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Simulation of Water Distribution Networks The Use of EPANET

Mohammad N. Almasri

1 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri, PhD An-Najah National University

Introduction

This p presentation focuses on two issues:

The simulation of water distribution networks (WDNs) using EPANET The optimal design of water distribution networks

2

Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri, PhD

An-Najah National University

Definitions

A WDN is comprised of a number of links connected together to form loops or branches These h links l k contain pumps, fittings, f valves, l etc.. Links: A link is a segment of the network that has a constant flow and no branches. Each link may contain one or more pipes (with ( h different d ff diameters) connected in series Pipes: A pipe is a segment of a link that has a constant flow, fl constant diameter, di and d no branches

3 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri, PhD An-Najah National University

PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.Pipes and Links D1 A pipe L D3 L3 D2 L2 D1 L1 A link L 4 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

PhD An-Najah National University . d Water can enter or leave the network at these nodes L Loops: The Th loop l is i a closed l d circuit i i consists i of fa series of links in which the demand nodes are supplied from more than one pipe Th The path: h It I represents the h way or the h route through which the demand nodes are reached from the source nodes 5 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.Definitions Nodes: They are the end points of the pipe sections where h two or more links l k are joined. Almasri.

Example of a Water Distribution Network 6 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .

Q3 A demand node The node is connected to three supplying pipes 7 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University .Main Principles of Network Analysis Continuity: y The algebraic g sum of the flow rates in the pipes meeting at a node together with any external flows is zero D Q3 Q1 Q2 Q1 + Q2 = Q3 + D D = Q1 + Q2 . Almasri.

PhD .Main Principles of Network Analysis Energy gy conservation: For all p paths around closed loops and between fixed grade nodes. Almasri. the accumulated energy gy loss including g minor losses minus any energy gain or heads generated by pumps p p must be zero hf2 hf3 + A part of a looped network Closed loop Given total headloss for each link (pipe) as hf hf1 Assume counterclockwise to be positive hf4 8 -hf hf1 – hf4 + hf3 + hf2 = 0 An-Najah National University Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

there is only y one p path ( (route) ) from the source node to each node How can we compute the fl flow in i each h link? li k? [3] 9 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University .Branched WDNs Q2 Q3 Q5 Q4 5 [4] 4 Q7 7 [6] Q6 [5] 6 [1] 2 1 [2] 3 In branched WDNs. Almasri.

PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.Branched WDNs What is the flow in each link? 20 30 40 5 [4] 4 70 7 [6] 60 [5] 6 [1] 2 1 [2] 3 50 [3] [ ] 10 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

how can we compute the flow in each link? 11 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .Looped WDNs More than one path to each node In looped network.

728 3. PhD An-Najah National University .998 9.504 18 728 18.753 13 238 13.Main Principles of Network Analysis Link 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Head Loss (m) 6.994 9. Almasri.737 4.992 12 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.238 4.

87 L Cast Iron: New: 130 5 year old: 120 10 year old: 110 hf: head loss (m).852 D − 4. Almasri. L: pipe length (m) D: pipe diameter (in) Q: is flowrate in the pipe (m3/h) CHW: Hazen Williams coefficient (-) Plastic: 150 13 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.Energy Loss in Pipelines – Hazen Williams Formula ⎛ Q ⎞ h f = 162. PhD An-Najah National University .5⎜ ⎜C ⎟ ⎝ HW ⎠ 1.

What is EPANET? EPANET is a program for analyzing the hydraulic and water t quality lit behavior b h i of f WDNs WDN D Developed l d by b the th US Environmental E i t l Protection P t ti Agency It is a public domain software that may be freely copied and distributed A complete Users Manual as well as full source code and other updates can be downloaded from: www.gov/ORD/NRMRL/wswrd/epanet.epa. PhD An-Najah National University .html p g / / / / p 14 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri.

Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .What Does EPANET Do? Analyzing WDNs. This means mainly the following: Determination of the flow in each link Determination of p pressure head at each node Additional outcome includes the simulation of chlorine concentration in each link and at each node 15 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

Elements Source reservoir p Pumps Pipes Nodes Tanks Valves 16 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.

and groundwater aquifers. its head and water quality cannot be affected by what happens within the network.EPANET Elements – Reservoirs Reservoirs are nodes that represent an external source or sink of water to the network. PhD An-Najah National University . rivers. They are used to model lakes. Almasri. Therefore it has no computed output properties. Reservoirs can also serve as water quality source points The primary input properties for a reservoir are its hydraulic head and initial water quality Because a reservoir is a boundary point to a network. However its head can be made to vary with time by assigning a time pattern to it 17 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

PhD An-Najah National University . where the volume of stored water can vary with time during a simulation The primary input properties for tanks are: Bottom elevation Diameter (or shape if non-cylindrical) Initial. I iti l minimum i i and d maximum i water t levels l l Initial water quality The principal computed outputs are: Total head (water surface elevation) water quality T Tanks k are required i d to t operate t within ithi their th i minimum i i and d maximum levels 18 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri.EPANET Elements – Tanks Tanks are nodes with storage capacity.

or contains a check valve) The water quality inputs for pipes consist of: Bulk reaction coefficient Wall reaction coefficient 19 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.EPANET Elements – Pipes Pipes convey water from one point in the network to another EPANET assumes that all pipes are full at all times The principal hydraulic input parameters for pipes are: Diameter. Length. PhD An-Najah National University . Roughness coefficient. Almasri. and Initial status (open. closed.

Almasri. Da c Weisbach Fo Formula. t and Water quality The hydraulic head lost by water flowing in a pipe d to friction due f with h the h pipe walls ll can be b computed d using three different formulas: Hazen-Williams Fo m la Darcy-Weisbach Formula. H dl Friction F i ti factor.EPANET Elements – Pipes Computed outputs for pipes include: Flow rate. Velocity. PhD An-Najah National University . m la and ChezyChe Manning Formula Minor losses caused by bends and fittings can also b accounted be t d for f b by assigning i i the th pipe i a minor i loss l coefficient 20 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. f t Reaction R ti rate. V l it Headloss.

Almasri.EPANET Elements – Pumps The principal input parameter for a pump is its pump curve Pumps can be turned on and off at preset times Variable speed pumps can be considered EPANET can also compute p the energy gy consumption and cost of a pump 21 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University .

EPANET Elements – Valves Valves are used to control the pressure or flow at a specific point in the network The main different types yp of valves considered in EPANET include: PRV (Pressure Reducing Valve): Used to limit pressure PSV (Pressure Sustaining Valve): To maintain pressure at a certain value PBV (Pressure Breaker Valve): Forces a specified pressure loss across the valve FCV (Flow Control Valve): Used to control flow GPV (General Purpose Valve): Can be used to represent a link where the flow – headloss relationship p is supplied pp by y the user 22 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.

Network Layout 23 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.

Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .Time Pattern of Demands Y You can address dd the variability in demands through multipliers of the “Base Base Demand” Demand at each node This is called in EPANET Time Pattern 24 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

General Results of EPANET Nodes 25 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .

PhD An-Najah National University .General Results of EPANET Nodes 26 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri.

PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.General Results of EPANET Pipes 27 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

PhD An-Najah National University . Almasri.General Results of EPANET Pipes 28 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

Almasri.General Results of EPANET Time series Note the negative and positive values of flow What does this indicate? 29 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. PhD An-Najah National University .

General Results of EPANET Time series 30 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N. Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .

Almasri. PhD An-Najah National University .General Results of EPANET Time series (Pump) 31 Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks – Mohammad N.

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