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Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

sSd ns‚ apIfn¬ t•m_ns\ {IaoIcn°q. ZzmcØneqsS {[ph\£{XsØ t\m°ns°m≠v t•m_ns\


Id°n C¥ybpsS `q]Sw apIfn¬ hcp∂Xpt]mse {IaoIcn°pI. Ct∏mƒ \mw \n¬°p∂ {]tZihpw ˛
tIcfw ˛ amXrIbnse tIcfhpw kam¥cambncn°pw (C{Xbpw {]h¿Ø\߃ \StØ≠Xv
cm{XnbnemWv.)
Cu {IaoIcWØn\v am‰w hcpØmsX XpS¿∂p≈ {]h¿Ø\߃ sNøpI.
a[ym” kabØv kqcy≥ tIcfØns‚bpw kam¥c `qabnse tIcfØns‚bpw
D®nbnembncn°pw. `qanbn¬ hnhn[ ÿeßfn¬ ImWn°p∂kabw Xs∂bmbncn°pw kam¥c
`qanbnse hnhn[ ÿeßfn¬ ImWn°p∂Xv. Cu amXrIbmWv kam¥c `qan. C\n kam¥c `qan
D]tbmKn®p≈ {]h¿Ø\߃ Ip´nIƒ sNøs´. kam¥c`qanbnse \ngepw shfn®hpw t\m°n kqcy≥
DZn®p sIm≠ncn°p∂Xpw AkvXan®p sIm≠ncn°p∂Xpamb cmP y߃ Ip´nIƒ Is≠Øs´. 12
{]h¿Ø\߃ Ign™t∏mƒ Ip´n t\Snb [mcWIƒ Fs¥ms°bmWv ? Ah¿Ipdn°s´. C\nbpw
Adnbm\m{Kln°p∂ Imcyßfpw tcJs∏SpØs´. tcJs∏SpØnb Imcy߃ ¢m n¬ N¿® sNøWw.

13. Hcp apJw am{Xw IÆn¬


Bi-bß
- ƒ / [mc-WI
- ƒ / ss\]p-Wn-Iƒ
$ N{µs‚ {`a-WI - m-ehpw ]cn-{I-aW - m-ehpw Xpey-amWv. (271/3 Znh-kw)
- I
$ `qan-bn¬ \n∂p≈ \nco-£I - \v N{µs‚ Hcp `mKw am{Xta ImWm≥ Ign-bp-∂p-≈q.
$ imkv{Xob hkvXp-XIsf efn-Xa- mb Ifn-If- n-eqsS Bhn-jvIc- n-°p-∂p.
-km-a-{Kn-Iƒ
$ IS-emkv sXm∏n-Iƒ ˛ 3 FÆw
$ Im¿Uvt_m¿Un¬ sh´n-sb-SpØ Aº-Sb
- m-fw.
{]h¿Ø\w
N{µs‚ {`aWImehpw ]cn{IaWImehpw N¿® sNbvXp sIm≠p XpSßmw. N{µs‚ Hcp apJw
am{Xta \ap°p ImWm≥ Ignbp∂p≈q ImcWw F¥mWv ? ImcWw Is≠Øm≥ C\n Hcp IfnbmImw.
`qan F∂p tcJ-s∏-Sp-Ønb sXm∏n [cn® Hcp Ip´n- {Ku-≠n¬ \n¬°-s´. A¬]w AI-se-bmbn N{µ≥
F∂p tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-b sXm∏n [cn® Ip´n `qan°p A`n-ap-J-hp-ambn \n¬°-s´. N{µs‚ sXm∏n-bpsS
]pdIp hiØv t]\ sIm≠v Hcp AS-bm-f-an-Sp-I. N{µ≥ `qan°p Np‰pw Hcp h´w Nen-°-s´. ]t£
Hcn°epw N{µs‚ ]pd-Ip-hi - sØ AS-bmfw `pan°v Zriy-am-hc- p-Xv. Cu \n¿t±-iØ
- n-\\p-kr-Xa- mbn N{µ≥
`qansb Hcp XhW hew shbv°p-∂p.
$ Ct∏mƒ N{µ≥ `qansb F{X XhW Np‰n k©-cn®p?
$ CXn-\n-Sb
- n¬ N{µ≥ F{X XhW kzbw Idßn?
H∂p IqSn kq£vaa- mbn t\m°n-bmtem ?
Im¿Uvt_m¿Un¬ sh´n-sb-SpØ Aº-Sb - mfw CS-Xp-ssI-øn¬ ]pd-tIm´p Nq≠n-∏n-Sn®p sIm≠v
N{µ≥ `qansb H∂p-IqSn Np‰-s´. Np‰¬ ]Ip-Xn-bm-hp-tºmƒ So®¿ hnkn-eS- n-°p-∂p. Np‰¬ \n¿Øp-∂p.
Aº-Sb - mfw BZyw GXp Zni-bn-te-bv°m-bn-cp∂p ? Ct∏mƒ GXp Zn°n-te-bv°mWv ?

1
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

F¥p sIm≠v ?
{`aWw sNøp-∂n-s√-¶n¬ Aº-Sb - m-fØ
- ns‚ Zni amdp-Ib
- n-√t√m?
N{µ≥ ]IpXn Zqcw ]cn-{I-aWw sNbvXt- ∏mƒ kzbw {`a-Whpw ]Ip-Xn-bmbn ImWmw.
Ne\w Hcp h´w ]q¿Øn-bm-°s- ´.
XpS¿∂v `qan-kzbw {`aWw \S-Øn-s°m≠pw CtX {]h¿Ø\w Bh¿Øn-°mw.
N{µs‚ Hcp apJw am{Xw \mw ImWp-∂X - ns‚ ImcWw C\n hni-Zo-Ic- n-°mtam ?
(C-\nbpw t_m[y-s∏-´n-´n-s√-¶n¬- Hcp t•m_n\pNp‰pw IS-emkv hnam\w Id°n t\m°q. apI-fn-te-°p≈
Nnd-Ins‚ Znim-am‰w {i≤n-°q.)
N{µ≥ 271/3 Znhkw sIm≠mWv ]cn-{I-aW
- hpw {`a-Whpw ]q¿Øn-bm-°p-∂X
- .v
]cn-{I-aW thK-Xbpw {`aW thK-Xbpw Xpey-am-sW-∂¿∞w. CXv a\- n-em-°m≥ {`aWw Hc¬∏w hni-Za- m-
°p-∂Xv \∂m-bn-cn-°pw.
{`aWw ImcWw Zni-am-dp-∂Xv Adn-bm-at- √m. Hcp \n›nX _nµp tI{µsØ Bkv]Z- a- m°n 3600 Id-ßn-bm¬
{`aWw \S∂p F∂p ]dbpw
DZm : `q{`-aWw
N{µs‚ {`aWw Nn{X-Øn¬ ImWp-∂Xv {i≤n-°q.

hS°v

]Sn™mdv `qan Ing°v

sX°v

N{µ≥ A F∂ _nµphn¬ \n¬°p-tºmƒ AºSbmfw AXv kqNn-∏n-°p∂ Zni C bnte°mWt√m. N{µ≥


900 ]cn-{I-aWw ]q¿Øn-bm°n B bn¬ FØp-tºmƒ Aº-Sb - mbn {i≤n-°q. 900 ]cn-{I-
- mfw Dbnte°v amdn-bX
aWw Ign-™t- ∏mƒ 900 {`a-Whpw ]q¿Øn-bm°n XpS¿∂v Cbn¬ N{µ≥ FØp-tºmƒ Aº-Sb - mfw Asb
0
- hpw Ct∏mƒ 180 ]q¿Øn-bm°n N{µ≥ Dbnse--Øp-tºmƒ Aº-S-
kqNn-∏n-°p-∂n-t√. {`aWhpw ]cn-{I-aW

2
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

bmfw Bbnte°v Xncn™p \n¬°p-∂X - hpw {`a-Whpw 2700 ]q¿Øn-bm-°n.


- mbn ImWp-∂p. ]cn-{I-aW
N{µ≥ Abn¬ XncnsI FØp-tºmƒ AºSbmfw ho≠pw Cbnte°v Xncnbp∂p.
Hcp ]cn-{I-aWw ]q¿Øn-bm-°n-bt- ∏mƒ 3600 {`aWhpw ]q¿Øn-bm-°p-∂p.
Zni-am-‰Ø
- n-eq-sS-bmWv ChnsS {`aWw ]q¿Øn-bm-°n-bX
- mbn A\p-`h
- s- ∏-Sp-∂Xv.
Aº-Sb
- mfw ]cn-{I-aW
- Ø
- n-eqS\ofhpw `qan-°`- n-ap-Ja- mbn hcp-∂Xv {i≤n-°p-I.
- ns‚ ImcWw CXm-W.v
N{µs‚ Hcp apJw am{Xw `qan-°`- n-ap-Ja- mbn hcp-∂X

14. N{µs‚ hr≤n£b߃


Bib߃ / [mcWIƒ/ ss\]pWnIƒ
1. N{µs\ `qan adbv°p∂Xp aqeamWv N{µ\v hr≤n£b߃ D≠mIp∂Xv.
2. IdpØhmhpw shfpØ hmhpw D≠mIp∂Xv N{µ\n¬ kqcy\n¬ \n∂p ]Xn°p∂ {]Imiw
`qanbn¬ \n∂v Xosc ImWØt∏mgpw ]q¿Æambpw ImWptºmgpamWv.
3. hr≤n£b߃ \nco£n®v a\ nem°p∂p.
Ip´nIƒ°v \¬Inbn´p≈ {]h¿Ø\ ]pkvXIØnse tNmZy߃ tNmZn®p sIm≠v XpSßmw.
N{µs‚ hr≤n£bw t\m°n kqcy≥ kvs]bvkn¬ FhnsSbmsW∂pw \ap°v ]dbm≥ Ignbpw. CXp
a\ nem°m≥ Hcp Ir{Xna N{µs\ \ap°v \n¿Ωn°mw.
˛ \ΩpsS IÆpw N{µ\pw kqcy\pw XΩn¬ cq]s∏Sp∂ {XntImWhpambn N{µs‚ hr≤n£b߃
Fßs\ _‘s∏Sp∂p F∂v ]Tn°pIbpw sNømw.
\n߃ t\csØ \n¿Ωn® "sIm≠p \S°mhp∂ Ccp´ps]´n' FSp°pI.
˛ s]´n IdpØ t]∏¿ sIm≠v s]mXnbpI.
˛ s]´nbpsS hißfn¬ kpjnc߃ CSpI.
˛ Hcp shfpØ ]¥v s]´nbv°p≈n¬ a[y`mKØp hcØ°hn[Øn¬ \qen¬ Xq°nbnSpI.
˛ Hcp henb Z¿∏Ww D]tbmKn®v kqcy{]Imiw sS∂okv t_mfn¬ hogvØpI.
˛ Ct∏mƒ \n߃ \n¿Ωn® Ir{Xna N{µs\ hnhn[ tImWpIfn¬ \n∂p ho£n°pI.
tIm¨ MES amdp∂X\pkcn®v (M ˛N{µ≥, E - IÆv, S - kqcy≥) N{µs‚ hr≤n£b߃
\n߃°p \nco£n°m\mhpw.

Hcp Ccp´ps]´nbn¬ {]Imin∏n°s∏´ \mcßbpsS apIfn¬ \ns∂SpØ t^mt´m{Km^v


˛ tIm¨ MES \yq\tIm¨ Bbncn°ptºmƒ \n߃ ImWp∂Xv N{µ-°e

3
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

˛ tIm¨ MES a´tImWmbncn°ptºmƒ \n߃ ImWp∂Xv A¿≤N{µ≥


˛ tIm¨ MES 1800 Bbncn°ptºmƒ \mw ImWp∂Xv ]q¿WN{µs\bmbncn°pw.
N{µ°ebnse hfhv kqcys‚ ÿm\sahnsSbmsW∂ kqN\ \¬Ipw F∂Xv {i≤n°pI.
C\n cm{Xnbn¬ N{µs\ t\m°q...
N{µ°ebpsS hfhneqsS kqcys‚ ÿm\w FhnsSbmsW∂v Duln°q.
MES \v kqcymkvXabØn\pw N{µmkvXabØn\pw CSbv°p≈ kabhpambn _‘ap≠v.
tIm¨ MES 900 BIptºmƒ N{µ°e Fßs\bmbncn°pw.
A¿≤N{µs\ ImWp∂ Znhkßfn¬ kqcymkvXabØn\pw N{µmkvXabØn\pw CSbv°p≈
kabw F{Xbmbncn°pw ?
tIm¨ MES 1800 Bbncn°ptºmƒ kqcymkvXabØn\pw N{µmkvXabØn\pw CSbv°p≈
kabw F{Xbmbncn°pw ?
˛ kqcymkvXabsØ XpS¿∂v ]q¿WN{µ≥ DZn®pbcp∂Xv F¥psIm≠msW∂p \n߃
{i≤n®n´pt≠m?
˛ A¿≤cm{Xnbn¬ ]q¿WN{µ≥ Xebv°p t\sc apIfnseØp∂Xv F¥psIm≠msW∂p
a\ nem°nbn´pt≠m ?
At∏mƒ kqcys‚ ÿm\w FhnsSbmbncn°pw ?
(DØcw ˛ \nßfpsS Im¬®ph´n¬)
15. Aºtºm kuc-bqYw
[mc-WI
- ƒ / Bi-bß
- ƒ/ ss\]p-Wn-Iƒ
$ kuc-bq-YØ - ns‚ bYm¿∞ hen-∏hpw {Kl-߃°n-Sb - n-ep≈ AI-ehpw Nn{Xo-Ic- n-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂-
Xn\pw A∏p-da- mWv F∂ Xncn-®d- nhv.
$ Af-s∂-Sp-°e - nse kq£vaX
- , IrXyX F∂n-hb - nse ss\]pWn
$ D]-Ic- W
- ß
- ƒ ssIImcyw sNøp-∂X - nse ss\]pWn
kma-{Kn-Iƒ
Nm¿´p-t]-∏d- p-Iƒ 4 FÆw, tImºkv, s]≥kn¬, NcSv, I{XnI, ]i,
Af-hp -tS∏v
{]h¿Ø\w
\memw ¢m nse ]cn-kc- ] - T- \
- ]
- p-kvXI
- Ø
- nse kuc-bq-YØ
- ns‚ Nn{Xw Ip´n-Iƒ \nco-£n-°s- ´.
12 e£w `qan-Isf Dƒs°m-≈m≥ am{Xw hen-∏-ap-≈-XmWv kqcy≥ C°mcyw Nn{X-Øn¬ \n∂p
hy‡-amtWm ?
`qan-bn¬ \n∂pw ip{I-\n-te-bv°p-≈ AI-e-Øns‚ 109 aSßv AI-e-ap≠v s\]v‰yq-Wn-tebv°v ˛
Cu hkvXpX Nn{X-Øn¬ \n∂v hy‡-am-hptam ? bYm¿∞ hen-∏hpw AI-ehpw B\p-]m-Xn-I-
ambn Nn{Xo-Ic- n-°m≥ \ap°p km[y-amtWm ?
Cu ]cn-anXn Fßs\ adn-IS- °pw ?
A\p-tbm-P y-amb tXmsX-SpØv kuc-bq-YØ - ns‚ amXrI AX-\p-kc- n®v \n¿Ωn-°p-Ibpw kvIqƒ

4
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

{Ku≠n¬ {Iao-Ic- n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXmtem ?


`qan-bpsS hymk-amb 12756 In.ao \v 1 sk.ao F∂ kuI-cy-{]-Z-amb Hcp tXmXv \ap°v kzoI-cn-
°mw. ]´nI t\m°n Cu tXmX-\p-kc- n®v kqcy-t\bpw {Kl-ß - t- fbpw Nm¿´p-t]-∏d- n¬ hrØm-Ir-Xn-
bn¬ sh´n-sb-Sp°mw (B-\p-]m-Xn-Ia- mbn kqcys\ \n¿Ωn-°m≥ Hcp Nm¿´p t]∏¿ aXn-bm-hptam?)
Cs√-¶n¬ F¥p sNømw?
kucbqYmwKw bYm¿∞ tXmX-\p-kc- n-®p≈ kqcy-\n¬\n-∂p≈ tXmX-\p-kc- n-®p≈ AIew
hymkw In.ao hymkw(12756=1sk.ao) AIew In.ao tXmXv˛12756=1sk.ao
(ao‰dn¬)
kqcy≥ 1391900 110 ˛ ˛
_p[≥ 4879 0.38 57909175 45.40
ip{I≥ 12104 0.95 108200000 84.80
`qan 12756 1 149600011 117.30
sNm∆ 6794 0.533 22794000 178.70
hymgw 142984 11.21 778330000 610.20
i\n 120536 9.45 1429400000 1120.60
bqdm-\kv 51118 4.01 2870990000 2250.70
s\]v‰yq¨ 49528 3.88 4504300000 3531.12

C\n ZqcØns‚ tXmXv t\m°n {Klßsf {Ku≠n¬ {IaoIcn°s´. \n߃°v GsX√mw {Kl-
ßsf Bt]-£nI Zqc-Øns‚ tXmX-\p-kc- n®v {Ku≠n¬ {Iao-Ic- n-°m≥ km[n®p?
- n¬ \n∂pw 31/2
`qansb 1 sk.ao hymk-ap≈ hrØ-ap-]t- bm-Kn®v {]Xn-\n-[o-Ic- n-°p-tºmgpw kqcys‚ amXr-Ib
Io.-ao-e[
- nIw AIse s\]v‰yq-Wns\ {Iao-Ic- n-t°≠n hcp∂p F∂ Xncn-®d- n-hn¬ Ip´n-Iƒ- F-Øn-t®-cp-∂p.
{Iao-Ic- W
- Ø- n¬ A\p-`h
- s- ∏-Sm-hp∂ Cu {]bmkw Ah¿ kzbw Xncn-®d- nb-s´. BZy-ta-Xs∂ CXv t_m[y-
s∏-Sp-Øm-Xn-cn-°p-∂X
- mWv \√-X.v Nn{Xo-Ic- W
- Ø
- n\v hg-ßp-∂X- √ kuc-bq-YØ- ns‚ hym]vXn F∂v Ah¿°v
kzbw t_m[y-s∏-Ss- ´.

16. {{]m
]mbsa{X Iq´mw ˛ I
]mbsa{X pdbv°mw
Ipdbv mw..
[mcWIƒ / Bib߃ / ss\]pWnIƒ
$ ]´nI hniIe\w sNbvXv {]iv\߃ \n¿≤mcWw sNøp∂p.
$ `qanbnse \ΩpsS {]mbw `panbpsS ]cn{IaWØns\Sp°p∂ kabØn\\pkcn®msW∂pw a‰p
{Klßfnse {]mbw AXmXp tKmfßfpsS ]cn{IaWØn\\pkcn®mhpw F∂pw Is≠Øp∂p.
$ KWnXmib߃ {]tbmKn®v imkv{X {]iv\߃ \n¿≤mcWw sNøm\p≈ Ignhv.
kma{KnIƒ
$ {KlßfpsS ]cn{IaW Imew˛ ]´nI.
$ Nm¿´v t]∏¿

5
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

{]h¿Ø\߃
˛ \nßfpsS {]mbw F{XbmWv ?
˛ \n߃ F{X XhW kpcy\p Np‰pw k©cn®n´p≠mhpw ?
`qan Hcp ]cn-{I-aWw ]q¿Øn-bm-°p-tºm-gm-Wt√m \ap°v Hcp hb v IqSp-∂Xv ?
$ F√m {Kl-ßf- nepw \n߃°v Htc {]mbw BIptam ?
(DØcw Duln®v Ipdn®v shbv°p∂p)
Hmtcm {Klhpw hyXykvX Ime-bf- h - p-sIm--≠mWv kqcys\ hew hbv°p-∂Xv F∂Xp sIm≠v \mw Htcm
{Kl-Øn-em-bn-cn-°p-tºmgpw \ΩpsS hb v hyXy-kX v a- m-bn-cn-°pw. DZm-lc- W
- a- mbn c≠v h¿jw sIm≠v
kqcys\ hew shbv°p∂ Hcmƒ°v `qan-bn-ep-≈t- ∏mƒ D≈ hb- ns‚ ]Ip-Xntb hb- p-≠m-hq. C\n
Hmtcm {Kl-Øn-sebpw \nß-fpsS {]mbw IW-°m-°q. \nßfpsS Dulw F{XtØmfw icnsb∂v Is≠Øq.
{Klw ]cn-{I-aW
- I
- mew
_p[≥ 88 `ua-Zn\w
ip{I≥ 224.7 `ua-Zn\w
`qan 1 h¿jw
sNm∆ 1.88 h¿jw
hymgw 11.86
i\n 29.46 h¿jw
bpdm-\kv 84.1 h¿jw
s\]v‰yq¨ 164.8 h¿jw
˛ KWnX {Inb-Iƒ Ip´n-Iƒ kzbw sNø-s´.
˛ DØ-cØ
- n-se-Øm-\p≈ hgn kzbw Is≠-Øm≥ Ah-kcw \¬I-Ww.
˛ {]bmkw A\p-`h
- s- ∏-Sp-∂h
- ¿°v Bh-iy-amb \n¿-t±iw \¬Imw.
30 hb- p-≈h
- ¿°v 88 Znhkw sIm≠v ]cn-{I-aWw ]q¿Øn-bm-°p∂ _p[-\n¬
365 x 30 - = 124 hb v
88
(]q¿W kwJyIƒ h®v {Inb sNbvXm¬ aXnbmIpw. DZm : hymgØn\v 11.86 F∂Xv 12 h¿jw F∂p
IW°m°mw.)

17. Xe Idßpt∂
Bi-b-߃ / [mc-W-Iƒ / ss\]p-Wn-Iƒ
$ {`aWw aqew `qa-[y-tc-Jb
- n-ep≈ _nµp aWn-°q-dn¬ 1667 In.ao thK-Xb
- n¬ Nen-°p-∂p.

6
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

$ thK-Xb
- p-ambn _‘-s∏´ KWn-Xm-ib
- ß
- ƒ {]tbm-Kn-°p-hm-\p≈ Ignhv
$ ZØ-߃ hni-Ie
- \w sNøm-\p≈ Ignhv
kma-{Kn-Iƒ
]¥v, ssk°nƒ Iºn, \q¬
{]h¿Ø\w
Hcp ]¥ns‚ a[y-Øn-eqsS Iºn- Xp-f®p Ib-‰p-I. ]¥ns‚ a[y-tc-Jb
- n¬ Hcp IdpØ AS-bm-fa- n-
Sp-I. A£sØ B[m-c-am°n ]¥p Id-°p-I. AS-bmfw {i≤n-°m-\m-h-iy-s∏-Sp-∂p. ]¥nt\msSm∏w
ASbmfhpw Idßp∂pt≠m ? ]¥v H∂v Idßptºmƒ ASbmfw F{XZqcw k©cn°pw ? Zqcw Af∂p
Is≠Øs´ (Np‰fhv)
`qa[y-tc-Jb
- n-¬ \n¬°p∂ Hcmƒ `qan H∂p Idßptºmƒ F{X Zqcw k©cn°pw ? 40,000 In.ao.
F¶n¬ a[y-tcJm {]tZ-iØp \n¬°p∂ Hcm-fpsS Ne-\t- h-KX Is≠-Ømtam ? Bh-iy-sa-¶n¬
Xmsg-∏d- b
- p∂ kqN-\I
- ƒ {Ia-Øn¬ \evIm-hp-∂X
- m-Wv.
`qa-[y-tc-Jb
- nse Hcp _nµp Znh-khpw 40,000 In.ao Zqcw k©-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.
Znh-kØ
- n\v BsI 24 aWn-°q-dm-sW∂v Adn-bm-at- √m. Fßs\ thKX Is≠-Ømw?
N¿®bneqsS kahmIyw cp]oIcn°pI. $ thKX = Zqcw / kabw
(40,000 / 24 = 1667 Io.an / aWn-°q¿)
˛ F∂n´pw `qap-JØp \n∂pw \mw sXdn®p t]mImØsX-¥p-sIm-≠m-Wv.
˛ `qan Hcp kU≥ t{_°n-Sp-Ib
- m-sW-¶n¬ F¥p kw`-hn-t®s\ ?
`qa-[y-ta-Jb
- n-eq-sS-bp≈ Hcp dbn¬∏mX hgn Hcmƒ aWn-°q-dn¬ 1667 Intem-ao-‰¿ thK-Xb
- n¬
]Sn-™m-tdm´v \n¿ØmsX k©-cn-°p∂p F∂n-cn-°s- ´. Abmƒ°v kqcy≥ AkvXa- n-°p-∂Xv Ft∏m-gm-
bn-cn°pw? F¥p-sIm≠v ?
1. kU≥ t{_°v CSptºmƒ hkvXp°ƒ sXdn®p t]mIpw XpSßnb Bib߃ FØnt°≠XmWv.
2. Abmƒ k©cn®p XpSßptºmƒ kqcy≥ FhnsSbmtWm AhnsSØs∂bmbncn°pw kqcys‚
ÿm\w kqcy≥ AkvXan°n√. ImcWw `qanbpsS {`aW thKXbn¬Øs∂bmWv AbmfpsS
k©mcw {`aWZnibv°v FXncpw.

18. A¤pXs∏tS≠, \n߃°pw km[n°pw.


Bib߃ / [mcWIƒ/ ss\]pWnIƒ
1. ]pcmX\ C≥Uybnse tP ymXnimkv{X⁄\mb Bcy`S\mWv `qanbpsS Np‰fhpw, `qan
kqcys\ hew hbv°ms\Sp°p∂ kabhpw, `qan{`aWw sNøms\Sp°p∂ kabhpw IrXyambn
KWn®v Is≠ØnbXv.
2. `q{`aW Zni Adnbm\pff am¿§w a\ nem°p∂Xn\v
3. ]pcmX\ C≥Uy≥ imkv{X⁄∑m¿ t\Snb AdnhpIƒ tiJcn®v Ipdn∏v Xømdm°n ¢m n¬
AhXcn∏n°m\p≈ tijn t\Sp∂p.
7
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

{]h¿Ø\w Ip´nIƒ kzbw sNøs´. B[p\nI D]IcW߃ H∂pan√mXncp∂ ImeL´Ønepw


\·t\{Xßfm¬ ]ecpw {]]©w hmbn®dn™ncp∂p. AhcpsS \nco£WØnse IrXyX Ip´nIsf
t_m[ys∏SpØWw. Ip´nIfpsS A\p`hßfpw Ip´nIƒ AhXcn∏n°s´. ]pcmX\ ImesØ
KWnXImc∑mtcbpw, tPymXnimkv{X⁄∑mtcbpw Ipdn®v IqSpX¬ hnhc߃ \¬Im≥ Nne Imcy߃
sImSpØncn°p∂p.

""a\pjy\v Hcp sNdnb NphSp hbv]v


a\pjycmin°v Hcp IpXn®p Nm´hpw''

N{µs‚ D]cnXe kv]¿iw Adn™am{Xbn¬ Bwkvt{Smßns‚ i_vZw. h¿Øam\Imew Ncn{XØn\p


hgnamdp∂ Xnf°am¿∂ aplq¿Ø\߃.
A¤pXmZchpItfmsS am{Xta kvacn°phm≥ Ignbq. {]mNo\ `mcXw KWnX ˛ tPymXnimkv{X taJebn¬
temtIm-Øc kw`m-h\- I
- ƒ \¬In-bn-´p-≠v. hne-s∏´ kw`mh\ \evInb Nne alZv hy‡nIsf \ap°v
]cnNbs∏Smw. ChcpsS {]bXv\^eßfmWv B[p\nIimkv{XhnImkØns‚ ASnØd.

eK[≥ 1200 _n.kn


$ IrXn thZmwK tPymXnjw.
$ 1200 _n.knbnse aXkmaqlyhnhcw \nd™ IrXn.
$ KWnXw, Ie≠¿ F∂nhsb°pdn®p≈ ]T\w
$ 27 \£{X߃, {KlW߃ F∂nhsb°pdn®p≈ [mcW \evIp∂ IrXn.

Bcy`S≥ 476˛ 550 F.Un


$ P\\w hSt° C¥ybn¬ AivaIw F∂ ÿeØv.
$ IrXnIƒ ˛ Bcy`Sob, Bcy`´ knµm¥w
$ Cdm\nseØn KthjW ]T\߃ ]I¿∂p.
$ Ad_nbpƒs∏sS hnhn[ `mj-If- n¬ IrXn-Iƒ X¿÷a sNøs∏´p.
$ {KlWßfpsS IrXyImcWßfn¬ imkv{Xob hniZoIcWw.
$ {KlßfpsS Xnf°Øn\v ImcWw kqcy≥ F∂v hniZoIcn®n´p≠v.
$ Znhkmcw`w A¿≤cm{Xnbn¬ \n∂v.
$ 1 apX¬ HºXv hsc A°ßƒ D]tbmKn®ncp∂p.
$ A°ßƒ FgpXp∂Xn\v ÿm\{Ia k{ºZmbw Is≠Øn.
$ _oPKWnX \nba߃°v cq]w \evIn.
$ `qan Dcp≠sX∂v imkv{XtemIw AwKoIcn°pw aptº Is≠Øn.
$ `qan ]Sn™mdp \n∂v Ingt°m´v \oßp∂Xns‚ ^eambn \£{Xßfpw {Klßfpw ]Sn™mtdm´v
\oßp∂Xmbn ka¿∞n®p.
$ `qan kzbw A®pX≠n¬ {`aWw sNøp∂p.
$ `qanbpsS Ne\w aqew \£{X߃ Nen°p∂Xmb\p`hs∏Sp∂p.
$ {Klßfpw kqcy\pw \£{Xßfpw `qan°p Np‰pw Xncnbp∂p.
$ cmlp ˛ tIXp k¶¬]{Kl߃. Ah kqcys\ hngpßp∂Xpaqea√ N{µ {KlWw D≠mIp∂Xv.
N{µ≥ `qanbpsS \ngen¬ IS°p∂Xp sIm≠mWv N{µ{KlWw.

8
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

$ `qanbpsS Np‰fhv Is≠Øn 39,968.0582 Io.an. (B[p\nI imkv{Xw Is≠ØnbXv 40,075.0167


Io.an)
$ {Ko°v KWnXImc≥ CdmtXmkvX\okv Is≠Ønb `qanbpsS Np‰fhpw C∂sØ
Is≠Øepambp≈ hyXymkw 5% \pw 10% \pw CSbnemWv.
$ Bcy`Ss‚ Is≠Øen¬ shdpw 0.02 % am{Xw.
$ 1975 G{]n¬ 19 \v C¥y BZyw hnt£]n® Ir{Xntam]{KlØn\v Ct±lØns‚ t]cp \evIn
BZcn®p.

hcmlanlnc≥ 505 ˛587 F.Un


$ a[y{]tZinse D÷bn\nbn¬. Pohn-®n-cp-∂p.
$ {]mNo\ A©v tPymXnimkv{XImc∑mcpsS IrXnIƒ Npcp°n cN\ ˛ ]©kn≤m¥nI F∂ t]cn¬
IrXn-Iƒ
$ {]]©a[yØn¬ ÿnXnsNøp∂ `qan Dcp≠Xv.
$ kqcy\pw N{µ\pw a‰p {Klßfpw `qan°p Np‰pw Idßp∂p.
$ KWnX imkv{X-Øn¬ al-Ømb kw`m-h\ ˛ ]©-kn-≤m-¥Ø - n-¬ ÿm\hne KWnXw kw_-‘n®
hnh-cß- ƒ D≠v.
$ {SnKvtWm-sa-{Sn-bnse Nne I≠p-]nSpØ-߃ \S-Øn-bn-´p-≠.v

{_“Kp]vX≥ 598 ˛ 668 AD


$ kucmjv{S F∂ ÿeØv P\\w.
$ 30˛mw hbkn¬ {_“kv^pS kn≤m¥w F∂ IrXn.
$ e`yamb hnhcw h®v ]qPyØns‚ D]tbmKw BZyw Is≠ØnbXv Ct±lØns‚ IrXnbn¬
\n∂pw.
$ ]nev°me KWnX tPymXnimkv{X KthjI¿°v hgnIm´n.
$ Ad_n`mj hgn `mcX tPymXnimkv{X KWnXw CkvamanI cmPyßfn¬.

`mkvIc I (629 AD)


IrXnIƒ
$ alm`mkvIcob
$ eLp`mkvIcob
$ Bcy`Sob `mjyw
$ {KlNe\sØ°pdn®v hniZ]T\w
$ an\n´pIƒhsc IrXyambn IW°m°p∂ PeLSnImc \n¿ΩnXn.
$ {KlßfpsS ÿm\w IrXyambn Is≠Øn.
$ tPymXnimkv{X cwKØv Kuch]T\Øn\v \mµn Ipdn®p.

`mkvIc II (1114 F.Un)


IrXnIƒ
$ kn≤m¥intcmaWn
$ IcWIpXqle
$ D÷bn\nbnse \nco£W \nebta[mhn

9
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

$ _oPKWnXw
$ {KlßfpS Ne\w
$ IcWNe\Øn¬ ˛ {KlNe\߃ ASnÿm\am°n ew_tImW{Xn`pPßfpsSbpw
ka_lp`pPßfpsSbpw kq£va]T\w.

{io]Xn 1045 F.Un


IrXnIƒ
$ knµm¥tiJcw
{_“Kp]vXs‚ A\pbmbnbmbncp∂p.

atl{µkqcn 14 ˛mw \q‰m≠v


$ ssP\aXm\pbmbn
$ 32 \£{Xßsf°pdn®v, temRvPn‰yqUv ˛ em‰n‰yqUv ]T\w

\oeIWvT tkmabmPn (1444-˛ 1544)


$ tIcfob tPymXnimkv{XØnse {]apJ≥
$ `qanbmWv tI{µw F∂ Nn¥sb am‰m\p≈ ss[cyw Im´nbn√.
Bcy`Sob`mjyw cNn-°p-tºmƒ AXn¬ Nne ]pXnb KWnX k{º-Zm-b-߃ Ah-X-cn-∏n-®p.
ANypX]njmcSn
$ tIcfob≥
IrXnIƒ
$ kv^pS\n¿Wbw
$ cmintKmfkv^pS\n[n
$ {`aWw Zo¿L hrØmImcsa∂v Is≠Øn.
$ IctWmØa F∂ IrXn {it≤bw.
$ kqcyN{µ{KlW ]T\w IqSpX¬ hn]peam°n.

{_“Kp]vX≥
kucmjv{Sbn¬ P\\w
IrXn
$ {_“kv^pS\ kn≤m¥w
e`yamb hnhca\pkcn®v ]qPyØns‚ D]tbmKw
BZyw Is≠ØnbXv Ct±lØns‚ IrXnIfn¬

kwKa{Kmaam[h≥
P\\w 1340 ¬ Xriq¿ Pn√bn¬ Ccnßme°pS Ce™n∏≈n ho´n¬
$ ss]bpsS aqeyw Zimwiwhsc IrXyambn IW°m°n
$ {XntImWanXobhmIyßfpsS hnIk\w km[yam°n.
$ t{iWo hmIy߃ I≠p ]nSn°p∂n\v 300 h¿j߃°v apt∂ Ct±lw B[nImcnI

10
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

]T\w \SØn.
$ temIØmZyambn A\¥ t{iWn D]tbmKn®v hrØØns‚ ]cn[n kq£vaambn
\n¿Æbn°m≥ am¿§w Is≠Ønb imkv{X⁄≥.

hSt»cn ]ctaizc≥
$ ]me°mSv BeØqcn¬ 14˛mw \q‰m≠n¬ P\\w.
$ lcnZØs‚ ]clnX k{ºZmbØnse hogvNIƒ ]cnlcn®v 1430 ¬ Zr§WnXw
BhnjvIcn®p.
$ tKmf Zo]nI, {KlWmjvSIw, {KlWmaWvU\w, {KlW\ymbZo]nI F∂nh
apJyIrXnIƒ.
$ tIcfob KWnX imkv{XØns‚ B[mc {KŸw Ct±lØns‚ Zr§WnXamWv.
tNmZy߃ tNmZn°mw DØcw tXSmw. {]h¿Ø\tØmsSm∏w tN¿Øn´p≈
tNmZy߃°pØcw tXSm≥ Ahkcw \¬IWw.
19. `qan Dcp-≠X
- m-Wv
Bib߃ / [mcWIƒ/ ss\]pWnIƒ
1. `qan Hcp tKmfamWv. CXv kvt]kn¬ kzX{¥ambn \nev°p∂p.
2. Ing°p`mKØp≈h¿ ]Sn™mdp `mKØp≈hsc At]£n®v BZyw kqtcymZbhpw
kqcymkvXabhpw ImWp∂p.
3. \nco£WØnse IrXyXbpsS Bhiyw t_m[ys∏Sp∂p.
4. IrXyXtbmsS \nco£n°m\p≈ ss\]pWn t\Sp∂p.
{]mNo\ImesØ `qansb°pdn®p≈ k¶ev]ßsf°pdn®v N¿® \SØmat√m. `qan
Dcp≠XmsW∂v sXfnbn°m\p≈ {]h¿Ø\w sNøm≥ Ip´nIsf t{]m’mln∏n°pI.
]T\bm{XIfn¬ kqtcymZbw, kqcymkvXabw F∂nh ImWp∂Xn\p≈ Ahkcw
D≠m°Ww.
20. `qan-bpsS {`a-W\
- n-c°v Af°mw
Bib߃ / [mcWIƒ/ ss\]pWnIƒ
1. `qan AXns‚ A®pX≠n¬ kzbw {`aWw sNøp∂p.
2. kqcyZ¿in\n D]tbmKn®p sIm≠v `qanbpsS {`aW\nc°v I≠p]nSn°m≥ Ignbpw.
3. Hcp ZnhkØns‚ ssZ¿Lyw 1440 an\n´mWv F∂v ]co£WØneqsS Is≠Øm\p≈ Ignhv
t\Sp∂p.
`qan°v AXns‚ A®p-X-≠n¬ kzbw {`aWw sNøp-∂-Xn\v Hcp Znhkw thW-sa-∂p- Ip´n°-
dnbmw. Znh-kØn\v F{X a- n-\n-‰p-s≠∂v \ap-s°m∂v Af-∂p-t\m-°mw.
Hcp `nØn-bn¬ \n∂v 15 ao‰dn¬ IpdbmØ AIse \n∂p sIm≠v kqcy-Z¿in\n D]-tbm-Kn®v
kqcys‚ {]Xn-_nw_w `nØn-bn¬ cq]-s∏-Sp-ØpI. kabw amdp-∂X
- n-\\
- p-kc- n®v {]Xn-_nw_w Nen-°p-∂-
Xmbn ImWmw. Hcp an\n‰n¬ {]Xn-_nw_w F{X sk. an. Zqcw Nen-°p-∂p F∂v `nØn-bn¬ Af∂p
t\m°q. Htcm an\n‰nepw kqcys‚ {]Xn-_nw_w k©cn°p∂ Zqcw IrXy-ambn Af∂p Ipdn-°p-I.

11
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

kqcys‚ {]Xn_nw_Øns‚ Ne\w hyXykvX kabssZ¿Lyßfn¬ Af∂v FgpXm≥ Ahkcw


\¬IWw. CXn¬ \n∂pw Hcp an\n‰n¬ Nen°p∂ Zqcw Is≠Ømat√m.
. Z¿∏-W-Øn¬ \n∂p hcp∂ {]Im-ic-ivan-Iƒ°v ew_-amWv `nØn. `nØn-bpw D]-I-c-W-Ønse
Z¿-∏W
- hpw XΩn-ep≈ AIew Is≠Øq. Cu Zqcw Bc-am-bn-´p≈ Hcp hrØw k¶¬]n-°p-I.
Cu Z- qcw Bc-am-bn-hc- p∂ hr-ØØ - ns‚ hrØ-]c- n-[n-IW
- °
- m-°q. {]-Xn-_nw_w Hcp an\n-´n¬ F{X am{Xw
Zqcw Nen-®p F
- ∂v \ap-°d- n-bm-at- √m.
hrØ]ncn[n IW°m°p∂Xn\v 'r' Bcambn´p≈ HcphrØØns‚ ]cn[n 2 II r F∂
kq{XhmIyap]tbmKn®v Is≠Ømw.
hr-Ø-]-cn[n ]q¿-Æ-ambpw k©-cn-°m≥ {]Xn-_nw_w F{X an\n‰v FSp°psa∂v IW-°m-°p-I.
\nß-fpsS DØcw 1440 an\n‰vv As√-¶n¬ AXn-t\m-S-SpØ kwJy-bmbncn°pat√m? (24 aWn°q¿ X 60
an\n´v = 1440 an\n‰vv)

21. kab cY-Øn¬


Bi-bß
- ƒ / [mc-WI
- ƒ / ss\]p-Wn-Iƒ
$ tcJmwiw F∂ Bibw cp]o-Ic- n-°p-∂X - n\v
$ kab taJ-eI- ƒ Xncn-®d- n-bp-∂X
- n\v
$ kq£va- ambpw IrXy-ambpw D]-Ic- W- ß- ƒ \n¿Ωn-°p-∂Xn\v.
$ tIm¨ F∂ Bi-bØ - ns‚ {]tbmKw
-km-a-{Kn-Iƒ
$ k¨]m-bv°‰v jo‰v / hnss\¬ jo‰v / Im¿Uvt_m¿Uv
$ s]≥kn¬
$ I{XnI
$ kvsIbn¬
$ tImºkkv
{]{Inb
`qan Hcp {`aWw ]q¿Øn-bm-°-W-sa-¶n¬ Hcp Znhkw (24 aWn-°q¿) thW-a-t√m. A£mwiw,
tcJmwiw F∂nh sIm≠pt±in°p∂Xv F¥mWv ? N¿®
`qa-[y-tc-Jm-{]-tZ-i-Øp≈ Hcp hkvXp Hcp- a-Wn-°q¿ sIm≠v B k©m-c-Øns‚ F{X-`mKw
]q¿Øn-bm-°p∂p ?
Fßs\ Is≠Ømw ?
Nn{Xw \nco-£n-°q.
Hcp hrØw 3600 BWt√m AXns\ 24 Xpey-`m-Ka- m-°n-bm¬ Hcp `mKw F{X Un{Kn? sNbvXp t\m°mw.
10 sk.ao Bc-ap≈ 13 hrØ-߃ sh´n-sb-Sp-°p-I. AXn¬ Hcp hrØ-sa-SpØv c≠v Bc߃ XΩn¬
150 hc-Ø°- h
- n[w 24 Bc°m-e
- p-Iƒ hc-bv°p-I.
Htcm Bc-°m-en-eq-sSbpw I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn®v 5 sk.ao \of-Øn¬ apdn-°p-I.

12
Keo-entbm en‰n¬ kb‚nÃv

a‰v 12 sh´nsbSpØ hrØ-ßfnepw Nn{X-Øn-te-Xp-t]mse hc-°p-I. XpS¿∂v 12 FÆ-tØbpw Hcp hc-


bn-eqsS apdn®v 24 A¿≤-hr-Øa- m-°p-I.

A¿≤-hr-Ø-Ønse tI{µ-Øn¬ \n∂pw 5 sk.ao \of-Øn¬ I{XnI D]-tbm-Kn®v apdn-°p-I. 24 `mK-am-


°nb hrØ-sa-SpØv AXn¬ A¿≤-hr-Øß
- ƒ apdn® `mK-ßf- n-eqsS Ib-‰n-hb
- v°p-I. CtX coXn-bn¬ 24
FÆhpw Ib-‰n-hb
- v°p-I. `qansb 24 Xpey-`m-Ka- mbn apdn® coXn-bn-ep≈ ]T-t\m-]I
- c- Ww
]q¿Øn-bmbn.
D-≠m-°nb t•m_n¬ F{X Zf-ßf- p≠v ?
c≠p Zf-߃ XΩn-ep≈ tImWnb AIew F{X-bmWv ?
t•m_n¬ 24 ZfßfmbXn\m¬ Zf߃ XΩnep≈ tImWob AIew
360 = 150 Bbncn°pw.
24
ASp-ØS- p-Øp≈ c≠p Zf-ßf- psS tImWob AIew F√m-bn-SØpw Htct]mse-bmtWm.
Hcp Un{Kn tImWob AI-e-Øn¬ Zf-߃ sh°-W-am-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ F{X Zf-߃ th≠n hcp-am-bn-
cp∂p. Hmtcm Zf-Øn-s‚bpw h°ns\ kqNn-∏n-°p∂ h{I-tc-Jbv°v F¥p t- ]-cp-hn-fn°mw ?
Hcp s]≥kn¬ Iq¿∏n® A{Kw \nß-fpsS t•m_ns‚ a[y-tc-Jm-Xe
- Ø
- n¬ hc-Ø°
- h
- n[w Hcp Zf-Øn\p
t\sc IrXy-ambn ]nSn-°q.
Cu t•m_ns\ Hcp Znhkw sIm≠v (24 aWn-°q¿) ka-th-KØ
- n¬ Id-°p-∂psh-¶n¬ ASpØ Zf߃
s]≥kn-ens‚ A{KsØ adn-IS- °
- m≥ F{X-ka- b
- s- a-Sp°pw? Cu s]≥kn-ens‚ A{Kw kqcy-\n¬ \n∂p
hcp∂ ew_-ci
- van-bm-sW∂p k¶¬∏n-°q. t•m_v `qan-bpw.
Cu t•m_v Hcp {]mhiyw {`aWw sNøm≥ 24 aWn°q¿ (Hcp Znhkw) FSpØm¬ ASpØSpØ Zf߃,
s]≥knens‚ A{KsØ adnIS°m≥ 24/ 24 = 1 aWn°q¿
kabsaSp°pat√m. Cu hyXymkamWv hyXykvX kab taJeIƒ°v \nZm\w.
`qan-bn¬ hyXykvX kab taJ-eI
- ƒ D≠m-hp-∂s- X-¥p-sIm-≠mhmw ?
{Ko\n®v tcJsb ASnÿm\am°n Hmtcm Un{Kn°pw (tc-Jmw-iw) 4 an\n´ns‚ kab hyXymkw `qanbn¬
A\p`hs∏Sp∂p.
{Kq∏v {]h¿Ø\ØneqsS t•m_v \n¿Ωn®v N¿®Iƒ s]mXphmbn ¢m n¬ \SØpat√m.

13