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Fluid mechanics

Fluid mechanics

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Published by Anshul Kothari
Kinematic energy and momentum cofficient
Kinematic energy and momentum cofficient

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Published by: Anshul Kothari on Oct 07, 2013
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Full Length Research Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Kinetic Energy and Momentum Correction Factors in an Open Channel Flow
Kothari Anshul Abhay, Prahlad Singh Rao, Nikunj Patel, Rao Aditya Vasudev, Pranav Kopargaonkar, Abhijit Patnaik and Dipankar Behera School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University Chennai Campus

In this experimental study, the velocity distributions in simple open channel cross sections were determined. The main objective was to investigate the variation of Kinetic Energy Correction Factor and Momentum Correction Factor for the different flows ie for different discharge values. Kinetic Energy Correction Factor and Momentum Correction Factor, and , were computed for three channels with different cross sections. For each channel these were computed for three different discharge values, the average values of Kinetic Energy Correction Factor and Momentum Correction Factor were obtained as 1.184 and 1.116 respectively.

Kinetic Energy Correction factor and momentum correction factor come into picture during analysis of fluid flows because Gaspard Coriolis showed in the 18th century that the kinetic energy of a fluid stream obtained from is not the same as the actual kinetic energy of the fluid stream since the square of a sum is not equal to the sum of the squares of its components. This leads to many irregularities in the final results and in several cases has proved to be significant enough for proper consideration. Because of the non-uniform velocities in the channel flow the correction factors generally prove to be greater than unity. Kinetic energy and momentum correction coefficients, and , are computed using equations [1] and [2] for a single cross-sectional areas of a channel:

…………………………………………….(1) And Momentum correction factor is given by:

…………………………………………………………(2) For this particular area of research, fabrication of simple channels were done wherein the observations were carried out. Different channels with varying dimensions gave different values

227 1. RESULTS Kinetic Energy Correction Factor and Momentum Correction Factor. In order to obtain velocity of water a pitot tube was used. The values of coefficients are presented in the Table 1. As illustrated in the figure.112 659.of the kinetic energy and momentum correction factors.066 channel2 625. the flume consists of a single channel of water.76 1219.126 1.82 109.177 1.94 1.34 131.099 180.53 1.87 1.23 140. the velocity at three different depths was calculated viz.43 807.097 876.13 149. For a particular discharge value.58 107. Preliminary experiments were done for three different discharges. Bed slope of the flume was set to be 0.1 102. to obtain the velocity distribution data of water. were calculated from the velocity distribution data and equations (1) and (2).082 Table 1 .71 125. Three different channels were used for doing the experiment their dimensions being 10 cm.04 897.54 934. at the surface.072 1.128 1.299 1.12cm and 20cm in width. Chennai Campus to investigate the kinetic energy and momentum correction coefficients. and .208 1.151 1.1.53 122.144 1. The discharge values were calculated using a calibrated collecting tank and a stopwatch. channel1 Q U α β 330.103 1. The flume was made using galvanized steel sheet.04 1.188 1.66 1.2 1. An attempt was made at establishing a relationship and MATERIALS AND METHOD A series of experiments were performed in a single open channel flume at the MEE-206 Fluid Mechanics laboratory of the VIT University. at half depth and at base of the flume. The heights of the channel wall were same for all three flumes.02 channel3 545.33 1.

13 1.16 1.18 1.09 1.12 1. 1.24 1. it can be observed that the values of of discharge due to increase in stability of flow.1 1.633x .25 1.11 1.15 1.6026 R² = 0.16 1.5 Channel 3 1.9999 α β Figure 3 1.22 1.6413 R² = 0.9992 α 1.3 1.9997 α 1.05 1.14 1.1 y = 1.32 1.15 channel2 y = 0.06 and decreases with the increasing value channel 1 y = 1.3446 R² = 0.15 1.17 1.18 1.12 1.14 1.19 1.12 1.0.26 1.5996x .28 1.2 1.05 1 0 0.2 .08 β Figure 1 1.6501x + 0.1 1.1 1.2 1.From table 1.0.5 β Figure 2 1 1.1 1.

6 0. it can be observed that there is a linear relation between and .4 1. 2 1.8 0.4 0.6 1.6 1.2 0 0 50 100 U 150 200 Channel1 Channel2 Channel3 β Figure 5 Figure 4 and 5 depicts lack of dependence of and with respect to mean velocities. These coefficients depend only on velocity distribution and not on mean velocities. .6 0.2 1 0.From Figure 1.4 0.8 1.2 and 3.4 1.2 0 0 50 100 U 150 200 α Channel1 Channel2 Channel3 Figure 4 2 1.8 1.8 0.2 1 0.

Singapore . McGraw Hill. Chennai Campus. are generally greater than unity. as the velocity is not constant throughout the cross section as velocity decreases with increasing depth in open channel flow. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We sincerely thank Professor Feroskhan M. ‘Experimental investigation of kinetic energy and momentum correction coefficients in open channels’ 2. for allowing us to use the Fluid Mechanics laboratory of VIT University.CONCLUSIONS Kinetic energy and momentum correction coefficients. REFERENCES 1. Rh French(1987). This study has explored the practical average values of α and β as 1. He has also guided and helped us in the successful completion of this project. α and β are often equal to 1 when the energy and momentum principles are used in the hydraulic calculations. Open channel hydraulics. α and β. However. The results showed that α and β coefficients decreases with increasing discharge.116 respectively for three different channels of varying dimensions. Secking et al(2009).184 and 1.

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