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# 1

1.1

1.

. ( )

B
A

2.

0

.

AA = 0

3.

= (AB)

4.

1.

=1

5.

.

6.

.

7.

.

8.

.
()

9.

.

10.

.

11.

.

12.

.

0 , 180

13.

2

14.

i)

ii)

( , ) = 0
( , ) =

-
1.

,
.
, ,
.

2.

)
)
)

3.

().

4.

.

5.

.

6.

( )

7.

.

8.

.

9.

10.

, .

11.

0.

12.

.

13.

( , ) = ( , )

14.
,

15.

0 .

16.

, >

17.

1.

i)
ii)
iii)

2.

i) , .
ii) , .
iii) .

i)
ii)
iii)

3.

i) ;
ii)
;

4.
, , ,
.
i)

ii)

iii)
iv)
v)

vi)

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

,
,
,
,
,
,

5.
.

i)
,
ii) ,
iii) ,
iv) ,

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

6.

( , ) = 6 ,

( , ) , ( , )

( , ) = ( , ) = 6 = 56
( , ) = ( , ) = 6

6.
, . = ,
=
, = 5 , .
6

14
= ,

( ) = 56 = 150

= 150

= 30

= 90

= 60

7.

, = 40 .

, ,
, ,
, ,
,

, = = 20

, = x = = 40

( )

14
x

, = 90 ,

, = x = 1 + 2

+ 1
=
2

1
= 40 + (180 40 ) = 40 + 70 = 110
2

1.2

1.

+ = +
( + ) + = + ( + ) = + +
+0 =
+ ( ) = 0

2.

= + ( )

3.

=

4.

| | | | | + | | | + | |

-
1.

( )
,
.
,
, ,
, .

2.

,
A = A = ,

= A A =

3.

,
A =
A = , A = + .

4.

A =

A = , A = +
= =

5.

| + | = | | + | |

| | | |= | + |

1.
, +
.

i)

ii)

2.
, = = .

= =

= =

3.

O = OB = , , , ,
, .

O = O =

= O O = ( ) = +

= O O =

= O O = ( ) = +
= O O =

4.
, , , , , .

+ + + + =

1

+ + + + = ( + + ) + ( + )
= 0 +
=
2
.
+ + + + = + ( ) + ( ) + ( )
= + + +
=
=

5.
, , , , . = = ,
.

.
= =
= (1)

, ,
,

=
= (2)

(1), (2)

=
=

6.
= , .

7.
. OB =
O = , O , .

= = 6 = R = OB = O
.
= +
O = +
O = ( + )

8.
,
+ ||

||

+ || , || .
, . .

O =

O = .

O = +

+ ||

O ||

||

+ ||

+ ||

|| ,

+ ||

9.

, , , . ,
+ =

+ =

= O O =

||

=
= ( + )

=
=
=

10.

v 1,

(1 u )( u + v ) 1

1 u 0, u 1,
, 1 0 2 0

1 u > 0,

u < 1,

u+v u + v u +1

(1 u )( u + v ) (1 u )( u + 1) = 1 u

<1

1.3

1.

0 ,
| | = || | |
> 0
< 0

0 = 0
, 0 = 0

2.

( + ) = +

( + ) = +

( ) = ()

= 0

=0

( ) = ( ) = ( ),

= 0

()

( ) =
( ) =
= 0,
=

0 =

3.

,
+ , , .

4.

||

( : 0 )

5.

OM = 1 ( OA + OB )
2

-
1.

, , ,
= ( )

2.

OM = 1 ( OA + OB )
( )
2
.
,
OM = 1 ( OA + OB ) (1)
2

.
, OM = 1 ( OA + OB ) (2)
2
(1), (2) OM = OM .

3.

, .
, | | = | | =

, | | = | |

4.

, + = 0 , = = 0

, 0.
0
+ = 0
=
=

, .

5.
. ( 0)

: = =
:

= 0

( ) = 0
=0 = 0
=0 =

6.
: = =
: =

. ( 0 )
= 0
( ) = 0
=0 = 0
= = 0

1.
, = 2 .

1

i)
M , M
ii) M ,
iii) ,

i)
= 2 M = 2 MB
3

1
1
M , M ,
M = 2 M
1
ii)
= 2

= 2

1
+ 1 + 2
= 2

3
AM = 2 AB
3
M , ,
M = 2
3
iii)
= 2 + = 2 + 1

1
= 3

AB = 3BM
, ,
= 3

2.
, ,
= 2 .

3

i)
M , M
ii) M ,
3

A
i)

M
= 2 M = 2 MB

3
3
M , M ,
M = 2 M
3
ii)
= 2

= 2

3

32
= 2

1
AM = 2 AB
M , ,
M = 2

3.
= = .
2, = 2. M

, .

= =
= 2

= 2
+
2 +1
= 2
3
= 2
3
= 2
3

M , , M = 2 = 2 ( )
3
3
2
M = + M = + ( )
3
3 + 2 2
=
3
+ 2
=
3

4.
/ B = , = .

< .

= .
, .

.

= = ( + )

(1)

= = | | = | | | |

,
, = (| | | |)
(1)

= (| | | |)
= | | | |
= (1) + (| | | | 1)

5.
, , BK = 2K ,

= 2 A , = 2 . + + = 0 .

.
BK = 2K

= 2( )
= 2 2
3 = 2 +
= 1 (2 + )
3

= 2 A

= 2
3 =
= 1
3

= 2

(1)

(2)

= 2( )
= 2 2
3 = 2
= 2
3

(3)

+ + = + +
= 1 (2 + ) + 1 + 2
3
3
3
= 1 (2 + + 3 + 2 3 )
3
= 10 = 0
3

6.
, ,
1
E = Z = .
4
.

= , = .

= +

1
1
= ( + )
(1)
4
4
1
1
Z = =
4
4
1
=

4
= 3 = 3 ( + )
4
4

E = Z

E =

(2)

E =
1
( + ) = 3 ( + )
4
4

+ 4 = 4 3 3

0 = 0

7.
,,, = 5 . ,
+ =

.

= 5

= 5( )

+ =

= 5 5

(1)

+ = ( )
+ 5 5 =
+ 5 5 + = 0
(1 5 + ) + (5 1 ) = 0

( 4) + (4 ) = 0
4 = 0 4 = 0

=4

8.
x, y,
+ 3 (x 1) = (3x y) ,
, .

+ 3 (x 1) = (3x y)

+ 3 x + = 3x y
+ 3 x + 3x + y = 0
(1 x + 1) + (3 3x + y) = 0

x + (3 3x + y) = 0
x = 0 3 3x + y = 0
x = 0 3 30 + y = 0
x = 0 y = 3

10

9.
= ,

= 3 .

, , , .

= 3 ||

3
3
= =
=
= 3

= 3
+
3 +1
= 3

4
3
=
4
3
= = 3 ( ) = 3 ( )
4
4
4

11

10.
, ,
i) 2 3 0
ii) u = + 2 , v = -3 + 4 .

i)
2 3 = 0

2 = 3

= 3
2

, , .

ii)
u , v .
u = v + 2 = (3 + 4 )
+ 2 = 3 + 4
+ 3 = 4 2

(1)

(1)

(1 + 3) = (4 2) (1)
1 + 3 = 0, = 1
3
1
0 = 4 2
3

0 = 4 2
3
10
0 =

3
= 0 , ,
1 + 3 0, 1
3
4

2
=
, , .
1 + 3

( )
( )

1.4

1.
(, i )
i .

2.
(, i )
x, OM = x i
. .

3.
(xy)
xx, yy .

4.

M1 , M 2 .
M2
M1 , x x ,
j
x.
O
i
M 2 , yy ,
y.
x M1 .

M1

y M 2 .
(x, y)

5.

, .
.
: .
, .

6.

i , j :
= x i + y j , x, y

7.

= ( x1 , y1 ) = ( x 2 , y2 ),
i)

+ = ( x1 + x 2 , y1 + y2 )

ii) = ( x1 , y1 )

( x1 , y1 ) + ( x 2 , y2 ) = ( x1 + x 2 , y1 + y2 )

( x1 , y1 ) = ( x1 , y1 )

iii) + = ( x1 + x 2 , y1 + y2 )

( x1 , y1 ) + ( x 2 , y2 ) = ( x1 + x 2 , y1 + y2 )

8.

: x =

x1 + x 2
,
2

y=

y1 + y2
2

9.

: x = x 2 x1 ,

y = y2 y1

10.

: | | =

x 2 + y2

11.

: () =

(x 2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2

12.

= ( , xx ),

0 2
x
.

13.
= (x, y) x 0 :
y
=
x

14.
= ( x1 , y1 ), = ( x2 , y2 )
i)

//

x1

y1

x2

y2

= 0

ii)

//

det ( , ) = 0

iii)

//

= ,

x1 x 2 0

1.

.
, .

2.

,
.

3.

(0, y) ( // yy )
(x, 0) ( // x x )

4.

1.
, // x x , // yy

i)

ii) ,

x x
iii) ,
;

i)
= (x, 0)
ii)

= (x, 0)

= (0, y)

= (0, y)

= 0

=
2

= 3
2

iii)
= 0

= 0

2.
, // 1

, // 2 ,

i)
ii) ,
x x
iii) , ;

i)
= (x, x)
ii)
=
4
iii)
= 1

= (x, x)

= (x, x)

= (x, x)

= 5
4

= 3
4

= 7
4

= 1

= 1

= 1

3.
= 2 i + 2 j ,

= 3 i j + 2 + = 0 , | |.

+ 2 + = 0

= 2
= ( 2 i + 2 j ) (3 i j )
= 2 i 2 j 3 i + j
= 5 i j

|| =

( 5)2 + ( 1)2

25 + 1 =

= (5, 1)

26

4.
(1, 3), (4, 0).
.

(x, y) .

H (1)

//

=0

(1)

x = x x = x 1,

y = y y = y (3) = y + 3

x B = x B x = 4 1 = 3,

yB = yB y = 0 (3) = 3

x 1
3

y +3

=0

3(x 1) 3(y + 3) = 0

3
(x 1) (y + 3) = 0
x 1 y 3 = 0
x =y+4

(2)

, (2) y,
y = 1, x = 5.
(5, 1) .

5.
,
( 3) i ( + 1) j // yy

( 3) i ( + 1) j // yy
( + 1) i + 2 j // i + j

( + 1) i + 2 j // i + j

3=0
+1
2
1

=3

(1)

=0

+ 1 2 = 0

2 = 1

(1), (2) = 3 = 2

(2)

6.
() () .
i.

## (3, 1), (3, 1)

ii

det( , ) = 0

iii

det( i , j ) = 1

, x x
6
3
v
= (4, 3)
4

iv

( )

ii
iii
iv

(3, 1) = (3, 1)
//

=10=1

= (x, y)

|| =

x 2 + y2

= x 2 + y2

= x +
2
2

= x +
4
2
3
2
x =

4
x = 3 ||
2
2

iv

y
= . . . . . = 3
x
3

= ((4, 3)

x=

3 ||
2

7.

= (1, 3),

= (0, 4)

= (3, 1),

, .

= +
= +

(1)
(1, 3) = (0, 4) + (3, 1)
(1, 3) = (0, 4) + (3, )
(1, 3) = (0 + 3, 4 + )
1 = 3
= 1
3
1
=
3
1
=
3
= 1
3

(1)

3 = 4 +
3 = 4 1
3
1
3 + = 4
3
10 = 4
3
5 =
6

= 5 1
6
3

8.
(1, 4), (1, 6), (7, 0).
,
.

.
x M = 1 1 = 0 yM = 4 + 6 = 5.
2
2

.
,
x + x
y + y
xM =
yM =
=5
2
2
7 + x
0 + y
0=
5 =

x = 7
2
2

y = 10

9.
= (2, 5), = (1, 3)
= 2 . .
3

= 2
3

//

, ,
= 2
5
= 2 ( )
5
= 2 [(1, 3) (2, 5)]
5
= 2 (1 2 , 3 5)
5
= 2 ( 3 , 2) = 6 , 4
5
5
5
= + = (2, 5) + 6 , 4
5
5
= 2 6 , 5 4 = 4 , 21
5
5
5
5

) (

10

10.

2.

, .

= 120

= 60

= = 2 = 1
2
2

= 30

(1, 0)

. :
2 = 22 12 = 3 =

(0,

3)

2 1

x, y
, .
= 1 = 1

= + = 1 + 2 = 3
= 4 (4, 3 )
= 2 3

(3, 0)

(1, 2 3 )
(3, 2 3 )

x = x B x A = 3 1 = 2,

y = 0

x = x x = 4 3 = 1,

y = y y =

30=

..

1.5

1.

= ( )

= 0

= 0

= 0

2.

(),

(),

2 = =

i = j = 1

= ( x1 , y1 ) = (x 2 , y 2 )

() = ( ) = ()

( + ) = +

( )=

= ( x1 , y1 ) = (x 2 , y 2 ) , ( ) =

= 0

i j = j i = 0

= x1 x2 + y1y2

( )

= 1 ( ,

yy )

x1x 2 + y1 y 2
x + y12 x 22 + y 22
2
1

-
1.

2.

.
( ) ,
( ) , .

3.

3 , 4 ..
3
4
, .., .

4.

5.
:

( + ) = + 2( ) +
( ) = 2( ) +

2 2 = ( )( + )

= 0, = 0

= 0

: = 0, = 0

=0

6.

, = = .
:
i)

( , ) = ( , )

ii)

=0
( ) = 0
=0

= 0

7.

( )2 = 2 2

. = ,

( )

. = , = ,

( ) = ,
2

( ))

8.
( ) = ( )
9.

,
0

10.

, .

11.
.
v =
v = . v = v . v

1.

= 1,

= 2 ( , ) =

,
3

= ( , ) = 1 2

(3 ) = 3( ) = 3 1 = 3

( ) = 1 = 1 = 1 1 = 1

1
= 2 =1
3
2

(3) ,

( )

2.
= 1 ,

= 2 , ( , ) =

i)

= 2 + 3 , v = 2

ii)
iii)

i)
2

10, 4

= 2 + 3 = (2 + 3) 2
2

= 4 + 12 + 9
2

= 4 + 12
= 4 + 12 1 2

+9
3

1
+ 9 4 = 52
2

: = 52 = 2 13

= 13

ii)
2

= (2 + 3)( 2) = 2 6 = = 23
iii)

( , ) =

23
23
=
26
2 13 13

3.
= (1, 2), = ( 0, 1) = ( 2, 0).

i)

( ) ,

ii)

( ) ,
( ) ,

(3 )2
( ),

i)

= ( 1, 2)( 0, 1) = 10 + 2( 1) = 2
( ) = 2( 2, 0) = ( 4, 0)

= ( 0 , 1)( 2 , 0) = 0( 2) + ( 1)0 = 0

( ) = 0 (1, 2) = ( 0, 0) = 0

(3 )2 = 3 2 [ ( )] = 6 0 = 0

ii)

= 12 + 22 = 5

= 0

= 0

= 5 0 = 0

= ( 1 ,2)( 2 ,0) = 1( 2) + 20 = 2
( ) = 2 = 2(0, 1) = (0, 2)

( ) =

02 + 22 = 2

(2)2 + 02 = 2 = 2 ,

( ) = 2 ( 2) = 4

= 2 ( 2, 0) = 2 ( 2, 0) = ( 4, 0)

4.

= 2,

= 3 ( , ) = 600 , x

i) (2 + 3) ( x) = 2

ii) (2 + 3) ( x)

i)
2

(2 + 3) ( x) = 2

2 + (3 2x)( ) 3x = 2

2 + (3 2x) ( , ) 3x = 2
2 22 + (3 2x)2 3600 3x32 = 2
8 + (3 2x) 3 27x = 2

8 + 9 6x 27x = 2

33x = 19

ii)
(2 + 3) ( x)

x=

19
33

(2 + 3) ( x) = 0
2

2 2x( ) + 3( ) 3x = 0
2 22 2x( ) + 3( ) 3x 32 = 0
8 2x 3 + 3 3 3x 9 = 0
17
33x = 17 x =
33

5.

= 3,

= = 1 + + 4 = 0 , ,

i)
+ + 4 = 0

10
+ = 4
( + )2 = ( 4 )2
2

+ 2 +

= 16

9 + 2 + 1=16
+ + 4 = 0

= 3

+ 4 =
( + 4 ) 2 =

= 3
= 1

6.
= 2 ,

+ =

0 ,

+ =

+ =

10

+ 2( ) + =

2( ) + = 0

2 ( , ) = ,

( , ) =

( , ) = 1

=2 =

( , ) = 1800

7.

( , ) = ( , ) =
,
2
4
, v = 2 3 +

= 2,

= 2,

v = 2 3 + = (2 3 + )2
2

= 4 + 9 + 12( ) + 4( ) 6( )

= 2 2 2 = 2
2
= 2 1 90 = 0
2
= 2 1 2 = 1
2 2
2

(1)

1
1
v = 4 2 + 9 2 + 12 2 + 4 0 6
2
2
29
29
= 16 + 18 + 1 24 3 =
v =
4
4
2
2

(1)

8.
= = = 2 + + = 0 ,

++ = 0

=
2

= + + 2( )
2

= + + 2( )
4 = 4 + 4 + 2( )

= 2

= = 2

9.
, 1
= + 2, = 5 4 ,
,

= 0

( + 2)(5 4) = 0
2

5 + 6( ) 8 = 0

5 + 6 ( , ) 8 = 0

5 1 + 6 ( , ) 8 1 = 0

6( , ) = 3

1
( , ) =
2

( , ) = 60

10.
,
= + , =

, ,

= ( + )( ) = 2 + 2

(1)

(1)

= 0
2

= = 0
2

= + = ( + )2 =
2

= 2 + 2( ) + 2 =
2

= 2 + 2 =
= 2 + 2

(2), (3)

(2)

= 2 + 2

(3)

11.
,

, = =

+ 2 = . ( + 4) .

9

( + 4) = 0
2

+ 4 = 0
+ 2 =

( + 2) 2 =

(1)

2
2

+ 4( ) + 4 =
2

4( ) = 4
2

4( ) = 4 4
4( ) =
2

10

4( ) + = 0

(1)

10

12.
,

+ = 2

+ = 2 ,

( , ) + ( , ) = 2

11 ( , ) + 11 ( , ) = 2

( , ) + ( , ) = 2

( , ) = 1 ( , ) = 1

( , ) = 0

( , ) = 0

( 1),

13.
, = 2

, , x y ,

x ( 3) y ( )

x ( 3)

(1)

3 y = 2

y = 3 + 2 .
y ( )

x = ( 3) ,
x = 3

x y = 2

x y = 2

(2)

(2)

( 3 + 2)( ) = 0
2

2 ( ) 3( ) + 3 + + 2( ) 2 = 0 (3)

(3)

= 0

=2
2

= 4 .

4 + 3 4 2 = 0
2

7 6 = 0
2

(7 6) = 0 0 ,
6
7 6 = 0 =
7
6
x = ( 3) x = ( 3)
7
6
18
1
4
(2)
y =
+ 2 =
7
7
7
7

11

14.

= =1 , ( , ) = 60 ,

= 3 ( , ) = 600

6
= + (1) . = ( + )
2

= + ( )

( , ) = + ( , )

= +

1 3 600 = 1 + 1 1 600
3 1 = + 1
2
2
3 = 2 +
(2)
= ( + )
= ( ) +

( , ) = ( , ) +

1 3 ( , ) = 1 600 + 1

1
3 ( , ) = + (3)
2
, 00

600

+ 3 =
+ (4) .
2
2
(2), (4) = 0 = 3.
(1) = 0 + 3

(3)

3 00 =

, 1200

600
600

+ 3 ( 1 ) = + (5)
2
2
2
(2), (5) = 3 = 3

(3)

(1)

3 12 00 =

= 3 3

12

15.
, , x
x,

= 2,

x + 1 = 0,

= 1,

x =2

i)
ii) x

i)
, , x x ,
x = 0 , x + 1 = 0 1 = 0, .
,

ii)

x = +

x = ( + )

x = + ( )
x = +

1 = + 2
x x = x ( + )

(1)
6

x = ( x) + ( x)
4 = (1) + 0
(1)

1 = 4 + 2

x = 4 +

3
=
2

=4

(2)

13

16.

= 1 .

+ =

( , ) 1.

+ =

( + )2 =
2

10

+ 2 + 2 ( ) =
2

+ 2( ). + = 0
2

2 + 2( ) + 1 = 0

(1)

(1) ,
, 0

4( )2 4
2

( 1) 0
2

7
2

0 ,

4 2 ( , ) 4 + 4 0

2 ( , ) + 1 0

1 1 2 ( , ) 0

1 2 ( , ) 0
2

2 ( , ) 1

( , ) 1

14

17.
=2

= 1 , = 2 .

= 1

= 1

= ( ) 1

2( ) + 1 = 0

(1)

(1) ,
,

4 2 ( ) 4 0

2 ( ) 1 0

2 ( ) 0

2 ( ) = 0

( ) = 0

( ) = 1 , ( ) = 0

( ) = 1

2 +1 = 0

(1)

( 1)

=0

1 = 0

=1

, > 0 =

2= .1

=2

= 2

( ) = 1 , ( ) = 180

= 2

15

18.
i)

## ii) = (x, y), = (3, 4) , x2 + y2 = 49 = 3x + 4y

,
x y
.

i)

= | ( , )

= | ( , )

=0

|
|

1 =

= 0 ,
0,

( , ) | =

| ( , ) | =

| ( , ) | = 1

( , ) = 1

( , ) = 0

( , ) = 1

( , ) = 180

,
ii)

= 3x + 4y ,

x 2 + y 2 9 + 16 =

(1)

49 25 = 75 = 35

(1) 35
35 35
35 35
,
( x, y) = ( 3 ,4)

(x ,y) = ( 3 ,4)
x =3 y = 4

x2 + y2 = 49

(2)
9 2 + 16 2 = 49
25 2 = 49

16
2 = 49 = 7
25
5
7
21
7
(2) x =3( ) =
= 4( ) = 28
5
5
5
5

19.
x + (x ) = 1
i)

x =

1+

ii) x , ,

i)
x + (x ) =

[ x + (x ) ] =

x + (x ) ( ) =
(x )[1 + ( )] = 1
x =

1+

ii)
x + (x ) =

(i)

x+

1+

x=

1+

20.
0

= v + u .

v u , v =

v =

(1)

= v + u = + u
= ( + u)

= + u
2

= ,

=
(1) v = =

u u = 0

17

21.

= (1, 2) ,

= (2, 4) . x

y , = x 3y x y y ||

y || y = (1)

= x 3y + 3y = x
x = + 3
x y

(2)

yx =0

( + 3) = 0
2

( ) + 3 2 = 0,

= 12 + 2 ( 4) = 2 8 = 6

= = 22 + (4) 2 = 4 + 16 = 20

( 6) + 32(4 +16) = 0
602 6=0
1
10
= 0, (1), (2) y = 0 x = = (1, 2)
1
1
= , (1), (2)
y=
= 1 (2, 4) =
10
10
10
3

x = +
10
3
= (1, 2) +
(2 , 4)
10
= (1, 2) + 3 , 6
5
5
= 1+ 3 , 2 6 = 8 ,
5
5
5
6(10 1) = 0

=0

)
) (

( 15 , 52 )

4
5

18

22.
= (4, 3)

= (1, 2) ,

x =
x,

x =

(1)

= x
= ( )
4(1) + 3. 2 = 2
2

4 + 6 =
, (1)

x=

2 = 25

2
(4, 3 ) = 8 , 6
25 25
25

2
25

23.
1
= = 2
4

( ) =

( ) =

(1), (2)

(3)

(2)

( ) =

2 2
4

1

4
=

8 =

(2)

4
2

4
=

(1)

2
=

2
,
2

=2 2

( ) =

(3)

19

24.

= (1, 4).

= (1, 2)

i) ( )

ii) (2 + 3)

i)
x= ( )
, x
x = , (1)
( ) = ( )
2 = x

10

=
2

(1)

=
12 + 22 [1(1) + 24] = ( 12 + 22 )
5 7 = 5 = 2
5
2
2
2
4
x = = (1, 2) = ,
5
5
5
5

ii)
y = (2 + 3)
, y

y = ,

(2)

(2 + 3) = (2 + 3) (2 + 3 ) = y

10

2 + 3 2 = ( )

(2)

y = 65 (1, 4) =
17

2 + 3 2 = 2
2[1(1) + 24] + 3( 12 + 42 ) = ( 12 + 42 )
65
14 + 51 = 17 =
17
65 , 260
17
17

20

25.

3
i) = 2 + 3

= 1 , = 2 ( , ) =

ii) =
iii)

i)
x = ,
=

x =

(1)
10

= x
= ( )
=

(2 + 3 ) = 2

(1)

x = 5

2 2 + 3 = 2
21 + 312 = 1
3
2 + 6 1 = = 5
2

ii)
y = v y = (2)
v = v

v =y

10

( ) = ( )
2 = 2
21 22 = 22
3
1
2 4 = 4
2
3 = 4

(2)

iii)

= 3
4

y = 3
4

(3)

=
= ( )
= 2
(2 + 3 ) = (2 + 3 )2
2 2 + 3 = (4 2 + 12 + 9 2 )
21 + 312 = (41 + 1212 + 9 4)
3
3

21

(3)

2 + 3 = (4 + 12 + 36)
5 = 52 = 5
52
= 5 = 5 (2 + 3 )
52
52

26.

.
2

= 900

= 0
( + ) ( + ) = 0

+ + + = 0
+ 0 + 0 + = 0
2

27.

.
2

= 900

= 0

( + ) = 0
2

+ = 0

(1)

(1)

= =

+ = 0
2

= 0
2

11

22

28.

,
. =

11

= ( )

=
= =

23

29.

= 2, = 6, = 60 .

i)

ii)
iii)

=

i)
1
1
= ( + )
= +
2
2

2
2
1
= + =

4
2
1
= ( + ) =
4
2
2
1
= ( + + 2 ) =
4

2
2
1

= + + 2 ( =
4

1
1
= (4 + 36 + 2 2 6 ) = 13 = 13
4
2
ii)
1
= ( + )
2
2
1
= ( + )
2

2
1

= + (
2

1
1
=
(4 + 2 6 ) = 5
2
2
iii
11
(ii)
=

5 = E
(1)
E

(1)

5 = ( )

5 =
5 = . 22

(2)

E =

E =

(2)

5
4

24

30.
= ,

= ,

= = =

+ + = 0 . .

.
.
= =

=
2

= = ( ) 2
2

= 2 + =
= 2 + =
= 2 2 + 2 = 22 2
++ = 0

(1)

+ =
( + ) 2 =
2

+ 2 + =

2 + 2 + 2 = 2
2 = 2

(1)

= 32

= 3

= = 3