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400 h¿jw apºv Keo-entbm I≠-Xv !

\Ωƒ C∂pw ImWm-ØXpw !!

Keo-entbm Keoen
400 h¿j-߃°papºv Keoentbm sSen-kvtIm-∏n-eqsS BImiw \nco-£n®v {]]-©sØ
hmbn-®p. Fs¥m-s°-bm-sWt∂m At±lw \nco-£n-®-Xv?
N{µ-\nse Ip∂pw Ipgn-Ifpw
Keo-entbm Ah-bpsSsbms° Nn{Xw hc®p h®p. Ipgn-I-fn¬ \ng¬ hogp-∂Xp
t\m°n Ipgn-I-fpsS Bgw IW-°m-°n.
i\n-bpsS sNhn-Iƒ
i\n-bpsS c≠p hi-ß-fnepw sNhn t]mse ImW-s∏-Sp-∂Xv \nco-£n-°p-Ibpw Ah
tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp. F∂m¬ Ah he-b-ß-fm-sW∂v Xncn-®-dn-bm≥ At±-l-
Øn\v Ign-™n-√.
hymg-Øns‚ D]-{K-lß
- ƒ
hymg-Øns‚ \mev D]-{K-l-߃ (Ctbm, bqtdm-∏, Km\n-ta-Uv, ImentÃm) hymgsØ
Np‰p-∂Xv \nco-£n®v Hmtcm Znh-khpw Ah-bpsS ÿm\w amdp-∂-Xns‚ Nn{X-߃
hc®p h®p. Cu D]-{K-l-ßsf Keo-en-b≥ D]-{K-l-߃ F∂p hnfn-°p-∂p.
ip{I≥ N{µ-°e t]mse
ip{Is‚ hr≤n-£-b-߃ \nco-£n®v tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn. Hcn-°epw Xe°p apI-fn¬
ImWmØ ip{Is\ Ie-bmbn ImWp∂Xv ip{I≥ kqcys\bmWv Np‰p-∂-Xv F∂-
Xns‚ sXfn-hmWv F∂v ÿm]n-®p. Zqc-Z¿in-\n-bn-eqsS ip{IIe F√m-h-tcbpw
ImWn®p sImSp-Øp.
kqcyIf¶-߃
kqcy-\nse IdpØ s]m´p-Iƒ ^n¬´¿ ]nSn-∏n® Zqc-Z¿in-\n-bn-eqsS \nco-£n-®p. Cu
s]m´p-I-fpsS Ne\w \nco-£n®v kz¥w A®p-X-≠n¬ Hcp-{]m-hiyw Id-ßm≥ kqcy\v
27 Znhkw thWw F∂p Is≠-Øn.

\n߃ CXn¬ GsX-¶nepw I≠n-´pt≠m?


Cs√-¶n¬ 2009 ¬ ImWpw.
AXn-\p≈ Ah-k-c-sam-cp-°p-I-bmWv Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv.
2
Keo-entbmbpw
Xq°p-hn-f-°p-Ifpw
]T\-ap-dn-bpsS a®n¬ ZrjvSn-bq∂n Nn¥n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂ Keo-entbm
apI-fn¬ Xq°n-bn-´n-cn-°p∂ hnf-°p-Iƒ Im‰Øv BSp-∂Xv {i≤n-®p. hnf-
°p-Iƒ sNdp-Xm-bn BSp-tºmgpw IqSp-X¬ Zqtc°v BSp-tºmgpw Hcp
{]mhiyw BSm-s\-Sp-°p∂ kabw (Hc-‰Øp \n∂pw at‰ A‰Øv t]mbn
BZy A‰Øv FØp-tºmƒ Hcp {]mhiyw BSn-°g - n-™p) H∂p Xs∂-bm-
sW∂v Keo-entbm°v tXm∂n. At±lw \qen¬ I√p sI´n-Øq°n ]co-
£Ww sNbvXp t\m°n. ]e \of-Øn-ep≈ Nc-Sp-I-fn¬ I√p sI´n ]co-
£Ww Bh¿Øn-®p.
Keo-entbm sNbvX ]co-£Ww \nßfpw H∂p sNbvXp t\m°q.
\qen¬ I√p-sI-´nb 50 sk.-ao- \of-ap≈ Hcp s]≥Up-ew D≠m-°q.
hnhn[ Zqc-ß-fn¬ \n∂v Ahsb B´n hnSp-I. Hmtcm Zqc-Øn¬ \n∂v
Ahsb B´n hnSptºmgpw 10 {]mhiyw BSm-s\-Sp-°p∂ kabw Is≠-
Øq. F¥mWv \n߃ Is≠-Øn-bXv?
75 sk.-ao-, 100 sk.-ao \of-ap≈ s]≥Up-eßfpw D≠m-°q. hnhn[
\of-ap≈ s]≥Up-e-߃ D]-tbm-Kn®v ]co-£Ww Bh¿Øn-°q. Is≠-
Ø-ep-Iƒ ]´n-I-s∏-Sp-Øq.- s]≥Upew Hcp {]mhiyw BSm≥ FSp-°p∂
ka-bhpw s]≥UpeØns‚ \ofhpw XΩn¬ _‘-apt≠m? I√ns‚ hep-
∏hpw BSm≥ FSp-°p∂ ka-bhpw XΩn¬ _‘-apt≠m? Is≠-Øp-I.

]co-£-W \nco-£Wß-fn-eqsS \nK-a-\-ßfn¬ FØp∂


imkv{X-Øns‚ coXnbmbn-cp∂p Keo-entbm ]n¥p-S¿∂Xv.
3
{]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn-te°v IS-°mw.
Cu {]h¿Ø\ ssI∏p-kvX-I-Øn¬ BsI 44 {]h¿Ø-\-
ß-fp≠v. F√mw \n߃ sNbvXv t\m°-Ww. {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS
{Iaw ]men-°p-∂-Xv \√-Xm-bn-cn-°pw.
2009 Pqsse 22 \v \S-°p∂ kqcy{KlWw tkmfm¿^n¬‰¿
D≠m°n AXn-eqsS \n߃ \nco-£n-°-Ww. \·-t\-{X-ß-ƒ
sIm≠v t\m°-cp-Xv. Cu {]h¿Ø\ ]pkvX-I-Ønse BZysØ 10
{]¿Ø-\-߃ sNbvXn´p thWw {KlWw \nco-£n-°p∂ {]¿Ø-
\-Ønte°v IS-t°-≠-Xv. kqcy≥ sk]v‰w-_¿ 23 \v `qa-[y-tc-J-
bn¬ FØpw. AXn\p apºv \nß-fpsS kvIqfn\p apI-fnepw
FØpw. AXv F∂m-sW∂v Is≠-Øm-\p≈ {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw
\S-Ø-Ww. \£{X \nco-£-W-Øn\v sXfn™ BImiap≈
kabw {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww. G‰hpw DNn-X-amb kabw
P\p-hcn, s^{_p-hcn amk-ß-fm-Wv. BKÃv, sk]v‰w-_¿,
Unkw-_¿ am-k-ßfpw {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.
Hmtcm {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fnepw G¿s∏-Sp-tºmƒ Ub-dn-°p-dn∏v Fgp-
X-Ww. Xmsg sIm-Sp-Øn-cn-°p∂ {]Imcw FgpXn-bmtem?
am‰-ßfpw BImw.

$ sNbvXp t\m°nb {]h¿Ø\w


$ XobXn
$ Rm≥ cp]o-I-cn® Adn-hp-Iƒ/ t\Snb Ign-hp-Iƒ
$ C\nbpw hy‡X t\tS≠ Imcy-߃
$ F\n°v A-dn-bm≥ IuXp-I-ap≈ Imcy-߃

{]h¿Ø-\-߃ apgp-h≥ ]q¿Øo-I-cn-°p∂ Iq´p-Im¿°pw kvIqfn\pw {]tXyI kΩm-\-ß-fp-≠v. {]h¿Ø-\-


߃ sNbvXp t\m°p-tºmƒ kwi-b-ap≈ Imcy-߃ So®-dn-t\mSv tNmZn-°-Ww. IqSp-X¬ hnh-c-߃ Adn-bp-
hm≥ Cu {]h¿Ø\ ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ Ah-km\w sImSp-Øn-cn-°p∂ hy‡n-I-fp-ambn _‘-s∏-S-Ww.

4
D≈-S°w

\º¿ {]h¿Ø\w t]Pv \º¿ ]q¿Øo-I-cn® XobXn

1 Fs‚ BImi Nn¥-Iƒ 10

2 Ie-≠-dnse Ifn-Iƒ Imcy-߃ 11

3 {]Ir-Xn-bnse ]n≥tlmƒ s{]mP-IvSdp-Iƒ 12

4 \ap-s°mcp am{¥nI°ÆmSn D≠m-°mw 13

5 kqcy-Z¿in\n 14

6 AIsebmsW-¶nepw 16

7 Aºnfnamas‚ ho´n¬ 18

8 _ln-cm-Imi°∏-en-te-dm≥ 24

9 ta¬hn-emkw Ipdn°mw 25

10 ¢m n¬ Hcp {KlW°mgvN 26

11 ]q¿W kqcy-{K-lWw 27

12 kam¥c`qan 29

13 Hcp apJw am{Xw IÆn¬ 32

14 N{µs‚ hr≤n-£b
- ß
- ƒ 33

15 Aºtºm kuc-bqYw 35

16 {]mb-w Iq´mw Ipdbv°mw... 37

17 Xe- I-d-ßpt∂ 38

18 A¤p-Xs- ∏-tS≠, \n߃°pw km[n°pw 39

19 `qan Dcp≠XmWv 43

20 `qanbpsS {`aW\nc°v Af°mw 45

21 ka-bcY-Øn¬ 46

22 `qans°¥p hep∏w 48

5
D≈-S°w

\º¿ {]h¿Ø\w t]Pv \º¿ ]q¿Øo-I-cn® XobXn

23 A\mIvk tKmdkv 50

24 `qans°{X hep∏w 52

25 apI-fntem Xmsgtbm 53

26 ""DØcw'' FhnsS 54

27 BwKnƒ UmwKnƒ ao‰¿ 55

28 {[ph-\£
- {- X-sØ ho£n-°mw 58

29 \£-{X-°pS 59

30 A£mwiw Is≠Ømw 60

31 hc-bv°m-Ø t- c-JI
- ƒ 62

32 kqcy-LS- n-Imcw \n¿an°mw 63

33 Ab-\I
- e
- ≠
- ¿ 65

34 kqcy≥ kvIqfn\p apI-fn¬ 67

35 P∑-\£
- {- Xhpw Rm‰p-th-eb
- pw 69

36 Im¿Øn-It- bm-Sv 72

37 \£-{X-ßsf \nco-£n°mw 74

38 kz¥-ambn Hcp πm\-t‰-dnbw 75

39 hnZqcam]n\n 76

40 A\p]mXw Is≠Ømw 79

41 N{µ≥ F{X aSßv AIse 80

42 coXn ]eXv, A\p]mXw H∂v 81

43 kqcy-ap-JØpw If-¶ß
- ƒ 82

44 Nm]\ofhpw Bchpw XΩnep≈ A\p]mXw 83


6
{]hÀ¯\w 1

Fs‚ BImi Nn¥-Iƒ


cm{Xn-bnse sXfn™ am\w t\m°n-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ Fs¥ms° Nn¥-I-fmWv D≠m-Ip-
∂Xv? F{X-sb{X tNmZy-ß-fmWv a\- n-eqsS IS∂p t]mIp-∂-Xv?
\£-{X-ßfpw N{µ\pw Hcp-t]m-se-bmtWm? Fß-s\-bmWv Ah hyXym-k-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂Xv?
N{µ≥ hep-Xmbn ImWp-∂Xv F¥p-sIm≠v? \£-{X-߃ C{X sNdp-Xmbn ImWp∂Xv F¥p-sIm-
≠mWv? `qan-bn¬ \n∂pw ImWmØ N{µs‚ adp-hiØv Ccp-´mtWm? Nne-t∏m-sgms° BIm-i-
Øp \n∂pw Xmtg°p an∂¬ t]mse Fcn™p t]mIp-∂Xv F¥mWv? GsX-¶nepw hm¬ \£{Xw
BIm-iØv AXn-Yn-bmbn ASpØ Ime-sØ-ßm\pw FØptam? hm¬\-£{Xw \£-{X-ß-fn¬
\n∂pw Fßs\ hyXym-k-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p? sIm≈n-ao\pw hm¬\£-{Xhpw XΩn-ep≈ hyXym-k-
߃ Fs¥ms°? N{µ-\nepw a‰v BIm-i-tKm-f-ß-fnepw Fs∂-t∏mse Ipkr-Xn-°p-Sp-°-I-fp-≠m-
Iptam? N{µ-bm≥ hnt£-]n-®Xv Fß-s\-bmWv? AXns‚ hnhn[ L´-߃ Fs¥m-s°-bmWv?
F∂mWv Hcp `mc-Xo-b≥ N{µ-\n¬ Imep-Ip-Øp-∂Xv? Cßs\ F{X F{X tNmZy-߃.... C\n-bp-
ap≠mIpat√m. AXp-IqSn Ipdn®p hbv°q.
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Iq´p-Im-cp-ambpw So®-dp-ambpw apXn¿∂-h-cp-ambpw \nß-fpsS tNmZy-߃


]¶p-sh-bv°q. \nco-£n®pw ]co-£-W-߃ \S-Ønbpw
]pkvX-I-߃ hmbn®pw CXnse {]h¿Ø-\-߃ sNbvXpw DØ-c-߃ tXSq.
Aßs\ {]]-©sØ hmbn-®-dn-bq.

7
{]hÀ¯\w 2
Ie-≠d- nse
Ifn-Iƒ Imcy-߃
Ie-≠-dnse I≈n-Iƒ I≠n´nt√? Hmtcm If-Ønepw
hepXpw sNdp-Xp-amb [mcmfw A°-ßfpw A£-c-ßfpw
hm°p-Ifpw Nn”-ßfpw I≠n-cn-°p-a-t√m?

Rm≥ NX-bw,
Fs‚ Np‰pw Bscms° ? Fs¥ms° ?

2009 Pq¨ 14 se NX-b-Øn-t\mSv hn-i-Zo-I-cn-°mtam?

.................................................................................................. kma-{Kn-IÄ
2009
.................................................................................................
Pq¨am-ksØ
................................................................................................. Ie-≠¿

F√m-hcpw Fgp-Xn-bXv H∂p-X-s∂-bmtWm? G‰hpw IqSp-X¬


hnh-c-߃ Is≠-Øn-b-Xm-cmWv? C\nbpw hnh-c-߃ Is≠Øm-\pt≠m?
Fßs\ e`n°pw? I-e-≠-dn¬ \n∂p Xs∂ hnh-c-߃ In´ptam?
Pq¨ 15 ]cn-tim-[n-°p-I.

hep-∏- hyXym-kap≈ A°-ß-fp-sS kqN\ Ie-≠-dn¬ \n∂p Xs∂ e`n-°p-∂pt≠m?


Ch Hmtcm∂pw F¥ns\ kqNn-∏n-°p∂p F∂v Is≠-Ømtam?
ka-bw, Znh-kw, h¿jw F∂n-ßs\ IuXp-I-ap≈ [mcmfw hnh-c-߃ Ie-≠-dn-ep-≠v. \n߃ F{X-
sbÆw Is≠Øn? GsXm-s°-bm-sW∂v IqSn Fgp-XpI?

8
{]hÀ¯\w 3

{]Ir-Xn-bnse ]n≥tlmƒ s{]mP-IvSdp-Iƒ


hr£-ß-fpsS XW-en¬ t\m°q. Ce-Iƒ°n-S-bn-eqsS
Acn-®n-d-ßp∂ {]Imiw Xd-bn¬ hrØm-Ir-Xn-bn¬ ImWp-∂-
sX-¥p-sIm-≠mWv?
X∂n-cn-°p∂ Im¿Un¬ hrØw, {XntIm-Ww, NXpcw F∂o
BIr-Xn-Ifn¬ Zzmc-߃ D≠m-°q. Xmsg ]d-bp∂ Af-hp-I-fn-
emWv Zzmc-߃ D≠m-t°-≠-Xv.
$ hrØ-Øns‚ hymkw ˛ 1 -sk.ao
$ {XntIm-W-Øns‚ hi-߃ ˛ 1 sk.ao hoXw
$ NXp-c-Øns‚ hi-߃ ˛ 1 sk.ao hoXw
Xd-bn¬ \n∂v 5 sk.ao AIse Im¿Uv ]nSn®v {]Xn_nw_-Øns‚ kma-{Kn-IÄ
BIrXn \nco-£n-°q. Xd-bn¬ \n∂v Im¿Uv apI-fn-te°v Db¿Øn $ Im¿Uv
{]Xn-_nw--_-ß-fpsS BIrXn \nco-£n--°q. Ct∏mƒ {]Xn-_nw-_-ß- $ I´nwKv tªbvUv
fpsS BIrXn F¥mWv? F¥mWnXn\p ImcWw?

9
{]hÀ¯\w 4

\ap-s°mcp am{¥nI°ÆmSn D≠m-°mw


Hcp Z¿∏Ww FSp-°p-I. Z¿∏-W-Øns‚ hep-∏-Øn¬ IdpØ IS-
em-sk-SpØv AXn¬ \n∂pw hnhn[ BIr-Xn-bn-ep≈ cq]߃
sh´n am‰pI. ({Xn-tIm-Ww, NXp-cw, hrØw XpS-ßn-b-h) AXn\p
tijw I-dpØ IS-emkv Z¿∏-W-Øn¬ H´n®v kqcy\v t\sc Ncn®p kma-{Kn-IÄ
]nSn®v kqcy-{]-Imiw `nØn-bntem kv{Io\ntem ]Xn-∏n-°p-I. $ Z¿∏-W-߃
{]Xn-_nw_Øns‚ BIrXnIƒ Fßs\ ? Hcpt]mse-bmtWm? $ Idp--Ø-t]-∏¿
hyXy-kvX-amtWm?
$ I{XnI
Z¿∏-Whpw `nØnbpw XΩn-ep≈ AIew Iq´p-Ibpw Ipd-bv°p-
Ibpw sNøp-tºmƒ F¥v am‰amWv D≠m-Ip-∂Xv?
{]Xn-_nw-_Øns‚ {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ Fgp-Xp-I.
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am{¥nI°ÆmSn D]-tbm-Kn®v Syq_v sse‰ns‚ {]Im-isØ FXn¿h-i-Øp≈ `nØn-bn-te°v {]Xn-^-en-
∏n®p t\m°pI. \nco-£W ^ew Fs¥∂v Fgp-Xp-I.

10
{]hÀ¯\w 5

kqcy-Z¿in\n
hyXykvX BIr-Xn-bn-ep≈ Z¿∏-W-߃ D]-
tbm-Kn®v kq-cys‚ {]Xn-_nw_w `n-Ønbn¬
]Xn-∏n®v khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ \n-co-£n-®t√m? Z¿∏-
W-Øns‚ BIr-Xn-°-\p-k-cn®v kqcy-{]Xn_nw-
_-Øns‚ BIr-Xnbpw amdntbm? Z¿∏Ww
ssIbn¬ ]nSn®v `nØn-bn¬ Hcp \n›nX
ÿm\Øv {]Xn-_nw_w ]Xn-∏n-°m≥
{]bmkw tXm∂n-bnt√? CXv Fßs\ ]cn-l-
cn°mw?
Z¿∏Ww Hcp Ãm‚n¬ Dd-∏n-®m¬
{]Xn-_nw_w \n›nXÿm\Øv ]Xn-∏n-°m≥
Ignbnt√? \ap°v {ian-®p t\m°mw.
CS-Øcw hep-∏-ap≈ Hcp πmÃn°v ]¥v FSp-°p-I. ]¥n\v apI-fn¬ 2 sk. ao ka--N-Xp-cm-
Ir-Xn-bn¬ hc®v 3 hiw sh´nb tijw sh´mØ `mK-tØbv°v aS-°p-I. ]¥n¬ ]Ip-Xn-tbmfw
aW¬ \nd®v sh´nb `mKw ]q¿∆-ÿn-Xn-bn-em°n ]m°nwKv tS∏v D]-tbm-Kn®v Zzmc-a-S-bv°p-I. tS∏v
D]-tbm-Kn®v Hcp IjWw Z¿∏Ww ]¥n¬ Dd-∏n-°p-I. ]¥v Hcp hf-b-Øn\p ta¬ shbv°p-I.
sNehv Ipd-™, Zo¿L-\mƒ \ne-\n-ev°p∂ kqcy-Z¿in\n Xøm¿.

kma-{Kn-IÄ
$ πmÃn°v ]¥v
$ aW¬
$ sktem-tS-∏v
$ hfbw
$ Z¿∏-W-Øns‚
IjWw

11
GXp Zni-bn-tebv°pw A\m-bmkw Xncn®pshbv°m≥ Ign-bp∂ efn-X-amb kqcy-Z¿in\n B-bt√m?
`nØnbpw kqcy-Z¿in-\nbpw XΩn-ep-≈ Zqcw hyXym-k-s∏-SpØn {]Xn-_nw-_-ß-fp-≠m°n t\m°q. {]Xn-
_nw-_-Øns‚ hymkhpw Zqchpw Hmtcm Xh-Wbpw A-f∂v Zqchpw hymkhpw XΩn-ep≈ A\p-]m-X-߃
ImWp-I.
Fs¥-¶nepw _‘w I≠p ]nSn-°m-\m-hptam? \nK-a-\-߃ Fgp-Xp-I.

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12
{]hÀ¯\w 6

AIsebmsW-
AIsebmsW-¶¶nepw..
nepw..

AI-se-bp≈ hkvXp-°sf ASp-Øp-Im-Wm≥ km[n-°ptam? Hcp sSen-kvtIm∏v \n¿an-


°p-∂Xv Fß-s\-sb∂p t\m°mw.
1. Icp-tX≠ km[-\-߃
1. H_vP-IvSohvv se≥kv (tIm¨shIvkv se≥kv 50 sk.-ao. t^m°¬ Zqcw, 50 an√o ao‰¿
hymkw)
2. sF]okv se≥kv (tIm¨shIvkv se≥kv, 5 sk.-ao. t^m°kv Zqcw, 38 an√o ao‰¿
hymkw)
3. ]n.-hn.-kn. tkm°‰v ˛ 50 an√o ao‰¿ x 50 an√o ao‰¿ ˛ 1
4. ]n.-hn.kn. tkm°‰v ˛ 38 an√o ao‰¿ x 38 an√o ao‰¿ ˛ 1
5. ]n.-hn.-kn. ss]∏v ˛ 50 an√o ao‰¿ Ub-ao-‰¿ , \ofw ˛ 45 sk.ao.
6. ]n.-hn.-kn. ss]∏v ˛ 38 an√o ao‰¿ Ub-ao-‰¿ , \ofw ˛ 15 sk.-ao.
7. sdUyq-k¿ ˛ 50 an√o ao‰¿ x 40 an√o ao‰¿
2. \n¿amWw
50 an√o ao‰¿ x 40 an√o ao‰¿ sdUyq-k-dn¬ 38 an√o ao‰¿ ss]∏v kpK-a-ambn Ibdn Cd-
ßn-t]mIpwhn[w ss{K≥Up sNbvsX-Sp-°p-I.
H_vP-IvSohv se≥kpw sF]okv se≥kpw AXmXv tkm°‰pIƒ NqSm°n Ah-bn¬
IrXy-ambn Cd-°n-h-bv°p-I.
50 an√o ao‰¿ ss]∏ns‚ (45 sk.-ao. \ofw) Hc-‰Øv H_vPI
- vSohv se≥kv LSn-∏n®v tkm°‰v
Dd-∏n-°p-I.

13
38 an√o ao‰¿ ss]∏ns‚ (\ofw 15 sk.-ao.) Hc-‰Øv sF]okv LSn-∏n®v tkm°‰v Dd-∏n-°p-
I. 50 an√o ao‰¿ ss]∏ns‚ adp-h-iØv sdUyq-k¿ LSn-∏n-°p-I. 38 an√o ao‰¿ ss]∏v
sdUyq-k-dn-eqsS hÆw IqSnb ss]∏ns‚ D≈n-tebv°p IS-Øp-I. B `mKw kmh-[m\w
apt∂m´pw ]nt∂m´pw \o°n hnZqc hkvXp-°-fpsS Xe-Xn-cn™ IrXy-amb {]Xn-_nw_w
In´p∂Xp-hsc {IaoIcn-°pI.
(ImgvN IrXy-am-°m≥ Hcp sNdnb IjWw ss]∏v (38 mm ss]∏v) sF]okn\v tijw
LSn-∏n-°p-I. 25 ss]k Xp´ns‚ hep-∏-Øn¬ Im¿Uvt_m¿Un¬ Hcp Zzmcw \n¿an®v H_vP-
IvSohv se≥kns‚ hymkw am{Xw ImWm-hp-∂n-SØv ss]∏n\p≈n¬ Dd-∏n-®m¬ Ncn-™p-h-
cp∂ {]Im-iØns‚ -ieyw Hgn-hm-°mw)

tkm°‰v 50 x 50
tkm°‰v 38 x 38

sdUyq-k¿ 50 x 40ss]∏v 15 sk.ao


ss]∏v 50 sk.ao

kqcy≥ Ign-™m¬ \·-t\{Xw sIm≠v ImWm-hp∂, `qan-tbmSv G‰phpw ASpØ \£-{X-ta-sX-∂-dn-bmtam?


1 dn 6
B ] t‚m 5
1 apX¬ 6 hsc A£-c-߃
N I ¬ 2 a tN¿sØ-gpXn t\m°q.
\ΩpsS Cu Ab¬ \£{Xw `qan-bn¬
X i e c \n∂pw F{X-b-I-se-bm-sWt∂m?
4.3 {]Im-i-h¿jw
3 4
^m k K sk

14
{]h¿Ø\w 7

Aºnfnamas‚ ho´n¬
""Aºnfnamas‚ ho´nepw \ΩpsS
AΩmh≥am¿ Nne¿ t]mbnh∂p
A©mdpI√pIft{X \aps°mcp
k©nbn¬ ama≥ sImSpØb®p''
$ Aºnfnamas‚ ho´n¬t]mb
AΩmh≥am¿ Bscms°bmWv?
$ Ah¿ GXp hml\ØnemWv
t]mbXv?
Iq´pIm¿°dnbt≠? Aºnfnama\nte°p≈ bm{XbpsS hntijßfdnbm≥ X∂ncn°p∂
hnhcWw hmbn°pat√m? \n¿t±in®ncn°p∂ {]h¿Ø\߃ sNøm\pw {ian°Ww.

N{µs\tØSn
Ncn{Xw
1957 HIvtSm_¿ 4 \v tkmhnb‰v djy hnt£]n® kv]pSv\nIv ˛ 1 F∂ Ir{Xna D]{Klw
`qansb hew sh®tXmsS _lncmImibpKØn\v \mµnbmbn. 1961 G{]n¬ 12 \v bqdnKKmdn\pw
Hcpamkw Ign™v Atacn°°mc\mb Ae≥._n.sjt∏¿Upw _lncmImibm{X \SØn. CtXmsS
_lncmImiw a\pjys‚ Im¬°ognembn.
Aºnfnamas\ Iogvs∏SpØpI F∂Xmbn ASpØ e£yw. djy "eq\' ]cºcbnse 24
hml\ßfpw "tkm¨Uv ' ]cºcbnse 7 hml\ßfpw Aºn-fn-am-as\ e£yw-sh-®-b®p.
Atacn°bmIs´ "td©¿' ]cºcbn¬ 7 Dw "k¿t∆b¿' ]cºcbn¬ 7Dw "Hm¿_n‰¿' ]cºcbn¬
5 Dw "FIvkvtπmd¿ ' ]cºcbn¬ H∂pw At∏mtfm ]cºcbn¬ 13 Dw hml\߃ AXn-\m-bn
hnt£]n-®p.

15
a\pjys\ N{µ\nend°phm≥ Ign™ns√¶nepw
djybpsS " eq\' ]cºc Hcp]mSv t\´ßfp≠m°n.
"eqW' 16 Bfn√msXXs∂ N{µ\nse aÆv `qan-bn-se-
Øn®p. eq\ ˛17, eq\ ˛ 20 F∂nh ep\mtJmZv ˛ 1,
eq\mtJmZv ˛ 2 F∂o c≠v tdmhdpIƒ (tdm-t_m´v Po∏p-
Iƒ) N{µ\nend°n.
At∏mtfm ]≤XnbpsS \mƒhgnIƒ
Nm{µ]cyth£W cwKØv h≥IpXn®p Nm´ap≠mbXv " At∏mtfm' (Project Apollo)
]≤XnbneqsSbmWv. N{µs\ e£y-am°n IpXn® BZysØ At∏mtfm hml\amb At∏mtfm ˛4,
1967 \hw_¿ 9 \v hnt£]n°s∏´p. 110 ao‰¿ Dbcap≈ AXniIvXamb " kmt‰¨ ˛ 5' (Saturn -5)
tdm°‰pIfmWv At∏mtfm hml\ßsf hntj]n°phm≥ D]tbmKn®Xv. a\pjys\ N{µs‚
kao]sØØn°phm\pw `qanbnte°v aS°n sIm≠phcphm\pap≈ "Iam‚ v samUyqƒ' (Command
Module), N{µ\nendßphm\p≈ "eqWm¿ samUyqƒ' (Lunar Module) F∂nh tN¿∂XmWv At∏mtfm
hml\w. aq∂v t]¿°v bm{X sNøphm\p≈ kuIcyap≠v At∏mtfm hml\Øn\v. c≠v t]¿
eqWm¿ samUyqƒ hgn N{µ\nendßpw, aq∂masØbmƒ Iam‚ v samUyqfns\ N{µs‚ {`aW
]YØn¬ \nb{¥n°p∂p. Nm{µ]cyth£WØn\v tijw N{µ\n¬ \n∂pw IpXn®pbcp∂ epWm¿
samUyqƒ, Nm{µ{`aW ]YØnep≈ Iam‚ v samUyqfpambn k‘n°p∂p. Ah¿ Iam‚ v
tamUyqfnte°v Xncn®p IbdpIbpw N{µ\n¬ \n∂p tiJcn® Nm{µaÆpw ]mdbpw Iam‚ v
tamUyqfnte°v Ib‰pIbpw sNbvXtijw epWm¿ samUyqfns\ Iam‚ v samUyqfn¬ \n∂pw
th¿s∏SpØn N{µs‚ {`aW]YØn¬ Dt]£n°p∂p. CXv N{µs‚ D]cnXeØn¬ CSn®p hogp∂p.
Iam‚ v samUyqƒ aq∂v t]scbpw sIm≠v `qansb e£yam°n IpXn°p∂p. `qanbpsS 16 Io.ao
apIfnseØptºmƒ ]mcNyq´v \nh¿∂v Iam‚ v samUyqƒ ISen¬ ]Xn°p∂p. I∏epw
slentIm]vSdpw D]tbmKn®v bm{Xn-Isc IcbnseØn°p∂p. 21 ZnhksØ Quarantine\v tijw
Ahsc ]pdØnd°p∂p.
At∏mtfm 4,5,6 F∂nh Bfn√mØhbpw kmt‰¨ tdm°‰ns‚ i‡n
]co£n°phm\p≈hbpambncp∂p. a\pjys\ Dƒs∏SpØnb BZyhnt£]Ww At∏mtfm ˛7
Bbncp∂p. F∂m¬ 1967 P\phcn 27 \v ]co£Wm¿∞w AXn¬ Ign™ncp∂ FUvthUv ssh‰v,
sh¿Pn¬{Knkw, tdmP¿ Nm^n F∂nh¿ Iam‚ v samUyqfn\IØp≠mb

16
Xo]nSpØw aqew sh¥pacn®p. XpS¿∂v CXn\v At∏mtfm ˛1 F∂v ]p\¿\maIcWw sNbvXp
(At∏mtfm˛ 2,3 \ºcpIfn¬ hnt£]Wan√mbncp∂p)
ASpØ At∏mtfmbv°pw At∏mtfm ˛ 7 F∂pXs∂ t]cv \¬In. 1968 HIvtSm_¿ 11˛mw
XobXn hmƒ´¿jnd, tUm¨ sFkven, hmƒ´¿ IÆnwKvlmw F∂nhtcbpw sIm≠v At∏mtfm ˛
7 IpXn®pb¿∂p. 10 Znhkhpw 21 aWn°qdpw `qansb Np‰n HIvtSm_¿ 22˛mw XobXn `qanbn¬
Xncns®Øn.
{^m¶v t_m¿am≥, Pnwtemh¬, hneyw B≥tUgvkv F∂nhsc hln®p sIm≠v At∏mtfm
˛8, 1968 Unkw_¿ H∂n\v IpXn®pb¿∂p. AXv N{µs‚ {`aW]YØnseØpIbpw 109 Io.an
DbcØn¬ 10 {]mhiyw N{µs\ Np‰pIbpw sNbvXp. a\pjys\ hln®p sIm≠v Hcp hml\w
BZyambn `qanbpsS {`aW]YØn\∏pdØv FØp∂Xv At∏mtfm ˛ 8 eqsSbmWv.
1969 am¿®v 3 \v hnt£]n°s∏´ At∏mtfm ˛ 9 ¬ Pbnwkv aIvUhn‰v, tUhnUv kvtIm´v,
d ¬ ssjz°m¿´v F∂nh¿ 10 Znhkw `qan°p Np‰pap≈ {`aW]YØn¬ sNehgn®p. Iam‚ v
samUyqfnt\bpw ep\m¿samUyqfnt\bpw XΩn¬ Iq´ntbmPn∏n°phm\pw th¿s∏SpØm\pw
km[n®p F∂XmWv Cu ZuXyØns‚ t\´w.
1969 sabv 18 \v At∏mtfm ˛ 10 hnt£]n°s∏´p. tXmakv Ãmt^m¿Uv, tPm¨ bwKv,
bpPo≥ sk¿\m≥ F∂nhcmbncp∂p bm{X°m¿. AXv N{µs\ 31 {]mhiyw {]Z£nWw
shbv°pIbpw N{µs‚ 14.5 In.anhsc ASpØp sN√pIbpw sNbvXp. N{µs\ {]Z£nWw
shbv ° p∂ c≠masØ a\pjyklnXt]SIambncp∂p At∏mtfm ˛10. a\pjys\
N{µ\nend°m\mbncp∂p At∏mtfm ˛ 11 apXep≈ hnt£]W߃.
At∏mtfm ˛ 11
1969 Pqsse 16 \v C¥y≥ kabw cmhnse 7.02 \v At∏mtfm
˛ 11 bm{Xbmcw`n®p. \o¬ Bwt{ÃmMv, FUvhn≥ Bƒ{Un≥,
ssa°ƒ tImfn≥kv F∂nhcmbncp∂p bm{XnI¿. ]e {]mhiyw
{]Z£nWw sNbvX tijw Pqsse 20 \v cm{Xn 11.47 \v (C¥y≥
kabw) CuKnƒ eq\m¿ samUyqƒ, sImfw_nb F∂ Iam‚ v
samUyqfn¬ \n∂pw th¿s]´v 21 \v shfp∏n\v C¥y≥ kabw 1.48
\v N{µ\nendßn.

17
Iam‚dmbncp∂ \o¬ Bwkvt{Smßv 8.27 \v N{µ\n¬ ImepIpØn. At∏mƒ
At±lw ]d™ hm°pIƒ Ncn{X {]kn≤ambn. " Hcp a\pjy\v sNdnb
Hcp Im¬shbv∏v, am\hcmin°v alØmsbmcp IpXn®p Nm´hpw (One
small step for a man, One giant leap for Mankind). 19 an\n´v Ign™v
Bƒ{Un\pw N{µ\nendßn. a\pjy≥ BZyambn N{µ\nendßnb Znhkw
Nm{µZn\ambn BNcn°p∂p.
2 aWn°q¿ 48 an\n´v Nt{µm]cnXeØn¬ sNehgn® Ah¿ 20.87 Intem{Kmw ]mdbpw aÆpw
tiJcn°pIbpw hnetbdnb ]co£W D]IcW߃ ÿm]n°pIbpw sNbvX tijw aSßn. 24 \v cm{Xn
10.20 \v \n›nX kabØp Xs∂ Iam‚ v samUyqƒ ]k^nIv kap{ZØn¬ ]Xn®p. kpc£n-X-cmbn Xncn-
s®-Ønb KK\ k©m-cn-Isf temIw Bthi]q¿∆w hc-th-‰p.
At∏mtfm ˛ 12
1969 \hw_¿ 14 \v At∏mtfm ˛12
hnt£]n®p. Nmƒkv tIm¨dmUv ,
Ae≥_o≥, dn®m¿Uv tKm¿U≥
F∂nhcmbncp∂p bm{XnI¿.
tIm¨dmUpw _o\pw \hw_¿ 19 \v
N{µ\nendßn. 34 In.{Kmw ]mdbpw aÆpw
tiJcn®p ZuXyw hnPbIcambn
]q¿Ønbm°nb tijw \hw_¿ 24 \v
im¥kap{ZØn¬ kmtamh Zzo]n\p
kao]w At∏mtfm ˛ 12 \n]Xn®p. 7
aWn°q¿ 46 an\n´mWv At∏mtfm ˛12 se
bm{XnI¿ Nt{µm]cnXeØn¬ Cdßn
\S∂Xv.
At∏mtfm ˛ 13
1970 G{]n¬ 11 \v C¥y≥ kabw cm{Xn 12.43 \mWv At∏mtfm ˛ 13 ]pds∏´Xv. Pbnwkv temh¬,
s{^Uv sslkv , Pm°v sskzK¿´v F∂nhcmbncp∂p bm{XnI¿. HmIv k nP≥ Sm¶ns‚ ]pdsØ
]mfns]m´nsØdn®Xp aqew N{µ\nte°p≈ bm{X XpScm≥ \nhrØnbn√msX G{]n¬ 17 \v Ah¿ im¥
kap{ZØnendßn. Aßs\ am¿Kat[y A]ISw ]nW™mepw Hcp _lncmImi hml\sØ Xncn®p
sIm≠phcm≥ km[n°pw F∂v hy‡am°p∂Xmbncp∂p At∏mtfm ˛ 13 s‚ Xncns®Ø¬.

18
At∏mtfm ˛ 14
hnt£]Ww ˛ 1971 s^{_phcn 1 \v cmhnse
C¥y≥ kabw 2.33
bm{XnI¿ ˛ Ae≥sjt∏¿Uv, FUvKm¿
an®¬, Ãph¿´v dq .
N{µ\nendßnbXv ˛ s^{_phcn 5 \v 2.48
\v, sjt∏¿Upw an®epw.
9 aWn°qdpw 23 an\n´pw N{µ\n¬
sNehgn®p. MET (Modularised Equipment Transporter)
F∂ hml\w D]tbmKn®XmWv At∏mtfm ˛ 14 s‚
G‰hpw henb {]tXyIX. 43.5 In.{Kmw ]mdbpw
aÆpw tiJcn®p. s^{_phcn 1 \v shfp∏n\v 2.35 \v At∏mtfm ˛ 14 im¥kap{ZØn¬
kpc£nXambndßn.
At∏mtfm ˛ 15
1971 Pqsse 26\v 7.04\v hnt£]n®p. bm{XnI¿˛ tUhn-UvkvtIm-´v, Pbnwkv C¿hn≥, B¬{^Uv
th¿U≥. Pqsse 31 \v shfp∏n\v 3.46 \v tUhn-UvkvtIm-´v, Pbnwkv C¿hn≥ F∂nh¿ N{µ\nendßn. 18
aWn°q¿ 46 an\n´v N{µ\n¬ sNehgn®v 78 In.{Kmw ]mdbpw aÆpw tiJcn®p. BZyambn
Nt{µm]cnXeØn¬ Nm{µPo∏v (Lunar Rover) D]tbmKn®p F∂XmWv At∏mtfm ˛15 s‚ {][m\
t\´w. BKÃv 7 \v shfp∏n\v 2.37 \v At∏mtfm ˛ 15 im¥kap{ZØn¬ kpc£nXambndßn.

19
At∏mtfm ˛ 16
1972 G{]n¬ 16 cm{Xn 11.24 \v hnt£]n®p. tPm¨ bwKv,
Nm¿fn Uyq°v, tXmakv am‰nw•n F∂nhcmbncp∂p bm{XnI¿.
G{]n¬ 21 \v cm{Xn C¥y≥ kabw 10.26 \v tPm¨bwKpw
Nm¿fnUyq°pw N{µ\nendßn. 20 aWn°q¿ 41 an\n´v N{µ\n¬
sNehgn®v 95.3 In.{Kmw ]mdbpw aÆpw tiJcn®p. eq\m¿ tdmh¿
At∏mtfm ˛ 16 \pw D]tbmKn®p. G{]n¬ 27 \v At∏mtfm ˛ 16
]k^nIv kap{ZØn¬ h∂ndßn.

At∏mtfm ˛ 17
hnt£]Ww ˛ 1972 Unkw-_¿ 7 cm{Xn C¥y≥ kabw 11.03
bm{Xn-I¿ ˛ bpPn≥ sk¿\m≥, lmcn-k¨ kvanØv, sdmWmƒUv Chm≥kv
Unkw-_¿ 12 \v shfp-∏n\v 1.25 \v sk¿\m\pw kvanØpw N{µ-\n-en-d-ßn. 22 aWn-°q¿ 4 an\n‰v N{µ-
\n¬ sNe-h-gn®v 118 In.{Kmw ]mdbpw aÆpw tiJ-cn-®p. Nm{µ-Po∏v D]-tbm-Kn-®p.
Unkw-_¿ 20 \v C¥y≥ kabw ]I¬ 11.55 \v ]k-^nIv kap-{Z-Øn¬ ]Xn-®p.
At∏mtfm ˛ 18,19,20 F∂nh _P‰v \nb-{¥Ww ImcWw hnt£-]Ww \S-ØmsX At∏mtfm ˛17 HmSp IqSn
Nm{µ-]-cy-th-£Ww Ah-km-\n-∏n-®p.
{]h¿Ø-\-߃
Iq´p-Im-cp-samØv Nm{µ-Zn\m-N-cWw
kwL-Sn-∏n-°-Ww. Fs¥ms° {]h¿Ø-\-ß-
fm-Imw.
$ Nm{µ-Zn\ ¢mkv
$ t^mt´m Kmedn / {]Z¿i\w
$ N{µ-\p-ambn _‘-s∏´ IS-¶Y tiJ-cWw
$ _ln-cm-Imi Iznkv
$ kn.Un {]Z¿i-\-߃
$ kuc-bqY amXrI \n¿Ωm-Ww
$ N{µ-bm≥ skan-\m¿
$ PohNcn-{X-ti-Jc- Ww˛ _ln-cm-Imi bm{Xn-
I¿.
Aßs\ \nc-h[n {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Bkq-{XWw sNbvXv \S-∏n-em-°mw. 20
{]h¿Ø\w 8

_ln-cm-Imi°∏-en-te-dm≥
_ln-cm-Imi°∏-en-te-dm≥
\nßfpw IqSpt∂m Iq´p-Imtc
AΩphpw N¥phpw tkm\bpw ko\bpw
km[\ kma-{Kn- `m-WvUa- m°n
am\-Øn≥ HmcsØ ImgvNI - ƒ ImWphm
\mIm-iI - ∏- e- n-seØn thKw
Xmc-Ia- pØp sImcp-sØmcmhm\-Øn¬,
N{µnI sas√sbmgp-In-sb-Øn.
hnkvab- s- ®∏v Xpd-s∂mcp t\cØv
Iq´-Im¿ IuXpIw ]q≠p \n∂p.

_ln-cm-Im-it- Ø°v Hcp- bm{X!


k¶-ev]n®p t\m°q.
\n߃ Bsc-sbms° Iq´pw?
Fs¥ms° kma-{Kn-Iƒ sIm≠p t]mIpw? Iev]\
- N
- uf
F¥n-\m-Wnh sIm≠p t]mIp-∂Xv?
...........................................................................................
...........................................................................................
GXp-{Kl-Øn-en-d-ßm-\mWv \n߃°njvSw?
F¥p-sIm≠v? Fs¥ms° ]Tn-°m-\m-WnjvSw?
...........................................................................................
...........................................................................................
bm{X-bpsS XpS°w apX¬ Xncn-s®-Øp-∂-Xp-hscbp≈ F√m Hcp-°-ßfpw A\p-`-h-
ßfpw k¶-ev]n-s®-gp-Xq. \nß-fpsS ¢mkn-ep≈ F√m Iq´p-Im-tcmSpw Fgp-Xm≥ ]d-b-Ww.
So®-tdmSpw A—-t\mSpw AΩ-tbmSpw A\p-P-t\mSpw G´-t\mSpw Fgp-Xm≥ ]dbmw. Ch
tiJ-cn®v ]Xn-∏m°q. at\m-l-c-amb Ih¿t]Pv D≠m-°-Ww.
]Xn-∏n\v t]cp sImSp°m≥ ad-°-cp-tX.
{Kl-ß-sf-°p-dn®v IqSp-X¬ Adn-bm≥ Iq´mbn {ian-°-Ww.
hnh-c-߃ ]¶p-sh-bv°-Ww. teJ-\-߃ Xøm-dm-°Ww

21
{]h¿Ø\w 9

ta¬hn-emkw Ipdn°mw
at‰-sX-¶nepw Hcp Kme-Ivkn-bn¬ a\p-jy-hm-k-ap-s≠∂v Icp-Xp-I; AhnsS \n߃°v Hcp
Nßm-Xn-bpw. B Iq´p-Im-c≥/ Iq´p-Im-cn \n߃°v Hcp IØ-b®p F∂v k¶-ev]n-°p-I. F¶n¬
kplrØv \n߃°-b® IØn¬ \nß-fpsS ta¬hn-emkw Fßs\bmbn-cn°pw Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-°pI?
FgpXn t\m°q.
To
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¢m- n¬ Iq´p-Im¿ Fgp-Xn-bn--cn-°p-∂-Xp-ambn HØp t\m°p-I. C\nbpw Iq´n-t®¿t°-≠-Xp-


t≠m. So®-dp-ambn N¿® sNøp-I.
C\n Hcp km-¶-ev]nI imkv{X IY Fgp-Xn-bmtem?
BIm-i-Kw-K-bnse GtXm Hcp {Kl-Øn¬ \n∂pw `qanbnse-Øp∂ Pohn-Isf k¶-ev]n®v
Hcp IY Xøm-dm-°q. Iq´p-Imsc hmbn®v tIƒ∏n-°pIbpw thWw.

22
{]hÀ¯\w 10

¢m n¬ Hcp {KlW°mgvN


-{K-l-W-ß-sf-°p-dn®v \n߃°v Adn-hp-≈-Xm-Wt√m?
N{µ-{K-lWw t\cn´v Bkz-Zn-°m-hp∂, BIm-isØ at\m-l-c-amb \ng¬ \mS-I-am-Wv. F∂m¬ kqcy-
{K-lW \nco-£-W-Øn\v ap≥I-cp-X-ep-Iƒ Bh-iy-ap≠v.
¢m n¬ \ap-s°mcp kqcy-{Kl-W-ImgvN Hcp°mw? kma-{Kn-IÄ
$ Iºn-bn¬ Dd-∏n®
{]h¿Ø\w AXm-cy-amb ]¥v
(d-∫¿ ]¥v)
aq≥Iq´n Xøm-dm-°nb kqcy-Z¿in\n D]-tbm-Kn®v kqcys‚
{]Xn_nw_w Npa-cn¬ H´n® Hcp t]∏-dn¬ ]Xn-∏n-°p-I. $ kqcy-Z¿in\n
Npa-cn¬ ]Xn-∏n® {]Xn_nw-_sØ BImisØ kqcy\mbn k¶ev]n- $ Nm¿´v t]∏¿
°q. BIm-isØ kqcy-{K-lW ImgvN km[y-am-°m≥ kqcy-_nw-_sØ
ad-bv°p∂ N{µ≥ IqSn thWw. Iºn-bn¬ Dd-∏n® d∫¿ ]¥v N{µ-\mbn ]cn-K-Wn-°mw.
]q¿W-kq-cy-{K-l-W-Øn\v N{µ\pw `qan-bp-am-bp≈ AIew hfsc {][m-\-am-Wv. Ah t\¿tcJ-bn¬
Bbn-cn-°-W-sa∂Xv {]tXyIw ]d-tb-≠-Xn-√-t√m. ¢m n¬ ]q¿W kqcy-{K-l-Ww, heb kqcy-{K-l-
Ww, `mKnI {KlWw Ch Zriy-am-°m≥ kqcy-Z¿in-\n-bn¬ \n∂v Npa-cn¬ ]Xn-°p∂ kqcy-{]-Xn-_nw-
_-Øn\pw kqcy-Z¿in-\n-bv°p-an-S-bn¬ Iºn-bn¬ Dd-∏n® ]¥v {]Imi -]m-X-bn-eqsS apt∂m´pw
]nt∂m´pw kmh-[m\w Nen-∏n-°p-I.
$ Npa-cn¬ ]q¿W {KlWØns‚ {]XoXn D≠m-Ip-∂Xv Bkz-Zn-°q. ]q¿W {K-lWw D≠m-
Iptºmƒ {]Im-i-]m-X-bn¬ N{µs‚ (I-ºn-bn¬ Dd-∏n® ]¥v) ÿm\w Fhn-sS-sb∂v a\- n-
em-°p-I.
$ Npa-cn¬ heb {KlWØns‚ Zriyw D≠m-Ip∂ Ah-k-c-Ønepw N{µs‚ ÿm\w Is≠Øq.
$ `mKnI {Kl-W-߃ Fß-s\--sb√mw Zriy-amhpw F∂v N{µs\ Nen-∏n®v Is≠Øp-I.

23
{]hÀ¯\w 11
ap∂-dn-bn∏v
]q¿W kqcy-{K-lWw {KlW ka-bØv t]mepw
kqcys\ t\cnt´m sSe-kvtIm-
∏n-eq-sStbm t\m°-cp-Xv.

kma-{Kn-IÄ
Hcp a\p-jym-bp n¬ h-√t- ∏mgpw am{Xw ImWm≥ Ign-bp∂ $ ]n≥tlmƒ s{]mP-IvS¿
\ng-¬ \mS-I-amb, ]q¿Æ kqcy-{K-l-WØns‚ clkyw $ kqcy-Z¿in\n
C∂p \ap-°-dn-bmw. $ sSen-kvtIm∏v s{]mP-IvS¿
1995 HIvtSm-_¿ 24 \v kqcy-{K-lWw D≠m-bt- ∏mƒ tIc- $ tkmfm¿ ^n¬‰¿
f-Ønse ]e {]tZ-iØpw P\-߃ P\-ep-Ifpw hmXn-ep-
$ hn F¬ F^v F¬ se≥kv
Ifpw sIm´n-b-S®v hoSn-\p-≈n-en-cp∂p. Nne-bn-SØv InW-dp-
Iƒ Sm¿t]m-fn≥ D]-tbm-Kn®v aqSn-bn-cp-∂p-h-t{X. F∂m¬
DØ- t c- ¥ y- b nse ]e {Kma- ß - f n¬ t]mepw P\- ß - ƒ
imkv{X⁄≥am-cpsS klm-bt- ØmsS tkmfm¿ ^n¬‰¿ D]-tbm-Kn®v kqcy-{K-lWw Bkz-
Zn-®p. {]_p≤ tIc-f-Øn¬ {KlW kabØv C\nbpw CØcw kw`-h-߃ Bh¿Øn®p
IqSm.
2009 Pqsse 22- \v ho≠pw {KlWw
C¥y-bn¬ C≥tUm¿, t`m∏m¬, ]mSv\
XpS-ßnb ÿe-ß-fn¬ ]q¿Æ kqcy-
{K- l Ww \nco- £ n- ° m≥ Ignbpw.
F∂m¬ tIc- f - Ø n¬ `mKn- I - a mbn
am{Xta Cu kqcy-{K-lWw \nco-£n-
°p-hm≥ Ign-bpIbp-≈q. kqtcym-Zbw
apX¬ GI-tZiw cm-hnse 7 aWn 15
an\p´v hsc. \ap°pw kqcy-{K-lWw
ImWmw.

24
IÆn\v A]-ISw hcmsX kqcy-{K-lWw ImWm-\p≈ am¿§-߃

1. Aep-an-\nbw t^mbn¬ D]-tbm-Kn®v


tkmfm¿ ^n¬‰¿ \n¿Ωn-°mw. G‰hpw
Npcp-ßn-bXv aq∂v ASp-°p-I-sf-¶n-ep-ap-
s≠∂v Dd∏phcp-ØWw.
2. kqcy-Z¿in\n (t\-csØ \n¿Ωn®p h®n-
´p- ≈ - X v ) D]- t bm- K n®v e`n- ° p∂
{]Xn--_nw_w \nco-£n°mw.
3. sSen-kvtIm∏v D]-tbm-Kn®v {]Xn-_nw_w
kv{Io\n¬ ]Xn-∏n®v kqcy-{K-lWw
\nco-£n-°mw.

IqSp-X¬ Nn¥n°mw
1. kqcy-{K-l-W-th-f-bn¬ ac-Øns‚ Ce-I-fpsS CS-bn-eqsS Xd-bn¬ cq]-s∏-Sp∂ {]Xn-_nw_w
Fßs\ ImW-s∏-Sp∂p?
2. F√m Aam-hm-kn-\m-fnepw kqcy-{K-l-W-ap-≠m-Ip-∂pt≠m?
3. F√m kqcy-{K-l-Whpw ]q¿W-{K-l-W-am-Im-Ø-sX-¥p-sIm≠v?

25
{]h¿Ø\w 12

kam¥c`qan
`qan°v AXns‚ A®pX≠n¬ {`aWw
sNøp∂Xn\v Hcp Znhkhpw kqcys\
hewshbv°p∂Xn\v Hcp h¿jhpw thWsa∂v
\ap°dnbmw. CXp imkv{Xobambn a\- n-em-
°m≥ Hcp kam¥c `qan IqSpX¬
klmbIamIpw.
kam¥c `qan Fßs\ \n¿Ωn°mw?
Ãm‚pw A®pX≠pw am‰nb Hcp t•m_ns‚ kpjncßfneqsS t\m°nbm¬ AIsebp≈
Hcp hkvXphns\ ImWm≥ Ignbpat√m. {[ph\£{XsØ ImWØ°coXnbn¬ Hcp sSd ns‚
apIfn¬ CØcw t•m_ns\ {IaoIcn°q. ZzmcØneqsS {[ph\£{XsØ t\m°ns°m≠v
t•m_ns\ Id°n C¥ybpsS `q]Sw apIfn¬ hcp∂Xpt]mse {IaoIcn°pI. Ct∏mƒ \mw
\n¬°p∂ {]tZihpw (tIcfw) amXrIbnse tIcfhpw kam¥cambncn°pw (C{Xbpw
{]h¿Ø\߃ \StØ≠Xv cm{XnbnemWv.)
Cu {IaoIcWØn\v am‰w hcpØmsX XpS¿∂p≈ {]h¿Ø\߃ sNøpI. a[ym”
kabØv kqcy≥ tIcfØnt‚bpw kam¥c `qanbnse tIcfØnt‚bpw D®nbnembncn°pw.
`qanbn¬ hnhn[ ÿeßfn¬ ImWn°p∂ kabw Xs∂bmbncn°pw kam¥c `qanbnse hnhn[
ÿeßfn¬ ImWn°p∂Xv. Cu amXrIbmWv kam¥c `qan.
kam¥c `qan D]tbmKn®p≈ {]h¿Ø\߃
ap≥]d™ {IaoIcWØn¬ `qanbptSbpw kam¥c `qanbptSbpw A®pX≠pIƒ
kam¥cambncn°pat√m. Hcp ]√nSIpØn FSpØv t•m_n¬ tIcfØns‚ apIfnembn (a[y`mKw)
IpØs\ \n¿ØpI. ]√nSIpØnbpsS \ng¬ t•m_ns‚ apIfn¬ cq]s∏Sp∂Xv {i≤n°pI.
]√nSIpØn°v ]Icw Xos∏´nIºmbmepw aXn.
Nn{XØn¬ ImWp∂Xp t]mse Hcp apfhSn kam¥c `qanbpsS ASpØv IpØs\
\n¿ØpI. AXp≠m°p∂ \ng¬ {i≤n°q. apfhSnbpsS apI-f{Khpw AXns‚ \ngepw
XΩn¬ tbmPn∏n®p≠m°p∂ {XntImWtØbpw t•m_n¬ sh®ncn°p∂ sNdptImens‚ A{Khpw

26
AXns‚ \ngepw XΩn¬ tbmPn®p≠mIp∂ {XntImWtØbpw k¶ev]n°pI. Ah kZri
{XntImWßfmbncn°pw. AXmbXv \mw \n¬°p∂ ÿeØns‚ kuckabhpw \Ωƒ sNdptIm¬
IpØnb ÿeØns‚ kuckabhpw H∂p Xs∂bmbncn°pw.
kam¥c `qanbnse \ngepw shfn®hpw t\m°n GXp cmPyØmWv kqcy≥
DZn®psIm≠ncn°p∂sX∂pw GXp cmPyØmWv AkvXan®p sIm≠ncn°p∂sX∂pw Is≠ØpI.
`qÿnc D]{KlØn¬ \n∂v `qansb ImWp∂Xn\v kam\ambn´mbncn°pw kam¥c`qansb
\mw ImWpI.
{[qh\£{XsØ ImWØ°hn[Øn¬ t•m_ns\ {IaoIcn°p∂Xn\v {]bmkap≠v. tIcfw
GXm≠v 80 apX¬ 120 hsc A£mwiØnemWv. {[ph≥ N{IhmftØmSv tN¿∂v \n¬°pw. sX°≥
tIc-f-Øn¬ ImWm≥ {]bm-k-amWv. _lp\ne sI´nSØns‚ sSdkn¬ Ibdn {ian°mw. F∂m¬
t]mepw \Kc{]tZißfn¬ cm{Xn-bn¬ Xo£vW{]ImiØns‚ ieyw ImcWw {[phs\ Is≠∂p
hcn-√.
CXv adnIS°m≥ am¿Ksamt∂bp≈q. {]h¿Ø\w sNøp∂ ÿesØ A£mwiw AdnbWw,
IrXyamb hS°v AdnbWw. t•m_ns‚ A£tØmSv BwKnƒ UmwKnƒ ao‰¿ tN¿Øphbv°Ww.
kam¥cZnibn¬ \n∂v A£mwiØn\p Xpeyamb tIm¨ apIfnte°v Xncn®v IrXyamb
hS°pZnibnte°v A£w Nq≠Ww. tIcfw t•m_ns‚ apIfn¬ hcØ°hn[w t•m_v Xncn°Ww.
t•m_v Nen°msX Dd∏n®tijw A£ambp]tbmKn® ZWvUpw BwKnƒ UmwKnƒ ao‰dpw am‰mw.

27
Adn-™Xpw Adn-bm-ØXpw

]{¥≠p {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Ign-™-t∏mƒ F\n°v A\p-`-h-s∏-´-sX-s¥√mw?


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C\n-bp-sa-s¥m-s°-bmWv Rm≥ Adn-tb-≠Xv?
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28
tPymXnimkv{X]T\sØ°pdn®v IqSpX¬ Adnbm≥
kwib߃ ZqcnIcn°m≥ Chcpambn _‘s∏SpI.
hnjbImtcym]tZiw
$ Dr.hnthIv a≥tSdntbm ˛ 9869361602
(\h\n¿ΩnXn, apw_bv)
$ s{]m^. sI.]m∏p´n ˛ 9447445522
(UbdIvS¿, tÉv C≥Ãn‰yq´v Hm^v
F≥sskt¢m]oUnIv ]ªnt°j≥kv)
$ {io.hn._meKwKm[c≥ ˛ 0471˛2362079
(kb‚nÃv, hn{Iwkmcm`mbn
kvs]bnkv sk‚¿, Xncph\¥]pcw )
$ Dr.tKmUvs{^ eqbnkv ˛ 9847124092
(t{]m--˛sshkv Nm≥kne¿, CUSAT,sIm®n)
$ s{]m^. _meIrjvW≥ \mb¿ ˛ 9895207063
$ {io.sI. {io\nhmkI¿Øm ˛ 9447104909
(FIvknIyq´ohv F©n\nb¿)
$ s{]m^. Sn.B¿.cXv\w ˛ 9446709067
$ {ioaXn.KoXm almjm_vtZ ˛ 9822614682
(\h\n¿ΩnXn, apw_bv)
$ Dr.Sn.C.Kncojv ˛ 9446967462 Keoentbm
(ske£≥ t{KUv eIvNd¿, ^nknIvkv
Un∏m¿´vsa‚ v, bqWnthgvkn‰n tImtfPv
Ahm¿UpIƒ
Xncph\¥]pcw )
tPymXnimkv{X
{]h¿Ø\߃ Xømdm°nbXv ]T\ {]h¿Ø\߃
$ {io.at\mPv sI.]n ˛ 9446352439
$ {io.kp{_“Wyw.kn ˛ 9446692295 ]q¿ØoIcn®v apt∂dp∂
$ {io.aplΩZv C√ymkv.sI ˛ 9475200510 kvIqfpIƒ°pw
$ {io.A_vZpƒ K^q¿ sI.hn.Fw ˛ 9447684888 Ip´nIƒ°pw
$ {io.{ioIpam¿ kn.Pn. ˛ 9447801130
$ {io.APncmP≥]n≈.sI ˛ 9495239033 Keoentbm Ahm¿UpIƒ
$ {ioaXn.kcbqtZhn sI.B¿ ˛ 9446687300 Icÿam°mw.
$ {io.h¿Kokv amXyq ˛ 9446418835
$ {io.cmtPjv.Fkv ˛ 9447694838
$ {io.{io[c≥.F ˛ 9496361716
$ {io.s_∂n.Sn.hn ˛ 9446379963
$ {io.kPn tP°∫v ˛ 9995415069
$ {io.sI.Sn.tPm¿÷v ˛ 9847333864

\n¿∆lW ta¬t\m´w
{io.sI.iin[c≥
tÉv t{]mPIvSv UbdIvS¿ (I/C), Fkv.Fkv.F -˛ 9495213833
Dr. sI.F≥. B\µ≥ (I¨k¬´‚ v)
{io.Sn.]n.Iem[c≥ (tÉv Akn. t{]m{Kmw Hm^ok¿, Fkv.Fkv.F)
{io.kn.Im¿ØntIb≥ (tÉv Akn. t{]m{Kmw Hm^ok¿, Fkv.Fkv.F)
{io.kn.inhcma≥ \mb¿ (^n\m≥kv & A°u≠vkv Hm^ok¿, Fkv.Fkv.F)
tIm˛ Hm¿Unt\‰¿
{io.B¿.{]k∂Ipamc]n≈ (tÉv Akn. t{]m{Kmw Hm^ok¿, Fkv.Fkv.F)
teHu´v ˛ Fkv.-kPn, Gcq¿ tKm]m-e-Ir-jvW-]n≈
Unssk≥˛ F.-sI.-tKm-]n-Zm-kv
Unssk≥˛

k¿∆in£m A`nbm≥ Xømdm°n


s]mXphnZym`ymkhIp∏n\pth≠n
{]kn≤oIcn°p∂Xv
`mcX-Øns‚ {]Ya N{µ-Zu-Xy-amWv N{µ-bm≥˛1. {iol-cn-t°m-´-bnse kXo-jv[-hm≥ kvt]kv
sk‚-dn¬ \n∂pw HIvtSm-_¿ 22-˛mw XobXn ]n.-F-kv.-F¬.hn ˛ kn 11 hml-\-Øn¬ hnt£-]n® N{µ-
bm≥ ˛1 \hw-_¿ 8˛mw XnbXn N{µs‚ {`a-W-]-Y-Øn-seØn. Cu ZuXy-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm\ e£y-߃
1. N{µ-s\-°p-dn®v imkv{Xo-b-amb IqSp-X¬ Adnhv kºm-Zn-°p-I.
2. _ln-cm-Imi cwKØv C¥y-bpsS kmt¶-XnI anIhv Db¿Øp-I.
3. ]pXnb Xe-ap-dbnse C¥y≥ imkv{X⁄sc {Klm-¥c Kth-jW cwKØv ]pXnb sh√p-hn-fn-Iƒ
t\cn-Sm≥ k÷-cm-°p-I.