Lecture: Physiology of Hearing and Equilibrium I. Physical Characteristics of Sound A. Sound as Vibration of Air Molecules Traveling in Waves 1.

vibration of medium - sound travels in compression waves through a particular medium a. solid-------------> liquid ----------------> gas fastest slowest 2. sound as a wave - the series of high pressure and low pressure areas are called “compressions” and “rarefactions”, respectively a. b. c. sine wave - graphic representation of areas of compression and rarefaction of a sound wave wavelength - the distance between 2 areas of compression for a given sound wave frequency - the number of waves that pass a given point in one second (1/s = 1 Hertz) i. ii. iii. d. short wavelength/high frequency - high pitched tones long wavelength/low frequency - low pitched tones human frequency range - 20Hz - 20,000 Hz (2-3 Hz distinction)

amplitude - intensity of energy in a given wave of sound; signified by height of sine wave i. ii. loudness - subjective interpretation of the intensity of a sound decibel - logarithmic scale to measure the intensity of sound waves Perceived Loudness barely audible 2 X 0 dB 4 X 0 dB 8 X 0 dB 16 X 0 dB

Energy in the Sound Wave 0 dB threshold for audibility 10 dB l0 X 0 dB 20 dB 100 X 0 dB 30 dB 1000 X 0 dB 40 dB 10,000 X 0 dB iii. II.

human amplitude range - 0 dB - 120 dB (130 dB = pain level)

Transmission of Sound to the Inner Ear air --> external auditory canal --> tympanic membrane (ear drum) -->

stapes. resonance . thickness. cochlear hair cells .rest on the basilar membrane. 3. 2. vibration -> hair cell vibration hair cell vibration -> opening/closing channels depolarization/hyperpolar -> cochlear nerve cochlear nerve impulses -> to brain IV. Resonance of Basilar Membrane & Excitation of Hair Cells A. incus. vibration of oval window -> perilymph vibration for 20 . Processing of Auditory Information A. basilar m. d.000 Hz only.different fibers of basilar membrane have different “natural frequencies” b. 4. Anatomical Pathway to the Brain cochlear nerve (vestibulocochlear VIII)-> spiral ganglion --> cochlear nuclei (medulla) --> superior olivary nucleus --> lateral lemniscal tract --> inferior colliculus --> medial geniculate body of thalamus --> auditory cortex (superior temporal lobe) V. B.) --> oval window of cochlea --> vibration of cochlear fluid --> basilar membrane of cochlea III.20.location of vibration on the basilar membrane Perceiving Differences in Loudness (Intensity) . 5. more hair cells of the basilar membrane (with same pitch) are activated localizing Source of Sound . C. SPECIFIC parts of basilar membrane vibrate only at SPECIFIC frequency (pitch) B. Perceiving Pitch (Frequency) .ossicles (malleus. Excitation of Hairs Cells of Organ of Corti 1. contain "stereocilia" which project into the "tectorial membrane" just above a. Resonance of Basilar Membrane 1. b. c.amplitude increases. vibration of vestibular membrane vestibular membrane vibration -> endolymph vibration endolymph vibration -> vibration of basilar membrane basilar membrane “fibers” of different length. and tension like strings of a piano a.

3.the difference in timing in which a sound reaches both ears VI. Equilibrium and Balance: The Vestibular Apparatus A. 3. conduction deafness ."ear stones" that rest on top of the otolithic membrane horizontal acceleration . respond when bent c.bony cavity of the inner ear between the cochlea and the semicircular canals a. 2. Linear Movement: The Maculae of the Vestibule 1.disruption in sound vibrations to basilar membrane (ext & mid ear) 1. Menierre's Syndrome . otolithic membrane . otoliths . b.the amplitude of sound waves hitting the different ears relative timing . hairs bend when motion is FORWARD/BACKWARD vertical acceleration . 2. B. blocked auditory canal (wax.maculae of UTRICLE is in the horizontal plane. maculae . 3.first point where sound from both ears come together a. fluid) perforated tympanic membrane (eardrum) otitis media . saccule and utricle . Typical Hearing Disorders A.middle ear infection/inflammation otosclerosis . chronic loud noise) damage to vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) damage to nuclei/tracts to the cortex C.chronic perception of clicking or ringing 1. vertigo. 4.like hair cells of basilar membrane. loss of hair cells (explosion. superior olivary nucleus .jelly-like sheet that abuts the "stereocilia" of the hair cells i.hardening of the earbone joints sensorineural deafness . sudden blow to the tympanic membrane gradual deterioration of afferents in cochlear nerve D.effects both hearing and balance. hair cells .disruption anywhere in pathway from hair cells to the auditory cortex 1. tinnitus . relative intensity . hairs bend when motion is UP/DOWN 2. 3. 4. 2. vestibule .smaller sacs housed within the vestibule b. . and interspersed nausea and vomiting 1.maculae of SACCULE is in the vertical plane. results in tinnitus.1. 2. may be too much endolymph beneath basilar membrane symptoms can be treated somewhat with drugs endolymph may be drained periodically hearing loss is progressive VII.patch of "supporting cells" and "hair cells" along the utricles and saccules i.

vestibular nuclei . coordinates information to help regulate head position. Bonine.three bony "hula-hoop" extensions of vestibule in three different planes crista ampullaris . cerebellum . posture.also receive input from eyes and somatic proprioceptors. Dramamine.false feeling of gravity or motion 3. limbs 2.also receives input from eyes and somatic proprioceptors. semicircular canals .movement of the head in non-linear (circular or angular) direction is monitored by three canals vestibular nystagmus . 2.like maculae. cupula . coordinates information to help control motion of eyes.like otolith membrane. C. Equilibrium Pathway: Coordinating Inputs in Brain activated hair cells of crista ampularis -> afferent axon fibers (vestibulocochlear nerve) -> vestibular nuclear complex OR cerebellum 1. vomiting motion sickness .conflict between visual/somatic inputs and action of the vestibular apparatus a. 5.B. nausea.block inputs from vestibular apparatus to the brain . 4. 2. gelatinous "cap" into which hair cells project change in angular (rotational) acceleration . contain hair cells that respond to flow of endolymph in canals a. Scopolamine . Angular Movement: The Crista of Semicircular Canals 1. neck. imbalance. dizziness. Problems with Equilibrium 1. and balance D.movement of eyes to remain fixed on object when on "merry-goround" vertigo .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful