# Water Supply

Simulation of Water Distribution Networks The Use of EPANET

1 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri, PhD An-Najah National University

Introduction
This p presentation focuses on two issues:
 The simulation of water distribution networks (WDNs) using EPANET  The optimal design of water distribution networks

2

Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri, PhD

An-Najah National University

Definitions
 A WDN is comprised of a number of links connected together to form loops or branches  These h links l k contain pumps, fittings, f valves, l etc..  Links: A link is a segment of the network that has a constant flow and no branches. Each link may contain one or more pipes (with ( h different d ff diameters) connected in series  Pipes: A pipe is a segment of a link that has a constant flow, fl constant diameter, di and d no branches
3 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri, PhD An-Najah National University

PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.Pipes and Links D1 A pipe L D3 L3 D2 L2 D1 L1 A link L 4 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

PhD An-Najah National University . d Water can enter or leave the network at these nodes  L Loops: The Th loop l is i a closed l d circuit i i consists i of fa series of links in which the demand nodes are supplied from more than one pipe  Th The path: h It I represents the h way or the h route through which the demand nodes are reached from the source nodes 5 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.Definitions  Nodes: They are the end points of the pipe sections where h two or more links l k are joined. Almasri.

Example of a Water Distribution Network 6 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .

Q3 A demand node The node is connected to three supplying pipes 7 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University .Main Principles of Network Analysis Continuity: y The algebraic g sum of the flow rates in the pipes meeting at a node together with any external flows is zero D Q3 Q1 Q2 Q1 + Q2 = Q3 + D D = Q1 + Q2 . Almasri.

PhD .Main Principles of Network Analysis Energy gy conservation: For all p paths around closed loops and between fixed grade nodes. Almasri. the accumulated energy gy loss including g minor losses minus any energy gain or heads generated by pumps p p must be zero hf2 hf3 + A part of a looped network Closed loop Given total headloss for each link (pipe) as hf hf1 Assume counterclockwise to be positive hf4 8 -hf hf1 – hf4 + hf3 + hf2 = 0 An-Najah National University Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

there is only y one p path ( (route) ) from the source node to each node  How can we compute the fl flow in i each h link? li k? [3] 9 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University .Branched WDNs Q2 Q3 Q5 Q4 5 [4] 4 Q7 7 [6] Q6 [5] 6 [1] 2 1 [2] 3  In branched WDNs. Almasri.

PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.Branched WDNs What is the flow in each link? 20 30 40 5 [4] 4 70 7 [6] 60 [5] 6 [1] 2 1 [2] 3 50 [3] [ ] 10 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

how can we compute the flow in each link? 11 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .Looped WDNs  More than one path to each node  In looped network.

728 3. PhD An-Najah National University .998 9.504 18 728 18.753 13 238 13.Main Principles of Network Analysis Link 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Head Loss (m) 6.994 9. Almasri.737 4.992 12 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.238 4.

87 L  Cast Iron:  New: 130  5 year old: 120  10 year old: 110 hf: head loss (m).852 D − 4. Almasri. L: pipe length (m) D: pipe diameter (in) Q: is flowrate in the pipe (m3/h) CHW: Hazen Williams coefficient (-)  Plastic: 150 13 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.Energy Loss in Pipelines – Hazen Williams Formula ⎛ Q ⎞ h f = 162. PhD An-Najah National University .5⎜ ⎜C ⎟ ⎝ HW ⎠ 1.

What is EPANET?  EPANET is a program for analyzing the hydraulic and water t quality lit behavior b h i of f WDNs WDN  D Developed l d by b the th US Environmental E i t l Protection P t ti Agency  It is a public domain software that may be freely copied and distributed  A complete Users Manual as well as full source code and other updates can be downloaded from: www.gov/ORD/NRMRL/wswrd/epanet.epa. PhD An-Najah National University .html p g / / / / p 14 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri.

Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .What Does EPANET Do?  Analyzing WDNs. This means mainly the following:  Determination of the flow in each link  Determination of p pressure head at each node  Additional outcome includes the simulation of chlorine concentration in each link and at each node 15 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

Elements       Source reservoir p Pumps Pipes Nodes Tanks Valves 16 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.

and groundwater aquifers. its head and water quality cannot be affected by what happens within the network.EPANET Elements – Reservoirs  Reservoirs are nodes that represent an external source or sink of water to the network. PhD An-Najah National University . rivers. They are used to model lakes. Almasri. Therefore it has no computed output properties. Reservoirs can also serve as water quality source points  The primary input properties for a reservoir are its hydraulic head and initial water quality  Because a reservoir is a boundary point to a network. However its head can be made to vary with time by assigning a time pattern to it 17 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

PhD An-Najah National University . where the volume of stored water can vary with time during a simulation  The primary input properties for tanks are:  Bottom elevation  Diameter (or shape if non-cylindrical)  Initial. I iti l minimum i i and d maximum i water t levels l l  Initial water quality  The principal computed outputs are:  Total head (water surface elevation)  water quality  T Tanks k are required i d to t operate t within ithi their th i minimum i i and d maximum levels 18 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri.EPANET Elements – Tanks  Tanks are nodes with storage capacity.

or contains a check valve)  The water quality inputs for pipes consist of:  Bulk reaction coefficient  Wall reaction coefficient 19 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.EPANET Elements – Pipes  Pipes convey water from one point in the network to another  EPANET assumes that all pipes are full at all times  The principal hydraulic input parameters for pipes are: Diameter. Length. PhD An-Najah National University . Roughness coefficient. Almasri. and Initial status (open. closed.

Almasri. Da c Weisbach Fo Formula. t and Water quality  The hydraulic head lost by water flowing in a pipe d to friction due f with h the h pipe walls ll can be b computed d using three different formulas: Hazen-Williams Fo m la Darcy-Weisbach Formula. H dl Friction F i ti factor.EPANET Elements – Pipes  Computed outputs for pipes include: Flow rate. Velocity. PhD An-Najah National University . m la and ChezyChe Manning Formula  Minor losses caused by bends and fittings can also b accounted be t d for f b by assigning i i the th pipe i a minor i loss l coefficient 20 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. f t Reaction R ti rate. V l it Headloss.

Almasri.EPANET Elements – Pumps  The principal input parameter for a pump is its pump curve  Pumps can be turned on and off at preset times  Variable speed pumps can be considered  EPANET can also compute p the energy gy consumption and cost of a pump 21 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University .

EPANET Elements – Valves  Valves are used to control the pressure or flow at a specific point in the network  The main different types yp of valves considered in EPANET include:  PRV (Pressure Reducing Valve): Used to limit pressure  PSV (Pressure Sustaining Valve): To maintain pressure at a certain value  PBV (Pressure Breaker Valve): Forces a specified pressure loss across the valve  FCV (Flow Control Valve): Used to control flow  GPV (General Purpose Valve): Can be used to represent a link where the flow – headloss relationship p is supplied pp by y the user 22 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.

Network Layout 23 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.

Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .Time Pattern of Demands  Y You can address dd the variability in demands through multipliers of the “Base Base Demand” Demand at each node  This is called in EPANET Time Pattern 24 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

General Results of EPANET Nodes 25 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .

PhD An-Najah National University .General Results of EPANET Nodes 26 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri.

PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.General Results of EPANET Pipes 27 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.General Results of EPANET Pipes 28 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

Almasri.General Results of EPANET Time series  Note the negative and positive values of flow  What does this indicate? 29 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University .

General Results of EPANET Time series 30 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .

Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .General Results of EPANET Time series (Pump) 31 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.