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I believe that there are three main types of relationships within these texts and, are perhaps the three most common reasons to engage in a relationship. The first is relationship for gain, where one or both of the people involved gain something from the relationship, however romance is often far from the centre. The second is relationship through principle, a relationship for the sake of it or through duty or loyalty, or one that was once romantic but has since been less so. The last is, of course, for love or for lust, where one or both of the lovers are desperate to be together. Each of these ‘types’ of relationships appear in all three texts and I will compare the similarities and differences within this essay.
Perhaps the most obvious example of a relationship for gain is between Antony and Octavia in ‘Antony and Cleopatra’. It is made clear from the start when Agrippa suggests the marriage that the only reason for the joining is to ally Antony and Caesar; “To make you brothers, and to knit your hearts with an unslipping knot, take Antony Octavia to his wife”. The firm consonants emphasise the importance of these words. Antony means what he says even if he has ulterior motives. Agrippa presents it as an attractive prospect and Antony immediately agrees; “(to Caesar) Let me have thy hand… and from this hour the heart of brothers govern in our love”. Octavia unifies the two parts of the triumvirate. That is the only reason for their marriage. She has no choice in it and never comments on the matter. Antony though, realises that it is wrong and that it prevents him from being with Cleopatra and so makes excuses; “if I lose mine honour, I lose myself. Better I were not yours, than yours so branchless.” This also sums Antony up. He admits himself that his Roman honour is far more important to him than Caesar. He says to Octavia that “our faults can never be so equal that your love can equally move with them”, he knows that no matter how much love Octavia showed, she would never love him enough to overcome the faults of their marriage. When back in Rome, Octavia makes out to Caesar that she had begged Antony to stay, when of course it was Antony who ended things. Suffice to say, Caesar is not happy.
There is a link between the three texts in that Richard and Princess Elizabeth’s relationship, or rather attempted relationship, in ‘Richard III’ is also one of gain. Only Richard gains overall, but Elizabeth would gain a true royal title and a lot of money through it. Richard tells Queen Elizabeth, “I love thy daughter and do intend to make her Queen of England”. He acts very well. He makes promises he has no intent to keep; “If I did take the kingdom from your sons, to make amends I’ll give it to your daughter”. He has killed her husband and her sons and yet still has the audacity to attempt to gain her trust. As usual, he is lying to convince people of his plans. Portrayed as totally self obsessed, he lies to secure a wife and in turn, an heir. This portrayal of Richard is not necessarily historically true, however. Because Shakespeare wrote during the Elizabethan era, he could only portray Richard in a negative, plotting and scheming light because it was the Tudor family that had beaten Richard at the battle of Bosworth. To write Richard as a hero would be considered treason. Despite this though, Katherine Blakeney writes that “For his own artistic caprice, Shakespeare has let Richard win by making Henry tudor’s victory emotionally insignificant. We forget Richmond as soon as the play ends, but we will always remember Richard.” Richard is the opposite of the type of person the public warms to but when performed, you cannot help backing Richard against Richmond. In true Richard style, he also shows Queen Elizabeth what she can gain from allowing and assisting in this marriage; “in her tender heart, the aspiring flame of golden sovereignty” he knows that Elizabeth is her only child and she will not be able to resist the chance for her daughter to become Queen as she did before her. The words "heart", "flame" and "golden" are associated with bravery which implies a guarantee from Richard to Elizabeth. Then Richard finally convinces her with “say I will love her everlastingly” but there is some evidence that Richard is also trying to seduce the Queen. Whether it is to convince her to go along with his plans or just through lust is unclear, it depends whether the scene is played straight or flirtatiously. The line “Shall I be tempted by the devil thus” and Richard’s reply “ay, if the devil tempt you to do good” and “shall I go win my daughter to your will” and Richard’s reply “And be a
He’s so dumb he doesn’t know he’s alive. He tells her not to bring Tom. but for Myrtle. He is possessive and angry and continues that way for the majority of the novel from this point. for on the following Saturday night he came with her to Gatsby’s party. naive and in my opinion.” Of course. but he wasn’t fit to lick my shoe. Despite this. Nick shows this up even before Daisy and Gatsby are exposed.”. his eyes still flashing between Gatsby and his wife. Nick comments a judgement on this which is unusual for him. For Tom. popular and in control of his upper class life. Fitzgerald has Nick present their relationship in a negative way so that we always root for Gatsby. but 1920s America is still very much a man’s world. Tom seems to have a similar opinion on George when he tells Nick “He thinks she goes to see her sister in New York. If circumstance were not so restrictive upon her. “Tom was evidently perturbed at Daisy running around alone. These kind of marriages were common both in the days that Shakespeare wrote. Wealthy. This shows exactly what Nick thinks of Tom.” Tom is your archetypal. demonstrates the typical male domination he has and is horribly possessive over her.happy Mother by the deed” certainly suggest a closeness between Richard and Queen Elizabeth which is never explored further. he says “They smashed up things… and then retreated back into their money… or whatever it was that kept them together.” This slightly threatening comment to Gatsby implies that there are things in the past that nobody knows about and perhaps these are the reasons for their inseparableness. To underline the link between these texts. secure and inviolate. The fact is that Daisy is in love with Gatsby and Tom is having an affair with Myrtle: it is not exactly perfect marital harmony. annoying. Tom though. “There is no confusion like the confusion of a simple mind… his wife and his mistress until an hour ago. She says in front of Nick that she “married him (George) because I thought he was a gentleman… I thought he knew something about breeding. This ‘innocent’ reply sets up Daisy’s character: childlike. Tom gets a taste of his own medicine when he discovers Daisy and Gatsby. Also. This statement shows the glamour and superiority that Tom believes he has. At the time of ‘’The Great Gatsby’ these type of marriages were less common. The "effeminate swank" shows that he has money and he knows exactly how to use it to get what he wants. anti feminist man and to a modern audience he is hated even more.” This shows an animalistic quality of Tom’s which is also highlighted in Fitzgerald’s initial description of him. and let other people clean up the mess”. Myrtle is just a bit of fun. were slipping precipitately from his control”. the women have no choice but to go along with it whether they like it or not. he is blunt and forthcoming suggesting his anger at the situation. “‘Who is Tom?’ she replied innocently”. Daisy demonstrates this when Nick invites her to tea to meet Gatsby for the first time. Shakespeare portrays this relationship similarly to that of Antony and Octavia because both men have a lot to gain and because of circumstance. Although Cleopatra does say “Why did he . She also demonstrates her lack of desire to be with Tom. Nick’s sarcastic tone of the first sentence implies his utter hatred of Tom and what he does to everybody he knows. It is also a comment on society at the time which Fitzgerald is obviously against. things that neither of us can ever forget. insists on proving everybody wrong. Tom represents everything she aspires to be. however. A difference in context but not of content exists between 'Richard III' and Fitzgerald's novel 'The Great Gatsby'. she would be with Jay Gatsby. Myrtle is bored and she is with Tom because she wants the excitement and prosperity that comes from the affair and his life. and at the time the plays are set and shows their contextual significance. “there’re things between Daisy and me that you’ll never know. The use of the words ‘slipping’ and ‘precipitately’ infer a delicacy of the fall from grace and gives the image of water dripping slowly from a pipe. despite clearly not being in love with Daisy. Although we aren’t told how they originally were married. Daisy is only with Tom because of his status and because of the fact that they are married a child. Tom. it is clear that there is no love in their marriage and they are simply married out of a sense of duty. Gatsby and Jordan are having lunch at the Buchannan’s: “He got up. I would argue that Antony and Fulvia are in the same position as the Buchannan’s. an apt image for Tom’s downfall. Nick knows this. This cave man persona is demonstrated later when Nick. "The effeminate swank of his riding clothes couldn't hide the enormous power of that body". Fitzgerald presents their relationship negatively.
He only wished her dead through contempt. Once he is dead. This coupling is as much for lust as for Richard’s personal gain. She says “with all my heart. Elizabeth shows a lot of affection: “I. and make me happy in your unity.” Ann knows that without a man she is nothing in a world that is governed by money and men as fourteenth century England was.” This shows that this is his plan from the start. but my full heart remains in full use with you. Richard does anything to get to the throne and one of those things is successfully seducing Lady Ann Neville. nobody else. After their first meeting he says “I’ll have her. Their relationship is presented as one sided as although we never hear Fulvia’s feelings on the matter. Antony. and much it joys me to see you so penitent” which implies that she is not convinced that Richard has changed who he is and that he is just lying to seduce her. “arise dissembler.” Which implies that he has no care for his wife’s happiness only his own. He does also say “Seal thou this league (of his advisors) with thy embracements to my wife’s allies. It is presented as another task for Richard to complete to get to the throne. When Richard asks her to take his life for the sins he has committed she cannot do it. He is incredibly successful considering he has killed her husband and several other relatives. Antony does have a strange sense of respect for his wife. However in those days. He is almost sleazy in his seduction by modern standards. There is probably some true lust there for Richard because of the compliments he continues to pay her. These texts are also connected in that similarly. Once he has killed Edward. Of course. Although she does take a fair amount of convincing. which is of course true. immediately after the coronation.” This is quite an outburst for a Queen to make in public company and shows her utter devotion to Edward. He says “She’s good being gone” which shows his happiness and but he is also clearly saddened by it too.marry Fulvia and not love her?” but this is only said to antagonise Antony in one of their arguments. However it comes with more than its fair share of complications and troubles. may send forth plenteous tears to drown the world! Ah for my husband. “The strong necessity of time commands our services a while. it seems that all the love comes from the woman. The relationship is totally fictional and the truth is. Queen Elizabeth and King Edward from ‘Richard III’ seem to have a one-sided relationship. Also because he says ‘full heart’ it shows that he only cares for Cleopatra. However it would be inappropriate for a King and Queen to show this sort of affection in public and we never see the two characters alone or indeed together outside of the royal courtroom. we wish it ours again. being govern’d by the watery moon. He does call her “my wife” but this could be portrayed with less or more love depending on the actor’s choices. he has her killed as she is no longer of use to him. . She goes on to say “was never a widow had such dear a loss!” Elizabeth clearly loves him dearly but there is no evidence to say that she receives the same care back. at this point in the play clearly prefers to be around Cleopatra. he would rather she were still here so that he did not have to sort out all of her commitments and business in Rome. The fundamental difference between these texts is the more loving relationship of Gatsby and Daisy. Richard's plan also echoes the typical chivalric attitude towards love which is still present in Elizabethan England and during the time that 'Richard III' is set. When he first learns of the news of her death he says “There’s a great spirit gone! Thus did I desire it: what our contempt’s doth often hurl from us. being told you were the “divine perfection of a woman” and that “your beauty did haunt me in my sleep to undertake the death of all the world so that I might spend one hour in your sweet bosom” by an heir to the English throne would have been terribly romantic. Not least that Daisy felt that she had to leave Gatsby to be married to Tom Buchanan for the status and money he can offer her. however it is equally possible that she is just going along with things knowing that he is telling her exactly what she wants to hear. that neither party are infatuated by the other.” He realises that although he is glad she is gone because he can now be a free man. though I wish you dead. for my dear Lord Edward.” The use of ‘strong necessity’ implies that he is only going to Rome to sort out what Fulvia has left behind because he absolutely has to and not through choice. Only this time. However this could be because Edward is not given a chance to show any sort of feeling toward Elizabeth before Richard brutally triggers a heart attack and kills him. However she does eventually come round. grudgingly. However. but I won’t keep her long. I will not be thy executioner.
is shown from the beginning of the novel. “thou. but she is not obsessed with him. Of course when he is killed. he backs this up with ‘the colossal vitality of his illusion’ which details Gatsby’s seeming blissful ignorance to the complications of the situation he is in. the sexual connotations of this line cannot be ignored and prove Cleopatra's lust and love for Antony. Sure enough. alone in space. “Now for the love of Love and her soft hours. who at the very start of the play says “Take . “’oh. I’ll think them every one an Antony. let’s not confound the time with conference harsh.” He waits all through the night just to make sure she is okay. This echoes Philo. Gatsby builds her up to be a goddess type figure and Nick notices this obsession with her perfection. and say ‘ah. and they stared together at each other.” The image that this creates is totally natural and colourful and it makes you think of Gatsby and Daisy like that. at least not obviously or not in the same way.Gatsby’s devotion and destruction love and passion for Daisy. as I draw them up. This image of a fisherman capturing their fish enhances the goddess-like hold that she has over him. Enobarbus who predicts the truth throughout the play says that Cleopatra’s “passions are made of nothing but the finest part of pure love. She returns the emotion when he is in Rome. It shows the strength of his love for her.” As if there was nothing else in the universe. hence fleeting. and Antony… had gone to gaze on Cleopatra” as if he is just a normal citizen and he admires her from afar. “Gatsby bought that house so that Daisy would be just across the bay.” This foreshadows the events of the play and the personification of ‘Love’ makes it sound more human and personal. to bear the weight of Antony”. residing here. He tells her that even though they are apart. Cleopatra demonstrates her petulant jealousy without even letting Antony explain and she dramatically tries to convince him to stay. “O happy horse. and so completely that he cannot even begin to conceive what it might be like to love someone else. He also tries to convince Antony to stay with Cleopatra because he knows that she will be angry if he leaves for Rome. Antony says himself that they should not waste time arguing.” And the last time Gatsby ever sees Daisy he “waited and about four o’clock she came to the window and stood there for a minute and then turned out the light. but being Shakespeare. But Antony’s faultless sense of duty means that he must go to Rome and wrap up what Fulvia leaves him with. you want too much!’ she cried to Gatsby” This quote shows that she is not sure about their relationship and that it might just be easier to stay with Tom.” Shakespeare’s use of the word "finest" elevates their love above other peoples and makes it sound somehow exclusive. he cuts their time tragically short. and I. like nobody or few others have this type of love.isn’t that enough? I can’t help what’s past… I did love him once but I loved you too. She is often referred to as goddess like or as an enchantress or to have some sort of magical hold over Antony. “There must have been some moments… when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams—not through her own fault but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion. Just Daisy and Gatsby. go’st yet with me. “The business you have broached here cannot be without you. Also because she is called . After all “he knew that when he kissed this girl. As a Roman general. theses two want to spend the rest of their life together. his mind would never romp again like the mind of God. ha! You’re caught” which is a metaphor for her power over him. “Eternity was in our lips and eyes” this beautiful image makes it seem that all they would need was each others’ lips and eyes to live happily for eternity. they will be together in spirit. Antony would not usually express that sort of deep emotion in front of people so he must love Cleopatra very much. especially that of Cleopatra’s which wholly depends on your abode. Often compared to a ‘grown-up’ Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare has many parallels to Daisy and Gatsby as Antony and Cleopatra are also portrayed as eternal lovers. “He hadn’t once ceased looking at Daisy” emphasises Gatsby’s obsession with her. but he stands his ground firmly.” The way he says ‘tumbled short of’ makes it sound like she is an angel ‘tumbling’ down from heaven. She wants to bear his weight. the full significance of the mess he had got into is revealed. Fitzgerald certainly presents Gatsby and Daisy as perfect love. “My full heart remains here with you”. “Their eyes met. here remain with thee” which seems to calm her a little. Later she goes on to say “my bended hook shall pierce their slimy jaws.” This makes it sound totally essential that he stays in Egypt with her.” But Gatsby has only ever loved Daisy.” This shows Gatsby’s absolute and timeless devotion to Daisy. Antony also gives this impression when Enobarbus comments “The city cast her people out upon her.’Daisy’ the flower image is particularly fitting. She also says “I love you now. when they do kiss “at his lips’ touch she blossomed for him like a flower and the incarnation was complete. and.
he says before he dies. Equally. using a boat as a metaphor for their love seems appropriate as in the same way that a boat conquers all the waves in the sea.but good note…the triple pillar of the world transformed into a strumpet’s (Cleopatra’s) fool. Although Gatsby would die for Daisy. I doubt she would die for him and similarly Ann would certainly not die for Richard or Richard for Ann. This is the ultimate type of romantic relationship where you would die for your partner and they are alone in the three texts because they are the only couple who would die for each other. he goes too and also that she controls him to certain extent.” This shows that she does hold him very dearly and that when she goes to heaven. It is interesting how each type of relationship presented in these texts are timeless and appear both in literature and life throughout history. I say… give me a kiss… even this repays me. Antony and Cleopatra endure many ups and downs throughout the play. and that my sword. she says “Husband. not any of her past lovers. the ability to engage the reader in something that they can relate to in their real life. . made weak by my affection.” This makes Cleopatra out to be a prostitute and Antony a fool. Whether the audience holds up these images of the two characters is unknown but I personally believe that Antony and Cleopatra are the intense lovers that Shakespeare writes them to be. Shakespeare does present the relationship as slightly more weighted by Antony however I believe this is to show Cleopatra’s hold over him. The characters presented are identifiable in our everyday life and perhaps that is what makes successful love-literature so popular. One thing that evidences this is when Antony says “My heart was to thy rudder tied by th’ strings and thou shoulds’t tow me after” which shows that wherever she goes. I come… I have immortal longings in me. Also.” This shows that Cleopatra cries over his impending death and that he also wants to spend his time with her.” This brings together his Roman status and his relationship with Cleopatra. “fall not a tear. So both Shakespeare and Fitzgerald include several different portrayals of relationships and each is true to real life. Antony loves her so intensely that he says “You did know how much you were my conqueror. would obey it on all cause. she wants to be with him. However when she dies.
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