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..................... 7 3. Bill Gates.............................................................................................................................. 12 4. The Impact Of Computers.................................................................................................... 17 5. Graphics & Multimedia........................................................................................................ 22 6. Types Of Computer Viruses................................................................................................. 26 7. The Current Nature Of Human Relations ............................................................................ 31 8. Programming........................................................................................................................ 36 9. Living With Computers........................................................................................................ 41 10. The New Visual Age: The Influence of Computer Graphics on Art and Society.............. 46 11. The Information Superhighway ......................................................................................... 51 12. E-Commerce....................................................................................................................... 56 13. Hacking .............................................................................................................................. 61 14. Internet Advertisements ..................................................................................................... 65 Bibliography............................................................................................................................. 70
L1: Technology and Efficiency The market for computer products is a multi-billion dollar business where one can find a perfect balance of technology and efficiency. The huge industrial market is lead by such names as IBM, Hewlett Packard, and Compaq. The steps that are taken to bring the computer from several small components to a desktop product are organization of the manufacturing facility, assembly of hardware, installation of software, and a test process. The production of a high quality product is important to computer buyers. Manufacturing factories produce approximately 14,000 systems weekly. Companies generally use 2 methods of computer assembly. One method involves complete unit assembly by one person, the other being group assembly where several people construct a single computer (the latter method is known as assembly line production). When assembling a computer, there are 8 to 10 major components installed including the processor speed chip, the motherboard, RAM (Random Access Memory), diskette drive, modem or network card, video card, hard drive, sound card, and CDROM. Before the components are placed into the computer, each part undergoes an extensive testing process called “quality control” . Quality control ensures that faulty systems are not shipped. As an initial step, prior to the assembly process, an inspection of the outer case to ensure that there are no scratches or defects. The brand name and indicator labels are put onto the computer case at this time. Next the motherboard is installed and prepared for the processor chip. The chip (which is often a Pentium chip) is attached to the motherboard along with the RAM component. Once the chip and RAM are installed, the internal speakers and sound card are placed into the case. The hard drive, disk drive and CD-ROM drive are attached to the computer chassis. All these components are then attached to the motherboard with cables so that they may communicate with each other. Power supply is then applied to the computer and other additional components such as the video card, and modem are added near a final stage of assembly. After all these components are installed to create the finished ‘PC’, the unit is thoroughly inspected to ensure that all the cables connections are in place and all other defects are fixed. Inspectors also ensure that cables are in appropriate places so that they do not touch components. The CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductorcircuitry for the memory and processor) is set up at this time. The top cover is placed onto the computer and it is shipped off for further testing. All companies differ in their testing of finished products. A common practice in most companies includes the 48-hour burn in period. After it, final diagnostic tests are completed to ensure all components are working well. If a computer is ordered with sound cards, speakers are attached to the unit and they also are tested. Mouse and keyboard components are tested manually by connecting a testing mouse and keyboard to the ports. The computer is then shipped from the manufacturing site to the distribution center. Here, additional tests are possible as computers are randomly checked and inspected. The computer is then further shipped to department or retail stores for sale to the consumer. In conclusion, the production of a computer from a number of components to a finished product is a complex procedure.(…) The usefulness of the computer and subsequent consumer demand for improved models will keep pressure on manufactures to build more efficient, high quality machines in future years.
A. Read the text above and find the synonyms for the following words(the words are in the same order as they appear in the text). 1. exquisite; 2. main; 3. to put into position; 4. to damage a surface; 5. wrong; 6. ending; 7. filled in; 8. buyer; 9. following; 10. bettered. B. Match the beginning of the sentences in the first column with their endings in the second one. a. the two methods of computer assembly 1. the video card, the modem are b. major components of a computer are 2. the 48-hour burn in period an initial step in quality control is 3. the complete unit assembly by one person, and the assembly line production c. additional components are 4. organization of the manufacturing facility, assembly of hardware, installation of software, and a test process 5. the processor speed chip, the d. a method of testing the finished products motherboard, RAM (Random Access is Memory), diskette drive, modem or network card, video card, hard drive, sound card, and CD-ROM. e. The steps that are taken to bring the 6. an inspection of the outer case to ensure computer from several small components that there are no scratches or defects to a desktop product are C. Are the following statements true or false? Correct any false statements and give reasons for your choice. 1. The internal speakers and sound card are placed into the case after the chip and RAM are installed. 2. Mouse and keyboard components are not tested manually. 3. The hard drive, disk drive and CD-ROM drive are attached to the computer keyboard. 4. CMOS is the short form for: complementary metal-oxide semiconductorcircuitry for the memory and processor 5. After all the components are installed to create the finished ‘PC’, the computer is shipped from the manufacturing site to the distribution center. D. What improvements are possible in the computer field? Write your own point of view in a 200 hundred word composition.
a cake. They ……….(not sleep) She………. The professor is speaking to the students about a new means of communication. The painter is in his studio.? (the singer/sing) 7. (learn) 3. Greg is complaining about his neighbours.. 5. hoping to find a treasure under this tree. lie) 12. 9. The students are talking about the conference. 10. Grandmother…………. 2. 3. 11. What song …………. The little boy ………. They………. Father is looking for his glasses all around the house.in the library? (Greg/ not study) 8. Brown is in the living room. All the family are at table. …………by bus? (you/ come) 10. 8. 1. ………television? (you/ not watching) 5. Example: The little boy is looking at a policeman. C. 3. 4.. We………about our integration in the European Community at this moment. a car. Mr. 7. Use the present tense continuous in your sentences. Who is the little boy looking at? What The students are listening to the professor’s explanations. Example: Mary is in the kitchen. The surgeon is in the surgery room. The students are in the language lab. 2. …………. Meg is in the computer lab.about that program. (not tell) 4. Listen ! Mary…………the piano. interrogative. . ( bake) 6. The children are in the park.the children a fairy tale. She………. 4 1. 5. The computer worker is in front of the computer. The opera singer is on the stage. 12.(play) 9. What………to say? (he/try) 11. Ask questions to the following. 1. Mr. (speak).Grammar A. Mike is in the garage. George is in the garden.. Smith is in his office. Put the verbs in brackets in the present tense continuous: positive. She is cooking dinner for everybody in the house. negative. Make comments on the sentences bellow..(dig) B. the TV set is on. (not. 6. 4. 2.to swim in this lake.
(so) 3.? E. Simpson is working in the garage and his son is.………? 9. They’re going to the meeting today. No man in this room is doing the right job.…………? 8. The Germans are discussing about the price of the building. Paul isn’t making mistakes and neither am I.(neither) 5. You aren’t buying sweets. Example: She’s working on a new project and so is his colleague.…. too. (neither) She’s not working on a new project and neither is her colleague. (neither) 7.…………. Tell what the people around you are doing. They are looking at the photos. White is taking care of the patient and so is the nurse.? 5. Mary is helping the builders and so is her mother.……. but all the women are.…………? 4. (either) 6. 2. They are boasting about their results. (but) 4. She’s feeling worse today and her sister is. Add tag questions to the following sentences: Example: You aren’t practising a new technique. They aren’t skating now.6. Mrs.……….. (either) 10. Your brother is studying French.? 6. (so) E.. (so) 11. too. Dr. The boys aren’t staying still and neither are the girls. Jimmy isn’t digging in the garden right now and neither is his sister. Diana is wearing a pair of new earrings today…….? 10. 5 . The tourists are taking some photos and so is the guide. 9. My cousin is studying for the exam.? 7.. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. 7. She is waiting for the professor.. Brown is carrying a suitcase and so is her husband. The new student is trying hard. using present tense continuous as much as possible. 8.. (but). I’m searching for some information on this site and she is. 1. He is complaining about the noise in the street. ……. He is looking for his gloves. He isn’t repairing the car today. Your friend is waiting for you.? 2. too. are you? 1. D. Imagine you are in a computer house. 9. (too) 8. (either) 12.………….? 3. 10. Bob isn’t drinking his coffee and Doris isn’t either. Mr. Make any necessary changes. (too).
be friendly • get on with. It’s impossible to get tickets for such a popular show without previous warningyou need to book no less than six months in advance. 5..have a good relationship with. When abroad. 3.The traffic is moving very (slow/slowly) ahead of us. 4.make contact. 4. but he can’t …….1.In some towns you don't feel (safe/safely) going out alone at night. They were speaking about different things but didn’t realize it. 8. Replace the phrases in italics with suitable expressions from the list bellow: at cross purposes at short notice at least at least at the expense at all times at random at the last moment at a glance at the last moment at any moment at any rate at a loss at a loss 1. The bank robbers managed to ………….his mother-in-law. It was a difficult problem and I was uncertain what to do. but cannot ……. The child was rescued a moment before it was too late. 10.rise from bed Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with get.Vocabulary 1.manage to finish • get together.I was (scarce/scarcely) able to move my leg after the accident.recover from • get through. 3. She was working much too hard causing harm to her health. George adores his wife. He’s dialled her number. 6. 1. She said you must……. What time did he…… this morning? 2. Phrasal verbs with get • get away. 4.with 75. We’re still trying to ………that tragedy.1. 6.again soon. 9.000 $. The show closed because it was running without making a profit.. 6. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1. I could tell by taking one quick look that there have been a mistake. 7.meet socially • get up. 2. 7. 2.. He took the car for a test drive to see how he…….She entered a (bright/brightly) lit room. The winners are selected without any plan by a computer. I’m sure that our friends will arrive very soon.. 2.Her apple pie always looks (good/well) and tastes delicious.escape • get on. 6 .anyway I hope so. She was delighted to meet you.continue with • get over. 3. 2.The (easiest/easily) thing is for us to take the plane home.1. 5.make progress. 7. 5. 2. 2.. 3. it’s advisable to carry your passport constantly.There was a (fresh/freshly) fall of snow during the day.
Allowing a more fuzzy input to be used in the neural network instead of being passed up will greatly decrease the learning time of such a network. The ability of the computer to analyze variables provides a great advantage to these fields. Chaologists are experimenting with Wall Street where they are hardly receiving a warm welcome. The inherent vagueness in everyday life motivates fuzzy logic systems. This new system is a now a neural network with the ability to learn using fuzzy logic instead of hard concrete facts. Fuzzy logic's structure allows it to easily rate any input and decide upon the importance. AI is achieved using a number of different methods. that makes AI systems expensive. knowledge based systems. Created by Lotfi Zadeh almost thirty years ago. The more popular implementations comprise neural networks. Success was minimal because of the lack of computer technology needed to calculate such large equations. There are many ways that AI can be used to solve a problem. On the one hand. In order to tell that AI is present we must be able to measure the intelligence being used. The generally accepted theory is that computers do and will think more in the future. neural networks require massive amounts of computing resources that restrict their use to those who can afford it. nice. fuzzy logic lends itself to multiple operations at once. Unfortunately. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1956 by a group of scientists having their first meeting on the topic. this type of system can distinguish the shades in-between. Using any one of the aforementioned design structures requires a specialized computer system. Almost any scientific. chaos engineering has already proven itself and will be present for the foreseeable future. fuzzy logic is practically a win-win situation. fuzzy logic is a mathematical system that deals with imprecise descriptions. Fuzzy logic's ability to do multiple operations allows it to be integrated into neural networks. The chaos theory is the cutting-edge mathematical discipline aimed at making sense of the ineffable and finding order among seemingly random events. Two very powerful intelligent structures make for an extremely useful product. these systems perform their duties quickly and accurately without expensive equipment. Early attempts at AI were neural networks modelled after the ones in the human brain. It is surprising what a computer can do with that intelligence once it has been put to work. The chaos theory has potential for 7 . business. fuzzy logic. Many new AI systems now give a special edge that is needed to beat the competition. Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. Although some are rather simple. Moreover. Virtually all of these methods require special hardware and software to use them. For a relative scale of reference. and expert systems.L2: Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself. or large This concept was also inspired from biological roots. Nevertheless. such as new. This integration takes the pros of fuzzy logic and neural networks and eliminates the cons of both systems. or financial profession can benefit greatly from AI. In contrast to the usual yes and no answers. On the other hand. However. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer architecture. there is something that can be said about this. chaos engineering. Making recommendations on which AI systems work the best almost requires AI itself. They can easily replace many mundane tasks that other computer systems would have trouble with. Another promising arena of AI is chaos engineering. large supercomputers can only create a brain the size of a fly.
and cased-based reasoning systems provide an inefficient. 4. The chaos theory is aimed at making sense of the ineffable and at finding order among seemingly random events. 6. 6. capacity. b. computing and philosophy to deal with statements which are neither true nor false. unhappily. the better ones have taken over with great success. 11. knowledge based systems. This gives it the ability to be a huge success in the financial world. before mentioned. the lowest. A. Fuzzy logic can easily replace many mundane tasks that other computer systems would have trouble with. but the technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. The technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. The fuzzy "logic is a theoretical system used in mathematics. Neural networks can be afforded by anyone. The words are in the same order as those that appear in the text. Computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. 5. While the massive surge into the information age has ushered some old practices out of style. dear. 9. Write your point of view on the following two issues. 1. 5.handling an infinite amount of variables. 7. Are the following statements true or false? Correct any false statements and give reasons for your choice. difficult to use program. 8. 12. finally. 8 . necessary. 4. 3. While the expert systems. C. Use about 300 words to sustain it. 2. The rate of advancement may seem fast to the average person. they are can be easily updated and modernized. The chaos theory can’t be of a huge success in the financial world. mainly. Designed correctly. knowledge-based systems. 2. 8. AI is achieved by using design structures like: neural networks. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1965 by a group of scientists 3. 1. and cased-based reasoning systems are here to stay for a long time. They provide an efficient. chaos engineering. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer cased-based reasoning systems. 10. Read the text and find the synonyms for the following. fuzzy logic. actually B. unnatural. disorder. obtained. easy to use program that yields results that no one can argue with. a. 9. 7. knowledge-based systems. The expert systems. and expert systems.
Two candles are burning on the mantelpiece.teachers) 6. Example: How do you get to college? I always go to college by trolleybus. A door is opening to the left. open the gate). The restaurant doesn’t open until 9 o’clock …(neither –the snack bar) 2. open) Mary is sitting at her desk. Where do you spend your weekend?(RARELY) 9. put off the candles). Answer the following questions using the present tense simple to express habitual actions. Complete the following statements according to the indications in the brackets: Example: He doesn’t collaborate with others…(she-either) He doesn’t collaborate with others and she doesn’t either. Someone is approaching the house. run to the gate. Do you help your parents with the housework.( A tall man/come in. (OFTEN) 11. greet everybody. The pink coat belongs to me….(bell/ring. Do you work late at night? (GENERALLY) 5. go back home) C. catch a bus. Add the adverb in brackets to your answers. (Paul/put on his raincoat. Who do you study with? (OFTEN) 7.(so. (Mary/see a flower. 6. Jill doesn’t read French…( her classmates. What kind of books do you read? (OCCASIONALLY) 6. (Jane/hurry down the stairs. sit down) 5. 1. Example: Mary is sitting at her desk. What time do you go to college? (USUALLY) 2. Do you sleep in the afternoon? (NEVER) 8.the vacuumcleaner) 9 . Which piece of music do you enjoy listening to? (SELDOM) 3. Lawyers talk a lot in their work…(so. 1. The washing –machine doesn’t need to be repaired…(neither. (conductor/come. pick) 2. George is walking in the park with his daughter Mary.either) 4. bend. Where do you go during your winter holiday? (SELDOM) 10. go. When do you go to the theatre? (SOMETIMES) 4.the pink scarf) 5.grammar exercises) 3. bow to the audience. The bell rings. start conducting) 3. 1.Grammar A. The musicians are tuning up their violins. Where do you meet your friends? (FREQUENTLY) B. She goes to the door and opens it. The language lab helps them to improve their English…( so. Make sentences of your own to express chains of short actions. The Herestrau Park looks beautiful in spring…( the Village Museum.too) 7. It is raining. 4. (The old lady/come in. go to the fire place.the other students) 8. They often go on trips in the mountains…( but.
Make any other necessary changes.….…? 4.. Join the following sentences using the connectors in brackets. She’ll send her mother a postcard. Her neighbours often understand to show their gratitude in this way. Perhaps I’ll see John tonight. (before) 8. Maybe it will snow tomorrow. I’ll think about the problem you’ve told me about. They’ll buy some food. I don’t like this man…(but. Greg will soon recover.? 9.) and after conditional ones ( if. doesn’t it? 1.? E. (as soon as ) 7. 6. (provided) 9. (before) 3.…? 3. (if) 5.…? 8.. She’ll send her a letter. The clock will strike nine. Use the present tense simple after time connectors ( when. Our friends attend school regularly…( we-too) D. Example: The last train leaves at midnight. 10 . Perhaps Tim will miss the bus. The department opens at 9 a. He understands the new concept. They sometimes do a good job.they) 10. He will be in the mood.…. as soon as. Example: He will play that game with you. 1. Then I’ll tell him about the meeting. (in case) F.9. etc.m. They like nothing that is on the list.…? 6. Imagine you are a businessman.m.. Susan and Meg always help their parents. (in case) 2.? 10. (when) 10. in case. Nobody likes listening to this nonsense. She expresses her point of view quite abruptly.. I’ll read the book. Then we’ll go to the skating rink. We’ll get home then. You will go to bed.).. This complain changes nothing in our relation. I’ll have some time.….? 2.. (after). He will go swimming again.…? 7. etc. They’ll go to the market.…? 5. The film doesn’t begin at 3 p. It will get dark. Talk about your daily program. (as soon as) 4. Complete these sentences using tag-questions. Then I’ll see the film. before. about the activities that you usually/ sometimes/ often/ seldom/ never do.(when) He will play that game with you when he is in the mood. Then he’ll be late for the conference.
Students who do well in their exams at secondary school can go on to university or college.repeat • go up. He told me desperately that prices…….become lower •go in. 1. 2.Vocabulary 1. 5.. Replace the phrases in italics with suitable expressions from the list bellow: at high tide hi-fi high and low high season high-tech high-rise highbrow higher education highlight highlights in high spirits it’s high time high school high street middle class middle-aged middlebrow at low tide feeling low lowbrow low-rise 1. 4.return • go down. 15. 3.1. I’ve got a bad cold and my work is getting me down. 50 or older? 13.. Everyone was feeling elated before the weekend. They’ll……. 11 . 5.again.1. 6.you should do it now.rehearse. 7. 2. He has searched everywhere for his glasses.. 7. It’s much colder now. 11. 6. Please. 14. Do you think a person is no longer young when they are 40. Operas and chamber music are often considered to be intellectually superior.that’s why I’m depressed. He asked her to……through that door. Good quality audio equipment is on sale in every main shopping street. 12. 2.enter • go on. 10. Would you like to live in a tall multi-storey building.. not the whole thing. it’s not only professional and business people who own their own homes. Passangers and vehicles will be carried on ultra-modern shuttle trains.last night.leave.or do you think two or three storey buildings are more pleasant for people to live in? 8. This CD contains the best parts of the show. 2. Who wouldn’t like that problem to…….continue • go over. use a yellow pen to make them stand out. Phrasal verbs with go • go away.or at least not so very artistic. ……. 3. reading the paragraph. 4. In Britain. There’s less room for holiday makers on the beach when the sea comes up high than when it goes out. while shows like musicals are sometimes described as uncultured. Delays at the airport may be terrible in the main holiday period. 9.increase in number or amount Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with go. If you come across useful new words in a text. Don’t put off doing this work any longer.cease • go back. The temperature ….the instructions as soon as you ask them to. His neighbour decided to…… because it started to rain. 2.
L3: Bill Gates In the beginning Gates' was mainly concerned and involved with technical development of new products in order to attract consumers. Sometimes productivity is maximized by providing everybody his or her own office and other times by moving everybody into open space. In order for Microsoft to continue on its fruitful path the development of intelligent decision makers. instead of trying to be in a hundred place at once. This is true for both a manager and an employee. This is a particular challenge because it requires different approaches depending on the environment. People will accept a bottom-up deadline they helped set. Transfer your skills to them. By choosing a field one enjoys. A manager should never have to second-guess himself or herself. Let people know whom to please. 7. 10. project schedules must be set those who actually do the work. It should be made clear there's plenty of good will to go around and that there is not just one hotshot manager getting all the credit. To be a good manager. If an individual doesn't genuinely enjoy interacting with people it will be hard to manage well. Here are Bill's ten qualities of a good employee: 1. because a mediocre team provides mediocre results. 4. whether it’s the 12 . Explain to employees the importance of their work to the company and customers. more cost effective and more enjoyable for people to use computers. Create a productive environment. no matter how well it is managed. Unachievable goals undermine an organization. This is done by providing employees with a clear definition of success and how they should measure their achievements. Take on projects yourself. A strong team is vital. This is an exciting goal. Managers should have the confidence in their well thought out decision in order to not leave any avenues open for rediscussion. but it can be threatening to a manger that is worried about training his replacement. Define success. For example. Goals must be realistic. 3. Hire carefully and be willing to fire. He has even published articles that reveal his expectations and qualities he attempts to instil into Microsoft managers. This quality is generally impossible to fake. Giving people a sense of importance increases motivation to complete the task to the best of their ability and provides the feeling of satisfaction after completion. Nobody wants to work for a boss who just delegates tasks. It is important for a manager from time to time to take on less attractive task to provide examples of how his or her employees should meet challenges. Gates' attempts to train well oiled managers. Many managers like to see their employees increase their responsibility because it frees them up to tackle new or undone tasks. 8. Microsoft's mission is to continually advance and improve software technology and to make it easier. it makes it easier to generate enthusiasm towards one's work. Since Microsoft controls the largest percentage of the market than any of its competitors Gates puts more focus on the organization itself and its employees. Build morale. must be trained. 2. Sometimes financial incentives stimulates productivity and motivation. It should be made clear whom employees have to please. you have to like people and be good at communicating. 5. Gates' realizes the importance of every single individual. Managers need to do more than communicate. Choose a field thoughtfully. 6. He also knows he cannot be at the table to make ever single day-to-day decision. Develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. Don't make the same decision twice. but maybe overwhelmed by a schedule imposed from upper management that doesn't map reality. Usually a mixture of approaches is necessary to reach desired productivity. 9. otherwise known as managers.
avoiding mediocrities. To transfer your skills to your people. A. To let people know whom to please. To build morale. To hire carefully and be willing to fire. especially customers. means It should be made clear whom employees have to please Managers should. The beauty of Gates' tips is they are pretty much common sense. B. To create a productive environment. To develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. To give people a sense of importance of their work. Making processes clear and simple always seems to accomplish the goals was set out to. To like people and be good at communicating. the manager’s boss or someone else higher up. To increase their motivation to complete the task to the best of their ability.manager. To be a good manager. To choose a field one enjoys. it doesn't take a rocket scientist to incorporate these aspects into his or her employee. Which of these Bill Gates’ ”rules” do you consider to be the most important? Why? Could you add more rules to his? 13 . There is a risk of paralysis when employees start to question whom they are supposed to make happy. To take on projects yourself. Managers should not leave any avenues open for rediscussion. To provide everybody according to one’s own motivation. Gates' believes in talking with employees and customers rather than talking at them. In Bill Gates’ opinion. Not to make the same decision twice. can understand and allow them to provide feedback that is taken into consideration allows Gates' to build a lasting and trusting relationship with employees and customers. By conducting conversations individuals. To define success. To choose the personnel with care. from time to time. take on less attractive task to provide examples of how his or her employees should meet challenges. To provide employees with a clear definition of success and how they should measure their achievements.
Este prima oară în iarna asta când ninge aşa de mult că pare că nu se mai opreşte.he…. 3. Translate into English: 1. 30. Hey! You ………. Meg ……. He never (seem) to understand what (happen) in his very house.. 25. 14..(usually.(make) her clothes herself. 33. …. 7. We……(get) a lot of snow in the mountains in winter. Not everybody …. 22.. 9. 12.m. 28.(know) what she….(always. 10.(belong) to you? 5. You………….(not interrupt) people when they…….(talk) over the telephone.…(like) autumn..(smell) good. 11.. John …………..they …….. 24. 17..this pair of scissors ………... 16.(forever boast) of what he has done..(go) to the circus this evening.feel better today or is it necessary to call for a doctor? 29.. ….(usually. I can’t go away.(wait)for me.. 4.(fly) from Bucharest to Sibiu tomorrow. 2. 8. Am foarte mult de lucru în perioada asta. Now that the flowers ……. The officer (see) him and (catch) him in a matter of seconds.. Put the verbs in the brackets in the present tense continuous or simple. 20. What time……..(admit) we………. They…….(bloom). speak) on the phone? 6.” 32.(see) the manager at the beginning of the week..(seem) to be in better shape now? 26.(move) freely in two directions. 21.(resemble) your mother very much. 14 . Promit însă să trec pe la tine de îndată ce mă voi elibera. sign) the papers at the end or at the beginning of the meeting? 27. 18... I must go. Now I ………(hope)our team will win the match. Don’t disturb her. With the dress you. but they usually (tell) me nice things. They (criticize) me know. 2. Wells) B. 23. 13.Grammar A. beat) me at chess.. ……. 19. 15.(drink) from my glass. The park……… (look)beautiful in autumn. 31. “What on earth ……you……(do) there?” “I………(try) to find the key to the door... she ……. I………. “I……. I…….G. the garden……. ……they ……. I ………(have) an appointment with my dentist at 5 p. they (play) baseball with the neighbors’ children. I……. They (not jump) over the fence now.(not approve) of your behaviour. He always (ask) me what I’ll do if I (be) the president of this committee. I…….(go) out to get the evening paper. All the students in the group ….. my friends………….(feed) the baby.…(mean). Ştiu că eşti priceput la toate! De ce eşti aşa de neîndemânatec astăzi3. 1.you….” (H. He………. But how about up and down? Gravitation………(limit) us there.…(read) English well. He …. …….(wear) you…….
Uneori Dunărea îngheaţă în luna ianuarie. 15. Nici el şi nici colegul lui nu par a fi prea interesaţi să-şi pună întrebări existenţiale. secţia chineză. punându-mă într-o situaţie stânjenitoare. 22. îţi răspunde: -Am trei ani. luând viaţa în uşor. Astăzi e hotărâtă să poarte o rochie verde cu dungi. iar Maria urmează cursurile Facultăţii de Litere.Te caută cineva la telefon. Bunica uită de fiecare dată unde îşi pune ochelarii şi ori de câte ori are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa. E prima oară când mănânc clătite cu spanac şi nu e rău deloc şi mi se pare doar că are un gust ciudat. Îi reproşează mereu că depăşeşte viteza şi că îi pune viaţa în pericol. aşa că hai şi noi să mergem să-i ajutăm. 17. 24. Nu-i aşa că vezi şi tu că omul de pe trotuarul vecin ne urmăreşte pas cu pas? 21. şi mai ales acum. cât şi cei ai lor semnează acum un tratat de neagresiune. Uită-te! Ninge cu fulgi mari! 15 . – Astăzi nu sunt acasă pentru nimeni. ochii albaştri şi îi plac foarte mult dulciurile şi ursuleţii. 18. 23. nici eu şi nici sora mea. Nu-i aşa că nu ştii noutăţile? George studiază Informatica la Iaşi. Repară maşina de cusut acesteia. Când ia banii se duce la cumpărături şi se întoarce acasă cu o mulţime de fleacuri. 7. Directorul este foarte ocupat acum. Mă întreabă mereu care este scopul meu în viaţă.Astăzi nu mergem. . Dan e în camera mătuşii lui. Nu se îndoieşte că cel care are dreptate în acest moment este el şi nimeni altcineva. . În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Bucureştiului. 9. 12.Vrea vreo unul dintre voi să meargă cu noi la bazinul de înot. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa teatrului de comedie. Vorbeşte şi acum la telefon?! Dar este îngrozitor! Toată ziua ţine telefonul ocupat! 19. când îmi beau cafeaua. 5. pentru că o ajutăm pe mama să termine curăţenia de toamnă. 13. 6. 20. Vin dinspre moară acum şi sunt foarte încărcaţi. De data asta rămânem însă acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri.4. Băieţelul cel mai mic al vecinii mele are trei ani. Totdeauna se întâmplă acelaşi lucru. 25. Părul blond. Tu ce crezi? 14. Studiază Proiectul pentru o nouă aripă a fabricii. 11. Atât reprezentanţii noştri. şi când îl întrebi cum îl cheamă. 16. 8. 10.
they aren’t allowed to practise in the house and they have to play…………! 2.… 4. She’s going to……wildlife leaflets outside the main entrance.Vocabulary 1..these library books by Tuesday. contact control danger debt doors focus hospital love luck pain prison season stock touch tune fashion practice work 1. Sorry. 4. We used to keep …….. Strawberries are ……….of the aircraft. We didn't expect such a (large/largely) number of people to attend our concert. The kids loved the fair. 8. Although she’s still………considerable………. We are strong enough not to ………so easily. 7.because people will go on falling ………… 3.. 6. Now he’s ………. The pop star decided to……the proceeds of her last concert to charity. She must ……. he can’t afford to pay his mortgage. Fill in the gapes with the suitable phrases from the list bellow: In ……or out of…. 5. Phrasal verbs with give • Give away..stop doing something Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with give. 16 . 3. 3. 2.let’s hope he doesn’t end up………….I used to do a lot of photography but now I’m ………… 5.ever since. it’s not a good photo because it’s ……. smoking years ago.. The passengers knew they were…great ………when the pilot announced he was no longer ………. 2.. Do the police know the (exact/exactly) circumstances of her death? 5.this month but the shop hasn’t got them ………. She was (strange/strangely) calm – that was something I couldn’t understand. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1.. 3. 6. she’s………. My father….return • Give in -surrender • Give out -distribute • Give up. He really is …………: he lost his job last year and he’s been ………. He (cool/coolly) placed the money on the table and walked out.donate • Give back. The world's financial markets are ever more (close/closely) linked. but they enjoyed the bumper cars (most/mostly) of all. 4. The twins are learning the violin but as they always play…………. 2. He had a (sudden/suddenly) heart attack while he was on holiday. 1.! 8. Love letters will never be …….regularly but I’ve lost her address and so now we are . Don't fill your glass too (full/fully) or you'll only spill it. 7.and back home.
Computer integrated manufacturing is a relatively new technology arising from the application of many computer science subdisciplines to support the manufacturing enterprise. The terminal may require that the clerk type in the code for the item. In a less extensively automated arrangement. Computers are involved (CAD systems) not only in the design of cars but also in the manufacturing and testing process. The checkout process is faster. a device that directly reads into the computer the UPC printed on each package. The downside of this technology is the potential for security problems. A major role of computer science has been to alleviate such problems. Word processors-computer software packages that simplify the creational and modification of documents-have largely replaced the typewriter. including a certain amount of culture shock as individuals attempt to deal with the new technology. and the purchase information is also relayed back to the computer to cause and immediate adjustment in the inventory data. mainly by making computer systems cheaper. The inventory system can easily alert the manager when the supply of some item drops below a specified threshold. printers. All but the smallest shops have replaced the old-fashioned cash register with a terminal linked to a computer system. more reliable. the manager can send in the order electronically by a dial-up link to the supplier’s computer. Computers are forever present in the workplace. they have not been without cost in terms of purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and of training workers to use the new technology. The telephone system now is just a multilevel computer network with software switches in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past. database system. In the case of retail chains linked by networks. The technology of CIM emphasizes that all aspects of manufacturing should be not only computerized as much as possible but also linked together via a computer communication network into an integrated whole. Cash-register receipts can then include brief descriptions of the items purchased. Today’s automobiles themselves 17 . An eventual goal of office automation has been termed the “paperless office. checkout lines shorter. for as has happened. In short. CIM has the potential to enable manufacturers to build cheaper. Intruders can see packets traveling on a network and can perhaps interpret them to obtain confidential information. perhaps making use of CIM technology. and the desired item are more likely to be in stock. the order for a new supply of an item may be automatically generated and sent electronically to the supply warehouse. Computer technology has been incorporated into automobiles. higher-quality products and thus improve their competitiveness. Computer technology has had a significant impact on retail stores. faster. Making a telephone call no longer should conjure up visions of operators connecting cables by hand or even of electrical signals causing relays to click into place and effect connections during dialing. A disadvantage is the potential for dramatic and widespread failures. Office automation has become the term for linking workstations. easier to use.L4:The Impact Of Computers THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERS Computer technology not only has solved problems but also has created some. These developments have made shopping much more convenient. Electronic mail has made it easy to send messages worldwide via computer communication networks. but more and more frequently the checkout counter include a bar-code scanner. and other tools by means of a local-area network.” Although such changes ultimately make office work much more efficient.
include numerous computer chips that analyze sensor data and alert the driver to actual and potential malfunctions. Although increased reliability has been achieved by implementing such computerization, a drawback is that only automotive repair shops with a large investment in high-tech interfaces and diagnostic tools for these computerized systems can handle any but the simplest repairs.
A. Find in the text the opposites for the following: 1. more expensive; 2. slowlier;3. less reliable; 4. more difficult; 5. separated; 6. slowly; 7.unreliably; 8. upside; 9. insecurity; 10. important; 11. long; 12. manually; 13.less convenient B. Correct the following statements, whenever necessary: Word processors-computer software packages make it easy to send messages worldwide via computer communication networks. Electronic mail eventual goal has been termed the “paperless office.” Office automation simplifies the creational and modification of documents. Computers technology has not been without cost in terms of purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and of training workers to use the new technology. The telephone system now are involved not only in the design of cars but also in the manufacturing and testing process, perhaps making use of CIM technology. The checkout counter includes a bar-code scanner, a device that directly reads into the computer the UPC printed on each package and software switches. Computers are involved (CAD systems) in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past.
A. Make sentences according to the model: Model: Peter: dog for a walk He was taking his dog for a walk at this time yesterday. 1. Mary: at the baker’s 6. Jane: in the swimming-pool 2. Billy : to the cinema 7. Harry: in the park 3. Dan: at the box-office 8. Jannet: a football match 4. Roger: in the library 9. George: to the radio 5. Jenny: into the letter-box 10. Alice: home B. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. Make any necessary changes. Example: She was practising the violin and so was his colleague. (neither) She wasn’t practising the violin and neither was her colleague. 1. The spokesman was supporting his idea brilliantly and so was Fred.(too) 2. They weren’t taking part in that competition and neither were their friends. (so) 3. The police officer was listening carefully to the criminal and Brian was, too.(but) 4. No stranger was trying to break in the conversation and neither was Greg. (either) 5. Their neighbours were leaving on that day and she was, too. (neither) 6. She was working ceaselessly on that project and so were we. (but) 7. The guests were talking silently and so were the kids. (either) 8. The Japanese weren’t having lunch and the Finish weren’t, either. (so) 9. The carpenters were mending the house and Brian was, too.( either) 10. All the aliens were taking photos and so were the Japanese. (too) C. Add tag questions to the following sentences: Example: You weren’ t practising the drums, were you? 1. They weren’t calculating the distance between the Sun and the Moon,…………..? 2. She was making a strange noise,………….? 3. They were doing absolutely nothing dangerous,……………? 4. The students were thinking what question to ask the speaker,……………? 5. The gifted child was practising the guitar at that moment,……….? 6. They weren’t trying very hard,…………….? 7. She was quoting nobody,……………? 8. The entire court were keeping silent,…………? 9. The elves weren’t walking tiptoed through the room,…….? 10. The speaker was shouting at the audience,………….?
D. What were they doing when the explosion took place? 1. The policeman………………… 2. The firemen…………………… 19
3. My neighbours………………… 4. The science man………………. 5. The animals in the cage……….. What were they doing while the train was getting into the station? 1. The conductor………………….. 2. The person next to me…………. 3. My baby boy…………………… 4. A lady in black…………………. 5. The bartender…………………… E. Make sentences using past tense continuous. John- dust the furniture Example: Sandra –wash up While/When Sandra was washing up, John was dusting the furniture Sandra 1. wash the clothes 2. cook some food 3. iron the clothes 4. sort the clothes 5. count the money 6. phone friends John clean the rooms make the beds polish the shoes tidy the flat pack the suitcases look for their train tickets
F. Ask questions so that the words in italics should be the answer. Model: They were taking part in the contest at that very moment. When were they taking part in the contest?
1. They were speaking on the phone at that late hour. 2. The guardian was listening to the noises upstairs. 3. Nobody was paying attention to the chairman. 4. The students weren’t taking notes. 5. Somebody was ringing at the door late at night. 6. The newcomers were listening to the boss when, out of the blue, he stormed in. 7. The writer was typing a paragraph when he heard the telephone ringing. 8. The greengrocer was selling some cabbages right then. 9. We were waiting for a change in his attitude. 10. Everybody was pointing at him in rage.
1. Fill in the gaps with suitable phrases from the list bellow: In…addition to brief cash the circumstances comparison with detail difficulty doubt fun pencil person private public return tears view of a whisper 20 ink trouble
He decided to ……. The police…….expect with pleasure • look into.but not they were………such serious……… 9. Writing an important letter is easier if you first write a rough copy …………before you write the final version ………. 2.a number of thefts at our college.. We knew the firm was ……….(de/dis/im/un)possible: (of a situation) which is extremely difficult and there does not seem to be a solution 4-(counter/dis/mal/un)incentive: something that discourages people from doing something or working hard 21 .about what to write.the size of your order we are prepared to offer a special discount of 10%………. keep watch • look up. by credit card or ……….1. 7. 1. If you are…………….the word in the dictionary. She did me favour and then asked what I’d do for he………At first I thought she meant……. 3..my things for me while I go get a ticket? 5..it may be better to tell him off………… 5. 7. “Poor Julie was….but then I realized she was serious. 4.. ……………business letters.the Maths test.the usual trade discount.. Could you …. personal letters are relatively easy to write. he told me………. 8.be careful.(anti/counter/mal/mis) -aircraft: intended to destroy or defend against enemy aircraft 2. It’s no wonder why she doesn’t …….. The book gave some information…………great………. I think he’ll be upset and you shouldn’t embarrass him …………..these interesting stamps. Orders may be placed by phone.take care of • look at. 3.You can pay by check.or type it.but unfortunately the figures I needed were only given ……… 10. Choose the correct affix: 1. it’s best to make notes beforehand.find (information in a book) Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with look. 6. Come ……. Phrasal verbs with look • look after.so…………. 3.try to find • look forward to.(anti/in/mis/non)spell: to fail to spell (a word) correctly 3. …………. When she read the letter”. 4. by post or……. 2.turn the eyes to see something • look for.investigate • look out. ………!There is a car coming! 2. Can you help us? We’re …… some striped pants. 6.
For work. Spreadsheet programs support graphics because they let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. sound. newsgroups. educate. For example. I can also perform research on the web and without multimedia and graphics I don't think that would be possible for me to do and it would probably take me more time and effort to research it in the library rather than from my computer. Multimedia can help to gain and hold attention. digital slides. With the advent of the computer and other electronic devices. mailing lists. digital word processors. laser printers and plotters are graphics devices because they permit computer to output pictures. Software like word processors support graphics because they let you draw or import pictures. case studies. and convince you and/or your audience. giving me deeper understanding of the subject matter. mailing lists. graphics software pertains to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of displaying and manipulating pictures. Such applications are often referred to as business graphics. Spreadsheet programs are graphics devices because they permit computer to output pictures. MUDS and more. graphic art. which I wouldn't have been able to do without multimedia and graphics. Through PowerPoint one can make they let you draw or import pictures. it can be a very effective tool to communicate. Multimedia has many definitions depending upon whom you ask. animation. make points clearer. Multimedia and graphics as learning can be used to experience a subject from materials many angles Multimedia is now being used in a number a presentation by means of charts and of ways in the classroom including graphs B. Laser printers and plotters. In conclusion I feel that multimedia and graphics is the way to go. It will also allow me to experience a subject from many angles. A standard definition follows: Multimedia is any combination of text.L5: Graphics & Multimedia What is graphics and multimedia? First of all. and video delivered to you by computer or other electronic means. As a student I can be able to use multimedia and graphics as learning materials like learning interactively with software's made for a certain subject. I think multimedia and graphics will be very useful for me when I make presentations through PowerPoint or when I make a report and I want to present it with charts and graphs. This is one person’s opinion on multimedia and graphics. Tell yours in a 200 word composition. spreadsheet programs videos. stimulate discussion. digital videos. MOOS. enhance the learning process. multimedia is now being used a number of ways in the classroom including PowerPoint lectures. digital slides. Software like word processors are applications often referred to as business graphics. being a business major. 22 . Match the two columns: Laser printers and plotters let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. and in general. MOOS. software like PowerPoint lectures. newsgroups. A. MUDS and more. compel. Using various forms of multimedia and graphics in the classroom also helps to keep my interest level high when it comes to learning. if it also includes the appropriate human elements. case studies.
When did mother find the sugar bowl? (she-open the cupboard) 23 . (help) John ………….breakfast in a hurry.up and……her his seat.English last year..very tired all day on that day. didn’t he? 2. didn’t he? 3. didn’t they? 8. (carry) You ………. did they? 5. (live) The Scotts………. (rain) 5. (put) Jim ………. ……. didn’t she? Miss Smith taught English last year..those heavy bags. He……up at last…. (feed).up late this morning . (have). didn’t he? 10.(get).(get). to set his clock last night so he……. (get) 9.Grammar A. He …….dinner himself and then………for twelve hours! (go). The wind ………all day yesterday and it also ….. When he ……back home he………the cat. (strike) 11.to ring her up. did you? 4.. (sleep). So nobody ……complain.(hold) 7. did he? C. (ride). When did you get up? (the clock-strike six). (stand). (offer) 10. He…. (forget). but yesterday he couldn’t because of the wind and rain so he ……. did you? You didn’t forget to ring her up. His wife……….out those old papers. (take) Mr. (sit) 8. (take) 6.(blow). did you? 1.(can) 12. (get) 4.his son to the game.his temper.(feel) 13.him in order to wake up. 1. (wear) Mary …. Answer the following questions using the past simple.. Example: When did you see him? (he-come in) I saw him when he came in.. In the bus he ……down on an empty seat..(shake) 3..you. didn’t she? (forget) You……………. did you? 9. didn’t she? 7. 1... (throw) They………. Alan yesterday..his bike to his office last week. He ………his umbrella tightly in his way to the bus stop. B. When did your cousin come from his office? (he –get your message) 2.(arrive).eight.the dishes away... But he ……. When did the children go out to play? (they-finish their work) 3. didn’t he? 6. He. (wake) 2.. He……. Then an old lady………on the bus. (meet) You………….in London for quite a long time.a beautiful dress at the party. Smith…….. (lose) Dr Brown never……. (explain)The teacher ……it to us very clearly.bus. Example: (teach) Miss Smith ……. 4.dressed and then…….at the office exactly when the clock ….……. Fill in the blanks with the past tense of the verbs in the brackets. Complete the following tag-questions with the correct form of the verb in the margin.
Nobody really wanted to go with that fellow in the mountains. 1. 24 .? 3. She created a new web-site but we didn’t. 2. 4. 5.……………? 8. 6.………. 9. She expected for nothing. Make any necessary changes.”.explain for several times) D.……. (too) They complained about the conditions in the hotel and we did . (neither) They said they couldn’t listen to the story because of the noise and so did George.(but) 10. too.(but) They seemed to understand each other and so did my parents. (either) My cousin didn’t show up at the party and neither did Greg.(neither) She didn’t allow us to enter that room and his mother didn’t either.(but) They created a new style in fashion and so did the Stuarts. When did the game start?(the referee –blow his whistle) 8. When did Meg wash up? (she. (too) We wondered who those persons were and my friends did.m. Use the past tense as much as possible.(so) D. Greg and his girl-friend spent their time playing lego. They expected him to change his mind. (neither) She didn’t practise the violin and neither did her colleague.break) 10. (the witness. He considered that he could use your money for his benefit..………? 4. He took the plane to the nearest island and so did his friends. We hadn’t anything to say against him.………. (either) They actually asked for nothing but we did.5.………? 6. Complete these sentences using tag-questions. They offered him nothing in return. 8. Example: The last bus left at 8 p.? E. When did she stop writing? (pencil. didn’t it? 1... When did they understand the situation. 7. Write a two hundred word story that starts like this: “We heard a strange noise in the lab….……………? 9.? 10. She and her husband didn’t take part in the funerals.finish dinner) 6. 3.? 2. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. too.? 7. They didn’t agree to his telling a white lie. When did the boys stop the game? (it-start to rain) 9.……. They understood the problem in a blink of an eye.…………? 5.…………. When did they stop writing?(the teacher –stop dictating) 7. Example: She practised the violin and so did his colleague.
Grandad’s ideas are terribly out of date – he still seems to think he’s living in the ……….take control of • take up. I suppose she……her mother in this respect. 25 . 3. Choose the correct affix: 1. 3. but she hasn’t seen him… 5. 10.. He didn’t enjoy his his work. You can’t catch a cold from getting wet-that’s an……….remove(clothes) • take on – accept (work or responsibility) •take over. I’m happy to say.by applying to a new job. 3. (ill/mal/non/un)treat: to treat cruelly or violently 2.resemble • take back.can keep you healthy. It’s so hot in here! I think I’ll……. 8.. She’s very organized.my coat. In an attempt to bring ……into the firm.However. 7. (a/anti/il/non)sense: language which cannot be understood because it does not mean anything 3. I couldn’t remember all the details.start and spend time doing( a hobby. so he decided to make a ………. The Great Lakes in America are …………not saltwater lakes.. Fill the gapes in these sentences using the phrases bellow: come of age for ages space age Stone Age under age fresh air fresh start freshwater new blood New World newcomer old flame old friend old hand old master old times old wives’ tale Old World as old as you feel young at heart 1. 9.My grandma.to the firm and you don’t know the ropes...Phrasal verbs with take • take after. and she always says: ‘ You’re only……………. 1. they’re only taking on people under 25. 6. (dis/anti/non/in) regard: lack of consideration or respect for something. If you are …………you are not allowed to buy drinks in a pub..Vocabulary 1.to the………. He looks exhausted. when they are officially ‘adults’.at 18.. 4. I hope he isn’t………. I want him to ……. plenty of……….he’s an ……….the business when I retire. Columbus sailed from the……. When did you decide to……. (dis/in/mal/un)avoidable: not avoidable 4. We are ………and whenever we meet we reminisce about……… 7.’. 2. 12. you can ask one of the …………for advice.return • take in. 6. 11. She used to go out with Terry. There was too much to……. I prefer painting by the ……….jogging? 2. If you are a ………... People in Britain……………. Could you ………these video to the shop? They are overdue. is still………. 2.understand. 5. absorb • take off. 4... interest) Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with take.of hers..to modern paintings.not the……….too much work.
which has the code that is run at boot up. spread easier. programs. the virus is executed first. wait until the trigger event. they are easier to notice. it is not MS-DOS-specific and can infect any PC operating system. and gain control of the system before MS-DOS could be loaded. immediately letting the user know that there is a problem because the software will not run. An example of this type of virus is the Tequila virus. allows the virus to jump from the floppy to the hard drive. Like the human AIDS virus. and files. Most file viruses are memory resident. a computer virus can spread if it is not removed. which are the main component of a program or application. Because of this. A file virus can insert its own code into part of the file. then start to destroy files. Stealth viruses are similar to a stealth aircraft. Since the virus is run before the operating system. File Overwriters are viruses that link themselves to a program. Since these viruses often have flaws in them. a message is displayed or files are damaged. These viruses stay in the RAM and infects every disk that is read by the computer until the computer is rebooted.L6:Types Of Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage your computer. Because of this. Computer viruses didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. which has 32 different forms. so that when the infected program file is run. they make themselves 26 . Boot Sector/Partition Viruses. The worst kind of file overwriters. They contain malicious code that is meant to damage your computer. polymorphic viruses grow fast to escape detection by anti-virus programs. These kinds of viruses usually infect . File Overwriters. After reboot the virus is removed from memory. Multi-Partite Viruses. Because of this. These viruses spread like a file virus. this virus is copying itself it is taking up more disk space and slowing down performance. and Stealth Viruses. While. Unlike other viruses. These viruses are loaded first. Booting up from an infected floppy. An example of this would be the Whale Virus . Because these viruses are immediately sensed by the computer. Some of the most common of Computer Viruses are: File Viruses. but still insert itself into a boot sector or partition table. This virus waits until the trigger event. The first computer viruses were created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. One of the most common places for a computer virus to appear is on a file found on the Internet or attached to an E-mail. Special encrypted code within this virus allows the virus to hide from detection. they can easily attach themselves to other programs that are being run and start to infect that file. leaving the original code intact and adding themselves over and over to as many files as possible. More complex written viruses will cause more damage. Some viruses are more dangerous than others. These viruses are made simply to keep copying itself. Trojan Horses. Boot sector viruses infect hard drives and floppy disks by putting itself on the boot sector of the disk. they are difficult to remove. Trojan Horses are the worst kind of viruses that exist. they have a less chance to spread. this virus does not replicate itself. A File Virus is the most common kind of virus. A simple virus will overwrite and destroy a host file. There are a limited number of kinds of polymorphic viruses. and are harder to be detected. Like a stealth aircraft. Like a virus in a living thing. They can infect the host software components. Multi-Partite Viruses are the worse of both file and boot sector viruses. they can inadvertently damage or destroy data. When the trigger event occurs.EXE and COM files. Most of the viruses that exist today are Polymorphic. Polymorphic viruses. There are many kind of viruses that exist today.
d. wait until the trigger event. are made simply to keep copying themselves. are all equally dangerous. A File Virus a. Boot sector viruses a. are easily to remove. 6. Trojan Horses a. 27 . c. were firstly created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. c. can insert its own code into part of the file. The virus hides itself into the file and makes it look like the program is running normal. d.Computer viruses a.(…) It is dangerous when making predictions about the future. b. someone can make a broad judgment of future virus development. are loaded first. 3. 2. c. are run before the operating system. Unless you can see into the future. can infect the host software components. d. Because of this. it is not wise to try to see what would happen. c. are of different types. 4. d. Multi-Partite Viruses a. leaving the original code intact and adding themselves over and over to as many files as possible. link themselves to a program. is the most common kind of virus. are the worse of both file and boot sector viruses. c. b. contain malicious code that is meant to damage your computer. b. is only memory resident. c. are MS-DOS-specific and cannot infect any PC operating system. 1. seldom have flaws in them. wait until the trigger event. d. I b. are the only one that replicate themselves. are the worst kind of viruses that exist. Find the incorrect variant out of the four. This is a memory-resident virus. infect hard drives and floppy disks by putting ithemselves on the boot sector of the disk b. and gain control of the system before MS-DOS could be loaded. usually infects EXE and COM files. spread like a file virus 5.invisible to be detected. then start to destroy files. b. d.File Overwriters a.
Fill in the blanks with the past tense simple or continuous of the verbs in the brackets. In fact I was reading it when you phoned me yesterday. (live) The Grants…….in Brasov when I met them. 20.. 10. (see) We………. (read) He ……… a brochure when we met. 4. The plane ………. (drop) She ………the vase because she got frightened. (ask) She ……….. (watch) My friends ……. 13. (read) Father……….about fashion and this annoyed her friends. Study the following situations. 1. (ring) When she reached the door. 16.the newspaper when we got home. a) What was Greg doing when the phone rang? He was reading a book on dinosaurs. (take off) Michael missed the flight.. 19. 5. 3. he had to answer it. (get) I saw Mary just when she……….. 17. 8. Did you check your blood pressure? 5. 7. 28 . the bell……still………. Did you wash your hair? 2..Grammar A. (burn)The house……when we came out.into the library.TV when I phoned them. (run) She ………. 15.when he arrived at the airport. 9. Then the train came and Peter met his cousin. (shine) The sun ……………when we arrived. (invite) They ………me to see the film when I met them in the street. 12. Ask and answer questions according to the model. 1. Peter was walking up and down the platform. (go) He………to his office by bike last year. Use Past tense Continuous. Confirm things. Did you talk business with your new partner? B. (write) Bobby ………. 11. (drive) He …………all the way to London. 14.. 6. Greg was reading a book on dinosaurs when the phone rang. B. Example: Did you read the book I told you about? Yes. (spend) They………… a wonderful holiday at the seaside last year. Did you help with the housework? 3. Did you write the essay? 4. (talk) Mariam …….always……. 18.me about my holidays when she called me.the letter in about ten minutes. Did you unwrap the paintings? 6. When the phone Model: rang..to the door the moment she heard the bell. (fly) They …………to Constantza last night. a very amusing comedy yesterday. 1. 2. b) What did he do when the phone rang? He answered it.
S-au liniştit imediat însă când l-au văzut intrând pe George cu un zâmbet pe faţă. l-am văzut pe John intrând în farmacie. 8. 2. they went home. A explorat mai multe site-uri şi apoi a concluzionat că este prea devreme pentru a se înscrie la o bursă. The baby cried for half an hour yesterday. I-a lăsat un bilet în care-i spunea cum se simţea ea în momentul acela cumplit din viaţa ei. 13. Săptămâna trecută Dan a lucrat intens la pregătirea lucrării despre influenţa calculatoarelor asupra psihicului uman. 11. Se întreba cu ce a greşit de ea nu-i acordă nici o atenţie. Se vedeau atunci pentru a doua oară. In the middle of it her father came home She went into the kitchen and brought her father a steak. 15. 3. Când am ieşit aseară din casă a început să plouă torenţial. Acum câteva zile a fost ziua lui Steve. iar mama i-a făcut un tort de ciocolată şi frişcă. 17. 5. 9. Translate the following into English: 1. Jim was watching a film on TV when someone rang the bell. 7. Sheila had lunch at 1 p. Then his mother gave him a bottle of milk and he stopped crying. 6. apoi a ascultat un concert la radio. 5. A fost deci grăbit şi obosit. A venit cu trenul de 2 dimineaţa şi aplecat cu cel de 7 seara. aşa că au putut discuta problema deschis. aşa că i-am cumpărat un cadou. The girls lay quietly in the sun for an hour. Lunea trecută. 3. Le-a promis tuturor că se linişteşte şi nu mai deranjează pe nimeni. S-a deschis uşa brusc şi toţi au tresărit speriaţi. Săptămâna trecută am cheltuit enorm. aşa că să nu te miri că nu a trecut şi pe la tine. Then some friends called them and they went to swim. pe când vorbeam cu vărul tău. 16. De ce nu i-ai transmis ceea ce am discutat noi în ziua aceea când toţi ceilalţi lucrau la proiect? 20. Jim stood up and opened the front door. 4. Şi-a făcut o haină nouă pe care vrea să o poarte cu acest prilej. Când ai stat de vorbă cu el ultima oară era la fel de supărat pe noi? 18. 6. Nu i-a înţeles nimeni intenţiile şi de aceea a încercat să mai explice încă o dată totul. 29 . Duminica trecută Mary a scris câteva scrisori. C. 19. 4. 12. The boys were playing baseball when it started to rain. 14. Naturally. Acum câteva luni echipa noastră a câştigat campionatul de fotbal.2. Acum două zile a terminat-o şi a rugat-o pe Diana s-o scrie la calculator… 10.m. Ieri Simon mi-a făcut o vizită neaşteptată. Nimeni nu l-a văzut ieri când se ducea la pescuit. yesterday.
. reduce the volume • turn in – give to the police • turn off.. 4.-hearted interviewer can give candidates a very………time and make life…….. 7. 2. She kept …. It was dark inside so he ……. 6. 3. refuse.. 1. All information will be treated as strictly (confidential/confidentially). 7. ……….spot for him. 2. Fill the gaps in these sentences with hard. 8.. but I’m trying my best. It’s sometimes……. Please. A computer can save data on a floppy disk but much more can be stored on a ………. 2. 3.consider carefully • turn up. It’s a bit loud. 4. increase the volume Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with turn. 2. 3. The (fast/fastly) train to London takes less than an hour. 30 .…… the TV. You can buy tools and screws and nails at a …………. A ………. difficult or easy.for them. soft. Phrasal verbs with turn •turn away.ware. He spent hours ……the problem in his mind.drugs like heroin are more dangerous than so-called………. He tried desperately to…… the tap in the bathroom.. I can't ski (awful/awfully) well. but deep down he’s quite ………-hearted and …………. I realize that he makes people feel un ……. 6.him…. The teacher explained the point as (simple/simply) as she could.refuse entry • turn down. 7.Vocabulary 1. cause to operate •turn over.I must say I do have a …….-going. themselves…….. Computer equipment is known as……. remove power • turn on – switch on.-spoken. A printout from a computer provides the user with a ………copy.1...-wearing that it will last a lifetime.ware store. 1. arrive. 5.at his house without any warning. 3. The captain was criticized (strong/strongly) for his part in the team's defeat.after a four days’ run.. disconnect. 5. The prisoners…. 5. 4.to understand her because she’s rather ………. If the action in a film is too (slow-moving/slowly-moving) I get bored.switch off.disk. 6.when he’s being …………. 2. His ex-girlfriend….the lights.ware and the programs are known as……. 2. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1.1. This new fabric is so ………. The child was playing (dangerous/dangerously) near to the edge of the swimming pool. no matter how many times he insisted.drugs like marijuana. 9.
Most of the time these interactions are polite or at 31 . Second. Nearly everyday people face situations in which they interact with strangers. it has also decreased the amount of face-to-face interaction. It seems that the overall nature of current human relations can best be determined by examining human interaction in a few key areas. Recent technological advances have made it much easier for people to communicate with one another. Advancing technology and growing diversity are having an impact on the environment of schools across the nation. It changes over time as our society adjusts to our ever-changing environment. Interaction in the workplace. and sometimes necessary changes have both positive and negative consequences on our lives. The cultural diversity of the typical workplace has increased greatly over the last decade. The workplace is an environment in which there is generally a high degree of personal interaction. as well as interaction among strangers. This has forced people to expand their horizons and learn the proper ways to relate to people from other cultures. the school. The emergence of the Internet in the 1990's has forever changed the way that people will interact with one another. Technology has also created the virtual workplace. The nature of human relations between strangers is complex and dependent upon certain situations. where people can work from the confines of their own home. No longer is one confined to only communicating with people in their department or office. this increasing diversity in the workforce has caused a change in human interaction. since one naturally meets new people while going about one's daily routine. This increase in diversity has come from a couple of sources. These changes can be positive or negative. E-mail has become a way to connect with co-workers anywhere in the world. Many times language barriers exist. Regardless of the reasons.L7: The Current Nature Of Human Relations The nature of human relations is evolutionary. Advances in computers and the internet make limitless amounts of information accessible to students. It seems that this trend toward violent behavior is crossing the generation gaps and invading our schools as well. Cultural diversity in schools helps children to learn at a young age that there are many things that can be learned from other people's cultures. These aspects of change are having many positive influences on the quality of education available to our students. These social skills that children learn at school have a strong impact on how they will relate to others throughout their lives. This has drastically reduced the amount of personal interaction between workers. People are now being exposed to others with many different cultural backgrounds. many companies were forced to diversify to comply with equal opportunity laws. The increasing popularity of cellular phones had also changed human relations. The threat of violence has been an increased concern for many companies. anywhere. This has degraded the quality of personal interaction in the workplace. companies began to discover that people from different ethnic backgrounds were helpful in working with a wide spectrum of customers. and could easily be replaced. and the home. There are many factors that can have an effect on our interaction in each of these settings. beliefs and customs. These changes are very important to society as a whole because they indicate that future generations will be more accepting of differences and better able to accommodate others. Workers today feel as though they are just one part of a machine. Although technology has made human relations easier in the workplace. These interactions are very common. can be analyzed to provide an accurate description. One can now be reached virtually anytime. First. and it can be difficult to establish effective communication.
” In what respects does it change? In what way computers influence human relations? Give your own opinion. Communication with strangers involves relatively greater degrees of uncertainty thus people may feel higher levels of anxiety. Workplace School Interaction strangers with B. Unfortunately. Key areas in Advantages and Why considered advantages or disadvantages. Anxiety is reduced. Have in view the beginning statement: ”The nature of human relations(…) changes over time as our society adjusts to our ever-changing environment. human interaction disadvantages. In this situation there is no face-to-face contact. so people do not have to worry about how they are perceived if they were to make a mistake. Complete the following chart taking into account both the information in this text and your own knowledge. making this interaction between strangers easier. A. 32 .the least non-committal. there seems to be a trend in recent times towards distrust and outright violence in a growing percentage of these daily social interactions. This may explain the growing number of people who are choosing to interact with strangers via Internet chat rooms.
Michael is so thirsty that he (drink)……three minutes. 1. Betty -design clothes. Example: John. 7.. How much do you usually work? B. Paul. My fiance (wait) in the line……….teach Geography.20 minutes.repair cars. recently. 3.a long time. 6. Answer these questions giving the REASON for the present state of things. They (talk) to their master ……. Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect continuous.work on a farm.manage a factory. 12. 7. Answer these questions using Present Perfect Continuous and: lately. How much do they usually train? 2. I (phone) the doctor…. 4. 8. Brown (work) in this office . 8.. ……left school.she went on holiday. 4. Mr. Andy. Annie (read) War and Peace ……. Do you spend much time on computer studies? 3. C. 11.the last five minutes. George. Greg (read) the newspaper……. The little children (sleep) ………. Nick. D.Grammar A. Stephen. 1. 33 .September. ‘What have they been doing since they left school?” Make questions and answers as in the model.he arrived home.work in a factory What has John been doing since he left school? He has been working in a factory since then. That man (stand) at that corner……five o’clock.several minutes. 2.drive a lorry. 1. Clara – sell groceries.make oilfield equipment.. 5. 2. this year: Example: How much do you usually study? Well. How many Peace Corps Volunteers do usually work in the business field? 4. 6. Example: Why have you got a duster in your hand? Because I have been cleaning the blackboard. The boys (study) Algebra………dinner time. 9. 10. I have been studying a lot recently. Janet.nine hours. How much money do the people in this company earn? 5. Basil (stay) with us……. 3. Fill in the blanks with since or for. The other lieutenant (give) commands to his subordinates…. 5.
2. Why are the pavements wet? 9. 3. 4. Why have you got a camera in your hand? 2. Why is Peter out-of-breath? 4. to send away an attacker or unwanted person.to not understand why someone likes a particular person or thing • see somebody off – 1. Why has you friend been so angry? E. usually forcefully 34 . Since she graduated. Write two things you have been doing for several months. (How long) This construction company (to sell) stocks for two years. Why are they wearing tennis shoes? 5. For half an hour. (What) F. 5. Why has grandfather got his glasses on? 8. Write two things you and your friends have been doing for several years. 4. Begin with the words indicated: Example: She (write) a book about selling products efficiently. Make questions using present perfect continuous. (How) We (to talk) business for two hours. (Why) We (to try) to make the company more responsible for its customers . Why are you feeling tired? 7. Why have you treated him so badly? 10.1. Ask questions for the following answers: 1. to lead someone out. G. 3. Phrasal verbs and expressions with see • see about something. Why are your hands dirty? 3. The firm (to grow) rapidly. Why has mother got flour on her hands? 6. Since last Sunday. Since we met first. For a long time. (How long) How long has she been writing a book about selling products efficiently? 1. Write two things your friend has been doing since a child. (How) They (to reorganize) to create and keep customers. 2. 5.to prepare /arrange for something to be done • not see beyond something . 2. Vocabulary 1.to have your attention fixed on something and therefore be unable to consider other things • not know what somebody sees in somebody / something .
back. soft..." "I'll ……. My brother's lent me £200 to …. I’m very thirsty . I like to take it……….to wait/last until the end of a difficult situation • see somebody out (also. 8.I don't know what she ……….. 8.sell techniques. but I quickly …………. especially when it is difficult • see through somebody / something .. 6. They were very friendly.him.to deal with a person or task that needs to be dealt with or is waiting to be dealt with Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with see. but I was determined to ……it…………. Dollars and Swiss francs (unlike the Zambian kwacha or the Albanian New Lek) are ………currencies.the boys who had been damaging the fence..the next few weeks. difficult or easy.. 35 . Fill the gaps in these sentences with hard.. 4. so I’d prefer a…………drink. Some sales people favour aggressive………. My secretary will ….I'd better ………lunch. 1. ‘ When would you like to come?’ ‘I don’t mind. A paper bag is often half the price of a ………. These aren’t guidelines.the month……. It’s payday tomorrow. He is always so rude and lazy . It's getting late . 4.! There is no need to get so worried just because you are …………up. We’ve been too……….• see something out . 5. 1. After a hard day at the office. "These letters need posting. 3. while others prefer gentle persuasion and go for the ………..on customers who don’t settle their accounts on time.to continue doing a job or activity until it is finished.to help or support someone during a difficult period in their life • see something through . 7.me ……. My parents ……me….to go to the door of a building or room with someone who does not live or work there. We should start to take a ……. when they are leaving • see somebody through something ." 9.to be aware that someone is trying to deceive you to get an advantage • see to something /somebody .them.sell.you…….’ 7. they are ………-and-fast rules. The course would take me three years to complete.them later. 9. 3. 2. see somebody to the door). The besieged town hasn't enough food to ……. The caretaker ran out and …….I’m ………. 5.line.is there any lemonade? 6. 2. 11. 2. 10. Take it………….at the airport. The government cannot ………next year's general election.
IBM then developed a language that would simplify work involving complicated mathematical formulas. wristwatches. These needs led to the development of so-called high-level languages. translate an entire program into machine language prior to execution. One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called assembly-language programming. By assigning a short (usually three-letter) mnemonic code to each machine-language command. or dedicated computers the operating instructions are embedded in their circuitry. The language came into almost universal use 36 . programs that loop back to re-execute part of their instructions reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears. The commands are entered from the keyboard or from a program in memory or in a storage device. on the other hand. BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed for use by nonprofessional computer users. COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). Software in widespread use includes a wide range of applications programs-instructions to the computer on how to perform various tasks. LIST. PRINT. and microwave ovens. Translator programs are of two kinds: interpreters and compilers. so interpreted programs run much more slowly than machine-language programs. an American. but it depends on external programs to perform useful tasks. by contrast. concentrated on data organization and file handling and is widely used today in business. In some specialized. A general purpose computer. Machine-language programming is such a tedious.L8:Programming A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what operations to perform on data. A computer must be given instructions in a language that it understands-that is. it can do only as much or as little as the software controlling it at any given moment enables it to do. Assembly Language. What was needed was a shorthand method by which one symbolic statement could represent a sequence of many machine-language instructions. OPEN. a commercial and business programming language. automobile engines. Once a computer has been programmed. Begun in 1954 and completed in 1957. Unfortunately. and a way that would allow the same program to run on several types of machines. With an interpreter. task that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program. Programs can be built into the hardware itself. To facilitate computer use in scientific applications. Compilers. Languages. is difficult for humans to use. the computer's own binary-based language. assembly-language programs could be written and debugged-cleaned of logic and data errors-in a fraction of the time needed by machine-language programmers. so such programs run as rapidly as though they were written directly in machine language. High-level languages often use English-like words-for example. FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) was the first comprehensive high-level programming language that was widely used. and so on-as commands that might stand for a sequence of tens or hundreds of machine-language instructions. and they are intercepted by a program that translates them into machine-language instructions. or they may exist independently in a form known as software. contains some built-in programs (in ROM) or instructions (in the processor chip). common examples are the microcomputers found in calculators. The first commercial programmer was probably Grace Hopper (1906-92). High-Level Languages. or machine language. a particular pattern of binary digital information. time consuming.
LOGO. PASCAL. BASIC is nevertheless simple to learn and easy to use. a language Bell Laboratories designed in the 1970s. LISP and PROLOG are widely used in artificial intelligence. what operations to perform on data. or dedicated computers A general purpose computer contains FORTRAN. Comment upon this quotation: “Programming is a fascinating world that asks a lot and gives a lot. With an interpreter.with the microcomputer explosion of the 1970s and 1980s.” 37 . time consuming. is now one of the most popular microcomputer languages. A. program Machine-language programming is such a the operating instructions are embedded in tedious. Although hundreds of different computer languages and variants exist. LISP and PROLOG that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program. Match the beginnings in the first column with the endings in the second: Compilers translate an entire program reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears Examples of computer languages would be: assembly-language programming. task their circuitry. to run on several types of machines. is widely used in developing systems programs. such as language translators. LOGO was developed to introduce children to computers. inefficient. BASIC. Condemned as slow. several others deserve mention. originally designed as a teaching tool. B. Because many early microcomputers were sold with BASIC built into the hardware (in ROM memory) the language rapidly came into widespread use. and inelegant by its detractors. programs that loop some built-in programs (in ROM) or back to re-execute part of their instructions instructions (in the processor chip) One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer In some specialized. C. PASCAL. High-Level Languages allows the same into machine language prior to execution.
etc. It’s very new.……. The generous woman has already given them presents. Re-express the following sentences using present perfect tense. Miriam is late again but nobody is surprised.………? 9. just. The film will finish at 10.m. everybody!(cook) 2. We’ll establish the main points to be discussed tomorrow. You’ve just met him on your way home. Lunch is ready! Come and eat.………. Do you want another dish? No.? 4. They’ve established who will be the winner this year.? 5. I’m going to play this record now. has he? 1. (when) 9. Make sentences ending in tag-questions to express the ideas bellow. Example: Dinner is not ready. The Grants will consult a lawyer. thank you. Alan is not going to read the article.(finish) 6. before. Example: I’ll have dinner first. (read) 10.(buy) 4.(meet) 8.. Then the passengers will be allowed to smoke. My brother goes to a technical college.? 8. Then you will know what to do next. (by the time) 7.(after) 4.(as soon as) I’ll phone Angela as soon as I’ve had dinner. Then I’ll phone Angela. I’ll be hungry by then. difficult problems. …………. You will see him. You have paid the telephone bill.(as soon as) 6. Example: The teacher hasn’t marked our tests. Then they will get into the cinema hall.)to re-formulate the following. They haven’t solved those long. Then they will get finer jobs.(be) 9. (read) 5. He has gone nowhere this week.(as soon as) 2.………? 10. already. After that they will buy the house.(after) 8. Then you’ll make a wonderful doctor.(have) 3. yet. Your friend hasn’t completed the task. Nobody has understood that explanation. 1.…………? 6. The students will graduate. (until) 10. Then I’ll tell him the great news. The plane will take off first. I don’t know this man. (be late). (until) 5.Grammar A. 1. Mr McGregor will finish lunch.………? 38 . I’m still digging in the garden.(cook) Mother hasn’t cooked the dinner yet. (pass the entrance exam) 7. Then he will talk to you about your future plans. In a few years you’ll gain more experience.30 p. I can tell you a lot of things about Jane Austen. This part of the country is completely unknown to me. Nobody will leave this place.? 7. (before) C.…………? 2. The children will buy tickets first.………. They have already repaired the ironing machine. They have done nothing at all these days. Mike will arrive home. Use the present perfect tense simple and the appropriate adverbs(never.………? 3. B.(when) 3.
read) a book for/since June last year. Something you have never done before. 9. Something you have visited this week. Who……. 3. 3. Something you have done and whose result can be seen. meet)…………(speak) for/since 9 o’clock. (write) Our friends from Portugal………. 3. Put the verb in parenthesis in the correct form. 5. 16. Something you have often done. 10. 11. They know someone who………(not. 8. 2.(not. 9. Something you have known for the last three weeks. Make sentences of your own expressing: 1. Something you have just done. Choose since or for. 6. Something you have learnt since you’ve started faculty. 39 . Nobody………(be) here for/since a few years. 7.D. 15.to us regularly.(participate) in the debates for/since two full days.(explained) to everyone what she likes doing since/for half an hour.a meal. 8. 14.many mistakes in their exercises.. Something you will do after you have arrived home. (talk) They……….(interview) him for/since the last three hours. 7. (not make) So far they……. 2. The student …………. The men you………. 4. F. 5.it since. The most interesting thing you have ever seen. 6. 7. 6. (not wear) Chris wore her new dress last week.. They ………. E. but she……. 4. 8. Something you have always liked. knit) for/since several hours.(try) to put him through for /since two minutes ago. Something you have had for a long time. (seen) They ……….(write) an essay on this for/since summer.it. Something you have recently... Their grandmother ………. Something you have studied up to now. 4.here for long? 9. (teach) Mr Smith ………English ever since the Second World War. 12. She ……. Put the verbs in the brackets in the present perfect tense. My neighbours………(talk) about this topic since/for yesterday.(just. Example: (study)They………almost every lesson in this book up to now/ so far They have studied almost every lesson in this book up to now/ so far 1.busy lately. (not use) I’ve had that dictionary for a month but I still…….their relatives for the last three months. (be) She……….. 2.only just…….to someone for the past few days. (have) He feels hungry although he……. Something you haven’t done yet. 10. (be) ……you…. Example: I………. Something you have seldom done 5. Something you have participated in today. 13. 1.
I admire him greatly. She hasn’t answered my phone calls. 1. continue doing something... 12. 11. 7.. Trains always leave …………… 10. We haven’t been out together………Would you like to come……. continue saying the same thing • keep out.. She promised to be in time so she’d better…….coffee.. it’s important to ……. 2.in your country? 8. yet so I’ll………trying. The doctor advised him to ………. 4.with her.stay warm Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with keep. He claimed it wasn’t his fault and that he hadn’t done it ……… 3.. 2.struggle to continue • keep together.. 3. How much does a worker earn …………. 2.avoid • keep on. 4. I don’t dislike Chaplin at all:………….1. There are some lovely desserts………. it’s difficult to……. Fill the gaps with the phrases bellow: on a diet on average on foot on purpose on the hour on the menu for a long time for a walk on behalf of on television on the way on condition that on the contrary for a change 1. If they ….stay in group • keep warm. Put a sweater on. 2.to have a meal. It was long drive so we stopped………….1. Phrasal verbs and expressions with keep Phrasal verbs • keep at – continue working at • keep off. prevent someone or something from entering • keep to.it. 9.. 5. 40 .last night? 9. 5. No... 6.with us on Sunday? 6. 2.but I won’t take anything because I’m ………. Did you see the news………….Vocabulary 1.. We’ve done a lot of this recently.even when you feel exhausted. 8. She promised to help me ………I returned the favour another time. They’re doing some building work over there so it would be great if we……. When you run a marathon. It’s important to……. 7. She walks so fast..it. I should like to thank you ………the whole department.manage to go fast Expressions • keep going.stay with or follow an agreed plan or course of action • keep up. they’ll finish painting by midday. We’ve got to………if we want to be a real team. It takes much longer to get there …………than by bus. stay away. so let’s do something different ………….
because if we don’t. The most prevalent breach of law in cyberspace is software piracy. Practices such as excessive e-mailing. which conserves electricity even when left on. position yourself from the monitor between two and five feet from your eyes. and use a monitor that has a relatively large screen without noticeable flicker. and theft of intellectual property all create ethical questions for everyday computer users. Government.L9: Living With Computers Ergonomics is the study of the physical relationships between humans and their tools. Hardware is sometimes stolen for the value of the data stored on it rather that for the value of the machine itself. The computer industry has become known the fast pace rate of obsolescence. have been created or enforced to requiring computer users to let their own sense of ethics guide them. however. Desks that allow proper keyboard height and special ergonomic keyboards have been developed to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome. we must first use common sense to realize that everything we do has a cause and effect. avoid starring at the screen for long periods. the misuse of technology will eventually be the downfall of humankind 41 . such as cadmium. One response has been the development of energy star equipment. such as computers. Users can protect their data and software by using an anti-virus program. Office chairs should be adjustable in height and should have lower-back support and arm rests. To avoid damaging your eyes. infect computers. Some of the leading toxic wastes coming form homes and offices are heavy metals used extensively in batteries. Our legal system is gradually developing a code of laws to provide a legal framework for working with computers and on the Internet. the illegal copying or use of a program. make sure no bright lights reflect off your screen. a type of repetitive stress injury. this practice was shown to consume unnecessary amounts of electricity. We must take on the responsibility as humans to utilize technology to change the World for the better. sharing objectionable or illegal material. legal professionals. Software viruses are parasitic programs that can replicate themselves. Instead of building copy protection into their programs. Although some experts recommend leaving computers on all the time. It is my opinion that if we are to live comfortably with computers. most software developers discourage privacy among organizations by offering site licenses and network versions. and destroy data. with both hardware and software being replaced every couple of years. Few actual laws. Copyright laws relevant to computers and software are covered by the Copyright Act of 1976 and the Software Piracy and counterfeiting Amendment of 1983. and computing professionals continue to debate computer-related ethical questions and attempt to develop laws that protect the freedoms of computer users while limiting immoral or illegal use of computers.
a code of laws. counterfeiting. have been created or enforced to requiring computer users to let their own sense of ethics guide them. B. however. because if we don’t.A. pace rate of. to live comfortably with. such as cadmium Copyright laws relevant to computers and avoid starring at the screen for long software are periods. make sure no bright lights reflect off your screen. Energy star equipment Few actual laws. We must take on the responsibility as humans to utilize technology to change the World for the better. can replicate themselves. extensively. the misuse of technology will eventually be the downfall of humankind. software piracy. Software viruses are parasitic programs covered by the Copyright Act of 1976 and the that Software Piracy and counterfeiting Amendment of 1983.” 42 . Match the beginnings in the first column with the endings in the second one: To avoid damaging your eyes conserves electricity even when left on. we must first use common sense to realize that everything we do has a cause and effect. Some of the leading toxic wastes coming should be adjustable in height and should have form homes and offices are lower-back support and arm rests. and use a monitor that has a relatively large screen without noticeable flicker. downfall. infect computers. Office chairs is a type of repetitive stress injury. Carpal tunnel syndrome heavy metals used extensively in batteries. ethical questions. What’s your opinion on the author’s statement? Develop your point of you in a 200 hundred word essay. Make sentences of your own using the following: to replicate oneself. “It is my opinion that if we are to live comfortably with computers. and destroy data C. position yourself from the monitor between two and five feet from your eyes.
Use present perfect continuous or simple. She (work) hard. 3. 8. 6. but I(buy) a ticket . present perfect simple or continuous. (eat from the snack-food machine) Are you sure you don’t want some coffee? (drink some coffee-just) D. Why is he angry? (wait for half an hour) Why are you so tired? (train for 3 hours) Why is he so thirsty? (not drink anything the whole day) How can your father be so vigorous at his age? (watch his diet all his life) How is that you are not hungry. but I (not.Grammar A. She has dropped one egg on the floor and she’s thrown one pancake on the ceiling. Mr Brown (tell) him to go the supermarket since breakfast. 2.m. use present perfect simple or continuous. (you. but he (not. as a matter of fact I (know) him since I (be) a child. Find questions for the following answers. yet. ………you……(speak) on the mobile phone since 2 p. I(phone) you for the last three hours. but we (already. Recently 5. 5. 4. The manager (just. (you. Example: Why is his house empty? (move to a new place) Because he has just moved to a new place. Answer the following questions. get) a phone call.m. Put the verbs in brackets in the past tense. We (not receive) any letter from him yet. I(move) the furniture. This summer. She ……(criticize) me for the last 20 minutes and she seems to have even more to say! B. 6. Since Mike last (visit) me. She has been trying to make pancakes for the last half hour. 4. be)? 2. 43 . but she hasn’t made a good one yet. Use present perfect simple or continuous. C. Please. 1. I (already.? It’s time you finished! 7. Not yet. We (watch ) the TV program several times this week. do) with my handbag? It(be) here a moment ago. ever. 4.For two years. I (talk) to a group of salesmen since 10 this morning. he (be) to many places. meet) Doris at 5 p. Since last October. see) any bears? 9. Where(you. My father’s friend (have) the company since he moved to this town. on Monday? Yes. 2. I (do). Example: Chris went into the kitchen at 8 a. sign) the papers. so she is glad to spend some time with her friends now. meet) her since. 5. What (you. They are on the table now. catch) the bus. Since he left the town.. 6. 7. 1. 3. I (know) Peter for years. excuse the disorder in the house.m. 1. The prices in this city increase amazingly. go) yet. 3.
14. N-am mai pomenit una ca asta! Sunt în oraş de o lună şi nu ne-au telefonat încă. try) to jump over the fence. 20. . 16. Ai încercat vreodată să faci practici vreun sport extrem? 21. George nu a mai cântat la pian de când era copil. I (not. I-a pierdut în timpul orei de educaţie fizică. De unde îl cunoşti? Până acum am crezut că îţi e total străin. n-am avut timp. N-am mâncat niciodată icre negre. De când a stat de vorbă jumătate de oră cu acel personaj pitoresc nu mai e acelaşi om! 25. 13. everything (be) in a mess. 12. S-ar putea să mă înşel. dar să ştii că mi-am şi scris şi expediat toate felicitările de Crăciun . have) lunch yet. When we(move) in three years ago. Asta s-a întâmplat acum două săptămâni într-un accident de maşină.Spune-mi. 19. 18. De când n-a mai întrebat de mine? Cred că ar fi bine să-l mai caut eu. 11. Prietenul ei e scriitor. 7. 14. 9. 11. Poate nu-ţi vine să crezi. De vreo doi ani îl tot rog să încerce să lucreze mai ordonat şi să aibă mai multă voinţă. ai vizitat astăzi Galeriile Naţionale. dar îl aşteptăm din moment în moment. Ai înţeles vreodată geometria diferenţială? Dacă da.şi revizuiască atitudinea. 44 . Today I (work) since breakfast and I (not. Familia Bush a cumpărat un apartament în acest cartier şi de atunci locuiesc aici. 5. În schimb am colindat prin toate magazinele. 23. De când s-a mutat în blocul nostru nu ne-a mai sunat la telefon şi nici nu ne-a mai 17. Verişorul meu a crescut foarte mult de când nu l-am văzut. nu-I aşa? . Ultimele le-am expediat ieri. Luna asta a citit şase romane. te rog să-mi explici şi mie câteva noţiuni elementare. Avionul nu a aterizat încă. Astăzi toţi vecinii şi-au parcat maşinile în noul parcaj din faţa blocului. Translate the following into English: 1. iar anul trecut a scris şi o piesă de teatru. încât am uitat complet de ce m-ai rugat. dar în zadar. Pregăteşte de obicei nişte prăjituri delicioase. să-i amintesc că avem un proiect de făcut împreună. have) many accidents since then but Ann (often. 22. dar de data asta s-a întrecut pe sine. Până acum a scris câteva romane. 3. Jim (often. N-a mai pomenit aşa comportament în viaţa ei aşa că este hotărâtă să-l determine să. pentru că n-am citit filmul şi nici na-m citit cartea. but now I (almost. 2. 24. Meg citeşte în camera ei de când s-a întors acasă. 15. Nu ştiu la ce personaj te referi. Fratele ei şi-a rupt piciorul. She (warn) me again this morning at breakfast time but I (work( for four hours and nothing (go) wrong. 12.10.Nu. 13. E. În ultima vreme am fost atât de prins cu alte treburi. Nimeni nu a găsit ochelarii Anei. 10. dar mi se pare că e cel mai talentat violonist pe care l-am auzit vreodată. 4. warn) me to be careful. forget) what (happen) several years ago when she (try) to help me. finish) the job. 6. I (never. 8.
3.I think he …….school uniform. I know it’s hard to do the washing-up without a proper detergent.only one course of Chemistry. but it’s ……. want • do up. 7. 1. 5. account 2... the washing.. Are you trying to find your hat? 4.1.. 8.nothing……this delicate problem. Rewrite each sentence. 45 .. the garden • do school subjects. ……. I am sorry that I was rude to you. search have apologise feel sorry 6.you any…….manage to live without • have/be to do with.. He stopped to look in a shop window and then continued walking.now. I don’t want you to sympathise with me. We admire her because of her intelligence. French • do someone a favour • do someone good • do someone harm • do well • do your best Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with do. Please. The price they charge varies according to the quantity you order. 2. depend 7. repair or redecorate • do without.have a connection with Expressions • do domestic jobs. You should eat a bit of meat occasionally. In his last year of study he ……. It won’t…….and go fetch another beer.you……! 9.Vocabulary 1. 4. 6. She’ s well-known because she broke the world record.(usually after could) need. Our car is going to be repaired this week so we’ll have to ……it for a day or two. I’m freezing. Could you ……the zip …. fasten.In fact it’ll probably…. Meg’s business started slowly. walk 2.abolish • (could ) do with. e. The new principal plans to……. 2.on the back of this dress? 10. I could ……a nice hot shower. cooking.g. famous She’s famous for breaking the world record. 1. but please try to…… 5. e. cleaning. replacing the underlined words with a suitable form of the word in bold on the right and adding FOR or ON. Phrasal verbs and expressions with do Phrasal verbs • do away with..g. Maths. 3.
the production of a picture took ten to twenty minutes. explode the classical frame and lead to an expansion which makes the integration into classical art forms impossible. is also essential. the traditional artistic criteria were still respected. (2) Education. the shaping of our environment was left to the more or less spontaneous ideas of individuals. The sudden interest in visual computer art has had repercussions on its artistic forms. At the beginning of computer graphics activities. It is through playful experiments. computer-generated drawings represent examples of simulated pieces of art. From the viewpoint of the theoretician or the behavioural scientist who is concerned with aesthetics. educators. that experience is gained which can be useful in several ways: (1) Theory of Art. at times even half an hour or more. The newly obtained dynamics. but only by animated sequences. its influence was not yet felt in the arts or in society at large. and the entertainment industry. An additional stimulus was created by the advancement of microelectronics which added a new dimension of artistic activity: the old dream of being able to play freely with colours and shapes has come true. however. while still being ignored by art critics. The 46 . It was the most recent developments in microelectronics which mainly led to a turning point in the history of computer art. Computer graphics is nearly indispensable when one is confronted with dynamic processes which cannot be illustrated by individual pictures.. 'Free' computer graphics can serve as a source of new programming methods and of ideas for creating new shapes. The result was an image which could be hung on the wall: which means that at least from an external viewpoint. have drawn the attention of designers. Although computer-generated graphics had already been applied in important areas of science and technology. Forms of aesthetic activity can be imagined which allow the viewer to enter into a sort of dialogue with the computer or the aesthetic program. by interaction some sort of a play with graphic structures may emerge. their decreased execution time and increased storage capacity allowing ever greater access at lower prices to larger groups of interested amateurs have opened new perspectives to the most diverse ranges of activity.L10: The New Visual Age: The Influence of Computer Graphics on Art and Society Only a few years ago it would have seemed ridiculous to discuss the influence of computer graphics on art and society. mechanical plotting represented the only possible choice. as in text analysis. we are confronted with the problem of aesthetic structuring. (4)Shaping of the Environment. Particularly the opportunities opened by microprocessors. The visualization of instructional material is one of the great tasks of our future. But today we are convinced that an optimal coordination of our living space with its inhabitants has become a necessity. which. Apart from the task of a technical transformation and often adaptation to existing psychological and sociological conditions. Until recently. now promoted to the successor of the hitherto passive onlooker. is able to activate according to his own taste. The possibility of rapid creation and of variation in structures. but also through confrontation with classical art. (3) Entertainment. The new interactive method facilitated through the above-mentioned improvements even allows a sort of graphic improvisation: the artist conceives the general framework for multitude of graphic creations which the user.
b. allows a sort of graphic improvisation B.Computer graphics a. They help with the visualization of instructional material c. It is clear that the old ways can no longer satisfy the needs of these expanding forms of expression. b. The aesthetic programs they may offer are meant only for serious stuff and not for entertainment. .universality of means and the peculiarities of data processing systems make the traditional categories questionable for yet another reason: acoustic instruments can be used for the output of data just as well as the screens. A. 2. c. 3. 'Free' computer graphics can serve in several ways: a. have opened new perspectives to the most diverse ranges of activity. the advancement of microelectronics a. have influenced art and society since decades. d. made possible the old dream of being able to play freely with colours and shapes. makes the integration into classical art forms possible. They help a lot in aesthetically structuring of our living space. d. b. could lead to a turning point in the history of computer art by using the most recent developments in microelectronics. d. made possible a new dynamics that exploded the classical frame and led to a new way of expression. They represent examples of simulated pieces of art and offer the possibility of rapid creation and of variation in structures. That means no less and no more than that the program can be used to create and to structure musical and linguistic elements artistically. influence was not yet felt in the arts or in society at large. 47 . Which is the wrong variant out of the four? 1. In what respect and to what degree do you think computer graphics influence society? Give arguments to support your ideas. c.by means of microprocessors.
3. solve puzzles 7. America’s national unity was threaten because the southern states and the rest of the country unsuccessfully (try) to settle the question of slavery. The students were working on a difficult project in May. play the new instrument 2.. speak on the phone 4. ski on the slope 3./ for about ten minutes. The girls were still skating at noon. 5. How long had you been waiting for your girl friend when she showed up? 48 . listen to music 5. How long had your parents been saving up when they bought a car? 2. He (work) hard for years before he overcame defeat in politics.Grammar A. The policemen were still investigating the case in December.. Use past perfect continuous with the verbs in brackets: Abraham Lincoln (do ) manual labour on the family farm before he was sent to local school.. The children were still preparing for the show at 1 p. The guardian was still standing in front of her door at 12 p. In fact she……….it all winter. Barton had been planting trees all day. When he became president.m.m. They…………all morning. They ………. He (study) law for a short time when in 1834. Fill in the blanks with the past perfect tense continuous.all day. They…………..m. Barton was still planting trees at 6 p.on it all spring.m. Ask and answers according to the model: mend the car How long had you been mending the car when grandfather came home? I‘d been mending the car for one hour and a half /since 2 o’clock when grandfather came home. He ………. 1. Lincoln ran for political office again. B. dig in the courtyard 8. Example: Mr. He …………all afternoon. 9. 6. The surgeon was still operating her on at 6 p.m.in front of her door all morning. 4. 2. C. 1. He ………all day evening. Answer the questions using past perfect continuous and SINCE/FOR.30 p. She ……….m. Diana was ironing her dresses yesterday afternoon. It………. 10. 7. The wind was blowing in the morning.all afternoon. The actor was rehearsing at 8.all morning. They………the case all winter. read that novel D. Ann was wearing her green winter coat yesterday. translate the passage 6. Mr. 8. 1. Example: How long had you been standing in a queue when you bought your ticket to Brasov? I’d been standing in a queue since 3 p.
How long had your neighbours been living next to you before they moved? 4. Each of these sentences contains a colourful expression. It was only when he had won the match and started jeering at his opponent that he saw him in his true colours. How long had your neighbours been making noise when you complained? 6.use all one’s supplies • run over. 6.meet someone by chance • run on. Follow the model and answer the questions: Example: Why was Nick angry? (he/wait/20 minutes) Because he had been waiting for 20 minutes. 5. Far more men are colour-blind than women. 2. How long had you been trying to persuade him when he left the room in a hurry? 10. What do you tjhink of the colour scheme in this room? 7. 2. Vocabulary 1. How long had your mother been cooking when you offered to help her? 7. The context will help you to guess.repeat for practice 49 . Why were they so furious? (the policeman/ ask questions/ an hour) 5. Why was he so relaxed? ( he/listen to a wonderful Chopin piano concert/ an hour). What do they mean? Don’t use a dictionary. How long had Mary and her friends been standing in line when someone offered them two tickets. them? 9. E. She didn’t go to work because she was feeling a little off colour. Why was she so enthusiastic? (she/ speak on her favourite topic/2 hours) 7. How long had you been playing this game when you join a club? 8. How long had your friends been filling-in that form when you decided to help 9. 3. Why were they so hungry? ( they/ have a proper meal/ several days) 9. All the documents in this office are colour-coded. 4. Why were they so happy? ( they/ do something they enjoy/ 2 hours ago) 10. How long had you been walking when it started to rain? 5. 8.continue happening for longer than planned or expected • run out of. Why were they so frozen? (they /stay in a cold room/ 5 hours).escape • run into.knock down and drive over the top • run through. 1. The detailed descriptions in the story gave local colour to the book. Everyone in the class passed the exam with flying colours. Why were you so busy? (I /make travel arrangements/ 3 days) 4. Why did your friend look so amused?(he/watch a comedy/1/2 hours) 3. Don’t allow your personal interest to colour your judgement. Why was she broken? (she / spend a lot of money/December last year) 8. Phrasal verbs with run • run away. Why was Jane so tired? (she/work/4 hours) 2.3. 1. 6.
replacing the underlined words with a suitable form of the word in bold on the right and adding FOR or ON. (dis/ir/non/un)relevant: not related to what is being discussed or considered and therefore of no importance 2. Let’s get going! I don’t want this meeting to……….cause to have bills or debts Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with run.. not as it should be 8. Choose the correct affix: 1. (a/de/in/non)correct: not correct.We’ve never seen it again. Would you like to give me your opinion of my work? rely / count comment 4..in the middle of the town? Mel Gibson himself! 3. 6. 1. To hear the next track you should make the tape go forward.it 4. I used to hate that song but then it became more pleasant to me. I didn’t understand the passage so I should………. selfish 6. (dis/in/non/un)content: a feeling of wanting better treatment or an improved situation 5. (dis/mal/mis/un)cast: to choose (actors and actresses) that are unsuitable for the characters in (a film or play) 7. (de/in/non/un)flammable: burning very easily 3. Guess who I……. Greg …………an enormous bill at the bookshop this year. You can’t trust him. 2. I told the visitors you’d be late but she was determined to wait. (de/dis/non/un)frost: to (cause to) become free of ice. I dropped my glasses in the street and a car ……. Rewrite each sentence. (anti/de/non/un) -alcoholic: a drink which does not contain alcohol 10. 5.• run up.it once again. She sold her fur coat as she ……… 7. 4. We let the monkey out of its cage for a while and it……. or to (cause to) become no longer frozen 50 . (anti/ill/mal/un)comfortable: not comfortable or not relaxed or calm 9. (counter/dis/im/un)possible: (of a person) extremely difficult to deal with or behaving badly 4. 1. It was a tall story but he was so gullible that he believed it. 7. but you can trust me. not true.all night! 5. 6. 3. an expert insist wind fall grow 2. (anti/ill/in/mis)considerate: not caring about other people or their feelings. She knows all about cars. 3.
With the appearance of “streaming” technologies. broadcasting companies and radio stations are transmitting regularly over the internet. at least once a month. In July 1997. First. Often described by the media as “the information superhighway”. the internet offers to customary users a wide variety of services. beyond doubt. Consumers. Secondly. which makes them accessible anywhere on the globe. This was demonstrated. effortlessly compare prices and quickly shop from remote locations. transformed to inoperative rather hundred thousands of computers and thousands of networks around the globe for quite few days. are the costs of the user's computer. last century’s award winning virus. waiting to carry out regular transactions in financial centres is very frustrating. People can. With a number of online individuals exceeding thirty millions and the number of networks that act as gateways for users exceeding fifty thousands. On the same year. the dark side of the internet reveals some serious drawbacks. The internet is. the Internet's boundaries can only be imagined. the internet’s structures do not only transport data. have existed since the very first birth of personnel computers. and many others not mentioned. successfully capturing and distributing credit card numbers of NBA and ESPN users. access their bank accounts. transfer their money and even trade their stocks. the most efficient and economic tool of the next generation. online trading and many more. But. This opens up a new international world of trading. Any form of communication via the internet is cheaper and rather faster than any service from other facilities. This is not true anymore with the expansion of the internet to include online banking. allows any user on the internet to send nearly instantaneous electronic message to anyone else. online banking. but also some drawbacks. is taking significant measures to prevent such unlawful actions. The electronic mail (email). These artificial clever beasts that destroy data. but it also transports compact and yet very harmful intruders: computer viruses. pay their bills. which is slowly but surely replacing the regular phone. “Veronica”. and the telephone lines used to dial in.L11: The Information Superhighway The Internet. it was not designed with tight security in mind. financial institutes deciphered the heartbreaking event to more than a few million dollars of 51 . another cracker known as “Snak” was taken into custody by FBI agents after he had stolen over one hundred thousands credit card numbers from an internet service provider (ISP) located in northern California. enables anyone to make free long distance calls. has become the largest single form of communication worldwide. overcoming any kind of disability. Crackers dedicate their work to purposely infect programs and distant computers that access the internet. crackers achieved the first widely known attack on internet credit card data. the modem . The “internet phone”. One of the recent innovations the internet made available is online commerce. The only costs involved in using these internet services. for instance. With the growth of the internet. Perhaps. which includes online shopping. efficiently supplied with new viruses. through the computer. all of which can be relatively cheap. virus authors have been faced up to nothing but a widespread gate to the information superhighway. can effectively dive into an immense range and selection of merchandise. a group of knowledgeable engineers whose sole task is to reinforce the integrity of the internet. Nevertheless. the “internet tasking force” (ITF). once concealed inside government agencies and universities. anytime and anywhere from the globe. by so-called “crackers”: growing minorities of people with nothing better to do than spoil everyone else’s enjoyment.
just enough to frustrate impatient users. receiving. information takes lengthy periods to load on the computer’s screen. which can be thought of several four lane roadways with neither traffic officers nor civilized drivers. some of which can be very damaging. online commerce. effortlessly. endpoint. according to the example: advantages COMPUTER’S Any form of communication via the internet is cheaper and rather faster than any service from other facilities. email. adding your own arguments to the ones previously stated in the text above. Fill in the following chart. has its strengths (…) and also its weaknesses. but not at the same level as the number of new users. 52 . has its strengths residing in its popular aspects – the World Wide Web. This is often due to delays that occur at endpoints. This is one of the main reasons behind the delays. as any other invention. Comment upon this statement. Make your own sentences with the following words: exceeding. The rate at which data is transmitted and the number of systems. that these drawbacks will be overcome in time as technology advances and methods of securely transmitting. B. as any other invention. and many others. Occasionally. This is wonderlessly why internet communities are very much concerned about security. and on the internet's paths. I believe. disadvantages C. and retrieving information improve. The internet has also its weaknesses. wonderlessly. The “information superhighway”. The “information superhighway”. however. cracker. are being improved.vanished money. A. gateways. drawback.
Greg had two tickets for the film..……? You had seen Mary. the skyscraper fell down. Say what you had just done when……. Add tag questions to the statements bellow and answer them.? 6.………. your aunt told you the great news 4.…………? 4. hadn’t you? 1. the alarm clock rang in the morning 2. 3. Mary had a meeting and arrived home late.……….………. (get to the meeting place-leave) 3.stop raining) 5. Nobody had tried it before. Example: When Doris got to the baker’s. When he got to the meeting place.. Mike got out of the train to buy a newspaper. the door was locked and the lights were off. 1. Tom was supposed to go on a trip with his friends yesterday. He invited Dan to come to come with him.? 5. Comment upon these situations using past perfect simple.? C. I had met nobody before.……. The film had already started.Grammar A. (invite Dan-see the film) 4. you found out you had won the jackpot 5.? 7. The principal had just come.. The sun had already set. but he said no. She came out half an hour later. 1. your parents arrived home. The sun was shining.………? 2. Imagine your father was away on a business trip last week.. Her mother was washing up after dinner. How long had you been in the airport by the time the plane landed? 3..? 3. Yesterday you went to the airport to meet him. Chris went to the shop. Example: You had seen Mary. (arrive home. (get to the baker’s-close the shop) When Doris got to the baker’s they HAD CLOSED the shop. 53 . I hadn’t promised anything. When he came back the train wasn’t there. It was raining outside.have dinner) 2. neither the coach nor his friends were there.…….leave) B. How had you felt until the plane landed? 4. (come out. What had you done before you went to the airport? 2. What had you done before your father was in the customs? D. (come back. The students hadn’t finished the tests. 1.
UNTIL. Why didn’t Mrs. Connect the following sentences by using the appropriate connectors. Why did they have to stand.cook. Example: The guest left. Why was the little boy unhappy?( he win the prize) 54 . write any letters G. yet) 5. Answer the following questions using the past perfect simple. (they. Why couldn’t she tell anything about the book? (she-read ) 2. The sun rose and immediately we started. Choose from NO SOONER. The student handed in the essay. go swimming 6. The hostess served coffee. 4. 3. 3. We hadn’t finished our main course. HARDLY. Model: see any films Doris hadn’t seen any films since she came home/ for two weeks.E. 5. 1. Why couldn’t Carmen wear the new dress? (she. Sissy went out. 4. He hadn’t finished his paper. Join each pair of sentences bellow using BEFORE and the past perfect simple. We started immediately and didn’t stop at all. At 12. 1. 2. WHEN. We unpacked our things and then we put out our tents. Why didn’t Jane take the coach? (she-catch the train) 3. We stopped at noon and immediately we had lunch. 1. Why didn’t she have dinner? (mother. visit anybody 5. We had supper and then we washed the dishes. It was cloudy for an hour and then the sun came out again. We went to bed and immediately we fell asleep. Example: Why did the clock stopped? (Tim –wind) Because Tim hadn’t wound it. He hadn’t corrected his mistakes. AS SOON AS. BEFORE.book seats) 6. (emphatic) Hardly had they got on the train when it left. Greg’s pen ran out of ink. Adams have a room in the hotel? (she-reserve) 4. They hadn’t finished their dinner. watch TV 2. ride her bike 3. They hadn’t heard the end of the joke. She hadn’t recovered from her illness. The guest left before they’d finished their dinner. They’d hardly got on the train when it left. 8. 1.30 the sky got dark. 2.iron) 7. 7. F. The audience laughed. Use the past perfect simple and FOR and SINCE. 5. The sun set and then we stopped 6. H. AFTER. Be careful about the past tense you use! Example: They got on the train and immediately it left. play tennis 4.
9. His dancing technique is good. She …….to spend time repairing or improving something • out. A lucky coincidence like this happens very rarely.differently each time I add them. 11.a candidate looking for a job. Being patient could ………. She ……stress by running for at least half an hour every day. He became very angry when I told him he had made a mistake. I can’t afford to buy anything because I’m still in debt after my holiday. It's strange.to work extremely hard. Most manual workers receive wages and are paid weekly. 8. 7. in the red red-handed see red red carpet red tape once in a blue moon out of the blue blue-collar green green green with envy give the green light 1. 12. I’m ready to start when you tell me to go ahead. Our new clerk makes a lot of mistakes because he is still inexperienced.to work very hard • till/until you drop. How environmentally friendly are you? 5. but I can't …….any enthusiasm for going on this trip.to get rid of a feeling by doing something energetic: • on something. Most couples would agree that for a marriage to succeed. Inexperience can ……. 10.to make it more difficult for someone to achieve something • for somebody. 7. These figures …….. He ………. 9. 2.it. 5. 4. She’s very famous so we must give her VIP treatment. 3.to make it easier for someone to achieve something • at something.. 2.what caused the accident. There will be a full investigation to ……. They were very jealous when they saw my new Porsche.to provide a home and food for seven children. He’s dedicated to work. both parties have to ……. Phrasal verbs with work • against somebody. you in getting a job. 55 . Dealings with government offices usually involve bureaucratic delays.Vocabulary 1. 2.to try hard to achieve something • something off. 10. 4.to develop an emotional or physical state that you feel strongly. 6.his fitness. Replace each word or phrase in italics with one of the idioms bellow. 3.to understand something or to find the answer to something by thinking about it • up something. after a period of effort or time expressions with work • one’s fingers to the bone.to be the result of a calculation • something out. 6. 8. The police caught him in the act of committing the crime. but he needs to …….to work until you are so tired that you cannot work any more Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with work 1. He phoned me completely unexpectedly to tell me he was back in town.. especially for a long time work like a Trojan.
56 . E-commerce is still in its developmental stage at this point. and now that the Internet is everywhere. that lets everyone clean out his or her attic and make a profit. By using hypertext he could link together all the different kinds of information available on the Internet. this has happened. Now with the invention of the web. This language tells the computer how to display a page.com and trying to be as profitable as Bezon and Amazon. as we now know it. To fully understand what e-commerce is. and even cafes – anyone can order just about anything from anywhere. each page has it’s own address that the web recognizes using a system called HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol). With a loan from the bank. In the beginning. an Art Deco ashtray that she bought for $20.in schools. A researcher at CERN (a big European physics laboratory) named Tim Berners-Lee started to work on hypertext.com. anyone from a big corporation or even the average joe can build his or her own web page. Now thanks to the web everyone all aver the world can have a chance to bid on these items and help make Sharone richer. its main purpose was to send and receive messages. one for news groups. She could make nowhere near that much by selling these items in her hometown. This all changed in 1989. Many companies are trying to more like Amazon.com. This was the birth of the Internet.L12: E-Commerce The Internet has caught on like wild fire. Just like Jeff Bezos. it is easy to see that it will be a lasting innovation in the world of computers. the information on it could be rerouted automatically to other links. Time Magazine’s Person of the Year of 1999. Like Sharon Balkwitsch who has sold antiques on eBay. both on eBay. it is required that you learn to operate a separate program. For instance. Each page has to be written with a special language called HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). you must first understand where it came from. There is room for improvement for the creators as well as for the manufacturers of these goods being sold on the web. an online web auction site. Though with the advancement of certain technologies. no one anticipated that one-day people could buy books and cars over a computer. Jeff founded Amazon. It is now easier than ever to have and start your own web page. sold for $290. Ecommerce is a worldwide commodity that has taken the place of trips to the supermarket and has given us the freedom to conduct business at our house in our pyjamas. With as much support as e-commerce has gotten. and a vase she bought for $5 sold for $585. and several different programs for accessing databases. Berners-Lee called the software pack the World Wide Web. After the Cold War the Government wanted a reliable line of communication. libraries. one for the mail. If a network link became damaged by enemy attack. An example of this is eBay. No one ever intended for it to be so commercially successful. It all started with the DOD (Department of Defense) in 1996. For the World Wide Web to work. In order to use anything on the Internet. Businesses can use pictures to help sell their merchandise online.com in his garage and helped start e-commerce.
com in his garage. 5. b. 2. started e-commerce. has sold antiques on eBay. Sharon Balkwitsch a. is commercially successful nowadays. made all that money by selling those products in her hometown. c. has taken the place of trips to the supermarket. b. The web sites a. founded Amazon. 1. “ Anyone from a big corporation or even the average joe can build his or her own web page. B. c.” 57 . are of common use nowadays d. E-commerce a. d. b. bought an Art Deco ashtray for $20. d.A. loaned some money from a bank from a bank. is a worldwide commodity. d. The Internet a. were founded by a researcher at HTML c. d. has given people the freedom to conduct business at one’s house in our pyjamas. c. as we now know it. Starting from the following statement tell your own opinion on ECommerce. c. is helped willingly by people to get richer. enables people buy books and cars. was first used in 1996. was considered Time Magazine’s Person of the Year of 1999. Jeff Bezos a. b.. have each of their page written with a special language called HTML 4. Find the incorrect variant out of the four. are based on hypertext b. has caught wild fire. had once as its main purpose sending and receiving messages. 3.
George (wait) in the lounge before his flight (be announced) 4. They (leave) the hotel when you (call) a taxi. It finally ended at 6 p. 7. using past tense and past perfect: Example: I made many mistakes so I got a bad mark.A. My friend (find) a luggage trolley when I offered to help her. 4. so the country was called a melting pot. It was nine o’clock when he finally found the solutions. When we reached the house. She finally passed her driving test in August 1999. 4. She finally got her B.m. The first patients came into the waiting room at 7 a. At 10.m. 1. Many immigrants from many nations came to the U. He didn’t understand my name so I repeated it again. She (feel) nervous before the plane 9 took off. Re-estate the following sentences.m. 1. 3. 6. 3. Example: Mike started studying the problem at 6 p.m. B.30 she went to bed. Mary turned on the TV set at 8 p. because it had been very complicated. She (wonder) if the taxi-driver (understand) the address she (tell) him. The operation began at 10 a. Comment upon these situations using the past tense simple and the past perfect continuous. 3. They didn’t come in time so I left. 58 . She complained a lot about my relatives so I felt embarrassed.Grammar A. He had been studying since 6 p. 7. 5. 1. He lost control of his car so he had a terrible accident. 5. Laura began studying for her degree in 1998. I got a bad mark because I had made many mistakes. They spent a lot of time together so they came to know each other well. 6. 8. we(remember) we (forget) our luggage in the cab. in 2002. The doctor came at 8 a. The McGregors’ went to a restaurant last night. My friend never saw a baseball so he didn’t understand it. They redecorated the house so it looked lovely. 5. 2. Roger Harrison got his first job in the publishing house when he was 20.S. We gave her a lot of attention so she felt nice in our company. Miss Brown started taking driving lessons in February 1999. Mike had been studying the problem for three hours when he finally found the solution.m. He retired when he was 65.m. 10. 2. 2. C. 9. They ordered the dishes at 8 p. and the waiter brought them at quarter to 9. Use past tense simple or past perfect. Mike studied the problem for three hours. She didn’t hear the phone so she didn’t answer it.m. 6.m.
59 . 8. When she warned me about the danger I (drive) at a high speed for about 20 minutes. Nu mai vizitasem oraşul meu natal de multă vreme şi eram hotărât să-mi petrec vacanţa acolo. 2. 4. 2. 9. 5. She (read) when I entered the room. Când în cele din urmă a ajuns la gară. 5. Era în magazin de jumătate de oră când şi-a dat seama că şi-a uitat poşeta acasă. He (sleep) for several hours when I came into the room. trenul plecase. E. As we (make) pizza for an hour they lost their patience and (leave). Mi-a spus că invitase pe un cunoscut scriitor să ţină o conferinţă despre literatura modernă. 5. The woman didn’t know that the man (look) at her. Use past perfect continuous or past continuous. When I noticed the speed limit I (drive) at a high speed. Two things your colleagues had been doing for a couple of minutes before the professor entered the lab. 10. It was raining when I looked out of the window. 4. ne-am hotărât să-l aşteptăm în hol. Two things you had been doing for one hour by 10 yesterday morning. Two things your colleagues had done before they left the lab. 3. 10. 4. She (read) a very captivating book when I got into the room. . Translate the following into English: 1. 3. The thieves were not aware that the police (follow) them for 10 minutes. We didn’t realize that they ( watch) us for a few minutes. 8. Conferinţa urma să aibă loc la ora 7 p. Two things your friend had done before he went to bed. 7. 6. 2. Two things your friend had been doing for half an hour before he called you. 7. 9.D. Toţi colegii mai şi-au cumpărat romanul lui Balzac după ce au văzut serialul la televizor. 1. Ne-a întâmpinat secretara care încerca să prindă Bucureştiul la telefon de la ora 6.m. Nici n-am apucat să mă mişc că s-a şi trezit. 6. Example: It had been raining for about half an hour when I looked out of the window. Before I was in Mall she (visit) the Art Museum. 3. iar oamenii aşteptau în sală cam de jumătate de oră când a sosit invitatul. 6. Write: 1. Two things you had done before you left home in the morning. Nici n-am apucat bine să închid uşa că a şi sunat cineva. Pentru că oaspetele nu sosise încă.
about an unsuccessful murderer. Phrasal verbs with make • make up.workers receive a salary and are paid monthly. Chose the correct word between the homophones: 1.make a meaningless.I told that (to/too/two) George and he was enchanted.complain. 8. 2. Most ……….decide Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with make. She can never…………about what to wear. 9. 3. 5. It’s hilarious ………. so don’t…… 2. 6. 3. 7. 3. 10. 7. He behaved awfully to me last night and now. 1. During the war.There was nothing on the table but a few crusts of (bread/bred).This jigsaw puzzle has two (peaces/pieces) missing. It’s an important course so could you ………to be here on time? 5. He must have been in a fight.You need to have nerves of (steal/steel) to be a fighter pilot. he’s trying to……. usually unwanted. 5. His dream is to be successful and to ……. We need silence.Why has the project been (allowed/aloud) to continue if it's such a disaster? 4.try • make a fuss. Send me a letter about this – I need to have all the details……….it. become friends again after a quarrel • make up for.. sound • make it – arrive in time • make money. black comedy white elephant white lie white wedding black comedy black eye black look black market blackout in black and white 1. invent .do something wrong • make a noise.Vocabulary 1. Fill the gaps in these sentences with one of the idioms bellow.repay. He showed his disapproval by giving me a ………… 2. 6.. They’re not getting married in a registry office: they’re having a ……… 7.The plaster cast will help to (heal/heel) the broken bone. I don’t like people who always ………about things. 4. 2.American pit bull terriers are (bread/bred) for their fighting instincts 60 .he’s got a …….because I didn’t want her to get into trouble. compensate for Expressions with make • make an effort.A greater proportion of students with first degrees are now going on to study for (higher/hire) degrees. 8. 3.1. I told a………. show unnecessary excitement • make a mistake.do well financially • make up one’s mind. some things could only be bought on the ……… 4. 6.it’ll be a………… 2. No one will visit the museum.Go up the (stairs/stares) and her flat is on the left. 9. It’s important not to………when you want to win the prize. She had a …………and didn’t regain consciousness for several minutes.
B. In the past. very little research has been done on the hacking world and its culture. Hackers like to hack in order to impress each other. they could cost the company thousands. There are hackers out there that will do there best to harm any system they can. and malicious hackers. b. Hackers also do not know about the cost results of their actions. They do not consider that if they do get into a system and make an unintentional. Despite the growing trend of hacking. Also in many government organizations. president Clinton created the Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection. and do not have full-time jobs or own property. trend. (…) A. Write an article in support of /against hacker. Newcomers to the hacking community learn the rules by associating with established hackers. to be faced with. to gain access to. C. hackers were basically known as just computer experts. Nowadays hacker means the same thing as a cracker. This protects the innocent and helpless from hackers and gives them the right over the power of Cyber Terrorists. overworked. including the best. The art of computer hacking has grown since the computers first started to appear. unintentional. The image of a computer hacker has grown from a harmless nerd into a vicious technocriminal. Write the portrait of the hacker from your own point of view . nerd. national security documents. and neither do they realize the problem they cause for already overworked people. 61 . I think that every computer professional. it is not one that is accepted in the United States or any other country. they have formed some type of group to deal with cyber terrorist and block them from stealing money as well as information. Make sentences of your own using the following: unstoppable. The bad hackers are dangerous if they may gain access to classified information.L13: Hacking Hacking has been developed over the years to be unstoppable. There is a number of things that our country (USA) is realizing about Cyber terrorism. and possibly millions of dollars. service or money. Choose between these two: a. Although hacking is a growing trend in our society. a person who pirates software. have made a mistake that has caused the loss of data. All studies show that hackers are generally young. Young hackers do not know what a System Administrator is faced with on a day-to-day basis. Divide this article into paragraphs and give each of them a suitable title. In 1998. simple mistake.
Between 30 and 40 of the required 12……………must be in the student’s 13…………subject. Wise’s ……….on C++ next week? a) conference b) discussion c) lecture d)meeting The lecture was so ………that almost everyone felt asleep. a) bored b) dull c) exhausted d) tired According to my…………. a) idea b)nail c) pin d) point A few jokes always ……….up a lecture.so we could understand every word he said. Sophisticated was talking about. To choose than do 20……….require about 120 credits for 11…………. Each course is designated as giving a 7…………. Rush was speaking so quickly I couldn’t ………what he said. Orator spoke clearly and……. a) clue b) guess c) point d) thought 62 .Students can also usually choose nonrequired courses called 18……………. Put each of the following words or phrases into its correct place in the passage bellow.. Choose the right answer: Are you going to attend Prof.number of credits. a) doodle b) jot c) noting d) sketch That’s precisely what I mean. Almost all schools have a certain 16…………. amount course graduation outline requirements calendar credits major prospectus technical class hours curriculum number specified three college electives opportunity subjects week Selecting courses The course given by a 1…………. Schools vary considerably in the 14 …………. a) inspire b) liven c) loosen d) raise Miss Duffer looked as if she hadn’t a…………what Prof.. 2. as well as the credits given for the 6 ……. a) belief b) information c) knowledge d) opinion Prof. a course that meets three times a 9……usually gives……credits towards graduation. a) distinct b) distinctly c) distinguishable d)legibly During a lecture I always try to ……. For example.. or university are called its curriculum.schools... The 2…………of the institution 3…………the complete 4…………. a) accept b) catch c) listen d)take Use your imagination and try to ……….down the main points that are maid.. the lecture starts at eleven tomorrow morning. It gives the 5……………for entry to each course. These are usually equal to the number of 8 …………devoted each week to the course.Liberal-arts colleges usually give students more 19………..the scene in your mind.Vocabulary 1. a) draw b) model c) paint d) picture Would you please………from smoking while the lecture is in progress? a) avoid b) keep yourself c) refrain d) stop Prof. You’ve hit the ………on the head.of freedom given students in 15 ………their courses. Schools using the semester 10………..of required 17………..
instructor g) the head of some universities or schools 8. dean d) the lowest teaching rank at a university 5. Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage bellow. trainee i) someone learning a trade who works in return for being taught 10. cadet b) person who trains sportsmen for contests or prepares private students for an exam. let’ take an………. while 4………. 4.of the present situation. The undergraduates belong to one of four 5………. principal j) person undergoing some form of vocational training 11..and undergraduates. They are controlled by the same central 20……….professor k) anyone devoted to the acquisition knowledge especially attending university 12.what he was saying.students who take a number of 10………….. according to their 6 ………of study. 8………. 3. Graduates have already received their 3…….and are usually 21…………on the same campus or nearby 22………. Some institutions are 14……….. a) bearing b) connection c) dependence d) relation 3.have not. Others admit 16………of only one 17……… A 18……… institution has 19…….and senior classes. Most schools also admit 9……….. 1.your shorthand by taking notes during lectures. 63 ... authority classes degree located special women bachelor’s coeducational freshmen schoolstudents year bodies coordinate graduates separate undergraduates campuses courses junior sex university Students The student body of a 1. a) keep b)keep in c)keep on d) keep up To begin the lecture. a) oversight b) overtone c) overture d) overview The lecturer spoke so fast I found it hard to take………. but are not working towards a 11………. pupil l) attends primary school 13. lecturer h) a person studying to become an officer in the army or a policeman 9.with both men and 15………students.or a college is divided into 2……. coach c) highest grade of university teacher 4. disciple e) person in charge of a division of study 6. sophomore.to school.You can……….. apprentice a) female teacher in charge of a school 2. ……. student m) follower of a religious teacher. These are 7……...on the matter under discussion.... Students12…………vary considerably from13……….men’s and women’s colleges.degrees.. a) away b) in c) over d) up The example you have just referred to has no……... headmistress f) person who teaches you driving 7. Match the words for people in education with the correct definition.
to move a chair near to someone or something • draw oneself up -to make yourself look bigger by standing straight. She’s very good at Maths. When it comes to politics.people ……themselves. Like a lot of short men.for another hour with a series of tedious questions. 12.. 2. ………. A good book can help to take your………….to act in a more careful way than you did before. 7.to move away from someone or something.. I try to keep an open………… 11. 10. -2. That’s too difficult for me to follow. 1. 5. especially by spending less money.. She had a wealth of experience to……….their argument but I refused. The director ……the meeting ……. Like all good interviewers he manages to ……... Phrasal verbs with draw • draw back.. 10. He'll have to ………his ……. 2.over heels in love. to prepare something...or tails? 6. We couldn’t solve the problem. 8.to help someone to express their thoughts and feelings more easily by making them feel less nervous • draw something up -1. usually something official. 1. They were in two……….it’s over my…………… 7. it slipped my ……….to remove a small amount of liquid from a larger amount • draw on something . 4. usually to try to seem more important Expression with draw • draw in your horns. he tends to ……….now he's lost his job 5. don’t panic-try to keep your……….a list of candidates that I'd like to interview..whether to get married . 6.a chair and I'll tell you all about it.wave.she has a good ………for figures. usually because you are surprised or frightened • draw somebody into something . Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with draw.a little of her home-made wine just to taste. 6. Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable form of head. If there’s a problem to solve.to his full height in public.to make someone become involved in a difficult or unpleasant situation • draw something off .to cause something to last longer than is usual or necessary • draw somebody out of . 3. They tried to ……me …. 3..when she saw its teeth. She leaned forward to stroke the dog but quickly ………. He can’t climb a ladder because he has no …………for heights.5. If there’s an emergency. 8. two ………. I’m sorry I didn’t make that phone call. 9. She …….off your troubles. in writing.. 9.to use information or your knowledge of something to help you do something • draw something out .are better than one. brain or mind. I’ll spin a coin to see – do you want to call ………. I've ……. 4. 7. They were………. 64 . but suddenly I had a………….
The Internet is the way that Sina operates with its users. search and free email throughout its four sites. sellers can reach the majority of the consumers through the use of the Internet. community platforms. 1). Sina uses the Internet to link people all over to other Chinese language sites. Both of the companies use the Internet to better serve their customers and potentially adding new customers in the long run as well. 65 .” (Laudon.” (18) as well as getting paid for listings by sellers and very soon to be buyers. Sina would not be able to advertise on the Internet therefore not being able to generate revenue and not surviving as a company. financial information. The Internet is very essential for Sina to operate its business. ASM helps to provide users online information on trade shows. The two companies Sina and ASM both rely on the Internet to run their companies receiving revenues through the Internet and reaching their audience. Asia Source Media (ASM) “ … offers services via Internet for companies participating in global trade. ASM used to be an Asian trade magazine that eventually installed software and offered an interactive catalogue of products and factories on CD-Rom and converted its catalogue to a Web site. They can just click a button and find whatever they need or are looking for in less time and money.” (Laudon. Since anyone can have access to the Internet. 18). Using email and the Web sites helps the buyers and sellers come together saving money on costly travel or telephone calls. Revenues are generated for Sina by advertising for companies on its Web site that is primarily for the U. and Taiwanese.L14: Internet Advertisements The Internet can be very useful for companies to advertise and sell their products. “ Sina is known in China for providing firstrate. online shopping platforms. comprehensive. These two companies help their customers find what information or products they are looking for in the comfort of their houses or offices. If there were no Internet. Sina is a company that has “ … become the most heavily trafficked Web sites in the Chinese language market. Both of the companies generate all their revenues through use of the Internet. up-to-the-minute news. Without the Internet these companies would not be able to operate their business and not serve their customers or gain potential new ones.S. product alerts and discounted prices from factories. The Internet saves the customers time and money by proving a fast way to retrieve what they are looking for. Without the Internet the customers would have to search for products and information by going to these sellers to shop around or by sitting on the phone for hours calling these sellers for information. ASM earns its revenues by “ … accepting ads to be displayed on its Web site. 18). Sina is hoping to generate profits through charging subscription fees for access from users to their sites and to add electronic commerce and Internet telephone capabilities to its Web sites. it also offers popular chat rooms. Consumers view products and then contact the sellers using email. The whole make up of these two businesses relies wholly on the Internet to run them.” (About Sina.
6. community platforms. It offers services via Internet for companies participating in global trade.A. 2. product alerts and discounted prices from factories. It generates all its revenues through use of the Internet 9. 11. It earns its revenues by accepting ads to be displayed on its Web site as well as getting paid for listings by sellers and very soon to be buyers. 7. The whole make up of this business relies wholly on the Internet to run it. It is hoping to generate profits through charging subscription fees for access from users to their sites and to add electronic commerce and Internet telephone capabilities to its Web sites. What do you think on internet advertisements? Could we do without them? Are there any disadvantages/risks that we should be aware of regarding these internet ads? 66 . It relies on the Internet to run its company receiving revenues through the Internet and reaching its audience. 12. It uses the Internet to better serve its customers and potentially adding new customers in the long run as well. Which of the following information refers to Sina and which to ASIM and which to both? 1. up-to-the-minute news. B. It is known in China for providing first-rate. financial information. online shopping platforms. 5. 10. It helps its customers find what information or products they are looking for in the comfort of their houses or offices. comprehensive. it also offers popular chat rooms. 4. It uses the Internet to link people all over to other Chinese language sites. 8. 3. It helps to provide users online information on trade shows. It used to be an Asian trade magazine that eventually installed software and offered an interactive catalogue of products and factories on CD-Rom and converted its catalogue to a Web site. search and free email throughout its four sites.
and E or F means 17……… A few schools use no 18………….……………… botanist a……. the most 9……….……………… …….. Almost every 3.. with a mark.……………… ……. and for 15. ……….……. and 16…………are much more commonly used. of 100 per cent representing 12. that he only started learning it one year ago. activities.. Today the letters A.…………. about 80 per cent. his English is excellent.……………… religion …….……………… meteorologist e……. We were the ……….……………… t…….……………… …….……………… e……. 67 .achievement.students in the class who could speak Russian. a) alone b) one c) only d) single 3. Universities and 7……. and social 22. Priscilla asked for ……….……….……………… …….………. 3. Your pronunciation would improve if you……….……………… …….………to the parents.……………… ……..Vocabulary 1. E. Choose the correct variant: 1. Such letters report the student’s progress.……………… ……. Fill in the missing information: SUBJECT TEACHER Geology ……. C.……………… zoology ……. For a long time. achievements average grade minimum perfect school adjustment colleges letter occasionally progress teacher admit common marking pass record attitude failure method percentage reports Grading Grading is a 1………used in schools to 2…………student achievements.work.……………… …….method of recording achievement was by 10….system at all.……………… entomologist agronomy ……. each 19…………writes a detailed 20. a) exercised b) practised c) repeated d) trained 4.at home as she thought she would learn English more quickly that way.……………… …….……………… 2.……………… words unborn babies …….……………… graphologist IS THE STUDY OF ……... or 11…………. The mark A stands for exceptional achievement.……………… ……. B. Instead.The record supplies information for 6…………to parents.often use this piece of information to help determine whether they should 8………a student..……………… ……. The 13 ………… mark for a 14. a) accounting b) considering c) imagining d) wondering 2.…………was usually 70 per cent . Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage bellow.……………… ancient ruins …….with a tape recorder. D..…… keeps a record of each student’s 4………in order to have some basis for measuring his 5……….……………… b……. 21………….……………… life …….
a) celebrated b) delighted c) enjoyed d) rejoiced 19. Chose the best synonym. A role play session is particularly useful in bringing together different ………of teaching.in the dictionary. Please …….to my studying English privately? a) allow b) agree c) approve d) permit 9. a) differ b) distinguish c) separate d) solve 6. language of most Spaniards. a) arouse b) put out c) raise d) rise 14. It is ……. Vivian REVISED her paper carefully.. They were most impressed by the overseas student whose English was ………… a) impeccable b) infallible c) irreproachable d) spotless 20. a collection of English words and phrases arranged by the ideas they express RATHER THAN in alphabetical order. They are learning English. If you don’t know what that word means. The student is discourteous. a) anticipated b) foreseen c) hope d) worry 4. There has been a great ………. a) give it up b) look it up c) make it up d) show it up 13. At the language school each student is assigned to his or her own……… a) director b) professor c) staff d) tutor 15. but they haven’t ……. a) complains b) giggles c)scolds d) sneers 2. a) by hook and by crook b) by leaps and bounds c) from time to time d) slow but sure 17. Would you ……. a) home b) mother c) native d) natural 10. a) copied b) corrected c) retyped d) reviewed 3..much progress.your hand if you want to ask a question... a) escalation b) improvement c) increase d) rise 12. 1. a) assist b) attend c) follow d) present 8. he GRUMBLES no matter how you try to please him. a) as well as b) instead of c) restricted d) unless 68 . in his English. following the professor’s suggestions. Spanish is the……. ………….a) particular b) peculiar c) personal d) private 5.classes regularly. Jonathan was surprised that Sonia’s English was so…………as she had never been to England. a) rusty b) scratchy c) sloppy d) stale 18. “Roget’s Thesaurus”. Learners of English as a foreign language often fail to …………between unfamiliar sounds in that language. It’s fifteen years since Timothy worked in Holland and his Dutch is pretty ………. a) cords b) fibers c) strands d) threads 16.the headmaster.that students will have doubled their vocabulary in three months.Cyril’s understanding of the language is growing …………. If you want to learn a new language you must …………. a) definite b) fluent c) liquid d) national 7. a) done b)got c)made d) performed 11.now. The school’s exam results ………….
During the wedding someone started giggling and I couldn’t keep a straight … 6. If you admit to making such a serious mistake you may lose ………. 5. Fill these gaps with a suitable form of face. a) conveniently b) deliberately c) lastingly d) robustly 5. can you keep an……. His face was FLUSHED because he had run all the way from the dorm so as ot to be late for the lecture. She gave him a long (stair/stare) but didn't answer his question. 6.4. 2. He had an accident while he was driving a (higher/hire) car. Anything you say to them goes in one ………. I have to go away for a while. Habits can be CONSCIOUSLY strengthened. 7. 12. 3. They live in a remote farmhouse on the (Aisle/Isle) of Skye.on them for me? 4. The speaker DEMONSTRATED his knowledge of the subject by his excellent lecture. 9. a) pale b) red c) shaking d) wet 7. The dog trotted off to (berry/bury) its bone. You can’t support both sides at once.open. She’s such a snob.but in this case they disagreed. Pair/Pare/Pear) off any bits of skin that don't look very nice. as when a student of the guitar practises and memorizes different fingerings. 6.you’ll have to play it by………… 2. Choose the correct word between the homophones: 1. 69 . They normally see …………. 10.and out the other. nose. 4. 9. or ear. I tried to catch the waiter’s ………but he didn’t look my way.don’t be so two-……….. 8. Don't walk around outside in your (bare/bear) feet. They were so hungry they had to (steal/steel) in order to eat. The student BROKE IN ON the conversation without waiting for the speaker to stop talking. a) faint b) fall asleep c) sweat profusely d) yawn widely 9. I can’t tell you exactly what to do. When they said they’d got engaged I couldn’t believe my………. 7.. 5. They pulled out of the deal at the last minute leaving us (hi/high) and dry. 11.to…………. My supply of confidence slowly DWINDLES as the day of the exam approaches. a) interrupted b) regarded c) seized d) withdrew from 8. The warmth of the lecture hall made the student DOZE. 10. a) corrected b) created c) repeated d) showed 10. a) illegal b) indecipherable c) outstanding d) sloppy 5.she looks down her ………. eye. Not everybody agreed that winning was the (be-all/bee-all) and end-all.everyone. Don’t bother to tell me how to get there-I’ll follow my ………. 1.. The children's club (meats/meets) every Thursday afternoon. He knew the risks and went into it with his…………. 3. a) diminishes b) emerges c) grows d) revives 6. 8. The teacher told the student that his paper was ILLEGIBLE..
Teora. Mariusz .New Cambridge Advanced English. 1994 . 2000 -internet resources 70 . Cambridge University Press.Jones. Leo.Test Your Vocabulary.Bibliography . Ed.Mistzal.