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[Adil Ozdemir, Kenneth Frank] Visible Islam in Mod(Bookos.org)

[Adil Ozdemir, Kenneth Frank] Visible Islam in Mod(Bookos.org)

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Sections

  • Introduction
  • Notes on Methods
  • A Brief Faith History of Islam
  • Expressions of Faith and Identity
  • Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday
  • The Funeral Prayer and Burial
  • The Call to Prayer
  • The Pilgrimage
  • Almsgiving and the Animal Offering
  • The Sacrament of Prayer
  • Cleanliness and Purity
  • Mosques and Architecture
  • Religious Functionaries
  • Conclusion
  • A Classification of Canonical and Non-canonical Practices
  • The Scheduling of Canonical Worship
  • Individual Practices that are Tied to the Believer's Age
  • A Classification of Islamic Charity
  • The Term `Prayer'
  • Gender Issues in Islamic Worship
  • Sets of Stations of the Canonical Prayer
  • Typical Themes of the Formal Sermon
  • A Standard Floor Plan of the Mosque
  • The Structure of Turkish State Islam
  • Underlying Principles and Ideals of Islamic Worship
  • Notes and References

Visible Islam in Modern Turkey

Adil Özdemir and Kenneth Frank

Visible Islam in Modern Turkey

Library of Philosophy and Religion
General Editor: John Hick, Fellow of the Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities, University of Birmingham This series of books explores contemporary religious understandings of humanity and the universe. The books contribute to various aspects of the continuing dialogues between religion and philosophy, between scepticism and faith, and between the different religions and ideologies. The authors represent a correspondingly wide range of viewpoints. Some of the books in the series are written for the general educated public and others for a more specialised philosophical or theological readership. Selected titles: Dan Cohn-Sherbok ISLAM IN A WORLD OF DIVERSE FAITHS (editor) ISSUES IN CONTEMPORARY JUDAISM Adil Özdemir and Kenneth Frank VISIBLE ISLAM IN MODERN TURKEY Richard Worsley HUMAN FREEDOM AND THE LOGIC OF EVIL

Library of Philosophy and Religion Series Standing Order ISBN 0–333–69996–3 (outside North America only) You can receive future titles in this series as they are published by placing a standing order. Please contact your bookseller or, in case of difficulty, write to us at the address below with your name and address, the title of the series and the ISBN quoted above. Customer Services Department, Macmillan Distribution Ltd, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS, England

Visible Islam in Modern Turkey
Adil Özdemir
Department of Basic Islamic Disciplines Theological School Dokuz Eylül University Izmir, Turkey

and

Kenneth Frank

Mathematics Instructor Izmir Amerikan Lisesi Izmir, Turkey

Foreword by Annemarie Schimmel

First published in Great Britain 2000 by

MACMILLAN PRESS LTD

Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and London Companies and representatives throughout the world A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 0–333–77670–4 First published in the United States of America 2000 by ST. MARTIN’S PRESS, LLC, Scholarly and Reference Division, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010 ISBN 0–312–23479–1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Özdemir, Adil, 1953– Visible Islam in Modern Turkey / Adil Özdemir and Kenneth Frank ; foreword by Annemarie Schimmel. p. cm. — (Library of philosophy and religion) Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 0–312–23479–1 (cloth) 1. Islam—Turkey. 2. Islam and state—Turkey. I. Frank, Kenneth, 1946– II. Title. III. Library of philosophy and religion (St. Martin’s Press) BP63.T8 O27 2000 297'.09561'09049—dc21 00–027218

© Adil Özdemir and Kenneth Frank 2000 Foreword © Annemarie Schimmel 2000 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 0LP. Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. 10 09 9 08 8 07 7 06 6 05 5 04 4 03 3 02 2 01 1 00

Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire

Contents Foreword by Annemarie Schimmel Preface Part I 1 2 3 4 The Background 3 7 12 29 vii ix Introduction Notes on Methods The Present Juncture in the Spiritual Journey of Muslims in Turkey A Brief Faith History of Islam Part II A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Expressions of Faith and Identity The Religious Orders Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday The Funeral Prayer and Burial The Call to Prayer The Pilgrimage Almsgiving and the Animal Offering The Sacrament of Prayer Cleanliness and Purity Mosques and Architecture Religious Functionaries 41 65 78 95 106 115 126 139 170 180 195 205 211 213 214 215 216 220 Conclusion Appendices A A Classification of Canonical and Non-canonical Practices B Ceremonial Practices Ranked by Intensity of Attendance C The Scheduling of Canonical Worship D Individual Practices that are Tied to the Believer's Age E Current Areas of Controversy between Secular and Non-secular Worldviews in Turkey F The Yearly Schedule of Major Sunni Islam Celebrations and Holidays v .

vi Contents G H I J K L M N O Alternative Modes of Sacramental Practice According to Personal Circumstances A Classification of Islamic Charity The Term `Prayer' Gender Issues in Islamic Worship Sets of Stations of the Canonical Prayer Typical Themes of the Formal Sermon A Standard Floor Plan of the Mosque The Structure of Turkish State Islam Underlying Principles and Ideals of Islamic Worship 222 224 227 229 235 237 239 242 245 247 249 254 256 Notes and References Glossary Short Bibliography Index .

Persian. È zdemir and For this reason I warmly welcome the book by Adil O Kenneth Frank. This was an enormous chance to watch Turkish Islam all over the country. and Turkish ± knew the history. in Turkish. and as I ± being a scholar trained in Arabic. And who but Pir Sultan Abdal would compare himself to a lamb. participating with them in the iftar. It will be a guide for those who approach Turkey as vii . the center of mystical Islam. Konya. Along with my students I visited their relatives in small Anatolian towns. enamored as I was à na Cela Ãladdin Rumi whose Persian with the work and thought of Mevla mystical poetry with its colorful imagery gained a new quality for me as I discovered in it a reflection of the Anatolian nature as well as an echo of the heartbeat of the warmhearted. These years strongly colored my understanding of Islam for they brought me in touch with the living faith. as had been the case for many years. between Edirne and Kilis. Between 1954 and 1959 I was teaching History of Religions at the Ãhiyat Faku È ltesi) in recently founded Faculty of Islamic Theology (Ila Ankara. by others with apprehension or outright fear. with a piety of great depth. was just a few hours' drive away from Ankara and became a second home for me.Foreword When I visited Turkey for the first time in the spring of 1952 I was deeply impressed by the fact that the call to prayer was recited once more in Arabic and no longer. the literature and the theology of Islam fairly well my life was immensely enriched by watching my Turkish friends in their daily life. and the questions raised by à hiyat Faku Èltesi certainly made me aware of the my students in the Ila problems these young people were facing in their attempt to be good Muslims as well as citizens of the modern world. And while driving through the long roads of central Anatolia I recited the poetry of Yunus Emre whose verse is still alive in the mountains of Anatolia because he has symbolized the heart's longing for the Divine Beloved in images taken from the daily life of his country. This was the first sign of a reawakening of Islam in Turkey ± viewed by some with delight. between Istanbul and Erzincan. shivering in the icy winds of Sivas? This was the country where I was confronted day after day with living Islam. or silently sitting in a corner while they were performing their prayers. hospitable people of the area. the meal at the end of the fasting day in Ramadan.

Such an introduction will also. a religion so much maligned in the West.viii Foreword nonspecialists and may be confused by discovering different rites and customs. I like in particular the distinction between the official duties and the popular or traditional additions and finally also those aspects of piety which are basically alien to the Koran or the tradition. I hope that those who read this introduction will then approach Turkish Islam with respect and admiration. Bonn. be they high sophisticated urban mystics or illiterate old women in a faraway village. help to remove some obstacles in understanding Islam. and he or she will certainly come to appreciate the expressions of a deep. will at the same time learn quite a bit about the religious attitude in other near Eastern countries. The fact that it is the fruit of cooperation between a Christian and a Muslim author secures its objectivity. I hope. Kurban Bayrami An n e m a r i e Schimmel . even in times of strict laicism. The reader. heartfelt piety as I have always encountered it among my Turkish friends. for this religious tradition in its many different aspects has formed and colored life in Turkey from the Middle Ages to our day. and the simplicity with which it is composed makes it a fine introduction for everyone who wants to know more about religious customs in Turkey without knowing anything about Islam. who is introduced into the rich heritage of Islam as it is practiced in Turkey.

offered their constructive criticism. but its presentation to a non-Muslim audience meant developing a new approach that drew on the authors' fruitful experiences in interreligious dialogue. Gu . and encouraged the promotion of È nhan Danis the project: in particular. both Muslim and non-Muslim. John Hick and Alan McCain. man. The authors wish to thank those who previewed part or all of the text. Not only does there appear to be a lack of written material of the kind presented here. or handbook. The result must be judged by the response of the readers. The authors soon found that the creation of such a handbook had to be preceded by a project of much larger scope. for visitors to Turkey to explain what was going on in the nation's mosques. His vision was to provide a guide.Preface The authors began this writing project at the urging of Richard Blakney. È z d em ir Ad i l O Ke n n e t h Fr a n k ix . director of what was then the Redhouse Press in Istanbul.

Part I The Background .

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the questions that lead to the heart of religion in Turkey. Our claim is that what observers see of Turkish culture.1 Introduction Turkey receives millions of visitors each year from non-Muslim countries. the sounds of the call to prayer. A major purpose 3 . they have something in common in their cultural and social attitudes. and they want to reach out. The skyline of Istanbul. And so whether people in Turkey are overtly religious or not. What goes on inside these mosques? The visitor enters and marvels at the decorative designs and tiles. They enjoy the sights and the natural beauty of the land. What does all this mean to the people who worship there? How does a mosque work? Who are the worship leaders. and the spaciousness created by the domed ceilings and the absence of furniture and pictures. displays an elaborate tracery of domes and minarets belonging to its great mosques. society. What is the logic behind the contemporary religious behavior of Muslims in Turkey? Is knowing what goes on inside a Turkish mosque a clue to understanding the religious lives and struggles of Muslims? This book tries to bring out the right questions. or civilization is formed at a deep level by Islamic principles of worship and teaching of truth. They also are struck by the ever-present mosque with its dome and minaret. and those bearded men with skull caps alongside those dressed like international finance executives. silhouetted by the setting sun. many visitors are curious about these differences. those women who are fully scarved and coated alongside those dressed in an American or European fashion. Naturally. to understand what is going on. and what are they like? Which people come there to worship? But do these questions help us understand religion in Turkey? The problem the visitor faces is to be able to come quickly to the point and know what to ask. to know more. the richly colored carpets on the floor.

4 The Background of this book is to provide visitors or interested parties with enough insight into Islamic practices to feel the ideals. But in today's world. Then in 1994±5 he toured the theological schools of the United Church of Christ and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the USA. Turkey. He has also extensively studied both the Christian and the Kur'anic ideas of salvation. We authors introduce some Islamic practices and ideas to non-Muslims. . The way to truth is as important as truth itself. one a Muslim and one a Christian. through the eyes and words of a particular Muslim and a particular Christian. the viability. In previous centuries. During the 1985±6 academic year he was in residence at Harvard University's Center for the Study of World Religions. you must take theirs seriously. Our intended audience is basically western minded. the requests from visitors to Turkey or to other Islamic countries to learn about the Islamic culture and practices that they see. His interest is religious school of Dokuz Eylu pluralism. Kenneth Frank is an educator who has been residing in Izmir. Our Muslim readers should be able to say. They have taken a step along the road to a sort of golden rule: if you want others to take your religion or culture seriously. a sound basis for genuine dialogue and cooperation. and the humanity of an Islamic way of life. He spent one year in research for a masters degree in religion at the theological È l University in Izmir. intellectual integrity. with the western expectations of philosophical precision and consistency. particularly in the context of Muslim±Christian interfaith dialogue. This book is an introduction for those who want to learn the basics of how and where and why Muslims worship. western in upbringing and framework. without twisting and distorting things through intentional or unintentional prejudice. `Yes. and academic soundness. since 1982. on the other hand. The authors of this book. Adil O branches and denominations. isolation from one another bred prejudice and contempt. especially to Christians. that's what it is. We see this book meeting two important needs: on the one hand.' We authors believe that such a way to present religion is a sure path to interfaith and intercultural understanding. where he lectured on Islam. a way that speaks a contemporary language. the desire of Muslims to present their faith to the modern mindset in an intelligible way. something from which much western writing on Islam has suffered. have been in dialogue for over a decade in the living situation of Turkish È zdemir has met with hundreds of Christians of various Islam. more people wish to overcome their ignorance of other people's religious expressions. No prior knowledge of Islam is assumed.

and trust in that which transcends human beings. They take place in a particular social. At the center of a religious person's life is his or her faith. By the term `orthodox' we mean Islam as traditionally canonized. for Islamic culture has embraced them all. and ritualism. Islam of the great mystics who stressed love. We find a rich plurality of Islamic orientations in Turkey. Islamic views of God. Islam that shows pre-Islamic Turkic and Christian traces. of groups. of the state. and so on. human beings. We would like to remind our readers that Islamic worship practices. Islam in the former lands of the Byzantines. or ignored. political. Romans. we authors want to be respectful to all ethnicities. we are evermindful of dealing with Islam as lived by people in Turkey: Anatolian Islam. This is the engine that drives sincere participation in religious practices. and society dynamically spring from inside out. For nonMuslim observers to witness the practices of Muslims. and Hittites. In using the term `Islam' or `Muslim'. Thus what the reader learns from these pages will be widely applicable throughout the Islamic world. of sects. of legalists. In these pages we explore this variety but concentrate on the common or so-called orthodox understanding of Islam. is therefore to look at this matter from the wrong direction. Greeks. structured. and economic context. and society. hospitality. and to its respect for factuality and honesty. sometimes contributing positively to non-Muslims. the universe. are not the whole of religion. tolerance. from the revelation of God to human beings. and an attitude that transcends legalism. as well as a depth and range of ideas and practices of religion. Islamic worship practices in Turkey are not carried on in a vacuum. the Islam of the majority. It is therefore necessary for outside observers to dialogue with Muslims to get at the truth behind the Islamic expressions they observe. or expressions of Islam: that of individuals. There are in fact many Islams. from outside in. . prescribed. of the dogmatists. rigidity.Introduction 5 We also appeal to the spiritual and religious sensitivity of our audience. of mystics. But as we dwell on this core of universal Islamic practices. and then to generalize from these observations about Islamic views of God. and put into book form. nature. the Islam of the centuries-old mainstream legal and theological schools. to its openness to fresh observation. on which we will be concentrating. or judged. Islam of Eurasia. We authors hope to equip our readers to begin just such a dialogue. It is also the standard by which those practices are revered. of the book centered. the individual. loyalty. of the philosophers. Islam as planted where Christians dominated for a millennium.

nonsecular. multilingual. The degree to which various Muslims in Turkey observe religious practices. Depending on weather and environmental conditions. With what problems have people occupied themselves in making this change? Where is Turkey coming from. in the Ottoman Empire. It seems to be a problem for any culture that would at least partly locate its identity in the modern world. global problem. . It is a soil in which seeds are planted. So it is with Islamic worship. the intensity and type of observance. For instance. What the reader will find in this book are the specific manifestations of the issue in the Islamic context in Turkey. Whatever one counts as successes for the contemporary age. homogenizing. republican. democratic. which may be characterized in the following way: what is the role of an enlightened. computerized. the heartland of Turkey. traditional. Muslims worshipped in a largely multicultural. technological. but we invite everyone to reflect on how it expresses itself in his or her own culture. this land has nourished and brought to fruition countless human dreams and ambitions. there remains a deep. humanist and individualist age. is tied to the context of modern Turkey. For these reasons we will present our readers with a brief analysis of the context for Islamic practices in Turkey as well as a short presentation of the faith history of Muslims. But today they live in an industrial. unsolved. by the environment. This soil has seen the coming and going of a great many peoples and empires. but the way people respond to that agenda is fed by the culture and psychology of their worship practices. agrarian. We will return to this image of the soil in our conclusion. one hundred years ago. national. as they search for truth and identity. The agenda of the age continues to change. or whether people observe the practices at all. Islamic practices are constantly changing in response to various pressures. We will show the connections between this context and the religious practices of Muslims.6 The Background Our image is that of the soil of Anatolia. modern nation regarding religion? Is it one of disinterested distance? Support and facilitation? Subjugation and dominance? Peaceful coexistence? Submission and surrender? Our book is a case study of this issue of the modern perspective and religious tradition. and where could it be going? We will consider these issues. and imperial setting. secular. It is enough now to say that the environment influences the deep questions people in Turkey are asking themselves as they seek meaning for their lives. from the Hittites and those before them to Turkey as it exists today. but what is produced in terms of character and worldview is affected by the context.

They are idealistic but offer few points of entry for the modern mind. Therefore we must go into the structure and mentality behind these rituals. impersonal. living. and based on a consciousness that is invisible to the outsider. unknown. appear at first glance to be mechanical. Such a description will be more objective than either author alone could produce. inspiring. We would like to unify the best of both approaches by developing a coherent factual foundation. while those by insiders tend to use outdated language. scholarship. that is neither apologetic nor totally detached. and rigid. and personal insight. it is necessary to glimpse something of the psychology and principles of an Islamic worldview. some forms of Islamic worship. and moving 7 . awkward. We assume that to a Westerner. To appreciate Islamic worship. We have not wanted to distort or hide anything. Books have been and are being written on Islam by both Muslims and non-Muslims. particularly the one in Turkey. on which we do not fear to theorize. We search out the symbolism and unifying themes that are sacred. Those by outsiders tend to be speculative and lacking in data. We present this picture in ways that are comfortable or familiar to the western mind but at the same time not contrary to Muslim sensibilities. in continuity with the past. recycling the material in old ways. We have aimed to explain as truthfully as we can what is behind the things that visitors see when they enter an Islamic environment. such as the sacrament of prayer.2 Notes on Methods We wish to give our readers a picture of Islamic worship and rituals as agreed upon by both a Muslim who participates in that worship and by a non-Muslim observer. These feelings arise simply because these forms of worship are different. in a way that is both contrite and comprehensive. We have hoped to do so with fairness.

This work is one of the respected catechistic texts for Islamic practices among Sunni Muslims in Turkey. for Muslims traditionally have not distinguished between `religious' and `secular'. When Muslims claim they are following a certain legal school. For one thing. the Kur'an. they have in mind this narrower understanding. They are referring to the specific codes or prescriptions that regulate their private and public life. Abu Hanifah (700±67). seems not to focus on . or canons. for these things in the eyes of believers are sacred and divinely instituted. Non-Muslims may have heard that there are five fundamental `pillars'. the yearly alms tax on wealth. the long hours of fasting. But we find it misleading to set a limitation such as the number `five'. in western Saudi Arabia. the demanding journey to Mecca. The jurists were either founders or followers of various legal schools that differ from one another in details. But shariah also carries the narrower meaning of law codes. or prescriptions. This term in its wider sense means `Divine Law'. We show our readers what this shariah has to say to Muslims about their worship practices. the pilgrimage once in a lifetime to the mosque in Mecca. `Islamic Law' is technically called shariah. of Islam: the canonical prayer. that govern a person's individual and social life in all its forms. Our main source for this purpose has been al-Mausili al-Hanifi's twelfth century codification of religious practices. and the care for ritual precision. or codes. which is five times per day. It tells Muslims what they ought to do in all aspects of their lives. In this way our readers can perhaps feel something of what Muslims cherish in their worship practices. We hope that our non-Muslim readers come to appreciate such things as the seemingly repetitive postures of canonical prayer. is the Hanifi school. or even `religion'. `Sunni' refers to the majority of Muslims. Canonical worship practices were assembled and codified by Islamic jurists in the early centuries of the Islamic experience. the yearly fasting. and each part of them has a salvific nature. or `Will of God'. Our description of the classic Islamic practices uses the Hanifi model. a confession known as the shahada. the holy book of Islam. and the confession of faith. Al-Mausili's work is a typical concentrated source from which contemporary Sunni guides take their lead. Al-Mausili's book is thus a book of laws. or basic practices. those who aim to live by the Kur'an and the deeds and words of the Prophet Muhammad.8 The Background to the worshippers. named after an Islamic jurist of the eighth century. and in the Muslim world at large. or `spiritual' and `material' branches of existence. The most common legal school in Turkey.

He saw all life. and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. This Kur'anic principle is our first tool for comparing and contrasting the various practices of Muslims in Turkey. the shahada: `There is no god but Allah.' Furthermore. that are the platform for an Islamic ethos. We extend the concept of worship to include what some would call nonorthodox. to name a number like `five' was a typical teaching device of the Prophet Muhammad. or `striving in the faith'. For another thing. The Kur'an looks instead at the sense and the quality and the universality of worship. saying that the greatest is the testimony of faith. or heretical activities. We infer from this record that the actions that define Islam are not limited to five but are as many as life itself. We follow this broader line of thinking. and not only particular ritual acts. For example. We look at Islamic worship in modern Turkey in a comprehensive way. to the types and number and forms of rituals. There is no exhaustive nature to the meaning and range of worship practices. And yet others argue that scholarship might be considered one of the `pillars' of Islam. there is an essential core of Islamic ritual practices. according to our best understanding of what Islam is. is always greater than what human beings can conceive. innovative. the Prophet also understood worship broadly. might belong to the central core of obligatory practices. or sacraments.Notes on Methods 9 the number and form of worship practices. The divine law. as ways of blessing. some argue that jihad. This central set of sacraments is formative of community but. But in describing the faith. Our basis for such an extension is the way the Kur'an uses `calling on Allah' and `worship' in an inclusive and transcendent sense that covers all forms of devotional practice. We do not limit ourselves to the classic number of sacraments. These primary sacraments were demonstrated in his life by the Prophet Muhammad and have been codified by the schools of Islamic law. In direct contact and harmony with this Kur'anic approach. or to the formal or orthodox concept of worship. We feel it is informative to say that all Islamic worship practices are encompassed by the confession of faith. It called attention to the prime acts of Islamic worship as they shaped the community of Muslims. or the will of Allah. We describe what observers will see of . as service to Allah. the shahada. not exhaustive of worship. the Prophet also gave a number of seventy-odd practices. as we have explained. It is this orthodox core of what we call `canonical' sacraments as practiced in Turkey which we particularly want to illumine in this book. This primary set of rituals is therefore our second tool for comparing and contrasting the practices of Muslims in Turkey. and the smallest is the removal of an obstacle from the road where people pass.

our chapter on the canonical prayer sacrament. We do not mean that the succeeding rituals or practices are therefore less important. which comes later. but that God is also immediately and at every moment manifest to our consciousness as a forceful. The classical or catechistic method of ordering the canonical rituals is to put canonical prayer first. In doing so. followed by fasting. we try to remain loyal to our promise of being as fair as possible to all orientations. We faced different possibilities for ordering our chapters. Allahu Akbar. What we are trying to do is give clues to our readers where Muslims are located in Turkey from a religious standpoint. for the different ways of witnessing to faith that we describe are the most widespread. the pilgrimage. the alms tax. and popular of all religious expressions and worship. and the confession of faith. This constantly recurring expression has often been translated into English as `God is great'. This is why the first chapter is about the confession of faith. which is the holy book of Islam. Another option for ordering our chapters would have been to look at the way children in Turkey typically learn about the rituals at home. Each succeeding chapter then describes religious practices that are less visible or common or popularly attended than the ones in previous chapters. and the animal offering is mentioned even less. We finally decided to order our chapters according to the intensity and popularity of the practices of religion in Turkey today. joyous.10 The Background Islam in Turkey in terms of the criterion of orthodox and nonorthodox. if we go by the frequency of reference in the Kur'an. On the other hand. the alms tax. For instance. omnipotent power to whom we resignedly leave all problems. and the pilgrimage to Mecca. overwhelming. An example is the watchword of the Islamic faith. canonical prayer and the alms tax should come together first and prominently. we have searched for fresh ways of putting into English certain phrases and ideas whose fullness of meaning better lies in the Arabic itself. frequent. is the longest of all. The task of writing these pages has been long and arduous. and .' We want our readers to explore this expression and feel more of what Muslims feel when using it: that God is not restricted to being a distant. In fact. as we perceive them. followed by the canonical prayer. Fasting and the pilgrimage rarely occur in the Kur'an. or `God is greater and more majestic than anything in the universe. Readers can study the variety of ways we have classified Islamic worship practices in Appendices A±D at the back of the book. In that case fasting should come first. We have faced several issues as if for the first time. nebulous. salvific.

we believe it best to use the Islamic name for God: Allah. Yet our readers or other Muslims may have seen this word spelled as Ramadan. The result is that our translation for the watchword of Islamic faith. For instance. we have chosen to spell the term for the yearly pilgrimage as hajj. There is only one such presence. And since our context for these pages is Islamic. We have been eclectic. . is `It is Allah who is magnificent!' We call this phrase `The Magnification of Allah'. the one which visitors to Turkey are likely to encounter. and the need to use what is easily recognizable to the world's Muslims. using whatever English spelling strikes us as a compromise between three often conflicting needs: the need to give a pronunciation clue to our readers. In Turkish. but that form does not give our non-Turkish readers the correct hint as to pronunciation. At the back of the book is a glossary of terms with transliteration alternatives. Allahu Akbar. to refer to the month of fasting. which is how the word is both spelled and pronounced in Turkey. the need to show the Turkish spelling of the word. and it is God.Notes on Methods 11 empowering presence. we use Ramazan. A technical problem involves transliteration: how to write Turkish or Arabic words in the English alphabet so that our readers can get some idea of the approximate pronunciation. We have attempted several expressions like this that we think will prove attractive to our readers. the word is written hac. In another case.

or mind sets. Many labels used by observers of the Turkish scene are either hurtful or inaccurate. or the modern stream and the traditional stream.3 The Present Juncture in the Spiritual Journey of Muslims in Turkey In this chapter our readers can expect to learn something of the historical. psychological. and risk. or bases for grounding existence that form the religious climate in Turkey. up to date/outdated. One is the stream of the secular understanding. Those who wish to reach the heart of the religious practices of Muslims in Turkey should be equipped with a picture of the contemporary religious climate in Turkey. We have chosen these terms with care. to the power and challenge of global European and American technical cultures. We see two major trajectories. the building up of a secular government and society out of a traditional empire. struggle. or other terms which carry pejorative meanings. and continue to respond. nonbeliever/believer labels. political. progressive/reactionary. We can also call them the contemporary stream and the historical stream. This environment is charged with tension. Both major streams. the secular and the nonsecular. as faithful Muslims seek to discern and obey the will of Allah. transition. We are uncomfortable. industrial/ agricultural. with the Islamic/non-Islamic. or tempers. and the other is the stream of the nonsecular understanding. and social environment in which Muslims of Turkey conduct their religious practices. This response to `the West' as a phenomenon has meant that nothing in modern Turkey can be understood or discussed without some reference to the problems involved in the creation of the modern Turkish state: namely. the construction of modern organizations in continuity with 12 . for instance. for these practices take place within culture and history. religious/secular. developed/underdeveloped. or streams. can be characterized in terms of how the people of Turkey have responded.

scholarship. power. settled. arts. All such questions continue to be living problems in Turkey in need of reconciliation and further treatment. the Ottomans turned from being an outward looking. The Ottomans' goal was to make the word of Allah supreme and to bring order to the world under a caliph who was `the shadow of Allah on earth'. mobile people with a motivation beyond themselves to being a more sophisticated. technology. luxurious. and his army officers. conquering. Europeans were harnessing a growing technology to militarism. acting to bring Allah's name and Islamic order to all peoples. They saw themselves as the self-sufficient overlords of history's greatest achievements in imperial administration. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. aggrandizement of wealth and power. and politics. These dynamics soon put serious questions to the Ottomans. continually reaching out to bring more of the world into its benevolent. Their power was nearly unchallenged. the Ottomans felt supreme. most civilized empire on earth. It subsequently became the seat of the Ottoman Empire. and the introduction of new views on religion and its relation with the state. As their riches and power increased. eventually suffered assault from two directions. and religion. in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The world was at their feet.The Present Juncture 13 the past and as a break with the past. and competent . the socalled western countries were pioneering what they have termed the modern world. namely the sultan. politics. Their self image was one of a great expanding empire. an evolving rationalism to economics and administration. his courtiers. was conquered by the Ottoman sultan Mehmet II in 1453. therefore a people more subject to corruption and ineptitude. especially under Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent (reigned 1520±66). justice and social order. Constantinople (now Istanbul). inward looking people. The other assault on Ottoman identity came from Europe. who became worried by the flourishing western achievements in science. and an accelerating expansionism to politics. Just as the Prophet Muhammad was sent to witness to Allah and to call all people to Allah and the truth. It was primarily the political administration of the Ottomans. In the continued expansion of that empire. so Muslims were also entrusted with this mission to witness and to call. This Ottoman self-understanding as the mightiest. Such developments concerned the top Ottoman administrators because military preparedness and effectiveness. centralizing orbit of Islamic order and justice. The Byzantine capital. Let us go back to the time of the height of the Ottoman Empire. sagacious. warfare. One came from within.

immersed in their time-honored books. the Prophet Muhammad. The Ottoman rulers were blamed for being too self concerned. of the creative energy and transforming essence of Islamic civilization. Problems therefore lay not with religion. and their own sources of inspiration found in the pure Islamic spirit. the Ottoman religious leaders and scholars. often chose to ignore the challenges from the West. protecting the unity of Muslims against anything alien. or how much to close ranks and protect the time-honored. established. faith. of being hypnotized in their admiration of western achievements. but with separation from it. The first Ottoman printing press was not established until the 1720s. as did Islamic Spain before that. those in the religious establishment who rejected change and innovation were . and of busying themselves with secondary issues and details. They were more worried by internal decay and degeneration and the loss of Islamic inspiration among the ruling elite. It is not surprising that religious elements in the Ottoman Empire understood these losses as reflecting in the ruling classes the decline of the Islamic spirit. It should be kept in mind that at the time of the western challenge to the Ottoman areas. These leading religious scholars saw themselves as the servants and defenders of Islamic civilization. order and unity to the world. territory. These different reactions to the impact of the western empires. the initial reaction of the religious scholars to printing was to forbid it in their religious training schools. Religious leaders considered western developments to have no positive value. because they arose from non-Islamic sources. schools. justice. too occupied with the affairs of the world and their own self interest. We can call it a split over the issue of secularism. and markets. On the other hand. their past glory. were signs of a slowly growing split between the Ottoman administrators and the Ottoman religious leadership. to the challenge of technical/rational achievements. and that was by an Ottoman citizen from Europe. On the other hand. For instance. life and mission. the Islamic Mogul Empire in India was also crumbling. Such leaders understood Islam as the final truth for humankind. and to the force of the western drive for resources. proven order against the seemingly irreligious elements of the world. They had forsaken their former sacred mission to bring peace. while denying their own historic identities and mission.14 The Background imperial administration were always high on the agenda of the sultan's government. Ottoman administrators who advocated adoption of new western developments were accused of blind imitation. or even to be harmful. They were accused of neglecting Allah. and habits. over how much to forego religious roots so as to be open to the world.

In fact. And so the Ottoman Empire continued in gradual decline. These reforms were instituted without the whole-hearted approval of the religious establishment.' To be sure. Administrators of the Ottoman Empire were acting on their own initiative in this regard. the Ottoman ruler was the caliph. The first of these Ottoman imperial efforts at reform began with Sultan Ahmet III in 1718. or psychologically. as necessity dictated. The two sides were locked in debate: those who wanted to change and those who wanted to conserve. political. or leader. Suleyman the Magnificent. represented the Islamic world. It only symbolically. But the point to be made here is that the Ottoman administrators were not fully bound to the religious clerics. outdated. in the `Tulip Age'. in chronic war with itself over its future path. of the entire Islamic world. Until the twentieth century. the Ottomans had developed no lively. the sultan was the one who appointed and dismissed the chief muftu. the protector of the shariah. Over the next century and a half. with uneven results. And the chief muftu. The Ottoman administrators began to modify their military and political procedures to come more into line with European practices. but the Ottoman administration was never a theocracy. It made its own laws apart from institutional religion. After all. and economic systems. these reforms continued at an uneven pace. and backward. The religious hierarchy was politically subject . there was no visionary who emerged to lead people beyond this impasse. and with both excess and opposition. the Ottoman administrators rationalized their own laws to Islamic law. of insisting on that which was fossilized. theoretically could call for the deposition of the sultan if the sultan were disloyal to the shariah. the shariah. carried the title `The Law-Giver. increasingly powerful European political order. This internal identity struggle made its appearance known with the reforms undertaken by the Ottoman administrators in their military. a science that became independent of metaphysics. or head of the Ottoman religious establishment. Unfortunately. of leading the people to slavery to the West. they would have to adjust their government to match the rising.The Present Juncture 15 accused of perpetuating ignorance. innovative science developing in the European countries. speculative intellectual establishment. The great Ottoman sultan. It is true that the Ottoman sultan was seen as the caliph. They would have to alter their economy to meet the competition of an industrializing Europe. The Ottoman administrators argued that if they were to continue to compete with other empires. And they would have to adapt their mental outlook to fit the type of experimental. rationalized.

unsystematic and patchy though it was. Muslims in Turkey traditionally have had a high regard for their learned religious scholars. and borrowed from advancements made in the European countries. Ottoman administrators and intellectuals found themselves continually opposed whenever they introduced western practices into their empire. Religious scholars and charismatic leaders deal with that which is ultimate. but it still felt free to criticize and exercise an independent voice. The salvationists were an Ottoman . modernization. there were citified intellectuals. not in the cities. or outright subversive. rationalist. and not with the transient things of this earth. But these intellectuals appeared merely faddish. religious scholars were always able to talk in the language that ordinary people understood. Such coercion. and economic ideas. and those leaders were not enthusiastic about the sultan and his court taking up western ways. These parallel imperial schools taught. which were relentlessly exploited by other powers and empires. such as the Young Ottomans and the Young Turks of the nineteenth century. Overcoming this opposition meant coercing the changes. The ordinary Muslims of the Ottoman Empire persisted in the secure. Most Muslims were on the land. agrarian habits of their Islamic life. They imported foreign experts and instructors. among other things. Reformers had a more limited audience. it is significant that religious authorities always carried the large body of ordinary Muslims behind them. In this separation. entrenched. They tended to follow their religious leaders. a situation which continued into the twentieth century. Islamicization. Discussions revolved around westernization. salvation movements arose from this intellectual activity. who latched on to western technical. and held no interest for most Muslims. the French Revolution. with that which is eternal. Ottoman administrators built western-style schools next door to the traditional Islamic schools. Behind these disappointing appearances. For these reasons. a regard which is above that of mere sultans and secular leaders. When the Ottoman Empire finally collapsed at the beginning of the twentieth century. For instance. intellectual ferment continued. exaggerated at some times more than others. Thus the administrators and the religious establishment formed two increasingly separate spheres. military arts and medicine.16 The Background to the Ottoman administrators. increased the gap between the secular and non-secular worldviews in Turkish society. political. This gap also aggravated the Ottoman Empire's weaknesses. pan-Islamism. pan-Turkism. and all varieties of ideas. Moreover. Of course.

no going beyond Turkey's new borders. There was to be no cooperation with any universal Islamic organization in religious affairs. Ordinary people understood him in these religious terms. Italy. They preached humanism. for example. for the highest ideal of the Ottoman Empire had been universal: as Allah's agent on earth to bring all lands under the umbrella of a just. The new national anthem was entitled The Anthem of Independence. By contrast. and the United States after World War I. The new republic's objective was to protect the nation from western domination by adopting and exploiting the technology. The genius behind the new Republic of Turkey. later given the title Atatu was extremely popular. `reform'. justice. and military elite who saw only one way forward: namely. `science'. intellectual. westernstyle nation that would outperform the West itself. the emergence of a self-contained. It had always been a traditionally pious act to fight on the frontiers of Islam against non-Muslims. Muslims in Turkey responded enthusiastically by È rk their `bearer of salvation'. There would be no dreams of empire. What he did was to save the remnant of the Ottoman Empire from being further dismembered by England. and `secularism'. `statism'. They felt close to him in their common war against the non-Muslim foreigners. and to raise Allah's name everywhere. They dealt in slogans such as `nationalism'. Greece. the Turkish Republic's highest ideal was expressly limited to preserving the independent existence of the new nation state. calling Atatu their `warrior for the faith'. These were all revolutionary changes. Religion was seen not for its own sake. their `champion of Islam'. He Mustafa Kemal. But the subsequent secular program of È rk and his nationalists apparently did not meet the expectations of Atatu traditional. was discouraged. France. peace. democracy. He earned his fame through brilliant and courageous military leadership and diplomatic action. Expansionism and extraterritorial or universal claims and responsibilities were repudiated. The republicans proclaimed innovative values for the new nation. Islamic order. and progress. development. in expelling them from the Anatolian heartland. freedom. Even to talk about the fate of Turks in the Soviet Union. The fruit of the salvationists' efforts was the Republic of Turkey. and its leader. founded in 1923. Atatu his followers hoped to use western tools and styles to gain independence from the western powers. pious Muslims. or as the . and scientific attitudes of the western countries. for fear of provoking the USSR. economic È rk and methods. `revolution'.The Present Juncture 17 administrative. Russia. was È rk (`father of the Turks'). `the people'. even though Ottoman Turkey had never been colonized. modern.

like language or history. Western law was adopted and religious law abandoned. and economic roles from the mosques. to the western solar calendar.18 The Background source of ultimate good and truth. Education was reorganized on a nationalist basis. and multicultural flavor of the old Ottoman Empire faded. The republican secularists removed all social. was dependent on it. which starts with the flight of the Prophet Muhammad to Medina. variety. Preachers had to give sermons stressing the virtues of patriotic loyalty to the new republic. and their practitioners were either jailed or suppressed. In its place came a new exclusivism or uniformity that attempted to solidify the people within a national consciousness and with renewed self-respect and dignity. leaving them only as places for . the color. and unscientific. ended the public training of religious functionaries. As a consequence. Everyone was required to fall in line and sacrifice for the new order. Religion was institutionalized under the state. no more head covering for women. which is centered on the conventional birth date of Jesus. closed religious schools.' the republicans meant that the state must be dominant over religion and not totally separated from it. The republicans also switched the writing of the Turkish language from Arabic to Latin letters so that the population might catch up with developments in the West more easily. Religious leaders were given the choice either to conform to the new secular±nationalist reality or be silenced. and switched the national calendar from the Islamic lunar system. It was neither the palace nor the religious scholars but the parliament that was to determine the destiny of the nation. set Sunday as the national day of weekly rest. Religion had to adapt itself to this new vision and to serve its purposes. The republican program dealt harshly with any opposition from religious quarters. By `secular. banned religious organizations. with the idea that the public better understand and participate in worship. The habits of folk religion were labeled as superstitious. and was to abstain from criticizing either the public or state order. They required the call to prayer from the minarets to be made in Turkish instead of Arabic. The republican secularists repudiated the caliphate. They oriented people to a western outlook and expected them to be western in their dress and appearance: no more beards or fezzes for men. but only as something to be used in aid of the national purpose. political. The justification given by the nationalists for their program was that this was the only way to save the dying empire from destruction and turn it into a modern country that could compete on equal terms with the West. backward. meaning the leadership of the Islamic world. The nationalists envisioned a new uniformity from the public.

between the bureaucracy and the citizenry. or whether it was a way to help Islam and Muslims in a new era. leaving the rest of life to that which is `religious'. believers cannot divide themselves and carve out a `secular' portion of life without Allah. to save Islam from the chains of medieval ideas and institutions and give it a contemporary. as opposed to a traditional. There was a concern for the coming generations. and 12 years after Atatu struck out in another direction. and legal affairs. The secularist elite promoted the idea that `sovereignty is only in the nation'. 27 years after the founding of the È rk's death. or whether it is any more an Islamic state. conservative. but the Islamic testimony is `There is no god but Allah'. It is an open question. or a reform of Islam. updated appearance. persists today. In contrast. or whether it was an attempt to reconcile and introduce Islam to contemporary values such as democracy. whether all these efforts actually were a reform within Islam. some ask whether Turkey has lost its religion. and rationally and systematically craft their own future. secularism. living issues. the nationalists believed that they had to seize their destiny and the destiny of the nation. and `It is Allah who is magnificent!' In the traditional Islamic vision. Religion was nationalized by depriving it of its universal claims. They felt confident enough to stage a multiparty election. Ottoman Islam. where the former seemingly imposes on the latter. This dichotomy between the secular elite and the traditionalists. The first ruling classes of the republic had been raised in Ottoman times and had a stronger . or whether the aim was to create a liberal.The Present Juncture 19 worship rituals. All such questions and claims are unresolved. On the other side. that the secular nationalists republic. between the organization and the individual. The constitution of the Republic of Turkey does not name any religion as the religion of the state. The result of that election was a new group in power which began to move away from the extremist secular control of religion and toward what was more comfortable for most people. and a renewal in Islam. whether it has forsaken Islam. between the state and the public. It was not until 1950. that is. as some claim. Religion was privatized by limiting it to the individual's personal response to Allah. rational Islam. the truth is that the new Republic of Turkey seemed not to have achieved spiritual integration between the secularist leaders and the non-secular people. But whatever the evaluation of the beginning of the republican era in the 1920s and 1930s. Religion was secularized by excluding it from public. a resurgence. and human rights. state. or whether the nationalist program offered chances for a renaissance. The alternative was abject submission to the western powers.

Debates are raging about identity. to build security in the face of a threat. individual. but only if it became interior. the use of tradition. Sometimes the threat was thought to come from the left. Religious voices which were repressed by the republicans are again in contention. A softer attitude was therefore adopted by the state toward religion. and practitioners of folk religion began to be more tolerated and publicly visible. Each time it interfered. They believed Islam could be made to conform to western ideals and science and liberal values. the secular elite found themselves reinterpreting what it meant for them to be Muslims.20 The Background upbringing in faith and vision than could be detected in the younger generation. when all kinds of ideas are in the public arena. Since 1950 there have also been three military coups. More voters began supporting so-called `Islamic' political parties. These were times when the military forced itself into the political arena because it felt that the nation state's existence and unity were threatened. The rigidity of the nationalist republican program gradually subsided. At other times the danger was thought to come from religious quarters. And as they introduced western ideas and institutions for this purpose. There was also an explosion in the number and kind of Islamic periodicals and newspapers. The people are locked in argument with one another and drifting into the future. It is in such an environment that Muslims conduct the religious practices that this book seeks to illuminate. We recall that the starting point for the secularist response to western power and developments was the urge to save the country. The call to prayer could once again be in Arabic instead of Turkish. Islamic mystics. By the 1980s. The training of religious functionaries under state auspices was resumed. westernization. High schools focused on Islamic studies were opened. Many of the secular elite today describe their Muslim identity as something that is a matter . and private. the military later withdrew and handed over the political field once more to the civilians. in that Turkey was threatened with becoming a theocracy. reminiscent of prerepublican times. the nature of Islam. But the basic debate over Turkey's identity and future remained largely unchanged. faculties of theology became attached to some universities. There is now a new period in Turkish history. Public schools began to have compulsory lessons in religion. and so on. in that Turkey was in danger of becoming a communist state or a satellite of the Soviet Union. and they turned out to resemble a modern form of the old religious schools. by adopting some of the attitudes and methods of the West. The religious orders.

love. `universal law'. and ignorance that they see in religion. This secular mind set has regarded the insistent public expression of religious practice as an exploitation of religion for sociopolitical purposes. It is not for the corporate world. reason. hospitality. and the serious business of public life require science. many secular people may be unaware of Kur'anic ideas and unfamiliar with Islamic worship practices. when secularists see women working outside the home. It worked in its time. The assertion is that religion is too sacred to be in the public arena and should remain in the privacy of the individual's heart. to be cured by more secular education and modernization. and respect for others. They give as evidence the current regimes in Iran and Saudi Arabia. for example. or for production. for social action. They may not understand the Prophet Muhammad as a moral example. neighborliness. and the authoritarian monarchy of Saudi Arabia. They point to the cutting off of limbs. The label attached to this negative image is shariah. The other possible implication of privatizing Islam is to say that the Islamic vision of civilization belongs to the past. friendship. As a result. mindless. a delusion? To say that Islam is only for individual faith and conscience. degeneration. And so. patriotism. They are future oriented. The secular mind has an image of traditional Islamic practice as medieval. would seem for many to say that Islamic scholars either failed from the beginning to grasp the nature of Kur'anic wisdom and truth or have deviated from it. Secular ideologists have declared their source of values to lie in `natural law'. freedom. and cannot serve as a ground or source of guidance and direction for the state. Economics. and based on fear. not religion. They are interested in change. In the strict secular mind set.The Present Juncture 21 of the heart. the public beheadings. Other secularists dread the intolerance. for development. and for conduct. These ideologists also appeal to a common denominator of humanist values such as tolerance. for work. oppressive. legalistic. should not intrude into the public arena. They say the place for moral and religious instruction is ideally in the private lives of families and individuals. for progress. Revealed truth is for the guidance of the individual. and modern technocracy. public expressions of Islam mean only a continuing cultural backwardness. What does it say about the fourteen centuries of history of Islamic peoples and civilization? Was it all an error. . politics. enslaving. or `the civilized world'. they encourage them to uncover their heads and to work together in equality with men. `human rights'. for law. They refer to the segregation and repression of women in Saudi Arabia and Iran. Such secular thinking has serious implications for the people of Turkey.

and guidance. law. Meanwhile. and the source of much evil. They see the secular fear of religion as an expression of political insecurity. this non-secular stream of psychology and religiosity has apparently been imposed upon by the secularizing rulers. Religion now rules the person when he or she is alone. justice. leri Bas . education. a barrier created by an elite that feels itself to be the rightful owners of the country and that uses the power of the state to dictate its values. religion or any revealed source of truth can no longer contribute to the social or public dimension of human life. secularists are seen as atheistic opportunists who are dragging the nation into slavery to foreign cultures. especially western ones. a state which has its own conceptions and prejudices about religion and is not prepared to see religion as an independent public source of truth. There is one truth within the family but a different set of values on the street or in parliament. The secular elite has coped with Turkey's enduring religious legacy through the establish_ Ïi). but philosophy and reason guide the state. Those outside this barrier feel something like second-class citizens. and progress that the ruling class claims to uphold. Non-secularists accuse the ruling secularists of merely imitating the West and not delivering on the values of freedom. The individual is divorced from society. They are merely imitating an anti-Islamic West that is materialist. what of the non-secular trajectory of Turkish society? How does it see itself in today's world? For the past several centuries. a ment of a Department of Religious Affairs (Diyanet Is . the home is separate from the office. . And the larger culture's traditional but living faith in Allah seems difficult to ignore or suppress simply by declaring that religion is now privatized. Thus religion in Turkey is declared to be under the state. At worst. value. There has been something like a barrier created in many people's minds against the secular state. Allah has nothing left to say in economics. They are not rooted in the larger culture. decadent. kanlig sort of `State Islam' set up to service and control what the secular program sees as the privatized. In today's era.22 The Background but humanity has now entered a new consciousness. the Department of Religious Affairs staffs Turkey's mosques and oversees Turkey's participation in the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. They feel labeled as outdated and ignorant. individualist practices of Muslims. without a place to speak or a way to participate. They also use it to monitor and control public religious expression and practice. and politics. Such implications seem discontinuous with Turkey's Islamic history. The national secularists insist on carefully circumscribing this department's activities. Among other things.

Religion is merely a private option. or feminism are not easily accessible to a modern mindset. justice.The Present Juncture 23 The non-secular mind claims it cannot divide human existence into the individual `spiritual' or `private' domain and the public `secular' domain. They are concerned about preserving their heritage. The nation is the standard by which to judge. nor widely known. or `conservatives'. the environment. or believers. which means Islamic and Ottoman values. The man is the head of the household and responsible for the sustenance of those who live in it. So we are following `the negative path'. But for the non-secularists. Indeed. The nation is that for which people must be willing to fight and give up their lives. We have struggled to find a meaningful term for this non-secular vision but have not yet discovered anything satisfying. This is why non-secularists reject labels on themselves such as `Islamists'. both individual and corporate. and one of many at that. We recall that for the republican secularists. It is an Islam that has been literally or conservatively interpreted. Religion in its own right is the guarantor of peace and stability. the nation is ultimate. freedom. The guarantor of peace and stability is the self interest of educated individuals who are consciously trained for secularism as the basis for national existence. Within the non-secular trajectory. equality. there are non-secularists who appreciate the achievements of secularism and who are therefore not anti-secular. Islamic faith and trust lie in being ever mindful of Allah. and women should be covered in public except for their faces and hands. only Allah is the ultimate. beyond categorization or classification. an Islam of the extended family and an agricultural society. They call themselves Muslims. but there is no satisfactory label for those who claim that the truth is not confined to labels. as though the truth could neatly be captured by such division. liberation. Traditionalists are also sensitive about the legitimacy of banking interest. or `traditionalists'. and all other claims are idolatrous. Among non-secularists we can find this living and traditional form of Islam. The traditionalists are concerned about personal limits. . especially prohibitions on alcohol (but not cigarettes) and on gambling. able to affirm only what it is not. because in the Islamic vision truth is indivisible and ultimate. we find not only such traditionoriented people but a variety of other orientations: legal. integrity. Sexual activity is ideally kept to a minimum. always conscious of Allah. and obeying only Allah as the final reality. Women's place is preferably with the home and children. political. or `fundamentalists'. The analytic side of our minds prefers to categorize people and movements and ideas. Their discussions of morality.

pristine Islam gave its world a proper form and a just order. systematizing. shamanistic. perfected Islam of social and economic justice combined with individual freedoms and responsibilities. mechanizing movements that first sprang from European cultures and have now encircled the globe. and developed this heritage for future generations. ritualistic. The eventual result was an Islamic civilization that preserved the classics of the human heritage from ancient Greece. and China. It is Islam at the time of the Prophet and the Prophet's generation and companions. and reproduced it. and on the example and model practices of the Prophet Muhammad. theological. India. modern. reformulated. In the eyes of non-secular Muslims.24 The Background social. unifying. conquest. non-established Islam in a time before the legal. so all the good of the present is waiting for assimilation and re-expression È rk and the today. and domination. and respond properly to the secularizing movement. debate. enlightened. It absorbed whatever was good. and transformed into a broader perspective of continuity with the past. rationalizing. before it was rationalized and systematized. mystic. creativity. But this vision has not yet led to the articulation of a concrete program for an Islamic Turkey whose company other nations might welcome. The Islamic genius provided a consolidating and inspiring vision of the unity of Allah and humanity. golden past of early Islamic civilization with its originality. intellectual. and so on. true. to take another look at the individual's role in . In the particular case of Turkey. innovating. transcended. For instance. It is this vision that Muslims use as the basis of criticism. It apparently needs to experiment further with how to meet the challenges of the self-studying. and then digested. the holy book of Islam. self-secure Islam in which believers fear only Allah. By `pristine Islam' is meant an essential. one consequence of the nationalist program in Turkey has been to challenge Muslims to recover their voice of integrity and Islamic responsibility. The common denominator among non-secularists is the rejection of individualism and the refusal to separate religion from public business. The so-called religious stream apparently needs more time and political space to digest. and beautiful and incorporating it into a unifying humane whole. useful. the vision of Atatu republican-secularist movement is awaiting confirmation and fulfillment. It is a tolerant. so that it becomes complemented. and useful. or core. Just as the Islamic genius in the past had developed civilization by absorbing what was true. It is non-institutionalized Islam. and mystical schools formed. It is an ideal. a glorious. beautiful. or primary Islam based on the Kur'an. Some non-secularists are attracted by the appeal to a `pristine Islam'.

And in this search. We hope that whatever is good in secular awareness can be appreciated by the traditionalists. The visitor to Turkey today can expect to see surface indications of these two psychological dynamics at work. The nation is still seeking itself. But the results are not acceptable. People in Turkey want to know why they are suffering socially. We would like to see national institutions in constructive dialogue with the religious heritage of the people. in spite of the friction that occurs between the two mind sets. the calendar. another . Connections could be made between the secular±nationalist agenda and those trends in the Islamic heritage that support free will. and. why so many people are illiterate and schools are so ineffective. the work week. It is not convincing for anyone to hear that it is a matter of fate.The Present Juncture 25 history. By this we mean that those who are secular minded need to overcome their fear of religious spokespersons and try to understand what they are saying. liberation movements and programs affecting the destiny of the individual and the nation. urban styles. that there is another stream. This apparently is the opportunity for philosophers and theologians to return to the determinism/free will debates in Islamic history and re-explore the responsibility of individual Muslims to act in history. the political forms. the secular and the nonsecular. economically. We place ourselves among those hoping for success in this search. the technologies. all seem familiar to the western visitor. and why there is political oppression and exploitation of the poor. the banks and stock exchange. as lovers of their nation and soil together with their religion. and politically. In this century the Muslims of Turkey have been trying to understand themselves as both good Muslims and good patriots. And the so-called religious people need to learn to express themselves in the sort of language and concepts that modern secularists understand. We hope that the communication/psychology problem can be solved. There is much disillusionment. People expect their government to institute the social justice of `pristine Islam' while also assuming that pristine Islam supports modern trends toward nationalism and democratization. But the visitor is also aware that there is something else going on. its mission. we might say. and that secular ideologists can become more appreciative of religion. Public life. its identity. why there is such shoddy organization. and its salvation. the ground of meaning from which results will be judged. free choice. Islam is put forward as a source of support. why institutions are so poorly run. the television shows and movie houses. People in the broad center of society would welcome a creative reconciliation between the secular and non-secular outlooks. the educational institutions.

and thus opening the door to modern democratic ideas. There is something palpably different in Turkey. the mixing of sexes in public. their degree of personal commitment. it springs from the past. Let us name this mindset as `statism'. non-practicing Muslims. where individualization threatens the age-old communal nature of society. People participate in Islamic practices based on several factors such as their emotional attachments. The psychological view seems to be that the people cannot save themselves. they would not side with those who are in power. It gradually makes its impression. These are only the convenient terms we have used for two major. and other areas where individual faith clashes with secular expectations. Whoever is in power. it is not what the people say. discipline. and it resists and is critical of secularization. attendance at Friday Prayer. devout Muslims. or is in charge of the influential elements of Turkish society. We have here an either-or. Calm. ongoing dynamics in the history of the Muslims in Turkey. and so on. for-against mentality: every person is either a . People themselves are psychologically.26 The Background mentality. The justification of statism by the ruling class is that were they to allow an opposition to the status quo. historical. non-polemical debates over religious issues. then that opposition would become domineering. authoritarian. socially. but what the state says that counts. It is seen in the misunderstandings and debates about interest on investments. They need the guidance. which is local. Of course. nominal Muslims. and ban any alternative to itself. authoritarian pose that cannot allow an alternative or an opposition to the status quo. the form of public dress. This statism is not at all in È rk. the population of Turkey is not neatly divided into those who are secular and those who are not. There is a fear that if people could choose. do not easily take place. especially as one meets private individuals and unofficial groups. and leadership of the state. their social class. politically. it is spiritually or religiously or denominationally organized. their kinship relations. control. What the visitor will find are practicing Muslims. In the end. and religiously spread across a range of dynamics. and traditional. dictatorial. their spiritual quests. adopts a domineering. who spoke often in praise of the people. or between secular and non-secular views. line with the sayings of Atatu calling the villager the master and lord of the nation. and all sorts and varieties in between. to the way things are. The statist outlook dreads being imposed upon by an opposition. The visitor should also understand that political dynamics in Turkey are shot through with tension. to their own rule. It is nonsecular. the sociopolitical climate.

However. one direction. one flag. Sunni Islam. Every person's gain is based on someone else's loss. because they are imposed by outsiders on others. Atatu should also be understood that Muslims share unity as an ideal: one People.The Present Juncture 27 victim or a beneficiary. This orthodox or mainstream Sunni Islam. Alevi. Muslims would not dwell on divisions between themselves but on that which unites them. and so on. In fact. It is Islam as established in believers' eyes by Allah and Allah's messenger. People tend to be emotional and take È rkists. It is largely because of such political dynamics that there is no religious `map' of Turkey to tell us the numbers of people that identify with various religious traditions and their sub-branches and variations. one Prophet. or what outsiders have termed `orthodox'. It appears paradoxical that the current state . and practiced expression of Islam in Turkey. the Prophet. the unifying factor. The tense climate described above makes such research problematic. These names are usually not informative. Merely to identify one's views publicly is to invite controversy and suspicion in a strained. It is the cement. one Holy Book. since Ottoman times. an ethos based on the Kur'an and on the reported words and practices of the Prophet Muhammad. unclear. They want to be identified as defending and promoting that unity. At the same time. it sides as rightists. we find secular people who are statists. Detached. one call to prayer. or `mainline' Islam has been and continues to be the most noticed. supported. We mean by `orthodox' or `mainline' Islam a canonized way of life and worship. the ground of cultural identity. They see politics as serving the entire public. leftists. The people of Turkey know that they form a rich mosaic of different emphases of Islam: Shii. and where such persons are located. disinterested explorations for truth are rare. someone who suffers from being out of power or who benefits from being related to those in power. we are mindful that Turkey is overflowing with folk expressions of Islam. but we also find secular people who reject statism in favor of more democratic politics. The state will always favor its supporters over its perceived opponents. But the reality of political debate in Turkey seems overwhelmingly characterized by the fear of coercion inherent in statism. and so on. rational. `majority'. lay at the foundation of the Ottoman Empire. and often anxious political situation. In response to anyone who would question. Sunni. On the other hand. with its canonical practices and its religious establishment. This dynamic cuts across the secular/nonsecular divide. We also find nonsecular persons who are similarly divided between statists and those who favor democracy or coexistence. acknowledged.

emotion.28 The Background domination of public religion in its orthodox Sunni forms may actually have led to an increase in such particularized and privatized practices. praying at the tombs of saints. wearing amulets and charms. astrology. It is a second paradox of the current Turkish state domination of public religion that the government's Department of Religious Affairs promotes the orthodox Sunni forms of Islam. all Muslims acknowledge the primacy and importance of orthodoxy and to varying degrees participate in it. This chapter has been something of a preliminary digression. Folk Islam in Turkey includes fortune telling. These orthodox practices are not only the ecumenical or unifying factors of Islam. It is our aim as authors to introduce to the visitor to Turkey its basic Islamic worship practices. in which by tradition the state and religion are inextricably joined. What we aim to describe in this book is therefore often at first an invisible picture because religious people of all kinds have had to `keep their heads down' for many years. divination. But as we hope this digression has shown. sorcery. We touch on many such folk practices in this book. and so on. seeing them as traditional ways of ordinary folk to celebrate their religion and to identify themselves as Muslims. Our readers will find a detailed listing of areas of controversy between secular and non-secular outlooks in Appendix E. But the orthodox also look on some of them benignly. worship of relics. manipulation of spirits. orthodox Islam. Both religion and secularism are politicized. the swearing of oaths. psychology. It is where Islamic and western civilizations collide. The defenders of orthodoxy regard some of these popular practices as superstitious or abusive. but they are also the basis for whatever is unique and enduring about an Islamic piety. the circumcision of boys. Turkey is in transition between the traditional and the modern. No matter which folk practices are found among the Muslims of Turkey. and dogmatism. Public discourse is characterized by ideology. Yet Turkish secularism claims to divorce state from religion. The existence of the Department calls into question the meaning of `secular'. To worship publicly in Turkey is to make a conspicuous sociopolitical statement. such practices are carried out in a politically and psychologically complex context. a context in which to act publicly on one's faith principles is charged with risk. The purpose of this chapter has been to show why this is so and to prepare our readers for learning the problems and challenges of being a practicing Muslim in modern Turkey. and worldview. . even though our main concentration is on canonized. People find themselves living in the cross fire.

whether or not those claims are realized. a prosperous widow and trader whom he later married. The Muslim belief is that since the creation of the world. Although modernists today may reject Islam as a state and a legal code. For traditionalists it means doctrines. individual and social. eloquent. it represents a moral code and a transcendent ideal. human beings have been visited by the word of Allah given through various prophets at various times. Islam has historically been both a faith and a law. to arouse. religious and political. The story of Islam is a vision of ultimate truth and reality. In this chapter we briefly present the faith history of these people. to encourage people to better lives. legal codes. 29 . The story of Islam continues to unfold. a story of revelation and civilization and inspiration. an alternative to other religious and philosophical visions with which it competes. a living story.4 A Brief Faith History of Islam Islam is the religion of one billion of the world's people. The most recent visitation was 14 centuries ago in the Arabian peninsula. sacraments of worship. We set out a condensed story of Islam. These are the claims that Muslims live to establish. responsive. These are the claims of Islam. a voice began coming to a sensitive. to provide them with an ethic and a model and a book. a source of guidance. and courageous businessman during his times of retreat and meditation. In approximately the year 610. and to help them transcend their mundane circumstances. The way history appears through the eyes of the faithful is one of the dynamics in the present state of religio-political affairs in Turkey. They stand behind and inform the worship practices of Muslims today. He was about 40 years old and had been working for a wealthy woman. The man's name was Muhammad. Those who name Islam as their religion call themselves Muslims. a criterion of good and bad. and ethics.

To be sure. on the Red Sea. exploiting the poor. Those who sought the truth for their lives and their societies felt helpless. As seen through the eyes of Islamic faith. Muslims believe that Mecca was the original site where Abraham. and inserting their religious hierarchy between the believer and Allah. or in a vision or dream. This situation to which the word of Allah came was the Era of Ignorance. In short. Jews and Christians. He preached the unity of humanity. an end to exploitation and conflict. or face to face with Allah. insecure. Mecca had been a site of religious pilgrimage long before Muhammad's time. with the consequence that the Meccans grew rich from hosting these many groups in the yearly pilgrimage season. but the truth was not organized. confusion and narrowmindedness. built the first house of monotheistic worship. liberation from oppression. The first revelations were a call to Muhammad to preach. the Kaaba. to proclaim. They had turned inward and gone astray. Their peoples were exploited. was related to a clan of traders in Mecca who thrived on the pilgrimage traffic to their city. a return to monotheistic worship. either through an angel. the human situation in Mecca and the surrounding world in Muhammad's time was fractured and degenerate.30 The Background Muhammad. reverting to exclusivist or sectarian or extreme ascetic practices. although himself an orphan. It was a time of bigotry and prejudice. to bring the word of Allah to bear on Muhammad's own society. and bewildered about what to do. and the universal establishment of truth and justice for all people. The Meccans themselves had allowed various Arab clans to place their idols in the Kaaba. acting for oneself and one's family only. announcing that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. and oppressing the weak. there were many good and true people at this time. were exhausted from battling each other. but they seem to have lost their universal insights as preached by their prophets. or by a voice. The Byzantine Empire to the north and the Persian Empire to the east. an abandonment of idolatry. It was a time of evil practices. . quarreling groups each worshipping its own gods. The Arabian peninsula itself was divided into selfish. Surrounded by many nomadic peoples. Muhammad preached the name and consciousness of Allah. This word came to Muhammad several times over the course of many years. such as buying and selling orphans. The voice that called to Muhammad was that of the angel Gabriel. with his son Ishmael. There were monotheists in the area. Mecca is located near the western Saudi Arabian coast. and pressuring Muhammad to recite Allah's word. each declaring its own ethic.

Their religion was named in Allah's revelation itself as Islam. He continued to deliver Allah's revelations and to win more followers. When they lived in Mecca. In this period of the first 11 or 12 years of revelation. His converts grew in number and included men. the Prophet and his followers had been on the margins of society. But in Medina. meaning `submission'. Medina later became famously known as the City of the Prophet. Muslims think of him as untouched and pure. The Muslims also began to forge pacts with surrounding settlements and nomadic clans. The Prophet's group now called themselves Muslims. the Muslims were at the center of power and administration. His movement now entered a new phase: the Era of Government. His behavior at this time is exemplary for all later Muslims. The revelations he received and preached were critical of the corrupt social. both the Prophet Muhammad and his nucleus of followers were severely harassed by other Meccans. women. Yet Muhammad was not dissuaded by the increasing persecution and eventual attempts on his life. political. which had invited them. and religious criticism from the periphery. A vigorous. In that sense. the poor. The date of this flight from Mecca was 622. was his greatest asset. and the rich. slaves. The Prophet Muhammad had been invited with his few dozen companions to Medina to mediate between and unify its quarreling factions. His eloquence. new community took shape and thrived under the Prophet's spiritual and political leadership. in this Era of Faith. and he won his followers by direct preaching. including Jews. Gradually more people learned what was happening to him. preaching social. inspired by revelation. meaning `those who submit'. Eventually Muhammad and his people came under such pressure that they fled north to the city of Medina. He resisted the temptation to abandon or compromise his faith in the face of the prejudice. The Prophet began to organize in concrete form the sort of human life and society that were implied by the revelations he continued to experience. Through long political struggle the Prophet formed a successful citystate in Medina built on a federation between the Muslims and other local groups. He received revelations by direct contact with Allah. In this way the Islamic vision of unity. It was the beginning of the Islamic calendar. children.A Brief Faith History of Islam 31 Muhammad had no book learning. hostility. of the reign of Allah that transcends all families and . Muhammad at first made the fact of his revelations known only to his nearest relatives and a few close friends. almost the proof of his authority. the Year One. religious. and threats of his enemies. and some began to accept him as a true prophet of Allah. and business practices of the city.

and the pilgrimage to the Kaaba in Mecca. The new Islamic state had a missionary outlook. religious. Muslims could not conduct this last ritual because the Meccans still banned them from their city. with the new Islamic movement coming close to extinction. The Muslims had cleansed the Kaaba of its idols and restored it as a house of monotheistic worship. fasting. The tide went back and forth.1 The collection of the revelations received by Muhammad over the course of 23 years is the Kur'an. inviting them to Islam and to covenant with the Islamic community. which today is compared by Muslims to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. But before he died. during the Era of Government in Medina. and a time of faith being tested. It was a time of wars between the Prophet's city-state and the Meccan rulers. the Muslims themselves had declared that their religious loyalties outweighed their blood ties. But in the end. The Kur'an is the Holy Book of Islam. which means. the date when their faith surpassed parochialism. Thus began a new period in the Islamic story. the Persians. and during the Era of Struggle (Jihad) with the Meccans. Muslims saw this flight as the significant starting point. about eight years after the Prophet's flight from Mecca. the Era of Jihad. the canonical prayer. It was revealed during the Era of Faith in Mecca. It was also in this era that Muslims instituted the mosque and the public call to the sacrament of prayer. They embarked on several attacks to wipe out the Muslims. but that was an obstacle shortly to be overcome. he made the pilgrimage to the Kaaba in Mecca. The year was 630. the Prophet's people overcame the Meccans in a victory they attributed to Allah. and `the compilation of parts of revelation'. and several parties in the Arabian peninsula. `the recitation'. He continued to live in Medina until his death two years later. The Meccan rulers became alarmed at the successes of the Muslims in Medina and at the growing power of the Islamic government. In the flight to Medina. there were many in the Arabian peninsula who came under the Islamic umbrella. rituals such as charity. both religious and political.32 The Background clans and human loyalties. It was also at this time that the main rituals of Islam became recognized among Muslims. There the Prophet preached his farewell sermon of universal values. Since the Prophet knew his revelations by heart . and `Holy Writ'. Delegations went to the Byzantines. who answered the call to universal peace and to a common word. The revelations reflect these struggles. In response. became realized in social. when faith overcame idolatry and became universal. or struggle for faith and existence. and political terms.

Recite: for your Lord is most beneficent. Looking at this history with the eyes of faith. The Kur'an consists of commandments. threats and warnings of punishments. verses 1±5: Recite: in the name of your Lord. and family life. business. With the defeat of the Meccan enemies. Muslims understand the motivation for these conquests to be the idealism and zeal of the Islamic people. social and personal laws or codes for specific social and individual situations such as inheritance. The revelations are Allah's word. reminders and confirmations of previous revelations. Muslims soon conquered more territory in all directions. In doing so. who created the human from an embryo. The authorship is believed to belong solely to Allah. in the company of the memorizers. . of psychology and character and living. a people that wanted to help humanity. resorting to conquest of the opposition by force was not excluded. It is an oral phenomenon. The Islamic state found that it maintained its unity and power without the presence of the Prophet. particularly those of the Jews and Christians. his companions could memorize or record them. prohibitions. petitionary prayers. It was a new time. It is speech that is recited. to open to them what Muslims saw as the grace and mercy of Allah. stories from previous religious traditions. both in the Arabian peninsula and in the wider world. The first revelation that came to the Prophet is said to be in Chapter 96. the dynamism and coherence of the new Islamic state resulted in rapid economic and political dominance. such as those to Jews and Christians. The question of succession to the Prophet as leader of the Muslims was settled when leaders were acclaimed by consensus from among his followers. delivered in the Arabic language through the Prophet Muhammad.A Brief Faith History of Islam 33 and recited them frequently. to bring everyone to a new vision of life. who has taught people what they did not know. or principles. meaning commandments to change previous revelations or practices. These early Muslims wanted to break down political and geographic barriers that kept people from hearing the word of Allah. who has taught by the pen. parables. Within one year after the Prophet's death they were arranged into book form. and abrogations. although the Kur'an has its unique way of making its message uttered by different actors. the Era of Expansion. promises of good news. and copies were made and distributed within the following 20 years .

Eventual Islamic conquests would reach into the Indian subcontinent. and power struggles. The Islamic view was that Jews and Christians already had their own `books'. and of the truthful way to live. splits. including what is now Iraq and Iran. and North Africa. a culture whose unity was in the mosque in Mecca. Several dynasties attempted to control this vast area over the centuries. creativity. flowering Islamic culture. safety. the Mediterranean islands. It was a sign of their economic responsibility to the new community which gave them security. learning. economic. or scriptures of divine revelation. All were woven into a burgeoning. and further developed the heritage of the world. Hindus. alliances. digested. and Buddhists. Sufis are mystics gathered in a community around a particular master. a heritage from the ancient Greeks. over a period of a hundred or so years. Egypt. Muslims sought out. Chinese. the Kaaba. arts and religion. The Muslims' swift accumulation of wealth and territory was accompanied by political infighting. Egyptians. For many people in Islamic societies it was a time of political stability. and secure trade. Romans. at Mecca and Medina. A form of devotion called Sufism became organized into several movements. from roughly the seventh to the twelfth centuries. philosophy. Whether it was always realized or not. incorporated. These Islamic mystical groups have existed . This Islamic culture used Arabic as the language of government and literature and for religious and scholarly discourse.34 The Background But the Muslims did not see themselves compelling people in conquered territories to become Muslims. This period was a Golden Age for Islamic civilization. and cultural spheres. and originality. and in the Kur'an. the Black Sea countries. religious toleration. Muslims conquered most of the Middle East. They felt unity in religion. the practice was that those who chose to keep to their own faith traditions and refused to become Muslims were required to pay a head tax or tribute to their new Islamic rulers in return for citizenship. People of all backgrounds made their contribution to the Islamic ethos and were in turn shaped by it. They were called `People of the Book' and were usually respected as such. The religious center of Islam continued to be in the Arabian peninsula. and Spain. As Muslims were prospering and expanding in political. the Balkans. they also were developing in theology. The Golden Age was an era of vitality. In spite of such internal turmoil. Those who did not convert coexisted with Muslims more or less comfortably under Islamic rule. and Baghdad in present day Iraq. but the cultural and political centers were elsewhere: Damascus in present day Syria. Persians. but Islamic culture was not an exclusively Arab phenomenon.

Where many Muslims differ seriously among themselves has been on the issue of political authority. of devotion and ardor. the Sunni.A Brief Faith History of Islam 35 in their thousands. and legitimacy for the shariah is human reasoning. and consensual discussion led by Kur'anic and Prophetic guidance. meaning the Kur'anic scripture and the transmitted guidance and exemplary experience of the Prophet Muhammad. Sufi groups have played an important role in perpetuating the Islamic spirit and devotion. ideal. Muslims have spent and continue to spend many serious and fruitful years in studying and learning from them. as conditions and cultures change. or a strong spiritual discipline. Sufi groups have been characterized by a seeming other-worldliness. or model or experience. those who follow this legacy of the Prophet's path and model and who have developed the heritage of the Sunni school of Islam. This textual guidance. over the question of leadership in the . technically called the sunna. or very warm personal feelings. this prescriptive set of practices. and correct way of life. that scholars used and continue to use in discussing the shariah. The body of the collected narratives about the Prophet's example is called the hadith. There are two major sources. It takes such forms as analogy. his sayings. One source is the texts. The sunna is the path the Prophet trod. After the Golden Age of Islam. the application of the law. scholars eventually codified what they found in the Kur'an and in the deeds and words of the Prophet Muhammad as kept alive by his followers. truth. Consequently. changes slowly over time. each one generating its own style of calling on Allah and mission. Another development in Islamic history was the canonization of Islamic life and practices. and anecdotes about his behavior. creative thought. about what he said and did. This has been especially true in areas where Islam has come under attack and its public expression has been suppressed. the exercise of personal opinion. It is from this word sunna that we have the name for the majority of Muslims. the kind of life he led. economic. the shariah. guidance. or the standard. or founts of authority. These scholars assembled the accepted worship. family. from the twelfth century to the present. has governed centuries of individual and corporate Islamic behavior. We can call the hadith the `wisdom literature' of Islam. In the generations after the Prophet Muhammad. his advice. his approvals and disapprovals. This law. The other source of authority. or shariah. and political practices of Muslims into what is known as the Islamic law. blessed. his interpretations. consists of sets of narratives about the Prophet's life.

36 The Background

Islamic world. These disagreements began as early as when the Prophet Muhammad's body was awaiting burial, and they continue today. Muslims believe that they are one people, united in faith. They do not recognize bases for excluding one another. Differences based on nationality, race, gender, language, education, wealth, and so on, are contrary to the Islamic principle of the unity of humankind. Piety, good morals, righteousness, loyalty to the sacred law, and favorable standing among the Islamic community are the requirements for Islamic political leadership. Spiritual leadership, on the other hand, is transmitted to the Islamic community at large and not represented by any one individual. But one body of Muslims, the Shii group, claims that Ali, the son-inlaw of the Prophet Muhammad, and his descendants carry in their blood lines the right to lead the Muslim world in both the spiritual and political senses. These leaders are known by Shii Muslims as imams. The Shii imams are founts of authority, learning, and wisdom for their followers. Some Shii Muslims regard imams as spiritual intercessors, necessary for knowledge of Allah and for salvation. On the other hand, an imam for Sunni Muslims normally means only a functionary who leads others in the corporate sacrament of prayer by virtue of being skilled in doing so. These and other differences between Sunni and Shii Muslims may be seen as something like the quarrels in a large extended family, for there is a strong religious unity among all Muslims centered on the Kur'an, the example of the Prophet Muhammad, and the sacraments of worship. The Golden Age of Islam eventually faded as the various Muslim dynasties, both Shii and Sunni, came under assault. Attacks from the West began in the eleventh century with the first of the Crusades. From the East came invaders such as the Mongols in the thirteenth century. Islamic dynasties continued to survive in various forms but with diminishing vitality and originality. These later Islamic dynasties, one of which was the hugely successful Ottoman hegemony, were conservative in nature, preserving and protecting the culture, gains, and insights of the Golden Age of Islam. Their concern was to extend and maintain political stability, social order, and security. Based in Istanbul, the Ottomans administered an enormous empire, stretching from Morocco to Central Asia, and from Croatia to Sudan. They were a powerhouse in the Islamic world for about 500 years, from the 1400s to their downfall in the early 1900s. Muslims in many areas of the world looked to the Ottomans to rescue and revive Islam, to restore the Golden Age. We pursued the particularities of the Ottoman story in the previous chapter.

A Brief Faith History of Islam 37

We are today in the Modern Era, the age of the nation state, when Muslims are confronted with the loss of territories and domination by the political and cultural empires of Europeans and Americans. In this Modern Era, many Muslims continue to hope for the revival of Islamic greatness, for the spread of the Islamic vision, for renewal and resurgence in Islamic civilization. They are coming to terms with modernization and secularization and the resistance to Islamic traditions within their own societies. They are reestimating the human and world condition, the meaning of truth, existential and personalist philosophies, political and ethical systems, other religious views, science, and technology. It is a time of searching for identity and destiny. It is also a time of reviewing the faith history, especially the critical 23 years of Kur'anic revelation, the period in which the contemporary inspiration and energy of Muslims are grounded. The result of this searching process will lie somewhere between the Era of Faith, when the Prophet and his company were a minority in Mecca; and the Era of Government, when Muslims were a majority in command of a state, administering its living conditions. The future is an open question: to what extent is it in the destiny of Muslims to create an Islamic government today and to provide a model for dealing with the world's current ills? Or to what extent is it the destiny of Muslims to live with a privatized faith in a secular society, criticizing the centers of power from without?

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Part II A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey

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whether secular or nonsecular. Visitors to Turkey sense something in the culture relating to that faith. openness. These are practices in which a wide range of Muslims participates. and so on. generosity. stingy. We report not only the classic or orthodox forms of this witness but many other acts. reverence for the life of the Prophet Muhammad. 41 . frequent. patience. the repetition of pious phrases. and acceptance in Turkey that is a witness to faith. They feel more satisfied explaining themselves through the Sufi poetry of Yunus Emre than through the theological formulations of a scholar. but they have difficulty explaining it. the use of prayer beads. we have in mind much more than a verbal formula or doctrine. the animal offering. Confessing faith and witnessing to faith are by far the most widespread. But in Turkey. both formally and informally. that relate to people's faith and identity as Muslims: circumcision. When we think of confession of faith or witnessing to faith in this way. and visible of all Islamic behaviors in Turkey today. warmth.5 Expressions of Faith and Identity Our description of Islamic rituals in modern Turkey is organized according to visibility. fairness. the call to the sacrament of prayer. The responsible actions of a Muslim are both confessions and expressions of faith. countless times every day. faith is confessed and witnessed to habitually. This is because people themselves live and practice their faith more than they analyze and define it. There is a distinct sense of hospitality. recitation and memorization of the Kur'an. people would be cowardly. Therefore we begin with the confession of faith. and afraid of strangers. some specific to Turkish culture. Without faith. lacking in confidence. in written and verbal and bodily fashion.

' This act of confession bears the name shahada. The term shahada also carries this very broad understanding of witness and confession. a formula uttered by the tongue and kept in the heart.42 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The testimony By `confession of faith' we mean the consciousness of faith. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. or some variation of `Allah!' such as Allahu. This praises Allah and protects the people. the formal confession is to state the following concise set of words: `There is no god but Allah. `There is no god but Allah'. or emotion. utters this word of faith in existential moments: at times of joy. In other words. a `pillar of Islam'. keeping them strong and ready for the final Day of Judgment. It is a personal matter. We will look more broadly at how witnessing to faith has aspects and implications throughout society in Turkey. confirmation of this truth with the heart. Every Muslim in Turkey. A Muslim is to utter this creed at least once in a lifetime. In practice. to oneself. fear. confession appears as something active and open-ended. and not to any person or institution. becoming aware of the faith. The `confession of faith' is understood by many Muslims today as a verbal confession. It has become a classical technical practice.' More than merely a call.' or `the witness'. presenting the faith to oneself as if to say. the ezan continually declares the faith of Islam and reminds Muslims of it. the call to canonical prayer. even the most secularized. freely and sincerely. The pious ideal is that the air be always filled with the declaration of faith. But the codification processes in the history of Islamic law and doctrine have somehow narrowed down what confession of faith means. Further discussion of the call to prayer is found in Chapter 9. let us see what is behind this creed. In this section we take a less classic view of confession and witness. and the rejection of idolatry. anxiety. sounds from the mosque. No one has the right to ask it of another as some sort of proof of identity or membership. `You are a Muslim. in earnest belief.' The classic Islamic definition is that faith is confession of the finality and ultimacy of Allah with the tongue. It is not verbatim in the Kur'an but comes from the words and practice of the Prophet Muhammad. But first. and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. or Ya Allah! Five times each day. We might call it `worship by the tongue'. This call contains within it the shahada. meaning `the testimony. the practice of it with the limbs. saying. the formal confession of faith: `There is no god but Allah. What is the faith that is confessed? We cannot peer into the heart of another person and . the ezan.

Allah. the explanation of reality. and no one can know who is and who is not saved. consoling. and model. no other idea. Allah-given faith. the flag. as being ultimate. There is thus a unity and universality throughout time and space of Allah's word and of all humanity. and there is freedom of conscience to keep or reject this natural. nor . into one's body. who is one and indivisible. as based on Allah's word in the Kur'an and on the deeds and words of the Prophet Muhammad. Professing the word of faith is an inhaling of the breath of life. capitalism. the embodiment of divine truth. Allah will save the faithful and punish the evil doers. the most revealing of words. There is faith that Allah sent the Prophet Muhammad to bring Allah's word to humanity. quickening. a taking in of Allah. the book given to the Prophet Muhammad. nothing can be taken as a god. refreshing. technology. And it is to see the Prophet Muhammad as one great way. as the highest vision for humankind. To contemplate the confession of faith is to dwell on the ultimate meaning of existence. But we can make some general statements about what Muslims have described their faith to be. and heaven and hell exist as the consequences of human actions. Ideally the witness to faith should be holistic and a reflection of this unity. for Allah's way is not the way of the creatures. modernism.Expressions of Faith and Identity 43 examine the faith that lives there. no other person. the creator of all that exists. power. wealth. But nothing created can tell us exactly what Allah is. self-sufficient. There is faith in the creation and immortality of the soul. the foundation of life. helpers. There is no mediation between Allah and humankind. meaning that there is life after death. having no partners or sons or daughters. Every aspect of life is involved. fame. enlivening. and nothing can be thought without remembering the name of Allah. nothing can be said. all-just and all-merciful. There is a response to the call of Allah that occupies all of life's moments and actions. There is faith in a transcendent yet immanent god. It is the food of the soul. example. or mother or father. as Allah had previously sent prophets for the same purpose. The confession of faith is the word of witness that there is no god but Allah. guiding. Allah is omnipresent. It is as though nothing can be done. In particular. omniscient. neither the nation. omnipotent. These truths are taught by the Kur'an. No other thing. This salvation is Allah's work. which is Truth. secularism. meaning that absolutely no form of idolatry can be tolerated. and eyeopening.

Circumcision Who is a Muslim and who is not? What is necessary to become a Muslim? Islam is not organized institutionally in the same way as western churches. It is natural then to ask: to what extent do people live up to this confession? Can one be a Muslim simply by saying the creed with the lips? The Kur'an is quite clear on this point: `Why say things you do not practice? It incurs Allah's wrath when you say things you do not practice' (61:2±3). to ask. to be a Muslim is natural. `Are you a Muslim?' is like asking. The social reality is that a person born into a Muslim family is considered to be a Muslim unless that person specifically denies it. And then its parents make it a Jew or Christian or Zoroastrian. as only temporary and ultimately not to be trusted. we will look briefly at several areas accessible to outside observers where Muslims in Turkey are living and confessing their faith. There is no formal body or institution that someone should join to embrace Islam. All believers in this way are fully equal in Islam. Furthermore. `Are you a human being?' It strikes people as a strange . It is part of everyone's nature. `Do you belong?' or even.44 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey anything except Allah is ultimate reality. Islam has no membership lists.1 Being a Muslim seen in this way is more an inner sense of belonging than a formal creedal confession. cards or certificates. There is no central authority to decide membership. Thus the confession of faith puts questions directly to any ideology that sets itself above the human being. It is a private matter between the individual and Allah. whoever sees himself or herself as a Muslim is a Muslim. a recorded word of the Prophet Muhammad: Every child is born with the pure created nature of Allah. This belief is based on a hadith. and `They say things with their mouths that they have not in their hearts' (3:167). And since to be a Muslim is thought to be the most natural thing. In Turkey people do not normally ask each other about personal religious beliefs. In the eyes of Islamic piety. Every child is born a Muslim and only then is raised to think or feel or believe one way or another. which is the correct and true religion. The matter rests between Allah and the individual's conscience. There is no other criterion. The Islamic ideal understands everything other than Allah as limited in value. As a guide to this important issue.

Muslims regard male circumcision as continuing the practice of Abraham. or even divisive and hurtful. That is. in the minds of the people. brushing the teeth. To say that one is not a Muslim is like erasing one's identity. At the circumcision party friends and relatives join in feasting. To be a Muslim in Turkey is part of one's personal identity. neither for males nor for females. There could also be hymns or recitations from the Kur'an. They frequently choose the summer. of `becoming a man'. or `becoming a Muslim'. The parents decide when their boy will be circumcised. the language. In Turkey the circumcision of males has been one such symbol. meaning the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. But circumcision today in Turkey is often practiced without religious content.2 Male circumcision is so prevalent among both secular and non-secular Muslims that the visitor to Turkey soon notices its practice. It is a cultural practice which. We might even call it `a blessing on the boy's sexuality'. . is bound up with their identity as Muslims.Expressions of Faith and Identity 45 question. there are stores that sell showy clothes for the boy and decorations for his circumcision party. offering greetings and salutations. They buy him special clothes and toys and food. For one or more days before the surgery. But nearly every Muslim male in Turkey is circumcised. and the culture of the country. It ranks with other traditional identifiers of being a Muslim such as growing a beard and trimming the mustache (for men). the original monotheist. and trimming the nails. From a religious standpoint. dancing. a time when he can recuperate from the operation without having his school work affected. Circumcision is not an obligation in Islam. Male circumcision. Yet it is still true that many Muslims seek an external sign of belonging to the community of Muslims. There is no corresponding female circumcision rite in Turkey. shaving the armpits and private parts (for both men and women). Just before the party itself begins. In the traditional bazaar section of a Turkish city or town. or recital of the traditional poem in honor of the Prophet Muhammad. some families hold a mevlut. circumcision is not prescribed in the Kur'an or in the acts and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad. the land. the parents lavish attention on the boy. People popularly see it as a rite of passage. saying a blessing on one who sneeezes. It includes sharing the food. is one of those widespread Islamic practices that are non-canonical. usually between the ages of seven and twelve. And its effect on boys in their character formation can be just as strong as with other life-shaping Islamic practices. They throw a party for him and his friends.

The boy is often dressed like a prince. Even staunch secularists understand male circumcision as a practical cultural necessity. memorize it. and wailing of clarinets. beating of drums. The operation itself usually takes place at the end of the party or a few hours later. or a horse. This use of government money is widely seen as very proper. The guests and relatives come to kiss the boy and leave some gold or money or other gift. hat. The above description shows that circumcision can be a public and expensive affair. The role of the Kur'an Muslim attitudes and behaviors toward the Kur'an. It could also happen that as an act of charity. Some parents hire a convertible automobile. Nonsecularists also approve. Families arrange for experts to perform the circumcision hygienically. in whole or in part. with much honking of horns. a wealthy. something resembling a wedding. decorate it. At this point the municipality typically steps in and stages mass circumcision parties. and visiting. and each is an art and a business. The boy is made to feel the center of everyone's attention. It makes the event remembered with pride.46 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey games. and dancing. for they believe the role of government to be one of supporting and nurturing Muslim identity. games. and scepter. the holy book of Islam. We can speculate that the costume is a throwback to the days when the Ottoman princes were circumcised with pomp and celebration. After the music. study it. Wealthy families might hire the best place in town for their circumcision parties. The mayor or city council designates a certain day or days. Just as the formal creed encapsulates the word and will of Allah. so the Kur'an explains that word and will. pious donor pays for a circumcision party for the poor. when all families who wish may come with their boys to a public circumcision party. is a witness to the faith of the Muslim. the hundreds of boys there will be circumcised by experts. Being made to feel the focus of the party helps get the boy's mind off the fear of the operation. cape. This puts a great deal of pressure on poor families who want to have their boys circumcised but who cannot afford the expenses of a celebration. are another witness to faith. and care for it are all forms of witness to the divine truth. with sequined white clothes. read it. Constant recitation of the Kur'an. again usually in the summer. food. and parade the boy and his friends around the neighborhood. usually within the privacy of the home. They are an . To write the Kur'an. These uses of the Kur'an are a shield and protection against evil and a blessing to those who do them.

and against misfortune. In nearly every Muslim household. At one time it was believed that if soldiers would carry it on them. they hold it higher than their bellies. Many recite a verse before retiring at night in the belief that it will protect the house against thieves. All of them believed in Allah and His Angels and His Books and His Messengers. It is also part of folk piety that parts of Kur'anic verses are written on pieces of paper and sewn into a person's clothing. bullets would not kill them. are unofficially accompanied by recitations from the Kur'an. It is still a custom that when Muslims carry the Kur'an. Children are taught to recite Kur'an verses to keep up their courage and protect them when they find themselves in lonely. As an act of piety. the Ottomans arranged for a group of Kur'an reciters to recite it 24 hours a day without interruption. wild. for faith healing purposes. such as on a high shelf. would pick them up and raise them to a high place. It is thought to protect the house against evil thoughts and deeds.'3 And `The one in whose body is nothing from the Kur'an is like an abandoned house. (2:285) .Expressions of Faith and Identity 47 aid in healing sickness. There is no Muslim who does not know at least a small verse of the Kur'an by heart. Inaugurations and beginnings. a practice that continued for centuries. They said. At the end of every day's canonical prayer. or strange places. When setting out on a journey alone to a strange place. And as a personal habit. the Kur'an is kept respectfully at a high place. So did the believers. It is the criterion of right and wrong. Muslims to varying degrees incorporate Kur'an recitation into the important moments of their lives. We make no division between any of them. travelers recite the Kur'an. Muslims make a confession of faith through the recitation of the following Kur'anic verse: The Messenger believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord. It was also a sign of reverence for the Kur'an that people would respect any piece of Arabic writing and when they found such fragments on the ground. including the two main branches of Sunni and Shii and all their sub-branches. day after day. or placed where they live.'4 Muslims in all their diversity. All these uses of the Kur'an and respect for it are supported by the Prophet Muhammad: `The best of you is the one who learns the Kur'an and teaches it. acknowledge the complete authority of the Kur'an as the revealed word of Allah. It is the most valued heirloom in the family's possession. Leaders of Muslim countries exchange gifts of the Kur'an. such as the start of a new building or institution.

These may be formally structured courses under the supervision of the government's Department of Religious Affairs. all recalling the sacred text of the Kur'an. Pious phrases: naming Allah in everyday language It is the ideal of the faithful to spread the word of Allah. or it may be sewn into the clothing. the language in which the Kur'an was revealed. students are exposed to well known Kur'anic verses and prayers of petition and praise. It is a goal and a pious act for a child eventually to memorize the whole of the Kur'an. just as it is the goal for the Islamic scholar. a word of the Prophet Muhammad. many thousands of children in Turkey are enrolled in Kur'an courses.' the shahada. It may be inserted into an amulet worn around the neck. some people carry a quotation from the Kur'an on their person. The calligraphy could also show a well known hadith.48 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey To learn verses like this. The word . Mosques are often decorated with masterpieces of calligraphy. The government also requires religious instruction in Turkey's public schools where. and verses from the Kur'an. As an act of piety.' `Muhammad. These are words in Arabic script painted in gigantic letters and hung on the walls. and patterned carpets and tiles. to utter it constantly. Religious book stalls sell many popular books that describe which verses of the Kur'an should be recited for particular personal ailments or problems. The written word of Allah. Mosques are adorned with painted designs. Those who engage in this practice regard the carrying and wearing of the verse as a blessing and protection. among other things. resulting in words and letters decorated with elaborate curves suggesting grace. The calligraphy commonly displays the words `Allah. all as an outgrowth of calligraphic art. elegance. beauty. the holy book of Islam. or they may consist of informal and private instruction under locally known scholars and masters. intricacy. to testify to their faith at all times and in all places. Islamic artists continue to witness to their faith through these decorative techniques. Visitors admiring this calligraphic decoration are not simply looking at lovely designs but are in the presence of a confession of faith. so that they may be recited in Arabic. The Arabic characters of the Kur'an have undergone artistic treatment. carved woodwork. the Kur'an. or formal confession of faith. and complexity wrapped up in simplicity. Each verse or hadith looking down constantly on the worshippers in the mosque becomes a proverb or wise saying among the people and is memorized. has been a magnet for Islamic artists.

the most compassionate. Pious phrases are perpetually on the lips of every Muslim. when meeting with a newborn baby. for instance. A very commonly heard phrase is inshallah. provides. what Allah has willed (is done). such as leaving the house for work. becomes aware of how ordinary speech is infused with religious expression. Just as Allah is generous. and rewards. or a child who has grown up. In daily life. these pious expressions. Another phrase the visitor notices is in many small shops.Expressions of Faith and Identity 49 of Allah not only adorns the walls of the mosque but also the walls of shops. It praises Allah and means. It is hung in cars and homes. We have space to discuss only a few of these petitions. this phrase is prominent in the sacrament of canonical prayer. clean. It shows care for someone or something. solve a . judges. or wonder. hears. supports. Muslims aim to be ever aware of Allah. They translate Allah's attributes into concrete daily words and deeds.' Mashallah is uttered habitually in daily life as. Allah has a role in the life of the Muslim and gives it meaning. it won't happen. standard phrases for stock which are so often used they become cliche situations. or when one is afraid of misfortune: `Inshallah. It expresses admiration. Allah is confessed everywhere. It is said when making promises. is intimate with the believer. `if Allah wills'. or with a great performance or deed. the most merciful. boarding any transportation. so Muslims are to embody these characteristics in their language and behavior.' The word mashallah (Turkish: mas . especially one who is learning Turkish. `Inshallah'. allah) can often be seen written on the back of a bus or on a car or taxi. is fair and patient. The language is Allah-language. supplication. tests. punishes. at every occasion. They are forms of invocation. and invokes Allah's protection. Allah is. it refers to any action or state in the future. They are touched by Allah.' The other person replies. These phrases are a testimony to the Islamic faith and are intimately a part of ordinary life and conversation. starting to cook. and discourage one another from evil deeds by Allah. sees. loves. `Inshallah. It means. iron. whether liberal or conservative. `O. cares. The visitor to Turkey. knows. when talking of the good in the future. I'll see you later. They encourage one another to good deeds by Allah. gives. Â s. and petition. takes away. tempts. it is ordinarily used before a person undertakes any action. Meaning.' Referred to in short as the besmele. `I begin in the name of Allah. to keep it from evil or misfortune. helps. It is used frequently when two people depart and one says. The ones who say them are saying a prayer for themselves and others. where the long word Bismillahirrahmanirrahim is hung on the wall.

begins with the tekbir phrase. when eating. and these words and phrases decorate the daily life . meaning `By Allah'. The secularization of Turkey has become highly visible in language. hamd olsun. the phrase Allah kabul etsin is used. It had clothed itself with a garment of words. make a presentation. which Allah (I'm fine).50 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey problem. This phrase is repeated throughout the canonical prayer. the Magnification of Allah: Allahu Akbar. They could easily form a book on their own. This is a point of controversy. It means. or is performing a pious act such as fasting. It is used in ordinary speech to swear that something is true or did happen as described.' Ya Allah (`Oh Allah') is used when changing one's situation. Every call to prayer. courage. Turkish would change in character and its usage would be psychologically different. It means. as when someone is suddenly surprised. faith had created its own language. from something passive to something active. or wisdom from the ultimate source and ground of being. faith. it strengthens hope. When people greet and ask each other how they are. or alternatively. fear. At times of failure or discouragement. when visiting the sick or the bereaved. We authors have collected many hundreds of these expressions based only on our immediate experience. or to make any vow or oath. It goes with the phrases Allahu Akbar and mashallah. when seeing someone at work. `It is Allah who is magnificent!' and who is transcendent in every respect. calling on the name of Allah for protection. a secular and widespread response is the simple iyiyim. Â s for a variety of There are several other pious phrases used like cliche social occasions in Turkey: when departing. for there are those who would like to purge the language of many of these expressions. petition. Most people freely use pious phrases as a matter of course. `I'm fine. inspiration. If one were to cut these phrases out of the language. when starting the new day. `May Allah accept (it). When greeting someone who has just finished the canonical prayer sacrament. or suddenly amazed. `Praise response is elhamdu È bhanallah.' But a religious È lillah. When one is surprised. `Don't give up!' Another commonly heard phrase is vallah. cursing. or vallahi. trust. It is also uttered in many daily instances. five times per day. People mouth it silently to themselves. It is used to generate strength. he or she utters Allah Allah. and so on. and warning. as if to say. as from sitting to standing. cure a patient. when reuniting. Before the Turkish Republic. blessing. and so on. Their common themes are hope.' A phrase with similar meaning is fesu is used to express wonder and admiration.

or selam. But some words are so intimately tied to religion and its meaning that cutting them out also means pushing out the tones of religion. stone. Creating. Èmselam. such as Merciful. Some strings of . Allah is infinitely perfect and pure. Thus a string of 33 beads will be counted three times when going through all the names. It means. Loving. a secular language. with some people making it a point to use exclusively either secular or the non-secular language.' After being greeted with this word. made of colored plastic. strengthen. is prayer beads. But in this century a new language has arisen. esselamu Èm. But in practice. and cultivate the Turkish language in a way that was suitable to a modern nation. Judging. secularists see something bad Ètu È . Wise. or other hard substance.' The rule is that the responder should answer with a warmer greeting. The situation today is mixed. The nationalists of the first years of the republic established the Turkish Language Council to discourage the domination of `foreign elements' in the language. and so on. Or in another instance. The motivation was to liberate. olive seeds.' But the traditional to the other person. Islamic piety regards Allah as having 99 Beautiful Names. Some greeting is selamaleyku people shorten it to selamlar.' or `Welcome' È nler. such as old Arabic and Persian words. so the number 99 is not a numerical limit but only a sign of the uncountability of Allah's attributes. These are usually strings of identical beads. The worshipper uses the prayer beads by counting one bead when saying each of the 99 names. And so ordinary speech has been politicized along secular/non-secular lines. wood. meaning `sin'. one answers. without connection to faith and Allah. meaning simply `bad'. Truthful. gu with secular ideologists often insisting on the nonreligious phrases in public. For instance. which are really adjectives. and security (of Allah. and His grace and blessings) be also with you. whereas the traditional and religious and say. ko È nah. Prayer beads An item sold in tourist shops as a souvenir of Turkey. One use of these beads is to recount the names of Allah. while most people continue to use the abundance of pious phrases that witness to Allah and to faith. `May the peace (of Allah) be with you. health. the secular greeting is merhaba. meaning `Good day. meaning. or more properly. many people mix words interchangeably. or iyi gu Èaleyku Èm. reaction is to say. `May the Èmu aleyku peace. and which many men are seen carrying. A typical string has 33 such beads. aleyku Èsselam.Expressions of Faith and Identity 51 of a Muslim. as we have described above. `Hello. meaning. or attributes. or more properly.

52 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey

prayer beads consist of 99 beads. They are divided by larger beads on the string into groups of 33. Another use of the prayer beads is to count the number of times the worshipper repeats a certain pious phrase, or litany, such as in the shahada, or the formal confession of faith: `I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah'; or just the first part of the confession, which is the word of unity: `There is no È bgod but Allah'; or the hamdele phrase, `Praise be to Allah'; or the su hanallah phrase, `Glory be to Allah'; or the tekbir, the watchword of Islam: `It is Allah who is magnificent!' Each phrase is repeated 33 times, with one bead for each utterance. The Prophet Muhammad used his fingers to keep track of the number of times he recited such phrases or recounted the names of Allah. With the palm of his right hand open, he would touch the joints of his fingers in turn to keep count. Those who do not have beads available use their fingers in this way as a substitute. To praise Allah in this way or with beads could be called `worship using the fingers'. The use of the prayer beads is popular among Sufi groups, the religious orders of Islamic mystics. The beads assist with their particular repetitive practice of calling on Allah, their zikir, which is based on a pious phrase such as those given above. Some religious orders assign their followers the task of uttering several repetitions of certain pious phrases. Other Muslims as their own individual practice use the beads for the same purpose. The beads also feature at the conclusion of the canonical prayer sacrament. Visitors to the mosque can observe worshippers using the beads to count the 33 repetitions of each pious phrase that they utter. They may also notice sets of prayer beads available around the mosque for worshippers to use as needed. Following a corporate sacrament of prayer with a large congregation in the mosque, the visitor can hear in the reverent silence the rhythmic clicking of the beads and the whispering lips of the worshippers. The beads are simply another aid to promote zikir, which is the remembrance and mentioning of Allah, of maintaining constant Allah-consciousness. Recounting the names of Allah and repeating the praise of Allah without stopping generates power, hope, and energy, and strengthens faith. It calls on the divine, the ultimate source of everything that is, so as to transcend oneself and reach inner security. There are those who carry the beads only as an accessory, in that people discharge stress and nervousness by fingering them. This is a good example of religion made into a cultural routine, of the divine

Expressions of Faith and Identity 53

made part of everyday life. The beads become a habit, a way of entertainment, a business, or even an alternative to smoking.

The birthday poem of the Prophet
A truly widespread religious practice among Muslims in Turkey is the recitation of a deeply cherished, 500-year-old poem entitled `The Birth Poem of the Prophet' (Mevlidi Sherif ). It is recited on special occasions in private homes and in large mosques. There are many Muslims in Turkey who, even if they participate in none of the orthodox practices of Islam, regard the ritual of reciting this poem as an essential and traditional religious ceremony in their family. It is their witness to faith. Both the celebrated Birth Poem of the Prophet and its recitation are referred to in short as mevlut. By `recitation' we mean a stylized sort of singing or chanting for which we will use the word `cantillation'. People have a mevlut cantillated in their homes at a time of family rejoicing, such as for the birth of a child, or for a circumcision or marriage or dramatic recovery of health; or at a time of mourning, when there is a death in the family. It is common to have a mevlut at home 40 days after the death of a loved one, and sometimes every year thereafter. The mevlut is also cantillated among large congregations in the mosques during religious festivals, as on the Night of Power and Destiny near the end of the Ramazan month of fasting. Many television stations carry a live broadcast of the event. È leyman The mevlut as a poem was composed in Ottoman Turkish by Su Ë elebi (d. 1421), a Sufi, or mystic, in the Ottoman sultan's court. C C Ë elebi's composition was not the first. There had been earlier poems in Arabic in celebration of the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad. C Ë elebi's work reflects the popular reverence for the Prophet in the rising Ottoman empire. The poem concerns the life of the Prophet Muhammad, and in particular the marvels that surrounded his birth, the miracles in his life, and his ascent through the heavens to meet Allah. It is religious emotion and fervor expressed in poetry, a popular work of piety. C Ë elebi's mevlut has more than 260 couplets in current versions, and as many as 600 couplets in other versions. The professionals who cantillate it, both men and women, have committed it to memory. They cantillate either some or all of the poem according to the particular occasion for which they are hired. Religious functionaries such as imams (leaders of the canonical prayer sacrament) and muezzins (callers to the canonical prayer) informally accept payment for accompanying mevlut reciters to private homes, or for leading rituals in homes. The mevlut has thus

54 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey

become a source of income for those who are skilled in this ritual. A full recital takes at least an hour. It is accompanied by hymns and verses from the Kur'an. The first couplet of the mevlut shows that it is a kind of zikir, or mentioning and remembering the name of Allah: Let us mention Allah's name first. It is obligatory on every servant in every deed to do so. When a nationally televised mevlut takes place, as on one of the sacred nights of the Islamic year, the cantillation of the poem is preceded by a sermon given by the Head of the Department of Religious Affairs, or by someone on his behalf, or by a well-known preacher. People can follow these proceedings at home or attend the local mosque where the poem is also cantillated. At the conclusion of the poem, petitionary prayers are offered for the day, for the country, for unity, for harmony in people's relationships, for peace and justice, and for other concerns. Friends, neighbors, and relatives are invited to a private mevlut cantillation at someone's home at times of personal joy or transition or sorrow. The house can become very crowded with the many guests. The overflow spills out into the balconies, porches, gardens, and streets. Before, during, and after the cantillation, the hosts provide refreshments. Women cover their hair with scarves, whether they normally wear a scarf or not. At a certain point during the poem, the guests stand facing the direction of Mecca, greeting the birth of the Prophet Muhammad. At the conclusion of the recitation, the cantillators will offer petitionary prayer (dua). Then the guests' hands are sprinkled with rose water, and a traditional rose water sherbet or drink is offered as they visit with each other. If the occasion for the mevlut is a joyous one, such as a wedding or circumcision, some secular or less conservative Muslims will follow the recitation with a dinner party, with religiously forbidden alcoholic beverages, and with mixed-gender dancing. Although this recitation of the Birth Poem of the Prophet is highly popular in Turkey, it is a non-orthodox Islamic practice. That is, there is no support or justification for it in the Kur'an or in the life and words of the Prophet Muhammad. It is a sort of performance by accomplished professionals. The Islamic legal schools do not mention this poem or any celebration of the Prophet's birthday. In fact, orthodox or mainline Islam frowns on creating a cult of any prophet, including the Prophet Muhammad. He himself constantly stressed his humanity. He specifically warned his followers against setting himself up as anyone to be worshipped.

Expressions of Faith and Identity 55

Nevertheless, the mevlut, both as a poem and in its recitation, reveals the soul of Islamic piety. People intensely treasure it and get more out of it than many orthodox practices. Love for the Prophet Muhammad, love for Islam, and love for Allah are all instilled in people's hearts in the mevlut ceremony. The joy of the ordinary believers in revering the Prophet's coming into the world cannot be denied. The poem is a lyrical rendering of that joy. It is an inescapable part of customary religious practice in Turkey. Its recitation within the home itself is a powerful element in the formation of religious consciousness. For these reasons the defenders of `mainline Islam' benignly tolerate the mevlut as a practice that expresses Islamic piety. It is a truly popular way that Muslims in Turkey witness to their faith.

Sacred nights
During the year there are several evenings which are thought to be specially blessed. On these evenings there will be nationally televised preaching and mevluts broadcast from major mosques. People will also gather in neighborhood mosques for the same purpose. Homes are cleaned particularly well in preparation, and special foods or sweets are served and presented to neighbors. These occasions of sacred nights are not justified in the Kur'an but are widely celebrated in Turkey. There is no manual of such nights, but people informally share the knowledge and expectations among themselves. These nights are times of personal petitionary prayer, meditation, recitation from the Kur'an, visitation, exchanging greetings by telephone, and coming together for extended conversation. The sacred nights follow the Islamic cycle of months, which is lunar, so they do not fall on the same solar date each year. Among these nights celebrated in Turkey are the Night of the Prophet's Birthday; the Night of the Conception of Muhammad, thought to be a night of special forgiveness and mercy; the Night of the Night Journey; the Night of Forgiveness; and the Night of Power and Destiny. This last night marks the first revelation of the Kur'an to the Prophet Muhammad. It is celebrated in the last few days of the fasting month of Ramazan. It is also an occasion when the pious view a relic of the Prophet's Beard as the climax to a night of devotion. Readers will find a calendar listing these and other annual events in Appendix F. A common way to celebrate a sacred night in a mosque is to have a voluntary but intensive form of the sacrament of canonical prayer in which the participants repeat over and over one or more of the pious

56 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey

phrases mentioned above. The result generates a great deal of energy and movement, like a concentrated team effort, with everyone fervently repeating an expression of praise or the Magnification of Allah. Sacred nights are also an occasion for hymn singing. Either one person or a choir does the singing, often when seated. Such choirs also appear on television programs. The words of many hymns are from the great Anatolian Sufi master, Yunus Emre. Hymns are sung on other occasions of worship and celebration. For example, they can accompany Kur'an recitation. They can supplement the additional night prayer sacrament in the mosque during the fasting month of Ramazan. Or they can be part of special family occasions such as weddings, circumcisions, anniversaries of death, and so on. Usually the hymn singing is in unison and without instruments. However, in certain of the religious orders, there are hymns with musical accompaniment provided they are held outside the mosque. The Mevlevi group is a prominent example. Their reed flutes and choirs accompany their twirling dancers.

Weddings and sexual relations
The time of marriage between Muslims is an occasion for witnessing to faith. The Prophet Muhammad urged his followers to lead a married life within a contractual framework. He did not oblige all followers to marry, so that the choice to marry is an individual one. But once a person chose to marry, the Prophet's instruction was to form a proper marriage contract as an expression of mutual responsibility. Thus the existence of a legitimate, enforceable marriage contract between two persons is obligatory for a Muslim, and the Turkish state provides for it. The fact that marriage in Islam is based on a contract makes it a legal and economic matter. But the Kur'an also has things to say about the moral character of the relation between a husband and wife. There are several Kur'anic images of this relationship: `Husbands and wives are guardians, protectors, lovers, friends, and servants to each other' (9:71). They are like clothing to one another, meaning that they are to be close, intimate, next to each other's bodies, near and sharing and sheltering. Another image is agricultural: the couple have their sexual relationship as a fertile field, to be free and flexible in their sexual enjoyment of one another and in how they will bring forth their offspring. The reader should keep in mind these Kur'anic pictures of a genuine husband±wife relationship in the following discussion of marriage, for they lie in the consciousness of the believers and support their activities.

Expressions of Faith and Identity 57

In Turkey, only the state may institute a contract of marriage. Those who are religiously doctrinaire see a problem of authority in the idea of a secular marriage contract. For them, the legitimacy of a marriage contract comes from its divine nature. They claim that a legitimate marriage contract can be established only by an Islamic state, and the problem is that Turkey's state is secular. However, in practice most Muslims in Turkey accept the state's authority regarding the marriage contract. Signing the marriage contract is a civil affair that usually takes place in a municipal wedding hall. It lasts only a few minutes. The bride and groom, decked out in their wedding clothes, sit with their two witnesses at a small table. A municipal official enters the room, sits with them, and announces that the proper bureaucratic formalities have been fulfilled. The official then confirms with the bride and groom that they are entering marriage of their own free choice, pronounces them married, and has them and the witnesses sign the marriage register. Friends and relatives who are watching this brief ceremony break out in applause and line up to congratulate the new couple. Whatever people additionally do at times of a wedding is left to local customs, culture, and traditions. At some point surrounding the entrance into the marriage contract, most Muslims in Turkey invite a person learned in religion, usually the local imam, to bless the newlyweds. There are no statistics about how many couples arrange for this religious recognition of their marriage, but we can speculate that it is the great majority. However, this blessing ceremony by the imam does not by itself form a legal marriage contract in the eyes of the state. The blessing typically occurs in a home or other suitably respectable place. Besides blessing the couple, the imam offers petitions for the couple's happiness and for healthy children. The imam also points out the continuity with the Islamic heritage by referring to four significant marriages: Adam and Eve, Joseph and Zuleyha, the Prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadijah, and Ali and Fatma, the Prophet's daughter. The more religiously observant families may also hold a mevlut or invite a religious scholar to provide the newlyweds, relatives, and wedding guests with some brief instruction and counseling in the Islamic faith. At some point in the activities surrounding a wedding, the families will hold parties, share food, visit with each other, give presents to the newlyweds, and so on. There are an abundance and variety of local customs. After the marriage contract has been signed, but before the couple has first slept together, it often happens that the male relatives of the new groom escort him to the mosque for the sacrament of canonical prayer.

58 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey

Returning to his new house, the groom enters the bedroom with his bride for their first sexual intercourse. Sex within the marriage contract is a Kur'anic-based religious act. It is not a shame or sin or something taboo. Sex in marriage is meant to be a blessing and a reciprocal pleasure, something the couple is to enjoy freely. Before their first intercourse, there in the bedroom, the newlyweds together conduct two sets of stations of the sacrament of canonical prayer. This is believed to bless their intercourse and their offspring. If they fail to do the canonical prayer, the opposite is believed, namely that something might go wrong with their child in the future. These acts of worship surrounding sexual intercourse in marriage reflect some deeply rooted social attitudes. Religious people generally understand that legitimacy is the cause of grace and blessings. Whatever good or bad a person does has its eventual effect. Whatever you plant, you reap. Nothing is lost. In particular, every act of sexual intercourse in marriage is legitimate and is somehow to be rewarded. Conversely, every act of sexual intercourse outside of marriage is illegitimate and will eventually lead to harm. Such a mentality is seen in the many folk stories of great saints, where one or more of the saint's ancestors performed some particularly charitable act or selfless religious deed that later resulted in the birth of that saint. So when people see a young person who is growing in a morally poor way, they make the judgment that this is the result of someone's illegitimate behavior in the past. This is not for the purpose of casting blame on an individual after the fact. It is more accurately part of a social and cultural consciousness of warning and corrective, a way of telling each other to stay on the correct path. What is true here for legitimate sexual relations is just as true for making a living. Only legitimate, properly contracted business is acceptable. The income from such business is blessed and brings blessings. Anything else is illegitimate or corrupt and will repay harm in the future, as in improper behavior on the part of children. This legitimacy of relations between spouses is renewed weekly. On the night before the important Friday Prayer, the imam in the mosque leads the congregation in a brief ceremony of renewal of faith and the marriage contract. Just before the conclusion of the night sacrament of canonical prayer, the congregation under the imam's leadership repeats the shahada, the formal confession of faith. They then confess their belief in angels, resurrection after death, and the destiny of the person according to his or her good or evil deeds. Then the men of the congregation say, `I married my wife unto myself and accepted her as my

Expressions of Faith and Identity 59

wife.' Faith in Allah and loyalty to one's wife are affirmed as sound, truthful relationships, relationships that are continuing and to be continued, relationships that are divinely sanctioned. It is presumed that before the man goes to the mosque for this renewal of faith and the marriage contract, he and his wife have sat down and talked and reaffirmed their relation with each other in light of the events of the past week and in light of their faith. The husband then goes to the canonical prayer at the mosque with his wife's affirmation to renew the marriage pledge. To what extent couples actually take advantage of this renewal of their marriage contract, to what extent they actually do reaffirm their marriage, to what extent the husbands actually do go to the mosque for the renewal of faith and marriage, to what extent canonical prayers really do accompany a wedding, are all questions that depend like so many others in this book on family background, level and type of religious instruction, socioeconomic and political context, and so on. They need further investigation. As we have seen, Turkish society has a strong secular component that understands religion to be a private act of the individual. The practices discussed in this section are well suited to privatization. This should be an encouragement to making them popular. However, the secular view also frowns on religion entering into public life. So the civil marriage contract has been stripped of its religious meaning, and public education on marriage and its obligations has been secularized. Whatever religious meaning people find in the fabric of their marriage and sexual relations is today the result of their private efforts and their faith.

The naming ceremony
Many families in Turkey hold a special naming ceremony for a newborn child. This practice is not in the Kur'an, but the Prophet Muhammad did teach about the responsibility of parents to give their children good names. He did not prescribe the manner of name giving, and so the naming ceremony is a matter of local custom. The naming ceremony in Turkey occurs in the family home. It takes place when the baby is as young as possible. A religiously learned person, usually a local imam, is called to the home. There the imam recites from the Kur'an, which brings blessings on the household. He quietly says the call to prayer (ezan) in the child's ear. And then, having been informed by the parents of the name, he whispers it into the child's ear, saying, `You are . . . .'

60 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey

The name of the child is a message to the child, and to its extended family, and to the community. Parents choose the name to meet religious, cultural, family, and ancestral expectations. It is a sign of the parents' respect for their own parents when they allow the grandparents to make the choice of name. Most given names are religious in background, meaning they refer to someone respected in the Islamic tradition. This is yet another indicator of the religious orientation of the majority of the people. Choosing a name that is specifically religious in its reference is a conscious act in Turkey, where pressures may exist in registry offices to choose a secular or nationalist name. The child's name is a reflection of the family's ideals. To name a child after a grandparent acts to strengthen family ties by respecting the elders. A religious name reminds the child of its family's orientation and of the essential purpose of life. Some common traditional names in Turkey are Mehmet, Ahmet, and Mustafa, which are Turkish substitutes for Muhammad; Ali, the Prophet's son-in-law; È mer, and Osman, Turkified names of the early rightly-guided Bekir, O Islamic leaders; and Fatma, Ayshe, Hatije, Zeynep, and Zehra, Turkified names of women in the Prophet's family.

Folk beliefs and shamanic figures
The visitor to Turkey quickly notices the blue `evil eye' bead either worn by people or attached to their possessions. These are made of a blue glass disk containing a white and sometimes yellow glass circle, which in turn has a black glass dot in the middle to represent the pupil of the eye. These blue eyes are also cast in the shape of a bead which is strung on a thread or chain and then hung on valuable objects like a car, or a computer, or even a house. Sometimes the evil eye bead is accompanied by the written phrase, Mas , allah, meaning, `O, what Allah has willed (is done).' Parents very often pin them to babies' clothing. For sizable objects, like houses, owners will hang a large evil eye disk on the wall or near the front door. The blue evil eye bead is part of folk religion. Its presence is believed to ward off the `evil eye', meaning the look of someone that causes harm to a person or to that person's possessions. Some people are believed to have this power in their look, although they are not evil-intending people in themselves. It is believed that valuable possessions that others might covet need protection from this look. There are villagers who cover the faces of beautiful babies and do not expose them to the public, or who keep milk cows indoors all the time, or tie sacks around their

and so on. Prominent in these activities are what we might call contemporary shamanic figures. spirit manipulation. magic. The evil eye belief predates the arrival of the Turkish-speaking people in the Middle East. mediums. Wearing evil eye beads. particularly when the ways of modern psychology and medicine have failed to work. showing confusion and a lack of confidence in reason and in Allah.Expressions of Faith and Identity 61 udders when outdoors. . sorcery. conjuring with spirits. and witty folk character Nasreddin Hodja. and then offers services to the public. When such a person puts his or her self-understanding and methods into an Islamic form. unorthodox folk practices in which very many Muslims engage. and 37:95). spells. and petitioning dead saints at their tombs. labeling them as a temptation to loss of faith. the behavior and words of the Prophet Muhammad. who has secret knowledge. or attaching them to possessions. and to take refuge in Allah. Believers are urged to avoid sorcery. is one of those voluntary. By `unorthodox' we mean that they cannot be legitimated by the Kur'an. They call it unenlightened faith. who are accused by their detractors of being charlatans. The scholars of Islam firmly criticize the evil eye beads from this standpoint. A shaman is a person regarded by those who believe in him or her as someone possessing metaphysical powers. These practices include all manner of charms. There are a variety of additional non-orthodox folk practices in Turkey that are similarly condemned by Islamic scholars. someone who has contact with the divine. Moses is quoted in the Kur'an as replying to the Egyptian court magicians. the extreme habits of religious orders. astrology. Among the public such a shaman is known as a hodja. It is an ancient feature of Mediterranean cultures. or superstition. fortune telling. see also 2:102. folk medicines. magicians will not see salvation' (10:77. wise. Many people would simply feel uncomfortable if an evil eye bead were not hung on a valued possession or attached to a baby. We find the evil eye in paintings and mosaics from Roman times. and it is a common practice among Muslims in Turkey to `go to a hodja' to solve their problems. should not be confused with the popular. to protect the source of milk from the look of the evil eye. who can invoke spiritual powers and thereby manipulate or influence people or events. We could also call such beliefs `non-canonical'. These faith-healing or shamanic-type folk hodjas. `Are you labeling my truth as magic (when it comes to you)? In fact. The blue evil eye bead is also believed to provide this protection. The Kur'an preaches against the use of charms or amulets. tying string and cloth on bushes and trees. or the Islamic legal schools. we can call such a person a `Muslim shaman'. spells.

providing herbal or folk medicines. in that both urge the public to turn to science for the cause of natural events in this world and for the cure of ills. whether for remedying sickness. The religious scholars add that Allah acts through science and through the modern medical doctor. Here the secular proponents are at one with the Islamic scholars. finding lost objects or persons. solving marital difficulties or preventing a marriage. who regard them as giving a mediating role to people that they do not possess. breathing on the person. The methods of the shamanic hodja involve giving a Kur'anic verse or prayer to be worn or carried as a talisman. dreams were one of the ways of revelation. separating lovers or causing people to fall in love. The legal schools also forbid believing in magic and in practicing it. western education will shift the public away from such superstitious beliefs and outdated religion. They are opposed by Islamic scholars. They are a major element of the religious atmosphere in Turkey and cannot be overlooked or ignored.62 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The so-called `false hodjas' have their various reputations among people. There are both secular and non-secular people who take these practices seriously. and so on. interpreting the shape of molten lead after it is poured into water. and so on. although wealthier clients prefer the term `medium'. They would like people to rely on personal prayer and to strengthen their own bodies and minds using modern. But such practices are not in any manual of universal Islamic codes and standards. rubbing or touching the person. After all. He described how an angel would often appear to him in a . They are an intimate part of the life of many Muslims. Some people scour the country for those who are said to confer spiritual and physical care and healing. There are people from all social classes in Turkey who go to a folk hodja. Doctors and intellectuals of modern science also condemn these folk beliefs. Clients willingly pay for services received. casting and neutralizing spells. The secularists believe that an up-to-date. often claiming that if there were no payment. The Islamic scholars for their part want to see the teaching of an Islam which is purified of such superstitions. finding out the cause of misfortune and reversing it. The interpretation of dreams A practice justified by the Prophet Muhammad's life is the receiving of true knowledge through dreams. the cure would be ineffective. advising on investments. curing infertility. one of the ways in which the Kur'an was revealed to the Prophet. providing petitions and phrases that are to be repeated. scientific methods.

the person should then go to sleep. Both secular and non-secular Muslims join in the varied practices of Islam in Turkey. After the prayer sacrament. Some dreams are true. and the picture is grossly incomplete without including them. Not just any dream is reliable or sound. It is important to know the identity of the dreamers. refuse to accept payment. but the reading has not yet been paid for. There are Muslims who look down . There are printed manuals available to help interpret what was seen in the dream. and therefore they come true. or cleanliness and purification ritual. who then scratches that reading off his `account'. out of idealism. It shows us how Islam becomes Anatolian Islam. There are Muslims who live by their dreams and consult them as a personal. The believer may also confide in someone who is known and trusted in the interpretation of dreams. Someone who wants a reading of the entire Kur'an will simply pay the reciter. For instance. Some of these ways are orthodox. ready and waiting. to varying degrees. And so dreams are trusted as one way of receiving true knowledge. Another practice established by the Prophet Muhammad was that of curing disease through the reading of the Kur'an. but the one who asked for the recitation often thinks it is not complete. voluntary practice. It is still `in his pocket'. The one who would sleep on a problem to get advice in a dream should first do the ablution. a reciter will claim that he or she has read the whole of the Kur'an. and whether they had done the sacrament of prayer beforehand. There are reciters today who. methods for achieving understanding through dreams have developed over time. culture to culture. unchanging from country to country. provided that no exploitation took place. believing that Allah will reveal the solution in a dream. He permitted Muslims to receive payment for the recitation. as for the sacrament of canonical prayer. But others are peculiar to local culture. and age to age. Because receiving divine revelation through dreams was an experience of the Prophet. Yet there is exploitation of this practice in Turkey.Expressions of Faith and Identity 63 dream and relate part of the Kur'an. unless it costs something. or sound. what they saw. The broad approach tells us how Islam looks in Turkey. whether they were in a state of ritual purity. Evaluation: the impact of modernity on confession and witness We have touched on the major ways that Muslims in Turkey confess their faith and witness to their beliefs. or standard.

because they feel they are just as much part of this age as anyone else. take horoscopes seriously. for the other side also claims to be Muslims. debate in Turkey over religion and its relation to politics involves much polemics and labeling. Some will say they are `believers'. Today the hodjas and mediums and spiritual masters are openly tolerated. believe in shamanic figures. superstitious. in being clear and self-conscious about what they are confessing. some of them even appearing and practicing on nation-wide television. and exploitive. which hurts their opponents. and so on. There is a problem today in Turkey. those hodjas involved in them were even jailed. A rigid attitude was taken by the state against folk religion. pay mediums. especially for the youth. but what do they mean by that? What ideals do they stand for as a consequence? Where do they put their ultimate faith and trust? As an ideal. This is at the same time an identity problem. where the secular state sees religion as a private affair. People say they are Muslims. In the earlier years of the republic. seek to counter the effects of curses. irrational. We described at the beginning of this chapter the nature of the faith that is confessed. It is a difficulty that is rooted in the challenge of western power to the Ottoman Empire centuries ago. Others are quite conservative and reject whatever smacks of innovation or imitation. something that the individual seeks for himself or herself. . Other Muslims are open and experimental. As such they survive well in modern Turkey. And then some will say they are `modern'. Many of the acts of confession and witness that we have described above are highly individual in the way they are done. It is meant solely for the individual's benefit. labeling them as unscientific. an attitude that loosened up only in the 1980s. having nothing to do with society and its structures. who they are. which puts their opponents in an awkward spot. The È rk intended to stamp paradox is that the nationalist program of Atatu out many religious folk practices. about exactly to what it is they are witnessing.64 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey on some of the practices described above as superstitious. It was our understanding of an ideal. are they to confess Islam? Ethnicity? Patriotism? Modernism? Human rights? What positions are they to take and to defend? What are their sources of values and inspiration? What is their ground for life? Because of lack of clarity. There are many secularized people who use evil eye beads. willing to try something new. And still others loyally follow the traditions of their family and social circle without much question. People have difficulty naming what they stand for. what they confess.

Not every Muslim in Turkey belongs to a religious order. One of the most celebrated of these ideals is that of tolerance. and a desire to moderate or balance all these virtues. such as Mevlana. that has given rise to the variety of religious orders and expressions in Turkey today. are features of Turkish culture. meaning the various groups of Islamic mystics. It also contributes to the flexibility that people show in adapting to the rapid social changes of our age. A steady `spiritual conquest' of the nomadic Turks was believed to have been achieved by Sufi figures such as Ahmet Yasawi (d. then it could explain why love. They are credited with forming the ideals of Ottoman and Anatolian civilization. Yunus. loving Allah. They are playing a significant role in the continuing transformation of the country. tolerance. and the Islamic spirit of order and justice. and their activities are numerous and growing. passion. our readers should remember that they all take the orthodox or mainline Islamic practices as a common base and acknowledge them as fundamental to 65 . Anatolian Sufi masters. are among the greatest cultural figures of Turkey. personalism. dynamism. with its relativizing spirit. and Hajji Bektash.6 Religious Orders The people of Turkey widely believe that they were originally won to Islam through the Sufi orders. 1166) from central Asia. But many do. nobility. especially tolerance for the variety of ways that the individual relates to Allah. Muslims see these masters as combining in themselves the pre-Islamic spirit of freedom. As we briefly look at the differences between these religious groups. intimacy. poets. hospitality. These grow prominently out of the Sufi vision of seeking and obeying a living. and courage. If this is true. It is this characteristic of tolerance. and those widely referred to as `lovers'.

The foremost image for Sufis and their tarikats is that they are lovers of Allah. It is important. while basking in the blessed vision of Allah. There is only one love for Sufis. Sufi knowledge follows the inward spiritual path to the heart. The activities of the religious orders are extensions. which are the reports of the words and practices of the Prophet Muhammad. sharing common life. who is Allah. and it refers to a school. the particular manner of its group discipline and membership promotion. all members of religious orders stand on the common platform of Islamic essentials. or brotherhood. There is a direct tie here to the clear vision and consciousness of unity found in the Kur'an. or group. especially for Westerners. marrying and enjoying the pleasures of life. or master. Whatever their political affiliations or group activities. is centered on a particular charismatic individual. calling on.66 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey Islam. or order that is mystically oriented. This is their service to Islam. The word literally means `path'. family-like groups that provide the individual . meaning `poor': the dervish wanders the world like a mendicant. Muslims will say with conviction that they are one people. and that is the love of Allah. and responding to the name of Allah. losing one's self out of love of Allah. seeking the beloved. who in turn traces his credentials for leadership to an earlier leader. usually a man. The technical name for a religious order is tarikat. A Sufi disciple is called a dervish. This is how they want to be known. The Sufi ideal is that the individual's heart grow in comfort and satisfaction through the love of Allah. or technique it employs for centering on. and then turning to serve all humanity by choosing to remain in the world. and its particular group temperament. We have to give our readers what we take as common. The highest stage of human growth is being absorbed in Allah. personally held knowledge. of these orthodox practices. Each tarikat. This chain of authority in principle reaches back to the Prophet Muhammad himself. the particular type of zikir. When asked. and all worship in the same mosque. Each group can also be analyzed according to the particular way it interprets and applies the Kur'an and the hadith. or amplifications. with one Kur'an and one Prophet. They are reluctant to think of themselves as dividing into clear-cut branches. to understand that these religious orders are neither extremist cults nor ascetic movements. each religious order. And so it is a major reason why it is not possible to produce data that show a quantitative breakdown of society in Turkey according to religious orders or otherwise. Muslims are not willing to identify themselves to outsiders primarily in terms of their differences or divisions from one another. They are powerfully close-knit.

Such knowledge would be either meaningless or harmful to one outside the group and so cannot be impersonally communicated. Such knowledge is both a personal inspiration and a sacred heritage. the religious orders are dedicated to promoting Islam in society. This means that the religious orders place great emphasis on learning from the master. They take the hand of the individual and save his or her soul from destruction. and solidarity. Their slogan is `service to people is service to Allah. in varying amounts. the spiritual leader. Thus the members of religious orders share their religious knowledge only with one another. Their leaders or masters are often prominent public figures. These laws were established in the early years of the republic and require Turkish citizens to conform to a modern. There is no longer any individual opinion but only that of the group and its master. with those who can both withstand it and understand it. They are mixtures of politics. Only then can the saving. but only through the proper person. .' It is also in the nature of the tarikats. distinctive religious garb and insignia are prohibited. The individual melts into the group and sees everything with its eyes. to the group. western style of public dress. religion. by extension. The ideal is that the new disciple places his or her life in the hands of the master and establishes a relationship of perfect obedience. the master. The religious orders do not have explicit manifestos or organizational charts. helping their members find housing. not to be divulged to those who cannot grasp its value and bear its responsibility. The group behaves like a large family. The premium is on the submission of the individual's will to that of the master and. employment. They are a marked presence in public affairs. He himself receives this knowledge by inspiration and by his personal relationship with his predecessors. They are constantly open to inquiries and to recruiting new members.Religious Orders 67 faithful with deep security. The religious orders are socially active. They wear ordinary clothes. Far from detaching and isolating themselves. mysticism. and education. Except in the case of religious functionaries on official duty. economics. to be confidential and private. It is an emulation of the relation seen between the Prophet Muhammad and Allah. truthful knowledge flow into the disciple. in line with the laws on public dress of the Republic of Turkey. and even marriage partners. the religious orders. because their belief is that knowledge of Allah and Allah's creatures is not formal and impersonal but esoteric and personalized. assistance. They form one voting block in elections. Truthful and saving knowledge cannot come from books. they believe. They look after each other.

publicly obvious. the Sufi religious orders. divorced from its traditional. and binding on everyone. These tarikats are officially banned in Turkey. in the Republic of Turkey they have had to close their formal institutions and operate semi-secretly. statist. nationalist. The original ban on religious orders has never been lifted. stage mass rallies and conferences. The religious orders today run schools. They stood in the way of the republican nationalists. The tarikats receive inspiration within themselves. intimately received from a master. publish newspapers. the republican-secularists understood the nature of the tarikats to be utterly conÈ rk was trary to the individualist. This is Islam as supported and promoted by the state. being obedient to their masters. More importantly. going underground as necessary. scientific spirit of the modern age. For one thing. It is a division of outlook and experience which is much more basic than the Shii±Sunni difference.68 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The existence of the tarikats. and it was this past that the religious orders embodied with their chain of authority and preservation of the Islamic heritage in its traditional clothing. He admired the spirit of reason. On the other side of the divide is the corporate or external vision of Islam. science. personal. . and the will of the individual. For this purpose he and his followers wanted a clean break with the past. were seen by the republicans as beyond the authority of a new government that was fighting to establish its own control. But the tarikats have carried on anyway. illustrates what is perhaps the most fundamental division in the Islamic world. operate radio and TV stations. They still do not exist as legal organizations. They are groups unto themselves. Learning and rituals are impersonally structured. distinctive civil organizations. and hidden to outsiders. and actively recruit among university students by appealing to their idealism. They are by nature self-supporting and are reluctant to open themselves to outside view. free interpretation. where the saving knowledge of Allah is open and objective. They were outlawed by the new republican government in the 1920s. Sufis understand the saving knowledge of Allah as internal. These principles and characteristics would make it easier for the people to adjust to the new secular. available to everyone. They are independent of the state. Whereas in Ottoman times they were huge. existing without regard to whatever government is in power. the members of religious orders. Atatu seeking a reformed Islamic spirit in tune with modern times. authoritarian attire. a matter of public education. But their unceasing activity and initiatives are so open and tolerated today that the ban has little practical meaning. in the heart. republican order.

It is a characteristic of the various Nursi groups that when they meet. It is common public knowledge as to which tarikats are behind which media in Turkey. and appear in their media. Bediu Nursi came from eastern Turkey. as well as one of Turkey's major private television stations. Other of their media include radio stations and various periodicals. But other Nursi groups. some Nursi groups are actively involved in mainstream politics. especially the brighter. society. they reverently absorb themselves in Nursi's writings. They differ widely on many issues. and his interpretations of Kur'anic verses in the light of modern science. powerfully impress his disciples. These groups would more likely call themselves the followers. or religious orders. The Nursis have established several highly . as though inhaling them for inspiration. are the Nursi groups. opt out of the secular system entirely. nature. totally rejecting the Turkish state for being un-Islamic. They run youth camps and maintain dormitories for students. This name is one given to them by outsiders. but use the name of legally constituted foundations or known individuals. Nursi spent many of his 87 years in jail because of the government's antitarikat orientation and Nursi's reputedly anti-secular orientation and influence. They build and operate schools.Religious Orders 69 Politicians now openly attend the public meetings organized by the tarikats. for they have no legal existence. court their leaders and members for votes and support. For instance. or disciples of the writings of Nursi. even to the extent of dressing distinctively. He died in poverty in 1960. He left behind a collection of about 130 works entitled Risale-i Nur (The Tractates of Light). His views on humanity. Consisting of several branches and divisions. and the destiny of the world. the Nursis all look to the works of the twentieth century mystical writer È zzaman Said Nursi as the spiritual guide to contemporary life. or readers. academically talented young people. unwilling to transliterate them into the modern Turkish alphabet. a large set of tarikats. it is widely believed that the Nursi groups are behind a major newspaper. Nursis In Turkey today. including translations of them into other languages. treating them as semi-sacred. For instance. They make their appeal to the youth. The tarikats do not carry on these activities in their own name. Some even hand-copy these writings using the original Ottoman script. a university. Yet other Nursi groups give much effort to publishing and distributing these works. and hospitals. There are said to be around a dozen different major Nursi groups.

are rooted in an ancient past. Iran. They see themselves as a continuation of folk mysticism.70 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey successful private high schools in which they provide every opportunity for talented young people to excel in mathematics and science. expressed today in Sufist forms. Bektashis feel close to the Shii branch of Islam. is the spontaneous. Nakshibendi groups are located today in Turkey. For instance. and small businesses. informal lecture. Their contemporary efforts are directed to recapturing that spirit of greatness and authority. In general the Nakshibendis are anti-reformist and anti-innovation. such as in the former Islamic republics of the Soviet Union. A famous contemporary case involves the family of the È zal. Nakshibendis The Nakshibendi groups. he had the cemetery of the great Sulemaniye Mosque opened by decree of Parliament so that his mother could be buried there next to Mehmet Zait Kotku (1897±1980). Iraq. they wish to use science as an aid in proving the truth of Allah. especially in the modern age. They like to recall that the Ottomans were once a great world power. The Nursis are primarily intent on saving the faith. One of their notable practices. of whom the Nursis mentioned above are an offshoot. influential families. The Nursis believe they have a universal mission. and the Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. They are also connected with student dormitories. Nakshibend of Bukhara (died 1389). They are known for their humorous wisdom stories. politics. They look to the Ottoman time as a period of splendor in both religion and politics. India. the son-in-law of . which they share with other religious orders. Syria. Bektashis Another large religious order is the Bektashi groups. During O È zal's tenure as Prime Minister deceased President Turgut O (1983±9). including the women of those families. where the disciples gather around the master to receive his teachings in intimate conversation. They have opened private high schools in other countries. The Nakshibendis involve themselves with middle and upper classes in both the cities and the rural areas. They like to organize through Turkey's large. They are interested in proving and preserving the superiority of Sunni Islam. and in Australia. publications. Pakistan. a set of tarikats with ancient roots. a renowned Nakshibendi leader. They go back 600 years to their founder. The Shii tendency is to grant special status to the family of Ali.

Bektashis may make it a point not to be so engaged. stimulating time. the Jem ritual. conducted where possible in their own special houses of assembly. The belief is that Ali as the successor of the Prophet inherited his esoteric knowledge. Many of Turkey's intellectuals. Exactly at the time other Muslims are engaged in these practices. and generally have a peaceful. the Bektashis are the least rule-bound of the groups we are discussing. Alevis Bektashis are often mentioned in the same breath with the Alevis. There is also equal participation of men and women in Bektashi activities. and they are different enough from many Muslims to be almost outside orthodox Islam. Visitors to Turkey can know when they are among Shii Muslims by the pictures of Ali seen on the walls. A basic Bektashi principle is the call for people of all stripes and persuasions to gather. Bektashis from Every August at Hacibektas . Their golden formula is `be master of your hand and your belly and your tongue'. As a result. hko Turkey and other countries gather for three days to celebrate the figure for whom they are named. Like the Bektashis. Hajji Bektash Veli (d.' Bektashis claim they are more Turkish in their practice of Islam than the orthodox Sunni. to put aside differences.Religious Orders 71 the Prophet Muhammad. It is not that they object to these prescribed practices but that they wish to show their distinctive spiritual strength and knowledge in transcending them. fasting. watch musical performances and recitals. and even top politicians find themselves attracted to this event. È y. wisdom. and the prohibition on drinking alcohol. southeast of Ankara. giving Ali's family a surpassing spiritual and political significance. and they defer to their special spiritual . Another characteristic of Bektashis is their freedom from ritual Islamic law (shariah). But the Alevis are more Shii-like. talk about books and ideas. share food. engage in rituals. stage discussions. men and women are mixed in their rituals. a time of great love and tolerance. Bektashis are famous as lovers of stories. 1297). and poetry. The Alevis are known in Turkey for their particular ritual. and to share the best each has to offer the other. writers. Hundreds of thousands of people meet to hear speeches. which seems to be a Turkicized form of the Prophetic definition of a Muslim: `A Muslim is one by whose tongue and hand people are safe. This is a noticeable exception to the customary Islamic prohibition against the portrayal of human figures. artists. from things such as attending the prayer sacrament in the mosque.

Still Come. They keep the palm of the right hand upward. and as oppression endured by Alevis under the Ottomans. Our Protector. The turning. Sunnis are unhappy with the closed-knit group psychology of Alevis and with the way the Alevis seem to nurture a centuries-old anger against Sunnis. they often find themselves opposed by orthodox Sunni Muslims. This is not a caravan of despair. The dancers wear a white robe and a tall. lasting for nearly an hour. Mevlevis One of Turkey's most renown tarikats is that of the Mevlana. or the repetitive cycles of nature. brown cylindrical hat. These `whirling dervishes' have for many years now publicly demonstrated their zikir for interested audiences at . As they gracefully turn. Their head is directed up toward the sky. The left hand is palm down. or even Our Servant. whoever you are! Come. The antagonism arises from what Alevis see as injustice suffered by Ali and Ali's offspring. It doesn't matter if you've broken your vow a thousand times. It consists of a constant turning or twirling of the body. known in short by his title. Because the Bektashis and Alevis are markedly different from other religious orders. He is known for his famous call: Come. to the sound of hymns and the haunting notes of the reed flute. Lover of Leaving Come. pointing to Allah to receive grace. or by the name `Rumi'. Mevlana is the chief interpreter of Islam for Turkish tastes as love and tolerance. the motion of the planets in their orbits. They are sensitive to what they see as baseless prejudices manufactured against them by the Sunni majority and complain vigorously to the government about mistreatment. passing on this grace to the people. Followers train from an early age to do a whirling sort of dance suffused with spiritual meaning. a striking zikir. worshipper. When first witnessed. This title can mean Our Master. This group takes for their founding figure Jalal ad-Din ar-Rumi (1207±73). their robes billow out. Our Beloved. the Mevlevis have maintained at their center in Konya a striking way of calling on and remembering Allah. or twirl. and yet again Come!1 Over the centuries. the spectacle is most impressive.72 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey leaders and masters. the repetition. `Mevlana'. On the other hand. recalls the circumambulation of the Kaaba in Mecca during the pilgrimage. Wanderer.

Their unique form of zikir is silent meditation on Allah through the channel or mediation of their master. far surpassing the religious order in Turkey that follows his heritage. The Melamites are mystics who stress humility. They tend toward modernist interpretations of the traditional materials. emerge uninjured from the experience. which they sometimes show publicly. They seem to confirm the secular order in their allowance for the uncovering of women and their acceptance of mixed male-female social gatherings.Religious Orders 73 home and abroad. There are several other religious orders that deserve mention. Among Turkey's religious . the People of the Light. They will cut or apparently harm their bodies but. and singing. The Ishikchi outlook is more mystical and privatized. and high state officials of Turkey have begun attending the celebration of the annual climactic night of zikir in Konya. in the faith that there is no `self' to harm. the Rufais. presidents. love. calligraphy. self-denial. and theater. they support a major television station and newspaper. They emphasize business and especially cultivate small business people. literature. as on television. to show the power of faith. have a unique corporate zikir. Like the Nursis. They demonstrate Allah's power in the annihilation of the self. The purpose is to praise Allah. In recent years. They stress traditional Islamic education and run Kur'an courses and student dormitories. who back a large conglomerate of commercial and consumer enterprises. They concentrate on Islam as it has been traditionally practiced by Sunni Muslims. Another order. They are less formal than the Rifais but do emphasize the master±disciple tie as the way to true knowledge. The Rifais support the Anatolian-Islamic cultural arts. plus radio stations and periodicals. prime ministers. The influence and legacy of Mevlana has now spread globally. often in rural areas. or particular ritual manner of remembering and focusing on the name of Allah. Memorization of the Kur'an is a goal of such courses. The Suleymanis are another active religious order working halfhidden. Miscellaneous groups Another very large and economically powerful group is the Ishikchi group. Sulaiman Hilmi Tunahan (1888±1959). especially music. The Ishikchi people differ from the Nursis in that they are not so academically and politically oriented. They are known for their emphasis on the earlier mystical masters and their wonders and miracles. The Rifais organize among the educated and stress academics.

But paradoxically they tend to support the ruling secular political parties. religion is strictly privatized and does not enter questions of government and the public good. religion. contained members who made substantial claims for applying Islamic principles to state government. perhaps because they believed Refah could never come to power. townspeople. Political parties in Turkey form a spectrum according to the degree to which political self-expression and religious self-expression are united in any given party's members. Attendance at funerals. on the one hand.74 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey functionaries in the mosques are many Suleymanis. It actually was a political party. The political successes that Refah achieved are an indication of how far religious orders have come from the early days of the Turkish Republic. but many of its members display the tarikat mentality and attitude of a tarikat toward its leader. This brief discussion of the religious orders should take note of Refah. and in that vision. and they did not want to be on the losing side. when they were repressed. This is probably because they saw their survival in compromising with the ruling powers. There were many in Refah who belong to various religious orders. weddings. is a way that the more secular public figures show religious identity. and for expressing Islam more publicly. who has served as prime minister. Refah was in power at the head of a coalition government for several months before being banned in early 1998. Many religious orders never voted for Refah. Suleymanis are successful in appealing to villagers. is regarded almost as a tarikat master by many Refah followers. Most of the religious orders mentioned above have supported political parties that are explicitly secular in their programs. Suleymanis are often in dispute with the state religious organization and schools in that they distrust modern ways of teaching the Kur'an and Islam. mevluts. Refah. They have a strong master±disciple structure. Refah is not a pure tarikat because it has no zikir. circumcisions. Refah's leader. Yet members of such secular parties attend to religious practices in their own way and are portrayed by the media as doing so. and the middle class of the cities. On the other hand. and the state. Refah pitched its appeal to citizens at large and not to the religious orders as such. which we can call a quasi-tarikat. and it won the greatest number of votes of any of the parties in the December 1995 general elections. and so forth. solidly secular parties have their own vision of the proper relation between personal identity. Refah was not the only political party with ties to some of the religious orders. .

who pledge allegiance to the group's charismatic leader. Members staunchly support and promote one another. mediating between Allah and humanity. Third. pilgrimage. They respect the theology and principles that are based on the Kur'an and the practices of the Prophet Muhammad but claim to go beyond them. and deviation from the pure unity principle of the Kur'an and the Prophet Muhammad. there are particular procedures. Yet Sufi groups tend to be criticized by orthodox scholars and theologians. They cultivate admiration for the Islamic and particularly Ottoman past and see themselves as preserving the Islamic heritage. Second. share some common characteristics. which are peculiar to each group. the members of religious orders commonly participate in universal Islam. It could also be put the other way around: the secular-left politicians have bargained with. and property to the will of the master. fasting. animal offering. or habits. The objection is that the tarikats are to varying degrees given over to wonders and superstition. They submit their time. That is. concealment. They help one another with common daily problems. with a few exceptions. something explicitly prohibited by the Kur'an. absolute authority. the group expects unswerving loyalty from its members. They have differing emphases in social outreach. These differences . and that they are reaching the heart of the Kur'an and true Islam. and almsgiving. First. Alevis and Bektashis have tended to support the secular-left political parties as the best way forward to their survival. They are cautious of western influence and quick to defend religion. the word tarikat still carries overtones of secrecy. They encourage attachment to a master who is regarded as a semi-divine. To the orthodox mind. or in forms of internal discipline and education. talents. or needed. or used the Bektashi±Alevi groups to gain votes or stay in power. In return. or in rituals. while the more Sunni religious orders have tended to support the secular-right parties to further their own aims. and we have mentioned only a few. division. Evaluation: the role of the tarikat in the modern state The religious orders. they exhibit a strong group mentality.Religious Orders 75 As a general rule. and the secular-right have done the same mainly with the Sunni religious orders. they practice the canonical Islamic sacraments of prayer (namaz/salat). What this seems to show is that the religious orders are dynamic and capable of adjustment to constantly changing conditions. energy. Sufi scholars argue that they are reestablishing the pristine experience of the Prophet and his companions.

even cold to an outsider. Finally. They do not consider themselves limited to Turkey. nourishes the soul and body and purifies the heart. bodily. to awaken it to Allah. rhythmic movement that. Each group has its own zikir. to keep the heart alive to Allah. the zikir. or way of remembering and saying the name of Allah. the beloved. welcoming. they might be warm. As long as a strong and influential leader is present. For instance. Yunus Emre. in a circle. or crossculturally. they are personalist organizations with similar Sufist disciplines. Fifth. with the words. Normally the members of the tarikat do their zikir corporately. Those who are sensitive to this point can pick out who belongs to which group by the words they choose. or the way they look at one another or at nonmembers.76 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey ultimately relate to the temperament and experience of the founding master. or manner. Each group keeps to itself the manner of its zikir. there are groups of Mevlevis and Bektashis in the United States and Alevi organizations in Germany. and Hajji Bektash Veli as spiritual guides from the past. The result of the word-body repetition. and friendly toward an insider but more aloof. But when the leader dies or is otherwise weakened. As the master was revered when alive. although they can also do it individually. one for insiders and one for outsiders. and to receive the master's blessings. For instance. the group loyally coheres around that person. That is. This means the tarikats characteristically share in preaching the . Group adherents have two sets of behaviors. Accompanying the repetition of these words is a ceaseless. People visit these tombs to pay homage to the departed master. each tarikat feels free to organize internationally. the religious orders are structured through charismatic leadership and obedient discipleship. Fourth. Otherwise the group itself implicitly acknowledges one. The person is absorbed in Allah and reaches a state of trance or ecstasy. In many cases the master designates his successor. the question of succession arises. so he is visited at his grave or tomb when dead. which is the whirling dance that can be performed publicly. The practices and temperament of each religious order give its members its own peculiar stamp. for it is in the miraculous nature of the Sufi masters that their bodies do not decompose. their manner of speaking. each group counts the famous Anatolian mystics Mevlana. to present their petitions. The zikir of the religious orders is usually a repetition of certain verbal formulas composed mainly of the name of Allah or the attributes of Allah. is to fill the person with the remembrance of Allah. There is a popular belief that these tombs should be carefully maintained. One notable exception is the zikir of the Mevlevis.

critical thinking. financial houses. reason. who start up serious and successful schools. The religious orders are successfully learning modern technology. economics. which are love. There is a prevailing `inerrancy of the master' doctrine among the members that defines whatever the master says as divinely true. The energy behind these private initiatives often lies with the tarikats. A flood of non-governmental media. and so on. a question stands in the way of their further growth. Private. or the spirit of the modern age. state media. or religiously motivated groups. unswerving obedience to their master. Their style is centralized. As more people grow to value such principles. and impersonal structures. the contemporary international thrust. state industries. the pushing of religion out of public life. Although the tarikats are thriving and successful today. the question arises of just how widespread the tarikat style can ever become. Today the country of Turkey is witnessing the collapse or failure or sale of many of these state institutions and a corresponding growth in private initiatives. if at all. This revolution resulted in the privatization of religion. authoritarian. radio and television stations. non-governmental organizations were either banned or required to submit to the nationalist program. advertising. hospitality. Many secularists judge and oppose them as a backward force. As we noted above. banks. do they give in to the kind of changes demanded by the activities of the religious orders. The public is increasingly aware of the role the religious orders now play in society. and antidemocratic. tolerance. Only very slowly. industries. Many religiously oriented groups are even ready to open their own universities.Religious Orders 77 universal values of those figures. They are pushing for more freedom. . and so on. peace. The secular elite which has traditionally controlled power in Turkey is wary and fearful of such developments. The members of the religious orders show uncritical. and the creation of new institutions. and so on. These new institutions and organizations were government sponsored and commanded a monopoly in their fields: a state school system. the tarikats were banned earlier this century because the republican nationalists saw them as opposed to the kind of revolution that was underway. as they compete in the same arena with secular and state organizations. individual initiative and decision-making. and other organizations has surged into public life. but their social services are gaining in popularity among religious segments of society. the mediator of the saving knowledge of Allah. corporations. politics. state banks. On the other hand. banks. and unity. is built on investigation. newspapers.

Ramazan. Fasting is holistic. fostering a spirit of solidarity among worshippers. The month of fasting. and some of whom do not fast at all. drink. As an act of worship. Muslims are not expected to attract attention to themselves by their fasting. or acts of worship in Islam. the giving of gifts like money and chocolate and sweets. some of whom fast regularly. the large cities contain a correspondingly immense range of people. In Turkey there is the sharing of food. the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. Fasting. in that it involves body. individuals deny themselves food. mind. It is a time of joy and blessings. This happiness expresses itself in various cultural ways. It is a time of great joy. It is an individual act but undertaken simultaneously by Muslims worldwide. particularly between the rich and poor. The descriptions in this section will nevertheless give some clues to the visitor about how the practice of fasting shows itself. a time to celebrate the victory attained in the great struggle against the self and against temptation. is a lunar month. known as oruch (Arabic: sawm). They satisfy these bodily needs only at night. First.) The completion of the fasting month is celebrated with the three-day Breaking of the Fast Holiday.7 Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday The month-long fast is one of the major sacraments. and sex during daylight hours. whichever is necessary for one complete cycle of the phases of the moon. may not be so obvious to the visitor in large cities in Turkey. This new life style lasts for either 29 or 30 days. of special meals and family warmth. the 78 . (A lunar month is nearly 29 1/2 solar days. Second. and a wonderful time for children. and soul in an inseparable way. the Islamic world enters a different daily routine. some of whom fast occasionally. At the first appearance of the new moon signaling the beginning of Ramazan. known in Turkey as Ramazan Bayrami and in the Arabic world as Id al-Fitr.

or it may be internal. someone might make a petition to Allah. The fast is invalid without this intention. or shelter. The first requirement is that of intention. in the seventh century. the worship of fasting should be preceded by a statement of intention to fast.Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday 79 kissing of the hands of the elders. That is. To be valid. its requirements are the same during Ramazan as at any other time of the year. as it was written for those before you. Allah wishes ease for you and does not will hardship for you. and the covenant should not be betrayed. The statement of intention may be oral and external. Fasting is written. worshippers formally state to themselves and to Allah their aim to fast each coming day for the sake of Allah. It is like forming a covenant. (2:183±5) Fasting is not limited to the Ramazan month. Allah wills that you fulfill the period and magnify Allah for His direction. The Prophet Muhammad recommended fasting as a shield. recompense by feeding a poor person. But if someone is ill or is a traveler. Ramazan is the month in which the Kur'an was revealed as a direction for people and as principles of guidance and discernment. Your fasting is blessed. It is blessed to give charity voluntarily. Someone might pledge to fast as a form of repayment. The Islamic legal schools in the first centuries of Islam codified the ceremonial aspect of fasting. So when any of you comes to that month. or commanded. The month of Ramazan was the month in which the Kur'an was first revealed to the Prophet. and much visitation between friends and relatives. or. you should fast. Individuals may undertake days of voluntary fasting. if capable. Whatever the reason for fasting. preferably at certain times of the year. and it became the Islamic month of fasting. Origins Fasting has been a Muslim practice from the beginning. which is always at the forefront of the worshipper's mentality. this promise to Allah. this serious consciousness. with the hope that you be saved. For instance. if you knew. to protect oneself from evil. But a person who is ill or on a journey should fast on other days. This is one of those basic Kur'anic principles so . in the Kur'an: O believers. with the hope that you be saved. let him or her fast the number of days that are missed. promising to fast a certain number of days if the petition is granted. it is written that you fast for a number of days.

(2:177) The words of the Prophet also confirm the gravity of the believer's commitments and covenants: Judge deeds according to the intention. Everyone receives the rewards of that intention. And if there is any . especially with lights and slogans.80 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey fundamental to Islamic ethics. Pious foundations have geared up to distribute translations of parts of the Kur'an. Some mosques may be decorated. One should keep one's solemn words and commitments.1 Preparation for the arrival of Ramazan At a cultural level in Turkey. But some other countries. Emotions and feelings for the poor have intensified. Calendars showing the precise times of fasting each day have been printed and distributed. Municipalities have prepared to feed their needy citizens during Ramazan. Houses have been cleaned and kitchens have been stocked. They insist on sighting the new moon with the naked eye. reject the use of modern technology to determine the new moon that starts the fasting month. Its Department of Religious Affairs refers to these calculations and declares the official starting date. Television and other mass media are ready with special programs. many preparations for the month of fasting take place before its first day arrives. Turkey accepts the results of modern astronomical calculations. Arrangements have been made for extra activities in the mosques. as they understand the Prophet Muhammad to have done. These are all spontaneous. Bakeries have prepared to switch to the special Ramazan style bread. Those who break a covenant with Allah after it has been agreed upon. self-initiated activities. They show how Muslims expectantly look forward to the beginning of the month of fasting. such as Saudi Arabia. The Islamic world today seems to have two approaches to deciding the precise beginning of the lunar month of Ramazan. who cut into pieces whatever Allah has commanded to be whole. once they have promised themselves to it. and who cause evil on earth. will be the losers. (2:27) The good persons are the ones who are perfectly loyal to their covenant.

and whatever would normally enter and nourish or please the body: smoking. and on you I rely. The month of Ramazan. like a date. Muslims must abstain from any food. The Department of Religious Affairs again determines this time nowadays by referring to precise technical calculations for each region of Turkey. which is the time of the evening canonical prayer. From that moment on. The streets slowly empty as people go home for the meal. being lunar. Iftar: breaking the day's fast The breaking of each day's fast begins with the prayer just mentioned. I now state my intention to fast tomorrow. This means that part of the Islamic world may begin the festival that ends the fast a day earlier or later than other parts. Amen. With the provision you offer. and the length of daylight is shorter.Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday 81 doubt. fasting should begin when the light of true dawn appears on the eastern horizon. In some towns. sexual and erotic delights. any drink. such as would occur when the sky is overcast. or even medicine. The procedure for fasting On each day within the month of Ramazan. always begins on a different day in the modern calendar year. People are very sensitive about heeding the exact time of breaking each day's fast. All normal activities can be resumed. When Ramazan moves into the winter season. TV stations not only announce the precise time. or something sweet. I break my fast. and the . people can take food and drink. they also provide the call to prayer and give the traditional petitionary prayer for the moment of breaking the daily fast: O my Lord. The traditional way of describing this time is to say that it is when there is exactly enough light to distinguish a white thread from a black thread. the time for daily fasting is therefore less than when Ramazan occurs during the summer. for your sake I fasted. then they will begin fasting immediately for a full 30 days. It has now become popular in many homes for people to have the television lead them into the breaking of the fast. In you I have put my faith. the announcement of the breaking of that day's fast is the firing of a cannon. The visitor to Turkey will see people looking at watches and asking the time as sunset draws near. the eating of a black olive. After the setting of the sun in the evening. Forgive me for things past and for things to come.

These have now become so attractive that they compete with the traditional custom of attending the mosque for the canonical prayer after dinner. The Ramazan spirit implants love and harmony in society. Some drummers sing or recite poetry at people's doors. waking people up as a reminder that food should be taken before daylight. People watch television programs of information and entertainment designed especially for the month of Ramazan. for they do not want to miss the excitement of joining adults in this yearly event. and with its special family warmth. . but it is also community-oriented worship. It was a practice of the Prophet Muhammad and his recommendation to do so. flat bread. It establishes bridges across the gap between rich and poor. makes a strong impression on the minds of children. Fasting is not an isolated act of individualism. and so forth. Entertainment in the form of conversation. particular nature. sharing food. Many people eat a pre-dawn meal called the sahur. colleagues. In Turkey it is popular for large companies to stage a businessmen's iftar. It is personal. Television channels carry special religious programs to accompany the sahur. sprinkled with sesame or poppy seed. In Turkey it is a custom for drummers to walk the streets in the early hours of the morning. Foods that are special to Ramazan are served. drama. with its different. They beg their parents to wake them up for the sahur meal.82 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey drinking of a glass of water. relatives. when they gather for food. Sahur: the pre-dawn meal After the activities of the Ramazan evening. is encouraged in the evenings after the meal. which is the evening meal that breaks the fast. and other major social figures come together to share the Ramazan meal. We will return to this custom later. bakeries in Ramazan produce a round. conversation. stories. It discourages hatred and jealousy and strengthens ties between friends. For instance. and feeding the poor all please Allah and incur Allah's blessings. Heads of political parties. religious leaders. Ramazan is thought of as a month of abundant blessings raining down from above. Eating with others. and neighbors. The iftar. families may retire for the night. but there are those who simply stay awake until dawn. and fellowship. songs. poems. reinforcing the collective identity of the Muslim community. should be eaten with others. Even those who do not fast enjoy sharing the iftar and are welcome to do so. To arise before dawn for the sahur is associated in Muslim piety with abundant blessings. This meal in the predawn darkness.

or those whose lives are threatened. or as mirrors toward each other.Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday 83 Allowances for personal circumstances Depending on individual circumstances. It is the responsibility of adults to train the children in body. The expectation of parents is that as they mature. Ideally every Muslim is expected to fulfill their obligations to others as part of their own duties toward Allah. are also not required to fast. Recompense for undone fasting Together with Muslims worldwide. why they are strongly attached to each other. or as shepherds. the infirm. They must either make up the days not fasted at a later. seeking to guide and protect each other. Children are not obliged to join the fast until they reach puberty. Those whose mental or physical health is poor are not required to fast. or soldiers in war. women nursing babies. The elderly. but Islamic piety considers the permission to eat now and fast later to be a banquet offered by Allah. may postpone their fasting. This may explain why people in Turkey are so social and communal. and those who have given birth within the last 40 days may defer the days of fasting. more convenient time. menstruating women. If those who are permitted in this way to defer their fasting insist on fasting anyway. . and spirit. or pay recompense in the form of feeding the poor. Muslims in Turkey observe the following procedures regarding undone fasting. traditionally meaning people on a journey of more than 18 hours. Readers may consult Appendix G for a complete chart of alternative modes of sacramental practice according to individual circumstances. the children will grow into the fast and adopt it as their own worship obligation. or as stewards. It is recommended that a believer not refuse this allowance out of preference for extreme piety. in that each person sees him or herself in the other. Travelers who postpone any days of fasting are expected to make them up later. Raising children to fast is part of executing that responsibility. The Kur'an uses images of Muslims as brothers and sisters. or as friends and guardians of one another. then they may have their wish. mind. and to instruct them intelligibly in Islamic practices. Travelers. Care and concern for children is seen by the pious as a divine responsibility and a direct fruit of the basic Kur'anic principle which we can call the Golden Rule of Islam: to encourage the good and shun evil. People dedicated to a special religious mission. there are alternative modes for the required worship of fasting. pregnant women.

infirm. It is a central Kur'anic critique that not acting on one's promises and commitments is a cause of evil. it may be necessary to convert the obligation to make up fasting days into an act of charity. But the worshipper has the sole responsibility to make this donation. A covenant. These alms that replace a day of fasting are technically termed `ransom'. some days or occasions such as festival days or other days of social enjoyment are not encouraged for fasting. or `sacrifice'. There is no external court or religious authority or institution to judge each individual and to enforce these rules and conditions. namely to feed a poor person for a day or to donate the equivalent amount. he or she should resume fasting and make up one day of fasting later because of this forgetfulness.84 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey If a person forgets that he or she is fasting and takes food or drink or has sexual relations. consciously. However. Regulation is fashioned by Allah in each individual's soul. or makes some excuse to stop fasting. willingly. then the person's integrity is in question. the deferred days do not have to be made up on consecutive days. Those who are making up a deferred fasting day choose their own convenient time during the rest of the year. This covenant is so deep and so personal that the divinely established rule . Whatever the believer's choice. If more than one day needs to be made up. and committed concerning some promise or course of action. and in freedom. No one else may make it for him or her. But if the person begins fasting for a day and then willfully violates it. For instance. Once the person is aware. people can make a will that leaves a sum of money as a makeup for the days of fasting they deferred. speaking invisibly and secretly to that person alone. Embracing Islam means to carry out the obligations of that covenant intentionally. then that person's fast is not considered broken unless the person is aware of it. If someone is informed. the required recompense is to fast one day for each day of fasting that was deferred. Before they die. This illustrates the Islamic principle that one is not held responsible unless one has freely chosen an action. or contract. According to individual circumstances. then the reparation is rigorous: 60 days of fasting are to be `paid' for each day of violation. the penalty is 60 times more severe than if the person had never fasted or never undertaken the commitment to fast. Friday is also not encouraged for fasting because it is the special climactic day of the week when the Friday Prayer takes place. but fails to carry it through. elderly persons may not be able to make up their fasting later. That is. `redemption'. or unless one has been fully informed or convinced of one's responsibility. convinced. or religious government with its own laws is established by Allah and observed by the believer.

let him do it with his heart. neighbors. let him change it with his hand.3 A case occurred in the Turkish town of Rize in 1996 when. The Rize muftu eventually gave his opinion that to make that day's fast valid and complete. shines from the face of one who is . Wearing a long face. which is ultimately related to Kur'anic principles and to the example of the Prophet Muhammad. they cannot pick out from among strangers who is and who is not fasting. let him do it with his tongue. everyone in Rize must make up one day of fasting. The hypocrisy of fasting so that one be thought pious by others is thoroughly condemned by the Kur'an. for enforcing it on his or her self.2 Whoever of you sees evil. in fulfillment of what Allah has required. And each person was responsible only to Allah. However. other relatives. before the sun had set. parents. an individual's friends. children. If he cannot. its own etiquette. The Islamic ideal is to act from the heart and fast for the sake of Allah. are obliged for the good of their own souls to encourage that individual to follow the correct path. As we explained above. The etiquette of fasting Fasting in Turkey has its own proper behavior. the time to break one of the daily Ramazan fasts was broadcast too early. and not to the Rize muftu. If he cannot. But Muslim piety thinks that a special light.Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday 85 in a believer's heart is spoken of as something objective and external. They should go about their normal duties and not claim special treatment. A believer is a mirror to another believer. No one would know that someone has broken his or her promise to fast unless there were a confession. and a believer is a brother of another believer and protects him from loss and watches over him from behind. avoiding people who are not fasting. This last is the weakest of faith. a special blessing. colleagues. a basic principle of Islamic behavior and ethics is to encourage the good and shun evil. what we are calling the Golden Rule of Islam. by mistake. Unless visitors ask or have some clue. and sleeping the day off are all considered contrary to the spirit of the fast. But there is no third party or external institution to enforce the covenant. People who are fasting during the day should not make a show of it. But each person in Rize carried this obligation individually. and so on.

the additional canonical prayer during Ramazan evenings. They are led by a practiced reciter. who follow the text. Decency. Accompanying the teravih are additional readings from the Kur'an. The singing is in unison and without instruments. openness. and purity are thought to suffuse the looks and manners of the worshippers as the fruits of their worship. Teravih and other activities in Ramazan Each Ramazan evening after the iftar. and also before every afternoon's canonical prayer.86 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey worshipping Allah by fasting. When reciting. He is remembered as reciting over and over the whole of the revelations he had received. is hymn-singing. both men and women. Such people are often seen on the streets in Ramazan. Another distinctive feature of the teravih. they are surrounded by a circle of the devout. and before every morning's canonical prayer. In the same way. many Muslims. volunteer choirs spontaneously gather to sing hymns in praise of Allah and in honor of the Prophet Muhammad. The teravih are extra canonical prayers for Ramazan only. but with more intensity than usual. Thus Ramazan is an especially blessed month for the blind. and recitation. kindness. moving from mosque to mosque to recite sections from the Kur'an. go to the mosque for supplementary canonical prayer and to listen to preaching. Each mosque has one or two circles of worshippers who gather during the day for this Kur'an recitation. But between the sets of stations of the teravih. with some children loving to join . those who have led in the recitation of the entire Kur'an receive payment for their services. They have a recognizable brightness in their eyes. It comes from the example of the Prophet Muhammad. It is a goal during Ramazan that the Kur'an be read in its entirety. prostration in the prayer sacrament is considered to leave its imprint on the face and forehead. Each evening during Ramazan. It may not be surprising to learn that Muslims who are blind are also often memorizers and practiced reciters of the Kur'an. The recitation of the entire Kur'an is a practice that is common throughout the year. instruction. By the end of the month. The canonical prayer in the Ramazan evenings at the mosque is called the teravih. warmth. The choir is usually composed of male volunteers from the congregation. beyond the required sacrament of the night prayer. Hymns are normally not part of the canonical prayer. a set portion of the Kur'an will be read in the mosques until the entire book has been recited at least once. Fasting can also be smelled on the breath. with the angel Gabriel listening to him.

Believers keep a special vigil on that night for the visitation of Allah's grace. for peace in all affairs' (97:4±5). a time when the transcendent Allah is especially close to finite creation. loudspeakers are set up and broadcasts or recordings are made to meet the demands of a wider audience. preachers use the occasion to cover a variety of subjects. Muslims sense that the whole night is charged with wonder. before the night prayer sacrament. In the same spirit. forgiveness. and holiness. Visitors will notice overflow crowds at the mosques at midday on Ramazan Fridays. The night is characterized by close. The Night of Power and Destiny is `better than a thousand months. A very popular. The audience is mainly other women. At certain times during the day. or charity. It occurs on the 26th or 27th day of Ramazan. warm feelings between relatives and friends. the beginning of revelation. There is also preaching at night. It is a chance for each individual to reflect on his or her destiny. Many worshippers find space only outside the mosque. in some mosques. and a special openness to righteousness and goodness and truth. women theological students or well-known women preachers will deliver sermons. It is a time to review the whole of Islamic tradition and history and its meaning. which is thought to occur at a special moment during the night. or Destiny. or touch it to their foreheads. The Prophet's Beard is one of those folk practices not found in the textual sources or in the practice of the Prophet Muhammad. People will kiss the container it is in.Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday 87 them. whether man or woman. On this night the angels and the spirit descend by the will of their Lord. Another event during the Ramazan month is the preaching by women. or Knowledge. is well known. If in a large mosque the preacher. the Friday Prayer is particularly well attended during Ramazan. The spiritual climax of the fasting month is The Night of Power. a moment for which one must be ready. but it is strongly rooted in popular Islam in Turkey. But throughout the month. blessings. This is The Prophet's Beard ritual. preachers put extra effort into their sermons. It is especially favored by women and . and theologians offer their knowledge and thoughts to the inquiring faithful. when a hair believed to be from the beard of the Prophet Muhammad is unwrapped and shown to the congregation for their veneration. A main topic of sermons toward the end of Ramazan is almsgiving. or even outside its courtyard. With the larger congregations present. although the event is open to anyone. The Night of Power and Destiny celebrates the coming of the Kur'an to the Prophet Muhammad. non-canonical ceremony takes place following the teravih on The Night of Power and Destiny.

in that its particular blessings and character will be missed until the following year. They brought to Istanbul much booty and several relics. the renewal of life. including the Prophet's Robe. `May Allah reunite us with the greatness of Ramazan. Candy stores sell chocolates and other sweets for presenting to friends and relatives. The technical name for this Ramazan donation is the fitre. become visible. Houses are thoroughly cleaned to receive the many visitors. A similar ritual to The Prophet's Beard is the Prophet's Robe. special foods are prepared. In anticipation of celebrating the end of Ramazan. to search for that time. People mail greeting cards to one another. It is kept at the Topkapi Palace. has become personalized and made into a good friend. some will die and will not be with the community for the next Ramazan. During Ramazan. there is further canonical prayer to end the congregational part of the evening. ritually required act of charity by which each Muslim contributes to the needy . when Allah's grace generously drops like rain. We have already noted that the end of Ramazan is also tinged with some sadness. the middle eastern sweetmeat. This is an individual. `The King of Months'. Nearly 500 years ago. the Ottomans under Sultan Selim I conquered Egypt and the Islamic holy places of Mecca and Medina. It is believed today that to see this robe is to receive blessings. Parents purchase new clothes and presents for their children. Ramazan festival preparations and the Ramazan alms As the final day of the month of Ramazan fasting approaches.' For people know that during the coming year. that moment. Adults save up their small change to give to youngsters. An important preparation for the Breaking of the Fast Holiday at the end of the month of Ramazan is the giving of alms. and the purification of life that Ramazan represents. There are crushes of shoppers on the streets.88 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey signifies their deep love for the Prophet. some people go to Istanbul to see the relic of the robe of The Prophet. Pastry shops take special orders for large amounts of baklava. In these ways. Following The Prophet's Beard ritual. of life's transience. among other things. This underlying reminder of death. Worshippers are urged to go home and keep vigil until dawn. refocuses the believers on the requirement to fast as part of the task of keeping in touch with Allah. Muslims greet each other at the close of the month saying. Ramazan. the minds of the people turn toward the celebration of thankfulness for having undergone another Ramazan.

But the primary reason for the Ramazan charity is that it is a duty. The fulfillment of this duty leads to rewards in the life to come. a special corporate canonical prayer called the `festival prayer' takes place at the mosque. The men should do a complete ablution before leaving for the mosque. Each event is its own phenomenon. for the triumph in overcoming the desires of the self. It is a feeling among Muslim families that the festival prayers are very special and not to be missed by the men of the household. repeating the extended Magnification of Allah in the festival prayer. at least to feed one poor person for a day. The men should wear their most decent clothes. met with great anticipation. Worshippers go to the festival prayer to give thanks to Allah for the strength to complete the fast. which is to be distinguished from zekat. After sunrise on the first day of the Breaking of the Fast Holiday. the Ramazan Festival. starting on the first day of this holiday: waking before sunrise to prepare for the morning's activities. which is more like a wealth tax. Muslims throughout Turkey engage in a series of events. incumbent upon every Muslim. The donation may be in money or in kind. making sure the breath and body have a good smell. These Ramazan alms are effectively a head tax. or visit religious institutions or informal religious groups for advice on where to give their charity. Only the festival prayer is a canonical practice. the name of the Breaking of the Fast Holiday could also be translated as the Charity Holiday. This festival prayer is in addition to the normal morning canonical prayer (namaz/salat).Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday 89 in their community. The Ramazan festival The last day of Ramazan fasting is followed by a three-day Breaking of the Fast Holiday. and exchanging visits. Fathers are expected by the women and children to go and participate. washing the entire body. to various charitable foundations. popularly known sometimes as the Holiday of Sweets. Further details regarding the Ramazan alms and the zekat are found in the chapter on charity and almsgiving. It helps insure that when the month of fasting is broken. The others are largely traditional local activities. which is always conducted before sunrise. exchanging holiday greetings. sharing in the holiday meal. attending the required canonical festival prayer. In fact. an obligation. brushing the teeth. or to schools with needy students. Some donors will approach their local imam. People use the opportunity to make contributions to the needy and the poor that they know. everyone can celebrate the Ramazan holiday. for the victory of `chaining up Satan' in the campaign to .

the preacher takes a moment to review for the congregation the special movements and procedures used in the festival prayer. After the festival prayer. visitors in Turkey will notice streams of men and boys. some with their own prayer mats. reformation. The sight of a father taking his son in the morning to the mosque for the festival prayer is an enduring image of the day. All other canonical prayers (namaz/salat) proceed as usual during the three days of the holiday. the sublime music. worshippers greet one another warmly before dispersing. At the conclusion of the lesson. Around sunrise on that day. and for having brought the believers through another Ramazan. This extended festival magnification is the special characteristic of the festival prayer. Then the muezzin asks the congregation to form lines as for namaz/salat. a tune that is almost inscribed on the soul of every Turkish citizen. Before sunrise.90 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey conquer evil. The themes usually concern the reconciliation. and reaffirmation of the Islamic community at the end of Ramazan. After the sermon come further supplications and petitions. the subject of which again is usually reconciliation and the temporary nature of life on earth. the sun rises and the congregation for the festival prayer gradually assembles. and the powerful solidarity of the worshippers imprint themselves indelibly on the believers. on their way to their local mosque. a preacher in the mosque begins a lesson. but after the usual dawn canonical prayer (namaz/ salat). Worship in the Ramazan festival prayer is accompanied by the extended Magnification of Allah: It is Allah who is magnificent! It is Allah who is magnificent! There is no god but Allah. It is Allah who is magnificent! It is Allah who is magnificent! And glory belongs only to Allah. transitory nature of earthly life. as well as the brief. Back at home. the small children wake up to receive new clothes and presents of money and to wait expectantly for the men of the household to return. It is cantillated beautifully on that morning using an old. They do two sets of stations of the canonical prayer. . During the lesson. The repetition of the Festival Magnification of Allah by the congregation. Then the imam mounts the pulpit to deliver a formal sermon. superb Ottoman tune. which means that the length of the festival prayer is brief. a hutbe.

At this time the youngest kiss the hands of the elders and then touch the elders' hands to their foreheads in respect. special meals in the evening and share their food with the needy in the community. unity and solidarity. For the next three days Turkey experiences reciprocal visitations when people dress up and call on one another. the children watch the behavior of their elders. respect for elders. It is an intensely social time. sharing. sensitivity to the destitute. and they also receive something sweet to eat. but not without first distributing sweets to their employees. so that international air and road traffic is also very heavy.Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday 91 When worshippers return home from the Ramazan Festival prayer. From a young age. and who go to the mosque after dinner for ritual prayer. The children receive presents in return. the government recognizes that the vast majority of the population wishes to celebrate it. Children kiss the hands of their elders. Schools and government offices and many private businesses therefore close for the festival. a crowning festival at the end of the month of fasting. Turkish workers in Europe return for family reunions. and social institution. This is the main holiday activity. Families gather in celebration. endurance. Toward the end of the festival. Although the Breaking of the Fast Holiday is not a national holiday as such. even those not on the best of terms. purity and cleanliness. it is the turn of the close relatives to be visited. Gifts are given. visits are paid to relatives and family friends farther afield. The fast is not simply a formal practice. who prepare delicious. cultural. obedience. who rise before dawn to eat. Whenever there is a visit from one household to another. Following this meal. there is a special festival meal. restoration of communal ties. Children who are raised within that institution have their character formed and renewed according to its principles: patience. people congratulate each other on the arrival of the holiday. Evaluation: the meaning of fasting in modern Turkey The Ramazan fast is a religious. It is a time when political leaders. who stop eating or drinking all day long. the visitors both bring something like food or flowers as a gift. During the first day or two of the festival. and a striving for harmony and goodness. a time of renewing ties. a time of personal relationships. awareness of the human situation and its limitations. call on each other and exchange holiday greetings. Turkey's buses and transport systems are bursting with travelers. the first meal in daylight hours since the beginning of the month of Ramazan. but a life-forming yearly event for those raised within .

and to be loyal to Allah. tongue. Far from being considered a hardship. It instructs the soul about the ideals that are embedded in fasting. It is a time of feeling very close to Allah and to the community of those who share the fasting. The transcendent Allah seems nearer than ever to the believer. a shared or cooperative behavior. It is a time when Muslims dedicate their lives more than usual to righteous. and also in social consciousness. One's character increases in self-discipline and self-awareness. and stomach'. Fasting believers experience a sort of purification during Ramazan. cultural and social activity. Such is the view especially of those who fast in the face of a secular ethos that continually confronts the individual with non-religious alternatives. Muslims regard the sacrament of fasting in Ramazan as a blessing. The mouth should neither speak what is illegitimate or evil. People also fast because they have been born into a religious tradition in which fasting is one of the beloved requirements.92 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey it. It has a social nature. And since people care for one another. to reconciliation with all. They feel sadness for those around them who do not participate in the Ramazan fasting. It makes religion something in which the individual is actively engaged. This purification means that Muslims make an extra effort during Ramazan to act for the good of others. It is a time to be joyful. living. Its purpose is to train the body to obey. wrongly earned. they wish each other to keep the fast and to benefit from it. Fasting can be called `worship by the mouth. The sacrament of fasting is believed to be inherently good. or the fruit of the exploitation of others. The Ramazan month of fasting is an inherited. But fasting is not only an act of personal integrity or an individual's fulfillment of a spiritual law. . in the sense of a sort of pruning or resting that later results in renewed vigor and growth. others feel concern. peaceful behavior. We can say that obedience to fasting is an `eschatological imperative'. Other people feel pity. Fasting in the month of Ramazan is a widespread practice. and to refrain from argument. `The King of Months' is the time when Allah's grace and provision are especially abundant. because it has been ordered by Allah in the Kur'an for the salvation of souls along with the other sacramental practices such as the canonical prayer. to avoid speaking or thinking evil of others. Salvation and forgiveness and inner peace seem at hand. to worship. the pilgrimage. nor take in what is illegitimate. and so on. others feel anger. The soul is elevated. others feel responsible. but there is no indifference toward Muslims who do not fulfill the requirement of the Ramazan fast.

it is the authors' impression that fasting among Muslims in Turkey today is more widely practiced than attending the canonical prayer (namaz/salat) at the mosque. Each individual will be judged ultimately on the basis of his or her responsibility to others.4 When Ramazan comes. more secure. They defend the fast by saying that it makes one healthier. As with the other sacraments. their Ramazan. as an act of obedience to Allah's will. Muslims understand fasting as something like a teaching by the Prophet Muhammad. The month is charged with such value that believers are sad to see their friend. It makes them more sensitive and receptive to spiritual teaching. its middle is forgiveness. It is not the result of personal desire. fasting is given by Allah. It is not a voluntary spiritual exercise or human construct. more charged with a sense of achievement and belonging. Although there are no statistics to refer to. and its end is liberation from The Fire. and Muslims look forward to this transformation. and the doors of hell are shut tight.5 Believers ordinarily participate in the fast without rationalizing it. as a sacrament of worship. The Prophet Muhammad said: The beginning of the month of Ramazan is compassion. The fast is also a reminder of social responsibility for the poor. religion is regarded as a private rather than a public affair. Fasting seems to have a wider appeal to people who are politically and socially secularized. and the devils are chained. other than the protection of one's soul. delivered to the Muslim community as a divine gift. and overall a better person. or witness. come to its final days. To think of fasting in this way is to put it in the category of a personal voluntary spiritual discipline. but it has become fashionable with the rise of the secularization of knowledge for Muslim apologists to list the benefits of fasting so as to make it more appealing to the modern age. The Muslim becomes sensitized during Ramazan to hardships and injustices in the world. more sensitized to social injustice. It is done without personal expectation. or testimony to one's faith. It is a divine institution. the gates of heaven are open. Fasting physically changes people. to earn Allah's good pleasure. We speculate that this may be because among secularists. Yet the usual motivation for fasting is one of obedience and service to Allah.Fasting and the Breaking of the Fast Holiday 93 One of the lessons of fasting is the direct experience of what the hungry of the world suffer. The . like an ascetic practice done for what one can get out of it. It makes their souls more generous.

and to dwell on its traditional meaning and practices. the more freedom it gives to the people and to their observances. with its Arabic and Persian origins. based on a public demonstration of social equality. justice. . meaning `Holiday of Sweets'. the direction of social and political change has been gradually to revert to using the holiday's original name. In the anonymity of modern public life. It is the authors' impression that since the 1980s. and order. ker Bayrami. instead of staying at home to celebrate by receiving guests. The secular spirit in Turkey led to renaming the Ramazan Breaking of the Fast Holiday as Se . This reflected the popular practice of exchanging gifts of food and sweets. The fruits of fasting are the reformation of the Islamic community through the internal purification and discipline of the individual. This may signal that the secular political structures are becoming more accommodating to aspects of Turkey's religious heritage. The ways in which fasting evokes Islamic community and solidarity are thus not so visible. social. The less the republican system fears developments from religious quarters. those who attend the canonical prayer (namaz/salat) at the mosque are making a more noticeable. and public statement. private.94 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey sacrament of fasting as an individual. almost secretive practice fits well into this secular understanding. the Ramazan Holiday. and the more confident it feels about its own existence. traditional holiday mood and language. a time to get away for rest or adventure. By contrast. The way that namaz/salat evokes Islamic community and solidarity is much more external and visible. But it also indicated the dominant secularist inclination to change the old. Another influence of the secularizing spirit on the Breaking of the Fast Holiday has been to treat it as a vacation time. by supplanting them with a more nationalist instinct. Such practice therefore sits less easily with those favoring privatized religion. it generally cannot be seen who is fasting.

Individuals come from a past in which they were created and are on their way to a future eternity. or The Day of Gathering. The righteous dead find their graves to be a garden of repose. And then each individual must answer for the good and the evil committed in life on earth. while the souls of the wicked find their graves 95 . Life on earth is only one part of this long voyage. Death The Kur'an emphasizes the inescapable nature of death. the Day of Questioning. on that day of days. and life after death. in the sense that it is an encouragement to live a moral life. the messengers of Allah. It is common Muslim thinking that each individual's life has dramatic significance as part of a great cosmic plan and divine history. referred to as the Judgment Day. or the hereafter. as part of the journey of every soul toward immortality. to the next life. the Day of Reckoning. the dead will rise and appear before Allah. What one does for good or evil in this life carries over into the hereafter. Just as life is Allah's creation. the Day of Resurrection. Allah will judge. represented as Paradise and Hell. The two foundations of Islamic faith are Allah and immortality. grouped in their myriads behind their prophets. On the Last Day. and then we see how these ideas express themselves in Turkey. Graves and tombs are way stations for the transition to the eternal.8 The Funeral Prayer and Burial We first look at the Islamic meaning of death and the dead. Death is a dynamic of the moral life. so is death. It was created to test the believer's morality. the Day of Standing before Allah. The belief is that the souls of the dead in their graves are awaiting this day of judgment. Allah will either punish or reward. together with every human being.

mostly within 24 hours. After death. which shows a concern for the modesty of the dead. The dead have claims on the living. Perfume should also be put on the head. in the morgue. or in the fasting month of Ramazan. These acts are due to the dead from those who are living. and on the face's points of prostration. on the beard of men. such as on a Friday. by deeds of charity. It is a Muslim folk belief that it is a good sign to die on a sacred day or night. the washing of the entire body. as this is proper preparation for the testing to come. which are the forehead and nose. If there is no one to care for the dead. Those gathered around the dying urge them to say the testimony of faith. Men wash men. Close relatives or the local imam gives a final. and their faces are turned in the direction of the mosque in Mecca. or at a sacred time.96 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey to be pits of Hell. if the person died at the hospital. perfumed water is used. forming something like a sack. After being washed and wrapped. the municipality will provide someone to wash the body. Those dying at such times or in sacred places are thought to be well received by Allah. The hearse that conveys the . It is to be made pure and clean for the coming journey to eternity. and women wash women. The eyes are closed. When people are about to die. the corpse is stripped of all clothing and placed on a clean. The person ideally should die with the word `Allah' or the words of the testimony on his or her lips. full ablution.' Relatives arrange for someone to be reciting from the Kur'an. the outer one of which is tied above the head and below the feet. and the corpse is fully washed as for the canonical prayer sacrament. a cloth is tied under the chin and around the head to keep the mouth from opening. as their last words: `There is no god but Allah. and by visiting the graves where the dead lie. There are no `funeral homes' as known in western countries. The private parts are covered. on the Night of Power and Destiny. Hot. their bodies are placed on their right side. For the ablution. The body is then wrapped in two or three pieces of white cloth. the corpse is placed in a wooden coffin for transportation to the mosque. The ablution is done at home or. and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. Those who are living are to help the dead by caring for their ultimate destination and remembering them by petitionary prayer and recitation from scripture. Preparation of the corpse The dead are buried as soon as possible. the shahada. There are further details about the washing and clothing of the corpse beyond what we have space to discuss here. well-scented table.

The Funeral Prayer and Burial 97 coffin is a modified small truck operated by the municipality. The point is that the funeral prayer is a public obligation on the Muslim community rather than on any one particular individual. `Every soul will taste death' (3:185). muezzin. It could take place at the cemetery or anywhere a crowd of people can assemble by the coffin. just as during the corporate canonical prayer. on which the coffin rests. If there is more than one corpse. which is a bit shortened for the occasion. known meeting point with a courtyard large enough to handle throngs that attend. and on the cloth is written the Kur'anic verse. on any day of the week. There may be more than one coffin at a time at a large mosque on any given day. Somewhere on the grounds of the mosque is a raised platform. Those worshippers who had been in the mosque need not participate in the funeral prayer in the courtyard. The mosque happens to be a central. The imam proceeds to the catafalque in the mosque courtyard. The imam himself is directly in front of the coffin and is facing the direction of the mosque in Mecca. The funeral prayer It is not required that the funeral prayer be conducted at a mosque. The platform is built in an east±west direction in Turkey. the imam. while the muezzin helps to direct the crowd. Ideally everyone takes part in the canonical prayer sacrament preceding the funeral. The coffin is lying on an axis perpendicular to this direction. A green cloth often covers the coffin. there is no bowing or sitting or prostration in the funeral prayer. or catafalque. These hearses with their open backs are distinctive vehicles often noticed by visitors. As long as at least some people attend the funeral prayer. the obligation is fulfilled. The funeral prayer does not take place within the mosque but in its courtyard. The worshippers keep their shoes on. and congregation emerge from the mosque to meet those of the funeral party who are waiting outside. Women who are present usually stand in a group behind . Immediately after the canonical prayer. the funeral prayer sacrament should take place separately for each one. if they have urgent business elsewhere. The funeral prayer sacrament takes place immediately following the midday canonical prayer. but it happens that there are large numbers of people who come only for the funeral and wait in the courtyard with the coffin for the midday canonical prayer sacrament to finish. so that the corpse lies perpendicular to the direction of the mosque in Mecca. The corpse should be present for the canonical prayer. However. The men line up in rows behind the imam.

At the end of this funeral sacrament. `What do you say? How did you know this person in life? May Allah be pleased with him (or her)'. the imam turns to the congregation and asks aloud. male and female. present and absent. by turning their heads accordingly. and that their death be Islamic and be accompanied by Allah's peace and comfort. the opening chapter of the Kur'an. `We are pleased with him (or her) and forgive him (or her)'. After the third Magnification of Allah is said aloud. consisting of four parts. The muezzin invites people to recite the Fatiha as a blessing on the soul of the deceased. which is the following words of recite to themselves the su praise: O Allah. It is after this first Magnification of Allah that the imam and worshippers silently È bhaneke. Your works are holy and marvelous. The congregation may respond. You are perfect. said aloud by the imam: `It is Allah who is magnificent!' As with the canonical prayer. Thus the only words heard aloud during the entire ritual are the four magnifications said by the imam. The muezzin calls to the people to declare their intention to do the funeral prayer for the one who has died. only the imam speaks aloud. the imam and congregation silently petition for Allah's mercy on their own souls. Each part begins with the Magnification of Allah. People urge each other to recite the Fatiha. Finally. The imam then says aloud a second Magnification of Allah. and on the souls of elders and youth. The worshippers stand silently and solemnly behind him. Your name is blessed. The words `May Your name be magnified' are then added. the worshippers briefly raise their hands to their ears. and on the soul of the deceased. May Your name be praised. at which point everyone silently asks blessings on the soul of the Prophet Muhammad. People then rush to carry the coffin on their . The funeral prayer has a prescribed form. the congregation and imam silently offer ritual greetings to any on their right. You are to be praised and glorified. after the fourth Magnification of Allah is said aloud by the imam. At the first Magnification of Allah.] There is no god but You. as in the canonical prayer. [This line appears only in the funeral prayer. and then to any on their left.98 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey the men and wait during the ritual of the funeral prayer. that they live in faith. The remainder of the time they stand with hands clasped in front of them.

The men try to hold in their feelings and occupy themselves with the burial task. After the diggers. This is the emotional climax of the funeral. This staff includes grave diggers and groundskeepers. It may be possible only to touch it briefly because of the crowding. The municipal cemeteries are not connected to any particular mosque. The practice is to have separate cemeteries for people of different religious traditions. to the prearranged burial site. a trench is cut along one bottom side of the pit. listening to recitations from the Kur'an by the imam or anyone who is knowledgeable and competent. It is as if they are carrying the Prophet to his grave. A customary chapter to read is Ya Sin. It is an emotional time. there is a common burial area set aside in a quiet but not remote spot. The women stand off. a Christian cemetery. In a small town or village. After being placed in its trench. which is the direction faced in the canonical prayer. allowing their emotions freer rein. Large municipal cemeteries have a director and staff for maintenance purposes. and so on. The body in its grave should lie perpendicular to the direction of Mecca. The coffin is not buried with the body but is later cleaned and reused. the men crush against each other trying to help carry the coffin on their shoulders for just a second or so. as was true in Ottoman times. the shrouded corpse is covered with planks or stones. have dug out a rectangular grave in the necessary east-west direction. Volunteers in the burial party who are closest to the grave remove the body from the coffin and lower it in its shroud into its new resting spot in the trench at the bottom of the grave. . a Jewish cemetery. So the graves in Muslim cemeteries in Turkey. the visitor will find a Muslim cemetery. When a large funeral party is present. or in a more informal situation. the 36th one. the volunteers. Many raise their voices when they succeed in touching the coffin saying. `May the Prophet be blessed'. and the tombs of prominent persons erected by the Ottomans. Burial The funeral party proceeds with the hearse to the cemetery. Cemeteries today are owned and maintained by municipalities. are oriented on an east± west line. Relatives and friends gather around the open grave. and then some cloth or a mat. a time of intense feeling. This prevents soil and rubble from directly touching the body. before the dirt is replaced in the grave. plus an imam for those who need the services of a religious functionary for what follows. In the older cities.The Funeral Prayer and Burial 99 shoulders to the hearse.

The condolence visit is a time for dwelling on the deeper meaning of family relations and friendships. and to join the bereaved in their grief and sorrow.100 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey At the time of the burial. These words are a prayer. and My Book is the Kur'an. The first thing anyone says to the bereaved on such a visit is Ï olsun). say that My god is Allah. `In the name of Allah. and according to the religion of the messenger of Allah'. in preparation for the eternal reckoning which will come to all souls: O Servant of Allah. another prayer asking that the deceased be taken into Allah's compassion and mercy and be saved from punishment. This is an instruction to the corpse about how to answer the questions that it will be asked by the angels of interrogation while it waits for the Day of Resurrection. The occasion of death can implant peace in those who were alienated from each other. It is a time when they are most open to such witness. Then the dead soul is encouraged to affirm the testimony of faith and the following doctrines. and My Prophet is Muhammad. As the body is placed down in its trench. People hug and embrace each other. At the same time. petitions are again said. or the imam of that cemetery. Still others mention similar times of loss in their own lives. and My Religion is Islam. Those who are moved to conversation may talk about daily concerns. relatives and friends pay condolence visits. iniz sag expression of gratitude for the survivors' being alive. the instruction benefits the living by repeating for the sake of the burial party the essentials of the Islamic faith. Condolence visits To support the survivors of the deceased. Those who have been quarrelling bury their differences. the imam says. an `May your head be saved' (Bas . Others may counsel those present on the will of Allah and the common human destiny of death. with communication taking place through tears or other signs of mourning. People often bring certain local traditional food with their condolences. The remainder of the visit may pass in dignified silence. to renew ties. It . to turn attention away from grief and to bring a certain calm to the bereaved. The second thing to be said in condolence is Allah rahmet eylesin. either by a volunteer in the burial party.

It is not simply a ritual of the pious. privately funded declarations that express publicly the sentiments of condolence mentioned above. but it is a broad-based practice that functions as social cement. So let her be patient and mindful of the reward promised for those who are patient.The Funeral Prayer and Burial 101 is a time when people speak from the heart and reveal something fundamental about their character. It is reported that when a woman asked him for condolence. The visitor to Turkey may run into a lokma distribution on a busy city street and be urged to eat the offered dish. the death of a loved one is remembered with recitations from the Kur'an and with mevluts. Among people of means and influence. many people have a recitation in their home or in a suitable place of the Tebareke. further recitations of the Kur'an take place. Then 40 or sometimes 52 days after the death. Another practice is to have the Kur'an recited in its entirety as a way of remembering the deceased and caring for its soul. it being tacitly understood that a gift will be offered in return. People either hire a reciter for this purpose or ask friends to divide the Kur'an between them for recitation at their convenience. someone has hired a group of cooks to set up their vat of hot oil on the street and fry a batch of lokma to be given to whomsoever passes by. The families will ask the imam of a local mosque. What is happening is that in the name of a departed loved one. To Him everything has an appointed ending. Remembering the dead After the funeral and burial.1 Muslims in Turkey consider the condolence visit to be proper ethical behavior. which is the 67th chapter of the Kur'an. In this way the larger society is drawn into solidarity with the survivors of the deceased. . or a professional reciter. he responded with this counsel: To Allah belongs the one to whom he gave life and from whom he took life. Seven days after the death. which is fried dough served in sugar syrup. the recitations from the poem celebrating the life of the Prophet Muhammad. A sweet commonly given away is lokma. Another common practice for remembering the dead is to make the public offering of a sweet dish. The condolence visit is based ultimately on the recommendation of the Prophet Muhammad. These are large. the condolence is often formalized in newspaper announcements. to come and perform the ritual.

conquering. If a family can afford a headstone and wishes to erect one on the grave. such as the besmele. the Islamic ideal is simplicity and balance. Some headstones have only the name and date. This is believed to be both good for that soul and good for the visitor. it may choose to do so. fulfilling. a phrase inspired by the Kur'anic verse. the invocation of Allah. Suddenly Death came and made my dwelling place a garden. A headstone is another method for remembering the dead. Another common phrase for a headstone is Huwa al-Baqi. The headstone inscription invites the passerby to recite this chapter to the soul of the dead person who lies in that grave. The Fatiha is the opening chapter of the Kur'an. I left it before I realized my desire. meaning `It is He (Allah) who is everlasting'. Muslims who pass by a cemetery will do so respectfully and will stop briefly and recite the Fatiha. `[Recite] the Fatiha to the spirit [of the deceased]'. They are visible Islam. Original poetry also occurs on headstones. with explicitly religious phrases. `Everything perishes but His face' (28:88). Let my parents never mourn for me. helping with the distribution. This is a reminder to passersby of the unchanging and lasting nature of ultimate truth. and discovering.102 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The employer should be there. Others are just the opposite. The texts may be either in Arabic script or transliterated Turkish. and verses from the Kur'an. Oh. literally meaning. opening. the shahada. Allah is everlasting! The world is ebbing away. in cement or marble. the words of victory. Here is one contemporary example. Death! When I was young I lived but a while in this world. There is no support in Islam for having a showy grave. to the dead. Another example has a different view of death. The idea is to remember and honor the dead and to remind the living of the life to come. such as Ruhuna Fatiha. A standard inscription on a headstone is Ruhuna Fatiha. revealing. the formal Islamic creed. The world is impermanent. and the inevitability of death. It is victory. which we discussed above. What is written on the headstone gives clues to the religiosity of the family. `Fatiha' means winning. On the contrary. . as if that family were not interested in visible religious expressions. petitions.

The Funeral Prayer and Burial 103 If those who are passing through can be patient and know it. greeted the dead who were buried there. The old Ottoman traditions persist even today. Attached to some È p Sultan in mosques are the graves of famous saints. Muslims also visit and greet their dead. their hopes. It was built in Ankara by parliament after his Turkey is that of Atatu death. The Prophet Muhammad. tombs can be richly decorated. The dead souls have the right to be visited. In the Ottoman Empire. and their devotion continues to aid in the maintenance and upkeep of these buildings. expensive. their faith. When asked whether the dead could hear this greeting. `Yes'. Former political . The largest tomb by far in È rk. Fatiha. Some larger. and prayed for. donating the meat to the needy. while others make the offering of a small animal like a fowl. or the tomb of Rumi in Konya. Cremation of the dead is therefore alien to Islamic practice. For centuries. historical mosques have burial areas attached to them. Following the example of the Prophet. some people tie pieces of cloth on a nearby bush or tree. so that the living may know who had provided what people use today. marble and stone structures. The tombs of Turkey's wealthy class can be elaborate. representing their wishes and petitions. The Prophet asked believers to remember their dead in good terms and not dwell on their faults. or they left tombs known as tu money and instructions for such a tomb for themselves. Those who are sufficiently wealthy buy or reserve plots in the cemetery for the burial of family members. At the graveside. expressing their longing. The beloved Allah will save them from the Fire. when passing a cemetery. Believers are to remember and to communicate the good acts and charitable services accomplished by those who are now dead. greeted. Visiting graves of relatives on the religious holidays. sultans and prominent individuals built fabulous È rbes over the graves of their relatives. such as that of Eyu Istanbul. and not to be disturbed. The dead souls are tied with the living. A visit to the cemetery is to engage in this conversation and reflect on its meaning. and on Fridays. It is as if the dead are speaking to the living. Some municipalities lay on extra bus services to cemeteries during religious festivals. Generations of Muslims have fruitfully pondered the Prophet's reply. The renowned person who had the mosque built is buried there. their helplessness. is popular among Muslims in Turkey. pious folk have made the pilgrimage to these mosques. the existential struggle with the finality of death that we all face. the Prophet replied. Like the mosques themselves.

And the living who visit express themselves in similar common terms of helplessness and hope. the deceased lie together in the same state. or any public officials murdered while carrying out their functions have a state funeral and are declared martyrs. This neglect of the dead is criticized by the pious as a symptom of how much people care only for their own worldly concerns. in simple terms. green space that counters the noise. the call to prayer (ezan). At a funeral. the recitation of the Kur'an. They provide a calm. The contrast between calm. Set apart from the confusion and bustle of life. What life is all about comes to a focus in a cemetery. Their narrow. Not only are the dead deserving of care and attention. and pollution of the cities.104 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey È zal are buried in prominent tombs leaders Adnan Menderes and Turgut O in Istanbul. the petitionary prayers. They ask people not to forget their end and their fate. This frequently brings to public notice many outward trappings of religion: the mosque. tall shapes pointing to the heavens contrast with the more earthbound human visitors who come there. rushed urban space is one aspect of tradition and modernity rubbing against each other in a changing environment. these elements converge with . For instance. common to all. of the inescapable life to come. and so on. A popular tree for planting in cemeteries is the cypress. especially where the tombstones invite the visitor to reflect. Police. Evaluation: funerals ± modern Turkey awash in religion The visitor will notice that cemeteries in Turkey generally are poorly kept. crowding. No matter how problematic their individual lives were. They are reminders of the truth of death. clear cemetery space and confused. the cantillation by the imam and muezzin. Today the word is also applied to any public official killed on duty. bureaucrats. People visit these monuments and pray for their souls as a semireligious act. but the living also benefit from well tended. Something else that has appeared as a result of the continuing experience with the modern secular world is the redefinition of the term `martyr'. peaceful cemeteries. cemeteries give the city visitor a sense of clarity and certainty. and to lead their lives with that consciousness. The media give much publicity to the funerals of prominent or celebrated persons. Muslim soldiers who died in wars were martyrs for the faith. The word originally meant someone who died in the cause of defending Islam. Cemeteries provide a valuable lesson. teachers.

Mourners crowd around the coffin. The mass media act as a transforming agent. in and above the crowds. Cameramen are everywhere. and the emotion. these pictures that arise from funerals. contributing to a growing convergence between religion. conveying the event to the nation on nearly every channel. pressing on the top politicians and religious leaders who occupy the inner circle. politics. and the sight becomes an everyday occurrence. . and social life. a convergence that will lead to further change. to make some response or reaction. The public sees state and religious figures together. the crowds. all mixed together and broadcast to the nation by television.The Funeral Prayer and Burial 105 the politicians. A generation is growing up with these images. Secular people are further pressed to know something about religion.

9 The Call to Prayer The non-Muslim visitor to an Islamic country quickly notices the call to the canonical prayer sacrament. and if they are far from any mosque. sounds by loudspeaker from the minaret or other high place on the mosque structure. Bilal used his powerful voice to call the faithful. or did not hear the call to prayer. Inspired by a vision. and one. The Turkish word for this call is ezan. or if they are in a building where the call was not made. These words are chanted or sung in a stylized manner ± we use the term cantillated ± a few minutes 106 . or possibly the same person. will act as the leader of the prayer sacrament. and is clearly heard in the early mornings and evenings. And if the muezzin in a mosque is ill or absent. and what does it mean to Muslims? How to assemble people for the sacramental prayer was a concern of the Prophet Muhammad and his community. The Prophet then asked one of his followers. the call to prayer. The call to prayer is one of the necessary preparations for worship. a special meeting between the Prophet and his followers produced the words of the call as we have them today. while Christians have rung bells to summon people. It rises above the city noise during the day. Bilal. then one worshipper will offer to make the call to prayer. volunteers will take his place. The text of the call The ezan. What is it saying. Jews traditionally have used a ram's horn as a call. He is still considered the model of the one who calls to prayer. to stand on an elevated spot and proclaim the agreed upon words. If a handful of Muslims have gathered for the canonical prayer. It consists of precisely the same Arabic words decided 14 centuries earlier. the muezzin.

an invitation to pray. and on life. and only in the dawn call] It is Allah who is magnificent! [twice] There is no god but Allah. It is a call to the human being to serve Allah. It should be heard everywhere. a reminder that worldly or physical concerns are second best to engaging in the canonical prayer. success and victory. The text of the call to prayer features the Magnification of Allah. Here is the call to prayer in English: It is Allah who is magnificent! [repeated four times] I testify that there is no god but Allah. They are the words of the confession. on the environment. [twice] Hasten to salvation. transcendently. Muhammad is the one sent from Allah'. [twice] Praising Allah is more blessed than sleeping. or the testimony: `There is no god but Allah. More than an invitation to prayer. It refers in contemporary terms to ultimate happiness and freedom. and then wait quietly for the corporate sacrament of prayer to begin. Whenever a group of Muslims engages in corporate canonical prayer. The `salvation' referred to in the call is whatever `the best' can mean. the call to prayer is cantillated. or even before. The words of the call are the doctrinal and universal essence of Islamic faith. I testify that Muhammad is sent from Allah. do canonical prayer by themselves. But the call to prayer is not restricted to the five daily liturgical times of canonical prayer. It is regarded as a blessing on the neighborhood. on time. It should be made known constantly every day and throughout the day that service to Allah is the existential objective of every human being. It informs Muslims that the respective time for the prayer sacrament has begun. the call to prayer also acts as a time signal. This means that five times each day. During this interval. To enter the canonical prayer ritual is therefore freely to put one's soul before Allah in obedience and joy. The ezan is still more than an invitation to pray and a time signal that the period for the canonical prayer has begun. . Thus the call to prayer is much more than a call to come to the mosque.The Call to Prayer 107 before the congregational canonical prayer is to take place. individuals make their ablutions if they are in a state of impurity. the essentials of Islam are broadcast to the neighborhood surrounding every mosque. and in the morning. [twice] Hasten to the sacrament of prayer. for whatever occasion. [twice.

Muslims say to themselves in thankfulness. O Messenger of Allah'.108 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey Those who listen reverently to the call to prayer follow it in silent repetition. The ezan. Whenever the name of the Prophet is mentioned. `I testify that there is no god but Allah'. The canonical prayer is conducted corporately in the mosque shortly after the midday call to prayer. the dawn prayer.' When they hear the proclamation. The daily hours of the call The time for the first of the five daily canonical prayers.1 It is assumed that the Prophet taught this petition to his followers. grant Muhammad the means to intercede. or before then if possible. its highest point in the sky. Those who do canonical prayer with others in the mosque go there when the call to prayer is heard. It should be understood that the clock time for this morning call can vary considerably from place to place and from season to season. Worshippers have until sunrise to complete the canonical prayer. occurs at the beginning of this period. When the call to prayer is over. the call to prayer. they respond. `Prayer is more blessed than sleeping'. You tell the truth. The second occasion of daily canonical prayer is just after solar noon. and bounty. The dawn canonical prayer should definitely not be carried out at the rising of the sun. You never violate or break your promise. and high rank. The time is calculated to be immediately after the sun has passed its zenith. Individual worshippers who are not present for the corporate . According to geographical location and season of the year. or `May my eyes be illuminated by You'. an interval of at least 30 minutes in Turkey. the clock time for this second prayer sacrament can vary considerably. `May Allah bless and forgive you. It is a response to the call. they respond. Those who do the dawn prayer at home or elsewhere have until the first appearance of the sun to do so. they offer this petition: O Lord. and raise him to the exalted position that you promised. `You are right. is any time between the appearance of the true dawn and the first appearance of the rising sun. But the canonical prayer should definitely not take place when the sun is exactly at its zenith. the Lord of this complete call and this living sacrament of prayer. When they hear. `Our Lord. grant salvation to our master Muhammad and to his people'. a way for Muslims to show their gratitude to the Prophet for the canonical prayer.

person. Finally. We see from this account that during the day. In emulation of the Prophet Muhammad. From then on. One of these occasions is Friday. their own way of calling to prayer. The given period for the night prayer lasts until dawn. then Muslims wished to declare their own differences from such behavior. their times for the prayer sacrament. the intervals between canonical prayer times become shorter and shorter. If there were those who prayed precisely at these major points in the sun's daily course through the skies. or for any natural event or thing or created image. Muslims also wish to avoid any suggestion that they are worshipping any thing.The Call to Prayer 109 sacrament have until the afternoon prayer time to fulfill the canonical prayer requirement. the clock time for this moment will vary considerably during the year. and so on. Worshippers have until the reddishness of the sky disappears to do the evening canonical prayer. an observant Muslim takes more frequent breaks from work for the prayer sacrament. when the sky is totally absent of sunlight. The reason for abstaining from the canonical prayer exactly at sunrise. the manner of their pilgrimage. is to avoid the suggestion of sun worship. their own festivals. There are certain times when the muezzin cantillates something different from the ezan and does so at a time which is not one of the five daily canonical prayer times. the month of fasting. During Ramazan. The development of Islam saw an effort to distinguish Islamic practices from the worship practices of other traditions. or idea other than Allah. No canonical prayer should be done at sunset. and exactly at sunset. the largest gap between ritual prayer times is between dawn and noon. Again. the call to the night prayer takes place. they followed their own direction for canonical prayer. This goes not only for the sun but for the moon. this is also the signal that the day's fast may be broken. about an hour before the time of the midday prayer sacrament. at the sun's zenith. As the day progresses into evening. This means that the greatest unbroken block of time for the Muslim's work routine is in the morning. when the . The starting time for afternoon canonical prayer occurs roughly when an object's shadow is twice the height of the object. But this development is not only a desire to be different and a question of identity. The important point is that the period allotted for the afternoon prayer sacrament ends before the setting of the sun. Immediately after the setting of the sun comes the call to the evening prayer sacrament.

are distinct in pronunciation. without ostentation. A call is also made from the minaret on the special holy nights during the year. In Ottoman times. The muezzin should not draw attention to himself but should allow the words to sing for themselves and attract people on their own merits. Arab. or cantor. It should be performed with gravity. After the blessing. and devotion. This blessing is a signal that activities for the Friday Prayer are about to begin. the callers to prayer. The funeral prayer is described in detail in the chapter on funerals and cemeteries. flamboyance. an essential aid to worship. this doctrinal summary. It is a means to remember the Prophet. to make petitions for his soul. Another instance when this remembrance of the Prophet and blessing on him issues from the mosque's loudspeakers is when a death has occurred in the neighborhood. and we will return to Allah' (2:156). It should project an artful sound compared to local standards of esthetics and beauty. not jarring to the ear. for example. the muez- . the only instrument that can be used in cantillation is the human voice. On hearing this blessing. or theatricality. intensity. The Anatolian. he announces deaths. It is cantillated with a somewhat mournful tune. and African ways of cantillating. the son-in-law of the Prophet. He calls people to canonical prayer. But the cantillation style follows what is aesthetically pleasing to local accents and tastes in much the same way that architectural styles vary. However. The procedure for the call It is the task of the muezzin. testifying that Ali is the beloved of Allah). he calls them to prepare for the Friday Prayer. the believer's pious response is to recite a short verse from the Kur'an: `We are for Allah. this call to salvation. the muezzin switches to a normal speaking voice to announce the name of the deceased and the mosque at which the funeral prayer will be held. The Arabic words of the call are the same at every time and in every place around the world (with Shii Muslims inserting a phrase referring to Ali. It should be mellifluous and attractive. We see here the communication function of the muezzin's broadcast from the minaret. such as the Night of Power and Destiny. to make heard the call to prayer.110 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey muezzin cantillates a blessing on the Prophet Muhammad. Persian. It is a religious art form. and to focus the minds and emotions of people on Allah and on the importance of the communal prayer sacrament that will follow. The call to prayer is particular and uniquely Islamic.

the call begins with the muezzin facing the kibla. Electronic amplification is now widely used for the call to prayer. Knowledgeable use of electronic amplification today is not so highly developed among muezzins. were expected to be musicians. but the results are not uniformly good. But now the muezzin makes the call to prayer from within the mosque. the muezzin would typically ascend the minaret and make the call from its balcony. The use of microphones and loudspeakers can be distracting and destructive of focus. a way to project the human voice beautifully into the atmosphere above a neighborhood. and simple beauty. There are those who resist these additions so as to preserve the natural simplicity. ending in the spot where he began. In that case.The Call to Prayer 111 zins. The traditional image of the muezzin making the call shows him with his hands at the side of his head. each having an amplification system contributing to the urban din. warmth. Before electronic voice amplification became popular. He uses a microphone. a physical art form developed over many centuries. There is a difference between hearing the human voice directly in its living. This enables him to monitor his tones and modulate them accordingly. leading to several criticisms from the public. usually located in a small side room. The Department of Religious Affairs is sensitive to such criticism and acts to upgrade the training of its muezzins and their use of amplification technology. Cantillation of the prayer is an art. The muezzins were supposed to know different tunes to fit the temper of the time of day. . with palms open and facing forward. and peace in worship. He then slowly circles the minaret balcony once to his right as he cantillates the call to prayer. The purpose is to block his ears with his forefingers so that he hears his voice internally. warm. In this way the art of music in the cantillation by the unaided human voice became an essential accompaniment to Islamic worship. This issue of taking technology into the mosque. meditation. concentration. and hearing the same voice from a loudspeaker in its colder. or incorporating musical instruments into worship. it can be seen why there are those who talk about noise pollution. The call made by the unaided voice still occurs today whenever an electricity cut happens. In a large city with a great number of mosques. more mechanistic formality. Much of this variety has not survived in modern times in Turkey. and freedom of the mosque and worship. or using other innovations has been a point of tension. meaning the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca. through the bones in his skull. The life and liberty of the naked voice becomes a mechanical noise.

form rows facing the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca. facing the direction of Mecca as he does so. and some have finished their individual canonical prayer and are waiting quietly for the corporate Friday Prayer. broadcast as usual from the minaret to the neighborhood. internal call to prayer. This second invitation. He does this more quickly and less loudly.112 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The internal call to prayer After the call is broadcast from the minaret. Both before and during this call. But these days a microphone and loudspeakers are often used for the internal call as well. some are doing their individual canonical prayer. and follow the lead of the imam. the hutbe. This internal ezan signals the start of the formal sermon. He does so by cantillating the third call. proclaimed only to those worshippers inside the mosque. `The prayer has stood up'. `It is Allah who is magnificent!' They stand up. which again raises the point of unnecessarily loud and distracting amplification. After the external ezan. When the imam concludes the formal sermon. For the Friday Prayer there are three calls. Thus the kamet marks the start of the corporate canonical prayer sacrament. and to do their individual canonical prayer. `The prayer has stood up'. the kamet. to make any necessary ablutions. the muezzin then cantillates the same ezan internally to those assembled inside. the kamet. the muezzin allows a few minutes for the worshippers to gather. some are doing ablutions. This is a remarkable expression. the broadcast from the minaret was also used for any urgent or important announcement to the neighborhood. Nowadays the call from the minaret for many people is more like a landmark. for it likens the assembled body of worshippers to corporate prayer itself. During the sermon everyone present is to be sitting in silence. unmoving and attentive. Then the muezzin issues another call to prayer within the mosque itself. which contains the line. Evaluation: the function and language of the ezan In the past. This is the signal that the assembled individuals are to say to themselves the Magnification of Allah. is cantillated more quickly and less loudly than the external call. are the same as the external call with the addition of a line. the muezzin signals to the congregation to stand up. a confirma- . The words of the second. Ottoman mosques were designed acoustically so that the muezzin could be heard clearly in every corner. some worshippers are entering the mosque. The first is the external ezan. the kamet.

and cantillated by people with insufficient training. change. The argument is part of the larger discussion about whether the language of worship should be Turkish or Arabic. In addition. but the minarets remain constant. a new government removed this largely unpopular obligation on the muezzins. After the multiparty elections at the end of World War Two. in its transnational. Everything seems to be changing so rapidly in Turkey. like a compass fixed on the minaret that opens out and spans the neighborhood. The usual performance of the call to prayer. and muezzins call in the same way. They want their children to grow up in the atmosphere of regularity and assurance of the five daily calls. many people with a contemporary education who are not already deeply committed to Islamic practices are dissatisfied with the quality of the call. But these days. interdenominational. The call to prayer now is an opportunity for some secularists to complain about noise pollution and religion being made too public. They like the comfort and satisfaction of knowing that their world continues on schedule. Such people have been exposed in schools and through various media to a high quality of performance in art and music. as it has for centuries. But this demand for the vernacular is in the minority in Turkey. when made through badly adjusted amplification systems. cross-culturally unifying nature. It does not fulfill its function of attracting people by the beauty of its cantillation. Muslim piety is extremely sensitive and highly cautious about any shift. or modification of the pure. the muezzins were famous vocalists and musicians in their own right. The call is now free to be made in the traditional way. meaning a form of security. in Arabic. This is especially important for youth. People want to be reassured that the solid legacy from the past lives on. Thus for 14 centuries. who need to be addressed at an ever higher level of sophistication. Traditionalists do not want to break with the rest of the Islamic world nor with the practice of the past thousand years. The debate over the call to prayer is colored by the fact it was the center of a storm of controversy. alienates them. In past times.The Call to Prayer 113 tion of identity and heritage. Yet the majority see it as an ecumenical. universal element of religion that is above any purely cognitive perception. divine word of Allah. The strictly secular mind argues for the use of modern language in order better to understand. The entire episode is still disputed in the 1990s. Muslims have kept to the original form of the Kur'an and the call to . It is necessary these days to rethink the function of the call to prayer. The republican movement of the early days of the state made Turkish the language of the call to prayer.

and joy. Muslims of today are far from fully appreciating the spirit and essence and purpose underlying the call to prayer. The impact of the call to prayer is much broader and farther reaching than any estimation of it. even in its poorly conducted form. Those who talk about change must do so with respect for this sensitivity. It is a challenge for the Muslims of today to recover or renew what is behind their heritage.114 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey prayer. There has been much ritualism and institutionalism. . it gives the devout an indescribable sense of security. in the negative sense. When the call begins from the many minarets of the city. The call to prayer and all Islamic worship practices are still waiting for sociologists and psychologists to analyze them for the modern mind. even back to the time when Bilal gave the first call. It instills a deep feeling of nostalgia for the past. identity. The 14 centuries of the Islamic heritage become alive.

in Islam means a sacramental visit to the city of Mecca. It is a stone cubical structure covered with a magnificent black cloth that is renewed each year. or `standing'. And Allah has the right to the pilgrimage to the House by whoever can do so. Whoever enters it will find security. built in 1586 by the Ottoman architect and mosque builder Sinan. It contains clear signs and the office of Abraham. to bless and guide the creatures of the world.10 The Pilgrimage The term `pilgrimage'. pilgrims in Mecca conduct many ritual acts which prominently include circumambulating a cubical structure known as the Kaaba and maintaining a presence. is known as the Ancient House. (3: 96±7) The Kaaba. or shrine in Mecca. Then in 1955. Sinan constructed the mosque around the Kaaba large enough to hold tens of thousands of pilgrims. Over a period of several days. He is the one responsible for the majestic Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul and Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. The Kaaba is located inside the grounds of a large mosque in Mecca. hajj. was at Mecca. on the nearby plain of Arafat. in Saudi Arabia. The pilgrimage is one of the major canonized sacraments of worship required of every capable Muslim once in a lifetime. It has a black meteorite set into one corner of it. the native city of the Prophet Muhammad. The pilgrimage occurs at a prescribed point in the Islamic year. Origins The pilgrimage is established in the Kur'an: The first house to be set up for humankind. the Saudi royal family enlarged the mosque but 115 . the Holy House.

The Kur'an relates that Abraham and his son Ishmael built it and dedicated it to Allah and to the worship only of Allah. and that Allah would protect it. Nowadays Muslims at home can follow the proceedings of the pilgrimage on television. Worshippers can gather there now in their hundreds of thousands. The clan of the Prophet Muhammad was in charge of the maintenance of the Kaaba. the Kaaba is empty inside. but it could not have been said to belong to anyone in particular. but it is still too small for the colossal number of pilgrims. Tradition says that the lineage of Ishmael maintained the Kaaba as a place of pilgrimage and worship for 25 generations. Announce the Pilgrimage among the people. We said. those who bow in homage. idolatry and polytheism had found their way into Mecca as different peoples brought their idols and statues to the Kaaba and installed them inside. Let them then clean themselves. Tradition says that Allah then sent a multitude of birds throwing down stones of fire that burned the elephant army to ashes. as was exploitation of the pilgrims by the Meccan rulers. The episode is mentioned in Chapter 105 of the Kur'an. Although richly decorated with carpets and tapestries. and on appointed days to pronounce the name of Allah over sacrificial animals.116 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey without demolishing Sinan's structure. and those who prostrate. Over time. and clean My House for visitors. fulfill their vows. set out for Mecca to destroy the Kaaba and divert the pilgrim traffic to his own kingdom. `Associate no one with Me. The rite of pilgrimage to the Kaaba is explained in the Kur'an as follows: When We prepared for Abraham the site of the House.' (22:26±9) . polytheistic use of the Kaaba was rampant. Then eat it and feed the needy and the poor. He marched toward the city with an army of elephants and sent for the grandfather of the Prophet to negotiate the evacuation of the population. This made Mecca an ancient trading center and site of hospitality and shelter for pilgrims. those who stand in reverence. that they come to you on foot and riding along distant roads on lean and slender animals to realize their interests. He has provided for them. Abraham thus inaugurated a site and movement of monotheistic worship. the Yemeni king. When the Prophet was growing up in Mecca in the seventh century. The story is told of a time around the birth of the Prophet Muhammad when Abraha. until the era of the Prophet Muhammad. The grandfather replied that he did not own the Kaaba. and circuit round the Ancient House.

they still felt the need to return to the Kaaba at the time of the annual pilgrimage. For a husband to deny his wife the right to . One Saudi regulation is that no country may send more than 0. have to pay their own way on the pilgrimage. But Turkey has more people who want to make the trip than are allowed under this system. The pilgrimage obligation falls on both genders and all ages equally. there are about two million Muslims in Mecca in the pilgrimage season.1 per cent of its population. Mecca. who have safe methods of travel available to them. and restore its character as a site of monotheistic pilgrimage. women. The Kur'an taught the Prophet and his first converts a thoroughgoing monotheism that could allow no suggestion of any other god or anything to be taken as god except Allah. and Turkey began to use the same method in 1995. The Kur'anic revelation also railed against the way the Meccans took advantage of pilgrims. the installation of statues and images inside the Kaaba was an intolerable desecration. According to Islamic law.The Pilgrimage 117 Among the first revelations of the Kur'an that came to Muhammad were those that touched on the abuses of the Kaaba and the exploitation of the pilgrimage. But each year only a few of the world's Muslims can fulfill this requirement. As of this writing. According to such teaching. These criticisms turned the Meccan rulers against the Prophet. whose financial responsibilities to their families will not be compromised. This means a quota for Turkey of around 60 000 pilgrims. The Saudi Arabian government sets a quota from each country to cope with the huge numbers. Only those who have the means. because of such opposition. Malaysia uses a lottery to pick its quota. Within eight years of their flight. destroy all idols and images inside. there are more Muslims able to make the pilgrimage each year than Mecca can absorb. Even so. They must be accompanied by their husbands or close male relatives. and who are sufficiently healthy in body and mind are eligible to go. like men. Although the Prophet Muhammad and his companions had to flee their native home. probably out of a male concern for the safety of their females. Setting out on the pilgrimage A Muslim's obligation to make a pilgrimage at least once in a lifetime to Mecca is fixed and universal. But the women do not need the permission of their spouses to make the trip. The Prophet's first act was to clean up the Kaaba. Muhammad's community had become strong enough to defeat the Meccan leadership and liberate the city from idolatry.

preferably the greater ablution. obedience. a shirt and a skirt wrapped around the body. The person in ihram may not shave or trim hair on the body. and almsgiving. There is no partner unto you. and accept it from me'. The rights of Allah on humankind.1 Your Lord has decreed that you obey none but him. They then perform ablutions. worshippers cut their nails and trim their hair. . never to do these again until the end of the pilgrimage activities. nor wear sewn clothing. are above the rights of human beings on each other. Here I am. the ihram. After pronouncing their pilgrimage intention. canonical prayer. The next step is to do two sets of stations of canonical prayer and say. the entire pilgrimage is invalid. and commitment. which means a full washing of the body. He should not obstruct any of her worship obligations. which is two pieces of white cloth. This is about 60 days after the Ramazan holiday that celebrates the end of the month of fasting. the pilgrimage for an individual begins with intention. The Muslim declares to himself or herself and to Allah the intention to make the pilgrimage for the sake of Allah. here I am. Thus one is said to wear the ihram and to enter ihram. But he or she is allowed to bathe. which is at the end of the 12th and final month of the Islamic lunar year. As with all sacraments of Islamic worship. which is always to remain uppermost in the mind of the Muslim. Without this intention. meaning the right to loyalty. Then the worshipper utters the traditional lines of the telbiye: Here I am. Actually. (17:23) Pilgrims may arrive at Mecca any time before the pilgrimage activities commence.118 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey make her pilgrimage would be to interfere with her Allah-given duties as a Muslim. There is no obedience to a human being if it requires disobedience to Allah. nor wear perfume. I seek the pilgrimage. this serious consciousness. Make it easy and possible for me. O my Allah. `O my Allah. ihram means both the pilgrimage dress and the consecrated state of being a pilgrim. including fasting. Afterward they don the pilgrimage dress. The point is that the pilgrim be in Mecca to carry out the essential acts of circumambulation and `standing' with all other pilgrims on the scheduled days.

no hunting is allowed. Some violations. and swifter. Despite safe transportation and modern conveniences. Muslims oblige themselves in the state of ihram to avoid all disputes and wrongful acts. for they know they are going to the sacred spots where the Prophet lived and died. a status that can continue for a few days. Transportation companies and travel agencies compete vigorously for the pilgrimage business. Many pilgrims are elderly. a long trip through several countries. the status of pilgrim. can invalidate the pilgrimage entirely. On the first utterance of the telbiye. the Muslim has fully entered ihram. because it is often only after a lifetime of saving that Muslims can go on the pilgrimage. It is . there is the potential for disaster from the enormous volume of pilgrims massed in a limited area. while traffic accidents still happen. and the kingdom are unto you. such as sexual relations with one's spouse. Jurists from the early centuries of Islam have written extensively on which acts are permitted and which are forbidden when on the pilgrimage. high blood pressure. blessing. must be paid for either by the offering of an animal and the donation of the meat to the destitute. marauding robber bands. the ihram. In pilgrimage season. political conflicts. Turkey's bus terminals and international airports are packed with pilgrims. There is no partner unto you. as it did in the pilgrim encampment in 1997. and failure to perform the prescribed rituals of the pilgrimage. as they set out on their journey. In the past. People in Turkey plan and save for years to go on the pilgrimage. and unsafe ships may have been a feature of the pilgrimage. Today. the pilgrimage event still has its safety concerns. The telbiye should also be uttered frequently during the journey to Mecca.The Pilgrimage 119 Here I am. The more recent preference is for air travel. and similar ailments. safer. Panic can crush people when they are in crowds. All praise. Yet these potential dangers do not deter the pilgrims. Some travelers wear the pilgrimage dress. Any violations. Fire can break out. which is more expensive but more convenient. These lines are recited countless times by the pilgrims throughout the days of the pilgrimage. For instance. In the past. pilgrims from Turkey traveled overland by bus to Saudi Arabia. It should be repeated many times after canonical prayer during the days of the pilgrimage. Some of these older pilgrims will die from heart attack. There are arguments between private businesses and the government over who has the right to share in the pilgrimage traffic. or by other defined acts of charity.

no one goes to Mecca for the purpose of dying there. to witness to your glory'. every direction of the compass faces into the cubical structure. But at the Kaaba itself. and people do not set out on the pilgrimage thinking that they will never return to their loved ones. At the very least. Of course. stripped of worldly trappings. the `standing at Arafat'. The geometry of the circles of pilgrims around the Kaaba contrasts with the straight lines of the worshippers in the world's mosques. O Lord.120 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey right and blessed and required by Allah to make the worship of the pilgrimage. the response to Allah's call that features the `Here I am' phrase. It is a time to be present together but to reflect individually on the state of one's soul. and vice-versa. the worshippers will verbally greet the stone. If possible. If one should die in the course of it. and when the pilgrim is about to depart Mecca. Each soul will then be answerable for itself. with the world left behind and the face turned upward toward Allah. Ordinarily the worshippers in a mosque form straight rows facing the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca. A brief description of the sacrament The pilgrimage itself extends over several days. a saintly death. then one has died in the best possible way. . It is believed that whoever is living a good and blessed life will die in a good and blessed way. namaz/salat. and to die at Mecca would be the fulfillment of life's destiny. and to do the canonical prayer sacrament. 19 kilometers southwest of Mecca. They maintain a presence on the plain of Arafat for at least half a day. Circumambulation takes place when the pilgrim arrives in Mecca. The second major act during the pilgrimage is to go on the second day to the Plain of Arafat. The point is that everyone has to die. to utter the telbiye frequently. the many hundreds of thousands of worshippers stop their circumambulation for the prayer sacrament. and friends. but everyone is expected to begin on the same day. and I have come to this place. There the pilgrims continue to pronounce the telbiye. but the crush of the crowds may prevent it. An impressive media image of the pilgrimage shows the ocean of pilgrims in their white garments slowly circling the Kaaba. To the worshippers it means. relatives. to greet the Kaaba. to say farewell to the Kaaba. when all people will stand together before Allah. It is a rehearsal for the Day of Judgment. meaning that the worshippers form circles around it. `You have called. This part of the pilgrimage. At the time of the canonical prayer. the pilgrims try to touch the black stone set into one corner of the structure. is a representative of the impressive Kur'anic image of final judgment for eternal life or eternal hell.

They also share the meat with the poor and celebrate with the Animal Offering Holiday. or combined with the major one. it deserves treatment in detail. umre. producing a great quantity of meat. whether at this time or any other. meaning one who has made the hajj. For instance. Although the minor pilgrimage has less status and is voluntary. the hajj. Over two million animals are offered to Allah by the pilgrims in Mecca. The day for the animal offering is the third day of the pilgrimage. It is a voluntary. or substitute. A person who has made the minor pilgrimage does not merit the same status and title as one who has made the major pilgrimage. The pilgrim's life is divided . It is possible to make the pilgrimage on behalf of another. the pilgrimage. A Muslim can do the voluntary minor pilgrimage entirely apart from the major one. and give thanks for Allah's blessings. and readers can find such a discussion in the chapter on charity. The offering of an animal. the pilgrim is welcomed back with excitement and celebration. is a major Islamic sacrament of worship. It will be quite noticeable to the visitor to Turkey. to make the pilgrimage in one's place. But then the sacrament is known as the minor pilgrimage. Muslims around the world show solidarity with the pilgrims. which is the minimum requirement. the Kurban Festival.The Pilgrimage 121 A pilgrimage is complete. say. just before or following the major one. may not be able to go. As such. someone may have the financial resources to make the trip to Mecca but. if the pilgrim performs the primary acts of circumambulation of the Kaaba and the standing at Arafat. known in the Arabic world as Id al-Adha. for reasons of health or infirmity or even death. It is also possible for a Muslim to go to Mecca at any other time in the Islamic year and do an abbreviated pilgrimage ritual. The return from the pilgrimage On returning from Mecca. or valid. The minor pilgrimage also does not satisfy the obligation on those who have attained puberty to make one major pilgrimage in a lifetime. non-required act of worship. by making an animal offering at home at the same time. or visit. its procedure is codified in detail in Islamic law. Heirs can also send substitutes to make the pilgrimage for their deceased relatives. He or she has achieved the pious title of hajji. It is processed there under modern conditions and delivered to the world's poor through various Islamic charitable foundations. But there are additional prescribed actions such as throwing a number of pebbles at certain points and making the offering of an animal. Then one may legitimately appoint a representative.

forgiven. After the hajj. and it is a custom to do so while standing out of respect. Relatives. pilgrims of means often use their financial advantages for charity. meaning one who has made the pilgrimage. To drink this water is thought to be a blessing. renewed. to be reborn. transformed. a source of water near the Kaaba. meaning that it is based on the Kur'an and on the practice of the Prophet Muhammad. released from burdens. life is comparatively unconscious and immature.122 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey into two: pre. Something also offered to visitors is a drink brought back from the blessed well of Zamzam. Yet in Turkey. puritan enthusiasts tried in late Ottoman times to destroy such tombs and graves. visits to tombs and shrines are common and highly popular. They are criticized by the scholars of Islam as superstitious. more secure in faith. returning pilgrims sometimes paint their house gates green. Before the hajj. In Saudia Arabia. a wealthy pilgrim might donate a substantial sum of money toward the construction of a mosque. and more dedicated to Islam. cleansed. Visitors to Turkey may notice the word haci. The building might thereafter be named after the donor. They are also affordable and repeatable. The methods of conducting these pilgrimages are not universal but follow local folk traditions. pious Muslims also pay religious visits to shrines or tombs of saints of the individual's personal choice. either in the name of a mosque or a health or education institution. There are hundreds of mosques and shrines in Turkey that are connected with the tombs of saints or spiritual masters. the pilgrim expects to be converted. such as a set of prayer beads from Mecca. They are favorite . or on a tombstone. more generous in charity. it has been codified by Islamic legal scholars. For example. a school. to be more mature. and it is required of every Muslim. and neighbors visit the returning pilgrims and receive presents in return. the traditional color of Islam. People expect to see some change in this person. And in villages in Anatolia. probably in emulation of the Prophet's cleansing of the Kaaba fourteen centuries ago. Other religious visits The pilgrimage to Mecca is a canonical obligatory practice. and regenerated by the pilgrimage. Apart from this orthodox practice. friends. Pilgrims expect to be turned around. having promised not to sin again. more centered on Allah. But after the hajj. or a student dormitory. a life of relative ignorance or disobedience in which Allah is not so much at the center of one's existence. wiser.and post-pilgrimage. free from sin. Another image is that the pilgrim returns as innocent as a child.

The bureaucratic obstacles and ordeals pilgrims must suffer do not help the situation. The hajj is a gathering of men. joining the many hundreds of thousands from Saudi Arabia itself. If such conditions are not met. There are now two million pilgrims or more who come. sects.The Pilgrimage 123 places of visitation. the validity of the sacrament is called into question. People go to offer petitions and seek help for their lives. organize. or sprinkling water. The courtyard and surrounding area in the Eyu become very crowded on popular days. It is a time when Muslims from every part of the world see each other and visit together. The tombs of saints. in the courtyard of a religious order. Evaluation: the modern experience of the hajj With so many pilgrims from around the world descending on Mecca for the concentrated days of pilgrimage. or on top of a hill. and especially for women. and with millions of people all occupied with the same rites. It is an astonishing time of convergence of believers from all over the earth. or tying pieces of string or cloth on bushes. North Americans may recall how deeply it affected and transformed the African±American leader Malcolm X. The visitor will see these graves in the precincts of a mosque. For instance. especially on Fridays. are carefully tended by their venerators throughout Turkey. They can be seen kissing the tomb. and children of all colors. This brings much pressure on the organizers of the pilgrimage to make better provisions for its security and orderliness. or great spiritual masters. races. political . and the ritual becomes something like an individual willingness to risk life and limb. nationalities. an extremely popular place for religious È p Mosque in Istanbul. a time of deeply felt ecumenical unity and a coming out of isolation. It is one of the conditions in fulfilling the obligation of the pilgrimage that it be conducted in security and safety. The staggering numbers make the Islamic pilgrimage an unparalleled global event. women. Dangerous circumstances and overcrowding contravene the security requirement of the hajj. cultures. where people make their visitation is the Eyu private petitions and vows and hope to receive the blessings of the È p Mosque can saint. the Saudi Arabian government takes extraordinary measures to host. ages. near a water spring. With each tomb are associated stories of wonders and miracles. educational backgrounds. Such actions are individualized folk practices peculiar to each locality. These saintly personalities are seen by people as revered guardians or protectors of the land. and accommodate them and to coordinate and regulate the traffic.

When asked about their feelings. To see it at last in person generates tremendous emotion. running. their living and true friend. putting their cheek on the dust of the ground where the Prophet Muhammad walked. Humanity stands before Allah in its many communities. mighty.124 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey systems. with joy. Mecca is where Muslims encounter history. where a new chapter in history opened. community. This image of global humanity in all its variety and richness is the ideal of Kur'anic revelation. and revelation. they answer that they desire to go there again and pray that Allah grant it to all. under one god. when the dead will be raised to stand before Allah and be judged. . all wearing the same costume. Lips are singing praises. the place where revelation was reasserted. all acknowledging their obligation to Allah. as if they are to see and meet the Prophet Muhammad. of resurrection. each with its prophet at its head. This flood of humanity is turning around. an engine for reforms. the pilgrimage. slowly flowing mass. and orientations. It is described with loving detail in many sermons. seeking. A picture is painted of pilgrims flowing to Mecca from every corner of the world. enthusiastic atmosphere in Mecca. pleading with Allah for them. They radiate an intensity of emotion. the pilgrims have faced the direction of the Kaaba in canonical prayer. all chanting the telbiye. It is an indescribably holy mood that washes over the pilgrims. One must imagine the hundreds of thousands of pilgrims circumambulating the Kaaba. Those Muslims who have never made the pilgrimage still participate in its yearly excitement. It is an extraordinary time of answering Allah's call. a birthplace and inspiration for new ideas. and just. The pilgrimage is the occasion when at last they see this place in person. It is a concentrated experience that pilgrims vividly recall. Pilgrims idealize the experience. oriented to Allah. Hearts are beating fast. The hajj. Tears are flowing. with fire burning in their hearts. in response to the call from Allah. languages. kissing the `threshold of Allah'. where Islam was born. an immense. a renewal of life and innocence. Every day of their lives. ethnicities. Pilgrims believe their experience foreshadows what will happen on the Day of Salvation. the example of how the world should be: people at peace with one another. just as the dead will rise from every region of the globe to gather before Allah on the Last Day. It is a `born again' experience. There will be a universal assemblage of humanity under one Creator. who is loving. Returning pilgrims never tire of recounting the stirring. It is the place of the experience of the Prophet Muhammad. There the faithful gather. by every available means. over and over. evokes this expectation.

Turgut O This is in contrast with earlier republican times. Moderns and conservatives of various backgrounds and persuasions mix in an atmosphere of tolerance and diversity. They would love to repeat it. It is true that the pilgrimage has political and economic aspects in Turkey. and society. For example. Private tour companies vie with the Department of Religious Affairs for their share of the pilgrim traffic. both made the pilgrimage. of the pilgrimage pie. not only on religion but also on politics. it was said of the leader of the banned Refah political party that he made the pilgrimage 25 times. idents. At the same time. It is well tolerated by Turkey's secular advocates. Many members of Turkey's parliament now go on the hajj. Yet some secularists still find fault with the hajj. which was claimed to be a show and a waste. They envy and admire those who can do so. physically and spiritually and in every way. Like fasting. claiming that it is a waste of money that could be better spent on Turkey's own local needs. Some wealthy public figures can afford to go on the pilgrimage nearly every year. Turkey's participation and desire to participate seem to be increasing with each passing year. the hajj is basically a private act among Muslims in Turkey. Two presÈ zal and Su Èleyman Demirel. . those who have been on the hajj have found it to be an uplifting and valuable experience. This merely sharpens the secular criticism and leads to politicization and polemics.The Pilgrimage 125 The pilgrimage is also an opportunity for Muslims from all backgrounds to meet each other and exchange views. economics. those who do not want to see the religious voice making a public show or entering the public arena.

a recompense for not meeting one's obligations. 126 .11 Almsgiving and the Animal Offering The giving of charity takes several forms in Islam. and slightly less in status. a service to others. Charity is an act of worship. a tolerant attitude. Our readers can find a classification of acts of charity in Appendix H. Charity. But the meaning and purpose of this minimal charity transcend its applications. or sadaka. a donation. whether spontaneous or prescribed. an animal offering. a worship of Allah with one's material means. It forms something distinctive about Islamic character and society. a gift. Charity is what preserves the historical makeup and identity of the people and opens them to personal transformation and outreach. `The one who is full while his neighbor is hungry is not a believer. It consists firstly of the zekat. are all charity. so sadaka is the concept behind the Muslim's every act of charity and kindness. There is a minimum amount of charity prescribed for every Muslim. Many visitors to Turkey remark how they constantly meet helpful and kind individuals.1 The Kur'an puts charity next in significance to the sacrament of prayer as that which completes and realizes the prayer. of the almsgiving during the fasting month of Ramazan. is a Kur'anic term and a generic virtue urged on Muslims at all times. a kind word. is the Kur'anic term and governing principle behind all prayer in Islam. or sadaka.3 Just as zikir. Muslims see themselves as a community of worship and a community of charity. and thirdly. The Prophet Muhammad is reported as saying. the remembrance of Allah.'2 He also said that the angel Gabriel spoke so much of the Prophet's obligations to his neighbor that he thought that his neighbor would be his heir. secondly. It is a widespread conviction among Muslims that `charity extends life and removes temptation'. as those who bear ultimate truth and those who serve humanity. A smiling countenance. the offering of an animal. or alms tax.

merchandise. or their offspring must not receive one's zekat. zekat is often paid to the poor and the destitute. It is an act of worship. and buildings are traditionally exempt from consideration when they are not for business or trading purposes. public safety officers. Land. next only to the canonical prayer in character. The Kur'an is also clear about to whom the zekat is given: Charities are meant for the indigent and destitute. and so on. and for those who collect and distribute them. flocks. heirlooms. for those in the service of Allah. Giving to poor neighbors. these jurists have codified how much zekat is to be paid by looking at the amount of an individual's property and classifying it into various types: whether the person has gold. herds. and for wayfarers. and precisely to whom it is to be given. or those seeking Allah's word and kingdom by working for peace and social justice. and essential element of Islam.Almsgiving and the Animal Offering 127 Zekat A major form of Islamic almsgiving is the zekat. It is the function of Islamic jurists to explain what the Prophetic practice means or requires in their respective areas and times. crops. for those whose hearts are to be further won over. Muslims may also choose a charitable foundation that will see to its distribution. Those who are `in the service of Allah' can be interpreted today to mean those in public service such as bureaucrats. a canonical sacrament done for the sake of Allah. The zekat is an obligatory. for liberating slaves and captives. or alms. By contrast. one's own spouse. loans. What is to be given as the zekat alms tax. which is something like an alms tax on wealth gained from one's livelihood. Nevertheless. such charitable acts as building a mosque or school or public work. (9:60) From this list. is also encouraged. mines. investments. minimum. However. or to the poor of one's local area. the indigent and those in debt have traditionally been most often chosen to receive zekat. But donations to other types of relatives are encouraged: to needy brothers and sisters. cash. do not count as zekat but are tied to charitable foundations. and to their children. In the light of Prophetic practice. grandparents. is determined by the practice of the Prophet Muhammad and further clarified in the Islamic law books. . Goods needed to satisfy life's necessities are also exempt. parents. Pay the zekat' (73:20). for relieving debtors. houses. The zekat is ordered in the Kur'an: `Be firm in devotion. educators. children. or paying off the debts of a deceased person.

or proportion. the extent. rather than some external authority. one tenth of the crops. and so on. public obligation. whether the citizen who already pays taxes to the government is additionally required to give zekat. how much. encouraging some believers to make donations on the grounds of obligation. if not ideally. a person should pay a percentage. as long as the value is not less. if so.128 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey After subtracting the exemptions. modern nations. The way in which the zekat is collected and distributed seems to be a matter of debate among the legal scholars: whether it is a state tax or a religious charity or both. one fortieth of the sheep. a time when almsgiving is uppermost in the minds of believers. but discouraging others because they are exempt. the alms tax on wealth. scholars and respected religious leaders are approached by some individuals seeking help in the application of the zekat. or an equivalent value. how much. we find an implicit understanding by the majority that zekat is a public obligation fulfilled in their regular taxes to the state. What is prescribed as zekat can be substituted in cash or in equivalent goods. Islamic governments in the past have collected the zekat as a tax. feels responsible today to decide the eligibility. But in today's Republic of Turkey. whether it is an individual act or a collective. or even a flat amount of the eligible goods as the minimum zekat. as zekat. which also encourages believers to keep their zekat separate from secular taxes and pay it as an individual sacrament of charity. Someone who owns 40 sheep or goats must therefore donate one of them. It is a phenomenon in this regard that during the fasting month of Ramazan. and if so. the individual. voluntary contribution. Let us return to the contemporary debate about whether the zekat is a compulsory government tax or a personalized. The same is true for the government's Department of Religious Affairs. The minimum has been stated as 2. both the government and its taxes are secular in nature. These individuals disclose their assets and income and ask whether they should give the zekat alms and. The religious scholars or leaders then render judgment. If we look at what Muslims are doing in the modern society of Turkey. The sophistication and complexity of the economies of industrial. and the timing of the zekat alms tax. have produced new situations and challenges. Or someone who owns 90 grams of gold must contribute one fortieth of it. conscientious Muslim. Functionally. It actually partakes of both natures. in comparison with the very slowly changing agrarian past.5 per cent on trade goods. There is no religious . But there is a pious minority that disagrees and treats zekat as a religious duty or act of worship to be paid in addition to their state taxes.

rather than leaving the zekat matter solely to the individual volunteer. absolute. This makes it a privatized affair. The zekat alms tax transcends the technicalities of its application as a constant warning and reminder. The zekat is meant to be the obligatory sharing of one's wealth with the poor. single-minded concentration on Allah. Like the canonical prayer. it is to be done with worshipful. and increase their wealth. the month of fasting. and into materialist societies. objective.Almsgiving and the Animal Offering 129 levy collected by the government. Zekat promotes harmony. of one's wealth. It is worship of Allah through sharing and generosity. calculate their self-benefit. However. through the believer's material possessions. as a lasting image and incentive for social responsibility and social justice. The Islamic vision calls for incorporating this sense of zekat into democratic politics. the negligence of which will incur Allah's punishment. When practiced collectively. into competitive organizations. it is difficult to decide who is wealthy enough for the zekat alms tax in today's market economies. and obligatory economic responsibility. But how is this to be done? For example. into capitalist economies. The Ramazan alms One time in the year for prescribed almsgiving is during Ramazan. compete. We have noted above that the zekat is conceived of mainly as a voluntary contribution. demand. take. as is seen in some European countries. in order that human existence as a whole becomes more sharing. There is an expectation that scholars and Islamic legal experts should show how to carry out this minimum obligation in a modern state. something in line with the secular understanding of religious practices. It symbolizes the renunciation of individual greed and is a form of purification. rather than to give and to share. This is the month when many Muslims choose to pay . unity. which would put it in the same category as other voluntary acts of charity. It has a corporate dimension and implications for public life. How can zekat with its ideals of generosity and solidarity become part of social democracy? And how can charity be given to the poor so that the recipients retain their dignity and freedom? These large questions remain to be addressed. with modern understandings of human dignity and liberty. the zekat is a minimum. in its ideal form. it reinforces the solidarity of the Islamic community. and solidarity among believers. or sanctification. where people feel pushed to ask.

so that the poor also may celebrate the Breaking of the Fast Holiday. as a worshipful response to having been created. Because it is a small amount. from a time when life was mainly agrarian. or mystically oriented groups who volunteer to support students by supplying their housing and food costs. it is only about 1. A person gives to the poor out of gratitude for being alive. but it also can mean `the charity of life'. The minimum amount of contribution is quite small. and then the Ramazan charity. calculates a minimum amount of charity equivalent to what the Prophet Muhammad in his time set for Muslims. and before dawn on the Breaking of the Fast Holiday (Ramazan Bayrami). In recent years. especially during Ramazan. each eligible Muslim should have made at least a minimal charitable contribution to the poor. Every Muslim is then either a giver or a receiver of charity. almost everyone can give it. Municipalities have also taken on the work of feeding large numbers of needy people. There are also religiously. . The practice of the fitre charity. is widespread in Turkey. It is like a religious head tax. According to the consciousness of the pious. famines. wars. the Ramazan contribution to the poor. who is the coordinator of religious services and functionaries in a region. is the means through which that offering reaches Allah. there are both governmental and private ways to contribute in Turkey to the victims of earthquakes. socially.5 kg of wheat. or its equivalent value in kind or in money.130 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey the zekat alms tax. But as with zekat. But in addition. by the end of the month of Ramazan. it does not count as Ramazan charity to give donations to one's own dependents or close relatives. then Allah will eventually punish him or her It is as though the entire month of worship through fasting is an offering to Allah. which can mean `the charity of the breaking of the fast'. The contribution is mandatory. the state has begun a fund for the poor and needy. The name for this Ramazan charitable contribution is the fitre charity. And there are pious individuals who take the initiative to feed the poor in their own locality. The office of the local muftu. People who cannot even afford the minimum amount of Ramazan charity are the ones who are eligible to receive it. There are many outlets for the Ramazan almsgiving. or the winning of the hearts of the poor through charity. and other disasters. including charitable foundations and institutions. The bread winners in the household are to pay the Ramazan charity on behalf of their dependents. For instance. Muslims may contribute toward those efforts as their act of charity. In traditional terms. No one is outside the community. if the believer does not make the contribution. It is charity that is offered to seek Allah's favor.

and kindness to one another is paramount. is a yearly occasion for charity. that their contribution reaches the hands of the intended recipients. Woe unto those who conduct the prayer sacrament and are ignorant of its purpose. generosity is stressed. Hypocrisy is more despised than unbelief. that the charity is donated before the light of dawn on the final day of Ramazan. There is a contrast here with the zekat. or prescribed. The animal offering is an act of worship. The festival of the animal offering The Animal Offering Holiday. Muslims should be certain first that their contribution is intended as an act of worship of Allah. With the zekat there is a correspondingly sharper area for debate between secular and non-secular views of religion and public life. the alms tax. Since to be charitable is an act of worship. If the Ramazan charity does not make it to the hands of the needy. The offering takes place at the time the pilgrims in Mecca make their offering. secular understanding of privatized religion. Much of the offered meat is donated to the poor. Such people are showing off and are obstructing the good. The Kur'an speaks out strongly on this matter: Did you see those who give the lie to religion? They are those who shun the orphan and do not encourage the feeding of the destitute. then it does not perform its religious function. . Kurban Bayrami (Arabic: Id al-Adha). the charity must be made up later. it fits well into the modern. and third. Thus the Animal Offering Holiday is a time when food is in abundance. an act that is centered on Allah. the integrity of the act and the integrity of the person are very important. And if a person fails to give the Ramazan alms before the end of the fasting month. Its manner of being done is canonized.Almsgiving and the Animal Offering 131 Whatever the destination of the charity. a public obligation. second. And it is very close to the zekat alms tax and the Ramazan alms in its obligatory nature. which has traditionally been understood as a state function. (107: 1±7) Because giving the Ramazan alms is known only to the individual or the immediate family. Muslims across the Islamic world ritually offer an animal to Allah in thanksgiving. and part of the activity of an Islamic government.

Thus the Animal Offering Holiday is a celebratory time of plenty. when Allah intervened and provided an animal in Ishmael's place. animal breeders and villagers begin to drive their flocks of sheep and goats into the towns . Whatever the choice. a way of asking Allah for forgiveness of sins and weaknesses. Abraham was ready to offer his firstborn son. This means a time of overabundance in the supply of meat. No part of the offered animal is to be thrown away. The animal offering in the Islamic world is a religious rite celebrated with sharing and with jubilation. All such elements are present in the atmosphere surrounding the animal offering. and of Allah's acceptance of that intention. It is part of being a Muslim. Offering an animal is additionally a sign of repentance. The animal offering signifies the dedication of one's soul to Allah in memory of Abraham's dedication and faith. for even the hide and the feet can be sold and the money given to the poor. Offering an animal is believed to be pleasing to Allah as an act of worship. Those who rarely do the canonical prayer (namaz/ salat). Just as Allah directed Abraham to make an animal offering instead of killing his son. namely sheep. It is a time to renew one's commitment to Allah. will offer an animal at the time of the annual pilgrimage. not even for the purpose of pleasing or satisfying Allah. it was Abraham's son Isaac who was to be offered. much of which is given away to the destitute or to those of little means. a way of showing gratitude to Allah for the abundance of the earth and for Allah's blessings.132 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey Animals that are offered should be healthy. It is also a thank offering. and so Muslims do it. It reinforces the importance of giving up part of the dear things one possesses. (In the version of this story known by Jews and Christians. so the animal offering is a declaration that Allah does not want the sacrifice of a human being for any purpose. This includes all parts of the animal. and then divide the meat between them. for example. The animal offering is traditionally associated with the story of Abraham and the offering of his son. a portion of the offering will go to the poor.) Muslims retell this story at the time of the Animal Offering Holiday. and of prescribed kinds. Ishmael. a time when there is great communal benefit. cows or camels. mature. Up to seven people may join together and purchase a cow. for instance. but the main point not to be forgotten is that Allah has required the animal offering. It is an extremely popular religious practice in Turkey. As the Animal Offering Holiday approaches. goats. or see to it that people of low income will have an animal to offer.

petting and feeding it. This lesson concludes when the ezan. also goes over the procedures of the canonical prayer sacrament and reminds the congregation of the essentials of the Animal Offering Holiday. . On this occasion his talk is a review and critique of the year. sounds just after sunrise. or vaiz. It is Allah who is magnificent! It is Allah who is magnificent! And glory belongs only to Allah. during the pilgrimage. These sets feature many repetitions of the `extended tekbir. or preacher. Men are urged to attend. or leader or the canonical prayer. He delivers a formal sermon. a preacher. The cantillation of the extended magnification follows the same exquisite Ottoman tune used in the Breaking of the Fast Holiday. as in the Breaking of the Fast Holiday at the end of Ramazan.' the extended Magnification of Allah: It is Allah who is magnificent! It is Allah who is magnificent! There is no god but Allah. the hajj. Children are encouraged to be kind toward the animal and care for it. This lesson also reviews the history and tradition of the animal offering. the hutbe. mounts the preaching stairs. begins a lesson in the mosque that continues until sunrise. The vaiz. Unlike the practice in the Breaking of the Fast Holiday. The municipality designates certain open places where worshippers go to purchase their animals. a tune that is practically inscribed on the soul of nearly every citizen. the call to prayer. a distinctive morning festival prayer takes place at the mosque. the imam. these extended magnifications are repeated at the end of the five canonical prayers during every day of the four-day Animal Offering Holiday. accompanied by the Magnification of Allah from the congregation. On the first day of the Animal Offering Holiday. for the Animal Offering Holiday comes near the end of the lunar Islamic calendar. After the normal dawn canonical prayer. An expectant atmosphere grows in the cities as men and women lead their animals home. The children greet their animal excitedly.Almsgiving and the Animal Offering 133 and cities for sale. After the two sets of stations of canonical prayer. the kurban. A colorful bazaar forms as religion and commerce mix in the bargaining over prices. and they do so in large numbers in Turkey. The subject is the meaning of the animal offering. The assembled worshippers then do two sets of stations of canonical prayer.

to forgive past enmities. glorifying Allah. The prayer of the worshippers at this time is O my Allah: my prayer. The cut should be as quick and merciful as possible. to be reconciled with them. Everyone pitches in. and the worshippers and family members gathered around as witnesses. After the sacrament of festival canonical prayer. In recognition of the popularity of the Animal Offering . my offering. the intention of the offering as an act of worship. Many political leaders make a point of calling on each other during the holiday and of exchanging gifts and greetings. The main activity on this holiday is to visit friends and relatives both far and near. to eat special foods. and to Allah. It is the worshipper who should be the one who cuts the animal's throat. The worshipper who is offering the animal must announce to himself or herself. goes to the niche at the front of the mosque. my worship. People then customarily line up to shake hands with each other and offer holiday greetings. my life. A defining image of the offering is the worshipper with knife in hand. the animal lying with its eyes covered and feet bound. and to build good ties with others. People take four days off work for this holiday and its traditional visitation. but not everyone knows the best technique in this regard. and my death are for the Lord of the Universe. and faces the congregation as he leads it in prayers of petition. After setting aside the minimum one third of the animal that is a donation to the poor. The imam descends the stairs at the conclusion of the formal sermon. it is time to offer the animal to Allah in worship. But as the animal is being offered. the family shares the rest with friends and relatives. after which they themselves do the skinning and cutting up of the meat. Then comes the communal work of dividing the meat. Many worshippers therefore hire an expert. the owner or owners should participate by laying hands on the animal's body. People either go home for this purpose or assemble in designated areas where facilities have been specially set up for the animal offering. The Animal Offering Holiday is an important time of social cohesion and affirmation.134 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey There is also an exhortation to the faithful to visit relatives and neighbors during the holiday. young and old. and to greet each other with the joy of the festival. in a spirit of fun and friendship and consciousness of generosity and kindness. The ideal is that the animal should feel nothing. The offering is made in a prescribed manner. to be reconciled and forgiving of one another.

During the holiday.Almsgiving and the Animal Offering 135 holiday. Transportation is packed solid. it is individuals who are expected to make the decision to share what they have for the public good. a weaker social fabric. of struggle. secular Turkey has emphasized this private aspect of charity as something between the donor and Allah. government institutions close. companies often donate meat to their employees. or the gathering of important leaders. When someone has narrowly escaped an accident. Animals are also offered at a time of great reconciliation. Evaluation: the challenge to charity of secularization and urbanization More than other Islamic practices. and a growing . For example. or oath. it is possible to make up days of fasting that were missed by offering an animal and donating all the meat to the poor. Of course. One of them is at a defining event. as an invocation of blessing and protection: the opening of a new business. Charity in this sense is a form of reaching out. transport services are strained to get everyone to their destinations. In the twentieth century. Though it is the private act of individuals. There are complaints that Turkey is becoming a less charitable society. Another time is when individuals offer an animal as part of a promise. the beginning of a new government. meaning that there is less neighborliness. Yet another occasion for an animal offering is when making recompense or atonement for not carrying out one's obligations or promises. as do many businesses. at the same time it represents the sharing of wealth for the public welfare. where religion is not to intrude. people might offer an animal. he or she might offer an animal in gratitude. Observers will notice the heavy road traffic and families traveling to see friends and relatives and to visit the graves of their dead in the cemeteries. if Allah would grant them the birth of a child. But the gap between rich and poor continues to grow. that had been struck with Allah: the person had sworn to offer a sheep. of mission. and muncipalities usually offer free bus service. as when long-feuding families celebrate making peace. for instance. Or when misfortune abounds. Sharing of the nation's wealth and the material advancement of the whole of society has been thought to be the business of the secular state. the start of a building construction. charity is an expression of social Islam. while the secular state has not brought about any satisfying solutions. Before closing. that builds community. Muslims in Turkey will offer an animal on other occasions as well.

City dwellers are now cut off from the soil. But the secular explanation for any breakdown in the social fabric is that citizens are insufficiently educated. Charitable acts should be a public affair. Although the animal offering is a widespread act of charity in Turkey. Thus the gap persists between the expectations of many people and government practices. sometimes contrary to the purposes and spirit for which they were dedicated. and equality of opportunity for all. And the practice of the animal offering has its own difficulties today. Then either through free market or state planning mechanisms. economic justice and a stronger society will be achieved. In their limited. However. Capitalists and socialists look the same to them when in office. and enlightenment. which is the guarantor of public welfare. where the animals are raised and tended. The non-secular analysis of this trend is that these developments spring from the neglect of Islamic charity. This tension is yet another reflection of how secular . meaning that the state must ensure the right of the needy to their share of society's goods. especially one killed for food. economic justice. The animal offering sacrament raises the issue of the traditional Islamic heritage living in tension with modern secular life. The customs and behaviors surrounding the offering of an animal come from a time when people lived in a more rural environment. What the country needs according to this view is further development. Exploitation and opportunism continue. how animals are killed to provide meat.136 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey distrust of one another. industrialization. The sight can be disturbing. It was a blessing and a symbol for charity. and how their lives depend on the health of the natural world. noisy space they grow more tense and less tolerant as they compete for jobs and food. Many have rarely witnessed the death of an animal. This claim is in line with the Islamic Golden Rule: encourage the good and discourage what is evil. which are the objectives underlying Islamic charity. particularly for children. the non-secular mindset can see no spiritual grounding for these secular programs. They become alienated from life on the land and grow up without experiencing life with plants and animals. Social ties are more disregarded. it is only a fraction of the larger notions of public solidarity and economic justice. City dwellers lose consciousness of where their food is produced. Non-secularists speak of the time when an animal was offered at the opening of Turkey's first parliament. People in apartment buildings also do not have facilities to pen an animal suitably. The state is in control of charitable foundations. or to skin and dress the meat properly.

and they therefore questioned whether the Turkish Air Association was a fitting object of charity. which at that time was a fledgling body devoted to aviation development. to donate the skin to a religious cause means that the animal offering goes to those destinations prescribed by the Kur'an and the practice of the Prophet. For instance. Such questioning continues today. and the issues with which people struggle daily. Many Muslims would prefer to donate their skins to a body that more clearly fits the donors' idea of charity. The traditional religious attitude regards such behavior as escaping the meaning and responsibility of the Animal Offering Holiday. or animal sacrifice. sight-see. or otherwise enjoy and entertain themselves. the secular mind says that religion is a private matter. and renewing ties. Secularists might argue it is more important for them to get a break from the tensions of the city and the stresses of competition. As a result. There are two further dramatic ways this encounter shows itself in the Animal Offering Holiday: one is the controversy over the sheepskin donation. It is supposed to be a time of communal celebration. However. human rights. The other illustrative point of friction occurs when families treat the four-day Animal Offering Holiday as a vacation. from the standpoint of modern concerns about ecology. But from a non-secular viewpoint. But many believers pointed out that the animal offering was intended for good works. the donation of the skins has become highly politicized: to donate to the Turkish Air Association means from the secular viewpoint that one supports the secular state. In the pre-World War Two days of the Turkish Republic.Almsgiving and the Animal Offering 137 and non-secular attitudes struggle in coexistence with each other in modern Turkey. for charity. does the . Though they may offer an animal or make a charitable donation to others. friends. and neighbors. Among all sections of society there is room for further discussion of this arch symbol of the animal offering. and crowding. of reconciling with one another. They claimed it was not right for the public secular authority to interfere with the religious worship of individuals and their freedom of conscience. It is an occasion for social harmony and unity. the government began asking the public to donate the skins of their animal offerings to the Turkish Air Association. of visiting relatives. The skins of the offered animals command a good price on the market. and the other is the use of the holiday for vacation purposes. and for helping the poor. of group solidarity. or at least denies support to religious groups that try to undermine the secular order. noise. they use the holiday time to get away from the city and to travel.

or ideological killings. goal.138 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey Abrahamic story in which Allah rejects human sacrifice also mean a rejection of killing. or ideal we might have? What can be said about the use of the death penalty. or of oppressing others for any reason. . or acts of war? What is signified by the concept of `pleasing Allah'? How is Allah pleased by killing living things? There is a challenge here for Muslim philosophers and theologians as to the meaning of Allah's satisfaction.

(6:71±2) Commit yourself to what is revealed to you from the Book. The sacrament of prayer is a response to a divine call. orphans. or commandment. and in those who 139 . in the Angel. It is to Him that you will be resurrected. Righteousness is found in the act of one who puts faith in Allah. And Allah knows what you do. It is found in doing the sacrament of prayer. in the Book. Stand in an attitude of reverence and submission before Allah. It is found in the act of liberating slaves. that appears dozens of times in the Kur'an. which is obligatory for Muslims five times per day and a visible religious practice in Turkey.12 The Sacrament of Prayer This section describes the prayer ritual. in keeping one's promises. in the Last Day. and beggars. (2:238) We were commanded to submit to the Lord of the Worlds and to do the prayer sacrament and to revere Him. and properly do the sacrament of prayer. the destitute. And calling on Allah is more worthy than anything. It is found in the one who grants valuable possessions to relatives. or sacrament of canonical prayer. and in the prophets. the holy book of Islam: Continue the sacrament of prayer and the midday prayer. in almsgiving. for the prayer prevents evil and hateful things. travellers in need. (29:45) Righteousness is not found in turning your faces in a ritual direction.

Jesus. . Mounted on this beast. Muslims commonly know the story of this gifting as the narrative of the Night Journey: One night. turn your face toward it. (2:177) We see you turn your face up into the sky. When the Prophet descended back down through the heavens. turn your face in the direction of the Holy Place of Prostration. The story also depicts ritual prayer itself as an interfaith gathering point for the established religious traditions. At the summation of the ascent was the limit of Being before the Absolute. then.1 He ascended to the Divine Presence through seven heavens. when the Angel Gabriel awoke him and led him to a winged beast. and others. he met Moses. who advised him to return and ask that the number be reduced to one that was more within his people's capabilities. And wherever you are. in Mecca. (2:144) This last verse suggests that the worshipper should be directed toward the Holy Mosque. and times of trial. Those who were given the Book will certainly recognize that this is the truth from their Lord. We will no doubt turn you in a direction that pleases you. the Prophet Muhammad was sleeping next to the house of pilgrimage in Mecca [the Kaaba].2 In this story of the Night Journey the canonical prayer is both a divine commandment and a gift from Allah to the people of the Prophet Muhammad. the Kaaba. There he prayed [the prayer sacrament] with the Prophets Abraham. Now. Then carried by Gabriel. the Prophet rose to heaven from the rock of the Temple Mount. It communicates to Muslims the Prophet's awareness of the personalities and practices of Christians and Jews. Moses. The Prophet Muhammad brought the prayer sacrament from Allah as a gift and taught it to his community.140 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey patiently endure hardships. After several such requests on the Prophet's part. at the site of the ruined Jewish temple. poverty. the number was finally reduced to five. the Prophet was borne through the sky to Jerusalem. Such people have proved truthful. the Temple Mount. There the Prophet received the command from Allah that people should do the [canonical] prayer 50 times each day. and they are the saved. with Gabriel alongside.

The basic purpose of life. In the earliest days of Islamic history. The sacramental prayer is `canonical' because it has been codified in Islamic law. that people remember. prayer for Muslims is a way to fulfill one's created nature. Such activity and Allah-consciousness are for the protection of one's soul in this world and the next. has prescribed words and actions. a form which persists today. This multidimensional Kur'anic term is heavily loaded. It is a path that leads to hell. In Turkey. indifference to Allah. The canonical prayer sacrament is a form of zikir. It refers to such things as `the remembrance of Allah'. The scholars put the canonical prayer practice into manual form. `thankfulness for Allah's graciousness'. The role of the Prophet Muhammad was to awaken people to zikir. The canonical prayer is also . in harmony with all of creation. Any times that are missed must either be made up later or compensated for in a prescribed manner. or mood of worship. is required from every Muslim five times per day. to call constantly on the name of Allah. the technical term for canonical prayer is namaz. meaning a liturgy. worship. and therefore forgetfulness of one's own created self. is for the creation to sing the glory of the Lord. and praise Allah. One of the alternative names for the Kur'an is Zikir. but it is known in the Arabic world as salat. forgetfulness of Allah. learned religious leaders collected and codified in detail the practice of ritual prayer that the Prophet had established. Such is the road to eternal life. Zikir signifies a tone. And all of what Muslims mean by `prayer' is a form of this zikir. The creation does so by traveling properly the paths that the Creator has set down for it: that planets spin in their orbits. Canonical prayer. remember and praise Allah's name. Prayer in Islam is a form of this zikir. to be conscious of Allah in all that they do and are. The sacramental prayer. The opposite of zikir is un-mindfulness of Allah.The Sacrament of Prayer 141 The sacrament of prayer as a form of zikir What Muslims mean by prayer is more than the English word `prayer' normally connotes. `response to Allah'. the essential meaning of existence. namaz/salat. In its widest sense. to remember Allah. The Kur'an regards as ignorance such a stance toward life. It is a form of zikir. We will use both terms together because both are widespread in the Islamic world. to eternal punishment and separation from Allah. and so on. namaz/salat. `the mentioning of Allah'. or `a warning to fear Allah'. or temper. that trees flower and give fruit. It is a primary teaching of the Kur'an that all people. and set times of conduct.

or personal petition. Muslims do further voluntary canonical prayer either in emulation of the practice of the Prophet Muhammad. It involves personal petitions. speaking in tongues. Another major type of zikir. singing. Dua has no prescribed form. is that it is done in a prescribed form with prescribed physical actions. The canonical prayer. self-wounding. They are said either alone or with others. a group of Sufi mystics who do a twirling dance as their particular form of noncanonical prayer. counting on prayer beads. on the first mornings of the two yearly religious festivals. and at funerals. Muslims make their voluntary petitions to Allah. asking Allah for forgiveness or requesting Allah's intercession. Unlike the exclusive and particularist Sufi forms of zikir. chanting. and unlike the individualist dua. inclusive of all Muslims. The prayer sacrament forms one of . Dua is often what many Christians might think of as `prayer'. This nonsacramental prayer is called dua. such as bowing and prostration. Each Sufi group. The common denominator for the canonical prayer. or as someone's wish to go beyond. what is normally expected. Occasions for such extra canonical prayers are many. petitionary prayer. poetry. when setting out on a journey. instrumental music. or grace. assistance. which is the remembering and mentioning of the name of Allah. People may use whatever words or phrases they find appropriate. forming yet another idea of `prayer'. It is non-canonical and always non-obligatory. It is often verbal or meditative and motionless in outward appearance. hymns. or anxiety. in the late evenings during the month of fasting. is universal and ecumenical. meditation. whether individual or corporate. when entering a mosque. is non-sacramental and noncodified. or tarikat. The mystical Sufi movements in the Islamic world have taken noncanonical forms of zikir to many technical extremes. and so on. the archetypal worship behavior for all Muslims. joy. whether required or voluntary. conversation. often spontaneously or freely composed. Readers who wish to see a further discussion of the forms of zikir and a classification of the canonical prayer should consult Appendix I. Turkey is world famous for its `whirling dervishes'. Like many other worshippers. and open to all Muslims. namaz/salat. is also a form of zikir. Outside these required canonical prayers. They can be times of fear. and so on. to supersede. is known for its particular form of zikir: dancing. namaz/salat is common ground. by contrast. and it is a time of either verbal or silent communication with Allah.142 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey required from the Islamic community as a corporate body on Fridays at midday. Dua. of which there are hundreds.

the light of my eye'. And [his wife] Ayshe said. and you were to wash in it five times a day? Would there remain any filth on you? They answered. One such report runs as follows: The Messenger of Allah used to do the sacrament of prayer until his feet split. There are five appointed times. it is the same with the five times a day prayer. O Messenger of Allah. O Ayshe. And the Kur'an treats canonical prayer like a person. He added. in the 24±hour day when Muslims. either joining with others or on their own. acknowledge the universal canonical prayer. liturgical times. Even the Sufi groups. each time emerging refreshed. Allah is said to erect a house in heaven . It is a basic. There are stories told of him standing in prayer very late into the night. world-wide part of being a Muslim. perfume. `Three things from Your world I was made to like: woman. by which Allah removes shortcomings. He is reported as saying. their starting point. This was a way of saying that to pray with other Muslims far outweighs praying alone. and prayer. Nothing would be left of any filth. as their foundational element.The Sacrament of Prayer 143 the most frequently encountered visual images of Islamic worship. even to the point where his feet became swollen or cracked. shall I not be an exceedingly grateful servant?5 Muslims believe that such extra ritual prayer pleases Allah even more and earns greater eternal reward. with their highly developed forms of zikir. He described it as bathing five times in a clean flowing river. Muslims know that the Prophet Muhammad did more than the required number of canonical prayers. give themselves over to Allah in the sacrament of the namaz/salat. saying `Indeed the prayer forbids evil' (29:45). stressing that it was `27 degrees' more blessed than individual prayer. namaz/salat. and strengthened: What if there were a river flowing in front of one of your houses. are you doing this even though your past and future sins are already forgiven? He said. a fourteen-century-old cornerstone of global Muslim identity. renewed. We aim to explain what they are doing and what it means for them to do it. The Prophet Muhammad loved the prayer sacrament.3 The sacrament of prayer gave him great joy. the common formative component in Muslim identity.4 He especially encouraged congregational prayer.

correct timing. Aspects of the canonical prayer The sacrament of prayer has the following aspects: 1 Preparation: cleansing/purification. the canonical prayer `decorates' the domestic and social life of Muslims. Therefore. . and women can do them at the mosque. proper clothing. or word of the Prophet. direction (facing the Kaaba at Mecca). but how Islamic cultures have traditionally carried out this requirement is another issue. Canonical prayer can be done at home. or anywhere. The requirement of the sacrament of prayer is one matter. It is primary and universal. Readers who wish to see a further discussion on gender issues in worship should consult Appendix J. 3 The praise of Allah. and intention. In this way. clean. both to follow the Prophet Muhammad as a model. or positions (namaz/salat). whether non-canonical (dua) or canonical (namaz/salat).144 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey for such a person. and any person may enter a mosque at any time for this purpose. 5 Recitation of Kur'anic verses. at the daily times of the canonical prayer. There is no compulsion either way. in the mosque. it has become customary for Muslims to do more than the required number of obligatory prayers. But any place can be prepared and used for prayer of any type. and a place of prostration. so worship only me. But men can also do them at home. conveys the same idea that any place can be made suitable for worship: [The Prophet speaks:] The whole earth was made for me good. 2 Sets of stations. Women were traditionally expected to do them at home. 4 Individual petitions (dua). and to please Allah the more. (29:56). And a hadith. The mosque may be used for any type of prayer. independent of location or congregation.6 Muslims in traditional societies have favored the mosque as the location where men do the corporate canonical prayer. The Kur'an implies that worship transcends any particular location: [Allah speaks:] O my creatures who believe: the spacious earth is mine. at work.

The issue of purification is dealt with more fully in the next chapter. urination. flatulence. A major element in preparation for the canonical prayer is cleanliness and purification from physical dirt. Cleansing visible impurity. . as a minimum. and refined in this life. and cleansed from pollution with evil. tested. This state continues until something occurs in the moment-to-moment life of the individual that would break. The soul that does the canonical prayer is building up a store of goodness in preparation for the long journey to the hereafter. before doing any further canonical prayer. from filth on the body and clothing and in the environment. the hands. We will look in detail at cleanliness and purity in the next chapter. This element has historically meant an emphasis on cleanliness and purity in Islamic societies. have codified the following six preparatory actions for the canonical prayer. The grounds of mosques contain fountains or faucets where the worshippers can wash. For men.The Sacrament of Prayer 145 These last three features are prominent when the canonical prayer is done corporately. known in the Arabic world as wudu) of parts of the body. When done correctly. Clothing the private parts. Cleansing invisible impurity. or invalidate it. such as defecation. bleeding. The dominant idea or expectation is that the soul will meet Allah on the Last Day having been purified. restoring the state of purification. 1. the body must be covered except for the face. the body. or the place of the sacrament of prayer should be removed or cleaned away. Preparedness is a recurring theme in Islamic worship. help fulfil the purification requirements. The major washing (gusul) of the entire body. the ablutions mentioned above also confer a state of ritual purity on the worshipper. or destroy. For women. Then the worshipper must again carry out the ablutions. Preparation for canonical prayer The intensity and gravity of canonical prayer are seen in the preparation for entering into it. and the feet. or the minor washing (abdest. Some things that spoil the state of ritual purity are bodily discharges. Obvious dirt on the clothing. Jurists. for the Day of Reckoning. 2. and sexual emissions. the belly to the knee must be covered. 3. It mirrors the pious view that all of life is a preparation for the next world. the authorities in Islamic law. Visitors to mosques should remove their shoes to keep dirt away from the physical environment of the canonical prayer. vomiting.

the House of Allah. the place where Abraham is believed to have built the Kaaba. This helps focus attention. Newspapers publish the prayer times daily for the major cities. . With the correct time. as the positions of the sun and earth change. The canonical prayer is to be done five times each day: before sunrise. in the manner of notes being sung. Although the length of each call varies slightly according to the time of day. the times for the call are regulated by the government's Department of Religious Affairs. stylized recitation. just after the time of the sun's zenith (midday). and dignity on the act itself. We use the term `cantillation' to describe this sort of intense. saying something like. The call to prayer is a prescribed set of words in Arabic. Occasionally there may be some short delays. the prime site of pilgrimage in the Islamic world. The recitation style is dramatic. They solemnly declare to themselves their purpose to worship Allah in the canonical prayer. The one who calls to prayer. Mecca is the original monotheistic worship site. 6. Timing. People are called to consciousness. and at night. A distinct melody is used. In Turkey. these times of prayer vary with respect to the clock and geographical location. and intention. The five daily times of canonical prayer are each announced with a public call to prayer. dress. Every mosque has at least one person on its staff who performs the muezzin function. while the loudspeakers are affixed to the minaret. Intention. consciousness. Turning to the Kaaba in Mecca. cleanliness. the muezzin. Syllables are drawn out. late noon. that they are in the presence of Allah and that they know what they are doing. or awareness. Readers can find a more detailed description of the timing of the five daily sacraments of prayer in Chapter 9. but more than merely speaking. in the company of his son Ishmael. just after sunset. Calculation of the times of canonical prayer is according to the position of the sun. semi-musical. 5. Since time immemorial Meccans have preserved this cubical structure. but this does not invalidate the call. the worshipper is prepared for the next stage of sacramental prayer. During the year. `It is now my intention to do the prayer sacrament for the pleasure of Allah. traditionally does so from the mosque itself.146 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey 4. The muezzin normally cantillates the call to prayer into a microphone located in a side room in the mosque. The call to prayer should sound from all mosques in one area at the same time. direction. and I follow the lead of the Kur'an'. it does not vary from one daily cycle to the next.

They are referred to in the Kur'an. (7:206) We will refer to these distinct postures of submission. without deviation. `erected'. in a disciplined manner. or exaggeration. Particular words belong to each particular posture and to changes between the postures. Second Prostration: the end of one set The Second Set. They praise Him and prostrate only to Him. Bowing . or `fulfilled' the canonical prayer. The postures themselves. After the second set of . Pause . The postures are held fixed for varying amounts of time while the worshipper utters ritual petitions. That is. . First Prostration . as `stations'. or physical submission.The Sacrament of Prayer 147 The stations of the canonical prayer In the sacrament of canonical prayer. without distraction. Standing with hands crossed in front . expressions of praise. abbreviation. they return at once to the Standing station with hands crossed in front. yet with natural movements. beginning again with Standing Sitting for petitionary prayer: the end of one unit Exiting the ritual prayer: greeting to the right and left. repeating them in a cyclical fashion. without making a show of it. but not systematically so. after reaching the Second Prostration. the worshipper adopts certain prescribed postures one after the other. all show physical obedience. magnifying Allah . extenuation. such as bowing. the Muslim is said to have `established'. When this purpose is accomplished. As seen above. Ideally the postures and movements should take place precisely as described. The cycle of stations is as follows: The First Set Entering the ritual prayer: standing with hands to the head and palms forward. worshippers ordinarily repeat the set of stations twice. with their assigned words. and verses from the Kur'an. The purpose should be to `do justice' to the stations. as in this verse: Any creatures who are with your Lord do not because of pride refrain from worshipping Him.

use some perfume or scent. The words themselves are in Arabic. and physically hears them. After preparing themselves. They are urged not to eat things like onion or garlic before going to the mosque. Those who have gone to the mosque and have completed the individual sets of stations sit on the carpeted floor and wait quietly for the corporate sacrament of canonical prayer. The Entering and the Exiting stations always occur only once. But Muslims are sensitive about this issue. the Sitting station is briefer than at the end of the two units. hoping to attain the Prophet's intercession. If additional units are required. at the beginning and end of the entire group of repetitive units. but they were the practice of the Prophet Muhammad. generally preferring to use the original language in which the Kur'an was revealed. and they should also wear fresh socks. Worshippers are urged to go to the mosque at the beginning of the corresponding liturgical prayer period. In this century. and freshen their breath. or perhaps just before. the original text of the Kur'an is the universal foundation of Islamic unity and community.148 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey stations. There is broad agreement among Muslims on the use of Arabic. Moreover. there was an attempt by the national government to impose the use of Turkish for the call to prayer. . dress in clean. Islamic piety has traditionally regarded change as inevitably resulting in distortion. for the sacrament of prayer. they should not be interrupted. For instance. which then completes one normal unit of canonical prayer. Sunni Muslims in Turkey continue his tradition. Verbal parts of the canonical prayer are very quietly spoken to oneself. The reader can refer to the details of the number of sets of stations prescribed for each liturgical hour in Appendix K. good clothes. the worshippers begin individually at least two sets of stations of prayer. These individual sets may be done at home or elsewhere or at the mosque. It is true that there is no Kur'anic or Prophetic evidence prohibiting the use of vernacular languages. And once the stations have been entered. at the midday canonical prayer there are four sets of stations. worshippers adopt the Sitting station for a time of petitionary prayer. meaning two units of two sets each. These sets are not strictly obligatory. Between the two units. meaning that the worshipper moves the tongue to form the words. They bathe or perform the ritual ablutions. the Sitting station lasts a shorter time. The general feeling is that people must adapt themselves to that which is from the Eternal and not change the words of Allah to fit whatever trend or system is in fashion. He urged his followers to emulate him. but prevents the words from being heard by anyone else or from distracting anyone.

and the palms of the open hands facing forward. the most comforting. fingers straight up. no idea. Allah alone is the ultimate frame of reference. the supreme reality on which believers depend and rely. the left column contains a description of the main words and/or actions of the sacrament. Entering the stations The worshipper says. shutting out distractions. The worshipper instead is leaving behind the temporal. This posture puts the back of the hand. or the tekbir. the most strengthening. while the right column contains a commentary. our readers should bear in mind that all details are important. facing backward. transcending concern for the world. In this and all subsequent stations. But there is no idea here of the person in canonical prayer shunning or leaving the world. Although there is not enough space here to note every aspect. . justice. It is omnipresent in Islamic worship and daily life. for short. This tekbir. no creed or formula. impermanent concerns and anxieties of the world. the Magnification of Allah. worshippers adopt the associated posture for entering the stations of canonical prayer: they stand with the hands raised. turning away from that which is failing and fading and deceptive. In the explanation of certain of the stations that follows. the eternal word. the part of the body people use when they dismiss inconsequential or unwanted matters. is the watchword of the Islamic faith. toward Mecca. the most freeing word. Then we point out some variations when the sacrament is done corporately. thumbs touching the bottom of the earlobes. It is the ultimate source and ground of unity. He or she turns While uttering the tekbir. no system or ideology is higher than Allah. no one. the house of worship in Mecca. The canonical prayer is exceedingly detailed. `It is Allah who is magnificent!'. The tekbir says that nothing. it is called the Entrant Magnification. having been preserved and practiced since the time of the Prophet. the last refuge. It is like a door through which one enters the holy presence of Allah. the eyes are on the point of prostration. and peace. And Allah's word is the most liberating. order. The worshipper is facing that which is lasting and eternally abiding. specifically toward the Kaaba. no project or person or institution. When said at this point on entering the stations.The Sacrament of Prayer 149 We first describe the individual conduct of the stations of the canonical prayer. We are focusing on those parts of the canonical prayer that are more noticeable or striking or insightful for the outside observer. `It is Allah who is magnificent!' This sentence is called The Magnification of Allah.

with the creatures of the universe. to as the su These ritual sentences are the Word of Refuge and the Word of Invocation. spinning stars. You are perfect. is called the besmele. with the upright trees. It precedes nearly every action the Muslim undertakes. The invocation itself. the hands are then crossed over the belly. balance. The invocation . `I begin in the name of Allah . saying them very quietly. All humanity at canonical prayer turns in this way toward Mecca. All creation praises Allah. and so with the mountains. in the praise and glorification of Allah. so that one may come into harmony with the earth. with plants. used throughout the daily life of a Muslim. This is the only station where the hands are ever raised in this fashion. The right hand holds the wrist of the left. There is no god but You.' `In Allah I seek refuge from Satan. ecumenical element of Islamic piety. Standing with hands crossed in front After uttering the opening Magnification of Allah.' `I begin in the name of Allah. . in readiness to hear the eternal word of Allah. and the worshipper hears the words but does not allow anyone else to overhear them: `O Allah.'. Your name is blessed. Hands are bound as if in submission. with the rotating. Women clasp their hands over their breasts. particularly when changing from one station to the next. The worshipper stands as before with the eyes fixed on the ground at the point where prostration will occur. Self-consciousness is left aside. where the first house of monotheistic worship was erected. and all merciful. You are to be praised and glorified. That is.' These ritual words of praise are referred È bhaneke. The eyes are focused on the ground. with the soil.150 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey to Allah with the expectation of bringing back grace and blessings to life. who is all compassionate. the tongue is moving. and humility. This is a world wide. cutting off the mind from distractions. Your works are holy and marvelous. awareness. . The worshipper recites from memory the following words of praise in the standing position. and the worshipper as one of Allah's creatures enters without self-consciousness into the chorus of praise. However. the tekbir. with the cycle of life. is repeated throughout the canonical prayer. Hands are held to the ears. like entering a door to the holy presence. The standing position shows uprightness. who has been cast out from Allah's presence. the Magnification of Allah.

`It is Allah who is magnificent!'. Such compact language is characteristic of the Kur'an as a whole. and puts the palms of the hands on the knees with This station of the canonical prayer is another way of showing physical . together with the Fatiha. how. and to You alone we turn for help. except for those who have faith and do good works. the worshipper recites the Fatiha a total of 40 times. Bowing The worshipper bends at the waist. as the worshipper changes to the next station. È bhaneke and the besmele are The su highly economical with words.The Sacrament of Prayer 151 occurs only this once in the canonical prayer. and not to the path of those with whom You are angry. the Master on the Day of Reckoning. keeping the back straight. They form a universal base for Islamic identity and worship. the Magnification of Allah. What we have translated here as the `Day of Reckoning' is more literally translated as the `Day of Religion'. Then follows the tekbir. again from memory: `Praise belongs to Allah. and only words from the Kur'an are used. Here is an example: [Allah speaks:] `Time and age are witness: human beings are lost and in jeopardy. The opening chapter of the Kur'an is called the Fatiha. the Lord of all creation. Recitation within the canonical prayer is in Arabic. You alone we worship. The words of praise (the su and the invocation (the besmele). An `amen' comes at the end of each recitation. The English versions given above are an unpacking of a very few. It is recited at every standing station in the sacrament of prayer. There follows another recitation from memory of at least three short verses from the Kur'an. very deeply meaningful Arabic phrases. are taught to Muslim children from an early age by their parents. Guide us to the straight path. In the five daily canonical prayers as a whole. the path of those whom you have blessed. and for those who urge one another to truth and to patience' (103). The invocation is followed by a quietly mouthed recitation of the opening chapter of the Kur'an. and where the judgment of Allah takes place is open for further theological reflection. È bhaneke). nor to the path of those who are going astray. who is all compassionate and all merciful. Exactly when.' The worshippers then say `Amen'.

The Pause The worshipper next assumes a brief waiting position between prostrations by raising the trunk upright and sitting on the upright heels for support. `It is Allah who is magnificent!'. The worshipper says three times in this position. The hands are on the knees. The elbows are off the ground and the forearms slightly bent outward. human dignity is fully preserved when they prostrate. They feel themselves coming closer to the source of all truth. and obedience to the One who is most powerful. Because Muslim worshippers know that they prostrate to no human being. The First Prostration From the upright position. `May Allah hear the one who gave praise'. `It is Allah who is magnificent!'. But Muslims are never to prostrate to kings or sultans or any other human. and the heels straight up. and existence. Pausing slightly between the two prostrations serves to make them distinct. In this position the worshipper repeats three times. and then. facing Mecca. and then ends with the Magnification: `It is Allah who is magnificent!' The tekbir. there is something special about prostration. `It is Allah who is magnificent!'. our Allah. The eyes are still on the point of prostration. It is Allah who is magnificent!' This is the signal to move to the next station. is uttered. swift motion. the worshipper again utters the Magnification of Allah. Thighs are perpendicular to the ground. energy. Standing with hands crossed. and then drops to the knees and puts the nose and forehead on the ground in one fluid. In that sense. or with head bowed. humility.152 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey arms also kept straight. and the eyes are focused on the prostration point. says. The hands go on the ground next to the ears. The worshipper prostrates twice before Allah. and energized. `Hallowed be my great Lord'. Women put their elbows on the ground. The lower legs go straight back. straightening up. unto you belongs all praise. continually impresses on the Muslim that Allah transcends all else. with the toes remaining bent forward. and returning refreshed. `Hallowed be my most high Lord'. While fully upright. The palms touch the ground with the fingers spread and facing forward toward Mecca. or kneeling. Knees remain on the ground. are all postures of submission that one might adopt in the presence of a very powerful ruler or master. It is only to Allah that the worshipper prostrates. the worshipper says. . `O Allah. signaling the passage to the Second Prostration. power. empowered. or bowing the whole body. Then the tekbir. deference. and the lower legs and toes remain as they were in the prostration position.

We shun those who sin against You. We seek your forgiveness. The ritual words for this sitting station are inspired by the Kur'an and the Prophet: Salutations and prayers and beauty belong to Allah. Each posture should therefore be as natural. The hands are resting palms down on the knees. You only do we worship. We praise You with all praise. All actions in the canonical prayer show reverence to Allah.The Sacrament of Prayer 153 The Second Prostration The worshipper returns to prostration. meaning two sets of stations as described above. The worshippers say silently to themselves the following petitions and praise: O our Allah. The above set of stations. and pure concentration of the heart. For this purpose the left lower leg is bent underneath the body as a cushion. speaking or waiting. with the upright right heel adding further support. we turn to you for help. Concluding petitionary prayer When concluding a unit of canonical prayer. O our Allah. I bear witness . without going to extremes. the worshipper does not pause as before but returns immediately to the standing position. for Your punishment seizes the unfaithful. balanced and correct as possible.' After the Second Prostration. the worshipper moves from the final prostration into the posture of Sitting for petitionary prayer. To You we run. sincere intention of the will. repeating three times quietly the words. from Standing to the Second Prostration. and we do not rebel against You. The Sitting position for women varies in that both lower legs are sat on and bent out to the right. is then repeated. O Prophet. We seek Your grace and fear Your punishment. Whether listening or participating. We look for your guidance. peace and the grace and blessings of Allah be upon you. the night prayer. but with slight variation. the person should always be worshipping with full consciousness of the mind. `Hallowed be my most high Lord. to You only do we pray and prostrate. May peace be upon us and on the peaceably righteous servants of Allah. The sets of stations and accompanying words are essentially the same at all five times of daily canonical prayer. We put our faith in You and repent to You and rely on You. we thank You. following or initiating. An interesting addition occurs in the standing station during the final canonical prayer of each day.

as you did to Abraham and his family. There the worshippers offer intercessory prayer for the Prophet. the worshipper repeats the words. Those who have done the sets of stations individually in the mosque and who will join with others in corporate prayer wait quietly in the Sitting position for the rest of the congregation to be ready. forgive me and my parents and the believers on the Day of Reckoning. our Allah. You are the most praised and the most noble. grant us goodness in this present life and goodness in the life to come. dozens or even hundreds of times. `May the peace and the grace of Allah and his blessings be upon you'. O our Lord. The worshipper. meaning that they are prescribed and universal and that their constant repetition. the focus is solely on Allah. grant your grace and forgiveness to Muhammad and his family. . grant us what you have promised to your prophets. in the canonical prayer described above. our Allah. You are most gracious. You never break a promise or appointment. O Allah our Lord. and soul are required in the sacrament of canonical prayer. our Allah. and protect us from the punishment of the fire. It is an act of worship by the whole person. If no further units of canonical prayer are to be done at this point. The observer should note how. but only at the conclusion of the sets of stations. and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. do not let our heart slip astray once you have guided us. is a widespread way of mentioning and remembering the name of Allah. still in the Sitting position. as they make petitions for themselves and others. O Lord. These greetings signal the exit from canonical prayer. mind. to everyone in general. the worshipper continues with the following petitions: O Allah. The Prophet Muhammad is mentioned in the petitionary prayer. then turns the head to the right and mouths silently. Observers should also have a sense of how the believer's whole body.154 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey that there is no god but Allah. O Lord. Turning the head to the left shoulder. All material for the words is from the Kur'an. and grant us the grace of your presence. and do not disgrace us on the day of standing [at judgment]. These petitions are repeated so often that we can call them `canonical zikir '.

and women as another: the humble and the mighty. To the congregation. not on the ground. There is no distinction or separation among the rows of worshippers. In any case. There is a preferred sitting position described above. which is not broadcast. the imam takes his place in front of the assembled worshippers. When the congregation is sizeable. When sitting. worshippers follow an etiquette. or with their hands. or standard of behavior. People should not be playing with their clothing. or with their hair. and may the mercy and grace of Allah be upon you'. the educated and the . This direction is more precisely described as being toward the Kaaba. Some pious worshippers also compete with one another to be in the front row. representing only himself and seeking the salvation of only his own soul. They may assist the imam if he forgets his place or needs correction or replacement. At this. the city of pilgrimage. technically called the mihrab. the worshippers line up precisely in complete shoulder-to-shoulder rows behind the imam. This formation recalls a disciplined group of servants. the rich and the poor. who himself has turned like the worshippers to face the kibla. his back to the ranks. a mosque with a wider rather than a narrower worship space is appreciated to allow more people into the front row. This call. ready to obey. they should be still.The Sacrament of Prayer 155 Within the mosque. The purpose of this niche. or perhaps they simply came earlier or responded more quickly than others. in the battle against evil. thinking of it as more blessed. and it is quieter and swifter than the externally broadcast call. To sit with the feet out in front of the body and with the posterior on the ground is considered coarse behavior. is the kamet. The corporate sacrament of prayer The beginning of the corporate sacrament of prayer (namaz/salat) is signaled by a call to prayer meant only for the assembled worshippers. with the body resting on the feet. is to orient the worshippers in the direction toward Mecca. With the cantillation of the interior call. the direction toward the Kaaba in Mecca. or `House of Allah'. The learned and the most knowledgeable in the Kur'an are pushed forward and encouraged to occupy the front row of worshippers. except that men all stay as one group. that place is in the niche at the front of the mosque. suitable to a house of prayer. `Straighten your rows. the original house of worship in Mecca. with the imam standing alone in front. the imam says aloud. yet serving in leadership. as it is often called. Perhaps they are eager to be counted in the first rank in the struggle for truth.

Although everyone is urged to pray on time and with the congregation. The preference is not to distract others. It is interesting to note at this point that during the annual pilgrimage to the Kaaba in Mecca. for they already know how the ritual proceeds. the imam recites from the Kur'an silently to himself. the imam recites Kur'anic verses aloud while the congregation listens. focused on the divine. and so they gauge whether they have time to do their individual canonical prayer first or whether to postpone it until after the corporate prayer. but with his back to them. men. the strong and the weak. while the congregation ponders silently. all rub shoulders together. and the congregation follows step by step. But during the daytime corporate prayer sacraments. and children do the canonical prayer together. The priority is that all should join in at least a part of the corporate prayer and complete any unfinished portions individually. mixed side by side. The imam's purpose in the ritual .156 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey unschooled. standing and waiting for the imam's lead. He cycles through the stations of the canonical prayer in front of the congregation. which are the dawn and night ritual prayers. By following the pace of the imam. The worshippers all follow a form. facing the direction of the mosque in Mecca. he or she chooses whether to recite verses from the Kur'an aloud. when the corporate sacrament of prayer is held there. The same is true for the other sacramental activities of the pilgrimage. What this means to visitors is that they would hear more vocal recitation at the dawn or night prayer sacrament. During the first and last prayer sacraments of the day. There are no instructions during the sacrament as to what to do and say. a ritual that is thought to be divinely instituted with divine words. they worship in unison. Why it should be like that is not clear. a model. The imam begins the corporate prayer by saying aloud the Magnification of Allah for all to hear: `It is Allah who is magnificent!' He then enters the sets of stations of the canonical prayer. The latecomers can join the corporate prayer at any point. although we can speculate that the beginning and ending of the day are somehow special times different from the rest. exactly as described above. it happens that there are latecomers. The worshippers in the corporate prayer silently enter the same stations of the prayer in time with the imam. women. The imam's only function is to lead. They do not need to look at the imam as if to imitate his actions. When an individual does obligatory canonical prayer alone. He is neither a representative. nor a substitute. to keep the congregation in unison. nor a mediator. and for this purpose he recites aloud the appropriate words.

magnanimity. with ritual greetings to those on the right and the left. He and the muezzin. in the skies and on the earth. O Allah. After the muezzin has pronounced this introduction.The Sacrament of Prayer 157 is to create an efficient unity. They remain in the Sitting position for this next stage. do their non-obligatory canonical prayer. Having executed their obligation of the canonical prayer (namaz/salat). May the grace and blessings of Allah be on our Messenger. The imam's formal function ends at that point. O Lord of greatness. I begin in the name of Allah. liberality. and generosity. There is no god but He. After all obligatory and non-obligatory canonical prayers have been completed. then that person declares the Kur'an to be his or her imam. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them. It is Allah who is magnificent! There is no power or force except it be with Allah. You are holy and blessed. you are true peace. and invitation as a prelude to the time of additional voluntary intercessions: O Allah. then one acts as imam for the other. the infinitely exalted. the worshippers arrive at an important point in the corporate aspect of worship. He leads the corporate prayer swiftly. Allah is holy. the all merciful. petition. the all compassionate. who has been cast out from Allah's presence. If someone is doing the canonical prayer individually. the worshippers recite quietly to themselves the `Throne Verse' from the Kur'an: Allah is. To Him belongs all that is. our Allah. and behind. If only two people are doing the canonical prayer together. The corporate canonical prayer (namaz/salat) concludes in the same way as the individual ones. the Abiding. with the idea that there may be elderly persons or children in the congregation who would have difficulty if the sacrament plodded along. He neither drowses nor sleeps. Corporate praise and petition The muezzin cantillates standard words of praise. The follower stands just to the right of. and peace is of you. they enjoy the fruits of their efforts by entering a spontaneous and personal time of petitionary prayer. the Living. do not make us unmindful and ignorant. our Lord. the leader. In You I seek refuge from Satan. the Mighty. alone as individuals. There is no god but Allah. And they . Praise be to Allah.

There is no god but Allah. He alone is the most high. There is no partner unto Him. the Powerful One. the grace that is received diffuses like light. to be consoled. the most exalted and supreme. our Lord. The worshippers are free to quote from the Kur'an. or spirit. And their preservation does not tire Him. which is again uttered 33 times by everyone. The muezzin then invites the worshippers to offer their personal petitions to Allah by saying aloud: Allah is grand. It is a tranquil.158 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey cannot comprehend anything of Allah's knowledge except what He wills. and to receive counsel. using their prayer beads or their fingers to count. `It is Allah who is magnificent!' (Allahu Akbar). This is an encouragement to congregational worship in the mosque. and this expression is uttered silently 33 times by everyone. His throne encompasses the skies and the earth. of transformation. thoughtful time of sighing. but now they hold their arms in a supplication posture. . a free. Finally the muezzin says the Magnification of Allah. Unto Him belongs the Kingdom. Many worshippers use their native Turkish language although standard petitions in Arabic are also common. The worshippers believe that if Allah grants any one of them his or her petition. only Himself. The muezzin continues with. and of peace. gather us among the company of the righteous. or from the Prophet Muhammad. into the whole group that is present. deep. and He is powerful over all things. they keep their elbows loosely at the side. absorbed. to take. The worshippers have been in the Sitting station up to this point. of security. Some people have a string of prayer beads draped across an open palm. It is a time of intimacy with Allah. O Allah. informal. Thus the emotional atmosphere intensifies during this supplication period. (2:255) The muezzin then says. as if asking something from their Lord. with forearms out in front of the body and palms up and slightly cupped. `Allah is glorified'. Examples of such petitions can be found above in the description of individual canonical prayer. Lifting their hands off the knees. the Mighty. spontaneous time to ask. greater than all things. `Praised be Allah'. which is also uttered quietly 33 times. or to offer their individual supplications to Allah. Allah receives the petitions of the rest for the sake of the one whose petition is heard. the tekbir. and unto Him belongs all praise.

I begin in the name of Allah. `I seek refuge in Allah from Satan who has been cast out from Allah's presence. blessedness in intellect and an enlightened mind. (48:29) Recitation from the Kur'an The silence is broken after a suitable time by the imam or muezzin with the ritual words. as people intently say their words to themselves. blessings on the soul of Atatu panions. and seeking pleasure from Allah. and easing life's burdens. and peaceful personal life. and for the Turkish nation. responsible. protection from evil and temptation for the self. Such an atmosphere of reverence also acts as religious education and training. The only sounds that can be heard are the soft clicking of prayer beads. then recites a passage from the Kur'an. healing for the sick. association with righteous persons. blessedness in children. upright. Amen. the most merciful.The Sacrament of Prayer 159 Typical petitions in Turkey are for health. The mosque is hushed as the worshippers make these personal. one's family. È rk and his comvictory for the army. or those who are weak or oppressed. and irritated the unbelievers. It is like a plant which produced its branches. guidance for a moral. The imam or muezzin. It became upright on its roots. pleased the gardeners. Every Kur'anic recitation begins with the ritual words. The company of Paradise will be victorious. The sign of their prostration is on their faces. the most compassionate'. grant us good in this world and in the next. with the sibilant movement of lips. peace and justice in society. truthful. The customary passage recited after the dawn prayer is 59:20±4. If We had sent down this . in communication with Allah. good morals. peace be on the prophets and praise be unto the Lord of Creation'. And save us from the punishment of the fire. and all believers. and the branches balanced and consolidated the plant. salvation from the fire on Judgment Day. compassion and love in the hearts of people. worshipping. and the same is in the Torah and the Gospel. for it imprints a strong image of worship on children who are there. the ability to help those in trouble. for the believers. You see them bowing. informal supplications. safety. or anyone who is moved to do so. a legitimate living income. O Helper. which exalts Allah: The company of Hell and the company of Paradise are not alike. `O our Allah. success. forgiveness for oneself.

which asks for Allah's forgiveness: The Prophet believed in what had been revealed to him from his Lord. That day is certain. the Guardian. lovely maidens. Do not overburden us. orchards and vineyards. the Fashioner. All beautiful names are His. He is all mighty and all wise. a recompense from your Lord.160 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey Kur'an to a mountain you would have seen it turn desolate and be crushed for fear of Allah. would that I were dust!' The customary passage after the night prayer is 2:285±6. the Holy. and We make no division between His messengers. and flasks full and flowing. we cannot carry. So whoever wills. He is Allah. the Only One Worthy to be Proud. ever merciful. and the unbeliever will say: `Woe alas. and so did the faithful. with a burden as You did those before us. Impose not upon us a burden. And they said: `We heard and obeyed. and the angels are ranged in rows. On the day when the Spirit rises. and graceful. the Maker. the Protector. there is no god but He. Allah does not burden a soul beyond its capacity. We offer these examples to men that they may think and reflect. Each believed in Allah and His angels. He is all compassionate. from whom none will attain a word without permission. Whatever good it earns will return to its own good. O Lord. the knower of the invisible and the visible. no one will speak except the one who is permitted by the Merciful and who says the truth. let that person prepare a way to the Lord. His Books and the messengers. The customary passage after the afternoon prayer is 78:31±40. a day when individuals will look at what their two hands had offered. Overlook our trespasses and . there is salvation. `Question us not. the Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them. Far too exalted is Allah for what they associate with Him. the King. They will hear no vain words or lies. there is no god but He. O Lord. and we seek Your forgiveness. most compassionate. He is Allah. O Lord. and whatever wrong it earns will return to its own harm. the Creator. the Peaceful One. gardens. which describes the rewards of the faithful: As for the Allah-fearing. We have indeed warned you of the punishment near at hand. O Lord. if we forget or err. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth sings His praises. for to You is the end'. the Powerful. He is Allah. Ah.

More than a body of intellectual theories and philosophical speculations. It provides a type of spiritual environment with its own effect on the worshipper. the opening chapter of the Kur'an. the Lord of majesty. The worship we are describing is not a dominantly cognitive process. or faith. But they are well aware of the meaning of what they are reciting. From the beginning. Such knowledge and wisdom are generally intuitive in nature. and grant us Your mercy. as they rise from their places and turn to depart. the muezzin. Praise be to Allah. the invisible. We have already noted in Chapter 5 how social relations in Turkey are characterized by an enormous set of pious phrases. and faith in the ease and availability of the righteous path in life. free of the attributions they ascribe. Peace be upon those who were sent. yet many do not know Arabic and are therefore probably not mentally processing the text as they recite it. the Kur'an has been an oral rather than a textual revelation. Knowledge and wisdom in this atmosphere transcend literal reading. for You are our beloved Master. Islamic piety has its own striking oral component. The worshippers' imaginations are free from strictly analytical thinking. Its oral recitation is therefore primary. When the passage from the Kur'an is concluded. free to plumb the depths of communion with Allah. the Lord of the worlds. it is ultimate dependence on what is beyond being controlled or mastered. and fervently exchange the phrase. and behavior. or actually anyone. psychology. that form Islamic character. free to interpret personally the great themes and principles of Islam. so help us against unbelievers'. but it does have its own rationality.The Sacrament of Prayer 161 forgive us. They illustrate the constant praise of Allah and recurrence of the name of Allah. the passages and their themes become deeply absorbed. the Divine Mystery. Repeated ceaselessly by the faithful. hope for salvation and protection from punishment. the unseen. and commitment to. Islam is ultimate trust in. Kur'anic passages are recited by the worshippers in Arabic. The worshippers experience a trust. or embrace one another. supplication for freedom from burdens.' The worshippers are again invited to recite to themselves the Fatiha. They shake hands. . that Kur'anic recitation is beneficial for their souls. They share a corporate atmosphere in which truth is spoken. proclaims the following standard words that close this worship period: `Holy and pure is your Lord. We have quoted these three passages because of the insight they give into the themes that shape Islamic piety and an Islamic world view.

some people take the opportunity following the time of the canonical prayer sacrament to make up their previously missed canonical prayers. no special rooms or partitions or furniture or areas. the makeup should conform with all other prescribed actions for canonical prayer (namaz/salat). This ends the final component of the corporate sacrament of prayer. the worshipper must make it up at the first available opportunity.' They feel close to one another. Observers may even notice some worshippers in tears of bliss. Muslims conduct the prayer sacrament as part of their nature. and strengthened. For instance. a noticeable presence of character that gives the impression of being focused on what is eternal. their maker. Large crowds in Turkey do attend the . The canonical prayer shows a certain simplicity and egalitarianism. All who are present stand shoulder-to-shoulder and physically do the same things. a security. and no spectators. drop tears. Such piety produces a calmness. In every way. or who felt their petitions were heard. A weekly message is preached. no rituals reserved only for a priestly class. and leaving the prayer mat. the five daily canonical prayers. The canonical prayer is not grudgingly done. The `making up' of a missed prayer time should not interfere with. a special corporate sacrament of the canonical prayer (namaz/salat). Worshippers caught up in their piety feel themselves in the very presence of the holy. There is no special clothing to be worn. Every Friday. The Friday Prayer sacrament The Islamic week begins on a Saturday and reaches its high point on Friday. They feel themselves in communion with their friend. either alone or corporately. five times per day. relieved. The leaders of the community are expected to take part. as they have been doing all their lives. takes place in every mosque.162 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey `May Allah accept your prayer. transformed. Those who are moved. on what transcends daily life and its pressures. If one of these times is missed or forgotten. Our readers should not think that this matter of `making-up' canonical prayer is taken as a burden to the Muslim. renewed. no music or musical instruments. They sense great joy and satisfaction in their souls. refreshed. the Friday Prayer. Muslims are expected to complete the obligatory canonical prayer. they feel healed and assured. again either alone or corporately. at peace with Allah. their savior. Every man in the local community or neighborhood is expected to attend. Worshippers have spoken to Allah in all privacy and confidentiality. or take the place of.

a special blessing on the Prophet Muhammad issues from the minaret's loudspeakers. has the style of a lesson. to communicate with itself. often more than for the five daily times of canonical prayer. will often begin a sermon in Turkish called the vaaz. a time for the Muslim community to see itself. or to question. the muezzin issues the call to prayer. After this interval the muezzin repeats the call to prayer. To attend to this lesson is not compulsory for the worshippers. The vaiz. the recitation of which is known as shahada. Usually the preacher begins with the words. admonitions. Then a few minutes are given for the worshippers to stand and begin the non-obligatory. and rhetorical arts of all types. At the time of midday canonical prayer on Friday. The Friday Prayer is a religious occasion with social and political aspects. the ezan. persuasive argumentation. pleading. `Our lesson for today is . but directs it inside the mosque. those who are doing their ablutions. perhaps as much as an hour in advance. or those who have already prepared themselves for the corporate prayer. Therefore Muslims are urged to attend the Friday Prayer and catch this extraordinary moment. speculation. The vaaz. The other time such a moment is thought to occur is at night toward the end of the Ramazan month of fasting. advice. The lesson is interactive in that it is directed to the individuals who are gathered and listening. or a speaker. Persons known for their Kur'an recitation skills may start to recite inside the mosque at that point. and to hear preaching. There are two styles of sermon. and none is rejected. to which we are now referring. a vaiz. This is the signal for the imam to ascend the preaching stairs. or on a low platform. . . As the time for the noon prayer approaches on Friday. to interrupt. and instruction. interpretation. This is the reminder that it is Friday and that Friday Prayer activities are beginning. to see its leaders. the preacher of the lesson. customary canonical prayer. To persuade his audience. It is also believed that during the Friday Prayer a special moment occurs when all prayers and petitions are received by Allah. done individually. analysis. listen to the lesson as they sit or as they go about their preparations. perhaps seated in the niche. It contains exhortations.The Sacrament of Prayer 163 Friday Prayer. The preacher of the lesson is somewhere inside the mosque. and that people are free to listen or not. or minber. the ezan. the speaker uses illustrations. concludes his talk at that point with an encouragement to the believers to recite the formal creed. '. It is not broadcast to the neighborhood. Those who have come early to the mosque. while speaking.

the first rightly-guided caliphs. This is the second type of sermon in the mosque. and by quoting from the Kur'an: Allah commands justice and goodness and looking after the needs of relatives. the imam stands at the top of the stairs and delivers a formal sermon called the hutbe. the early pioneers of Islam. while the introduction and conclusion are still in Arabic. in contrast to the earlier lesson. and commanding. The formality lies in the position of the speaker and the style of delivery. the muezzin stands and cantillates the kamet. and concrete. and forbids evil and wickedness and rebellion.164 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The imam first sits at or near the top of the stairs and silently says a petitionary prayer for the congregation. both dead and alive. hoping that you take heed. and all believers. concise. the imam sits for a brief pause and then stands again to preach. sitting. but worshippers are expected to stay and do the regular obligatory midday canonical prayer sacrament on their own. for the sermon is part of the ritual. His talk is direct. They should be facing the imam as he speaks and should not be engaged in any other activity. The body of this formal sermon is delivered in Turkish. He ends the sermon by praising Allah. separate. distant. everyone should be assembled. common. the imam descends to the niche. which is the invitation for the congregation to rise for the beginning of the corporate canonical prayer. There are only two sets of stations of canonical prayer on this occasion. one way. This formally concludes the Friday Prayer sacrament. This time he completes his first address by stressing or clarifying particular points he had made. Then the usual prayer sacrament begins. or mihrab. He preaches from high above the congregation. As he does so. . accepted truths of the faith. He declaims the great. and listening respectfully. The worshippers stand behind the imam and form complete lines facing the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca. When the muezzin's call finishes. which is a change introduced in modern times. Appendix L shows typical themes of these formal sermons as found in Turkey today. There should be no interruption or distraction. At the conclusion of the sermon. This invitation is quieter and swifter than the ezan. Allah counsels you. the Prophet Muhammad. whether it is ablutions or individual canonical prayer. as someone setting an agenda. (16:90) During the formal sermon. When finished. silent.

If this is not possible. then Muslims in Turkey often recompense the obligation of canonical prayer with charity. heart. or that necessity gives way to circumstances. It is possible to observe the elderly or the handicapped in the mosque engaging in the sacrament of prayer to the extent that they are physically able. Another is purity or integrity: the cleanliness and purity of the body. people who are traveling are not exempt from the canonical prayer.The Sacrament of Prayer 165 Principles and themes of the canonical prayer Whether individually or corporately done. and mind before Allah. At certain times. the canonical prayer (namaz/ salat) illustrates certain fundamental principles. or instincts in Islamic worship. so that in prostration they may touch their faces not to the ground but on the . it may not be possible to take everyone inside the mosque. some of which we have already highlighted. But the crowds can be so great that there is hardly space between the rows. that person is allowed to substitute abbreviated body movements. or even slight movements of the head and eyes. Then the people are politely encouraged by the imam to move closer to the row ahead of them. following the imam with as much bowing or body movements as possible. then it is recommended that the canonical prayer be made up later. For instance. may do the sacrament of prayer in this fashion. but they are permitted to shorten it. In these cases people bring clean prayer mats to place on the ground. or someone confined to bed. the rows of people are far enough apart to allow for prostration. The overflow crowds spill out into the porch and courtyard. or dispositions. meaning enough space for the worshipper on bent knees to touch nose and forehead to the ground. When someone is constrained from movement or is otherwise handicapped. which is also a preparation for the Day of Reckoning. even sometimes into adjoining streets. such as in the popular Friday Prayer. but to the extent of their capacity or circumstances. Those inside the mosque squeeze together to make room for more people. in the place of bowing and prostration. although this practice is discouraged by the religious establishment. One of them is the principle of preparation: preparation for the sacrament of prayer. especially if the weather is rainy or cold. But if the person cannot even move the head. Believers should conform to the prescribed worship forms. Another basic principle of canonical prayer is that responsibility is matched with capacity. There are several such principles. A person on a long bus journey. Normally. An elderly person who cannot bend easily may be seated in a chair to one side of the congregation.

without mediation. did it. representations. The canonical prayer has its own style and content. It has remained unchanged for centuries. Nor should it be thought that the gathering of the congregation for prayer five times per day is a slavish devotion to the letter of the law. All forms of Islamic worship should be evaluated in this spirit. and so forth. there is a wide spectrum of awareness between the two extremes of pure obligation and pure love as a motivation for Islamic worship. Islam is the faith without images. the sacrament of prayer is based on the sincerity and integrity of the believer. dominated by hierarchy. icons. Corporate worship is an added merit on top of the fulfillment of the individual's responsibility. and without any other individual or symbol interfering. Semites. The believer loves Allah so much that he or she takes on the obligation of the canonical prayer as a loving duty.166 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey backs of the worshippers in front. without hypocrisy or pretension. All movements are natural. and the solemnity of the corporate canonical prayer (namaz/salat) all provide a sense of identity. This is why such care goes into each person's conduct of the canonical prayer. that were dogmatic. since the time the Prophet. Each individual receives personal judgment and is personally accountable. the unity. As with any ritual. the prime example. this is how generations for centuries have done it. the equality. So the Muslim wants the sacrament to be as valid and pleasing to Allah as possible. and solidarity as one people before Allah. Such practice is one of those exceptions forced by necessity. the transcendent character of truth. The emphasis is on the divine `other'. security. the creator of the universe and the author of life. with the individual's responsibility to do the canonical prayer. visual symbols. which is necessary for their salvation. Of course. Muslims joyfully do the canonical prayer in the consciousness that this is how the Prophet. . Islam is decentralized and non-institutionalized. The nucleus of Islamic piety is the individual before Allah. Islam was revealed in the Prophet Muhammad's time as a reaction to those religious attitudes and practices of Jews. The crowding. in the `House of Allah'. tribalized. There are no hierarchies in this `justice of the mosque'. Christians. or institutionalized. for in essence. and this is what Allah. asks of them. as a free act of obedience. The canonical prayer is done in a spirit of freedom and authenticity. and others. Muslims hope Allah will be pleased with their worship of sacramental prayer. or some sort of strict legalism. Nothing is rehearsed. but there is no particular salvific advantage in worshipping with a congregation in a mosque. Mosques do not have formal congregations with membership lists.

of being secure and at peace with everyone and with the universe.The Sacrament of Prayer 167 It should also not be thought that Muslims are doing the canonical prayer for themselves. and acts in uniform ways. The ideal is that the humbler one is before Allah. Ordinarily. This is the permanent message and meaning of the term Islam. then the freer one becomes. or strengthened. Muslims expect to conduct the sacrament of prayer with utmost concentration and purity of heart. The answer is related to Turkey's political. the more one elevates or ascends to Allah. and the more one loves Allah. from being lost and confused in the multiplicity of that which is not Allah. for another person. for an immediate and mundane purpose like self help therapy. and social context. It induces the feeling of a natural state. of doing the canonical prayer that Muslims find aesthetically pleasing. This harmony and uniformity in the corporate prayer increases the worshippers' sense of holiness. when people are fasting and even more oriented to worship. is even better observed. It is true that believers are spiritually enriched. precision. and the more one is saved from alienation. or for what they can get out of it. Doubt and uncertainty melt away. historical. Evaluation: intensity of participation in the prayer sacrament Our readers might wonder to what extent people in Turkey participate in the sacrament of canonical prayer. the more self fulfilled one becomes. with worshippers carefully executing the same details of movement in close harmony with each other. There is a great range of degrees of observance of canonical prayer today. which is an integral component of the canonical prayer. for Allah promises ultimately to reward the one who obeys the divine will and to punish the one who disobeys. But the object of the Islamic canonical prayer is to do that which is pleasing to Allah. There is a certain manner. The aesthetic feeling for uniformity and group solidarity. The Friday Prayer during Ramazan. Funeral prayers are another occasion when crowds . carries over into the culture at large. and uniformity. especially from the corporate viewpoint. We have no objective measure of how many people do canonical prayer in their homes. It is the act of doing Allah's will and obeying Allah's command that binds the heart to Allah. Public attendance at the mosque for the canonical prayer is something we can only judge intuitively. the Friday Prayer is well attended. This style emphasizes solemnity. People appreciate it when everyone in their group receives equal treatment. through prayer. or style. is engaged in the same activities. for their own spiritual enrichment.

the canonical prayer after dawn is the most well attended prayer sacrament in Turkey. the Muslim residents refused to attend the Friday Prayer. and children. They are attended even by Muslims who may not normally attend the mosque. near the end of the fasting month of Ramazan. then according to one prominent vein of thinking. When the French occupied the southern Turkish city of Marash. The rulers and governors are supposed to be present. This is the time when the Islamic community sees itself and feels itself as a corporate political and social entity. It conjures up the image of the gathering or rounding up of all souls before Allah on the Day of Resurrection. the canonical prayer cannot be conducted congregationally. so people could return to their jobs. The Republic of Turkey declared Sunday as the weekly day of rest. attracting a congregation of at least one million worshippers.168 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey gather at the mosque for corporate worship. The government's Department of Religious Affairs administers a sort of State Islam structure. The dominance today of the secular state over religion has had its effect on the Friday prayer. whereas in traditional Islamic society. The canonical prayer sacrament during the pilgrimage in Mecca is the most well attended in the world. Secular expectations also put pressure on the imam not to lengthen the hutbe. During the month of Ramazan. If the people do not feel free. because Friday is a regular day of work in Turkey. This is a hugely dramatic event. On the two festival days of the Islamic year. The themes that are . top politicians feared to be seen at the Friday Prayer because of the rumors that might be spread about their loyalties. a nation in which Allah is not glorified publicly by the state. are a popular time to be at the mosque for many men. But for many years in the new Turkish Republic. or night prayers after the breaking of each day's fast. the teravih. his formal sermon. Another crowded time of worship is on The Night of Power and Destiny. women. A question raised among some marginal Muslims in Turkey today concerns the validity of the Friday Prayer in view of Turkey's having declared itself a secular nation. An illustration of how participation in the prayer sacrament is sensitive to the sociopolitical context arose in the aftermath of the First World War. and the first day of the Animal Offering Holiday. Preachers today are state appointed officials. These usually occur at noon time on any day of the week. These days are the first day of the Breaking of the Fast Holiday. a fact that affects the nature of their sermons. the climax of the week. all males of the community are to gather for the Friday Prayer.

for whom the Friday Prayer is an obligation. individual affair that supports the state and does not interfere in public business. the imams read a particular statement or message prepared by the department. But the vast majority of citizens are Muslims. And as Turkey argues over its identity. Many politicians are more open these days about their desire to attend the Friday Prayer.The Sacrament of Prayer 169 preached reflect the dominant secular attitude to religion as a privatized. Officially there is no time off work for any canonical prayer. the question comes up about amending the constitution so that working people will be encouraged to attend worship without violating the integrity of their work. People worry: would national allowance for Islamic canonical prayer distance the country from the West? Or would it be a forward step for the nation and for Islam? . The Department of Religious Affairs can also decree that in the formal sermon on a particular Friday. over what to make of its Islamic heritage. and over what its path into the future will be.

spiritually. The subject comes first in the works of Islamic law on canonical worship practices. and therefore to 170 . (2:222) Anyone who is purified. and has glorified the name of Allah. ethically. Internal purity and cleanliness refer to the emptying or cleaning of the self of all pride that results from the love of self and the world. Faith and action are also inseparable. and without them the canonical prayer is considered invalid. and has prayed.13 Cleanliness and Purity Physically. The Kur'an frequently refers to it. and psychologically. But in the Islamic outlook. (87:14±15) Allah does not will hardship on you but wishes to purify you and fulfill His blessings on you. Muslims value cleanliness and purity. The external dimension of purity and cleanliness is expressed in physical hygiene. the external and internal are not separated. In this chapter we link the two terms together to explain a deep concept. a preparation for worship. Cleanliness and purity form an essential ideal in Muslim piety and consciousness. Thus cleanliness and purity are linked with being an Allah-fearing person. (5:6) The meaning of cleanliness and purity Purity and cleanliness have two dimensions. Cleanliness and purity are an aid to worship. internal and external. Allah loves those who repent and purify themselves. that you give thanks. is already saved.

Idolaters. he carried out the Kur'anic requirement of washing the hands. A third layer of meaning involves the work of the Islamic jurists. such an amount of ablution is a revelation from Allah. It has layers of meanings that we will now identify. The first type is the `smaller' ablution. head. face. and so on. being the primary or innermost layer. forearms. and according to the Prophet's own words. Purity and cleanliness are a religious category. and feet in a particular way. although the people whom the visitor commonly sees performing these ablutions do not necessarily distinguish between such layers. head. but we trust our readers will remember that the core layer consists of the Kur'anic injunction to wash face. and feet in preparation for the sacrament of prayer. The lack of this ablution makes the sacrament of prayer unacceptable. is what is demanded by the Kur'an for those who would do the canonical prayer: O those who have faith! When you stand for the sacrament of prayer. Anyone who is in a state of impurity and uncleanliness and intends to do the canonical prayer (namaz/salat) must first make an ablution. It is bedrock. it is the heart. then clean yourselves. (5:6) For Muslims. abdest. This is a second layer of ablution. At the core. when. known in Arabic as wudu. The practice of ablution was shown to Muslims by the Prophet Muhammad. what words to say at what point.Cleanliness and Purity 171 clean and purify oneself is faith in action. like studying and learning more about religion and truth. and wash your feet up to the ankles. If you are ritually unclean. And doing the same ablutions in the same manner everywhere and at all times increases a Muslim's sense of unity. The form we describe here relates on the surface to this layer. and security. are correspondingly identified in the Prophetic experience with dirt and impurity. they gave a definite. and with trust in his guidance. According to the reports of the Prophet's companions. hands. Muslims do their ablutions as he did. solidarity. a way which is exemplary. how often. . prescribed form to ablutions: which part of the body to wash. and stroke your heads with wet hands. both internally and externally. In emulation of the Prophet. a ritual act of cleanliness and purity. This is foundational. There are two types of ablution. corresponding to two types of impurity and uncleanliness. wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows. Relying on the Kur'an and the words and practices of the Prophet Muhammad.

using the words of the besmele. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.' Muslims who have thus completed this ritual abdest. and to wash their hands and clothes of any dirt or waste matter. the worshipper has been uttering standard petitions. Again with newly wetted hands. There they sit on low stools to make use of the fresh. fresh water must be used. cleanliness. This shows the close ties between worship. from the hairline to the chin. up to the ankle. the mouth is rinsed out three times. `In the name of Allah. Next. For each washing. The next step is to brush or rub the teeth. During the ablutions. wet it with fresh water. and also including the spaces between the fingers. People with beards should insure that the water fully penetrates the beard by running their wet fingers into it. up to and including the elbows. Finally. to clean and dry their private parts as needed. each foot and the spaces between the toes are washed three times.172 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The smaller ablution The smaller. The picture of a mosque with its faucets for ablutions is an enduring image. Using the cupped right hand. the inside and back of the ears and the back of the neck are rubbed and moistened. and lightly rub the hand across the hair on top of the head. `I testify that there is no god but Allah. may be carried out wherever there is fresh running water. They begin the ablution process in a prayerful attitude by calling on the name of Allah. Worshippers then wash the hands three times. clean water running from faucets. the most compassionate'. worshippers take their right hand. the forearms are washed three times. In fact. The worshippers next go to the ablution area. the most merciful. Usually in or near the mosque courtyard is an ablution area. or smaller ablution. They may then enter the mosque itself or take their place on a clean prayer rug. feel clean and purified and ready for the sacrament of canonical prayer (namaz/ salat). it is hard to imagine a mosque without running water and lavatory facilities. To wipe the head. a topic which we will explain below. Water is brought into the nostrils in the same way to rinse inside the nose. known as the abdest. up to and including the wrists. but at the conclusion comes the creed. . The state of ritual cleanliness and purification lasts until it is broken. thereby moistening it. Worshippers first enter the rest rooms to empty their bladders and bowels as necessary. ablution. or lesser. and practicality. The use of the low stools in front of the faucets makes it easier to reach the feet. Using the left hand. Then the face itself is washed. attention is turned to the feet.

to be prepared for salvation in case death strikes unexpectedly. Muslims believe that on the Day of Reckoning. It is also customary for those doing their ablutions during the call to prayer to follow along. devout Muslims are conscious of whether they are in the state of ritual cleanliness and purity. Clean wooden clogs are often provided for use in walking. in that all ablutions and canonical prayers are a preparation for the final reckoning of each soul before Allah. and a proper etiquette to be observed during ablutions. There are some Muslims who wish to remain always in such a state. To be aware of one's state of purity and cleanliness is part of Allahconsciousness. Yet the ablutions are also a social event. the ezan. It is usually white and hand-knitted. one should follow the order of right side first. manners.Cleanliness and Purity 173 Islamic piety expects certain customs. left side second. Muslims returning from the pilgrimage to Mecca often bring back such natural toothbrushes to give as gifts to friends and relatives. people dry themselves with a clean towel. except for street shoes. They say that purity and cleanliness `add to the light of the eye'. The Prophet Muhammad especially encouraged the constant cleaning of the mouth and teeth. when washing hands and feet. People engaged in ablutions also show respect for each other by not engaging in mundane conversation or raising the voice in a loud or distracting manner. to keep one's breath fresh. Street shoes stay outside the entrance to the worship area of the mosque. It may be difficult for those whose religious traditions do not include sacramental purity and cleanliness to grasp its importance to Muslim piety. or handkerchief. This garb is not religiously obligatory. For instance. Throughout the day. as they wash. or repeat the call to themselves. or ready for the canonical prayer at any time of day. Such Muslims are careful to keep themselves scrupulously clean. Many worshippers also don a skull cap. and then the clothing is returned to normal. to be in a prayerful mood. or in the air. It is also proper to show up at the mosque before the call to prayer. Men who wear it do so as a sign of humility and modesty. The men roll up their sleeves and trousers just enough to wash up to the elbows and ankles. Attention to this point implants the habit of preparation. After washing. There is no suggestion here of a vow or rule of silence. People are ever ready to help one another. They want to feel themselves constantly in the presence of Allah. Preparation is a recurring theme or instinct of Islamic worship. when all . For a toothbrush he used a certain type of stick with bushy fibers at its tip. so as not to be rushed in the ablutions. Clothes are not removed for ablutions. They do ablutions immediately on the loss of ritual purity.

Ablution helps maintain vigilance. with the body being asked to testify for or against itself: the hands. the feet. the individual is standing for judgment on the Day of Reckoning. a lessening of intentionality to worship. is necessary after any sexual activity. `May Allah make your face to shine. and all parts of the body will speak to Allah. Their liberation and salvation will appear in their countenances. the loss of ritual cleanliness and purity also has various characteristics. But this state cannot be maintained indefinitely. fainting. gusul. a sort of loss of focus on the eternal. so that the consciousness is further separated from Allah and truth. bleeds. impure. This is the second type of ablution. The ablutions are part of the preparation for the final day of eternal judgment. They are what the Muslim does for Allah's good pleasure. defecates. Islam teaches that this does not mean the person is dirty. or vomits. insanity. means the loss of ritual cleanliness and purity. including masturbation and nocturnal discharges. All such physical and psychological instances can be said to weaken spiritual consciousness and require ablution before any further canonical prayer. a sensitivity to life and to being alive and alert to truth.' In another image. Just as the ablutions combine both physical and non-physical dimensions. then the ablutions must be renewed to worship Allah in the sacrament of prayer. those in the state of ritual purity will have light shining from their faces. Such causes. This leads Muslims to utter the prayer to each other. and after menstrua- . Whenever someone urinates. the worshipper stands clean and pure in the presence of Allah. There are certain events which cause the loss of cleanliness and purity. Breaking the state of cleanliness and purity Ablutions ensure that when entering the canonical prayer.174 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey souls will be judged for eternal reward or eternal punishment. The person must perform the ablutions to renew the status of ritual cleanliness and purity and so be ready again for the canonical prayer. the `greater' ablution. and excessive laughter during the prayer sacrament. a diminishment of concentration on the eternal. The complete washing. are sleep. then that person's state of ritual cleanliness and purity is lost. in addition to those listed above. or sinful. Whatever causes a decrease in focus. They will account for what they have been asked to do. The ablutions also confer a state of intentionality and resolve to worship. It does mean a lessening of Allah-consciousness. Some losses of cleanliness and purity require a full washing of the entire body. consciousness.' meaning `May Allah find you saved on the Day of Judgment. When such a loss occurs.

and ankles described above. as we have mentioned above. or diffusion of focus. then rinsing inside the mouth and nose. Such discharges. The attention to purity and cleanliness is a way of transcending normal existence and reaching once more toward the eternal. break the state of cleanliness and purity. Islamic jurists have codified the practice. Readers may ask why sexual activity should require purification. especially the private parts. head. face. concerning the transcendence of Allah. But just as for the abdest. Without such a washing of the entire body. as with the lesser ablution. the gusul. It is definitely not because sexual activity is wrong or disgusting. whether it be food or drink or physical exertion or sexual activity. the passion of sexual activity involves a distraction of attention. of Allah. vaginal fluid in the case of women. It is this break. or consciousness. as long as these activities are not goals in themselves but serve ultimately to nourish and strengthen the believer's concentration on the eternal.Cleanliness and Purity 175 tion and childbirth. that whatever the body wants. to make the human being more conscious of oneself. of truth. or that it is associated with corruption and guilt. the mouth and nose are washed out. or touch or read the Kur'an. From the non-physical point of view. The full ablution In the full washing and purification of the body. it is a general Islamic principle that life is good. the lack or postponement of which causes restlessness or anxiety. This feeling occurs not because there is anything evil or filthy about sexual activity but because the washing acts to restore a sense of security in the believer. is good and legitimate. feet. On the contrary. begins with cleaning the hands. are cleaned. that life is blessed. wetting all parts . which is the `lesser' ablution of hands. elbows. unnecessarily enter a mosque. And. the practice of the Prophet Muhammad has been exemplary for Muslims throughout the centuries. and of duty. Sexual activity involves physical discharges from the body: semen in the case of men. so that the function of religion should be to purge people of this sin. The full washing of the body. the Muslim should not do the canonical prayer. It is in the psychology of a Muslim who has experienced any sexual discharge that he or she seeks ways of washing immediately. Islam is a step forward beyond normal life. that the enjoyment of conjugal relations and reproduction should occur. or involvement with what is only temporal that is cleansed by the washing of the entire body and that brings the person to his or her self. and every part of the body. toward that which is permanent.

176 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey of the body. In the rural areas of Turkey. the Breaking of the Fast Holiday. the `lesser' ablution. and circumcision for males. secure. though the visitor to Turkey will still find some operational hamams. and closer to Allah. clean teeth. And since sexual activity requires the washing of the whole body. or reports of the sunna of the Prophet. it is rinsed thoroughly with clean running water to complete the ritual bathing. armpit and pubic hair cut short. natural form of physical appearance. But traditionally. at that point. but a concern for cleanliness and purity remains important to Muslims. and attitudes. With the distribution of running water to the house. and scrubbing all over. There are those who. pilgrims also have a ritual bath. After the body is entirely scrubbed. with children being helped and trained by their parents. Thursday is still the family day for washing clothes and taking baths. Friday in Muslim piety is a favored day. they include a well trimmed mustache for men. In the home. when people want to be prepared. trimmed. People have customarily done this bathing and purification ritual on Thursday nights. and the Animal Offering Holiday. believers prefer Thursday nights as an especially blessed night for conjugal relations. for the Friday sacrament of prayer. Seeing someone turn up at the Friday Prayer with damp hair and a freshly scrubbed look is the occasion for several knowing winks and nudges. Considered to be the normal. The bathing of the whole body also takes place the night before the Islamic year's two great religious holidays. which helps them feel safe. People want to feel pure. deeds. The washing of the entire body usually takes place at home. They are known as `Abrahamic practices' and are distinguishing physical characteristics of Muslims. It has largely fallen into disuse. to be clean and pure. The hadith. clean nails. And before they don the ritual clothing and depart for Mecca. contain signs of the cleanliness and purity of the Muslim. This latter practice is a preeminent symbol today of being a Muslim in Turkey. As with the `lesser' ablution. the `greater' ablution is an indispensable aid to worship. do an ablution within an ablution by performing the abdest. the use of the public baths has certainly declined. the hamam system. when washing facilities in the home were more limited. Their basic function in the past was to provide bathing facilities for the obligatory ablutions. a festival. the Ottomans used an extensive public bathing arrangement. The visitor to a home will testify how . meaning his words. much effort is devoted to cleanliness. before the day of the Friday Prayer. for the conception of children. Public baths continue to have attendants today whose job it is to help with the washing of the entire body.

then use clean soil. or light leather inner shoe. Homes should be cared for as much as the mosque. Allah does not will hardship on you. if someone is ill. The person performs the ablution or body washing in the usual way. some Muslims. With the hands that touch the soil. are all the same. Those wearing this inner shoe do not have to wash their feet again for 24 hours. shaking off any dust. the ritual words. or easement: But if you are sick or on a journey. dry hands over the face and forearms only. Then. During winter. The requirements of religion make allowance for one's capacity and circumstances. In the case of cleanliness and purity. then clean soil or stone or sand can be substituted for water. wear a special stiff stocking. or no water at all is available. or if one of you has gone to the toilet. and the concentration. and if you are not able to find water. The Prophet Muhammad encouraged believers to set aside a place for worship in their homes. But the intention. Its purpose is to preserve the purity and cleanliness of the feet and expose them less frequently to cold water. there should be a clear separation between the place for bathing and the toilet area so as to maintain a high standard of cleanliness. or other circumstances. (5:6) If no clean water. or if a man has touched a woman. Visitors are expected to remove shoes before crossing the threshold to maintain the high standard of cleanliness. the person lightly touches the dry hands to clean stone or soil or sand. One can see Muslims doing this `symbolic ablution' in places where the availability of clean running water is problematic. but instead of wetting the hands with water. or only very limited clean water. stroke your faces and hands. or if a person's health would be endangered by exposure to cold. the worshipper rubs the now ritually clean. Accommodations for personal circumstances An important principle in Islamic worship practice is that no person should be asked to go beyond human or physical limitations. Islam should not be a burden that is more than one can bear. And in the ablutions before the . or if there is some cause for fear in the act of ablution or washing. Moreover.Cleanliness and Purity 177 clean it appears inside. The Kur'an recognizes the need for this modification. particularly the elderly. This practice is called teyemmum. called a mest. this means that the ablution requirements can be modified on account of age. illness.

irritable and rigid natures. are seen with biased eyes as impure and unclean. and determination by everyone to clean up the public environment. Practicing Muslims tend to see these things as the result of greed. such neglect of public sanitation? Muslims themselves are upset by this contrast. Muslims who would bring to bear on these types of social problems the implications of their worship practices have been hindered in Turkey's recent history by a secularization movement that has limited the religious spirit from reaching out to the streets and into the public arena. and an excessive reliance on deodorants and perfumes. or who do not wash themselves after sexual intercourse. who do not shave their armpit and pubic hair. They are a minimum level of Muslim wisdom.178 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey canonical prayer. Those who keep to this level are owning for themselves the Islamic legacy. Westerners and others who do not engage in ablution practices. Here again modernity clashes with traditional values. and conduct. for clean and abundant running water. and a necessary amount of memorization of the Kur'an. and so forth. all serve as the basic educational and spiritual disciplining of Muslim individuals. uncollected garbage. pollution of the air and water. Non-Muslim visitors to Turkey raise an important question at this point. have steamrollered over the people in the name of modernity and change. The religious impulse is for cleanliness. Those who do not do ablutions or the canonical prayer are accused of having smelly feet. the Islamic heritage. canonical prayer. for hygiene. of materialism. inadequate sewage systems. It would seem to require political will. Evaluation: private cleanliness and the environment The knowledge of ablutions. traffic noise and filth. self-awareness. education. Why is there such a contrast between the cleanliness found in the home and the filthiness seen in many streets and public areas? Why is there such a high level of water and air pollution. and of individualization without responsibility. . At the same time this level of consciousness of cleanliness and purity leads to prejudices in many Muslims against those who are non-Muslims or who do not carry on the Islamic heritage. fasting. the ritually clean fingers are simply rubbed over the shoe as a symbolic washing of the feet. accountability. Unplanned cities. learning. The state of many of Turkey's public areas is scandalous and a chronic topic of public debate. ugly factories.

. the Prophet Muhammad taught them how to be clean and pure. In the Kur'an. as well as in spiritual values. and an overall spiritual uplift. Allah directs believers to be clean and pure. for the youth in hygiene and self-discipline. the psychological easing of stress. clear. Children in a Muslim household grow up imitating and eventually owning for themselves the Islamic mentality of cleanliness and purity. It is also a divine command. Washing oneself confers physical cleanliness and health. or training. and universal procedures for cleanliness and purity are an education. distinct. and Muslims must therefore be clean and pure. Moreover. Cleanliness and purity are also a preparation for the final Day of Judgment.Cleanliness and Purity 179 To clean and purify oneself is an aid and prerequisite to the act of worship.

For many centuries. What is the mosque for? Who goes there. Mecca was a prominent trading center. It has not had a single. But the pilgrimage season was also a time of commerce. the host site for the universal worship of all Muslims. as the House of Allah. what goes on inside. and directions of change in mosque building. its architecture. It is the holy of holies. the impact of the modern secular nation state on the mosque. and why? This chapter answers these questions and discusses who builds a mosque. worship and learning could all be found within the great historical mosque complexes of Islamic cultures. It has always been a place of safety and shelter. as every mosque does today. a location for international fairs. symbolizes refuge and peace. the house of worship originally built by Abraham and Ishmael. purely spiritual purpose separate from the rest of life. The Kaaba. security and stability. 180 . Religion and economics were integrated. The Prophet Muhammad himself kept his home and family in the compound of the mosque in Medina. in Mecca. including those of the Ottoman Empire. how a mosque reflects Muslim piety. This multifunctional aspect to the mosque has persisted down through the ages.14 Mosques and Architecture The mosque in Turkey with its one or more imposing minarets piques the curiosity of the non-Muslim visitor. The original mosque: the Kaaba The archetypal mosque and Islamic sanctuary is the Kaaba. Arabs did not allow fighting at this sacred spot at the time of the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca. shelter and food. Shops and business.

we must remember that the Islamic prayer sacrament. All Muslims of whatever orientation. The mosque is Allah's. In the Muslim's perception the person and the religion are a whole. or going to the mosque to worship. from the beginning of Islam until today. However. It is crosscultural. In the Prophet Muhammad's . But it would be a mistake to think that Islamic worship or religion is confined to the mosque. there is the face of Allah. This reflects long-standing sociological circumstances and habits. and no one has any religious authority to exclude anyone else from the mosque. not to be disjoined. not where it is done. whether individual or corporate. All space is sacred for worshipping Allah. transnational. Allah is all-encompassing. may occur anywhere: at home. and interdenominational. both ritual and non-ritual.Mosques and Architecture 181 The ecumenical character of a mosque A mosque is Islam become visible. The mosque in Turkey today is populated more by men than by women. use the same mosque as a house of Allah. not separated into the sacred and the secular. at the office. A Muslim of whatever stripe feels secure and welcome in any mosque for the prayer sacrament because all mosques present the same essential environment. both individual and corporate. preferred place to gather for the corporate sacrament of prayer (namaz/salat). Religiously. for the pious see them as less than universal elements. or ecumenical houses of prayer. What is important is that worship takes place. There are no national flags in a mosque. outdoors. both women and men. a concrete expression or clothing of the Islamic ideal. No Muslim or group of Muslims owns a mosque. Life is an undivided whole. It is the canonical prayer which is the focus. or in any building. A mosque does not have a membership list or formalized congregation. Religion is being with Allah and being oneself. allknowing' (2:115). and not the building. Islamic religion does not consist of being in the mosque. The mosque is a public location for prayer. But attendance at the mosque is not the essence or the climax of Islamic worship. The particularity of the mosque is not that it is a building but that it is a convenient. `Wherever you turn. and therefore open to everyone. By the term `ecumenical' we mean that the mosque is a location for the communal sacrament of canonical prayer. the mosque is a house of prayer for all believers. Mosques are also important to Muslims as universal. a sacred spot called the house of Allah where it is only Allah who is glorified and only Allah's word is spoken and heard. Muslims cannot speak of `their' mosque. It is a place for Muslims to gather in unity. In the Kur'an we read. whether mystic or scholarly or sectarian or Sunni or Shii.

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time, men and women were known to do the corporate prayer sacrament together, although the sexes stood separately from one another. There are times today when women appear in large numbers in mosques, and preach there, such as in Ramazan, the month of fasting. In contrast to the ecumenical, universal mosque stands a tekke, the house of a particular Sufi, or Islamic mystic group. The tekke is particularly associated with mystics who have the Sunni ethical and juristic orientation. Within its house the group conducts its particular form of repetitive prayer, or zikir. This prayer is non-canonical, meaning that it has no universally prescribed form. Each Sufi zikir is special to that group of Muslims. Their house may be a single room or a complex of buildings, depending on the history, peculiarities, and needs of the group. Entrance to the house is controlled, and the groups are exclusive in nature. The religious houses of Alevis, who are Shii-leaning Muslims, are the Jem houses, or Houses of Gathering. There the Alevis meet for their forms of zikir, which can include mixed religious dancing and music. Alevis in Turkey usually do not attend the mosques.

How a mosque is built
In Turkey today a mosque is most often built with funds raised by local Muslims themselves. People give what they can toward the construction. The government's Department of Religious Affairs also helps but contributes only a tiny percentage of the cost. An exception would be something like the Kocatepe Mosque in Ankara, a huge showcase structure in the capital city. It was completed in the 1980s with major funding from the endowment of the Department of Religious Affairs. This endowment itself comes from the voluntary contributions of ordinary people. The building of mosques through the grassroots efforts of the people is a new phenomenon within the last 70 years. In the Ottoman Empire, a mosque was typically built through the initiative and financing of high state officials, if not the royal family itself. These historical mosques usually carry the name of their financiers, or patrons. The wealthy state official who set out to build a mosque, tomb, fountain, or other pious building, would hire the best architects. In the great historical mosques of Turkey we admire the splendors of these artists. The cultural elegance of their times was expressed in pious buildings and mosque complexes. Today each mosque has a voluntary association that serves it. The appointed imam either heads this association or is one of its key members. Its purpose is to care for the mosque, particularly from a

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financial standpoint. If repairs are needed, if there is a problem with the facilities, if there are difficulties or complaints, if there are bureaucratic obstacles, if the lodgings for the imam and muezzin need looking after, if funds need to be raised, if maintenance needs to be more efficient, then the association takes action. Like all voluntary associations in Turkey, it must comply with standard government regulations regarding financial record keeping, minutes of meetings, membership lists, election of officers, and so on. But this association does not own the mosque, nor are the ones who serve on it `members' of the mosque. The members of the association volunteer their help for the sake of Allah. The mosque association is the general instrument today by which a mosque is built. A typical scenario is that a group of people in a neighborhood feel the need for constructing a new mosque, especially if no nearby mosque exists, or if an existing mosque is too small. Concerned people on their own initiative gather and choose a leader or leaders from among themselves to organize a mosque-building group. This group establishes itself as a legally constituted association under Turkish law and proceeds to raise funds. It seeks financial and political support among influential members of the neighborhood. If fund-raising efforts are successful, and political/bureaucratic hurdles are cleared, then a site is bought and construction commences. At the completion of construction, the mosque is turned over to the Department of Religious Affairs, and the association requests the Department to appoint a suitable imam. The voluntary mosque association continues to exist for purposes of care and maintenance of the building. A mosque will never be torn down or sold. It will either be used as a mosque or left to fall into ruin. Such is the typical story of how a mosque comes into existence today. Alternatively but less frequently, a wealthy person may decide to donate the entire cost of the construction of the mosque as well as establish an endowment for its upkeep. In that case, the mosque might be named after the donor.

Visiting a mosque
Muslims are usually happy to host visitors to a mosque and show them around. In the large, famous mosques of the big cities, such as the Sultanahmet (`Blue Mosque') in Istanbul, visitors are so numerous that handling them requires special effort and coordination. It is a concern to the worshippers and the mosque functionaries that proper respect is shown by these crowds and their professional guides.

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At any hour of the day, the visitor should find people at the mosque. The government pays for an imam and a muezzin, the prayer leader and the caller to prayer, to help maintain the mosque and organize its activities, so at least one of them should be present. Other than those officials, the visitor to a mosque may also see worshippers who are washing at the fountains or taps in preparation for canonical prayer. Other worshippers may be inside doing individual canonical prayer. Someone may be selling religious literature and paraphernalia at the entrance to the courtyard. Someone may be sweeping the yard or cleaning the carpets inside. A group of men may be having a rest together, or a discussion. People may be quietly meditating or reading inside. The mosque should normally be open for study and meditation. When it is time for one of the five daily ritual prayers, activity increases at the mosque. The call to prayer, the ezan, is broadcast from the minaret. People, mostly men, start arriving in numbers before and after the ezan and engage in ablutions. After the ritual washing in the courtyard, they leave their shoes outside and then enter the worship space itself. Many mosques provide clean wooden clogs to enable worshippers to walk from the ablution area into the mosque. Those who arrive earlier begin doing canonical prayer individually. When finished, they sit quietly and wait for the call to stand up and form rows for the corporate canonical prayer. Although the place, the time, the functionaries, and the ritual for the corporate canonical prayer are fixed, the congregation is in flux. It consists of whoever shows up spontaneously. There is no membership roster, nor is there an office with telephone, secretary, and so on. There is not necessarily any regularity of attendance at any given mosque. A worshipper might go to the mosque nearest home for the morning and night prayers, to a mosque near work for the midday and afternoon prayer, and to yet another mosque for the evening canonical prayer. But the prayer sacraments are identical at all mosques, and it does not matter which mosque the worshipper attends for this purpose. Each mosque is ready to serve those who come. The major Friday Prayer is noticeably different. More people make it a point to join this special time of community ritual prayer. Readers will find a description of the Friday Prayer in the chapter on canonical prayer. On special days during the Islamic year, the canonical prayer is also well attended. Every Friday Prayer during the fasting month of Ramazan is one such special time. Visitors will notice crowds of worshippers spilling outside the mosque area into nearby streets, with extra loudspeakers set up so that worshippers may hear the imam and

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muezzin. The festival prayers, which are after dawn on the first day of the Breaking of the Fast Holiday, and the first day of the Animal Offering Holiday, are other popular times for worship at the mosque. Mosques are also well attended at nights during the month of Ramazan, after people have broken each daily fast. Some people choose to decorate the mosque in Ramazan, often using strings of colored lights.

Architectural elements
The Saint Sophia structure in Istanbul was first a Christian church, built in the sixth century. After the Ottoman conquest of Istanbul in 1453, it was turned into the Ayasofya Mosque, which is a Turkicized spelling of È rk, the founder of the modern Republic of its original name. Atatu Turkey, had the building converted into the Ayasofya Museum that it is today. The visitor to Ayasofya is impressed with the vast interior space. This effect is created by the huge dome, the way its openings admit light, and its method of support, all of which cause the dome seemingly to float above the ground. It was this impression of enclosing an enormous, undivided, well-lit, and uncluttered space that Ottoman architects also aimed for and spectacularly achieved. They competed with themselves and with the Roman and Christian past to create as huge a space as possible, with a dome as high as possible, and with as much natural illumination as possible. They sought an unobstructed, simple interior, allowing the worshippers to see everywhere but to focus on one point. The high dome and the bright, airy interior space remind the worshippers of the infinity and openness of heaven. The master of the style was Sinan (1490±1578). An engineer and architect, he designed and built both the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul and the Selimiye mosque in Edirne. Sinan's followers copied his style in the Sultanahmet mosque (The Blue Mosque) in Istanbul. Today in every part of Turkey, people want their local mosque to reflect the architectural esthetics of the imperial Ottoman mosques, those masterpieces of Islamic civilization. Muslims also consider the grand historical mosques to be a source of pride in their Islamic culture and its achievements. They want the mosques to attract and impress visitors as showcases of art and religion. 1. The minaret The minaret has developed an architectural life of its own. A minaret is not a requirement but is only a convenience for making the call to

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prayer and other announcements with clarity. In the Ottoman past, pious donors such as wealthy statesmen, with their architects, vied with each other to see who could make the tallest minaret, the most elegant minaret, or the greatest number of them. The Sultanahmet mosque (Blue Mosque) in Istanbul has six pencil-thin minarets that stand guard like sentinels. Another analogy for faithful Muslims is that the minaret points to the sky like an index finger, witnessing to the one Allah. The index finger of the right hand is popularly called the `finger of witness'. The minaret also serves as a platform for public announcements of funerals, for example, or of municipal activities. It has also been a place to hang the national flag as a declaration of war or victory. During Turkey's national struggle for existence in the period immediately following World War One, one of the supreme mobilizing symbols was that of the Turkish flag as the guarantor of the call to prayer, the ezan. Two of the lines from the national anthem, penned after the struggle, reflect this conjoining of patriotism, minaret, and call to prayer. These ezans, whose proclamations are the foundation of religion, Should call out eternally over my land. It is intriguing that a recent prime minister of Turkey, Tansu C Ë iller, herself a strongly secular politician, often voiced the slogan, `The flag does not fall. The call is not silenced.' In modern Turkey the minaret is a symbol freely used by secular and non-secular people alike. The desire to worship Allah in freedom, symbolized by the minaret, is appealed to by the country's leaders. The disappearance of the minaret would symbolize captivity. 2. Decoration

Mosques are essentially lacking pictures of people or representational art. Islam itself is a reaction against the idea of worshipping any person or symbol or figure. Religious artists have shunned depicting or sculpting figures and creatures, because of the implied blasphemy of suggesting something or someone as a partner with Allah, as another reality besides Allah, as something other than Allah that is to be worshipped. Such idolatry is felt to limit human growth and imagination, to lead humanity astray, to distract concentration, and to limit the transcendence of Allah. When worshipping in the sacrament of canonical prayer, or offering petitions to Allah, or asking Allah for guidance, believers should concentrate their minds utterly on Allah, the one who is beyond

doors. or words from the Prophet look down from the walls on the worshippers. marble facings. such as a bird or fish or geometric figure. pearl. The geometric forms have evolved into complex patterns with intricate symmetric motifs. paper marbleizing. several distinct calligraphic styles have been used to write the Kur'an. these are confessions of faith. But mosques do have artistic or decorative symbols of various types. with stylized flowers and leaves gliding through the rigid symmetries of a complex overall pattern. and other surfaces. Its sound. icon. its writing. The Kur'an itself is regarded by Muslims as a work of beauty in speech. In addition to the beauty of their calligraphy. flowers. All art in the mosque should lead the worshipper to the limitless divine. a work of art in eloquence. Our readers should not suppose that the calligraphic forms used as decorations in mosques are objects of adoration or devotion. artistic. as though one's spirit were travelling forward and upward without end. `Allah loves those . Over the centuries. Kur'anic verses. reminding Muslims of their identity. They urge believers to perfection. gold leaf embellishment. Both freeflowing and geometric forms can also intermingle. Large renderings of `Allah'. Ottoman culture produced various decorative arts that are outgrowths of calligraphy and related design. image. Decorating letters and sacred texts with stylized leaves. They are only an aid. One is calligraphic. and its style are accepted as elegant. and geometric shapes. Beauty and its careful representation are important elements of Islamic piety. or statue of any creature in a mosque. The free-flowing forms have led to decorations of the text that use stylized flowers. a help to comprehending the beauty and incomparability of Allah and Allah's word. and wood inlay. This is something that lies behind the seriousness and meticulous care we see in Islamic ritual. Calligraphy itself was a high art form among Ottoman artists. The verse from the Kur'an. leaves.Mosques and Architecture 187 any human conception of Allah. and vines. and protecting them from going astray. Such decorations are often found in borders surrounding a text or large surface. has resulted in elegant techniques for covering and bordering walls. And so there is no figure. These often cover a surface. ceramic tiles. `Muhammad'. It is the highest Kur'anic sense of esthetics. hand-woven carpets with stylized vegetation and geometric designs. The words were cleverly shaped to suggest an overall image. showing them the way of blessing and truth. vines. Among these surface covering techniques are gold. and so on. and aesthetic. These styles and their embellishments consist of both free-flowing forms and geometric forms.

Jerusalem was the holy city. the Kur'an eventually taught that the kibla. When the imam leads the congregation in the canonical prayer. should be toward the Kaaba in Mecca. The first Muslim community in Medina was originally directed by Muhammad to face Jerusalem for the canonical prayer. Directed by the imam's words. are wall frescos of stylized leaves. and vines. and as a growing separation from Jewish piety and practice. It is important to understand that the kibla. our readers may wish to consult the diagram in Appendix M of the floor plan of a typical mosque. One or more clocks may be present to check the time of the canonical prayer. as also found in the past. calligraphic art involving texts from the Kur'an and Prophetic phrases. wrought iron chandeliers. as part of the formation of Islamic identity and community. Therefore the rows of worshippers at canonical prayer are not semicircles around the niche but are straight lines perpendicular to the kibla. the direction of Islamic prayer. but also those who do everything well. that the niche indicates. In terms of niche decoration. In previous centuries. the city of pilgrimage for both Jews and Christians. but the direction in which the niche itself points. It is an open space for active worship. is not toward the niche. The most common decorations in new mosques today in Turkey. but they have never been part of the habit and tradition of Islamic worship. There is no religious objection to them. means not only those who do good deeds. a microphone might be placed in the niche. colored glass windows. . he himself is standing at prayer right in front of. Electric lighting at night comes from large. Its hollowed out shape reflects his voice back to the worshippers. the direction of the prayer sacrament. if it is large enough. or even inside the niche. Other internal architectural elements The mosque is not an auditorium for passive spectators. The worshippers are to face in the direction. This is the direction to the mosque in Mecca. using all the arts of surface covering mentioned above. the range runs from completely bare to the highly ornate. and a mosaic of floor carpeting. In large mosques. they are keeping pace with the imam's movements in thoughtful silence. Candles are not used in worship in the mosque. these chandeliers held oil lamps.188 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey who do good' (2:195). However. ceramic tiling. As we describe the architectural elements inside the mosque. Many Jewish groups lived in Medina along with the Muslims. flowers. 3. One interior wall of a mosque contains a niche. the mihrab. the place to which faces of the worshippers are directed in the sacrament of prayer. or kibla.

and meditation. or a curtainedoff partition at one side. At other times. enhance religious service to the nation. It is from here that the muezzin calls five times daily for the prayer sacrament. study. One part of the mosque is set aside somehow for women worshippers. Donations are not compulsory. This was not always the case. In the corporate canonical prayer. The Ottomans lavished artistic attention on these stairs in the form of wood carvings. and help in the building of new mosques. and such requests are met with suspicion and disapproval. they simply allow the preacher to step to a high point overlooking the congregation. he stands up. Like a ladder. aid the poor. At no point does he go to the top of the stairs. Donations might also be used for the maintenance and upkeep of the local mosque. produce religious publications. either on the right or left. The stairs may be equipped today with a microphone for voice amplification. Those who come to the mosque will also often see a donation box. Money put into these boxes goes to the nonprofit Foundation for Pious Works supervised by the government's Department of Religious Affairs. Somewhere off to the side of the worship space will be one or more small rooms or offices for use by the imam and muezzin. Then when speaking. This often consists of a straight flight of stairs to the right of the niche. The stairs are not a path up to a platform or podium for the preacher. The larger the mosque. there is no request for donations. inlays. can be kept in these offices. Other paraphernalia related to mosque upkeep. such as cleaning equipment and record books. Contemporary secular ethics claim that requests for money in a religious ritual is an exploitation of religion. and during the corporate prayer. Just before the formal sermon. or even a separate floor downstairs. assist with the training of religious functionaries. the preacher climbs part way up the stairs to a convenient step and sits. the greater is the need for a more commanding set of stairs. This may consist of a balcony at the rear of the mosque. to support religious scholars. The foundation uses the money for charitable works. In the past. women may enter any part of the worship space of the mosque for the individual prayer sacrament or for petitionary prayer. and decorated carpets. marble facings. such as in the Friday Prayer. . the preacher uses a special elevated point for speaking called a minber. One of the trends in Turkey's secular experience has been the move to separate economics and finance from religion.Mosques and Architecture 189 When a formal sermon takes place in the mosque. elders among the worshippers did ask for donations at the time of canonical prayer and preaching. the central worship space is usually filled by men only.

An unusual arrangement is found in the Great Mosque (Ulu Cami) of Bursa. or platforms. perhaps equipped with a tiny minaret. decorations. or do canonical prayer. Yet another is to stage the funeral prayer. External architectural features Outside the mosque is usually a courtyard. Its purpose is only to be a place for worship. what might be thought of as a `chapel' in the Christian world. such as Friday. From the courtyard there is usually direct access to the ablution/ lavatory area. decorating. Immediately on the conclusion of the midday canonical prayer. or enclosed roofless space. carpets on the floor. the imam stands alone in front of the catafalque with his back to the worshippers. quiet area large enough to hold the congregation at the time of the canonical prayer and to point out the direction of the mosque in Mecca. the imam and muezzin emerge from inside the mosque and gather the congregation at the catafalque. In many large public buildings such as airports or hospitals. The wall containing the entrance to the mosque often has niches carved on the right and left of the entrance to show the direction toward Mecca. Here people prepare for worship by cleaning and purifying themselves. What is required from the religious point of view is only a clean. carpeted room. Somewhere in the courtyard is one or more catafalques. He says aloud the words of the funeral prayer on their behalf. Latecomers emulate the congregation inside by forming compact rows as close to the entrance wall as possible. Whether there is a dome. Another purpose of the courtyard is to provide a place for conversation between worshippers who do not wish to disturb those praying inside. and so forth. offer private petitions to Allah. This has several purposes. An essential component for every mosque is running water for ablution. there often is a prayer room. One is to hold the overflow crowd on special days. organized. a masjid. bare. is left to local taste. tiles. both physically and ritually. where a fountain of . or on the first day of the Breaking of the Fast Holiday and the first day of the Animal Offering Holiday. 4. and indicating for worshippers the direction of Mecca. a minaret. Here believers may come and meditate. and equipping the worship space. on which coffins are placed. The masjid is often just a small.190 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The paragraphs above describe the cultural ways of enclosing. When everyone has formed rows facing the Kaaba in Mecca. The purpose is to orient worshippers who come late to the canonical prayer and who do their worship on the entrance porch or in the courtyard. Signs within the building direct the public to its location.

Today they rarely house living spirits but seem to play host to the elderly and retired who want to seclude themselves from the world. If they need restroom facilities. and so on. for teaching. As is still true in villages today. the mosque is an inviting place to those in need. The mosque complex itself was an architectural expression of the society's needs: for worship.Mosques and Architecture 191 running water is located inside the mosque. where the learned imparted their knowledge. The word in Turkish for `mosque' is pronounced like jami. and cleanliness are so intimately integrated. for eating. purity. and anyone seeking help or guidance can go to the mosque and be received in security and confidence. there should be lodgings for the muezzin's family. This . It is the large area where people gather. Some travelers today still engage in the traditional custom of going first to the mosque on their arrival to introduce themselves and explain their needs. metaphysically. whether cosmically. or socially. where they see themselves as the society in which they live. travelers or tourists know they can find them at a mosque. the mosque was also the social focus of a town or neighborhood. and political issues. in all spiritual and physical senses. Worshippers can conveniently use it to renew their state of ritual purity without having to exit the building. This function of the mosque is very well known and relied upon by travelers. or `assembly'. for instruction. physically. for housing travelers. for trading. psychologically. for the muezzin is the one who must be on hand five times per day for the specialized function of broadcasting the call to prayer. where people discussed social. for purification (ablution/hygiene). Evaluation: the meaning of the mosque today Muslims today may not be fully conscious of what the mosque idealizes. A substantial mosque should also have adjoining living quarters for its religious functionaries. or where anything occurred requiring people to assemble. In that sense. which derives from the word meaning `group'. economic. whether for food or accommodation or money. is universal and open to all. It is hard to conceive of a mosque without an ablution/lavatory area because worship. those who are traveling. faith. They unconsciously follow a tradition that perpetuates these ideals. for preaching. Those in trouble. a refuge. where corporate canonical prayer took place. as we have seen above. The mosque. Today's mosques are not being built for this diversity of usage or as focal points for communication and community between believers. At the very least.

a place set apart from the rest of society. Up to that point. or contributing to religious charities. the mosques are more crowded than usual on Fridays and on sacred nights. and other services. In other words. the new republicans curbed the activities of mosques and their growth. the grandeur and civilization of the empire. It is still the place where people often turn when they are in difficulty. where the course of society is debated and charted. They want the neighborhood.192 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey situation is entirely opposite to the original idea of the mosque complex as the place for the world. and financed by the state. an ideal. The mosque continues to be a communal gathering point for funerals. and intellectual elite rarely show open support for preserving historical mosques. people would shelter in a mosque when attacked by enemies. the Friday Prayer. They want Kur'an courses at the mosque for the children. where religion is hammered into the forms of individual action and social justice. and refuge. it still bears the character of safety. It is still a human±divine contact point. today's idea of a mosque more closely fits the secular concept of a place for private religious functions. They appear little concerned to dig out and explore the gems in their Islamic past. and civilization. peace. In the heartland of Anatolia. for funerals. it had been the magnificent. business. military. financial. equipped with lofty minarets. After the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923. culture. especially the children. Turkey's modern political. lavishly decorated mosques. The nationalists turned the Ayasofya (Saint Sophia) building into a museum as part of opening up to the western world. tall factory smokestacks began to sprout. But in the early republican era. They want a mosque for ceremony and ritual: for the daily canonical prayer. learning. rituals and ceremonies. This is a more limited notion than the mosque as the birthplace of inspiration and motivation. building new ones. that displayed the power and wealth. if only at death. the state poured its wealth and might into enormous factories. People go there to make petitionary prayers (dua) for the safety and stability of the nation. When the country today is in crisis. as the bearer of arts. to grow up hearing the call to prayer. an ultimate refuge. The new rulers made it clear that mosques were for the private worship of individuals . Far from financing the building of mosques. Every Muslim in Turkey has a tie to the mosque. Although there are those who think that the mosque is only a place for ritual. The Ottoman Empire had been largely agricultural. Those who build today's mosques have more limited purposes in mind. In previous times. the republican-nationalists began to industrialize the country.

the people were simply forced to find ever more politically sophisticated ways to work around these obstacles. Building permits for new mosques could easily be delayed by municipal officials. that the immense Kocatepe Mosque in Ankara was completed. supervised professionals. The political climate seems slowly to be moving in favor of such a trend. publications. but now the financing is in private hands. Many secularists today are alarmed at what they see as the mushrooming number of new mosques. and the like.Mosques and Architecture 193 who were so inclined. It was only in the 1980s. Ankara. Newspaper and television media cover such gatherings intensely as major news stories. the new capital of Turkey. In today's Turkey. This wealthy secular class prefers instead to brag about its factories and hotels and banks. had no great mosque. They will hire talented architects. or about its schools and universities and performing arts centers. and there will be new developments in the architectural style of the mosque. these wealthy non-secular financiers will be building large. The gigantic. Today this nonsecular class uses its money to finance private schools. large factories continue to be built. medical centers. The defenders of the secular republic say that religion must not be used to reverse the character of modern Turkey. radio and television outlets. If politically feasible. It is more often the case that politicians are willing to be seen at religious gatherings and at the canonical prayer in the mosque. or the mourners are. central mosques. there is a wealthy non-secular class that is growing. Through the Department of Religious Affairs. If it contributes to the building of a mosque. Non-secular elements wanted it built as a symbol that said the people of Turkey were Muslims who could not be without Allah. It is in such structures that Turkey's best architects today ply their skills. personnel at the mosques became government-salaried. the donation is often not publicly known. Whenever local officials denied or delayed permission to build a mosque. The newsworthy character is not so much the fact of the gathering at the mosque . There is an increasing phenomenon today of gathering in huge numbers for the funeral prayer at one of Turkey's great mosques when someone prominent dies. which again are in private hands. The wealthy secular class is generally not having mosques built. It does not matter how pious the deceased was. Prominent politicians were reluctant to be seen at a mosque in the corporate sacrament of prayer. The funeral has become a national event. They maintain that Turkey needs many more schools and not so many mosques. For years. sumptuous new buildings in the cities tend to be luxury hotels. after much politicking. As economic initiatives in Turkey pass increasingly into private hands.

The call from the minarets is as strong as the shiny new factories and hotels. a representation of roots. It is an element of religious identity. psychological. The mosque is playing its role on the modern stage. These structures of faith have survived organized secular. Thus at the time of a funeral. a sign of resistance to the alienating features of modernization and secularization.194 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey but the public desire for vicarious participation. the mosque is returning to the public focus as the natural place for public assembly. what the new mosque-builders most want from the state today is not financial support. That most ordinary citizens have perpetuated mosque-building in the secular republic is a sign of the durability of Islam. In that sense. but for the state not to block them in their private efforts. where issues of religion and the impact of secularism on the people's heritage are debated. a continuation of the Islamic legacy of Turkey. . and sociological pressures. In fact. the new mosques tell us that religion is becoming more popular and more inclined to what the mosque represents. In the polemics of contemporary society. the mosque plays its role.

with its government monopoly of appointed and paid religious officials. The other is the imam's assistant. The imam. The main duties of the staff of religious functionaries are to care for the mosques and to oversee their activities. attended by hundreds or thousands of worshippers. could be termed State Islam. the muezzin. prestigious mosques. and unity of the nation. or caller to prayer. Since both the imam and the muezzin are civil servants.15 Religious Functionaries Mosques in Turkey have a staff of one or more appointed religious functionaries. or leader in the canonical prayer. In the larger. These people are civil servants. paid by the government and supervised by its Department of Religious Affairs. All public religious functionaries must be employees of the Department of Religious Affairs. and level of education. is one of two types of religious functionaries appointed to a mosque by the Department of Religious Affairs. and to support and legitimate state policies. The state also monopolizes the nation's only legal institutions of religious education and training. meaning that their salary depends on seniority. Through this department the state regulates and supervises worship in the mosque. This way of structuring Islam. The religious functionaries in most cases are men. level of accountability. there can be as many as two or three imams and two or three muezzins. their pay scale is the same as for other government bureaucrats. to work in accord with the government. The staff in a small village mosque may be only one or two. And as employees of the secular state. and the Department of Religious Affairs maintains a small cadre of female preachers. security. Today there are women who preach in the mosque. they are also expected to promote the peace. Yet there is no religious prohibition in the Kur'an or in the practice of the Prophet Muhammad against women serving as religious functionaries in a mosque. 195 .

under the supervision of the appointed imam. and to clean and look after the buildings. the call to prayer. for he needs to be on the premises throughout the day to cantillate the ezan. After finishing these studies. meaning that the one functionary is both prayer leader and preacher of the formal sermon. The one who delivers it is called a hatip. the muezzin also helps with the cleaning. he must enter a competitive exam to be hired as an official cantor. cantillates the call to prayer into a microphone. at sunset. there is a formal sermon. He will then be accepted for posting to a mosque as a muezzin. Five times each day ± at dawn. Before electronic amplification. There he will serve under the imam and help him in carrying out the worship sacraments. The idea is that all those in the neighborhood of the mosque should hear the call. In a typical mosque. at midday. sweeping. In practice. and the time of their funerals. He studies the Kur'an and the Arabic language as well as the specialized art of melodiously cantillating the call to prayer. Nowadays in mosques there is normally one appointed official who acts both as imam and as hatip. Another function of the muezzin is to broadcast the deaths of persons in the neighborhoods. and maintenance of the premises. in the late afternoon. The muezzin begins his training at the vocational high school for religious functionaries. His voice issues from loudspeakers in the minaret or somewhere outside the building. There is free sharing of duties. or melodiously recites. . the muezzin may be helped in his tasks by volunteers among the worshippers or by the imam himself. the muezzin used his unassisted voice for the ezan. The ritual prayer leader and preacher (imam-hatip) The next rung above the muezzin in the bureaucracy of religious officials is the imam-hatip. Priority in occupying the lodging attached to a mosque should go to the muezzin. or as we have said. and in the evening ± the muezzin stands in the mosque and sings. a hutbe. the call to prayer.196 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey The muezzin It is the voice of the muezzin that the visitor hears calling out regularly from the nearby mosque. Of the officials we discuss here. or speaker. the muezzin ranks the lowest in the bureaucracy of the Department of Religious Affairs. He must still do so when there is a temporary cut in electricity. At the Friday Prayer each week. The title of this official is thus imam-hatip.

The role of these faculties is to train religious functionaries. It is not clear what this religious clothing means or what it represents. because each Muslim is required to do the ritual on his or her own behalf. Among other things. and academicians. The imam can choose whether to don the hat and gown. The minimum goal is to memorize enough of it to conduct the canonical prayer. dating from the 1950s. or robe. for the imam ideally is only a member of the congregation who steps forward to lead the rest in the corporate canonical prayer. We can speculate that perhaps the imam's religious dress represents some connection with Arab culture or the way the Prophet Muhammad was imagined to dress. At the time of writing. cylindrical. is attached to Ankara University. As a result of government action. public school teachers of religion. they are not religiously obligatory. it is more often the case today that imams have had some post-secondary or postgraduate education. These divinity schools. for it is a personal act of devotion for the sake of his own soul. he often wears headgear consisting of white cloth wrapped around a low. It is not meant to separate the imam from the congregation or from the world. His leadership is not a performance that requires a distinctive costume. to produce enlightened religious functionaries who will provide professional religious services to the public. just as the government also delivers public health and education services. He can also wear a gown. or theological faculties. At the divinity faculty the imam-hatip candidate increases his skill in the art of reciting the Kur'an. The hat and gown are only customary. in which instead of opening a book and reading from scripture there is a core amount of memorized . After graduating from the Imam-Hatip School. similar in appearance to that traditionally worn by faculty at British universities. he competes for entrance to further education at a university divinity school.Religious Functionaries 197 When the imam is leading the canonical prayer in the mosque. There he takes courses in religious studies in addition to the normal curriculum of a public high school. are a recent phenomenon in the history of the Turkish Republic. they reflect the desire of the state to raise the level of formal schooling among imams. As with other state-appointed religious functionaries. there are about four dozen theological faculties throughout Turkey. The oldest theological faculty. although many of them are in the very early stages of development. brimless hat. The imam's hat and gown therefore do not signify a form of substitution in which the imam does the ritual of prayer on behalf of the congregation. the imam-hatip normally begins his training at a vocational high school. an ImamHatip School.

the older style of education was divided. The result is that there are several mosques today without the required government-appointed religious functionaries. After receiving a diploma. The divinity schools are attached to state universities and to their standards. but the government has lagged behind in expanding allocations for more staff. The republican nationalists saw these schools as retrogressive or reactionary. the sociology of religion. Religious education before the founding of the Turkish Republic took place in the medrese. Secularists remain sensitive today to anything that would again divide the national education effort. ethics. and the methodology related to each of these fields. Such mosques have to make do with volunteer or honorary imam-hatips and . Each year there are many more qualified candidates for the positions of religious functionaries than the Department of Religious Affairs can absorb. Many divinity school graduates also apply to the Ministry of Education to become teachers of the compulsory religion/ethics lessons in the nation's public schools.198 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey Kur'an recitation. theology. The purpose behind this curriculum is to raise a generation of Islamic functionaries who have a modern mentality and who are eager to work with the secular state. The number of mosques in Turkey continues to grow with the population. In contrast. and education. The imam-hatip candidate also studies modern fields such as the psychology of religion. the canonical prayer leader and preacher of the formal sermon. secular education for all citizens. It is also possible to request a posting to another country where there are Turkish citizens in need of effective worship leadership. the history of religions. so that there is a national unity in education. If the candidate then passes a competitive examination at the necessary level. particularly its grammar. and modern country. he is scheduled for posting to one of Turkey's mosques as imam-hatip. the graduate of a faculty of divinity applies to the government's Department of Religious Affairs for a position. the religious school. He studies the traditional Islamic sciences that are the fruit of the Golden Age of Islam: Kur'anic commentary. The imam-hatip candidate also studies Arabic. indepenÈ rk's government dissolved the religious dent. the biography of the Prophet. Islamic law. Atatu schools and instituted one national. potentially blocking Turkey's growth as a strong. literature. Islamic history and civilization. Some divinity school graduates who want further academic study compete for entrance to the postgraduate degree programs of the divinity schools. and rhetoric. Acceptance into the cadre of functionaries depends largely on whether the government has budgeted sufficient funds to pay them.

and the muezzin could be replaced. the next higher functionary. Just before that sacrament begins. practice. and inspectors in a region of mosques. background. or if he cannot preach properly. The muftu earns his post because of his knowledge. or candidates who are waiting to be taken into government service. a preacher/instructor in a region of mosques. If the imam does not competently do his job of leading the canonical prayer. Vaizes and muftus receive much the same training as the imam-hatip and must similarly enter a competitive examination for appointment. Higher officials Ranking above the imam-hatip in the bureaucracy of the Department of Religious Affairs is the vaiz. People who have a complaint about an imam or muezzin. or about the conditions in a mosque. Each day in the fasting month of Ramazan is a customary time for preaching. on sacred nights. He supervises all muezzins. vaizes. Ranking at the top of the pyramid of religious bureaucracy is the office of the Head of the Department of Religious Affairs. is not attached to a particular mosque but appears by schedule in different mosques. The muftu also schedules the vaizes in his charge to appear in the different mosques of the area. and suitability for issuing opinions on religious matters. Vaizes also preach during festival prayers. then the worshippers criticize him and look for him to be replaced. while worshippers are assembling and doing individual canonical prayer. It employs inspectors for this purpose. He supervises the . Vaizes are usually busy each week at the time of the Friday Prayer sacrament. Scholars from divinity schools and ImamHatip schools are also invited and encouraged to speak in local mosques during Ramazan. The Department of Religious Affairs monitors how well the imams and muezzins do their jobs. If the call to prayer is done poorly. The imam-hatip and the muezzin are entrusted with taking care of the mosque and seeing that its worship functions are fulfilled effectively. the muftu's main duty is to answer questions from the public about faith. However. These may be graduates of Imam-Hatip high schools and Kur'an courses. The vaiz.Religious Functionaries 199 muezzins whom local people can persuade to serve. and other special occasions. or informally trained people. are free to see the muftu. or preacher of the lesson. imams. With the vaiz. worshippers will complain. and doctrine. a vaiz will deliver the lesson. they are accountable to the muftu. He issues formal religious opinions. or about the quality of a preacher. called a vaaz.

Standing alone in the front row of the congregation and leading the prayer sacrament is a service to the worshippers provided by a government employee. or is otherwise consecrated. But a separation between the religious and political functions gradually set in. After his death. the Ottoman sultan carried the title of `Caliph'. It had long lost its meaning of universal political authority. However. He dominated the empire's religious sphere in that he appointed the high officials of the religious establishment. Today's State Islam in Turkey contrasts with the age of the Prophet Muhammad. or closer to Allah than other worshippers. when the state and organized religion were the same thing. particularly during the Era of Expansion and the Golden Age of Islam. and the imam and muezzin the officers. those who succeeded to the leadership position were leaders in religious sacraments as well as in affairs of state. At the time of the Islamic dynasties. the separation between religious and political spheres was marked. The Ottoman sultan's power was limited politically to his own empire. the worship leaders in . more privileged. At national government functions he is the one who represents and speaks for organized public Islam in Turkey. The worship leaders are a professional class only because they have been impersonally trained and appointed and authorized by the state for the task of leading worship in an effective way. The Head of the Department of Religious Affairs by contrast is remote.200 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey nation's muftus and the entire bureaucracy beneath them. the muezzins and imam-hatips of the local mosques are the most visible and important elements of State Islam. As we go up the pyramid from the muezzin at the bottom to the Head at the top. Ideas change over time. including the Ottoman dynasty. The Prophet was the political leader of his people as well as the leader of religion. or takes religious vows. But in the eyes of the local citizen. To be sure. It is almost as if the sacrament of canonical prayer is a religious `office'. He appointed imams and teachers and muezzins. The state religious functionaries are not more religious. Turkish State Islam We see that the practice today in Turkey is to rely on a professional class of religious functionaries to staff the nation's mosques. more important. It is not a clerical vocation into which one is ordained for life. They do not need ritual or ceremonial authorization for their services. the pay scale and benefits and organizational responsibilities increase. but this was a symbolic title from the past that represented the unity of the Islamic world.

It is a veritable religious army. because of its . to Islamize the state. is a huge bureaucracy. The public itself is often not sympathetic to the main element in this structure. employing around 80 000 people at the time of writing. Today's separation of religious and political forces in Turkey is even more extreme. But organized religion in Turkey is also non-secular in that the state partly supports religious institutions and finances religious causes. which is in charge of the nation's primary and secondary schools. The Department of Religious Affairs. These are intended to be the source of future religious functionaries. with the state dominating organized religion completely and denying any religious basis for the state's authority. Every official of the state religious structure is a government employee. which call for the privatization of religion and its divorce from public and social life. but many religiously observant families prefer to use them as an alternative to secular public schools. They had some independence from the central state. trained and certified and paid by the state. And this is not counting the great number of teachers of religion in the public schools and the faculties of divinity in the universities.Religious Functionaries 201 a typical mosque in Ottoman times were usually paid by private religious foundations. Readers can find a scheme for the way Turkish State Islam is structured in Appendix N. It is the same ministry that is in charge of the Imam-Hatip vocational secondary schools. All other leaders and groups exist either informally or underground. The situation today is mixed: on the one hand. and a significant part of the public budget. These faculties are responsible for training teachers of religion at all levels. and commissions the textbooks for those courses. The Council on Higher Education establishes faculties of divinity at selected universities. and the Council on Higher Education. Only a small percentage of the Imam-Hatip student body becomes religious functionaries. The Ministry of Education. They seem to think the Imam-Hatip schools provide greater moral ground for the nation's future. the major component of State Islam in Turkey. training religious functionaries at all levels. which supervises the country's universities. the Department of Religious Affairs. and training academicians in religion. In some ways State Islam also appears to merit the title Secular Islam because its main purpose is to serve the secular ideals of the state. thus form the other components of Turkish State Islam. sets the curricula. The Ministry of Education appoints the teachers of the compulsory religion/ethics courses in the schools. a nightmare for many leftists and ideological secularists. we see a tendency to secularize Islam. and on the other.

Their subject matter. the knowledge. irresponsibility. nor do they intersect or complement one another. It talks only about rituals. and the equipment in their training. But this vigor . the mission. For modern secularists who prefer to see religion as inactive. corruption. Its employees are expected not to oppose but to identify with and endorse state policies. with all the compromises and distortions that are involved. and so on. and not about social or public concerns. have their methodologies and subject matter shaped by largely western academic and philosophical pursuits. personal. In the faculties of divinity. Statists think that the state. But the modern sciences of psychology. content. A common perception is that the numbers of people in State Islam far exceed the quality and effectiveness of the services that are provided. to adjust them to the needs and nature and character of the modern age. exclusivist religious orders. Radical reforms are needed to better the standard of religious instruction and education. But it seems that its operation by decree kills the spirit. developed and took shape approximately between the years 750 and 1200. and quietist. is what saves the individual. social. that address the mystical. Candidates for religious leadership themselves are unhappy with the spirit. It has been nearly a century since the mosques have attracted intellectuals in Turkey. bureaucratic and hierarchical formalities. personal spirit on the one hand. centralized control. and poverty. personal ethics. and methodologies were formed by the problems and concerns of those centuries and have remained essentially unchanged since then. withdrawn. It does not help cope with the nation's problems such as terrorism. The spirit of vitality and creativity in religion is more to be found in private religious movements than in so-called State Islam. Rather than flowing together. a huge bulk of a bureaucracy that emphasizes formalism. beliefs. these two streams of approach to religion do not match or fit.202 A Portrayal of Worship in Turkey hierarchical. The Department of Religious Affairs comes across as an organization without soul. today's state of affairs may be satisfactory. Such a situation inevitably promotes the existence and abundance of the religious orders. being the highest organization. They do not want to leave the field open only for the inward-looking. a sense of opening and reaching out. But non-secular people expect activity and stirring. or tarikats. the traditional Islamic sciences. and political. the information. The department conforms to the status quo. sociology. The situation apparently satisfies neither the expectations of the modern age and mentality nor the expectations of the conservative tradition. the task. and economic dimensions of Islam on the other. which are taught side by side with the modern subjects.

Today's State Islam is being challenged. more trusting of the people. so that the state/religion separation is fairer.Religious Functionaries 203 tends to remain within the traditional framework. namely the polemic over state governance versus individual choice and alternatives. can the Department of Religious Affairs adequately cope with all religious scholarship and training and public religious services in Turkey? Should the Department of Religious Affairs be autonomous from the government? Does there exist a need for such a department at all? What should take its place? Would its abolition result in chaos? Or is it better to have some sort of reform of the department. There are trends calling for freedom of religion from state control. . Turkey's religio±political dynamism stems from this tension. and more democratic. Nevertheless. For instance. there is an energetic debate between the views of private religious movements and the secular world view. perhaps including more Alevis? Are the size and budget of the department justified? What about altering the charge of the department to serve Muslims internationally instead of having only a nationalist focus? Calls for autonomy for the Department of Religious Affairs appeal to an understanding of secularism in which neither side interferes with the other. The controversy here illustrates one of the basic features of political debate in Turkey.

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to dogmatism and institutionalization on the other. and not others? Can the sacraments be divorced from belief in Allah? These questions are also behind the claims of the modern secular opponents of traditional Islam. On the other hand. from authentic. personal. not worldly. But the organization is not external to the personalities of the people. Islam is `religion. radical. and when to worship are often the result of word of mouth.' and therefore has nothing to do with the state. They are learned by asking others. not external. How. word. so that some are believed and practiced. not social or corporate. spiritual. to a social imperative on the other. where.Conclusion We hope the reader has noticed how. not deed. who preach that the essence of Islam is faith. to sacramentalism and ritualism on the other. It is always debatable how much faith and its practice can range from a personal choice on the one hand. Things are in flux. There are wide ranges of religious activity and disposition. from complete personalization and internalization of faith on the one hand. Yet people act remarkably uniformly. We authors see this view of religion in its modern version as exceedingly privatized. through the practice of the Islamic sacraments. There is a type of conservatism that leans toward absolutism. to formalized imitation on the other. 205 . we see that many traditionally religious viewpoints are too narrow. not law. systematic hierarchy or large institution that arranges the conduct of the various sacraments. not action. It declares that religion is universal but actually wishes to impose its version of religion on everyone else. Is the faith of the imitator a sound faith? Can a non-practicing Muslim be a true believer? Are deeds and actions a necessary part of faith? Can the doctrines and practices of Islam be divided. a private matter. not a public show. It denies the voice of Allah in society. conviction and persuasion. and there is a homogeneity of religious practice in Turkey among those who are otherwise divided politically and socially. Muslims in Turkey are strongly organized religiously. It is an open question how much this internalization of religious practice is cultural or religious. internal. This leads to questions people constantly ask each other. Muslims are not one dimensional. engaged action on the one hand. from persuasion and conviction on the one hand. There is no impersonal.

equally declaring authority. preparation. we see that they share a set of underlying principles. modernity. intention. Muslims who participate wholeheartedly in Islamic worship are drinking in these principles and are shaped by them. in the readiness to respond. The Islamic laws of worship are an attitude. and identity. not to follow the prescribed practices and other canonical sacraments of worship. to shelter. the basic element of what has been divinely established. It may be more helpful to interpret this struggle not so much as a win±lose conflict but more as a dynamic and mutual transformation of both sides. in the warmth and sympathy of the manner. creates anxiety. uniform. We are referring to principles such as responsibility. These ideals stand behind and underlie the practices. in whole and in detail. which says that Allah must be seen in public. or virtues. They are the heart of a particularly Islamic nature and society. The religious practices and sacraments we have described in this book stand squarely between these two forces as the paradigmatic forms of universal ideals. these two trajectories of argument over what to make of religion. or ideals. something given by Allah to help with life. personalism. in the brightness of the face. moderation. and so on. non-coercion. As we look back on these sacraments and practices. over what to make of religion in its conservative versions and modern versions. A more complete listing is in Appendix O. Islamic worship should be neither a slave driver nor an idol. They illustrate the spirit of the Kur'an and the example of the Prophet Muhammad. There are both secular and non-secular claims. Idolatry is the utter negation of Islam. They lie at the center of today's Turkish context. purity and cleanliness. a temper. They are an irreducible minimum. equally demanding of loyalty. and to host. or incompleteness. They feel a certain emptiness. versus the privatized dimension. Existence is difficult enough without having additional burdens to bear. to give. Even moderns who do not practice the sacraments affirm them as ideals. Fulfilling the . They are an invitation to participate in the worldwide. These ideals form a philosophy or psychology of worship.206 Conclusion Turkey is today experiencing the struggle between these two viewpoints. a disposition. tolerance. equally strong. Islamic piety sees the requirements of religion as a gift. They echo in the light of the eyes of the Muslim in Turkey. and not purely some spiritual attitude or perspective. a manner. a grace. ecumenical act of Islamic worship. For those who are pious. It is a struggle over the social dimension of the truth. which says that religion is not a public display. It may also be more helpful to characterize the struggle not so much by tensions within individuals but in social terms.

or estrangement. ready to fight for the land and the people. A different set of values found their support. is not that of meaninglessness. we can trace the different ways people have understood the canonical prayer sacrament. the `shadow of Allah on earth'. Today's Muslims are raised in an environment of science. and of receiving the hell of unending pain and punishment. The congregation in its rows behind the imam now appeared to nationalists like an army behind its commander. Citizens of the empire should similarly stand in their proper place behind the sultan and obey him. confusion. This obedience to Allah takes place not in the abstract but in particular cultural settings. people who were captured by the spirit of nationalism saw new things in the canonical prayer. secularism. together with traditional attitudes. a common view was that the empire was a divinely ordered whole. alienation. and that the soul is immortal. the fear of losing Allah's grace and heaven and reward.Conclusion 207 prescribed sacraments of worship. and eternal life in the next. The existential question. It is instead the possible deprivation of Allah's mercy and compassion. imparts inner security and confidence. It was an obedience to the divine order that would save the believer now and forever. or cause of anxiety. the direct agent of Allah. For example. Love of country rose above . And so it is a common factor among Muslims to be concerned with keeping Allah's face turned toward them by obedience to Allah's commands. Muslims tend to take for granted that Allah exists. The sultan was at the head of the Islamic people as caliph. that Allah is the creator and ruler of all that is. of Islamic worship as the soil that nourishes whatever seeds may be planted in it. and the prescribed aids to worship such as the cleanliness and purity norms. With the coming of the Turkish Republic in the 1920s. and materialism. mentioned in our introductory chapter. Muslims have practiced these sacraments for 14 centuries. Worshippers in the corporate sacrament of canonical prayer saw their orderly and obedient formation of rows behind the imam as fitting into the divine order of the universe. It would bring superiority over other powers. all of which affect what grows out of the ground of worship. Let us return to the image. namaz/salat. for independence and national existence. Obedience to the earthly representative of Allah's order was understood to take the believer to paradise. The character of the people that has been produced as a result has varied according to what has been planted in that soil and according to the conditions of the age. prosperity in this world. In Ottoman imperial times. People look to their worship sacraments for support for the directions in which they find themselves growing.

claiming that the nation needs the money spent on itself. the nationalists restricted their efforts to their own borders and did not greatly concern themselves with the rest of the Islamic world. All are lined up for prayer without regard to worldly riches or position. What people see in the zekat. or really any charitable giving. many Muslims fasted . who feels free to participate or not. is thought of by many people as the voluntary act of the individual. The same is true for the sacrament of fasting. There is freedom between Allah and the worshipper. Unlike the universalism of imperial times. Nationalist Muslims in Turkey have questioned the spending of large sums of money to make the pilgrimage. Each worshipper is equal in his or her rights and responsibilities. The pilgrimage is understood as a time of personal self-fulfillment independent of national background or the life to come. and equal before Allah. without intermediaries or hierarchies or establishments. to bring the whole world under the umbrella of Islam. when self-assertion and personal rights are high on the agenda. also changes with time. where they intermingle as citizens of the world. whereas in imperial times the state obliged Muslims to pay the zekat as their inescapable duty. to be judged as an individual. the hajj. The environment and the atmosphere are again different today. The worship practices continue. The goal was to advance the nation. so that salvation of the nation was equated with salvation of the individual. the tax on wealth. when there was a sacred struggle.208 Conclusion love of self. and pluralist awareness. the battle for the existence and independence of the country is paramount. with differing fruits. freedom. as long as the climate and atmosphere are suitable. individualism. self-assertion. Critics have claimed that the expense of the pilgrimage is unconscionable in view of the many poor and uneducated people who need help. similarly shows us a continuing ground. but attitudes and psychologies change. sharing their experiences and benefiting from each other's views. Now there are Muslims who see in the canonical prayer the equality of all believers in worship. or jihad. In the past. Today in Turkey the zekat. Each one stands as everyone must stand before Allah. and the salvation of the individual and the concerns of the worldwide community of Islam are less important. This time the seeds being planted are those of democracy. For nationalists. although the soil of worship practice remains constant. diverse Muslims in one area. But then today. or soil. The pilgrimage to Mecca. Thus the canonical prayer provides sustenance for whatever people are looking for. the pilgrimage is seen as a time of the universal gathering of individual. talking to Allah directly.

or catechism. We see from this discussion that the sacraments of Islamic worship serve in different ways in different times. because they will have been reconciled with the powerful movement of democracy. There is less social pressure to fast. doctrine. It will be a generation that can comfortably and without defensiveness address western and secular countries on their own terms. Modernity has attracted the minds of many Muslims. The Islamic ideal is a society of Allah. The modern spirit. It is as though the dynamic. universal. and so on. dwelling on what they can get out of it in the here and now. living spirit of the Kur'an and the Prophet Muhammad are trying to find their way into modern men and women. Today it is common to regard fasting as a nostalgic practice that helps recall the warm feelings of old times. because Allah has commanded the fast. individualistic. personalized. charitable. secularized. and so on. always ready to sustain the growth of Muslims and to form an Islamic character. and so the individualism of the sacrament is more pronounced. just. The new expression of Islam now lacks a written theology. That name may evolve from many of the adjectives we have used in this book: modernized. humanized. moral. so that a new Islamic phenomenon is at hand. universal in outlook.Conclusion 209 because it was their duty as part of the divinely established order. Modernity has had its impact on Islam. Or the new generation might be termed `democratic Muslims'. We have offered something like a . always feeding the Islamic ideals. They justify the fast in terms of psychological and physical self-improvement and social benefits. privatized. people with a modern educational background. stressing humanistic. But what these ideals mean within the limitations of particular societies depends on the environment and conditions. rational. rationalized. and so on. But they are always present. There is no name yet for this new generation and its expression of Islam. humble. It makes some people feel good to fast and helps them keep in touch with their roots. a charitable individual in a charitable society. It is a sign of identity. and pragmatic concerns is not always happy with the classical scholastic thought of Islam. Many other people adopt a rational and pragmatic attitude toward the fast. It could be said that the Islamic sacraments cultivate a just individual in a just society. The major aim of this book has been what we might call `religious diplomacy': to represent to non-Muslims what they can see of the rituals and behaviors of Muslims in Turkey. a moral individual in a moral society. This poses a challenge to all who are sensitive to Kur'anic revelation.

while aimed at non-Muslims. Our hope is that this book. We do not expect full support from either. Our aim has not been to please one side or the other but to lead the way as a model for locating the larger picture. whether Muslim or non-Muslim.210 Conclusion cross section in time and space of how a particular people in a particular social and political setting express their faith. is also a contribution to understanding and reconciliation in several areas. We have tried to be inclusive and fair to both. And our intention has been to do so in a sensitive and inclusive way. using language that evokes common ground. and psychologies we describe. behaviors. In today's Turkey. We feel the eyes of many people on us as we write. we have always been conscious of the context of the rituals. the context means the struggle of the secular and non-secular worldviews. . secular or non-secular. In writing every paragraph and communicating every idea. but we hope for some support from each. The idea is respectfully and thoughtfully to talk about religion in ways that give access to diverse people.

As objective. and the giving of alms. These include acts of worship. and for all good gifts and deeds. some of which are similarly canonized but some of which are peculiarities. obligatory or voluntary. which record the words. They borrow from the past. Such practices are firmly condemned by Islamic scholars both for this reason and because of the opportunity they give to exploitation. to meet the taste and sensibilities of local individuals and groups. It contains both those practices that `mainline Islam'. Canonized practices include the pilgrimage to Mecca. The purpose of the accompanying table is to show the authors' classification of the ritual practices. and from whatever material is at hand. The Islamic jurists have arranged the practices into schematized. whether universal or local. meaning rituals technically defined as the worship of Allah. They are based on the Kur'an and on the hadith. benignly accepts and those that Islamic scholars severely criticize. and housing the poor. the Kur'an and the hadith. from related traditions. deeds. clothing.Appendix A A Classification of Canonical and Non-canonical Practices Islamic worship practices that are required of Muslims are the main topic of this book. all the practices shown in the chart are occasions for charity: for feeding. But some non-standard practices find no support in these sources and even contradict their spirit. They are the cement. from the Islamic tradition. or canonized forms. and attitudes of the Prophet Muhammad. the Ramazan month of fasting. They are the foundation for all worship practices in Islamic life. or novelties. the unifying factors in the Islamic world. Some non-canonical. meaning that which the believer does to remember and announce the name of Allah. and acts of zikir. which are particular to local cultures and ethnic groups. These practices are therefore approved or tolerated by the Islamic community at large. the animal offering. they bind Muslims together in community and help forge their identity. As an extension to these essential required sacraments. primary rituals. from the inspiration of a local charismatic. non-standard practices find legitimation and support in the two major sources. meaning actions that testify to the believer's faith. This latter group of non-standard folk practices is widely seen in Turkey. there are additional voluntary pious acts. meaning the Islamic community at large. Although almsgiving is a separate act of worship. 211 . the canonical prayer. The non-standard folk practices are actions of Muslims that spring up spontaneously. acts of witness. They have developed according to differing cultural and historical circumstances in the different parts of the world.

prescribed practices Based on the Islamic sources (Kur' an and Hadith) Obligatory Fasting in Ramazan (oruch/sawm) Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) Almsgiving Animal offering (kurban) Voluntary Evening teravih prayers in Ramazan Celebration of sacred nights Canonical prayer (namaz/salat) for rain. Petitionary prayer (dua) NON-CANONICAL Non-standard. magic. rubbing. safety. travelling. and medication Astrology Sorcery. the poem in honor of the Prophet Circumcision of males Specialized practices (zikir) of the religious orders (tarikats) Kur'an recitation and memorization Visting graves of relatives Ceremony of the Prophet's Beard and the Prophet's Robe Naming ceremony for the newborn Celebrations surrounding a marriage contract Interpretation of dreams Hymns from the mosque prior to Friday Prayer. spells. and manipulation of spirits Tomb visitation Tying cloth/string to bushes/trees Healing by repetition of petitions and having a shamanic figure read petitions Canonical prayer (namaz/ salat) Funeral Prayer Friday Prayer Festival prayers Recounting Allah's names using prayer beads Ritual prayers of glorification using prayer beads . innovative. the funeral prayer. curses. and on the night before the Friday Prayer Healing through recitation of the Kur'an Contrary to the spirit of the sources (Kur'an and Hadith) Voluntary Wearing amulets containing Kur'anic verses Fortune telling and divining Evil eye beads Faith healing by spiritualists and mediums through breathing. . local folk practices In harmony with the spirit of the sources (Kur'an and Hadith) Voluntary Recitation of the mevlut. .212 A Classification of Canonical and Non-canonical Practices CANONICAL Universally standard. .

according to the authors' intuitive judgment about the numbers of people involved. faith healing for a fee. they are all referred to in the hadith. Something like canonical prayer (namaz/salat) is referred to constantly in the Kur'an. Although only some of these practices are mentioned in the Kur'an as such.Appendix B Ceremonial Practices Ranked by Intensity of Attendance The accompanying chart indicates the relative intensity of participation in Islamic ceremonial practices in Turkey. for example. which is not mentioned at all in the Kur'an. zekat) 213 . which is mentioned but once in the Kur'an. of males (su Practices are arranged in descending order of intensity of participation. yet it is practiced by far fewer people in modern Turkey than. or the circumcision Ènnet). the animal offering (kurban). spirit manipulation. and the intensity with which it is practiced in modern Turkey. What is striking is the inverse relation between the degree to which a practice is quoted or mentioned in the Kur'an. Ceremonial Practices Ranked by Intensity of Attendance Canonical Practices Less intensely practiced 2 À À À À À À 3 More intensely practiced Pious phrases The call to prayer (ezan) Festival prayers The animal offering (kurban) Fasting The pilgrimage (hajj) Night prayers in Ramazan (teravih) Friday Prayer Funeral prayers Daily canonical prayers (namaz/salat) Non-canonical Practices Naming ceremony for infants Ènnet) Circumcision of males (su Kur'an recitation and memorization Celebration of the birth of the Prophet (mevlut) Blessing of the wedding Celebration of sacred nights Ceremony of the Prophet's Beard Visiting tombs of saints Faith healing by recitation of the Kur'an or repetition of petitionary phrases Fortune telling. more than the obligatory or customary number (namaz/ salat) Charity and alms (fitre. tying cloth or string to bushes or trees. and other practices contrary to the spirit of the Kur'an and Hadith Voluntary canonical prayers.

once in a lifetime (hajj ) O Make-ups for obligatory practices not performed O Utter the Word of Witness. Muslims world-wide therefore observe canonical practices in essentially the same way. The other practices are time bound. Time-Free Daily Weekly Yearly O The pilgrimage to Mecca. each practice has a prescribed form. codified in Islamic law. Practices that are obligatory are designated with the prefix `O. 5 times Prayer (namaz/salat) (namaz/salat) N Voluntary canonical prayer of all types N Voluntary fasts O The Ramazan fast N Voluntary charity (sadaka) N Voluntary offering of an animal to fulfill a vow O Charity at Ramazan (fitre) O The Breaking of the Fast Festival (Ramazan Bayrami) O The Animal Offering Festival (Kurban Bayrami) O The tax on wealth (zekat) O The animal offering (kurban) N Late evening prayers during Ramazan (teravih) N Voluntary fasting N Additional pilgrimages to Mecca (hajj ) 214 . `Canonical' means that whether obligatory or not. Regardless of culture or country. Nearly every obligatory practice also has a non-obligatory. at least once in a lifetime (shahada) N The lesser O Canonical O The Friday pilgrimage (umre) prayer.Appendix C The Scheduling of Canonical Worship The accompanying diagram schematizes the canonical Islamic worship practices according to the time frame in which they recycle. or voluntary version. In the category `time free' are located those practices that a Muslim may perform at any time.' and the nonobligatory practices are preceded with an `N'.

Burial Standing in Judgment before Allah 215 . Animal offering Funeral prayers. Canonical prayers begin Fasting becomes obligatory in the month of Ramazan Eligibility for a marriage contract Pilgrimage Charity/alms.Appendix D Individual Practices that are Tied to the Believer's Age Age Birth Around 7 Around 12 18±30 Adult years Between birth and death End of life on earth After death Practice Naming ceremony Male circumcision.

give clues to this deep and ongoing concern. how to conduct politics. how to practice religion. Personal dress and appearance in public and in public offices Is personal dress and appearance a purely private affair? Is it a human rights issue? Is it religious or non-religious? Some women wish to keep their head covered in public. This struggle is cut across by another fundamental problem. In some of the issues listed below. Some religious orders wish to wear special religious garb.Appendix E Current Areas of Controversy between Secular and Non-secular Worldviews in Turkey The following list is not exhaustive. contemporary. Should the state have any say in personal dress and appearance? What is the religious significance. and whether in a particular instance the state should be a servant or an enforcer. of clothing? Is wearing a certain type of clothing any criterion of being a Muslim. or civil rights. 1. and so on. there are both secular and non-secular people who argue for state control of religion. certain secular as well as non-secular oriented people might find themselves on the same side of the question when it comes to deciding the extent of the role of the state. which is that of statism versus decentralization. the inclination toward state control of what to believe. In what way is this demand legitimate? What is the significance of the erosion of the family? Is a marriage anything more than a business or legal contract? What makes the act of marriage legitimate? 216 . Each issue by itself is a microcosm of the basic debate. The decision to construct mosques: when. That is. Some men wish to let their beards grow. or backward? Is it a sin against Allah? Is it a rebellion against the Republic? Is it a personal choice? 3. reactionary. how to teach it. The legitimation of the marriage contract Is marriage basically religious or non-religious in nature? Can a religious leader execute a contract of marriage? The tradition of permissible polygyny is in conflict with the modern state's demand for monogamy. We have chosen those topics that deal with the public rights and responsibilities of the citizenry. and education. progressive. what to teach. It briefly suggests an open-ended set of sensitive contemporary issues that often lead to highly polemical discussion. if any. or autonomy. clashes with the kind of civil and pluralistic democracy continually promised by the Republic to its citizens but which lags far behind in its realization. where and how many? Is it the political authority or the people who are to construct mosques? How is the secular character of state and society affected by this decision? The polemics that surface over proposals to build large new mosques in prominent public places. For example. such as at Taksim in Istanbul. or of being secular. which is the impact on the people's heritage of the phenomenon of secularism. economics. 2.

however it is defined. or schools that train religious functionaries? Should it do so? Should the state authority decide what is proper and right for the individual? What is the meaning and result of state control of religion? 9. Is the Kur'an transferable into Turkish for use in worship? If so. and respond to the cries of the soul? . and why? Can the vision of these two broad world views be objectively compared and contrasted? 6. and why? What makes a shariah-minded person opposed to modernity. or what form they should take? Is it the role of the state to decide on the religious legitimacy of the religious orders? 7. a republic. The application of Islamic law (shariah) In what way is Islamic law relevant to a modern secular society? Can this law be adapted to such a society? Ought it to be adapted? What are the purposes behind Islamic law? Does it presuppose a monarchy. and where do they disagree? What makes the modern person opposed to shariah.Appendix E 217 4. and politicization of the Department of Religious Affairs Is it legitimate for a secular state to control or supervise religion? If so. and nature of training of religious functionaries Can the secular state open and run religious schools. The existence. Divorce Is divorce basically religious or non-religious in nature? Or is it only a legal matter? Does it have any ethical or personal dimensions in which society or the state has an interest? Is it a matter of personal and private choice. size. and the call to prayer (ezan). and modern law overlap. The language and quality of worship Can worship legitimately be done in the native language of the people? Ought worship to be in Turkish? This includes the ritual prayer (namaz/salat). or is its content inseparable from its form? 8. The quality. or does the society at large have a concern? 5. whose version of religion? Whom does the Department of Religious Affairs represent? Can it promote creative. healthy piety in individuals. or any particular form of government? Where do the shariah. and activities of the religious orders (tarikat) Are the religious orders a necessary feature of a democratic society? Are they a threat to the secular nature of the state? Can the state permit private groups to be free in their orientation? Can a modern state decide whether religious movements should exist or not. number. abundance. financing. a democracy. would it lead to division and to the loss of Islamic universalism? Or would it be a healthy step for the integrity of worship in the modern world? Is Islam a spirit beyond form. The presence. Kur'an recitation.

and worship on the other? Which serves which? Which is first: the individual's salvation or the demands of society? Can the state be utterly neutral in a dominantly religious or Islamic society? And if the state is not totally neutral. Should it revert to use as a mosque? Is it possible to do so? Is it necessary? Who wishes this to happen. The relation between state taxes and religious almsgiving (zekat) Is taxation a personal affair or a public duty? Is it a religious or a secular obligation? Should Muslims pay both the state taxes and a religious tax? If so. what do integrity and unity mean? 15. and for what purpose? To what extent is its use as a museum a continuing disappointment to Muslims in Turkey? 14. The clash between working hours and worship times Can working hours be scheduled to accommodate the ritual prayer (namaz/salat) and the calendar of fasting and pilgrimage? Ought this to be the case? What is the relative importance of work and public and social order on the one hand. Reopening Ayasofya (Saint Sophia) as a mosque It is a now a museum. or of religious minorities? 11. leadership. State involvement in the pilgrimage to Mecca Should the state be involved in the pilgrimage business? To what extent should it provide organization. organize. Compulsory religion lessons in public schools Should religious instruction be compulsory in a secular state? Whose version of religion will be taught? Ought the state to support. The donation of the animal offering (kurban). finance. is there a question of divided loyalties? Is life divided into the public and private spheres? If such is the case. or is it the state who decides? Which has priority: the concern of the state for an orderly society or the concern of the individual conscience for religious integrity? 12.218 Appendix E 10. The control exerted by the state on public religious activities To what extent should the state control public religious activities on the grounds of public security and order. and services to pilgrims? 16. and subsidize Islamic education and religious services to the public? Is such support contrary to the secular ideal? Does state support for religious causes violate the integrity of the divine? 13. especially the skin Are individuals free to donate their animal offering as they see fit. and of national unity? To what extent are activities that have a politico-religious aim a threat to the secular state? 17. State pressure for uniformity in religion Are the state efforts at standardization in religion through state education and organization done for the sake of religion or for national unity? Are these . what is to be done about the demands of secularized segments of society.

Appendix E 219 separable ideas? Does anyone in power. any group or government. religious or non-religious. have the right to control and judge truth? . Islamic or non-Islamic. secular or non-secular.

or solar seasons.Appendix F The Yearly Schedule of Major Sunni Islam Celebrations and Holidays The Islamic year is composed of twelve lunar months. The chart gives an estimate of the season when any significant Islamic date will occur. In one solar century there are about 103 lunar years. Thus Muslims have followed and continue to follow a distinctive schedule of holidays and celebrations that are not identified with the seasons but gradually move through them. This lunar cycle does not keep the same pace as the agricultural. 220 . each month roughly 29 1/2 days long.

the start of the Jan pilgrimage season '00 The pilgrimage season Feb '00 8th±13th: The annual pilgrimage. Mar 10th: The Animal Offering Holiday '00 Oct '00 Nov '00 Dec '00 Jan '01 Feb '01 Oct '01 Nov '01 Dec '01 Jan '02 Feb '02 Oct '02 Nov '02 Dec '02 Jan '03 Feb '03 Sep '03 Oct '03 Nov '03 Dec '03 Jan '04 Sep '04 Oct '04 Nov '04 Dec '04 Jan '05 Sep '05 Oct '05 Nov '05 Dec '05 Jan '06 Aug '06 Sep '06 Oct '06 Nov '06 Dec '06 Aug '07 Sep '07 Oct '07 Nov '07 Dec '07 221 . for Shii Muslims. 10th: a popular day for fasting. the Prophet's grandson May '99 12th: the Prophet's Birthday Jun '99 Jul '99 Aug '99 Sep '99 The beginning of the three sacred months Oct '99 The first Thursday night: Celebration of the Prophet Muhammad's conception 27th: Celebration of the Prophet Muhammad's ascent to heaven 14th/15th: The Night of Forgiveness Nov '99 The month of fasting Dec 27th: The Night of Power and Destiny '99 1st: The Breaking of the Fast Holiday. a day '99 of remembrance of the martyrdom of Husayn.Major Sunni Islam Celebrations and Holidays Approximate Solar Date for the First of the Lunar Month 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Apr '00 May '00 Jun '00 Jul '00 Aug '00 Sep '00 Sep '00 Mar '01 Apr '01 May '01 Jun '01 Jul '01 Aug '01 Sep '01 Mar '02 Apr '02 May '02 Jun '02 Jul '02 Aug '02 Sep '02 Mar '03 Apr '03 May '03 Jun '03 Jul '03 Jul '03 Aug '03 Feb '04 Mar '04 Apr '04 May '04 Jun '04 Jul '04 Aug '04 Feb '05 Mar '05 Apr '05 May '05 Jun '05 Jul '05 Aug '05 Feb '06 Mar '06 Apr '06 May '06 May '06 Jun '06 Jul '06 Jan '07 Feb '07 Mar '07 Apr '07 May '07 Jun '07 Jul '07 Lunar Month Muharram Special Event 1999 Safar Rabi al-Awwal Rabi ath-Thani (Rabi al-Akhir) Jumada al-Ula Jumada al-Akhira (Jumada at-Thaniyyah) Rajab Shaban Ramazan Shawwal Dhu al-Qada Dhu al-Hijja Apr First month of the year.

Major alternative modes of sacramental practice These alternatives are controlled by the principle of enactment or conduct: to do the sacrament in its proper time and season for reasons other than one's own will. Substitution Arranging when necessary for someone else to do the ritual practice in one's own place. all-or-nothing categorization of ritual practice that is blind to an individual's personal situation. are obligatory in the sense that the Kur'an urges them on Muslims. These various alternative modes put the sacraments under a different light. But the obligations are not rigid. They give the worshipper a sense of spontaneity. In that case. These alternatives are available according to an individual's circumstances. and not up to any institution or hierarchy or intermediary. each individual's circumstances and capacities are considered. each can also be realized in several modes. the Prophetic Tradition shows Muslims how they are enacted. Every worshipper's right intention and sense of responsibility ultimately count more than an obedience to literalism. to determine if his or her circumstances open up an alternative mode of practice. `either do it or don't do it' prescriptions. its essential acts of worship. That is. For instance.Appendix G Alternative Modes of Sacramental Practice According to Personal Circumstances The sacramental practices of Islam. meaning a strict. an invalid may not be able to fast during some or all of the month of Ramazan. but not according to an individual's own will and desire. deferment constitutes one of the alternative modes of sacramental practice. 222 . and diversity. Although each sacramental practice is required in the same way of every Muslim. It is up to the individual. or doing a sacrament on behalf of someone who is deceased or incapable. so that the individual may fulfill the sacraments to the best of his or her consciousness and awareness of truth. They are Allah's will for humanity. and the core of Islamic character and training depends on them. the days of fasting may be deferred to a later time. Recompense The payment to the poor in cash or in kind as an atonement for not doing a sacrament. practicality. On the contrary. Deferment The postponement of the sacrament when necessary to a time which is more suitable to an individual's circumstances and abilities. at the convenience of the worshipper. There is no sacramentalism in Islam.

an animal offering can be made spontaneously. Alternative modes available for selected sacraments It is understood at the outset that each sacrament is obligatory in the sense explained above. one can offer an animal on behalf of other persons. Ramazan Alms (fitre) One can pay the charity on behalf of others. it can be recompensed. it can be paid in cash or in kind. it can be the result of a pledge. and it can be done spontaneously. in practice. . Individual circumstances beyond one's own will make available the following possibilities. an animal can be offered as a pledge. Spontaneity The voluntary worship of God through a sacrament. Pilgrimage (hajj) Circumstances allow paying a substitute to make the pilgrimage on one's behalf. it can be repeated more than once in a lifetime. it can be done at other times as a pledge. Yearly tax on wealth (zekat) This is deferrable. there are those who make recompense for it through charity but this is not approved by orthodox leaders. Canonical Prayer (namaz/salat) This is deferrable in cases of necessity. beyond what is obligatory.Appendix G 223 Pledge The promise to Allah to engage in a sacrament in exchange for a petition being granted. and it can be done spontaneously. it can be paid on behalf of a deceased individual. Fasting (oruch/sawm) This is deferrable beyond the month of Ramazan in cases of necessity. it can be made on behalf of a deceased person. it can be done at other times on behalf of a deceased person. Animal Offering (kurban) One can pay another to slaughter an animal on one's own behalf.

The Kur'an instructs the Prophet Muhammad as follows: Take from their property a charity by which you cleanse and purify them. Allah has nourished humanity in spirit by guiding them. the animal offering. Allah hears and knows everything. so believers are to be like Allah in giving and in generosity. the animal offering. Numbers 1 and 2. each individual will have to answer for his or her actions in this world. It washes his or her heart and makes it clean. On the day of judgment. 224 . Yet there is a minimum amount that is required of every Muslim. if missed. For your prayer is a comfort to them. The tax on wealth/property (zekat). 2. 3. and so on. the zekat and fitre. Obligatory and Canonical (its structure is prescribed): charity as a worship sacrament 1. 2. which consists of the wealth alms/tax (zekat). It is a form of worship. (9:103) Sharing/generosity (sadaka) A. or atoned for. is only slightly less strict in obligation than the first two. Make supplication for them. The Ramazan alms ( fitre). charity is a purification. and inescapable form of charity. The animal offering (kurban). and in body by blessing them with the means to life. Number 3. Finally. are capable of being made-up. existential and emulative. which is a general Kur'anic notion. voluntary and compulsory. the almsgiving (fitre) at the end of the month of Ramazan. It is an objective. Secondly. personal and corporate. For missed canonical prayers: a non-canonical non-orthodox practice of donations to the poor. Because Allah is good. and only slightly less in degree of obligation. The dimensions of Islamic charity are manifold: prescribed and free. Charity as Substitution: a recompense for unfulfilled obligations 1. B. To be generous to others will count positively for the believer on the dramatic Day of Reckoning. ideal.Appendix H A Classification of Islamic Charity Charity (sadaka) is a generic term for generosity and kindness that always has Allah as its reference. and because Allah is endlessly generous. charity acts to cancel one's bad actions. To be generous cleanses the believer. For missed days of fasting: a prescribed (canonical) practice of donations to the poor.

3. spontaneous. voluntary. Raising Allah-fearing children who will grow up to serve others. In celebration of reciting the mevlut. and institutions for humane purposes. . A circumcision. water supplies. 5. 8. 5. 4. 7. On reconciliation and restoration of social and kinship ties. The birth of a child. A genial look or countenance. 2. 2. 5. 10. Any good act. and clothe people. The Charity of the Vow: occasions for an individual. E. 3. Establishing public institutions that feed. orphanages. 4. An atonement for vows not kept. 7. a poem that reveres the Prophet Muhammad. A smile. or Living Charity through institutions: an act of worship that is non-canonical. and individual Some examples: 1. 2. A greeting. which includes the above categories. Providing for public works such as bridges. as in the Ottoman system of the great mosques. A good-natured attitude. F. non-canonical offering 1. The pledge to offer an animal in return for Allah's answering a personal petition. and institutions of learning. Endowing foundations. 8. Writing and publishing books. 9. An achievement in one's career. schools. A death. and voluntary Some examples: 1. 2. Any service to others. D. The Charity of Meaningful Occasions: an animal or other offering is given away to friends and neighbors and the poor. Long-term. and roads. which was supported by the donations of the pious.Appendix H 225 C. Bringing joy to an orphan. house. The Charity of Goodness: whatever good one does. 6. Similarly appropriate times of celebration. Some examples: 1. non-canonical. 3. An inauguration of a project. and thankfulness. This practice is individual. 6. Establishing hospitals. emotion. 4. An anniversary of a meaningful occasion. A wise word or counsel. A wedding. 6.

and voluntary Some examples: 1. Petitions for rain. 3.226 Appendix H G. animals could be offered. 2. with the meat to be shared by everyone. The extended iftar: large corporate gatherings for the iftar evening meal during the fasting month of Ramazan. . In answer to petitions for rain. Corporate Charity: non-canonical. In each case.

. calling on Allah. They cover all human activities and attitudes and responses as religious practices. for the prayer prevents evil and hateful things. and so on. . or Allahconsciousness. (2:152) Call on the name of your Lord. For instance. such as charity. It could also refer to the use of pious phrases in everyday life. We see the overall place of prayer within these five generic concepts. For instance. The use of this term in English can give rise to some serious misunderstandings when applied to Islamic practices. or to the recitation of the Kur'an. and glorifying Allah. Islam. tesbih. dua. the constant repetition of pious phrases. ibadet. .Appendix I The Term `Prayer' This appendix is an attempt to communicate to an English-speaking audience what Muslims understand by the term `prayer'. Devote yourself to Him wholeheartedly. meaning worship. zikir is one of the alternative names for the Kur'an. And Allah knows what you do. and do not be ungrateful toward Me. the Kur'an places prayer in terms of remembering Allah in these ways. What Muslims mean by prayer is all of these things: being conscious of Allah. which very broadly means the constant remembrance of Allah. meaning the submission of one's will to Allah's will. and hamd. which means petitioning Allah. And give thanks to Me. worshipping Allah. (73:8) Commit yourself to what is revealed to you from the Book. submitting to Allah. zikir. There is a cluster of five broad. . And calling on Allah is more worthy than anything. (29:45) Each of the words for these five concepts is also used in a technical sense. and so forth. Therefore call on Me. Dua also has the more narrow technical 227 . fasting. interrelated Kur'anic terms which govern an Islamic concept of prayer: . that I call on you. These five terms in their generic sense encompass all Islamic worship practices. meaning the glorification and praise of Allah. special breathing routines. Our readers may know a particular technical form or meaning of zikir in the sometimes exotic and esoteric practices of spiritual concentration as found in some Sufi groups: dancing on a fixed spot. and properly do the sacrament of prayer.

it means mercy and compassion toward human beings and all creatures. voluntary petitions. highly recommended. personal petitionary prayer is what many westerners have in mind when they use the word `prayer'. Dua means `a call'. both hope individually and corporately Extra prayers of At celebrations glorification of sacred nights Setting out or returning from traveling Festival Prayers: The Breaking of the Fast and the Animal Offering Holidays The funeral prayer. either on the part of Allah to worship none but Allah in service to Him. or on the part of human beings to petition for help from Allah. On the part of humans.228 Appendix I usage of non-canonical. Surrounding the canonical prayer are prescribed prayers of glorification of Allah that have the technical name of tesbih. it may be obligatory. They are uttered on personal initiative and may or may not be verbal. or supererogatory. it can be used for prescribed occasions or for personal occasions. it means intercession with Allah on behalf of human beings. the term salat has three usages. and ethics. salat means the canonical prayer. prescribed form as codified in the schools of Islamic law. But in all cases. such as the canonical prayer. fear. In the second usage. These have no prescribed form. Ibadet refers technically to the obligatory canonical practices. The term `prayer' in English fails to communicate this richness. Canonical Prayer (Namaz/Salat) (The Form and Conduct are Prescribed) OBLIGATORY ON EVERYONE Required for each individual. sacramental prayer (namaz/salat) has a prescribed form. done drought. must be compensated for if missed OBLIGATORY ON MEN ONLY Required for each individual man but done corporately VOLUNTARY In emulation of the Prophet È nnet) (su VOLUNTARY At times of existential or cyclical events The Friday Prayer Extra canonical At times of prayers. And on the part of the angels. On the part of Allah. rituals. This last term means `going beyond what is required'. This free. obligatory on all men. The accompanying chart is the authors' categorization of the various cases. It means service to Allah through faith. Such prayers are to praise Allah as absolute perfection. but it suffices if some do it on behalf of all . It may be either personal or corporate. sacramental prayer (namaz/salat) has a definite. In the Kur'an. recommended as a corporate practice The five daily canonical prayers.

If they wish. which is that the obligations of canonical prayer. equality. there are gender differences. whether the worship is obligatory. On the level of the canonical worship sacraments. that they should not be encouraged to neglect. In light of the modern sensitivity toward equality between the sexes. When it comes to the areas of religious law. Both must answer individually and independently to Allah on the Day of Judgment whether they have fulfilled their sacramental obligations in their earthly lives. leadership within the family. whether men and women worship equally and whether they participate in the same way in worship. and of charity fall just as much on Muslim men as on Muslim women. Both must answer for their deeds in the same way. public roles. of fasting in the month of Ramazan. Western visitors to Turkey very likely bring with them a consciousness of a woman's freedom to develop and realize herself in her own right.Appendix J Gender Issues in Islamic Worship In this appendix we briefly discuss gender issues in Islamic worship and piety. and inheritance. On the level of faith. or other domestic responsibilities. Men and women participate on an equal basis in the same voluntary practices. or in emulation of the practice of the Prophet Muhammad. the poem celebrating the life of the Prophet. these differences make 229 . are encouraged to worship at home instead of in the mosque. There is a direct relation between each believer and Allah. the Friday Prayer. Women. and the funeral prayer. selffulfillment. The same is true for non-canonical worship practices such as visiting the tombs of saints or reciting the mevlut. independent of men. The modern mind will eventually ask. this exception must not obscure the heart of the matter. there is also equality. No soul is responsible for the acts of another. In the Kur'anic measure of the human being there is no distinction between believers. voluntary. Women are also not obliged as men are to attend the corporate sacraments of the two yearly festival prayers. but the point is that they are not required to do so. This seems to be a matter of presumed circumstantiality rather than dogmatism. From this perspective we highlight the questions or challenges women face as they practice their faith and worship Allah. unlike men. if it does not already. There appears to be an exception to this equality in sacraments when it comes to corporate canonical prayer. and no one reaches Allah through another. Men and women are on an equal footing in the eyes of Allah. However. The justification or explanation often given is that women might have nursing children at home. Our goal is to outline what is at the core of gender questions in worship practices and religiosity. ethics. freedom of choice. without any intermediary or religious hierarchy. Contemporary emphases on individualism. women may attend these sacraments of public worship. there is complete equality of all believers without regard to gender. of the pilgrimage to Mecca. and self-assertion have focused attention on the gender aspects of culture and society.

They may not think about it too much. about their sense of morality and decency. Those who go on the defensive in these polemics produce arguments that do not seem to satisfy the modern spirit. Deep and precious values are being questioned. a woman's public dress in Turkey is politicized. and how much right? The secularist mind in Turkey argues that women are suppressed or dominated by men who use religion for this purpose. and those who cover every part of their bodies in public except the face and hands.230 Appendix J women look inferior or secondary to men. And so there are covered women who very well know they are making both a political and religious statement with what they wear. Any attempt at a current listing of such hot issues would include the following questions. and that is the way women in their social and family circles dress. often as unskilled labor in low paying jobs. which causes neglect of the family and a weakening of the social fabric. each of which is worth a study in itself. They say that a modern nation must benefit from gender equality in rights. They are claiming something about their identity and their piety. They say that the modern urge toward wealth and material goods forces women to work outside the home. At the same time. who has the legal right to the couple's assets. The preservation of gender distinctions is understood as a positive traditional social value. The situation today is impassioned and unresolved. Some say the issues are cultural in nature while others say that they are religious issues based on divine revelation. as well as in the wider Islamic world. hug each other. kiss each other's cheeks. the general Kur'anic view . A visitor has only to look at the women on the streets of Turkey to see one type of disagreement: between those who dress in a European way. and otherwise mix socially in an Islamic society? What is the relation between a woman's faith and the contemporary practices of birth control and abortion? What is to be done with the traditional requirement that a woman should inherit half a man's share when today the state gives equal inheritance rights? Who has leadership in the home? How can a husband's physical disciplining of his wife be justified? In the modern nuclear family household. As noted above. They also argue that to chase after uniformity with men in the name of equality or freedom is a trap that will destroy femininity and the role of women as wives and mothers. and the two annual festival prayers? Can men and women shake hands. the funeral prayers. The result has been a great deal of controversy and polemics in Turkey. On the other hand. What is to be made of the traditional Islamic allowance for polygyny in a secular nation that permits only monogamy? Why do we see no women who call to prayer? Where are the women religious functionaries? Why should women be exempt from attending the Friday Prayer. There are women who dress in the style they do because that is the way they were raised. How are Muslims to respond to those pressures of modernism and secularization that are putting traditional gender roles to the test? An Islamic response to such fundamental issues would begin with the oneness of Allah. to which the Kur'an testifies. Dress is only one occasion in Turkey for the polarization of feminine piety. schooling. There are those who assume something about a woman's political and religious views from her clothing. non-secularists argue that women today are exploited by materialism. gender roles. Those who dress in a European fashion are also saying something to the public about their sense of propriety and about their worldview. and identity. and careers.

(75:36±9) Fear Allah.' (3:195) Men or women. such will enter Paradise and will not receive the tiniest injustice. the Kur'an uses the male case for Allah. (33:73) Faithful men and women are guardians of one another. to be lost. idolatrous men and women and forgives faithful men and women who repent. men and women who are wholehearted. as Allah promised them beautiful lodgings in the Paradise of Adn. men and women who observe fasting. men and women who are decent and chaste. men and women who have obeyed Allah's will. then formed into an embryo? And out of that were made the sexes. Allah is forgiving and compassionate. `I will not cause the works or deeds of any of you. On the other hand. men and women who are truthful. and those men and women who remember Allah a great deal. whoever does good deeds in faith. And from the two of them spread out many men and women. And the blessings of Allah are above all this. (33:35) Allah punishes hypocritical. Allah has promised faithful men and faithful women gardens with flowing streams. Allah will have mercy on them. All of you are one. to abide there forever. men and women who are faithful. and the Kur'an constantly refers to it. and obey Allah and Allah's messenger. It is a great salvation. the word `soul' is in the feminine case in Arabic. Truly. and out of that soul. We might call this a sort of equality of faith. give alms. (4:1) It is interesting that in this last verse. It may be wise not to hang too much on these grammatical observations since what they illustrate are the restrictions of the Arabic language . men and women of patience. man or woman. both men and women. They command the right and discourage the wrong. who created you from a single soul. created its mate.Appendix J 231 is of the equality of all believers before Allah. while the word `mate' is neuter. They attend to the prayer sacrament. men and women who are loyal. for them Allah has forgiveness and a grand reward. men and women who are charitable. (4:124) This equality of faith and responsibility is based on both men and women sharing identically in their created nature: Do humans think there will be no accountability? Was the human not created from a drop of sperm. Allah is mighty and wise. (9:71±2) Allah responded to them. Each individual is equally answerable for what he or she has done.

For instance. the wisdom of Allah that transcends that of humans. The verse 4:3 has been used in support of polygynous marriage. Muslims do not conceive of Allah as male or as possessing any human likeness. their fathers-in-law. or to those men who surround them in the household. We see from the above that men are also advised to dress modestly. The first one concerns dress. responsibility. their own sons. although the attention to women's dress and behavior is more detailed. and in all places? Or are they more like pragmatic solutions to particular problems faced by the Prophet Muhammad and his community? Perhaps their real value lies in the way they illustrate general principles such as justice. their brothers. There is space here to touch on only some of them. we find distinctions in the Kur'an. inheritance law. The woman is sociologically subject to protection and care by the man. and so forth. And 4:34 names men as protectors of women. They have been institutionalized in Islamic ways of life. at all times. According to this law. except for what is obvious. the husband carries the economic and leadership responsibilities in a household. What has happened is that these verses and others. inheritance. This makes them more pure. as a trust. And let them cover their curves and not expose their beauty except to their husbands. The wives of the Prophet Muhammad were also advised in the Kur'an to cover themselves in public so that people would recognize who they were and not bother them (33:59). humility. shariah. And let them not step in such a way that what they hide of their beauty is known. 2:282 refers to how two women replace one man in serving as witnesses to a loan contract.232 Appendix J in expressing a transcendent truth. and sheltering his wife and children. their stepsons. Do these verses contain specific instructions from Allah to be applied in all societies. is how to interpret them. This view persists today. clothing. And let believers repent all together to Allah. the sons of their sisters. control their private parts. or to the sons of their brothers. (24:30±1) This verse supports the observant Muslim woman's feelings of modesty and piety when she covers herself in public except for her face and hands. together with the practices of the Prophet Muhammad. fear of Allah. have been codified as norms in Islamic law. And Allah certainly knows what they do. Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and control their private parts. Other examples of gender differences in the Kur'an relate to what we can call family law. and other social particulars. The question concerning these verses about dress. and so forth. marriage arrangements. human dignity. and not expose their beauty. when it comes to applying the Kur'anic vision of equality of faith and responsibility to the limited human world of ethics and law. 4:11 lays out gender differences in inheritance apportionments. or to children who are not yet aware of the private parts of women. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze. themes that Muslims must deduce according to the sense of the Kur'an as a whole. their fathers. the sons of their women or whomever they own. However. He is responsible for feeding. He is to shield the woman from exploitation and to defend her . Perhaps you will be saved.

meaning that only Allah is transcendent and everything which is human ultimately fails. That revelation is centered on the unity of Allah. On the other hand. the wife is free to own her own property and arrange her own affairs. which is their independent wealth. The wife is legally exempt from such obligations. They reflect a society where such roles cement the social order and are more important than the individual's selfassertion. although of course she carries the serious ethical and moral responsibilities of parenting and marriage. It asks penetrating questions about possibilities for creativity and liberation. But Turkey today is a radically different world than seventh century Arabia.Appendix J 233 dignity. as writers and journalists and broadcasters. covering herself modestly in public. Between these two poles is a struggle to interpret the guidance and leadership of the Prophet. They say they want to be themselves. as political campaigners and politicians. This new situation leads to the following questions that challenge Muslims today. secure. as professors and doctors and engineers. even as prime minister. Yet another example of the continuance of traditional social roles is the dominant attendance of men at the mosques compared to women. The dress of some women on the streets has already been mentioned. There are women now who do not want to be defined only by the social role of wife and mother. to evaluate his example and his practice in the light of Kur'anic revelation. The truth is always beyond human attempts to capture it completely. There is the fear of a vacuum. Thus there is pressure on Muslims to re-examine gender roles. The image of the traditionally pious Muslim woman is one of a faithful wife and mother. This is a way of looking at gender issues from within the Islamic faith itself. then there is the fear of losing the solid foundation that has sustained Muslims for fourteen centuries. The husband must also pay for the raising of the children. Also there are regular cases of men who take their household leadership responsibility so seriously that they commit suicide if they cannot find work. But under Islamic law. and maintaining a loving. stable household. imparting the ideals of Islam to her children by her example and teaching. for growth and development. Many women use them to buy and sell gold jewelry. Another example is the staggering number of jewelry and gold shops. We can see evidence in Turkey today of the persistence of these traditionally Islamic social roles. Muslims now find women to be active in public roles in ways that did not occur in the past: as teachers. then perhaps there is there is the danger of idolatry. if it is said that the Prophet's way of life is irrelevant today. It takes the revelation of the Kur'an as a historical . Does this make any difference for how believers should approach the historical record of Islamic social organization? Does it make any difference for how women will participate in public worship or act as religious functionaries? Is the encouragement for women to worship at home the way a society protects its women when it is either physically risky or subject to moral misinterpretation to be away from the home? Can past norms be criticized? If it is said that the Prophet Muhammad's way of life and practice and social institutions are the ultimate divine law and the incarnation of truth for all times and places. in spite of the severe Islamic condemnation of suicide. These are among the tangible ways that Muslims have lived the divine truth in the practical matter of domestic gender roles. Apparently such men feel they are denied their social role and cannot endure the loss.

and generally be a resource for education and information on women's issues. It is from this perspective that Muslims might examine gender roles and the norms of Islam in the modern age. The interest in this area is strong. not to oppose or dominate each other but to help each other participate in the truth. like a door that is opening. their souls. They are called to a higher level of human dignity and liberation. For example. study. Are the constantly blowing winds of modernity and individualism destroying the individual and society? Or are they a gift. In 1997. . education. practice. to create. to meet new challenges with trust and creativity. more young women want to enter Turkey's faculties of theology than are presently allowed. an opportunity for healthier social and individual roles? Whatever is of Allah should allow men and women to grow. the government's Department of Religious Affairs appointed a group of 27 female lesson preachers (vaiz) to preach in the mosques.234 Appendix J turning point. and leadership are necessary. They become aware of their own limitations and enslavements as under the judgment of divine truth. a blessing from Allah. Reflection. Books on the topic of Women and Islam are commonly displayed in stores. answer questions by telephone. and the universe than they had previously imagined. when people suddenly see that there is more to themselves.

The term `non-obligatory. 235 .Appendix K Sets of Stations of the Canonical Prayer The table below shows the number of sets of stations at each time of canonical prayer. customary canonical prayers' in the heading of the second and fourth columns means that the sacrament is done for Allah in emulation of the way of life of the Prophet Muhammad. and with high regard for the memory of his way. The term `semiobligatory' in the last column of the night prayers row refers to a technical category used by Islamic jurists. both daily and on special days.

these sets are done corporately in the month of Ramazan The latter two midday groups above (4 and 2). customary done either customary canonical prayers individually canonical prayers preceding the or corporately following the obligatory ones: obligatory ones: done individually done individually 2 4 4 0 4 2 4 4 3 4 0 2 0 2 2 3 sets of semiobligatory canonical prayer. after the Night prayer Festival prayers. done individually.236 Appendix K Sets of Stations of the Canonical Prayer Hour or Occasion Non-obligatory. done individually 20 sets done corporately. then 3 corporate sets for the Night prayer 0 2 0 Special Additions Morning Midday Late afternoon After sunset Night Friday Prayer 4 2 4 Ramazan nights (teravih). after the Morning prayer Funeral prayer 1 (In the standing station only) . Obligatory: Non-obligatory.

. . 237 . and the flag. The themes listed here reflect today's practice of so-called State Islam in Turkey. although the first category could be the most common. Fostering. . Caring for one's own body and soul. . . The governing ideology of secularism calls for a privatized religion that is controlled and supervised by the state. Preservation of the heritage and identity . and historical traditions. . supporting.Appendix L Typical Themes of the Formal Sermon A formal sermon (hutbe) is delivered in every Friday Prayer and in each of the two annual festival prayers. . Promoting science and scientific discovery. The authors' categories are listed in random order. education. . Protection from cultural and religious influence and infiltration by nonMuslims so as to prevent possible alienation of Muslims from their identity. where Islam is organized by a secular state. Learning. the sermon begins with a quotation from the Kur'an and from the hadith. Whatever the topic. The preacher is a state-appointed religious functionary or possibly any knowledgeable scholar whose authority is recognized by the congregation. Warning against the imitation of non-Muslims. the country. and is discouraged from interfering with public matters except insofar as it is supportive of the secular cause. Supporting Islamic studies. serves the state. and customs. Personal health care . Defense of the soil. which occur at the time of the Breaking of the Fast Holiday and the Animal Offering Holiday. financing. values. inquiry. . and spreading religious education and instruction. Preservation of the youth and future generations from evil. cultural. training . Inspiring examples of saints and heroes from the past. organizing. Encouraging all education. We show here a list of typical sermon themes. Narrow politicking in sermons is shunned. and intellectual enterprise. They change as circumstances change. religious. Upholding national. The subjects of sermons are context-bound. Protecting one's body and mind from harm.

Respect for parents and elders. . the nation. . . Preservation of family and social ties. . Ecology. . Work ethic . . . progress. encouragement to wealth in order to care for others. Encouragement of work. and luxury. . just defense. laziness. . Warning against hypocrisy and against preaching to others what one does not practice. Promotion of public cleanliness and health. Unity in the country. . Unity . . The Golden Rule of Islam: encouraging the right and resisting evil. Security. . Care for the natural world. Charity to the needy. Cooperation and solidarity in that which is good. and advance.238 Appendix L Social issues and building community . Pursuit of strength and power in the service of others. The love of neighbor and humanity. Rights and responsibilities of individuals toward themselves and others. . . and in the Islamic world. Purity and cleanliness in the environment and preservation of nature . Rejection of waste. Human rights and gender issues. martyrdom. . . Love and preservation of nation and country. Opposition to divisiveness. fertility. Competition in excellence and goodness. with a world order based on justice. production. .

or in an upper balcony area. There is no preferred or reserved or sacred spot for anyone. The imam stands near or at the top of the stairs when preaching. It is the function of the imam to lead the other worshippers in the corporate prayer by setting the pace and by voicing the words that indicate the change of stations of the prayer sacrament. the mihrab. It is toward this direction. on Fridays and on festival days. or at the back. The worshippers compete with each other to be in the front row. either to the right side. showing the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca. ecumenical. If women are present. A mosque usually has a large covered porch at the entrance to accommodate latecomers. This is also true for the imam. and they should refrain from pushing themselves into the front rows. or leader of the canonical prayer. they may go to any position inside the mosque. It is used for preaching the formal sermon. the kibla. The imam. the minber. All rows outside should then be parallel with those inside. Those who come up from behind should first fill any empty spots in the row ahead of them. Historical Ottoman mosques also have a loge at the left side which was reserved for the sultan. and unifying characteristic. Latecomers have to make rows where they can farther back. People are dispersed throughout the mosque in no particular pattern when doing their individual canonical prayers. they make their own separate rows. with no space between them. to be ready to assist as needed. as they feel comfortable. with his back to them. The balcony. So it is more important that he stand in front of the front row of worshippers than that he stand in front of the niche. As a universal. 239 . that worshippers face in the sacrament of canonical prayer. thinking that the front rows are more blessed. The stairs for preaching. located in the front wall. At the end of the sacrament he turns and sits and faces the worshippers for petitionary prayer (dua). is at the right. the hutbe. each mosque is built in relation to the kibla. or back of the mosque. the latecomers make their rows on the porch or courtyard outside the building. Every mosque has a niche. is usually at the front near the niche. the worshippers go as far up to the front wall as possible and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. as he too faces the Kaaba in Mecca. Those in the front row then encourage the more knowledgeable and responsible among themselves to be near the imam. or to the left side. They are following the urge of the Prophet Muhammad. When called by the muezzin to form rows for the corporate prayer. or taht. for their individual canonical prayer. This position of the imam with his back to the worshippers and usually in front of the niche is taken up only during the corporate sacrament. normally stands in front of the front line of worshippers. When called to form rows for the corporate prayer sacrament. with niches in the outside wall to show the correct orientation to Mecca.Appendix M A Standard Floor Plan of the Mosque The accompanying diagram shows the relation between interior architectural elements and positioning of worshippers in the mosque. If the mosque is crowded inside with no more room for further rows. left.

240 Appendix M .

or preacher of the lesson. If necessary. is free to stand or sit anywhere when preaching. but is often on the left side of the mosque. toward the front. . He encourages worshippers to go as far forward as possible to form their rows for the corporate prayer. he will relay the imam's voice at crowded times to worshippers outside.Appendix M 241 Standard Floor Plan of the Mosque The vaiz. The muezzin is often at the right rear of the mosque to observe and assist the orderly progress of the prayer sacrament.

cause division in the country. In this way a personalized and privatized Islam is passed from generation to generation. and affect the modern secular course of events. and pays all religious functionaries and provides for their training. . and reciting the Kur'an. supervises. and education. which is schematized below. administers. to review Islamic publications from around the world and either recommend or discourage their use in Turkey. . to provide courses in learning. It plans. to appoint imams to serve Turkish citizens living abroad. In spite of this comprehensive support and control. . or even apply for certification from the state. to appoint religious functionaries at all levels in Turkey. pass on their knowledge and training to others. It recruits. masters. volunteer in worship leadership at a mosque. . the state supports.Appendix N The Structure of Turkish State Islam In modern Turkey. a staff. . or spiritual leaders for training. to chair the Department's private foundation. . informal civil and private religious training and development of religious leadership occur throughout Turkey. to produce the Department's religious publications. The following scheme shows the authors' conceptualization of State Islam. to organize Turkey's participation in the pilgrimage to Mecca. These individuals may then lead informal groups. 242 . memorizing. A. the regional muftus. . information. and many subdepartments with the following duties: . The Department has a Head. sponsors. . The Department of Religious Affairs This department is a huge umbrella-like bureaucracy. to make public pronouncements on important religious occasions. which also sets and reviews its budget. religious functionaries. and governs all formal religious instruction in the nation. to oversee the operations of the next lower hierarchical level. appoints. and Kur'an courses. to inspect and supervise mosques. . and controls Islam and structures its public expressions. It must follow the objectives and goals set by parliament. The state does not encourage organized public expression of such activities because of the suspicion that they may become an eventual threat to public order. What happens is that individuals go privately to known scholars.

Appendix N 243 B. who are. to train academicians of religion at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. who has two major duties: . Its duties are . to set the curriculum of the compulsory religion/ethics courses in both public and private schools. in order of rank. regional preachers (vaiz). . to write and approve textbooks for such courses. Every geographical and municipal region is served by a muftu. to provide religious education in the national elementary/secondary school system. to train the teachers of religion at all levels. . and supervise the public Imam-Hatip vocational high schools. to establish. . inspectors of imams and muezzins. The Council of Higher Education This council establishes and supervises faculties of divinity at selected universities. . assistant muftus. to supervise the officials under him. . and callers to prayer (muezzin). These schools emphasize religious studies in a four-year curriculum beyond the compulsory eight years of primary school. to train religious functionaries at all levels. The latter two functionaries are appointed to particular mosques and are responsible for worship leadership. prayer leaders/preachers (imam-hatip). These faculties in turn have responsibilities: . to issue opinions to the inquiring public on points of Islamic law. The Ministry of Education This ministry's supervision of all educational establishments in Turkey extends to the provision of religious instruction for students at the primary and secondary levels. staff.

244 .

capacity. . It is the basis for a contemporary analysis of the psychology and rationality of that part of Islamic law that regulates rituals and worship. There is no action without responsibility/compensation. one is not responsible for what must be done under duress. . mental state. financial status. . . 245 . Non-coercion. Intention/purpose: acts are judged according to motivation. always responding in the first instance with trust in the goodness of persons and of creation. . the Golden Mean. . extremism is not praised Maintaining a positive outlook. Giving to others: the attitude of giving. necessity is above the law. not results. thinking the best of everyone. the best means for establishing good relations is dialogue. Personal accountability. mentality.Appendix O Underlying Principles and Ideals of Islamic Worship These orientations. there can be responsibility only if there is freedom. aiming for perfection in esthetics and art. . . or laws. and the extent of one's knowledge. based on one's own intention. and so on. in a situation of ease versus necessity. Observed and preserved over many centuries. one is not responsible for the sins of others. Respect for human dignity. will and intention. Allah is the Lord of all creation. generosity. neither is obligatory: the individual must choose. Precepts . everything must be done by free will. Allah is One. there is a choice of action according to one's capacity and circumstances. the suggestion is to choose ease. . Gradualism. liberality. Best means/perfectionism. persuasion surpasses force or violence. The grace of Allah is not limited or divided. worldview. there should be competition in goodness. . Assertions . moderation. . one must exert one's best. Responsibility is matched with capacity: one's age. so that this list becomes a list of Islamic instincts. they are fundamental to shaping an Islamic character. . . and ethic. one does not judge without research and knowledge. or assumptions are inferred from the canonical worship practices. Presumed innocence. Justice must be done. one is not responsible for what is beyond one's capacity. an orientation to the `face of Allah' as the ultimate motivation. whether or not one has achieved or accomplished the goals is Allah's grace and business.

Tolerance toward others: it is the right of others to receive one's tolerance. and intention. . . corporate life and acts. mind. forgiveness. Congregationalism. Personalism.246 Appendix O . Preparation for eternity: collecting charitable deeds and good acts for the salvation of one's soul. . making goodness and worship one's own. leaving to Allah the final judgment of cases. a sensitivity toward seeing that others fulfill their own obligations. and society as part of fulfilling one's obligations toward Allah. fulfilling obligations toward children. . for the long journey to eternity. the fulfillment of personal obligations. Responsibility toward others. parents. . and purifying oneself. friends. will be rewarded by Allah. not individualism. Purity/integrity of heart. . not revenge.

Nawavi. 2. 3. 1953). 113±14. Bukhari. 1. 2815. Bukhari. pp. 2. Coleman Barks. no. Nawavi. 93. p. 489. The Farewell Sermon can be found in the classic text by Syed Ameer Ali. 2. Ch. Al-Musnad. 1004. Imara (Architecture). 22. Abu Davud. Suyuti. in Sunan. 33. 6 Religious Order 1. 167. Riyaz As-Salihin. Nawavi. in Al-Jami As-Sahih. 585. Al-Adab Al-Mufrad. Ahmed Ibn Hanbal. Ch. Jenaiz (The Dead). Al-Jami AsÏir. in Sunan. vol. Bukhari. Sawm (Fasting). repr. 1997). 8 The Funeral Prayer and Burial 1. Bukhari. 16. 3. vol. vol. in Al-Jami As-Sahih. 1. 1923. 5. Kader (Destiny). 2. Ezan (The Call to Prayer). Ibn Maje. Riyaz As-Salihin. 80. Suyuti. Ch. Ch. Bukhari. 2. 25. 9 The Call to Prayer 1. 37. The Illuminated Rumi (New York: Broadway Books. 8. no. Al-Musnad. in Al-Jami As-Sahih. 183. 3. Jenaiz (The Dead). 43. Ch. 39. The Spirit of Islam: A History of the Evolution and Ideals of Islam (London: Christophers. Bedul-Wahy (The Beginning of the Revelation). 1. in Al-Jami As Sahih.Notes and References 4 A Brief History of Islam 1. in Al-Jami As Sahih. Muslim. no. p.1. Muslim. p. in Al-Jami As-Sahih. Ibn Hanbal. Muslim. 5 Expressions of Faith and Identity 1. Salat (The Prayer Ritual). in Al-Jami As-Sahih. Ïir. in Al-Jami As-Sahih. no.2. pp. Riyaz As-Salihin. p. 10 The Pilgrimage 1. Al-Jami As-Sag 5. Bukhari. 227. vol. 336. 7 Fasting 1. Muslim. 9903. Sag 247 . Siyam (Fasts). in Al-Jami As Sahih. 1225.1. Jenaiz (The Dead). 4. 4. in Al-Jami As-Sahih. Mukaddime (Introduction). p. 21. 11. no. vol. Bukhari. vol. Fedail al-Qur'an (Merits of the Kur'an).

5. Bukhari. or sanctuary.248 Notes and References 11 Almsgiving Ædadi.) 3. Tarihu Æad. Al-Adab Al-Mufrad. in Al-Jami As-Sahih. 12 The Sacrament of Prayer 1. `and He said it is five'. 2. 52. p. Muslim. 2. 85. 2. Muslim. Adab (Etiquette). Adapted from Cyril Glasse p. over a large stone said to be the one from which the Prophet rose to the heavens. 5. The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. 301. Tek Hadisli S È Badg 1. Sifat ul-Munafiqin (Characteristics of the Hypocrites). 3. The story has two parts: the journey from Mecca to Jerusalem. Â . (Bukhari. Al-Musnad. Salat (The Prayer Ritual). continues with the Ascension Story given in the text. Ch. in Al-Jami As-Sahih. Nuri Topalog Ælu. which was built as a shrine. Kitab Al-Masjit (The Masjid). in Al-Jami As-Sahih. Vol. Hatib al-Bag . 3. Al-Musnad.85. . 4. Ahmed Ibn Hanbal. Kitab el-Masjit. 128. vol. Ahmed Ibn Hanbal. 283. reports the Prophet as saying. and finishes with. 121. Abu Davud. `Allah has written on my community fifty prayers'. 123. or account of the words and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad. Muslim. Used by permission. In Jerusalem is the Dome of the Rock. and then the ascension from Jerusalem to heaven. `Night Journey'. 208. 3. A hadith. erhler (unpublished docent thesis). 6. 1.

Written narratives of the deeds. for cleanliness and ritual purity. adhan Fatihah sadaqat al-fitr. The opening chapter of the Kur'an. or supplication. Alawi. The watchword of the Islamic faith: `It is Allah who is magnificent!' The invocation used on beginning any legitimate activity of daily life: `I begin in the name of Allah. and attitudes of the Prophet. The title of one who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca. kanligi dua ezan Fatiha fitre dervis . Alawite È Ekber Allahu basmala. . known in the Arabic world as wudu. The obligatory pilgrimage to the mosque in Mecca. leri Bas . words. such as the hands. The major ablution. A Sufi disciple The Turkish government's Department of Religious Affairs.Glossary Spelling in this book abdest Alternatives The minor ablution. the most compassionate'. Alevi Allahu Akbar besmele dervish Diyanet Is . the `Lord's Prayer' of the Kur'an. fitre sadakasi ghusl The call to the prayer sacrament. darwish gusul Hadith hajj hajji hatip Hadis hac haci khatib 249 . The obligatory donation to the needy given toward the end of the month of Ramazan. for cleanliness and purity. The preacher of the formal sermon (hutbe). or washing of the entire body. the most merciful. basmalah A set of Turkish Shii mystical groups that follow their own Islamic practices. and feet. sadaka-i fitr. Any prayer of petition. invocation. face. or washing of the exposed parts of the body.

the site where worshippers around the world face in the sacrament of prayer. Kur'an Qur'an. hutbe khutba. Quran. Ka'ba kamet kibla kible.250 Glossary Spelling in this book hodja hoca Alternatives The wise person. judge. Qoran. it also means political and spiritual leaders descended from the family of the Prophet. and sacramental prayer leader of a community. The Holy Book of Islam. Kaaba Kabah. The evening meal that breaks the daily fast in the month of Ramazan. ibada imam Jem house jihad Cem House. sometimes applied to a folk-like shamanic figure for Muslims. for the Sunni. The struggle to deepen faith or to defend Islam. for the Shii. the place toward which all Muslims turn for the sacrament of prayer. Kaba. The original house of monotheistic worship in Mecca. The leader of the corporate prayer sacrament. kiblah. Koran . teacher. The consecrated state of being a pilgrim to Mecca. it also means the founders of schools of Islamic thought and law. the direction according to which mosques and cemeteries are oriented. Acts of worship. the site of obligatory pilgrimage. Kuran. Cemevi cihad A House of Gathering for Alevis in Turkey. Kabe. qiblah The direction of the mosque in Mecca. khutbah ibadet iftar ihram ibadat. the generic term for any kind of Islamic mission. also the dress that the pilgrim wears in this state. qibla. The summon to worshippers inside the mosque to stand and form their rows for the prayer sacrament. A formal sermon delivered in the Friday Prayer and in the two festival prayers.

The Turkish word for the sacrament of canonical prayer. eriat . and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah'. The month of fasting.Glossary 251 kurban qurban Both the animal that is offered to Allah. mufti mu The stairs in a mosque used for preaching. The niche in the front wall of a mosque indicating the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca. ahadet The Turkish word for fasting. the way of a religion. like a chapel for Muslims. masjit mevlut mihrab minber muezzin muftu Muslim namaz oruch Ramazan sadaka sahur salat shahada Èslu Èman Moslem. Arabic sawm. ehadet. it also means the Islamic law. Charity. a set of practical codes that regulate life in all aspects masjid mest mescit. in any form. sadaqah suhur salah s . Mu shariah sharia. minbar È ezzin. The creed. muadhdhin mu Èftu È. Broadly. it is where the imam normally stands to lead the prayer sacrament. the religious official appointed by the government's Department of Religious Affairs to supervise religious services in a region and to answer the questions of the public on Islamic doctrine and practice. s . mawlud A poem in celebration of the life of the Prophet. In Turkey. oruc Ë Ramadan sadaqa. with the meat donated to the needy. The one who calls people to the sacrament of prayer. The pre-dawn meal taken before the daily fast in the month of Ramazan. mawlid. A small mosque. and the sacrament of the offering. also the ceremony of reciting the poem. The sacrament of canonical prayer. One who submits to the will of Allah. A light leather inner shoe worn to preserve cleanliness and purity and to protect the feet from cold. Arabic salat. mimber. s . `There is no god but Allah.

Islamic mysticism. permitted in circumstances where clean running water is unavailable. they are usually done congregationally in the mosque each evening after the night prayer.252 Glossary Spelling in this book Shii Shiite Alternatives The second largest branch of Islam for whom the leadership of Muslims lies in the family of the Prophet Muhammad and his descendants. The watchword of the Islamic. words. The extra canonical prayers during the Ramazan month of fasting. teravih tarawih tesbih teyemmum tasbih tayammum È rbe tu . faith. with its unique initiation of members and its spiritual master. tariqa tekbir takbir tekke telbiye talbiyah. taken as a È nnet also refers to male model. often mystical. they begin. O my Allah. A building erected over a grave to serve as a monument. and attitudes of the Prophet are the paramount authority and who follow the legal and theological legacy of this orientation. A standard petitionary prayer and glorification of Allah. the life and practices of the Prophet. The majority branch of Muslims. here I am'. Any religious order. Sunni Sunnite tarikat tariqah. È bhaneke su Sufism sunna È nnet sunnah. su circumcision. Prayer considered as the glorification of Allah. talbiya The ritual words continually uttered in the sacrament of pilgrimage to Mecca. Allahu Akbar: `It is Allah who is magnificent!' The building that houses a Sunni religious order. The symbolic ablution (abdest) done without water. `Here I am. for whom the Kur'an and the deeds. su The way the Prophet has trod.

Glossary umre umra. umrah 253 The lesser pilgrimage. especially of the lesson (vaaz). . vaaz vaiz zekat zikir waz zakat dhikr The annual sacrament of religiously obligatory tax on wealth. the hajj. meaning a visit to Mecca at a time other than that of the major pilgrimage. the remembrance of Allah and the mentioning of Allah's name. In general. A sermon in the form of a lesson. also the repetitive spiritual technique peculiar to each Sufi group. A preacher.

Èran. Second edition. 1988. Bulliet. vol. Tarihu Ïdad (History of Baghdad).d. 1952. 1994.p. Tu Æi. Al-Mausili Al-Hanafi. Martin.p. Repr.d. 1969. Richard C. M. Richard W. Hatib. Beirut: Dar Al-KuÈ Bag Al-Bag tub Al-Arabi. Al-Jami as-Sahih (Collection of Authentic Hadith). The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Barks. Islamic Studies: A History of Religions Approach. The Muslim and Christian Calendars. 1953. The Wisdom of The East Series. Lapidus. 1957. Ira. Egypt: Dar Ihya Al-Kutub Al-Arabiye. Al-Adab Al-Mufrad (Hadith on Etiquette and Behavior). 1994. 1. The Spirit of Islam: A History of the Evolution and Ideals of Islam. Hodgson. Cairo. Istanbul: n. Including the Transmitters). 254 . An Introduction to Islam. 6 volumes. Al-Ihtiyar li Ta'lil alMukhtar (A Selection for Analysis of That which is Established). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ÐÐ . Tu Ï il Kitaplig Æi. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1997. Islam: The View from The Edge. Egypt: n. tr. Ali. 1993.p. The Mevlidi Sherif (The Birth Poem of the Prophet). Sunan (The Paths of the Prophet). 1923. 1943. New York: Columbia University Press. 1310 (AH). New York: Broadway Books. È rkiye'nin Èrkiye'de Nurculuk (The Nursi Movement in Turkey).Short Bibliography Abu Davud. Ibn Maje. London: John Murray. Tu Beki. Glasse. È leyman. 5 vols. Marshall G. Kemal. Freeman-Grenville. A History of Islamic Societies. 1996. Denny. n. 2 vols. Syria: Muhammad Ali Al-Seyid. N. Akbar S. Beirut: Dar al-Marifa. San Francisco: Harper & Row.:Yeni Yu Bukhari. Tirkiye'de Naks . Su Lyman MacCallum. Cyril. Èzyil Kitaplig Sorunlari Dizisi 9. F. 14 vols. Chelebi. London: Christophers. 1985.. The Venture of Islam. Living Islam: From Samarkand to Stornoway. n. Ahmed. Sunan (The Paths of the Prophet). Vol. Coleman. Repr. 1963. Beirut: Dar Al-Bashair Al-Islamiye. Ahmed.. 5 vols. Annotated edition by Mahmud Abu Dakika. Ibn Hanbal. 8 volumes. Chicago: The University of Chicago. New York: Macmillan. Al-Musnad (Hadith. 1989.S.S. 1989. 1979. iler (The Nakshibendi Movement in Turkey). tr. Syed Ameer. 1974. 3rd edition. Abdullah Ibn Mahmud Mawdud. Hatiplere Hutbeler (Sermons for Preachers). 3.d. The Illuminated Rumi.p. Hamah. n.P. Ædadi. London: BBC Books. Frederick M.:Yeni Yu È rkiye'nin ÐÐ . Èzyig Sorunlari Dizisi 21. N. G. 1975 (1395 AH). Ankara: Tu Èrkiye Gu Diyanet Vakfi. Akif. London: Oxford University Press.

p. zmir.p. kanlig Speight. 1991. ed. Ac Ë iklamali I_badet Rehberi (Explanatory Worship Guide) Ankara: È rkiye Diyanet Vakfi. 3rd printing. 1994. Al-Jamia as-Sahih (Collection of Authentic Hadith). God is One: The Way of Islam. reprinted 1987. Riyaz As-Salahin (Gardens of the Righteous). leri Bas . Turkey: Dokuz Eylu Unpublished docent thesis. 1990. Nuri. Tek Hadisli Serhler Topalog . Paperback edition.Short Bibliography 255 Michell. Cario. Architecture of the Islamic World. 1989. Suyuti. Tu . Ïlu. 5 volumes. George. Politics. Ïir (Small Collection of Hadith). Annoted by Muhammad Fuad Abdulbaki. Turkish tr. Al-Jami as-Sag Tapper. Marston. Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion. Ankara: Diyanet Is . I Yazici. 1994. Tauris. Akseki. 1970. Nawavi. Egypt: n.. and Literature in a Secular State. New York: Friendship Press. (Commentaries Written on Single Hadiths) _ È l University. 1955±56. ed. Seyfettin. London: I. Richard. London: Thames and Hudson..B. Beirut: n. Muslim. by Ahmed Hamdi : Ï i. 2 volumes. 1995. R.

208. 103. 145. 190 architecture 115 see also Ch. 207±8 see also Ch. 120±1. 146. 71. 223 Animal Offering Holiday (Id alAdha) 121. 164. 200 call to prayer (ezan) 18. 80. 198 Bektashis 70±1. 120. 76. 96. 45. 218. 11. 33. Tansu 186 circumambulation of the Kaaba 115. 155. 118. 154 see also Appendix I canonical prayer (namaz/ salat) 10. 135 chapel (masjid) 190 charity (sadaka) 84. 202 dreams 30. 57. 131. 59. 8 È leyman 125 Demirel. 124. 110 Allah 11. 13 Abraham 30. 122. 179. 50. Appendices A. 181. 53. 140. 28.D. 182±3. 176. 142. 165. 15. 166±7. 119. 168. 88±9. 146. 189. 72. 88. 126. 72. 68. 15. 91. 93±4. 102±5. 43±4. 140±2. 116. 131±8. 96. 100. 118. circumcision (su 54 cleanliness and purity 63. 136. 12.C. 48±50. 110. 52. 50. 119±20 see also Ch. 103. 76 Birthday Poem of the Prophet (mevlut) 45. 149. 8 caliph 13. 151.K cemetery 99. 107. 145. 34. 9 calligraphy 48. 132. 121. 54. 186 see also Ch. 13 confession of faith see testimony creed 42±4. 163. 217 see also Ch. 76. 26. Appendix N divinity school 197±8. 141. 127±9. 64. 131±8. 145. 193.Index ablution 63. 159. 201. 174±7 smaller (abdest) 172±3 see also Ch. 111. 131±2.I. 203 Ali 36. 223 animal offering (kurban) 10. 173±4. 165±6 Breaking of the Fast Holiday see Ramazan: holiday burial see Ch.B. Atatu 164. 71±2. 108±9. 146 Abu Hanifa 8 Alevis 27. 206±7. 173. 218. 191 see also Ch. 151±2. 178 256 . Su Department of Religious Affairs 22. 186±8 calling on Allah (zikir) 9. 190±1 greater (gusul) 89. 87. 124 Ènnet) 45±6. 106. 14 È rk 17. 101 bowing in ritual prayer 147. 231 alms tax (zekat) 10. Appendix H Christians 30. 20. 209 see also Ch. 185. 186±7. 184. 149±50 environment 23. 62±3 entering ritual prayer 147. 102 see also testimony Crusades 36 Day of Judgment 95±6. 166 C Ë iller. 182. 53±5. 229 death and the dead 53. 165. 169. 132. 57.

99. 146. Appendix M muezzin 97±8. 135 hadith 35. 132. 229. 103. 211 Hajji Bektash Veli 65. 180. 60±2. 141. 71. 56. 187±8. 184±5 funeral 110. 182±3. 188 Melamites 73 Mevlana 65. 63±4. 85. 76 mevlut see Birthday Poem of the Prophet minaret 110±12 see also Ch. 59. 193 Kotku. Conclusion. 76 Mevlevis 56. 133 martyr 104 Mecca and Meccans 30±4. 95. 180 kibla 111. 140. 113±14. 146. 14. 123. 102. 99. 185. 5 fasting (oruch/sawm) 10. 191. 9. 50. 133±4. 207 imam 36. 178. 149. 41. 32±3. Appendix E mosque 18. 46±8. 231 see also Ch. 7 Fatiha 98. religious functionaries . 57. 23. 32 Kaaba 30. 154 È p 123 Eyu faith 5. 155. 31. 150±1. 202±3. 197±8 lesson (vaaz) 90. 96. 188. 33. 193±4 see also Ch. 61. 35. 115±17. 207 hell 43. 156. 142. 162±4. 216 see also Ch. 73. 140. 97±8. 190. 76 hearse 96±7 heaven 43. 64. 97. 95±6. 188 see also Ch. 101. 223 see also Ch. 115±16. 87. 104±5. 110. 120±1. 99±100. 107. 178±9. 140 Golden Rule of Islam 83.Contents 257 evil eye beads 60±1 exiting ritual prayer 147. 158 entrant 149 festival 90. 10 Medina 31±2. 87±8. 172. 80. 191 see also Ch. 96. 141. 168±9. 116. 188 Kocatepe Mosque 182. 117. 201 invocation (besmele) 49. 72±3. 163. 71. 189. 98. 135±8. 157±9. 217 Jem houses 182 Jem ritual 71 Jerusalem 188 Jews 30. 48. 107. 106. 117. 77. 50. 192±4. 166 jihad 9. 109. 151 festival prayer 142. 155. 231±2 memorization 47±8. 152. 198. 111. 168±9. 202. 149. 34. 36±7. 197±8 recitation 47. Mehmet Zait 70 KurH an 8±10. 190 see also religious functionaries Imam-Hatip school 197. 146. 14 modernity 6. 21. 128±9. 205. 198. 32. 146. 199 Magnification of Allah (tekbir) 10±11. 93±4. 68. 172 Ishikchi 73 Ishmael 30. 163±4. 86. 122±3. 115. 8 Gabriel 30. 132. 112. 211 Friday prayer 84. 208±9. 155±7. 34. 99. 126. 15. 146 Islamic law (shariah) 8. 144. 86. 176. 95. 86. 56. 150. 133. 148. 159±61. 170. 32. 102±4. 163±4. 136 grave 95±6. 185 Animal Offering festival prayer 133±4 Ramazan festival prayer 89±91 five pillars of Islam 8±9 folk Islam 27±8. 155. 129±30. 3. 233 see also Ch.

55±6 prayer see canonical prayer. 188 Night Journey 140 Night of Power and Destiny 55. 218 secularism 50±1. 75 see also Appendices A. 135. 125 religious functionaries 18. 200. 103. 124. 185 sitting and ritual prayer 147±8. 190 meals: iftar 81±2. 218. 74±7. 48±51. 47. 94. 57. 103. 106. 88. 71±2. 27±8. 89±91. 153±5 skull cap 173 . 180. 86. 27. 168±9. 125 O paradise see heaven pilgrimage (hajj) 10. 53. 152±3. sahur 82 night prayer (teravih) 86±8 see also Ch. 199±200 see also religious functionaries Nakshibendis 70 naming a child 59±60 national anthem 17.258 Index muftu 15. 82. 135.F. 57. 180. 94. 104. 56. 217 houses (tekke) 182 see also Ch. 112. 119. 207 mosques 103. 202. 53±5. 118. 135±8. 15. 36. 54±5. 52. 103. 10 pious phrases 41. 186. 182. 99. 129±31. 36. 181 Sinan 115±16. 168 see also Appendix L sexual relations 23. 73 orthodox Islam 5. 217 see also Ch. 105. 185. 32. 192±4. 192. 225. 68. 113. 116± 17. 3. 30. 13±19. 143. 200±1. 223 dress (ihram) 118 minor (umre) 121 see also Ch. 239 Ottomans 46. 158±9 Prophet Muhammad 9. 176. 130. 63±4. 208. 101. 41. Conclusion. 59. 189. 6 Rifais 73 Rufais 73 sacred nights 54. 125. 41. 53.C. 112. 70. 61. 119. 187. 168. 67. noncanonical prayer prayer beads (tesbih) 41. 78. 62±3. 233 Prophet's Beard 55. 51±3. 62. 59. 165±6 Ramazan 11. 174±5 shamanic figures (folk hodja) 61±2 Shii 27. 66. 70±2. 86. 4 prostrating in ritual prayer 147. 55 alms (fitre) 88±9. 20. Turgut 70. 110±11. 144 see also Appendix I È zzaman Said 69 Nursi. 140. 7 recompense (keffarat) 83±5. 223 holiday (Id al-Fitr) 78. 68. 142. 171.D. 186 niche (mihrab) 155. 202±3 see also Ch. 87±8 Prophet's Robe 88 see also Ch. Bediu Nursis 69±70. 52. 168 non-canonical prayer (dua) 54. 178. 164. 55±6 Saint Sophia (Ayasofya) 185. 63. 108. 164. 110. 176. 81. 47. 134. 47. 192.G Ottoman baths 176 Empire 6. 224 see also Appendix G Refah 74. Appendix E Selimiye 115. 90. 87. 198. 185 sermon (hutbe) 32. 74. 115±16. Appendix N religious orders (tarikat) 18. 84. 189 È zal.B. 68. 20. 9±10. 226.

76. 54.Contents 259 stairs for preaching (minber) 133±4. 159. 92. 142 witnessing to faith (shahada) 186. 41. 199 see also religious functionaries visits to tombs 61. 103±4. 35±6. 165±7. Ahmet 65 Yunus Emre 56. 195. 126±7. 120. 200±3 see also Appendix N statism 26±7 see also Appendix E Èbhaneke 98. I. B. 142±3. 227 see also Conclusion. 106. 3 whirling dervishes 72±3. C. 103±4. J. 95. 99. 115. O Yasawi. 122±3 wedding and marriage 46. 173. 177. 68. Sulaiman Hilmi 73±4 vaiz 133. 6 Suleymanis 73 Suleymaniye 70. 181 telbiye 118±19. 161. 121 standing in ritual prayer 147. G. 47. 5) see also witnessing to faith Throne Verse 157±8 tomb 76. 100. 187. 211 see also Ch. 163±4. 186±7. 145. 27±8. 216 westernization 62 see also Ch. 185 sunna 35 Sunni 8. 107 (see also Ch. 102. 170. 109. 131±2. 217. 114. 76. 182 see also Ch. 151 su Sufis and Sufism 34±5. 96. 56. 56±9. 142±3. Appendices A. 169. 189 standing (at Arafat) 115. 163. 53. 122±3 Tunahan. 52. 118. 76 Zamzam Well 122 zikir see calling on Allah . 185 Sultanahmet (Blue Mosque) 183. 150. 150±1 State Islam 22. 65. 124 testimony 9±10. 5 worship (ibadet) 7±10.

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