SOLUTION MANUAL

OF THERMODYNAMICS
By Hipolito Sta. Maria

Answered by: ENGR. NASER A. FERNANDEZ
Published by: ‘I Think, Therefore I’m An Atheist’ Enterprises
and Priority Development Fund (PDF)

CHAPTER 4
1.A perfect gas has a value of R = 58.8 ft.lbf/lbm - °R and k = 1.26. If 20 Btu are added to 5 lbm of
this gas at constantvolume when the initial temperature is 90 °F, find (a) T 2, Change in
H, Change in S, Change in U and (b) Work for a non flowprocess.

Given:

R = 58.8

Q = 20 BTU

k = 1.26
m = 5 lb

T1 = 90 F + 460 = 550 °R

Solution:
(a) Q = mcv(T2 – T1)
i = R = 58.8

x

= 0.0756

ii. cv = R/(k-1)
= 0.0756/(1.26-1)
cv = 0.29
iii. Q = mcv(T2 – T1)
20 = (5)(0.29)( T2- 550)
T2 = 563.8 °R
(b) i. cp = (kR)/(k-1)
= (1.26)(0.0756)/(1.26-1)
cp = 0.366
ii. ΔH = mcp(T2 – T1)
= (5)(0.366)(563.8-550)
ΔH = 25.25 BTU
(c) ΔS = mcvln( )
= (5)(0.29)ln
ΔS

= 0.036

(d) ΔU = mcv(T2 – T1)

)

= (5)(0.29)(563.8-550)
= 20.01 BTU
2. A reversible, non flow, constant volume process decreases the internal energy by 316.5 KJ
for 2.268KG of a gas R=430 J/KG-K and k=1.35. for process determine: a.)the work ; b.) the
heat and c.) the change in entropy if the initial temperature is 204.4 °C?
Given:
U = -316.5 kJ
m = 2.268 kg
R = 430 J/kg.K

k = 1.35
T1 = 204.4 +273 = 477.4 K

Solution:
(a) Wn = __ pdv ; constant volume
Wn = 0
(b) Q = U + Wn
= -316.5 + 0
Q = -316.5 kJ
(c) i. cv = R/(k-1)
= 430/(1.35-1)
cv = 1228.57 J/kg.K
= 1.22857 kJ/kg.K
ii. finding for T2
Q = mcv(T2-T1)
-316.5 = (2.268)(1.22857)(T2-477.4)
T2 = 363.81 K
iii. ΔS = mcvln( )
= (2.268)(1.22857)ln
ΔS

)

= -0.757 kJ/K

3. 10ft^3 vessel of hydrogen at a pressure of 305 psia is vigorously stirred by paddles until the
pressure becomes 400 psia. determine ∆U and W. no heat is transferred, Cv = 2.434 btu / lb.R.
Given:
V1 = 10 ft3
cv= 2.434 BTU/lb.R

P1 = 305 psia
= 43920 lb/ft2
P2 = 400 psia
= 57600 lb/ft2

Q=0

Solution:
(a) i. R(hydrogen) = 765.9 lb.ft/lb.R
cv = 2.434 BTU/lb.R
ii. ∆U = mcv(T2-T1)
= mcv(
∆U =

)

(p2-p1)

=

(57600-43920)

∆U = 434.75 BTU
(b) Irreversible nonflow constant volume
Q = U + Wn ;Q = 0
Wn = -434.75 BTU
4. Three pounds of a perfect gas with R = 38 ft.lb/lb.R and k = 1.667 have 300 Btu of heat added
during the reversible nonflow constant pressure change of state. The initial temperature is 100 .
Determine (a) final temperature, (b) ∆H, © W, (d) ∆U and (e) ∆S.
Given:
R = 38 lb.ft/lb.R
k = 1.667
m = 3 lb

Q = 300 BTU
T1 = 100 F + 460 = 560 °R

Solution:
(a) i. cp = (kR)/(k-1)
= (1.667)(38)/(1.667-1)
= 94.97

x

= 0.1221 BTU/lb.R

ii. Q = mcp(T2-T1)
300 = (3)(0.1221)(T2 - 560)
T2 = 1379 R or 919 °F
(b) Q= mcp(T2-T1) = H
∆H = 300 BTU
(c) Wn = p(V2-V1)

= p(

-

) ; p 1 = p2

= pmR( -

)

Wn = mR(T2-T1)
= (3)(38)(1379-560)
Wn = 120.008 BTU
(d)
i. cv = R/(k-1)
= 38/(1.667-1)
= 56.97

x

cv = 0.0732 BTU/lb.R
ii. ∆U = mcv(T2-T1)
= (3)(0.0732)(1379-560)
∆U = 179.85 BTU
(e) ∆S = mcpln( )
= (3)(0.1221)ln(1379/560)
∆S = 0.3301 BTU/R
5. While the pressure remains constant at 689.5 kPa, the volume of a system of air changes from
0.567 m³ to 0.283 m³, what are a. Change in U b. Change in H c. Q d. Change in S e. if
the process is non-flow and internally reversible, what is the work?
Given:
P = 689.5 kPa
V1 = 0.567 m3
V2 = 0.283 m3

R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K
cv = 0.7816
cp = 1.00625

Solution:
(a) i. ∆U = mcv(T2-T1)
= mcv(
∆U =

)

(V2-V1)

=

x (0.283-0.567)

∆U = 490 kJ
(b) ∆H = mcp(T2-T1)
= mcp(
∆H =

(V2-V1)

)

=

(0.283-0.567)

∆H = -686.56 kJ
(c) Q = mcp(T2-T1)= ∆H
Q = -686.39 kJ
(d) ∆S = mcpln( )
= mcpln(

)

∆S = mcpln( )
= cpln( )
= (1.00625)ln(0.283/0.567)

= -0.699 kJ/kgK
(e) Wn = p(V2-V1)
= (689.5)(0.283-0.567)
Wn = -195.82 kJ
6. Four pounds of air gain 0.491 Btu/°R of entropy during a non-flow isothermal process. If
P1 = 120 psia and V2 = 42.5 ft³, find a. V1 and T1 b. Wnf c. Q and d. Change in U.
Given:
m = 4lb
∆S = 0.491 BTU/R
P1 = 120 psia
V1 = 42.5 ft3

Rair = 53.34 lb.ft/lb.R

Solution:
(a) i. ∆S = (0.491 BTU/R)(778 lb.ft/BTU) = 382 lb.ft/R
Rair = 53.34 lb.ft/lb.R
P1 = (120 lb/in2 )(144 in2/ft2)= 17280 lb/ft2
ii. ∆S= mRln(p1/p2)
382 = (4)(53.34)[ln(17280)]-ln(p2)
- ln(17280)]-= -ln(p2)
e7.9669 = eln(p2)
p2 = 2883.91 lb/ft2

iii. p1V1 = p2V2
V1 = p2V2/p1
= (2883.91)(42.5)/(17280)
V1 = 7.093 ft3
iv. p1V1 = mRT
T = p1V1/mR
= (17280)(7.093)/(4)(53.34)
T = 574.46 R
(b) W = p1V1ln(V2/ V1)
= (17280)(7.093)ln(42.5/7.093)
= (219443.50 lb.ft)(

)

W = 282.06 BTU
(c) Q = U + W; U= 0
Q = 282.06 BTU
(d) U= 0
7. If 10 kg/min of air are compressed isothermally from P1=96kPa and V1=7.65m^3/min to
P3=620kPa, find the work change of entropy and the heat for: a) nonflow process and b) steady
flow process with v1=15m/s and v2=60m/s.

Given:
m = 10 kg/min
p1 = 96 kPa/kJ
V1 = 7.65 m3 min
P2 = 620 kPa/kJ
Solution:
(a) i. p1V1 = p2V2
V2 = p1V1/p2
= (96)(7.65)/620
V2 = 1.185 m3/min
ii. Wn = p1V1ln(V2/ V1)
= (96)(7.65)ln(
Wn = -1369.63 kJ/min

)

iii. ∆S = mRln(p1/p2) ; Rair = 0.287 kJ/kg.K
= (10)(0.287)ln(

)

20

∆S = -5.35 kJ/mink
8. one pound of an ideal gas undergoes an isentropic process from 93.5 psig and a volume of
0.6ft3 to a final volume of 3.6 ft3. Ifcp=0.124 and cv=0.093 BTU/lb.R, what are (a)T2(b)p2(c)
∆H and (d)W

Given:
P1 = (95.3 +14.7) psia
= 110

= 15480 lb/ft2

x

V1 = 0.6 ft3
V2 = 3.6 ft3
Cp = 0.124
Cv = 0.093 BTU/lb.R

Solution:
(a) i. R= cp-cv
= 0.124-0.093
R = 0.031 BTU/lb.R
ii. T1=

T1= 394.063 R
iii.
../.. k= cp/cv
= 1.3333
../.. T2= T1[

= (394.063)[
T2= 216.87 R or -243.13 F
(b) p1

= p2
p2 =

= 10.09 psia
(c) ΔH = mcp()
= (1)(0.124)(216.87-394.063)
ΔH = -21.97 BTU

(d) W =
=
W = 16.48 BTU
9. A certain ideal gas whose R=278.6 j/kg.K and cp=1.015 kJ/kg.K expands
isentropically from 1517kpa,288 C to 965 kPa. For 454g/s of this gas determine
(a)Wn(b)V2(c) ∆ U (d) ∆H

Given:
R = 278.6 J/kg.K or 0.2786 kJ/kg
Cp = 1.015 kJ/kg.K
P1 = 1517 kJ
T1 = 288 C +273
= 561
P2 = 965 kJ
m = 454 g/s or 0.454 kg/s

Solution:
(a) i. cv=cp-R
=1.015-0.2786
cv=0.7364
ii. k=cp/cv
=(1.015)/( 0.7364)
k= 1.378
iii. T2= T1[
=(561)[

T2 = 495.53 K
../.. Wn =
=
Wn = 21.9 kJ/s
(b) p2V2 =mRT2
V2 =

= 0.6495 m3/s
(c) ΔU = mcv(T2-T1)
= (0.454)(0.7364)(495.53-561)
ΔU = -21.888 kJ/s
(d) ΔH = mcp(T2-T1)
= (0.454)(1.015)( 495.53-561)
ΔH = -30.169 kJ/s
10.A polytropic process of air from . . . . . ../..

Given:
P1=150 psia
T1=300 F+460
=760 R
V1=1 ft3
P2=20 psia
n=1.3
Rair=(53.34 lb.ft/lb.R)(

)

= 0.06856 BTU/lb.R
cv=0.1714
cp= 0.24

Solution:
(a) i.

=

T2=(760)[
= 477.39 R -460
=17.40 F
ii. p1V1n=p2V2n
V2 = [p1V1n/p2]1/n
=[(150)(1)1.3/(20)]1/1.3
V2 = 4.711 ft3
(b.) i. p1V1=mRT1
m=

= 0.5328 lb
ii. ΔU = mcv(T2-T1)
= (0.5328)(0.1714)(477.39-760)
= -25.81 BTU

iii. ΔH=mcp(T2-T1)
= (0.5328)(0.24)(477.39-760)
= -36.14 BTU
iv. ../.. k=cp/cv
=0.24/0.1714
k=1.40
../.. cn=cv[(k-n)/1-n]
=(0.1714)[(1.40-1.3)/(1-1.3)]
cn=-0.571
ΔS= mcnln(T2/T1)
=(0.5328)(-0.0571)ln(477.39/760)
ΔS=0.0141 BTU/R
(c) i.pdV=
=

= 34.41 BTU
ii.- Vdp =n(pdV)
= (1.3)(34.41)
= 44.73 BTU
(d)Q= mcn(T2-T1)
=(0.5328)(-0.0571)(477.39-760)
Q=8.60 BTU

Check:
Q=ΔU+ pdV
= -25.81 + 34.41
Q=8.60 BTU
(e) Wn =
=
Wn = 34.41 BTU
(f) Ws = Q- ΔU
= 8.60-(-36.14)
Ws = 44.7 BTU

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