CONTENTS 1. Technology and Efficiency .................................................................................................... 2 2. Artificial Intelligence ........................................................................................

..................... 7 3. Bill Gates.............................................................................................................................. 12 4. The Impact Of Computers.................................................................................................... 17 5. Graphics & Multimedia........................................................................................................ 22 6. Types Of Computer Viruses................................................................................................. 26 7. The Current Nature Of Human Relations ............................................................................ 31 8. Programming........................................................................................................................ 36 9. Living With Computers........................................................................................................ 41 10. The New Visual Age: The Influence of Computer Graphics on Art and Society.............. 46 11. The Information Superhighway ......................................................................................... 51 12. E-Commerce....................................................................................................................... 56 13. Hacking .............................................................................................................................. 61 14. Internet Advertisements ..................................................................................................... 65 Bibliography............................................................................................................................. 70


L1: Technology and Efficiency The market for computer products is a multi-billion dollar business where one can find a perfect balance of technology and efficiency. The huge industrial market is lead by such names as IBM, Hewlett Packard, and Compaq. The steps that are taken to bring the computer from several small components to a desktop product are organization of the manufacturing facility, assembly of hardware, installation of software, and a test process. The production of a high quality product is important to computer buyers. Manufacturing factories produce approximately 14,000 systems weekly. Companies generally use 2 methods of computer assembly. One method involves complete unit assembly by one person, the other being group assembly where several people construct a single computer (the latter method is known as assembly line production). When assembling a computer, there are 8 to 10 major components installed including the processor speed chip, the motherboard, RAM (Random Access Memory), diskette drive, modem or network card, video card, hard drive, sound card, and CDROM. Before the components are placed into the computer, each part undergoes an extensive testing process called “quality control” . Quality control ensures that faulty systems are not shipped. As an initial step, prior to the assembly process, an inspection of the outer case to ensure that there are no scratches or defects. The brand name and indicator labels are put onto the computer case at this time. Next the motherboard is installed and prepared for the processor chip. The chip (which is often a Pentium chip) is attached to the motherboard along with the RAM component. Once the chip and RAM are installed, the internal speakers and sound card are placed into the case. The hard drive, disk drive and CD-ROM drive are attached to the computer chassis. All these components are then attached to the motherboard with cables so that they may communicate with each other. Power supply is then applied to the computer and other additional components such as the video card, and modem are added near a final stage of assembly. After all these components are installed to create the finished ‘PC’, the unit is thoroughly inspected to ensure that all the cables connections are in place and all other defects are fixed. Inspectors also ensure that cables are in appropriate places so that they do not touch components. The CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductorcircuitry for the memory and processor) is set up at this time. The top cover is placed onto the computer and it is shipped off for further testing. All companies differ in their testing of finished products. A common practice in most companies includes the 48-hour burn in period. After it, final diagnostic tests are completed to ensure all components are working well. If a computer is ordered with sound cards, speakers are attached to the unit and they also are tested. Mouse and keyboard components are tested manually by connecting a testing mouse and keyboard to the ports. The computer is then shipped from the manufacturing site to the distribution center. Here, additional tests are possible as computers are randomly checked and inspected. The computer is then further shipped to department or retail stores for sale to the consumer. In conclusion, the production of a computer from a number of components to a finished product is a complex procedure.(…) The usefulness of the computer and subsequent consumer demand for improved models will keep pressure on manufactures to build more efficient, high quality machines in future years.


A. Read the text above and find the synonyms for the following words(the words are in the same order as they appear in the text). 1. exquisite; 2. main; 3. to put into position; 4. to damage a surface; 5. wrong; 6. ending; 7. filled in; 8. buyer; 9. following; 10. bettered. B. Match the beginning of the sentences in the first column with their endings in the second one. a. the two methods of computer assembly 1. the video card, the modem are b. major components of a computer are 2. the 48-hour burn in period an initial step in quality control is 3. the complete unit assembly by one person, and the assembly line production c. additional components are 4. organization of the manufacturing facility, assembly of hardware, installation of software, and a test process 5. the processor speed chip, the d. a method of testing the finished products motherboard, RAM (Random Access is Memory), diskette drive, modem or network card, video card, hard drive, sound card, and CD-ROM. e. The steps that are taken to bring the 6. an inspection of the outer case to ensure computer from several small components that there are no scratches or defects to a desktop product are C. Are the following statements true or false? Correct any false statements and give reasons for your choice. 1. The internal speakers and sound card are placed into the case after the chip and RAM are installed. 2. Mouse and keyboard components are not tested manually. 3. The hard drive, disk drive and CD-ROM drive are attached to the computer keyboard. 4. CMOS is the short form for: complementary metal-oxide semiconductorcircuitry for the memory and processor 5. After all the components are installed to create the finished ‘PC’, the computer is shipped from the manufacturing site to the distribution center. D. What improvements are possible in the computer field? Write your own point of view in a 200 hundred word composition.


4. She………. Example: Mary is in the kitchen. Mr. (not.. lie) 12.Grammar A. Who is the little boy looking at? What The students are listening to the professor’s explanations. 6. Ask questions to the following. ………television? (you/ not watching) 5. 2. Make comments on the sentences bellow. hoping to find a treasure under this tree. 3. (speak). 12. 4. Smith is in his office. 4 1.(not sleep) She……….(dig) B. 5. the TV set is on. The painter is in his studio. 8. 1. The professor is speaking to the students about a new means of communication. The little boy ………. What………to say? (he/try) 11. All the family are at table.(play) 9. The children are in the park. (not tell) swim in this lake. Example: The little boy is looking at a policeman. George is in the garden. 7. Grandmother…………. (learn) 3. . …………. Mike is in the garage. 3. C. 1. ( bake) 6. Use the present tense continuous in your sentences. The opera singer is on the stage. We………about our integration in the European Community at this moment. a car. The students are talking about the conference. She is cooking dinner for everybody in the house.. Meg is in the computer lab. They………. They ……….in the library? (Greg/ not study) 8.. 2. 5. interrogative. Mr. The computer worker is in front of the computer.? (the singer/sing) 7.the children a fairy tale.a cake.about that program. Father is looking for his glasses all around the house.. 9. 2. Greg is complaining about his neighbours. The surgeon is in the surgery room. Listen ! Mary…………the piano. 11. 10. What song …………. Put the verbs in brackets in the present tense continuous: positive. …………by bus? (you/ come) 10. Brown is in the living room. negative. The students are in the language lab.

………? 9. He is looking for his gloves. You aren’t buying sweets. ……. (neither) She’s not working on a new project and neither is her colleague. Tell what the people around you are doing.(neither) 5. No man in this room is doing the right job. Mr. (either) 12. He isn’t repairing the car today. (too) 8. 10.………. Paul isn’t making mistakes and neither am I. (but). They’re going to the meeting today.? 10. He is complaining about the noise in the street. Dr. Mary is helping the builders and so is her mother. too... (either) 6..? 6. 9. The new student is trying hard. 5 .…. (either) 10.? 7.…………? 4. but all the women are. They are looking at the photos.? 5. Imagine you are in a computer house. Add tag questions to the following sentences: Example: You aren’t practising a new technique..…………? 8. The Germans are discussing about the price of the building. The boys aren’t staying still and neither are the girls. Example: She’s working on a new project and so is his colleague. She is waiting for the professor. I’m searching for some information on this site and she is. Simpson is working in the garage and his son is.? 2. White is taking care of the patient and so is the nurse. 7. 2. 8. (so) 3. too. Bob isn’t drinking his coffee and Doris isn’t either.? 3. Make any necessary changes. Brown is carrying a suitcase and so is her husband. Mrs. (too). The tourists are taking some photos and so is the guide. using present tense continuous as much as possible. too.……. They aren’t skating now. Your friend is waiting for you. Jimmy isn’t digging in the garden right now and neither is his sister. 9.………….…………. 1. Your brother is studying French. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. are you? 1.6. (neither) 7. D. They are boasting about their results.? E. My cousin is studying for the exam.. Diana is wearing a pair of new earrings today……. She’s feeling worse today and her sister is. (so) 11. (but) 4. (so) E.

with 75. 3.make progress. They were speaking about different things but didn’t realize it.continue with • get over. 2.Vocabulary 1. When friendly • get on with. 6. 1. 4.anyway I hope so. 9. He’s dialled her number.. 3.The (easiest/easily) thing is for us to take the plane home. Phrasal verbs with get • get away. I could tell by taking one quick look that there have been a socially • get up. 5. 2. 4.recover from • get through. 8. The bank robbers managed to …………. It was a difficult problem and I was uncertain what to do. The winners are selected without any plan by a computer. We’re still trying to ………that tragedy. 3.She entered a (bright/brightly) lit room.. 10. 6.1.have a good relationship with. I’m sure that our friends will arrive very soon. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1.. He took the car for a test drive to see how he……. 7.make contact. it’s advisable to carry your passport constantly. 3.In some towns you don't feel (safe/safely) going out alone at night.manage to finish • get together.I was (scarce/scarcely) able to move my leg after the accident. 2.The traffic is moving very (slow/slowly) ahead of us. 4. 7. 6 .his mother-in-law. Replace the phrases in italics with suitable expressions from the list bellow: at cross purposes at short notice at least at least at the expense at all times at random at the last moment at a glance at the last moment at any moment at any rate at a loss at a loss 1. but cannot ……. The child was rescued a moment before it was too late. She said you must……. 2. George adores his wife.escape • get on. She was working much too hard causing harm to her health. 6. 5. It’s impossible to get tickets for such a popular show without previous warningyou need to book no less than six months in advance. The show closed because it was running without making a profit.1. but he can’t ……. She was delighted to meet you. 5.000 $. 2.again soon.rise from bed Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with get. 7..Her apple pie always looks (good/well) and tastes delicious. What time did he…… this morning? 2.1. 2.There was a (fresh/freshly) fall of snow during the day.

Moreover. Chaologists are experimenting with Wall Street where they are hardly receiving a warm welcome. This integration takes the pros of fuzzy logic and neural networks and eliminates the cons of both systems.L2: Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself. The inherent vagueness in everyday life motivates fuzzy logic systems. The chaos theory has potential for 7 . nice. Created by Lotfi Zadeh almost thirty years ago. fuzzy logic lends itself to multiple operations at once. Success was minimal because of the lack of computer technology needed to calculate such large equations. It is surprising what a computer can do with that intelligence once it has been put to work. They can easily replace many mundane tasks that other computer systems would have trouble with. Virtually all of these methods require special hardware and software to use them. chaos engineering has already proven itself and will be present for the foreseeable future. Another promising arena of AI is chaos engineering. In contrast to the usual yes and no answers. Fuzzy logic's structure allows it to easily rate any input and decide upon the importance. This new system is a now a neural network with the ability to learn using fuzzy logic instead of hard concrete facts. or financial profession can benefit greatly from AI. chaos engineering. Although some are rather simple. neural networks require massive amounts of computing resources that restrict their use to those who can afford it. On the other hand. Using any one of the aforementioned design structures requires a specialized computer system. AI is achieved using a number of different methods. For a relative scale of reference. Fuzzy logic's ability to do multiple operations allows it to be integrated into neural networks. The generally accepted theory is that computers do and will think more in the future. large supercomputers can only create a brain the size of a fly. or large This concept was also inspired from biological roots. that makes AI systems expensive. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer architecture. fuzzy logic is practically a win-win situation. such as new. Almost any scientific. fuzzy logic is a mathematical system that deals with imprecise descriptions. these systems perform their duties quickly and accurately without expensive equipment. Early attempts at AI were neural networks modelled after the ones in the human brain. The ability of the computer to analyze variables provides a great advantage to these fields. business. The chaos theory is the cutting-edge mathematical discipline aimed at making sense of the ineffable and finding order among seemingly random events. and expert systems. knowledge based systems. fuzzy logic. There are many ways that AI can be used to solve a problem. Making recommendations on which AI systems work the best almost requires AI itself. this type of system can distinguish the shades in-between. On the one hand. Allowing a more fuzzy input to be used in the neural network instead of being passed up will greatly decrease the learning time of such a network. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1956 by a group of scientists having their first meeting on the topic. The more popular implementations comprise neural networks. Nevertheless. Unfortunately. there is something that can be said about this. Many new AI systems now give a special edge that is needed to beat the competition. Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. Two very powerful intelligent structures make for an extremely useful product. In order to tell that AI is present we must be able to measure the intelligence being used. However.

8 . The chaos theory is aimed at making sense of the ineffable and at finding order among seemingly random events. 1. They provide an efficient. a. The fuzzy "logic is a theoretical system used in mathematics. but the technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. actually B. Are the following statements true or false? Correct any false statements and give reasons for your choice. Designed correctly. capacity. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer cased-based reasoning systems. and cased-based reasoning systems are here to stay for a long time. 8. knowledge-based systems. Read the text and find the synonyms for the following. AI is achieved by using design structures like: neural networks. 8. Use about 300 words to sustain it. 6. 7. This gives it the ability to be a huge success in the financial world. mainly. unnatural. The expert systems. b. 4. The technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. The words are in the same order as those that appear in the text. necessary. 9. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1965 by a group of scientists 3. 5. Fuzzy logic can easily replace many mundane tasks that other computer systems would have trouble with. 2. 4. The chaos theory can’t be of a huge success in the financial world. easy to use program that yields results that no one can argue with. 1. A. Write your point of view on the following two issues. Computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. dear. chaos engineering. knowledge-based systems. and cased-based reasoning systems provide an inefficient. the lowest. 11. difficult to use program. knowledge based systems. While the massive surge into the information age has ushered some old practices out of style. the better ones have taken over with great success.handling an infinite amount of variables. While the expert systems. obtained. before mentioned. 2. 10. 5. fuzzy logic. unhappily. 3. computing and philosophy to deal with statements which are neither true nor false. they are can be easily updated and modernized. disorder. 7. Neural networks can be afforded by anyone. and expert systems. finally. 6. 12. The rate of advancement may seem fast to the average person. 9. C.

George is walking in the park with his daughter Mary. Someone is approaching the house. 1. Where do you go during your winter holiday? (SELDOM) 10. sit down) 5.teachers) 6. 4. put off the candles). The musicians are tuning up their violins. When do you go to the theatre? (SOMETIMES) 4. Example: How do you get to college? I always go to college by trolleybus. The restaurant doesn’t open until 9 o’clock …(neither –the snack bar) 2. Answer the following questions using the present tense simple to express habitual actions. (Jane/hurry down the stairs. Lawyers talk a lot in their work…(so.Grammar A. They often go on trips in the mountains…( but.either) 4. (Paul/put on his raincoat. greet everybody. 6. bow to the audience. It is raining.grammar exercises) 3. bend. A door is opening to the left. She goes to the door and opens it. catch a bus. Who do you study with? (OFTEN) 7.(bell/ring. Two candles are burning on the mantelpiece. The Herestrau Park looks beautiful in spring…( the Village Museum. run to the gate. The bell rings. What time do you go to college? (USUALLY) 2. (The old lady/come in. go back home) C.the other students) 8. Example: Mary is sitting at her desk. Make sentences of your own to express chains of short actions. Do you help your parents with the housework. open the gate). 1.( A tall man/come in. The language lab helps them to improve their English…( so. pick) 2. Which piece of music do you enjoy listening to? (SELDOM) 3. open) Mary is sitting at her desk. What kind of books do you read? (OCCASIONALLY) 6.too) 7. Add the adverb in brackets to your answers. (conductor/come. Complete the following statements according to the indications in the brackets: Example: He doesn’t collaborate with others…(she-either) He doesn’t collaborate with others and she doesn’t either. start conducting) 3.the vacuumcleaner) 9 .(so. go to the fire place. The washing –machine doesn’t need to be repaired…(neither. Jill doesn’t read French…( her classmates. (Mary/see a flower. Where do you spend your weekend?(RARELY) 9. (OFTEN) 11. Where do you meet your friends? (FREQUENTLY) B. Do you work late at night? (GENERALLY) 5. Do you sleep in the afternoon? (NEVER) 8. The pink coat belongs to me….the pink scarf) 5. 1. go.

(in case) 2.…. The department opens at 9 a. The film doesn’t begin at 3 p. Then we’ll go to the skating rink. Join the following sentences using the connectors in brackets. He will be in the mood.(when) He will play that game with you when he is in the mood. This complain changes nothing in our relation. Our friends attend school regularly…( we-too) D. doesn’t it? 1. Then I’ll tell him about the meeting. Complete these sentences using tag-questions. They like nothing that is on the list.m.…? 5.? E. She’ll send her mother a postcard. Make any other necessary changes.9.…? 7. (as soon as ) 7. She’ll send her a letter. The clock will strike nine. as soon as.. I’ll think about the problem you’ve told me about. (provided) 9. They sometimes do a good job. Imagine you are a businessman. They’ll go to the market.…? 6..). etc. Perhaps I’ll see John tonight. in case. etc. He understands the new concept..…? 8.? 10. Maybe it will snow tomorrow. Perhaps Tim will miss the bus.. I’ll have some time. (before) 8.. Use the present tense simple after time connectors ( when. Susan and Meg always help their parents. I’ll read the book. Example: The last train leaves at midnight.…? 3. (if) 5. (after). 6. 1. (in case) F. They’ll buy some food. (as soon as) 4. I don’t like this man…(but. Nobody likes listening to this nonsense. We’ll get home then. He will go swimming again. about the activities that you usually/ sometimes/ often/ seldom/ never do.m. It will get dark. 10 . before. Then he’ll be late for the conference. Greg will soon recover. Her neighbours often understand to show their gratitude in this way. Then I’ll see the film. You will go to bed.….…. Example: He will play that game with you. (before) 3..? 2.? 9.…? 4.they) 10. (when) 10. Talk about your daily program.) and after conditional ones ( if. She expresses her point of view quite abruptly.

The temperature …. His neighbour decided to…… because it started to rain.become lower •go in. 2. while shows like musicals are sometimes described as uncultured. Don’t put off doing this work any should do it now.leave. 2. 6. Delays at the airport may be terrible in the main holiday period. Good quality audio equipment is on sale in every main shopping street. 3.Vocabulary 1. reading the paragraph. There’s less room for holiday makers on the beach when the sea comes up high than when it goes out. 50 or older? 13. They’ll…….return • go down.1.continue • go over. 11.. 7. 11 .cease • go back. In Britain. Please. Would you like to live in a tall multi-storey building. He has searched everywhere for his glasses. ……. It’s much colder now. 5.. 2. 1.or do you think two or three storey buildings are more pleasant for people to live in? 8. Everyone was feeling elated before the weekend..last night. If you come across useful new words in a text. 2.1. not the whole thing. 3. 5.or at least not so very artistic. Replace the phrases in italics with suitable expressions from the list bellow: at high tide hi-fi high and low high season high-tech high-rise highbrow higher education highlight highlights in high spirits it’s high time high school high street middle class middle-aged middlebrow at low tide feeling low lowbrow low-rise 1. Phrasal verbs with go • go away. He asked her to……through that door. use a yellow pen to make them stand out. Students who do well in their exams at secondary school can go on to university or college.. I’ve got a bad cold and my work is getting me down. it’s not only professional and business people who own their own homes.enter • go on. 9.the instructions as soon as you ask them to. 4. He told me desperately that prices……. 12. 14. 15. Operas and chamber music are often considered to be intellectually superior.repeat • go up. 6.rehearse.again. This CD contains the best parts of the show. 7. Passangers and vehicles will be carried on ultra-modern shuttle trains. 10.increase in number or amount Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with go. Who wouldn’t like that problem to……. 2. Do you think a person is no longer young when they are 40.that’s why I’m depressed. 4.

whether it’s the 12 . This is an exciting goal. This is a particular challenge because it requires different approaches depending on the environment. It is important for a manager from time to time to take on less attractive task to provide examples of how his or her employees should meet challenges. no matter how well it is managed. Choose a field thoughtfully. because a mediocre team provides mediocre results. Gates' realizes the importance of every single individual. Sometimes financial incentives stimulates productivity and motivation. To be a good manager. By choosing a field one enjoys. Create a productive environment. 7. Transfer your skills to them. must be trained. 3. Giving people a sense of importance increases motivation to complete the task to the best of their ability and provides the feeling of satisfaction after completion.L3: Bill Gates In the beginning Gates' was mainly concerned and involved with technical development of new products in order to attract consumers. Develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. Gates' attempts to train well oiled managers. 10. Managers should have the confidence in their well thought out decision in order to not leave any avenues open for rediscussion. Sometimes productivity is maximized by providing everybody his or her own office and other times by moving everybody into open space. Hire carefully and be willing to fire. 9. Microsoft's mission is to continually advance and improve software technology and to make it easier. Since Microsoft controls the largest percentage of the market than any of its competitors Gates puts more focus on the organization itself and its employees. 4. 8. This is done by providing employees with a clear definition of success and how they should measure their achievements. but it can be threatening to a manger that is worried about training his replacement. Here are Bill's ten qualities of a good employee: 1. project schedules must be set those who actually do the work. 5. you have to like people and be good at communicating. A manager should never have to second-guess himself or herself. otherwise known as managers. 2. Nobody wants to work for a boss who just delegates tasks. A strong team is vital. Managers need to do more than communicate. 6. This quality is generally impossible to fake. more cost effective and more enjoyable for people to use computers. Usually a mixture of approaches is necessary to reach desired productivity. Explain to employees the importance of their work to the company and customers. Take on projects yourself. it makes it easier to generate enthusiasm towards one's work. In order for Microsoft to continue on its fruitful path the development of intelligent decision makers. For example. He also knows he cannot be at the table to make ever single day-to-day decision. People will accept a bottom-up deadline they helped set. Build morale. Let people know whom to please. Define success. If an individual doesn't genuinely enjoy interacting with people it will be hard to manage well. Unachievable goals undermine an organization. It should be made clear whom employees have to please. He has even published articles that reveal his expectations and qualities he attempts to instil into Microsoft managers. Many managers like to see their employees increase their responsibility because it frees them up to tackle new or undone tasks. It should be made clear there's plenty of good will to go around and that there is not just one hotshot manager getting all the credit. instead of trying to be in a hundred place at once. Goals must be realistic. but maybe overwhelmed by a schedule imposed from upper management that doesn't map reality. This is true for both a manager and an employee. Don't make the same decision twice.

To hire carefully and be willing to fire. To give people a sense of importance of their work. A. Managers should not leave any avenues open for rediscussion. Which of these Bill Gates’ ”rules” do you consider to be the most important? Why? Could you add more rules to his? 13 . To let people know whom to please. To create a productive environment. To provide employees with a clear definition of success and how they should measure their achievements. To be a good manager. To choose the personnel with care. especially customers. from time to time. To like people and be good at communicating. To provide everybody according to one’s own motivation. To choose a field one enjoys. To build morale. B.manager. Making processes clear and simple always seems to accomplish the goals was set out to. To take on projects yourself. Not to make the same decision twice. The beauty of Gates' tips is they are pretty much common sense. To develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. To transfer your skills to your people. can understand and allow them to provide feedback that is taken into consideration allows Gates' to build a lasting and trusting relationship with employees and customers. There is a risk of paralysis when employees start to question whom they are supposed to make happy. the manager’s boss or someone else higher up. avoiding mediocrities. take on less attractive task to provide examples of how his or her employees should meet challenges. To increase their motivation to complete the task to the best of their ability. In Bill Gates’ opinion. Gates' believes in talking with employees and customers rather than talking at them. To define success. By conducting conversations individuals. means It should be made clear whom employees have to please Managers should. it doesn't take a rocket scientist to incorporate these aspects into his or her employee.

18. 19.(not approve) of your behaviour. We……(get) a lot of snow in the mountains in winter.. Ştiu că eşti priceput la toate! De ce eşti aşa de neîndemânatec astăzi3. Translate into English: 1. You…………. 1. 17. What time……..m. I……. I……….G. speak) on the phone? 6.. …….. 33.” (H. but they usually (tell) me nice things. 30.Grammar A. They (not jump) over the fence now. 13.(always..(wait)for me.(admit) we……….(move) freely in two directions.. 28. 2. my friends………….they ……. …. the garden…….(seem) to be in better shape now? 26. ……. “I……. 4.…(mean). With the dress you.. He never (seem) to understand what (happen) in his very house.this pair of scissors ……….(not interrupt) people when they……. 22.…. …. 12.(go) out to get the evening paper. 16. I……. 25.. beat) me at chess. 15.(know) what she…. Wells) B. Meg …….. 21. Not everybody …. 10.. I can’t go away.(fly) from Bucharest to Sibiu tomorrow.. 24. John ………….…(like) autumn..(see) the manager at the beginning of the week.(make) her clothes herself. 11. The officer (see) him and (catch) him in a matter of seconds.he…..(belong) to you? 5.. 23. “What on earth ……you……(do) there?” “I………(try) to find the key to the door.(forever boast) of what he has done. they (play) baseball with the neighbors’ children. They…….. Promit însă să trec pe la tine de îndată ce mă voi elibera. He …. But how about up and down? Gravitation………(limit) us there. she ……. Put the verbs in the brackets in the present tense continuous or simple. All the students in the group ….feel better today or is it necessary to call for a doctor? 29. He………. Now that the flowers ……. 8.(wear) you……. Este prima oară în iarna asta când ninge aşa de mult că pare că nu se mai opreşte. They (criticize) me know.. 31. I must go. Am foarte mult de lucru în perioada asta. 9.... 20.…(read) English well. He always (ask) me what I’ll do if I (be) the president of this committee.(feed) the baby. 7. 2.(smell) good.(resemble) your mother very much.. sign) the papers at the end or at the beginning of the meeting? 27. ……they ……. 14.. I ………(have) an appointment with my dentist at 5 p. Hey! You ……….(bloom).(usually.. The park……… (look)beautiful in autumn. 14 . Don’t disturb her.(usually.” 32.(go) to the circus this evening. Now I ………(hope)our team will win the match.(talk) over the telephone. I…….(drink) from my glass.

Te caută cineva la telefon. 24. când îmi beau cafeaua. 18. 9. De data asta rămânem însă acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri. Nu-i aşa că nu ştii noutăţile? George studiază Informatica la Iaşi. luând viaţa în uşor. 16. îţi răspunde: -Am trei ani. 11. 5. 25.4. Tu ce crezi? 14. Uneori Dunărea îngheaţă în luna ianuarie. 22. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa teatrului de comedie. 7. 15. cât şi cei ai lor semnează acum un tratat de neagresiune. Nici el şi nici colegul lui nu par a fi prea interesaţi să-şi pună întrebări existenţiale. Totdeauna se întâmplă acelaşi lucru. punându-mă într-o situaţie stânjenitoare. 12. În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Bucureştiului. Nu se îndoieşte că cel care are dreptate în acest moment este el şi nimeni altcineva. 17. şi când îl întrebi cum îl cheamă. Mă întreabă mereu care este scopul meu în viaţă. Vorbeşte şi acum la telefon?! Dar este îngrozitor! Toată ziua ţine telefonul ocupat! 19. Vin dinspre moară acum şi sunt foarte încărcaţi. Astăzi e hotărâtă să poarte o rochie verde cu dungi.Vrea vreo unul dintre voi să meargă cu noi la bazinul de înot. Directorul este foarte ocupat acum. Uită-te! Ninge cu fulgi mari! 15 . 20. Bunica uită de fiecare dată unde îşi pune ochelarii şi ori de câte ori are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa. iar Maria urmează cursurile Facultăţii de Litere. Când ia banii se duce la cumpărături şi se întoarce acasă cu o mulţime de fleacuri. Îi reproşează mereu că depăşeşte viteza şi că îi pune viaţa în pericol. 10. E prima oară când mănânc clătite cu spanac şi nu e rău deloc şi mi se pare doar că are un gust ciudat. Repară maşina de cusut acesteia. 8. 13. . 6. Părul blond. aşa că hai şi noi să mergem să-i ajutăm. 23. – Astăzi nu sunt acasă pentru nimeni. secţia chineză. nici eu şi nici sora mea. . ochii albaştri şi îi plac foarte mult dulciurile şi ursuleţii. Studiază Proiectul pentru o nouă aripă a fabricii. şi mai ales acum.Astăzi nu mergem. Dan e în camera mătuşii lui. Nu-i aşa că vezi şi tu că omul de pe trotuarul vecin ne urmăreşte pas cu pas? 21. pentru că o ajutăm pe mama să termine curăţenia de toamnă. Atât reprezentanţii noştri. Băieţelul cel mai mic al vecinii mele are trei ani.

he can’t afford to pay his mortgage. 3. 2. 1.these library books by Tuesday. 6. Although she’s still………considerable………. My father…. 16 . Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1. The passengers knew they were…great ………when the pilot announced he was no longer ……….. but they enjoyed the bumper cars (most/mostly) of all. We used to keep ……. The world's financial markets are ever more (close/closely) linked. 3.! 8. The twins are learning the violin but as they always play…………. He really is …………: he lost his job last year and he’s been ………..and back home. 8. 2. Don't fill your glass too (full/fully) or you'll only spill it. 3.… 4. The pop star decided to……the proceeds of her last concert to charity. The kids loved the fair.of the aircraft. She’s going to……wildlife leaflets outside the main entrance. She must ……. We didn't expect such a (large/largely) number of people to attend our concert.let’s hope he doesn’t end up…………. contact control danger debt doors focus hospital love luck pain prison season stock touch tune fashion practice work 1. smoking years ago.donate • Give back. Fill in the gapes with the suitable phrases from the list bellow: In ……or out of…. Sorry.. they aren’t allowed to practise in the house and they have to play…………! 2. 5. Love letters will never be ……. 7. 2. We are strong enough not to ………so easily. She was (strange/strangely) calm – that was something I couldn’t understand.stop doing something Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with give. 6. 4. He (cool/coolly) placed the money on the table and walked out..Vocabulary 1. Do the police know the (exact/exactly) circumstances of her death? 5. it’s not a good photo because it’s …….. 7.this month but the shop hasn’t got them ………. He had a (sudden/suddenly) heart attack while he was on holiday.I used to do a lot of photography but now I’m ………… 5. Phrasal verbs with give • Give away.because people will go on falling ………… 3.. Now he’s ………. she’s………. 4.return • Give in -surrender • Give out -distribute • Give up.regularly but I’ve lost her address and so now we are .ever since.. Strawberries are ……….

In a less extensively automated arrangement. Computers are involved (CAD systems) not only in the design of cars but also in the manufacturing and testing process. Computer technology has been incorporated into automobiles. Computers are forever present in the workplace. The checkout process is faster. perhaps making use of CIM technology. faster. printers. and other tools by means of a local-area network. Word processors-computer software packages that simplify the creational and modification of documents-have largely replaced the typewriter. mainly by making computer systems cheaper. The downside of this technology is the potential for security problems. Making a telephone call no longer should conjure up visions of operators connecting cables by hand or even of electrical signals causing relays to click into place and effect connections during dialing. higher-quality products and thus improve their competitiveness.” Although such changes ultimately make office work much more efficient. Today’s automobiles themselves 17 . Intruders can see packets traveling on a network and can perhaps interpret them to obtain confidential information. In the case of retail chains linked by networks. a device that directly reads into the computer the UPC printed on each package. and the purchase information is also relayed back to the computer to cause and immediate adjustment in the inventory data. Computer technology has had a significant impact on retail stores. more reliable. easier to use. the manager can send in the order electronically by a dial-up link to the supplier’s computer. The inventory system can easily alert the manager when the supply of some item drops below a specified threshold. and the desired item are more likely to be in stock. database system. In short. they have not been without cost in terms of purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and of training workers to use the new technology. Office automation has become the term for linking workstations.L4:The Impact Of Computers THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERS Computer technology not only has solved problems but also has created some. The technology of CIM emphasizes that all aspects of manufacturing should be not only computerized as much as possible but also linked together via a computer communication network into an integrated whole. checkout lines shorter. A disadvantage is the potential for dramatic and widespread failures. CIM has the potential to enable manufacturers to build cheaper. for as has happened. A major role of computer science has been to alleviate such problems. All but the smallest shops have replaced the old-fashioned cash register with a terminal linked to a computer system. These developments have made shopping much more convenient. Cash-register receipts can then include brief descriptions of the items purchased. the order for a new supply of an item may be automatically generated and sent electronically to the supply warehouse. Computer integrated manufacturing is a relatively new technology arising from the application of many computer science subdisciplines to support the manufacturing enterprise. Electronic mail has made it easy to send messages worldwide via computer communication networks. but more and more frequently the checkout counter include a bar-code scanner. The telephone system now is just a multilevel computer network with software switches in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past. An eventual goal of office automation has been termed the “paperless office. The terminal may require that the clerk type in the code for the item. including a certain amount of culture shock as individuals attempt to deal with the new technology.

include numerous computer chips that analyze sensor data and alert the driver to actual and potential malfunctions. Although increased reliability has been achieved by implementing such computerization, a drawback is that only automotive repair shops with a large investment in high-tech interfaces and diagnostic tools for these computerized systems can handle any but the simplest repairs.

A. Find in the text the opposites for the following: 1. more expensive; 2. slowlier;3. less reliable; 4. more difficult; 5. separated; 6. slowly; 7.unreliably; 8. upside; 9. insecurity; 10. important; 11. long; 12. manually; 13.less convenient B. Correct the following statements, whenever necessary: Word processors-computer software packages make it easy to send messages worldwide via computer communication networks. Electronic mail eventual goal has been termed the “paperless office.” Office automation simplifies the creational and modification of documents. Computers technology has not been without cost in terms of purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and of training workers to use the new technology. The telephone system now are involved not only in the design of cars but also in the manufacturing and testing process, perhaps making use of CIM technology. The checkout counter includes a bar-code scanner, a device that directly reads into the computer the UPC printed on each package and software switches. Computers are involved (CAD systems) in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past.


A. Make sentences according to the model: Model: Peter: dog for a walk He was taking his dog for a walk at this time yesterday. 1. Mary: at the baker’s 6. Jane: in the swimming-pool 2. Billy : to the cinema 7. Harry: in the park 3. Dan: at the box-office 8. Jannet: a football match 4. Roger: in the library 9. George: to the radio 5. Jenny: into the letter-box 10. Alice: home B. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. Make any necessary changes. Example: She was practising the violin and so was his colleague. (neither) She wasn’t practising the violin and neither was her colleague. 1. The spokesman was supporting his idea brilliantly and so was Fred.(too) 2. They weren’t taking part in that competition and neither were their friends. (so) 3. The police officer was listening carefully to the criminal and Brian was, too.(but) 4. No stranger was trying to break in the conversation and neither was Greg. (either) 5. Their neighbours were leaving on that day and she was, too. (neither) 6. She was working ceaselessly on that project and so were we. (but) 7. The guests were talking silently and so were the kids. (either) 8. The Japanese weren’t having lunch and the Finish weren’t, either. (so) 9. The carpenters were mending the house and Brian was, too.( either) 10. All the aliens were taking photos and so were the Japanese. (too) C. Add tag questions to the following sentences: Example: You weren’ t practising the drums, were you? 1. They weren’t calculating the distance between the Sun and the Moon,…………..? 2. She was making a strange noise,………….? 3. They were doing absolutely nothing dangerous,……………? 4. The students were thinking what question to ask the speaker,……………? 5. The gifted child was practising the guitar at that moment,……….? 6. They weren’t trying very hard,…………….? 7. She was quoting nobody,……………? 8. The entire court were keeping silent,…………? 9. The elves weren’t walking tiptoed through the room,…….? 10. The speaker was shouting at the audience,………….?

D. What were they doing when the explosion took place? 1. The policeman………………… 2. The firemen…………………… 19

3. My neighbours………………… 4. The science man………………. 5. The animals in the cage……….. What were they doing while the train was getting into the station? 1. The conductor………………….. 2. The person next to me…………. 3. My baby boy…………………… 4. A lady in black…………………. 5. The bartender…………………… E. Make sentences using past tense continuous. John- dust the furniture Example: Sandra –wash up While/When Sandra was washing up, John was dusting the furniture Sandra 1. wash the clothes 2. cook some food 3. iron the clothes 4. sort the clothes 5. count the money 6. phone friends John clean the rooms make the beds polish the shoes tidy the flat pack the suitcases look for their train tickets

F. Ask questions so that the words in italics should be the answer. Model: They were taking part in the contest at that very moment. When were they taking part in the contest?

1. They were speaking on the phone at that late hour. 2. The guardian was listening to the noises upstairs. 3. Nobody was paying attention to the chairman. 4. The students weren’t taking notes. 5. Somebody was ringing at the door late at night. 6. The newcomers were listening to the boss when, out of the blue, he stormed in. 7. The writer was typing a paragraph when he heard the telephone ringing. 8. The greengrocer was selling some cabbages right then. 9. We were waiting for a change in his attitude. 10. Everybody was pointing at him in rage.

1. Fill in the gaps with suitable phrases from the list bellow: In…addition to brief cash the circumstances comparison with detail difficulty doubt fun pencil person private public return tears view of a whisper 20 ink trouble

Orders may be placed by phone. keep watch • look up.but then I realized she was serious.(anti/counter/mal/mis) -aircraft: intended to destroy or defend against enemy aircraft 2. 4. She did me favour and then asked what I’d do for he………At first I thought she meant……. 8.the size of your order we are prepared to offer a special discount of 10%………. Could you …. 3.turn the eyes to see something • look for. The book gave some information…………great………. by post or…….about what to careful. ………….so………….find (information in a book) Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with look.but not they were………such serious……… 9.take care of • look at.(de/dis/im/un)possible: (of a situation) which is extremely difficult and there does not seem to be a solution 4-(counter/dis/mal/un)incentive: something that discourages people from doing something or working hard 21 . I think he’ll be upset and you shouldn’t embarrass him ………….the usual trade discount. If you are…………….. Phrasal verbs with look • look after. 7. ………!There is a car coming! 2.(anti/in/mis/non)spell: to fail to spell (a word) correctly 3. ……………business letters.. We knew the firm was ……….the Maths test. Come ……. When she read the letter”.1.investigate • look out...the word in the dictionary. it’s best to make notes beforehand. 2. Writing an important letter is easier if you first write a rough copy …………before you write the final version ………..these interesting stamps..try to find • look forward to.expect with pleasure • look into. The police……. He decided to ……. he told me………. 6. 3. 7. It’s no wonder why she doesn’t …….a number of thefts at our college.but unfortunately the figures I needed were only given ……… things for me while I go get a ticket? 5. 4. 2. by credit card or ……….You can pay by check. 3. may be better to tell him off………… 5. Can you help us? We’re …… some striped pants. 1.or type it. Choose the correct affix: 1. “Poor Julie was…. personal letters are relatively easy to write..

Spreadsheet programs support graphics because they let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. sound. Laser printers and plotters. stimulate discussion. and in general. case studies. and convince you and/or your audience. Using various forms of multimedia and graphics in the classroom also helps to keep my interest level high when it comes to learning. case studies. make points clearer. MOOS. enhance the learning process. digital slides. Multimedia and graphics as learning can be used to experience a subject from materials many angles Multimedia is now being used in a number a presentation by means of charts and of ways in the classroom including graphs B. Tell yours in a 200 word composition. compel. digital slides. With the advent of the computer and other electronic devices. I can also perform research on the web and without multimedia and graphics I don't think that would be possible for me to do and it would probably take me more time and effort to research it in the library rather than from my computer. I think multimedia and graphics will be very useful for me when I make presentations through PowerPoint or when I make a report and I want to present it with charts and graphs. which I wouldn't have been able to do without multimedia and graphics. animation. newsgroups. Multimedia has many definitions depending upon whom you ask. Spreadsheet programs are graphics devices because they permit computer to output pictures. 22 . A. Software like word processors support graphics because they let you draw or import pictures. MUDS and more. software like PowerPoint lectures. For example. Multimedia can help to gain and hold attention. As a student I can be able to use multimedia and graphics as learning materials like learning interactively with software's made for a certain subject. digital word processors. mailing lists. educate. It will also allow me to experience a subject from many angles. digital videos. Software like word processors are applications often referred to as business graphics. newsgroups. mailing lists. and video delivered to you by computer or other electronic means. MOOS. For work.L5: Graphics & Multimedia What is graphics and multimedia? First of all. being a business major. giving me deeper understanding of the subject matter. Match the two columns: Laser printers and plotters let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. MUDS and more. multimedia is now being used a number of ways in the classroom including PowerPoint lectures. it can be a very effective tool to communicate. Such applications are often referred to as business graphics. graphic art. if it also includes the appropriate human elements. A standard definition follows: Multimedia is any combination of text. graphics software pertains to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of displaying and manipulating pictures. Through PowerPoint one can make they let you draw or import pictures. laser printers and plotters are graphics devices because they permit computer to output pictures. This is one person’s opinion on multimedia and graphics. spreadsheet programs videos. In conclusion I feel that multimedia and graphics is the way to go.

Example: (teach) Miss Smith …….his bike to his office last week. to set his clock last night so he……. (get) 9. Example: When did you see him? (he-come in) I saw him when he came in.(get). He…….... (live) The Scotts……….up late this morning . (forget).to ring her up..(blow). didn’t she? (forget) You……………... (sit) 8.him in order to wake up. (explain)The teacher ……it to us very clearly.Grammar A. The wind ………all day yesterday and it also …..very tired all day on that day. In the bus he ……down on an empty seat. His wife………. Answer the following questions using the past simple.his temper..the dishes away.(get). 1. …….up and……her his seat. (carry) You ………. He ………his umbrella tightly in his way to the bus stop.bus. (wear) Mary ….you. did you? You didn’t forget to ring her up. (sleep). When did your cousin come from his office? (he –get your message) 2. So nobody ……complain.(shake) 3... (ride).(feel) 13.dinner himself and then………for twelve hours! (go). (take) Mr. When did the children go out to play? (they-finish their work) 3. (get) 4. Smith……. When he ……back home he………the cat.eight. (feed). He.his son to the game. didn’t he? 10. didn’t she? 7. (put) Jim ………... 4. didn’t she? Miss Smith taught English last year. Alan yesterday. (throw) They………. (offer) 10. (stand). (take) 6. But he …….. (have). He ……. He…. (rain) 5.a beautiful dress at the party. Complete the following tag-questions with the correct form of the verb in the margin. didn’t he? 2. didn’t he? London for quite a long time.English last year. (lose) Dr Brown never……. (help) John ………….(can) 12. B. (wake) 2.(hold) 7. did he? C. (strike) 11. (meet) You…………. did you? the office exactly when the clock …. didn’t they? 8.breakfast in a hurry.. 1. didn’t he? 3.dressed and then…….…….(arrive). When did you get up? (the clock-strike six). did you? 4. Then an old lady………on the bus. When did mother find the sugar bowl? (she-open the cupboard) 23 .those heavy bags. Fill in the blanks with the past tense of the verbs in the brackets. did they? 5. did you? 1. He……up at last…. but yesterday he couldn’t because of the wind and rain so he …….out those old papers.

(so) D. didn’t it? 1.? 7. When did the boys stop the game? (it-start to rain) 9. Example: The last bus left at 8 p.…….……….? 2. (too) We wondered who those persons were and my friends did. He considered that he could use your money for his benefit.(but) They created a new style in fashion and so did the Stuarts.explain for several times) D.(but) 10. too. (too) They complained about the conditions in the hotel and we did . They expected him to change his mind.……….. 5. 1. She and her husband didn’t take part in the funerals.? 3.finish dinner) 6.…………? 5. 2.? E. Nobody really wanted to go with that fellow in the mountains. Use the past tense as much as possible. They didn’t agree to his telling a white lie.? 10.5. (neither) She didn’t practise the violin and neither did her colleague. 6. 9.…………. (the witness.(but) They seemed to understand each other and so did my parents.………? 4. Make any necessary changes.………? 6. Complete these sentences using tag-questions. 8. 4.……………? 9. 24 . They understood the problem in a blink of an eye. Write a two hundred word story that starts like this: “We heard a strange noise in the lab…. Greg and his girl-friend spent their time playing lego. (either) They actually asked for nothing but we did. (either) My cousin didn’t show up at the party and neither did Greg. They offered him nothing in return. (neither) They said they couldn’t listen to the story because of the noise and so did George.(neither) She didn’t allow us to enter that room and his mother didn’t either.m. When did Meg wash up? (she. She created a new web-site but we didn’t. When did they stop writing?(the teacher –stop dictating) 7. 3. Example: She practised the violin and so did his colleague. 7.”. too..break) 10.……. When did they understand the situation. We hadn’t anything to say against him.……………? 8.. When did she stop writing? (pencil. When did the game start?(the referee –blow his whistle) 8. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. He took the plane to the nearest island and so did his friends. She expected for nothing.

Grandad’s ideas are terribly out of date – he still seems to think he’s living in the ………. coat. If you are a ………. He looks exhausted. 2.start and spend time doing( a hobby. (a/anti/il/non)sense: language which cannot be understood because it does not mean anything 3. 8. I suppose she……her mother in this respect. plenty of………. I prefer painting by the ………. and she always says: ‘ You’re only…………….Phrasal verbs with take • take after.. In an attempt to bring ……into the firm. You can’t catch a cold from getting wet-that’s an……….return • take in. interest) Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with take.not the………. 6..of hers. 4. 5. 9. 10. I’m happy to say. they’re only taking on people under 25. 6. (dis/anti/non/in) regard: lack of consideration or respect for something. She used to go out with Terry. is still……….remove(clothes) • take on – accept (work or responsibility) •take over. It’s so hot in here! I think I’ll…….’.to the firm and you don’t know the applying to a new modern paintings.. I want him to ……. you can ask one of the …………for advice. when they are officially ‘adults’... so he decided to make a ………. 11.resemble • take back. There was too much to…….. He didn’t enjoy his his work. When did you decide to……...take control of • take up. absorb • take off. 12.However. but she hasn’t seen him… 5.Vocabulary 1. She’s very organized.he’s an ………. Fill the gapes in these sentences using the phrases bellow: come of age for ages space age Stone Age under age fresh air fresh start freshwater new blood New World newcomer old flame old friend old hand old master old times old wives’ tale Old World as old as you feel young at heart the………. 3.. 2.too much work.My grandma. 25 . (ill/mal/non/un)treat: to treat cruelly or violently 2.the business when I retire. Choose the correct affix: 1.jogging? 2. 1. I hope he isn’t……….understand.can keep you healthy. The Great Lakes in America are …………not saltwater lakes.. (dis/in/mal/un)avoidable: not avoidable 4. Columbus sailed from the……. Could you ………these video to the shop? They are 18. If you are …………you are not allowed to buy drinks in a pub. 7. 3.. We are ………and whenever we meet we reminisce about……… 7. People in Britain……………. 4.. I couldn’t remember all the details.

so that when the infected program file is run. These kinds of viruses usually infect . this virus does not replicate itself. a computer virus can spread if it is not removed. and are harder to be detected. One of the most common places for a computer virus to appear is on a file found on the Internet or attached to an E-mail. and gain control of the system before MS-DOS could be loaded. immediately letting the user know that there is a problem because the software will not run. Boot Sector/Partition Viruses. When the trigger event occurs. An example of this would be the Whale Virus . this virus is copying itself it is taking up more disk space and slowing down performance. leaving the original code intact and adding themselves over and over to as many files as possible. Stealth viruses are similar to a stealth aircraft. Trojan Horses. polymorphic viruses grow fast to escape detection by anti-virus programs. These viruses are made simply to keep copying itself. A simple virus will overwrite and destroy a host file. programs. spread easier. they are easier to notice. A file virus can insert its own code into part of the file. wait until the trigger event. Unlike other viruses.L6:Types Of Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage your computer. An example of this type of virus is the Tequila virus. These viruses stay in the RAM and infects every disk that is read by the computer until the computer is rebooted. They contain malicious code that is meant to damage your computer. the virus is executed first. they can inadvertently damage or destroy data. A File Virus is the most common kind of virus. Since these viruses often have flaws in them. Since the virus is run before the operating system. They can infect the host software components. Because of this. they can easily attach themselves to other programs that are being run and start to infect that file. Trojan Horses are the worst kind of viruses that exist. Like the human AIDS virus. allows the virus to jump from the floppy to the hard drive. Some viruses are more dangerous than others. they have a less chance to spread. then start to destroy files. a message is displayed or files are damaged. they make themselves 26 . The worst kind of file overwriters. they are difficult to remove. These viruses spread like a file virus. After reboot the virus is removed from memory. There are many kind of viruses that exist today. More complex written viruses will cause more damage. Because of this. File Overwriters. Special encrypted code within this virus allows the virus to hide from detection. Multi-Partite Viruses are the worse of both file and boot sector viruses. Like a stealth aircraft. File Overwriters are viruses that link themselves to a program. Some of the most common of Computer Viruses are: File Viruses. Because these viruses are immediately sensed by the computer. it is not MS-DOS-specific and can infect any PC operating system. and files. Multi-Partite Viruses. which has the code that is run at boot up. The first computer viruses were created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. but still insert itself into a boot sector or partition table. Booting up from an infected floppy. which has 32 different forms. While. There are a limited number of kinds of polymorphic viruses. Most of the viruses that exist today are Polymorphic. These viruses are loaded first. Most file viruses are memory resident. Like a virus in a living thing. Polymorphic viruses. Computer viruses didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. Because of this.EXE and COM files. which are the main component of a program or application. Boot sector viruses infect hard drives and floppy disks by putting itself on the boot sector of the disk. and Stealth Viruses. This virus waits until the trigger event.

are the only one that replicate themselves. 3. someone can make a broad judgment of future virus development. are MS-DOS-specific and cannot infect any PC operating system. wait until the trigger event. I b. b. 27 . and gain control of the system before MS-DOS could be loaded.Computer viruses a. c. c. The virus hides itself into the file and makes it look like the program is running normal. it is not wise to try to see what would happen. didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. 2. d. are easily to remove. are the worse of both file and boot sector viruses. are of different types. seldom have flaws in them. are made simply to keep copying themselves. d. c. contain malicious code that is meant to damage your computer. d. Multi-Partite Viruses a. spread like a file virus 5. Trojan Horses a. is only memory resident. b. 4. link themselves to a program. 6. leaving the original code intact and adding themselves over and over to as many files as possible. can insert its own code into part of the file. were firstly created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. A File Virus a. d. Because of this.File Overwriters a. c. b. are run before the operating system. 1. c. b. are all equally dangerous. c. Boot sector viruses a.invisible to be detected. wait until the trigger event. are loaded first. Find the incorrect variant out of the four. then start to destroy files. This is a memory-resident virus. are the worst kind of viruses that exist. d. infect hard drives and floppy disks by putting ithemselves on the boot sector of the disk b.(…) It is dangerous when making predictions about the future. can infect the host software components. Unless you can see into the future. is the most common kind of virus. usually infects EXE and COM files. d.

20.TV when I phoned them. Greg was reading a book on dinosaurs when the phone rang. Did you check your blood pressure? 5. (drive) He …………all the way to London. (read) He ……… a brochure when we met. Ask and answer questions according to the model. (live) The Grants……. Did you wash your hair? 2. Use Past tense Continuous. (shine) The sun ……………when we the door the moment she heard the bell. (fly) They …………to Constantza last night. (write) Bobby ………. Example: Did you read the book I told you about? Yes. he had to answer it.Grammar A. Did you talk business with your new partner? B. (take off) Michael missed the flight. 12. Did you help with the housework? 3. Fill in the blanks with the past tense simple or continuous of the verbs in the brackets. Peter was walking up and down the platform. Study the following situations. 7. (ring) When she reached the door. (get) I saw Mary just when she………. Did you unwrap the paintings? 6. (burn)The house……when we came out. 14. When the phone Model: rang. (ask) She ………. 1.. 5.when he arrived at the airport. Confirm things. 28 .me about my holidays when she called me. (see) We………. 13. Then the train came and Peter met his cousin.. B. (drop) She ………the vase because she got frightened. the bell……still……….in Brasov when I met them. a very amusing comedy yesterday. 16. 1.about fashion and this annoyed her friends.the letter in about ten minutes. 15.the newspaper when we got home. (read) Father………. b) What did he do when the phone rang? He answered it.. 1.always……. (watch) My friends ……. 6. (talk) Mariam ……. The plane ………. 10. In fact I was reading it when you phoned me yesterday. 11. 19. a) What was Greg doing when the phone rang? He was reading a book on dinosaurs. (invite) They ………me to see the film when I met them in the street. (spend) They………… a wonderful holiday at the seaside last year..into the library. 3. (go) He………to his office by bike last year. 8. 4. 17. 18.. Did you write the essay? 4. 9.. 2. (run) She ……….

6. Se vedeau atunci pentru a doua oară. 12. The baby cried for half an hour yesterday. Le-a promis tuturor că se linişteşte şi nu mai deranjează pe nimeni. 5. 29 . 5. Acum câteva luni echipa noastră a câştigat campionatul de fotbal. 2. 7. yesterday. 8.m. C.2. pe când vorbeam cu vărul tău. I-a lăsat un bilet în care-i spunea cum se simţea ea în momentul acela cumplit din viaţa ei. Acum câteva zile a fost ziua lui Steve. Jim stood up and opened the front door. S-au liniştit imediat însă când l-au văzut intrând pe George cu un zâmbet pe faţă. Săptămâna trecută Dan a lucrat intens la pregătirea lucrării despre influenţa calculatoarelor asupra psihicului uman. Acum două zile a terminat-o şi a rugat-o pe Diana s-o scrie la calculator… 10. Sheila had lunch at 1 p. 4. iar mama i-a făcut un tort de ciocolată şi frişcă. 13. apoi a ascultat un concert la radio. aşa că au putut discuta problema deschis. Se întreba cu ce a greşit de ea nu-i acordă nici o atenţie. 3. 6. 14. A venit cu trenul de 2 dimineaţa şi aplecat cu cel de 7 seara. Lunea trecută. l-am văzut pe John intrând în farmacie. Jim was watching a film on TV when someone rang the bell. The boys were playing baseball when it started to rain. Translate the following into English: 1. In the middle of it her father came home She went into the kitchen and brought her father a steak. Nu i-a înţeles nimeni intenţiile şi de aceea a încercat să mai explice încă o dată totul. 19. 16. The girls lay quietly in the sun for an hour. Then his mother gave him a bottle of milk and he stopped crying. 11. Când am ieşit aseară din casă a început să plouă torenţial. Nimeni nu l-a văzut ieri când se ducea la pescuit. Naturally. aşa că i-am cumpărat un cadou. 3. Duminica trecută Mary a scris câteva scrisori. 4. 9. they went home. aşa că să nu te miri că nu a trecut şi pe la tine. Săptămâna trecută am cheltuit enorm. De ce nu i-ai transmis ceea ce am discutat noi în ziua aceea când toţi ceilalţi lucrau la proiect? 20. Când ai stat de vorbă cu el ultima oară era la fel de supărat pe noi? 18. A explorat mai multe site-uri şi apoi a concluzionat că este prea devreme pentru a se înscrie la o bursă. Ieri Simon mi-a făcut o vizită neaşteptată. A fost deci grăbit şi obosit. Şi-a făcut o haină nouă pe care vrea să o poarte cu acest prilej. 15. Then some friends called them and they went to swim. S-a deschis uşa brusc şi toţi au tresărit speriaţi. 17.

If the action in a film is too (slow-moving/slowly-moving) I get bored.when he’s being …………. All information will be treated as strictly (confidential/confidentially). Fill the gaps in these sentences with hard.switch off. The child was playing (dangerous/dangerously) near to the edge of the swimming pool. Please. cause to operate •turn over. The captain was criticized (strong/strongly) for his part in the team's defeat. 5..after a four days’ run. increase the volume Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with turn.him….refuse entry • turn down. 7.. It’s sometimes……. 7. 3.ware. but deep down he’s quite ………-hearted and …………. 5.1. 3.. arrive. A computer can save data on a floppy disk but much more can be stored on a ………. for him. 3.ware and the programs are known as……. 2. She kept …. He spent hours ……the problem in his mind.drugs like heroin are more dangerous than so-called……….…… the TV.. He tried desperately to…… the tap in the bathroom. I realize that he makes people feel un ……. I can't ski (awful/awfully) well.. The prisoners…. ………. 5. 6.consider carefully • turn up.ware store. remove power • turn on – switch on.. 7.drugs like marijuana. 2.. Computer equipment is known as……. 2.-hearted interviewer can give candidates a very………time and make life…….-going. 4. His ex-girlfriend….to understand her because she’s rather ………. 3. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1. 2.for them. 9. 6. difficult or easy. The teacher explained the point as (simple/simply) as she could. his house without any warning. 30 . no matter how many times he insisted.I must say I do have a …….the lights.-wearing that it will last a lifetime. 8.. The (fast/fastly) train to London takes less than an hour. Phrasal verbs with turn •turn away. refuse.1. disconnect. This new fabric is so ……….-spoken. It’s a bit loud. It was dark inside so he ……. A printout from a computer provides the user with a ………copy.Vocabulary 1. 1.. 4. 6. reduce the volume • turn in – give to the police • turn off. 4. You can buy tools and screws and nails at a …………. soft. themselves……. 1.disk. but I’m trying my best.. A ……….

These interactions are very common. E-mail has become a way to connect with co-workers anywhere in the world. It seems that this trend toward violent behavior is crossing the generation gaps and invading our schools as well. These aspects of change are having many positive influences on the quality of education available to our students. The increasing popularity of cellular phones had also changed human relations. Many times language barriers exist. No longer is one confined to only communicating with people in their department or office. the school. since one naturally meets new people while going about one's daily routine. as well as interaction among strangers. Regardless of the reasons. and sometimes necessary changes have both positive and negative consequences on our lives. Although technology has made human relations easier in the workplace. This increase in diversity has come from a couple of sources. These changes are very important to society as a whole because they indicate that future generations will be more accepting of differences and better able to accommodate others. The workplace is an environment in which there is generally a high degree of personal interaction. Advances in computers and the internet make limitless amounts of information accessible to students. People are now being exposed to others with many different cultural backgrounds. These changes can be positive or negative. anywhere. Interaction in the workplace. and the home. This has drastically reduced the amount of personal interaction between workers. Most of the time these interactions are polite or at 31 . The threat of violence has been an increased concern for many companies. This has forced people to expand their horizons and learn the proper ways to relate to people from other cultures. The nature of human relations between strangers is complex and dependent upon certain situations. Workers today feel as though they are just one part of a machine. The cultural diversity of the typical workplace has increased greatly over the last decade. Recent technological advances have made it much easier for people to communicate with one another. Technology has also created the virtual workplace. Cultural diversity in schools helps children to learn at a young age that there are many things that can be learned from other people's cultures.L7: The Current Nature Of Human Relations The nature of human relations is evolutionary. It seems that the overall nature of current human relations can best be determined by examining human interaction in a few key areas. It changes over time as our society adjusts to our ever-changing environment. beliefs and customs. and could easily be replaced. The emergence of the Internet in the 1990's has forever changed the way that people will interact with one another. This has degraded the quality of personal interaction in the workplace. Nearly everyday people face situations in which they interact with strangers. These social skills that children learn at school have a strong impact on how they will relate to others throughout their lives. One can now be reached virtually anytime. There are many factors that can have an effect on our interaction in each of these settings. and it can be difficult to establish effective communication. many companies were forced to diversify to comply with equal opportunity laws. Advancing technology and growing diversity are having an impact on the environment of schools across the nation. where people can work from the confines of their own home. this increasing diversity in the workforce has caused a change in human interaction. Second. companies began to discover that people from different ethnic backgrounds were helpful in working with a wide spectrum of customers. First. it has also decreased the amount of face-to-face interaction. can be analyzed to provide an accurate description.

Unfortunately. Communication with strangers involves relatively greater degrees of uncertainty thus people may feel higher levels of anxiety. 32 . Workplace School Interaction strangers with B.the least non-committal. human interaction disadvantages. Complete the following chart taking into account both the information in this text and your own knowledge.” In what respects does it change? In what way computers influence human relations? Give your own opinion. making this interaction between strangers easier. there seems to be a trend in recent times towards distrust and outright violence in a growing percentage of these daily social interactions. In this situation there is no face-to-face contact. Anxiety is reduced. Have in view the beginning statement: ”The nature of human relations(…) changes over time as our society adjusts to our ever-changing environment. A. This may explain the growing number of people who are choosing to interact with strangers via Internet chat rooms. so people do not have to worry about how they are perceived if they were to make a mistake. Key areas in Advantages and Why considered advantages or disadvantages.

I have been studying a lot recently. Answer these questions giving the REASON for the present state of things.nine a lorry. The other lieutenant (give) commands to his subordinates…. 10.manage a factory. 2.teach Geography. Greg (read) the newspaper……. on a farm. 9. C. D. 4. The boys (study) Algebra………dinner time.make oilfield equipment. 7. 12. Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect cars. Brown (work) in this office . 4. The little children (sleep) ……….the last five minutes. recently. Clara – sell groceries.. How much do you usually work? B. 2. Paul. ‘What have they been doing since they left school?” Make questions and answers as in the model. How much money do the people in this company earn? 5. Nick. Fill in the blanks with since or for. That man (stand) at that corner……five o’clock. 33 . 1. this year: Example: How much do you usually study? Well. Michael is so thirsty that he (drink)……three minutes. 5. ……left school. How much do they usually train? 2. Do you spend much time on computer studies? 3. George.September. Basil (stay) with us……. 6. Janet. 7. Answer these questions using Present Perfect Continuous and: lately. They (talk) to their master ……. 3.. Annie (read) War and Peace …….she went on holiday. 8. Example: Why have you got a duster in your hand? Because I have been cleaning the blackboard. 3. 1. Example: John. How many Peace Corps Volunteers do usually work in the business field? 4.several minutes.. Stephen. 6. I (phone) the doctor…. 5. Betty -design clothes.20 minutes.Grammar A.a long time. Mr. Andy. in a factory What has John been doing since he left school? He has been working in a factory since then. 11.he arrived home. My fiance (wait) in the line……….

Why are you feeling tired? 7. Why has grandfather got his glasses on? 8. 2. Why have you got a camera in your hand? 2. Why are they wearing tennis shoes? 5. to send away an attacker or unwanted person. 2. Since last Sunday. Vocabulary 1. Since she graduated. to lead someone have your attention fixed on something and therefore be unable to consider other things • not know what somebody sees in somebody / something . (How long) How long has she been writing a book about selling products efficiently? 1. 3. 5. Why are the pavements wet? 9. (How long) This construction company (to sell) stocks for two years. 4. Phrasal verbs and expressions with see • see about something. Begin with the words indicated: Example: She (write) a book about selling products efficiently.1. 4. For half an prepare /arrange for something to be done • not see beyond something . Why is Peter out-of-breath? 4. (Why) We (to try) to make the company more responsible for its customers . (What) F. usually forcefully 34 . Since we met first. 3. Why has mother got flour on her hands? 6. Write two things your friend has been doing since a child. 2. Make questions using present perfect continuous. Why has you friend been so angry? E. Write two things you have been doing for several months. (How) They (to reorganize) to create and keep customers. Why have you treated him so badly? 10. The firm (to grow) not understand why someone likes a particular person or thing • see somebody off – 1. (How) We (to talk) business for two hours. Write two things you and your friends have been doing for several years. 5. Why are your hands dirty? 3. G. Ask questions for the following answers: 1. For a long time.

Some sales people favour aggressive……….back. I’m very thirsty . 10. The caretaker ran out and ……. 1. 5.sell techniques. be aware that someone is trying to deceive you to get an advantage • see to something /somebody .at the airport.. difficult or …….…….to wait/last until the end of a difficult situation • see somebody out (also. He is always so rude and lazy ." go to the door of a building or room with someone who does not live or work there. A paper bag is often half the price of a ……….’ 7. they are ………-and-fast rules..them. but I was determined to ……it…………. deal with a person or task that needs to be dealt with or is waiting to be dealt with Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with see. The besieged town hasn't enough food to ……. The government cannot ………next year's general election. when they are leaving • see somebody through something . They were very friendly. soft. The course would take me three years to complete.the boys who had been damaging the fence. 11. Fill the gaps in these sentences with there any lemonade? 6. so I’d prefer a…………drink.! There is no need to get so worried just because you are …………up. We should start to take a ……. My parents ……me…. These aren’t guidelines. After a hard day at the office.I’m ………. 6. It’s payday tomorrow. 3. 35 . "These letters need posting. see somebody to the door). Take it………….. 2.him. 4. My brother's lent me £200 to …. 1." "I'll ……..• see something out . ‘ When would you like to come?’ ‘I don’t mind.sell. 9. 8.line. 8. but I quickly …………. Dollars and Swiss francs (unlike the Zambian kwacha or the Albanian New Lek) are ………currencies.I'd better ………lunch. We’ve been too……… continue doing a job or activity until it is finished. I like to take it……….the month……. while others prefer gentle persuasion and go for the ……….I don't know what she ……….to help or support someone during a difficult period in their life • see something through . 5. My secretary will …. 3. It's getting late ...the next few weeks.on customers who don’t settle their accounts on time. 7.them later. especially when it is difficult • see through somebody / something .

contains some built-in programs (in ROM) or instructions (in the processor chip). common examples are the microcomputers found in calculators. IBM then developed a language that would simplify work involving complicated mathematical formulas. the computer's own binary-based language. The language came into almost universal use 36 . is difficult for humans to use. or machine language. COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). Translator programs are of two kinds: interpreters and compilers. programs that loop back to re-execute part of their instructions reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears. PRINT. a commercial and business programming language. a particular pattern of binary digital information. Machine-language programming is such a tedious. To facilitate computer use in scientific applications. task that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program. Programs can be built into the hardware itself. it can do only as much or as little as the software controlling it at any given moment enables it to do. wristwatches. A general purpose computer. Compilers. concentrated on data organization and file handling and is widely used today in business. by contrast. Software in widespread use includes a wide range of applications programs-instructions to the computer on how to perform various tasks. automobile engines. so interpreted programs run much more slowly than machine-language programs. A computer must be given instructions in a language that it understands-that is. and so on-as commands that might stand for a sequence of tens or hundreds of machine-language instructions. The commands are entered from the keyboard or from a program in memory or in a storage device. One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called assembly-language programming. Unfortunately. assembly-language programs could be written and debugged-cleaned of logic and data errors-in a fraction of the time needed by machine-language programmers. Once a computer has been programmed. OPEN. and they are intercepted by a program that translates them into machine-language instructions. and microwave ovens. or they may exist independently in a form known as software. The first commercial programmer was probably Grace Hopper (1906-92). LIST. In some specialized. on the other hand. These needs led to the development of so-called high-level languages. What was needed was a shorthand method by which one symbolic statement could represent a sequence of many machine-language instructions. translate an entire program into machine language prior to execution. Assembly Language. an American. time consuming.L8:Programming A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what operations to perform on data. With an interpreter. or dedicated computers the operating instructions are embedded in their circuitry. BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed for use by nonprofessional computer users. and a way that would allow the same program to run on several types of machines. High-level languages often use English-like words-for example. so such programs run as rapidly as though they were written directly in machine language. Begun in 1954 and completed in 1957. but it depends on external programs to perform useful tasks. FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) was the first comprehensive high-level programming language that was widely used. Languages. By assigning a short (usually three-letter) mnemonic code to each machine-language command. High-Level Languages.

Comment upon this quotation: “Programming is a fascinating world that asks a lot and gives a lot. PASCAL. LOGO was developed to introduce children to computers. programs that loop some built-in programs (in ROM) or back to re-execute part of their instructions instructions (in the processor chip) One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer In some specialized. B. is now one of the most popular microcomputer languages. inefficient. and inelegant by its detractors. several others deserve mention. With an interpreter. PASCAL. Condemned as slow. Match the beginnings in the first column with the endings in the second: Compilers translate an entire program reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears Examples of computer languages would be: assembly-language programming. originally designed as a teaching tool. is widely used in developing systems programs. to run on several types of machines. a language Bell Laboratories designed in the 1970s. Because many early microcomputers were sold with BASIC built into the hardware (in ROM memory) the language rapidly came into widespread use. High-Level Languages allows the same into machine language prior to execution.” 37 . C. or dedicated computers A general purpose computer contains FORTRAN. BASIC. BASIC is nevertheless simple to learn and easy to use. LOGO. program Machine-language programming is such a the operating instructions are embedded in tedious. LISP and PROLOG are widely used in artificial intelligence. what operations to perform on data. Although hundreds of different computer languages and variants exist. such as language translators. time consuming. A. LISP and PROLOG that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program. task their circuitry.with the microcomputer explosion of the 1970s and 1980s.

(until) 10. After that they will buy the house. Your friend hasn’t completed the task.(after) 4. (until) 5. Mr McGregor will finish lunch. Re-express the following sentences using present perfect tense. Then I’ll tell him the great news.……….………? 9.Grammar A. (be late). My brother goes to a technical college. Alan is not going to read the article. I’m still digging in the garden. thank you.……….(meet) 8. Do you want another dish? No. Then they will get finer jobs. Then you will know what to do next. (by the time) 7. I don’t know this man. just. It’s very new.(as soon as) 6. We’ll establish the main points to be discussed tomorrow.(when) 3. Then you’ll make a wonderful doctor. Lunch is ready! Come and eat. (pass the entrance exam) 7.(have) 3.…………? 6. before. everybody!(cook) 2.. The plane will take off first. The children will buy tickets first. Example: Dinner is not ready. I’m going to play this record now. You have paid the telephone bill. (read) 5. Nobody will leave this place. They have already repaired the ironing machine. (before) C. Then he will talk to you about your future plans. has he? 1. I’ll be hungry by then. 1.(after) 8.(be) 9. Example: I’ll have dinner first.(as soon as) I’ll phone Angela as soon as I’ve had dinner.(cook) Mother hasn’t cooked the dinner yet.30 p. (when) 9.m. Example: The teacher hasn’t marked our tests. …………. 1. They haven’t solved those long. I can tell you a lot of things about Jane Austen. They have done nothing at all these days.? 5. etc. difficult problems.? 4. Nobody has understood that explanation.)to re-formulate the following.(as soon as) 2. Use the present perfect tense simple and the appropriate adverbs(never. Then the passengers will be allowed to smoke. B. You’ve just met him on your way home. (read) 10. The film will finish at 10. In a few years you’ll gain more experience.………? 3.? 8. The students will graduate.………? 38 . They’ve established who will be the winner this year. You will see him.(buy) 4. The generous woman has already given them presents.……. Then I’ll phone Angela. Mike will arrive home.(finish) 6. yet. This part of the country is completely unknown to me. He has gone nowhere this week. Then they will get into the cinema hall.…………? 2.………? 10. already. The Grants will consult a lawyer. Make sentences ending in tag-questions to express the ideas bellow. Miriam is late again but nobody is surprised.? 7.

(not wear) Chris wore her new dress last week. 9. (not use) I’ve had that dictionary for a month but I still……. (write) Our friends from Portugal………. 16. 10.only just……. She ……. 11. 6.. 7. They know someone who………(not. Something you haven’t done yet. Example: I………. Who……. (teach) Mr Smith ………English ever since the Second World War. Something you have often done. 2. 1. 12. Something you have done and whose result can be seen. 15. Nobody………(be) here for/since a few years. someone for the past few days. Their grandmother ……….to us regularly.. 7. 5. meet)…………(speak) for/since 9 o’clock. (not make) So far they…….. Something you have had for a long time. Something you have never done before.. My neighbours………(talk) about this topic since/for yesterday. E. 4. Something you have studied up to now. They ………. (seen) They ………. relatives for the last three months.many mistakes in their exercises. since. Example: (study)They………almost every lesson in this book up to now/ so far They have studied almost every lesson in this book up to now/ so far 1.D.. Something you have known for the last three weeks. Something you have participated in today. knit) for/since several hours. Make sentences of your own expressing: 1. 6. Something you have visited this week. 13. 8.(explained) to everyone what she likes doing since/for half an hour. 9. 6. 2. but she……. Choose since or for. 14.(write) an essay on this for/since summer. 5. Something you have recently. The student ………….(not. (have) He feels hungry although he……. 4. The men you……….(interview) him for/since the last three hours. Put the verbs in the brackets in the present perfect tense. read) a book for/since June last year.(participate) in the debates for/since two full days.busy lately. 2. Put the verb in parenthesis in the correct form. Something you have seldom done 5.a meal. 3. Something you have just done. Something you have learnt since you’ve started faculty.(just. The most interesting thing you have ever seen. 10. 4. 8.(try) to put him through for /since two minutes for long? 9. 7. (talk) They………. (be) ……you…. Something you will do after you have arrived home. (be) She………. 39 . 3. Something you have always liked.

It’s important to…….but I won’t take anything because I’m ………..stay with or follow an agreed plan or course of action • keep up. How much does a worker earn …………. 40 . We haven’t been out together………Would you like to come……. 11.even when you feel exhausted. They’re doing some building work over there so it would be great if we…… I should like to thank you ………the whole department. She promised to help me ………I returned the favour another time.struggle to continue • keep together.avoid • keep on. Phrasal verbs and expressions with keep Phrasal verbs • keep at – continue working at • keep off. 5. I admire him greatly. 2. 6. it’s difficult to…….. 2. I don’t dislike Chaplin at all:………….to have a meal. they’ll finish painting by midday. No. 7.manage to go fast Expressions • keep going. 12. 2. Fill the gaps with the phrases bellow: on a diet on average on foot on purpose on the hour on the menu for a long time for a walk on behalf of on television on the way on condition that on the contrary for a change 1. It takes much longer to get there …………than by bus.with us on Sunday? 6. 4. 9.. Put a sweater on.stay warm Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with keep.. She promised to be in time so she’d better…….. 4..last night? 9. stay away. 7..with her. it’s important to …….in your country? 8. When you run a marathon. continue saying the same thing • keep out. It was long drive so we stopped…………. Trains always leave …………… 10. If they ….stay in group • keep warm...Vocabulary 1. so let’s do something different …………. 3. 1. continue doing something. She walks so fast. The doctor advised him to ………... He claimed it wasn’t his fault and that he hadn’t done it ……… 3. prevent someone or something from entering • keep to. Did you see the news…………. yet so I’ll………trying. We’ve done a lot of this recently. She hasn’t answered my phone calls. 2. We’ve got to………if we want to be a real 2. 8. 5. There are some lovely desserts………..

infect computers. with both hardware and software being replaced every couple of years. To avoid damaging your eyes. The most prevalent breach of law in cyberspace is software piracy. Users can protect their data and software by using an anti-virus program.L9: Living With Computers Ergonomics is the study of the physical relationships between humans and their tools. It is my opinion that if we are to live comfortably with computers. Some of the leading toxic wastes coming form homes and offices are heavy metals used extensively in batteries. and destroy data. The computer industry has become known the fast pace rate of obsolescence. Although some experts recommend leaving computers on all the time. Office chairs should be adjustable in height and should have lower-back support and arm rests. Instead of building copy protection into their programs. make sure no bright lights reflect off your screen. We must take on the responsibility as humans to utilize technology to change the World for the better. the misuse of technology will eventually be the downfall of humankind 41 . and computing professionals continue to debate computer-related ethical questions and attempt to develop laws that protect the freedoms of computer users while limiting immoral or illegal use of computers. this practice was shown to consume unnecessary amounts of electricity. because if we don’t. most software developers discourage privacy among organizations by offering site licenses and network versions. position yourself from the monitor between two and five feet from your eyes. and use a monitor that has a relatively large screen without noticeable flicker. sharing objectionable or illegal material. legal professionals. Copyright laws relevant to computers and software are covered by the Copyright Act of 1976 and the Software Piracy and counterfeiting Amendment of 1983. however. such as cadmium. Desks that allow proper keyboard height and special ergonomic keyboards have been developed to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome. Hardware is sometimes stolen for the value of the data stored on it rather that for the value of the machine itself. the illegal copying or use of a program. Practices such as excessive e-mailing. Few actual laws. One response has been the development of energy star equipment. avoid starring at the screen for long periods. which conserves electricity even when left on. have been created or enforced to requiring computer users to let their own sense of ethics guide them. Our legal system is gradually developing a code of laws to provide a legal framework for working with computers and on the Internet. a type of repetitive stress injury. Government. such as computers. we must first use common sense to realize that everything we do has a cause and effect. Software viruses are parasitic programs that can replicate themselves. and theft of intellectual property all create ethical questions for everyday computer users.

Office chairs is a type of repetitive stress injury. Software viruses are parasitic programs covered by the Copyright Act of 1976 and the that Software Piracy and counterfeiting Amendment of 1983. Energy star equipment Few actual laws. a code of laws. software piracy. extensively. position yourself from the monitor between two and five feet from your eyes. “It is my opinion that if we are to live comfortably with computers. Some of the leading toxic wastes coming should be adjustable in height and should have form homes and offices are lower-back support and arm rests. because if we don’t. make sure no bright lights reflect off your screen. ethical questions.A. have been created or enforced to requiring computer users to let their own sense of ethics guide them. We must take on the responsibility as humans to utilize technology to change the World for the better. we must first use common sense to realize that everything we do has a cause and effect. and destroy data C. can replicate themselves. infect computers. Match the beginnings in the first column with the endings in the second one: To avoid damaging your eyes conserves electricity even when left on. Make sentences of your own using the following: to replicate oneself. the misuse of technology will eventually be the downfall of humankind. B. counterfeiting. What’s your opinion on the author’s statement? Develop your point of you in a 200 hundred word essay. such as cadmium Copyright laws relevant to computers and avoid starring at the screen for long software are periods. pace rate of. and use a monitor that has a relatively large screen without noticeable flicker. to live comfortably with. downfall. Carpal tunnel syndrome heavy metals used extensively in batteries.” 42 . however.

excuse the disorder in the house. ever. 3. 1. on Monday? Yes. I (talk) to a group of salesmen since 10 this morning. yet. (you. 6. Please. (eat from the snack-food machine) Are you sure you don’t want some coffee? (drink some coffee-just) D. Put the verbs in brackets in the past tense. Since Mike last (visit) me. Since last October. 4. The prices in this city increase amazingly. (you. meet) her since. catch) the bus. but I (not. We (not receive) any letter from him yet. he (be) to many places. ………you……(speak) on the mobile phone since 2 p. We (watch ) the TV program several times this week. use present perfect simple or continuous. Since he left the town.? It’s time you finished! 7. Not yet. I (know) Peter for years. What (you. do) with my handbag? It(be) here a moment ago. I (do). Mr Brown (tell) him to go the supermarket since breakfast. 5. They are on the table now. 2. but she hasn’t made a good one yet. Answer the following questions. be)? 2. My father’s friend (have) the company since he moved to this town. 4. 5. Use present perfect simple or continuous. Recently 5. Example: Why is his house empty? (move to a new place) Because he has just moved to a new place. 1. 2. Why is he angry? (wait for half an hour) Why are you so tired? (train for 3 hours) Why is he so thirsty? (not drink anything the whole day) How can your father be so vigorous at his age? (watch his diet all his life) How is that you are not hungry. but we (already. Find questions for the following answers.m. Where(you. Use present perfect continuous or simple. so she is glad to spend some time with her friends now. She has dropped one egg on the floor and she’s thrown one pancake on the ceiling. 3. but he (not. get) a phone call. as a matter of fact I (know) him since I (be) a child. 3. sign) the papers. C. 1. 7..For two years. 43 . I(move) the furniture. see) any bears? 9. 6. The manager (just. This summer. She ……(criticize) me for the last 20 minutes and she seems to have even more to say! B. She (work) hard. but I(buy) a ticket . I (already.m. 6.m.Grammar A. Example: Chris went into the kitchen at 8 a. 8. go) yet. meet) Doris at 5 p. present perfect simple or continuous. She has been trying to make pancakes for the last half hour. I(phone) you for the last three hours. 4.

10. 15. Nu ştiu la ce personaj te referi. . have) many accidents since then but Ann (often. 13. but now I (almost. 14. 19. Jim (often. 18. 11. 9. iar anul trecut a scris şi o piesă de teatru. Ai înţeles vreodată geometria diferenţială? Dacă da. I-a pierdut în timpul orei de educaţie fizică. 6. Până acum a scris câteva romane. Today I (work) since breakfast and I (not. She (warn) me again this morning at breakfast time but I (work( for four hours and nothing (go) wrong. N-am mai pomenit una ca asta! Sunt în oraş de o lună şi nu ne-au telefonat încă. 13. te rog să-mi explici şi mie câteva noţiuni elementare. 14. dar să ştii că mi-am şi scris şi expediat toate felicitările de Crăciun . dar mi se pare că e cel mai talentat violonist pe care l-am auzit vreodată. N-a mai pomenit aşa comportament în viaţa ei aşa că este hotărâtă să-l determine să. Ultimele le-am expediat ieri. De când n-a mai întrebat de mine? Cred că ar fi bine să-l mai caut eu. 12. Meg citeşte în camera ei de când s-a întors acasă. 4. nu-I aşa? . George nu a mai cântat la pian de când era copil.şi revizuiască atitudinea. În ultima vreme am fost atât de prins cu alte treburi. warn) me to be careful. 44 . 2.Spune-mi. Poate nu-ţi vine să crezi. dar în zadar. 7.Nu. finish) the job. 12. De vreo doi ani îl tot rog să încerce să lucreze mai ordonat şi să aibă mai multă voinţă. 16. have) lunch yet. Translate the following into English: 1. 23. În schimb am colindat prin toate magazinele. De unde îl cunoşti? Până acum am crezut că îţi e total străin. Avionul nu a aterizat încă. 11. S-ar putea să mă înşel. Prietenul ei e scriitor. De când s-a mutat în blocul nostru nu ne-a mai sunat la telefon şi nici nu ne-a mai 17. dar de data asta s-a întrecut pe sine. Astăzi toţi vecinii şi-au parcat maşinile în noul parcaj din faţa blocului. try) to jump over the fence. ai vizitat astăzi Galeriile Naţionale. I (not. n-am avut timp. De când a stat de vorbă jumătate de oră cu acel personaj pitoresc nu mai e acelaşi om! 25. Ai încercat vreodată să faci practici vreun sport extrem? 21. 22. forget) what (happen) several years ago when she (try) to help me. Verişorul meu a crescut foarte mult de când nu l-am văzut. Familia Bush a cumpărat un apartament în acest cartier şi de atunci locuiesc aici.10. Asta s-a întâmplat acum două săptămâni într-un accident de maşină. încât am uitat complet de ce m-ai rugat. 3. everything (be) in a mess. 24. E. Pregăteşte de obicei nişte prăjituri delicioase. dar îl aşteptăm din moment în moment. Nimeni nu a găsit ochelarii Anei. 20. 5. Fratele ei şi-a rupt piciorul. N-am mâncat niciodată icre negre. 8. să-i amintesc că avem un proiect de făcut împreună. When we(move) in three years ago. pentru că n-am citit filmul şi nici na-m citit cartea. I (never. Luna asta a citit şase romane.

I’m freezing. 1. replacing the underlined words with a suitable form of the word in bold on the right and adding FOR or ON.have a connection with Expressions • do domestic jobs. cooking. You should eat a bit of meat occasionally. In his last year of study he …….and go fetch another beer.I think he ……. I could ……a nice hot shower. account 2. 7.on the back of this dress? 10. search have apologise feel sorry 6. 6. fasten.1.manage to live without • have/be to do with.In fact it’ll probably…. but it’s ……. 2.. ……. 45 . French • do someone a favour • do someone good • do someone harm • do well • do your best Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with do. It won’t…….. Maths. 3. the washing. He stopped to look in a shop window and then continued walking. Meg’s business started slowly.nothing……this delicate any……. Are you trying to find your hat? uniform.g.abolish • (could ) do with. cleaning. Phrasal verbs and expressions with do Phrasal verbs • do away with.. I don’t want you to sympathise with me.only one course of Chemistry. I know it’s hard to do the washing-up without a proper detergent. 3.. Could you ……the zip …. famous She’s famous for breaking the world record.. but please try to…… 5. Our car is going to be repaired this week so we’ll have to ……it for a day or two. 4..g. walk 2. The new principal plans to……. 2. I am sorry that I was rude to you. the garden • do school subjects. 5. repair or redecorate • do without.. depend 7.……! 9.(usually after could) need. Rewrite each sentence. want • do up. 1. Please. The price they charge varies according to the quantity you order. We admire her because of her intelligence.Vocabulary 1. 8. She’ s well-known because she broke the world record.

is able to activate according to his own taste. its influence was not yet felt in the arts or in society at large. by interaction some sort of a play with graphic structures may emerge. (2) Education. explode the classical frame and lead to an expansion which makes the integration into classical art forms impossible. Computer graphics is nearly indispensable when one is confronted with dynamic processes which cannot be illustrated by individual pictures. as in text analysis. From the viewpoint of the theoretician or the behavioural scientist who is concerned with aesthetics. however. Forms of aesthetic activity can be imagined which allow the viewer to enter into a sort of dialogue with the computer or the aesthetic program.. we are confronted with the problem of aesthetic structuring. 'Free' computer graphics can serve as a source of new programming methods and of ideas for creating new shapes. The visualization of instructional material is one of the great tasks of our future. have drawn the attention of designers. At the beginning of computer graphics activities. the shaping of our environment was left to the more or less spontaneous ideas of individuals. Although computer-generated graphics had already been applied in important areas of science and technology. mechanical plotting represented the only possible choice. but only by animated sequences. Until recently. computer-generated drawings represent examples of simulated pieces of art. The possibility of rapid creation and of variation in structures. The newly obtained dynamics. An additional stimulus was created by the advancement of microelectronics which added a new dimension of artistic activity: the old dream of being able to play freely with colours and shapes has come true. (4)Shaping of the Environment. but also through confrontation with classical art. educators. and the entertainment industry. It was the most recent developments in microelectronics which mainly led to a turning point in the history of computer art. the traditional artistic criteria were still respected. The result was an image which could be hung on the wall: which means that at least from an external viewpoint. Apart from the task of a technical transformation and often adaptation to existing psychological and sociological conditions. now promoted to the successor of the hitherto passive onlooker. their decreased execution time and increased storage capacity allowing ever greater access at lower prices to larger groups of interested amateurs have opened new perspectives to the most diverse ranges of activity. the production of a picture took ten to twenty minutes.L10: The New Visual Age: The Influence of Computer Graphics on Art and Society Only a few years ago it would have seemed ridiculous to discuss the influence of computer graphics on art and society. is also essential. But today we are convinced that an optimal coordination of our living space with its inhabitants has become a necessity. which. Particularly the opportunities opened by microprocessors. (3) Entertainment. that experience is gained which can be useful in several ways: (1) Theory of Art. at times even half an hour or more. The 46 . The new interactive method facilitated through the above-mentioned improvements even allows a sort of graphic improvisation: the artist conceives the general framework for multitude of graphic creations which the user. while still being ignored by art critics. It is through playful experiments. The sudden interest in visual computer art has had repercussions on its artistic forms.

They represent examples of simulated pieces of art and offer the possibility of rapid creation and of variation in structures. It is clear that the old ways can no longer satisfy the needs of these expanding forms of expression. d. A. Which is the wrong variant out of the four? 1. allows a sort of graphic improvisation B. 'Free' computer graphics can serve in several ways: a.universality of means and the peculiarities of data processing systems make the traditional categories questionable for yet another reason: acoustic instruments can be used for the output of data just as well as the screens. c. influence was not yet felt in the arts or in society at large. means of microprocessors. . d. 47 .Computer graphics a. could lead to a turning point in the history of computer art by using the most recent developments in microelectronics. b. They help with the visualization of instructional material c. That means no less and no more than that the program can be used to create and to structure musical and linguistic elements artistically. b. made possible a new dynamics that exploded the classical frame and led to a new way of expression. 2. c. 3. In what respect and to what degree do you think computer graphics influence society? Give arguments to support your ideas. makes the integration into classical art forms possible. made possible the old dream of being able to play freely with colours and shapes. have influenced art and society since decades. have opened new perspectives to the most diverse ranges of activity. The aesthetic programs they may offer are meant only for serious stuff and not for entertainment. b. They help a lot in aesthetically structuring of our living space. the advancement of microelectronics a.

Example: How long had you been standing in a queue when you bought your ticket to Brasov? I’d been standing in a queue since 3 p. They…………all morning.m. They………the case all winter. 1. listen to music all winter.all afternoon. They ………. Ann was wearing her green winter coat yesterday.m..all day. When he became president. speak on the phone 4.m. America’s national unity was threaten because the southern states and the rest of the country unsuccessfully (try) to settle the question of slavery. The wind was blowing in the morning. 6. read that novel D. Ask and answers according to the model: mend the car How long had you been mending the car when grandfather came home? I‘d been mending the car for one hour and a half /since 2 o’clock when grandfather came home. B. How long had you been waiting for your girl friend when she showed up? 48 .. He ………. Example: Mr. Use past perfect continuous with the verbs in brackets: Abraham Lincoln (do ) manual labour on the family farm before he was sent to local school. In fact she………. Diana was ironing her dresses yesterday afternoon. 3. dig in the courtyard 8. 1. 5. The children were still preparing for the show at 1 p. C. The guardian was still standing in front of her door at 12 p.m.m. Fill in the blanks with the past perfect tense continuous. translate the passage 6. 7. 9.all morning.Grammar A.m. He (work) hard for years before he overcame defeat in politics. The students were working on a difficult project in May.on it all spring. play the new instrument 2. 10. He …………all afternoon. ski on the slope 3. solve puzzles 7.30 p. The girls were still skating at noon. 4. How long had your parents been saving up when they bought a car? 2. 8. He (study) law for a short time when in 1834. It………. 2. She ………... They………….in front of her door all morning. Mr. 1./ for about ten minutes. He ………all day evening. Barton had been planting trees all day. The policemen were still investigating the case in December. Lincoln ran for political office again. The actor was rehearsing at 8. Barton was still planting trees at 6 p. The surgeon was still operating her on at 6 p. Answer the questions using past perfect continuous and SINCE/FOR.

Each of these sentences contains a colourful expression. What do they mean? Don’t use a dictionary. Why was she broken? (she / spend a lot of money/December last year) 8. Everyone in the class passed the exam with flying someone by chance • run on. How long had you been trying to persuade him when he left the room in a hurry? 10.use all one’s supplies • run over. How long had you been walking when it started to rain? 5. 6. Why was she so enthusiastic? (she/ speak on her favourite topic/2 hours) 7. Why were they so hungry? ( they/ have a proper meal/ several days) 9. 1. Vocabulary 1. Far more men are colour-blind than women. 6. E. Why were they so happy? ( they/ do something they enjoy/ 2 hours ago) 10. She didn’t go to work because she was feeling a little off colour. Follow the model and answer the questions: Example: Why was Nick angry? (he/wait/20 minutes) Because he had been waiting for 20 minutes. Why were they so frozen? (they /stay in a cold room/ 5 hours). It was only when he had won the match and started jeering at his opponent that he saw him in his true colours. How long had your friends been filling-in that form when you decided to help 9. 2. The detailed descriptions in the story gave local colour to the book.repeat for practice 49 . What do you tjhink of the colour scheme in this room? 7. 1.escape • run into. Why was he so relaxed? ( he/listen to a wonderful Chopin piano concert/ an hour). Why did your friend look so amused?(he/watch a comedy/1/2 hours) 3.continue happening for longer than planned or expected • run out of. Why were you so busy? (I /make travel arrangements/ 3 days) 4. How long had your mother been cooking when you offered to help her? 7. Why were they so furious? (the policeman/ ask questions/ an hour) 5. 5. How long had you been playing this game when you join a club? 8. Don’t allow your personal interest to colour your judgement. Phrasal verbs with run • run away. The context will help you to guess. Why was Jane so tired? (she/work/4 hours) 2. How long had your neighbours been making noise when you complained? 6.3. How long had Mary and her friends been standing in line when someone offered them two tickets. 2. All the documents in this office are colour-coded. How long had your neighbours been living next to you before they moved? 4. 3.knock down and drive over the top • run through. them? 9. 8. 4.

all night! 5. 6. 7.• run up. I dropped my glasses in the street and a car ……. or to (cause to) become no longer frozen 50 . (dis/in/non/un)content: a feeling of wanting better treatment or an improved situation 5. 6. (dis/ir/non/un)relevant: not related to what is being discussed or considered and therefore of no importance 2. Rewrite each sentence. (de/dis/non/un)frost: to (cause to) become free of ice. (de/in/non/un)flammable: burning very easily 3. She sold her fur coat as she ……… 7. an expert insist wind fall grow 2. I didn’t understand the passage so I should………. To hear the next track you should make the tape go forward. 5.We’ve never seen it again. Guess who I…….. I used to hate that song but then it became more pleasant to me. but you can trust once again. We let the monkey out of its cage for a while and it……. She knows all about cars. (anti/ill/in/mis)considerate: not caring about other people or their feelings. Would you like to give me your opinion of my work? rely / count comment 4.cause to have bills or debts Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with run. 3. (counter/dis/im/un)possible: (of a person) extremely difficult to deal with or behaving badly 4. 2. I told the visitors you’d be late but she was determined to wait. (anti/de/non/un) -alcoholic: a drink which does not contain alcohol 4. not as it should be 8. 3. (a/de/in/non)correct: not correct. You can’t trust him. replacing the underlined words with a suitable form of the word in bold on the right and adding FOR or ON. (dis/mal/mis/un)cast: to choose (actors and actresses) that are unsuitable for the characters in (a film or play) 7. It was a tall story but he was so gullible that he believed it. (anti/ill/mal/un)comfortable: not comfortable or not relaxed or calm 9. Greg …………an enormous bill at the bookshop this the middle of the town? Mel Gibson himself! 3. Let’s get going! I don’t want this meeting to………. not true. 1. Choose the correct affix: 1.. selfish 6. 4. 1.

but it also transports compact and yet very harmful intruders: computer viruses. First. Crackers dedicate their work to purposely infect programs and distant computers that access the internet. through the computer. a group of knowledgeable engineers whose sole task is to reinforce the integrity of the internet. Perhaps. With the appearance of “streaming” technologies. In July 1997. and the telephone lines used to dial in. have existed since the very first birth of personnel computers. anytime and anywhere from the globe. Nevertheless. pay their bills. which includes online shopping. another cracker known as “Snak” was taken into custody by FBI agents after he had stolen over one hundred thousands credit card numbers from an internet service provider (ISP) located in northern California. broadcasting companies and radio stations are transmitting regularly over the internet. it was not designed with tight security in mind. Any form of communication via the internet is cheaper and rather faster than any service from other facilities. the modem . transfer their money and even trade their stocks. virus authors have been faced up to nothing but a widespread gate to the information superhighway. This is not true anymore with the expansion of the internet to include online banking.L11: The Information Superhighway The Internet. last century’s award winning virus. financial institutes deciphered the heartbreaking event to more than a few million dollars of 51 . all of which can be relatively cheap. People can. has become the largest single form of communication worldwide. online trading and many more. the internet’s structures do not only transport data. effortlessly compare prices and quickly shop from remote locations. With the growth of the internet. online banking. But. With a number of online individuals exceeding thirty millions and the number of networks that act as gateways for users exceeding fifty thousands. These artificial clever beasts that destroy data. Often described by the media as “the information superhighway”. which makes them accessible anywhere on the globe. once concealed inside government agencies and universities. are the costs of the user's computer. crackers achieved the first widely known attack on internet credit card data. efficiently supplied with new viruses. successfully capturing and distributing credit card numbers of NBA and ESPN users. The only costs involved in using these internet services. and many others not mentioned. the dark side of the internet reveals some serious drawbacks. beyond doubt. The “internet phone”. This was demonstrated. at least once a month. can effectively dive into an immense range and selection of merchandise. the most efficient and economic tool of the next generation. On the same year. access their bank accounts. One of the recent innovations the internet made available is online commerce. overcoming any kind of disability. The internet is. waiting to carry out regular transactions in financial centres is very frustrating. This opens up a new international world of trading. for instance. but also some drawbacks. is taking significant measures to prevent such unlawful actions. Secondly. the Internet's boundaries can only be imagined. allows any user on the internet to send nearly instantaneous electronic message to anyone else. The electronic mail (email). Consumers. the internet offers to customary users a wide variety of services. which is slowly but surely replacing the regular phone. by so-called “crackers”: growing minorities of people with nothing better to do than spoil everyone else’s enjoyment. the “internet tasking force” (ITF). enables anyone to make free long distance calls. “Veronica”. transformed to inoperative rather hundred thousands of computers and thousands of networks around the globe for quite few days.

This is wonderlessly why internet communities are very much concerned about security. however. The rate at which data is transmitted and the number of systems. disadvantages C. online commerce. cracker. and retrieving information improve. 52 . and many others.vanished money. The “information superhighway”. according to the example: advantages COMPUTER’S Any form of communication via the internet is cheaper and rather faster than any service from other facilities. This is often due to delays that occur at endpoints. This is one of the main reasons behind the delays. effortlessly. B. information takes lengthy periods to load on the computer’s screen. The “information superhighway”. email. as any other invention. Occasionally. Comment upon this statement. as any other invention. receiving. drawback. are being improved. wonderlessly. gateways. endpoint. A. I believe. just enough to frustrate impatient users. but not at the same level as the number of new users. and on the internet's paths. adding your own arguments to the ones previously stated in the text above. has its strengths residing in its popular aspects – the World Wide Web. Fill in the following chart. Make your own sentences with the following words: exceeding. The internet has also its weaknesses. that these drawbacks will be overcome in time as technology advances and methods of securely transmitting. which can be thought of several four lane roadways with neither traffic officers nor civilized drivers. has its strengths (…) and also its weaknesses. some of which can be very damaging.

I hadn’t promised anything. The students hadn’t finished the tests. How had you felt until the plane landed? 4. Add tag questions to the statements bellow and answer them.…………? 4.? 6. 1.……? You had seen Mary.? 7. When he came back the train wasn’t there. but he said no. Greg had two tickets for the film... the alarm clock rang in the morning 2. Mary had a meeting and arrived home late. Tom was supposed to go on a trip with his friends yesterday.stop raining) 5.. the skyscraper fell down. Yesterday you went to the airport to meet him. When he got to the meeting place.? C. (come back.? 5.……. hadn’t you? 1. 53 .Grammar A. The principal had just come.……….………. Imagine your father was away on a business trip last week. Comment upon these situations using past perfect simple. She came out half an hour later. Nobody had tried it before. Chris went to the shop. What had you done before your father was in the customs? D. Say what you had just done when…….have dinner) 2. The sun had already set. (arrive home. 1. Example: You had seen Mary. It was raining outside. 1. (invite Dan-see the film) 4. Her mother was washing up after dinner. (get to the baker’s-close the shop) When Doris got to the baker’s they HAD CLOSED the shop. He invited Dan to come to come with him.……... (get to the meeting place-leave) 3. The sun was shining. your aunt told you the great news 4.………. your parents arrived home. I had met nobody before. you found out you had won the jackpot 5. What had you done before you went to the airport? 2.leave) B. The film had already started. Example: When Doris got to the baker’s. 3. (come out. the door was locked and the lights were off. Mike got out of the train to buy a newspaper.? 3. neither the coach nor his friends were there. How long had you been in the airport by the time the plane landed? 3.………? 2.

4. UNTIL. Why didn’t Jane take the coach? (she-catch the train) 3. We hadn’t finished our main course. Be careful about the past tense you use! Example: They got on the train and immediately it left. play tennis 4. We went to bed and immediately we fell asleep. The student handed in the essay. WHEN. The guest left before they’d finished their dinner. 5. H.iron) 7. Why was the little boy unhappy?( he win the prize) 54 . Example: The guest left. Adams have a room in the hotel? (she-reserve) 4. 2. Why didn’t she have dinner? (mother. watch TV 2. 1. We started immediately and didn’t stop at all. The audience laughed. At 12. yet) seats) 6. Example: Why did the clock stopped? (Tim –wind) Because Tim hadn’t wound it. AFTER.30 the sky got dark. 4. Choose from NO SOONER. Model: see any films Doris hadn’t seen any films since she came home/ for two weeks. Answer the following questions using the past perfect simple. We had supper and then we washed the dishes. AS SOON AS. go swimming 6.E. Greg’s pen ran out of ink. They hadn’t heard the end of the joke. ride her bike 3. Why couldn’t Carmen wear the new dress? (she. 7. It was cloudy for an hour and then the sun came out again. 5. HARDLY. He hadn’t corrected his mistakes. BEFORE. We stopped at noon and immediately we had lunch. Why did they have to stand. Use the past perfect simple and FOR and SINCE. The sun set and then we stopped 6. The hostess served coffee. 1. The sun rose and immediately we started.cook. visit anybody 5. 1. 2. They’d hardly got on the train when it left. She hadn’t recovered from her illness. (they. We unpacked our things and then we put out our tents. He hadn’t finished his paper. 3. F. Connect the following sentences by using the appropriate connectors. They hadn’t finished their dinner. Join each pair of sentences bellow using BEFORE and the past perfect simple. Sissy went out. (emphatic) Hardly had they got on the train when it left. Why didn’t Mrs. 8. 1. write any letters G. Why couldn’t she tell anything about the book? (she-read ) 2. 3. understand something or to find the answer to something by thinking about it • up something. 4. 8. 6. How environmentally friendly are you? 5. develop an emotional or physical state that you feel work extremely hard. It's strange. She’s very famous so we must give her VIP treatment. She ……. 3. I’m ready to start when you tell me to go ahead. 2. There will be a full investigation to ……. Most manual workers receive wages and are paid weekly. you in getting a job. both parties have to ……. Most couples would agree that for a marriage to succeed. 4. provide a home and food for seven children.what caused the accident. She ……stress by running for at least half an hour every day. Being patient could ……….to get rid of a feeling by doing something energetic: • on something. 12. 8. He phoned me completely unexpectedly to tell me he was back in town. 5.differently each time I add them.a candidate looking for a job. He ………. 10. especially for a long time work like a Trojan. in the red red-handed see red red carpet red tape once in a blue moon out of the blue blue-collar green green green with envy give the green light 1. work very hard • till/until you make it easier for someone to achieve something • at something. Replace each word or phrase in italics with one of the idioms make it more difficult for someone to achieve something • for somebody. Dealings with government offices usually involve bureaucratic delays. Phrasal verbs with work • against somebody.. A lucky coincidence like this happens very spend time repairing or improving something • out. I can’t afford to buy anything because I’m still in debt after my holiday.his fitness.Vocabulary 1. He became very angry when I told him he had made a mistake. His dancing technique is good. These figures …….any enthusiasm for going on this trip. but I can't …….to try hard to achieve something • something off. 6. after a period of effort or time expressions with work • one’s fingers to the bone. but he needs to ……. The police caught him in the act of committing the be the result of a calculation • something out. They were very jealous when they saw my new Porsche. 55 . 2. He’s dedicated to work. Inexperience can ……. 9. Our new clerk makes a lot of mistakes because he is still inexperienced.. 10. work until you are so tired that you cannot work any more Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with work 1.

To fully understand what e-commerce in his garage and helped start e-commerce. 56 . no one anticipated that one-day people could buy books and cars over a computer. An example of this is Though with the advancement of certain technologies. There is room for improvement for the creators as well as for the manufacturers of these goods being sold on the web. It is now easier than ever to have and start your own web page. and even cafes – anyone can order just about anything from anywhere. Now thanks to the web everyone all aver the world can have a chance to bid on these items and help make Sharone richer. For instance. This all changed in 1989. In the beginning. Many companies are trying to more like Amazon. This language tells the computer how to display a page. it is easy to see that it will be a lasting innovation in the world of computers. With as much support as e-commerce has gotten. Jeff founded Amazon. an online web auction site. one for the mail. Just like Jeff Bezos. both on eBay. Berners-Lee called the software pack the World Wide Web. this has happened. By using hypertext he could link together all the different kinds of information available on the Internet. sold for $290. and several different programs for accessing databases. If a network link became damaged by enemy attack. an Art Deco ashtray that she bought for $20. In order to use anything on the Internet. With a loan from the bank. Like Sharon Balkwitsch who has sold antiques on eBay. Time Magazine’s Person of the Year of 1999. This was the birth of the Internet. the information on it could be rerouted automatically to other links. schools. and a vase she bought for $5 sold for $585. and now that the Internet is After the Cold War the Government wanted a reliable line of communication.L12: E-Commerce The Internet has caught on like wild fire. Each page has to be written with a special language called HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). Ecommerce is a worldwide commodity that has taken the place of trips to the supermarket and has given us the freedom to conduct business at our house in our pyjamas. as we now know it. its main purpose was to send and receive messages. A researcher at CERN (a big European physics laboratory) named Tim Berners-Lee started to work on hypertext. anyone from a big corporation or even the average joe can build his or her own web page. you must first understand where it came from. that lets everyone clean out his or her attic and make a profit. E-commerce is still in its developmental stage at this point. No one ever intended for it to be so commercially successful. Businesses can use pictures to help sell their merchandise and trying to be as profitable as Bezon and Amazon. It all started with the DOD (Department of Defense) in 1996. each page has it’s own address that the web recognizes using a system called HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol). Now with the invention of the web. For the World Wide Web to work. it is required that you learn to operate a separate program. She could make nowhere near that much by selling these items in her hometown. one for news groups.

has given people the freedom to conduct business at one’s house in our pyjamas. The web sites a. The Internet a. 2. enables people buy books and cars. made all that money by selling those products in her hometown. has caught wild fire. d. d. has taken the place of trips to the supermarket. 5. c. E-commerce a. c. is a worldwide commodity. have each of their page written with a special language called HTML 4. “ Anyone from a big corporation or even the average joe can build his or her own web page. are based on hypertext b. loaned some money from a bank from a bank.” 57 . has sold antiques on eBay. is commercially successful nowadays. was first used in 1996. b. b. are of common use nowadays d. 1. had once as its main purpose sending and receiving messages. Starting from the following statement tell your own opinion on ECommerce. is helped willingly by people to get richer. were founded by a researcher at HTML c. as we now know it. b. c. founded Amazon. in his garage. started e-commerce. b..A. d. 3. Find the incorrect variant out of the four. Jeff Bezos a. d. was considered Time Magazine’s Person of the Year of 1999. B. Sharon Balkwitsch a. bought an Art Deco ashtray for $20.

m. 7. The first patients came into the waiting room at 7 a. 1. They (leave) the hotel when you (call) a taxi. so the country was called a melting pot. They ordered the dishes at 8 p. 6. B. We gave her a lot of attention so she felt nice in our company. 5. 5. because it had been very complicated. and the waiter brought them at quarter to 9. They didn’t come in time so I left. She didn’t hear the phone so she didn’t answer it. 4. She (wonder) if the taxi-driver (understand) the address she (tell) him. He had been studying since 6 p. My friend (find) a luggage trolley when I offered to help her. Use past tense simple or past perfect. Mary turned on the TV set at 8 p. we(remember) we (forget) our luggage in the cab. 2. She finally passed her driving test in August 1999. The operation began at 10 a. Laura began studying for her degree in 1998. 3. At 10.m. She complained a lot about my relatives so I felt embarrassed. The doctor came at 8 a. 58 . 6. 2. 3. He didn’t understand my name so I repeated it again. When we reached the house.A. He lost control of his car so he had a terrible accident. She (feel) nervous before the plane 9 took off. 3.m. 1.m. Many immigrants from many nations came to the U. Re-estate the following sentences. Roger Harrison got his first job in the publishing house when he was 20. My friend never saw a baseball so he didn’t understand it. using past tense and past perfect: Example: I made many mistakes so I got a bad mark.Grammar A.m. 10.m. Mike studied the problem for three hours. He retired when he was 65. C. I got a bad mark because I had made many mistakes. 8. The McGregors’ went to a restaurant last night. 4. 1. 2. 6. George (wait) in the lounge before his flight (be announced) 4. Mike had been studying the problem for three hours when he finally found the solution. Comment upon these situations using the past tense simple and the past perfect continuous.m. 5. Example: Mike started studying the problem at 6 p. 7. It was nine o’clock when he finally found the solutions.m.S.30 she went to bed. in 2002. 9. They spent a lot of time together so they came to know each other well. She finally got her B. Miss Brown started taking driving lessons in February 1999. It finally ended at 6 p. They redecorated the house so it looked lovely.

Toţi colegii mai şi-au cumpărat romanul lui Balzac după ce au văzut serialul la televizor. Example: It had been raining for about half an hour when I looked out of the window.m. 10. 8. She (read) a very captivating book when I got into the room. 3. 8. . Write: 1. Nici n-am apucat bine să închid uşa că a şi sunat cineva. 59 . 5. The thieves were not aware that the police (follow) them for 10 minutes. 5. She (read) when I entered the room. As we (make) pizza for an hour they lost their patience and (leave). 6. Ne-a întâmpinat secretara care încerca să prindă Bucureştiul la telefon de la ora 6. He (sleep) for several hours when I came into the room. Era în magazin de jumătate de oră când şi-a dat seama că şi-a uitat poşeta acasă. Before I was in Mall she (visit) the Art Museum. 1. 10. Mi-a spus că invitase pe un cunoscut scriitor să ţină o conferinţă despre literatura modernă. E. Nu mai vizitasem oraşul meu natal de multă vreme şi eram hotărât să-mi petrec vacanţa acolo. 2. 5. It was raining when I looked out of the window. We didn’t realize that they ( watch) us for a few minutes. 4. 2. Two things your colleagues had done before they left the lab. Conferinţa urma să aibă loc la ora 7 p. Translate the following into English: 1. Two things your friend had been doing for half an hour before he called you. Two things you had been doing for one hour by 10 yesterday morning. When I noticed the speed limit I (drive) at a high speed. 6. iar oamenii aşteptau în sală cam de jumătate de oră când a sosit invitatul. 7. When she warned me about the danger I (drive) at a high speed for about 20 minutes. 9. Când în cele din urmă a ajuns la gară. Two things your colleagues had been doing for a couple of minutes before the professor entered the lab.D. The woman didn’t know that the man (look) at her. 3. Two things your friend had done before he went to bed. Nici n-am apucat să mă mişc că s-a şi trezit. 7. 6. ne-am hotărât să-l aşteptăm în hol. Use past perfect continuous or past continuous. trenul plecase. Pentru că oaspetele nu sosise încă. 4. 2. 4. 9. 3. Two things you had done before you left home in the morning.

6..The plaster cast will help to (heal/heel) the broken bone.A greater proportion of students with first degrees are now going on to study for (higher/hire) degrees. No one will visit the museum. 6.he’s got a ……. invent .You need to have nerves of (steal/steel) to be a fighter pilot.complain.. It’s important not to………when you want to win the prize. 7. Most ……….Why has the project been (allowed/aloud) to continue if it's such a disaster? something wrong • make a noise. I don’t like people who always ………about things. Send me a letter about this – I need to have all the details………. sound • make it – arrive in time • make money. We need silence. 8. He showed his disapproval by giving me a ………… 2.I told that (to/too/two) George and he was enchanted.repay. 6. It’s hilarious ………. so don’t…… 2. 3. During the war. 7. He behaved awfully to me last night and now. 3. he’s trying to……. Fill the gaps in these sentences with one of the idioms bellow.Go up the (stairs/stares) and her flat is on the left. some things could only be bought on the ……… 4. She had a …………and didn’t regain consciousness for several minutes. 3.make a meaningless.about an unsuccessful murderer. usually unwanted. become friends again after a quarrel • make up for.This jigsaw puzzle has two (peaces/pieces) missing. 5.workers receive a salary and are paid monthly. show unnecessary excitement • make a well financially • make up one’s mind. 3. 8. Chose the correct word between the homophones: 1. They’re not getting married in a registry office: they’re having a ……… 7.try • make a fuss.Vocabulary 1. 1. compensate for Expressions with make • make an effort. 9. 2. Phrasal verbs with make • make up.decide Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with make. I told a………. black comedy white elephant white lie white wedding black comedy black eye black look black market blackout in black and white 1. 2.1. 4. She can never…………about what to’ll be a………… 2. He must have been in a fight. 10.American pit bull terriers are (bread/bred) for their fighting instincts 60 . 9.There was nothing on the table but a few crusts of (bread/bred).because I didn’t want her to get into trouble. His dream is to be successful and to ……. It’s an important course so could you ………to be here on time? 5.

they could cost the company thousands. nerd. b. it is not one that is accepted in the United States or any other country. trend. I think that every computer professional. C. 61 . Also in many government organizations. to be faced with. simple mistake. There are hackers out there that will do there best to harm any system they can. Write an article in support of /against hacker. and do not have full-time jobs or own property. including the best. They do not consider that if they do get into a system and make an unintentional. The bad hackers are dangerous if they may gain access to classified information. hackers were basically known as just computer experts. All studies show that hackers are generally young. There is a number of things that our country (USA) is realizing about Cyber terrorism. This protects the innocent and helpless from hackers and gives them the right over the power of Cyber Terrorists. The art of computer hacking has grown since the computers first started to appear. unintentional. In the past. very little research has been done on the hacking world and its culture. to gain access to. national security documents. Make sentences of your own using the following: unstoppable. Hackers also do not know about the cost results of their actions. and possibly millions of dollars. In 1998. Although hacking is a growing trend in our society. (…) A. Nowadays hacker means the same thing as a cracker.L13: Hacking Hacking has been developed over the years to be unstoppable. a person who pirates software. Despite the growing trend of hacking. Choose between these two: a. and malicious hackers. Young hackers do not know what a System Administrator is faced with on a day-to-day basis. and neither do they realize the problem they cause for already overworked people. service or money. they have formed some type of group to deal with cyber terrorist and block them from stealing money as well as information. Newcomers to the hacking community learn the rules by associating with established hackers. overworked. Divide this article into paragraphs and give each of them a suitable title. president Clinton created the Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection. B. Write the portrait of the hacker from your own point of view . The image of a computer hacker has grown from a harmless nerd into a vicious technocriminal. Hackers like to hack in order to impress each other. have made a mistake that has caused the loss of data.

a) clue b) guess c) point d) thought 62 . To choose than do 20……….of freedom given students in 15 ………their courses. Almost all schools have a certain 16…………. the lecture starts at eleven tomorrow morning. a) distinct b) distinctly c) distinguishable d)legibly During a lecture I always try to ……. Rush was speaking so quickly I couldn’t ………what he said. Wise’s ……….up a lecture. or university are called its curriculum.number of credits.the scene in your mind.Vocabulary 1. a) belief b) information c) knowledge d) opinion Prof.Between 30 and 40 of the required 12……………must be in the student’s 13…………subject..Students can also usually choose nonrequired courses called 18…………….on C++ next week? a) conference b) discussion c) lecture d)meeting The lecture was so ………that almost everyone felt asleep. amount course graduation outline requirements calendar credits major prospectus technical class hours curriculum number specified three college electives opportunity subjects week Selecting courses The course given by a 1…………. a course that meets three times a 9……usually gives……credits towards graduation. Schools using the semester 10……….. It gives the 5……………for entry to each course. Schools vary considerably in the 14 ………….. Put each of the following words or phrases into its correct place in the passage bellow.. a) doodle b) jot c) noting d) sketch That’s precisely what I mean.. a) inspire b) liven c) loosen d) raise Miss Duffer looked as if she hadn’t a…………what Prof. a) draw b) model c) paint d) picture Would you please………from smoking while the lecture is in progress? a) avoid b) keep yourself c) refrain d) stop Prof.. For example.. a) bored b) dull c) exhausted d) tired According to my………….require about 120 credits for 11………….of required 17………..schools. as well as the credits given for the 6 ……..down the main points that are maid. Sophisticated was talking about. Choose the right answer: Are you going to attend Prof. These are usually equal to the number of 8 …………devoted each week to the course. a) accept b) catch c) listen d)take Use your imagination and try to ……….Liberal-arts colleges usually give students more 19………. You’ve hit the ………on the we could understand every word he said. 2. Orator spoke clearly and……. a) idea b)nail c) pin d) point A few jokes always ………. The 2…………of the institution 3…………the complete 4…………. Each course is designated as giving a 7………….

a) away b) in c) over d) up The example you have just referred to has no…….or a college is divided into 2…….your shorthand by taking notes during lectures. 63 .. trainee i) someone learning a trade who works in return for being taught 10. sophomore. let’ take an………. Match the words for people in education with the correct definition.. disciple e) person in charge of a division of study 6. coach c) highest grade of university teacher 4. authority classes degree located special women bachelor’s coeducational freshmen schoolstudents year bodies coordinate graduates separate undergraduates campuses courses junior sex university Students The student body of a 1. pupil l) attends primary school 13.You can………... lecturer h) a person studying to become an officer in the army or a policeman 9. The undergraduates belong to one of four 5………. Graduates have already received their 3……. according to their 6 ………of study. dean d) the lowest teaching rank at a university 5. 8………..and senior classes. a) oversight b) overtone c) overture d) overview The lecturer spoke so fast I found it hard to take………..professor k) anyone devoted to the acquisition knowledge especially attending university 12. …….and undergraduates. a) keep b)keep in c)keep on d) keep up To begin the lecture... 4. These are 7……’s and women’s colleges. Others admit 16………of only one 17……… A 18……… institution has 19…….. but are not working towards a 11………. apprentice a) female teacher in charge of a school 2. student m) follower of a religious teacher.on the matter under discussion. instructor g) the head of some universities or schools 8. a) bearing b) connection c) dependence d) relation 3. Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage bellow. Most schools also admit 9……….. principal j) person undergoing some form of vocational training 11.and are usually 21…………on the same campus or nearby 22………. 3. 1.have not..what he was saying. cadet b) person who trains sportsmen for contests or prepares private students for an exam. Students12…………vary considerably from13………..students who take a number of 10…………. headmistress f) person who teaches you driving 7..of the present situation.. They are controlled by the same central 20……….degrees. Some institutions are 14……….with both men and 15………students. while 4……….

. especially by spending less money. She ……. I try to keep an open………… 11.a little of her home-made wine just to taste. He can’t climb a ladder because he has no …………for his full height in public. two ……….a chair and I'll tell you all about use information or your knowledge of something to help you do something • draw something out . to prepare something. Like all good interviewers he manages to ……. usually because you are surprised or frightened • draw somebody into something . 1. 6.. 9. 1. A good book can help to take your…………. he tends to ………. Like a lot of short men. but suddenly I had a…………. he's lost his job 5. They tried to ……me ….when she saw its teeth. They were………. The director ……the meeting …….wave. 6. make someone become involved in a difficult or unpleasant situation • draw something off . 3. We couldn’t solve the problem... 2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with draw. 10. ……….to move away from someone or something. to move a chair near to someone or something • draw oneself up -to make yourself look bigger by standing straight. 12. Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable form of head. She had a wealth of experience to………. I've …….or tails? 6. If there’s an emergency.over heels in love.their argument but I refused. 7. usually something official. He'll have to ………his …….. She’s very good at Maths. 8. usually to try to seem more important Expression with draw • draw in your horns.whether to get married . it slipped my ……….to remove a small amount of liquid from a larger amount • draw on something .are better than one.. in writing. 64 .to help someone to express their thoughts and feelings more easily by making them feel less nervous • draw something up -1.people ……themselves. I’ll spin a coin to see – do you want to call ……….. 3. She leaned forward to stroke the dog but quickly ………... your troubles. 10. brain or mind.. cause something to last longer than is usual or necessary • draw somebody out of .a list of candidates that I'd like to interview.5.for another hour with a series of tedious questions. When it comes to politics. 4. I’m sorry I didn’t make that phone call. act in a more careful way than you did before.she has a good ………for figures.. That’s too difficult for me to follow. If there’s a problem to solve. 2. They were in two………. Phrasal verbs with draw • draw’s over my…………… 7. don’t panic-try to keep your………. 9.

They can just click a button and find whatever they need or are looking for in less time and money. Sina is a company that has “ … become the most heavily trafficked Web sites in the Chinese language market. 65 . Sina would not be able to advertise on the Internet therefore not being able to generate revenue and not surviving as a company. The Internet is the way that Sina operates with its users. 18). The Internet is very essential for Sina to operate its business.” (Laudon. Both of the companies use the Internet to better serve their customers and potentially adding new customers in the long run as well.” (About Sina. These two companies help their customers find what information or products they are looking for in the comfort of their houses or offices. ASM used to be an Asian trade magazine that eventually installed software and offered an interactive catalogue of products and factories on CD-Rom and converted its catalogue to a Web site.” (18) as well as getting paid for listings by sellers and very soon to be buyers. “ Sina is known in China for providing firstrate. it also offers popular chat rooms. ASM helps to provide users online information on trade shows. 1).L14: Internet Advertisements The Internet can be very useful for companies to advertise and sell their products. Asia Source Media (ASM) “ … offers services via Internet for companies participating in global trade. search and free email throughout its four sites. Without the Internet these companies would not be able to operate their business and not serve their customers or gain potential new ones. Using email and the Web sites helps the buyers and sellers come together saving money on costly travel or telephone calls. online shopping platforms. product alerts and discounted prices from factories. The Internet saves the customers time and money by proving a fast way to retrieve what they are looking for. comprehensive. ASM earns its revenues by “ … accepting ads to be displayed on its Web site.” (Laudon. Consumers view products and then contact the sellers using email. up-to-the-minute news. community platforms. The whole make up of these two businesses relies wholly on the Internet to run them. Both of the companies generate all their revenues through use of the Internet. and Taiwanese.S. sellers can reach the majority of the consumers through the use of the Internet. Without the Internet the customers would have to search for products and information by going to these sellers to shop around or by sitting on the phone for hours calling these sellers for information. Sina is hoping to generate profits through charging subscription fees for access from users to their sites and to add electronic commerce and Internet telephone capabilities to its Web sites. If there were no Internet. Sina uses the Internet to link people all over to other Chinese language sites. The two companies Sina and ASM both rely on the Internet to run their companies receiving revenues through the Internet and reaching their audience. Since anyone can have access to the Internet. 18). Revenues are generated for Sina by advertising for companies on its Web site that is primarily for the U. financial information.

community platforms. 3. It generates all its revenues through use of the Internet 9. It uses the Internet to better serve its customers and potentially adding new customers in the long run as well. Which of the following information refers to Sina and which to ASIM and which to both? 1. it also offers popular chat rooms. It helps to provide users online information on trade shows. It is hoping to generate profits through charging subscription fees for access from users to their sites and to add electronic commerce and Internet telephone capabilities to its Web sites. B. It helps its customers find what information or products they are looking for in the comfort of their houses or offices. search and free email throughout its four sites.A. up-to-the-minute news. 12. 11. 4. financial information. It uses the Internet to link people all over to other Chinese language sites. 7. online shopping platforms. comprehensive. 8. It offers services via Internet for companies participating in global trade. 6. 2. It relies on the Internet to run its company receiving revenues through the Internet and reaching its audience. 10. The whole make up of this business relies wholly on the Internet to run it. It earns its revenues by accepting ads to be displayed on its Web site as well as getting paid for listings by sellers and very soon to be buyers. What do you think on internet advertisements? Could we do without them? Are there any disadvantages/risks that we should be aware of regarding these internet ads? 66 . 5. It is known in China for providing first-rate. It used to be an Asian trade magazine that eventually installed software and offered an interactive catalogue of products and factories on CD-Rom and converted its catalogue to a Web site. product alerts and discounted prices from factories.

Fill in the missing information: SUBJECT TEACHER Geology ……. with a mark. and 16…………are much more commonly used.…… keeps a record of each student’s 4………in order to have some basis for measuring his 5………. and social 22.……………… ……. a) accounting b) considering c) imagining d) wondering 2.……………… ……. Such letters report the student’s progress.students in the class who could speak Russian.……………… …….……………… graphologist IS THE STUDY OF ……. 21………….achievement.method of recording achievement was by 10….system at all.……………… …….……………… zoology …….……………… life ……. and for 15. activities.. that he only started learning it one year ago.……………… t…….………to the parents. 3.……………… e……. D.……………… …….……………… ……. ………..……………… entomologist agronomy …….……………… 2. C.with a tape recorder. We were the ………. a) alone b) one c) only d) single record supplies information for 6…………to parents. E.……………… ……. achievements average grade minimum perfect school adjustment colleges letter occasionally progress teacher admit common marking pass record attitude failure method percentage reports Grading Grading is a 1………used in schools to 2…………student achievements. Today the letters A. his English is excellent. Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage bellow. The mark A stands for exceptional achievement. Instead. or 11………….at home as she thought she would learn English more quickly that way. Choose the correct variant: 1. Priscilla asked for ………. For a long time.. Your pronunciation would improve if you……….……………… religion …….……………… ……. the most 9……….……………… ……. a) exercised b) practised c) repeated d) trained 4. each 19…………writes a detailed 20. Almost every 3.……………… ……. of 100 per cent representing 12..often use this piece of information to help determine whether they should 8………a student.……………… meteorologist e…….……………… b……. about 80 per cent.……………… botanist a…….. The 13 ………… mark for a 14... Universities and 7……..…….……….……………… words unborn babies ……. B.…………was usually 70 per cent .Vocabulary 1.………….……………… ancient ruins ……. and E or F means 17……… A few schools use no 18………….……………… …….………. 67 .

a) done b)got c)made d) performed 11.. language of most Spaniards. Vivian REVISED her paper carefully. a) give it up b) look it up c) make it up d) show it up 13. “Roget’s Thesaurus”.much the dictionary. The student is discourteous.classes regularly.. a) definite b) fluent c) liquid d) national 7. a) rusty b) scratchy c) sloppy d) stale 18. a) home b) mother c) native d) natural 10. a) arouse b) put out c) raise d) rise 14. a) differ b) distinguish c) separate d) solve 6. a) celebrated b) delighted c) enjoyed d) rejoiced 19. a) copied b) corrected c) retyped d) reviewed Spanish is the……. It is …….a) particular b) peculiar c) personal d) private 5. ………….your hand if you want to ask a my studying English privately? a) allow b) agree c) approve d) permit 9. They were most impressed by the overseas student whose English was ………… a) impeccable b) infallible c) irreproachable d) spotless 20.. 1. a) cords b) fibers c) strands d) threads 16. a) escalation b) improvement c) increase d) rise 12. a) by hook and by crook b) by leaps and bounds c) from time to time d) slow but sure 17. Would you ……. a collection of English words and phrases arranged by the ideas they express RATHER THAN in alphabetical order. The school’s exam results ………….that students will have doubled their vocabulary in three months.the headmaster. a) anticipated b) foreseen c) hope d) worry 4. he GRUMBLES no matter how you try to please him. a) complains b) giggles c)scolds d) sneers 2. in his English. Jonathan was surprised that Sonia’s English was so…………as she had never been to England. At the language school each student is assigned to his or her own……… a) director b) professor c) staff d) tutor 15. There has been a great ………. If you don’t know what that word means.Cyril’s understanding of the language is growing ………….. a) assist b) attend c) follow d) present 8. Learners of English as a foreign language often fail to …………between unfamiliar sounds in that language. They are learning English. Please ……. It’s fifteen years since Timothy worked in Holland and his Dutch is pretty ………. following the professor’s suggestions. Chose the best synonym. but they haven’t ……. a) as well as b) instead of c) restricted d) unless 68 . If you want to learn a new language you must …………. A role play session is particularly useful in bringing together different ………of teaching.

I tried to catch the waiter’s ………but he didn’t look my way. The dog trotted off to (berry/bury) its bone. a) illegal b) indecipherable c) outstanding d) sloppy 2. The student BROKE IN ON the conversation without waiting for the speaker to stop talking. 9. 11. Don’t bother to tell me how to get there-I’ll follow my ……….everyone. 9. a) interrupted b) regarded c) seized d) withdrew from 8. 12. Don't walk around outside in your (bare/bear)’ll have to play it by………… 2. 4. You can’t support both sides at once. a) pale b) red c) shaking d) wet 7. During the wedding someone started giggling and I couldn’t keep a straight … 6. 8. or ear.. Not everybody agreed that winning was the (be-all/bee-all) and end-all. My supply of confidence slowly DWINDLES as the day of the exam approaches. She’s such a snob. The teacher told the student that his paper was ILLEGIBLE. a) faint b) fall asleep c) sweat profusely d) yawn widely 9. 10. 6. 8. Choose the correct word between the homophones: 1. They pulled out of the deal at the last minute leaving us (hi/high) and dry. The speaker DEMONSTRATED his knowledge of the subject by his excellent lecture. 5. Anything you say to them goes in one ……….. 3. 3. When they said they’d got engaged I couldn’t believe my……….. She gave him a long (stair/stare) but didn't answer his question. They were so hungry they had to (steal/steel) in order to eat. The warmth of the lecture hall made the student DOZE. I have to go away for a while.she looks down her ……….4. as when a student of the guitar practises and memorizes different fingerings. The children's club (meats/meets) every Thursday afternoon. 6.don’t be so two-……….…………. Habits can be CONSCIOUSLY strengthened. He had an accident while he was driving a (higher/hire) car. They live in a remote farmhouse on the (Aisle/Isle) of Skye. can you keep an…….and out the other.. He knew the risks and went into it with his…………. Fill these gaps with a suitable form of face. a) corrected b) created c) repeated d) showed 10. 5. His face was FLUSHED because he had run all the way from the dorm so as ot to be late for the lecture. nose. If you admit to making such a serious mistake you may lose ………. I can’t tell you exactly what to do. eye. They normally see …………. 7. Pair/Pare/Pear) off any bits of skin that don't look very nice. 10. a) diminishes b) emerges c) grows d) revives 6. 1. a) conveniently b) deliberately c) lastingly d) robustly 5.but in this case they disagreed.on them for me? 4. 69 .

Mistzal.Bibliography .New Cambridge Advanced English.Jones. Teora. Leo. 2000 -internet resources 70 . 1994 .Test Your Vocabulary. Ed. Cambridge University Press. Mariusz .

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