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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH IN TEACHING SPEAKING BY USING INFORMATION GAP FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

SCRIPT

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement For the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan

By Sri Murni NIM. 0806102020010 Study Program: English Education

STUDY PROGRAM OF ENGLISH EDUCATION TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY SYIAH KUALA UNIVERSITY DARUSSALAM, BANDA ACEH 2013

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Abstract

Name Student No Study Program Title

: Sri Murni : 0806102020010 : English Education : The Implementation of Communicative Approach in Teaching Speaking by Using Information Gap for Senior High School Students.

The objective of this study is to look at some given theories or research findings on the use of communicative approach by using information gap for teaching speaking skill. The discussion of the approach is focused on particular activity under the communicative approach, namely information gap. The study found that using information gap can promote real communication and facilitate language acquisition. This study also found that the students are highly motivated and pleased in learning English speaking. The method used in this study is library research, where data obtained from various sources were processed and described descriptively. Based on the research findings and experts statements, it can be suggested that information gap may be considered as one of reliable activities in teaching speaking skill. This study is expected to be useful for other English teachers and readers.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page Personal Statement ................................................................................................. ii Approval Form ....................................................................................................... iii Consent Form ......................................................................................................... iv Abstract .................................................................................................................. v Acknowledgement .................................................................................................. vi Table of Content ..................................................................................................... vii List of Table ........................................................................................................... viii List of Figure .......................................................................................................... x

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study ............................................................................... 1 1.2 Problem of Study ..................................................................................... 5 1.3 Objective of Study .................................................................................... 5 1.4 Significance of Study ............................................................................... 5 1.5 Scope of Study ......................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER II METHOD OF STUDY 2.1 Data and Source of Data ............................................................................ 7 2.2 Technique of Data Collection .................................................................... 7 2.3 Technique of Data Analysis....................................................................... 8 CHAPTER III LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 Understanding Communicative Approach ................................................ 9 3.2 Characteristics of Communicative Approach ........................................... 11 3.3 Techniques in Communicative Approach.................................................. 12 3.4 Understanding Information Gap ................................................................ 14 3.5 Types of Information Gap.......................................................................... 15 3.6 The Activities of Information Gap ............................................................ 15 vii

3.7 The Application of Information Gap.......................................................... 18


3.7.1 Description of Applying Information Gap ........................................................ 18 3.8 The Advantages of Information Gap ......................................................... 22 3.9 The Challenges of Information Gap ............................................................ 23

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Result ........................................................................................................ 25 4.2 Discussion ................................................................................................. 26 4.2.1 Speaking Problems to Senior High School Students ............................. 26 4.2.2 Teaching Speaking by Using Information Gap ...................................... 28 4.2.3 The Implementation of Information Gap in Teaching Speaking ........... 30

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions ............................................................................................... 33 5.2 Suggestions ............................................................................................... 34

References .............................................................................................................. 35 Appendices ............................................................................................................. 37

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List of Table
Page Table 3.7.1.1 The Description of Applying Information Gap by Nunan ........................... 21

Note: 3.7.1.1 = Chapter 3; section 7; sub section 1.1.

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LIST OF FIGURE

Page Figure 3.7.1.1 Information Gap Group by Doff ..................................................... 20


Note: 3.7.1.1 = Chapter 3; section 7; sub section 1.1.

LIST OF APPENDICES Page APPENDIX 1: Lesson Implementation Plan (RPP) ............................................. 37 APPENDIX 2: Conversation ................................................................................ 45 APPENDIX 3: Students worksheet ..................................................................... 46 APPENDIX 4: Scoring Sheet ................................................................................ 50 APPENDIX 5: Curriculum Vitae .......................................................................... 51

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of Study Nunan (1989:20) states that there are four basic competences that have to be

mastered by the students in learning English, namely: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. One of the four skills that should be mastered by the students in English as a second language is speaking. Speaking is an essential tool for communicating, thinking and learning. According to Chaney (1998) as cited in Kayi (2006:1), speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in variety of context. In addition, it involves all body language gesticulations and style-anything that add meaning to a message. Through speaking, students learn concepts, develop vocabulary and perceive the structure of English which is the essential components of learning language. Kayi (2006:5) stated that students who have a strong oral language base will have an academic advantage because school achievement depends on students' ability to display knowledge in a clear and acceptable form in speaking as well as writing.

The purpose of teaching speaking to the students of senior high school is essentially to make them accustomed to speaking English inside and outside school. Watkins (2005) wrote, All speaking lesson should be conducted in open these situations- with the teacher addressing the whole class or one students addressing the class(p.79). In this case, one of the ways to interact between teacher and student is teaching and learning process. The teaching learning process is not only involving the teacher and the students, but also between the students and the other students. It is also evident that in class, the students have limited time to practice their speaking skills, and it affects on their ability to use the target language. Many kinds of methods can be used in teaching speaking effectively. However, sometimes those methods do not assure the success in implementation of teaching speaking effectively. It depends on the teacher in choosing a method which is appropriate and suitable with materials delivered in the teaching and learning process. Richards and Rodgers (2001: 15), have discussed such ideas in the following statements. An approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning. Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. A technique is implementation that which actually takes place in a classroom. It is a particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective. In order to teach learners how to speak second language in the best way, there are many activities which can promote speaking. Those activities are provided in communicative methods such as information gap, role play, simulations, storytelling, interviews, story completion, reporting and playing cards (Kayi, 2006:5).

Unfortunately, based on the researchers experience during her Internship Program at SMA Negeri 1 Ingin Jaya, she found some problems. Firstly, most of students still could not speak English well although in a simple sentence. Secondly, many students were very passive and reluctant to speak while studying English in the class because their fear of making mistakes, being laughed by their friends and lack of confidence of their own abilities.Thirdly, most of teacher only focus explains the materials presented orally but give less chance to students to practice it. Finally, the techniques used by teachers could not motivate the students to speak up and they also did not use the interesting and effective methods. As a solution to the aforementioned problems, the author suggests that the teacher use communicative approach; an approach under which information gap is subordinated. This suggestion is in accordance with Richards and Rodgers statement (2001: 155) as in following quotation. Communicative Approach is an approach (and not Method) that aims to (a) make communicative competence the goal of language teaching and (b) develop procedures for teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication. Based on the description of theory above, the Communicative Approach in language teaching can be used by teacher in solving students speaking problem in the classroom. According to Prabhu (1987), as cited in Richards and Rodgers (2001), this arguments inferred in their statement as follows, Communicative language teaching on the kinds of classroom activities that could be used as the basis of a communicative methodology, such as group work, task work, and information gap activities (p. 173). Hence, the researcher chose information gap activities in increasing students speaking ability.
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Such idea that has been discussed by Corbett (2003: 3) is reflected in his following statements, The information gap or information transfer task became the archetypal communicative activity. Typically, one learner would be given access to information that was denied to another learner. Then, in pairs or groups, the learners would exchange the information. Information gap activities were intended to ensure genuine or authentic communication. The information gap can promote real communication and facilitate language acquisition. Edge (1983:1) He describesa type of information gap procedure that involves the students in looking for and exchanging information in order to complete a set task.In addition,Pica (1986), Swain (1998), Swain & Lapkin (2000) as cited in Sauro, Kang, & Pica (2006:4), Information gap tasks have been the focus of comparison studieslearners negotiation, collaboration, and encoding of form, function, andmeaning on different tasks and classroom groupings. Therefore, the researcher believes that this technique can give the positive effect and joyful learning to the students in developing their speaking skill. Furthermore, they can become more active and fun in the learning process. Hence, the writer wants to study whether or not information gap activities can increase the students speaking skill ability.

1.2.

Problem of Study The current phenomena show that many graduated of senior highschool not

all students are able to speak English well. They frequently make a lot of mistakes in speaking English. Therefore, the writer tries finding out the interesting methods or approach to make the learners more fun in learning English, especially in speaking. Besides, the interesting method is also the major role in teaching speaking skill for senior high school students because they are easy to get bored difficult in learning.Therefore, the researcher tries to solve the problems by analyzing some relevant theories to answer this following question,How does the implementation of Information Gap Activities increase the students speaking ability? 1.3 Research Objective The aim of this research is to find out some related theories and supported statements about the information gap, especially in teaching speaking to senior high school students.This study describes the appropriate and effective way in teaching speaking by using information gap in improving students English speaking skill. 1.4 Research Significance This research is expected to be a problem solving for teachers to help their students to increase their speaking skills by using information gap and also can be a reference for those who studied about the similar case of teaching English by using information gap activities.

1.5

Research Scope This study is limited to analyze and discuss the implementation of

information gap activities from theoretical perspective, especially in teaching speaking of expressing anger and calming someone down for second year students at SMA Negeri 1 Ingin Jaya. The syllabus of speaking for first year level of senior high school students include in the standard competency reference number 9 and basic competency number 9.2 in semester two, focuses on how to express love, sadness, attitude, annoyance, anger, and embarrassment in formal and informal situation (School Based Curriculum: 2006).This condition will motivate the students to speak accurately, fluently, and acceptable to interact with the immediate environment in the form of expressing anger and calming someone down.

CHAPTER II METHOD OF STUDY

2.1

Data and Source of Data The method of study is library research. A library research is a library which

contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects (Young, 1983: 188). The researcher collected the data from the statements or theories suggested by the experts particularly those theories related to the implementation of Communicative Approach by using Information Gap in teaching speaking skill. The data of this study were collected from various kind of resources like some books, juornals, articles, thesis, internet, etc. 2.2 Technique of Data Collection The data was first collected from books, journals, articles, thesis, and internet. Then, they are read and classified systematically. The data was collected in the forms of statements and theories suggested by the language teaching experts as well as by the previous writers that paraphrase and elaborate the statements and the theories to impart valuable information about the technique. In order to make strong arguments,
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every statement which is written in this paper is referred to the expert explanation. As suggested by Ferguson (2005:1) on doing a library research Library research begins when you need information to solve a problem, to fulfill an academic assignment or for your own purposes. 2.3 Technique of Data Analysis The result of the exploration of various reading was then elaborated and discussed to find out the solution to the problems earlier stated in the background of this study (Syahputri, 2011:2). Data was analyzed by reading and understanding the collected data, after that the data was categorized by the writer from general to specific information that is valuable to discuss in order to solve the mentioned problems. The result of discussion of the various reading was elaborated and connected to the problem faced by the students to find out the solution to the problems that are mentioned previously in the background of this study.

CHAPTER III LITERATURE REVIEW

3.1

Understanding Communicative Approach According to Applebaum (2007) as cited in Anggraini (2009:16),

communicative approach is a great approach in teaching and creating an environment conductive to learning and having authentic situations using the target language. He further asserts that in communicative approach, the students are expected to be creative and understand the sentences in the target language.According to Patel (2009) in his working paper the communicative approach in 1960's and 1970's, foreign language learning was widely extended with the establishment of comprehensive schools. Communicative approach led to the teaching of a foreign language virtually to all children. Communicative approach also created pressure for a change in teaching methods and curricula to suit the needs of non-traditional groups of learners. Richards & Rodgers (2001:158) stated their theory which is reflected in the following statements.

Communicative Approach is a theory of language teaching that starts from a communicative model of language and language use, and that seeks to translate this into a design for an instructional system, for materials, for teacher and learner roles and behavior, and for classroom activities and techniques. The communicative approach aims to help students to use the target language in a variety of contexts. Furthermore, Larsen-Freeman (2000:74) argues that the goal of communicative approach is to enable the students to communicate in the target language. In this case, every student will be active inspeaking English because the communication is going well through this approach, so that the language acquisition becomes sufficient. Nunan(1991:10) argues that communicative approach is a broad, philosophical approach to the language curriculum that draws on theory and research in linguistics, anthropology, psychology and sociology. Communicative approach aims broadly to apply the theoretical perspective of the communicative approach by making communicative competence the goal of language teaching and by acknowledging interdependence of language of communication (Larsen- Freeman, 2000:121). Therefore, the definitions and development of communicative competence would call for detailing discussion since communicative approach was based on some models of communicative competence. Littlewood (1981:5) further explain a communicative approach opens up a wider perspective on language. In particular it makes us consider language not only in terms of structure (grammar and vocabulary) but also in terms of communicative function that it performs. Widdowson (1978) argues that Communicative abilities embrace linguistics but not the reverse (p. 67). The learner must develop skill and

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strategies for using language to communicate meaning as effectively as possible in concrete situations. Based on the theories stated above, the writer concludesthat the communicative approach is learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will occur. Communicative approach makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life this will allow them to learn to use the language. As a result, there may be more emphasis on skills than systems, lessons are more learner-centered, and there may be use of authentic materials. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. 3.2 Characteristics of Communicative Approach Different methods have different character of each others. The characters of each method become its identity to show what kind of method it is. There are many characteristics of communicative approach that are mentioned by experts, and some of them are described as below: The characteristics of communicative approach by Larsen- Freeman (2000:129-130) they are: firstly, almost everything that is done with communicative intent. Secondly, students use a language a great deal through communicative activities such as role play, problem solving and information gap techniques. Thirdly, in communication the speaker has a choice of what she will say and how she wills it. Fourthly, true communication is purposeful. Finally, Communicative Approach is

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using of authentic materials in small group. Littelewood (1981) state, One of the most characteristic features of communicative language teaching is that it pays systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language (p.1). From those characteristics of communicative approach stated above, it may be concluded that teaching learning using this method have several characteristics are summarized as follow. Commutative approach stimulates real life communicative experiences. Analysis of language is done in specific contexts. Speaking skill is as a vehicle for learning across in all subjects area. In this method, oral communication should be integrated with other areas of instructions. 3. 3 Techniques in Communicative Approach A technique is usually seen as one activity or procedure used within a plan for teaching (Norland& Said-Pruett: 2006). Most effective teachers choose from a number of approaches, methods, and techniques to create a learning environment that fits the needs of their students. This review has been provided in the event you wish tried to use any of the techniques or materials associated with the communicative approach. Larsen-Freeman (2000:132-135) argues that there are some techniques in communicative approach, such as: Authentic materials, scrambled sentences, language games, picture strip story, and role play. From those all techniques mentioned above, the most important one is still information gap. The information gap activities exist in all those techniques and it makes those techniques be interesting in communicative approach. Such as Harmer (1991) said A key to enhancement of communicative purpose and the desire to communicate is information gap (p.70). Communicative
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approach, students are dominant in small group, group work and pair work, so the information gap also the student do in group work certainly. According to David (2008), information gap has three stage procedures of activity that can be described as below: 1) Presentation is a process for representing the introduction to a lesson, and necessarily requires the creation of realistic situation requiring the target language to be learned. This can be achieved through using reality such as pictures, dialogs, imagination or actual classroom situation. 2) Practice is usually begins with, what is termed mechanical practice open and closed pair work. Students gradually move into more communicative practice involving procedures such as information activities, dialogue, creation and controlled role-plays. 3) Production is seen as the culmination of the language learning process, whereby the learners have started to become independent users of the language rather than students of the language. From these some stage procedures stated above, it can be concluded that during the presentation, the teacher presents (introduces) the target language, setting it in a real world context so that the learners can see how and when it is used. Then in the practice phrase, the learners are given activities to focus on the target language, and finally in production phrase, the learners are given speaking activities which give them opportunity to use the target language more natural, realistic way. 3. 4 Understanding Information Gap

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According to the statement of Kasim (2010:185), information gap activities include a tremendous variety of techniques in which the objectives is to convey or to request information.Besides, Harmer (1991:48) mentions that information gap means a gap between two persons in the information they process and the conversation helps to close that gap so that, both speakers have the same information. Richards (2006:18) explains an important aspect of communication in communicative approach is the notion of information gap. This refers to the fact that in real communication, people normally communicate in order to get information they do not possess. According to Corbett (2003: 22) in his following statement, The information gap or information transfer task became the archetypal communicative activity. Typically, one learner would be given access to information that was denied to another learner. Then, in pairs or groups, the learners would exchange the information. Based on definition stated above, it may be concluded that information gap is an activity which requires at least two different versions of the material. Students work together in pairs and each student has different information on their pages, so that they have to talk to each other by using the target language in order to complete it.

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Types of Information Gap According to Nunan (1989:66), Information gap has three types, namely:

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Information gap activity.

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Information gap activity is a transfer of given information from one person to another or from one place to another generally calling for the decoding or encoding of information from or into language. 2. Reasoning gap activity. Reasoning gap activity is deriving some new information from given information through processes of inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or perception of relationships or patterns. 3. Opinion gap activity. Opinion gap activity is identifying and articulating a personal preference, feeling, or attitude in response to a given situation. 3.6The Activities of Information Gap According to Nunan (1989), information gap activities contain the following steps: 1. 2. Introduction---learners are introduced to the problem they will have to solve. Vocabulary and idioms---The teacher introduces vocabulary items which might cause difficulty. 3. Small group speaking, discussion and note taking--- Students are divided into three or more groups. Each group will give a card that contain of picture. They are instructed to understanding the following picture. The teacher will explain what those students will do.

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Small group problem solving--- students are recombined so that the new groups contain at least one member of each of the preceding groups. They are provided with blank information table and outline plan of a picture. They must set out the key information in the information table, and then use this to construct a picture with the short dialogues.

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Feedback--- Students return to their original groups and complete pictures with the short dialogues. They guess their picture with the short dialogues. Based on the steps stated above, it may be concluded that information gaps

task involves as follow activities: explain the activity, give example or demonstrations, arrange the pairs, practice, follow up, and discussion. These are task in which one student or group of students has one set of information and another student or group has a complementary set of information. They must negotiate and find out what the other partys information is in order to complete an activity. Corbett (2003) argues Information gap activities were intended to ensure genuine or authentic communication (p. 22).It can be seen that information Gap activities in the theories are appropriate activities as they force the students to ask each other questions, these activities help to make the language classroom experience in communicating more meaningful and authentic. Information gap activities usually split the information needed to complete an activity between a pair or group. Therefore, the students must communicate each other in order to find all the necessary information to complete the activity. There are many different levels of info gap activity. Some can be very structured, with the

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students using specific vocabulary and grammar to communicate information. Others can be totally unstructured with students free to draw on all or any knowledge they have of English. Some involving the transfer of information (from visual images to verbal descriptions,and vice versa), and some involving the expression of differing personal opinions (e.g. ranking exercises, where learners must discuss their preferred holiday destination, their favorite artwork, and so on). These activities lend themselves not only to the promotion of fluency, but also, potentially, to increase awareness of culture. Such idea that has been discussed by Doff (1988:214) is reflected in his following statements: The information gap activities can work in various ways: Firstly, one student has some information, and the other student has to find it out by asking questions. Secondly, one student has some information and tells it to the other student. Thirdly, both students have different information, and they tell each other. In information gap, each student in the group has some information required to complete the task or activity, the aim is to share the information and to complete the task. Students do not know what the others are going to say such as it imitates real life conversation. In information gap activity, it is important that the learners have an opportunity to check the information they have been talking about. It gives them and you a chance to judge how successful they have done the activity for the learners to find out the right answers.

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These activities are very easily made learner-prepared on the condition that the learners know exactly which information they have to provide. Now they have an original information gap to complete. In practical terms, this activity has become a generic activity. This means that a teacher can keep a pile of the grid, ready for use at any time (perhaps when the photocopier has broken down) for a number of purposes. Alternatively, the grid can be copied by the learners into their books. 3.7 The Application of Information Gap

3.7.1 Description of Applying InformationGap Information gap has typical characters which students do not only work in group with a task held by all the members, but also they have their own task, and they will master the task by working with other group members, which makes information gap is different from usual discussion or other teaching technique and activity.

According to Nunan (1989), information gap activities may be concluded as follow activities: explain the activity, give example or demonstrations, arrange the pairs, practice, follow up, and discussion. Besides, Miller (1994), he describes that there are some steps in teaching information gap as follows. 1) Explain the activity. The teacher has to make sure the learners know exactly what they have to do. Go over directions carefully, and give them time to ask any questions they may have. 2) Give examples or demonstrations.

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Before the teacher divided whole class into pairs, he/she gives as many examples as necessary to make sure the class has the idea. The teacher can be as the model of the activity with a learner or two and then let other learners perform the activity until the whole class can begin work on their own. This ensures that the class understands what to do and how to do it and the teacher does not have to interrupt them in order to give the instructions again. 3) Set time limits. The teacher gives a rough time limit to build a sense of urgency to an activity. It is also a good idea to stop an activity after most of the groups have finished so that the whole class it not left waiting for the last ones to finish. 4) Arrange the pairs. Learners can be grouped from activity to activity using techniques such as numbering off, giving out cards categorized into related topics, separating learners according to the short statement of their images in the card, giving them pieces of a card to fill together, or even pulling strings held by their classmates to find their partner.Furthermore, Doff book (1988:214) illustrates the information group in the following figure:

Figure 3.7.1.1Information Gap Group by Doff

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5)

Practice it. Practice what the students learnt is the most point. Make sure all students understand about the explanation. They have to show their best by working in group. In information gap, the students should help each other to complete the missing information. In this main work, the teacher assesses the students speaking performance.

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Follow up. Let learners report to the class on either what their pair discussed or what their partner told them. it is not necessary that every students reports, but it is important that every learner have the chance to practice with their classmates during the activity.

7)

Discussion the activity.

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The teacher can extend the activity into a full class discussion, examine errors that students made during group work, or discuss general problem they may have had with the exercise. Follow up and discussion of an activity are necessary so that learners feel that they are working purposefully. In another way, Nunan (1989:122-123) gives more description of applying information gap activities in the following table. It explains what teacher and students do when playing the technique in classroom.
Table 3.7.1.1 The Description of Applying Information Gap Activities by Nunan.
What teachers do Pre teaching Chose a topic and divide it into smaller subtopics/ segments. Assign each student in two group of the whole students in the class. Assign each student two group with a focus on a particular subtopics/segment of the task. What students do Meet briefly in the information gap groups before breaking of work in pairs.

During teaching The teacher gives an example of the materials clearly.

Establish guidelines for the information that students should include in their summaries (e.g., for a series of simple present tense, identify the following: the types of verbs, how they are formed (verb+s/es/ies), etc. Teacher divides the students in the information gap group.

Work together to make sure that the group members become understand on their particular part of the subtopics and help each other to decide how to report the learning to the information gap group. Use small-group discussion skills to share the materials with the information gap until all members have arrived at a common understanding of the entire subtopics/ segment. Understanding the card clearly for looking the missing information.

Have two groups meet to discuss the essential concepts and information, using exercise to guide them.

When presenting information, each group of members asking questions until they get their partner to work in

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pars. The teacher gives some cards that contain some images, and statement. If appropriate, group members make a note about all the subtopics to gather all of information presented by each expert

Teacher asks the students to get their partner; they make the sort dialogues to express their cards themselves.

Students create and present a dialogue I front of the class.

Teacher asks students to show the task as performance in the front of the class.

Post teaching If appropriate, teacher give feedback to the students about materials. Have students to reflect on the communication they used to help all group members understand the materials.

Ask the teacher to clarify information or ideas that are still unclear or confusing. Discuss what communication helps them to understand the materials explained by others.

3.8

The Advantages of Information Gap Nunan (1989:123) explains that information gap is useful activity in which one

person transfer the information to another. The activity often involves selection of relevant information as well, and learners may have to meet criteria of completeness and correctness in making the transfer. Besides, Son (2009:1) states that there are some advantages of information gap. Firstly, more communication takes place by using this activity. Secondly, in information gap high motivation always occurs. Thirdly, it builds students confidence. Fourthly, it develops others sub-skills.

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Therefore, this activity is appropriate to increase students in speaking achievement, because of students are supposed to be working in pairs. One student will have the information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information. Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information. Also, each partner plays an important role because the task cannot be complete if the partners do not provide the information the others need. In brief, information gapactivities are effective and appropriate in increasing students speaking ability. 3.9
The Challenges of Information Gap

Actually,applying information gap activity is not easy. The researcher would like to share her experience during her Internship Program at SMA Negeri 1 Ingin Jaya about challenges in applying information gap activities; Firstly, the teacher has to search some pictures and consider whether the pictures are connected each other statements; while the students have to analyze some pictures and statements clearly to make them understand the meaning on it. Then, the teacher wastes more time in applying this activity and make all of activities will not carried out effectively, while the students have less time to discuss the materials with their partners. Finally, the teacher normally finds the students make noise when discussing the ideas each other, while the students do not understand about the task clearly to do the next activities.

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Based on the evidences stated above, the teacher should be more active and critical in applying these activities, so that the challenges can be overcome and students can enjoy the class in order to explore their speaking ability as expected by these activities.However, this requires a lot more time and a very open class. It may just hamper the flow of the class and the English Communicative aims. Also, finding time in the curriculum to do unstructured information gap can be a challenge.

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CHAPTER IV RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1.

Result In this chapter, the writer will discuss the results that have been found after

finishing this research. Based on some theories which have been conducted by some experts towards information gap activities in teaching speaking, it can be seen that the language skills of the students, especially their speaking skill in the classroom, is increased. The theories conducted by some experts, as stated in chapter III, showed that the students were forced to negotiating meaning because they must make what they are saying comprehensible to others in order to accomplish the task. When they shared information each other, they would have to use their speaking skill to make their friends understand the materials which they wanted to share. One of experiments which has proved the success of information gap activities is Nunan (1989:122-123). In this experiment, information gap has made the student speak as well. It can be seen from the students progress in speaking class before the teacher applied information gap activities the students with timid nature in

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the class. They were shy and reluctant with their new surroundings. At first, when information gap activity was applied and the students were divided into groups, they initially felt terrified. However, when their turn came, they were necessary to speak up and did their job very well. At last, all of them appreciated their work and saw them as a competent and cooperative member of the group. Since then, they became brave and never reluctant to speak their ideas anymore in the class. From the theories above and also other experts previous theories that have previously been mentioned in Chapter III, it is obvious that information gap is an appropriate technique and activity in increase students speaking ability. 4.2. Discussion

4.2.1. Speaking Problems to Senior High School Students Since English is a foreign language in our country, most students especially are not familiar with it (Hetrakul, 1995). He also said that they use English more frequently only inside the class and less frequent outside the class. Whereas, students have limited time to learn English in class, and they still do not have encouragement to practice English outside the class in order to get familiar with English. This case brings a problem that make the school students have difficulties and not confident to communicate in English. As exposed in the background of the study, there are some problems normally faced by the language learners in senior high school when they learned English. The following problems are major concerns of teaching and learning process of speaking skill, for our consideration.

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The first problem is that most of students in teaching learning of English especially for speaking still could not speak English even though in simple sentence. The cause is that the environment does not support the students to speak English frequently. The environment here means the people inside and outside the class. Those people may think that the students just want to show off when they speak English for daily conversation. The second problem is that many students were very passive and reluctant to speak while studying English in the class. The cause is that the response they get makes them loose their self confidence to increase their speaking. Therefore, students are unable to communicate English fluently outside the class. The next problem is that most of teachers only focus on explaining the materials presented orally but give less chance to students to practice it. The cause is that the teachers do not have many time to explain the materials, they still focus to teach the materials in the book without using the effective ways. The last problem is that the teaching and learning activity held by teacher did not fulfill the students need. The cause is the techniques used by teacher could not motivate the students to speak up. The teacher also still uses traditional way and lack of interesting and effective methods in teaching. Therefore, by applying information gap activities in the classroom, it is expected that the students will be more confident in using their speaking skill to express their ideas wherever they are.

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4.2.2. Teaching Speaking by Using Information Gap There are many challenges and difficulties in teaching speaking class by using information gap activities. In order to solve the problems and challenges raise here are the following solutions: 1. Prepare the best materials before teaching. On the basis of Edges suggestion (1984: 259), the author suggest that the teacher can predict language needs and prepare optional support material which is chosen to suit specific interests. Learners can create the need for focus as they put together the divided information. To solve the students challenge the teacher may refer to Hadfield & Hadfield suggestion (2008:113) that the teacher can provide learner with role cards which give them an outline or suggestion about what they can say and set to apprise task. It means that the teacher must give the students some media such as picture strip in the card. These pictures have to be put more clearly without thinking of idleness to assure that the activities made by the teacher is successful. These experts suggestion can solve the first challenge in teaching and learning speaking by using information gap. Therefore, it is better that teacher need to prepare the best materials before teaching with unique medias. In classroom the teachers can give extra cards to students, so that students can practice more on how to deal with the materials.

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2.

Use the time efficiently. In regards to the fact that the teacher and students waste more time in applying information gap activities, the teacher may refer to Hadfield & Hadfield (2008) suggestion about planning the time and let the learners think and share the ideas. Besides the teacher can also refer to Allmans suggestion (2000: 8) that the students experience in the times problem, the solution does not lie in finding more hours during the day but in using time more efficiently. Based on suggestion stated above, the researcher may suggest the warming up activities by sharing ideas about the lesson. The teachers have to plan the time efficiently to ensure that the students are able to think what they want to say.

3.

Design and control the class as well as possible. This challenge is frequently found by teacher. The key is not to avoid conflict, but rather to teach students on how to handle differences of opinion effectively. Students should be encouraged to discuss and explain their thoughts and feelings. Such as Harmer (1991) said, When the teachers act as controllers, they are in charge of the class and of the activity taking place and often leading from the front. Teacher who view their job as the transmission of knowledge from themselves to their students are usually very comfortable with the image of themselves as controllers. From suggestion stated above, it is clear that the teacher should control

the class well because noise is raised from the students misunderstanding about the task. The teacher may also refer to Nunan (2004) and Kayis (2006) suggestion as follow:

29

The teachers should design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interactional speaking, the teachers should circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track and see whether they need a help while they work in groups or pairs. If the teacher implements this solution to solve the last challenge, the teacher will get the result that the classroom activities are quiet but the students still do more actively in sharing their ideas according to the teachers instruction. 4.2.3 The Implementation of Information Gap in Teaching Speaking. Teaching and learning process using information gap begins with some motivations. On the basis of Sons suggestion (2009), the researcher may suggest that information gap activities are high motivation that can increase students confidence. Therefore, information gap activities in particular can be useful in increasing confidence with ample motivation used by the teacher. By applying these techniques and activities refer to Doff (1988:214), which is reflected in his following statements,

The information gap activities can work in various ways: firstly, one student has some information, and the other student has to find it out by asking questions. Secondly, one student has some information and tells it to the other student. Thirdly, both students have different information, and they tell each other. Based on suggestions stated above, the author suggests that the teaching and learning speaking by using information gap activities about anger expression and calming someone down involves five ways or activities and the following is the details: Firstly, the students should find a partner to work in pairs. Each student is given a card with an image and short statement about anger expression and calming

30

someone down on it. At that time, the teacher asks students to circulate and try to find the person with the same image and statements on their small cards. From this activity, it can be seen that activities are able to improve students confidence since all students participate actively in the activity. Secondly, the students must guess the card. The teacher will give them some small cards each of which contain an image and short statement. The students would have the object chosen for them, so their partner cannot see. Then, the teacher orders each of the students to ask their partner about the missing information in their cards. Based on theories stated above, the teacher will see the whole stages of activities of information gap and decide whether it improves the students confidence in learning speaking or not. Thirdly, the students look their partner having same information in their cards. In this way, the teacher asks the partner A to hold an image and statement that is still missing its information. Partner B has the same timetable with different image and statement. Both partner A and B are not permitted to see each other's timetables but they may look for some information according to their thing in small card by asking each others appropriate questions. Fourthly, the students fill the picture with short dialog. In this way, the teacher asks students of partner A and B to make short dialog according to the information they got. By using this information gap activity, the teacher can see that the students are more joyful, and pleased in writing a variety of short dialog, so they are active in practicing their dialogs before performing it in front of their peer. Moreover, this activity can also improve students confidences in speaking.

31

Finally, the students show the performance. After the students write short dialogs and practice, they have to perform their dialog in front of the class. From this activity, the progress of the students can be seen.

32

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1

Conclusion Information gap activity is where the students have a trained timetable with

various bits of information missing which can be completed only by getting the information from his or her partner without looking at the partners timetable. By implementing information gap activity in teaching speaking, the students have chance to be more active in speaking class. It showed that teaching speaking using information gap is successful. The students do not feel bored, but more enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. They look braver and more confident to speak and easy to understand, memorize, and express their feeling. They also admitted that they become active, enjoy, and full of concentration in the classroom.

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5.2

Suggestion First of all, English teachers are suggested to use information gap as one of

activities in teaching English as a second language, and the speaking skill in particular. Second, in teaching English speaking by using information gap, teachers should act as a facilitator to guide the students in giving their opinion during teaching learning process. Next, in applying information gap activity, some teaching aids should be provided to give students motivation and make them more interesting in learning English. Later, teachers need to encourage the students to enrich their vocabulary and learn the basic grammatical structured. Last, the teacher should improve the students confidence and motivation by using information gap activities.

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References Allman, B, dkk. 2000. Skll for successful Teahing. US : McGraw-Hill Children's Publishing. Anggraini, D. 2009. The Contribution of Cumminivcative Approach to Developing Students Speaking Ability. Skripsi FKIP Unsyiah, Darussalam, Banda Aceh. Corbett, J. 2003. An Intercultural Approach to English Language Teaching. UK. Cromwell Press Ltd. David. 2008. Task Based Learning for Dummies, Presentation Practice Production Teaching Method. (Online), March 2012 from (http://www.eltworld.net/howto/2008/04/ppp-for-dummies/), Accessed April 25, 2008. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2006. Silabus KTSP: Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Naional. Doff, A. 1988. Teaching English A training Course of Teachers. Cambridge University Press. New York:

Edge, J. 1983. Structuring the information gap. ELT Journal.Volume 38/1 October 1983. Edge, J. 1984. Structuring The Information Gap. ELT Journal. Volume 38/4 October 1984. Ferguson, J. 2005. Developing a Library Research Strategy. Retrieved June 16, 2005. From http://www.lib.unca.edu/library/lr/resstrat.html. Hadfield, J., & Hadfield, C. 2008. Introduction to Teaching English. New York: Oxford University Press. Harmer, J. 1991. The Practice of English Language Teaching. New York: Longman. Hetrakul, Kavin. 1995. The Second Language. From a journal in http://eserver.org/courses/spring95/76-100g/KavinHetrakul.html. Accessed on December, 20th, 2012. Kasim, U. 2010. Method of Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Banda Aceh: FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala. Kayi, H. 2006. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. University of Nevada: USA. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http//unr.edu/homepage/hayriye. Larsen-Freeman, D. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Littlewood, W, T. 1981. Communicative Language Teaching. UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Miller, T. 1994. English teaching Forum Online. Washington D.C: Longman Group. Retrived June 14, 2011 from http://www.teachingenglish.com Norland, D L. & Said-Pruett, T. 2006. A Kaleidoscope of Models and Strategies for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. London: Teacher Ideas Press, an imprint of Libraries Unlimited Westport, Connecticut. Nunan, D. 1989. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press. Nunan, D. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology: A textbook for teachers. New York: Prentice Hall. Nunan, D. 2004. Task Based Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. Patel, N. 2009. Communicative Approach. Principal Bhagwan Mahavir College of Education (M.Ed.) Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/13917421/Communicative-Approach, Accessed February 16, 2009. Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. 2001. Approach and Method in Language Teaching: A description and analysis.UK: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J. C. 2006. Communicative Language Teaching Today. UK: Cambridge University Press. Sauro, S. Kang, H-Y., & Pica,T. 2006. Information Gap Tasks: Their Multiple Roles and Contributions to Interaction Research Methodology. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics 21/1: 1-34, 2005. Son, L. T. 2009. Using Information Gap Activities to Promote Communication In Efl Classes. 5th National VTTN ELT Conference. Hanoi: Deputy Director, Nghe An Continuing Education Centre. Syahputri, V N. 2011. The Application of Communicative Approach in Teaching Speaking for Junior High School Students. Sikripsi Fkip Unsyiah, Darussalam, Banda Aceh. Watkins, P. 2005. Learning to Teach English. England: Delta Publishing. Widdowson, H. G. 1978. Teaching Language as Communication. New York: Oxford University Express. Young, Heartsill. (1983). ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago: American Library Association.

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Appendix 1. Lesson Implementation Plan RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP) IDENTITAS RPP: Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas/semester Keterampilan Alokasi waktu I. : SMA Negeri 1 Ingin Jaya : Bahasa Inggris : XI /II : Speaking (Expressing Anger) : 2 X 45 menit

Standar Kompetensi [ ref 9 (berbicara) ] Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks percakapn transaksional dan interpersonal resmi dan berlanjut (sustainaed) dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari. Kompetensi dasar [ ref 9.2 (berbicara) ] Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) resmi dan berlanjut (sustained) dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan melibatkan tindak tutur: menyatakan perasaan malu, menyatakan perasaan marah, dan menyatakan pearasaan jengkel.

II.

III. Tujuan pembelajaran 1. Kognitif a. Knowledge Siswa mengetahui ungkapan menyatakan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. Siswa memahami tata cara menyatakan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. b. Comprehension Siswa mengenali ungkapan menyatakan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah secara detail. Siswa mengetahui struktur ungkapan menyatakan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah dalam sebuah percakapan. Afektif a. Receiving Phenomena Siswa dapat menempatkan diri dengan baik dalam proses pembelajaran dalam menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah.

2.

37

3.

b. Responding to Phenomena Siswa dapat mempraktikkan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah dengan tepat. Psikomotor a. Perception Siswa dapat memilih makna kata dan atau rujukan kata tertentu yang sesuai dengan kata/rujukan tertentu dalam menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meradakan marah. b. Mechanism Siswa dapat menggunakan kamus untuk mencari makna kata dalam percakapan transaksional dan interpersonal yang menyatakan ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah.

IV. Indikator 1. Kognitif a. Knowledge Siswa dapat mendefinisikan indikator essensial menyatakan ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah didalam percakapan pendek. b. Comprension Siswa dapat mengidentifikasi indikator essensial menyatakan ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah didalam percakapan pendek. 2. Afektif a. Receiving Phenomena Siswa dapat mengikuti secara aktif dalam proses pembelajaran dari sebuah percakapan pendek yang menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. b. Responding Phenomena Siswa dapat saling membantu secara actif dalam proses pembelajaran dari sebuah percakapan pendek yang menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. 3. Psikomotor a. Perception Siswa dapat memperkirakan makna kata dan atau rujukan kata tertentu yang sesuai dengan kata/rujukan tertentu didalam percakapan pendek yang menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. b. Mechanism Siswa dapat mengungkapkan makna kata didalam percakapan pendek yang menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. V. Materi Pokok Pembelajaran 1. 2. Ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah (lampiran 1). Percakapan singkat tentang ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah (lampiran 2).

38

VI. Metode Pembelajaran Pendekatan Pembelajaran : Communicative Approach Method Model Pembelajaran : Cooperative Learning : Information Gap

VII. Kegiatan Pembelajaran Langkah-langkah Pembelajaran Kegiatan Awal (5 menit ) 1. 2. 3. 4. Guru menyapa siswa dan memastikan mereka siap untuk belajar Guru mengabsen siswa Guru memberikan motivasi kepada siswa Guru memberikan tujuan pembelajaran

Kegiatan inti ( 70 menit ) a. Kegiatan eksplorasi ( 10 menit ) 1. Guru menyapa siswa: Good morning, how are you? 2. Guru memanggil nama siswa satu persatu berdasarkan urutan absen sambil menanyakan beberapa pertanyaan. 3. Guru membuka pelajaran tentang fungsi bahasa dalam teks membahas ungkapan perasaan marah "I would like to explain you on how to express anger expression and calming someone down based on the situation, described" Kemudian guru bertanya lagi: "Anyone knows what is anger expression mean? Menunggu respon siswa. 4. Guru bertanya lagi : "When people express anger expression"? Menunggu respon siswa. 5. Guru mulai menjelaskan keadaan situasi. Dia juga memberi instruksi dan menanggapi situasi. 6. Guru membagikan materi tentang ungakapan-ungkapan tentang perasaan marah dan meredakan marah kepada siswa dengan menggunakan (lampiran 1) 7. Guru menunjukkan gambaran keadaan dan merespon keadaan tersebut sesuai dengan kondisi serta membacakan kepada siswa tata cara pengucapan yang sesuai. 8. Guru memberikan materi percakapan singkat tentang ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah dengan menggunakan gambar ( lampiran 2). 9. Guru melakukan review tentang beberapa kosakata yang diprediksi baru atau sulit bagi siswa yang terdapat dalam ungkapan maupun percakapan singkat. 10. Guru membagi seluruh siswa dalam 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok A dan B sesuai dengan situasi dalam dialog. 11. Guru menyuruh siswa membacakan dialog tersebut dengan ungkapan yang tepat secara bergantian antara kelompok A dan B. 12. Guru mengamati dan mengawasi pekerjaan siswa.

39

b. 1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

c. 1.

2. d. 1. 2. 3.

Kegiatan elaborasi (40 menit) Guru saatnya menentukan kelompok information gap yaitu dengan memberi amplop yang berisi sebuah gambar dan kalimat singkat tentang perasaan marah dan meredakan marah kepada masing-masing orang yang ada didalam kelompok A dan B. Guru menyuruh siswa agar mencari pasangannya sesuai dengan gambar dan kalimat singkat yang didapat dalam amplop tersebut. Menetapkan kelompok information gap siswa masing-masing terdiri 2 orang berpasangan yang mana kelompok A dan kelompok B. Informasi dan gambar yang didapatkan oleh kelompok A tidak sama dengan kelompok B. Siswa harus saling berdiskusi untuk mendapatkan pasangan yang sesuai dengan gambar. Setelah siswa mendapatkan pasangan mereka masing-masing dengan gambar dan kalimat singkat yang sesuai, siswa harus membuat percakapan singkat tentang ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah dari gambar yang masing-masing mereka dapat. Guru menyuruh siswa untuk melakukan dialog drama/peran didepan kelas tanpa melihat dialog. Guru mengevaluasi kemampuan berbicara siswa secara keseluruhan. Kegiatan konfirmasi (15 menit) Guru bersama siswa membandingkan isi (indikator essensial ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah) percakapan singkat yang dikemukakan oleh setiap pasangan dan melakukan penguatan, koreksi, dan jastifikasi. Guru memberikan referensi dan umpan balik yang positif tentang hasil belajar siswa. Kegiatan akhir (5 menit ) Guru dan siswa mendiskusikan materi pelajaran hari ini dan menyimpulkannya. Guru memberikan tugas tindak lanjut. Guru menutup kegiatan pembelajaran.

VIII.

Penilaian (10 menit ) Rubrik Penilaian

N Studen o t Name 1 2 3 4 5

Skill and Language Aspects Pronunciation 25 Fluency 25 Comprehensibility 25 Vocabulary 25 Structure 25 Total

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Catatan:
Rati ng 4 Pronunciation Fluency Comprehensibility Excellent: Easy for listener to understand the speakers intention and meaning. Very good: A few interruptions by the listener for the clarification. Vocabulary Excellent: Using effective word. Structure Excellent: Using the Grammar effectively.

Excellent: Excelle Pronunciation is nt: clear. Speak without too great mistake Very good: Very Pronunciation is good: slightly Has to influenced by make the mother effort at tongue. times to search the word. Enough: Enough: Pronunciation is There still influenced are no by the mother many tongue. unnatura l pauses. Poor: Poor: pronunciation long seriously pauses influenced by while mother tongue. the speakers searches for desired meaning

Very good: Occasional errors of word choice

Very good: effective but not complex construction.

Enough: Most of Enough: what the speakers Limited of say is easy to Vocabulary follow.

Enough: many problems in using grammar.

Poor: Hardly anything what he said to be understood.

Poor: Little of knowledge of vocabulary

Poor: No mastery the role of grammar.

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Lampiran 1 Some Expressions of expressing anger and calming someone down:

Expressing anger :

Oh no..! You are getting me angry. Im starting to get angry.1.2.3.. Are you trying to make me angry? You burn me up. Oh dear! Youre such a pain in the neck! Im totally upset. It really makes me mad. Look here..

Expressing calming someone down:

Take it slow. Take it easy. Calm down. Control yourself. Dont trouble yourself. Dont be angry with me. Dont be so touchy.

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Lampiran 2 Interpersonal Dialogue about expressing anger and calming someone down

(Mother and Bi Ijah are talking in the house, Mother is angry to Bi Ijah)

Mother Bi Ijah Mother

: God.....What is this? What did you do with my skirt, Bi Ijah?? : Sorry, Ma'am, I burned it. : Again! It has been four times you did it. You are such pain in the neck.

Bi Ijah

: I said sorry, Ma' am. But your son, Indra, exhausted me. He runs here and there.

Mother

: Don't blame it on my son. I am really upset now. Don't do it again or I will send you back home.

Bi Ijah

: No, Ma'am, dont be angry with me. I promise I will not do it again.

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IX. Alat dan Sumber Belajar Alat belajar: 1. 2. 3. 4. Gambar-gambar yang sesuai. 5. Kertas Origami Papan gabus 6. Amplop Kamus 7. Color pushpin Kertas dan pulpen

Buku: 1. Buku SMA Look Ahead 2. 2. Buku English For A better life 2 3. http://www.googleimage.

X.

Program Tindak Lanjut 1. Remedial Siswa yang belum kompeten nilai<55 diberi tugas untuk membuat percakapan pendek tentang ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah, isi dari indicator essensial selama satu minggu dalam bahasa inggris. Setelah satu minggu guru mengevaluasi kemajuan hasil belajar siswa tersebut dengan menampilkan percakapan pendek secara berpasangan. 2. Pengayaan Bagi siswa yang mempunyai nilai >55 tetapi <70 diberi pengayaan berupa tugas mencari satu/dua percakapan pendek yang didalamnya menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah.

Mengetahui Dosen Pembimbing,

Banda Aceh, 20 April 2013 Mahasiswa

Masrizal Mahmud, S.Pd.I., M.Ed Nip. 198310052009121007

Sri Murni Nim. 0806102020010

44

Appendix 2. Conversation 1 (Mother and Bi Ijah are talking in the house, Mother is angry to Bi Ijah) Mother Bi Ijah Mother : God.....What is this? What did you do with my skirt, Bi Ijah?? : Sorry, Ma'am, I burned it. : Again! It has been four times you did it. You are such pain in the neck. : I said sorry, Ma' am. But your son, Indra, exhausted me. He runs here and there. : Don't blame it on my son. I am really upset now. Don't do it again or I will send you back home. : No, Ma'am, dont be angry with me. I promise I will not do it again.

Bi Ijah

Mother

Bi Ijah

Conversation 2 (Situation: At the Bank) Tya Vio : Excuse me Miss, I want to take my money. : Im sorry Miss the time for make transaction is over. We must have a lunch now. : But, its important! I must get it quickly. : But youre late Miss. If you want to get them, please come back at 01.00 pm. : I need it now! Do your understand Miss? : Its your fault. Youre late. Please come back at 13.00pm. : It makes me mad! : Calm down Tya, Dont be so touchy. Lets go now.

Tya Vio

Tya Vio Tya Wila

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Appendix 3. Students worksheet. Practice a conversation by using Expressing anger in completing the missing information in the table! Students A:

Situation 1 : (Youre going out on a birthday party with your friends. You are ready and you want to put on your shoes but they are wet and dirty).
A:

B: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Situation 2: (Youre waiting for your friend at a restaurant, and your friend is 30 minutes late).
A: B: --------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Situation 3: (Youre going out with your special friend to caf. When you want to pay the bill, you find no money because you forgot to bring your wallet).
A:

B: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Situation 4 : (You saw someone is bumped your car, so it is scratched).


A:

B: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Situation 5: (You got your pen is broken by your young sister). A:

B: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

47

Practice a conversation by using Expressing calming someone down in completing the missing information in the table! Students B:

Situation 1: (Youre seeing your friend is angry because her shoes are wet and dirty, so you want to calm down her).
A: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B:

Situation 2 : (Youre dating with your friend at a restaurant, but you are late about 30 minutes). A:
B:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Situation 3: (Youre going out with your special friend to caf. When he wants to pay the bill, he fined no money because he forgot to bring his wallet). A:
B:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

48

Situation 4: (You bumped someones car, so it is scratched). A:


B:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Situation : (You You broke your sisters pen). A:


B:

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

49

Scoring Sheet Class Subject No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. etc. Name : : Pronun Grammar Fluency Vocabulary Total

Score orientation: 5 = Excellent, 4 = Very good, 3 = Good, 2 = Poor, 1 = Very poor. Categories: A = 90 100, B = 80 89, C = 70 79, D = 60 69. Maximum score = 20. Minimum score = 5. Score range: 1 100.

For example:

100 =

Nanas total score is 18, so her final score is: 18 x 100 = 90 20

So Nanas final score is 90, and she got A.

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Curriculum Vitae I. Personal Data Name Student Number : Sri Murni : 0806102020010

Place/ Date of Birth : Terangun / Augustus 4th, 1990 Sex Religion : Female : Islam

Nationality / Ethnic : Indonesia / Acehnese Marital status Address : Single : Jl. Terangun - Blang Pidie. Desa. Terangun. Kec. Terangun. Kab. Gayo Lues : 085359626468 : Srimurni2@gmail.com

Mobile phone E-Mail

II.

Educational Background 1996 2002 2002 - 2005 2005 2008 2008-2013 : SD Negeri 1 Rempelam Pinang : SMP Swasta Pondok Moderen Shalahuddiin : SMA Swasta Pondok Moderen Shalahuddiin : Universitas Syiah Kuala

III.

Organization Backgraund 2008-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 : English Students Association (ESA) : Teater Nol : Pema Unsyiah

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CHAPTER II METHOD OF STUDY

2.1

Data and Source of Data The method of study is library research. A library research is a library which

contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects (Young, 1983: 188). The researcher collected the data from the statements or theories suggested by the experts particularly those theories related to the implementation of Communicative Approach by using Information Gap in teaching speaking skill. The data of this study were collected from various kind of resources like some books, juornals, articles, thesis, internet, etc. 2.2 Technique of Data Collection The data was first collected from books, journals, articles, thesis, and internet. Then, they are read and classified systematically. The data was collected in the forms of statements and theories suggested by the language teaching experts as well as by the previous writers that paraphrase and elaborate the statements and the theories to impart valuable information about the technique. In order to make strong arguments,

every statement which is written in this paper is referred to the expert explanation. As suggested by Ferguson (2005:1) on doing a library research Library research begins when you need information to solve a problem, to fulfill an academic assignment or for your own purposes. 2.3 Technique of Data Analysis The result of the exploration of various reading was then elaborated and discussed to find out the solution to the problems earlier stated in the background of this study (Syahputri, 2011:2). Data was analyzed by reading and understanding the collected data, after that the data was categorized by the writer from general to specific information that is valuable to discuss in order to solve the mentioned problems. The result of discussion of the various reading was elaborated and connected to the problem faced by the students to find out the solution to the problems that are mentioned previously in the background of this study.

CHAPTER III LITERATURE REVIEW

3.1

Understanding Communicative Approach According to Applebaum (2007) as cited in Anggraini (2009:16),

communicative approach is a great approach in teaching and creating an environment conductive to learning and having authentic situations using the target language. He further asserts that in communicative approach, the students are expected to be creative and understand the sentences in the target language.According to Patel (2009) in his working paper the communicative approach in 1960's and 1970's, foreign language learning was widely extended with the establishment of comprehensive schools. Communicative approach led to the teaching of a foreign language virtually to all children. Communicative approach also created pressure for a change in teaching methods and curricula to suit the needs of non-traditional groups of learners. Richards & Rodgers (2001:158) stated their theory which is reflected in the following statements.

Communicative Approach is a theory of language teaching that starts from a communicative model of language and language use, and that seeks to translate this into a design for an instructional system, for materials, for teacher and learner roles and behavior, and for classroom activities and techniques. The communicative approach aims to help students to use the target language in a variety of contexts. Furthermore, Larsen-Freeman (2000:74) argues that the goal of communicative approach is to enable the students to communicate in the target language. In this case, every student will be active inspeaking English because the communication is going well through this approach, so that the language acquisition becomes sufficient. Nunan(1991:10) argues that communicative approach is a broad, philosophical approach to the language curriculum that draws on theory and research in linguistics, anthropology, psychology and sociology. Communicative approach aims broadly to apply the theoretical perspective of the communicative approach by making communicative competence the goal of language teaching and by acknowledging interdependence of language of communication (Larsen- Freeman, 2000:121). Therefore, the definitions and development of communicative competence would call for detailing discussion since communicative approach was based on some models of communicative competence. Littlewood (1981:5) further explain a communicative approach opens up a wider perspective on language. In particular it makes us consider language not only in terms of structure (grammar and vocabulary) but also in terms of communicative function that it performs. Widdowson (1978) argues that Communicative abilities embrace linguistics but not the reverse (p. 67). The learner must develop skill and

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strategies for using language to communicate meaning as effectively as possible in concrete situations. Based on the theories stated above, the writer concludesthat the communicative approach is learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will occur. Communicative approach makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life this will allow them to learn to use the language. As a result, there may be more emphasis on skills than systems, lessons are more learner-centered, and there may be use of authentic materials. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. 3.2 Characteristics of Communicative Approach Different methods have different character of each others. The characters of each method become its identity to show what kind of method it is. There are many characteristics of communicative approach that are mentioned by experts, and some of them are described as below: The characteristics of communicative approach by Larsen- Freeman (2000:129-130) they are: firstly, almost everything that is done with communicative intent. Secondly, students use a language a great deal through communicative activities such as role play, problem solving and information gap techniques. Thirdly, in communication the speaker has a choice of what she will say and how she wills it. Fourthly, true communication is purposeful. Finally, Communicative Approach is

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using of authentic materials in small group. Littelewood (1981) state, One of the most characteristic features of communicative language teaching is that it pays systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language (p.1). From those characteristics of communicative approach stated above, it may be concluded that teaching learning using this method have several characteristics are summarized as follow. Commutative approach stimulates real life communicative experiences. Analysis of language is done in specific contexts. Speaking skill is as a vehicle for learning across in all subjects area. In this method, oral communication should be integrated with other areas of instructions. 3. 3 Techniques in Communicative Approach A technique is usually seen as one activity or procedure used within a plan for teaching (Norland& Said-Pruett: 2006). Most effective teachers choose from a number of approaches, methods, and techniques to create a learning environment that fits the needs of their students. This review has been provided in the event you wish tried to use any of the techniques or materials associated with the communicative approach. Larsen-Freeman (2000:132-135) argues that there are some techniques in communicative approach, such as: Authentic materials, scrambled sentences, language games, picture strip story, and role play. From those all techniques mentioned above, the most important one is still information gap. The information gap activities exist in all those techniques and it makes those techniques be interesting in communicative approach. Such as Harmer (1991) said A key to enhancement of communicative purpose and the desire to communicate is information gap (p.70). Communicative
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approach, students are dominant in small group, group work and pair work, so the information gap also the student do in group work certainly. According to David (2008), information gap has three stage procedures of activity that can be described as below: 1) Presentation is a process for representing the introduction to a lesson, and necessarily requires the creation of realistic situation requiring the target language to be learned. This can be achieved through using reality such as pictures, dialogs, imagination or actual classroom situation. 2) Practice is usually begins with, what is termed mechanical practice open and closed pair work. Students gradually move into more communicative practice involving procedures such as information activities, dialogue, creation and controlled role-plays. 3) Production is seen as the culmination of the language learning process, whereby the learners have started to become independent users of the language rather than students of the language. From these some stage procedures stated above, it can be concluded that during the presentation, the teacher presents (introduces) the target language, setting it in a real world context so that the learners can see how and when it is used. Then in the practice phrase, the learners are given activities to focus on the target language, and finally in production phrase, the learners are given speaking activities which give them opportunity to use the target language more natural, realistic way. 3. 4 Understanding Information Gap

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According to the statement of Kasim (2010:185), information gap activities include a tremendous variety of techniques in which the objectives is to convey or to request information.Besides, Harmer (1991:48) mentions that information gap means a gap between two persons in the information they process and the conversation helps to close that gap so that, both speakers have the same information. Richards (2006:18) explains an important aspect of communication in communicative approach is the notion of information gap. This refers to the fact that in real communication, people normally communicate in order to get information they do not possess. According to Corbett (2003: 22) in his following statement, The information gap or information transfer task became the archetypal communicative activity. Typically, one learner would be given access to information that was denied to another learner. Then, in pairs or groups, the learners would exchange the information. Based on definition stated above, it may be concluded that information gap is an activity which requires at least two different versions of the material. Students work together in pairs and each student has different information on their pages, so that they have to talk to each other by using the target language in order to complete it.

3.5

Types of Information Gap According to Nunan (1989:66), Information gap has three types, namely:

1.

Information gap activity.

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Information gap activity is a transfer of given information from one person to another or from one place to another generally calling for the decoding or encoding of information from or into language. 2. Reasoning gap activity. Reasoning gap activity is deriving some new information from given information through processes of inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or perception of relationships or patterns. 3. Opinion gap activity. Opinion gap activity is identifying and articulating a personal preference, feeling, or attitude in response to a given situation. 3.6The Activities of Information Gap According to Nunan (1989), information gap activities contain the following steps: 1. 2. Introduction---learners are introduced to the problem they will have to solve. Vocabulary and idioms---The teacher introduces vocabulary items which might cause difficulty. 3. Small group speaking, discussion and note taking--- Students are divided into three or more groups. Each group will give a card that contain of picture. They are instructed to understanding the following picture. The teacher will explain what those students will do.

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4.

Small group problem solving--- students are recombined so that the new groups contain at least one member of each of the preceding groups. They are provided with blank information table and outline plan of a picture. They must set out the key information in the information table, and then use this to construct a picture with the short dialogues.

5.

Feedback--- Students return to their original groups and complete pictures with the short dialogues. They guess their picture with the short dialogues. Based on the steps stated above, it may be concluded that information gaps

task involves as follow activities: explain the activity, give example or demonstrations, arrange the pairs, practice, follow up, and discussion. These are task in which one student or group of students has one set of information and another student or group has a complementary set of information. They must negotiate and find out what the other partys information is in order to complete an activity. Corbett (2003) argues Information gap activities were intended to ensure genuine or authentic communication (p. 22).It can be seen that information Gap activities in the theories are appropriate activities as they force the students to ask each other questions, these activities help to make the language classroom experience in communicating more meaningful and authentic. Information gap activities usually split the information needed to complete an activity between a pair or group. Therefore, the students must communicate each other in order to find all the necessary information to complete the activity. There are many different levels of info gap activity. Some can be very structured, with the

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students using specific vocabulary and grammar to communicate information. Others can be totally unstructured with students free to draw on all or any knowledge they have of English. Some involving the transfer of information (from visual images to verbal descriptions,and vice versa), and some involving the expression of differing personal opinions (e.g. ranking exercises, where learners must discuss their preferred holiday destination, their favorite artwork, and so on). These activities lend themselves not only to the promotion of fluency, but also, potentially, to increase awareness of culture. Such idea that has been discussed by Doff (1988:214) is reflected in his following statements: The information gap activities can work in various ways: Firstly, one student has some information, and the other student has to find it out by asking questions. Secondly, one student has some information and tells it to the other student. Thirdly, both students have different information, and they tell each other. In information gap, each student in the group has some information required to complete the task or activity, the aim is to share the information and to complete the task. Students do not know what the others are going to say such as it imitates real life conversation. In information gap activity, it is important that the learners have an opportunity to check the information they have been talking about. It gives them and you a chance to judge how successful they have done the activity for the learners to find out the right answers.

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These activities are very easily made learner-prepared on the condition that the learners know exactly which information they have to provide. Now they have an original information gap to complete. In practical terms, this activity has become a generic activity. This means that a teacher can keep a pile of the grid, ready for use at any time (perhaps when the photocopier has broken down) for a number of purposes. Alternatively, the grid can be copied by the learners into their books. 3.7 The Application of Information Gap

3.7.1 Description of Applying InformationGap Information gap has typical characters which students do not only work in group with a task held by all the members, but also they have their own task, and they will master the task by working with other group members, which makes information gap is different from usual discussion or other teaching technique and activity.

According to Nunan (1989), information gap activities may be concluded as follow activities: explain the activity, give example or demonstrations, arrange the pairs, practice, follow up, and discussion. Besides, Miller (1994), he describes that there are some steps in teaching information gap as follows. 1) Explain the activity. The teacher has to make sure the learners know exactly what they have to do. Go over directions carefully, and give them time to ask any questions they may have. 2) Give examples or demonstrations.

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Before the teacher divided whole class into pairs, he/she gives as many examples as necessary to make sure the class has the idea. The teacher can be as the model of the activity with a learner or two and then let other learners perform the activity until the whole class can begin work on their own. This ensures that the class understands what to do and how to do it and the teacher does not have to interrupt them in order to give the instructions again. 3) Set time limits. The teacher gives a rough time limit to build a sense of urgency to an activity. It is also a good idea to stop an activity after most of the groups have finished so that the whole class it not left waiting for the last ones to finish. 4) Arrange the pairs. Learners can be grouped from activity to activity using techniques such as numbering off, giving out cards categorized into related topics, separating learners according to the short statement of their images in the card, giving them pieces of a card to fill together, or even pulling strings held by their classmates to find their partner.Furthermore, Doff book (1988:214) illustrates the information group in the following figure:

Figure 3.7.1.1Information Gap Group by Doff

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5)

Practice it. Practice what the students learnt is the most point. Make sure all students understand about the explanation. They have to show their best by working in group. . In information gap, the students should help each other to complete the missing information. In this main work, the teacher assesses the students speaking performance.

6)

Follow up. Let learners report to the class on either what their pair discussed or what their partner told them. it is not necessary that every students reports, but it is important that every learner have the chance to practice with their classmates during the activity.

7)

Discussion the activity.

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The teacher can extend the activity into a full class discussion, examine errors that students made during group work, or discuss general problem they may have had with the exercise. Follow up and discussion of an activity are necessary so that learners feel that they are working purposefully. In another way, Nunan (1989:122-123) gives more description of applying information gap activities in the following table. It explains what teacher and students do when playing the technique in classroom.
Table 3.7.1.1 The Description of Applying Information Gap Activities by Nunan.
What teachers do Pre teaching Chose a topic and divide it into smaller subtopics/ segments. Assign each student in two group of the whole students in the class. Assign each student two group with a focus on a particular subtopics/segment of the task. What students do Meet briefly in the information gap groups before breaking of work in pairs.

During teaching The teacher gives an example of the materials clearly.

Establish guidelines for the information that students should include in their summaries (e.g., for a series of simple present tense, identify the following: the types of verbs, how they are formed (verb+s/es/ies), etc. Teacher divides the students in the information gap group.

Work together to make sure that the group members become understand on their particular part of the subtopics and help each other to decide how to report the learning to the information gap group. Use small-group discussion skills to share the materials with the information gap until all members have arrived at a common understanding of the entire subtopics/ segment. Understanding the card clearly for looking the missing information.

Have two groups meet to discuss the essential concepts and information, using exercise to guide them.

When presenting information, each group of members asking questions until they get their partner to work in

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pars. The teacher gives some cards that contain some images, and statement. If appropriate, group members make a note about all the subtopics to gather all of information presented by each expert

Teacher asks the students to get their partner; they make the sort dialogues to express their cards themselves.

Students create and present a dialogue I front of the class.

Teacher asks students to show the task as performance in the front of the class.

Post teaching If appropriate, teacher give feedback to the students about materials. Have students to reflect on the communication they used to help all group members understand the materials.

Ask the teacher to clarify information or ideas that are still unclear or confusing. Discuss what communication helps them to understand the materials explained by others.

3.8

The Advantages of Information Gap Nunan (1989:123) explains that information gap is useful activity in which one

person transfer the information to another. The activity often involves selection of relevant information as well, and learners may have to meet criteria of completeness and correctness in making the transfer. Besides, Son (2009:1) states that there are some advantages of information gap. Firstly, more communication takes place by using this activity. Secondly, in information gap high motivation always occurs. Thirdly, it builds students confidence. Fourthly, it develops others sub-skills.

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Therefore, this activity is appropriate to increase students in speaking achievement, because of students are supposed to be working in pairs. One student will have the information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information. Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information. Also, each partner plays an important role because the task cannot be complete if the partners do not provide the information the others need. In brief, information gapactivities are effective and appropriate in increasing students speaking ability. 3.9
The Challenges of Information Gap

Actually,applying information gap activity is not easy. The researcher would like to share her experience during her Internship Program at SMA Negeri 1 Ingin Jaya about challenges in applying information gap activities; Firstly, the teacher has to search some pictures and consider whether the pictures are connected each other statements; while the students have to analyze some pictures and statements clearly to make them understand the meaning on it. Then, the teacher wastes more time in applying this activity and make all of activities will not carried out effectively, while the students have less time to discuss the materials with their partners. Finally, the teacher normally finds the students make noise when discussing the ideas each other, while the students do not understand about the task clearly to do the next activities.

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Based on the evidences stated above, the teacher should be more active and critical in applying these activities, so that the challenges can be overcome and students can enjoy the class in order to explore their speaking ability as expected by these activities.However, this requires a lot more time and a very open class. It may just hamper the flow of the class and the English Communicative aims. Also, finding time in the curriculum to do unstructured information gap can be a challenge.

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CHAPTER IV RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1.

Result In this chapter, the writer will discuss the results that have been found after

finishing this research. Based on some theories which have been conducted by some experts towards information gap activities in teaching speaking, it can be seen that the language skills of the students, especially their speaking skill in the classroom, is increased. The theories conducted by some experts, as stated in chapter III, showed that the students were forced to negotiating meaning because they must make what they are saying comprehensible to others in order to accomplish the task. When they shared information each other, they would have to use their speaking skill to make their friends understand the materials which they wanted to share. One of experiments which has proved the success of information gap activities is Nunan (1989:122-123). In this experiment, information gap has made the student speak as well. It can be seen from the students progress in speaking class before the teacher applied information gap activities the students with timid nature in

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the class. They were shy and reluctant with their new surroundings. At first, when information gap activity was applied and the students were divided into groups, they initially felt terrified. However, when their turn came, they were necessary to speak up and did their job very well. At last, all of them appreciated their work and saw them as a competent and cooperative member of the group. Since then, they became brave and never reluctant to speak their ideas anymore in the class. From the theories above and also other experts previous theories that have previously been mentioned in Chapter III, it is obvious that information gap is an appropriate technique and activity in increase students speaking ability. 4.2. Discussion

4.2.1. Speaking Problems to Senior High School Students Since English is a foreign language in our country, most students especially are not familiar with it (Hetrakul, 1995). He also said that they use English more frequently only inside the class and less frequent outside the class. Whereas, students have limited time to learn English in class, and they still do not have encouragement to practice English outside the class in order to get familiar with English. This case brings a problem that make the school students have difficulties and not confident to communicate in English. As exposed in the background of the study, there are some problems normally faced by the language learners in senior high school when they learned English. The following problems are major concerns of teaching and learning process of speaking skill, for our consideration.

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The first problem is that most of students in teaching learning of English especially for speaking still could not speak English even though in simple sentence. The cause is that the environment does not support the students to speak English frequently. The environment here means the people inside and outside the class. Those people may think that the students just want to show off when they speak English for daily conversation. The second problem is that many students were very passive and reluctant to speak while studying English in the class. The cause is that the response they get makes them loose their self confidence to increase their speaking. Therefore, students are unable to communicate English fluently outside the class. The next problem is that most of teachers only focus on explaining the materials presented orally but give less chance to students to practice it. The cause is that the teachers do not have many time to explain the materials, they still focus to teach the materials in the book without using the effective ways. The last problem is that the teaching and learning activity held by teacher did not fulfill the students need. The cause is the techniques used by teacher could not motivate the students to speak up. The teacher also still uses traditional way and lack of interesting and effective methods in teaching. Therefore, by applying information gap activities in the classroom, it is expected that the students will be more confident in using their speaking skill to express their ideas wherever they are.

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4.2.2. Teaching Speaking by Using Information Gap There are many challenges and difficulties in teaching speaking class by using information gap activities. In order to solve the problems and challenges raise here are the following solutions: 1. Prepare the best materials before teaching. On the basis of Edges suggestion (1984: 259), the author suggest that the teacher can predict language needs and prepare optional support material which is chosen to suit specific interests. Learners can create the need for focus as they put together the divided information. To solve the students challenge the teacher may refer to Hadfield & Hadfield suggestion (2008:113) that the teacher can provide learner with role cards which give them an outline or suggestion about what they can say and set to apprise task. It means that the teacher must give the students some media such as picture strip in the card. These pictures have to be put more clearly without thinking of idleness to assure that the activities made by the teacher is successful. These experts suggestion can solve the first challenge in teaching and learning speaking by using information gap. Therefore, it is better that teacher need to prepare the best materials before teaching with unique medias. In classroom the teachers can give extra cards to students, so that students can practice more on how to deal with the materials.

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2.

Use the time efficiently. In regards to the fact that the teacher and students waste more time in applying information gap activities, the teacher may refer to Hadfield & Hadfield (2008) suggestion about planning the time and let the learners think and share the ideas. Besides the teacher can also refer to Allmans suggestion (2000: 8) that the students experience in the times problem, the solution does not lie in finding more hours during the day but in using time more efficiently. Based on suggestion stated above, the researcher may suggest the warming up activities by sharing ideas about the lesson. The teachers have to plan the time efficiently to ensure that the students are able to think what they want to say.

3.

Design and control the class as well as possible. This challenge is frequently found by teacher. The key is not to avoid conflict, but rather to teach students on how to handle differences of opinion effectively. Students should be encouraged to discuss and explain their thoughts and feelings. Such as Harmer (1991) said, When the teachers act as controllers, they are in charge of the class and of the activity taking place and often leading from the front. Teacher who view their job as the transmission of knowledge from themselves to their students are usually very comfortable with the image of themselves as controllers. From suggestion stated above, it is clear that the teacher should control

the class well because noise is raised from the students misunderstanding about the task. The teacher may also refer to Nunan (2004) and Kayis (2006) suggestion as follow:

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The teachers should design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interactional speaking, the teachers should circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track and see whether they need a help while they work in groups or pairs. If the teacher implements this solution to solve the last challenge, the teacher will get the result that the classroom activities are quiet but the students still do more actively in sharing their ideas according to the teachers instruction. 4.2.3 The Implementation of Information Gap in Teaching Speaking. Teaching and learning process using information gap begins with some motivations. On the basis of Sons suggestion (2009), the researcher may suggest that information gap activities are high motivation that can increase students confidence. Therefore, information gap activities in particular can be useful in increasing confidence with ample motivation used by the teacher. By applying these techniques and activities refer to Doff (1988:214), which is reflected in his following statements,

The information gap activities can work in various ways: firstly, one student has some information, and the other student has to find it out by asking questions. Secondly, one student has some information and tells it to the other student. Thirdly, both students have different information, and they tell each other. Based on suggestions stated above, the author suggests that the teaching and learning speaking by using information gap activities about anger expression and calming someone down involves five ways or activities and the following is the details: Firstly, the students should find a partner to work in pairs. Each student is given a card with an image and short statement about anger expression and calming

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someone down on it. At that time, the teacher asks students to circulate and try to find the person with the same image and statements on their small cards. From this activity, it can be seen that activities are able to improve students confidence since all students participate actively in the activity. Secondly, the students must guess the card. The teacher will give them some small cards each of which contain an image and short statement. The students would have the object chosen for them, so their partner cannot see. Then, the teacher orders each of the students to ask their partner about the missing information in their cards. Based on theories stated above, the teacher will see the whole stages of activities of information gap and decide whether it improves the students confidence in learning speaking or not. Thirdly, the students look their partner having same information in their cards. In this way, the teacher asks the partner A to hold an image and statement that is still missing its information. Partner B has the same timetable with different image and statement. Both partner A and B are not permitted to see each other's timetables but they may look for some information according to their thing in small card by asking each others appropriate questions. Fourthly, the students fill the picture with short dialog. In this way, the teacher asks students of partner A and B to make short dialog according to the information they got. By using this information gap activity, the teacher can see that the students are more joyful, and pleased in writing a variety of short dialog, so they are active in practicing their dialogs before performing it in front of their peer. Moreover, this activity can also improve students confidences in speaking.

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Finally, the students show the performance. After the students write short dialogs and practice, they have to perform their dialog in front of the class. From this activity, the progress of the students can be seen.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1

Conclusion Information gap activity is where the students have a trained timetable with

various bits of information missing which can be completed only by getting the information from his or her partner without looking at the partners timetable. By implementing information gap activity in teaching speaking, the students have chance to be more active in speaking class. It showed that teaching speaking using information gap is successful. The students do not feel bored, but more enthusiastic to follow the teaching learning process. They look braver and more confident to speak and easy to understand, memorize, and express their feeling. They also admitted that they become active, enjoy, and full of concentration in the classroom.

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5.2

Suggestion First of all, English teachers are suggested to use information gap as one of

activities in teaching English as a second language, and the speaking skill in particular. Second, in teaching English speaking by using information gap, teachers should act as a facilitator to guide the students in giving their opinion during teaching learning process. Next, in applying information gap activity, some teaching aids should be provided to give students motivation and make them more interesting in learning English. Later, teachers need to encourage the students to enrich their vocabulary and learn the basic grammatical structured. Last, the teacher should improve the students confidence and motivation by using information gap activities.

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References Allman, B, dkk. 2000. Skll for successful Teahing. US : McGraw-Hill Children's Publishing. Anggraini, D. 2009. The Contribution of Cumminivcative Approach to Developing Students Speaking Ability. Skripsi FKIP Unsyiah, Darussalam, Banda Aceh. Corbett, J. 2003. An Intercultural Approach to English Language Teaching. UK. Cromwell Press Ltd. David. 2008. Task Based Learning for Dummies, Presentation Practice Production Teaching Method. (Online), March 2012 from (http://www.eltworld.net/howto/2008/04/ppp-for-dummies/), Accessed April 25, 2008. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2006. Silabus KTSP: Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris SMA. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Naional. Doff, A. 1988. Teaching English A training Course of Teachers. Cambridge University Press. New York:

Edge, J. 1983. Structuring the information gap. ELT Journal.Volume 38/1 October 1983. Edge, J. 1984. Structuring The Information Gap. ELT Journal. Volume 38/4 October 1984. Ferguson, J. 2005. Developing a Library Research Strategy. Retrieved June 16, 2005. From http://www.lib.unca.edu/library/lr/resstrat.html. Hadfield, J., & Hadfield, C. 2008. Introduction to Teaching English. New York: Oxford University Press. Harmer, J. 1991. The Practice of English Language Teaching. New York: Longman. Hetrakul, Kavin. 1995. The Second Language. From a journal in http://eserver.org/courses/spring95/76-100g/KavinHetrakul.html. Accessed on December, 20th, 2012. Kasim, U. 2010. Method of Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Banda Aceh: FKIP Universitas Syiah Kuala. Kayi, H. 2006. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. University of Nevada: USA. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http//unr.edu/homepage/hayriye. Larsen-Freeman, D. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Littlewood, W, T. 1981. Communicative Language Teaching. UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Miller, T. 1994. English teaching Forum Online. Washington D.C: Longman Group. Retrived June 14, 2011 from http://www.teachingenglish.com Norland, D L. & Said-Pruett, T. 2006. A Kaleidoscope of Models and Strategies for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. London: Teacher Ideas Press, an imprint of Libraries Unlimited Westport, Connecticut. Nunan, D. 1989. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press. Nunan, D. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology: A textbook for teachers. New York: Prentice Hall. Nunan, D. 2004. Task Based Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. Patel, N. 2009. Communicative Approach. Principal Bhagwan Mahavir College of Education (M.Ed.) Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/13917421/Communicative-Approach, Accessed February 16, 2009. Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. 2001. Approach and Method in Language Teaching: A description and analysis.UK: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J. C. 2006. Communicative Language Teaching Today. UK: Cambridge University Press. Sauro, S. Kang, H-Y., & Pica,T. 2006. Information Gap Tasks: Their Multiple Roles and Contributions to Interaction Research Methodology. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics 21/1: 1-34, 2005. Son, L. T. 2009. Using Information Gap Activities to Promote Communication In Efl Classes. 5th National VTTN ELT Conference. Hanoi: Deputy Director, Nghe An Continuing Education Centre. Syahputri, V N. 2011. The Application of Communicative Approach in Teaching Speaking for Junior High School Students. Sikripsi Fkip Unsyiah, Darussalam, Banda Aceh. Watkins, P. 2005. Learning to Teach English. England: Delta Publishing. Widdowson, H. G. 1978. Teaching Language as Communication. New York: Oxford University Express. Young, Heartsill. (1983). ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago: American Library Association.

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Appendix 1. Lesson Implementation Plan RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP) IDENTITAS RPP: Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas/semester Keterampilan Alokasi waktu I. : SMA Negeri 1 Ingin Jaya : Bahasa Inggris : XI /II : Speaking (Expressing Anger) : 2 X 45 menit

Standar Kompetensi [ ref 9 (berbicara) ] Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks percakapn transaksional dan interpersonal resmi dan berlanjut (sustainaed) dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari. Kompetensi dasar [ ref 9.2 (berbicara) ] Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) resmi dan berlanjut (sustained) dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan melibatkan tindak tutur: menyatakan perasaan malu, menyatakan perasaan marah, dan menyatakan pearasaan jengkel.

II.

III. Tujuan pembelajaran 1. Kognitif a. Knowledge Siswa mengetahui ungkapan menyatakan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. Siswa memahami tata cara menyatakan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. b. Comprehension Siswa mengenali ungkapan menyatakan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah secara detail. Siswa mengetahui struktur ungkapan menyatakan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah dalam sebuah percakapan. Afektif a. Receiving Phenomena Siswa dapat menempatkan diri dengan baik dalam proses pembelajaran dalam menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah.

2.

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3.

b. Responding to Phenomena Siswa dapat mempraktikkan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah dengan tepat. Psikomotor a. Perception Siswa dapat memilih makna kata dan atau rujukan kata tertentu yang sesuai dengan kata/rujukan tertentu dalam menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meradakan marah. b. Mechanism Siswa dapat menggunakan kamus untuk mencari makna kata dalam percakapan transaksional dan interpersonal yang menyatakan ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah.

IV. Indikator 1. Kognitif a. Knowledge Siswa dapat mendefinisikan indikator essensial menyatakan ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah didalam percakapan pendek. b. Comprension Siswa dapat mengidentifikasi indikator essensial menyatakan ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah didalam percakapan pendek. 2. Afektif a. Receiving Phenomena Siswa dapat mengikuti secara aktif dalam proses pembelajaran dari sebuah percakapan pendek yang menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. b. Responding Phenomena Siswa dapat saling membantu secara actif dalam proses pembelajaran dari sebuah percakapan pendek yang menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. 3. Psikomotor a. Perception Siswa dapat memperkirakan makna kata dan atau rujukan kata tertentu yang sesuai dengan kata/rujukan tertentu didalam percakapan pendek yang menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. b. Mechanism Siswa dapat mengungkapkan makna kata didalam percakapan pendek yang menyatakan ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah. V. Materi Pokok Pembelajaran 1. 2. Ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah (lampiran 1). Percakapan singkat tentang ungkapan marah dan meredakan marah (lampiran 2).

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VI. Metode Pembelajaran Pendekatan Pembelajaran : Communicative Approach Method Model Pembelajaran : Cooperative Learning : Information Gap

VII. Kegiatan Pembelajaran Langkah-langkah Pembelajaran Kegiatan Awal (5 menit ) 1. 2. 3. 4. Guru menyapa siswa dan memastikan mereka siap untuk belajar Guru mengabsen siswa Guru memberikan motivasi kepada siswa Guru memberikan tujuan pembelajaran

Kegiatan inti ( 70 menit ) a. Kegiatan eksplorasi ( 10 menit ) 1. Guru menyapa siswa: Good morning, how are you? 2. Guru memanggil nama siswa satu persatu berdasarkan urutan absen sambil menanyakan beberapa pertanyaan. 3. Guru membuka pelajaran tentang fungsi bahasa dalam teks membahas ungkapan perasaan marah "I would like to explain you on how to express anger expression and calming someone down based on the situation, described" Kemudian guru bertanya lagi: "Anyone knows what is anger expression mean? Menunggu respon siswa. 4. Guru bertanya lagi : "When people express anger expression"? Menunggu respon siswa. 5. Guru mulai menjelaskan keadaan situasi. Dia juga memberi instruksi dan menanggapi situasi. 6. Guru membagikan materi tentang ungakapan-ungkapan tentang perasaan marah dan meredakan marah kepada siswa dengan menggunakan (lampiran 1) 7. Guru menunjukkan gambaran keadaan dan merespon keadaan tersebut sesuai dengan kondisi serta membacakan kepada siswa tata cara pengucapan yang sesuai. 8. Guru memberikan materi percakapan singkat tentang ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah dengan menggunakan gambar ( lampiran 2). 9. Guru melakukan review tentang beberapa kosakata yang diprediksi baru atau sulit bagi siswa yang terdapat dalam ungkapan maupun percakapan singkat. 10. Guru membagi seluruh siswa dalam 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok A dan B sesuai dengan situasi dalam dialog. 11. Guru menyuruh siswa membacakan dialog tersebut dengan ungkapan yang tepat secara bergantian antara kelompok A dan B. 12. Guru mengamati dan mengawasi pekerjaan siswa.

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b. 1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

c. 1.

2. d. 1. 2. 3.

Kegiatan elaborasi (40 menit) Guru saatnya menentukan kelompok information gap yaitu dengan memberi amplop yang berisi sebuah gambar dan kalimat singkat tentang perasaan marah dan meredakan marah kepada masing-masing orang yang ada didalam kelompok A dan B. Guru menyuruh siswa agar mencari pasangannya sesuai dengan gambar dan kalimat singkat yang didapat dalam amplop tersebut. Menetapkan kelompok information gap siswa masing-masing terdiri 2 orang berpasangan yang mana kelompok A dan kelompok B. Informasi dan gambar yang didapatkan oleh kelompok A tidak sama dengan kelompok B. Siswa harus saling berdiskusi untuk mendapatkan pasangan yang sesuai dengan gambar. Setelah siswa mendapatkan pasangan mereka masing-masing dengan gambar dan kalimat singkat yang sesuai, siswa harus membuat percakapan singkat tentang ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah dari gambar yang masing-masing mereka dapat. Guru menyuruh siswa untuk melakukan dialog drama/peran didepan kelas tanpa melihat dialog. Guru mengevaluasi kemampuan berbicara siswa secara keseluruhan. Kegiatan konfirmasi (15 menit) Guru bersama siswa membandingkan isi (indikator essensial ungkapan perasaan marah dan meredakan marah) percakapan singkat yang dikemukakan oleh setiap pasangan dan melakukan penguatan, koreksi, dan jastifikasi. Guru memberikan referensi dan umpan balik yang positif tentang hasil belajar siswa. Kegiatan akhir (5 menit ) Guru dan siswa mendiskusikan materi pelajaran hari ini dan menyimpulkannya. Guru memberikan tugas tindak lanjut. Guru menutup kegiatan pembelajaran.

VIII.

Penilaian (10 menit ) Rubrik Penilaian

N Studen o t Name 1 2 3 4 5

Skill and Language Aspects Pronunciation 25 Fluency 25 Comprehensibility 25 Vocabulary 25 Structure 25 Total

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Catatan:
Rati ng 4 Pronunciation Fluency Comprehensibility Excellent: Easy for listener to understand the speakers intention and meaning. Very good: A few interruptions by the listener for the clarification. Vocabulary Excellent: Using effective word. Structure Excellent: Using the Grammar effectively.

Excellent: Excelle Pronunciation is nt: clear. Speak without too great mistake Very good: Very Pronunciation is good: slightly Has to influenced by make the mother effort at tongue. times to search the word. Enough: Enough: Pronunciation is There still influenced are no by the mother many tongue. unnatura l pauses. Poor: Poor: pronunciation long seriously pauses influenced by while mother tongue. the speakers searches for desired meaning

Very good: Occasional errors of word choice

Very good: effective but not complex construction.

Enough: Most of Enough: what the speakers Limited of say is easy to Vocabulary follow.

Enough: many problems in using grammar.

Poor: Hardly anything what he said to be understood.

Poor: Little of knowledge of vocabulary

Poor: No mastery the role of grammar.

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Lampiran 1 Some Expressions of expressing anger and calming someone down:

Expressing anger :

Oh no..! You are getting me angry. Im starting to get angry.1.2.3.. Are you trying to make me angry? You burn me up. Oh dear! Youre such a pain in the neck! Im totally upset. It really makes me mad. Look here..

Expressing calming someone down:

Take it slow. Take it easy. Calm down. Control yourself. Dont trouble yourself. Dont be angry with me. Dont be so touchy.

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Lampiran 2 Interpersonal Dialogue about expressing anger and calming someone down

(Mother and Bi Ijah are talking in the house, Mother is angry to Bi Ijah)

Mother Bi Ijah Mother

: God.....What is this? What did you do with my skirt, Bi Ijah?? : Sorry, Ma'am, I burned it. : Again! It has been four times you did it. You are such pain in the neck.

Bi Ijah

: I said sorry, Ma' am. But your son, Indra, exhausted me. He runs here and there.

Mother

: Don't blame it on my son. I am really upset now. Don't do it again or I will send you back home.

Bi Ijah

: No, Ma'am, dont be angry with me. I promise I will not do it again.

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Appendix 2. Conversation 1 (Mother and Bi Ijah are talking in the house, Mother is angry to Bi Ijah)

Mother Bi Ijah Mother Bi Ijah Mother

: God.....What is this? What did you do with my skirt, Bi Ijah?? : Sorry, Ma'am, I burned it. : Again! It has been four times you did it. You are such pain in the neck. : I said sorry, Ma' am. But your son, Indra, exhausted me. He runs here and there. : Don't blame it on my son. I am really upset now. Don't do it again or I will send you back home.

Bi Ijah

: No, Ma'am, dont be angry with me. I promise I will not do it again.

Conversation 2 (Situation: At the Bank) Tya Vio Tya Vio Tya Vio Tya Wila : Excuse me Miss, I want to take my money. : Im sorry Miss the time for make transaction is over. We must have a lunch now. : But, its important! I must get it quickly. : But youre late Miss. If you want to get them, please come back at 01.00 pm. : I need it now! Do your understand Miss? : Its your fault. Youre late. Please come back at 13.00pm. : It makes me mad! : Calm down Tya, Dont be so touchy. Lets go now.

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Appendix 3. Students worksheet. Practice a conversation by using Expressing anger in completing the missing information in the table! Students A:

Situation 1 : (Youre going out on a birthday party with your friends. You are ready and you want to put on your shoes but they are wet and dirty).
A:

B: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Situation 2: (Youre waiting for your friend at a restaurant, and your friend is 30 minutes late).
A: B: --------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Situation 3: (Youre going out with your special friend to caf. When you want to pay the bill, you find no money because you forgot to bring your wallet).
A:

B: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Situation 4 : (You saw someone is bumped your car, so it is scratched).


A:

B: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Situation 5: (You got your pen is broken by your young sister). A:

B: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Practice a conversation by using Expressing calming someone down in completing the missing information in the table! Students B:

Situation 1: (Youre seeing your friend is angry because her shoes are wet and dirty, so you want to calm down her).
A: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B:

Situation 2 : (Youre dating with your friend at a restaurant, but you are late about 30 minutes). A:
B:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Situation 3: (Youre going out with your special friend to caf. When he wants to pay the bill, he fined no money because he forgot to bring his wallet). A:
B:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Situation 4: (You bumped someones car, so it is scratched). A:


B:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Situation : (You You broke your sisters pen). A:


B:

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Scoring Sheet Class Subject No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. etc. Name : : Pronun. Grammar Fluency Vocabulary Total

Score orientation: 5 = Excellent, 4 = Very good, 3 = Good, 2 = Poor, 1 = Very poor. Categories: A = 90 100, B = 80 89, C = 70 79, D = 60 69. Maximum score = 20. Minimum score = 5. Score range: 1 100.

For example:

100 =

Nanas total score is 18, so her final score is: 18 x 100 = 90 20

So Nanas final score is 90, and she got A.


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Curriculum Vitae I. Personal Data Name Student Number : Sri Murni : 0806102020010

Place/ Date of Birth : Terangun / Augustus 4th, 1990 Sex Religion : Female : Islam

Nationality / Ethnic : Indonesia / Acehnese Marital status Address : Single : Jl. Terangun - Blang Pidie. Desa. Terangun. Kec. Terangun. Kab. Gayo Lues : 085359626468 : Srimurni2@gmail.com

Mobile phone E-Mail II.

Educational Background 1996 2002 2002 - 2005 2005 2008 2008-2013 : SD Negeri 1 Rempelam Pinang : SMP Swasta Pondok Moderen Shalahuddiin : SMA Swasta Pondok Moderen Shalahuddiin : Universitas Syiah Kuala

III.

Organization Backgraund 2008-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 : English Students Association (ESA) : Teater Nol : Pema Unsyiah