of congurent circles also. We now take a few examples using these properties of circles. Examples 18.3 : In Figure 18.21, O is the centre of the circle and ON ⊥ PQ. If PQ = 8 cm and ON = 3 cm, find OP. Solution : ON ⊥ PQ (given) and since perpendicular drawn from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. ∴ PN = NQ = 4 cm In a right triangle OPN, ∴ OP2 = PN2 + ON2 OP2 = 42 + 32 = 25 ∴ OP = 5 cm. Examples 18.4 : In Figure 18.22, OD is perpendicular to the chord AB of a circle whose centre is O and BC is a diameter. Prove that CA = 2OD. Solution : Since OD ⊥ AB (Given) ∴ D is the mid point of AB

Fig. 18.22 Fig. 18.20b Fig. 18.20a

Fig. 18.21

(Perpendicular through the centre bisects the chord) Also O is the mid point of CB (Since CB is a diameter) Now in ∆ABC, O and D are mid points of the two sides BC and BA of the triangle ABC. Since the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides of a triangle is parallel and half of the third side. ∴ i.e. OD = 1 CA 2 CA = 2OD.

124

Mathematics

Example.18.5 : A regular hexagon is inscribed in a circle. What angle does each side of the hexagon subtend at the centre ? Solution : A regular hexagon has six sides which are equal. Therefore each side subtends the same angle at the centre. Let us suppose that a side of the hexagon subtends an angle x° at the centre. Then, we have 6x° = 360° ⇒ x = 60

Fig. 18.23

Hence, each side of the hexagon subtends an angle of 60° at the centre. Example 18.6 : In Fig. 18.24, two parallel chords PQ and AB of a circle are of lengths 7 cm and 13 cm respectively. If the distance between PQ and AB is 3 cm, find the radius of the circle. Solution : Let O be the centre of the circle. Draw perpendicular bisector OL of PQ which also bisects AB at M. Join OQ and OB (Fig. 18.24). Let OM = x cm and radius of the circle be r cm Then ∴ OB2 = OM2 + MB2 and OQ2 = OL2 + LQ2 13 r2 = x 2 + 2 r2

Fig. 18.24

FH IK

2

...(i)

2

and

2 7 = x+3 + 2

b g FH IK

2

...(ii)

Therefore from (i) and (ii) , x 2 + 13 2 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴

FH IK = bx + 3g + FH 7 I 2K

2

2

6x = x= r2 = r=

169 − 9 − 49 4 4 7 2

FH 7 I + FH 13 I 2K 2K

2

2

=

49 + 169 = 218 4 4 4

218 2 218 cm. 2

Hence the radius of the circle is

Circles

125

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 18.1 In questions 1 to 5, fill in the blanks to make each of the statements true. 1. In Figure 18.25, (i) AB is a ... of the circle. (ii) Minor arc corresponding to AB is ... . 2. A ... is the longest chord of a circle.

Fig. 18.25

3. The ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle is always ... . 4. The value of π as 3.1416 was given by great Indian Mathematician ... . 5. Circles having the same centre are called ... circles. 6. Diameter of a circle is 30 cm. If the length of a chord is 20 cm, find the distance of the chord from the centre. 7. Find the circumference of a circle whose radius is (i) 7 cm (ii) 11 cm.

FH Take π = 22 I 7K

8. In the Figure 18.26, RS is a diameter which bisects the chords PQ and AB at the points M and N respectively. Is PQ || AB ? Give reasons.

Fig. 18.26

Fig. 18.27

9. In the Figures 18.27, a line l intersects the two concentric circles with centre O at points A, B, C and D. Is AB = CD ? Give reasons. LET US SUM UP

z z

The circumference of a circle of radius r is equal to 2 πr . Two arcs of a circle are congurent if and only if either the angles subtended by them at the centre are equal or their corresponding chords are equal. Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre and vice versa.

z

126

Mathematics

z z

Perpendicular drawn from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. The line joining the centre of a circle to the mid point of a chord is perpendicular to the chord. There is one and only one circle passing through three non-collinear points. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre and the converse. TERMINAL EXERCISE

z z

1. If the length of a chord of a circle is 16 cm and the distance of the chord from the centre is 6 cm, find the radius of the circle. 2. Two circles with centre O and O' (See Fig. 18.28) are congurent. Find the length of the arc CD.

Fig. 18.28

3. A regular pentagon is inscribed in a circle. Find the angle which each side of the pentagon subtend at the centre. 4. In Figure 18.29, AB = 8 cm and CD = 6 cm are two parallel chords of a circle with centre O. Find the distance between the chords.

Fig. 18.29

5. In Figure 18.30, arc PQ = arc QR. ∠POQ = 15° and ∠SOR = 110°. Find ∠SOP.

Fig. 18.30

Circles

127

6. In Figure 18.31, AB and CD are two equal chords of a circle with centre O. Is chord BD = chord CA ? Give reasons.

Fig. 18.31

7. If AB and CD are two equal chords of a circle with centre O (Fig. 18.32) and OM⊥ AB , ON⊥CD . Is OM = ON ? Give reasons.

Fig. 18.32

8. In Figure 18.33, AB = 14 cm and CD = 6 cm are two parallel chords of a circle with centre O. Find the distance between the chords AB and CD.

Fig. 18.33

9. In Figure 18.34, AB and CD are two chords of a circle with centre O, intersecting at a point P inside the circle.

Fig. 18.34

OM⊥CD , ON⊥AB and ∠OPM = ∠OPN

Is (i) OM = ON, (ii) AB = CD ? Give reasons.

128

Mathematics

10. C1 and C2 are concentric circles with centre O (See Fig 18.35), l is a line intersecting C1 at points P and Q and C2 at points A and B respectively. If ON⊥ l, is PA = BQ ? Give reasons.

Fig. 18.35

Circles

129

ANSWERS Check Your Progress 18.1 1. (i) Chord (ii) APB 2. Diameter 5. Concentric 8. Yes Terminal Exercise 18.2 1. 10 cm 4. 4 – 3 = 1 cm. 2. 2a cm 5. 80° 3. 72° 6. 5 5 cm. 9. Yes 3. Constant 4. Aryabhata–I

7. (i) 44 cm (ii) 69.14 cm.

6. Yes (Equal arcs have corresponding equal chords of a circle) 7. Yes (equal chords are equidistant from the centre of the circle) 8. 10 2 cm 9. (i) Yes (ii) Yes (∆OMP ≅ ∆ONP)

10. Yes (N is the middle point of chords PQ and AB).

130

Mathematics

19

Angles in a Circle and Cyclic Quadrilateral

19.1 INTRODUCTION You must have measured the angles between two straight lines, let us now study the angles made by arcs and chords in a circle and a cyclic quadrilateral. 19.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson, the learner will be able to :

z z z z z z

prove that angles in the same segment of a circle are equal cite examples of concyclic points define cyclic quadrilaterals prove that sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° use properties of a cyclic quadrilateral solve problems based on Theorems (proved) and solve other numerical problems based on verified properties.

**19.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
**

z z z

Angles of a triangle Arc, chord and circumference of a circle Quadrilateral and its types

19.4 ANGLES IN A CIRCLE Central Angle. The angle made at the centre of a circle by the radii at the end points of an arc (or a chord) is called the central angle or angle subtended by an arc (or chord) at the centre. In Figure 19.1, ∠POQ is the central angle made by arc PRQ.

Fig.19.1

The length of an arc is closely associated with the central angle subtended by the arc. Let us define the “degree measure” of an arc in terms of the central angle.

Angles in a Circle and Cyclic Quadrilateral

131

The degree measure of a minor arc of a circle is the measure of its corresponding central angle. In Figure 19.2, Degree measure of PQR = x° The degree measure of a semicircle in 180° and that of a major arc is 360° minus the degree measure of the corresponding minor arc. Relationship between length of an arc and its degree measure. Length of an arc = circumference × If the degree measure of an arc is 40° 40° = 2 πr then length of the arc PQR = 2 πr. 360° 9 Inscribed angle : The angle subtended by an arc (or chord) on any point on the remaining part of the circle is called an inscribed angle. In Figure 19.3, ∠PAQ is the angle inscribed by arc PRQ at point A of the remaining part of the circle or by the chord PQ at the point A. 19.5. SOME IMPORTANT PROPERTIES ACTIVITY FOR YOU : Draw a circle with centre O. Let PAQ be an arc and B any point on the circle. Measure the central angle POQ and an inscribed angle PBQ by the arc at remaining part of the circle. We observe that ∠POQ = 2∠PBQ Repeat this activity taking different circles and different arcs. We observe that The angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc is double the angle subtended by it on any point on the remaining part of the circle. Let O be the centre of a circle. Consider a semicircle PAQ and its inscribed angle PBQ ∴ 2 ∠PBQ = ∠POQ

Fig.19.5 Fig.19.4 Fig.19.2

degree measure of the arc 360°

Fig.19.3

132

Mathematics

(Since the angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle) But ∴ ∠POQ = 180° 2∠PBQ = 180° ∠PBQ = 90° Thus, we conclude the following : Angle in a semicircle is a right angle. Theorem : Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. Given : A circle with centre O and the angles ∠PRQ and ∠PSQ in the same segment formed by the chord PQ (or arc PAQ) To prove : ∠PRQ = ∠PSQ Construction : Join OP and OQ. Proof : As the angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle, therefore we have ∠POQ = 2 ∠PRQ and ∠POQ = 2∠PSQ 2∠PRQ = 2∠PSQ ∴ ∠PRQ = ∠PSQ We take some examples using the above results Example 19.1 : In Figure 19.7, O is the centre of the circle and ∠AOC = 120°. Find ∠ABC. Solution : It is obvious that ∠x is the central angle subtended by the arc APC and ∠ABC is the inscribed angle. ∴ But ∴ ∴ Solution : ∠x = 2∠ABC ∠x = 360° – 120° 2∠ABC = 240° ∠ABC = 120° ∠POQ = 2∠PAQ = 70° ...(i)

Fig.19.7

(Since PQ is a diameter of the circle)

...(i) ...(ii)

Fig.19.6

From (i) and (ii), we get

Example 19.2 : In Figure 19.8 O is the centre of the circle and ∠PAQ = 35°. Find ∠OPQ. (Angle at the centre is double the angle on the remaining part of the circle)

Angles in a Circle and Cyclic Quadrilateral

133

Since

OP = OQ

(Radii of the same circle) ...(ii)

∴ ∠OPQ = ∠OQP (Angles opposite to equal sides are equal) But ∴ ∴ ∠OPQ + ∠OQP + ∠POQ = 180° 2∠OPQ = 180° – 70° = 110° ∠OPQ = 55°.

Fig.19.8

Example 19.3 : In Figure 19.9, O is the centre of the circle and AD bisects ∠BAC. Find ∠BCD. Solution : Since BC is a diameter ∠BAC = 90° (Angle in the semicircle is a right angle) As AD bisects ∠BAC ∴ But ∴ ∠BAD = 45° ∠BCD = ∠BAD ∠BCD = 45°.

Fig.19.9

(Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal) Example 19.4 : In Figure 19.10, O is the centre of the circle, ∠POQ = 70° and PS⊥OQ . Find ∠MQS. Solution : 2∠PSQ = ∠POQ = 70° (Angle subtended at the centre of a circle is twice the angle subtended by it on the remaining part of the circle) ∴ ∠PSQ = 35° Fig.19.10 Since ∠MSQ + ∠SMQ + ∠MQS = 180° (Sum of the angles of a triangle) ∴ 35° + 90° + ∠MQS = 180° ∴ ∠MQS = 180° – 125° = 55°. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 19.1 1. In Figure 19.11, ADB is an arc of a circle with centre O, if ∠ACB = 35°, find ∠AOB.

Fig. 19.11

19. AOB is a diameter of a circle with centre O. passing through the points.134 Mathematics 2.14.6 CONCYCLIC POINTS Definition : Points which lie on a circle are called concyclic points. If ∠PTR = 35°. you can draw not only one but many circles passing through it as in Fig. Is ∠APB = ∠AQB = 90°? Give reasons. Find ∠ADB. In Figure 19. In Figure 19. 19. Fig.12 3. Let us now find certain conditions under which points are concyclic.15. 19. In Figure 19. 19. If you take a point P. 19. find ∠PSR.13 4.12. (Fig.15 Now take two points P and Q on a sheet of a paper. . O is the centre of a circle and ∠AOB = 60°.19. Fig.16). Fig.13. PQR is an arc of a circle with centre O. Fig. You can draw as many circles as you wish.14 19.

You will see that it is not always possible to draw a circle passing through four non-collinear points.18 (b) Note.16 Let us now take three points P. 4. . 19.17). Q and R which do not lie on the same straight line. In Fig 19.Angles in a Circle and Cyclic Quadrilateral 135 Fig.18 (a) and (b) points are noncyclic but concyclic in Fig 19.18(c). Given one or two points there are infinitely many circles passing through them. If the points P. Q and R are collinear then it is not possible to draw a circle passing through them. Three collinear points are not concyclic (or noncyclic). (a) (b) Fig.17 Further let us now take four points P. Three non-collinear points are always concyclic and there is only one circle passing through all of them. and S which do not lie on the same line. Thus we conclude 1. 2. Four non-collinear points may or may not be concyclic. 3. R. Fig. 19. Q. In this case you can draw only one circle passing through these three non-colinear points (Figure 19. 19.

If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is supplementary.19 shows a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS. We solve some examples using the above results.6. Show that it is a rectangle.1 CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL A quadrilateral is said to be a cyclic quadrilateral if there is a circle passing through all its four vertices.19 Adding ∠ABC on both the sides. Given : A cyclic quadrilateral ABCD To prove : ∠BAD + ∠BCD = ∠ABC + ∠ADC = 180° Construction : Draw AC and DB Proof : and ∴ ∠ACB = ∠ADB ∠BAC = ∠BDC [Angles in the same segment] ∠ACB + ∠BAC = ∠ADB + ∠BDC = ∠ADC Fig. So we conclude that quadrilateral PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral. then the quadrilateral is cyclic. Verification : Draw a quadrilateral PQRS Since in quadrilateral PQRS. Theorem.22 . 19.19. Solution : ∠A + ∠C = 180° (ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral) Since ∠A = ∠C [Opposite angles of a parallelogram] Fig. Fig. Converse of this theorem is also true.19.5 : ABCD is a cyclic parallelogram. we get ∠ACB + ∠BAC + ∠ABC = ∠ADC + ∠ABC But ∠ACB + ∠BAC + ∠ABC = 180° ∴ ∴ ∠ADC + ∠ABC = 180° ∠BAD + ∠BCD = 360° – (∠ADC + ∠ABC) = 180°.20 Fig. ∠P + ∠R = 180° and ∠S + ∠Q = 180° Fig. Q and R and observe that it also passes through the point S.19. For example. [Sum of the angles of a triangle] Hence proved.19.21 Therefore draw a circle passing through the point P. Sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180°. Example 19.136 Mathematics 19.

19. find ∠SRQ.7 : In Figure 19.19. Prove that its diagonals are also equal (See Figure 19.6 : A pair of opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal.24 ∠SRQ = 180° – ∠SPQ = 180° – 110° = 70° Example 19. (Sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180°) ∠SPQ + ∠SRQ = 180° ∴ Fig. Solution : ∠P + ∠R = 180° ∴ ∴ Similarly. Solution : Given Since ∴ ∴ or But ∠SQR = 80° ∠SQR = ∠SPR [Angles in the same segment] ∠SPR = 80° ∠SPQ = ∠SPR + ∠RPQ = 80° + 30°. arc AB + arc AD = arc CD + arc AD ∴ ⇒ ⇒ arc BAD = arc CDA Chord BD = Chord CA BD = CA Fig.19. find ∠P and ∠S.25 ∠Q + ∠S = 180° . ∠SPQ = 110°.Angles in a Circle and Cyclic Quadrilateral 137 or ∴ ∴ ∠A + ∠A = 180° 2∠A = 180° ∠A = 90° Thus ABCD is a rectangle.8 : PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral.23). Example 19. Solution : Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral and AB = CD. Fig. ⇒ arc AB = arc CD (Corresponding arcs) Adding arc AD to both the sides. PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral whose diagonals intersect at A. ∴ ∴ ∠P = 180° – ∠R = 180° – 65° ∠P = 115° ∠S = 180º – ∠Q = 180° – 65° ∠S = 115°. If ∠Q = ∠R = 65°.23 Example 19. If ∠SQR = 80° and ∠QPR = 30°.24.

ABCD is a quadrilateral. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral whose diagonals intersect at O.27 3.2 1. Fig. Fig. AB and CD are two equal chords of a circle with centre O. In Figure 19.26. find ∠COD.138 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 19. find ∠BDC. In Figure 19.28. find ∠ASR. In Figure 19. and the side PS is extended to the point A. 19. If ∠PQR = 80°. 19.27. If ∠AOB = 55°.26 2.28 4.29. 19. If ∠A = ∠BCE. In Figure 19. If ∠ACB = 50° and ∠ABC = 110°. Fig. is the quadrilateral a cyclic quadrilateral ? Give reasons.29 . PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral. 19. Fig.

If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is supplementary. What angle does each side subtend at the centre O ? 2. Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. A square PQRS is inscribed in a circle with centre O. If O1O2 intersect AB at M then show that (i) ∆O1AO2 ≅ ∆O1BO2 (ii) M is the mid point of AB (iii) AB⊥O1O 2 Fig. Sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180°. Angle in a semicircle is a right angle. The angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle. 19. Points lying on the same circle are called concyclic points. From (i) conclude that ∠1 = ∠2 and then prove that ∆AO1M ≅ ∆BO1M (by SAS rule)). .30 (Hint.Angles in a Circle and Cyclic Quadrilateral 139 LET US SUM UP z The angle subtended by an arc (or chord) at the centre of a circle is called central angle and an angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle is called inscribed angle. TERMINAL EXERCISES z z z z z z 1. C1 and C2 are two circles with centre O1 and O2 and intersect each other at points A and B. In Figure 19. then the quadrilateral is cyclic.30.

34 . In Figure 19. In Figure 19.33.34. ∠AOB = 80° and ∠PQB = 70°.32. Two circle intersect in A and B. Fig.31 [Hint. B and D are collinear. 19. AC and AD are the diameters of the circles. Join CB. AB is a chord of a circle with centre O. BD and AB. If ∠ACB = 40°. Find ∠PBQ. find ∠OAB. Fig. Find ∠POR. 19. In Figure 19. Since ∠ABC = 90° and ∠ABD = 90°] 4. Prove that C. Fig. O is the centre of a circle and ∠PQR = 115°. Fig.140 Mathematics 3. 19. O is the centre of a circle.32 5. 19.33 6.

2. 80° 3. Yes 3. 30° Check Your Progress 19. 35° 4. Yes . 20° 4. 70° 2. 90° 4. 130° 6. 55° Terminal Exercise 1. 70°. 50° 5.2 1.Angles in a Circle and Cyclic Quadrilateral 141 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 19.1 1.

Secants. the wheels of the moving cycle touch the road at a very limited area. What do you observe from the above situations ? Fig. 20.1 If you consider a wheel or a coin as a circle and the touching surface (road or table) as a line. the above illustrations show that a line touches a circle. If you roll a coin on a smooth surface. only one point of the coin comes in contact with the surface it is rolled upon. you will find that at any instant of time. You will observe that at any instant of time. say a table or floor. more correctly a point. Tangents and Properties 8.1 INTRODUCTION Look at a moving cycle. . Tangents and Properties 143 20 Secants. In this lesson. we shall study about the possible contacts that a line and a circle have and try to study their properties.

In other words. There can be three distinct possibilities as shown in Fig. whereas a line segment is a portion of a line bounded by two points. the line XY does not intersect the circle. 20.2.2 (ii). Fig. 20. 20. the line XY intersects the circle in only one point and is said to touch the circle at the point P. Recall that a circle is the locus of a point in a plane which moves in such a way that its distance from a fixed point in the plane always remains constant.2 (iii). 20.144 Mathematics 20. the line XY intersects the circle in two distinct points A and B.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z z Measurement of angles and line segments Drawing circles of given radii Drawing lines perpendicular and parallel to given lines Knowledge of previous results about lines and angles. You can see that in Fig. You also know that a line is a collection of points. The fixed point is called the centre of the circle and the constant distance is called the radius of the circle.4 SECANTS AND TANGENTS—AN INTRODUCTION You have read about lines and circles in your earlier lessons. with centre O. the learner will be able to : z z z define a secant and a tangent to the circle differentiate between a secant and a tangent verify and use important results (given in the curriculum) related to tangents and secants to circles. 20. extending indefinitely to both sides. 20. we say that the line XY and the circle have no common point.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson.2(i).2 Now consider the case when a line and a circle co-exist in the same plane. congruence and circles. 20. . and in Fig. Knowledge of Pythagoras Theorem. In Fig.

Secants. 20. We therefore define the following : Tangent A line which touches a circle at exactly one point is called a tangent line and the point where it touches the circle is called the point of contact. we can say that in case of intersection of a line and a circle.2 (ii). B'''. in Fig. R.2 (iii). the two points of intersection lie on the circle and the remaining portion lies in the exterior of the circle. S and T are points in the exterior of the circle and P is on the circle. R. we say that A tangent is the limiting position of a secant when the two points of intersection coincide. Thus. (iii) The line touches the circle in exactly one point. intersecting the circle in the points A and B. In that case. B''. Thus. i. when it becomes tangent to the circle at A. Join OP. Imagine that one point A.6 TANGENT AND RADIUS THROUGH THE POINT OF CONTACT Let XY be a tangent to the circle.e. (ii) The line intersects the circle at two distinct points.3 and ultimately attains the position of the line XAY. As Q. which lies on the circle. . 20. Take points Q. B'''' as shown in Fig. XY is a tangent to the circle at P. Secant A line which intersects the circle in two distinct points is called a secant line (usually referred to as a secant). a part of the line lies in the interior of the circle. S and T on the tangent XY and join OQ. the following three possibilities are there : (i) The line does not intersect the circle at all. of the secant XY is fixed and the secant rotates about A. Tangents and Properties 145 Thus. OS and OT. 20.3 20. In Fig. 20.. 20. Fig. the line lies in the exterior of the circle.5 TANGENT AS A LIMITING CASE OF A SECANT Consider the secant XY of the circle with centre O. which is called the point of contact. XY is a secant line to the circle and A and B are called the points of intersection of the line XY and the circle with centre O. intersecting the circle at B'. OR. with centre O. at the point P.

OR.5 If the point P lies on the circle. Consider two ∆s OPT and OPT′ ∠OTP = ∠OT'P OT = OT′ OP = OP (Each being a right angle) (Radii of the same circle) (Common) . 20. The above result can also be verified by measuring angles OPX and OPY and finding each of them equal to 90°.4 OP ⊥ XY Thus. can there still be two tangents to the circle from that point ? You can see that only one tangent can be drawn to the circle in that case. we can say that From an external point. Some of these are shown as PT. 20.. (A) Now. You will again find the same result. PA. Thus.. measure the lengths of PT and PT′. What about the case when P lies in the interior of the circle ? Note that any line through P in that case will intersect the circle in two points and hence no tangents can be drawn from an interior point to the circle. we know that of all the segments that can be drawn from a point (not on the line) to the line.7 TANGENTS FROM A POINT OUTSIDE THE CIRCLE Take any point P in the exterior of the circle with centre O. “previous study of Geometry. Draw lines through P. From our. PB.(i) . 20. OS and OT. How many of these touch the circle ? Only two. is perpendicular to the tangent at that point. Fig. two tangents can be drawn to a circle.5. PD and PT' in Fig. PC. the perpendicular segment is the shortest” : As OP is the shortest distance from O to the line XY ∴ Fig. we can state that A radius. You will find that PT = PT′ (B) Let us see this logically also.146 Mathematics ∴ OP is less than each of OQ.20. Repeat the activity with another point and a circle. through the point of contact of tangent to a circle.

Let us now take some examples to illustrate..8.6 Thus.8 . 20. we can say that The tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equally inclined to the line joining the point to the centre of the circle. Example 20.7.Secants. 20.(ii) From (A) and (B).. Find the length of the tangent PT from P to the circle. in Fig.6 as ∆OPT ≅ ∆OPT′ ∴ ∠OPT = ∠OPT′ Fig. Solution : ∠OTP = 90°. OP = 5 cm and radius of the circle is 3 cm. we have OP2 = OT2 + PT2 or or ∴ 52 = 32 + x2 x2 = 25 – 9 = 16 x=4 Fig. 20.e.7 i. Find the lengths of PT and PT′. Let PT = x ∴ In right triangle OTP. 20. tangents PT and PT′ are drawn from a point P at a distance of 25 cm from the centre of the circle whose radius is 7 cm. Solution : Here OP = 25 cm and OT = 7 cm We also know that ∠OTP = 90° ∴ ∴ PT2 = OP2 – OT2 = 625 – 49 = 576 = (24)2 PT = 24 cm PT = PT′ ∴ PT′ = 24 cm We also know that Fig. 20. the length of tangent PT = 4 cm Example 20. Tangents and Properties 147 ∴ ∴ ∆OPT ≅ ∆OPT′ PT = PT′ . Also. we can say that The lengths of two tangents from an external point are equal.2 : In Fig.1 : In Fig. with centre O. 20.

Find the perimeter of ∆ABC. 4 cm and 3.9. A. CQ = CR ∴ and AP = AR = 3 cm.5 cm. ∠AOB = 50°.5 cm CA = AR + CR = (3 + 3.4 : In Fig.5) cm = 21 cm Fig. B and C are three exterior points of the circle with centre O.5) cm ∴ ∴ = 6. . = (4 + 3. The tangents AP. BP = BQ.5 + 6. BP = BQ = 4 cm CR = CQ = 3. 20. = (3 + 4) cm = 7 cm BC = BQ + QC.5) cm = 7.5 cm Perimeter of ∆ABC = (7 + 7. BQ and CR are of lengths 3 cm.5 cm AB = AP + PB. 20. 20. Fig.148 Mathematics Example 20.10 (ii) The lengths of tangents from an external point to a circle are (iii) A tangent is the limiting position of a secant when the two . Solution : We know that the length of two tangents from an external point to a circle are equal ∴ AP = AR.3 : In Fig.9 Example 20.1 1. Fill in the blanks with suitable words : (i) A tangent is to the radius through the point of contact.10. coincide. Find ∠ABO and ∠OBT Solution : We know that OA ⊥ XY ⇒ ∴ ∠OAB = 90° ∠ABO = 180° – (∠OAB + ∠AOB) = 180° – (90° + 50°) = 40° We know that ⇒ ∴ ∠OBA = ∠OBT ∠OBT = 40° ∠ABO = ∠OBT = 40° CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 20. 20.

You will again find that PA × PB = PC × PD Let us now consider the case of chords intersecting outside the circle.Secants. If PX = 2. Draw two chords BA and DC intersecting each other outside the circle at P. Find the products PA × PB and PC × PD. Tangents and Properties 149 (iv) From an external point tangents can be drawn to a circle. 20. 20.11. We will now verify some results regarding chords intersecting inside a circle or outside a circle. Repeat the above activity with another two circles after drawing chords intersecting inside.12. the incircle of ∆PQR is drawn. PC and PD. Measure the lengths of line segments PA. RZ = 3.8 INTERSECTING CHORDS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE A CIRCLE. Let us perform the following activity : Draw a circle with centre O and any radius. 2.13 . Find the ∠OYP and ∠OYT. PB. 2012 4. 20. Fig.5 cm and perimeter of ∆PQR = 18 cm . In Fig. PC. circle. You have read various results about chords in the previous lesson.5 cm. Find the products PA × PB and PC × PD. 20. Fig. find the length of QY. 20. Draw two chords AB and CD intersecting at P inside the circle. 3. Measure the lengths of the line-segments PD. You will find that they are equal. In Fig. tangent(s) can be drawn to the (v) From a point in the interior of the circle. Write an experiment to show that the lengths of tangents from an external point to a circle are equal. PA and PB. Let us perform the following activity : Draw a circle of any radius and centre O. ∠POY = 40°. when produced.11 Fig.

20. From an external point P. Thus. What do you find ? You will find that PA × PB = PT2 Fig. 20. AB and CD are two chords of a circle intersecting at a point P inside the circle. You will again find the same result. we can say If PAB is a secant to a circle intersecting the circle at A and B.e. 20. 20.14 Repeat the above activity with two other circles. You will again find that PA × PB = PC × PD. 20.16 . Solution : It is given that PA = 3 cm. PB = 2 cm and PC = 1. If PA = 3 cm.16. Find the products PA × PB and PT × PT or PT2..5 cm. PB = 2 cm.8 INTERSECTING SECANTS AND TANGENTS OF A CIRCLE To see if there is some relation between the intersecting secant and tangent outside a circle.150 Mathematics You will see that the product PA × PB is equal to the product PC × PD. PC = 1. find the length of PD. Thus. then PA × PB = PT2 Let us illustrate these with the help of examples : Examples 20. Measure the length of the line-segments PA. i. we conduct the following activity: Draw a circle of any radius with centre O. PB and PT.5) × x Fig.5 : In Fig.15 Fig. then PA × PB = PC × PD.5 cm Let we know that ⇒ PD = x PA × PB = PC × PD 3 × 2 = (1. and PT is a tangent to the circle at T. draw a secant PAB and a tangent PT to the circle. we can say that If two chords AB and CD of a circle intersect at a point P (inside or outside the circle). PA × PB = PC × PD Repeat this activity with two other circles with chords intersecting outside the circle.

If PT = 8 cm and OP = 10 cm. Example 20.Secants. 20.18. PB = 6 cm. 20.20 Fig. 20. 20. 20..19. Let PC = x We know that or. if PA = 3 cm. If PA = 4 cm. find the length of PC. BA and DC are two chords of a circle intersecting each other at a point P outside the circle. 2.e. 20. find the radius of the circle. or ⇒ ∴ PA × PB = PC × PD 4 × 10 = (x + 3) x x2 + 3x – 40 = 0 (x + 8) (x – 5) = 0 x=5 PC = 5 cm Fig. 20. PD = 3 cm and PC = x + 5. PB = 10 cm. PA = 4 cm. CD = 3 cm. PAB is a secant to the circle from a point P outside the circle. Tangents and Properties 151 ⇒ x= 3× 2 3× 2 = =4 15 . Fig. CD = 3 cm. 1. Solution : Let x be the radius of the circle It is given that ∴ and OP = 10 cm PA = PO – OA = (10 – x) cm PB = OP + OB = (10 + x) cm PT = 8 cm We know that PA × PB = PT2 ∴ (10 – x) (10 + x) = 82 Fig.17 or 100 – x2 = 64 or x2 = 36 or x = 6 i. find the value of x. PB = x + 3. Solution : We are given that PA = 4 cm.19 Fig. Example 20. 20. PD = 4 cm.7 : In Fig. radius of the circle is 6 cm. In Fig.18 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 20. PAB passes through the centre of the circle and PT is a tangent.5 ∴ Length of the line-segment PD = 4 cm.6 : In Fig.17.2 1. PB = 10 cm. If in Fig.21 . find PC. using PA × PB = PT2. 20.19.

and draw a chord PQ and let it form ∠PRQ in alternate segment as shown in Fig.9 ANGLES MADE BY A TANGENT AND A CHORD. if PA = 4 cm. 20.20. Fig. Now measure ∠QPX and ∠QSP. with centre O. 20. You will again find that ∠QPY = ∠PRQ. OP = 8 cm. PA = 5 cm and PB = (x + 2) cm. Thus. Mark a point R on the major arc and let S be a point on the minor arc . Draw a circle.21. we can state that The angles formed in the alternate segments by a chord through the point of contact of a tangent to a circle is equal to the angle between the chord and the tangent. 20. Draw a chord PQ of the circle through the point P as shown in the Fig. 20. 20. draw ∠QPY = ∠QRP.22) What do you find ? You will see that ∠PRQ = ∠QPY Repeat this activity with another circle and same or different radius. if O is the centre of the circle. Let there be a circle with centre O and let XY be a tangent to the circle at point P. . The segment formed by the major arc and chord PQ is said to be the alternate segment of ∠QPY and the segment and chord PQ is said to be the formed by the minor alternate segment to ∠QPX. This result is more commonly called as “Angle in the Alternate Segment”.23 What do you observe ? You will find that ∠OPY = 90° showing thereby that XY is a tangent to the circle.152 Mathematics 3. In Fig. find the radius of the circle. PT = 2 7 cm. 20. Join QR and PR. Join OP and measure ∠OPY. PB = 10 cm. Let us now check the converse of the above result. 20. You will again find that these angles are equal. 5. find PD 4. Extend the line segment PY to both sides to form line XY. PC = 5 cm.22. At P. Measure ∠PRQ and ∠QPY (See Fig. PD = (x + 5) cm. Let us see if there is some relationship between angles in the alternate segments and the angle between tangents and chord.20. find x. In Fig. 20. 20. In Fig.23. if PC = 4 cm.22 Fig.

Solution : By the Alternate-segment theorem. 2. Let us now take some examples to illustrate. Example 20. If AOB is a diameter and ∠PAB = 40°. ∴ ∠BPY = 40° ∠APB = 90° Fig.9 : In Fig. we can state that If a line makes with a chord angles which are equal respectively to the angles formed by the chord in alternate segments. 20. XY is tangent to a circle with centre O. TA and TB are joined and TM is the angle bisector of ∠ATB. If ∠OQP = 40°. In Fig.26. PT is a tangent to the circle from an external point P. 3. Thus. find ∠APX and ∠BPY. Example 20.24.25 (Angle in the Alternate segment) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 20. 20. Chord AB of the circle. Show that XY is parallel to base BC.8 : In Fig. ∠BPY + ∠APB + ∠APX = 180° ∠APX = 180° – (∠BPY + ∠APB) = 180° – (40° + 90°) = 50°. 20. AB = AC ∴ ∠1 = ∠2 Again XY is tangent to the circle at A. ∴ ∠3 = ∠2 ∴ ∠1 = ∠3 But these are alternate angles ∴ XY || BC Fig. Explain with the help of a diagram. ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC and XY is a tangent to the circumcircle of ∆ABC. when produced meets TP in P. we know that ∠BPY = ∠BAP ∴ Again. Tangents and Properties 153 Repeat this activity by taking different circles and you find the same result. . 20. XY is a tangent to the circle with centre O at a point P. In Fig. then the line is a tangent to the circle.24 [Q ∠BAP = 40° (Given)] [Angle in a semi-circle] (Angles on a line) And.25. 20.3 1.Secants. find the value of a and b. 20. the angle formed by a chord in the alternate segment of a circle.27. Solution : In ∆ABC.

26 If ∠PAB = 30° and ∠ATB = 60°. 20. 2.27 A line which intersects the circle in two points is called a secant of the circle. A tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact. then PA × PB = PT2 z The angles formed in the alternate segments by a chord through the point of contact of a tangent to a circle are equal to the angles between the chord and the tangent. 20. A tangent is the limiting position of a secant when the two points of intersection coincide. Show that a tangent is a line perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.154 Mathematics Fig. A line which touches the circle at a point is called a tangent to the circle. and PT is a tangent to the circle at T. TERMINAL EXERCISE z 1. LET US SUM UP z z z z z z Fig. . If a line makes with a chord angles which are respectively equal to the angles formed by the chord in alternate segments. with the help of an activity. show that PM = PT. Differentiate between a secant and a tangent to a circle with the help of a figure. then the line is a tangent to the circle. then PA × PB = PC × PD z If PAB is a secant to a circle intersecting the circle at A and B. which are of equal length. From an external point. If two chords AB and CD of a circle intersect at a point P (inside or outside the circle). two tangents can be drawn to a circle.

PB = (x – 3) cm. In Fig. If PA = 4 cm and PB = 9 cm.30 7. AB and CD are two chords of a circle intersecting at the interior point P of a circle. 20. 20. Fig. if AC = BC and AB is a diameter of the circle. find ∠x. find the length of PT. Tangents and Properties 155 3. In Fig.32.28 4. 20. the perimeter of ∆ABC equals 27 cm. Fig. In Fig. 3 Fig. find the value of x. In Fig. 20. Fig. 6.Secants. 20. ∠y and ∠z. 20. chords BA and DC of the circle. QB = 5 cm. [Hint : ∠OBC + ∠OCB = 1 (∠ABC + ∠ACB)] 2 Fig. OT = 7 cm and OP = 25 cm.30.31 8. If PT’ is another tangent to the circle.30.29. intersect at a point P outside the circle. If PA = (x + 3) cm.28. In Fig.29 5. find x. 20. If PA = 4 cm. if ∠BAC = 70°. 20. 20. find PT′ and ∠POT′.31. with centre O. PC = x and PD = 4x. find the length of QC. PD = 3 cm and PC = 5 1 cm. 20.32 . 20. find ∠BOC. In Fig.

20. PAB is a secant and PT is a tangent to the circle from an external point. In Fig.156 Mathematics 9. O is the centre of the circle and ∠PBQ = 40°. 20.33. In Fig. Find (i) ∠QPY (ii) ∠POQ (iii) ∠OPQ Fig. 20.34. 20. If PT = x cm.33 10. find x. Fig.34 . PA = 4 cm and AB = 5 cm.

Secants. 50º. x = 5 9. 8 cm 5. ∠a = ∠b = 50° Terminal Exercise 3. Tangents and Properties 157 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 20. 4. 6. 3 cm 4. PT′ = 24 cm. ∠BOC = 125° 8. ∠x = ∠y = ∠z = 45° 4.5 cm 3. 6 cm Check Your Progress 20. QC = 4. (i) 40° (ii) 80° (iii) 50°. 3 cm Check Your Progress 20. 10 cm (ii) equal (iii) points of intersection (iv) two (v) no . x = 6 10. ∠POT′ = 60° 5. PT = 24 cm. x = 3 2.1 1. 50° 3. (i) Perpendicular 2.5 7.2 1.3 2.

z Construct rectilinear figures such as parallelograms.1 INTRODUCTION One of the aims of the studying Geometry is to acquire the skill of drawing figures accurately. Construct a quadrilateral from the given data (i) four sides and a diagonal (ii) three sides and both diagonals (iii) two adjacent sides and three angles z . the learner will be able to : z z divide a given line segment internally in a given ratio.Constructions 157 21 Constructions 21. You have constructed angles of 30°. squares. 120° and 45°. You have also drawn perpendicular bisector of a line segment and bisector of an angle. rhombuses and trapeziums. Construct a triangle from the given data (i) SSS (ii) SAS (iii) ASA (iv) RHS (v) perimeter and base angles (vi) base. 21. 60°. In this lesson we will extend our learning to construct some other important geometrical figures. sum/difference of the other two sides and one base angle. 90°. You have learnt how to construct geometrical figures namely triangles. rectangles.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. squares and circles with the help of ruler and compasses. (vii) two sides and a median corresponding to one of these sides.

C4 and C5 at equal distances from the point A.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE We assume that the learner already knows how to use a pair of compasses and ruler to construct z z z z z angles of 30°. z z Construct a triangle equal in area to a given quadrilateral. the right bisector of a line segment bisector of a given angle. mark off 5 points C1. 90°. We go through the following steps. Construct tangents to a circle from a point (i) outside it (ii) on it using the centre of the circle Construct circumcircle of a triangle Construct incircle of a triangle. parallelograms. C3. C2. Step 2 : Starting with A. 21. and squares a circle 21. rectangles.e. Step 3 : Join C5 and B. rhombuses.4 DIVISION OF A LINE SEGMENT IN THE GIVEN RATIO INTERNALLY Construction 1 : To divide a line segment internally in a given ratio. Fig. the second point). z z 21. 21. You are required to divide it internally in the ratio 2 : 3. 45°. 105°. Step 4 : Through C2 (i. 120°. Step 1 : Draw a ray AC making an acute angle with AB.1 . 60°.1 Then D is the required point which divides AB internally in the ratio 2 : 3 as shown in Fig. draw C2D parallel to C5B meeting AB in D. Given a line segment AB.158 Mathematics (iv) three sides and two included angles (v) four sides and an angle.

Then ∆ABC is the required triangle. Draw a line segment PQ = 8 cm. To construct a triangle when two angles and the included side are given (ASA). Step 3 : With B as centre and radius 5 cm draw another arc intersecting the arc of Step 2 at C.6 cm Step 2 : At Q.5 cm as the base instead of PQ] Construction 4. 21. ∠C = 45° and BC = 4. Step 4 : Join AC and BC. AC = 4.5 cm and ∠PQR = 60° For constructing the triangle.3 Fig. 21. 4 . draw an arc.2 3 PQ .5 CONSTRUCTION OF TRIANGLES Construction 2 : To construct a triangle when three sides are given (SSS) Suppose you are required to construct ∆ABC in which AB = 6 cm.6 cm. Measure each part.Constructions 159 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. Let us construct a ∆ABC in which ∠B = 60°. we go through the following steps. Step 1 : Draw PQ = 5. Fig. Divide it internally in the ratio 3 : 4.5 cm draw an arc cutting QX at R.8 cm. QR = 4. 2. Step 4 : Join PR Then ∆PQR is the required triangle. [Note : You may take QR = 4.8 cm and BC = 5 cm. [Note : You may take BC or AC as the base] Construction 3 : To construct a triangle.1 1. 21. construct an angle ∠PQX = 60° Step 3 : With Q as centre and radius 4. Also write the steps of construction.7 cm. Draw a line segment 7 cm long. We go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw AB = 6 cm. Find the point R on it such that PR = [Hint : Divide the line segment PQ internally in the ratio 3 : 1]. when two sides and the included angle is given (SAS) Suppose you are required to construct a triangle PQR in which PQ = 5. Step 2 : With A as centre and radius 4.

4 Construction 5 : To construct a right triangle. we go through the following steps. 21.5 Fig. Step 2 : At B. 21. Note : To construct a triangle when two angles and any side (other than the included side) are given. Step 1 : Draw XY= 9. construct ∠BCR = 45° meeting BQ at A. To construct the triangle.7 cm. Construction 6 : To construct a triangle when its perimeter and two base angles are given.5 cm Fig. side BC = 3 cm and hypotenuse AC = 5 cm. when its hypotenuse and a side are given. construct ∠CBP = 90°. Step 1 : Draw BC = 3 cm Step 2 : At B. Fig. Step 3 : With C as centre and radius 5 cm draw an arc cutting BP in A. Then ∆ABC is the required triangle. 21. Step 4 : Join AC ∆ABC is the required triangle. construct ∠CBQ = 60° Step 3 : At C.6 . right angled at B.160 Mathematics To construct the triangle we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw BC = 4. we find the third angle (using angle sum property of the triangle) and then use above method for constructing the triangle. Suppose we have to construct a triangle whose perimeter is 9.5 cm and base angle are 60° and 45°. we go through the following steps. Let us construct a right triangle ABC. To construct triangle.

Step 6 : Join AB and AC. construct ∠CBK = 45°. When AB + AC = 8. Fig. Step 5 : Draw right bisector of YA intersecting XY at C.2 cm. 21. ∆ABC is the required triangle. Suppose you are required to construct a triangle ABC. Step 4 : Join CP. Step 5 : Draw right bisector of CP intersecting BP at A. Construction 7 : To construct a triangle when sum of two sides. third side and one of the angles on the third side are given. Step 2 : At B. .2 cm. cut off BP = 8. BC = 3. To construct the triangle. Step 6 : Join AC ∆ABC is required triangle.6 cm and ∠B = 45°.6 cm.7 Step 3 : From BK.Constructions 161 Step 2 : At X. construct ∠YXP = 30° [Which is 1/2 × 60°] Step 3 : At Y. construct ∠XYQ = 22½° [Which is 1/2 × 45°] Let XP and YQ intersect at A Step 4 : Draw right bisector of XA intersecting XY at B. we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw BC = 3.

9 . Step 5 : Join AC and BC. Step 1 : Draw AB= 6 cm. Note : You are also required to write the steps of construction in each of the remaining problems. Fig. Write the steps of construction as well. Step 6 : Join AC ∆ABC is the required triangle. Suppose you have to construct a ∆ABC in which AB = 6 cm.2 cm. 21.5 cm draw an arc.2 1. Step 2 : Draw right bisector of AB meeting AB in D. Fig. the third side and one of the angles on the third side are given. We go through the following steps.8 Construction 9 : To construct a triangle when its two sides and a median corresponding to one of these sides.162 Mathematics Construction 8 : To construct a triangle when difference of two sides. Step 4 : With B as centre and radius 4 cm draw another arc intersecting the arc of Step 3 in C. Step 4 : Join CK Step 5 : Draw right bisector of CK meeting BP produced at A. Construct a ∆PQR. ∠P = 120° and PQ = 5. Step 3 : With D as centre and radius 3.1 cm. 21. Construct a ∆DEF. Step 3 : From BP cut off BK = 1. EF = 4 cm and DF = 5.5 cm. Then ∆ABC is the required triangle. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. in which BC = 4 cm ∠B = 60°. given that PR = 6.2 cm. Step 2 : Construct ∠CBP = 60°. AB – AC = 1. given that DE = 5. Suppose we have to construct a ∆ABC. 2. To construct the triangle we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw BC = 4 cm. BC = 4 cm and median CD = 3.2 cm.6 cm. are given.5 cm.

8 cm.8 cm. QR = 4. Construct a ∆ABC given that AB + BC + AC = 10 cm. Construct a ∆ABC given that BC = 5. 6. Step 5. 8. Construct a ∆LMN. ∠B = 60°. 5.0 cm. ∠B = 75° and ∠C = 45°. Construct a triangle PQR in which PQ = 5 cm. Step 3 : From AK cut off AD = 3 cm. BC + AC = 9. Construct a ∆ABC in which AB = 5 cm. 4. Join CD and BC. To construct the required parallelogram we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw AB = 4 cm Step 2 : At A. Fig.2 cm and median RS = 3. when ∠M = 30°. To construct the rectangle we go through the following steps. Recall that in a rectangle. 7.6 CONSTRUCTION OF RECTILINEAR FIGURES You are advised to draw rough sketch for the given data in each of the following constructions. construct ∠BAK = 60°. each angle is 90° and opposite sides are equal. Suppose that you have to construct a rectangle ABCD in which AB = 4 cm and AC = 5.Constructions 163 3.5 cm. 9. that it helps you to visualise/understand the steps of construction. Construction 10 : To construct a parallelogram when two adjacent sides and the included angle are given. 21. Construction 11 : To construct a rectangle when one of its diagonal and a side are given.5 cm. ∠A = 60°. Step 4 : With B and D as centres and radii equal to 3 cm and 4 cm respectively draw two arcs cutting each other at C. MN = 5 cm and LM – LN = 1. Then ABCD is the required parallelogram. Construct a right angled isosceles triangle in which one of equal side is 4. You will observe. Suppose that you have to construct a parallelogram in which the adjacent sides are 4 cm and 3 cm and included angle is 60°. ∠C = 30°. Construct a right triangle in which one side is 3 cm and hypotenuse is 7. 21.5 cm. Step 1 : Draw AB = 4 cm.10 .8 cm.

Step 3 : Construct ∠COP = 60° and produce PO to Q. Step 5 : Join AB. Step 5 : Join PS and RS. We have to follow the following steps to construct the square : Step 1 : Draw PQ = 4. draw two arcs of radii 4.13 . Step 3 : With A as centre and radius 5 cm. draw ∠ABK = 90°. Recall that diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw AC = 8 cm. draw an arc cutting the arc drawn in Step 4 at D. Step 3 : From QT cut off QR = 4. Step 2 : Draw right bisector of AC meeting it at O. draw an arc cutting BK at C. draw an arc.4 cm each to cut each other at S. Step 6 : Join DC and AD ABCD is the required rectangle. 21. Fig. To construct the parallelogram. Fig. AD and CD. Step 4 : Cut off OB = OD = 3 cm (1/2 × 6. Step 2 : Construct ∠PQT = 90° at Q.164 Mathematics Step 2 : At B. PQRS is the required square. Suppose you have to construct a square PQRS in which PQ = 4. BC.4 cm.11 Construction 13 : To construct a parallelogram when two diagonals and the angle between them is given. 21. Suppose that the lengths of two diagonals are 8 cm and 6 cm and the angle between them is 60°. Step 4 : With C as centre and radius 4 cm. Step 5 : With A as centre and radius = BC. length of second diagonal) from OP and OQ.4 cm. 21. ABCD is the required parallelogram.4 cm.12 Fig. Step 4 : From P and R. Construction 12 : To construct a square when its side is given.

when one of its diagonal is 5. Step 3 : From AP cut off AK = 3 cm. draw AP ⊥ AB. 21. BC. Step 5 : With A and B as centres and radii 4 cm and 5 cm respectively draw two arcs cutting KL at D and C respectively.Constructions 165 Construction 14 : To construct a rhombus when one diagonal and side are given. Note : You are also required to write the steps of construction in each of the following problems. Step 2 : At A.5 cm and 4 cm and the included angle is 75°. To construct the rhombus.3 cm draw two arcs one above AC and the other below AC intersecting the arcs of Step 2 in B and D respectively. Suppose you have to draw a trapezium in which one of parallel sides is 6 cm. To construct the trapezium we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw AB = 6 cm. Step 3 : With C as centre and radius 3.13 Construction 15 : To construct a trapezium in which one of parallel sides. Construct a parallelogram if the lengths of its adjacent sides are 5. ABCD is the required rhombus.15 . Step 6 : Join AD and BC. Then ABCD is the required trapezium.3 1. Fig.5 cm and the side is 3. Step 4 : Join AB. you have to construct a rhombus. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. two non-parallel sides and the distance between parallel sides are given.5 cm. CD and AD. Write steps of construction as well.3 cm. Step 2 : With A as centre and radius 3. we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw AC = 5. draw KL ⊥ AK. 21. two non-parallel sides are of length 4 cm and 5 cm and distance between parallel sides is 3 cm. Suppose. Step 4 : At K. draw two arcs one above AC and the other below AC. Fig.3 cm.

AD = 3cm. 5. Construct a trapezium one of whose parallel side is 7 cm. AD = 3. Construct a parallelogram if its sides are 4 cm and 6 cm and one of its diagonal is 7 cm. Step 3 : With B as centre and radius 5 cm draw another arc intersecting the arc of Step 2 in D. we go through the following steps. Step 4 : Join AD and BD. 3.1 cm.16 Step 5 : With B and D as centres and radii 3. We go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw AB = 3 cm.5 cm. 21.8 cm draw an arc. non-parallel sides are 4. Construction 17 : To construct a quadrilateral when three sides and both diagonals are given. To construct the required quadrilateral. Construct a rectangle whose sides are 4.5 cm.2 cm and 3.3 cm and the distance between the parallel sides is 3.7 cm. Construction 16 : To construct a quadrilateral when four sides and one diagonal are given.1 cm. Step 1 : Draw AB = 3. CD = 4. Construct a square whose side measures 5. 6.7 CONSTRUCTION OF QUADRILATERALS You are advised to draw rough sketch from the given data in each of the following constructions. AC = 4.6 cm. ABCD is the required quadrilateral.6 cm.4 cm. Construct a parallelogram if its diagonals are 8 cm and 5 cm and the angle between them is 45°.8 cm and BD = 5 cm.2 cm and 5.166 Mathematics 2. BC = 3. 21. 8. draw two arcs intersecting each other at C. Suppose you are required to construct a quadrilateral ABCD when AB = 3. Step 2 : With A as centre and radius 3.5 cm and 4. 7. Step 6 : Join BC and DC. 4.1 cm respectively. You will observe that it helps you to visualize/understand the steps of construction. Fig.8 cm and diagonal BD = 5 cm. Construct a rhombus whose side is 5 cm and one diagonal is 8 cm. . Suppose you have to construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 3 cm. BC = 2. Construct a rhombus whose diagonals measure 5 cm and 4 cm.

we go through the following steps Step 1 : Draw QR = 4 cm. To construct a quadrilateral when two adjacent sides and three angles are given. ABCD is the required quadrilateral. construct ∠RQK = 120° and construct ∠QRL = 90° Step 3 : From QK.7 cm and 4. Construction 19 : To construct a quadrilateral when three sides and two included angles are given. RS = 6 cm.2 cm from BQ Step 5 : At C. Step 4 : With B and A as centres and radii 2. Step 2 : At Q and R. 21. QR = 4 cm. Construction 18.8 cm draw two arcs intersecting each other at C. cut off QP = 3 cm Fig.17 . 21. Step 3 : Construct ∠ABQ = 60° Step 4 : Cut off BC = 4. Join DC and BC.2 cm.18 Fig. ABCD is the required quadrilateral. ∠Q = 120° and ∠R = 90°. Suppose you have to construct a quadrilateral PQRS in which PQ = 3 cm.Constructions 167 Step 2 : With A and B as centres and radii 3 cm and 5 cm respectively draw two arcs intersecting each other at D. ∠C = 90° and ∠A = 75°. ∠B = 60°. 21. Step 3 : Join AD. BC = 4. Step 1 : Draw AB = 5 cm Step 2 : Construct ∠BAP = 75°. Suppose you have to construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 5 cm.19 Fig. To construct the quadrilateral. construct ∠BCR = 90° cutting AP at D. Step 5.

CD = 5 cm.5 cm.5 cm Step 2 : At A. CD = 5. 6. 2. BC = 6.5 cm.8 cm. AD = 5 cm. draw two arcs cutting each other at C. Then PQRS is the required quadrilateral.6 cm.4 1. Construction 20 : To construct a quadrilateral when four sides and an angle are given.8 cm. RS = 6 cm. Construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = BC = CD = 4 cm. BC = 3. Also write the steps of construction.2 cm and ∠B = 45°. CD = 4 cm. Note : You are also required to write the steps of construction in each of the following problems. Suppose that you have to construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 5. PR = 7 cm and the diagonal PR makes an angle of 30° with PQ. Construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 6 cm. DA = 6.8 CONSTRUCTION OF A TRIANGLE EQUAL IN AREA TO A GIVEN QUADRILATERAL Construction 21 : To construct a triangle equal in area to a given quadrilateral. AC = 6 cm and BD = 7 cm.2 cm.20 . ∠Q = 120° and ∠R = 60° 5. ∠B = 120° and ∠C = 90°. Step 5 : Join BC and DC ABCD is the required quadrilateral.5 cm. we go through the following steps. PS = 6.5 cm and 4 cm respectively. Step 4 : With B and D as centres and radii 3.5 cm and AC = 7. cut off RS = 6 cm Step 5 : Join PS. To construct the quadrilateral ABCD. 3. Construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 4 cm. ∠A = 45°. Suppose quad. Construct a quadrilateral PQRS in which PQ = QR = 5 cm. construct ∠BAK = 45° Step 3 : Cut off AD = 5 cm from AK. Construct a quadrilateral PQRS in which PQ = 5 cm. RS = 6 cm. BC =3. 21. 21. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21.2 cm.168 Mathematics Step 4 : From RL. Construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 4 cm. and ∠A = 45°. Step 1 : Draw AB = 5. ABCD is given Fig. 4. BC = 5. AD = 5.

21 Step 3 : Join AE.5 cm respectively draw two arcs intersecting each other at D. DA = 4. in which AB = 3 cm. Then ∆ABE is the required triangle.6 cm. 21. Step 2 : Construct ∠ABK = 135° and cut off BC = 4. Step 6 : Through C draw CL || DB meeting AB produced in E.2 cm from BK. We go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw AB = 3 cm. ABCD is the quadrilateral.5 cm and ∠B = 135° and then to construct a triangle equal in area to this quadrilateral.22 . Step 3 : With C and A as centres and radii 3. Step 7 : Join DE Then ∆DAE is the required triangle. BC = 4. 21.2 cm. For that we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Join AC. Step 4 : Join AD and CD. Fig.Constructions 169 We have to construct a triangle equal in area to the quadrilateral ABCD. Step 5 : Join DB. CD = 3. Construction 22 : To construct a quadrilateral and to construct a triangle equal in area to this quadrilateral. Suppose you have to construct a quadrilateral ABCD.6 cm and 4. Step 2 : Through D. draw a line segment DE || AC intersecting BC produced at E. Fig.

Take a point A on the circle. Also write steps of construction. We go through the following steps. From a point P outside the circle. You have to draw a tangent to the circle. Let R be mid point of OA. DA = 3 cm and AC = 6 cm. Draw a circle of 3 cm radius. 21. draw two tangents PQ and PR to the circle. For that. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21.5 cm. Step 3 : With R as centre and radius equal to RO. draw PT ⊥ OP. draw a circle intersecting the given circle at P and Q. 3. Then AP and AQ are the required tangents. draw a tangent to the circle by using the centre of the circle. Also write the steps of construction.6 1. Draw a quadrilateral PQRS and construct a triangle equal in area to this quadrilateral. Construct a triangle equal in area to this quadrilateral. Step 2 : At P. AB = 4 cm. 21. 2. Suppose C be the given circle with centre O and a point P on it.9 CONSTRUCTION OF TANGENTS TO A CIRCLE Construction 23 : To draw a tangent to a given circle at a given point on it using the centre of the circle. Draw a circle of radius 2. 21.24 .2 cm. Step 3 : Produce TP to Q. Also write steps of construction. equal in area to the rectangle on AB as base.170 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. Then TPQ is the required tangent.5 cm. Suppose C be the given circle and a point A outside it. Construct a rectangle ABCD in which AB = 5 cm and BC = 3.5 cm. Construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which. Note : You are required to write the steps of construction in each of the following problems. 2. Construct a triangle. we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Join OA. At A. CD = 4. Fig. BC = 3. You have to draw tangents to the circle from the point A. Step 1 : Join OP. Verify that lengths of PQ and PR are equal. Step 2 : Draw the right bisector of OA.5 1. Step 4 : Join AP and AQ. Fig.23 Construction 24 : To draw tangents to a circle from a given point outside it.

Construction 26 : Construct a triangle with sides 4 cm.10. Construction 27 : To construct incircle of a triangle. You have to draw a circumcircle of this triangle. Step 5 : Join OB. We go through the following steps Step 1 : Draw BC = 3. 21. Suppose a ∆ABC is given. Step 3 : Join O with any one vertex say B. BC = 3. We go through the following steps. 21.26 .Constructions 171 21. 5 cm and 6 cm. Step 4 : With O as centre and radius OB. ABC is the required triangle. Step 6 : With O as centre and radius OB. Step 3 : Join AB and AC. Step 4 : Draw right bisectors of AB and BC which meet each other at O. draw a circle. This is the required circumcircle.25 Fig. CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMCIRCLE AND INCIRCLE OF A TRIANGLE. 21.5 cm and ∠B = 60° and draw its incircle. Construction 25 : To construct circumcircle of a triangle. we go through the following steps. This is the required circumcircle. Step 2 : With B and C as centres and radii 4 and 6 cm respectively draw two arcs intersecting each other at A. Step 2 : Draw right bisectors of any two sides ray BC and AC which meet each other at O. cut off BA = 4 cm Fig. Step 1 : BC = 5 cm. Step 1 : Draw the given ∆ABC. draw a circle.27 Fig. Suppose you have to construct a triangle ABC with AB = 4 cm. Draw a circumcircle of this triangle.5 cm Step 2 : Draw ∠CBM = 60° Step 3 : From BM. To construct it.

172 Mathematics Step 4 : Join AC ABC is the required triangle. draw a circle. Construct a ∆ABC in which BC = 3. Construct a square with one side 4. 5. Construct a ∆ABC in which AB = 4 cm. Construct a rectangle with sides 8 cm and 6 cm.7 1. Step 5 : Draw bisectors of ∠B and ∠C meeting each other at I. Measure the length of its two diagonals. Construct a parallelogram having its diagonals as 5 cm and 6 cm and angle between them is 45°. Construct a right angled triangle whose hypotenuse is 8 cm and one if its other two sides is 5. TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. 2. Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm. 4. 9. Construct a triangle with base 4 cm and base angles 60° and 75° and draw its incircle. Measure AC and CB. Also write the steps of construction. and radius = ID. Step 6 : From I. 7. ∠A = 45° and AC – BC = 1 cm. . 6. 2.5 cm. draw IK perpendicular to BC meeting BC in D. 3. Step 7 : With I as centre. Construct a ∆ABC with AB = 5 cm. Measure its diagonals.5 cm. 4. AB + AC = 8 cm and ∠B = 60°. 8. Construct a triangle with perimeter 14 cm and base angle 60° and 90°. Also write steps of construction. Note : You are required to write the steps of construction in each of the following problems. This is the required incircle. Divide it internally in the ratio 3 : 5. ∠B = 75° and draw its circumcircle. Construct an equilateral triangle of side 5 cm and draw its incircle. Draw a line segment PQ = 8 cm long. 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 21. Find a point C on AB such that AC : CB = 3 : 2. Construct an isosceles ∆ABC with base BC = 4 cm and one of the equal sides AB = 3 cm and draw its circumcircle. Note : You are also required to write the steps of construction in each of the following problems.2 cm. BC = 4.5 cm.

Construct a right angled triangle with base 4 cm and hypotenuse 6 cm and draw its incircle. 12. From a point P outside the circle. BC = 5 cm. ∠B = 60° and AB || CD. Construct a trapezium ABCD in which AB = 8 cm. CD = 4. CD = 4 cm. 17. 15. . 11. Construct a square if its diagonal is 7 cm.5 cm and distance between parallel sides as 2.Constructions 173 10.5 cm. Draw a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 4 cm.5 cm. 16. Construct a rhombus when the diagonals are 9 cm and 7 cm. Construct a trapezium with one of parallel sides as 6 cm.5 cm and draw it circumcircle. [Hint : ∠C = 180° – 60° = 120°] 14. BC = 4.5 cm. DA = 5 cm and AC = 7 cm. Construct triangle with sides 4 cm. Construct a triangle equal in area to this quadrilateral. 13. Draw a circle of diameter 6 cm. two non-parallel sides as 4 cm and 4. 3 cm and 5. draw two tangents to the circle.

or of two numbers. 22. one of which refers to a vertical division of the map into columns. 4 3 2 1 A B C (i) D E F 3 2 1 1 2 3 (ii) Fig. and the other to a horizontal division into rows.1 4 5 6 . But the task can be made easier by dividing it into squares of managable size.1 INTRODUCTION The problem of locating a village or a road on a large map can involve a good deal of searching. Each square is identified by a combination of a letter and a number.174 Mathematics 22 Co-ordinate Geometry 22.

distance between two points in a plane.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z Idea of number line Fundamental operations on numbers. 22. 22. The point O.r.1(ii))]. section formula and co-ordinates of the centroid of a triangle.2)or (4.e.e. called the Cartesian co-ordinates of a point. 22. In this lesson. roughly we can indicate its location inside the shaded square on the map.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. Similarly. Properties of a right triangle..1(i). we can identify the shaded square on the map by the coding.. we will learn more about cartesian co-ordinates of a point. at right angles to each other at O (See Fig. The method of finding the position of a point in a plane very precisely was introduced by the French Mathematician and Philosopher. The horizontal number line XOX′ is called x-axis and the vertical number line YOY′ is called y-axis.4 CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM Recall that you have learnt to draw the graph of a linear equation in two variable in Lesson 6. solve problems based on the above concepts. the portion of y-axis above the origin O. 22. In this. Rene Descates (1596–1650).Co-ordinate Geometry 175 In the above Fig. 22. find the co-ordinates of the centroid of a triangle with given vertices. a point in the plane is represented by an ordered pair of numbers. the learner will be able to : z z z fix the position of different points in a plane. find the distance between two different points whose co-ordinates are given. It may be noted that. find the co-ordinates of a point.t to its distances from two axes of a reference. . the positive direction of x-axis is taken to the right of the origin O. If we know the coding of a particular city. where both axes intersect each other called the origin. The two axes together are called rectangular coordinate system. 2) [See Fig. in a given ratio internally.e. OX and the negative direction is taken to the left of the origin O. the side OY′ is taken as negative. which divides the line segment joining two points. i. (B.. i. the side OY is taken as positive and the portion below the origin O. The position of a point in a plane is fixed w. find the co-ordinates of the mid-point of the join of two points. the side OX′.2). The pair of numbers used for coding is called ordered pair. which are usually drawn by the two graduated number lines XOX′ and YOY′. z z z 22. i. But still we do not know its precise location.

2 22. 2) and (–2. Fig.e. (x co-ordinate. the co-ordinates of the points A and B are (3. the y-coordinate (or ordinate) indicates the distance from the x-axis.3. –4) respectively.176 Mathematics Fig. called co-ordinates which refer to the distances of the point from these two axes. 2) from the y-axis is 3 units and from the x-axis is 2 two units. the x-co-ordinate (or abscissa). always indicates the distance from the y-axis and the second number. It is customary to write the co-ordinates of a point as an ordered pair i. By convention the first number. You can say that the distance of the point A(3. y co-ordinate). 22. . 22.3 In the above Fig 22.5 CO-ORDINATES OF A POINT The position of a point is given by two numbers..

You may also note that the position of points (x. b) and (0. (d) (2.1 : Write down x and y co-ordinate for each of the following points : (a) (1. 0). In general. Similarly. y) imply that distance of P from the y-axis is x units and its distance from the x-axis is y units. 4) and (4. (d) x co-ordinate is 2 y co-ordinate is –6. 2) (c) (–7. You may note that the co-ordinates of the origin O are (0.4 Example 22. For example position of points (3. 0). The y co-ordinate of every point on the x-axis is 0 and the x co-ordinate of every point on the y-axis is 0. –6) Solution : (a) x co-ordinate is 1 y co-ordinate is 1 (c) x co-ordinate is –7 y co-ordinate is –5. –b) respectively where 'b' is a non-zero positive number. co-ordinates of a point P(x. y) and (y. co-ordinates of any point on the x-axis to the right of the origin is (a. where 'a' is a non-zero positive number. 3) are shown in Fig 22. x) in the rectangular co-ordinate system is not the same. 0) and that to left of the origin is (–a. 2) that its x co-ordinate is 3 and the y-co-ordinate is 2.4. Fig. –5) (b) x co-ordinate is –3 y co-ordinate is 2.Co-ordinate Geometry 177 It is clear from the point A(3. 22. . Similarly x co-ordinate and y co-ordinate of the point B(–2. y co-ordinates of any point on the y-axis above and below the x-axis would be (0. In general. 1) (b) (–3. –4) are –2 and –4 respectively.

178

Mathematics

Example 22.2 : Write down distances from y and x axes respectively for each of the following points : (a) A(3, 4) (b) B(–5, 1) (c) C(–3, –3) (d) D(8, –9)

Solution : (a) The distance of the point A from the y-axis is 3 units and from the x-axis is 4 units. (b) The distance of the point B from the y-axis is 5 units to the left of the origin and from the x-axis is 1 unit. (c) The distance of the point C from the y-axis is 3 units to the left of the origin and from the x-axis is also 3 units below the origin. (d) The distance of the point D from the y-axis is 8 units to the right of the origin and from the x-axis is 9 units below the origin. 22.6 QUADRANTS The two axes XOX′ and YOY′ divide the plane into four parts called quadrants.

Fig. 22.5

The four quadrants (See Fig. 22.5) are named as follows : XOY : I Quadrant ; YOX′ : II Quadrant Y′OX : IV Quadrant

X'OY' : III Quadrant ;

We have discussed in Section 22.4 that (i) along x-axis, the positive direction is taken to the right of the origin and negative direction to its left. (ii) along y-axis, portion above the x-axis is taken as positive and portion below the x-axis is taken as negative (See Fig. 22.6).

Co-ordinate Geometry

179

Fig. 22.6

Fig. 22.7

Therefore, co-ordinates of all points in the first quadrant are of the type (+, +) (See Fig. 22.7) Any point in the II quadrant has x co-ordinate negative and y co-ordinate positive [(–, +)]. Similarly, in III quadrant, a point has both x and y co-ordinates negative [(–, –)] and in IV quadrant, a point has x co-ordinate positive and y co-ordinate negative [(+, –)]. For example : (a) P(5, 6) lies in the first quadrant as both x and y co-ordinates are positive. (b) Q(–3, 4) lies in the second quadrant as its x co-ordiante is negative and y co-ordinate is positive. (c) R (–2, –3) lies in the third quadrant as its both x and y co-ordinates are negative. (d) S(4, –1) lies in the fourth quadrant as its x co-ordinate is positive and y coordinate is negative.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 22.1 1. Write down x and y co-ordinates for each of the following points : (a) (3, 3) (b) (–6, 5) (c) (–1, –3) (d) (4, –2)

2. Write down distances of each of the following points from the y and x axis respectively. (a) A(2, 4) (b) B(–2, 4) (c) C(–2, –4) (d) D(2, –4)

3. Group each of the following points quadrantwise : A(–3, 2), F (–6, 1), B (2, 3), G (–4, –5), C(7, –6), H(11, –3), D(1, 1), P(3, 12), E(–9, –9), Q(–13, 6),

180

Mathematics

22.7 PLOTTING OF A POINT WHOSE CO-ORDINATES ARE GIVEN The point can be plotted by measuring its distances from the axes. Thus, any point (h, k) can be plotted as follows : (i) Measure OM equal to h along the x-axis (See Fig. 22.8). (ii) Measure MP perpendicular to OM and equal to k. Follow the rule of sign in both cases. For example points (–3, 5) and (4, –6) would be plotted as shown in Fig 22.9.

Fig. 22.8

Fig. 22.9

22.8 DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS The distance between any two points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) in the plane is the length of the line segment PQ. From P, Q draw PL and QM perpendiculars on the x-axis and PR perpendicular on QM. Then,

∴

OL = x1, OM = x2, PL = y1 and QM = y2 PR = LM = OM – OL = x2 – x1

Fig. 22.10

Co-ordinate Geometry

181

**QR = QM – RM = QM – PL = y2 – y1 Since PQR is a right angled triangle
**

∴

PQ2 = PR2 + QR2 = (x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1)2 (By the Pythagoras Theorem)

∴

PQ =

bx

2

− x1

g + by

2

2

− y1

g

2

Distance between two points =

**bdifference of abscissaeg + bdifference of ordinatesg
**

2

2

Corollary : The distance of the point (x1, y1) from the origin (0, 0) is

bx − 0g + by − 0g

1 2 1

2

=

x12 + y12

Let us consider some examples to illustrate. Example 22.3 : Find the distance between each of the following points : (a) P(6, 8) and Q(–9, –12) (b) A(–6, –1) and B(–6, 11) Solution : (a) Here the points are P(6, 8) and Q(–9, –12) By using distance formula, we have PQ = = Hence,

**b−9 − 6g + mb−12 − 8gr
**

2

2

152 + 202 =

225 + 400 =

625 = 25

PQ = 25 units.

(b) Here the points are A(–6, –1) and B(–6, 11) By using distance formula, we have AB = = Hence,

**m−6 − b−6gr + m11 − b−1gr
**

2

2

02 + 12 2 = 12

AB = 12 units.

Example 22.4 : The distance between two points (0, 0) and (x, 3) is 5. Find x. Solution : By using distance formula, we have the distance between (0, 0) and (x, 3) is

bx − 0g + b3 − 0g

2

2

182

Mathematics

It is given that

bx − 0g + b3 − 0g

2

2

=5

or

x 2 + 32 = 5

squaring both sides x2 + 9 = 25 or or Hence, x2 = 16 x=± 4 x = + 4 or –4.

Example 22.5 : Show that the points (1, 1), (3, 0) and (–1, 2) are collinear. Solution : Let P(1, 1), Q(3, 0) and R(–1, 2) be the given points

∴

Now,

**b3 − 1g + b0 − 1g = 4 + 1 = 5 units QR = b −1 − 3g + b2 − 0g = 16 + 4 = 2 5 units RP = b −1 − 1g + b2 − 1g = 4 + 1 = 5 units PQ + RP = d 5 + 5 i units = 2 5 units = QR
**

PQ =

2 2 2 2

2

2

∴ P, Q and R are collinear points.

Example 22.6 : Find the radius of the circle whose centre is at (0, 0) and which passes through the point (–6, 8) Solution : Let A(0, 0) and B(–6, 8) be the given points. Now, radius of the cirlce is same as the distance of the line segment AB.

∴

AB = =

b−6 − 0g + b8 − 0g

2

2

36 + 64 =

100

Fig. 22.11

= 10 Hence radius of the cirlce is 10 units. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 22.2 1. Find the distance between each of the following pair of points : (a) (3, 2) and (11, 8) (c) (3, –4) and (–2, 5) (b) (–1, 0) and (0, 3) (d) (2, –11) and (–9, –3)

Co-ordinate Geometry

183

2. Find the radius of the cirlce whose centre is at (2, 0) and which passes through the point (7,–12) 3. Show that the points (–5, 6), (–1, 2) and (2, –1) are collinear. 22.9 SECTION FORMULA To find the co-ordinates of a point, which divides the line segment joining two points, in a given ratio internally. Let A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be the two given points and P(x, y) be a point on AB which divides it in the given ratio m : n. We have to find the co-ordinates of P. Draw the perpendiculars AL, PM, BN on OX, and, AK, PT on PM and BN respectively. Then, from similar triangles APK and PBT, we have

Fig. 22.12

AP AK = KP = PB PT TB Now, AK = LM = OM – OL = x – x1 PT = MN = ON – OM = x2 – x

...(i)

KP = MP – MK = MP – LA = y – y1, TB = NB – NT = NB – MP = y2 – y

∴ From (i), we have

m x − x1 y − y1 = = n x 2 − x y2 − y

**The first two relations give
**

m x − x1 = n x2 − x

or or or

**mx2 – mx = nx – nx1 x(m + n) = mx2 + nx1 x=
**

mx 2 + nx1 m+ n AP KP = , we get PB TB

Similarly, from the relation

y − y1 m = y − y which gives on simplification, n 2

184

Mathematics

y=

my 2 + ny1 m+n mx 2 + nx1 my 2 + ny1 , and y = m+n m+n

∴

x=

...(i)

Hence co-ordinates of a point which divides the line segment joining the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in the ratio m : n internally are :

FG mx + nx H m+n

2

1

,

my 2 + ny1 m+n

IJ K

22.9.1 Mid-Point Formula The co-ordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) can be obtained by taking m = n in the section formula above. Putting m = n in (1) above, we have x=

nx 2 + nx1 x 2 + x1 = n+n 2 ny 2 + ny1 y 2 + y1 = n+n 2

and

y=

∴ The co-ordinates of the mid-point joining two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are :

FG x H

2

+ x1 , 2

y 2 + y1 2

IJ K

Let us take some examples to illustrate : Example 22.7 : Find the co-ordinates of a point which divides the line segment joining each of the following points in the given ratio : (a) (2, 3) and (7, 8) in the ratio 2 : 3 internally (b) (–1, 4) and (0, –3) in the ratio 1 : 4 internally. Solution : (a) Let A(2, 3) and B(7, 8) be the given points. Let P(x, y) divide AB in the ratio 2 : 3 internally. Using section formula, we have x=

2 × 7 + 3 × 2 20 = =4 5 2+3

Co-ordinate Geometry

185

and

y=

2 × 8 + 3 × 3 25 = =5 5 2+3

∴ P(4, 5) divides AB in the ratio 2 : 3 internally.

(b) Let A(–1, 4) and B(0, –3) be the given points. Let P(x, y) divide AB in the ratio 1 : 4 internally Using section formula, we have x= and

4 13 ∴ P − , 5 5

1 × 0 + 4 × −1 4 =− 1+ 4 5 1 × −3 + 4 × 4 13 = 1+ 4 5

b g

y=

b g

FG H

IJ K

divides AB in the ratio 1 : 4 internally.

Example 22.8 : Find the mid-point of the line-segment joining two points (3, 4) and (5, 12). Solution : Let A(3, 4) and B(5, 12) be the given points. Let C(x, y) be the mid-point of AB. Using mid-point formula, we have, x=

3+5 =4 2 4 + 12 =8 2

and

y=

∴ C(4, 8) are the co-ordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining two points (3, 4) and (5, 12).

Example 22.9 : The co-ordinates of the mid-point of a line segment are (2, 3). If co-ordinates of one of the end points of the line segment are (6, 5), find the co-ordiants of the other end point. Solution : Let other the end point be A(x, y) It is given that C(2, 3) is the mid point

∴ We can write,

Fig. 22.13

2= or or

∴

x+6 2

and or or

3=

y+5 2

4=x + 6 x = –2

6=y+5 y=1

A(–2, 1) be the co-ordinates of the other end point.

186

Mathematics

22.10 CENTROID OF A TRIANGLE To find the co-ordinates of the centroid of a triangle whose vertices are given. Definition : The centroid of a triangle is the point of concurrency of its medians and divides each median in the ratio of 2 : 1. Let A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be the vertices of the triangle ABC. Let AD be the median bisecting its base. Then, using mid-point formula, we have D=

FG x H

2

+ x3 y2 + y3 , 2 2

IJ K

Fig. 22.14

Now, the point G on AD, which divides it internally in the ratio 2 : 1, is the centroid. If (x, y) are the co-ordinates of G, then 2× x= x2 + x3 + 1 × x1 x + x + x 2 3 2 = 1 2 +1 3 y2 + y3 + 1 × y1 y + y + y 2 3 2 = 1 2 +1 3

2× y=

Hence, the co-ordinates of the centroid are given by

FG x H

1

+ x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 , 3 3

IJ K

Example 22.10 : The co-ordinates of the vertices of a triangle are (3, –1), (10, 7) and (5, 3). Find the co-ordinates of its centroid. Solution : Let A(3, –1), B(10, 7) and C(5, 3) be the vertices of a triangle. Let G(x, y) be its centroid then, x=

3 + 10 + 5 =6 3

Co-ordinate Geometry

187

and

y=

−1 + 7 + 3 =3 3

Hence G(6, 3) are the co-ordinates of the centroid. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 22.3 1. Find the co-ordinates of the point which divides internally the line segment joining the points : (a) (1, –2) and (4, 7) in the ratio 1 : 2 (b) (3, –2) and (–5, 4) in the ratio 1 : 1 2. Find the mid-point of the line joining : (a) (0, 0) and (8, –5) (b) (–7, 0) and (0, 10) 3. Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are (5, –1), (–3, –2) and (–1, 8). LET US SUM UP

z

If (2, 3) are the co-ordinates of a point, then x co-ordinate (or abscissa) is 2 and the y co-ordinate (or ordinate) is 3. In any co-ordinates (x, y), ‘x’ indicates the distance from the y-axis and 'y' indicates the distance from the x-axis. The co-ordinates of the origin are (0, 0) The y co-ordinate of every point on the x-axis is 0 and the x co-ordinate of every point on the y-axis is 0. The two axes XOX′ and YOY′ divides the plane into four parts called quadrants. The distance of the line segment joining two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is given by :

z

z z

z z

bx

z z

2

− x1

g + by

2

2

− y1

g

2

.

The distance of the point (x1, y1) from the origin (0, 0) is

x12 + y12

The co-ordinates of a point, which divides the line segment joining two points (x1,y1) and (x2, y2) in a ratio m : n internally are given by :

FG mx + nx H m+ n

2

1

,

my 2 + ny1 m+ n

IJ K

188

Mathematics

z

The co-ordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are given by :

FG x H

z

2

+ x1 y 2 + y1 , 2 2

IJ K

IJ K

The co-ordinates of the centroid of a triangle whose vertices are (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are given by :

FG x + x + x H 3

1 2

3

,

y1 + y 2 + y 3 3

TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. In Fig 22.15, AB = AC. Find x.

Fig. 22.15

2. The length of the line segment joining two points (2, 3) and (4, x) is x.

13 units. Find

3. Find the lengths of the sides of the triangle whose vertices are A(3, 4), B(2, –1) and C(4, –6). 4. Prove that the points (2, –2), (–2, 1) and (5, 2) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. 5. Find the co-ordinates of a point which divides the join of (2, –1) and (–3, 4) in the ratio of 2 : 3 internally. 6. Find the centre of a circle, if the end points of a diameter are P(–5, 7) and Q(3, –11). 7. Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are P(–2, 4), Q(7, –3) and R (4, 5).

Co-ordinate Geometry

189

ANSWERS Check Your Progress 22.1 1. (a) 3; 3 (b) –6; 5 (c) –1; –3 (d) 4; –2

2. (a) 2 units; 4 units (b) 2 units to the left of the origin; 4 units above the x-axis (c) 2 units to the left of the origin; 4 units below the origin (d) 2 units; 4 units below the origin 3. Quadrant I : B(2, 3), D(1, 1) and P(3, 12) Quadrant II : A(–3, 2), F(–6, 1) and Q(–13, 6) Quadrant III : E(–9, –9) and G(–4, –5) Quadrant IV : C(7, –6) and H (11, –3) Check Your Progress 22.2 1. (a) 10 units 2. 13 units. Check Your Progress 22.3 1. (a) (2, 1) (b) (–1, 1) 5 2. (a) 4 , − 2 (b)

10 units

(c)

106 units

(d)

185 units

FH

IK

(b)

FH − 7 , 5I K 2

3.

FH 1 , 5I 3 3K

2. 0 or 6

Terminal Exercise 1. 3 units 3. AB = 5. (0, 1)

26 units, BC =

**29 units and CA =
**

7. (3, 2)

101 units

6. (–1, –2)

In this text. are famous among all these sutras. the human beings were faced with the following types of things in their immediate environment : part of the earth on which they live (plane). Brahmgupta (598 AD).C. The desire to know more about them. Egyptians. and circles made of cuboidal. we shall study about the perimeter and area of plane figures and surface area. With this came into being the science of measurement of land and knowledge about rectilinear and solid figures. to have a measure of sizes and capacity and to acquire them was a natural phenomenon. stone crests and other solids or plane objects. . In the old Indian scriptures. there are rules laid down to perform special types of yajnas to fulfil specific desires in specially built altars (vedis) These vedis were in the shape of squares. After that even the Indian mathematician like Aryabhatt (476 AD). One of the oldest text “Surya Sidhant” deals with the shapes (mostly spherical) and orbits (mainly elliptical) of heavenly bodies. total surface area and volumes of solids. Old civilization like Greek. birds and animals. cubical and spherical bricks. which was given the name of mensuration. Arabian and especially Indian contributed a lot to the development of this science. “Baudhayan Sulba” Apastamba Sulba and Katyayan Sulba which date back to 8th century B. rectangles. Bhaskaracharya (1114 AD) and Varahmihir (1120 AD) devoted much of their works in providing rules for finding perimeters and areas of plane figures and volumes of solids. fruit and vegetables trees.Area of Plane Figures 193 Module 4 Mensuration With the advancement of civilization on this planet earth. The whole lot of “Sulba Sutras” and Srauta Sutras contain the knowledge of methods of construction of such vedis and the properties of the used shapes.

parks.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson the learner will be able to : z z z identify rectilinear and non-rectilinear plane figures. rectangle. find the perimeter and area of rectilinear figures. find the area of rectilinear paths of different types in a rectangle (or a rectangular enclosure). we shall study the methods of finding perimeters and areas of plane figures. In this lesson. find the area of a triangle using Hero’s formula. a rectangle.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z Measurement of line-segments Knowledge and conversion of units of measurements . a quadrilateral. triangle. especially square. a parallelogram and a rhombus. Solve problems from day-to-day life situations based on the above concepts z z z z z z 23. a trapezium. like a square. a triangle. special quadrilaterals and circle.1 INTRODUCTION In our day-to-day life. explain the meaning of perimeter and area of closed figures. We will also study methods to find areas of rectangular or circular paths. we have to estimate the amount of wood required for a rectangular table top or the area of cloth required for table cover. plots and floor etc. 23.194 Mathematics 23 Area of Plane Figures 13. find the circumference and area of a circle. find area and perimeter of a sector. or to find the area of paths. find the area of circular paths inside or outside a circle (or a circular enclosure).

The perimeter is measured in terms of linear units.1 Similarly a square of side 1 m is called a unit meter square and its area is taken to be 1 m2 and its perimeter as 4 m. Fig.1 A Unit Square A square of side 1 cm is called a unit cm square and its area is taken to be 1 cm2 and its perimeter is taken to be 4 cm. In connection with the circle.Area of Plane Figures 195 z z z Four fundamental operations on numbers Drawing plane geometric figures Properties of special quadrilaterals 23.1 : Find the area of a square whose perimeter is 80 meters. 23. unit and its perimeter is 4a unit.5.4 PERIMETER OF PLANE FIGURES The distance covered to walk along the boundary of a plane figure is called its perimeter. 23. this distance covered is called circumference of the circle. m = 20 × 20 sq. 23.5 AREA OF PLANE FIGURES The measure of the planar region enclosed by a plane figure is called its area. This is measured in terms of square units. m or 400 sq m. Example 23. Solution : Perimeter of square = 4a = 80 meters ∴ a= 80 or 20 metres 4 ∴ Area of square = a2 sq. . area of a square of side ‘a’ unit is a2 sq. In general.

Solution.6. Diagonal of the square ABCD = AC = = ∴ AB2 + BC 2 a 2 + a 2 or 2a m 2 a = 15 or a = 15 m 2 225 or 112. 23.3(ii). 2 Area of the square ABCD = a2 sq m = 23. Area of square park (a2) = 625 sq. 23. Example 23. Solution. Add another row of four centimetre square over the and above the first row to form the rectangle ABCD as shown in Fig 23. triangle. trapezium. quadrilateral. Find the length of the wire required to fence around the park. parallelogram and rhombus are rectilinear figures while a circle and a sector are non-rectilinear figures.3 (ii) . The area of a square park is 625 sq m.7 PERIMETER AND AREA OF A RECTANGLE Take 4 centimetre squares and join them in a row as shown in Fig.5 sq m. length of wire = Perimeter of square = 4a = 4 × 25 m = 100 m i.3. 23.2. length of the wire required to fence the park is 100 m. RECTILINEAR FIGURES Fig.3(i). rectangle. For example square.196 Mathematics Example 23. (i) Fig. 23.2 The figures whose boundaries are formed by line-segments are called rectilinear figures. m ∴ Side of square (a) = 625 m = 25 × 25 m or 25 m Now. Find the area of a square whose diagonal is 15 m.e.

4 is (5 + 4 + 5 + 4) cm or 18 cm. 23. we see that it contains 20 or (5 × 4) unit cm squares.3(ii). Solution : (i) Area of the field = Length × breadth .4 : The length and breadth of a rectangular field are 23. the distance covered to go around the rectangle ABCD is (4 + 2 + 4 + 2) cm or 12 cm. the perimeter of a square = 4 × side linear units rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) linear units Example 23. 23. Similarly. Do you observe that in each case the distance covered is obtained by adding 2 × length and 2 × breadth? i.e.Area of Plane Figures 197 Rectangle ABCD is formed by 8 small unit squares. Find : (i) the area of the field (ii) the length of wire required to put a fence around the boundary of the field. or From here we can generalise that the area of a rectangle of length l cm and breadth b cm can be written as (l × b) cm2 or lb cm2. Thus.7 m and 14. 23. the distance covered to go around the rectangle PQRS in Fig. Perimeter of a Rectangle = 2(l + b) A square is a special rectangle in which length and breadth are equal. Therefore the planar region enclosed by it is 8 cm2. In case of Fig 23. If we take another rectangle PQRS with base formed by 5 unit squares and has four such rows (See Fig.4 i.5 m respecively.e.4). ∴ Its area is 20 cm2 (5 × 4) cm2 20 cm2 Fig. the area of a square = (side)2 square units rectangle = (length × breadth) square units And. You can see that 4 × 2 = 8.

23.7 × 14. AREA OF A TRIANGLE We know that a diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area ∴ Area of ∆ DBC = = 1 Area of ||gm ABCD 2 1 Base × Altitude 2 1 Base × Altitude square units 2 ∴ Area of a triangle = Fig.2) or 76.9.8.5 : A rectangular plot measures 400 m × 121 m.5 ∴ Area of a Parallelogram = Base × Altitude square units Example 23.6 : Find the area of a parallelogram whose base and altitude are 12 cm and 8 cm respectively. 23. AREA OF A PARALLELOGRAM We know from our study of geometry that parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. 23.5) m = 2(38.6 . PBCQ = (BC × PB) sq units.65 sq m (ii) Length of wire = Perimeter of the field = 2(length + breadth) = 2(23. Solution : Area of rectangular plot = (400 × 121) sq m = (20)2 × 112 sq m ∴ ∴ Area of square plot = (20)2 × 112 sq m Side of square plot = 202 × 112 m = 220 m.7 + 14. ∴ Area (||gm ABCD) = Area Rect. 23.5) sq m = 343. Solution : We know that Area of ||gm ABCD = Base × altitude = (12 × 8) cm2 = 96 cm2.198 Mathematics = (23. Find the side of a square plot having area equal to the rectangular plot. Fig.4 m Example 23.

∴ Area of trapezium ABCD = Area of ∆ ABD + Area ∆ BCD = = 1 1 .h + .8 : Find the area of a trapezium lengths of whose parallel sides are 20 cm and 12 cm and the distance between them is 5 cm.7. Solution : Area of the field = 20250 sq m 15 = 1350 sq m Let the altitude of the triangular field be x m ∴ ∴ Base = 3x m Area of the field = 1 3 . the base of the field is 90 m and its altitude is 30 m.x = x 2 sq m 2 2 As given in the question.b. 23. 23. find the base and the altitude of the field. If the cost of cultivating the field at the rate of Rs 15 per square metre is Rs 20250. 23. the area of a trapezium = 1 (sum of the parallel sides) × Distance between them square units 2 Example 23.3x.10 AREA OF A TRAPEZIUM In Fig.7 Thus.7 : The base of a triangular field is three times its altitude. Solution : We know that Area of Trapezium = 1 (Sum of the Parallel sides) × Distance between them 2 . ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || DC.h 2 2 1 (a + b). 3 x2 = 1350 2 or or x2 = 1350 × 2 = 900 3 x = 30 Thus.Area of Plane Figures 199 Example 23.a.h 2 Fig.

10 . 2 Fig. 23. 2 Fig. 23. Solution : Area of quadrilateral field ABCD = Area of ∆ ABC + Area of ∆ ACD 1 1 = 2 × 40 × 32 + 2 × 40 × 18 sq m = (640 + 360) sq m = 1000 sq m.200 Mathematics = = 1 [20 + 12] × 5 cm2 2 1 × 32 × 5 cm2 2 = 80 cm2. ABCD is a rhombus whose diagonal AC and BD bisect each other at right angles. one of whose diagonals is 40 m long and the perpendiculars from the other two vertices on this diagonal are 32 m and 18 m. h 1 2 2 2 1 AC h + h 1 2 . Thus : Area of rhombus ABCD = Area ∆ ABD + Area ∆ BCD = = 1 BD.8) = = 1 AC. PC 2 2 1 1 BD (AP + PC) = (BD) (AC) 2 2 Thus.10.11 AREA OF A QUADRILATERAL Area of quadrilateral ABCD = Area ∆ ABC + Area ∆ ACD (See Fig.9 : Find the area of a field in the shape of a quadrilateral.8 b g where h1 and h2 are lengths of perpendiculars from vertices B and D on diagonal AC Example 23. AP + 1 BD. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. the area of rhombus = 1 × product of its diagonals square units.9 LM N OP Q In Fig.12 AREA OF RHOMBUS Fig. h + 1 AC.

Find the area of the rhombus. 23. Example 23.23.12 : The sides of a triangular field are 165 m. The formula was also obtained by the Indian Mathematicians Brahmagupta and Aryabhata. let ABCD be the given rhombus with AB = BC = CD = AD = 10 cm and the diagonal BD = 12 cm.11. Find the area of the field. The diagonals of a rhombus are of length 12 cm and 8 cm. b and c is given by ∆ = s s− a s− b s− c b gb gb g where s = a+b+c 2 This formula is known as Hero’s formula after the name of Greek Mathematician Heron of Alexendria. 23.13 AREA OF A TRIANGLE USING HERO’S FORMULA The area of triangle ABC whose sides are given by a. Solution. AC and BD bisect (at right angles) at O (See Fig. 143 m and 154 m. Find the area of a rhombus.Area of Plane Figures 201 Example 23. Solution : In Fig. one of whose diagonals is 12 cm and the side is 10 cm.11 Area of rhombus = = = 96 cm2 23.11) ∴ ∴ ∴ OB = OD =6 cm OA = 102 − 62 cm = 8 cm Diagonal AC = 16 cm 1 (product of diagonals) 2 1 × 12 × 16 cm2 2 Fig. Solution : Here we use the Hero’s formula for finding the area of the field . We know that Area of a Rhombus = = 1 × Product of Diagonals 2 1 (12 × 8) cm2 2 = 48 cm2 Example 23.10.11.

12 Also. 23. c are sides and s = ∴ ∴ s= ∆ = 165 + 143 + 154 = 462 or 231 m 2 2 231 231 − 165 231 − 143 231 − 154 sq m = = b gb 231b66gb88gb77g gb g sq m 11 × 7 × 3 × 3 × 2 × 11 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 11 × 7 × 11 sq m = 11 × 11 × 7 × 3 × 2 × 2 = 10164 sq m.CF = 7 CF 2 Fig.12] Draw CE || DA and let CF be perpendicular to AB Now. b. Thus area of the triangular field = 10164 sq m Example 23. CD = 11 m. 23.13 : Find the area of a field in the shape of a trapezium whose parallel sides are of length 11 m and 25 m and the non-parallel sides are of length 15 m and 13 m. Solution : Let ABCD be a field in the shape of a trapezium with AB || CD in which AB = 25 m.13. ∴ area of ∆ BCE = b g 7 CF = 84 or CF = 12 m ∴ Area of trapezoidal field ABCD = = 1 (sum of parallel sides) × distance between them 2 1 (11 + 25) × 12 sq m 2 = 216 sq m 23.14 AREA OF RECTANGULAR PATHS In Fig. Area of ∆ BCE = because s = 21 21 − 14 21 − 15 21 − 13 b gb gb g 13 + 14 + 15 or 21 m 2 = 21 × 7 × 6 × 8 or 84 sq m 1 14 . ABCD is a rectangular park of dimensions a × b and let there be a path of uniform width c all around the park as shown .202 Mathematics ∆ = s s− a s− b s− c b gb gb g a+b+c 2 where a. 23. AD = 13 m and BC = 15 m [Fig.

13 In Fig. Solution : Dimension of rectangular enclosure PQRS are (15 + 2 × 2) m and (12 + 2 × 2)m or 19 m and 16 m From Fig. parallel to the sides of the park. we see that Fig.15 Area of Verandah = Area of rectangle PQRS – Area of rectangle ABCD = (19 × 16 – 15 × 12) sq m = (304 – 180) sq m or 124 sq m . 23.14 Area of paths = Area of path EFGH + Area of PQRS – Area of path QLMN = a.c – c. in which PQRS and EFGH are two perpendicular paths of width c.14. 23.c = (a + b – c)c Let us take some examples to illustrate : Example 23. Fig.c + b. 23.Area of Plane Figures 203 ∴ Area of path = Area of Rectangle PQRS – Area of rectangle ABCD = (PQ × QR) – (AB × BC) = [(a + 2c). 23.15. 23. Find the area of verandah.14 : A rectangular hall 15 m long and 12 m broad is surrounded by a verandah 2 m wide. ABCD is a rectangular park of dimensions a × b. (b + 2c)] – (a × b) = ab + 2bc + 2ac + 4c2 – ab = 4c2 + 2c(a + b) Fig.

From the centre of each side a path 5 m wide runs across up to the opposite side.5 m.1 1. Find the area of the paths. 9. Find the area of a quadrilateral one of whose diagonals is 30 metres long and the lengths of perpendiculars from the other two vertices to this diagonal are 10 m and 14 m respectively. 2. AD = 85 m and the diagonal AC = 154 m. 23. The sides of a rectangular field of area 726 sq metres are in the ratio 3 : 2. Find the area of a triangular field whose sides are 50 m. 6. 7. 10. Find its area. Find the area of a parallelogram with base and altitude of length 20 cm and 12 cm respectively. . Also. Find (i) the area of the field. Solution : Area of paths = Area of rectangle ABCD + Area of rectangle PQRS – Area of square QLMN Fig. find the length of the perpendicular from the opposite vertex to the side measuring 112 m.16 = [(100 × 5) +(80 × 5) – (5 × 5)] sq m = [500 + 400 – 25] sq m = 875 sq m CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 23. Find the length of its diagonal correct up to one decimal place. The area of a square field is 225 square metres. CD = 85 m. (ii) the length of the wire required to put a fence along the boundary of the field. Find its perimeter. 8.204 Mathematics Example 23. The perimeter of a rhombus is 146 cm and one of its diagonals is 48 cm.5 m and 12. 4.15 : A rectangular piece of land measures 100 m by 80 m. 5. Find the area of a field in the form of a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 165 m. What will be the diagonal of a square whose perimeter is 60 m? 3. The length and breadth of a rectangular field are 22. The parallel sides of a trapezium are 20 metres and 16 metres long respectively and the distance between them is 12 m. find the other diagonal and the area of the rhombus. 78 m and 112 m. BC = 143 m.

A C = 2 = constant.16 : Find the circumference and area of a circle of radius 3. Thus. A rectangular courtyard 120 m long and 90 m broad has a path of uniform width 5 m on the inside running round it. We state without any logical proof that the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is always constant which is also equal to the ratio of the area enclosed by a circle to the square of its radius (r).15 CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF A CIRCLE Recall that a circle is the locus of a point which moves in a plane in such a way that its distance from a fixed point (in the same plane) always remains constant. Any straight line drawn through the centre of circle.5 cm2 = . one parallel to the length and the other parallel to the breadth. 2r r 1 The value of this constant is nearly 3 and is usually 7 denoted by the Greek letter π (pie). each 2 metres wide running in the middle of it. the area of the circle = πr2 square units.5 cm [Use π = 22/7] Solution : Circumference of the circle = 2 πr 22 × 35 .1416. 12. correct to four places of decimals is 3. 23.e. Example 23.Area of Plane Figures 205 11. The fixed point (O) is called the centre of the circle and the constant distance is called the radius of the circle. whose end point lie on the circle is called a diameter. circumference of a circle = 2πr linear units and. which is an irrational number but its value.5 × 3. A rectangular lawn 80 metres by 60 metres has two roads. whose length is equal to twice the radius of the circle. 7 C = π or C = 2 πr ∴ 2r i.17 or A = π r2 .5 cm2 7 = 38. cm = 2× 7 = 22 cm Also. Find the area of the path. Find the area of the roads. and A = π r2 Fig. 23. to avoid lengthy calculations the value of π 22 is often taken to be . area of the circle = π r 2 22 × 3.

23. 23.18 .206 Mathematics Example 23. sector AOB is the sector with central angle θ. of revolutions required to travel 26.4 km = 26. Find the diameter of the circle. The.18.4 km ? Solution : Distance travelled in one revolution = Circumference of the wheel 22 × 42 = 2 πr = 2 × cm 7 = 264 cm ∴ No.16 PERIMETER AND AREA OF SECTOR OF A CIRCLE Two radii OA and OB enclose a portion of the circular region making central angle θ . The region is called a sector of the circle. In Fig.17 : The radius of a wheel is 42 cm. AB θ = circumference 360° [Corresponding arcs subtend proportional central angles] or l θ θ = or l = 2 πr . Solution : We have 2 π r – r = 74 or or or or r (2 π – 1) = 74 r 44 − 1 = 74 7 FH IK I rF H 37 7 K = 74 r= 74 × 7 or 14 m 37 ∴ The diameter of the circle = 2(14) m = 28 m. 23.18 : The difference between the circumference and the radius of a circle is 74 metres. Let ‘l’ be the length of arc AB.4 × 1000 × 100 264 = 10000 Example 23. 2 πr 360° 360° Fig. How many revolutions will it make in going 26.

23. the area of the circular path = Area of the outer circle – Area of the inner circle = ( π R2 – π r2) sq unit = π (R2 – r2) sq unit Let us take some examples based on the above formula : Fig. Find 7 (i) the area of path. 360° 23. If the difference between the circumference of outer circle and inner circle is 66 meters.5 m 3 is 75 metres. 22 2 Fig.5 m.19 Example 23. we have 2 π R – 2 π r = 66 or 2 π (R – r) = 66 ∴ d = (R – r) = 66 × 7 × 1 m = 10.e.21 .Area of Plane Figures 207 ∴ Perimeter of the sector = OA + OB + AB = 2r + 2 πr θ 360 Also area of sector is given by θ Area of sector AOB = 360° πr 2 or θ Area of sector AOB = πr 2 . 23. AREA OF CIRCULAR PATHS If we have a circular field of radius ‘r’. (ii) the cost of gravelling the path at Rs 7 per square meter. surrounded by a path of uniform width (d) so that r + d = R (say) then. 23.17. find the width of the road.20 Thus width of the road is 10. 3 2 π r = 75 7 2 × 22 × r = 528 7 7 Example 23.19 : A circular road runs round a circular garden. Solution : Let the radius of inner circle be r and that of outer circle be R Width of the road = (R – r) = d (say) ∴ Now.20 : A path of width 2 meters runs around a circular plot whose circumference Fig. Solution : Here i.

Find the area of sector of a circle whose radius is 6 cm when (a) the angle at the centre is 35° (b) when the length of arc is 22 cm θ Solution. (a) Area of sector = π r 2 . the radius of the plot is 12 m..2 πr θ 2 360° 1 r. 2. (i) 22 14 2 − 12 2 Area of path = π (R2 – r2) = 7 = 22 × 52 2 1144 m = sq m 7 7 d i (ii) Cost = Rs FG 1144 × 7IJ H 7 K = Rs 1144. Find the areas and circumference of the circles with radius (i) 1.9 m. l 1 = × 6 × 22 sq cm = 66 sq cm 2 2 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 23.208 Mathematics or r= 528 × 1 × 7 = 12 7 2 22 i.4 m (b) 4. . Example 23.2 1. Find the radius of the circle. 360° = 22 × 6 × 6 × 35 cm2 7 360 = 11 sq cm (b) Here length of arc l = 22 cm ∴ 2 πr θ = 22 cm 360° θ Area of sector = π r 2 . The difference between the circumference and diameter of a circle is 210 m.21.e. 360° = = 1 r.

Find the area of the road. 4. Find the areas of sectors of a circle with radius 3.5 m having central angle (i) 60° (ii) 90°. b anc c are sides of the triangle and s= z a+b+c units 2 Area of a parallelogram = Base × Altitude sq units Area of a trapezium = Area of a rhombus = 1 (sum of parallel sides) × Distance between them sq units 2 1 (Product of the diagonals) sq units 2 z z z Area of rectangular path = Area of outer rectangular enclosure – Area of inner rectangular enclosure Area of perpendicular paths in the middle of a rectangular field = Area of path parallel to length + Area of path parallel to breadth – Area of common square.Area of Plane Figures 209 3. Use π = 7 . A circular park of radius 21 m has a road 7 m wide on its outside all around. LET US SUM UP z z z LM N OP Q Area of a square of side a = a2 sq units and perimeter = 4a units Perimeter of rectangle = 2(length + breadth) units Area of rectangle = (length × breadth) sq units Area of a triangle = 1 × base × height sq units 2 = s s − a s − b s − c sq units z b gb gb g where a. 6. The length of the minute hand of a clock is 7 cm. The difference between the area of a circle and the square of its radius is 105 sq m. 1. Find the speed of the train in km/hr. 7. The driving wheel of a locomotive engine. Find the area covered by the minute 22 hand in 6 minutes.4 m in radius. makes 70 revolutions in one minute. 5. z . Find the circumference of circle.

5 m. Find the area of each of the following parallelograms : (i) side 20 m and the corresponding altitude 12 m. Find the cost of wire required to go four times round the field at the rate of Rs 7 per 10 metres of length of wire. If its breadth is 4.6 m 12 m 9. The area of a rectangular field is 27000 sq meters and the ratio between its length and breadth is 6 : 5.5 m and 10. second side is 14 m and the diagonal is 15 m.5 m 14.210 Mathematics z z z Circumference of a circle = 2 π r units Area of a circle = π r2 sq units Area of circular path = π (R2 – r2). Find its area.5 m (iii) 17 m and 40 m (iv) 40 m and 22 m Perpendicular distance between them 15 m 7. 360° θ Perimeter of a sector = 2 r + 2 πr 360° z z LM N OP units Q TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. 8.5 m. . Find its area. What is its area ? 3. 6. Find the area of the following trapezia : Lengths of parallel sides (i) 30 m and 20 m (ii) 15. How long will a man take to walk round the boundary of a square field of area 40000 sq meters at the rate of 4 km an hour ? 4. The perimeter of a rectangle is 980 meters. The length of a room is three times its breadth. where R > r θ sq units Area of a sector of a circle = π r 2 . (ii) one side is 13m. and the length is to breadth is 5 : 2. 7. 5. The side of a square park is 37. The perimeter of a square is 480 m. Find the area of a piece of land in the shape of a quadrilateral one of whose diagonals is 20 m and lengths of perpendiculars from the other two vertices on the diagonal are of length 12 m and 18 m respectively. 2. find the area of its floor.

153 m 13. A circular plot with a radius of 15 m has a road 2 m wide running all around inside it. DA = 85 metres and DB = 154 metres. 52 m. Find the areas of the following triangles whose sides are : (i) 25 m. the perpendicular between them is 24 metres and the area of the trapezium is 312 sq metres. 111 m. The sides of a triangle are 51 m. BC = 143 metres. one of whose diagonals measures 8 m and the side is 5 m. 60 m. Find the perpendicular from the opposite side on the side of length 52 m. CD = 165 metres. Find the lengths of the two parallel sides. From the circular piece of cardboard with radius 1. A rectangular plot of grass measures 65 m by 40 m. 22. 17. a sector with central angle 60° has been removed. A path 3 metres wide runs around a circular park whose radius is 9 meters. 20. 21. Find the total area of the two paths. From the centre of each side a path of 10 m wide runs across up to the opposite side. Find the area of paths. . A rectangular plot of land measuring 30 m by 20 m has two paths each 2 m wide on both the sides (inside and outside) of the boundary. Find the area of the portion removed. Find the area of the path. 19. Find the area of a field in the form of a trapezium whose parallel sides measure 48 m and 160 m and the non-parallel sides measure 50 m and 78 m respectively. Also find the areas of the two triangles into which the original triangle is divided. Find the area of a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 85 meters. The difference between the circumference and diameter of a circle is 30 m. 65 m (ii) 60 m. It has a path of uniform width 8 m all around inside it. Find the area of a rhombus.47 m.Area of Plane Figures 211 10. A rectangular piece of land measures 200 m by 150 m. 18. and 53 m. 16. Find the area of the road. 12. The difference between the two parallel sides of a trapezium is 8 metres. 14. Find the cost of spreading red sand stone on the path at the rate of Rs 5. 11. 15.25 per sq m. Find the radius of the circle.

24 sq m 17. 300 sq m 10. 1078 sq m 7. 1680 sq m. 49 m 5.4 cm.8 m 2. 1320 sq m 12. 49000 sq m 3.25 sq m. 276 sq m Check Your Progress 23. Terminal Exercise 1.2 1. 2000 sq m 3. 44 m 6.6 sq m 12. 30 m 8. (i) 375 sq m (ii) 97. 60. (i) 6. 540 sq m. 281.7 m 7. 216 sq m 11. (i) 6. 1406.41 sq m 4. 70 m 6. 12 min 6. 30. 12936 sq m 9. 45 m.5 sq m (iii) 416. (i) 750 sq m (ii) 2754 sq m 14. 198 sq m 22. 630 sq m 16. 60 m 4. 8. (i) 240 sq m (ii) 168 sq m (ii) 75. 3120 sq m 11.212 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 23. 17 m.96 km/hr (ii) 9.25 sq m 4. 400 sq m 21.46 sq m. 14400 sq m 5. 240 sq m 10. 39. 3400 sq m 19. 15.1 1. 176 sq m 2.8 m 3. Rs 1848 8.75 sq m 7.16 sq m. 15 2 m 5.1 sq m (iv) 372 sq m 9. 36. 55 m. 360 sq m 2.1319 sq m . Rs 7476 20. 9 m 18. 12936 sq m 13. 7 m 15. 1.

Area of Plane Figures 213 .

we have a paper cut in the form as shown. are not plane figures. a football. find the area of four walls of a room explain the meaning of volume of a solid find the volume of a cube..1 INTRODUCTION In the previous lesson you have studied about plane figures i. etc. rectangles. figures which completely lie in a plane like squares. z z z z 24. It is a plane figure. an ice cream cone.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson.4. circles etc. cuboid. cylinder.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z Area of plane and rectilinear figures Circumference and area of a circle Four fundamental operations on numbers 24. cuboid. the learner will be able to : z z z identify different solids explain the meaning of surface area of a solid find the surface area of a cube. In this lesson we will study about these types of solids. . a glass tumbler. cylinder. SOLID FIGURES In Fig 24(i). cone. cone. sphere and a hemisphere using the respective formulae. a box. triangles. sphere and a hemisphere using respective formulae solve problems from day to day life situations based on the above concepts. 24. They are called Solids. But the objects like a brick.e.Surface Area and Volume of Solids 213 24 Surface Area and Volume of Solids 24.

It can be easily seen from the figure that a cuboid has six rectangular plane surfaces called faces. C. The sum of the areas of the plane figures making up the boundary of a solid figure is called its surface area. 24. A cuboid has 12 edges in all. (i) Fig. match box and a book are all examples of cuboids. For example. The line-segment joining the vertex A to the vertex H is called a main diagonal of the cuboid.2 It can be seen that at every vertex. A.1(i) is the surface area of box] and the measure of part of space occupied by a solid is called its Volume.5 CUBOID A brick. a cone and a sphere and learn to find their surface areas and volumes. . A cuboid has 8 corners called the vertices. ABEF. [For example. E. faces ABCD and BCHF meet along the edge BC. One of these edges is taken as length. it has more than two dimensions. Fig 24.1(ii). BCHF. ADGE and DCHG]. the other the breadth and the third as height and are denoted by ‘l’. a cylinder. they have three dimensions) are called solids. [ABCD. there are three edges meeting [called coterminous edges]. Fig. ‘b’ and ‘h’ respectively. geometrical box. B.2 represents a cuboid. we shall take some solids like a cuboid. 24. Two adjacent faces meet along a line segment called an edge. G and H are the vertices of the cuboid represented by Fig 24. and the opposite faces [like ABCD and EFHG] are congurent.2. F.1 (ii) As the box occupies some part of the space. Such objects which occupy space (i. Now.e.. chalk box. 24. D.214 Mathematics But when we fold the paper along the dotted lines. the area of paper in Fig 24. we can make a box (like a chalk box) as shown in Fig 24. EFHG.

Let us have a cuboid with sides 5 cm. the volume is 1 cu m. 4 cm and 3 cm. = 5 cm × 4 cm × 3 cm = length × breadth × height .e. you can easily find that the number of unit cubes in the cuboid are 5 × 4 × 3 = 60. cm) and if the side is 1 m. A unit cube is the volume of a cube of side 1 unit. ADGE.Surface Area and Volume of Solids 215 Let AB= l. So. which is unit cube.3. its volume is 1 cubic centimeter (or 1 cu. if the side of a cube is 1 cm. cm. 24.3 You can see that Volume = 60 cu. l = b = h = a (say) ∴ The surface area of a cube = 6a2 Main Diagonal of a cube = 3a To find the volume of a cuboid. BCHF. So. we first define the unit of measurement of volume. In Fig. cm. To find the volume of a cuboid. then the total surface area of cuboid = sum of the areas of six faces ABCD. 24. Fig. EFGH. ABFE and DCHG = (lh + lh + bh + bh + lb + lb) = 2(lb + bh + hl) ∴ Total surface area of a cuboid = 2(lb + bh + hl) Main diagonal of a cuboid = l 2 + b2 + h2 Cube : A cube is a special case of a cuboid when all the edges are equal i. the volume of the cuboid = 60 cu. we are to find the number of unit cubes contained in it. AE = b and AD = h.

2 : If the surface area of a cube is 96 sq cm. where a is the side of cube ∴ 96 = 6 a2 a2 = 96 = 16 6 a = 4 cm ⇒ ∴ ∴ Volume of the cube = a3 = (4)3 cu cm = 64 cu cm.000 ⇒ x= 60. 2 m in breadth and 25 cm in thickness.000 cu. . 4 Volume = l.h = 3 × 2 × Example 24.b. we can deduce that Volume of a cuboid = length × breadth × height and Volume of cube = (edge)3 Let us now take some examples to illustrate the above formulae : Example 24. Solution : Volume of water in tank = 60. Solution : The surface area of cube = 6 a2. b = 2 m and h = 25 cm = Surface area = 2(lb + bh + hl) 1 1 = 2 3× 2 + 2 × 4 + 3× 4 25 1 m= m 100 4 FH F 1 3I = 2 H6 + 2 + 4K IK sq m sq m = 14.3 : A tank contains 60.1 : Find the surface area and volume of a slab of stone measuring 3 m in length.000 cu m Length of tank = 50 m Breadth of tank = 40 m Let depth of the tank be x m ∴ 50 × 40 × x = 60.5 cu m. find its volume. find its depth.5 sq m.216 Mathematics In general. m of water. 1 cu m = 1. Example 24. If the length and breadth are 50 m and 40 m respectively.000 = 30 m 50 × 40 Hence depth of the tank = 30 m. Solution : Here l = 3 m.

24. Example 24. Solution : Let the cuboid obtained by joining five cubes be as shown in Fig 24.4 = 3 . Determine the cost of wood required for it. find the surface area and the length of the main diagonal of the cube.6 : A wooden box 1. 1.516 cm.Surface Area and Volume of Solids 217 Example 24. DF is diagonal of a cube ∴ Length of the diagonal of a cube = 3 (side) Fig.13 cm = 13 3 cm or 22. Example 24. Find the surface area of the resulting cuboid. Solution : Volume of cube = (side)3 = 2197 cu cm = (13)3 cu cm ∴ Side of cube = 13 cm = 6(13)2 sq cm = 1014 sq cm Surface area of cube = 6 (side)2 sq units In Fig 24.5 Fig. are joined end to end.4 : If the volume of cube is 2197 cu cm. 24.4. if one sq m of wood costs Rs 10.5 : Five cubes each of edge 16 cm. Solution : Surface area of wood required = lb + 2bh + 2lh [Q The box has five faces] .5 m long.25 m wide and 65 cm deep and open at the top is to be made.5 ∴ l = 16 × 5 = 80 cm b = 16 cm h = 16 cm ∴ Surface area of the resulting cuboid = 2(lb + bh + hl) = 2(80 × 16 + 16 × 16 + 16 × 80) sq cm = 2(1280 + 256 + 1280) sq cm = 5632 sq cm.

25 × . Find the internal capacity (volume) of the box.75 sq cm = 1. Example 24.5 × 1.5 × . Example 24. Find how many cubic meter of water runs into the sea per second.8 : A river 10 meters deep and 100 meters wide is flowing at the rate of 4. ∴ Cost of wood required for the box = Rs (5.000 – 600) sq m = 29400 sq m ∴ Height of the field raised = 12 7200 m= m. 32 cm.65 × 2. The earth taken out of it is spread evenly over the field.5 km/hr = 4500 5 m/sec = m/s 3600 4 5 ∴ Length of river bed per second = 4 m/s Breadth = 100 m and depth = 10 m ∴ Volume of water flowing/sec = 5 × 100 × 10 cu m 4 = 1250 cu m.65 + 1.65) sq cm = 1.5 km an hour. A tank 30 m long. 27 cm Since the wood is 1 cm thick.218 Mathematics = 1.25 + 2(1. (32 – 2) cm.45 × 10) = Rs 54. Solution : Area of the field = (600 × 50) sq m = 30000 sq m Area of the tank = (30 × 20) sq m = 600 sq m Volume of earth taken out of tank = (30 × 20 × 12) cu m = 7200 cu m Area of the field. so the internal dimension will be (42 – 2) cm. 20 m broad and 12 m deep is dug in the field.9 : A field is 600 m long and 50 m broad. (27 – 2) cm ∴ Volume = (40 × 30 × 25) cu cm = 30000 cu cm.875 + 3. The wood used is 1 cm thick.7 : A closed wooden box measures externally as 42 cm by 32 cm by 27 cm.450 sq cm. Solution : Here external dimensions are 42 cm. 29400 49 .875 + 2 × 0. where the earth is to be spread = (30.575 = 5. Solution : Rate of flow = 4.50. Find the height of the field raised by it. Example 24.

... 2. (vi) Length of diagonal of a cuboid = ..6 m 4. A closed wooden box measures externally as 50 cm by 40 cm by 30 cm........ Fill in the blanks to make each of the following statements true : (i) Total surface area of a cuboid = .6 cm (iii) 1. 5....197 cu m (iii) 15................5 m Height 2.5 m 3..625 cu cm...Surface Area and Volume of Solids 219 Example 24.10 : A cuboidal beam is 8 meters long....... Find the capacity of the box..... Find the volume and surface area of each of the following cuboids : Length (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 6m 15 cm 10 m 3m Breadth 3m 10 cm 4m 2....... 50 cm broad and 20 cm thick. The wood used in 2 cm thick.......5 cu meters ? ......... Find the surface areas and the volumes of the cubes with edges (i) 5 cm (ii) 3..... (v) Volume of a cube = . How many boxes it can hold if each box occupies a space of 1.. width 8 meters and height 6 meters.....5 m 5 cm 75 cm 1. 6.... (iv) Volume of a cuboid = ... (iii) Total surface area of a cube = ..... (ii) Surface area of a cuboid open at the top = .1 1... What is its cost at Rs 7000 per cubic meter ? 50 20 Solution : Volume of beam 8 × 100 × 100 = 4 cu m 5 FH IK cu m Cost of the beam = Rs FH 4 × 7000I K 5 = Rs 5600 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24. The length of a room is 12 meters... Find the edges of a cube whose volume is (i) 3375 cu cm (ii) 2.

24. Three cubes each of side 8 cm are joined end to end.6. 24.7 . 24. 24. It its volume is V. it describes the cylinder shown in Fig 24. Find the surface area of the resulting cuboid. we come across many solids like water pipes. 9. 27 dm. 24.6.6 Fig. thin cans.75 cubic meters. r is the radius of the base and h is the height of the cylinder. powder box.1 Volume of a Cylinder = (area of the base) × height = π r2h cubic units where. Fig.75 m and of volume 33. We note that the ends (or bases) of a right circular cylinder are congurent circles and the line joining the centres A and B of these circles is perpendicular to the two ends. 12 dm is made of wood 1 dm thick. In our daily life. beakers in the laboratory. The areas of three adjacent faces of a cuboid are a. What is the capacity of the box and what is the volume of wood used in it ? 8. A cuboidal box whose external dimensions including the lid are 32 dm. Thus if the rectangle ABCD revolves about the side AB.6.6 RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER A right circular cylinder is a solid generated by the revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides which remains fixed. Find the total surface area of a wooden plank of width 3 m. 10. which are right circular cylinders.2 Curved Surface of a Cylinder Area of the rectangle obtained by cutting a hollow cylinder along any line on its surface parallel to the axis is called its curved surface area. b and c. prove that V2 = abc.220 Mathematics 7. thickness 0.

12 : A hollow cylindrical tube. In all proboems use π = 7 unless stated otherwise. Example 24.11 : Find the volume and the total surface area of a closed right cylinder whose radius is 7 m and height is 10 m. then its curved surface area = 2 π rh + π r2 sq units. then the total surface area = curved surface area + area of two ends = 2 π rh + 2 π r2 sq units = 2 π r (r + h) sq units And if the cylinder is closed from one end and open form the other. If the external diameter is 12 cm and the length of tube is 70 cm. find the volume of iron used in making the tube. Solution : Here external radius (R) = 6 cm and and ∴ internal radius (r) = 6 – 1 = 5 cm height (h) = 70 cm Volume of iron = External volume – Internal volume = π R2h – π r2h = π h(R2 – r2) = 22 × 70 × (36 – 25) cu cm 7 = 220 × 11 cu cm = 2420 cu cm. Example 24. Solution : Here r = 7 m and h = 10 m ∴ Volume = π r2h = 22 × 7 × 7 × 10 cu m 7 = 1540 cu m Total surface area = 2 π r (r + h) =2 × 22 × 7 × (7 + 10) sq m 7 = 22 × 34 = 748 sq m.Surface Area and Volume of Solids 221 ∴ Curved surface area of a cylinder = 2 π rh If the cylinder is closed at both ends. 22 Let us now take some examples to illustrate the above formulae. . open at both ends is made of iron 1 cm thick.

Solution : Volume of earth dug out = π r2h = FH 22 × 56 × 56 × 20I K 7 10 10 2 cu m = 1971. If it takes 200 revolutions to level a playground.44 sq m ∴ Height of the field raised = Volume 1971.15 : A cubic meter of iron is drawn into a wire of diameter 3.2 sq m ∴ Area swept in 200 revolution = 2.75 = Rs 330.2 = = 0. = Use π = 7 .5 mm.6 m and depth 20 cm is dug in the field and the earth taken out of it is spread evenly over the field.14 : A field is 150 m long and 70 m broad. Example 24. Find the 22 length of the wire. find the cost of levelling at the rate of 75 paise per sq m.13 : The diameter of a roller 1 m long is 70 cm.2 cu m.95 cm. Solution : Here r = 35 cm = 0.2 × 200 = 440 sq m ∴ Cost of levelling = 440 × 0. Find the height of the field raised by it.1895 m area 10401. Area of field = (150 × 70) sq m = 10500 sq m L 22 F 56I O Area of base of tank = M 7 × H 10 K P sq m N Q = 98.222 Mathematics Example 24. Solution : Volume of iron melted = 1 cu m = 100 × 100 × 100 cu cm LM N OP Q .35 m and h = 1 m ∴ Curved surface area = 2 π rh 22 × 35 × 1 = 2× sq m 7 100 = 2. Example 24. A circular tank of radius 5.44 = 18.56 sq m ∴ Area of the field where the earth is to be spread = 10500 – 98.56 sq m = 10401.

2 1.... The water is emptied into a rectangular tub of length 66 cm and breadth 28 cm.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24. Fill in the blanks to make each of the following statements true : (i) Volume of a right circular cylinder = ... Example 24... water rises to a height of 4 cm in the tub...... 66 × 28 × h = 7392 or h= 7392 = 4 cm 66 × 28 i..... 22 × 7 × 7 × x = 100 × 100 × 100 7 40 40 x = 100 × 100 × 100 × 7 × 40 × 40 cm 22 7 7 1 × 40 × 40 = 10 × km 22 7 = 103896 m (approx).e. Let h be the height to which water rises in the tub.. ∴ Volume of water in the tub = 66 ×28 × h cu cm ∴ By the problem.16 : A cylindrical bucket of diameter 28 cm and height 12 cm..Surface Area and Volume of Solids 223 Let the length of the wire be x cm ∴ 7 Volume of wire = π 40 = FH IK 2 × x cu cm 22 × 7 × 7 × x cu cm 7 40 40 By the problem. Solution : Volume of water in the bucket = π r2h = 22 × 14 × 14 × 12 cu cm 7 = 7392 cu cm... is full of water... (ii) Surface area of a closed cylinder = ... . Find the height to which water rises in the tub....

open at both ends. A rectangular piece of paper 33 cm long and 16 cm wide is rolled along its breadth to get a cylinder of height 16 cm. If the external diameter be 50 cm and the length of tube be 140 cm. and spread it into a sector ABC as shown in Fig 24. In Fig 24. find its volume. let us cut it along its slant height. Find the curved surface area of the cylinder. The volume of right circular cylinder is 3080 cu cm and the radius of base is 7 cm. 9. Find the height of the embankment. Calculate the ratios of their volumes and of the cured surface areas. Find the whole surface area of a hollow cylinder open at the ends.7.1 Surface Area of a Right circular cone To find the total surface of a cone... The diameter of a garden roller is 2... 7. Earth taken out of it has been spread all-around it to a width of 5 meters to form an embankment. 24..5 m long. A hollow cylindrical tube. find volume of iron used in making the tube. A well.. 24..9.8 .. Find the volume of the cylinder.. 4. How much area will it cover in 100 revolutions ? 10. 6..8 m and it is 1. 8. A water storage tank has a cylindrical shape.....5 m 1.... the external diameter is 10 cm and the thickness is 2 cm ( π = 3...8 right triangle AOB revolves along AO to generate the cone of height ‘h’ and radius ‘r’ and slant height l = AC.4 m 3.. The radii of two cylinders are in the ratio 3 : 2 and their heights are in the ratio 7 : 4.. (iv) Surface area of a cylinder open at both ends = ... is made of iron 2 cm thick. Find the volumes and total surface area of the following cylinders : Radius (i) (ii) (iii) 7 cm 10 cm 5m Height 12 cm 3. 24.. 5..7 SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE A right circular cone is a solid generated by the revolution of a right angled triangle about one of the its sides containing the right angle as axis.224 Mathematics (iii) Surface area of a cylinder open at the top = . is dug 14 meters deep.. 2. If it is 2. if its length is 8 cm. with 10 meters inside diameter. Fig.1 m high and has a diameter 1 m...1416).

2πr = π rl sq. units 2 Since area of the base is πr2.Surface Area and Volume of Solids 225 Fig.8 SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF A SPHERE A sphere is a solid generated by the revolution of a semicircle about its diameter. 24. 24. so total surface area = πrl + πr2 = πr(l + r) 24. l. It can also be defined as under : A sphere is the locus of a point which moves in space such that its distance from a fixed point in space remains constant. arc BC. radius AC . O is the centre and OP = r is the radius. we use the following formulae.7. Surface area of sphere = 4 π r2 Volume of sphere = 4 πr 3 3 Fig 24. To find the surface area and the volume of a sphere. 3 24. In Fig.9 Thus curved surface area = = 1 .10 .2 Volume of a Right circular cone Volume of a cone = = 1 × area of base × height 3 1 2 πr h cu units. The fixed point is called the centre of sphere and the constant distance is called the radius of sphere.10. 2 1 .

12 196 .4g 2 + 92 Fig 24.1 m Curved surface area = π rl = 22 × 14 × 9.4 m and h = 9 m ∴ Volume of cone = = 1 πr 2 h 3 1 × 22 × 14 × 14 × 9 cu m 3 7 10 10 = 18.96 = 9.04 + 6.04 sq m Total surface area = π rl + π r2 22 × 14 × 14 = 40.8.16 sq m = 46. curved surface area of a hemisphere = 2 π r2 Volume of a hemisphere = 2 πr 3 3 Fig 24.17 : Find the volume.20 sq m.11] Thus. curved surface area and the total surface area of a right circular cone.48 cu m l= = r 2 + h2 = b1.04 + sq m 7 10 10 = 40. 24.1 Hemisphere A hemisphere is obtained by cutting a sphere into two equal halves by a plane passing through its centre [Fig. . the radius of whose base is 14 m and the height is 9 m.1 sq m 7 10 = 40.226 Mathematics 24. + 81 = 82.11 Total surface area of a solid hemisphere = 2 π r2 + π r2 = 3 π r2 Let us now take some examples : Example 24. Solution : Here r = 1.

Solution : Here radius = 10.20 : Find the diameter of a sphere whose volume is 38808 cu cm. new radius = 3 r units ∴ Volume of sphere V2 = 4 π 3r 3 b g 3 = 4 πr 3 3 3 cu units 3 bg ∴ ∴ Ratio is 1 : 27. 4 πr 3 = 38808 3 ∴ 4 πr 3 3 r3 = ∴ ∴ 38808 × 3 × 7 4 × 22 = 441 × 21 = (21)3 r = 21 Radius of the sphere = 21 cm.Surface Area and Volume of Solids 227 Example 24. .19 : If the radius of a sphere is tripled. Thus diameter of the sphere is (21 × 2) or 42 cm.18 : Find the surface area and the volume of a sphere of radius 10.5 cm 4 3 4 22 21 21 21 ∴ Volume = 3 πr = 3 × 7 × 2 × 2 × 2 cu cm = 4851 cu cm Surface area = 4 π r2 22 × 21 × 21 = 4× sq cm 7 2 2 = 1386 sq cm. Example 24.5 cm. what is the ratio of the volume of original sphere to that of the second ? Solution : Let the radius of sphere = ‘r’ units ∴ Volume of sphere V1 = 4 πr 3 cu units 3 When the radius is tripled. 4 πr 3 V1 3 = 1 V2 = 4 3 πr . Solution : Let r be the radius of the sphere Then its volume = By question.27 27 3 Example 24.

21 : Find the radius of the base of right circular cone of height 10.. Find the height of water in the cylindrical vessel. Fill in the blanks to make each of the following statements true : (i) Curved surface area of a cone = .....75 cm is transferred to a cylindrical vessel of radius 20 cm...22 : Rain water which fills a tub of dimensions 6 m × 4 m × 2....66 cu m = 6×4× 10000 Let the height of the water raised in the cylindrical vessel be h m ∴ Volume of water in cylindrical vessel = π r2h = = ∴ 22 × 20 × 20 × h cu m 7 100 100 22 h cu m 175 22 h = 0......25 m.. (ii) Total surface area of a cone = .. Its height = 10..228 Mathematics Example 24.5 = 176 3 7 ∴ ∴ r2 = 176 × 3 × 7 = 16 22 × 10...66 175 h= 66 × 175 = 5..5 cu cm 3 7 1 × 22 × r 2 × 10.. Solution : Volume of rain water collected in the tub 275 cu m = 0....5 cm and volume 176 cu cm. Example 24.. Solution : Let r be the radius of the base of the cone.3 ⇒ 1.. (iii) Volume of a cone = ..... 100 22 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24...5 r=4 Hence radius of the base = 4 cm. ..5 cm Then its volume = = ∴ 1 πr 2 h 3 1 × 22 × r 2 × 10.........

. 10. Find the diameter of a sphere of volume 4851 cu cm....5 m Height (h) 28 cm 12 cm 12 m 3.14] 7......... 12.... A conical tent is 6 m high with radius of base as 8 m (a) Find the cost of cloth required to make the tent.. The water is poured into a cylinder of base radius 7 cm. the radius of whose base is 5 m and whose height is 12 m ? 4... 8.... (v) Volume of a sphere = . Find the slant height and curved surface area of cone whose volume is 12936 cu cm and the diameter of whose base is 42 cm....Surface Area and Volume of Solids 229 (iv) Surface area of a sphere = . It is melted to form smaller spheres of diameter 1. Find the volume. Show that their volumes are inthe ratio 1 : 2 : 3.... How many meters of cloth 3 m wide will be required to make a conical tent. 5.. [Use π = 3. 9.. Find the volume and the surface area of a sphere of radius 2.1 cm. if one square meter of cloth costs Rs 30.....75 cm.. 11. (b) How many persons can sit in the tent if each person requires 4 sq m of space on the ground and 20 cu meter of air to breath in.. a hemisphere and a cylinder stand on equal bases and have same height. The radius of an iron sphere is 3..... 6... A cone.. The cup is full of water.. . A conical cup of height 15 cm has a base radius of 12. 2..5 cm. Find the height to which water will rise in the cylinder. Find the number of smaller spheres formed. Find the radius of the base of a right circular cone of height 21 cm and volume 550 cu cm....... Find its volume. The area of the base of a right circular cone is 616 sq cm and its height is 9 cm. (vii) Total surface area of a solid hemisphere = ..6 cm... the curved surface area and the total surface area of right circular cone with the following dimensions : Radius (r) (i) (ii) (iii) 21 cm 14 cm 3. (vi) Volume of a hemisphere = ....

Solution : Area of four walls 2(l + b) h = 2(7 + 4) 3 = 66 sq m Area of two windows = 2 × 1 1 × 1 = 3 sq m 2 1 = 6 sq m 2 Area of two doors = 2 × 2 × 1 ∴ Area of walls to be papered = 66 – (3 + 6) = 57 sq m ∴ ∴ Length of the paper = 57 = 114 m . We can spread out into one continuous rectangle as shown in Fig 24.15(i) represents the four walls of a room of length (l). 4 meters broad and 3 meters high. breadth (b) and height (h). . is to be made of thin cardboard and cut along its height AB. 24.23 : A room.15 (ii) Length of this rectangle = Perimeter of room = 2(length + breadth) = 2(l + b) Breadth of this rectangle = height of room = h ∴ Area of four walls of room = Perimeter × Height = 2(l + b) × h. Suppose a box open on both sides.230 Mathematics 24. Find the cost of papering the walls with paper 50 2 2 cm wide at Rs 15 per meter. (i) Fig.5 Cost = Rs 114 × 15 = Rs 1710. has two windows 1 1 m × 1 m and two doors 2 m × 1 1 m. Let us take some examples and illustrate : Example 24.8 AREA OF FOUR WALLS OF A ROOM Let Fig 24. 7 meters long.15(ii).

5 .Surface Area and Volume of Solids 231 Example 24.24 : The length of a room is 6..5 + b) × h = 44 Area of floor = l × b = 6. we have (6.5 + 4.h × 28 or ∴ 6.5 × b × 112 = 3276 b = 4.(i) .. Example 24.5 + b) × h × 28 = 2464 (6...5 m.(iii) or Putting in (i) we get 11 2 b = 77 7 ..(i) Cost of painting the walls = 2(6.5 + b). The cost of painting the walls at Rs 28 per square meter is Rs 2464.(ii) or..5 m. From (i)..5 × b sq m Cost of carpeting = Rs 6. and the cost of carpeting the room at Rs 112 per square meter is Rs 3276..5 + b).25 : The area of the floor of a room is 77 square meters. Find the height and width of the room. Find the dimensions of the room.5) h = 44 or h=4 m Hence.5 m Let breadth of the room be b m and height of the room = h m ∴ ∴ Area of four walls = 2(6.. and the two shorter walls together is 56 square meters. Solution : Length of the room = 6.5 × b × 12 . breadth ‘b’ and height ‘h’ Then or and or ∴ l × b = 77 2(l × h) = 88 l ×h = 44 2 (b × h) = 56 b × h = 28 l 44 = 11 = b 28 7 l= 11 b 7 .(ii) . Solution : Let length of room be ‘l’. the height of room = 4 m and its width = 4.h sq m 2(6.. The area of the two larger walls together is 88 square meters.

Find the cost of papering the remaining portion of the walls at the rate of Rs 1. b = 12 m. Volume of a cuboid = l × b × h. where a is its side. The doors and windows in the room occupy a space of 5 square meters.4 1. Find the cost of painting the walls and the ceiling of a room measuring 10 m × 6m ×3 m at the rate of Rs 1. Find the area of four walls of the room in each of the following cases : (i) l = 8 m.25 × 1 m. A right circular cylinder is a solid generated by revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides. each having an area of 3 square meters and 4 windows each measuring 1. 4. and the area of the floor is 4875 sq dm. LET US SUM UP z The figures. Total surface area of a cuboid = 2(lb + bh + hl) Total surface area of a cube = 6a2. which remains fixed. It has three doors. Find the cost of papering the remaining portion of the walls with paper 75 cm wide.50 per square meter. b = 6 m. (ii) l = 20 m. are called Solid figures. A room is 6 m long. h = 3m. 5. which occupy space and have more than two dimensions. h = 8 m 2. 3. at the rate of Rs 1. A room measures 9 m × 7m × 3m.232 Mathematics b2 = or ∴ 77 × 7 11 b=7 m l= 11 × 7 44 = 11 m and h = =4m 7 11 ∴ The length of the room is 11m. z z z z z z z .50 per square meter.20 per meter. The amount of space occupied by the solid object is called its Volume. The area of two side walls of a room is 5250 sq dm and the area of the two end walls 4550 sq dm. Volume of a cube = a3. 5 m wide and 4 m high. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 24. The sum of the areas of the plane figures making up the boundary of a solid object is called its surface area. Find the dimensions of the room. its breadth is 7 m and its height is 4 m.

z Surface area of a sphere = 4 π r2 Volume of a sphere = 4 3 πr 3 z z z Curved surface area of a hemisphere = 2 π r2 Total surface area of a solid hemisphere = 3 π r2 Volume of a hemi-sphere = 2 3 πr 3 z z Area of four walls of a room = 2(l + b) × h. How many bricks 20 cm × 10 cm × 7. If the room is to be 14 m long. so as to allow 2. 4. where l2 = r2 + h2 Total surface area of a solid cone = π rl + π r2 Volume of a cone = 1 2 πr h 3 z z z A sphere is a solid generated by the revolution of a semicircle about its diameter. If there is no waste in the process. Find the number of 5 cm cubes that can be cut out of a 15 cm cube. [1 metric ton = 1000 kg] . 2.2 sq m of floor area and 11 cu m of space for each child. TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. Find the edge of a cube of volume equal to the volume of a cuboid of dimensions 63 cm × 56 cm × 21 cm. find the edge of the new cube so formed. 4 and 5 cm respectively are melted and formed into a single cube. Three cubes of metals whose edges are 3.5 cm be carried by a truck whose capacity to carry load is 6 metric tons ? One cubic meter of bricks weighs 2000 kg. Total surface area of an cylinder open at one end = 2 π rh + π r2 Total surface area of a cylinder closed at both ends = 2 π rh + 2 π r2 = 2 π r (h + r) A right circular cone is a solid generated by the revolution of a right triangle about one of its sides containing the right angles as axis. 3.Surface Area and Volume of Solids 233 z z z z Volume of a cylinder = π r2h. Curved surface area of a cone = π rl. A school room is to be built to accommodate 70 children. what must be its breadth and height ? 5.

A room 12 meters long. If the internal length. If this water is poured into a cylinder with internal radius 21 cm. How much is the level of field raised ? 7. 10 cm ad 8 cm. 4 meters broad and 3 meters high has two windows 2 m × 1 m and a door 2. 16. A conical vessel of internal radius 14 cm and height 36 cm is full of water.5 cm thick and bottom is 1 cm thick. 8. Find the dimensions of the room. A well with 8.5 times its breadth. A field is 200 m long and 75 m broad. Earth taken out of it has been spread all around it to a width of 4 meters to form an embankment. Four cubes each of sides 5 cm are joined end to end. and the earth taken out of it is spread evenly over the field. Find the diameter of a sphere whose volume is 606. A cubic cm of gold is drawn into a wire 1/5 mm in diameter.14) 11. 17.4 meter inside diameter is dug 10 meter deep. find the height to which the water rises in the cylinder. The length of a room is 1. Find the whole surface area of a hollow cylinder open at the ends. Find the area of the floor. find the quantity of material used in the construction of the box. 15. 9. Find the slant height of a cone whose volume is equal to 12936 cubic meters and the diameter of whose base is 42 meters. 20 meter broad and 10 meter deep is dug in the field. The volume of a cone is 616 cubic meters. whose length is 15 m and breadth is twice its height. Find the surface area of the resulting cuboid. Find the cost of papering the walls with paper 50 cm wide at Rs 20 per meter. If the height of cone is 27 meters.234 Mathematics 6.375 cubic meter. takes 250 meters of paper 2 meters wide for its four walls. A hall. breadth and depth are respectively 14 cm. find the radius of its base. . The cost of carpeting it at Rs 150 per square meter is Rs 14400 and the cost of white washing the four walls at Rs 5 per square meter is Rs 625. the internal diameter is 8 cm and the thickness is 1 cm [Use π = 3. 14. if its length is 10 cm. 18.5 m × 2 m. and a tank 40 meter long. ( π = 3. 12. The sides of an open box are 0.14] 10. find the length of wire. Find the height of the embankment. 13.

3. 12 cm. 16. 896 sq cm.57 sq cm (iii) 110 cu cm.54 sq cn. 384 8. 836 sq cm (ii) 1100 cu cm.96 cu m 4. 55. 21 : 8 (iii) (v) 1 2 πr h 3 2 3 πr 3 (v) 3 π r2 2. 125 cu cm (iii) 15. 550 sq cm (iv) 11. 2310 cm2 10.25 cu m.3 cm 6. (i) 150 sq cm. (i) 15 cm 5. 811.3 cm2. 5. (i) 1848 c cm.3 cm2. 7500 cu m.14 sq cm 3. 50 9. (i) π rl (iv) 4 π r2 (ii) π rl + π r2 (v) 4 3 πr 3 (ii) 2(bh + hl) + lb (v) x3 (iii) 6x2 (vi) l2 + b2 + h2 (ii) 750 cu cm. 40. (ii) 1. 848. 1. 201. 117 sq m (ii) 2 π r(r + h) (iii) 2 π rh + π r2 4. 43056 cm3 7.65 cu m 6. 1386 cu cm 7. 63 : 16. 1320 sq m Check Your Progress 24. 3696 cm2 (ii) 2464 cm3. (i) π r2h (iv) 2 π rh 2. 2310 cm2. 38. 68 m (approx) 6.3 1.1 1. 5. (i) 12936 cm3.65 cu cm (iii) 2. (i) 45 cu cm. 1427. 64 4. 48000 cu cm 9. 101 sq m 3. 880 sq m 8.36 sq m.8 cm3. (i) 2(lb + bh + hl) (iv) lbh 2.2 1. 134.Surface Area and Volume of Solids 235 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 24. 1848 cm3 7. 176 m2 3.5 sq m (ii) 77. 31. 433. 81 sq cm (iii) 30 cu m. 46. 2868 cu m Check Your Progress 24. 35 cm.68 m 10.5 cm 9.2 cm 8.44 cm2 .76 sq cm.5 m2. (iii) 154 m3.

8 cm2 12. 5 m 7. 14 m 3 2. 365 cm3 11. 84 m2. Rs 234 5. 42 cm 18.9 m 9. 1. Rs 123 Terminal Exercise 1. 3. 2. 65 dm.236 Mathematics Check Your Progress 24.80 3.55 m 14. 75 dm. 3. Rs 132. 31. Rs 3480 17. 450 cm2 10. 2574. 6 cm 6. 8 m. 11 m. 27 5.4 1. 512 m2 4. 2000 8. 300 sq m .84 m 13. 35 dm.125 m. 12m. 35 m 15. 42 cm 4. 16. 16 m 3 3.

Surface Area and Volume of Solids 237 .

in terms of rotation of a ray from its initial position to its final position. But it goes to the credit of Neelkanth Somstuvan (1500 A. . we shall define an angle-positive or negative. In that. trigonometric ratios of complementary angles and solve simple problems on height and distances. We know that problems of this and related problems can be solved only with the help of a science called trigonometry. The first introduction to this topic was done by Hipparcus in 140 B.. 45° and 60°.D.D. he used the words Jaya.D. In this chapter. Kotijya and “sparshjya” which are presently used for sine. he wants to have an approximation of the distance between him and the temple.) while writing his work on Goladhayay. depression and gave examples of some problems on heights and distance.C. in terms of its sides develop some trigonometric identities. But it was Aryabhatta (476 A. Before venturing to start climbing the hill. The subject was completed by Bhaskaracharya (1114 A. when he hinted at the possibility of finding distances and heights of inaccessible objects. using at the most two right triangles. using angles of 30°. Tolemy again raised the same possibility and suggested the use of a right triangle for the same.) who developed the science and used terms like elevation.240 Mathematics Module 5 Trigonometry Imagine a man standing near the base of a hill. cosine and tangent (of an angle). In 150 A.) whose introduction to the name “Jaya” lead to the name “sine” of an acute angle of a right triangle.D. looking at the temple on the top of the hill. define trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right triangle.

astronomy etc. trigonometry is that branch of Mathemetics which deals with the measurement of sides and angles of a triangle. z z z 25. the learner will be able to z z write the trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right triangle. Thus. navigation. This branch of Mathematics has been instrumental in the development of architecture.Introduction to Trigonometry 241 25 Introduction to Trigonometry 25.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. The great astronomer Hipparchus is said to have developed this branch of Mathematics. . The Indian traditional texts like Surya Sidhant have developed and used the knowledge of trigonometry extensively. 25. find the sides and angle of a right triangle when some of its sides and trigonometric ratios are known. surveying. equilateral. solve problems based on trigonometric ratios and identities. establish trigonometric identities. write the relationships among trigonometic ratios. obtuse and right Types of triangles–acute.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z z z Concept of an angle Construction of right triangles Drawing parallel and perpendicular lines Types of angles–acute.1 INTRODUCTION The word ‘Trigonometry’ is derived from the word “Trigon” meaning “a triangle” and “metron” meaning “measurement”. obtuse and right Types of triangles–isosceles.

25. 25. (See Fig. Let ∠POB = θ. (θ is a Greek letter. an angle POB is formed with x-axis. Let PB = p. Draw PB ⊥ OX.1 Side opposite to angle θ PB p tangent of θ = Adjacent side to angle θ = OB = b Adjacent side to angle θ OB b cotangent θ = Side opposite to angle θ = PB = p secant θ = cosecant θ = Hypotenuse = OP = h Adjacent side to angle θ OB b Hypotenuse = OP = h Side opposite to angle θ PB p The above trigonometric ratios are written below in an abbreviated form : sine of θ is abbreviated as sin θ cosine of θ is abbreviated as cos θ tangent of θ is abbreviated as tan θ cotangent of θ is abbreviated as cot θ secant of θ is abbreviated as sec θ and cosecant of θ is abbreviated as cosec θ Notes 1. Let A be a point on OX.4 TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF AN ACUTE ANGLE Let XOX' and YOY' be rectangular axes of co-ordinates. Thus. Throughout the study of trigonometry we shall be using only abbreviated form of these trigonometric ratios. we define the following trigonometric ratios for angle θ. sine of θ = cosine of θ = Side opposite to angle θ PB p = = Hypotenuse OP h Adjacent side to angle θ OB b = = Hypotenuse OP h Fig. . 2. sin θ is an abbreviation for “sine of angle θ”and not the product of sin and θ.1). Let the ray OA start rotating in the plane in an anti-clockwise direction from the initial position OA about the point O till it reaches its final position OP after some interval of time.242 Mathematics 25. OB = b and OP = h. Now clearly ∆PBO is right angled triangled. and we read it as “theta”).

4 ∆ABC is a right angled triangle. 25.3. these trigonometic ratios depend only on the magnitude of angle θ and not on the size of the right triangle. Solution : In right angled ∆ABC.2 : In Fig. You must have observed that these trigonometric ratios are the ratios of the sides of a right angled triangle.4 .2. 25.. sin C = opposite side AB 1 = = hypotenuse AC 2 adjacent side BC 1 = = hypotenuse AC 2 Fig. find sin C. cos C and tan C. 25.. right angled at B. 25.(AAA) PM MO PO = = k (say) = P' M ' M ' O P' O PM = k P'M' OP = k P'O MO = k M'O Fig. 25. cot C and sec C.2 Now in ∆P'M'O. ∆ABC has a right angle at B. 25. find cosec C. P' M ' kP' M ' PM = = sin θ = OP' kOP' OP i.1 : In Fig.e. let ∠POM = θ ∆PMO ~ ∆P'M'O ∴ Thus. Thus the trigonometric ratios are independent of the length of the sides of the right triangle.Introduction to Trigonometry 243 So far you have defined six trigonometic ratios. AC = 13 cm and BC = 12 cm. the value of sin θ is the same for both the triangles PMO and P'M'O. If AB = BC = 1 cm and AC = 2 cm. Example 25.3 2 cm cos C = and opposite side AB 1 = = =1 tan C = adjacent side BC 1 Example 25. In Fig. Let us verify this by taking right triangles of different sizes as shown in Fig. Thus. 25.2. If AB = 5 cm. Solution : ∆ABC is a right angled triangle ∴ hypotenuse AC cosec C = opposite side = AB = 13 5 Fig. and ..

cot θ and sec θ. Solution : We know that adjacent side 40 cos C = hypotenuse = 41 opposite side 40 tan A = adjacent side = 9 adjacent side 40 cot C = opposite side = 9 Fig. AB = 9 cm. 25.6. 25.244 Mathematics adjacent side BC 12 cot C = opposite side = AB = 5 and hypotenuse AC 13 sec C = adjacent side = BC = 12 Example 25.4 : In right angled triangle ABC in Fig. Find the values of cos C. cot C and cosec A. If AB = 21 cm. 25.6 and hypotenuse 41 cosec A = opposite side = 40 . find sin θ. Solution : We know that opposite side sin θ = hypotenuse = BC = 20 AC 29 adjacent side cot θ = opposite side = and AB = 21 BC 20 Fig. BC = 20 cm and CA = 29 cm and ∠A = θ. tan A.3 : In Fig. 25.5. ABC is a right angled triangle.5 hypotenuse sec θ = adjacent side = = AC AB 29 21 Example 25. BC = 40 cm and CA = 41 cm.

If PQ = 5 cm and QR = 12 cm find the value of sin R. opposite side is PQ = 5 cm.5 GIVEN TWO SIDES OF A RIGHT TRIANGLE.8 and .7..[By Pythagoras theorem] 2 2 = (5) + (12) = 25 + 144 = 169 = (13)2 ∴ PR = 13 cm Now.5 : In Fig. ∆PQR is right angled at Q. Solution : ∆PQR is a right angled triangle.Introduction to Trigonometry 245 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25. adjacent side QR = 12 cm and the hypotenuse PR = 13 cm ∴ ∴ PQ 5 = PR 13 QR 12 = cos R = PR 13 PQ 5 tan R = QR = 12 sin R = Fig. TO FIND TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS When any two sides of a right triangle are given. 25. 25. 25. for ∠R.. Let us take some examples to illustrate : Example 25.7 25. cos R and tan R. We can find trigonometric ratios of the given angle as learnt in previous section. write all the six trigonometric ratios for the angle C : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Fig.1 In Fig. PR2 = PQ2 + QR2 . 25. its third side can be found out by using the Pythagoras theorem.8.

sec A and cosec A. 25.2 1. find the values of cot A. AC = 4 cm. in Fig. right angled at Q.6 : In Fig.246 Mathematics Example 25. 25. 25.10. . For ∆ABC right angled at B.. ∆ABC is a right triangle right angled at C. if AC = 10 cm. If BC = 3 cm. BC = 8 cm and AB = 6 cm. find tan θ. 25.7 : In triangle PQR.10 PR 25 = RQ = 7 PR 25 sec θ = PQ = 24 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25. find sin C..[By Pythagoras theorem] and cosec A = Example 25. Solution : ∆PQR is a right angled triangle ∴ or or or ∴ ∴ cosec θ and (PR)2 = (RQ)2 + (PQ)2 (25)2 = (7)2 + (PQ)2 625 = 49 + (PQ)2 (PQ)2 = 625 – 49 = 576 = (24)2 PQ = 24 cm RQ 7 tan θ = PQ = 24 Fig.9. cos C and tan C. Solution : ∆ABC is a right angled triangle ∴ AB2 = BC2 + AC2 = (3)2 + (4)2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = (5)2 ⇒ ∴ AB = 5 cm cot A = sec A = AC = 4 BC 3 AB 5 = AC 4 AB 5 = BC 3 Fig.9 . QR = 7 cm and ∠RPQ = θ. PR = 25 cm. cosec θ and sec θ.

25.11. cosec R.8 : If sin θ = 7 . Find 5. sin θ. ∆ABC is a right angled triangle. Find sec P. 3 cm. find the value of cos θ and tan θ. the values of the other trigonometric ratios can be easily found out. 25 Solution : Draw a right angled triangle ABC in which ∠B = 90° and ∠C = θ. cos θ = and tan θ = BC = 24 AC 25 AB = 7 BC 24 BC = 24 or or .Introduction to Trigonometry 247 2. 4. right angled at C.11 AB = 7 and AC = 25 AC2 = AB2 + BC2 By the Pythagoras theorem. cosec A and cot A. We know that opposite side AB sin θ = hypotenuse = AC = Let 7 25 Fig. 25. In right angled ∆PQR. as shown in Fig. In ∆PQR. In right angled triangle ABC. TO FIND THE OTHERS If one trigonometric ratio is given. cot P and cosec P.6 GIVEN ONE TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO. AC = 25 cm. we have (25)2 = (7)2 + BC2 BC2 = 625 – 49 = 576 = (24)2 ∴ Now in ∆ABC. AB = 7 cm and ∠ACB = θ. If BC = 24 cm and AC = 7 cm. 25. right angled at Q. sin P and sec P. PQ = tan R. find sin A. Let us take some example to illustrate this : Example 25. PR = 10 2 cm and QR = 10 cm. sec θ and tan θ. find cot θ. QR = 1 cm and PR = 2 cm. 3.

AC2 = AB2 + BC2 = (5)2 + (12)2 = 25 + 144 = 169 = (13)2 ∴ Now AC = 13 sin θ = cot θ = and tan θ = AB = 5 AC 13 BC = 12 AB 5 AB = 5 BC 12 Fig. right angled at B.12. tan C = 1 = AB 3 BC . if tan C = sin A cos C + cos A sin C. 25 2 θ. 25.sin θ 5 tan θ Solution : In Fig. = 25 169 5 tan θ 12 = 144 × 12 = 1728 169 5 845 Example 25. ∆ABC is a right angled triangle and ∠B = 90° We know that.sin 2 θ cot Hence.12 144 . ABC is a right angled triangle and ∠C = θ We have adjacent side BC 12 cot θ = opposite side = AB = 5 Let BC = 12 and AB = 5 In right angled triangle ABC.13.9 : If cot θ = 2 2 12 . 1 . 25. find the value of cot θ. fiind the values of 3 Solution : In Fig.248 Mathematics Example 25. 25.10 : In ∆ABC.

determine the values of sin A and tan A. sin A cos C + cos A sin C = 3+1 4 4 4 =1 4 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25. If sin θ = 2.cot θ 1 − sec 2 θ . AB = 1 and BC = AC2 = AB2 + BC2 = (1)2 + ( 3 )2 3 .1 2 2 2 2 = = 24 .(By Pythagoras theorem) = 1 + 3 = 4 = (2)2 ∴ ∴ AC = 2 sin C = AB = 1 AC 2 3 cos C = BC = 3 AB 2 cos A = AB = 1 AC 2 Fig. 25.. 25 m 4. find the values of cos θ and tan θ. find the values of sin θ and cos θ.Introduction to Trigonometry 249 ∴ Also. If cos θ = 4 . determine the values of cot θ and cosec θ. 29 3.13 sin A = BC = 3 AC 2 Hence. 5. 3 + 1. If tan θ = 3. 7 7 .3 1. If cos A = 20 .. evaluate the following expression : 5 cos θ. If cos θ = n .

we have sin θ = cos θ = and tan θ = = = AB AC BC AC AB BC AB . find the value of 3 sin2θ cos θ + tan2θ 7. show that tan2A – sin2A = sin4A sec2A 5 25. If cot A = 12 . sin θ cos θ 1 AC 1 = AB = AB = cos ec θ sin θ AC 1 AC 1 = BC = BC = sec θ cos θ AC . 4 3 find sin B and tan B. show that cosec2B = 1 + cot2B. AC AC BC AB ÷ BC AC AC Fig.250 Mathematics 6. If tan A = 1 and tan B = 3 9.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS We know that in a right triangle ABC. If cot B = 5 .14 = sin θ ÷ cos θ = Also. Triangle ABC is a right triangle with ∠C = 90°. right angled at B. show that cos A cos B – sin A sin B = 0 10. If cosec θ = 2 . 25. If tan A = 3 . 2 8.

11 : If cos θ = Solution : We know that cosec θ = 1 = 1 = 2 sin θ 3 3 2 1 and sin θ = 3 . 25. right angled at C.15 . ∆ABC is a right triangle.12 : For a ∆ABC. Solution : In Fig.Introduction to Trigonometry 251 and Thus. find the values of cosec θ. 2 2 1 1 sec θ = cos θ = 1 = 2 2 and 3 sin θ 2 tan θ = cos θ = 1 2 = 3×2= 3 2 1 Example 25. find the value of cos B. sec θ and tan θ. we have 1 BC 1 = AB = AB = cot θ tan θ BC tan θ = cosec θ = sec θ = sin θ cos θ 1 sin θ 1 cos θ 1 = cos θ tan θ sin θ Let us take some examples to illustrate : and cot θ = Example 25. right angled at C We have BC tan A = 1 = AC AC = 1 = BC AB = Let ∴ Now Hence 2 BC 1 cos B = AB = 2 cos B = 1 2 Fig. 25.15. if tan A = 1.

You have also learnt to define all the trigonometric ratios corresponding to that angle. Let us recall them here also. calculate the value of cot θ and sec θ. Take any point P on a ray OA'. Let ∠A'OA = θ. tan A = tan2B sec2A – (tan2A + cot2B) 25. you have learnt to define an angle with the help of the rotation of a ray from initial to the final position. 25. find the value of In section 25. If sin θ = 2. Q PM 2 + OM 2 = OP2 PM . then find the value 2 3 .. find the value of cos θ + sin θ cot θ. right-angled at C. 2 2 3 and tan θ = 2 2 3 . find the value of sin A and tan A. sin θ = cos θ = Squaring and adding. 5.. Let the ray OA start rotating in the plane in an anti-clockwise direction about the point O till it reaches the final position OA' after some interval of time. we get sin2θ + cos2θ PM 2 OM 2 + = OP 2 OP 2 = PM 2 + OM 2 OP 2 . If sin θ = 1 and cos θ = 3 .8 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES 3 . 3. Let A be any point on OX.252 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25. Let XOX' and YOY' be the rectangular axes. If cos A = of sin A sin B + cos A cos B. In a right angled triangle ABC right angled at B. Draw PM ⊥ OX. In a right angled triangle ABC. If cosec A = 2. In right angled ∆PMO.4 1. 4. OP OM OP Fig.16 OP 2 = OP 2 =1 .1.

2 and 3 in the following forms by making use of elementary algebraic operations.. Again...(1) OP PM and tan θ = OM OM Squaring and subtracting these equations. we know that cosec θ = OP OM and cot θ = PM PM . sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 can be written as sin2θ = 1 – cos2θ .(2) Squaring and subtracting.(3) Note : You may also write identities 1. we get sec2θ – tan2θ = OP 2 PM 2 − OM 2 OM 2 OP 2 − PM 2 = OM 2 = OM 2 OM 2 sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 ... Q OP 2 − PM 2 = OM 2 =1 Hence..Introduction to Trigonometry 253 Hence Also. Q OP 2 = PM 2 + OM 2 = =1 Hence cosec2θ – cot2θ = 1 .. we know that sec θ = sin2θ + cos2 θ = 1 .. we get cosec2θ – cot2θ OP 2 OM 2 − = PM 2 PM 2 = OP 2 − OM 2 PM 2 PM 2 PM 2 ...

H..S. = tan θ + cot θ = sin θ cos θ + cos θ sin θ = sin 2 θ + cos2 θ sin θ..13 : Prove that tan θ + cot θ = Solution : 1 sin θ cos θ L.cos θ 1 sin θ.14 : Prove that sin A 1 + cos A + = 2 cosec A 1 + cos A sin A Solution : L. Q sin 2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 = R. Example 25.S.S = sin A 1 + cos A + 1 + cos A sin A sin 2 A + 1 + cos A sin A 1 + cos A = b b g g 2 = sin 2 A + 1 + 2 cos A + cos2 A sin A 1 + cos A b g = sin 2 A + cos2 A + 1 + 2 cos A sin A 1 + cos A b g .cos θ = .H.254 Mathematics or and cos2θ = 1 – sin2θ sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 can be written as sec2θ = 1 + tan 2 θ or tan2θ = sec2θ – 1 cosec2θ = 1 + cot2θ Also. cosec2θ – cot2θ = 1 can be written as or cot2θ = cosec2θ –1 Let us make use of these identities to solve some examples : Example 25.H.

.S. Example 25.H. = 1 − sin θ 1 + sin θ 1 − sin θ 1 + sin θ × 1 + sin θ 1 + sin θ 1 − sin 2 θ 1 + sin θ = = ..H. = = 1 − sin A 1 + sin A 1 − sin A 1 − sin A × 1 + sin A 1 − sin A 2 b1 − sin Ag = b1 − sin Ag = cos2 A 1 − sin 2 A 2 .15 : Prove that 1 − sin A = (sec A – tan A)2 1 + sin A Solution : L.H.Introduction to Trigonometry 255 = 2 1 + cos A 2 + 2 cos A = sin A 1 + cos A sin A 1 + cos A b g b b g g = 2cosec A = R.S.16 : Prove that cos θ 1 − sin θ = 1 + sin θ 1 + sin θ 2 = (sec A – tan A)2 Solution : L. Example 25.S.H.S. Q1 − sin2 A = cos2 A 2 F 1 − sin A IJ = G H cos A K F 1 − sin A IJ = G H cos A cos A K = R.

H....H. Example 25.S.S.H.H. Example 25. Q 1 = sec 2 θ − tan 2 θ d i = btan θ + sec θg − bsec θ + tan θgbsec θ − tan θg tan θ − sec θ + 1 = btan θ + sec θg − 1 − bsec θ − tan θg tan θ − sec θ + 1 = btan θ + sec θg − b1 − sec θ + tan θg 1 − sec θ + tan θ . Q1 − sin2 θ = cos2 θ = = R.256 Mathematics = cos2 θ 1 + sin θ cos θ 1 + sin θ . Q sin 2 A + cos2 A = 1 .H...S. Also.S.18 : Prove that tan θ + sec θ − 1 1 + sin θ = tan θ − sec θ + 1 cos θ .. = tan θ + sec θ − 1 tan θ − sec θ + 1 tan θ + sec θ − sec 2 θ − tan 2 θ tan θ − sec θ + 1 = d i .. cos2A – sin2A = (1 – sin2A) – sin2A = 1 − 2 sin 2 A = R.S. Q cos2 A = 1 − sin 2 A Solution : L.17 : Prove that cos4A – sin4A = cos2A – sin2A = 1 – 2sin2A Solution : L. = cos4A – sin4A = (cos2A)2 – (sin2A)2 = (cos2A – sin2A) (cos2A + sin2A) = cos2A – sin2A = R..

cos4θ + sin4θ – 2sin2θ cos2θ = (2cos2θ – 1)2 10.Introduction to Trigonometry 257 = tan θ + sec θ = = sin θ + 1 cos θ cos θ 1 + sin θ cos θ = R. sin A + sin A = 2 cos ecA 1 + cos A 1 − cos A 1 + cos A = 1 + cos A 1 − cos A sin A sec A − tan A = cos A sec A + tan A 1 + sin A 6. 1 − cos A = cos ecA − cot A 1 + cos A b g 2 14. (1 + tan2θ) sin2θ = tan2θ 5. sin A(1 + tan A) + cosA(1 + cot A) = sec A + cosec A 13. 7.6 Prove each of the following identities : 1.H. sin4A + sin2A cos2A = sin2A 3. tan A cot A + = 1 + sec A. cot A − cos ec A + 1 = sin A . (cosec2θ – 1) sin2θ = cos2θ 2. cos2θ (1 + tan2 θ) =1 4. (sin A – cos A)2 + 2sinA cosA = 1 9.S. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25. (cosec θ – sin θ) (sec θ – cos θ) (tan θ + cos θ) = 1 12. sin A − sin B + cos A − cos B = 0 cos A + cos B sin A + sin B 11.cos ecA 1 − cot A 1 − tan A cot A + cos ec A − 1 1 + cos A 15. 8.

21 . 5 20 . If tan A = 4 . we define trigonometric ratios as under : sin θ = cos θ = Side opposite to angle θ AB = Hypotenuse AC Adjacent side to angle θ BC = Hypotenuse AC Side opposite to angle θ AB tan θ = Adjacent side to angle θ = BC Adjacent side to angle θ BC cot θ = Side opposite to angle θ = AB Hypotenuse AC sec θ = Adjacent side to angle θ = BC Hypotenuse AC cosec θ = Side opposite to angle θ = AB z Fig. detemine the value of cos A and tan A. determine the value of cosec A and sec A. If sin A = 2. 25.258 Mathematics LET US SUM UP z In a right angled triangle.17 The following relationships exist between the trigonometic ratios (i) tan θ = sin θ cos θ 1 tan θ 1 cos θ (ii) cot θ = cos θ sin θ 1 sin θ (iii) cot θ = (iv) cosec θ = (v) sec θ = z The trigonometric identities are (i) sin2θ + cos2θ =1 (iii) cosec2θ – cot2θ = 1 TERMINAL EXERCISE (ii) sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 1.

If tan A = 1 and tan B = 8. Prove that sin3A – cos3A = (sin A– cos A) (1 + sin A cos A) 15. find the value of sin θ + cos θ. cos ec x + 1 cos x = cos ec x − 1 1 − sin x FH IK 2 14. If sec θ = 4 . find the value of sin θ and tan θ. If sec θ = 7. find the value of 4 1 + tan θ 6. 3 m . n 5. If cos = sin θ tan θ − 1 3 .Introduction to Trigonometry 259 3. If tan θ = 4. Prove that cot θ − 1 = cos ec θ 1 − tan θ sec θ 10. find the value of cos A cos B – sinA sin B (sec θ + tan θ) (1 – sin θ) = cos θ 9. Prove that tan A + cot B = tan A cot B cot A + tan B 13. Prove that 3 . find the value of 5 2 tan 2 θ 5 tan θ . Prove that tan θ + sin θ = sec θ + 1 tan θ − sin θ sec θ − 1 12. Prove that 1 − sin θ = 1 − sin θ 1 + sin θ cos θ 11. cos A + sin A = cos A+ sin A 1 − tan A 1 − cot A .

260 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 25. 3 cosec P = sin P = sec θ = 2 sec P = 2 3 3. cot θ = 3 .3 1. cot P = 1 and cosec R = sin θ = 7 . 3 sec C = 12 . 25 25 . 7 1 and 2 25 7 and tan θ = 24 24 Check Your Progress 25. 25 2 . 25 cos C = 4 5 and 25 and 24 tan C = cot A = 3 4 7 24 cosec A = 2. 3 cosec C = (iii) sin C = 24 . 5 5 and 4 7 . 24 . 24 cosec C = (iv) sin C = 3 . 5 cosec C = Check Your Progress 25. 5 24 . sin θ = 24 7 and cos θ = 25 25 . tan R = 5. 5 5 . 25 25 and 7 4 . 5 cos C = sec C = cos C = sec C = cos C = sec C = cos C = 5 . sin A = 3. sin C = 2. sec P = 4. 5 5 and 4 tan C = cot C = tan C = cot C = tan C = tan C = tan C = cot C = 5 12 12 5 3 4 4 3 24 7 7 24 3 4 4 3 cosec C = (ii) sin C = 3 . cos θ = 21 20 and tan θ = 29 21 2. 13 13 . 13 13 and 12 4 .1 (i) sin C = 5 .2 1.

3 160 1− 3 2 2 6. 3 4 1 1 and tan A = 3 2 3. sin B = Check Your Progress 25. sin θ = 3 7 m2 − n 2 and tan θ = m m2 − n 2 n 5. cot θ = 27 8 m and cosec θ = n 2 − m2 n n 2 − m2 5. cos A = 7 5 3 4 .4 1. tan B = 3 13 7. 7. 4. 2 2 . sin A = 14 5. cosec A = 29 29 . . tan A = 5 3 2. cot θ = 3 2 3 and sec θ = 2 3 2. sin A = −256 135 24 24 and tan A = 25 7 4. 4.Introduction to Trigonometry 261 3. 6. sec A = 20 21 3. − 3 Terminal Exercise 1.

45° and 60°. a triangle. in a right-angled triangle ABC right-angled at B. find trigonometric ratios of complementary angles. using trigonometric ratios.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous lesson. a triangle with three sides equal. solve daily life problems of heights and distances. 26.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. the angle formed with x-axis is positive. We will also use the knowledge of trigonometry to solve simple problems based on heights and distances taken from day to day life.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE The student must know before starting the lesson that : z when a ray rotates in an anti-clockwise direction about the origin. 26. we have defined trigonometric ratios for acute angles and developed some relationship between them. with one angle of 90°.262 Mathematics 26 Trigonometric Ratios of Some Special Angles 26. AC2 = AB2 + BC2. if the sum of two angles is 90°. then the angles are said to be complementary. right-angled at B sin C = z z z z z z opposite side hypotenuse hypotenuse cosec C = opposite side . in a right triangle ABC. is said to be an equilateral triangle. the learner will be able to : z z z find geometrically the trigonometric ratios for the angles of 30°. is called a right-angled triangle. 45° and 60° by using our knowledge of geometry. In this lesson. we shall find the values of trigonometric ratios of angels of 30°. recalls the conditions of congruency of two triangles.

Draw PM ⊥ OX.1. 26.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 263 cos C = adjacent side hypotenuse hypotenuse sec C = adjacent side adjacent side cot C = opposite side opposite side tan C = adjacent side 26.4 TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS FOR AN ANGLE OF 45° Let a ray OA rotate in the anti-clockwise direction and make an angle of 45° with x-axis (the initial position of the rotating line) at any interval of time as shown in Fig. OP2 = 2a2 OP = (By Pythagorus theorem) 2a ⇒ cosec 45°= PM a = 1 sin 45° = OP = 2a 2 OM a = 1 cos 45° = OP = 2a 2 2 ⇒ ⇒ sec 45°= 2 and tan 45° = PM = a = 1 OM a cot 45°= 1 .1 Now in the right-angled triangle PMO OP2 = OM2 + PM2 = a2 + a2 ⇒ ⇒ Now. 26. ∠OPM = ∠POM = 45° ⇒ Let OM = PM OM = a Fig. Now ∆PMO is a right-angled triangle We know that ∠POM + ∠OPM + ∠PMO = 180° 45° + ∠OPM + 90° = 180° ⇒ ∠OPM = 180° – 135° = 45° In ∆PMO. Take any point P on OA.

c.264 Mathematics Table for Trigonometric ratios for an angle of 45° sin 45° = cos 45° = 1 . in ∆PMO and ∆P′MO OM = OM ∠PMO = ∠P′MO PM = P′M ∴ ∴ ∆PMO ≅ ∆P′MO ∠OPM = ∠OP′M = 60° (Common) (Each is equal to 90°) (By construction) (SAS congruence) (c. ∴ Let Also OP = OP′ PM = a PP′ = PM + MP′ = a + a = 2a ⇒ OP = OP′ = PP′ = 2a (sides of an equilateral triangle) Now. in right-angled ∆PMO OP2 = PM2 + OM2 (Pythagoras theorem) . Join OP′. 26.t. 26.2 ⇒ ∆OPP′ is an equilateral triangle.p. 2 cosec 45° = sec 45° = cot 45° = 1 2 2 tan 45° = 1.) Fig.5 TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS FOR AN ANGLE OF 30° Let a ray OA rotate in the anticlockwise direction and make an angle of 30° with its initial position OX. Take any point P on OA Draw PM ⊥ OX. 2 1 . Now. Produce PM to P′ such that PM = P′M.

26. Draw PM ⊥ OX. Join PM′. Take any point P on it.3 (Common) (Each is equal to 90°) (Construction) (SAS congruence) . OM = sin 30° = 3a 1 PM a = = OP 2a 2 3a 3 OM = = 2 OP 2a ⇒ cosec 30° = 2 cos 30° = ⇒ sec 30° = 2 3 and tan 30° = a 1 PM = = OM 3a 3 ⇒ cot 30° = 3 Table for Trigonometric ratios for an angle of 30° sin 30° = cos 30° = tan 30° = 1 . Now produce OM to M′ such that OM = MM′. 3 cosec 30° = 2 sec 30° = 2 3 cot 30° = 3 26. 2 3.6 TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO OF AN ANGLE OF 60° Let a ray OA rotate in an anti-clockwise direction and make an angle of 60° with its initial position OX at any interval of time.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 265 or ⇒ (2a)2 = (a)2 + OM2 OM2 = 4a2 – a2 = 3a2 ⇒ Hence. Now ∆PMO is a right-angled triangle. Let OM = a Now. 2 1 . in ∆PMO and ∆PMM′ PM = PM ∠PMO = ∠PMM′ OM = MM′ ∴ ∆PMO ≅ ∆PMM′ Fig.

sin 90° = 1. cos 90° = 0. cosec 90° = 1 . cos 60° = tan 60° = 1 . 26. 45° and 60°. tan 90° = Not defined.7 TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS FOR ANGLES OF 0° AND 90° We have defined trigonometric ratios for acute angles 30°. For angles of 0° and 90° we shall use the following results. PM2 = 4a2 – a2 = 3a2 PM = 3a sin 60° = PM = 3a = 3 OP 2a 2 cos 60° = and tan 60° = OM = a = 1 OP 2a 2 PM = 3 OM ⇒ cosec 60° = ⇒ ⇒ sec 60° = 2 cot 60° = 2 3 1 3 Table for Trigonometric Ratios for an angle of 60° 3 sin 60° = 2 . cosec 0° = Not defined sec 0° cot 0° sec 90° cot 90° = 1 = Not defined = Not defined = 0 tan 0° = 0. = 1.266 Mathematics ∴ ⇒ ∴ ∠POM = ∠PM′M = 60° OP = PM′ = OM′ = 2a OP2 = PM2 + OM2 (2a)2 = (PM)2 + (a)2 (By Pythagoras theorem) ∆POM′ is an equilateral triangle In right-angled ∆PMO ⇒ ⇒ Hence. 2 cosec 60° = sec 60° cot 60° = 2 = 1 3 2 3 3. as axioms and will not give any logical proof for them Table for Trigonometric Ratios for Angles 0° and 90° sin 0° cos 0° = 0.

60° and 90° are quite often used in solving problems in our day-to-day life. 30°.1: Find the value of tan260° – sin230° Solution : We know that tan 60° = and sin 30° = 1 2 3 ∴ tan260° – sin230° = 1I d 3i − FH 2 K 2 2 1 11 = 3− = 4 4 .8 AN IMPORTANT TABLE : AN AID TO MEMORY The values of trigonometric ratios for angles 0°. the following table will enable us to remember the values of sin θ and cos θ more easily and we will be able to write the values of other trigonometric ratios by using the existing relation between them. Example 26. Thus. Ratio sin θ 0 4 4 4 0 4−0 Not defined 1 4 3 4 1 4 −1 3 4−3 4 1 4 3 2 4 2 4 2 4−2 2 4−2 4 2 4 2 3 4 1 4 3 4−3 1 4 −1 4 3 4 1 4 4 0 4 Not defined 0 4−0 4 4 Not defined 0° 30° 45° 60° 90° cos θ tan θ cot θ cosec θ Not defined 4 4 sec θ Let us now take some examples to illustrate the use of these trigonometric ratios. 45°.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 267 26. θ Trig.

H. 4 tan260° cosec245° + sec245° sin30° Example 26.4 : Verify that 4 cot 2 30°+3 sin 2 60°−2 cosec 2 60°− 3 tan 2 30° 10 = 3 4 3 Solution : We know that. sin 60° = 2 .3 : Verify that 1 tan 45° + sec 60° − 2 sin 90° = cosec 30° cot 45° cos 0° 2 Solution : We know that tan 45° = 1. tan260° – sin230° = 11 . cosec 30° =2. cosec 45° = 1 2 . cot 45° = 1 sin 90° = 1 and cos 0° = 1 ∴ L. = = = Example 26.S.S. cot 30° = 3 3 .H. sin 30° = 2 2 tan260° cosec245° + sec245° sin 30° d 3i d 2 i + d 2 i 2 2 2 1 2 = 3× 2 + 2 × =6 + 1 = 7 1 2 Hence.268 Mathematics Hence. tan260° cosec245° + sec245° sin 30° = 7 Example 26. tan 45° + sec 60° − 2 sin 90° cosec 30° cot 45° cos 0° 1 + 2 − 2 ×1 2 1 1 1 +2−2 1 = = R. 2 2 . sec 60° = 2.2 : Find the value of Solution : We know that tan 60° = sec 45° = ∴ = 3 .

Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 269 1 cosec 60° = 2 and tan 30° = 3 3 L.6 : If θ = 30°.S.S.H.S.S. L.5 : Verify that 4 4 cot 2 60°+ sec 2 30°−2 sin2 45° = 2 2 3 sin 60°+ cos 45° Solution : We know that cot 60° = sin 60° = L. = 4 cot 2 30°+3 sin 2 60°−2 cosec 2 60°− 3 tan 2 30° 3 4 4 = × 3 = d i FGH 23 IJK 3 2 2 +3 −2 2 3 FG IJ H K 2 −3 4 FG 1 IJ H 3K 2 4 × 3+ 3× 3 − 2 × 4 − 3 × 1 3 4 3 4 3 9 8 1 10 = 4+ − − = = R. = R.H.H.H.S = tan 2θ = tan 60° = 3 .H. = 1 2 1 .S.H. sin 45° = 3 3 2 1 3 and cos 45° = 2 2 4 cot 2 60°+ sec 2 30°−2 sin2 45° sin 2 60°+ cos2 45° 4× = FG 1 IJ + FG 2 IJ − 2 × FG 1 IJ H 3K H 3K H 2 K FG 3 IJ + FG 1 IJ H 2 K H 2K 2 2 2 2 2 4× 1+ 4 −2× 1 3 3 2 = 4 = R. Example 26. = 3 3+1 4 2 Hence.H. sec 30° = .S. verify that tan 2θ = 2 tan θ 1 − tan 2 θ Solution : We have θ = 30° L. 4 3 4 3 Example 26.

L.H. verify that sin 3A = 3 sinA – 4 sin3A Solution : We know that A = 30° L.S.H.H.H. Evaluate each of the following : (i) sin260° + cos245° (ii) 2 sin230° – 2 cos245° + tan260° (iii) 4 sin260° + 3 tan230° – 8 sin 45°cos45° (iv) 4 (sin430° + cos460°) – 3 (cos245° – 2sin245°) tan 45° sec 60° 5 sin 90° (v) cosec 30° + cot 45° − 2 cos 0° 3−1 =1 2 2 FH IK 3 . CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 26.7 : Taking A = 30°.1 1.H. = R. = 3 sin A – 4 sin3A = 3 sin 30° – 4 sin3 30° = 3× 1 − 4 × 1 2 2 = Hence.S. = 2 tan 30° 2 tan θ = 2 1 − tan θ 1 − tan 2 30° 2× = 1− FG IJ H K 2 1 3 3 = 1 2 1− 1 3 3 = = Hence.H.270 Mathematics R. = sin 3A =sin 90° =1 R.S.S.S. 2×3 3 = 3×2 3 3 Example 26.H.S. = R.S. L.

Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 271 2. Verify each of the following : (i) cosec330° × cos 60° × tan345° × sin290° + sec245° × cot30° = 8 3 7 1 1 (ii) tan 2 30°+ sin 2 45°+ cos2 30°+ cot 2 60° = 6 2 3 2 2 2 5 2− 3 (iii) 5 sin 30°+ cos 45°−4 tan 30° = 6 2 sin 30° cos 30°+ tan 45° d i 3. sec θ = and cot θ = PM OM PM For reference angle (90° – θ). 26. find sin 30° and cos 30° using cos 2A = 2 cos2A – 1. Taking 2A = 60°. ∠OPM and ∠POM are complementary angles. cos θ = and tan θ = OP OP OM OP OP OM . Let a ray OA rotate in an anti-clockwise direction and trace an angle θ from its initial position (x-axis) at any interval of time. ∆PMO is a right triangle Also. verify that (i) tan 2A = 2 tan A 1 − tan 2 A (ii) cos 2A = cos2A – sin2A (iii) cos 3A = 4 cos3A – 3 cos A 4. Let A be any point on OX. 26. If ∠A = 30°. ∠POM + ∠OPM + ∠PMO = 180° ∠POM + ∠OPM + 90° = 180° ∴ ⇒ ∠POM + ∠OPM = 90° ∠OPM = 90° – ∠θ Fig. In right-angled ∆PMO. we know that sin θ = cosec θ = PM OM PM .e.9 TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS FOR COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES Let XOX' and YOY' be a rectangular system of coordinates. Let ∠POM = θ. we have in right-angled ∆OPM sin (90° – θ) = OM = cos θ OP .4 i. Draw PM ⊥ OX.

cos (90° – θ) = sin θ cos 50° = cos (90 – 40)° = sin 40° Hence. Solution. Solution : We know that.10 : Evaluate sin 47° + cosec 58° Solution : We know that cos (90° – θ) = sin θ sin 47° = sin (90° – 43°) = cos 43° Also ∴ cosec 58° = cosec (90° – 32°) = sec 32° cos 43° + sec 32° cos 43° + sec 32° = sin 47° cosec 58° cos 43° sec 32° =1 + 1 = 2 .8 : Prove that tan 11° = cot 79°.H.H. sin240° – cos250° = sin240° – sin240° = 0 cos 43° sec 32° Example 26.S.9 : Evaluate sin240° – cos250°. Example 26. tan (90° – θ) = cot θ ∴ R. = cot 79° = cot (90° – 11°) = tan 11° = L.272 Mathematics cos (90° – θ) = tan (90° – θ) = cot (90° – θ) = cosec (90° – θ) = and sec (90° – θ) = PM = sin θ OP OM = cot θ PM PM = tan θ OM OP = sec θ OM OP = cosec θ PM Let us take some examples to illustrate the above Example 26. We know that.S.

tan83° = Solution : We know that tan (90° – θ) = cot θ and ∴ Also.cot 7° tan 23° cot 23° b gb g 3 × 1× 1 3 = R.tan60°.tan 23°.S.H.S.H.11 : Show that tan 7°.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 273 Example 26.cot 7° = = = 3 tan 7° .S. = cos θ + sin θ =2 sin 90°−θ cos 90°−θ b g b g cos θ + sin θ sin 90°−θ cos 90°−θ b g b g g g = cos θ + sin θ = 1 + 1 = 2 = R. sin (90° – θ) = cos θ and cos (90° – θ) = sin θ L.tan23°.H.H.tan67°.12 : Prove that Solution : We know that.tan 60°.cot 23°.13 : Prove that cosec 90°−θ + sec 90°−θ = 1 b b g g b b Solution : We know that sin (90° – θ) = cos θ cosec (90° – θ) = sec θ cos (90° – θ) = sin θ .tan67°.tan23°.tan83° = tan 7°. = tan 7°.S. Example 26. tan 60° = 3 3 tan 83° = tan (90° – 7°) = cot 7° tan 67° = tan (90° – 23°) = cot 23° L.tan60°. cos θ sin θ sin 90°−θ cos 90°−θ Example 26.

= cosec 90°−θ + sec 90°−θ b b g g b b g g = cos θ sin θ + sec θ cosec θ = cos2θ + sin2θ =1 = R. Evaluate each of the following : (i) cos 75° + sin 12° − cos18° sin 15° cos 78° sin 72° sin 47° I + F cos 43° I FH cos H sin 47° K 43° K 2 2 (ii) − 4 cos2 45° (iii) cos2 20°+ cos2 70° − cos2 0° sin 2 59°+ sin 2 31° .2 1.274 Mathematics sec (90° – θ) = cosec θ sin 90°−θ cos 90°−θ L. Show that (i) cos 35° = sin 55° (ii) sin211° – cos279° = 0 (iii) cos251° – sin239° = 0 2. sec (90° – θ) = cosec θ ∴ and tan 68° = tan (90° – 22°) = cot 22° sec 68° = sec (90° – 22°) = cosec 22° Hence. Example 26. Solution : We know that tan (90° – θ) = cotθ Also.S.H. tan 68° + sec 68° = cot 22° + cosec 22° CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 26.S.H.14 : Express tan 68° + sec 68° in terms of angles between 0° and 45°.

26. is looking at an object at a lesser height. we have learnt to determine the values of trigonometric ratios of the angles of 30°.1 Angle of Elevation Whenever an observer is looking at an object which is at a greater height than the observer.2 Angle of Depression On the contrary.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 275 3. we will learn how trigonometry can be used to determine the distance between the objects (particularly inaccessible ones) or the heights of the objects by taking some examples from day-to-day life. In this lesson. We shall first define some terms which will be needed in the study of heights and distances. and the horizontal line. 26. (i) cos 55° + sin 68° (ii) cot 75° + cosec 75° (iii) sec262° + sec269° 26. α is the angle of depression.5 Fig. The length of the ladder is 8 m. 45° and 60°. . the angle formed between the line of sight and the line joining eye of the observer to the object is called an angle of depression. 26. ∠θ is the angle of elevation.6 Example 26. Also. Find the distance of the foot of the ladder from the well. 26. In Fig.10. he has to lift his eyes to see the object.10. Solution : Let AC be a ladder leaning against the wall AB making an angle of 60° with the level ground BC. 26. at a height.10 APPLICATIONS OF TRIGONOMETRY We have so far learnt to define trigonometric ratios of an angle. if the observer.5 . and an angle of elevation is formed between the line of sight joining the observers eye to the object. Fig.6. Prove that (i) sin θ cos(90° – θ) + cos θ sin (90° – θ) = 1 (ii) cos θ cos (90° – θ) – sin θ sin (90° – θ) = 0 cos 90°−θ 1 + sin 90°−θ (iii) 1 + sin 90°−θ + cos 90°−θ = 2 cosec θ b b g g b b g g tan 90°−θ (iv) sin (90° – θ) cos (90° – θ) = 1 + tan 2 90°−θ b b g g 4.15 : A ladder leaning against a window of a house makes an angle of 60° with the ground. 26. In Fig. Express each of the following in terms of angles between 0° and 45°.

Assume that there is no slack in the cable. Fig. the foot of the ladder is 4 m away from the wall.16 : A balloon is connected to a meteorological ground station by a cable of length 100 m inclined at 60° to the horizontal. Example 26. The distance between the base of a tree and the point where it touches the ground is 10 m. attached to a string AC of length 100 m which makes an angle of 60° with the level ground BC. Solution : Let A be the position of the balloon. 26. 26.276 Mathematics Let BC = x m Now. Determine the height of the balloon from the ground. Find the height of the tree. in right-angled ∆ABC sin 60° = AB = x AC 100 3 = x 100 2 ⇒ x = 50 × 3 m = 86.6 m Fig.7 Example 26. the balloon is at a height of 86. Solution : Let AB represent a tree.17 : The upper part of a tree is broken by the action of wind. The top of the tree makes an angle of 30° with the horizontal ground. in right-angled ∆CBD tan 30° = ⇒ BC = x BD 10 1 x = 10 3 Fig.8 Hence. Let AB = x m Now. Let C be a point from where the tree was broken by the action of the wind in two parts upper part makes an angle of 30° at D with level ground such that BD = 10 m Let BC = x m Now.6 m. 26. in right-angled triangle ABC cos 60° = ⇒ ⇒ BC x = AC 8 1 x = 2 8 x=4 Hence.9 .

the length AB of the flagstaff is 115. the top of the flagstaff makes an angle APB = 30°.18 : A vertical flagstaff AB stands on a horizontal plane.(i) The height of the tree = BC + CD Now we shall find CD In right-angled ∆CBD sin 30° = ⇒ ⇒ BC = x DC DC 1 x = 2 DC DC = 2x 10 3 = 2× 3 = 20 3 3 10 3 20 3 m+ m 3 3 [From (i)] ∴ Height of the tree = = 10 3 = 17.) .) 3 Fig. Example 26. Find the length AB of the flagstaff.2 3 3 3 346. At a point P. Solution : In right-angled ∆ABP tan 30° = ⇒ ⇒ AB = x PB 200 1 x = 200 3 200 x= 3 = = 200 × 3 = 200 3 = 2 × 173.4 = 115.10 Hence..32 m. (app.5 m (app.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 277 x= We know that 10 × 3 3 .. which is 200 m away from its foot. where A is the top of the flagstaff.5 m. 26.

. 12 4 Now. Swati observes two cars on the opposite side of the tower.(i) Again.278 Mathematics Example 26. and ∠RPA = ∠PAB = 60° ∠SPB = ∠PBQ = 45° . We are given that tan θ = 5 3 and tan C = .. Let AB = h m and BC = x m. in right-angled ∆ABC tan C = h x Fig. D be the two positions of the observer such that CD = 192 m.12 Now. Example 26. If their angles of depression are 45° and 60°. Let A and B be the position of the two cars. 26. 26. On walking 192 m towards the foot of the tower. Solution : Let PQ be a tower which is 100 m high. Find the height of the tower.20 : Standing on the top of a tower 100 high. the height of the tower is 180 m. Solution : Let AB be a tower and C.19 : At a point on level ground.11 3 h = 4 x ⇒ x= 4h 3 . find the distance between the two cars. Let the angle of depression of the car at A be 60° and for the car at B be 45° as shown in Fig. the angle θ made by the top of the tower with it is found to be such that tan θ = 5 12 . the tangent of the angle becomes 3/4. in right-angled ∆ABD tan θ = h 192 + x 5 h = 12 192 + 4 h 3 = ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 3h 576 + 4 h 36 h = 2880 + 20 h 16 h = 2880 h = 180 Hence.

26. If the angle of its vertex is 90°.732 = = = 57. Find the height of the tower. The foot of the ladder is at a distance of 3 m from the wall. After going 40 m towards the foot of the tower. an observer measures the angle of elevation of the top of the tower to be 60°. . the distance between the two cars = AQ + QB = (100 + 57. One of the equal sides of an isosceles triangle is 18 2 m. find the length of the string. find the length of the base. Find the height of the tower. The angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 30° from a point 150 m away from its base. Two men are on either side of a cliff which is 80 m high.3 1. At a point 50 m away from the base of a tower. It makes an angle of 60° with the horizontal ground.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 279 In right-angled triangle PQB. 3. in right-angled ∆PQA PQ 100 tan 60° = QA = QA Fig. Find the height of the kite.74 3 3 3 Hence. 4. assuming that there is no slack in the string.74 m CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 26. The angle of elevation of tower at a point is 45°. 7. Find the height of the tower. 6. If the string of kite makes an angle of 60° with a point on the ground. Find the distance between the two men.12 100 3 = QA ⇒ QA = 100 100 3 100 × 1. A ladder leaning against a vertical wall makes an angle of 60° with the ground. The string of a kite is 100 m long. They observe the angles of elevation of the top of the cliff to be 30° and 60° respectively. Find the length of the ladder. 2. PQ 100 tan 45° = QB = QB ⇒ 100 1 = QB ⇒ QB = 100 m Also. 8. A kite is flying at a height of 100 m from the level ground. assuming that there is no slack in the string.74) m = 157. 5. the angle of elevation becomes 60°.

The foot of the ladder is kept fixed on the same point of the level ground. LET US SUM UP 1. Ratio sin θ cos θ tan θ cot θ cosec θ sec θ θ 0° 30° 45° 60° 90° 0 1 0 not defined not defined 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 0 not defined 0 1 not defined 3 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 . The following are the relation between trigonometrical ratios for the complementary angles : (i) sin (90° – θ) = cos θ (ii) cos (90° – θ) = sin θ (iii) tan (90° – θ) = cot θ (iv) cosec (90° – θ) = sec θ (v) sec (90° – θ) = cosec θ (vi) cot (90° – θ) = tan θ 2. Find the height of the tower and its distance from the building.280 Mathematics 9. the angles of depression of the top and bottom of a tower are observed to be 45° and 60° respectively. From the top of a building 60 m high. Find the distance between these two rooms. 10. making an angle of 60° with the level ground. A ladder of length 4 m makes an angle of 30° with the level ground while leaning against a window of a room. The following table illustrates the values of trigonometric ratios for the angle θ such that 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° : Table of Values of Trigonometric Ratios Trig. It is made to lean against a window of another room on its opposite side.

verify that (i) tan 2θ = 2 tan θ 1 − tan 2 θ 2 tan θ 1 + tan 2 θ (ii) sin 2θ = (iii) cos 2θ = 2 cos2θ – 1 4.tan70° = 1 cos 90°− A 1 + sin 90°− A (v) 1 + sin 90°− A + cos 90°− A = 2 sec (90° – A) b b g g b b g g . Prove that (i) 2cot230° – 2cos260° – 3 2 5 sin 45° – 4sec230° = – 4 24 (ii) 2 sin230° + 2 tan260° – 5 cos245° = 4 (iii) cos 60° cos 45° + sin 60° sin 45° = sin 45° cos 30° + cos 45° sin 30° 3. Prove that (i) sin 20° sin 70° – cos 20° cos 70° = 0 (ii) sin A sin (90° – A) – cos A cos (90° – A) = 0 (iii) sin 90°− A cos 90°− A = sin2(90° – A) tan A b g b g (iv) tan 20°. It θ = 30°. Find the value of each of the following : (i) 4cos260° + 4sin245° – sin230° (ii) sin245° – tan245° + 3(sin290° + tan230°) (iii) 5 sin 2 30°+ cos2 45°−4 tan2 30° 2 sin 2 30° cos2 30°+ tan 45° 2. verify that (i) sin (A – B) ≠ sin A – sin B (ii) sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B (iii) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B 5. tan 35°. tan45°. tan55°. If ∠A = 60° and ∠B = 30°.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 281 TERMINAL EXERCISE 1.

8. Two pillars of equal height stand on either side of a roadway which is 150 m wide. An observer standing 40 m from a building notices that the angles of elevation of the top and bottom of a flagstaff. 10. the elevation of the top of the pillars are 60° and 30°. between a kite and a point on the ground is 150 m. the angle of depression of two consecutive kilometer stones due east are found to be 30° and 60°. Find the height of the hill.282 Mathematics 6. determine the height of the kite. 9. . If the string makes an angle θ with the horizontal plane such at sin θ = 4 15 . At a point on the roadway between the pillars. From the top of a hill. Determine the length of the ladder. 7. which is surmounted on the building. Find the height of the pillars and the position of the point. A ladder leaning against a vertical wall makes an angle θ with the ground such that tan θ = 4 3 . The length of a string without slack. The foot of the ladder is 3 m away from the wall. Find the height of the tower and the flag staff. are 60° and 45° respectively.

6 m 3. (i) 11 4 (ii) 7 2 (iii) 40 121 2. 86.Trigonometric Ratios of some Special Angles 283 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 26. 37. 184. 5. (i) sin 35° + cos 22° (ii) tan 15° + sec 15° (iii) cosec228° + cosec221° Check Your Progress 26.46 m. 115. 6. sin 30° = 1 . 94.46 m 7. (i) 5 4 (ii) 5 2 (iii) 0 (iv) 2 (v) 0 4.75 m 8. cos 30° = 3 2 2 Check Your Progress 26. 6 m 6. 36 m 9. 86. 86. 64.1 1. 40 m. 40 m 9.64 m Terminal Exercise 1.6 m 4. 29.28 m 10. 5 m 8. 433 m 7. (i) 1 (ii) 0 (iii) 0 4.6 m 5.95 m.35 m 10.2 2.3 1. 25.5 m .

mean height of a group. In order to read and interpret these correctly. median score of a class or modal shoe size of a group.. To make readers acquainted with the methods of recording. etc. etc. we come across data in the form of tables. this record keeping was started by ancient kings to keep account of their warriors. They would also learn about the characteristics and limitations of these measures. etc. Sometimes. armoury and other fighting materials. throwing a die. the learner will get acquainted to the concept of probability as measure of uncertainty. on different aspects of a number of variables. Everyday through communication media like radio. expenditure and other resources. charts. the learners would be introduced to lesson on “Graphical Representation of Data”. graphs. we are required to describe the data arithmetically. etc. etc.Data and Their Representation 287 Module 6 Statistics Since ancient times. television. In the last lesson of this module. magazines. like describing mean age of a class. through games of chance like tossing a coin. The information presented is eye-catching and important. newspapers. to keep records of their income. In fact. . they would be exposed to the lesson on “Data and their Representation”. it has been the practice by the house holders. individuals. periodicals. shopkeepers. The learner will be introduced to these in the lesson on “Measures of Central Tendency”. condensing and taking out relevant information from given records (or data).

3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z z knowledge of writing numbers in increasing/decreasing order finding averages of given numbers classification of numbers into different classes making/using tools to collect data. 27.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson. recording and condensing data to take out relevant information from them. classwise literacy rate in different . we shall first learn about statistics as science dealing with collection. class interveral. frequency. 27. frequency table. We shall also learn about some important concepts like classes.288 Mathematics 27 Data and Their Representation 27.4 STATISTICS AND STATISTICAL DATA Statistics is the science which started with collection of data about different aspects.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. etc. the learner will be able to : z z z z z z z define statistics – both in singular and plural form differentiate between primary and secondary data differentiate between raw/ungrouped and grouped data and cite examples define frequency and cumulative frequency of a class condense raw data into frequency table form cumulative frequency tables define class-mark. cumulative frequency table. 27. class-interval. raw/ungrouped and grouped. We shall learn about different types of data-primary and secondary. class mark. class limits and true class limits in case of grouped data. It may be data regarding number of students presented in a school.

5 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA Data are of two types – primary and secondary. the investigator uses the data collected by other investigators in some other context or published data from government records. In that case.1 1. income-tax rates etc. Let us try to arrange the data in ascending order.. 14. collected for some definite purpose. 12. 17. 10.. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 27. 20. while in plural sense it means the numerical facts or data/observations collected with some specific purpose in view. 19. The data given in (i). The word statistics is used both in plural and singular sense.. 25. 19. 20. 12. 14. Since the data collected from other sources. (d) The data taken from other sources and not collected by the investigator himself are called ... 9. With the passage of time besides collection of data. data. 18. 25.. they are called secondary data. 25 . may have been collected with an objective different from what it is being used. Fill in blanks with suitable word(s) so that the following sentences give the proper meaning : (a) Statistics in plural sense refers to . (b) Statistics in singular sense refers to the . 10. 17. (c) The data which are collected by the investigator himself are called . do not give much information about the standard achievement of students..6 RAW/UNGROUPED AND GROUPED DATA Consider the marks obtained by 20 students of a class in a class test (out of 25): 15. 27. 25.. finances and other reasons. 15. books etc. 9.Data and Their Representation 289 states of the country.. they are called primary data. In any study. 16. data. it is not possible for the investigator to collect data himself due to paucity of time. unemployment data. 25. 22. 8. 14. 27. Sometimes.(ii) . interpretation and drawing of inferences came under the purview of statistics. journals. 12. it refers to the science of statistics. 25 . 22. 20. 6. 18. We will have 6. . 20... 25. 12. 14. their tabulations. 16. 8.. if the investigator himself is responsible for the collection of data according to the desired plan and objective. 25. In its singular form.(i) The data in this form are called raw/ungrouped data.

eleven students have got 16 or more marks. To further simplify and overcome this difficulty. and so on. and so on. The above data is called a frequency distribution table for ungrouped data. The difference between the maximum and minium observations of the data is called the range. The arrayed data gives somewhat better perspective of the situation. . we can arrange the data in tabular form as follows : Table–1 Marks 6 8 9 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 25 Total Number of Students 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 20 Table–1 shows the number of students getting a particular number of marks. We can also say that seven students have got 20 or more marks. A point may be made about arrayed data. two have secured 20 marks each. We can say that four students have secured 25 marks each. it is very difficult and time consuming to arrange data in arrayed form. When the number of observations is very large. They present the minimum and maximum of the data at a glance. Similarly. The quantity about which the observations (or data) are collected is called variable (or variate) and the number of times an observation is repeated is called the frequency of that observation.290 Mathematics Data arranged in the above form (ii) are called arrayed data.

which admit fractional measurements like 2.5 and upper limit increased by 0. 13.5–16.5-10. height.5.5 is the True Lower class limit and 10. to have same class-interval (i. 20 is called the Lower Class Limit and 22 is called the Upper Class Limit.5. Thus for the class 7. 7. From this type of presentation. This can be done as follows for data in Table 2.65 m. the lower limit of each class is decreased by 0.5–19.5 16. etc. Some of these conclusions are : (i) The number of students getting marks between 23 and 25 is 4.5–10. This may happen with marks. 1. we see that the classes are non-overlapping because there are no fractional marks here. we can draw better conclusions about the data than before. 10.5 19.Data and Their Representation 291 To bring out some more salient features of data.5 7.5 13.5–22.5 10. The changed limits are called True class Limits. length of the class)..5.5–13. Let us form the groups as follows : Table – 2 Classes Frequencies 5–7 1 8–10 3 11–13 2 14–16 4 17–19 3 20–22 3 23–25 4 Thus. Table 2 is called a frequency table for Grouped Data. The data presented in classes (or groups) is called Grouped Data. we need to have continuous classes so that all observations can be entered. 22.5..5 kg.e.e.5 – 13.5 – 16.5 – 19.7.5 is the True upper class limit.5–25. we further simplify the presentation of data in condensed form into classes (or groups). 19. etc. (ii) No student has got marks less than 5 (iii) Four students have got marks between 14 and 16 and so on.5 TOTAL Frequency 1 3 2 4 3 3 4 20 .5 – 10. but there may be variables like weight.5 – 7.5.5 22. Classes : 4. 27.7 NEED FOR CONTINUOUS CLASSES From Table 2.5 i. This changes the frequency distribution table as follows : Table – 3 Classes 4.5 – 22.5 – 25.5.5.5. for the class 20–22. 16. In such cases.5–7.

5–45. 12.. 15.5 is not included and in the class 22.5 are taken in respective next higher classes. . Write the lower and upper class limits for each of the following classes : (a) 11–15.. called class-mark of that class ∴ Class mark of a class = Upper Class Limit + Lower Class Limit 2 or True Upper Class Limit + True Lower Class Limit 2 ∴ The class marks of distribution in Table 3 are 6. 27 3.5 7. 24 (ii) In each class.5 is not included. Explain one of the reasons for condensing raw data to grouped data. 3. 12. Thus.5–20. Differentiate between raw data and arrayed data 2.5.5–25. 25. 41–45 (b) 10.292 Mathematics For making Table 3.. 16–20.5–10.5. the following two assumptions have been made: (i) The frequency in a class is centred at its mid-point. 27. 10. 9. 22.5 and 25. Give one example each for frequency distribution table for ungrouped data and grouped data.8 CONDENSING RAW DATA INTO FREQUENCY TABLE For condensing raw data into grouped data we follow the following steps : Step 1 : Arrange the data in ascending order and find the range of raw data. 4. Find the range of the following data : 6. Define : (a) class limits (b) true class limits (c) class interval (d) class-mark 5.5–15. 25. 40. in the class 7. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 27. The observations 10.5. the upper class boundary is not included. . 8.5.2 1. 18. What assumptions do you make while making a frequency table for grouped data ? 6. 14. 9.

Frequency Table for Marks obtained by Students Total . 15. we get the number classes as 7. 8–12. 20–24. till all observations are over. 19. 29. 7. the fifth one crossing the other four diagonally. 14. 12. 29. Table 4 Classes 4– 8– 12 – 16 – 20 – 24 – 28 – 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 Tally Marks ||| ||| |||| | |||| — | ||| Frequency 3 3 6 4 — 1 3 20 24–28. 14. 18. For example. Step 3 : Take each observation from raw data. 14. 12. 28–32 Let the classes be 4–8. 6 is denoted by tally marks as |||| |) Step 4 : Count the tally marks in each class to get the frequency of that class. 16. 30. 10. 4. 9. 30 Here the range of data is 26. 13. 19. Let us take an example to illustrate.1 : The marks obtained by 20 students in a class test are given below: 10. 15. 14. one at a time and put a tally mark (|) against the class to which the observation belongs.Data and Their Representation 293 Step 2 : We decide upon number of classes to be formed. we took 7 classes. Solution : The data in ascending order is : 4. For that we remember the following : (a) There should be classes to accommodate the minimum and maximum of data (b) The classes should not be open ended (c) There is no definite rule for number of classes. the class interval being 3. 16. Taking the class size as 4. 16–20. The golden rule mostly used is “Not fewer than 5 and not more than 10 classes” For our example. 16. Step 5 : The resulting table is called Frequency Table. 9. 8. (Next integral value of 26 ) 4 12–16. 15. 25. This is obtained by dividing the range by class-interval and increase that to next integral value. 29. 29. (The tally marks are taken in bunches of five. 18. 25. 7 Construct a frequency distribution tables with a class size of 4. Example 27. 7. 16. 13. 8. 7. 15.

100. 190. the corresponding Cumulative Frequency Table is presented in Table 6 Table – 6 Class 4–8 8–12 12–16 16–20 20–24 24–28 28–32 Total Frequency 3 3 6 4 0 1 3 20 Cumulative Frequency 3 6 12 16 16 17 20 Tally Marks ||| |||| — || | |||| | ||| Frequency 3 5 — 2 1 5 1 3 20 . 200–225. A table which shows cumulative frequencies of different classes is called a Cumulative Frequency Table. 175–200. the classes are 75–100. 250–275 The frequency table is given below : Table – 5 Frequency table for weights of Apples Class 75–100 100–125 125–150 150–175 175–200 200–225 225–250 250–275 Total 27. 100–125. 110. 125–150. Thus for Table 4. 225. 105. 200. 100.9 CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY OF A CLASS The total of frequencies of a particular class and of all classes prior to that class is called the cumulative frequency of that class. 80. 270. 218. Solution : The range of data s 200 grams. 170 75. 95. 150–175.2 : The weights of apples (in grams) picked up at random from a basket are given below : 110. 250.294 Mathematics Example 27. 160. 210. 270 Construct a frequency table from the above data. Taking one of the classes as 75–100. 215. with one of the classes as 75–100 (100 not included). 225–250. 210.

48–52. 32–36. Therefore.e. If the frequencies from first class onward are 2. ... Class size = 38–34 = 4 ∴ The classes are Frequency 3 5 0 2 1 5 1 3 20 Cummulative Frequency 3 8 8 10 11 16 17 20 [(34 – 2) – (34 + 2)]. Solution : The class size is the difference between the class marks of two adjacent classes. Table – 7 Class 75–100 100–125 125–150 150–175 175–200 200–225 225–250 250–275 Total Let us take another example : Example 27. classes and construct frequency and cummulative frequency table.Data and Their Representation 295 Similarly. 5. determine the class size. 52–56.. . for Table 5. 8. 4. the Cumulative Frequency Table is given in Table 7.3 : The class marks of a distribution are 34. 54 and 58. 56–60 ∴ The frequency table and cummulative frequency table is given below : Table–8 Classes 32–36 36–40 40–44 44–48 48–52 52–56 56–60 Total Frequency 2 5 7 9 8 5 4 40 Cummulative Frequency 2 7 14 23 31 36 40 . 9. 40–44. 5. 7.. 50. 44–48. 38. 42. [(38 – 2) – (38 + 2)]. [(58 – 2) – (58 + 2)] i.. 36–40. 46.

is called raw data. 52. classification and interpretation of data. z z z z z z z z z z z z . The data collected from the respondents “as it is”. 5. 2.3 1.296 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 27. The number of observations lying in a particular class is called its frequency and the table showing classes with frequencies is called a frequency table. 25. In that case. The class marks and their corresponding frequencies are given below : Class mark : Frequency : 23 1 28 2 33 5 38 8 43 14 48 6 53 3 58 1 Form a cumulative frequency table from the above data. Form a frequency table and cumulative frequency table for the data on runs scored by a batsman in 20 innings. 72. one class being 0–20 12. 71. Enumerate the steps needed to condense raw data to grouped data. 9 3. 27. 45. Sometimes the classes have to be changed to make them continuous.11 LET US SUM UP z Statistics is that branch of Mathematics which deals with collection. The data arranged in ascending/descending order is called “arrayed data” When raw data are arranged with frequencies. 70 102. In a class 10–15. The mid-points of classes are called class-marks. they are called grouped data. When the data are divided into groups/ classes. they are said to form a frequency table for ungrouped data. 15. 35. 69. 15. 15. The data collected by experimenter himself through his own designed tools is called primary data. Statistics has meaning both in singular and plural sense. the class limits are called true class limits. The data taken from other sources and not collected by the experimenter is called secondary data. 28. The classes have to be decided according to the range of data and size of class. 10 is called the lower limit and 15 is called the upper limit of that class. 2. 75. 79. 16. The total of frequencies of a particular class and of all classes prior to that is called the cumulative frequency of that class and the table showing cumulative frequencies is called a cumulative frequency table.

. data. Enumerate different steps needed to convert a given raw data to grouped data and to form a frequency table. 13. 21.. . 4 (i) Form a frequency table. (ix) The sum of frequencies of a class and all classes prior to that class is called ... 3... they are called . 4.. (v) The mid-points of a class are called . 27.. 18. (viii) The difference between the upper limit and lower limit is called the . 5. 9. the class limits are renamed as .. Find the range of the following raw data and put it as arrayed data : 7. 34. 13. data. 4. (vi) When the class limits are adjusted to make them continuous. . frequency of that class.. 48. is called . data and the table is called .. 18. .. (iii) When the raw data are arranged in ascending/descending order. etc.. 47. Define statistics as a term used in singular and a term used in plural sense. 8. 4. 23. magazines. 3. (x) Class size = Difference between successive . 31. The marks obtained by 30 students in a class test are given below : 10.. 4. 28. with one of the classes being 14–21 (21 not included) (ii) Form a cummulative frequency table for table formed in (i) (iii) Can you interpret the data and give some salient observations on it ? .. 8.. 12. 24 Also change the above data into a frequency distribution of class size 3. 2.... 19.. which are not collected by investigatory himself should be used . 19. 21. 4. Fill in the blanks by appropriate words/phrases to make each of the following statements true : (i) The data which are taken from government records. 19. . . (iv) When the data are condensed in classes of equal size with frequencies... table. 13.. 46. 13.. 17.. 18. 16. 19 15. . 4. (ii) The data. Give examples to clarify the difference... 18.. they are called . (vii) The number of observations falling in a particular class is called its . 43. 42.. 19..Data and Their Representation 297 TERMINAL EXERCISES 1.... What are primary data ? Why are they more reliable than secondary data ? 3. 25. 12... 12. one of the classes being 6–9 (9 not included) 6. 17 25. 5. 17...

145. 140. (iv) Determine the class size. of a distribution and the corresponding frequencies are given below : Class marks : Frequencies : 5 2 15 6 25 10 35 15 45 12 55 8 65 5 75 2 (i) find the frequency table (ii) find the cummulative frequency table. 142. 146. (v) Form a cumulative frequency table. The class-marks. (ii) Write the class limits of the third class. 160. . 137. 8. 152. in order. 160. (iii) Find the class mark of the fourth class. 148. 155. 145 150. 150 (i) From a frequency distribution table for the above data using equal classes. 153. 153. The heights of 20 students of a class (in cm) are given below : 140. 9.298 Mathematics 7. 152. one of them being 136–140 (140 not included) (ii) Form a cumulative frequency table for the above data. 162. For the following frequency table. answer the following questions : Classes 15–20 20–25 25–30 30–35 35–40 40–45 45–50 Total Frequency 2 3 5 7 4 3 1 25 (i) Write the lower limit of the first class. 160. 157.

Upper class limits : 15. (a) Lower class limits 11. 41. (i) secondary (ii) carefully (iii) arrayed grouped.1 1. 15. 40. (i) (iv) (vii) (ix) 5. (a) numerical facts or observations (c) primary Check Your Progress 27.5 Upper limt 15.3 2. 24 6. grouped frequency table (v) class marks (vi) true class limits frequency (viii) class limit interval or class size cummulative frequency (x) class marks. Classes 0–20 20–40 40–60 60–80 80–100 100–120 Total Terminal Exercise 3.5. xi : fi : (ii) Classes 3 2 : 4 5 5 1 3–6 8 7 1 6–9 3 8 2 9 1 12 2 13 3 18 1 19 1 24 Total 1 20 Frequency 8 3 2 6 0 1 20 Cumulative Frequency 8 11 13 19 19 20 (b) lower limit 10.2 2.Data and Their Representation 299 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 27.5. 20.5. 45 Check Your Progress 27. 20. 45. (i) Classes 0–7 7–14 14–21 21–28 28–35 35–42 42–49 Total Frequency 1 3 12 6 3 0 5 30 Cummulative frequency 1 4 16 22 25 25 30 . 16.5 (b) science of statistics (d) secondary 9–12 12–15 15–18 18–21 21–24 24–27 Total 1 5 0 2 0 1 20 Frequency : 6.5.

30 Classes 15–20 20–25 25–30 30–35 35–40 40–45 45–50 Total (iii) 32. Classes 135–140 140–145 145–150 150–155 155–160 160–165 Total Frequency 1 3 4 6 2 4 20 Cummulative Frequency 1 4 8 14 16 20 8. (i) 15 (v) (ii) 25.300 Mathematics 7. Classes 0–10 10–20 20–30 30–40 40–50 50–60 60–70 70–80 Total Cumulative Frequency 2 8 18 33 45 53 58 60 .5 (iv) 5 Frequency 2 3 5 7 4 3 1 20 Frequency 2 6 10 15 12 8 5 2 60 Cumulative Frequency 2 5 10 17 21 24 25 9.

Data and Their Representation 301 .

velocity-time graph. it makes easier for the learner to understand the problem and attempt its solution. like (i) temperature-time graph . etc. it makes the presentation eye-catching and more intelligible. They are (i) Bar graphs (ii) Histograms (iii) Frequency polygons (iv) Ogive (v) Pictographs (vi) Pie charts In this lesson. Histograms and Frequency polygons. we shall learn to read and draw Bar graphs. 28.Graphical Representation of Data 301 28 Graphical Representation of Data 28. Other form of graphs are beyond the scope of the present lesson.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. The learners can easily see the salient features of the data and interpret them. pressure-volume graph. when the data are presented pictorially (or graphically) before the learners. There are many forms of representing data graphically. and graphs related to day-to-day use. Similarly.1 INTRODUCTION Whenever verbal problems involving a certain situation is presented visually before the learners. the learner will be able to z z z z draw bar charts for given data draw a histogram and frequency polygon for given data read and interpret given bar charts and histograms read the relevant information from graphs relating to day-to-day activities. like temperature-time graph.

Step 6 : Mark the axes with proper labelling Let us take some examples to illustrate : Example 28. like the ones above. we choose the uniform (equal) width of bars and the uniform gap between the bars. 28. 28. Step 3 : Along the horizontal axis. 28.1 Construction of Bar Graphs For the construction of bar graphs.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE z z z Knowledge of drawing and marking axes Knowledge of drawing rectangles and plotting points Practice of reading graphs. Step 5 : Calculate the heights of the bars.1 : . Step 4 : Choose a suitable scale to determine the heights of the bars.1 : The number of trees planted by an agency in different years is given below : Years Number of trees planted 1997 400 1998 450 1999 700 2000 750 2001 900 2002 1500 Total 4700 Solution : The bar graph is given below in Fig. The scale is chosen according to the space available.302 Mathematics (ii) velocity-time graph (iii) pressure volume graph. z draw graph relating to day-to-day activities.4. we take the frequencies. It is a pictorial representation of the numerical data by a number of bars (rectangles) of uniform width erected vertically (or horizontally) with equal spacing between them. we take the values of the variables and along the vertical axis.4 BAR GRAPHS A bar graph is a graphical representation of frequency distributions of ungrouped data. we go through the following steps : Step 1 : We take a graph paper and draw two lines perpendicular to each other and call them horizontal and vertical axes. according to the space available. Step 2 : Along the horizontal axis. according to the scale chosen and draw the bars. 28. etc.

we represent years. . from 1997–2002 and on OY we represent the number of trees planted. Step 4 : The height of the bars are calculated according to the number of trees. Examples 28. 28. 28. we start with 400 and marks points at equal intervals of 200. Step 3 : On OY.1 Step 1 : We draw two perpendicular lines OX and OY.2 : The data below shows the number of students present in different classes on a particular day : Classes Number of students present VI 35 VII 40 VIII 30 IX 40 X 50 Represent the above data by a bar graph. A kink (~) has been shown on the vertical axis showing that the marking on the vertical axis starts from zero but has been shown to start from 400 as the data needs. Step 2 : On OX.Graphical Representation of Data 303 Fig.2. Solution : The bar graph for the above data is shown in Fig.

Solution : The bar graph representing the above data is shown in Fig.3 .3 : The data regarding causes of accidents in factories are given below: Causes Faulty Machinery Electrical Disturbance Delay in repairs Mechanical Failure Others Draw a bar graph to represent the above data.2 Example 28. 28. 28. 28.3 below: Percentage of Occurrence 30% 20% 35% 10% 5% Fig.304 Mathematics Fig.

Graphical Representation of Data 305 28. as in that year the height of the bar is maximum.5 : Read the bar graph given in Fig.3 and answer the following questions : (i) Which cause is responsible for maximum accidents in factories ? Which is for minimum ? (ii) Can you think of one of the “other” causes ? (iii) How many percent of accidents could have been avoided by timely action? Solution : (i) Delay in repairs is responsible for maximum (35%) of accidents.1. 2. 28. Let us take some examples and do the same. and answer the following questions : (i) In which year the maximum number of trees were planted ? (ii) What trend the number of trees planted show ? (iii) In which years the number of trees planted differ by 50 only ? Solution : After reading the bar graph.1 1. which is called interpreting bar graphs. (ii) The number of trees planted kept on increasing year after year (iii) (a) The years 1997 and 1998 (b) The years 1999 and 2000 Examples 28. the answers to the above questions are as follows : (i) The maximum number (1500) of trees were planted in the year 2002. Example 28. What are the steps needed to represent a data by a Bar Graph ? . “Other causes” are responsible for minimum number of accidents (ii) Carelessness of workers (iii) (35 + 20)% or 55% accidents could have been avoided by taking steps for timely repairs and provision of equipment which can control electrical disturbances.4 : Read the bar graphs given in Fig.2 Interpretation of Bar graphs After drawing a bar graph. Enlist the possible forms of representing a data graphically. we can draw some conclusions. 28. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 28.4.

28.4 (i) The names of two steel plants which produced maximum steel in the country during the time period. answer the following questions : Percentage 45 20 20 10 5 Fig. Given below are data on causes of strikes in mills : Causes (i) Non fulfillment of economic demands (ii) Overwork (iii) Rivalry in unions (iv) Non-congenial working conditions (v) Others Draw a bar graph depicting the above data.306 Mathematics 3. 5. draw a bar graph : Head Salary of Employees Travelling Allowance Rent of Premises Machinery and materials Other expenditure Percentage of Expenditure 45% 15% 20% 10% 10% 4. For the data on expenditure of a company over different heads. (ii) What percentage of steel was produced in “other” plants ? . From the bar graph given below.

As the axis starts from 45–50. 6.. The mid-points of the first and the last classes are joined to the mid-points of the classes preceding and succeding respectively at zero frequency to complete the polygon. grouped frequency distributions.. we take one interval 40–45 before it and put a kink on axis before that Step 3 : Choose a suitable scale on the vertical axis to represent the frequency. 14 Step 4 : Draw the rectangles as shown in Fig. Step 2 : Along the horizontal axis. 50–55... Classes : 45–50 3 50–55 7 55–60 12 60–65 5 65–70 3 Total 30 Frequency : Solution : For drawing a histogram we go through the steps similar to those of a bar graph. The area of the rectangles must be proportional to the frequencies of the respective classes. 2. For each class. we draw two perpendicular lines and call them horizontal and vertical axes. 4. we take classes of equal width : 45–50.e. a rectangle is drawn with base as width of the class and height as the class frequency.5...5 HISTOGRAMS AND FREQUENCY POLYGONS A histogram is a graphical representation of a continuous frequency distribution i.. 12. Let us illustrate these with the help of examples. . A frequency polygon is the join of the mid-points of the tops of the adjoining rectangles.6 : The following is the frequency distribution of weights of 30 students of class IX of a school. The class-intervals are taken along the horizontal axis and the respective class frequencies on the vertical axis using suitable scales on each axis. . i. 0. 28. Draw a histogram to represent the data. including vertical rectangles.. It is a graph. Durgapur and Bokaro steel plants ? 28... with a step of 2. with no space between the rectangles. . They are given below : Step 1 : On a paper. It can start from 0 to 12.Graphical Representation of Data 307 (iii) The steel plant at Durgapur produced how much less steel than at Bokaro? (iv) What percentage of total steel under discussion was produced at Bhalai. Examples 28.e.

Solution : Following the steps suggested in Example 28.6.5 shows the histogram required. as explained in the steps shown above.6 Fig.6 . the histogram and frequency polygon representing the above data are given below in Fig. 28. Note : A frequency polygon has been shown in dotted lines. of shops 200-300 300-400 400-500 500-600 600-700 700-800 800-900 3 12 15 30 25 12 3 Draw a histogram and a frequency polygon to represent the above data. 28.308 Mathematics Fig.7 : The daily earnings of 100 shopkeepers are given below : Daily earnings (in Rs) No. Example 28. 28.

15) and F(275. 28. 16). 125.1 Reading a Histogram Let us explain it with the help of an example Example 28. 225. 175. E and F and complete the polygon as explained before The frequency polygon is given below : Fig. D (175. 75. B. The following histogram shows the monthly wages (in rupees) of workers in a factory . C(125. E(225. They are 25. 275 Step 3 : Plot the ordered pairs A (25. 5) Step 4 : Join the points A. Step 2 : Find the class-marks of different classes.5.Graphical Representation of Data 309 Example 28. 13).8 : Draw a frequency polygon for the following data : Pocket allowance (in rupees) Number of students 0–50 50–100 100–150 150–200 200–250 250–300 16 25 13 26 15 5 Solution : To draw a frequency polygon without-drawing a histogram we go through the following steps : Step 1 : Draw two lines perpendicular to each other. 26). B (75. 25).7 28.9. D. C.

Write various steps in the construction of a Histogram.310 Mathematics Fig. (ii) The least wage is between Rs (4000 – 5000) and 4 workers are getting that. of workers earning them (iii) How many workers get a monthly wage of Rs. The corresponding figures for highest wage are Rs (9000 – 10000) and four workers get that (iii) 50 workers get a wage of Rs 8000 or less as Rs (4000 – 5000) – 4 workers Rs (5000 – 6000) – 10 workers Rs (6000 – 7000) – 12 workers Rs (7000 – 8000) – 24 workers Total – 50 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 28. 28.2 1.8 (i) Find the maximum number of workers getting a wage. 8000 or less ? Solution : (i) The maximum number of workers is 25 getting wages between Rs (7000 – 8000). (ii) Find the least wage and highest wage with no. What is the difference between a bar graph and a histogram ? 2. .

Interpret the data represented by the following histogram by answering the following questions : Fig. 5.9 Shirt sale in a week in a shop.Graphical Representation of Data 311 3. of families in a locality 4-6 25 6-8 20 8-10 10-12 12-14 14-16 16-18 18-20 15 15 13 7 3 2 6. 28. Draw a histogram and a frequency polygon for the following grouped data: Annual income (in ten thousand rupees) No. Draw a frequency polygon for the data in Question 3 on a separate paper. of students 3 5 12 7 5 3 Also draw a frequency polygon for the above data on the same sheet 4. Draw a histogram for the following frequency distribution : Height of students 135–140 140–145 145–150 150–155 155–160 160–165 (in cm) No. (i) The least number of shirts were sold in which class ? (ii) The maximum number of shirts were sold in which class ? (iii) How many shirts were sold upto the 42 shirt size ? (iv) How many shirts of size 44–66 were sold ? .

which can be referred to any time for reference. 28. We shall learn to draw these graphs and interpret them in the sections below : 28. 103). 99) in the rectangular system of coordinates. we are sometimes faced with graphs of other types... by line-segments. (23.. The graph has been obtained by joining the points corresponding to pairs.. When a patient is admitted in a hospital with fever the doctor/nurses prepare a temperature-time graph. .10 : The body temperature of a patient admitted in a hospital with typhoid fever at different times of a day are given below : Time of the day Temperature (in °F) 7 hrs 102 9 hrs 103 11 hrs 104 13 hrs 103 15 hrs 101 17 hrs 100 19 hrs 99 21 hrs 100 23 hrs 99 Draw a graph to represent the above data. . 102). Similarly. the same trend was present.. 28.10 Note : While drawing the graph it has been assumed that during the time interval in between times. Solution : The graph of the above data is given in Fig.10.. Fig.6.1 Temperature-Time Graph-Reading and Construction Example 28. like (7.312 Mathematics 28.. the velocity time graph and pressure-volume graph are of day-to-day use. (9.6 GRAPHS RELATED TO DAY-TO-DAY ACTIVITIES In addition to histograms and frequency polygons...

(iii) The administered medicine suited the patient as the temperature constantly fell after that.. (7. During a journey from city A to city B by car the following data regarding the time and velocity of the car was recorded : Time of the day (in hours) Velocity (in km/hour) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 60 60 45 50 60 50 45 60 50 65 40 50 Represent the above data by a velocity time graph. . the action of medicine had started ? (iii) What trend do you observe from the above graph ? Solution : (i) The temperature of the patient was highest at 11 hours and lowest at 19 hrs and 23 hrs. 60). Solution : As before the graph can be obtained by plotting the ordered pairs (6. whose temperature-time graph is shown in Fig. .12.Graphical Representation of Data 313 Example 28. 28.2 Velocity Time Graph During a journey from one place to other. with the exception of period between 19 hrs and 21 hrs when it became slightly higher at 100°F but again fell after that 28.10.11 : If the medicine was given to the patient at 9 hours. (17.6. 50) in the rectangular system of coordinates and then by joining them by line-segments. answer the following questions : (i) At what time of the day was the temperature highest ? At what time lowest? (ii) After how much time. This can be very well shown by a velocity-time graph.. 65).. the speeds of vehicles keep on changing according to traffic congestions. (ii) The action of the medicine started 2 hours after the medicine was given as the temperature started falling after that. Let us illustrate it with the help of example : Example 28... 60). . (15.

At 15 hours (ii) The velocity was constant at 60 km/hour between 6 hours and 7 hours (iii) Between 8 hours to 10 hours (iv) Between 10 hours to 12 hours 2.92 km/hour. 28. The average speed of the car was FG 60 + 60 + 45 + 50 + 60 + 50 + 45 + 60 + 50 + 65 + 40 + 50IJ H K 12 = 635 or 52. At what time duration of the day. What was the average speed of the car in the journey ? Solution : 1 (i) At 16 hours.11 Example 28. 28.13 : Read the velocity-time graph given in Fig. the velocity of the car (i) was lowest ? was highest ? (ii) constant (iii) went on increasing (iv) went on decreasing 2. 12 km/hour .314 Mathematics Fig.11 and reply the following questions : 1.

the corresponding pressure . (75. the volume . is there any relation between pressure and volume of the gas ? Let us see that from the following example : Example 28.6..3 Pressure-Volume Graph For a fixed quantity of a gas at a constant temperature. Solution : Fig. Full in the blank : (i) As volume increases. 28.14 : The following data pertains to pressure and volume of a fixed quantity of gas : Pressure (p) (in Newton) Volume (v) (in cm3) 60 90 90 60 45 120 30 180 75 72 Draw a graph to represent the above data... 60). 90).12 The graph is obtained by joining the plot of the ordered pairs (60. . and answer the following questions : 1.. (90.15 : Read the above graph...12. (iii) Pressure × Volume = ... 28.Graphical Representation of Data 315 28. Example 28... 72) by free hand curve. given in Fig. (ii) As pressure decreases. .

p = 54 Newtons as can be seen from the graph at point A 3. The body temperatures of a patient admitted in a hospital are given below: Time of the day (in hours) Temperature (in °F) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 99 15 99 16 100 17 98 103 104 105 102 102 100 3. when the pressure is 100 Newton ? Solution : 1 (i) Decreases (ii) Increases (iii) Constant = 5400 2. When p = 100 Newtons.3 Represent the data given in each of the questions below graphically : 1. What will be the volume. What will be the pressure when volume is 100 cm3 ? 3. The speeds of a car going from station A to station B at different times of the day are given below : Time of the day (in hours) Speed (in km/hour) 7 45 8 45 9 50 10 60 11 60 12 75 13 60 14 60 15 50 4. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 28. The data on pressure and volume of a gas are given below : Pressure (in Newtons) Volume (in cm3) 60 40 80 30 50 48 30 80 40 60 20 120 . v = 54 cm3 as can be seen from the graph at the point B. For a town. We know that pv = 5400 ∴ When volume = 100.316 Mathematics 2. the maximum temperature for the following months are given below : Months Maximum temperature (in °C) March April 35 38 May 38 June July August September October 42 45 40 38 35 2.

The graphical representation of data from day-to-day life is the join of points corresponding to ordered pairs represented by the data. For question No. 2 and answer the following question : (i) At what time of the day was the temperature of the patient maximum? (ii) If the medicine takes at least two hours to show the effect.00 40 10 8 60 12 11 5 40 8 12 4 50 7 15 3 4.Graphical Representation of Data 317 5. Interpret the data given in Question 1 and 2. Number of parcels received in a post office Weight of parcels (in kg) 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 7 4 120 0.0 25 9 7 80 1. TERMINAL EXERCISE z z Draw the bar graph for the following data in each case : 1. Read the graph of Question No.25 1. 1. Weight (in kg) No. Height of samplings (in m) 0. read the graph and reply the following questions : (i) Find the range of temperature for given months (ii) Which month had the least temperature ? (iii) Which month had the highest temperature ? (iv) In which month was the temperature less than 40°F ? (v) Can you predict the temperature for the next two months ? 6.75 2.50 1. of samplings 2. The graphical representations show the trends readily and at a glance only. of baskets of apples 3. at what time of the day was the medicine given ? LET US SUM UP z z Bar graphs are the graphical representation of ungrouped frequency data.75 18 8 5 150 1. . Histograms and frequency polygons are the graphical representation of continuous grouped frequency data.5 No.

318 Mathematics Draw a histogram and frequency polygon for the data in each case below: 5. Daily earning (in rupees) No. Read the graphs for Question Nos. The speed of the car at different times of the day is given below : Time of the day (in hour) Velocity (in km/hour) 7 45 9 50 11 60 13 65 15 70 17 60 19 55 21 40 Represent the above data by a velocity time graph and answer the following questions At what time was the velocity of the car (i) Maximum (ii) Minimum (iii) Between (50–60) km/hour (iv) Can you give hypothesis regarding the places where speed is extreme ? 10. The minimum temperatures of a town for a year are given below : Month Min. A man left New Delhi for Lucknow by car at 7 AM. Weight (in kg) 40–45 No. 8. of students in the class 6. 5 and 6 and interpret them. of workers 4 45–50 7 50–55 8 55–60 9 60–65 6 65–70 3 100-120 5 120-140 7 140-160 8 160-180 180-200 3 2 7. (in °C) Jan Feb March April 12 14 16 20 May June July 20 24 25 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 24 22 18 16 12 Draw a graph to represent the above data and interpret it. temp. 9. The following data pertains to a gas in a container : Pressure (in Newton) Volume (in cm3) 100 40 80 50 50 80 40 100 125 32 200 20 Represent the above data by a pressure volume graph. What relation do you find between pressure and volume from the data ? .

5% .33% (iv) 62.1 5.Graphical Representation of Data 319 ANSWERS Check Your Progress 28. (i) Bhilai and Rourkela (iii) 50 (in ten thousand tonnes) Check Your Progress 28. (i) (44–46) size (iii) 700 (ii) (40–42) size (iv) 50 (ii) 8.2 6.

(i) . The name itself suggests that these measures describe the data arithmetically— for example.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. We will learn to calculate them by the formulae and will also learn properties of some of them. we will study about different measures of central tendency for ungrouped data and some of them for grouped data also.. xn are n observations. Represented graphically.. x2.. the graph of the observations of the group will be around and close to the measure of central tendency. ungrouped and grouped data calculate mean of raw. The measures with which we do that are called Arithmetical Descriptors of Data. . the learner will be able to z z z z z define mean of raw.3 MEAN OF RAW DATA If x1. In this lesson. x3. + x n n . then their mean x is defined as Sum of all observations x = Number of observations or x = x1 + x 2 + x 3 + ... 29.. they are called Measures of Central Tendency –central because these are the measures around which the measures of all the members of the group gather around. average height of a class.. median score of the group or modal collar size of a team. Because of the fact that these measures are representative of the group they represent. ungrouped and grouped data by ordinary and short-cut-methods define mode and median of raw data calculate mode and median of raw data cite properties of mean and median 29. average age of a group.320 Mathematics 29 Measures of Central Tendency 29.1 INTRODUCTION Sometimes we are required to describe the data arithmetically.

6 5 Thus. x. Solution : We are required to find the mean of first ten natural numbers Mean = or Sum of first 10 natural numbers 10 x = 1 + 2 + 3 + . + 10 10 = 55 = 5.5 Examples 29. 11 and 12 is 9. the mean of first five prime numbers is 5. (i) can be written as x = i =1 ∑ xi n n Let us take some examples to illustrate : Example 29.Measures of Central Tendency 321 In abbreviated form.3 If the mean of 5.. 7 and 11 2 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 11 Their mean x = 5 = 28 = 5.5 10 Thus.. 9. the mean of first 10 natural numbers is 5. 3. 7. Example 29. find x. x is given to be 9 ∴ Sum of observations Number of observations 9= 5 + 7 + 9 + x + 11 + 12 6 or ⇒ ∴ The value x is 10 54 = 44+ x x = 54 – 44 = 10 . Solution : We know that the mean x of observations is given by x = As.1 : Find the mean of first 10 natural numbers.2 : Find the mean of first five prime numbers Solution : First five prime numbers are 2. 5.6.

... x10 f10 .. + f10 x10 + .. the mean of observations... is given by x = f1x1 + f2 x 2 + ..(ii) In abbreviated form (ii) is written as x = i =1 n ∑ fi x i i =1 n ∑ fi or x = i =1 ∑ fi x i n .... xi 8 25 24 50 24 15 12 2 15 1 Solution : We make the tabular form of data as follows : 146 ← ∑ fi x i ...... + f10 + .322 Mathematics 29. xn fn The above data shows that observation x1 is repeated f1 times. + f10 + .. + fnxn and the total number of observation is given by f1 + f2 + . . . + f n n . x2..4 : Find the mean of the following data : xi fi : : xi 2 5 8 10 12 15 2 4 5 5 fi 4 5 3 5 2 1 ∑ f i = 20 8 3 10 5 fi . + fn ∴ x .. + f10x10 + . + f n x n f1 + f2 + ..4 MEAN OF UNGROUPED DATA Let the frequency distribution for ungrouped data be given as below : Observations Frequency : : x1 f1 x2 f2 x3 f3 ......... f2 times and so on........ ∴ The sum of all these observations is given by f1x1 + f2x2 + .. where n = ∑ fi i =1 n Let us take some examples to illustrate Example 29.

f2. x1. the frequency in a class is centered at its class mark. Therefore... as usual... x2.(iii) . Thus. x3.3 20 Example 29. the steps are the same as for mean for ungrouped data. . fk. xk for k classes with class frequencies f1. + f k x k f1 + f2 + ...5 MEAN OF GROUPED DATA We know that for grouped data....Measures of Central Tendency 323 We know Mean x is given by bg ∑ fi x i x = ∑f i = 146 = 7..5 : If the mean of the following data is 7. say. We get the following: xi 4 x 6 7 9 11 ∑ fi fi 2 4 6 10 6 2 = 30 fi .. f3. the first step in finding mean of grouped data is to find the class marks.. ... Further... xi 8 4x 36 70 54 22 (190 + 4x) ← ∑ f i x i We know that x = 7 ∴ 7= 190 + 4 x 30 or or 210 – 190 = 4x x=5 ∴ The value x is 5..+ f k . find x xi fi : : 4 2 x 4 6 6 7 10 9 6 11 2 Solution : Let us put the data. 29.. in tabular form. the mean x for grouped data is given by x = f1x1 + f2 x 2 + ..

fk are their frequencies... x1.. f2.6 : Find the mean of the following grouped data : Classes Frequencies 0–10 1 10–20 3 20–30 5 30–40 7 40–50 5 50–60 3 60–70 1 Solution : Let us put the data in tabular form Classes 0–10 10–20 20–30 30–40 40–50 50–60 60–70 Frequencies (Class marks) (fi) xi 1 3 5 7 5 3 1 ∑ f i = 25 ∴ fixi 005 045 125 245 225 165 065 875 ← ∑ f i x i 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 ∑ fi x i 875 Mean x = ∑ f = = 35 25 i You can very well see that if the class marks and frequencies are large..324 Mathematics where. it is difficult to find the mean as it involves lots of calculations. called ‘Assumed Mean Method” or “Short cut Method”. To simplify the procedure. x2. In abbreviated form (iii) can be written as x = i =1 k ∑ fi x i i =1 k ∑ fi Let us take some examples to illustrate : Example 29.. xk are class marks of k classes and f1. .. .. we follow the following method.... The method involves the following steps : Step 1 : Find the class-marks Step 2 : Take any convenient class mark as assumed mean A (usually the central one or with maximum frequency is taken) .

8 : Classes Frequencies : : Find the mean of the following data 0–100 100–200 200–300 300–400 400–500 500–600 15 25 40 30 10 5 . Example 29.7 : Find the mean of the following grouped data using short cut method : Classes Frequencies : : 0–10 10–20 20–30 30–40 40–50 50–60 60–70 1 3 5 7 5 3 1 Solution : Let the assumed mean be 35.Measures of Central Tendency 325 Step 3 : Find the deviations (xi – A) Step 4 : Find the step deviations xi − A . where c is the interval and call them di c Step 5 : Find ∑ fi d i and use the following formula to find x = A+ ∑ fi d i ×c ∑ fi Let us try to apply this method on Example 6.6. Example 29. Classes 0–10 10–20 20–30 A ← 30–40 40–50 50–60 60–70 fi 1 3 5 7 5 3 1 xi 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 di = xi − A c –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 fidi –3 –6 –5 0 5 6 3 0 ←Σfidi ∴ x = 35 + ∑ fi d i c ∑ fi =35 + 0 = 35 which is same as found in Example 29.

4. (ii) by short cut method and confirm your results. Write the formulae for calculating mean of (i) Raw data (ii) Ungrouped data (iii) Grouped Data–ordinary method (iv) Grouped Data–Shortcut method.1 1. (a) Classes Frequencies (b) Classes : : 20-40 3 40-60 6 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 140-160 9 12 9 6 5 : 0-500 500-1000 1000-1500 1500-2000 2000-2500 2500-3000 14 16 20 30 12 8 Frequencies : . 2.326 Mathematics Solution : Let the assumed mean be 250. Find the mean of following data : xi fi : : 7 3 9 4 12 5 15 8 21 3 24 2 5. Find the mean of all multiples of 7 which are less than 100. Classes 0–100 100–200 200–300 300–400 400–500 500–600 fi 15 25 40 30 10 5 xi 50 150 250 350 450 550 di = xi − 250 100 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 f id i –30 –25 0 30 20 15 10 ← ∑ f i x i ∑ fi = 125 ∴ ∑ fid i x = A+ ∑f ×c i 10 × 100 = 258 = 250 + 125 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29. Find the mean of first 6 multiples of 5 3. Find the mean of following grouped data (1) by ordinary method.

equal number of observations on its both sides.e. 5 2 th and 6th observations 16 + 17 = 16. 9 . 6. 17. x. Example 29. 17. 9. 16. 6 . 17.6. 22. we have 4.. 21 Solution : As the median is 20. 12.10 : If the median of the following data is 20. 4. 25. 20.5 2 Example 29. MEDIAN OF RAW DATA Median is that value of the variate which divides the raw data into two equal halves. 22. 23. 16. 18. 15. 18. 23.e. find x : Median = 19. 24 . 20. 5. x. we have 16.Measures of Central Tendency 327 29. 18 The median is ∴ Median = 9 + 1I FH 7 2 K th or 4th observation (b) Here n is even (10) Arranging the data is ascending order.9 : Find the median of the following data : (a) 5. 7. the median is observations Let us illustrate it with examples. we first arrange the observations in ascending (or descending) order of magnitude and then follow the following : + 1I FH n 2 K th observation F nI Fn I (ii) If the number of observations n is even. 16. 3. we have 3. Arranging the data in ascending order. 21. 19. 19. 24. 18. 18. 16. when arranged in order (ascending or descending) For finding the median of raw data. i. the median is the average of H 2 K th and H 2 + 1K th (i) If the number of observations n is odd. and there are four observations more than 20 and four observations less than 20. 18. 10 (b) 16. 19. 15. 7 Solution : (a) Here the number of observations is odd (7 here). 12. 25 The median is average of 10 th and 2 ∴ FH IK FH 10 + 1I K th observations i. x must be 20 Arranging the data in ascending order. 17. 10.

. 13. that is more than 3.2 1.. 46 (c) 15.. 10 (b) 18. 16. 2 25. 11. . 18. 3 12.. 20. 25. If the median of the following data arranged in ascending order is 17..328 Mathematics CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29. 25... 28.. 16. 18.. 12 Solution : Here the distinct observation are 8 1 11 3 12 2 13 1 15 4 16 2 18 1 19 1 with their respectively frequencies as Thus. (ii) When the number of observations n is odd. 25..7 MODE OF RAW DATA Mode is that value of the variable which occurs most frequently in the data. observation... x... 15. 19. 11. 13. find x 12.. 10. 13. 19.. 17.. 19.. 8... the observation 15 has maximum frequency (4 here) ∴ Mode of the data is 15 Example 29. 16... x = 11. 12. 13.. Fill in the blanks suitably : (i) Median is that value of the variable . 12. The method involved is to find the distinct values of observations in the data and find the frequency of occurrence of each. 20. 11.. The observation with the maximum frequency is called mode. 15. 28. 18. 16. Example 29.11 : Find the mode of the following data : 15. 11. 16. 13. 18. 1 20. 11. Therefore. 20 (d) 6. 25. 18. median is given by . 12....12. observation (iii) When the number of observations n is even... 15.. 52... 13. 20.. 19.. 12. 15. 20 Solution : The distinct values of observations are 11. 72.. 15.. 42. 11... 9. 1 3 18. 2. 80. Let us take some examples to illustrate. median is given by .. 18. 7. x.. 22 29. 15. 2 19. 69.. then 11 has to have maximum frequency. 17 3. Find the value of x so that the mode of the data is 11 12.. Find the median of the following : (a) 5. 1 x with frequencies The mode of data is 11.

7. Find the mode of the following data : 28. 16. 19. 19. 9.3 1.. 16. x. 25. 28 (c) 28. + x n − x = 0 n b i. then the combined mean x of these is given by x = n1x1 + n 2 x2 n1 + n 2 2. 12. 14. 19. 13. 18. 5.. 22.12. . 25 (b) 1. 9. 18. 21. 15. 2. 16.13 : If two of the 20’s in Example 29. 15. 14. 14. 16. If x1. 19. Find the mode of the following data : (a) 15. then the mean is decreased by b. 28. 15. 29 29. xn observations have a mean x . x3.. x2. 19. 18. If each observation in the data is increased by a. where x = 11. 7. 18. Solution : Now the data becomes xi : fi : 11 4 12 1 13 5 18 2 19 1 25 1(* As x = 11) ∴ The new mode is 13. 4. 9. 16. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 29.. 18.e. 16. 16. 17. 7. 22. Does the mode depend on number of observations ? 3. 18. i =1 g b g b ∑ b x − xg = 0 i g b g 3. are changed to 13 each find the mode of the new data. 7 4. 22. 28. 12.. then x1 − x + x 2 − x + x 3 − x + . 7. 37 (b) What will be the new mode if one of the 37 after x is replaced by 33. Define mode of raw data. 25. 29. 28. then the mean is increased by a. 37. 29. If two groups with observations n1 and n2 have their means x1 and x 2 . 37. . 28. If each observation in the data is decreased by b.8 PROPERTIES OF MEAN 1. 28. 33. 33. 18. 22. 22. 13. 15. (a) Find the value of x so that the mode of the following data is 37 : 12. 22.Measures of Central Tendency 329 Example 29. 25. 33.

it divides the data exactly in two halves. LET US SUM UP z z The three measures of central tendency are mean.e. where k is the number of classes and xi′s are class marks i =1 (ii) x = A + k ∑ fi d i i =1 ×c ∑ fi xi − A c where A is the assumed mean di = and c is the length of interval. z Median of raw data is given by nI FH 2 K th observation if the number of observation (n) is odd.. Median is the middlemost observation of the data i. 29. unlike mean. Median may not lie in the data itself. Median. 2. is not affected by extreme values. 4. median and mode. F nI Fn I (ii) average of H 2 K th and H 2 + 1K th observations of n is even. If each observation in the data is divided by some non-zero constant. Median can be determined graphically also while mean can not. If each observation in the data is multiplied by some constant. Mean is that value in the group of observations which describes it arithmetically. z z Mean x of raw data is given by x = Mean x of grouped data is given by i =1 k i =1 ∑ xi n n (i) x = ∑ fi x i i =1 k ∑ fi k .9 PROPERTIES OF MEDIAN 1. 3. then the mean gets multiplied by the same constant. 6. (i) z Mode is that value of variate which occurs most frequently.330 Mathematics 5. . then the mean gets divided by the same non-zero constant. when arranged in order (ascending or descending).

5. 16. 13. 12. 19. 12. Find the mode of the following data : (a) 8. 18 is 12. 12. 17. 12. 18. 15 10. 17. 19. 6 8. Find the mean of the following data : (a) Classes : 10-20 2 20-30 3 30-40 5 40-50 7 50-60 5 60-70 3 Frequencies : (b) Classes : 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-500 500-600 600-700 3 5 8 6 5 3 Frequencies : 6. 13. x 9. 3. 8. p. If the median of the follows data is 25. 19 (b) 15. 23. 6. 29. find x. 14. If the mode of the following observation is 12. 18. 31. Find the mean of data given in 5(a) and 5(b) by assumed mean method. 19. 13. find x (a) 16. 7. 12. 22. 12. 3. 14. 17. 14 is 14 find the value of p. find x 16. 12. 15. 16. 19. 9. x. 12. 18. 3 (b) 19. 5. x. . 16. 15. 4. If the mean of 13. 18. 5. x . 19. 11 2. 12. 2. 8. 14. 18. 19. 15 and 9 (ii) 3. 17. 13. 21 (iii) 5. 19. 19. 9. 15. 8. If the mean of 8. 14.Measures of Central Tendency 331 TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. Find the mean of (i) 2. 17. Find the median of the following data : (a) 3. 16. 35. 12. 9 (b) 15. 13. 12. 2. 17. 5. 17. 15. 16. Find the mean of the following : (a) xi : fi : 5 3 9 5 13 12 20 5 17 8 22 7 22 7 24 5 25 5 26 3 (b) xi : 16 18 fi : 1 3 5. 29.

332 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 29. (i) Which divided the data into two equal halves. The value of the variable which occur most frequency is defined mode of raw data No (a) 25 (b) 9 (c) 7 (a) x = 37 (b) New mode = 33 22 Terminal Exercise 1. 13.92 Check Your Progress 29.6 9 12 5 (ii) 3. 8. 7. 5. 3. 52. (a) 92.2 1. (a) 16 3. 4. 9. (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) 12. 2. (ii) n + 1 th 2 (iii) Average of 2. 16 n n th and 2 + 1 th 2 (b) 46 FH IK (c) 17.4 i =1 k ∑ fi x i i =1 k ∑ fi 3. 2. 5. 17. (i) x = i =1 ∑ xi n n (ii) x = i =1 n ∑ fi x i i =1 n ∑ fi Σfi d i ×c Σfi (iii) x = 2.6 42.75 396.3 1. 6.1 1.5 (d) 14 Check Your Progress 29.775 42.5 (b) 1420 (iv) x = A + 4. 27 .5 5.875 5 21. 4.7 396.7 14 12 17 (iii) 12 10. (i) 8 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) 11 15.

is not certain to occur. the origin of the theory of probability has been the study of games of chance and is connected with events like tossing a coin. probability measures the degree of uncertainty involved and hence measures the degree of certainty of occurrence of events. If we go by the dictionary meaning of the word “probable” it says “likely though not certain”. “likely” or “probably” convey the meaning that the event. Thus. selecting a card at random from a well shuffled pack of cards. throwing a die. Under the head of probability.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson. throwing a die. he will come today.Introduction to Probability 333 30 Introduction to Probability 30. Interestingly. Ram is likely to get good marks in his examination. we sometimes make the following statements : It may be foggy today. we are talking about. we will study the measure of this uncertainty under given conditions. The train may reach in time. Probably. . an outcome and an event define different types of events define probability of occurrence of an event solve problems based on tossing a coin.1 INTRODUCTION In our day-to-day life. The usage of terms of the type “may”. the learner will be able to : z z z z define an experiment. The word probability has been derived from the same and is intended to be used to have a measure of uncertainty in making statements or taking decisions in such situations. and drawing a card from a well shuffled pack of cards. 30.

5 TYPES OF EVENTS Let us now study about some types of events and sample space : 30.4 Event All the possible outcomes of a trial are called events. 4. • •• ••• four fundamental operations on numbers terminology connected with “playing cards” 30. • . when a coin is tossed.4.4.1 Sample space The collection of all possible outcomes of an experiment constitute its Sample Space. If both the faces of a coin have head. We will take them one by one below 30.• • . 30. When a die is thrown.2 Trial and Outcome Performing an experiment once is called a trial and the result of the trial is called as outcome. For example. ••.1 Experiment An activity which ends in some well defined result is called an experiment. tossing a fair coin or throwing a fair die Note : By the word fair.• • . 30. the result will always be head. • • • .5. 3. (sometimes ••• . ••.4. it will be desirable to have knowledge of basic terms being used in the text. 2. •••.3 Random Experiment An experiment in which all possible outcomes are known before but will be the result of a trial can not be surely predicted.4 SOME DEFINITIONS Before saying something about probability.3 EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE We assume that the learner is already familiar with : z z z z the terms connected with coin-head and tail •• •• •• ) the terms connected with a dice the dots on six faces as (•. Drawing a card from a pack of cards. Any specific of these is called an event 30. 5 and 6) . the sample space consists of Head (H) and Tail (T). •••. otherwise we can always predict the result.334 Mathematics 30. we mean that no trick has been played with the object being tossed. the sample space consists of •.4. For example. 30. throwing a die and tossing a coin are examples of experiments. is called a random experiment. ••• •• •• called 1.

For example. 30.5. when P(X) = 1. .4 Equally Likely Events Two events are said to be equally likely events if they have equal chance of occurrence For example. the favourable cases to the event “occurrence of an odd number. called probability of non-occurrence of an event. the event is said to be a Sure event.. getting a number less than 7. we can say that When do we say that the probability of occurrence of event x is zero ? When there is no outcome favourable to the event. in a fair toss of a coin. For example. In that case.. are called favourable to that event. 3. 5.3 Mutually Exclusive Events If two events cannot occur together.(ii) m≤n 0 ≤ P(X) ≤ 1 From (i) and (ii). For example getting a number greater than 6 when a die is thrown once is an impossible event. For example. In a throw of a coin. all the possible out comes are favourable to the event. Let us now introduce another concept.Introduction to Probability 335 30. head and tail are mutually exclusive events.(i) . In the case.6 PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE OF AN EVENT The probability P(E) of occurrence of an event E is defined as P(E) = Number of outcomes favourable to the event Total number of possible outcomes 1 . they are said to be mutually exclusive events. when a die is thrown once is a sure event. 30...5. 2 Thus. the probability of occurrence of a head (H) when a coin is tossed is Suppose there are m cases (outcomes) which are favourable to an event capital X and n is the total number of outcomes. occurrence of head and tail are equally likely events. Such an event is called an Impossible event.5. then the probability of occurrence of the event X is given by P(X) = We know that m n . when a die is thrown are 1. 30.2 Favourable Event The cases which ensure the occurrence of an event.

Example 30. F2. Example 30. F2. 3. Then the probability of non-occurrence of the event X. M3.4 : A die is tossed once. F3.1 : Write the sample space if a die is thrown once. the probability of non-occurrence of an event equals [1 – Probability of occurrence of the event] Note : X is called an event complementary to event X.2 : 3 males and 4 females appear for an interview.. The sample space consists of M1. Write the sample space. •••. M2. ••. ••• • • • • •• This is the required sample space. ∴ The probability of occurrence of a tail = 1 2 Example 30. 5.336 Mathematics m If P(X) = n . Solution : We know that when a die is thrown once. Examples 30. the sample space is H. Solution : Let the three male candidates be denoted by M1. of which one candidate is to be selected. F4.e. the likely outcomes are •• •• or 1.3 : Find the probability of occurrence of a tail (T) when an unbiased coin is tossed once. 2. •• . 4. . . called P( X) is given by P( X) = n−m = n − m n n n m = 1− = 1 – P(X) n i. F1. 6 . then there are (n – m) outcomes which are not favourable to the occurrence of X. M3 and four female candidates be denoted by F1. the sample space is 1. 4. find the probability of occurrence of (i) 2 (ii) an even number Solution : When a die is tossed. 6 •. 2. M2. 5. Let us now take some examples to illustrate. T There is only one outcome favourable to a tail (T). 3. F3 and F4. Solution : When a coin is tossed once.

. called. 4. i. then P(E) = 3=1 6 2 You could have found P(E) as P(E) = 1 – P (even number) = 1 − 1 1 = 2 2 Example 30. 6 The number of favourable outcomes = 3 3 1 ∴ P (even number) = 6 = 2 Example 30. 5 are odd numbers) If E is the event.e. occurrence of an odd number. (ii) Probability of occurrence of an even number The even numbers are 2. 3. Solution : The number of odd numbers is 3 (1.5 : Find the probability of getting an odd number when a die is tossed once. P(2) = 1 6 because only one outcome is favourable to the event out of 6 possible outcomes. find the probability of selection of a (i) male candidate (ii) female candidate Solution : Total number of candidates = 7 Numbers of males = 3 3 ∴ (i) P (selection of a male candidate) = 7 (ii) P (selection of a female candidate) = 4 7 Alternatively P (selection of female candidate) = 1 – P (selection of a male candidate) = 1− 3=4 7 7 .Introduction to Probability 337 (i) Probability of occurrence of 2.6 : In case of Example 2.

of red balls = 4 Total no.7 : From a well shuffled pack of cards. P (R). A ball is drawn from the bag. there are two black kings ∴ The probability of occurrence of a black king P(B) is given by P(B) = 2 = 1 52 26 (iii) Similarly.1 1.8 : A bag contains 4 red. Find the probability (i) that it is a red ball (ii) it is not black. find the probability of occurrence of a (i) red card (ii) black king (iii) a queen Solution : (i) Since there are 26 red cards in a pack of 52 cards. if a card is drawn. Solution : (i) No. of balls = 9 ∴ P (a red ball) = 4 9 (ii) No. the probability of occurrence of a queen P (Q) is given by P(Q) = 4 = 1 52 13 Examples 30. 3 black and 2 white balls.338 Mathematics Example 30. of favourable cases = 6 (4 red + 2 white) or P (getting a black ball) = 3=1 9 3 1 2 ∴ P (not getting a black ball) = 1 − 3 = 3 2 ∴ P (not getting a black ball) = 3 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 30. the probability of occurrence of a red card. is given by P(R) = 26 = 1 52 2 (ii) Out of 52 cards. Define (i) Sample space (ii) Experiment and a random experiment .

A group of people have following distribution of members according to age Number 5 10 15 Age 30 years and below (31 – 40) years (41 – 60) years A person is selected at random from the group. Find the probability of selection of (a) a boy (b) a girl for Question 2(iii) 5. An urn contains 6 black and 4 red balls. Find the probability of selecting a (i) black ball (ii) red ball 6.Introduction to Probability 339 (iii) Event and outcome (iv) Types of events (v) Probability fo occurrence of an event 2. Write the sample space for the following : (i) when a fair coin is tossed once (ii) when a fair die is tossed once (iii) when 6 boys and 5 girls appear for a selection. 3. . Find the probability of occurrence of (a) a multiple of 2 when a die is tossed (b) a multiple of 3 when a die is tossed (c) a number greater than 4 when a die is tossed (d) a number greater than 6 when a die is tossed (e) a multiple of 4 which is less than 3 4. One ball is selected from the urn at random. Find the probability of getting a person with age (i) less than or equal to 40 yrs (ii) beyond 40 years (iii) less than or equal to 30 years.

Find the probability of the following events when a die is tossed once: (i) occurrence of 4 (ii) occurrence of a number greater than 2 (iii) occurrence of a number less than 3 (iv) occurrence of multiple of 4 (v) occurrence of a number greater than 6 (vi) occurrence of a number greater than or equal to 1 (vii) occurrence of a number which is prime. An experiment in which the sample space of outcomes is known but which one will occur cannot be predicted is called a random experiment.340 Mathematics LET US SUM UP z z Probability is a measure of index of uncertainty of occurrence of an event. Outcomes which ensure the occurrence of an event are called favourable cases to the occurrence of that event The events which cannot occur together are called mutually exclusive events Events which have equal chances of occurrence are called equally likely events. . Write the sample space for (i) selection of a candidate having 8 male and 6 female candidates (ii) when a die is tossed (iii) An urn with 4 red and 3 black balls 3. Probability of occurrence of an event. = Number of outcomes favourable to the event Total Number of outcomes z z z z z z TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. Performing an experiment once is called a trial and its result is called an outcome. 2. Define probability of occurrence of an event. The collection of all possible outcomes is called sample space. An activity that ends in some well defined result is called an experiment. Define sample space.

Find the probability of selection of a (i) red ball (ii) black ball (iii) green ball (iv) non-red ball (v) non black ball 5.Introduction to Probability 341 4. 6 boys and 2 girls have been called. Find the probability of selection of a (i) boy (ii) girl (using the concept of complementary events) . A ball is selected at random. Find the probability of a non-leap year (365 days) containing 53 Sundays. An urn contains 6 red. In an interview for the selection of a candidate. 6. 4 black and 5 green balls.

. B6. 4. .342 Mathematics ANSWERS Check Your Progress 30.... Terminal Exercise 3.. B2. 6. T (ii) 1. 5.... 6 (iii) B1. G1. (a) (a) (i) (i) 1 2 6 11 3 5 1 2 (b) (b) (ii) (ii) 1 3 5 11 2 5 1 2 (iii) 1 3 (c) 1 3 (d) zero (e) zero. 4.. (i) 1 6 (ii) (vii) (ii) 2 3 1 2 4 15 (iii) 1 3 (iv) 3 5 (v) 11 15 (iii) 1 3 (iv) 1 6 (v) zero (vi) 1 4. 6.1 2. (i) H. G2. (i) 1 7 (i) 3 4 2 5 (ii) 1 4 . 3.. G5 3. 5.. 2.

. probability (Jack of spades) = 1 52 1 52 ♠ ♥ ♦ ♣ — Black colour — Red colour — Red colour — Black colour . we roll a die and ask for a number. if that number comes on the top. 2. The plural of the word “die” is “dice”. ∴ Probability (of selection of a card) = Particularly. Fig. Jack.1). each of the 52 cards have equal chance of being drawn. each number 1 to 6 is equally likely to come on the top (occur) A PACK OF CARDS A pack of card consists of 52 cards divided into 4 suits (colours) called (i) Spades (ii) Hearts (iii) Diamonds (iv) Clubs Each suit consists of 13 cards Ace. If you ) has carefully see the figure on the side. Queen and King are called face cards If we draw a card from a well shuffled pack of cards. Whenever.1 Remmeber. the attempt is described as “win”. 3. he would have won in that trial. 30. . for an unbiassed die. Jack. (See Fig. the number 6 ( come on the top and if the player had asked for that number.. 30. Queen and King.. 10.Introduction to Probability 343 APPENDIX A DIE A die is a stable cube with its six faces marked with dots from 1 to 6.

1. Give the following informations on your answer sheet.Practice Work 205 Secondary Course Mathematics Practice Work–Algebra Maximum Marks : 25 Instructions : 1. Which of the following is not an integer ? (A) – 4 (B) – 25 (C) 36 (D) 4 5 1 1 . Answer all the questions on a separate sheet of paper. Do not send your practice work to National Institute of Open Schooling. 2. z z z z z Time : 45 Minutes Name Enrolment number Subject Topic of practice work Address 3. Get your practice work checked by the subject teacher at your study centre so that you get positive feedback about your performance. Fractions are called : (A) positive integers (B) positive rationals (C) negative rationals (D) negative integers 2.

2. then find (–4) * 3 1 2 7. Which of the following algebraic expressions is not a polynomial ? (A) x2(x + 1) (B) 5 (C) 1 3x + x3 (D) 3 x + x2 4. 67 as a rational number. 6. 5. 4. 2 8. is : (A) –20 (B) 18 (C) 20 (D) 22 6. Find two numbers nearest to 1000 which are exactly divisible by 4. 7 and 10 each. 6. 2 . The reciprocal of FH 2 I 3K −3 is : 1 (A) FH − 2 I 3K FH 2 I 3K 3I FH 2 K 3I FH 2 K 3 −3 (B) 3 (C) (D) −3 5. Express 0.. . If * is an operation defined on ‘a’ and ‘b’ as follows : a * b = – a + b – (–3). The tenth term of the A..206 Mathematics 3.P.

The sum of the first four and the first five terms of an A. find the common difference.P. Simplify : 3. nth and rth term of an A. 2 x −1 − 2 x− 2 2 10. are 26 and 40 respectively. prove that x(n – r) + y(r – m) + z(m – n) = 0. If mth. are x.2 x − 2 x −1 .P. If the length is increased by 2 m and breadth decreased by 2 m.Practice Work 207 9. 4 12. Find the dimensions of the rectangle. If the first term is 2. y and z respectively. the area is decreased by 8 m2. 2 11. The area of a rectangle gets increased by 4 m2 if its length is increased by 4 m and breadth decreased by 2 m. 6 .

1. Get your practice work checked by the subject teacher at your study centre so that you get positive feedback about your performance. The marked price of the item is : 1 (A) Rs 420 (B) Rs 400 (C) Rs 380 (D) Rs 385 .Practice Work 289 Secondary Course Mathematics Practice Work–Commercial Mathematics Maximum Marks : 25 Instructions : 1. A customer has to pay Rs 20 more. Answer all the questions on a separate sheet of paper. Give the following informations on your answer sheet. Rate of discount given by the shop is : 1 (A) 15% (B) 20% (C) 25% (D) 30% 2. if the discount is reduced from 20% to 15%. z z z z z Time : 45 Minutes Name Enrolment number Subject Topic of practice work Address 3. 2. A saree is available for Rs 450 whose marked price is Rs 600. Do not send your practice work to National Institute of Open Schooling.

5 : 2.50 (C) Rs 150. (C) 3% per quarter interest compounded quarterly. Which one is a better investment ? (A) 12% per annum interest compounded yearly. A shopkeeper allows 25% discount on his articles in a sale. A T. 6 1 . However he has to charge 10% sales tax on goods sold. A watch is sold for Rs 405 at a loss of 10%. The population of a village in the year 2000 was 8000. Find the total population at the end of the year 2002. if the interest is compounded yearly. The difference between the compound interest and simple interest as a certain sum of money at 10% per annum for 2 years is Rs 155.5 cm. Its population increased by 5% during the year 2001 and 4% during the year 2002. If the perimeter is 13. Find the marked price of an article. set is available for Rs 7500 cash or Rs 2000 as cash down payment followed by 6 monthly instalments of Rs 1000 each. if a customer has to pay Rs 330 inclusive of sales tax. (D) 1% per month interest compounded monthly. Find the sum. Find the profit percent. the cost price of the article was : 1 (A) Rs 175. 2 8.50 on transportation and had a gain of 25%. find the length of each side. 6. The cost price of 15 pens is equal to selling price of 12 pens. (B) 6% per half year interest compounded half yearly.00 4. 4 12. A man sold an article for Rs 187. If he had spent Rs 12. A sum of money becomes Rs 2000 in 2 years and Rs 2250 in 4 years at the same rate of simple interest.290 Mathematics 3. The sum is : 1 (A) Rs 2000 (B) Rs 1850 (C) Rs 1750 (D) Rs 1600 5.50. Another watch is sold for Rs 540 at a gain of 8%. Find the total gain or loss in both transactions.V. The sides of a triangle are in the ratio 1 : 1. Find the rate of interest charged under instalment plan.00 (D) Rs 140. 2 9. 2 11. 2 10. 2 7.00 (B) Rs 137. to buy it.

Do not send your practice work to National Institute of Open Schooling. 3 (C) 3. Give the following informations on your answer sheet.190 Mathematics Secondary Course Mathematics Practice Work–Geometry Maximum Marks : 25 Instructions : 1. Lines AB and CD intersect each other at O as shown in the adjacent figure. 4 (D) 2. A pair of vertically opposite angles is : 1 (A) 1. 2 (B) 2. 4 2. 2. Answer all the questions on a separate sheet of paper. Which of the following statements is true for a ∆ABC ? (A) AB + BC = AC (B) AB + BC < AC (C) AB + BC > AC (D) AB + BC + AC = 0 1 . 1. Get your practice work checked by the subject teacher at your study centre so that you get positive feedback about your performance. z z z z z Time : 45 Minutes Name Enrolment number Subject Topic of practice work Address 3.

B have co-ordinates (2. PT is a tangent to the circle at T. x) respectively. then prove that 4AB2 = AC2 + BD2. Find AD. 3) and (4. The quadrilateral formed by joining the mid points of the pair of adjacent sides of a rectangle is a : 1 (A) rectangle (B) square (C) rhombus (D) trapezium 4. In ∆ABC. Then ∠ABT is : 1 (A) 110° (B) 70° (C) 45° (D) 25° 5. the possible value of x is : 1 (A) – 6 (B) 0 (C) 9 (D) 12 6. AB = 10 cm and DE is parallel to BC such that AE = 1 AC.Practice Work 191 3. If ABCD is a rhombus. If ∠BTA = 45° and ∠PTB = 70°. In the adjacent figure. Two points A. 2 4 7. 2 . If AB2 = 13.

2 9. (10. Find the co-ordinates of the point on x-axis which is equidistant from the points whose co-ordinates are (3. Find the co-ordinates of its centroid. 3). 8) and (9. If co-ordinates of one of the end points of the segment are (6. The co-ordinates of the vertices of a triangle are (3. 5). Prove that parallelograms on equal (or same) bases and between the same parallels are . –1). 7) and (5. AD⊥BC. 2 10. In an acute angled triangle ABC. 4 6 12. BD equal in area. then find the co-ordinates of the other end point. Prove that AC2 = AB2 + BC2 – 2BC. 2 11.192 Mathematics 8. The co-ordinates of the mid-point of a line segment are (2. 3). 5).

2.Secondary Course Mathematics Practice Work–Mensuration Maximum Marks : 25 Instructions : 1. Do not send your practice work to National Institute of Open Schooling. Answer all the questions on a separate sheet of paper. then its altitude is : (A) 3 2 a 2 1 (B) 3 2a 2 3 a 2 (C) (D) 3 2a . If ‘a’ is the side of an equilateral triangle. 1. z z z z z Time : 45 Minutes Name Enrolment number Subject Topic of practice work Address 3. Get your practice work checked by the subject teacher at your study centre so that you get positive feedback about your performance. Give the following informations on your answer sheet.

The sides of a triangle are 30 cm. whose volume equals that of a cuboid of dimensions 63 cm × 56 m × 21 cm is : 1 (A) 21 cm (B) 28 cm (C) 36 cm (D) 42 cm 6. Find the area of the rhombus. m at the rate of 6 km an hour ? 2 7. The radii of two right circular cylinder are in the ratio 3 : 4 and their heights are in the ratio 5 : 2. The height of the triangle is : 1 (A) 5 cm (B) 4 cm (C) 3 cm (D) 2 cm 5. One of the diagonals and a side of a rhombus are 8 cm and 5 cm respectively. 2 8. Find the ratio of their curved surface areas. The base of an isosceles triangle is 8 cm and one of the equal sides is 5 cm. How long will a man take to walk round the boundary of a square field of area 90000 sq. Three equal cubes are placed end-to-end in a row. The edge of a cube. 2 . Find the ratio of the total surface area of the new cuboid to that of the sum of the surface areas of the three cubes. Its area is : (A) 120 cm2 (B) 600 cm2 (C) 750 cm2 (D) 1200 cm2 3. 2 9.238 Mathematics 2. The perimeter of a square of side ‘l’ is given by : (A) l2 (B) 4l (C) l 2 (D) 2l 1 1 4. 40 cm and 50 cm.

Find the height of the room.5 mm Find the length of the wire. 4 12. Find the number of marbles that should be dropped.4 cm diameter are dropped into a cylindrical vessel of diameter 7 cm containing water. A room is 7 m long and 4 cm wide. if the water level in the cylinder rises by 5. A cubic meter of iron is melted to form a wire of diameter 3.Practice Work 239 10. FG Use π = 22 IJ H 7K 6 . It has two doors of 2 m × 1 m each and two windows 1 m × 1m each. The cost of painting the walls at the rate of Rs 5 per square meter is Rs 300.6 cm. Spherical marbles of 1. 2 11.

Get your practice work checked by the subject teacher at your study centre so that you get positive feedback about your performance. Do not send your practice work to National Institute of Open Schooling.284 Mathematics Secondary Course Mathematics Practice Work–Trigonometry Maximum Marks : 25 Instructions : 1. then cos θ is : q (A) p p (B) 1 − q q 2 − p2 q p2 − q 2 q 1 (C) (D) . z z z z z Time : 45 Minutes Name Enrolment number Subject Topic of practice work Address 3. If sin θ = q . Give the following informations on your answer sheet. p 1. 2. Answer all the questions on a separate sheet of paper.

AB = 5 cm.Practice Work 285 2. right angled at B. then the value of is : 4 sin θ + cos θ 1 (A) 2 (B) 4 5 13 7 4 7 (C) (D) . If sin θ = 8 5 8 3 9 5 5 9 b g 1 (A) (B) (C) (D) 6 sin θ − 5 cos θ 4. In ∆ABC. then the value of 1 + cosecθ is : 5 (B) (C) (D) 3. AC = 13 cm and ∠C = θ. If 2 tan θ = 3 . then cos θ is equal to : 1 (A) 5 13 13 5 5 12 12 13 3 .

8. The angles of elevation of the top of a light house from two boats. 1 + tan 2 A (B) (C) (D) 6. 6 . in the opposite direction of light house. For what value of θ. Representation of sin θ interms of tan θ is : (A) 1 tan θ 1 + tan 2 θ tan θ 1 − tan 2 θ 1 tan θ 1 + tan 2 θ 1 tan θ 1 − tan 2 θ 2 tan A . find the height of the light house. Eliminate θ from b g y = bbsec θ − tan θg x = a sec θ + tan θ 9. in the sea are 45° and 60°. If x = a sin θ + cos θ 2 2 b g y = bbsin θ − cos θg .286 Mathematics 5. cos θ and sec θ are equal ? 10. Prove that tan θ + sin θ sec θ + 1 = . Prove that sin4A – cos4A = sin2A – cos2A. If the distance between the boats is 60 m. tan θ − sin θ sec θ − 1 4 12. prove that x2 y2 + =2 a 2 b2 11. Show that 2 sin A cos A = 2 2 2 7.

- K12 Physics Part_2
- AITAREYOPANISHAD.doc
- ISAVASYA UPANISHAD.doc
- MANDUKYOPANISHAD.doc
- BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD.doc
- Karma Yoga.doc
- FUNDAMENTALS OF MEDITATION
- Divine Sadhana
- Biology K12
- Physics K12
- High School Science Part II
- High School Science Part I
- Exemplar Problems in K12 Physics Part 1
- Exemplar Problems in K12 Physics Part 1
- Exemplar Problems in Mathematics for K12
- HamsaYogaTheElixirofSelfRealization Pandit Shriram Acharya
- Summary of High School Chemistry
- K12 Mathematics
- Bhagavatha
- Bhagavatha
- Life of Shirdi Sai Vol2
- Life of Sai Baba Vol1
- Sai Saran Anand

Basic Mathematics Textbook for School Level

Basic Mathematics Textbook for School Level

- high school mathematics
- High School Mathematics Grade 10-12
- Algebra Lesson 1
- Math Quest Math Specialist VCE 11 (2016 Edition)
- Intro to Tensors
- VB
- 1_Second Order Linear Differential With Constant Coefficients
- ENEE 660 HW Sol #1
- Sets and Functions
- A. Kricker, B. Spence and I.Aitchison- Cabling the Vassiliev Invariants
- Lie Algebras 2-1-11
- RCF LCF Theorem
- 2ndYearEssay
- l9
- Jarzynski
- 05 CCA Kyoto2
- Multiplicative
- Svd Inequalities
- Wong
- Avdeeva M O - On the Statistics of Partial Quotients of Finite Continued Fractions - Functional Anal. and Its Appl. 38 (2004), No.2, 79-87
- buongAMS73-76-2011_2
- Vector Fields on Spheres
- Lazard
- ORTHOGONAL EXPANSIONS
- The Computational Algorithm for Supported Solutions Set of Linear Diophantine Equations Systems in a Ring of Integer Numbers
- IMOMATH - Quadratic congruences
- SL problems outline
- Differential Equations
- Unit 5

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd