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Saravpreet Singh Dhillon ( BHEL Project Report) CNC MACHINES

Saravpreet Singh Dhillon ( BHEL Project Report) CNC MACHINES

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Project report for project in BHEL
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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINES
undertaken at

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD. (GOINDWAL,TARN TARAN)

Submitted by SARAVPREET SINGH DHILLON UE 95083

Under the Guidance of Mr.Sanjeev Kumar Mr.Tejinder Singh HOD

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY PANJAB UNIVERSITY, CHANDIGARH JUNE -2013 1

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project work entitled COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINES is an authentic record of my own work carried out at BHEL (GO+NDWAL) as requirements of six months Industrial Training for the award of the degree of B.E. at University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh under the guidance of Mr.Tejinder Singh and Mr.Sanjeev, during January 4,2013 to July 3, 2013

SARAVPREET SINGH DHILLON UE 95083

Date : June 12, 2013

Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief.

Mr.Sanjeev Kumar

Mr.Tejinder Singh HOD

+

+
2

INDEX
OVERVIEW OF THE ORGANISATION
        INTRODUCTION POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION (T & D) INDUSTRIES TRANSPORTATION RENEWABLE ENERGY MISSION INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION AND R&D 1 3 4 4 5 5 6 6

1

PROJECT REPORT
  Introduction Configuration of CNC Systems 12
Input Device Machine Control Unit Machine Tool Driving System Feedback Systems Display Unit 13 15 15 16 17 21

9

        

CNC PART PROGRAMMING PROGRAMMING SYSTEMS CNC POSITIONING SYSTEM INTERPOLATION PROGRAMMING FORMAT STEPS FOR CNC PROGRAMMING ELECTRONICS OF A CNC MACHINE CNC CONTROLLER COMPONENTS SETUP PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

23 24 27 29 31 37 41 42 44

3

ANALYSIS AND PROGRAMMING OF A VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER 48      MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS PROGRAMM USED IN MANUFACTURING OF TURBINE COUPLINGS STEPS IN USING THE MACHINE ADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINES REFERENCE 51 53 55 56 57 4 .

showing a growth of 17 per cent over the previous year. 5 . A dream which has been more than realized with a well recognized track record of performance it has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and achieved a turnover of Rs 2.658 crore for the year 2007-08. It finds place among the top class companies of the world for manufacture of electrical equipments. BHEL was established more than 50 years ago when its first plant was setup in Bhopal ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry in India.BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited is country’s ‘Navratna’ company and has earned its place among very prestigious national and international companies.

BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz. Industry. BHEL is the only PSU among the 12 Indian companies to figure in “Forbes Asia Fabulous 50” list. Renewable Energy. The Company today enjoys national and international presence featuring in the “Fortune International -500” and is ranked among the top 10 companies in the world. An Overview: 6 . Transportation. BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management. etc. Power Generation's & Transmission. BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD. Telecommunication. Defense. and ISO 14001 certification for environment management and OHSAS – 18001 certification for Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems.. manufacturing power generation equipment.

capacitor tanks. making profits continuously since 1971-72. The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed employees.      Power Industry Transportation Transmission Defenses etc. a positive work culture. dry type transformers.  POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION (T & D) BHEL offer wide ranging products and systems for T & D applications. A strong engineering base enables the Company to undertake turnkey delivery of electric substances up to 400 kV level series compensation systems (for increasing power transfer capacity of transmission lines and improving system stability and voltage regulation). Every participative style of management all these have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity. employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and grow in his career. shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk power). Products manufactured include power transformers. series – and stunt reactor. Continuous training and retraining. BHEL has indigenously developed the state-of-the-art 7 . quality and responsiveness. instrument transformers. BHEL business operations cater to core sectors of Indian Economy like. committed to enhancing stakeholder value. The company is striving to give shape to its aspirations and fulfill the expectations of the country to become a global player. vacuum – and SF circuit breakers gas insulated switch gears and insulators. BHEL's vision is to become a world-class engineering enterprise. career planning.BHEL today is the largest Engineering Enterprise of its kind in India with excellent track record of performance.

sugar.  INDUSTRIES BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries. Water heat recovery boilers. both for mainline and shunting duly applications. electrical multiple units and metro cars. Besides traction propulsion systems for in-house use. BHEL is also producing rolling stock for special applications viz. light rail systems etc. Special well wagons. Presently a 400 kV Facts (Flexible AC Transmission System) project under execution. marketing. Rail-cum-road vehicle etc. diesel-electric locomotives. gas turbines. oil and gas. The electric and diesel traction equipment on India Railways are largely powered by electrical propulsion systems produced by BHEL. pumps. heat exchangers and pressure vessels. BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000 HP. fertilizer. BHEL manufactures traction propulsion systems for other rolling stock producers of electric locomotives. BHEL is also diversifying in the area of port handing equipment and pipelines transportation system. co-generation plants DG power plants. overhead equipment cars. installation. In the area of rolling stock. centrifugal compressors. production.controlled shunt reactor (for reactive power management on long transmission lines). industrial steam turbines.  TRANSPORTATION BHEL is involved in the development design. fluidized bed combustion boilers. chemical recovery boilers and process controls. petrochemicals. seamless steel tubes. industrial boilers and auxiliaries. electrical machines. cement. The range of system & equipment supplied includes: captive power plants. refinances. engineering. reactors. BHEL is geared up to turnkey execution of electric trolley bus systems. electrostatic precipitators. The company also undertakes retooling and overhauling of rolling stock in the area of urban transportation systems.. paper. fabric filters. metallurgical and other process industries. and maintenance and after-sales service of Rolling Stock and traction propulsion systems.. 8 . diesel-electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP. valves.

9 . Grinding machines. Spindle and Spindle bearings. which operate the electrically controlledservo systems. Theinformation stored in the computer can be read by automatic means andconverted into electrical signals. There are some of the important constituents parts and aspectsof CNC machines to be considered in their designing. Guideways.This difference arises from the requirements of higher performance levels. the quality and reliability of these machines depends on the various machine elements and subsystems of the machines. Measuringsystems.  MISSION The leading Indian engineering enterprise providing quality products systems and services in the fields of energy. However. often with a single operationand without the need to reorient the workpiece. solar lanterns and battery-powered road vehicles. transportation. for example Machinestructure. Toolmonitoring. Controls.Computer Numerically Control can be applied to milling machines.The control of a machine tool by means of stored information throughthe computer is known as Computer Numerically Controlled.Lathe machines. Gauging.The CNC machines often employ the various mechatronics elements thathave been developed over the years. Flame cutters. RENEWABLE ENERGY Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for exploiting non-conventional and renewable sources of energy include: wind electric generators. infrastructure and other potential areas. Electrically controlled servo systems permits the slides of amachine tool to be driven simultaneously and at the apporopriate feeds anddirection so that complex shapes can be cut. solar photovoltaic systems. The design and construction of Computer Numerically Controlled(CNC) machines differs greatly from that of conventional machine tools. The Company has taken up R&D efforts for development of multi-junction amorphous silicon solar cells and fuel based systems. Feed drives. Software and Operator interface. Boring machines.Drilling machines etc.

Greece. switchgears. BHEL lays great emphasis on the continuous upgradation of products and related technologies. financing packages etc. Apart from over 1110MW of boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia. castings and forgings. Malta. Executing of Overseas projects has also provided BHEL the experience of working with world renowned Consulting Organisations and inspection Agencies. Egypt. besides a wide variety of products. Sri Lanka. and execution of four prestigious power projects in Oman. These references encompass almost the entire product range of BHEL. Cyprus. BHEL possesses the requisite flexibility to interface and complement with International companies for large projects by supplying complementary equipment and meeting their production needs for intermediate as well as finished products. well-head equipment. covering turnkey power projects of thermal. Bangladesh. insulators. quality and other requirements viz extended warrantees. In addition to demonstrated capability to undertake turnkey projects on its own. hydro and gas-based types. heat exchangers. The company has been successful in meeting varying needs of the industry. ranging for the United States in the West to New Zealand in the Far East. Azerbaijan. Iraq etc. substation projects. over the years. Some of the other major successes achieved by the Company have been in Australia. Libya. be it captive power plants. rehabilitation projects. centrifugal compressors. The Company has upgraded its products to contemporary levels through continuous in 10 . photo-voltaic equipment etc. BHEL has proved its capability to undertake projects on fast-track basis. associated O&M. like transformers. Technology Upgradation and Research & Development To remain competitive and meet customers' expectations. valves. Saudi Arabia.International Operations BHEL has. The Company has been successful in meeting demanding customer's requirements in terms of complexity of the works as well as technological. established its references in around 60 countries of the world. utility power generation or for the oil sector requirements. and development of new products.

in the recent past. several state-of-the-art products developed inhouse: low-NQx oil / gas burners. leads BHEL's research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL's product range.6% to the revenues in 2000-2001. BHEL's Investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India. petroleum depot automation systems. etc. high-efficiency Pelton hydro turbines. 11 . 36 kV gas-insulated sub-stations. The Company has also transferred a few technologies developed in-house to other Indian companies for commercialization. spread over a 140 acre complex. Research and product development centers at each of the manufacturing divisions play a complementary role.house efforts as well as through acquisition of new technologies from leading engineering organizations of the world. The Corporate R&D Division at Hyderabad. circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers. Products developed in-house during the last five years contributed about 8. BHEL has introduced.

PROJECT REPORT CNC SYSTEMS The definition of CNC given by Electronic Industry Association (EIA) is as follows: “A system in which actions are controlled by the direct insertion of numerical data at some point.” In a simple word. The system must automatically interpret at least some portion of this data. interpret the data and then control the action accordingly. a CNC system receieves numerical data. A Vertical Machining Center 12 .

The CNC system is the heart and brain of a CNC machine which enables the operation of various machine members such as slides. hard disk. The NC controls the spindle movement and the speeds and feeds in machining. A computer numerical control (CNC) is a microprocessor-based system to store and process the data for the control of slide motions and auxiliary functions of the machine tools. relay coils. Computer Numerical Control may be considered to be a means of operating a machine through the use of discrete numerical values fed into the machine. Control algorithm may cause errors while computing. etc. although it was initially developed to control the motion and operation of machine tools. CD ROM.INTRODUCTION Numerical control (NC) is a method employed for controlling the motions of a machine tool slide and its auxiliary functions with input in the form of numerical data. it will result in poorer part accuracy. The machine follows a predetermined sequence of machining operations at the predetermined speeds necessary to produce a work piece of the right shape and size and thus according to completely predictable results. The main advantage of a CNC system lies in the fact that the skills of the operator hitherto required in the operation of a conventional machine is removed and the part production is made automatic. It calculates the traversing path of the axes as defined by the inputs. where the required 'input' technical information is stored on a kind of input media such as floppy disk. etc. Though this does not cause point to point positioning error. which will reflect during contouring. Positioning and part accuracy depend on the CNC system's computer control algorithms. DVD. but when mechanical machine inaccuracy is present. The PLC controls the peripheral actuating elements of the machine such as solenoids. USB flash drive. Working together. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is a specialized and versatile form of Soft Automation and its applications cover many kinds. spindles. A different product can 13 . as per the sequence programmed into it. depending on the machining operations. The CNC systems are constructed with a NC unit integrated with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and some times with an additional external PLC (non-integrated). the NC and PLC enable the machine tool to operate automatically. but they are very negligible. the system resolution and the basic mechanical machine accuracy. or RAM card etc.

Hitachi Seiki VA35 CNC Machining Center 14 .be produced through reprogramming and a low-quantity production run of different products is justified.

Hitachi Seiki VA35 CNC Machining Center 15 .

c. e.CONFIGURATION OF THE CNC SYSTEM Fig. Input Device Machine Control Unit Machine Tool Driving System Feedback Devices Display Unit 16 . shows a schematic diagram of the working principle of a NC axis of a CNC machine and the interface of a CNC control.1 Schematic diagram of a CNC machine tool     Proximity switches Limit switches Relay coils Pressure switches Float switches  A CNC system consists of the following 6 major elements: a. CNC system P L C Command value Servo Drive Servo Motor Spindle Head Encoder N C Velocity Feedbac k Tape Reader Tape Punch Other Devices Tacho Generator Lead Screw Work piece Table Position Feedback  Inputs Output Machine Elements s Fig. f. b. d.

Input Devices
a. Floppy Disk Drive Floppy disk is a small magnetic storage device for CNC data input. It has been the most common storage media up to the 1970s, in terms of data transfer speed, reliability, storage size, data handling and the ability to read and write. Furthermore, the data within a floppy could be easily edited at any point as long as you have the proper program to read it. However,this method has proven to be quite problematic in the long run as floppies have a tendency to degrade alarmingly fast and are sensitive to large magnetic fields and as well as the dust and scratches that usually existed on the shop floor.

b. USB Flash Drive A USB flash drive is a removable and rewritable portable hard drive with compact size and bigger storage size than a floppy disk. Data stored inside the flash drive are impervious to dust and scratches that enable flash drives to transfer data from place to place. In recent years, all computers support USB flash drives to read and write data that make it become more and more popular in CNC machine control unit.

USB Flash Drive c. Serial communication The data transfer between a computer and a CNC machine tool is often accomplished through a serial communication port. International standards for serial communications are

established so that information can be exchanged in an orderly way. The most common interface between computers and CNC machine tools is referred to the EIA Standard RS-232. Most of the personal computers and CNC machine tools have built in RS232 port and a standard RS-232 cable is used to connect a CNC machine to a computer which enables the data transfer in reliable way. Part programs can be downloaded into the memory of a machine tool or 17

uploaded to the computer for temporary storage by running a communication program on the computer and setting up the machine control to interact with the communication software.

SerialCommunication in a Distributed Numerical Control System

Direct Numerical Control is referred to a system connecting a set of numerically
controlled machines to a common memory for part program or machine program storage with provision for on-demand distribution of data to the machines. (ISO 2806:1980) The NC part program is downloaded a block or a section at a time into the controller. Once the downloaded section is executed, the section will be discarded to

leave room for other sections. This method is commonly used for machine tools that do not have enough memory or storage buffer for large NC part programs. Distributed Numerical Control is a hierarchical system for distributing data between a production management computer and NC systems. (ISO 2806:1994) The host computer is linked with a number of CNC machines or computers connecting to the CNC machines for downloading part programs. The communication program in the host computer can utilize two-way data transfer features for production data communication including: production schedule, parts produced and machine utilization etc.

18

Machine Control Unit (MCU)
The machine control unit is the heart of the CNC system. There are two sub-units in the machine control unit: the Data Processing Unit (DPU) and the Control Loop Unit (CLU).

a. Data Processing Unit On receiving a part programme, the DPU firstly interprets and encodes the part programme into internal machine codes. The interpolator of the DPU then calculate the intermediate positions of the motion in terms of BLU (basic length unit) which is the smallest unit length that can be handled by the controller. The calculated data are passed to CLU for further action.

b. Control Loop Unit The data from the DPU are converted into electrical signals in the CLU to control the driving system to perform the required motions. Other functions such as machine spindle ON/OFF, coolant ON/OFF, tool clamp ON/OFF are also controlled by this unit according to the internal machine codes.

Machine Tool
This can be any type of machine tool or equipment. In order to obtain high accuracy and repeatability, the design and make of the machine slide and the driving lead screw of a CNC machine is of vital importance. The slides are usually machined to high accuracy and coated with anti-friction material such as PTFE and Turcite in order to reduce the stick and slip phenomenon. Large diameter recirculating ball screws are employed to eliminate the backlash and lost motion. Other design features such as rigid and heavy machine structure; short machine table overhang, 19

Three types of electrical motors are commonly used. The motor is coupled either directly or through a gear box to the machine lead screw to moves the machine slide or the spindle. etc also contribute to the high accuracy and high repeatability of CNC machines. The requirement is that the driving system has to response accurately according to the programmed instructions. This system usually uses electric motors although hydraulic motors are sometimes used for large machine tools. Different Machine Tools Driving System The driving system is an important component of a CNC machine as the accuracy and repeatability depend very much on the characteristics and performance of the driving system. Stepping Motor A stepping motor is a device that converts the electrical pulses into discrete mechanical rotational motions of the motor shaft.quick change tooling system. This is the simplest device that can be applied to CNC 20 .

2. However.machines since it can convert digital data into actual mechanical displacement. daisy-wheel type printer. X-Y tape control. They are ideally suited to open loop systems. 1. Closed loop control system. Open loop control system:21 . low resolution and easy to slip in case of overload. and CNC EDM Wire-cut machine. It is not necessary to have any analog-to-digital converter nor feedback device for the control system. Examples of stepping motor application are the magnetic head of floppy-disc drive and hard disc drive of computer. low torque. Stepping Motor FEEDBACK SYSTEMS Following are the two types of control systems used in the CNCmachines 1. stepping motors are not commonly used in machine tools due to the following drawbacks: slow speed. Open loop control system.

In an open loop system the machine slides are displacedaccording to the information loaded from the part program into thecontrol system. The signal indicates the actualmovement and position of the slides.The control unit continues to adjust the position of the slide untilit arrives it’s destination. Closed loop control system:A closed loop system is as shown in fig. 2. the system accuracy depends upon the motors abilityto step through the exact number of steps provided at the input asshown in fig. The correctmovement of slide entirely d epends upon the ability of the drivesystems to move the slide through the required exact distance. For this type of system. Although morecostly and complex than open loop system. Thetransducer is attached to the slide ways. servomotors are used 22 . As there is no check onthe slide position.The most common method of driving the lead screw is by a stepper motor. sends back a signal to thecontrol unit from a measuring device called as transducer. these system gives moreaccurate positioning. this system has feedback. The stepper motors are the simplest way for converting detailelectrical signals into proportional movement. Hence there is no measurement of slide position and nofeedback signals for comparison with the input signal.

23 .

A linear transducer is a device mounted on the machine table to measure the actual displacement of the slide in such a way that backlash of screws. positional feed back device and velocity feed back device.Feedback Device In order to have a CNC machine operating accurately.A rotary encoder is a device mounted at the end of the motor shaft or screw to measure the angular displacement. This device cannot measure linear displacement directly so that error may occur due to the backlash of screw and motor etc. this error can be compensated for by the machine builder in the machine calibration process. Linear Transducer (Courtesy of Heidenhain) Rotary Encoders . 24 . Linear Transducers . the positional values and speed of the axes need to be constantly updated. etc would not cause any error in the feed back data. Generally. motors. Positional Feed Back Devices There are two types of positional feed back devices: linear transducer for direct positional measurement and rotary encoder for angular or indirect linear measurement. Two types of feed back devices are normally used. a. This device is considered to be of the highest accuracy and also more expensive in comparison with other measuring devices mounted on screws or motors.

The voltage generated is compared with the command voltage corresponding to the desired speed. Velocity Feedback Device The actual speed of the motor can be measured in terms of voltage generated from a tachometer mounted at the end of the motor shaft. In an advanced CNC machine. the Display Unit displays the present status such as the position of the machine slide. the feed rate. the Display Unit can show the graphics simulation of the tool path so that part programmes can be verified before the actually machining. the part programmes. DC tachometer is essentially a small generator that produces an output voltage proportional to the speed. The difference of the voltages can is then used to actuate the motor to eliminate the error. etc. Tachogenerator (Courtesy of Callan) Display Unit The Display Unit serves as an interactive device between the machine and the operator. the spindle RPM. When the machine is running.b. Much other important information about the CNC system can also displayed for 25 .

A Display Unit 26 . error massages and diagnostic data. logic diagram of the programmer controller.maintenance and installation work such as machine parameters.

In other words. and C axis). namely. To understand the structure of a CNC Part Programme. Axis of motion In generally.CNC PART PROGRAMMING Objectives: To understand the Dimension Systems in CNC Part Programming. B. To understand the G-codes and other functions of a CNC Part Programme. Y Z x Axis of Motion 27 . motion can be resolved into 6 axes. 3 linear axes (X. Y and Z axis) and 3 rotational axes (A. all motions have 6 degrees of freedom.

Both systems have applications in CNC programming. Positioning reference point Systems: 1. spindle.Programming Systems Two types of programming modes.Incremental 2. Incremental program locations are always given as the distance and direction from the immediately preceding point . and no system is either right or wrong all the time. the incremental system and the absolute system.Absolute Most controls on machine tools today are capable of handling either incremental or absolute programming. Command codes which tell the machine to move the table. are used for CNC. and knee are explained here using a vertical milling machine as an example: A workpiece dimensioned in the incremental system mode 28 .

• A “Z plus” (Z+) command will cause the cutting tool or spindle to move up or away from the workpiece. 29 .• A “X plus” (X+) command will cause the cutting tool to be located to the right of the last point. In incremental programming. • A “Z minus” (Z-) moves the cutting tool down or into the workpiece. • A “Y plus” (Y+) command will cause the cutting tool to be located toward the column. • A “X minus” (X-) command will cause the cutting tool to be located to the left of the last point. • A “Y minus” (Y-) will cause the cutting tool to be located away from the column. the G91 command indicates to the computer and MCU (Machine Control Unit) that programming is in the incremental mode.

• A “Y plus” (Y+) command will cause the cutting tool to be located toward the column. each point or location on the workpiece is given as a certain distance from the zero or reference point. • A “X minus” (X-) command will cause the cutting tool to be located to the left of the zero or origin point. 7). A workpiece dimensioned in the absolute system mode. In absolute dimensioning and programming. 30 . Note: All dimensions are given from a known point of referenc • A “X plus” (X+) command will cause the cutting tool to be located to the right of the zero or origin point. such as the corner of the worktable or at any specific point on the workpiece. The zero or origin point may be a position on the machine table.Absolute program locations are always given from a single fixed zero or origin point (Fig.

and punching (Fig. boring. tapping. The difference between the two categories was once very distinct. performing the machining operation. Point-to-point positioning is the process of positioning from one coordinate (XY) position or location to another. at one or more specific Iocations to perform such operations as drilling. the G90 command indicates to the computer and MCU that the programming is in the absolute mode. most control units are able to handle both point-topoint and continuous path machining. and continuing this pattern until all the operations have been completed at all programmed locations. Now. 9). CNC POSITIONING SYSTEM Point-To-Point OR Positioning Continuous Path OR Contouring Point-to-Point Positioning Point-to-point positioning is used when it is necessary to accurately locate the spindle. however. Point-to-Point or Continuous Path CNC programming falls into two distinct categories . 31 . or the workpiece mounted on the machine table. reaming. A knowledge of both programming methods is necessary to understand what applications each has in CNC. In absolute programming.• A “Y minus” (Y-) command will cause the cutting tool to be located away from the column.

but points 2 and 3 require that motion along both the X and Y axes takes place. involves work such as that produced on a lathe or milling machine. where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece as it travels from one programmed point to the next.The path followed by point-to-point positioning to reach various programmed points (machining locations) on the XY axis. A similar motion takes place between points 3 and 4.(Fig. leaving X to travel in a straight line for the remaining distance. and the machine moves only along the X axis. Continuous path positioning is the ability to control motions on two or more machine axes simultaneously to keep a constant cutter-workpiece relationship. As the distance in the X direction is greater than in the Y direction. Continuous Path (Contouring) Contouring. above. In Fig. or continuous path machining. point 1 to point 2 is a straight line. on next page) 32 . The programmed information in the CNC program must accurately position the cutting tool from one point to the next and follow a predefined accurate path at a programmed feed rate in order to produce the form or contour required. Y will reach its 15 position first.

circular. and cubic 33 . Helical. and most controls are capable of both linear and circular interpolation.Fig. parabolic. (B) complex contour Interpolation The method by which contouring machine tools move from one programmed point to the next is called interpolation. All contouring controls provide linear interpolation. 10 Types of contour machining (A) Simple contour. This ability to merge individual axis points into a predefined tool path is built into most of today’s MCUs. There are five methods of interpolation: linear. parabolic. and cubic. helical.

Linear Interpolation Linear Interpolation consists of any programmed points linked together by straight lines. throughout the entire program. such as aerospace parts and dies for car bodies. because a very large number of points would have to be programmed to describe the curve in order toproduce a contour shape. To program an arc (Fig. and so on. An example of two-axis linear interpolation. Curves can be produced with linear interpolation by breaking them into short.interpolation are used by industries that manufacture parts which have complex shapes. straight-line segments. 12). whether the points are close together or far apart . This method has limitations. the end point of one line or segment becomes the start point for the next segment. A contour programmed in linear interpolation requires the coordinate positions (XY positions in two-axis work) for the start and finish of each line segment. Therefore. the MCU requires only the coordinate 34 . Circular Interpolation The development of MCUs capable of circular interpolation has greatly simplified the process of programming arcs and circles.

positions (the XY axes) of the circle center. relays. start point. These codes. The information required may vary with different MCUs. 35 . For two-dimensional circular interpolation the MCU must be supplied with the XY axis. and the direction in which the arc is to be cut (clockwise or counterclockwise) See Fig. micro-switches. etc. Programming Format Word address is the most common programming format used for CNC programming systems.. to manufacture a part. the radius of the circle. which conform to EIA (Electronic Industries Association) standards. the start point and end point of the arc being cut. radius. are in a logical sequence called a block of information. and direction of cut. end point. Each block should contain enough information to perform one machining operation. . This format contains a large number of different codes (preparatory and miscellaneous) that transfers program information from the part print to machine servos.

A variableblock format which uses words (letters) is most commonly used. D. Y. feed rate. Other codes such as F.Word Address Format Every program for any part to be machined. or S. The format used on any CNC machine is built in by the machine tool builder and is based on the type of control unit on the machine. G01. Z. Codes The most common codes used when programming CNC machines tools are G-codes (preparatory functions). The code G91. M. Numerical data follows this address character to identify a specific function such as the distance. tells the control that all measurements are in the absolute mode. cutter diameter offset. or speed value. Each instruction word consists of an address character. must be put in a format that the machine control unit can understand. 13. which cause some movement 36 . G02. The G-codes are grouped into categories such as Group 01. G. S. Y. such as X. tool number. The address code G90 in a program. and/or Z axis of a machine tool. G03. etc. and M codes (miscellaneous functions). G-codes are sometimes called cycle codes because they refer to some action occurring on the X. containing codes G00. tells the control that measurements are in the incremental mode. Fig. speed. and T are used for machine functions such as feed.

• G01 is used for straight-line movement (linear interpolation)./min (5 and 20 m/min). • G02 (clockwise) and G03 (counterclockwise) are used for arcs and circles (circular interpolation) 37 . Although the rate of rapid travel varies from machine to machine. During the rapid traverse movement. and G03 codes move the axes at a controlled feedrate. A G00 code rapidly positions the cutting tool while it is above the workpiece from one point to another point on a job. The G01. while Group 09 deals with canned cycles. Group 03 includes either absolute or incremental programming. it ranges between 200 and 800 in.of the machine table or head. G02. either the X or Y axis can be moved individually or both axes can be moved at the same time.

Codes Group Code Function 01 01 01 01 G00 G01 G02 G03 Rapid positioning Linear interpolation Circular interpolation clockwise (CW) Circular interpolation counterclockwise (CCW) 06 06 G20* G21* G24 00 00 G28 G29 G32 07 07 07 08 (+) direction 08 direction G44 Tool length compensation minus (-) G40 G41 G42 G43 Inch input (in.) Metric input (mm) Radius programming (**) Return to reference point Return from reference point Thread cutting (**) Cutter compensation cancel Cutter compensation left Cutter compensation right Tool length compensation positive 08 G49 Tool length compensation cancel 38 .G.

these may be G70 (inch) and G71 (metric) (**) .G84 03 03 G90 G91 Canned turning cycle (**) Absolute programming Incremental programming (*) .refers only to CNC lathes and turning centers M CodesCode M00 M01 M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 M08 M09 M10 Function Program stop Optional program stop Program end Spindle on clockwise Spindle on counterclockwise Spindle stop Tool change Coolant on Coolant off Clamps on 39 .on some machines and controls.

G01 represents linear interpolation X12345 will move the table 1. along the Y axis.6789 in. the machine control unit (MCU) will not recognize the information. Y06789 will move the table 0. 40 . A complete block of information consists of five words. If five complete words are not included in each block.M11 M30 Clamps off Program stop. therefore the control unit will not be activated.2345 in. M03 Spindle on CW. Each word conforms to the EIA standards and they are written on a horizontal line. in a positive direction along the X axis. reset to start Block of Information CNC information is generally programmed in blocks of five words. Using the example shown in Fig. the five words are as follows: N001 represents the sequence number of the operation. 17 .

d. It is a good practice to dry run the programme (i) without the workpiece. Study the part drawing carefully. Start machining. Prepare tool chart or diagram.Steps for CNC Programming and Machining The following is the procedures to be followed in CNC programming and machining. The tool will be adjusted to this zero point during the machine set up. Clamp work piece and set up machine. h. Enter compensation value if necessary. e. correct and edit programme and check again. j. Determine the method of work clamping (vice. measure tool geometry (lengths. Select cutting tools and determine spindle speeds and feeds. c. It is usually longer. fixtures etc). If necessary. Write programme (translate machining steps into programme blocks). Determine the machining operations and their sequence. g. a. Unless the drawing dimensions are CNC adapted. try the simplest solution first. f. select a suitable programme zero point on the work piece. i. or (iii) by raising the tool to a safe height. Check and test programme. If many solutions are possible. 41 . k. but better to proceed in this way. (ii) without the cutting tools. rotary table. b. radii) and note. The most important point is to verify the programme by test run it on the machine before the actual machining in order to ensure that the programme is free of mistakes.

Establish reference planes along part surfaces which are parallel to the machine axes. The following guidelines will insure that the dimensioning language means exactly the same thing to the design engineer. Define part surfaces from three perpendicular reference planes. Fig. the technician. Certain guidelines should be observed when dimensioning parts for CNC machining. and where they are to be located. tape. From the engineering drawings. the programmer. it is important to become familiar with the part to be produced. 18. and the machine operator. 1. 42 .Programming for Positioning Before starting to program a job. The programmer must first establish a reference point for aligning the workpiece and the machine tool for programming purposes. It is the part program that will be sent to the machine control unit by the computer. Visual concepts must be put into a written manuscript as the first step in developing a part program. 2. 3. Dimensioning Guidelines The system of rectangular coordinates is very important to the successful operation of CNC machines. diskette. The manuscript must include this along with the types of cutting tools and work-holding devices required. the programmer should be capable of planning the machining sequences required to produce the part. Dimension from a specific point on the part surface. or other input media.

25 4. Machine Zero Point The machine zero point can be set by three methods—by the operator. 43 . MANUAL SETTING .Z0) of machine coordinate system.G59) Programmed zero shift (G92) The relationship between the part zero and the machine system of coordinate R = Reference point (maximum travel of machine) M = Machine zero point (X0. Define the part so that a computer numerical control cutter path can be easily programmed..Y0.The operator can use the MCU controls to locate the spindle over the desired part zero and then set the X and Y coordinate registers on the console to zero. W = Part zero point workpiece coordinate system.. to suit the holding fixture or the part to be machined. Stored zero shifts (G54. Dimension the part clearly so that its shape can be understood without making mathematical calculations or guesses. 5. or by work coordinates. manually by a programmed absolute zero shift.

000 Z6.Under G54 .. ABSOLUTE ZERO SHIFT . Fig. 19. The programmer first sends the machine spindle to home zero position by a G28 command in the program. The sample commands may be as follows: N1 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 (sends spindle to home zero position) N2 G92 X4.000 Y5..000 (the position the machine will reference as part zero) 44 . the coordinate system origin is to be positioned. G59 the actual machine coordinates of part zero are stored in the stored zero offsets memory and activated in the part program.The absolute zero shift can change the position of the coordinate system by a command in the CNC program. Under G92 the actual machine coordinates are inserted and used on the G92 line of the part program. Then another command (G92 for absolute zero shift) tells the MCU how far from the home zero location.

to direct current (DC) that is more easily used by the machine’s drive motors. but you also have to plug a second line to an auxiliary power source.  The Components There are three primary CNC controller components that make up a CNC controller. such as the 110V outlet on your wall. The power supply handles large voltages and currents that could be harmful to the NC circuitry. This condition means that you have to plug that device into the computer as usual. you have to use an external power source because the computer is not capable of supplying sufficient power. the power source. the computer powers the device through the port. cutting. and motors are often separated from the computer with a circuitry protection system that isolates surges in electrical power. motor drivers. say a printer for example. and a power source that provides the power for moving. The same conditions are true for CNC devices.” is often used to change the form of the supplied power from alternating current (AC) from the power grid. Therefore. When you plug a larger device. and the motor driver.  The Power Supply Unit When you plug a small flash drive up to your USB port. 45 . usually referred to as the “power supply unit (PSU).ELECTRONICS OF A CNC MACHINE The CNC controller components work together to interpret positioning signals created by a computer and NC software into precise motor control. They require a low-voltage communication line. A power converter. This page will explain the function of each of the controller components and how they work together to make a controller system. through which the computer tells the machine what to do. the power supply unit. and other such operations. the circuitry protection system.

This isolated your computer from the CNC controller circuit but allows the signals to carry through to your motor drivers. Fuses could save the equipment in case of electrical spikes. In the figure above. shorts. The “breakout board” provides the circuitry protection and signal distribution inside the controller box. or faulty wiring. The controller box includes a breakout board. and also allows easy hook up of peripherals such as limit switches that feed information back to the computer. The system is composed of a computer with NC control software. The motor drivers may communicate position information one way to the motor (open loop system). you 46 . such as that for a 3 axis CNC router. A low-voltage communication signal passes from the computer through the breakout board unchanged to the motor drivers. CNC Controller Components Setup The figure below shows the typical setup of the CNC controller components. More on these systems may be found in the drivers sections. The motor drivers The motor drivers receives the communication signal and and then coordinates pulses of the desired current and voltage to elicit the movement in the drive motors. distribute the signals to the desired drivers. depending on the user’s choice of drive system. Fuses are also part of the circuitry protection system. and the drive motors. the controller box. The Circuitry Protection System The circuitry protection system contains a breakout board to isolate signals from the computer. and motor drivers. or send and receive position information(closed loop system). power source (not shown).

Although your computer will run on 110VAC. some of very high quality and great protection. 47 . These devices provide complete conductive isolation between the controller circuit and your computer. 36V. 24V. For most machines. The best models employ opto-isolators. or 220VAC. or 480VAC. and lower budget options that do not offer much protection. specifically the motor drivers. but this setup puts your computer at risk. The first figure is an idealized block diagram of your CNC electrical system. As a note. This DC supply will be of a lower voltage. three phase. There are many types of breakout boards. the computer is fully capable of connecting directly to the drivers and driving the motors. the power supply will convert the incoming power from alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). and may be single phase. the CNC machine may run on 110VAC. The power supplied depends on you CNC controller components. such as 12V.can see the computer is connected to the breakout board. which use a light signals to transmit data across an air gap. usually through the printer port (DB25). A little more detail has been added in the figure below to show the conceptual layout of signal wires (light black) and power wires (heavy black). or higher. etc… This power enters the controller box and will be distributed by the power supply.

The I/O structure of the PLCs is one of their major strengths. relay coils. The inputs can be push buttons. PLCs are now available with increased functions. The field devices are typically selected.PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER “A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions by implementing specific functions such as logic sequencing. more memory and large input/output capabilities. indicator lights. selector switches. performs logical decisions based upon stored programs and drives the outputs. etc. The PLC power supply is designated and rated only to operate the internal portions of the I/O structures. A wide variety of voltages. relay contacts. 48 . Connections to a computer for hierarchical control are done via the CPU. float switches. supplied and installed by the machine tool builder or the end user. position valves. proximity switches. Fig. The CPU receives input data. power to actuate these devices must also be supplied external to the PLC. solenoid valves. and not the field devices. LED displays. limit switches. counting. The outputs can be motor starters. In the CPU. They were developed to be reprogrammed without hardware changes when requirements were altered and thus are reusable.7 gives the generalized PLC block diagram. The voltage level of the field devices thus normally determines the type of I/O. timing. So. all the decisions are made relative to controlling a machine or a process. through digital or analog input/output modules. various types of machines or processes Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) A PLC matches the NC to the machine. etc. analog sensor. PLCs were basically introduced as replacement for hard wired relay control panels. current capacities and types of I/O modules are available. and arithmetic to control.

i. the processor fetches one statement after another from the programming memory and executes it. the processor the accesses this process image. program completion.7 Generalized PLC block diagram 49 . The results are constantly stored in the process image output (PIO) during the cycle.e.e. The program that determines PLC operation is stored in the internal PLC program memory. the processor transfers the contents of the process image output to the output modules and to the external timers and counters. inputs and outputs. i. when a complete program has been scanned.The principle of operation of a PLC is determined essentially by the PLC program memory. To execute the program. The PLC operates cyclically. processor. it starts again at the beginning of the program. At the end of a scanning cycle. the processor examines the signal status at all inputs as well as the external timers and counters and are stored in a process image input (PII). Inputs Processor Programmer Logic memory Storage memory Output Field Devices s Power Supply Power Supply Fig. The processor then begins a new program scan. During subsequent program scanning. At the beginning of each cycle.

the signal coming out of the breakout board is also a 5V TTL signal of the same form. The signal from the computer to the breakout board is the same as that from the breakout board to the motor driver. as discussed previously.The "Signals" The signal lines coming from the computer operate on 5V DC supplied by the computer communication port. Remember. This signal is a form of a Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM) signal where the length of the pulse is varied to indicate information. The width of the pulse determines the binary code sent. the signal after the driver has been conditioned as needed to provide the large “move” voltage and current needed to drive the machine. 50 . More on the signals may be found in the signals page. either a “0” or a “1” as communicated by the computer and interpreted by the motor driver. Therefore. This signal is essentially a series of small pulses from 0V to +5V that represent 0’s and 1’s in a binary computer language. and is a square wave form called a Transistor-to-Transistor Logic (TTL) signal. However. the breakout board provides circuit protection and signal distribution.

Here we will describe the board’s function in the CNC control system and what you need to know about how to select one to suit your need 51 . They are a common item in electronic projects and enable easy. The breakout board is positioned between your computer or indexer and the motor drivers and serves two purposes in the CNC control system: circuit protection and signal distribution. clean installation of electronic devices.Breakout Boards Breakout boards are a common electrical components that take a bundled cable and “breaks out” each conductor to a terminal that can easily accept a hook-up wire for distribution to another device. The image at right shows a simple DB25 breakout circuit board from Winford Engineering.

plastic and other materials.001mm. Figure 4-2 shows various parts of the machine tool 52 .Analysis And Programming Of A Vertical Machining System CNC MACHINING CENTER HITACHI SEIKI VA35 CNC MACHINING CENTER The Hitachi Seiki VA35 CNC (Computer Numeric Controlled) machining center that belongs to the Department of Production Engineering is frequently used for accurate and automated machining of metals as well as for wood. The machining accuracy of the machine is 0.

Hitachi Seiki VA35 CNC Machining Center 53 .

Z Spindle Motors .Y.Z Positions Motor Driver Spindle Motor 54 X.Z X Numerical Control Of The Machine S Y Z EEPROM OR TAPE INPUT Control Microprocessor ROM Spindle Position X.Y.

.5 kW (30 min) Spindle speed Spindle speed change Spindle motor 55 .MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION Manufacturer Model Control unit Weight Hitachi Seiki Co. Japan VA 35–II Fanuc System 6M–B 4000 kg TABLE Working area Maximum carrying capacity 1000*355 mm2 500 Kg STROKES x-axis stroke in the crosswise direction of the table y-axis stroke in the longitudinal direction of the table z-axis stroke in the vertical direction of the spindle head Distance between the spindle nose and top of the table 560 mm 350 mm 400 mm 150-550 mm SPINDLE HEAD Spindle nose contour NT 40 60-600 rpm Stepless (s 4 digit) AC 5. Ltd.

FEED Least increment 0. G Codes define the preparatory functions of the machine. the code "G76" followed by some related arguments is used for fine boring. For example. they control the movement and machining related functions of the machine tool.Z arguments rapidly moves the bed and the spindle head to the position specified by the arguments. In simple terms. 56 . M05 stops the spindle.Y. M Codes are known as auxiliary functions.001 mm 3600 mm/min 13000 mm/min Cutting feed rate Rapid traverse AUTOMATIC TOOL CHANGE (ATC) No. They control specific behaviors of the machine. "G00" with X. CAT 40 95 mm 250 mm 10 kg Random shortest course MAS . For example "M08" turns on the coolant. of tools Shank type Maximum tool diameter Maximum tool length Maximum tool weight Tool selection method Pull stud type 30 BT 40.1 G CODE AND M CODE The entire functioning of the machine is based on G Code and M Code specifications.

10 M05. 4 G90. 1 Return to reference point. 11 M09. 9 M98 P151.A Program Used In manufacturing Of Turbine Couplings The listing given below is a program which was used to bore holes in couplings of two turbines which were manufactured in the Engineering Workshops. Tool length offset cancel 57 . 2 G28 X0 Y0.0 F10. 1 G28 G91 Z0. It is written in G and M Codes. Incremental programming.087 Y177.818 Z343. 5 G92 X253. X=0 and Y=0 (X and Y movements only) 3 Tool diameter compensation cancel. 14 M30.25. 7 G00 Z5. 12 G28 G91 Z0. 13 G28 X0 Y0. Unless otherwise stated. 8 M03 S150. Z=0 is the reference point (Z movement only) 2 Return to reference point. 21 6 G00 x131.05. 3 G40 G49. 15 % The meaning of each line is given below. all the dimensions are in mm.

3 (some more x and y values) 4 M99. Final Z coordinate = -52. move it 0.384. Y=177. 4 End of sub program. This sub program is the actual part of the program which bore holes and is listed below.5 R2. speed=150 rpm 9 Sub program (o0151) call-out 10 Spindle stop 11 Mist/coolant off 12 Return to reference point. 2 Repeat boring for X=119. 1 G76 G98 X131.). Y=0.05 6 Positioning (rapid). 3 Repeat the same in line 2.0 (This value does not have any effect on boring since the tool determines the actual radius.0. Incremental programming (Z movement only) 13 Return to reference point.087.25 Y0. Return to initial level in canned cycle after finishing.25.25.0. Feed rate set to 10 mm/min 8 Spindle rotation CW.903 Y53.0.384.0 Q0.0. Z=0. X=0 and Y=0 14 End of program. Starting X. Y=0 7 Positioning (rapid). 2 X119. Before boring tool is taken out.818.Y coordinate: X=131. Z=5. The meaning of each line is as follows: 1 Fine boring.4 Absolute programming 5 Programming of absolute zero point. Control unit reset 15 Just display the end of current listing Line 9 in the above program calls the sub program o0151. 58 . Z=343.903 and Y=53. Radius of boring = 2. X=253.5 away from the bored wall of the workpiece. X=131.0 Z-52.

Next. This is finally stored as a text file in the hard drive of the PC. Pressing the "Start" button sequentially executes the listing. 59 . A numeric name for the program is given at the beginning of the file retrieval to figure out the starting point (or the address in the memory) of the retrieving program from earlier read programs. the CNC machine is set to retrieve this file. the contours of the cutting tool are generated. Then using a special routine of AutoCAD. 1. it is taken to the front from other programs in the memory and it stays waiting to run. Sending it to the machine 3. Generating the program (in G & M Codes) 2. it is then fed into the machine tool. Using this numeric name of the program.STEPS IN USING THE MACHINE The distinct operations involved in using the CNC machine are listed below in sequence they are done. Through the coaxial cable which links the PC and CNC machine. Running the program First a drawing of the machined workpiece is created using AutoCAD in a PC.

( Printed Circutiry Board). such as during the development stage of In cases where human errors could be extremely costly Parts that are needed in a hurry Small batch lots or short production runs a prototype Some common types of CNC machines and instruments used in industry are as following: • • • • • • • • Drilling Machine Lathe / Turning Centre Milling / Machining Centre Turret Press and Punching Machine Wirecut Electro Discharge Machine (EDM) Grinding Machine Laser Cutting Machine Water Jet Cutting Machine And Most important For Electronics industry is that CNC Milling and Drilling is used for Manufacturing Of PCB . 60 .ADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINES CNC machines are widely used in the metal cutting industry and are best used to produce the following types of product: • • • • • • • Parts with complicated contours Parts requiring close tolerance and/or good repeatability Parts requiring expensive jigs and fixtures if produced on conventional machines Parts that may have several engineering changes..

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