CONTENTS 1. Technology and Efficiency .................................................................................................... 2 2. Artificial Intelligence ........................................................................................

..................... 7 3. Bill Gates.............................................................................................................................. 12 4. The Impact Of Computers.................................................................................................... 17 5. Graphics & Multimedia........................................................................................................ 22 6. Types Of Computer Viruses................................................................................................. 26 7. The Current Nature Of Human Relations ............................................................................ 31 8. Programming........................................................................................................................ 36 9. Living With Computers........................................................................................................ 41 10. The New Visual Age: The Influence of Computer Graphics on Art and Society.............. 46 11. The Information Superhighway ......................................................................................... 51 12. E-Commerce....................................................................................................................... 56 13. Hacking .............................................................................................................................. 61 14. Internet Advertisements ..................................................................................................... 65 Bibliography............................................................................................................................. 70


L1: Technology and Efficiency The market for computer products is a multi-billion dollar business where one can find a perfect balance of technology and efficiency. The huge industrial market is lead by such names as IBM, Hewlett Packard, and Compaq. The steps that are taken to bring the computer from several small components to a desktop product are organization of the manufacturing facility, assembly of hardware, installation of software, and a test process. The production of a high quality product is important to computer buyers. Manufacturing factories produce approximately 14,000 systems weekly. Companies generally use 2 methods of computer assembly. One method involves complete unit assembly by one person, the other being group assembly where several people construct a single computer (the latter method is known as assembly line production). When assembling a computer, there are 8 to 10 major components installed including the processor speed chip, the motherboard, RAM (Random Access Memory), diskette drive, modem or network card, video card, hard drive, sound card, and CDROM. Before the components are placed into the computer, each part undergoes an extensive testing process called “quality control” . Quality control ensures that faulty systems are not shipped. As an initial step, prior to the assembly process, an inspection of the outer case to ensure that there are no scratches or defects. The brand name and indicator labels are put onto the computer case at this time. Next the motherboard is installed and prepared for the processor chip. The chip (which is often a Pentium chip) is attached to the motherboard along with the RAM component. Once the chip and RAM are installed, the internal speakers and sound card are placed into the case. The hard drive, disk drive and CD-ROM drive are attached to the computer chassis. All these components are then attached to the motherboard with cables so that they may communicate with each other. Power supply is then applied to the computer and other additional components such as the video card, and modem are added near a final stage of assembly. After all these components are installed to create the finished ‘PC’, the unit is thoroughly inspected to ensure that all the cables connections are in place and all other defects are fixed. Inspectors also ensure that cables are in appropriate places so that they do not touch components. The CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductorcircuitry for the memory and processor) is set up at this time. The top cover is placed onto the computer and it is shipped off for further testing. All companies differ in their testing of finished products. A common practice in most companies includes the 48-hour burn in period. After it, final diagnostic tests are completed to ensure all components are working well. If a computer is ordered with sound cards, speakers are attached to the unit and they also are tested. Mouse and keyboard components are tested manually by connecting a testing mouse and keyboard to the ports. The computer is then shipped from the manufacturing site to the distribution center. Here, additional tests are possible as computers are randomly checked and inspected. The computer is then further shipped to department or retail stores for sale to the consumer. In conclusion, the production of a computer from a number of components to a finished product is a complex procedure.(…) The usefulness of the computer and subsequent consumer demand for improved models will keep pressure on manufactures to build more efficient, high quality machines in future years.


A. Read the text above and find the synonyms for the following words(the words are in the same order as they appear in the text). 1. exquisite; 2. main; 3. to put into position; 4. to damage a surface; 5. wrong; 6. ending; 7. filled in; 8. buyer; 9. following; 10. bettered. B. Match the beginning of the sentences in the first column with their endings in the second one. a. the two methods of computer assembly 1. the video card, the modem are b. major components of a computer are 2. the 48-hour burn in period an initial step in quality control is 3. the complete unit assembly by one person, and the assembly line production c. additional components are 4. organization of the manufacturing facility, assembly of hardware, installation of software, and a test process 5. the processor speed chip, the d. a method of testing the finished products motherboard, RAM (Random Access is Memory), diskette drive, modem or network card, video card, hard drive, sound card, and CD-ROM. e. The steps that are taken to bring the 6. an inspection of the outer case to ensure computer from several small components that there are no scratches or defects to a desktop product are C. Are the following statements true or false? Correct any false statements and give reasons for your choice. 1. The internal speakers and sound card are placed into the case after the chip and RAM are installed. 2. Mouse and keyboard components are not tested manually. 3. The hard drive, disk drive and CD-ROM drive are attached to the computer keyboard. 4. CMOS is the short form for: complementary metal-oxide semiconductorcircuitry for the memory and processor 5. After all the components are installed to create the finished ‘PC’, the computer is shipped from the manufacturing site to the distribution center. D. What improvements are possible in the computer field? Write your own point of view in a 200 hundred word composition.


They ……….. George is in the swim in this lake.. 4. Greg is complaining about his neighbours.. The children are in the park. 12.(not sleep) She………. Listen ! Mary…………the piano.the children a fairy tale. We………about our integration in the European Community at this moment. All the family are at table. C. 2. 3. The computer worker is in front of the computer. 5.(dig) the library? (Greg/ not study) 8. (not tell) 4. Example: The little boy is looking at a policeman. ………television? (you/ not watching) 5. What song …………. (speak). Put the verbs in brackets in the present tense continuous: positive. 8. 4 1. The opera singer is on the stage. 2. The professor is speaking to the students about a new means of communication. The surgeon is in the surgery room. (learn) 3. 5.? (the singer/sing) 7. (not. Grandmother…………. Use the present tense continuous in your sentences. 3. The little boy ……….a cake. Mr.about that program. 1. What………to say? (he/try) 11. Ask questions to the following. Meg is in the computer lab.Grammar A. They………. 2. 4. 6. Smith is in his office. 10. Who is the little boy looking at? What The students are listening to the professor’s explanations. Father is looking for his glasses all around the house. a car. 11. 9. The painter is in his studio.(play) 9.. Example: Mary is in the kitchen. the TV set is on. 7. interrogative. ( bake) 6. . lie) 12. She………. …………by bus? (you/ come) 10. The students are in the language lab. negative. …………. Make comments on the sentences bellow. Mr. Brown is in the living room. Mike is in the garage. hoping to find a treasure under this tree. She is cooking dinner for everybody in the house. 1. The students are talking about the conference.

(neither) 5. Tell what the people around you are doing.…………. Paul isn’t making mistakes and neither am I. Example: She’s working on a new project and so is his colleague. (but) 4. Bob isn’t drinking his coffee and Doris isn’t either. (either) 6. The new student is trying hard. (too) 8. Mary is helping the builders and so is her mother. The tourists are taking some photos and so is the guide. She’s feeling worse today and her sister is.6. (so) 11. He isn’t repairing the car today.? 5. He is complaining about the noise in the street. …….. are you? 1. D. They aren’t skating now.? 6. The Germans are discussing about the price of the building. 9.…………? 4.? E.……….? 7. (neither) She’s not working on a new project and neither is her colleague. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. 7..……. (so) 3. 8. I’m searching for some information on this site and she is. Dr. 1. but all the women are. She is waiting for the professor. The boys aren’t staying still and neither are the girls.? 2. (either) 10. 2.? 10. too. You aren’t buying sweets.…………? 8. Your friend is waiting for you. (but). Imagine you are in a computer house. Mrs. They are boasting about their results. My cousin is studying for the exam.………? 9. Mr. 5 . They are looking at the photos. Your brother is studying French. They’re going to the meeting today. Simpson is working in the garage and his son is. Jimmy isn’t digging in the garden right now and neither is his sister. No man in this room is doing the right job.. He is looking for his gloves. Make any necessary changes.…………. (neither) 7. (so) E.? 3.. (too). using present tense continuous as much as possible.. White is taking care of the patient and so is the nurse. (either) 12.…. too. Add tag questions to the following sentences: Example: You aren’t practising a new technique. 10. Brown is carrying a suitcase and so is her husband. 9. Diana is wearing a pair of new earrings today……. too.

. He’s dialled her number. 2. They were speaking about different things but didn’t realize it.The (easiest/easily) thing is for us to take the plane home.anyway I hope so.have a good relationship with.There was a (fresh/freshly) fall of snow during the day.make contact.She entered a (bright/brightly) lit room. 6 .Vocabulary 1.his mother-in-law. 5. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1.In some towns you don't feel (safe/safely) going out alone at night. 2. 6.1. 3. 1. 7. 6.1.000 $. She said you must……. The bank robbers managed to ………….. but he can’t …….recover from • get through. 4.escape • get on. it’s advisable to carry your passport constantly.with 75. I could tell by taking one quick look that there have been a mistake. 5. 4. 10. It’s impossible to get tickets for such a popular show without previous warningyou need to book no less than six months in advance. What time did he…… this morning? 2. 8. Phrasal verbs with get • get away.rise from bed Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with get. 6.Her apple pie always looks (good/well) and tastes delicious. The child was rescued a moment before it was too late.1.. The show closed because it was running without making a profit. but cannot ……. 3. 7.continue with • get over. 2. 2. We’re still trying to ………that tragedy. 9. She was working much too hard causing harm to her health. 3.make progress.I was (scarce/scarcely) able to move my leg after the accident.The traffic is moving very (slow/slowly) ahead of us. 7. 4. He took the car for a test drive to see how he…….. friendly • get on with. The winners are selected without any plan by a computer.again soon.. 5. 3. It was a difficult problem and I was uncertain what to do. Replace the phrases in italics with suitable expressions from the list bellow: at cross purposes at short notice at least at least at the expense at all times at random at the last moment at a glance at the last moment at any moment at any rate at a loss at a loss 1. George adores his wife.manage to finish • get together. I’m sure that our friends will arrive very socially • get up. She was delighted to meet you. When abroad. 2.

Another promising arena of AI is chaos engineering. Created by Lotfi Zadeh almost thirty years ago. Success was minimal because of the lack of computer technology needed to calculate such large equations. Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. Almost any scientific. Allowing a more fuzzy input to be used in the neural network instead of being passed up will greatly decrease the learning time of such a network. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer architecture. There are many ways that AI can be used to solve a problem. For a relative scale of reference. these systems perform their duties quickly and accurately without expensive equipment. On the one hand. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1956 by a group of scientists having their first meeting on the topic. or large This concept was also inspired from biological roots. The generally accepted theory is that computers do and will think more in the future. They can easily replace many mundane tasks that other computer systems would have trouble with. chaos engineering. fuzzy logic is a mathematical system that deals with imprecise descriptions. On the other hand. that makes AI systems expensive.L2: Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself. Making recommendations on which AI systems work the best almost requires AI itself. In contrast to the usual yes and no answers. fuzzy logic is practically a win-win situation. large supercomputers can only create a brain the size of a fly. business. AI is achieved using a number of different methods. Early attempts at AI were neural networks modelled after the ones in the human brain. Chaologists are experimenting with Wall Street where they are hardly receiving a warm welcome. neural networks require massive amounts of computing resources that restrict their use to those who can afford it. there is something that can be said about this. Fuzzy logic's ability to do multiple operations allows it to be integrated into neural networks. this type of system can distinguish the shades in-between. Moreover. and expert systems. The inherent vagueness in everyday life motivates fuzzy logic systems. In order to tell that AI is present we must be able to measure the intelligence being used. Unfortunately. or financial profession can benefit greatly from AI. Two very powerful intelligent structures make for an extremely useful product. Although some are rather simple. The chaos theory has potential for 7 . chaos engineering has already proven itself and will be present for the foreseeable future. Many new AI systems now give a special edge that is needed to beat the competition. The chaos theory is the cutting-edge mathematical discipline aimed at making sense of the ineffable and finding order among seemingly random events. Using any one of the aforementioned design structures requires a specialized computer system. The ability of the computer to analyze variables provides a great advantage to these fields. However. fuzzy logic. fuzzy logic lends itself to multiple operations at once. It is surprising what a computer can do with that intelligence once it has been put to work. This integration takes the pros of fuzzy logic and neural networks and eliminates the cons of both systems. knowledge based systems. Fuzzy logic's structure allows it to easily rate any input and decide upon the importance. nice. The more popular implementations comprise neural networks. such as new. This new system is a now a neural network with the ability to learn using fuzzy logic instead of hard concrete facts. Nevertheless. Virtually all of these methods require special hardware and software to use them.

9. 6.handling an infinite amount of variables. The words are in the same order as those that appear in the text. 8. 2. Read the text and find the synonyms for the following. unnatural. computing and philosophy to deal with statements which are neither true nor false. necessary. They provide an efficient. chaos engineering. 8. capacity. Neural networks can be afforded by anyone. While the massive surge into the information age has ushered some old practices out of style. AI is achieved by using design structures like: neural networks. but the technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. and cased-based reasoning systems provide an inefficient. 7. knowledge-based systems. difficult to use program. Are the following statements true or false? Correct any false statements and give reasons for your choice. The fuzzy "logic is a theoretical system used in mathematics. The chaos theory is aimed at making sense of the ineffable and at finding order among seemingly random events. a. fuzzy logic. 9. they are can be easily updated and modernized. 11. 10. knowledge based systems. 6. actually B. mainly. The technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. unhappily. easy to use program that yields results that no one can argue with. A. 4. Use about 300 words to sustain it. Write your point of view on the following two issues. The chaos theory can’t be of a huge success in the financial world. obtained. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer cased-based reasoning systems. 8 . and cased-based reasoning systems are here to stay for a long time. finally. This gives it the ability to be a huge success in the financial world. 1. 5. While the expert systems. 12. 7. the lowest. disorder. 3. The rate of advancement may seem fast to the average person. dear. Designed correctly. knowledge-based systems. 4. 5. b. before mentioned. the better ones have taken over with great success. and expert systems. 2. The expert systems. Fuzzy logic can easily replace many mundane tasks that other computer systems would have trouble with. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1965 by a group of scientists 3. Computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. C. 1.

open the gate). The pink coat belongs to me….the vacuumcleaner) 9 . bow to the audience.Grammar A. put off the candles). What time do you go to college? (USUALLY) 2.grammar exercises) 3.(bell/ring. (OFTEN) 11. When do you go to the theatre? (SOMETIMES) 4. start conducting) 3. She goes to the door and opens it.(so. The restaurant doesn’t open until 9 o’clock …(neither –the snack bar) 2. (conductor/come. (The old lady/come in. What kind of books do you read? (OCCASIONALLY) 6.( A tall man/come in. Do you sleep in the afternoon? (NEVER) 8. (Paul/put on his raincoat. Answer the following questions using the present tense simple to express habitual actions. It is raining. The Herestrau Park looks beautiful in spring…( the Village Museum.too) 7.the other students) 8. 1. George is walking in the park with his daughter Mary. Make sentences of your own to express chains of short actions. They often go on trips in the mountains…( but. Which piece of music do you enjoy listening to? (SELDOM) 3. bend. 6. 4. Complete the following statements according to the indications in the brackets: Example: He doesn’t collaborate with others…(she-either) He doesn’t collaborate with others and she doesn’t either. The bell rings. catch a bus. Example: Mary is sitting at her desk. sit down) 5. Where do you go during your winter holiday? (SELDOM) 10.the pink scarf) 5. go back home) C. Lawyers talk a lot in their work…(so. Jill doesn’t read French…( her classmates. The musicians are tuning up their violins. Add the adverb in brackets to your answers. run to the gate. Do you help your parents with the housework. Who do you study with? (OFTEN) 7. The language lab helps them to improve their English…( so. go to the fire place. go. Where do you spend your weekend?(RARELY) 9. 1. (Mary/see a flower. Example: How do you get to college? I always go to college by trolleybus. greet everybody. (Jane/hurry down the stairs.either) 4. Two candles are burning on the mantelpiece. open) Mary is sitting at her desk.teachers) 6. The washing –machine doesn’t need to be repaired…(neither. Do you work late at night? (GENERALLY) 5. A door is opening to the left. 1. pick) 2. Someone is approaching the house. Where do you meet your friends? (FREQUENTLY) B.

Example: He will play that game with you. Greg will soon recover. This complain changes nothing in our relation.they) 10. Talk about your daily program. I don’t like this man…(but. She expresses her point of view quite abruptly.…? 8.? 2. doesn’t it? 1. They’ll go to the market. etc. (before) 8. He will go swimming again.? 9. It will get dark. They like nothing that is on the list. They’ll buy some food. (if) 5. Then I’ll see the film.…? 3. as soon as. Nobody likes listening to this nonsense. 6.9. (when) 10.). about the activities that you usually/ sometimes/ often/ seldom/ never do.. (as soon as ) 7.….…? 5. I’ll think about the problem you’ve told me about. (in case) F.m. You will go to bed. Then we’ll go to the skating rink. Complete these sentences using tag-questions.? E.…? 7. Join the following sentences using the connectors in brackets. Perhaps I’ll see John tonight. He understands the new concept. Susan and Meg always help their parents. 10 . 1.. etc. They sometimes do a good job. I’ll have some time. (as soon as) 4. Then I’ll tell him about the meeting.…? 4.. Imagine you are a businessman. Our friends attend school regularly…( we-too) D. Then he’ll be late for the conference.…..) and after conditional ones ( if. Example: The last train leaves at midnight. (in case) 2. (after). The department opens at 9 a.…? 6.. She’ll send her a letter. Maybe it will snow tomorrow. Make any other necessary changes. Use the present tense simple after time connectors ( when. The film doesn’t begin at 3 p. The clock will strike nine.(when) He will play that game with you when he is in the mood.. We’ll get home then.…. (before) 3. Her neighbours often understand to show their gratitude in this way. He will be in the mood. before.? 10. Perhaps Tim will miss the bus. She’ll send her mother a postcard. (provided) 9.m. in case. I’ll read the book.

last night. 4.increase in number or amount Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with go. Good quality audio equipment is on sale in every main shopping street.or do you think two or three storey buildings are more pleasant for people to live in? 8.enter • go on. while shows like musicals are sometimes described as should do it now. This CD contains the best parts of the show.return • go down. In Britain. 15. 12. 11 . Delays at the airport may be terrible in the main holiday period.leave.cease • go back. …….. it’s not only professional and business people who own their own homes. 9. He has searched everywhere for his glasses.continue • go over. use a yellow pen to make them stand out. Don’t put off doing this work any longer. Who wouldn’t like that problem to…….1. 2.rehearse. If you come across useful new words in a text. Students who do well in their exams at secondary school can go on to university or college. Would you like to live in a tall multi-storey building. Operas and chamber music are often considered to be intellectually superior. 2.or at least not so very artistic. 2. 7. 6. The temperature …. Replace the phrases in italics with suitable expressions from the list bellow: at high tide hi-fi high and low high season high-tech high-rise highbrow higher education highlight highlights in high spirits it’s high time high school high street middle class middle-aged middlebrow at low tide feeling low lowbrow low-rise 1. It’s much colder now. 14.again. Passangers and vehicles will be carried on ultra-modern shuttle trains. 5. They’ll……. 11. 3.Vocabulary 1. 2. 7. Phrasal verbs with go • go away. 1.. I’ve got a bad cold and my work is getting me down. 2.become lower •go in. not the whole thing. There’s less room for holiday makers on the beach when the sea comes up high than when it goes out. He told me desperately that prices……. Everyone was feeling elated before the weekend. 4. 10.the instructions as soon as you ask them to.repeat • go up. Do you think a person is no longer young when they are 40. 3.. reading the paragraph.1. 6. 50 or older? 13. His neighbour decided to…… because it started to rain. Please. He asked her to……through that door. 5..that’s why I’m depressed.

Unachievable goals undermine an organization. It should be made clear whom employees have to please. This is a particular challenge because it requires different approaches depending on the environment. more cost effective and more enjoyable for people to use computers. but it can be threatening to a manger that is worried about training his replacement. Managers need to do more than communicate. 4. Gates' attempts to train well oiled managers. it makes it easier to generate enthusiasm towards one's work. whether it’s the 12 . Here are Bill's ten qualities of a good employee: 1. If an individual doesn't genuinely enjoy interacting with people it will be hard to manage well. Build morale. This is done by providing employees with a clear definition of success and how they should measure their achievements. Choose a field thoughtfully. Don't make the same decision twice. He has even published articles that reveal his expectations and qualities he attempts to instil into Microsoft managers. In order for Microsoft to continue on its fruitful path the development of intelligent decision makers. Gates' realizes the importance of every single individual. 6. Managers should have the confidence in their well thought out decision in order to not leave any avenues open for rediscussion. For example. 10. Many managers like to see their employees increase their responsibility because it frees them up to tackle new or undone tasks. It is important for a manager from time to time to take on less attractive task to provide examples of how his or her employees should meet challenges. must be trained. Create a productive environment. instead of trying to be in a hundred place at once. Define success. A manager should never have to second-guess himself or herself.L3: Bill Gates In the beginning Gates' was mainly concerned and involved with technical development of new products in order to attract consumers. Nobody wants to work for a boss who just delegates tasks. Let people know whom to please. Take on projects yourself. By choosing a field one enjoys. 3. This quality is generally impossible to fake. because a mediocre team provides mediocre results. otherwise known as managers. Hire carefully and be willing to fire. Goals must be realistic. To be a good manager. 7. you have to like people and be good at communicating. Giving people a sense of importance increases motivation to complete the task to the best of their ability and provides the feeling of satisfaction after completion. 9. no matter how well it is managed. Microsoft's mission is to continually advance and improve software technology and to make it easier. Sometimes financial incentives stimulates productivity and motivation. Sometimes productivity is maximized by providing everybody his or her own office and other times by moving everybody into open space. 8. This is true for both a manager and an employee. project schedules must be set those who actually do the work. 2. A strong team is vital. This is an exciting goal. Transfer your skills to them. 5. Since Microsoft controls the largest percentage of the market than any of its competitors Gates puts more focus on the organization itself and its employees. Explain to employees the importance of their work to the company and customers. People will accept a bottom-up deadline they helped set. Develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. Usually a mixture of approaches is necessary to reach desired productivity. He also knows he cannot be at the table to make ever single day-to-day decision. but maybe overwhelmed by a schedule imposed from upper management that doesn't map reality. It should be made clear there's plenty of good will to go around and that there is not just one hotshot manager getting all the credit.

B. To transfer your skills to your people. To hire carefully and be willing to fire. To choose a field one enjoys. take on less attractive task to provide examples of how his or her employees should meet challenges. To define success. To create a productive environment. A. To like people and be good at communicating. The beauty of Gates' tips is they are pretty much common sense. Which of these Bill Gates’ ”rules” do you consider to be the most important? Why? Could you add more rules to his? 13 . To build morale. avoiding mediocrities. To provide employees with a clear definition of success and how they should measure their achievements. Managers should not leave any avenues open for rediscussion. To give people a sense of importance of their work. Not to make the same decision twice. To provide everybody according to one’s own motivation. especially customers. To develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. To let people know whom to please. the manager’s boss or someone else higher up. To take on projects yourself. Making processes clear and simple always seems to accomplish the goals was set out to. it doesn't take a rocket scientist to incorporate these aspects into his or her employee. means It should be made clear whom employees have to please Managers should. There is a risk of paralysis when employees start to question whom they are supposed to make happy. To be a good manager. By conducting conversations individuals. from time to time. In Bill Gates’ opinion. Gates' believes in talking with employees and customers rather than talking at them. To increase their motivation to complete the task to the best of their ability. To choose the personnel with care. can understand and allow them to provide feedback that is taken into consideration allows Gates' to build a lasting and trusting relationship with employees and customers.manager.

. 21.. “I……. He always (ask) me what I’ll do if I (be) the president of this committee. 4. We……(get) a lot of snow in the mountains in winter..(go) out to get the evening paper.. I………. they (play) baseball with the neighbors’ children. Don’t disturb her. 7. ……. They…….(resemble) your mother very much. 12.…(like) autumn.(always. Now that the flowers ……. 2.” (H. Promit însă să trec pe la tine de îndată ce mă voi elibera..m. 10.(belong) to you? 5. Meg ……. “What on earth ……you……(do) there?” “I………(try) to find the key to the door. Am foarte mult de lucru în perioada asta. He………. You………….(wait)for me..(wear) you……. John …………..G..(not approve) of your behaviour. Wells) B. but they usually (tell) me nice things. 31.(move) freely in two directions. ……. 1. He never (seem) to understand what (happen) in his very house. Put the verbs in the brackets in the present tense continuous or simple. my friends…………. 14 .Grammar A... …. the garden……. 30.…(mean).(admit) we……….(smell) good.. 14. Hey! You ……….this pair of scissors ……….(see) the manager at the beginning of the week.(seem) to be in better shape now? 26. …. 20. I……. 8..he…. I can’t go away. I must go. speak) on the phone? 6.(bloom). 13.. 18.(make) her clothes herself. I…….(usually....(feed) the baby. Ştiu că eşti priceput la toate! De ce eşti aşa de neîndemânatec astăzi3.…(read) English well. I……. Now I ………(hope)our team will win the match.they ……. 19. 24. The park……… (look)beautiful in autumn. All the students in the group ….you…. Not everybody ….. With the dress you. Este prima oară în iarna asta când ninge aşa de mult că pare că nu se mai opreşte. They (criticize) me know. The officer (see) him and (catch) him in a matter of seconds. I ………(have) an appointment with my dentist at 5 p. Translate into English: 1. 33. 25. 16..(fly) from Bucharest to Sibiu tomorrow.. sign) the papers at the end or at the beginning of the meeting? 27. 3. 11.. They (not jump) over the fence now. 17.(go) to the circus this evening.. ……they …….(know) what she….” 32. 23. 2. 28.. 15.(drink) from my glass. But how about up and down? Gravitation………(limit) us there. beat) me at chess. What time…….(not interrupt) people when they……. she …….(usually. 9. He ….(talk) over the telephone.feel better today or is it necessary to call for a doctor? 29.(forever boast) of what he has done. 22.

pentru că o ajutăm pe mama să termine curăţenia de toamnă. 8. şi mai ales acum. 7. când îmi beau cafeaua. punându-mă într-o situaţie stânjenitoare. 23. 9. Totdeauna se întâmplă acelaşi lucru. 22. Nici el şi nici colegul lui nu par a fi prea interesaţi să-şi pună întrebări existenţiale. luând viaţa în uşor.Te caută cineva la telefon. . – Astăzi nu sunt acasă pentru nimeni. De data asta rămânem însă acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri. E prima oară când mănânc clătite cu spanac şi nu e rău deloc şi mi se pare doar că are un gust ciudat. 18. Bunica uită de fiecare dată unde îşi pune ochelarii şi ori de câte ori are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa. Nu-i aşa că vezi şi tu că omul de pe trotuarul vecin ne urmăreşte pas cu pas? 21. cât şi cei ai lor semnează acum un tratat de neagresiune. Dan e în camera mătuşii lui. 25. Vorbeşte şi acum la telefon?! Dar este îngrozitor! Toată ziua ţine telefonul ocupat! 19. aşa că hai şi noi să mergem să-i ajutăm. ochii albaştri şi îi plac foarte mult dulciurile şi ursuleţii. nici eu şi nici sora mea.Vrea vreo unul dintre voi să meargă cu noi la bazinul de înot. Atât reprezentanţii noştri. Părul blond. 20. Mă întreabă mereu care este scopul meu în viaţă. 5. 6. Nu se îndoieşte că cel care are dreptate în acest moment este el şi nimeni altcineva. . Uită-te! Ninge cu fulgi mari! 15 . 16. Tu ce crezi? 14. Astăzi e hotărâtă să poarte o rochie verde cu dungi. secţia chineză. şi când îl întrebi cum îl cheamă. Îi reproşează mereu că depăşeşte viteza şi că îi pune viaţa în pericol. Nu-i aşa că nu ştii noutăţile? George studiază Informatica la Iaşi. iar Maria urmează cursurile Facultăţii de Litere. În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Bucureştiului. Studiază Proiectul pentru o nouă aripă a fabricii.4. 15. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa teatrului de comedie. 11. îţi răspunde: -Am trei ani. 10. 24. Când ia banii se duce la cumpărături şi se întoarce acasă cu o mulţime de fleacuri. 17. 13. Repară maşina de cusut acesteia. Uneori Dunărea îngheaţă în luna ianuarie.Astăzi nu mergem. Vin dinspre moară acum şi sunt foarte încărcaţi. 12. Directorul este foarte ocupat acum. Băieţelul cel mai mic al vecinii mele are trei ani.

. 3. 6.stop doing something Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with give. My father…. Now he’s ……….. he can’t afford to pay his mortgage. smoking years ago. 4. Love letters will never be ……. 6. Sorry.return • Give in -surrender • Give out -distribute • Give up. He had a (sudden/suddenly) heart attack while he was on holiday..ever since. it’s not a good photo because it’s ……. We didn't expect such a (large/largely) number of people to attend our concert. Don't fill your glass too (full/fully) or you'll only spill it.. He (cool/coolly) placed the money on the table and walked out. The pop star decided to……the proceeds of her last concert to charity.… 4. 1.regularly but I’ve lost her address and so now we are . The world's financial markets are ever more (close/closely) linked. they aren’t allowed to practise in the house and they have to play…………! 2. She’s going to……wildlife leaflets outside the main entrance. 16 . 2.. contact control danger debt doors focus hospital love luck pain prison season stock touch tune fashion practice work 1. Fill in the gapes with the suitable phrases from the list bellow: In ……or out of…. 2. We are strong enough not to ………so easily.I used to do a lot of photography but now I’m ………… 5. He really is …………: he lost his job last year and he’s been ……….. 4.donate • Give back. but they enjoyed the bumper cars (most/mostly) of all. Strawberries are ………. The passengers knew they were…great ………when the pilot announced he was no longer ………. She must ……. 7. The kids loved the fair. 2..let’s hope he doesn’t end up…………. 7. We used to keep …….because people will go on falling ………… 3. Phrasal verbs with give • Give away. 8. Although she’s still………considerable……….! 8. The twins are learning the violin but as they always play………….Vocabulary 1. 5.of the aircraft. she’s……….this month but the shop hasn’t got them ………. 3.these library books by Tuesday. 3.and back home. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1. She was (strange/strangely) calm – that was something I couldn’t understand. Do the police know the (exact/exactly) circumstances of her death? 5.

These developments have made shopping much more convenient. for as has happened. Computer integrated manufacturing is a relatively new technology arising from the application of many computer science subdisciplines to support the manufacturing enterprise. and the desired item are more likely to be in stock. they have not been without cost in terms of purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and of training workers to use the new technology. Office automation has become the term for linking workstations. A disadvantage is the potential for dramatic and widespread failures. The inventory system can easily alert the manager when the supply of some item drops below a specified threshold. but more and more frequently the checkout counter include a bar-code scanner.L4:The Impact Of Computers THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERS Computer technology not only has solved problems but also has created some. In short. and the purchase information is also relayed back to the computer to cause and immediate adjustment in the inventory data. The terminal may require that the clerk type in the code for the item. Making a telephone call no longer should conjure up visions of operators connecting cables by hand or even of electrical signals causing relays to click into place and effect connections during dialing. Cash-register receipts can then include brief descriptions of the items purchased. An eventual goal of office automation has been termed the “paperless office. perhaps making use of CIM technology. The telephone system now is just a multilevel computer network with software switches in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past. A major role of computer science has been to alleviate such problems. and other tools by means of a local-area network. including a certain amount of culture shock as individuals attempt to deal with the new technology. All but the smallest shops have replaced the old-fashioned cash register with a terminal linked to a computer system. In a less extensively automated arrangement.” Although such changes ultimately make office work much more efficient. CIM has the potential to enable manufacturers to build cheaper. Today’s automobiles themselves 17 . Computer technology has been incorporated into automobiles. checkout lines shorter. Computers are involved (CAD systems) not only in the design of cars but also in the manufacturing and testing process. the order for a new supply of an item may be automatically generated and sent electronically to the supply warehouse. Computer technology has had a significant impact on retail stores. Word processors-computer software packages that simplify the creational and modification of documents-have largely replaced the typewriter. Computers are forever present in the workplace. database system. faster. higher-quality products and thus improve their competitiveness. Intruders can see packets traveling on a network and can perhaps interpret them to obtain confidential information. The downside of this technology is the potential for security problems. printers. more reliable. Electronic mail has made it easy to send messages worldwide via computer communication networks. The technology of CIM emphasizes that all aspects of manufacturing should be not only computerized as much as possible but also linked together via a computer communication network into an integrated whole. a device that directly reads into the computer the UPC printed on each package. In the case of retail chains linked by networks. mainly by making computer systems cheaper. easier to use. the manager can send in the order electronically by a dial-up link to the supplier’s computer. The checkout process is faster.

include numerous computer chips that analyze sensor data and alert the driver to actual and potential malfunctions. Although increased reliability has been achieved by implementing such computerization, a drawback is that only automotive repair shops with a large investment in high-tech interfaces and diagnostic tools for these computerized systems can handle any but the simplest repairs.

A. Find in the text the opposites for the following: 1. more expensive; 2. slowlier;3. less reliable; 4. more difficult; 5. separated; 6. slowly; 7.unreliably; 8. upside; 9. insecurity; 10. important; 11. long; 12. manually; 13.less convenient B. Correct the following statements, whenever necessary: Word processors-computer software packages make it easy to send messages worldwide via computer communication networks. Electronic mail eventual goal has been termed the “paperless office.” Office automation simplifies the creational and modification of documents. Computers technology has not been without cost in terms of purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and of training workers to use the new technology. The telephone system now are involved not only in the design of cars but also in the manufacturing and testing process, perhaps making use of CIM technology. The checkout counter includes a bar-code scanner, a device that directly reads into the computer the UPC printed on each package and software switches. Computers are involved (CAD systems) in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past.


A. Make sentences according to the model: Model: Peter: dog for a walk He was taking his dog for a walk at this time yesterday. 1. Mary: at the baker’s 6. Jane: in the swimming-pool 2. Billy : to the cinema 7. Harry: in the park 3. Dan: at the box-office 8. Jannet: a football match 4. Roger: in the library 9. George: to the radio 5. Jenny: into the letter-box 10. Alice: home B. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. Make any necessary changes. Example: She was practising the violin and so was his colleague. (neither) She wasn’t practising the violin and neither was her colleague. 1. The spokesman was supporting his idea brilliantly and so was Fred.(too) 2. They weren’t taking part in that competition and neither were their friends. (so) 3. The police officer was listening carefully to the criminal and Brian was, too.(but) 4. No stranger was trying to break in the conversation and neither was Greg. (either) 5. Their neighbours were leaving on that day and she was, too. (neither) 6. She was working ceaselessly on that project and so were we. (but) 7. The guests were talking silently and so were the kids. (either) 8. The Japanese weren’t having lunch and the Finish weren’t, either. (so) 9. The carpenters were mending the house and Brian was, too.( either) 10. All the aliens were taking photos and so were the Japanese. (too) C. Add tag questions to the following sentences: Example: You weren’ t practising the drums, were you? 1. They weren’t calculating the distance between the Sun and the Moon,…………..? 2. She was making a strange noise,………….? 3. They were doing absolutely nothing dangerous,……………? 4. The students were thinking what question to ask the speaker,……………? 5. The gifted child was practising the guitar at that moment,……….? 6. They weren’t trying very hard,…………….? 7. She was quoting nobody,……………? 8. The entire court were keeping silent,…………? 9. The elves weren’t walking tiptoed through the room,…….? 10. The speaker was shouting at the audience,………….?

D. What were they doing when the explosion took place? 1. The policeman………………… 2. The firemen…………………… 19

3. My neighbours………………… 4. The science man………………. 5. The animals in the cage……….. What were they doing while the train was getting into the station? 1. The conductor………………….. 2. The person next to me…………. 3. My baby boy…………………… 4. A lady in black…………………. 5. The bartender…………………… E. Make sentences using past tense continuous. John- dust the furniture Example: Sandra –wash up While/When Sandra was washing up, John was dusting the furniture Sandra 1. wash the clothes 2. cook some food 3. iron the clothes 4. sort the clothes 5. count the money 6. phone friends John clean the rooms make the beds polish the shoes tidy the flat pack the suitcases look for their train tickets

F. Ask questions so that the words in italics should be the answer. Model: They were taking part in the contest at that very moment. When were they taking part in the contest?

1. They were speaking on the phone at that late hour. 2. The guardian was listening to the noises upstairs. 3. Nobody was paying attention to the chairman. 4. The students weren’t taking notes. 5. Somebody was ringing at the door late at night. 6. The newcomers were listening to the boss when, out of the blue, he stormed in. 7. The writer was typing a paragraph when he heard the telephone ringing. 8. The greengrocer was selling some cabbages right then. 9. We were waiting for a change in his attitude. 10. Everybody was pointing at him in rage.

1. Fill in the gaps with suitable phrases from the list bellow: In…addition to brief cash the circumstances comparison with detail difficulty doubt fun pencil person private public return tears view of a whisper 20 ink trouble

3.about what to things for me while I go get a ticket? 5. 3. 4..You can pay by check. The police……. She did me favour and then asked what I’d do for he………At first I thought she meant…….turn the eyes to see something • look for. Phrasal verbs with look • look after. he told me………. Writing an important letter is easier if you first write a rough copy …………before you write the final version ………. personal letters are relatively easy to write.investigate • look out.but then I realized she was serious.but unfortunately the figures I needed were only given ……… 10.. It’s no wonder why she doesn’t ……. by post or……. by credit card or ……… careful.the size of your order we are prepared to offer a special discount of 10%………. Can you help us? We’re …… some striped pants. He decided to …….try to find • look forward to.(anti/counter/mal/mis) -aircraft: intended to destroy or defend against enemy aircraft 2.a number of thefts at our college. 7. 7.the Maths test. I think he’ll be upset and you shouldn’t embarrass him …………. We knew the firm was ……….it may be better to tell him off………… 5. When she read the letter”.or type it. 6.(anti/in/mis/non)spell: to fail to spell (a word) correctly 3. If you are…………….. Come ……. …………. ……………business letters.expect with pleasure • look into. 2.(de/dis/im/un)possible: (of a situation) which is extremely difficult and there does not seem to be a solution 4-(counter/dis/mal/un)incentive: something that discourages people from doing something or working hard 21 . 2.find (information in a book) Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with look. ………!There is a car coming! 2. 3. Orders may be placed by phone. The book gave some information…………great………. keep watch • look up. 4. “Poor Julie was….the usual trade discount. 8.…………. Could you …..take care of • look at.these interesting stamps. it’s best to make notes beforehand.the word in the dictionary. 1..but not they were………such serious……… 9.. Choose the correct affix: 1.1.

A standard definition follows: Multimedia is any combination of text. sound. It will also allow me to experience a subject from many angles. Multimedia can help to gain and hold attention. multimedia is now being used a number of ways in the classroom including PowerPoint lectures. enhance the learning process. Software like word processors are applications often referred to as business graphics. Multimedia has many definitions depending upon whom you ask. digital slides. Such applications are often referred to as business graphics. educate. I think multimedia and graphics will be very useful for me when I make presentations through PowerPoint or when I make a report and I want to present it with charts and graphs. With the advent of the computer and other electronic devices. spreadsheet programs videos.L5: Graphics & Multimedia What is graphics and multimedia? First of all. giving me deeper understanding of the subject matter. In conclusion I feel that multimedia and graphics is the way to go. stimulate discussion. mailing lists. if it also includes the appropriate human elements. compel. Match the two columns: Laser printers and plotters let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. graphic art. Through PowerPoint one can make they let you draw or import pictures. I can also perform research on the web and without multimedia and graphics I don't think that would be possible for me to do and it would probably take me more time and effort to research it in the library rather than from my computer. software like PowerPoint lectures. MUDS and more. graphics software pertains to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of displaying and manipulating pictures. laser printers and plotters are graphics devices because they permit computer to output pictures. Laser printers and plotters. A. and convince you and/or your audience. digital videos. Multimedia and graphics as learning can be used to experience a subject from materials many angles Multimedia is now being used in a number a presentation by means of charts and of ways in the classroom including graphs B. MUDS and more. For work. digital word processors. Tell yours in a 200 word composition. newsgroups. digital slides. it can be a very effective tool to communicate. and in general. mailing lists. newsgroups. Spreadsheet programs are graphics devices because they permit computer to output pictures. case studies. MOOS. MOOS. Software like word processors support graphics because they let you draw or import pictures. which I wouldn't have been able to do without multimedia and graphics. animation. Spreadsheet programs support graphics because they let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. and video delivered to you by computer or other electronic means. As a student I can be able to use multimedia and graphics as learning materials like learning interactively with software's made for a certain subject. make points clearer. For example. Using various forms of multimedia and graphics in the classroom also helps to keep my interest level high when it comes to learning. This is one person’s opinion on multimedia and graphics. being a business major. 22 . case studies.

(take) Mr. Smith……. (wake) 2.(can) 12. (offer) 10. didn’t he? 2. didn’t he? 6.up and……her his seat. did you? 9.. (strike) 11.out those old papers. Example: (teach) Miss Smith …….(arrive). (meet) You…………. didn’t he? 10. (ride).(get). (explain)The teacher ……it to us very clearly.those heavy bags. The wind ………all day yesterday and it also …. So nobody ……complain.his temper. did you? You didn’t forget to ring her up.(get).. When did you get up? (the clock-strike six). (get) 4. didn’t he? 3.. did they? 5.the dishes ring her up. When did your cousin come from his office? (he –get your message) London for quite a long time. didn’t she? Miss Smith taught English last year. (help) John ………….. (have). (put) Jim ………. (take) 6.his son to the game.his bike to his office last week.very tired all day on that day. He ………his umbrella tightly in his way to the bus stop.up late this morning . Example: When did you see him? (he-come in) I saw him when he came in.Grammar A.English last year..(feel) 13.dressed and then…….you.. B. He……up at last….a beautiful dress at the party. didn’t they? 8. Answer the following questions using the past simple.dinner himself and then………for twelve hours! (go). (sleep). 4.(shake) 3. did he? C. (carry) You ………. (stand).breakfast in a hurry. In the bus he ……down on an empty seat. (rain) 5. Fill in the blanks with the past tense of the verbs in the brackets.. (feed). Then an old lady………on the bus. ……. didn’t she? 7. (wear) Mary ….. Alan yesterday.eight. He……. But he ……. 1. (sit) 8.him in order to wake up. When did mother find the sugar bowl? (she-open the cupboard) 23 . (lose) Dr Brown never…….at the office exactly when the clock ….…….. did you? 4.. didn’t she? (forget) You……………. (forget). When did the children go out to play? (they-finish their work) 3..bus.(blow). 1.. He. (live) The Scotts……….. (throw) They………. He…. He ……. but yesterday he couldn’t because of the wind and rain so he …….. to set his clock last night so he……. (get) 9. did you? 1. Complete the following tag-questions with the correct form of the verb in the margin. When he ……back home he………the cat. His wife………..(hold) 7.

. 8. Write a two hundred word story that starts like this: “We heard a strange noise in the lab…. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets.m.break) 10. Nobody really wanted to go with that fellow in the mountains. They didn’t agree to his telling a white lie.? 7. They understood the problem in a blink of an eye. She and her husband didn’t take part in the funerals. (too) We wondered who those persons were and my friends did.………? 4. Complete these sentences using tag-questions. too. 4. Greg and his girl-friend spent their time playing lego.(but) 10. When did Meg wash up? (she. 3. 1.5. (too) They complained about the conditions in the hotel and we did .………….……..? 3. They offered him nothing in return. didn’t it? 1.? 10. She created a new web-site but we didn’t..finish dinner) 6.……………? 8. When did the boys stop the game? (it-start to rain) 9. Use the past tense as much as possible. 6. Example: The last bus left at 8 p.……………? 9.(so) D.……….”.……. She expected for nothing. When did she stop writing? (pencil. 9.explain for several times) D. He took the plane to the nearest island and so did his friends. When did they understand the situation.? 2. Example: She practised the violin and so did his colleague. 7. (either) They actually asked for nothing but we did. When did the game start?(the referee –blow his whistle) 8. (neither) She didn’t practise the violin and neither did her colleague. (either) My cousin didn’t show up at the party and neither did Greg. When did they stop writing?(the teacher –stop dictating) 7. They expected him to change his mind. 24 . 5. 2. too.(but) They created a new style in fashion and so did the Stuarts.………. Make any necessary changes.? E.(but) They seemed to understand each other and so did my parents. (the witness.…………? 5.(neither) She didn’t allow us to enter that room and his mother didn’t either. He considered that he could use your money for his benefit. We hadn’t anything to say against him.………? 6. (neither) They said they couldn’t listen to the story because of the noise and so did George.

3. and she always says: ‘ You’re only……………. Could you ………these video to the shop? They are overdue. 3.remove(clothes) • take on – accept (work or responsibility) •take over. absorb • take off... I’m happy to say. I couldn’t remember all the details.. you can ask one of the …………for advice. Fill the gapes in these sentences using the phrases bellow: come of age for ages space age Stone Age under age fresh air fresh start freshwater new blood New World newcomer old flame old friend old hand old master old times old wives’ tale Old World as old as you feel young at heart 1. I want him to ……..of hers. In an attempt to bring ……into the firm. is still………. 6. when they are officially ‘adults’. interest) Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with take. 2. He didn’t enjoy his his work.’. (ill/mal/non/un)treat: to treat cruelly or violently 2.. 6.understand. (a/anti/il/non)sense: language which cannot be understood because it does not mean anything 3. but she hasn’t seen him… 5. Grandad’s ideas are terribly out of date – he still seems to think he’s living in the ……….by applying to a new job.Phrasal verbs with take • take after. (dis/in/mal/un)avoidable: not avoidable 18. There was too much to……. 2. so he decided to make a ……….to the firm and you don’t know the ropes.. 25 .can keep you healthy. The Great Lakes in America are …………not saltwater lakes. People in Britain…………….. We are ………and whenever we meet we reminisce about……… 7. I suppose she……her mother in this respect. Columbus sailed from the…….resemble • take back.not the……….return • take in.My grandma. (dis/anti/non/in) regard: lack of consideration or respect for something.. I prefer painting by the ………. He looks exhausted. they’re only taking on people under 25... 4.Vocabulary 1.. I hope he isn’t……….. 4. It’s so hot in here! I think I’ll……. Choose the correct affix: 1.the business when I retire.too much work. 8. 7.start and spend time doing( a hobby. 11.he’s an ………. 10. If you are a ………. When did you decide to…….jogging? 2. You can’t catch a cold from getting wet-that’s an……….my coat. 1. plenty of………. If you are …………you are not allowed to buy drinks in a pub. She’s very organized. 9. the………. 3. She used to go out with Terry. modern paintings.However.take control of • take up.

Some viruses are more dangerous than others. allows the virus to jump from the floppy to the hard drive. File Overwriters. Trojan Horses are the worst kind of viruses that exist. An example of this would be the Whale Virus . they can inadvertently damage or destroy data. polymorphic viruses grow fast to escape detection by anti-virus programs. which has 32 different forms. they are easier to notice. wait until the trigger event.L6:Types Of Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage your computer. Like the human AIDS virus. Polymorphic viruses. They can infect the host software components.EXE and COM files. they are difficult to remove. immediately letting the user know that there is a problem because the software will not run. While. Like a virus in a living thing. A File Virus is the most common kind of virus. spread easier. Like a stealth aircraft. Multi-Partite Viruses. Boot Sector/Partition Viruses. Unlike other viruses. These viruses are made simply to keep copying itself. This virus waits until the trigger event. Boot sector viruses infect hard drives and floppy disks by putting itself on the boot sector of the disk. but still insert itself into a boot sector or partition table. they make themselves 26 . so that when the infected program file is run. Booting up from an infected floppy. a message is displayed or files are damaged. These viruses are loaded first. this virus does not replicate itself. More complex written viruses will cause more damage. and Stealth Viruses. a computer virus can spread if it is not removed. Multi-Partite Viruses are the worse of both file and boot sector viruses. they have a less chance to spread. Some of the most common of Computer Viruses are: File Viruses. Most of the viruses that exist today are Polymorphic. There are many kind of viruses that exist today. and gain control of the system before MS-DOS could be loaded. They contain malicious code that is meant to damage your computer. Because of this. Because of this. Most file viruses are memory resident. These viruses spread like a file virus. and are harder to be detected. Stealth viruses are similar to a stealth aircraft. it is not MS-DOS-specific and can infect any PC operating system. and files. The first computer viruses were created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. Because these viruses are immediately sensed by the computer. the virus is executed first. Since the virus is run before the operating system. this virus is copying itself it is taking up more disk space and slowing down performance. programs. then start to destroy files. A simple virus will overwrite and destroy a host file. File Overwriters are viruses that link themselves to a program. Since these viruses often have flaws in them. There are a limited number of kinds of polymorphic viruses. After reboot the virus is removed from memory. Computer viruses didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. leaving the original code intact and adding themselves over and over to as many files as possible. The worst kind of file overwriters. One of the most common places for a computer virus to appear is on a file found on the Internet or attached to an E-mail. When the trigger event occurs. These kinds of viruses usually infect . they can easily attach themselves to other programs that are being run and start to infect that file. A file virus can insert its own code into part of the file. which are the main component of a program or application. Because of this. Special encrypted code within this virus allows the virus to hide from detection. which has the code that is run at boot up. These viruses stay in the RAM and infects every disk that is read by the computer until the computer is rebooted. An example of this type of virus is the Tequila virus. Trojan Horses.

it is not wise to try to see what would happen. are the worst kind of viruses that exist. A File Virus a. contain malicious code that is meant to damage your computer. then start to destroy files. Unless you can see into the future.Computer viruses a. Because of this. c. 3.File Overwriters a.invisible to be detected. can insert its own code into part of the file. leaving the original code intact and adding themselves over and over to as many files as possible. 27 . b. d. b. were firstly created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. c. can infect the host software components. 6. 2. link themselves to a program. d. d. are MS-DOS-specific and cannot infect any PC operating system. is only memory resident. 4. c. d. c. b. are made simply to keep copying themselves. are of different types. The virus hides itself into the file and makes it look like the program is running normal. d. usually infects EXE and COM files. Boot sector viruses a. someone can make a broad judgment of future virus development. c. infect hard drives and floppy disks by putting ithemselves on the boot sector of the disk b.(…) It is dangerous when making predictions about the future. This is a memory-resident virus. Trojan Horses a. didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. are loaded first. is the most common kind of virus. and gain control of the system before MS-DOS could be loaded. are easily to remove. wait until the trigger event. are all equally dangerous. are the only one that replicate themselves. Find the incorrect variant out of the four. I b. b. are the worse of both file and boot sector viruses. spread like a file virus 5. c. wait until the trigger event. seldom have flaws in them. are run before the operating system. 1. d. Multi-Partite Viruses a.

Did you help with the housework? 3. 1. B. 15. Ask and answer questions according to the model. (drive) He …………all the way to London.always……. Greg was reading a book on dinosaurs when the phone rang. Then the train came and Peter met his cousin. Example: Did you read the book I told you about? Yes.. 16. 17. 1. 6. Confirm things.. 12. Study the following situations. The plane ………. 19. 8. When the phone Model: rang. 14. a very amusing comedy yesterday. (watch) My friends …….to the door the moment she heard the bell. (get) I saw Mary just when she………. (burn)The house……when we came out. (take off) Michael missed the flight. Use Past tense Continuous. (live) The Grants…….TV when I phoned them. 9.about fashion and this annoyed her friends. Fill in the blanks with the past tense simple or continuous of the verbs in the brackets. (write) Bobby ………. Did you unwrap the paintings? 6. Did you wash your hair? 2. the bell……still………. 11. (talk) Mariam ……. (invite) They ………me to see the film when I met them in the street. 3. Peter was walking up and down the platform. 4. (shine) The sun ……………when we arrived. (run) She ………... a) What was Greg doing when the phone rang? He was reading a book on dinosaurs. 1. 10.when he arrived at the airport. (ask) She ………. 7. (drop) She ………the vase because she got frightened. b) What did he do when the phone rang? He answered Brasov when I met them.. (read) He ……… a brochure when we met. Did you check your blood pressure? 5. 2. (fly) They …………to Constantza last night. about my holidays when she called me.Grammar A. (ring) When she reached the door.into the library. Did you write the essay? 4.. 28 . 20. (go) He………to his office by bike last year.the letter in about ten minutes. In fact I was reading it when you phoned me yesterday. (spend) They………… a wonderful holiday at the seaside last year. 18. 5. he had to answer it.the newspaper when we got home. (see) We………. Did you talk business with your new partner? B. (read) Father………..

A fost deci grăbit şi obosit. 11.m. Jim stood up and opened the front door. Then his mother gave him a bottle of milk and he stopped crying. 15. 5. 9. Se vedeau atunci pentru a doua oară. S-au liniştit imediat însă când l-au văzut intrând pe George cu un zâmbet pe faţă. The girls lay quietly in the sun for an hour. Sheila had lunch at 1 p. Jim was watching a film on TV when someone rang the bell. Nu i-a înţeles nimeni intenţiile şi de aceea a încercat să mai explice încă o dată totul.2. Acum câteva luni echipa noastră a câştigat campionatul de fotbal. A venit cu trenul de 2 dimineaţa şi aplecat cu cel de 7 seara. In the middle of it her father came home She went into the kitchen and brought her father a steak. S-a deschis uşa brusc şi toţi au tresărit speriaţi. Săptămâna trecută am cheltuit enorm. Duminica trecută Mary a scris câteva scrisori. 4. they went home. 17. 2. C. 8. l-am văzut pe John intrând în farmacie. yesterday. The boys were playing baseball when it started to rain. I-a lăsat un bilet în care-i spunea cum se simţea ea în momentul acela cumplit din viaţa ei. 4. Când am ieşit aseară din casă a început să plouă torenţial. The baby cried for half an hour yesterday. A explorat mai multe site-uri şi apoi a concluzionat că este prea devreme pentru a se înscrie la o bursă. 3. 12. Then some friends called them and they went to swim. 3. De ce nu i-ai transmis ceea ce am discutat noi în ziua aceea când toţi ceilalţi lucrau la proiect? 20. 13. 7. Săptămâna trecută Dan a lucrat intens la pregătirea lucrării despre influenţa calculatoarelor asupra psihicului uman. Se întreba cu ce a greşit de ea nu-i acordă nici o atenţie. Ieri Simon mi-a făcut o vizită neaşteptată. 29 . Le-a promis tuturor că se linişteşte şi nu mai deranjează pe nimeni. apoi a ascultat un concert la radio. Lunea trecută. aşa că i-am cumpărat un cadou. 14. Naturally. Translate the following into English: 1. Şi-a făcut o haină nouă pe care vrea să o poarte cu acest prilej. 6. Când ai stat de vorbă cu el ultima oară era la fel de supărat pe noi? 18. aşa că să nu te miri că nu a trecut şi pe la tine. 19. pe când vorbeam cu vărul tău. 16. Acum două zile a terminat-o şi a rugat-o pe Diana s-o scrie la calculator… 10. 5. Acum câteva zile a fost ziua lui Steve. iar mama i-a făcut un tort de ciocolată şi frişcă. Nimeni nu l-a văzut ieri când se ducea la pescuit. aşa că au putut discuta problema deschis. 6.

It’s a bit loud. 7. 5. The child was playing (dangerous/dangerously) near to the edge of the swimming pool. 3. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1. Please..ware and the programs are known as…….…… the TV. Phrasal verbs with turn •turn away.ware store. The (fast/fastly) train to London takes less than an hour.switch off. It was dark inside so he …….the lights. 3. 2.-hearted interviewer can give candidates a very………time and make life…….-spoken..ware. She kept …. I can't ski (awful/awfully) well. 9. It’s sometimes……. reduce the volume • turn in – give to the police • turn off. difficult or easy. A printout from a computer provides the user with a ………copy. The teacher explained the point as (simple/simply) as she could. 6. If the action in a film is too (slow-moving/slowly-moving) I get bored. 5.-wearing that it will last a lifetime.-going. Computer equipment is known as……. but deep down he’s quite ………-hearted and ………….drugs like marijuana.. understand her because she’s rather ………. but I’m trying my best. arrive.. Fill the gaps in these sentences with hard. 2. 3. You can buy tools and screws and nails at a …………. A computer can save data on a floppy disk but much more can be stored on a ………. for him. refuse. He tried desperately to…… the tap in the his house without any warning.disk.. 6. His ex-girlfriend…. 1. 5. The captain was criticized (strong/strongly) for his part in the team's defeat. 8.I must say I do have a ……. ………. 3.consider carefully • turn up. A ……….when he’s being …………. 30 .. cause to operate •turn over.1. no matter how many times he insisted. 1. soft.for them. 2.1. themselves……..refuse entry • turn down. 4. 7. increase the volume Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with turn. 2. 6. 2.. This new fabric is so ………. disconnect. All information will be treated as strictly (confidential/confidentially).. 2. remove power • turn on – switch on.drugs like heroin are more dangerous than so-called………. I realize that he makes people feel un …….Vocabulary 1. The prisoners…..him…. He spent hours ……the problem in his mind.after a four days’ run. 7.

this increasing diversity in the workforce has caused a change in human interaction. This has forced people to expand their horizons and learn the proper ways to relate to people from other cultures. can be analyzed to provide an accurate description. This has degraded the quality of personal interaction in the workplace. companies began to discover that people from different ethnic backgrounds were helpful in working with a wide spectrum of customers. The cultural diversity of the typical workplace has increased greatly over the last decade. Regardless of the reasons. beliefs and customs. Although technology has made human relations easier in the workplace. There are many factors that can have an effect on our interaction in each of these settings. E-mail has become a way to connect with co-workers anywhere in the world. These aspects of change are having many positive influences on the quality of education available to our students. The emergence of the Internet in the 1990's has forever changed the way that people will interact with one another. the school. and sometimes necessary changes have both positive and negative consequences on our lives. It changes over time as our society adjusts to our ever-changing environment. Technology has also created the virtual workplace. The workplace is an environment in which there is generally a high degree of personal interaction. One can now be reached virtually anytime. These changes can be positive or negative. Advancing technology and growing diversity are having an impact on the environment of schools across the nation. and the home. anywhere. No longer is one confined to only communicating with people in their department or office. These interactions are very common. First. The increasing popularity of cellular phones had also changed human relations. Recent technological advances have made it much easier for people to communicate with one another. Interaction in the workplace. It seems that this trend toward violent behavior is crossing the generation gaps and invading our schools as well. and could easily be replaced. many companies were forced to diversify to comply with equal opportunity laws. People are now being exposed to others with many different cultural backgrounds. since one naturally meets new people while going about one's daily routine.L7: The Current Nature Of Human Relations The nature of human relations is evolutionary. Many times language barriers exist. The threat of violence has been an increased concern for many companies. Second. it has also decreased the amount of face-to-face interaction. Cultural diversity in schools helps children to learn at a young age that there are many things that can be learned from other people's cultures. It seems that the overall nature of current human relations can best be determined by examining human interaction in a few key areas. and it can be difficult to establish effective communication. These social skills that children learn at school have a strong impact on how they will relate to others throughout their lives. Workers today feel as though they are just one part of a machine. The nature of human relations between strangers is complex and dependent upon certain situations. as well as interaction among strangers. where people can work from the confines of their own home. Most of the time these interactions are polite or at 31 . Nearly everyday people face situations in which they interact with strangers. Advances in computers and the internet make limitless amounts of information accessible to students. This increase in diversity has come from a couple of sources. This has drastically reduced the amount of personal interaction between workers. These changes are very important to society as a whole because they indicate that future generations will be more accepting of differences and better able to accommodate others.

there seems to be a trend in recent times towards distrust and outright violence in a growing percentage of these daily social interactions. human interaction disadvantages. Workplace School Interaction strangers with B. making this interaction between strangers easier. Key areas in Advantages and Why considered advantages or disadvantages. Unfortunately. This may explain the growing number of people who are choosing to interact with strangers via Internet chat rooms. Complete the following chart taking into account both the information in this text and your own knowledge. A.” In what respects does it change? In what way computers influence human relations? Give your own opinion. Communication with strangers involves relatively greater degrees of uncertainty thus people may feel higher levels of anxiety. 32 .the least non-committal. so people do not have to worry about how they are perceived if they were to make a mistake. In this situation there is no face-to-face contact. Anxiety is reduced. Have in view the beginning statement: ”The nature of human relations(…) changes over time as our society adjusts to our ever-changing environment.

How much do you usually work? B. 8. Stephen. Greg (read) the newspaper……. 5. 10. Clara – sell groceries. Example: Why have you got a duster in your hand? Because I have been cleaning the blackboard.nine hours.. 6. How much money do the people in this company earn? 5.a long time. The little children (sleep) ………. 6. 1. Fill in the blanks with since or for. cars. ‘What have they been doing since they left school?” Make questions and answers as in the model. The boys (study) Algebra………dinner time. The other lieutenant (give) commands to his subordinates…. 3.teach Geography. Janet. Answer these questions giving the REASON for the present state of a lorry. How many Peace Corps Volunteers do usually work in the business field? 4. Mr. Andy. this year: Example: How much do you usually study? Well. 9. 1.make oilfield equipment. on a farm. Example: John.. 33 . 3.manage a factory. They (talk) to their master ……. I (phone) the doctor….several minutes. 2. Basil (stay) with us……. Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect continuous. 1. George. That man (stand) at that corner……five o’clock.she went on holiday.the last five minutes. Paul. 7. Annie (read) War and Peace …….20 minutes. C.. 5. 11. Answer these questions using Present Perfect Continuous and: in a factory What has John been doing since he left school? He has been working in a factory since then. How much do they usually train? 2. D. 4. recently. Brown (work) in this office . ……left school. Michael is so thirsty that he (drink)……three minutes. 7. Nick. Do you spend much time on computer studies? 3.he arrived home.September. My fiance (wait) in the line………. I have been studying a lot recently. Betty -design clothes. 2.Grammar A. 8.

5. Phrasal verbs and expressions with see • see about something. Why are they wearing tennis shoes? 5. Since she graduated. For a long time. usually forcefully 34 . (How long) This construction company (to sell) stocks for two years. Why have you got a camera in your hand? 2. 3. Why are the pavements wet? 9. Vocabulary 1. Why has you friend been so angry? E. For half an hour. Write two things you have been doing for several months. to lead someone out. The firm (to grow) not understand why someone likes a particular person or thing • see somebody off – 1. Why has mother got flour on her hands? 6. Ask questions for the following answers: prepare /arrange for something to be done • not see beyond something . (What) F. G. (How) They (to reorganize) to create and keep customers. Write two things you and your friends have been doing for several years. 4. Write two things your friend has been doing since a child. 2. Why is Peter out-of-breath? 4. 2. to send away an attacker or unwanted person. 5. Why have you treated him so badly? 10. 4. have your attention fixed on something and therefore be unable to consider other things • not know what somebody sees in somebody / something . Make questions using present perfect continuous. (How) We (to talk) business for two hours. (How long) How long has she been writing a book about selling products efficiently? 1. Since we met first. (Why) We (to try) to make the company more responsible for its customers . 2.1. Why are your hands dirty? 3. Begin with the words indicated: Example: She (write) a book about selling products efficiently. Since last Sunday. Why are you feeling tired? 7. Why has grandfather got his glasses on? 8.

Some sales people favour aggressive………. 1. They were very friendly. wait/last until the end of a difficult situation • see somebody out (also. The besieged town hasn't enough food to …….the month……. After a hard day at the go to the door of a building or room with someone who does not live or work deal with a person or task that needs to be dealt with or is waiting to be dealt with Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with see. 2. 5.. Dollars and Swiss francs (unlike the Zambian kwacha or the Albanian New Lek) are ………currencies. It's getting late ." 9. 6. while others prefer gentle persuasion and go for the ………. 4.them. 7. We’ve been too………. The government cannot ………next year's general election.sell. continue doing a job or activity until it is finished. It’s payday tomorrow. We should start to take a …….at the airport. He is always so rude and lazy .line. ……..’ 7. 9. The caretaker ran out and …….to be aware that someone is trying to deceive you to get an advantage • see to something /somebody . so I’d prefer a…………drink.back. Fill the gaps in these sentences with hard. help or support someone during a difficult period in their life • see something through . The course would take me three years to complete. 2. ‘ When would you like to come?’ ‘I don’t mind.the next few weeks. when they are leaving • see somebody through something . especially when it is difficult • see through somebody / something .. 35 . they are ………-and-fast rules..them later.! There is no need to get so worried just because you are …………up.I'd better ……… there any lemonade? 6. but I quickly ………….the boys who had been damaging the fence.I’m ………." "I'll ……. difficult or easy.sell techniques. but I was determined to ……it………….on customers who don’t settle their accounts on time. 4. 3. A paper bag is often half the price of a ………. see somebody to the door). "These letters need posting. I’m very thirsty . 8.I don't know what she ………...him.……. These aren’t guidelines. My parents ……me….• see something out . soft. I like to take it………. 11. My brother's lent me £200 to …. 5. My secretary will …. Take it………….

Compilers. common examples are the microcomputers found in calculators. and microwave ovens. wristwatches. Begun in 1954 and completed in 1957. programs that loop back to re-execute part of their instructions reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears. a particular pattern of binary digital information. on the other hand. Once a computer has been programmed. or dedicated computers the operating instructions are embedded in their circuitry. contains some built-in programs (in ROM) or instructions (in the processor chip). time consuming. IBM then developed a language that would simplify work involving complicated mathematical formulas. COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). In some specialized. an American. The language came into almost universal use 36 . a commercial and business programming language. assembly-language programs could be written and debugged-cleaned of logic and data errors-in a fraction of the time needed by machine-language programmers. Translator programs are of two kinds: interpreters and compilers. To facilitate computer use in scientific applications. Machine-language programming is such a tedious. and a way that would allow the same program to run on several types of machines. the computer's own binary-based language. and they are intercepted by a program that translates them into machine-language instructions. so such programs run as rapidly as though they were written directly in machine language. The first commercial programmer was probably Grace Hopper (1906-92). High-Level Languages.L8:Programming A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what operations to perform on data. Software in widespread use includes a wide range of applications programs-instructions to the computer on how to perform various tasks. and so on-as commands that might stand for a sequence of tens or hundreds of machine-language instructions. automobile engines. but it depends on external programs to perform useful tasks. One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called assembly-language programming. or machine language. BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed for use by nonprofessional computer users. FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) was the first comprehensive high-level programming language that was widely used. PRINT. OPEN. LIST. by contrast. Languages. it can do only as much or as little as the software controlling it at any given moment enables it to do. A general purpose computer. By assigning a short (usually three-letter) mnemonic code to each machine-language command. translate an entire program into machine language prior to execution. so interpreted programs run much more slowly than machine-language programs. Unfortunately. Assembly Language. concentrated on data organization and file handling and is widely used today in business. Programs can be built into the hardware itself. A computer must be given instructions in a language that it understands-that is. High-level languages often use English-like words-for example. These needs led to the development of so-called high-level languages. is difficult for humans to use. The commands are entered from the keyboard or from a program in memory or in a storage device. task that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program. With an interpreter. or they may exist independently in a form known as software. What was needed was a shorthand method by which one symbolic statement could represent a sequence of many machine-language instructions.

is now one of the most popular microcomputer languages. inefficient. or dedicated computers A general purpose computer contains FORTRAN. BASIC. Because many early microcomputers were sold with BASIC built into the hardware (in ROM memory) the language rapidly came into widespread use. Although hundreds of different computer languages and variants exist. is widely used in developing systems programs. programs that loop some built-in programs (in ROM) or back to re-execute part of their instructions instructions (in the processor chip) One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer In some specialized. LISP and PROLOG that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program. Match the beginnings in the first column with the endings in the second: Compilers translate an entire program reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears Examples of computer languages would be: assembly-language programming. BASIC is nevertheless simple to learn and easy to use. High-Level Languages allows the same into machine language prior to execution. and inelegant by its detractors. Condemned as slow. LISP and PROLOG are widely used in artificial intelligence. C. program Machine-language programming is such a the operating instructions are embedded in tedious. LOGO. With an interpreter. B. what operations to perform on data.” 37 . A.with the microcomputer explosion of the 1970s and 1980s. task their circuitry. to run on several types of machines. PASCAL. such as language translators. several others deserve mention. a language Bell Laboratories designed in the 1970s. Comment upon this quotation: “Programming is a fascinating world that asks a lot and gives a lot. PASCAL. LOGO was developed to introduce children to computers. time consuming. originally designed as a teaching tool.

.(as soon as) I’ll phone Angela as soon as I’ve had dinner.? 7. difficult problems.? 4. everybody!(cook) 2. The Grants will consult a lawyer. They haven’t solved those long. Lunch is ready! Come and eat. 1. The children will buy tickets first. The film will finish at 10. I’ll be hungry by then. …………. Then I’ll tell him the great news. B. Then I’ll phone Angela.(be) 9. Do you want another dish? No. Then they will get into the cinema hall. Make sentences ending in tag-questions to express the ideas bellow. Use the present perfect tense simple and the appropriate adverbs(never. I’m going to play this record now. just. Your friend hasn’t completed the task. This part of the country is completely unknown to me. has he? 1. He has gone nowhere this week. Mike will arrive home.(after) 8.(have) 3.(finish) 6. Nobody has understood that explanation.m. I can tell you a lot of things about Jane Austen. They’ve established who will be the winner this year. It’s very new. They have done nothing at all these days. We’ll establish the main points to be discussed tomorrow. etc.Grammar A. Re-express the following sentences using present perfect tense. Example: The teacher hasn’t marked our tests. You will see him. They have already repaired the ironing machine.………? 38 . The students will graduate. (when) 9. before. Miriam is late again but nobody is surprised.………? 10. Mr McGregor will finish lunch. My brother goes to a technical college.(after) 4. Then the passengers will be allowed to smoke.(buy) 4. (until) 5.(when) 3. 1.(as soon as) 2. Then he will talk to you about your future plans. (pass the entrance exam) 7.(as soon as) 6. Then they will get finer jobs. (be late). Then you will know what to do next.(meet) 8. (read) 5. You’ve just met him on your way home.………? 3.………? 9.(cook) Mother hasn’t cooked the dinner yet. (until) 10. After that they will buy the house.………. yet.…………? 2.? 5. The generous woman has already given them presents. Nobody will leave this place. You have paid the telephone bill. The plane will take off first. (read) 10.? 8. I’m still digging in the garden. I don’t know this man. already. In a few years you’ll gain more experience. Example: I’ll have dinner first. Example: Dinner is not ready.)to re-formulate the following.30 p. Then you’ll make a wonderful doctor. thank you. (before) C.…………? 6.……. Alan is not going to read the article. (by the time) 7.……….

here for long? 9. F. 3. 1. 7.D. someone for the past few days.(interview) him for/since the last three hours. 9. (not use) I’ve had that dictionary for a month but I still……. Example: I……….only just……. E. Put the verbs in the brackets in the present perfect tense. but she……. Who……. 8. Choose since or for. 5. Something you will do after you have arrived home. read) a book for/since June last year..(write) an essay on this for/since summer. Something you have often us regularly. 4. My neighbours………(talk) about this topic since/for yesterday. (not wear) Chris wore her new dress last week. 39 . Something you have seldom done 5. 4. 7. Something you have known for the last three weeks. Example: (study)They………almost every lesson in this book up to now/ so far They have studied almost every lesson in this book up to now/ so far 1. Nobody………(be) here for/since a few years. The men you………. 6. Make sentences of your own expressing: 1. 11. 6. 3. Something you have had for a long time. 12. 16. 8.a meal. (teach) Mr Smith ………English ever since the Second World War..(just. (seen) They ………. 4. 8. 10.(explained) to everyone what she likes doing since/for half an hour. (be) She………. 2.many mistakes in their exercises. Something you have learnt since you’ve started faculty. 5.(try) to put him through for /since two minutes ago. The most interesting thing you have ever seen. 9. The student ………….. 14. (be) ……you…. 7. (talk) They………. They ……….it since. She …….(not. Something you haven’t done yet. (have) He feels hungry although he……. Something you have always liked. knit) for/since several hours. Their grandmother ………. Something you have done and whose result can be seen. Put the verb in parenthesis in the correct form. Something you have recently. Something you have studied up to now. (write) Our friends from Portugal……….(participate) in the debates for/since two full days. Something you have just done. Something you have never done before.their relatives for the last three months.busy lately. 13. 3. 6. Something you have visited this week. meet)…………(speak) for/since 9 o’clock. (not make) So far they……. They know someone who………(not. Something you have participated in today. 2.. 10.

2. so let’s do something different …………. He claimed it wasn’t his fault and that he hadn’t done it ……… It takes much longer to get there …………than by bus. it’s difficult to…….last night? 9. We haven’t been out together………Would you like to come…….stay in group • keep warm.with her. They’re doing some building work over there so it would be great if we……. 7. prevent someone or something from entering • keep to. She promised to help me ………I returned the favour another time. 7.. 3. yet so I’ll………trying. 40 . 2. She hasn’t answered my phone calls. continue saying the same thing • keep out... When you run a marathon. 2. She walks so fast.stay warm Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with keep.. 1. It was long drive so we stopped…………. Put a sweater on. 9.stay with or follow an agreed plan or course of action • keep up. No. It’s important to……. I admire him greatly. The doctor advised him to ……….in your country? 8... There are some lovely desserts……….with us on Sunday? 6.. She promised to be in time so she’d better……. I should like to thank you ………the whole department. 6.. 12. stay away. 5.struggle to continue • keep together.Vocabulary 1.manage to go fast Expressions • keep going.avoid • keep on.even when you feel exhausted. it’s important to ……. 4. How much does a worker earn ………….. If they ….to have a meal. Phrasal verbs and expressions with keep Phrasal verbs • keep at – continue working at • keep off.1.. Fill the gaps with the phrases bellow: on a diet on average on foot on purpose on the hour on the menu for a long time for a walk on behalf of on television on the way on condition that on the contrary for a change 1. Did you see the news…………. they’ll finish painting by midday. 2. continue doing something. 4.1.but I won’t take anything because I’m ………. Trains always leave …………… 10. 11. I don’t dislike Chaplin at all:…………. 2. We’ve done a lot of this recently.. We’ve got to………if we want to be a real team.

such as computers. The computer industry has become known the fast pace rate of obsolescence. sharing objectionable or illegal material. and theft of intellectual property all create ethical questions for everyday computer users. Software viruses are parasitic programs that can replicate themselves. a type of repetitive stress injury. the misuse of technology will eventually be the downfall of humankind 41 . however. and use a monitor that has a relatively large screen without noticeable flicker. Desks that allow proper keyboard height and special ergonomic keyboards have been developed to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome. have been created or enforced to requiring computer users to let their own sense of ethics guide them. Office chairs should be adjustable in height and should have lower-back support and arm rests. infect computers. most software developers discourage privacy among organizations by offering site licenses and network versions. avoid starring at the screen for long periods. The most prevalent breach of law in cyberspace is software piracy. which conserves electricity even when left on. and computing professionals continue to debate computer-related ethical questions and attempt to develop laws that protect the freedoms of computer users while limiting immoral or illegal use of computers. Government. position yourself from the monitor between two and five feet from your eyes. Some of the leading toxic wastes coming form homes and offices are heavy metals used extensively in batteries. One response has been the development of energy star equipment. Hardware is sometimes stolen for the value of the data stored on it rather that for the value of the machine itself. legal professionals. Although some experts recommend leaving computers on all the time. the illegal copying or use of a program. and destroy data. we must first use common sense to realize that everything we do has a cause and effect. this practice was shown to consume unnecessary amounts of electricity. Our legal system is gradually developing a code of laws to provide a legal framework for working with computers and on the Internet. Copyright laws relevant to computers and software are covered by the Copyright Act of 1976 and the Software Piracy and counterfeiting Amendment of 1983. Practices such as excessive e-mailing. Users can protect their data and software by using an anti-virus program. make sure no bright lights reflect off your screen. We must take on the responsibility as humans to utilize technology to change the World for the better.L9: Living With Computers Ergonomics is the study of the physical relationships between humans and their tools. Instead of building copy protection into their programs. with both hardware and software being replaced every couple of years. Few actual laws. It is my opinion that if we are to live comfortably with computers. such as cadmium. because if we don’t. To avoid damaging your eyes.

extensively. downfall.” 42 . Carpal tunnel syndrome heavy metals used extensively in batteries. ethical questions. pace rate of. however. to live comfortably with. and use a monitor that has a relatively large screen without noticeable flicker. B. We must take on the responsibility as humans to utilize technology to change the World for the better. What’s your opinion on the author’s statement? Develop your point of you in a 200 hundred word essay.A. Some of the leading toxic wastes coming should be adjustable in height and should have form homes and offices are lower-back support and arm rests. position yourself from the monitor between two and five feet from your eyes. can replicate themselves. such as cadmium Copyright laws relevant to computers and avoid starring at the screen for long software are periods. Software viruses are parasitic programs covered by the Copyright Act of 1976 and the that Software Piracy and counterfeiting Amendment of 1983. the misuse of technology will eventually be the downfall of humankind. Match the beginnings in the first column with the endings in the second one: To avoid damaging your eyes conserves electricity even when left on. Office chairs is a type of repetitive stress injury. have been created or enforced to requiring computer users to let their own sense of ethics guide them. and destroy data C. we must first use common sense to realize that everything we do has a cause and effect. Energy star equipment Few actual laws. a code of laws. infect computers. make sure no bright lights reflect off your screen. software piracy. Make sentences of your own using the following: to replicate oneself. “It is my opinion that if we are to live comfortably with computers. because if we don’t. counterfeiting.

3. 8. They are on the table now. I (talk) to a group of salesmen since 10 this morning. She has been trying to make pancakes for the last half hour. present perfect simple or continuous. ………you……(speak) on the mobile phone since 2 p. (you. The manager (just. We (not receive) any letter from him yet. 1. The prices in this city increase amazingly. do) with my handbag? It(be) here a moment ago. Recently 5. so she is glad to spend some time with her friends now. but we (already.? It’s time you finished! 7. see) any bears? 9. but I (not. meet) her since.m. 5. but she hasn’t made a good one yet. Mr Brown (tell) him to go the supermarket since breakfast. Put the verbs in brackets in the past tense. This summer. go) yet. C. What (you. sign) the papers. excuse the disorder in the house.. as a matter of fact I (know) him since I (be) a child. 43 . Example: Why is his house empty? (move to a new place) Because he has just moved to a new place. Not yet. be)? 2. She ……(criticize) me for the last 20 minutes and she seems to have even more to say! B. 6. catch) the bus. Since he left the town. Please. We (watch ) the TV program several times this week. ever. 2. 4. My father’s friend (have) the company since he moved to this town. 6. but I(buy) a ticket .m. 3. Find questions for the following answers. Why is he angry? (wait for half an hour) Why are you so tired? (train for 3 hours) Why is he so thirsty? (not drink anything the whole day) How can your father be so vigorous at his age? (watch his diet all his life) How is that you are not hungry. I (already. She has dropped one egg on the floor and she’s thrown one pancake on the ceiling.m. 1. Use present perfect simple or continuous. 7. meet) Doris at 5 p. 4. I (know) Peter for years. I (do). (eat from the snack-food machine) Are you sure you don’t want some coffee? (drink some coffee-just) D.Grammar A. I(phone) you for the last three hours. Use present perfect continuous or simple. Where(you. Example: Chris went into the kitchen at 8 a. (you. but he (not. She (work) hard. use present perfect simple or continuous. on Monday? Yes. Since Mike last (visit) me. yet. 5. he (be) to many places. I(move) the furniture. 1. get) a phone call. 3. 2. 6.For two years. Answer the following questions. Since last October. 4.

Meg citeşte în camera ei de când s-a întors acasă. te rog să-mi explici şi mie câteva noţiuni elementare. She (warn) me again this morning at breakfast time but I (work( for four hours and nothing (go) wrong. N-am mâncat niciodată icre negre. 5. Nu ştiu la ce personaj te referi. Verişorul meu a crescut foarte mult de când nu l-am văzut. 2. 6. Translate the following into English: 1. When we(move) in three years ago. 23. 44 . 14. Asta s-a întâmplat acum două săptămâni într-un accident de maşină. everything (be) in a mess. 15.10. În ultima vreme am fost atât de prins cu alte treburi. 9. De când a stat de vorbă jumătate de oră cu acel personaj pitoresc nu mai e acelaşi om! 25. 19. Avionul nu a aterizat încă. Ai înţeles vreodată geometria diferenţială? Dacă da. Today I (work) since breakfast and I (not. 10. iar anul trecut a scris şi o piesă de teatru. 7. 4. dar îl aşteptăm din moment în moment. De vreo doi ani îl tot rog să încerce să lucreze mai ordonat şi să aibă mai multă voinţă. finish) the job. 13. Astăzi toţi vecinii şi-au parcat maşinile în noul parcaj din faţa blocului. I (never. ai vizitat astăzi Galeriile Naţionale.Nu. 11. 8. Jim (often. 14. forget) what (happen) several years ago when she (try) to help me. but now I (almost. 11. 12. . have) lunch yet.Spune-mi. Ai încercat vreodată să faci practici vreun sport extrem? 21. De unde îl cunoşti? Până acum am crezut că îţi e total străin. 20. În schimb am colindat prin toate magazinele. n-am avut timp. 16. să-i amintesc că avem un proiect de făcut împreună. 3. nu-I aşa? . Pregăteşte de obicei nişte prăjituri delicioase. I-a pierdut în timpul orei de educaţie fizică. have) many accidents since then but Ann (often. dar mi se pare că e cel mai talentat violonist pe care l-am auzit vreodată. 18. dar de data asta s-a întrecut pe sine. S-ar putea să mă înşel. Prietenul ei e scriitor. 24. încât am uitat complet de ce m-ai rugat. warn) me to be careful. Fratele ei şi-a rupt piciorul. Până acum a scris câteva romane. Familia Bush a cumpărat un apartament în acest cartier şi de atunci locuiesc aici. 22. try) to jump over the fence. E. De când n-a mai întrebat de mine? Cred că ar fi bine să-l mai caut eu. 12. I (not.şi revizuiască atitudinea. De când s-a mutat în blocul nostru nu ne-a mai sunat la telefon şi nici nu ne-a mai 17. N-a mai pomenit aşa comportament în viaţa ei aşa că este hotărâtă să-l determine să. Luna asta a citit şase romane. dar să ştii că mi-am şi scris şi expediat toate felicitările de Crăciun . George nu a mai cântat la pian de când era copil. Poate nu-ţi vine să crezi. pentru că n-am citit filmul şi nici na-m citit cartea. Nimeni nu a găsit ochelarii Anei. dar în zadar. N-am mai pomenit una ca asta! Sunt în oraş de o lună şi nu ne-au telefonat încă. 13. Ultimele le-am expediat ieri.

8.I think he ……. I know it’s hard to do the washing-up without a proper detergent. the washing... The new principal plans to……. 45 .only one course of Chemistry. 7. 1. Could you ……the zip …. famous She’s famous for breaking the world record.. Phrasal verbs and expressions with do Phrasal verbs • do away with. She’ s well-known because she broke the world record.g. I could ……a nice hot shower. The price they charge varies according to the quantity you order. but please try to…… 5. French • do someone a favour • do someone good • do someone harm • do well • do your best Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with do. In his last year of study he …….you any……. It won’t……. ……. I’m freezing. 1.manage to live without • have/be to do with. e. Are you trying to find your hat? 4. cleaning..In fact it’ll probably…. Our car is going to be repaired this week so we’ll have to ……it for a day or two. uniform. 2. I don’t want you to sympathise with me. We admire her because of her intelligence. Rewrite each sentence. the garden • do school subjects. search have apologise feel sorry 6.1..……! 9.and go fetch another beer.Vocabulary 1. Maths. 5. I am sorry that I was rude to you. repair or redecorate • do without. walk 2. He stopped to look in a shop window and then continued walking. want • do up. 3. 2. replacing the underlined words with a suitable form of the word in bold on the right and adding FOR or ON.nothing……this delicate problem. but it’s …….(usually after could) need. cooking.on the back of this dress? 10. account 2. fasten.have a connection with Expressions • do domestic jobs. depend 7. 4..g. You should eat a bit of meat occasionally. 6.. Meg’s business started slowly.abolish • (could ) do with.

is able to activate according to his own taste. computer-generated drawings represent examples of simulated pieces of art. The 46 . at times even half an hour or more. Computer graphics is nearly indispensable when one is confronted with dynamic processes which cannot be illustrated by individual pictures. Forms of aesthetic activity can be imagined which allow the viewer to enter into a sort of dialogue with the computer or the aesthetic program. (3) Entertainment. but also through confrontation with classical art. At the beginning of computer graphics activities. (2) Education. The sudden interest in visual computer art has had repercussions on its artistic forms. now promoted to the successor of the hitherto passive onlooker. educators. while still being ignored by art critics. But today we are convinced that an optimal coordination of our living space with its inhabitants has become a necessity. explode the classical frame and lead to an expansion which makes the integration into classical art forms impossible. It is through playful experiments. An additional stimulus was created by the advancement of microelectronics which added a new dimension of artistic activity: the old dream of being able to play freely with colours and shapes has come true. by interaction some sort of a play with graphic structures may emerge. The visualization of instructional material is one of the great tasks of our future. but only by animated sequences. the production of a picture took ten to twenty minutes. (4)Shaping of the Environment. we are confronted with the problem of aesthetic structuring. mechanical plotting represented the only possible choice. The new interactive method facilitated through the above-mentioned improvements even allows a sort of graphic improvisation: the artist conceives the general framework for multitude of graphic creations which the user.L10: The New Visual Age: The Influence of Computer Graphics on Art and Society Only a few years ago it would have seemed ridiculous to discuss the influence of computer graphics on art and society. their decreased execution time and increased storage capacity allowing ever greater access at lower prices to larger groups of interested amateurs have opened new perspectives to the most diverse ranges of activity. its influence was not yet felt in the arts or in society at large. the shaping of our environment was left to the more or less spontaneous ideas of individuals. Apart from the task of a technical transformation and often adaptation to existing psychological and sociological conditions. It was the most recent developments in microelectronics which mainly led to a turning point in the history of computer art. have drawn the attention of designers. 'Free' computer graphics can serve as a source of new programming methods and of ideas for creating new shapes. as in text analysis. From the viewpoint of the theoretician or the behavioural scientist who is concerned with aesthetics. The possibility of rapid creation and of variation in structures. The newly obtained dynamics. that experience is gained which can be useful in several ways: (1) Theory of Art. however. Particularly the opportunities opened by microprocessors. Until recently. and the entertainment industry. is also essential. Although computer-generated graphics had already been applied in important areas of science and technology.. which. The result was an image which could be hung on the wall: which means that at least from an external viewpoint. the traditional artistic criteria were still respected.

They help a lot in aesthetically structuring of our living space. b. That means no less and no more than that the program can be used to create and to structure musical and linguistic elements artistically. 3. d. They help with the visualization of instructional material c. the advancement of microelectronics a. In what respect and to what degree do you think computer graphics influence society? Give arguments to support your ideas. c. d.universality of means and the peculiarities of data processing systems make the traditional categories questionable for yet another reason: acoustic instruments can be used for the output of data just as well as the means of microprocessors. made possible the old dream of being able to play freely with colours and shapes. makes the integration into classical art forms possible. b. They represent examples of simulated pieces of art and offer the possibility of rapid creation and of variation in structures. made possible a new dynamics that exploded the classical frame and led to a new way of expression. b. have influenced art and society since decades. Which is the wrong variant out of the four? 1.Computer graphics a. The aesthetic programs they may offer are meant only for serious stuff and not for entertainment. d. 2. c. could lead to a turning point in the history of computer art by using the most recent developments in microelectronics. allows a sort of graphic improvisation B. 'Free' computer graphics can serve in several ways: a. have opened new perspectives to the most diverse ranges of activity. . A. 47 . influence was not yet felt in the arts or in society at large. It is clear that the old ways can no longer satisfy the needs of these expanding forms of expression.

. He ………. He ………all day evening.m. read that novel D. 2. dig in the courtyard 8. 1. Barton was still planting trees at 6 p.all morning. He (study) law for a short time when in 1834. The actor was rehearsing at 8. 10. speak on the phone 4.. B. How long had you been waiting for your girl friend when she showed up? 48 . Use past perfect continuous with the verbs in brackets: Abraham Lincoln (do ) manual labour on the family farm before he was sent to local school. 9. The students were working on a difficult project in May. Example: Mr. Answer the questions using past perfect continuous and SINCE/FOR. solve puzzles 7. 6. The children were still preparing for the show at 1 p. The surgeon was still operating her on at 6 p. Diana was ironing her dresses yesterday afternoon. The policemen were still investigating the case in December.m. They………the case all winter.30 p.m. The girls were still skating at noon. 3. 5. America’s national unity was threaten because the southern states and the rest of the country unsuccessfully (try) to settle the question of slavery.m. Barton had been planting trees all day. Mr. 7. listen to music 5. The guardian was still standing in front of her door at 12 p. Fill in the blanks with the past perfect tense continuous. The wind was blowing in the morning. Ask and answers according to the model: mend the car How long had you been mending the car when grandfather came home? I‘d been mending the car for one hour and a half /since 2 o’clock when grandfather came home. They…………all morning. They………….in front of her door all morning.all afternoon. He …………all afternoon.m. 1. When he became president. She ………. C. Ann was wearing her green winter coat yesterday.. He (work) hard for years before he overcame defeat in politics. How long had your parents been saving up when they bought a car? 2.on it all spring. Example: How long had you been standing in a queue when you bought your ticket to Brasov? I’d been standing in a queue since 3 p. ski on the slope 3. They ………. Lincoln ran for political office again.m./ for about ten all winter. In fact she………. play the new instrument 2.Grammar A. 4.. It……….all day. 1. 8. translate the passage 6.

Why was she so enthusiastic? (she/ speak on her favourite topic/2 hours) 7. 5. How long had Mary and her friends been standing in line when someone offered them two tickets.repeat for practice 49 . How long had you been trying to persuade him when he left the room in a hurry? 10. How long had your neighbours been making noise when you complained? 6. Why was Jane so tired? (she/work/4 hours) 2. E. Everyone in the class passed the exam with flying colours.use all one’s supplies • run over. How long had you been walking when it started to rain? 5. Follow the model and answer the questions: Example: Why was Nick angry? (he/wait/20 minutes) Because he had been waiting for 20 minutes. them? 9. 1. someone by chance • run on. The detailed descriptions in the story gave local colour to the book. How long had your friends been filling-in that form when you decided to help 9. Vocabulary 1.knock down and drive over the top • run through.3. 8. What do you tjhink of the colour scheme in this room? 7. How long had you been playing this game when you join a club? 8. 1. She didn’t go to work because she was feeling a little off colour. Why were you so busy? (I /make travel arrangements/ 3 days) 4. 6. The context will help you to guess. Why did your friend look so amused?(he/watch a comedy/1/2 hours) 3. Why was she broken? (she / spend a lot of money/December last year) 8. It was only when he had won the match and started jeering at his opponent that he saw him in his true colours.continue happening for longer than planned or expected • run out of. How long had your mother been cooking when you offered to help her? 7. 3. Why were they so hungry? ( they/ have a proper meal/ several days) 9. 4. Why were they so frozen? (they /stay in a cold room/ 5 hours). Far more men are colour-blind than women. What do they mean? Don’t use a dictionary.escape • run into. How long had your neighbours been living next to you before they moved? 4. Phrasal verbs with run • run away. Why were they so furious? (the policeman/ ask questions/ an hour) 5. Don’t allow your personal interest to colour your judgement. Each of these sentences contains a colourful expression. 2. All the documents in this office are colour-coded. 2. Why were they so happy? ( they/ do something they enjoy/ 2 hours ago) 10. Why was he so relaxed? ( he/listen to a wonderful Chopin piano concert/ an hour).

replacing the underlined words with a suitable form of the word in bold on the right and adding FOR or ON. 7. She knows all about cars. an expert insist wind fall grow 2. Let’s get going! I don’t want this meeting to………. Guess who I……. Would you like to give me your opinion of my work? rely / count comment 4.cause to have bills or debts Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with run. (dis/mal/mis/un)cast: to choose (actors and actresses) that are unsuitable for the characters in (a film or play) 7. (anti/ill/mal/un)comfortable: not comfortable or not relaxed or calm 9. I dropped my glasses in the street and a car ……. It was a tall story but he was so gullible that he believed it.all night! 5. 2.We’ve never seen it again. selfish 6. I told the visitors you’d be late but she was determined to the middle of the town? Mel Gibson himself! 3. 1. You can’t trust him. Choose the correct affix: 1. (dis/in/non/un)content: a feeling of wanting better treatment or an improved situation 5. To hear the next track you should make the tape go 4. (anti/de/non/un) -alcoholic: a drink which does not contain alcohol 10. or to (cause to) become no longer frozen 50 . not as it should be 8. (counter/dis/im/un)possible: (of a person) extremely difficult to deal with or behaving badly 4.• run up. She sold her fur coat as she ……… 7.. 5. but you can trust me. (anti/ill/in/mis)considerate: not caring about other people or their feelings. 3. (dis/ir/non/un)relevant: not related to what is being discussed or considered and therefore of no importance 2. I used to hate that song but then it became more pleasant to me. We let the monkey out of its cage for a while and it……. I didn’t understand the passage so I should……….. 4. (de/dis/non/un)frost: to (cause to) become free of ice. not true. (a/de/in/non)correct: not correct. 1. (de/in/non/un)flammable: burning very easily once again. 6. Rewrite each sentence. 3. Greg …………an enormous bill at the bookshop this year. 6.

transformed to inoperative rather hundred thousands of computers and thousands of networks around the globe for quite few days. With the growth of the internet. online trading and many more. and many others not mentioned.L11: The Information Superhighway The Internet. access their bank accounts. Secondly. broadcasting companies and radio stations are transmitting regularly over the internet. One of the recent innovations the internet made available is online commerce. by so-called “crackers”: growing minorities of people with nothing better to do than spoil everyone else’s enjoyment. crackers achieved the first widely known attack on internet credit card data. online banking. But. “Veronica”. at least once a month. pay their bills. In July 1997. The electronic mail (email). once concealed inside government agencies and universities. overcoming any kind of disability. through the computer. On the same year. can effectively dive into an immense range and selection of merchandise. People can. Crackers dedicate their work to purposely infect programs and distant computers that access the internet. transfer their money and even trade their stocks. a group of knowledgeable engineers whose sole task is to reinforce the integrity of the internet. is taking significant measures to prevent such unlawful actions. The only costs involved in using these internet services. but it also transports compact and yet very harmful intruders: computer viruses. Consumers. beyond doubt. This was demonstrated. This opens up a new international world of trading. Any form of communication via the internet is cheaper and rather faster than any service from other facilities. another cracker known as “Snak” was taken into custody by FBI agents after he had stolen over one hundred thousands credit card numbers from an internet service provider (ISP) located in northern California. have existed since the very first birth of personnel computers. The “internet phone”. With a number of online individuals exceeding thirty millions and the number of networks that act as gateways for users exceeding fifty thousands. but also some drawbacks. all of which can be relatively cheap. enables anyone to make free long distance calls. the most efficient and economic tool of the next generation. for instance. Perhaps. which includes online shopping. anytime and anywhere from the globe. efficiently supplied with new viruses. These artificial clever beasts that destroy data. the internet offers to customary users a wide variety of services. virus authors have been faced up to nothing but a widespread gate to the information superhighway. First. which makes them accessible anywhere on the globe. The internet is. financial institutes deciphered the heartbreaking event to more than a few million dollars of 51 . the modem . the dark side of the internet reveals some serious drawbacks. Nevertheless. are the costs of the user's computer. the Internet's boundaries can only be imagined. With the appearance of “streaming” technologies. the internet’s structures do not only transport data. successfully capturing and distributing credit card numbers of NBA and ESPN users. and the telephone lines used to dial in. This is not true anymore with the expansion of the internet to include online banking. waiting to carry out regular transactions in financial centres is very frustrating. has become the largest single form of communication worldwide. Often described by the media as “the information superhighway”. which is slowly but surely replacing the regular phone. effortlessly compare prices and quickly shop from remote locations. allows any user on the internet to send nearly instantaneous electronic message to anyone else. last century’s award winning virus. the “internet tasking force” (ITF). it was not designed with tight security in mind.

The internet has also its weaknesses. are being improved. but not at the same level as the number of new users. and many others. This is wonderlessly why internet communities are very much concerned about security. information takes lengthy periods to load on the computer’s screen. effortlessly. The “information superhighway”. as any other invention. This is one of the main reasons behind the delays. The rate at which data is transmitted and the number of systems. some of which can be very damaging. drawback. and retrieving information improve. disadvantages C. Make your own sentences with the following words: exceeding. Fill in the following chart. Occasionally. as any other invention. according to the example: advantages COMPUTER’S Any form of communication via the internet is cheaper and rather faster than any service from other facilities. endpoint. B. adding your own arguments to the ones previously stated in the text above. The “information superhighway”. which can be thought of several four lane roadways with neither traffic officers nor civilized drivers. just enough to frustrate impatient users. gateways. wonderlessly. 52 . has its strengths (…) and also its weaknesses. email. Comment upon this statement. and on the internet's paths. A. that these drawbacks will be overcome in time as technology advances and methods of securely transmitting.vanished money. cracker. however. receiving. has its strengths residing in its popular aspects – the World Wide Web. online commerce. This is often due to delays that occur at endpoints. I believe.

53 . Her mother was washing up after dinner.? 5. 1.? 3.…………? 4. The film had already started.? 6.? C. 1.………? 2.………. Greg had two tickets for the film.. (get to the meeting place-leave) 3. Tom was supposed to go on a trip with his friends yesterday. 3. the door was locked and the lights were off. How long had you been in the airport by the time the plane landed? 3.leave) B. Add tag questions to the statements bellow and answer them. The sun was shining. Mike got out of the train to buy a newspaper. the skyscraper fell down. When he got to the meeting place. (come out. (get to the baker’s-close the shop) When Doris got to the baker’s they HAD CLOSED the shop.……. Mary had a meeting and arrived home late. What had you done before you went to the airport? 2. 1. your aunt told you the great news 4. Chris went to the shop.stop raining) 5. (come back. hadn’t you? 1. I hadn’t promised anything.have dinner) 2. your parents arrived home. She came out half an hour later..Grammar A. Nobody had tried it before. but he said no. Example: When Doris got to the baker’s. When he came back the train wasn’t there. (arrive home. How had you felt until the plane landed? 4. Yesterday you went to the airport to meet him. Example: You had seen Mary.………. Comment upon these situations using past perfect simple. The sun had already set.. The students hadn’t finished the tests. It was raining outside. The principal had just come. Say what you had just done when…….………. the alarm clock rang in the morning 2.. neither the coach nor his friends were there. What had you done before your father was in the customs? D.……? You had seen Mary. (invite Dan-see the film) 4.. He invited Dan to come to come with him. Imagine your father was away on a business trip last week. you found out you had won the jackpot 5. I had met nobody before.? 7.…….

3. Sissy went out. The guest left before they’d finished their dinner. Join each pair of sentences bellow using BEFORE and the past perfect simple. 5. 2. The hostess served coffee. Why did they have to stand. Example: Why did the clock stopped? (Tim –wind) Because Tim hadn’t wound it. AFTER. He hadn’t corrected his mistakes. Why was the little boy unhappy?( he win the prize) 54 . Why didn’t she have dinner? (mother.iron) 7. (emphatic) Hardly had they got on the train when it left. Greg’s pen ran out of ink. 1. It was cloudy for an hour and then the sun came out again. (they. visit anybody 5. BEFORE. 1. We had supper and then we washed the dishes.E. play tennis 4. 4. Why couldn’t Carmen wear the new dress? (she. Adams have a room in the hotel? (she-reserve) 4. HARDLY. go swimming 6. The audience laughed.cook. The sun rose and immediately we started. They hadn’t heard the end of the joke. 3. Choose from NO SOONER. 4. 1. 5. The sun set and then we stopped 6. The student handed in the essay. Why couldn’t she tell anything about the book? (she-read ) 2. H. Why didn’t Mrs. Use the past perfect simple and FOR and SINCE. They’d hardly got on the train when it seats) 6. Be careful about the past tense you use! Example: They got on the train and immediately it left. We unpacked our things and then we put out our tents. watch TV 2. AS SOON AS. We hadn’t finished our main course. Connect the following sentences by using the appropriate connectors. She hadn’t recovered from her illness. WHEN. 2.30 the sky got dark. Why didn’t Jane take the coach? (she-catch the train) 3. Model: see any films Doris hadn’t seen any films since she came home/ for two weeks. Answer the following questions using the past perfect simple. 1. write any letters G. 8. Example: The guest left. F. We went to bed and immediately we fell asleep. yet) 5. UNTIL. We stopped at noon and immediately we had lunch. At 12. ride her bike 3. We started immediately and didn’t stop at all. 7. They hadn’t finished their dinner. He hadn’t finished his paper.

Most manual workers receive wages and are paid weekly.. make it easier for someone to achieve something • at something. He ……….to get rid of a feeling by doing something energetic: • on something. He’s dedicated to work very hard • till/until you drop. She ……. 7. understand something or to find the answer to something by thinking about it • up something. Our new clerk makes a lot of mistakes because he is still inexperienced. 2. 6. both parties have to ……. 8. She ……stress by running for at least half an hour every develop an emotional or physical state that you feel strongly. Inexperience can ……. 12. 4. you in getting a job. 55 .his fitness. but I can't ……. Most couples would agree that for a marriage to succeed. 2. especially for a long time work like a Trojan. I can’t afford to buy anything because I’m still in debt after my holiday. Being patient could ………. 7. 5. after a period of effort or time expressions with work • one’s fingers to the provide a home and food for seven children. 3. He phoned me completely unexpectedly to tell me he was back in town.a candidate looking for a job. 6. 2. He became very angry when I told him he had made a mistake. in the red red-handed see red red carpet red tape once in a blue moon out of the blue blue-collar green green green with envy give the green light 1. be the result of a calculation • something 9. Phrasal verbs with work • against somebody. A lucky coincidence like this happens very rarely. His dancing technique is good. 10. The police caught him in the act of committing the crime. It's strange. Replace each word or phrase in italics with one of the idioms bellow. I’m ready to start when you tell me to go ahead.any enthusiasm for going on this make it more difficult for someone to achieve something • for somebody. There will be a full investigation to …….Vocabulary work extremely hard. but he needs to …….differently each time I add them.what caused the accident. These figures …….to spend time repairing or improving something • out. 3. How environmentally friendly are you? 5. Dealings with government offices usually involve bureaucratic work until you are so tired that you cannot work any more Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with work 1. They were very jealous when they saw my new Porsche. 4. She’s very famous so we must give her VIP treatment. try hard to achieve something • something off.

and a vase she bought for $5 sold for $585. the information on it could be rerouted automatically to other This language tells the computer how to display a page. If a network link became damaged by enemy attack. Businesses can use pictures to help sell their merchandise online. an Art Deco ashtray that she bought for $ and trying to be as profitable as Bezon and Amazon. To fully understand what e-commerce is. In order to use anything on the Internet. it is easy to see that it will be a lasting innovation in the world of computers. This was the birth of the Internet. Time Magazine’s Person of the Year of 1999. and now that the Internet is everywhere. anyone from a big corporation or even the average joe can build his or her own web page. an online web auction site. She could make nowhere near that much by selling these items in her hometown. Now thanks to the web everyone all aver the world can have a chance to bid on these items and help make Sharone richer. one for news groups. sold for $ in his garage and helped start e-commerce. An example of this is eBay. libraries. By using hypertext he could link together all the different kinds of information available on the Internet. For the World Wide Web to work. both on eBay. and even cafes – anyone can order just about anything from anywhere. that lets everyone clean out his or her attic and make a profit. this has happened. No one ever intended for it to be so commercially successful. it is required that you learn to operate a separate program. Like Sharon Balkwitsch who has sold antiques on eBay. Each page has to be written with a special language called HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). It all started with the DOD (Department of Defense) in 1996. as we now know it. Ecommerce is a worldwide commodity that has taken the place of trips to the supermarket and has given us the freedom to conduct business at our house in our pyjamas. In the beginning. This all changed in 1989. Berners-Lee called the software pack the World Wide Web. It is now easier than ever to have and start your own web page. Now with the invention of the web. Many companies are trying to more like Amazon. and several different programs for accessing databases. each page has it’s own address that the web recognizes using a system called HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol). its main purpose was to send and receive messages. After the Cold War the Government wanted a reliable line of communication. one for the mail. With as much support as e-commerce has gotten. no one anticipated that one-day people could buy books and cars over a 56 .L12: E-Commerce The Internet has caught on like wild fire. you must first understand where it came from. E-commerce is still in its developmental stage at this point. With a loan from the bank. Though with the advancement of certain technologies. A researcher at CERN (a big European physics laboratory) named Tim Berners-Lee started to work on hypertext. Jeff founded Amazon. There is room for improvement for the creators as well as for the manufacturers of these goods being sold on the schools. Just like Jeff Bezos. For instance.

c. 2. b. are based on hypertext b. is helped willingly by people to get richer. enables people buy books and cars. d. bought an Art Deco ashtray for $20. “ Anyone from a big corporation or even the average joe can build his or her own web page. has taken the place of trips to the supermarket.A. 3. is commercially successful nowadays. Starting from the following statement tell your own opinion on ECommerce. 1. b. were founded by a researcher at HTML c. B. was considered Time Magazine’s Person of the Year of 1999. has given people the freedom to conduct business at one’s house in our pyjamas. 5. has sold antiques on eBay. Find the incorrect variant out of the four. c.. as we now know it. c. d. made all that money by selling those products in her hometown. c. has caught wild fire. E-commerce a. d. loaned some money from a bank from a bank. Jeff Bezos a. b. founded Amazon. is a worldwide commodity. d. started e-commerce. b. are of common use nowadays d.” 57 . The Internet a. was first used in 1996. have each of their page written with a special language called HTML 4. The web sites a. Sharon Balkwitsch in his garage. had once as its main purpose sending and receiving messages.

I got a bad mark because I had made many mistakes.m. Mike studied the problem for three hours. It finally ended at 6 p. George (wait) in the lounge before his flight (be announced) 4.m. My friend (find) a luggage trolley when I offered to help her. 2.m.m. 7.m. 5. She complained a lot about my relatives so I felt embarrassed. using past tense and past perfect: Example: I made many mistakes so I got a bad mark. The operation began at 10 a. We gave her a lot of attention so she felt nice in our company.S. 5. 1. 6. so the country was called a melting pot. The McGregors’ went to a restaurant last night. She (wonder) if the taxi-driver (understand) the address she (tell) him. 9. Example: Mike started studying the problem at 6 p. Many immigrants from many nations came to the U.30 she went to bed. They redecorated the house so it looked lovely. 10. because it had been very complicated. They spent a lot of time together so they came to know each other well. Mary turned on the TV set at 8 p. At 10. They didn’t come in time so I left. It was nine o’clock when he finally found the solutions. Re-estate the following sentences. 1. Roger Harrison got his first job in the publishing house when he was 20. He retired when he was 65. My friend never saw a baseball so he didn’t understand it. 4.m. 2.m. and the waiter brought them at quarter to 9. The first patients came into the waiting room at 7 a. She finally passed her driving test in August 1999. He lost control of his car so he had a terrible accident. The doctor came at 8 a. When we reached the house. 3. Mike had been studying the problem for three hours when he finally found the solution. Comment upon these situations using the past tense simple and the past perfect continuous. 7. She (feel) nervous before the plane 9 took off. 5. 6. He had been studying since 6 p. 4.Grammar A. They (leave) the hotel when you (call) a taxi. Miss Brown started taking driving lessons in February 1999. 8. 58 . 2. B. Laura began studying for her degree in 1998. in 2002.A. 3.m. C. She didn’t hear the phone so she didn’t answer it. we(remember) we (forget) our luggage in the cab. He didn’t understand my name so I repeated it again. 1. 3. They ordered the dishes at 8 p. 6. She finally got her B. Use past tense simple or past perfect.

The woman didn’t know that the man (look) at her. 8. Two things your colleagues had done before they left the lab. 7. When she warned me about the danger I (drive) at a high speed for about 20 minutes. 4. It was raining when I looked out of the window. She (read) when I entered the room. 5. 3. 3. Era în magazin de jumătate de oră când şi-a dat seama că şi-a uitat poşeta acasă. We didn’t realize that they ( watch) us for a few minutes. iar oamenii aşteptau în sală cam de jumătate de oră când a sosit invitatul. Nici n-am apucat să mă mişc că s-a şi trezit. Use past perfect continuous or past continuous. Ne-a întâmpinat secretara care încerca să prindă Bucureştiul la telefon de la ora 6. He (sleep) for several hours when I came into the room. Toţi colegii mai şi-au cumpărat romanul lui Balzac după ce au văzut serialul la televizor. 6. When I noticed the speed limit I (drive) at a high speed. 5. 3. 6. trenul plecase. Nici n-am apucat bine să închid uşa că a şi sunat cineva. 4. 59 . Translate the following into English: 1. Two things you had been doing for one hour by 10 yesterday morning. The thieves were not aware that the police (follow) them for 10 minutes. Nu mai vizitasem oraşul meu natal de multă vreme şi eram hotărât să-mi petrec vacanţa acolo. 5. Two things your friend had done before he went to bed. Example: It had been raining for about half an hour when I looked out of the window. Write: 1. 2. As we (make) pizza for an hour they lost their patience and (leave). Two things you had done before you left home in the morning. 8. Mi-a spus că invitase pe un cunoscut scriitor să ţină o conferinţă despre literatura modernă. 10. 9. 9. She (read) a very captivating book when I got into the room. 4. Two things your colleagues had been doing for a couple of minutes before the professor entered the lab. 2. Before I was in Mall she (visit) the Art Museum. E. 2. Conferinţa urma să aibă loc la ora 7 p. Two things your friend had been doing for half an hour before he called you. Când în cele din urmă a ajuns la gară. 7.D. 6. .m. 1. Pentru că oaspetele nu sosise încă. 10. ne-am hotărât să-l aşteptăm în hol.

decide Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with make. sound • make it – arrive in time • make money.The plaster cast will help to (heal/heel) the broken bone. She can never…………about what to wear.complain. so don’t…… 2. They’re not getting married in a registry office: they’re having a ……… 7. 7. 3. She had a …………and didn’t regain consciousness for several minutes. 6. 2. He showed his disapproval by giving me a ………… 2. 7.make a meaningless. It’s hilarious ………. 5. some things could only be bought on the ……… 4. compensate for Expressions with make • make an effort. He must have been in a fight. During the war.. His dream is to be successful and to …….it. 6.This jigsaw puzzle has two (peaces/pieces) missing. I don’t like people who always ………about things. Fill the gaps in these sentences with one of the idioms bellow. It’s important not to………when you want to win the prize. 3. It’s an important course so could you ………to be here on time? 5. Chose the correct word between the homophones: 1.’ll be a………… 2. 6.You need to have nerves of (steal/steel) to be a fighter pilot.I told that (to/too/two) George and he was enchanted.1. 1. We need silence. He behaved awfully to me last night and now.workers receive a salary and are paid monthly. he’s trying to……. Phrasal verbs with make • make up.about an unsuccessful murderer. 5. I told a……….American pit bull terriers are (bread/bred) for their fighting instincts 60 . 10.There was nothing on the table but a few crusts of (bread/bred).he’s got a ……. 9.A greater proportion of students with first degrees are now going on to study for (higher/hire) degrees. Most ………. 8.because I didn’t want her to get into trouble.Go up the (stairs/stares) and her flat is on the left. Send me a letter about this – I need to have all the details………. invent . become friends again after a quarrel • make up for. black comedy white elephant white lie white wedding black comedy black eye black look black market blackout in black and white 1. 2.Why has the project been (allowed/aloud) to continue if it's such a disaster? well financially • make up one’s mind. 9.try • make a fuss. 4. something wrong • make a noise. show unnecessary excitement • make a mistake. 8. usually unwanted.Vocabulary 1. No one will visit the museum.

to gain access to. Hackers like to hack in order to impress each other. and malicious hackers. Write the portrait of the hacker from your own point of view . hackers were basically known as just computer experts. national security documents. 61 . b. and do not have full-time jobs or own property. Despite the growing trend of hacking. C. it is not one that is accepted in the United States or any other country. They do not consider that if they do get into a system and make an unintentional. Also in many government organizations. In 1998. I think that every computer professional. simple mistake. a person who pirates software. There is a number of things that our country (USA) is realizing about Cyber terrorism. This protects the innocent and helpless from hackers and gives them the right over the power of Cyber Terrorists. they could cost the company thousands. and possibly millions of dollars. Choose between these two: a. president Clinton created the Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection. All studies show that hackers are generally young. The art of computer hacking has grown since the computers first started to appear. The bad hackers are dangerous if they may gain access to classified information. In the past. Newcomers to the hacking community learn the rules by associating with established hackers. There are hackers out there that will do there best to harm any system they can. Nowadays hacker means the same thing as a cracker. they have formed some type of group to deal with cyber terrorist and block them from stealing money as well as information. service or money. nerd. Make sentences of your own using the following: unstoppable. to be faced with. Hackers also do not know about the cost results of their actions. (…) A. very little research has been done on the hacking world and its culture. have made a mistake that has caused the loss of data. Although hacking is a growing trend in our society. trend. Divide this article into paragraphs and give each of them a suitable title. Young hackers do not know what a System Administrator is faced with on a day-to-day basis. including the best.L13: Hacking Hacking has been developed over the years to be unstoppable. and neither do they realize the problem they cause for already overworked people. overworked. unintentional. B. Write an article in support of /against hacker. The image of a computer hacker has grown from a harmless nerd into a vicious technocriminal.

Orator spoke clearly and……. For we could understand every word he said. a) inspire b) liven c) loosen d) raise Miss Duffer looked as if she hadn’t a…………what Prof... It gives the 5……………for entry to each course. a) belief b) information c) knowledge d) opinion Prof.of required 17……….of freedom given students in 15 ………their courses.... Choose the right answer: Are you going to attend Prof.the scene in your mind. a) clue b) guess c) point d) thought 62 .schools.. amount course graduation outline requirements calendar credits major prospectus technical class hours curriculum number specified three college electives opportunity subjects week Selecting courses The course given by a 1…………. a) accept b) catch c) listen d)take Use your imagination and try to ………. To choose than do 20……….. Schools using the semester 10………..number of credits. Sophisticated was talking about. or university are called its curriculum. a course that meets three times a 9……usually gives……credits towards graduation. a) distinct b) distinctly c) distinguishable d)legibly During a lecture I always try to …….require about 120 credits for 11…………. 2. a) idea b)nail c) pin d) point A few jokes always ……….Liberal-arts colleges usually give students more 19………. Almost all schools have a certain 16…………. the lecture starts at eleven tomorrow morning.on C++ next week? a) conference b) discussion c) lecture d)meeting The lecture was so ………that almost everyone felt asleep. Schools vary considerably in the 14 …………. a) draw b) model c) paint d) picture Would you please………from smoking while the lecture is in progress? a) avoid b) keep yourself c) refrain d) stop Prof. The 2…………of the institution 3…………the complete 4………….down the main points that are maid..Between 30 and 40 of the required 12……………must be in the student’s 13…………subject. These are usually equal to the number of 8 …………devoted each week to the course. Rush was speaking so quickly I couldn’t ………what he said. a) bored b) dull c) exhausted d) tired According to my…………. Put each of the following words or phrases into its correct place in the passage bellow. Each course is designated as giving a 7…………. a) doodle b) jot c) noting d) sketch That’s precisely what I mean. Wise’s ………. You’ve hit the ………on the head.Students can also usually choose nonrequired courses called 18…………….Vocabulary 1.up a lecture. as well as the credits given for the 6 …….

. dean d) the lowest teaching rank at a university 5. 3. let’ take an………. while 4………. Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage bellow. a) keep b)keep in c)keep on d) keep up To begin the lecture. Some institutions are 14………. The undergraduates belong to one of four 5……….degrees.have not.professor k) anyone devoted to the acquisition knowledge especially attending university 12.and senior classes.. sophomore. Others admit 16………of only one 17……… A 18……… institution has 19……. ……. 8……….on the matter under discussion..You can……….. student m) follower of a religious teacher. 1..your shorthand by taking notes during lectures..or a college is divided into 2……’s and women’s colleges. These are 7…….to school. a) away b) in c) over d) up The example you have just referred to has no…….students who take a number of 10…………...and undergraduates. apprentice a) female teacher in charge of a school 2. lecturer h) a person studying to become an officer in the army or a policeman 9.. coach c) highest grade of university teacher 4. pupil l) attends primary school 13. Students12…………vary considerably from13………. a) oversight b) overtone c) overture d) overview The lecturer spoke so fast I found it hard to take………..of the present situation.with both men and 15………students.. but are not working towards a 11………. Graduates have already received their 3……. a) bearing b) connection c) dependence d) relation 3. principal j) person undergoing some form of vocational training 11. Match the words for people in education with the correct definition. 63 .and are usually 21…………on the same campus or nearby 22……….. They are controlled by the same central 20………. according to their 6 ………of study. 4. Most schools also admit 9……….what he was saying. trainee i) someone learning a trade who works in return for being taught 10. disciple e) person in charge of a division of study 6. authority classes degree located special women bachelor’s coeducational freshmen schoolstudents year bodies coordinate graduates separate undergraduates campuses courses junior sex university Students The student body of a 1.. instructor g) the head of some universities or schools 8. cadet b) person who trains sportsmen for contests or prepares private students for an exam. headmistress f) person who teaches you driving 7..

64 . 5. ………. 8. in writing. 7. Like a lot of short your troubles. They were………. 9. He'll have to ………his …….are better than’s over my…………… 7. 7. I’ll spin a coin to see – do you want to call ………. We couldn’t solve the problem. Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable form of head. They were in two……….. to prepare something. 4. I’m sorry I didn’t make that phone call. 4. usually because you are surprised or frightened • draw somebody into something . don’t panic-try to keep your………. 8..their argument but I refused. 1. If there’s a problem to solve. When it comes to his full height in public. She leaned forward to stroke the dog but quickly ……….a chair and I'll tell you all about it...for another hour with a series of tedious questions. That’s too difficult for me to follow.whether to get married .over heels in love.5. 9.or tails? 6. He can’t climb a ladder because he has no …………for heights. A good book can help to take your………….when she saw its teeth. 2. to move a chair near to someone or something • draw oneself up -to make yourself look bigger by standing straight. She had a wealth of experience to………. usually something official.. he tends to ……….to act in a more careful way than you did before. They tried to ……me …. help someone to express their thoughts and feelings more easily by making them feel less nervous • draw something up -1..wave.a little of her home-made wine just to taste. She’s very good at Maths. I've ……. Phrasal verbs with draw • draw back. 6. The director ……the meeting …….. move away from someone or something. I try to keep an open………… make someone become involved in a difficult or unpleasant situation • draw something off . 1. She …….. Like all good interviewers he manages to …….to remove a small amount of liquid from a larger amount • draw on something . usually to try to seem more important Expression with draw • draw in your horns. -2.people ……themselves.she has a good ………for figures. 3. but suddenly I had a…………. 12. brain or mind. two ………... especially by spending less money. use information or your knowledge of something to help you do something • draw something out .to cause something to last longer than is usual or necessary • draw somebody out of .a list of candidates that I'd like to he's lost his job 5. If there’s an emergency. 2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with draw. 3. it slipped my ……….

Sina would not be able to advertise on the Internet therefore not being able to generate revenue and not surviving as a company. ASM used to be an Asian trade magazine that eventually installed software and offered an interactive catalogue of products and factories on CD-Rom and converted its catalogue to a Web site. search and free email throughout its four sites. The Internet is the way that Sina operates with its users. ASM earns its revenues by “ … accepting ads to be displayed on its Web site. Consumers view products and then contact the sellers using email.” (18) as well as getting paid for listings by sellers and very soon to be buyers. comprehensive. 1).” (Laudon. Without the Internet the customers would have to search for products and information by going to these sellers to shop around or by sitting on the phone for hours calling these sellers for information. Since anyone can have access to the Internet. Asia Source Media (ASM) “ … offers services via Internet for companies participating in global trade. Revenues are generated for Sina by advertising for companies on its Web site that is primarily for the U. The two companies Sina and ASM both rely on the Internet to run their companies receiving revenues through the Internet and reaching their audience. it also offers popular chat rooms. Without the Internet these companies would not be able to operate their business and not serve their customers or gain potential new ones. online shopping platforms. Using email and the Web sites helps the buyers and sellers come together saving money on costly travel or telephone calls. 65 . community platforms. “ Sina is known in China for providing firstrate. The whole make up of these two businesses relies wholly on the Internet to run them. The Internet saves the customers time and money by proving a fast way to retrieve what they are looking for. Sina is hoping to generate profits through charging subscription fees for access from users to their sites and to add electronic commerce and Internet telephone capabilities to its Web sites. 18).L14: Internet Advertisements The Internet can be very useful for companies to advertise and sell their products. up-to-the-minute news. These two companies help their customers find what information or products they are looking for in the comfort of their houses or offices. and Taiwanese. The Internet is very essential for Sina to operate its business. ASM helps to provide users online information on trade shows. Sina uses the Internet to link people all over to other Chinese language sites.” (About Sina. financial information. product alerts and discounted prices from factories. They can just click a button and find whatever they need or are looking for in less time and money. sellers can reach the majority of the consumers through the use of the Internet.” (Laudon. Both of the companies generate all their revenues through use of the Internet.S. Sina is a company that has “ … become the most heavily trafficked Web sites in the Chinese language market. If there were no Internet. Both of the companies use the Internet to better serve their customers and potentially adding new customers in the long run as well. 18).

online shopping platforms. B. 2. 4. Which of the following information refers to Sina and which to ASIM and which to both? 1. product alerts and discounted prices from factories. 3. It relies on the Internet to run its company receiving revenues through the Internet and reaching its audience. It offers services via Internet for companies participating in global trade. 12. 10. It helps its customers find what information or products they are looking for in the comfort of their houses or offices. community platforms. It uses the Internet to link people all over to other Chinese language sites. It is hoping to generate profits through charging subscription fees for access from users to their sites and to add electronic commerce and Internet telephone capabilities to its Web sites. It is known in China for providing first-rate. It helps to provide users online information on trade shows. What do you think on internet advertisements? Could we do without them? Are there any disadvantages/risks that we should be aware of regarding these internet ads? 66 . 5. It generates all its revenues through use of the Internet 9. It uses the Internet to better serve its customers and potentially adding new customers in the long run as well. It earns its revenues by accepting ads to be displayed on its Web site as well as getting paid for listings by sellers and very soon to be buyers. comprehensive. 7. it also offers popular chat rooms. 6. 11. up-to-the-minute news. 8. search and free email throughout its four sites. It used to be an Asian trade magazine that eventually installed software and offered an interactive catalogue of products and factories on CD-Rom and converted its catalogue to a Web site. The whole make up of this business relies wholly on the Internet to run it.A. financial information.

……………… ……...……………… religion …….method of recording achievement was by 10…. 67 .……………… zoology ……. a) exercised b) practised c) repeated d) trained 4. Today the letters A. B.……………… …….……………… graphologist IS THE STUDY OF …….often use this piece of information to help determine whether they should 8………a student. achievements average grade minimum perfect school adjustment colleges letter occasionally progress teacher admit common marking pass record attitude failure method percentage reports Grading Grading is a 1………used in schools to 2…………student achievements. 21…………. with a mark.……………… life ……. Fill in the missing information: SUBJECT TEACHER Geology …….……………… ……. a) accounting b) considering c) imagining d) wondering 2.…………was usually 70 per cent .……………… ……. his English is excellent.……………… b…….with a tape recorder.……………… ……. 3.…… keeps a record of each student’s 4………in order to have some basis for measuring his 5………. D. activities.……………… words unborn babies ……. the most 9………. Such letters report the student’s progress.……………… 2.Vocabulary 1.The record supplies information for 6…………to parents.……………… ancient ruins ……. a) alone b) one c) only d) single 3.……………… …….……………… t…….work.. Universities and 7……. or 11………….……………… entomologist agronomy …….…….. Choose the correct variant: 1. Instead. The mark A stands for exceptional achievement. Your pronunciation would improve if you………. E.achievement. ……….………. and 16…………are much more commonly used.……………… ……. and social 22.system at all.………to the parents.……………… botanist a…….…………. and E or F means 17……… A few schools use no 18…………. of 100 per cent representing 12.. Priscilla asked for ………. about 80 per cent.……………… ……. and for 15. The 13 ………… mark for a 14. Almost every 3.……………… ……. that he only started learning it one year home as she thought she would learn English more quickly that way.……….. We were the ……….……………… e……..……………… ……. Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage bellow.……………… ……. For a long time..students in the class who could speak Russian. each 19…………writes a detailed 20. C.……………… meteorologist e…….

The school’s exam results …………. If you don’t know what that word means.Cyril’s understanding of the language is growing …………. a) differ b) distinguish c) separate d) solve 6. but they haven’t ……. If you want to learn a new language you must ………….in the dictionary. It is ……. a) cords b) fibers c) strands d) threads 16. language of most Spaniards. a) celebrated b) delighted c) enjoyed d) rejoiced 19. a) anticipated b) foreseen c) hope d) worry 4.. Spanish is the……. It’s fifteen years since Timothy worked in Holland and his Dutch is pretty ………. a) assist b) attend c) follow d) present 8. a) home b) mother c) native d) natural 10. a) definite b) fluent c) liquid d) national 7. They were most impressed by the overseas student whose English was ………… a) impeccable b) infallible c) irreproachable d) spotless 20. a) complains b) giggles c)scolds d) sneers 2. At the language school each student is assigned to his or her own……… a) director b) professor c) staff d) tutor 15..classes my studying English privately? a) allow b) agree c) approve d) permit 9. a) copied b) corrected c) retyped d) reviewed 3. a) arouse b) put out c) raise d) rise 14.a) particular b) peculiar c) personal d) private 5. a) by hook and by crook b) by leaps and bounds c) from time to time d) slow but sure 17. Vivian REVISED her paper carefully. Would you ……. a) give it up b) look it up c) make it up d) show it up 13. a) escalation b) improvement c) increase d) rise 12. “Roget’s Thesaurus”. Jonathan was surprised that Sonia’s English was so…………as she had never been to England. a) as well as b) instead of c) restricted d) unless 68 . They are learning English. The student is discourteous..your hand if you want to ask a question. Learners of English as a foreign language often fail to …………between unfamiliar sounds in that language.. a) done b)got c)made d) performed 11. a) rusty b) scratchy c) sloppy d) stale 18. a collection of English words and phrases arranged by the ideas they express RATHER THAN in alphabetical order. he GRUMBLES no matter how you try to please him. in his English.the headmaster. ………….that students will have doubled their vocabulary in three months. following the professor’s suggestions.much progress. There has been a great ………. Please ……. Chose the best synonym. A role play session is particularly useful in bringing together different ………of teaching.

. 1.on them for me? The dog trotted off to (berry/bury) its bone. The teacher told the student that his paper was ILLEGIBLE. The children's club (meats/meets) every Thursday afternoon. 2. She’s such a snob. When they said they’d got engaged I couldn’t believe my………. You can’t support both sides at once. I have to go away for a while. She gave him a long (stair/stare) but didn't answer his question.but in this case they disagreed. 5. or ear. They live in a remote farmhouse on the (Aisle/Isle) of Skye. 10. Don’t bother to tell me how to get there-I’ll follow my ………. 6. Anything you say to them goes in one ……….you’ll have to play it by………… 2. a) interrupted b) regarded c) seized d) withdrew from 8. as when a student of the guitar practises and memorizes different fingerings.she looks down her ………. During the wedding someone started giggling and I couldn’t keep a straight … 6. 7. a) faint b) fall asleep c) sweat profusely d) yawn widely 9. The warmth of the lecture hall made the student DOZE. 4.4. Choose the correct word between the homophones: 1. a) pale b) red c) shaking d) wet 7. They were so hungry they had to (steal/steel) in order to eat. Habits can be CONSCIOUSLY…………. nose. 11. The student BROKE IN ON the conversation without waiting for the speaker to stop talking.and out the other. a) conveniently b) deliberately c) lastingly d) robustly 5.don’t be so two-………. Fill these gaps with a suitable form of face. 10. 3. 12. If you admit to making such a serious mistake you may lose ………. can you keep an……. They pulled out of the deal at the last minute leaving us (hi/high) and dry. a) diminishes b) emerges c) grows d) revives 6. His face was FLUSHED because he had run all the way from the dorm so as ot to be late for the lecture. Pair/Pare/Pear) off any bits of skin that don't look very nice. eye. He knew the risks and went into it with his………….everyone. Don't walk around outside in your (bare/bear) feet.. a) illegal b) indecipherable c) outstanding d) sloppy 5. 8.. 9. The speaker DEMONSTRATED his knowledge of the subject by his excellent lecture. 8. 7. I tried to catch the waiter’s ………but he didn’t look my way. I can’t tell you exactly what to do. He had an accident while he was driving a (higher/hire) car. 3. 5. 69 . My supply of confidence slowly DWINDLES as the day of the exam approaches. a) corrected b) created c) repeated d) showed 10. Not everybody agreed that winning was the (be-all/bee-all) and end-all. 6. 9. They normally see ………….

Mistzal.New Cambridge Advanced English.Jones. 1994 . Mariusz . 2000 -internet resources 70 . Teora. Ed.Bibliography . Cambridge University Press.Test Your Vocabulary. Leo.

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