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Phytoparasitica September 2011, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 369-376

Evaluating side effects of newer insecticides on the vine mealybug parasitoid Anagyrus sp. Near pseudococci, with implications for integrated pest management in vineyards
Ramzi Mansour, Pompeo Suma, Gaetana Mazzeo, Kaouthar Grissa Lebdi, Agatino Russo

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Abstract
Control of the invasive vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) can be achieved through integration of different management strategies such as the application of chemical treatments and biological control. However, compatibility between these control methods is considered crucial when adopting integrated pest management (IPM) programs against this insect pest. The recently used insecticides Prev-Am, a contact biopesticide, and spirotetramat, a systemic tetramic acid insecticide, were assessed in laboratory conditions for their side effects on the vine mealybug parasitoid Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci with reference to chlorpyriphos-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide conventionally used for mealybug control in vineyards. Regarding contact toxicity, chlorpyriphos-methyl caused 100% parasitoid mortality 24 h after treatment, but parasitoid mortality from PrevAm or spirotetramat was almost absent. Neither the total parasitoid offspring/female nor the sex ratio of the progeny was negatively affected by Prev-Am or spirotetramat relative to the untreated control. According to the IOBC classification for laboratory trials, both Prev-Am and spirotetramat were rated harmless (IOBC category 1), whereas chlorpyriphos-methyl was categorized as harmful (IOBC category 4) to A. sp. near pseudococci. None of the insecticides adversely affected the development of the parasitoid pupal stage inside mealybug mummies or the survival of the emerged parasitoids. The practical implications of the results for implementing mealybug IPM programs in vineyards are emphasized and discussed.

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