You are on page 1of 15 / http://troubleshoot4free.



DAYALBAGH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE DAYALBAGH AGRA-5 VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT 2004 ON THE WORKS CARRIED OUT AT BHARAT WAGON & ENGINEERING CO. LTD. (A SUBSIDIARY OF BBUNL-A GOVT. OF INDIA UNDERTAKING) Muzaffarpur, Post Box No. 61 Bihar SUBMITTED BY:- ASHUTOSH KUMAR ROLL NO. 026044 CONTENTS :-1. ABOUT THE COMPANY 2. 3. ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM 4. 5. DISCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT MOTORS USED 6. 7. WAGON FLOW CHART 8. 9. ABOUT THE DIFFERENT SHOPS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am highly grateful to the Wagon Eng. Co. Ltd., Muzaffarpur for their kind co-operation and the favour they imparted to grant me a vocational training seal and there after helping through out the same. I would like to express my gratefulness to Mr. Ranjit Sinha, General Manager whose kind co-operation helped me in completing my training. I am deeply indebted to Mr. A. Kumar, Chief Manager (Works), Mr. K.K. Choudhary, Dy. Manager (Inspection & Planning). My sincere thanks go to Mr. J.N. Parasad, Mr. S.N.Singh, Mr. A.K.Singh, Mr. B.Singh, Mr. B.K. Shrivastava, Mr. V.K. Shrivastava, Mr. C.S. Singh & Mr. A.K. Barun. I am also acknowledging my deep sense of gratitude to the management and employees of Bharat Wagon & Engg. Co. Ltd. Muzaffarpur unit for their kind co-operation. Mr. ASHUTOSH KUMAR Final Year (Elect. Engg.) ROLL NO. 026044 DAYALBAGH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE TECHNICAL COLLEGE DAYALBAGH AGRA-5 S

Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. /

PREFACE The Bharat Wagon and Engg. Co. Ltd. Muzaffarpur Unit is engaged in manufacture of goods wagon for Indian railways. It also manufactures and supplies Sugar Machineries, Agricultural implements and other mechanical and structural Jobs. This company was started by an English man Mr. Arthur Butler around 1870, when industrial revolution was taking place. In the starting period the company did not have more then 120 worker. During this period the business expanded greatly and the number of employees increased tremendously. The company had 600 employees during the war period. Up to April 1946 the company was managed by M/S Balwar Lawrie & Company Limited, which transferred the managing agency to M/S Jubilee Agents limited on 1st May 1946. After Independence, British Management sold the same to Indians and since 1948 the management was in the hands of Indian businessmen. The production of company was closed during the period 1967 to 1972 due to some reasons. After the investigation of the management the company was taken over by the government of India with effect from 15th Dec. 1973 and ultimately it was nationalized on 8th Dec. 1978. The company was renamed as Bharat Wagon & Engg. Company Limited, Muzaffarpur. Presently more than 800 employees are contributed their services to this unit of BWEL. Total area of factory 196200 ft2Covered area of factory 164691 ft2 THERE ARE TEN SHOPS NAMELY:(1) Press & smithy shop. (2) Electrical maintenance shop (3) Cutting and welding shop. (4) Template shop. (5) Drilling shop. (6) Structural shop. (7) Machine shop. (8) Foundry shop. (9) Wagon Assembly shop. (10) Finishing shop BESIDES THESE SHOPS THERE ARE FIVE DEPARTMENTS, THEY ARE: (1) Finance & Account (2) Personal (3) Works (4) Materials (5) Quality Control Dept. It produces about 30 to 35 goods train wagon and average per month ELECTRIC POWER IN BHARAT WAGON AND ENGG. CO. LTD. (MUZAFFARPUR) There are mainly two electric power source in the company. 1. Generator 2. Government electric supply 1. GENERATOR:- In the company there are is two 60 k.v.a 3phase alternator in which 1st is use to supply the power in company when the government electric supply is cut off or trip down. In heavy load condition both generators are added in parallel for supply the power. Generator supply comes through the under ground cable to the changer board .it is connected to the change over switch (specification is 660V, 500A, iron clate type).it is properly fitted beside the bus bar. . 2. GOVERNMENT ELECTRIC SUPPLY: - it is the main source of power in that company. It takes 11KV supply from the nearest sub station for the electric supply .this 11KV supply comes in the high voltage oil circuit breaker. Here I can measure voltage and current by current transformers and potential transformer in each phase. Then supply comes in the transformer (description is given below) which step down the voltage. Then the supply is connected to energy meter by which company pay the electricity bill. Then the supply is connected to the fuse set then the change over switch. POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT: -- because of more inductive load from the motors it is necessary to connect the capacitors bank in the circuit. There are 4-capacitor bank used when all the motors are in running state.otherwise one or two or as per Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / requirement capacitor bank is used. BUS BAR: --from the bus bare electric is distributed in different workshops. On the bus bar there are individual switch for all the shops. For different shops we use different capacity of switch fuse unit. MOTORS USED IN THE COMPANY 1. INDUCTION MOTOR-:

1. INTRODUCTION: The Induction motor is a three phase AC motor and is the most widely used machine. Its characteristic features areo Simple and rugged construction
o o o

Low cost and minimum maintenance High reliability and sufficiently high efficiency Needs no extra starting motor and need not be synchronized

An Induction motor has basically two parts Stator and Rotor The Stator is made up of a number of stampings with slots to carry three phase windings. It is wound for a definite number of poles. The windings are geometrically spaced 120 degrees apart. Two types of rotors are used in Induction motors - Squirrel-cage rotor and Wound rotor. 1. SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR:-A squirrel-cage rotor consists of thick conducting bars embedded in parallel slots. These bars are short-circuited at both ends by means of shortcircuiting rings. 2. WOUNDED ROTOER: - A wound rotor has three-phase, doublelayer, distributed winding. It is wound for as many poles as the stator. The three phases are winded internally and the other ends are connected to slip-rings mounted on shaft with brushes resting on them. The brushes are connected to an external resistance that does not rotate with the rotor and can be varied to change the N-T characteristics. In fact an Induction motor can be compared with a transformer because of the fact that just like a transformer it is a singly energized device which involves changing flux linkages with respect to a primary (stator) winding and secondary (rotor) winding. 2. PRODUCTION OF ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD: An Induction motor operates on the principle of induction .The rotor receives power due to Induction from stator rather than direct conduction of electrical power. It is important to understand the principle of rotating magnetic field in order to understand the operation of an Induction motor. When a three phase voltage is applied to the stator winding, a rotating magnetic Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / field of constant magnitude is produced. This rotating field is produced by the contributions of space-displaced phase windings carrying appropriate time displaced currents. These currents which are time displaced by 120 electrical degrees are shown beside- We will now consider a stator structure depicted along with three phase windings. For convenience, each phase is represented by a single coil (though the winding is distributed in practice).The coil a-a represents the entire phase winding for phase a. Similarly b-b and c-c represent the coils for phases b and c. Each phase winding produces flux along its own flux axis and these axes are separated by 120 electrical degrees. Thus we see that at all time instants, the magnitude of resultant vector is constant though the vector rotates at a speed of Ns=120*(f/P) rpm. i.e., w s = 2*p * Ns rad/sec. For three phase supply, this constant magnitude is 1.5 times the maximum value. The speed w s (rad/sec) is called Synchronous Speed. The rotating field induces an emf. In the rotor-circuit .Current flows through the short-circuited rotor windings to produce a flux. The rotor tries to catch up with the stator field but in an Induction this is not possible (since this can be done only by using another starting motor). If say w m (rad/sec) is the rotor speed, then the difference between stator and rotor flux speeds is (w s - wm) (rad/sec). The slip is now defined as when the rotor is stationary; the frequency of rotor current is same as the supply frequency. But when the rotor starts revolving, the rotor current frequency becomes dependent on the relative speed. Let f be the rotor current frequency at any slip say s. We have seen that when a three phase supply is given to stator windings, a rotating field is produced. This flux of constant magnitude cuts the stationary conductors of rotor. This induces an emf in the conductors, according to Faradays law of electro-magnetic induction. Since the rotor conductors form a closed circuit, a current is induced in them whose direction as per Lenzs law is to oppose its very own cause i.e., the relative speed between the rotating flux and the stationary rotor conductors. This tendency to reduce the relative speed results in a torque that rotates the rotor in the direction of the magnetic field. 3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPEED-TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR: - The speed-torque characteristics are affected by various factors like applied voltage, R2 and frequency. (A) APPLIED VOLTAGE: -We know that T V2. Thus not only the stationary torque but also the torque under running conditions changes with change in supply voltage. (B) SUPPLY FREQUENCY: - The major effect of change in supply frequency is on motor speed. The starting torque is reduced with increase in frequency. (C) ROTOR RESISTANCE: -The maximum torque produced does not depend on R2. However, with increase in R2, the starting torque increases. The slip at which Tmax is reached increases too which means that Tmax is obtained at lower motor speeds. 4. DYNAMICS OF MOTOR-LOAD SYSTEM: - Any motor-load system can be described by the equation- The load torque TL can be further divided as- (A) FRICTION TORQUE: - Friction is present at the motor shaft and also in various parts of the load. The friction torque is equivalent value of various friction torques referred to the motor Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / shaft. (B) WINDAGE TORQUE: -The opposing torque generated by wind when the motor run is called Windage torque. (C) TORQUE REQUIRED TO DO USEFUL WORK: - The nature of this torque depends on the type of load. It may or may not be a function of speed, it may or may not be time invariant. The friction torque itself can be resolved into three components friction at zero speed i.e., static friction Tc. The other component is Tv i.e., viscous friction. And Tc is called Coulomb friction. The third component is Ts that accounts for the additional torque present at stand-still. Since Ts is present only at stand-still, it is not considered for dynamic analysis. Load torques are of two types- Active and Passive. Active torques have the potential to drive the motor under equilibrium conditions. They retain their sign even when the direction of the drive rotation is changed. Torque due to gravity is an example of this type of torque. Load torques which oppose motion and change their sign on reversal are Passive. An example of this is the torque due to friction. Thus the N-T characteristics of an Induction motor are modified due to the type of load.


The behavior of electric motors is often displayed on a curve such as the one on the right. The vertical axis is the rotational speed as a percentage of the synchronous speed. The horizontal axis is the torque output as a percentage of the full-load or rated torque. The torque at the bottom of the curve (zero speed) is the starting torque. This is the toque available to get a load moving, and is often an important design consideration. The "knee" of the curve is the breakdown torque and is the maximum torque developed by the motor during acceleration. The slope of the curve near the full-load operating point is the speed regulation. A flat curve (low slope) indicates good speed regulation: that is, the speed of the motor does not change significantly with load. A motor with poor speed regulation (high slope) will change speeds as the load varies. This produces a "soft" acceleration, which may be desirable in certain applications where it reduces inertial loads, such as in cranes, hoists and elevators. (6) NEMA SPECIFICATIONS: - The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standardized four basic design categories of Induction motors to match the torque-speed requirements of the most common types of mechanical loads. These basic design categories are Design A, Design B, Design C and Design D. The Design B motor serves as the basis for comparison of motor performance with other designs. It has the broadest field of application and is used to drive centrifugal pumps, fans, blowers and machine tools. It has a relatively high efficiency, even at light loads, and a relatively high power factor at full load. The Design A motor has essentially the same characteristics as the Design B, except for somewhat higher break-down torque. Since its starting current is higher, however, its field of application is limited. The Design C motor has a higher locked-rotor torque, but a lower break-down torque than the Design B. The higher starting torque makes it suitable for driving plunger pumps, vibrating screens and compressors without unloading devices. The starting current and slip at rated torque are essentially the same as that for the Design B. The Design D motor has a very high locked-rotor torque and a high slip. Its principal field of application is in high-inertia loads such as fly-wheel equipped punch presses, elevators and hoists. The Design D rotor has relatively high-resistance, low-reactance rotor bars close to the surface. Design B and Design A have low-resistance with high reactance at the deeper bars. Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. /


Because it has but a single alternating current source, a single-phase motor can only produce an alternating field: one that pulls first in one direction, then in the opposite as the polarity of the field switches. A squirrel-cage rotor placed in this field would merely twitch, since there would be no moment upon it. If pushed in one direction, however, it would spin. The major distinction between the different types of single-phase AC motors is how they go about starting the rotor in a particular direction such that the alternating field will produce rotary motion in the desired direction. This is usually done by some device that introduces a phase-shifted magnetic field on one side of the rotor. The figure at right shows the performance curves of the four major types of single-phase AC motors. They are described below. All figures from Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, Robert L. Mott Split-Phase Motors The split phase motor achieves its starting capability by having two separate windings wound in the stator. The two windings are separated from each other. One winding is used only for starting and it is wound with a smaller wire size having higher electrical resistance than the main windings. From the rotor's point of view, this time delay coupled with the physical location of the starting winding produces a field that appears to rotate. The apparent rotation causes the motor to start. A centrifugal switch is used to disconnect the starting winding when the motor reaches approximately 75% of rated speed. The motor then continues to run on the basis of normal induction motor principles. Capacitor-Start Motors Capacitor start motors form the largest single grouping of general purpose single phase motors. These motors are available in a range of sizes from fractional through 3HP. The winding and centrifugal switch arrangement is very similar to that used in a split phase motor. The main difference being that the starting winding does not have to have high resistance. In the case of a capacitor start motor, a specialized capacitor is utilized in a series with the starting winding. The addition of this capacitor produces a slight time delay between the magnetization of starting poles and the running poles. Thus the appearance of a rotating field exists. When the motor approaches running speed, the starting switch opens and the motor continues to run in the normal induction motor mode. This moderately priced motor produces relatively high starting torque, 225 to 400% of full load torque. The capacitor start motor is ideally suited for hard to start loads such as conveyors, air compressors and refrigeration compressors. Due to its general overall desirable characteristics, it also is used for many applications where high starting torque may not be required. The capacitor start motor can usually be recognized by the bulbous protrusion on the frame where the starting capacitor is located. Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. /

Shaded-Pole Motors The shaded pole motor is the simplest of all single phase starting methods. In the shaded pole motor, the stator poles are notched and a copper short circuiting ring is installed around a small section of the poles. As a result of the alteration of the filed pole configuration, the build-up of the magnetic field is delayed in the portion of the pole surrounded by the copper shorting ring. From the rotor's point of view, this makes the magnetic field seem to rotate from the main pole toward the shaded pole. This slight appearance of field rotation is adequate to start the rotor moving and, once started, it will accelerate up to full speed. The shaded pole motor is simple and inexpensive, but has low efficiency and a very low starting torque. Speed regulation is poor, and it must be fan-cooled during normal operation. Shaded-pole motors are thus used in shaft-mounted fans and blowers, and also small pumps, toys, and intermittently used household items. In the pictures on the right, you can see the heavy coils around the stator to the left of the rotor. 3. THREE PHASE A.C MOTORS:Three-Phase Motor TheoryThe presence of three phase-shifted currents allows a rotating field to be produced in the stator by connecting successive poles to the three supply lines. The moving magnetic field induces a magnetic field in the rotor, which "chases" the rotating stator field.

NEMA Design Motors

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association has assigned a simple letter designation to four of the most common three-phase AC electric motors. These vary in starting torque and speed regulation. They are all of squirrel-cage construction, and are available in many sizes. The figure at the right shows the performance curve for each type. Note that this figure has torque on the vertical axis and speed on the horizontal. NEMA Design A Design A has normal starting torque (typically 150-170% of rated) and relatively high starting current. Breakdown torque is the highest of all NEMA types. It can handle heavy overloads for a short-duration. Slip 5%. A typical application is powering of injection-molding machines. NEMA Design B Design B is the most common type of ac induction motor sold. It has normal starting torque, similar to Design A, but offers low starting current. Locked rotor torque is good enough to start many loads encountered in industrial applications. Slip 5%. Motor efficiency and full load power factor are comparatively high, contributing to the popularity of the design. Typical applications include pumps, fans, and machine tools. NEMA Design C Design C has high starting torque (greater than previous two designs, say 200%), useful for driving heavy breakaway loads. These motors are intended for operation near full speed with-out great overloads. Starting current is low. Slip 5%. NEMA Design D Design D has high starting torque (highest of all the NEMA motor types). Starting current and full-load speed are low. High slip values (5-13%) make this motor suitable for applications with changing loads and attendant sharp changes in motor speed, such as in machinery with flywheel energy storage. Speed regulation is poor, making the D design suitable for punch presses, cranes, elevators and oil well pumps. Several design subclasses cover the rather wide slip range. This motor type is usually considered a "special order" item. Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. /

Wound-Rotor Motors
Unlike the squirrel-cage construction of the NEMA motors, the wound-rotor motor has (as the name implies) windings on the rotor instead of the conducting cage. These windings are connected via slip-rings on the rotor shaft to and external resistance control circuit. Varying the resistance of the windings allows adjustment of the behavior of the motor, as shown in the figure below. Note that increasing the resistance effectively lowers the speed of the motor at any given load. VFD Speed Controls When operating at anything other than maximum speed, the resistance control of a wound-rotor motor consumes power that would otherwise be used to move the load. This inherent inefficiency of the wound-rotor design has lead to its obsolescence. Applications requiring variable-speed three-phase motors now use a variable frequency drive (VFD) to adjust the speed of a standard squirrel-cage motor. The VFD electronically changes the frequency of the AC current supply, thus changing the synchronous speed of the motor. This has considerable benefits in power consumption over the resistance control. Figure from Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, Robert L. Mott The presence of three phase-shifted currents allows a rotating field to be produced in the stator by connecting successive poles to the three supply lines. The moving magnetic field induces a magnetic field in the rotor, which "chases" the rotating stator field. Most AC motors, however, depend on a rotating field produced in the stator, or stationary part of the motor. This is a magnetic field produced by windings through which alternating currents are passed that seems to rotate around the stator with time. The number of poles P is the number of north and south poles around the circumference, and is determined by how the windings are placed on the stator. The rate of rotation of the field is given by N = 120 f/P rpm, where f is the frequency of the alternating current. A four-pole field rotates at 1800 rpm, for example, with 60 Hz current. This is called the synchronous speed. The easiest way to produce such a field is to use an AC supply that consists of several voltages with a constant phase difference between them, called a polyphase supply. One could use two voltages at 90 phase difference, and let each voltage supply alternate coils in a four-pole machine. Better, however, to use three voltages at 120, called three-phase, for then the power flows as evenly as with DC. These voltages are generated by separate windings on the alternator, and are supplied over three wires. These stators have no salient poles, but have a smooth surface with the windings embedded in slots. Threephase current is normally used for transmission and distribution of electrical power, since it is the most efficient means in terms of the copper required and transmission losses. Suppose we have such a stator with a rotating magnetic field. For the armature, we use a drum armature as for a DC motor, but simply short-circuit the windings. Then, when the motor is not rotating, we have what is very much like a transformer with a shorted secondary winding. It is excited at the frequency of the stator currents. Unlike a transformer secondary, this secondary can rotate in response to the forces exerted on it (its windings are in a magnetic field). When it does so, it tends to follow the rotating field more and more closely. When it is rotating at exactly the same speed as the rotating field, the apparent frequency to the rotor is zero, and no currents are induced at all. If it rotates Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / slightly slower, or slips, the frequency increases, and more currents are generated. The slip is the difference in rotating speed divided by the synchronous speed, expressed as a percentage. The forces on these currents provide the torque exerted by the motor. The torque increases about proportionately to the slip. At some point, however, the reactance of the armature windings come into play not only to limit the currents, but to move them out of phase with the magnetic field. So the torque levels off, and passes a maximum value called the breakdown torque. The motor now slows down more and more rapidly, the torque more and more out of phase. When the rotor comes to rest, the starting torque is produced, and the motor will not move until the required torque is less than this amount. This kind of motor is called an induction motor, which has no DC analog. It rotates a bit more slowly than the speed of the rotating stator field, which is called the synchronous speed. Large polyphase motors may have a slip of only 1% or so at normal load, so the induction motor is essentially a constant-speed motor. Its speed can only be greatly changed by changing the frequency of the supply. The starting torque is considerable, but at the cost of rather high currents out of phase with the voltage. The lagging power factor of an induction motor can be a problem. Nevertheless, the lack of a commutator and brushes, and that it has a reasonable starting torque, make the induction motor the most commonly used AC motor. A typical motor has a rotor composed of parallel thick copper or aluminum conductors connected to a ring of the same material at the ends. This is called a "squirrel cage" rotor. Squirrel-cage rotors, because of their low impedance, run with small slip and give high torque at speed. However, their starting torque is poor. If your sink garbage disposal is on the same circuit with some lights, note the lights dim briefly when you switch it on. This is the result of the high reactive current drawn by the static induction motor, which can be 4 times the normal load current. Fuses must be slow-blow to let this pass before deciding that there is some problem. There is usually a circuit breaker on the disposal that opens if the motor is stalled. You might also note the limited starting torque when the motor fails to start if it gets something in its teeth. By adding resistance to the rotor, better starting torque can be obtained, at the cost of poorer running at speed. Ways have been devised to cut out the resistance after starting, but these involve a wound rotor with brushes, or complicated double windings, and have not been worth the bother.

ABOUT THE SHOPS 1. PRESS AND SMITHY SHOP This shop is working the guidance of Mr. A.K.Barun. In this press and smithy shop there are seven small open hearth furnaces. These furnaces are connected with blower is driven by induction motor. The outlet of the blower is connected to the bottom portion of the furnace where coal burns on the bed. In this shop more than 50 components are manufactured these are, Head stock pressing, Anchor plate pressing, Anchor support plate pressing ,Foot step ,Pull rod, Head stock ,Hand wheel Bolster,e.t.c LIST OF MACHINE IN PRESS AND SMITHY SHOP. NAME CAPICITY NO. SPECIFICATION CAPICITY OF OF MOTOR MOTOR (1) Hydraulic press (400T) 1 I.M 20HP (2) Hydraulic press (250T) 2 I.MS 16HP (3) Press machine (600T) 1 I.M 25HP (4) Power Hammer (400kg) 1 I.M (5) Power Hammer Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / (250kg) 1 I.M (6) Power Hammer (100kg) 1 I.M (7) Power Hammer (80kg) 1 I.M (8) Coal Fired Forge (9) Oil Fired Furnace (10) Blower 2 I.M

The hydraulic press is used to manufacture anchor plate. For this the plate is heated in the oil furnace. The heated plate is kept horizontally on the machine table and the ram is allowed to press the plate, due to downward movement the U shaped anchor plate is manufactured. The specification of this machine is as follows:- Nominal pressure -------------------------- 250 tons. Working pressure -------------------------- 200 atm. Speed ---------------------------------------- 0.020 m/sec. Motor capacity-----------------------------50hp PNEUMATIC HAMMER On this machine the part which is to be manufactured is kept on the die after heating on the furnace and the ram is allowed to strike the component on the die . Due to the strike of ram the component takes the shape that of the die. This is driven by 3phase induction motor. 2. CUTTING AND WELDING SHOP This shop works under the supervision of Mr.A.K Singh This is one of the shops in which the basic work is performed . As the name indicates this shop is mainly involved in cutting the plates of different thicknesses in the desired shape & size and in the profile cutting In this shop there is one shearing machine and two cropping shearing machine for the cutting purpose. On the shearing machine the plate to be cut should be flat & the thickness should not be more than 8 mm. For cutting the flat plate is kept on the bed of the machine & is moved manually. The plate to be cut is kept on the bed with the help of crane . The machine consists of a cutting blade & no . of pressing bolts . As the plate is moved inside the machine the pressing bolts press the plate and keep it rigidly fixed the downward movement of the cutting blade cuts the plate . On the cropping shearing machine number of works are performed. This machine can cut flat plate of small sizes, angle plates, square hollow rod & circular hollow rod. Also this machine can be used as punching machine. The another machine is chipping machine . This machine is use to produce an inclined shape at the end of plate which is necessary in the end to end welding . This machine has a gun through which high pressure air comes This machine holds a chisel. The high-pressure air pushes the chisel, which causes to cut the plate. These are three probile cutting machines in this shop. The machines consist of a vertical column and two horizontal arms. The one arm consists of the templete and the another arm consists of the welding torch and the small driving motor. This machine can cut the plate of thickness of 35 to 40 mm, Through the welding torch acetylene and oxygen gas is supplied. This machine requires extra amount of oxygen gas. So two oxygen pipes are connected to the torch. To cut the plate in the desired shape. The same shape template is fitted to the upper arm and the magnetic roller of the second i.e. lower arm is touched to the template. The driving motor drives the torch. The torch moves through the profile of the template and the plate cut in the desired shape. One another plate cutting machine is kangaroo machine. This is the biggest cutting machine . This machine consists of two welding torch . The torch can more in all the three coordinate axis i.e. x, y and z plane. This is fully electronic controlled machine. This machine consists of an electronic senson and a horizontal plate. The drawing of the required shape is kept on the horizontal plate and the senson moves through the black lines of the drawing . This machine can be moved manually. The Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / amount of acetylene and oxygen gas can be controlled with the knobs. In the welding section mainly bolster and cross bars are manufactured. 3. DRILLING SHOP In this shop there are different types of drilling machines. In this shop drilling is done by two method, i e. by marking and by jig. The following are the drill size & which are used for drilling in this shop is 5mm, 6mm, 11mm, 13.5mm, 17.5mm, 21.5mm and 23.5mm. These are the drill size which are used here for drilling marking takes a lot of time and it requires more skilled person for marking. So drilling of component by marking is used for a few, component where it is difficult to set a jig. For mass production of components jig is used for drilling . The thickness of the jig plate, which is in practice, is 12mm. To manufacture jig a hole greater dia. is done in the jig plate and bush of required drill size is fitted in the hole . The material of the jig bush is class IV and IS:1875 . In this drilling shop there is one universal radial machine , two semi universal radial drilling machine and a few ordinary radial drilling machine . There is one gang drilling machine and one sensitive drilling machine . The universal drilling machine is one of the important drilling machine . The drilling machine can produce a hole in any direction at any angle . The universal drilling machine consists of a vertical column and a horizontal arm. The horizontal arm can move in any direction i.e. horizontally, vertically, and at any inclination. The drilling can be done by automatic feed mechanism and by manual operation. The semi universal radial drilling machine is some as universal radial drilling machine except this drilling machine cannot produce a hole in inclined direction. This machine consists of two electrical motors, one is used for the operation of drilling and the another is used for the vertical movement of horizontal arm is the feed. In these machine water is used as a coolant the chip which comes out from the operation is continuous chips. The another drilling machine is sensitive drilling machine. On the machine small sized hole is drilling. Usually a drill of 5mm and 6mm is used. The machine has a very long bed and a gang of three drilling machine. This machine is used to produce a hole in the very long channel. For operation the channel is kept on bed and the jig is fitted to the channel and with the help jig bush the hole is produced at desired position.

4. MACHINE SHOP The shop works under the supervision of Mr. S. N. Singh. This is the biggest shop of this organization. In this shop there are various types of machines. Such as lathe, Drilling m/c, shaper, slotter milling m/c grinder, boring m/c, planer etc. There are seven heavy duty lathe machine, 11 lathe machine, 2 capstan lathe, 2 shaper machine, one double shaper machine, 2 milling machine one vertical and one radial drilling machine , 3 slotter m/c and two boring machine . HEAVY DUTY LATHE The heavy duty lathes have 4 jaw chuck and can hold a job of 1 m. dia. The chuck can rotate up to a maxm speed of 315 rpm. The motor, which is required to rotate the chuck has the following specification. This is 3 phase induction motor and require 415 volts . The type is delta connection. The horsepower of the motor is 50 H.P. & the output shaft of this motor can rotate speed of 1460 rpm. The tail stock of Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / the lathe consists of a separate electric motor to move it self on the lathe bed. HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE This machine is used for the boring purpose of big components. This machine is driven by electric motor & with the help of gear mechanism the main shaft is rotated. The sail, which is to be machined, is kept on the bed. Before it, a ring is inserted over the sail to rigidly damp it. The main shaft consists of two heads, which has groove in which cutting tool is fitted & fightened with the bolts. The cutting head starts cutting from opposite sides. Both the cutting tools rotate in opposite direction. SHAPER MACHINE This machine which is used here is known as Double shaper machine . As the name itself the machine has two ram & one long table. Both ram is fixed on table & as per the requirement one or both machine is used. This machine is used to produce good surface on rough work piece. Also it can be used to cut a key way & for many other operations too .

5. FOUNDRY SHOP MR. S. K. Shrivastwa supervises the work of this shop. This is also very important shop of this plant. In this shop casting is done. The various parts of the wagon are manufactured in this shop. The casting is divided into three groups Low, Medium & High casting . The low & medium castings are again divided into sub-group Green and Dry and loam casting or sweep moulding. For moulding clay is mixed with sand to improve binding strength. Normaly Bentonite & cow dung improves the porous nature of sand. Normally 3 % clay is mixed with sand. For casting first mould is prepared with help of moulding box. As per the requirement core is used in moulding. For preparing core reinforcement is used which supports the core. The core is bitted rigidly to perment the displacement of core due to the pressure of the molten metal. Green casting is used for mass production. For Dry casting, the core and the prepared mould is heated from inside the coal oven to reduce the moisture & to improve the strength & reduces the shrinkage allowances . CUPOLA FURNACE This is very important type of furnace. It has the bottom bed & air chamber. During operation the bottom bed is closed & the inclined sand bed is prepared on the bottom bed. The air chamber which is connected with the outlet of blower which supplies air to the furnace. The coke is placed inside the furnace from the talk. The height of the coke is 12 to 36 inches above the air chambers. Above the coke the ferrous metal is placed. Limestone is mixed with coke to improve the firing. The coke is fired and air is blown. As the coke produces heat nearly equal to 22000 C the ferrous metal starts melting. After melting the metal flows downward and get stored on the sand bed. Due to its high density the coke starts flowing. As the slag start flowing outside it is confirmed that the metal is in the fully molten state. In this condition the gate is opened and the molten metal is allowed, to blow in the laddle. In this system the hot air which tends to pass from top is recycled and again supplied to the air chamber . This reduces the cost of production. Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. /

CUPOLA ZONES The cupola furnace is divided in various zones. A number of chemical reactions take place in this zone, which are as follow as: 1. WELLIt is the space between the bottom of tuyers and the sand bed. The metals are trickles down after melting and collects in this space before it is tapped out. 2. COMBUSTION ZONE It is also known as oxidizing zone . It is located between top of tuyers and theoretical level above it. The actual combustion takes place in this zone. More heat is evolved due to oxidation of silicon & manganese. A temperature about 15400 C to 1870 0 is produced. The exothermic reaction taking place in this zone. C + O2 ---------------> CO2 + HEAT Si + O2--------------- > SiO2 + HEAT 2Mn + O 2 --------------- > 2MnO + HEAT 3. REDUCING ZONE - It is also known as protective zone . It is located between the top of the combustion zone and the top level of the coke bed . CO2 is reduced in Co in this zone through an endothermic reaction , as a result of which the temperature falls from combustion zone, temperature is about 12000 C of this zone . CO 2 + C ( of coke) ------------------------- > 2CO - HEAT 4. MELTING ZONE - The first layer of metal charge above the coke bed. The solid metal changes to state in this zone. 3Fe + 2CO ----------------> Fe3C + CO2 5. PREHEATING ZONE - It extends from above the melting zone to the bottom level of the charging door and contains a number of alternate layer of coke and metal charges. The function of this zone is to preheat the charges from atmospheric temperature to about 10930C before the settle downward to enter the melting zone. This preheating takes place due to the upward advancing hot gases. 6. STACK ZONE The empty portion of Cupola above the preheating zone. Which provides the passage to hot gases to go to atmosphere, is known as Stack zone. CUPOLA EFFICIENCY Th thermal efficiency of cupola is given by the ratio of heat actually utilized in melting zone and superheating the metal to the heat involved in it through various means. The ratio can express mathematically :- npercent cupola = Heat utilize in melting and superheating the metal x 100 Calorific value of coke + Heat involved due to oxidation of iron, Si and Mn 6. WAGON ASSEMBLY SHOP In this shop the various components which are manufactured in the different shops are assembled and the wagon is completed and then set to the finishing shop . First of the assembly of wagon, the centre sill is kept on the fixture . CENTRE SILL This is manufactured in the sub-assembly shop. To manufacture two Z channels are welded after welding the supporting plate is welded to require position and then it is sent for marking. After marking, drilling is done and coupler cashing is fitted at both the ends and riveting is done by the air gun. Lastly it is checked whether it is true Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / size or not. If not the length is reduced by gas cutting. The length of the center sill should be 9784mm and the width should be 2960 mm. The centre seal is placed on the fixture and cross bar and bolster is welded to it . After welding these two seal bars are attached and is welded . Now this is known "Under frame ". Now riveting is done. The head stock is also welded to the centre sill at both the ends. The gusset plate and the cross bar bottom plate is welded to bolster and cross bar respectively . The strenger is welded to the under frame throughout the length. The under frame is placed on the manipulator for welding at the bottom side . Now the air brake cylinder and the pipe line is fitted and clamped . The side body and end body is attached and riveted and welded to the under frame . This complete box is kept on the wheel assembly and then it is sent for finishing . 7. FINISHING SHOP After assembling the wagon is sent to the finishing shop. In this shop the wagon is brought to the shot blaster chamber. In this chamber small iron particle is allowed to strike on the wagon to remove the extra welding deposit and the rust formed on it . The high pressure air helps the iron particle to come out from the gun and to strike rapidly . In this chamber the working condition are very hazardous . So The worker wears oxygen mask before doing work inside the chamber . After this the wagon is painted and the specifications are written on the wagon and then dispatched to Indian Railway . SUPPLIERS OF MAIN WAGON COMPONET COMPONENT SUPPLIERS (1) WHEEL W.A.P. BANGLORE (2) BOGIE BESCO KOLKATA (3) HIGH TENSION COUPLER H.D.C. KOLKATA (4) AIR BRAKE EQUIPMENT 1.ESCORT Ltd. FARIDABAD 2. STONE INDIA Ltd. DELHI 3. BHARAT BRAKES & VALVE Ltd. KOLKATA (5) STEEL 1. BOKARO STEEL PLANT (6) BEARING 2. TISCO. INDIA THMKEN INDIA JAMSHEDPUR

8.TEMPLATE SHOP Before describing the template it is worth while to elaborate the word '' template''. This is a pattern or gauge a time in mass scale . This saves a lot of time , as no marking is necessary when using template. Basically templates are of two types (1) Marking template. (2) Checking template. The main objective of this shop is making templates of all the consigned wagon components where a certain profile cutting is necessary. The manufacturing of template is done with the help of the design and drawing provided by R.D.S.O. Lucknow . Also the required allowances for different tools are taken into consideration during marking the templates . This vary maching to machine. The templates here are usually made of mild steel. They are of small Thicknesses. Working in this shop needs greatest accuracy because shape all the components made with the help of template depend upon the shape of the template . Thus a minor fault can create a great fault in the production. WAGON FLOW CHART UNDER FRAME FITTING FLOORING SIDE BODY FITTING AIR BRAKE FITTING WELDING Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose. / BODY FITTING END BODY FITTING AND WELDING DOOR FITTING WELDING AND REVETING WHEEL SET AND BOGILE FITTING SHOT BLASTING PAINTING FINAL INSPECTION ACCEPTED BY R.D.S.O. REPRESENTATIVES

Final Year Project's is One place for all Engineering Projects, Presentation, seminar, summer training report and lot more. NOTE:-This work is copyright to its Authors. This is only for Educational Purpose.