CONTENTS 1. Technology and Efficiency .................................................................................................... 2 2. Artificial Intelligence ........................................................................................

..................... 7 3. Bill Gates.............................................................................................................................. 12 4. The Impact Of Computers.................................................................................................... 17 5. Graphics & Multimedia........................................................................................................ 22 6. Types Of Computer Viruses................................................................................................. 26 7. The Current Nature Of Human Relations ............................................................................ 31 8. Programming........................................................................................................................ 36 9. Living With Computers........................................................................................................ 41 10. The New Visual Age: The Influence of Computer Graphics on Art and Society.............. 46 11. The Information Superhighway ......................................................................................... 51 12. E-Commerce....................................................................................................................... 56 13. Hacking .............................................................................................................................. 61 14. Internet Advertisements ..................................................................................................... 65 Bibliography............................................................................................................................. 70

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L1: Technology and Efficiency The market for computer products is a multi-billion dollar business where one can find a perfect balance of technology and efficiency. The huge industrial market is lead by such names as IBM, Hewlett Packard, and Compaq. The steps that are taken to bring the computer from several small components to a desktop product are organization of the manufacturing facility, assembly of hardware, installation of software, and a test process. The production of a high quality product is important to computer buyers. Manufacturing factories produce approximately 14,000 systems weekly. Companies generally use 2 methods of computer assembly. One method involves complete unit assembly by one person, the other being group assembly where several people construct a single computer (the latter method is known as assembly line production). When assembling a computer, there are 8 to 10 major components installed including the processor speed chip, the motherboard, RAM (Random Access Memory), diskette drive, modem or network card, video card, hard drive, sound card, and CDROM. Before the components are placed into the computer, each part undergoes an extensive testing process called “quality control” . Quality control ensures that faulty systems are not shipped. As an initial step, prior to the assembly process, an inspection of the outer case to ensure that there are no scratches or defects. The brand name and indicator labels are put onto the computer case at this time. Next the motherboard is installed and prepared for the processor chip. The chip (which is often a Pentium chip) is attached to the motherboard along with the RAM component. Once the chip and RAM are installed, the internal speakers and sound card are placed into the case. The hard drive, disk drive and CD-ROM drive are attached to the computer chassis. All these components are then attached to the motherboard with cables so that they may communicate with each other. Power supply is then applied to the computer and other additional components such as the video card, and modem are added near a final stage of assembly. After all these components are installed to create the finished ‘PC’, the unit is thoroughly inspected to ensure that all the cables connections are in place and all other defects are fixed. Inspectors also ensure that cables are in appropriate places so that they do not touch components. The CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductorcircuitry for the memory and processor) is set up at this time. The top cover is placed onto the computer and it is shipped off for further testing. All companies differ in their testing of finished products. A common practice in most companies includes the 48-hour burn in period. After it, final diagnostic tests are completed to ensure all components are working well. If a computer is ordered with sound cards, speakers are attached to the unit and they also are tested. Mouse and keyboard components are tested manually by connecting a testing mouse and keyboard to the ports. The computer is then shipped from the manufacturing site to the distribution center. Here, additional tests are possible as computers are randomly checked and inspected. The computer is then further shipped to department or retail stores for sale to the consumer. In conclusion, the production of a computer from a number of components to a finished product is a complex procedure.(…) The usefulness of the computer and subsequent consumer demand for improved models will keep pressure on manufactures to build more efficient, high quality machines in future years.

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A. Read the text above and find the synonyms for the following words(the words are in the same order as they appear in the text). 1. exquisite; 2. main; 3. to put into position; 4. to damage a surface; 5. wrong; 6. ending; 7. filled in; 8. buyer; 9. following; 10. bettered. B. Match the beginning of the sentences in the first column with their endings in the second one. a. the two methods of computer assembly 1. the video card, the modem are b. major components of a computer are 2. the 48-hour burn in period an initial step in quality control is 3. the complete unit assembly by one person, and the assembly line production c. additional components are 4. organization of the manufacturing facility, assembly of hardware, installation of software, and a test process 5. the processor speed chip, the d. a method of testing the finished products motherboard, RAM (Random Access is Memory), diskette drive, modem or network card, video card, hard drive, sound card, and CD-ROM. e. The steps that are taken to bring the 6. an inspection of the outer case to ensure computer from several small components that there are no scratches or defects to a desktop product are C. Are the following statements true or false? Correct any false statements and give reasons for your choice. 1. The internal speakers and sound card are placed into the case after the chip and RAM are installed. 2. Mouse and keyboard components are not tested manually. 3. The hard drive, disk drive and CD-ROM drive are attached to the computer keyboard. 4. CMOS is the short form for: complementary metal-oxide semiconductorcircuitry for the memory and processor 5. After all the components are installed to create the finished ‘PC’, the computer is shipped from the manufacturing site to the distribution center. D. What improvements are possible in the computer field? Write your own point of view in a 200 hundred word composition.

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(dig) B. Mr. She………. 4.about that program. …………. Brown is in the living room. Greg is complaining about his neighbours. Example: The little boy is looking at a policeman. The students are in the language lab. All the family are at table. 3. The surgeon is in the surgery room.. . George is in the garden. What song …………. What………to say? (he/try) 11. 11. Who is the little boy looking at? What The students are listening to the professor’s explanations. a car. 1. the TV set is on. The computer worker is in front of the computer. She is cooking dinner for everybody in the house. lie) 12. 12. ………television? (you/ not watching) 5. They………. 5. Use the present tense continuous in your sentences. (not. Listen ! Mary…………the piano. Make comments on the sentences bellow. interrogative.. 5. (not tell) 4. 9.Grammar A. Smith is in his office. Mike is in the garage. We………about our integration in the European Community at this moment.(not sleep) She………. 3. hoping to find a treasure under this tree. Meg is in the computer lab. They ………. The professor is speaking to the students about a new means of communication. ( bake) 6. 10.. 4 1.? (the singer/sing) 7. The little boy ………. (learn) 3. 4. Put the verbs in brackets in the present tense continuous: positive. 7. (speak). The opera singer is on the stage.. 8.a cake.(play) 9. 6. C. 2. Mr. Ask questions to the following. Example: Mary is in the kitchen. 1. The students are talking about the conference. 2.in the library? (Greg/ not study) 8. Father is looking for his glasses all around the house. 2.to swim in this lake. negative. The children are in the park. Grandmother………….the children a fairy tale. The painter is in his studio. …………by bus? (you/ come) 10.

The Germans are discussing about the price of the building. They aren’t skating now.. They are boasting about their results. They’re going to the meeting today. Tell what the people around you are doing. Simpson is working in the garage and his son is. Make any necessary changes. (either) 6. Add tag questions to the following sentences: Example: You aren’t practising a new technique. Example: She’s working on a new project and so is his colleague. No man in this room is doing the right job. Bob isn’t drinking his coffee and Doris isn’t either.? E. The boys aren’t staying still and neither are the girls. (but) 4. too. 9. He isn’t repairing the car today.…….. 5 . Mrs. (either) 10. Brown is carrying a suitcase and so is her husband. He is complaining about the noise in the street. Paul isn’t making mistakes and neither am I. …….………..? 10. (neither) She’s not working on a new project and neither is her colleague. 1. using present tense continuous as much as possible. Imagine you are in a computer house. Your friend is waiting for you.? 7.…………. I’m searching for some information on this site and she is. 8. White is taking care of the patient and so is the nurse.(neither) 5. Your brother is studying French.? 3.…. too. (so) 3. My cousin is studying for the exam. The new student is trying hard. 9. D. Jimmy isn’t digging in the garden right now and neither is his sister. She’s feeling worse today and her sister is.? 2. are you? 1.………….. too. Dr. (but). 2.? 5. She is waiting for the professor. (either) 12. (so) 11. (too). 10. but all the women are. (neither) 7. The tourists are taking some photos and so is the guide. He is looking for his gloves.…………? 4. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets.. Mr. (so) E. (too) 8.…………? 8.………? 9. 7. Mary is helping the builders and so is her mother.6. You aren’t buying sweets. Diana is wearing a pair of new earrings today…….? 6. They are looking at the photos.

7.She entered a (bright/brightly) lit room.anyway I hope so. We’re still trying to ………that tragedy.1. 2.continue with • get over.Vocabulary 1. It’s impossible to get tickets for such a popular show without previous warningyou need to book no less than six months in advance. 6. 5. 2. It was a difficult problem and I was uncertain what to do. When abroad. 3.recover from • get through. 7.meet socially • get up.In some towns you don't feel (safe/safely) going out alone at night. 6.be friendly • get on with.have a good relationship with. She was delighted to meet you. 3. She was working much too hard causing harm to her health. What time did he…… this morning? 2. The bank robbers managed to …………. The show closed because it was running without making a profit. 10.1.manage to finish • get together. but cannot …….rise from bed Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with get. 2.escape • get on.The (easiest/easily) thing is for us to take the plane home.Her apple pie always looks (good/well) and tastes delicious. 1.. 6. 8. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1. 6 .There was a (fresh/freshly) fall of snow during the day.I was (scarce/scarcely) able to move my leg after the accident.. 2. but he can’t ……. 2.his mother-in-law. I could tell by taking one quick look that there have been a mistake. She said you must…….. 2. The child was rescued a moment before it was too late.1. George adores his wife.000 $. 9.. 4.with 75. it’s advisable to carry your passport constantly. The winners are selected without any plan by a computer. 4.make contact.again soon. He’s dialled her number. I’m sure that our friends will arrive very soon.The traffic is moving very (slow/slowly) ahead of us. Replace the phrases in italics with suitable expressions from the list bellow: at cross purposes at short notice at least at least at the expense at all times at random at the last moment at a glance at the last moment at any moment at any rate at a loss at a loss 1. 7.make progress. They were speaking about different things but didn’t realize it. 3. 5. He took the car for a test drive to see how he……. Phrasal verbs with get • get away. 3.. 5. 4.

Using any one of the aforementioned design structures requires a specialized computer system. that makes AI systems expensive. The generally accepted theory is that computers do and will think more in the future. knowledge based systems. On the other hand. Another promising arena of AI is chaos engineering. or large This concept was also inspired from biological roots. Early attempts at AI were neural networks modelled after the ones in the human brain. these systems perform their duties quickly and accurately without expensive equipment. Unfortunately. fuzzy logic is a mathematical system that deals with imprecise descriptions. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1956 by a group of scientists having their first meeting on the topic. The more popular implementations comprise neural networks. Chaologists are experimenting with Wall Street where they are hardly receiving a warm welcome. this type of system can distinguish the shades in-between. The ability of the computer to analyze variables provides a great advantage to these fields. Created by Lotfi Zadeh almost thirty years ago. or financial profession can benefit greatly from AI. They can easily replace many mundane tasks that other computer systems would have trouble with. This new system is a now a neural network with the ability to learn using fuzzy logic instead of hard concrete facts. In order to tell that AI is present we must be able to measure the intelligence being used. It is surprising what a computer can do with that intelligence once it has been put to work. and expert systems. fuzzy logic. chaos engineering has already proven itself and will be present for the foreseeable future. business. Although some are rather simple. Allowing a more fuzzy input to be used in the neural network instead of being passed up will greatly decrease the learning time of such a network. Many new AI systems now give a special edge that is needed to beat the competition. Nevertheless. neural networks require massive amounts of computing resources that restrict their use to those who can afford it. fuzzy logic lends itself to multiple operations at once. However. Two very powerful intelligent structures make for an extremely useful product. The inherent vagueness in everyday life motivates fuzzy logic systems. nice. Scientists and theorists continue to debate if computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. AI is achieved using a number of different methods. There are many ways that AI can be used to solve a problem. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer architecture. such as new.L2: Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is defined as the ability of a machine to think for itself. Almost any scientific. This integration takes the pros of fuzzy logic and neural networks and eliminates the cons of both systems. there is something that can be said about this. On the one hand. Moreover. Virtually all of these methods require special hardware and software to use them. large supercomputers can only create a brain the size of a fly. In contrast to the usual yes and no answers. fuzzy logic is practically a win-win situation. Success was minimal because of the lack of computer technology needed to calculate such large equations. Fuzzy logic's structure allows it to easily rate any input and decide upon the importance. chaos engineering. Fuzzy logic's ability to do multiple operations allows it to be integrated into neural networks. The chaos theory is the cutting-edge mathematical discipline aimed at making sense of the ineffable and finding order among seemingly random events. Making recommendations on which AI systems work the best almost requires AI itself. For a relative scale of reference. The chaos theory has potential for 7 .

C. Neural networks can be afforded by anyone. AI has grown rapidly in the last ten years chiefly because of the advances in computer cased-based reasoning systems. actually B. 3. 9. The expert systems. The words are in the same order as those that appear in the text.handling an infinite amount of variables. 11. The rate of advancement may seem fast to the average person. the better ones have taken over with great success. The technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. knowledge-based systems. mainly. 6. AI is achieved by using design structures like: neural networks. and expert systems. difficult to use program. Fuzzy logic can easily replace many mundane tasks that other computer systems would have trouble with. Are the following statements true or false? Correct any false statements and give reasons for your choice. While the expert systems. 12. Read the text and find the synonyms for the following. They provide an efficient. The fuzzy "logic is a theoretical system used in mathematics. 2. 4. While the massive surge into the information age has ushered some old practices out of style. chaos engineering. Write your point of view on the following two issues. necessary. 5. computing and philosophy to deal with statements which are neither true nor false. 1. 8. 9. 8. a. finally. the lowest. obtained. and cased-based reasoning systems provide an inefficient. 8 . fuzzy logic. Designed correctly. unnatural. easy to use program that yields results that no one can argue with. 7. 1. knowledge based systems. Computers will actually be able to think for themselves at one point. This gives it the ability to be a huge success in the financial world. The chaos theory is aimed at making sense of the ineffable and at finding order among seemingly random events. but the technology is being put to good use and is not out of control. 7. knowledge-based systems. they are can be easily updated and modernized. before mentioned. Use about 300 words to sustain it. 10. capacity. A. and cased-based reasoning systems are here to stay for a long time. 5. disorder. b. dear. 4. 2. unhappily. The term artificial intelligence was actually coined in 1965 by a group of scientists 3. 6. The chaos theory can’t be of a huge success in the financial world.

sit down) 5. George is walking in the park with his daughter Mary. (Mary/see a flower. catch a bus. The Herestrau Park looks beautiful in spring…( the Village Museum.( A tall man/come in. (conductor/come. put off the candles). (Paul/put on his raincoat. She goes to the door and opens it. pick) 2. Which piece of music do you enjoy listening to? (SELDOM) 3. 1. Where do you go during your winter holiday? (SELDOM) 10. (Jane/hurry down the stairs.either) 4. (The old lady/come in. They often go on trips in the mountains…( but.too) 7. Complete the following statements according to the indications in the brackets: Example: He doesn’t collaborate with others…(she-either) He doesn’t collaborate with others and she doesn’t either. The washing –machine doesn’t need to be repaired…(neither. Do you help your parents with the housework. 1.the other students) 8. Two candles are burning on the mantelpiece. run to the gate.teachers) 6. open) Mary is sitting at her desk. The pink coat belongs to me…. Who do you study with? (OFTEN) 7. Example: How do you get to college? I always go to college by trolleybus.(bell/ring. go to the fire place. go back home) C. Where do you meet your friends? (FREQUENTLY) B. Add the adverb in brackets to your answers.grammar exercises) 3. 4. When do you go to the theatre? (SOMETIMES) 4. bow to the audience. 1. Where do you spend your weekend?(RARELY) 9.the vacuumcleaner) 9 . open the gate). Do you work late at night? (GENERALLY) 5. Lawyers talk a lot in their work…(so. start conducting) 3.Grammar A. 6. It is raining. The restaurant doesn’t open until 9 o’clock …(neither –the snack bar) 2. A door is opening to the left.(so. greet everybody. Make sentences of your own to express chains of short actions. The language lab helps them to improve their English…( so. The musicians are tuning up their violins. What kind of books do you read? (OCCASIONALLY) 6. The bell rings. Example: Mary is sitting at her desk. Do you sleep in the afternoon? (NEVER) 8. (OFTEN) 11. Jill doesn’t read French…( her classmates. Someone is approaching the house. bend. Answer the following questions using the present tense simple to express habitual actions. What time do you go to college? (USUALLY) 2. go.the pink scarf) 5.

. I don’t like this man…(but. (before) 3. I’ll read the book. Our friends attend school regularly…( we-too) D.…? 4. 10 .…? 3. The film doesn’t begin at 3 p. The clock will strike nine. I’ll think about the problem you’ve told me about. as soon as. They like nothing that is on the list. They sometimes do a good job. We’ll get home then.…. You will go to bed. before. Then I’ll see the film. Join the following sentences using the connectors in brackets. Example: He will play that game with you. etc.…? 8. They’ll buy some food. Maybe it will snow tomorrow..? E. (as soon as ) 7. Her neighbours often understand to show their gratitude in this way. Imagine you are a businessman. Then he’ll be late for the conference. He will go swimming again. (provided) 9. The department opens at 9 a.9. Perhaps Tim will miss the bus. Greg will soon recover.m. Complete these sentences using tag-questions.? 2.? 9. This complain changes nothing in our relation. doesn’t it? 1.). (before) 8. (as soon as) 4. (when) 10. (if) 5. Nobody likes listening to this nonsense. She expresses her point of view quite abruptly. about the activities that you usually/ sometimes/ often/ seldom/ never do. Perhaps I’ll see John tonight.they) 10..…? 7.…? 6. She’ll send her a letter. Use the present tense simple after time connectors ( when. 1.? 10. (after). Make any other necessary changes. It will get dark.….. Then I’ll tell him about the meeting. Susan and Meg always help their parents. (in case) 2. in case. etc. He understands the new concept.m.(when) He will play that game with you when he is in the mood...….…? 5. Then we’ll go to the skating rink. 6.) and after conditional ones ( if. I’ll have some time. They’ll go to the market. (in case) F. He will be in the mood. Example: The last train leaves at midnight. She’ll send her mother a postcard. Talk about your daily program.

that’s why I’m depressed. Don’t put off doing this work any longer. Operas and chamber music are often considered to be intellectually superior. 2. 11 . 6. 4.Vocabulary 1.last night.1.return • go down. 12. They’ll…….increase in number or amount Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with go.. 50 or older? 13. 14. 1. Students who do well in their exams at secondary school can go on to university or college. reading the paragraph. Would you like to live in a tall multi-storey building.leave. He has searched everywhere for his glasses. use a yellow pen to make them stand out. 15.enter • go on. Delays at the airport may be terrible in the main holiday period. it’s not only professional and business people who own their own homes. This CD contains the best parts of the show. It’s much colder now. Who wouldn’t like that problem to……. 10. Replace the phrases in italics with suitable expressions from the list bellow: at high tide hi-fi high and low high season high-tech high-rise highbrow higher education highlight highlights in high spirits it’s high time high school high street middle class middle-aged middlebrow at low tide feeling low lowbrow low-rise 1. 5.1.continue • go over. If you come across useful new words in a text. 7. He asked her to……through that door.you should do it now.the instructions as soon as you ask them to..repeat • go up. 6. Phrasal verbs with go • go away. 2. …….cease • go back. Please.. Passangers and vehicles will be carried on ultra-modern shuttle trains. 3.again. 11. His neighbour decided to…… because it started to rain. I’ve got a bad cold and my work is getting me down. Everyone was feeling elated before the weekend. 5.. 9. while shows like musicals are sometimes described as uncultured.or do you think two or three storey buildings are more pleasant for people to live in? 8. He told me desperately that prices……. The temperature …. 7. 2. 3.become lower •go in. Good quality audio equipment is on sale in every main shopping street.or at least not so very artistic. In Britain.rehearse. not the whole thing. 2. There’s less room for holiday makers on the beach when the sea comes up high than when it goes out. 4. 2. Do you think a person is no longer young when they are 40.

Develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. Build morale. Gates' attempts to train well oiled managers.L3: Bill Gates In the beginning Gates' was mainly concerned and involved with technical development of new products in order to attract consumers. Nobody wants to work for a boss who just delegates tasks. 3. more cost effective and more enjoyable for people to use computers. He has even published articles that reveal his expectations and qualities he attempts to instil into Microsoft managers. Managers need to do more than communicate. It should be made clear there's plenty of good will to go around and that there is not just one hotshot manager getting all the credit. instead of trying to be in a hundred place at once. This is done by providing employees with a clear definition of success and how they should measure their achievements. It is important for a manager from time to time to take on less attractive task to provide examples of how his or her employees should meet challenges. Since Microsoft controls the largest percentage of the market than any of its competitors Gates puts more focus on the organization itself and its employees. Take on projects yourself. For example. project schedules must be set those who actually do the work. but maybe overwhelmed by a schedule imposed from upper management that doesn't map reality. it makes it easier to generate enthusiasm towards one's work. This is true for both a manager and an employee. This is a particular challenge because it requires different approaches depending on the environment. In order for Microsoft to continue on its fruitful path the development of intelligent decision makers. Sometimes financial incentives stimulates productivity and motivation. otherwise known as managers. He also knows he cannot be at the table to make ever single day-to-day decision. Many managers like to see their employees increase their responsibility because it frees them up to tackle new or undone tasks. Gates' realizes the importance of every single individual. People will accept a bottom-up deadline they helped set. because a mediocre team provides mediocre results. must be trained. Unachievable goals undermine an organization. Let people know whom to please. 10. Create a productive environment. no matter how well it is managed. Choose a field thoughtfully. Sometimes productivity is maximized by providing everybody his or her own office and other times by moving everybody into open space. By choosing a field one enjoys. 9. Goals must be realistic. To be a good manager. It should be made clear whom employees have to please. 4. 6. A strong team is vital. 7. Giving people a sense of importance increases motivation to complete the task to the best of their ability and provides the feeling of satisfaction after completion. Define success. Explain to employees the importance of their work to the company and customers. 2. 8. Managers should have the confidence in their well thought out decision in order to not leave any avenues open for rediscussion. whether it’s the 12 . Microsoft's mission is to continually advance and improve software technology and to make it easier. A manager should never have to second-guess himself or herself. If an individual doesn't genuinely enjoy interacting with people it will be hard to manage well. Don't make the same decision twice. Hire carefully and be willing to fire. This is an exciting goal. 5. Transfer your skills to them. Here are Bill's ten qualities of a good employee: 1. Usually a mixture of approaches is necessary to reach desired productivity. but it can be threatening to a manger that is worried about training his replacement. This quality is generally impossible to fake. you have to like people and be good at communicating.

Which of these Bill Gates’ ”rules” do you consider to be the most important? Why? Could you add more rules to his? 13 . To provide employees with a clear definition of success and how they should measure their achievements. To choose a field one enjoys. Managers should not leave any avenues open for rediscussion. means It should be made clear whom employees have to please Managers should. To let people know whom to please. B. To take on projects yourself. There is a risk of paralysis when employees start to question whom they are supposed to make happy. To define success. A. To give people a sense of importance of their work. the manager’s boss or someone else higher up. In Bill Gates’ opinion. Making processes clear and simple always seems to accomplish the goals was set out to. To create a productive environment.manager. To provide everybody according to one’s own motivation. can understand and allow them to provide feedback that is taken into consideration allows Gates' to build a lasting and trusting relationship with employees and customers. Gates' believes in talking with employees and customers rather than talking at them. To transfer your skills to your people. especially customers. The beauty of Gates' tips is they are pretty much common sense. To be a good manager. To build morale. from time to time. To increase their motivation to complete the task to the best of their ability. To develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. Not to make the same decision twice. To hire carefully and be willing to fire. To like people and be good at communicating. By conducting conversations individuals. it doesn't take a rocket scientist to incorporate these aspects into his or her employee. To choose the personnel with care. take on less attractive task to provide examples of how his or her employees should meet challenges. avoiding mediocrities.

(smell) good.(always.…(mean).(resemble) your mother very much. “What on earth ……you……(do) there?” “I………(try) to find the key to the door.…(read) English well. my friends…………. beat) me at chess.. He …. Hey! You ……….” 32.. 13.(go) out to get the evening paper. 2. I……. What time……. speak) on the phone? 6.. 23. 2.(wait)for me. You…………. Put the verbs in the brackets in the present tense continuous or simple. 33.. …….this pair of scissors ………. 10.feel better today or is it necessary to call for a doctor? 29.(go) to the circus this evening. the garden…….he…... 7. 19. I must go.(feed) the baby. He………..you…. Now I ………(hope)our team will win the match. 25. 24... I…….. He never (seem) to understand what (happen) in his very house.” (H... 17. Meg ……. ….G. 20. Wells) B. Este prima oară în iarna asta când ninge aşa de mult că pare că nu se mai opreşte. …. 14. 9. I ………(have) an appointment with my dentist at 5 p. Don’t disturb her. The officer (see) him and (catch) him in a matter of seconds.(make) her clothes herself.they ……. 28.Grammar A. I can’t go away.. 30. They (not jump) over the fence now. 15.. “I……. but they usually (tell) me nice things.(drink) from my glass. With the dress you. Am foarte mult de lucru în perioada asta...(wear) you…….. They (criticize) me know. 1. We……(get) a lot of snow in the mountains in winter. Not everybody …. But how about up and down? Gravitation………(limit) us there.(usually. sign) the papers at the end or at the beginning of the meeting? 27. I………. 12..(bloom). 4.(not approve) of your behaviour.(belong) to you? 5. I…….(not interrupt) people when they…….(seem) to be in better shape now? 26. The park……… (look)beautiful in autumn. All the students in the group …. Now that the flowers ……. 3.(see) the manager at the beginning of the week.(fly) from Bucharest to Sibiu tomorrow. 21. 31. ……. They……. 14 . 18..(move) freely in two directions.m.. Promit însă să trec pe la tine de îndată ce mă voi elibera.(talk) over the telephone.(forever boast) of what he has done.(know) what she….. John …………. 8. they (play) baseball with the neighbors’ children. Ştiu că eşti priceput la toate! De ce eşti aşa de neîndemânatec astăzi3. ……they …….(admit) we……….(usually. 22.…(like) autumn.. Translate into English: 1. she ……. 11. 16. He always (ask) me what I’ll do if I (be) the president of this committee.

20. nici eu şi nici sora mea. 25. Când ia banii se duce la cumpărături şi se întoarce acasă cu o mulţime de fleacuri. Atât reprezentanţii noştri. cât şi cei ai lor semnează acum un tratat de neagresiune.Te caută cineva la telefon. Îi reproşează mereu că depăşeşte viteza şi că îi pune viaţa în pericol. Directorul este foarte ocupat acum. Nici el şi nici colegul lui nu par a fi prea interesaţi să-şi pună întrebări existenţiale. 18. . 6. şi mai ales acum. pentru că o ajutăm pe mama să termine curăţenia de toamnă. Mă întreabă mereu care este scopul meu în viaţă. Uneori Dunărea îngheaţă în luna ianuarie. Nu se îndoieşte că cel care are dreptate în acest moment este el şi nimeni altcineva. Vin dinspre moară acum şi sunt foarte încărcaţi. 5. – Astăzi nu sunt acasă pentru nimeni. 8. când îmi beau cafeaua.Vrea vreo unul dintre voi să meargă cu noi la bazinul de înot.Astăzi nu mergem. Vorbeşte şi acum la telefon?! Dar este îngrozitor! Toată ziua ţine telefonul ocupat! 19. . Repară maşina de cusut acesteia. 13. punându-mă într-o situaţie stânjenitoare. Băieţelul cel mai mic al vecinii mele are trei ani. Tu ce crezi? 14. Uită-te! Ninge cu fulgi mari! 15 . 7. 15. ochii albaştri şi îi plac foarte mult dulciurile şi ursuleţii. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa teatrului de comedie. 17. aşa că hai şi noi să mergem să-i ajutăm. 11. E prima oară când mănânc clătite cu spanac şi nu e rău deloc şi mi se pare doar că are un gust ciudat. 22. 9. şi când îl întrebi cum îl cheamă. îţi răspunde: -Am trei ani. secţia chineză. De data asta rămânem însă acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri. Astăzi e hotărâtă să poarte o rochie verde cu dungi. Bunica uită de fiecare dată unde îşi pune ochelarii şi ori de câte ori are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa. Studiază Proiectul pentru o nouă aripă a fabricii. 24. Totdeauna se întâmplă acelaşi lucru.4. iar Maria urmează cursurile Facultăţii de Litere. Dan e în camera mătuşii lui. Nu-i aşa că vezi şi tu că omul de pe trotuarul vecin ne urmăreşte pas cu pas? 21. Nu-i aşa că nu ştii noutăţile? George studiază Informatica la Iaşi. 10. 23. Părul blond. În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Bucureştiului. 12. luând viaţa în uşor. 16.

because people will go on falling ………… 3.ever since. He (cool/coolly) placed the money on the table and walked out. The pop star decided to……the proceeds of her last concert to charity. Love letters will never be ……. 5.these library books by Tuesday. My father…. The twins are learning the violin but as they always play………….. She’s going to……wildlife leaflets outside the main entrance. The world's financial markets are ever more (close/closely) linked...and back home. 8.donate • Give back. 3. 7. 6. 6. The passengers knew they were…great ………when the pilot announced he was no longer ……….let’s hope he doesn’t end up…………. 2.of the aircraft.stop doing something Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with give. contact control danger debt doors focus hospital love luck pain prison season stock touch tune fashion practice work 1. 3. Don't fill your glass too (full/fully) or you'll only spill it. The kids loved the fair.this month but the shop hasn’t got them ………. 3. 4. Phrasal verbs with give • Give away.return • Give in -surrender • Give out -distribute • Give up. We didn't expect such a (large/largely) number of people to attend our concert... Sorry. We used to keep ……. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1. it’s not a good photo because it’s ……. 2. 2. Strawberries are ………. but they enjoyed the bumper cars (most/mostly) of all. smoking years ago. they aren’t allowed to practise in the house and they have to play…………! 2. she’s………. Although she’s still………considerable………. he can’t afford to pay his mortgage. Fill in the gapes with the suitable phrases from the list bellow: In ……or out of…. He really is …………: he lost his job last year and he’s been ………. 7.regularly but I’ve lost her address and so now we are . We are strong enough not to ………so easily. Do the police know the (exact/exactly) circumstances of her death? 5.I used to do a lot of photography but now I’m ………… 5. She was (strange/strangely) calm – that was something I couldn’t understand. Now he’s ………..! 8. 16 ..Vocabulary 1. 4. He had a (sudden/suddenly) heart attack while he was on holiday.… 4. She must ……. 1.

The checkout process is faster. faster. the manager can send in the order electronically by a dial-up link to the supplier’s computer. they have not been without cost in terms of purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and of training workers to use the new technology. Intruders can see packets traveling on a network and can perhaps interpret them to obtain confidential information. perhaps making use of CIM technology.L4:The Impact Of Computers THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERS Computer technology not only has solved problems but also has created some. The technology of CIM emphasizes that all aspects of manufacturing should be not only computerized as much as possible but also linked together via a computer communication network into an integrated whole. In the case of retail chains linked by networks. higher-quality products and thus improve their competitiveness. printers. A major role of computer science has been to alleviate such problems. mainly by making computer systems cheaper. the order for a new supply of an item may be automatically generated and sent electronically to the supply warehouse. for as has happened. The terminal may require that the clerk type in the code for the item. but more and more frequently the checkout counter include a bar-code scanner. An eventual goal of office automation has been termed the “paperless office. Cash-register receipts can then include brief descriptions of the items purchased. Word processors-computer software packages that simplify the creational and modification of documents-have largely replaced the typewriter. database system. a device that directly reads into the computer the UPC printed on each package. These developments have made shopping much more convenient. Today’s automobiles themselves 17 .” Although such changes ultimately make office work much more efficient. In a less extensively automated arrangement. The inventory system can easily alert the manager when the supply of some item drops below a specified threshold. A disadvantage is the potential for dramatic and widespread failures. and the purchase information is also relayed back to the computer to cause and immediate adjustment in the inventory data. In short. checkout lines shorter. more reliable. Electronic mail has made it easy to send messages worldwide via computer communication networks. Computer technology has been incorporated into automobiles. The telephone system now is just a multilevel computer network with software switches in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past. Computer integrated manufacturing is a relatively new technology arising from the application of many computer science subdisciplines to support the manufacturing enterprise. Computers are involved (CAD systems) not only in the design of cars but also in the manufacturing and testing process. Office automation has become the term for linking workstations. easier to use. Computer technology has had a significant impact on retail stores. Computers are forever present in the workplace. CIM has the potential to enable manufacturers to build cheaper. The downside of this technology is the potential for security problems. and the desired item are more likely to be in stock. Making a telephone call no longer should conjure up visions of operators connecting cables by hand or even of electrical signals causing relays to click into place and effect connections during dialing. and other tools by means of a local-area network. All but the smallest shops have replaced the old-fashioned cash register with a terminal linked to a computer system. including a certain amount of culture shock as individuals attempt to deal with the new technology.

include numerous computer chips that analyze sensor data and alert the driver to actual and potential malfunctions. Although increased reliability has been achieved by implementing such computerization, a drawback is that only automotive repair shops with a large investment in high-tech interfaces and diagnostic tools for these computerized systems can handle any but the simplest repairs.

A. Find in the text the opposites for the following: 1. more expensive; 2. slowlier;3. less reliable; 4. more difficult; 5. separated; 6. slowly; 7.unreliably; 8. upside; 9. insecurity; 10. important; 11. long; 12. manually; 13.less convenient B. Correct the following statements, whenever necessary: Word processors-computer software packages make it easy to send messages worldwide via computer communication networks. Electronic mail eventual goal has been termed the “paperless office.” Office automation simplifies the creational and modification of documents. Computers technology has not been without cost in terms of purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and of training workers to use the new technology. The telephone system now are involved not only in the design of cars but also in the manufacturing and testing process, perhaps making use of CIM technology. The checkout counter includes a bar-code scanner, a device that directly reads into the computer the UPC printed on each package and software switches. Computers are involved (CAD systems) in the network nodes to route calls get through much more quickly and reliably than they did in the past.

18

Grammar
A. Make sentences according to the model: Model: Peter: dog for a walk He was taking his dog for a walk at this time yesterday. 1. Mary: at the baker’s 6. Jane: in the swimming-pool 2. Billy : to the cinema 7. Harry: in the park 3. Dan: at the box-office 8. Jannet: a football match 4. Roger: in the library 9. George: to the radio 5. Jenny: into the letter-box 10. Alice: home B. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. Make any necessary changes. Example: She was practising the violin and so was his colleague. (neither) She wasn’t practising the violin and neither was her colleague. 1. The spokesman was supporting his idea brilliantly and so was Fred.(too) 2. They weren’t taking part in that competition and neither were their friends. (so) 3. The police officer was listening carefully to the criminal and Brian was, too.(but) 4. No stranger was trying to break in the conversation and neither was Greg. (either) 5. Their neighbours were leaving on that day and she was, too. (neither) 6. She was working ceaselessly on that project and so were we. (but) 7. The guests were talking silently and so were the kids. (either) 8. The Japanese weren’t having lunch and the Finish weren’t, either. (so) 9. The carpenters were mending the house and Brian was, too.( either) 10. All the aliens were taking photos and so were the Japanese. (too) C. Add tag questions to the following sentences: Example: You weren’ t practising the drums, were you? 1. They weren’t calculating the distance between the Sun and the Moon,…………..? 2. She was making a strange noise,………….? 3. They were doing absolutely nothing dangerous,……………? 4. The students were thinking what question to ask the speaker,……………? 5. The gifted child was practising the guitar at that moment,……….? 6. They weren’t trying very hard,…………….? 7. She was quoting nobody,……………? 8. The entire court were keeping silent,…………? 9. The elves weren’t walking tiptoed through the room,…….? 10. The speaker was shouting at the audience,………….?

D. What were they doing when the explosion took place? 1. The policeman………………… 2. The firemen…………………… 19

3. My neighbours………………… 4. The science man………………. 5. The animals in the cage……….. What were they doing while the train was getting into the station? 1. The conductor………………….. 2. The person next to me…………. 3. My baby boy…………………… 4. A lady in black…………………. 5. The bartender…………………… E. Make sentences using past tense continuous. John- dust the furniture Example: Sandra –wash up While/When Sandra was washing up, John was dusting the furniture Sandra 1. wash the clothes 2. cook some food 3. iron the clothes 4. sort the clothes 5. count the money 6. phone friends John clean the rooms make the beds polish the shoes tidy the flat pack the suitcases look for their train tickets

F. Ask questions so that the words in italics should be the answer. Model: They were taking part in the contest at that very moment. When were they taking part in the contest?

1. They were speaking on the phone at that late hour. 2. The guardian was listening to the noises upstairs. 3. Nobody was paying attention to the chairman. 4. The students weren’t taking notes. 5. Somebody was ringing at the door late at night. 6. The newcomers were listening to the boss when, out of the blue, he stormed in. 7. The writer was typing a paragraph when he heard the telephone ringing. 8. The greengrocer was selling some cabbages right then. 9. We were waiting for a change in his attitude. 10. Everybody was pointing at him in rage.

Vocabulary
1. Fill in the gaps with suitable phrases from the list bellow: In…addition to brief cash the circumstances comparison with detail difficulty doubt fun pencil person private public return tears view of a whisper 20 ink trouble

try to find • look forward to. Come …….the word in the dictionary. 8.(de/dis/im/un)possible: (of a situation) which is extremely difficult and there does not seem to be a solution 4-(counter/dis/mal/un)incentive: something that discourages people from doing something or working hard 21 . The police…….but not they were………such serious……… 9.the size of your order we are prepared to offer a special discount of 10%………. it’s best to make notes beforehand. Phrasal verbs with look • look after. If you are……………. When she read the letter”. 2. The book gave some information…………great………. …………..a number of thefts at our college.or type it. 3. 6.it may be better to tell him off………… 5. I think he’ll be upset and you shouldn’t embarrass him …………..the usual trade discount.find (information in a book) Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with look.. 1. keep watch • look up. Could you …..take care of • look at. personal letters are relatively easy to write.my things for me while I go get a ticket? 5.so…………. She did me favour and then asked what I’d do for he………At first I thought she meant……. Can you help us? We’re …… some striped pants.be careful.but unfortunately the figures I needed were only given ……… 10.investigate • look out. ………!There is a car coming! 2.(anti/in/mis/non)spell: to fail to spell (a word) correctly 3. by credit card or ………. Orders may be placed by phone. He decided to ……. 3. We knew the firm was ……….1.. It’s no wonder why she doesn’t ……. 4. he told me………. by post or……. 7.about what to write. 4. ……………business letters. 3. Writing an important letter is easier if you first write a rough copy …………before you write the final version ………. Choose the correct affix: 1. 6..expect with pleasure • look into.but then I realized she was serious.You can pay by check. 2. 7. “Poor Julie was…..(anti/counter/mal/mis) -aircraft: intended to destroy or defend against enemy aircraft 2.the Maths test.these interesting stamps.turn the eyes to see something • look for.

enhance the learning process. laser printers and plotters are graphics devices because they permit computer to output pictures. Spreadsheet programs are graphics devices because they permit computer to output pictures. mailing lists. newsgroups. This is one person’s opinion on multimedia and graphics. case studies. For example. As a student I can be able to use multimedia and graphics as learning materials like learning interactively with software's made for a certain subject. graphics software pertains to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of displaying and manipulating pictures. which I wouldn't have been able to do without multimedia and graphics. Using various forms of multimedia and graphics in the classroom also helps to keep my interest level high when it comes to learning. if it also includes the appropriate human elements. Tell yours in a 200 word composition. and convince you and/or your audience. and in general. make points clearer. A. Multimedia and graphics as learning can be used to experience a subject from materials many angles Multimedia is now being used in a number a presentation by means of charts and of ways in the classroom including graphs B. I can also perform research on the web and without multimedia and graphics I don't think that would be possible for me to do and it would probably take me more time and effort to research it in the library rather than from my computer. I think multimedia and graphics will be very useful for me when I make presentations through PowerPoint or when I make a report and I want to present it with charts and graphs.L5: Graphics & Multimedia What is graphics and multimedia? First of all. giving me deeper understanding of the subject matter. stimulate discussion. MUDS and more. educate. newsgroups. It will also allow me to experience a subject from many angles. mailing lists. Software like word processors are applications often referred to as business graphics. Software like word processors support graphics because they let you draw or import pictures. digital word processors. Through PowerPoint one can make they let you draw or import pictures. being a business major. Spreadsheet programs support graphics because they let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. digital slides. In conclusion I feel that multimedia and graphics is the way to go. Match the two columns: Laser printers and plotters let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. Laser printers and plotters. spreadsheet programs videos. A standard definition follows: Multimedia is any combination of text. software like PowerPoint lectures. With the advent of the computer and other electronic devices. Such applications are often referred to as business graphics. multimedia is now being used a number of ways in the classroom including PowerPoint lectures. digital videos. MOOS. Multimedia can help to gain and hold attention. Multimedia has many definitions depending upon whom you ask. animation. compel. graphic art. digital slides. For work. MUDS and more. MOOS. and video delivered to you by computer or other electronic means. it can be a very effective tool to communicate. case studies. 22 . sound.

didn’t she? (forget) You……………. (wake) 2. did he? C. When did the children go out to play? (they-finish their work) 3.him in order to wake up. (put) Jim ………..very tired all day on that day.. (offer) 10. But he ……... did you? 1. In the bus he ……down on an empty seat. (ride). did you? 4.. didn’t he? 10.... He ………his umbrella tightly in his way to the bus stop. did they? 5. So nobody ……complain. (have). He……. When did you get up? (the clock-strike six). ……. He..to ring her up.a beautiful dress at the party.…….his bike to his office last week.in London for quite a long time.those heavy bags. (sit) 8. but yesterday he couldn’t because of the wind and rain so he …….breakfast in a hurry. did you? 9.(get). (get) 9. didn’t he? 2..Grammar A. (sleep). Then an old lady………on the bus. (wear) Mary ….. Complete the following tag-questions with the correct form of the verb in the margin.(feel) 13.his son to the game. didn’t he? 6. (meet) You…………. Fill in the blanks with the past tense of the verbs in the brackets. Smith…….dressed and then……. When he ……back home he………the cat.(get). (help) John …………. didn’t she? Miss Smith taught English last year. He……up at last…. (carry) You ………. 1.dinner himself and then………for twelve hours! (go).. He …….English last year. (stand). didn’t she? 7.his temper. did you? You didn’t forget to ring her up.(arrive).(hold) 7. (strike) 11.. (get) 4. didn’t he? 3. (rain) 5.up late this morning . (throw) They………. (live) The Scotts………. (take) 6. When did your cousin come from his office? (he –get your message) 2. to set his clock last night so he…….you. He….eight. Example: When did you see him? (he-come in) I saw him when he came in. 1.(shake) 3. (explain)The teacher ……it to us very clearly. (forget).the dishes away. Alan yesterday. (lose) Dr Brown never……. didn’t they? 8.up and……her his seat. When did mother find the sugar bowl? (she-open the cupboard) 23 . (take) Mr.bus. Example: (teach) Miss Smith …….. The wind ………all day yesterday and it also ….at the office exactly when the clock ….out those old papers.(blow). Answer the following questions using the past simple. (feed).(can) 12.. 4. B. His wife……….

Use the past tense as much as possible. He took the plane to the nearest island and so did his friends. (the witness.…….(so) D.break) 10. She and her husband didn’t take part in the funerals.…………? 5.(but) They created a new style in fashion and so did the Stuarts. (neither) They said they couldn’t listen to the story because of the noise and so did George.? 7. We hadn’t anything to say against him.explain for several times) D. 5. They understood the problem in a blink of an eye. (either) They actually asked for nothing but we did. When did Meg wash up? (she. Example: The last bus left at 8 p. Complete these sentences using tag-questions.………. too. Example: She practised the violin and so did his colleague. 9. They expected him to change his mind.? 3.. 1.(neither) She didn’t allow us to enter that room and his mother didn’t either. She expected for nothing. 3. He considered that he could use your money for his benefit. When did the boys stop the game? (it-start to rain) 9..………. Greg and his girl-friend spent their time playing lego.………? 4. Write a two hundred word story that starts like this: “We heard a strange noise in the lab…. When did they stop writing?(the teacher –stop dictating) 7.”. 6.……………? 8.finish dinner) 6. When did she stop writing? (pencil.………….(but) They seemed to understand each other and so did my parents. too. 7. (either) My cousin didn’t show up at the party and neither did Greg.………? 6. They offered him nothing in return.(but) 10. didn’t it? 1.m. When did the game start?(the referee –blow his whistle) 8.. (neither) She didn’t practise the violin and neither did her colleague.? E.? 2. When did they understand the situation. Make any necessary changes.? 10. 24 . She created a new web-site but we didn’t. They didn’t agree to his telling a white lie. (too) They complained about the conditions in the hotel and we did .……. 2. (too) We wondered who those persons were and my friends did.……………? 9. 8. Change the following statements by using the words in brackets. Nobody really wanted to go with that fellow in the mountains. 4.5.

of hers.by applying to a new job. 3. but she hasn’t seen him… 5. 7. You can’t catch a cold from getting wet-that’s an……….take control of • take up. (dis/in/mal/un)avoidable: not avoidable 4.Vocabulary 1. I hope he isn’t………. If you are a ………. they’re only taking on people under 25. and she always says: ‘ You’re only…………….to modern paintings.start and spend time doing( a hobby..my coat.. 11. She used to go out with Terry. interest) Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with take.However.to the firm and you don’t know the ropes. If you are …………you are not allowed to buy drinks in a pub.can keep you healthy. We are ………and whenever we meet we reminisce about……… 7. 2..at 18.too much work. He looks exhausted. 4. (a/anti/il/non)sense: language which cannot be understood because it does not mean anything 3. you can ask one of the …………for advice. 8.’.jogging? 2. Choose the correct affix: 1. I want him to ……. She’s very organized.remove(clothes) • take on – accept (work or responsibility) •take over. People in Britain……………. 12.My grandma. (ill/mal/non/un)treat: to treat cruelly or violently 2. absorb • take off. 3.resemble • take back. 2. He didn’t enjoy his his work. 6. 25 .the business when I retire.understand. Columbus sailed from the…….. There was too much to……. Fill the gapes in these sentences using the phrases bellow: come of age for ages space age Stone Age under age fresh air fresh start freshwater new blood New World newcomer old flame old friend old hand old master old times old wives’ tale Old World as old as you feel young at heart 1. is still……….he’s an ………. 4. It’s so hot in here! I think I’ll…….to the……….. so he decided to make a ……….not the………. 6.. 10. (dis/anti/non/in) regard: lack of consideration or respect for something. I suppose she……her mother in this respect. 3. Could you ………these video to the shop? They are overdue. 9.return • take in... when they are officially ‘adults’. 5.. I’m happy to say. The Great Lakes in America are …………not saltwater lakes..Phrasal verbs with take • take after. In an attempt to bring ……into the firm. I prefer painting by the ……….. 1.. When did you decide to……. plenty of………. Grandad’s ideas are terribly out of date – he still seems to think he’s living in the ………. I couldn’t remember all the details.

Because these viruses are immediately sensed by the computer. Because of this. this virus does not replicate itself. When the trigger event occurs. A File Virus is the most common kind of virus. Since the virus is run before the operating system. Unlike other viruses. Some viruses are more dangerous than others. Multi-Partite Viruses. While.EXE and COM files. and gain control of the system before MS-DOS could be loaded. wait until the trigger event. These viruses are made simply to keep copying itself. and Stealth Viruses. so that when the infected program file is run. but still insert itself into a boot sector or partition table. which are the main component of a program or application. An example of this type of virus is the Tequila virus. Like a stealth aircraft. This virus waits until the trigger event. File Overwriters. File Overwriters are viruses that link themselves to a program. A simple virus will overwrite and destroy a host file. and are harder to be detected. programs. Polymorphic viruses. which has the code that is run at boot up. The first computer viruses were created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. They contain malicious code that is meant to damage your computer. they have a less chance to spread. they are easier to notice. it is not MS-DOS-specific and can infect any PC operating system. These viruses spread like a file virus. A file virus can insert its own code into part of the file. These viruses stay in the RAM and infects every disk that is read by the computer until the computer is rebooted. a computer virus can spread if it is not removed. More complex written viruses will cause more damage. Most file viruses are memory resident. Trojan Horses are the worst kind of viruses that exist. then start to destroy files. An example of this would be the Whale Virus . Most of the viruses that exist today are Polymorphic.L6:Types Of Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage your computer. Booting up from an infected floppy. Since these viruses often have flaws in them. Multi-Partite Viruses are the worse of both file and boot sector viruses. the virus is executed first. There are many kind of viruses that exist today. allows the virus to jump from the floppy to the hard drive. this virus is copying itself it is taking up more disk space and slowing down performance. Like a virus in a living thing. they are difficult to remove. which has 32 different forms. leaving the original code intact and adding themselves over and over to as many files as possible. These viruses are loaded first. a message is displayed or files are damaged. Trojan Horses. they can inadvertently damage or destroy data. The worst kind of file overwriters. There are a limited number of kinds of polymorphic viruses. Stealth viruses are similar to a stealth aircraft. Boot Sector/Partition Viruses. immediately letting the user know that there is a problem because the software will not run. polymorphic viruses grow fast to escape detection by anti-virus programs. Computer viruses didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. Boot sector viruses infect hard drives and floppy disks by putting itself on the boot sector of the disk. and files. they can easily attach themselves to other programs that are being run and start to infect that file. Special encrypted code within this virus allows the virus to hide from detection. One of the most common places for a computer virus to appear is on a file found on the Internet or attached to an E-mail. After reboot the virus is removed from memory. These kinds of viruses usually infect . they make themselves 26 . Some of the most common of Computer Viruses are: File Viruses. spread easier. Like the human AIDS virus. They can infect the host software components. Because of this. Because of this.

The virus hides itself into the file and makes it look like the program is running normal. c. are the worst kind of viruses that exist. c. d. 4. wait until the trigger event. 6. c. leaving the original code intact and adding themselves over and over to as many files as possible. is the most common kind of virus. didn’t really exist until the mid 1980s. 3.invisible to be detected. d. c.Computer viruses a. Trojan Horses a. Unless you can see into the future. usually infects EXE and COM files. 27 . are run before the operating system. it is not wise to try to see what would happen. 1. were firstly created in university labs to demonstrate how much of a threat the vicious code could be. is only memory resident. are of different types. contain malicious code that is meant to damage your computer. can insert its own code into part of the file. This is a memory-resident virus. Find the incorrect variant out of the four. can infect the host software components. b. wait until the trigger event. A File Virus a.File Overwriters a. are loaded first. then start to destroy files. c. d. and gain control of the system before MS-DOS could be loaded. d. I b. infect hard drives and floppy disks by putting ithemselves on the boot sector of the disk b. Boot sector viruses a. are the only one that replicate themselves. seldom have flaws in them. are made simply to keep copying themselves. 2. are MS-DOS-specific and cannot infect any PC operating system. someone can make a broad judgment of future virus development. link themselves to a program. c. spread like a file virus 5. are easily to remove. d.(…) It is dangerous when making predictions about the future. d. Multi-Partite Viruses a. b. are the worse of both file and boot sector viruses. Because of this. b. are all equally dangerous. b.

When the phone Model: rang. 13.to the door the moment she heard the bell.me about my holidays when she called me.into the library. 15. (fly) They …………to Constantza last night. Example: Did you read the book I told you about? Yes. 2. The plane ………. Confirm things.. the bell……still………. (talk) Mariam ……. 11.always……. (ring) When she reached the door. 12. 17. Did you check your blood pressure? 5.the newspaper when we got home.in Brasov when I met them.. Study the following situations. 10. Fill in the blanks with the past tense simple or continuous of the verbs in the brackets. Use Past tense Continuous. Did you talk business with your new partner? B. In fact I was reading it when you phoned me yesterday. Then the train came and Peter met his cousin. (read) He ……… a brochure when we met. (write) Bobby ………. 28 . (get) I saw Mary just when she………. 19. 14.the letter in about ten minutes. 7.TV when I phoned them..when he arrived at the airport. 1. (read) Father………. 20.. (burn)The house……when we came out. b) What did he do when the phone rang? He answered it. 4. 1. Did you wash your hair? 2..about fashion and this annoyed her friends. (drop) She ………the vase because she got frightened. (take off) Michael missed the flight. (drive) He …………all the way to London.. (run) She ………. 8. 16.Grammar A. Did you unwrap the paintings? 6. (go) He………to his office by bike last year. Ask and answer questions according to the model. (invite) They ………me to see the film when I met them in the street. Did you write the essay? 4. (ask) She ………. a very amusing comedy yesterday. 18. 1. B. Peter was walking up and down the platform. Did you help with the housework? 3. Greg was reading a book on dinosaurs when the phone rang. 6. (watch) My friends ……. 3. a) What was Greg doing when the phone rang? He was reading a book on dinosaurs. (shine) The sun ……………when we arrived. (spend) They………… a wonderful holiday at the seaside last year. he had to answer it. (see) We………. 5. 9. (live) The Grants……..

l-am văzut pe John intrând în farmacie. Săptămâna trecută Dan a lucrat intens la pregătirea lucrării despre influenţa calculatoarelor asupra psihicului uman. A explorat mai multe site-uri şi apoi a concluzionat că este prea devreme pentru a se înscrie la o bursă. 11. Translate the following into English: 1. 12. Ieri Simon mi-a făcut o vizită neaşteptată. Lunea trecută. Naturally. A fost deci grăbit şi obosit. Jim was watching a film on TV when someone rang the bell. 3. 5. 14. 6. Când am ieşit aseară din casă a început să plouă torenţial. Săptămâna trecută am cheltuit enorm. 29 . S-a deschis uşa brusc şi toţi au tresărit speriaţi. 13. apoi a ascultat un concert la radio. Se vedeau atunci pentru a doua oară. aşa că i-am cumpărat un cadou. 4. aşa că să nu te miri că nu a trecut şi pe la tine. Le-a promis tuturor că se linişteşte şi nu mai deranjează pe nimeni. aşa că au putut discuta problema deschis. pe când vorbeam cu vărul tău. yesterday. 4. Şi-a făcut o haină nouă pe care vrea să o poarte cu acest prilej. C. The boys were playing baseball when it started to rain.m. The baby cried for half an hour yesterday. Acum câteva zile a fost ziua lui Steve. Then some friends called them and they went to swim. Duminica trecută Mary a scris câteva scrisori. 8. Then his mother gave him a bottle of milk and he stopped crying. 9. 6. Acum două zile a terminat-o şi a rugat-o pe Diana s-o scrie la calculator… 10. S-au liniştit imediat însă când l-au văzut intrând pe George cu un zâmbet pe faţă. 15. iar mama i-a făcut un tort de ciocolată şi frişcă. 7. Sheila had lunch at 1 p. Se întreba cu ce a greşit de ea nu-i acordă nici o atenţie. I-a lăsat un bilet în care-i spunea cum se simţea ea în momentul acela cumplit din viaţa ei. Nu i-a înţeles nimeni intenţiile şi de aceea a încercat să mai explice încă o dată totul. they went home. Acum câteva luni echipa noastră a câştigat campionatul de fotbal. 3. In the middle of it her father came home She went into the kitchen and brought her father a steak. Nimeni nu l-a văzut ieri când se ducea la pescuit. 17. 2. 19. 16. De ce nu i-ai transmis ceea ce am discutat noi în ziua aceea când toţi ceilalţi lucrau la proiect? 20. Jim stood up and opened the front door. A venit cu trenul de 2 dimineaţa şi aplecat cu cel de 7 seara. The girls lay quietly in the sun for an hour. 5. Când ai stat de vorbă cu el ultima oară era la fel de supărat pe noi? 18.2.

His ex-girlfriend…. 1.. You can buy tools and screws and nails at a ………….Vocabulary 1. Phrasal verbs with turn •turn away.ware and the programs are known as……. 3. It’s sometimes……. The (fast/fastly) train to London takes less than an hour. but deep down he’s quite ………-hearted and ………….spot for him. 7.the lights. 2.for them.I must say I do have a ……. reduce the volume • turn in – give to the police • turn off. 4. A computer can save data on a floppy disk but much more can be stored on a ………. disconnect. I can't ski (awful/awfully) well. 3.. 4. 6.1. increase the volume Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with turn. 3.ware store. no matter how many times he insisted. themselves……. difficult or easy.…… the TV.-going.-hearted interviewer can give candidates a very………time and make life……. It was dark inside so he ……. 30 .refuse entry • turn down.drugs like heroin are more dangerous than so-called………. It’s a bit loud.. 4.. The teacher explained the point as (simple/simply) as she could. remove power • turn on – switch on. refuse. 2. A printout from a computer provides the user with a ………copy.1. If the action in a film is too (slow-moving/slowly-moving) I get bored. He tried desperately to…… the tap in the bathroom.drugs like marijuana. 9. 5..to understand her because she’s rather ………. soft. Adjectives or adverbs? Choose the right word that fits in: 1.. 2. 7. She kept …. I realize that he makes people feel un ……. The prisoners….switch off.. 6. A ………. but I’m trying my best. Fill the gaps in these sentences with hard.after a four days’ run. 8. cause to operate •turn over. The child was playing (dangerous/dangerously) near to the edge of the swimming pool. The captain was criticized (strong/strongly) for his part in the team's defeat. 2..at his house without any warning. 3. Please. All information will be treated as strictly (confidential/confidentially). 5.-spoken.him…. ……….disk. 1.consider carefully • turn up. He spent hours ……the problem in his mind. Computer equipment is known as……. arrive.. 2. 2.ware. 7.. This new fabric is so ………. 6. 5.-wearing that it will last a lifetime.when he’s being ………….

The increasing popularity of cellular phones had also changed human relations. since one naturally meets new people while going about one's daily routine. many companies were forced to diversify to comply with equal opportunity laws. as well as interaction among strangers. Regardless of the reasons. beliefs and customs. This has forced people to expand their horizons and learn the proper ways to relate to people from other cultures. Interaction in the workplace. These aspects of change are having many positive influences on the quality of education available to our students. These changes can be positive or negative. it has also decreased the amount of face-to-face interaction. Advances in computers and the internet make limitless amounts of information accessible to students. Cultural diversity in schools helps children to learn at a young age that there are many things that can be learned from other people's cultures.L7: The Current Nature Of Human Relations The nature of human relations is evolutionary. It seems that this trend toward violent behavior is crossing the generation gaps and invading our schools as well. E-mail has become a way to connect with co-workers anywhere in the world. The nature of human relations between strangers is complex and dependent upon certain situations. and it can be difficult to establish effective communication. No longer is one confined to only communicating with people in their department or office. and sometimes necessary changes have both positive and negative consequences on our lives. It seems that the overall nature of current human relations can best be determined by examining human interaction in a few key areas. These social skills that children learn at school have a strong impact on how they will relate to others throughout their lives. this increasing diversity in the workforce has caused a change in human interaction. The workplace is an environment in which there is generally a high degree of personal interaction. There are many factors that can have an effect on our interaction in each of these settings. Advancing technology and growing diversity are having an impact on the environment of schools across the nation. These changes are very important to society as a whole because they indicate that future generations will be more accepting of differences and better able to accommodate others. Workers today feel as though they are just one part of a machine. can be analyzed to provide an accurate description. companies began to discover that people from different ethnic backgrounds were helpful in working with a wide spectrum of customers. and the home. Technology has also created the virtual workplace. This increase in diversity has come from a couple of sources. and could easily be replaced. This has drastically reduced the amount of personal interaction between workers. Most of the time these interactions are polite or at 31 . Although technology has made human relations easier in the workplace. These interactions are very common. The threat of violence has been an increased concern for many companies. where people can work from the confines of their own home. Many times language barriers exist. Second. The cultural diversity of the typical workplace has increased greatly over the last decade. First. It changes over time as our society adjusts to our ever-changing environment. the school. The emergence of the Internet in the 1990's has forever changed the way that people will interact with one another. People are now being exposed to others with many different cultural backgrounds. Recent technological advances have made it much easier for people to communicate with one another. This has degraded the quality of personal interaction in the workplace. One can now be reached virtually anytime. anywhere. Nearly everyday people face situations in which they interact with strangers.

32 . Complete the following chart taking into account both the information in this text and your own knowledge. so people do not have to worry about how they are perceived if they were to make a mistake. Communication with strangers involves relatively greater degrees of uncertainty thus people may feel higher levels of anxiety. there seems to be a trend in recent times towards distrust and outright violence in a growing percentage of these daily social interactions. This may explain the growing number of people who are choosing to interact with strangers via Internet chat rooms. In this situation there is no face-to-face contact.the least non-committal. Key areas in Advantages and Why considered advantages or disadvantages. making this interaction between strangers easier. A. Anxiety is reduced. Have in view the beginning statement: ”The nature of human relations(…) changes over time as our society adjusts to our ever-changing environment.” In what respects does it change? In what way computers influence human relations? Give your own opinion. Unfortunately. Workplace School Interaction strangers with B. human interaction disadvantages.

Basil (stay) with us……. Brown (work) in this office . ……left school. 3. 9. 5. 4. 12.repair cars.September. I (phone) the doctor…. Paul. 7. 11. They (talk) to their master ……. Put the verbs in brackets in the present perfect continuous. 3. How many Peace Corps Volunteers do usually work in the business field? 4. Annie (read) War and Peace ……. 1.nine hours. 2. My fiance (wait) in the line………. How much money do the people in this company earn? 5.make oilfield equipment. this year: Example: How much do you usually study? Well.. ‘What have they been doing since they left school?” Make questions and answers as in the model. 33 . 7. Answer these questions giving the REASON for the present state of things. 8. Nick. Mr.a long time.several minutes. 1. Michael is so thirsty that he (drink)……three minutes. That man (stand) at that corner……five o’clock. 5. 4. Betty -design clothes..drive a lorry. How much do they usually train? 2.20 minutes. The other lieutenant (give) commands to his subordinates….work on a farm. Greg (read) the newspaper……. 6. 1.Grammar A. The little children (sleep) ………. Janet.manage a factory. Andy. Example: Why have you got a duster in your hand? Because I have been cleaning the blackboard.the last five minutes. Answer these questions using Present Perfect Continuous and: lately. Fill in the blanks with since or for.teach Geography.. Do you spend much time on computer studies? 3. 6. Clara – sell groceries. I have been studying a lot recently. D. Stephen. The boys (study) Algebra………dinner time.work in a factory What has John been doing since he left school? He has been working in a factory since then. Example: John. C. recently. How much do you usually work? B. George. 8.he arrived home. 10.she went on holiday. 2.

4. Since we met first.to prepare /arrange for something to be done • not see beyond something . Why has you friend been so angry? E. Ask questions for the following answers: 1. to lead someone out. Write two things you and your friends have been doing for several years.1. For a long time. Why has grandfather got his glasses on? 8. 2. 3. (How) We (to talk) business for two hours. 2. (How long) This construction company (to sell) stocks for two years. Write two things your friend has been doing since a child. For half an hour. Why is Peter out-of-breath? 4. Why has mother got flour on her hands? 6. 4. 5.to have your attention fixed on something and therefore be unable to consider other things • not know what somebody sees in somebody / something . Since last Sunday. Why are you feeling tired? 7. Why have you got a camera in your hand? 2. Begin with the words indicated: Example: She (write) a book about selling products efficiently. Make questions using present perfect continuous. G. The firm (to grow) rapidly.to not understand why someone likes a particular person or thing • see somebody off – 1. Why are the pavements wet? 9. usually forcefully 34 . Why are your hands dirty? 3. (How) They (to reorganize) to create and keep customers. (How long) How long has she been writing a book about selling products efficiently? 1. 3. (What) F. Phrasal verbs and expressions with see • see about something. Why have you treated him so badly? 10. Why are they wearing tennis shoes? 5. 2. Write two things you have been doing for several months. Vocabulary 1. to send away an attacker or unwanted person. Since she graduated. 5. (Why) We (to try) to make the company more responsible for its customers .

the month…….. It's getting late . My brother's lent me £200 to …. The government cannot ………next year's general election.you……. 2. I’m very thirsty .them.. 3.on customers who don’t settle their accounts on time. These aren’t guidelines.to continue doing a job or activity until it is finished.’ 7. 3. The course would take me three years to complete.. My parents ……me….. I like to take it……….sell. 4. they are ………-and-fast rules. ‘ When would you like to come?’ ‘I don’t mind. It’s payday tomorrow. 10. 8.to deal with a person or task that needs to be dealt with or is waiting to be dealt with Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with see. 5.is there any lemonade? 6.line.I’m ………. Dollars and Swiss francs (unlike the Zambian kwacha or the Albanian New Lek) are ………currencies.to help or support someone during a difficult period in their life • see something through .sell techniques. but I quickly …………. but I was determined to ……it…………. Some sales people favour aggressive……….the next few weeks.at the airport.me ……. 5." "I'll ……. My secretary will ….I'd better ………lunch.I don't know what she ……….to wait/last until the end of a difficult situation • see somebody out (also." 9. when they are leaving • see somebody through something . We should start to take a ……. 1.to go to the door of a building or room with someone who does not live or work there. We’ve been too………. Take it…………. especially when it is difficult • see through somebody / something . 1..to be aware that someone is trying to deceive you to get an advantage • see to something /somebody .• see something out . 9. The caretaker ran out and …….him. soft. difficult or easy.! There is no need to get so worried just because you are …………up. 6. 35 . "These letters need posting.. 7. He is always so rude and lazy .the boys who had been damaging the fence.back.. so I’d prefer a…………drink. They were very friendly. 8. A paper bag is often half the price of a ………. After a hard day at the office. 2. while others prefer gentle persuasion and go for the ……….. 11. Fill the gaps in these sentences with hard. see somebody to the door).them later. 4. The besieged town hasn't enough food to ……. 2.

Languages. Begun in 1954 and completed in 1957.L8:Programming A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what operations to perform on data. on the other hand. These needs led to the development of so-called high-level languages. To facilitate computer use in scientific applications. task that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program. and microwave ovens. or dedicated computers the operating instructions are embedded in their circuitry. LIST. BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed for use by nonprofessional computer users. programs that loop back to re-execute part of their instructions reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears. Assembly Language. an American. A general purpose computer. High-Level Languages. it can do only as much or as little as the software controlling it at any given moment enables it to do. so such programs run as rapidly as though they were written directly in machine language. What was needed was a shorthand method by which one symbolic statement could represent a sequence of many machine-language instructions. FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) was the first comprehensive high-level programming language that was widely used. Software in widespread use includes a wide range of applications programs-instructions to the computer on how to perform various tasks. automobile engines. By assigning a short (usually three-letter) mnemonic code to each machine-language command. In some specialized. A computer must be given instructions in a language that it understands-that is. High-level languages often use English-like words-for example. contains some built-in programs (in ROM) or instructions (in the processor chip). wristwatches. The first commercial programmer was probably Grace Hopper (1906-92). time consuming. With an interpreter. or machine language. IBM then developed a language that would simplify work involving complicated mathematical formulas. and a way that would allow the same program to run on several types of machines. Translator programs are of two kinds: interpreters and compilers. or they may exist independently in a form known as software. and so on-as commands that might stand for a sequence of tens or hundreds of machine-language instructions. a commercial and business programming language. The language came into almost universal use 36 . but it depends on external programs to perform useful tasks. Programs can be built into the hardware itself. translate an entire program into machine language prior to execution. COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called assembly-language programming. the computer's own binary-based language. common examples are the microcomputers found in calculators. a particular pattern of binary digital information. concentrated on data organization and file handling and is widely used today in business. PRINT. The commands are entered from the keyboard or from a program in memory or in a storage device. is difficult for humans to use. Machine-language programming is such a tedious. so interpreted programs run much more slowly than machine-language programs. OPEN. assembly-language programs could be written and debugged-cleaned of logic and data errors-in a fraction of the time needed by machine-language programmers. by contrast. Unfortunately. Compilers. and they are intercepted by a program that translates them into machine-language instructions. Once a computer has been programmed.

With an interpreter. and inelegant by its detractors. Comment upon this quotation: “Programming is a fascinating world that asks a lot and gives a lot. what operations to perform on data. task their circuitry. Because many early microcomputers were sold with BASIC built into the hardware (in ROM memory) the language rapidly came into widespread use. is widely used in developing systems programs.with the microcomputer explosion of the 1970s and 1980s. High-Level Languages allows the same into machine language prior to execution. C. to run on several types of machines. B. LOGO.” 37 . several others deserve mention. LOGO was developed to introduce children to computers. inefficient. BASIC is nevertheless simple to learn and easy to use. PASCAL. or dedicated computers A general purpose computer contains FORTRAN. time consuming. a language Bell Laboratories designed in the 1970s. PASCAL. Although hundreds of different computer languages and variants exist. originally designed as a teaching tool. A. programs that loop some built-in programs (in ROM) or back to re-execute part of their instructions instructions (in the processor chip) One method programmers devised to shorten and simplify the process is called A program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer In some specialized. BASIC. Condemned as slow. such as language translators. LISP and PROLOG are widely used in artificial intelligence. Match the beginnings in the first column with the endings in the second: Compilers translate an entire program reinterpret the same instruction each time it appears Examples of computer languages would be: assembly-language programming. is now one of the most popular microcomputer languages. program Machine-language programming is such a the operating instructions are embedded in tedious. LISP and PROLOG that the time saved in running the program rarely justifies the days or weeks needed to write the program.

(be) 9. I don’t know this man.Grammar A. (be late). The plane will take off first. Nobody will leave this place.(finish) 6. Mr McGregor will finish lunch.(have) 3. Then they will get into the cinema hall. difficult problems.………? 38 . yet. Mike will arrive home. just. They’ve established who will be the winner this year. They haven’t solved those long. before.…………? 6. They have done nothing at all these days.……. (read) 5. Use the present perfect tense simple and the appropriate adverbs(never.? 4. This part of the country is completely unknown to me. Then you will know what to do next. Your friend hasn’t completed the task. Do you want another dish? No. You’ve just met him on your way home. (by the time) 7.(as soon as) 6. They have already repaired the ironing machine.(cook) Mother hasn’t cooked the dinner yet.(as soon as) I’ll phone Angela as soon as I’ve had dinner. You will see him.30 p.)to re-formulate the following. Then the passengers will be allowed to smoke. You have paid the telephone bill. After that they will buy the house.………? 10.(after) 4. has he? 1. I’m still digging in the garden. He has gone nowhere this week.(after) 8. (until) 10. The generous woman has already given them presents. My brother goes to a technical college. Example: Dinner is not ready. everybody!(cook) 2. Miriam is late again but nobody is surprised. (until) 5. Then I’ll tell him the great news. thank you. I’m going to play this record now. The students will graduate.m. B.? 5. (when) 9. In a few years you’ll gain more experience. already. I can tell you a lot of things about Jane Austen. …………. Alan is not going to read the article. The children will buy tickets first.(as soon as) 2.? 7. Then they will get finer jobs. (pass the entrance exam) 7.. Example: I’ll have dinner first. Then you’ll make a wonderful doctor. Lunch is ready! Come and eat.………. We’ll establish the main points to be discussed tomorrow. Nobody has understood that explanation. Make sentences ending in tag-questions to express the ideas bellow. I’ll be hungry by then. Example: The teacher hasn’t marked our tests. etc.………. Then I’ll phone Angela. The film will finish at 10. Then he will talk to you about your future plans. (read) 10. The Grants will consult a lawyer.………? 3. It’s very new. (before) C.(meet) 8. 1.………? 9.(buy) 4.(when) 3.…………? 2.? 8. Re-express the following sentences using present perfect tense. 1.

but she……. 9. 11. 3. knit) for/since several hours. Something you have known for the last three weeks. Something you have just done. 8. Something you haven’t done yet. (not make) So far they……. 7. Something you will do after you have arrived home. 15. Something you have visited this week. She ……. The student …………. Something you have learnt since you’ve started faculty. read) a book for/since June last year. 7. E.busy lately.it since. (talk) They………. 6.(explained) to everyone what she likes doing since/for half an hour.(just. F. Something you have always liked. Their grandmother ………. The most interesting thing you have ever seen. 8. (have) He feels hungry although he……. Something you have recently. 14. 12. Make sentences of your own expressing: 1. 9.. Put the verbs in the brackets in the present perfect tense. (write) Our friends from Portugal……….(interview) him for/since the last three hours. Something you have done and whose result can be seen. (not wear) Chris wore her new dress last week.their relatives for the last three months. (be) ……you…. 5. (be) She………. The men you………. 6. 2. 13. 16. meet)…………(speak) for/since 9 o’clock. 3. 5.only just…….to someone for the past few days. 4..(write) an essay on this for/since summer. Nobody………(be) here for/since a few years. They ……….D. 6. 4. 7. (teach) Mr Smith ………English ever since the Second World War.it. Choose since or for. 3. 1. 39 . 2. Something you have had for a long time. Example: (study)They………almost every lesson in this book up to now/ so far They have studied almost every lesson in this book up to now/ so far 1. (not use) I’ve had that dictionary for a month but I still……. Something you have never done before. 10.. 8. Example: I………. 4. Something you have participated in today.a meal. My neighbours………(talk) about this topic since/for yesterday. Something you have often done. Something you have studied up to now.to us regularly. 10.(participate) in the debates for/since two full days.. (seen) They ……….(try) to put him through for /since two minutes ago. They know someone who………(not. Put the verb in parenthesis in the correct form.here for long? 9. Who……. Something you have seldom done 5.. 2.(not.many mistakes in their exercises.

so let’s do something different …………. 2.. I don’t dislike Chaplin at all:…………..it. The doctor advised him to ………. I should like to thank you ………the whole department. Did you see the news…………. prevent someone or something from entering • keep to. It takes much longer to get there …………than by bus. 7. Put a sweater on.. They’re doing some building work over there so it would be great if we…….stay in group • keep warm. She walks so fast.. He claimed it wasn’t his fault and that he hadn’t done it ……… 3.with her. 5.. 2. 8.. How much does a worker earn …………. 9. No. There are some lovely desserts………. We haven’t been out together………Would you like to come……. 6. She promised to be in time so she’d better…….. it’s important to ……. 2... Phrasal verbs and expressions with keep Phrasal verbs • keep at – continue working at • keep off. 11. continue saying the same thing • keep out. stay away.to have a meal.it. If they …. they’ll finish painting by midday. 12.struggle to continue • keep together.1.but I won’t take anything because I’m ……….coffee. 5.with us on Sunday? 6. 3.. it’s difficult to……. 40 . 2. It was long drive so we stopped…………. I admire him greatly. We’ve got to………if we want to be a real team. We’ve done a lot of this recently. 4. She promised to help me ………I returned the favour another time. yet so I’ll………trying.stay with or follow an agreed plan or course of action • keep up.Vocabulary 1. 2.manage to go fast Expressions • keep going. continue doing something. 4. Fill the gaps with the phrases bellow: on a diet on average on foot on purpose on the hour on the menu for a long time for a walk on behalf of on television on the way on condition that on the contrary for a change 1. When you run a marathon.. It’s important to…….avoid • keep on. 7. 1. Trains always leave …………… 10.last night? 9.stay warm Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with keep.1.even when you feel exhausted.in your country? 8. She hasn’t answered my phone calls..

To avoid damaging your eyes. Although some experts recommend leaving computers on all the time. Desks that allow proper keyboard height and special ergonomic keyboards have been developed to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome. legal professionals. because if we don’t. however.L9: Living With Computers Ergonomics is the study of the physical relationships between humans and their tools. sharing objectionable or illegal material. The computer industry has become known the fast pace rate of obsolescence. Instead of building copy protection into their programs. such as computers. and computing professionals continue to debate computer-related ethical questions and attempt to develop laws that protect the freedoms of computer users while limiting immoral or illegal use of computers. infect computers. Hardware is sometimes stolen for the value of the data stored on it rather that for the value of the machine itself. most software developers discourage privacy among organizations by offering site licenses and network versions. Government. Few actual laws. It is my opinion that if we are to live comfortably with computers. Some of the leading toxic wastes coming form homes and offices are heavy metals used extensively in batteries. Practices such as excessive e-mailing. Users can protect their data and software by using an anti-virus program. such as cadmium. Copyright laws relevant to computers and software are covered by the Copyright Act of 1976 and the Software Piracy and counterfeiting Amendment of 1983. make sure no bright lights reflect off your screen. which conserves electricity even when left on. the misuse of technology will eventually be the downfall of humankind 41 . the illegal copying or use of a program. One response has been the development of energy star equipment. we must first use common sense to realize that everything we do has a cause and effect. position yourself from the monitor between two and five feet from your eyes. have been created or enforced to requiring computer users to let their own sense of ethics guide them. and destroy data. Our legal system is gradually developing a code of laws to provide a legal framework for working with computers and on the Internet. and theft of intellectual property all create ethical questions for everyday computer users. with both hardware and software being replaced every couple of years. a type of repetitive stress injury. We must take on the responsibility as humans to utilize technology to change the World for the better. this practice was shown to consume unnecessary amounts of electricity. The most prevalent breach of law in cyberspace is software piracy. Software viruses are parasitic programs that can replicate themselves. and use a monitor that has a relatively large screen without noticeable flicker. avoid starring at the screen for long periods. Office chairs should be adjustable in height and should have lower-back support and arm rests.

A. to live comfortably with. “It is my opinion that if we are to live comfortably with computers.” 42 . such as cadmium Copyright laws relevant to computers and avoid starring at the screen for long software are periods. downfall. because if we don’t. We must take on the responsibility as humans to utilize technology to change the World for the better. make sure no bright lights reflect off your screen. Energy star equipment Few actual laws. however. we must first use common sense to realize that everything we do has a cause and effect. infect computers. ethical questions. software piracy. counterfeiting. Carpal tunnel syndrome heavy metals used extensively in batteries. Make sentences of your own using the following: to replicate oneself. pace rate of. and use a monitor that has a relatively large screen without noticeable flicker. position yourself from the monitor between two and five feet from your eyes. have been created or enforced to requiring computer users to let their own sense of ethics guide them. B. extensively. a code of laws. Software viruses are parasitic programs covered by the Copyright Act of 1976 and the that Software Piracy and counterfeiting Amendment of 1983. Match the beginnings in the first column with the endings in the second one: To avoid damaging your eyes conserves electricity even when left on. and destroy data C. the misuse of technology will eventually be the downfall of humankind. can replicate themselves. What’s your opinion on the author’s statement? Develop your point of you in a 200 hundred word essay. Office chairs is a type of repetitive stress injury. Some of the leading toxic wastes coming should be adjustable in height and should have form homes and offices are lower-back support and arm rests.

For two years. catch) the bus. The manager (just. 4. 2. 2. What (you. 1. so she is glad to spend some time with her friends now. Find questions for the following answers. Use present perfect simple or continuous. 3. 8. My father’s friend (have) the company since he moved to this town. I (talk) to a group of salesmen since 10 this morning. She has been trying to make pancakes for the last half hour. Since Mike last (visit) me. 6. but he (not. Example: Chris went into the kitchen at 8 a. (you. see) any bears? 9. be)? 2.m. 3. Please. yet. She ……(criticize) me for the last 20 minutes and she seems to have even more to say! B. meet) Doris at 5 p. 7. 5. 4. 4. 6. as a matter of fact I (know) him since I (be) a child. We (watch ) the TV program several times this week. We (not receive) any letter from him yet. use present perfect simple or continuous. but she hasn’t made a good one yet. Use present perfect continuous or simple. I(phone) you for the last three hours. The prices in this city increase amazingly.? It’s time you finished! 7. Not yet. She (work) hard. Why is he angry? (wait for half an hour) Why are you so tired? (train for 3 hours) Why is he so thirsty? (not drink anything the whole day) How can your father be so vigorous at his age? (watch his diet all his life) How is that you are not hungry. Mr Brown (tell) him to go the supermarket since breakfast. do) with my handbag? It(be) here a moment ago. Example: Why is his house empty? (move to a new place) Because he has just moved to a new place. Where(you. 5. 6. 3. but I (not. This summer. She has dropped one egg on the floor and she’s thrown one pancake on the ceiling.m. excuse the disorder in the house. I (know) Peter for years. Since he left the town. get) a phone call. on Monday? Yes.Grammar A. meet) her since. They are on the table now. he (be) to many places. but I(buy) a ticket . (eat from the snack-food machine) Are you sure you don’t want some coffee? (drink some coffee-just) D. Put the verbs in brackets in the past tense. 1.. Answer the following questions. present perfect simple or continuous. Since last October. go) yet. but we (already. ………you……(speak) on the mobile phone since 2 p. ever. Recently 5. 43 .m. sign) the papers. C. I(move) the furniture. (you. 1. I (do). I (already.

De când a stat de vorbă jumătate de oră cu acel personaj pitoresc nu mai e acelaşi om! 25. Avionul nu a aterizat încă. Fratele ei şi-a rupt piciorul. 22. iar anul trecut a scris şi o piesă de teatru. pentru că n-am citit filmul şi nici na-m citit cartea. De când s-a mutat în blocul nostru nu ne-a mai sunat la telefon şi nici nu ne-a mai 17. 13. Ai înţeles vreodată geometria diferenţială? Dacă da. but now I (almost. try) to jump over the fence. 16. When we(move) in three years ago. I-a pierdut în timpul orei de educaţie fizică. I (not. Today I (work) since breakfast and I (not. 2. În schimb am colindat prin toate magazinele. everything (be) in a mess. N-am mai pomenit una ca asta! Sunt în oraş de o lună şi nu ne-au telefonat încă. She (warn) me again this morning at breakfast time but I (work( for four hours and nothing (go) wrong. 7. Astăzi toţi vecinii şi-au parcat maşinile în noul parcaj din faţa blocului. Poate nu-ţi vine să crezi. N-am mâncat niciodată icre negre. Nimeni nu a găsit ochelarii Anei. 23. să-i amintesc că avem un proiect de făcut împreună. N-a mai pomenit aşa comportament în viaţa ei aşa că este hotărâtă să-l determine să. Meg citeşte în camera ei de când s-a întors acasă. Nu ştiu la ce personaj te referi. 10. 3. 6. Translate the following into English: 1. 9. dar mi se pare că e cel mai talentat violonist pe care l-am auzit vreodată. 5. În ultima vreme am fost atât de prins cu alte treburi. forget) what (happen) several years ago when she (try) to help me. 19. 12. 11. George nu a mai cântat la pian de când era copil. De unde îl cunoşti? Până acum am crezut că îţi e total străin. 24. 13. Asta s-a întâmplat acum două săptămâni într-un accident de maşină. finish) the job. have) many accidents since then but Ann (often. Până acum a scris câteva romane. nu-I aşa? . 18. 11. 12.Spune-mi. ai vizitat astăzi Galeriile Naţionale.şi revizuiască atitudinea. Luna asta a citit şase romane. Ultimele le-am expediat ieri. 20. 44 . Jim (often. te rog să-mi explici şi mie câteva noţiuni elementare. De vreo doi ani îl tot rog să încerce să lucreze mai ordonat şi să aibă mai multă voinţă.10. 4. Prietenul ei e scriitor. dar îl aşteptăm din moment în moment. 14. 14. încât am uitat complet de ce m-ai rugat. dar să ştii că mi-am şi scris şi expediat toate felicitările de Crăciun . E. 15. 8. Ai încercat vreodată să faci practici vreun sport extrem? 21. have) lunch yet. warn) me to be careful. Verişorul meu a crescut foarte mult de când nu l-am văzut. S-ar putea să mă înşel. dar de data asta s-a întrecut pe sine. dar în zadar. De când n-a mai întrebat de mine? Cred că ar fi bine să-l mai caut eu. I (never. Familia Bush a cumpărat un apartament în acest cartier şi de atunci locuiesc aici. Pregăteşte de obicei nişte prăjituri delicioase. n-am avut timp. .Nu.

2. replacing the underlined words with a suitable form of the word in bold on the right and adding FOR or ON. account 2.abolish • (could ) do with. French • do someone a favour • do someone good • do someone harm • do well • do your best Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with do. Could you ……the zip …. Please.. I don’t want you to sympathise with me. e.school uniform. 6.. It won’t…….. I am sorry that I was rude to you. 3. Meg’s business started slowly.. cleaning. 5. 45 .now. 4. 7.Vocabulary 1. Maths. Rewrite each sentence.and go fetch another beer.g. We admire her because of her intelligence. want • do up. The new principal plans to…….only one course of Chemistry. 1.have a connection with Expressions • do domestic jobs. cooking. 1.on the back of this dress? 10.. e. The price they charge varies according to the quantity you order. search have apologise feel sorry 6. ……. 8. You should eat a bit of meat occasionally.. In his last year of study he …….nothing……this delicate problem.g.you……! 9. but it’s ……. Phrasal verbs and expressions with do Phrasal verbs • do away with. fasten.you any…….1. He stopped to look in a shop window and then continued walking. the garden • do school subjects. Our car is going to be repaired this week so we’ll have to ……it for a day or two. 3. I could ……a nice hot shower.(usually after could) need. walk 2. She’ s well-known because she broke the world record. famous She’s famous for breaking the world record.manage to live without • have/be to do with. 2. repair or redecorate • do without. I know it’s hard to do the washing-up without a proper detergent.In fact it’ll probably….. depend 7. but please try to…… 5.I think he ……. the washing. Are you trying to find your hat? 4. I’m freezing.

explode the classical frame and lead to an expansion which makes the integration into classical art forms impossible. while still being ignored by art critics. (2) Education. that experience is gained which can be useful in several ways: (1) Theory of Art. but also through confrontation with classical art. its influence was not yet felt in the arts or in society at large. It was the most recent developments in microelectronics which mainly led to a turning point in the history of computer art. the traditional artistic criteria were still respected. The newly obtained dynamics. Until recently. (3) Entertainment. the production of a picture took ten to twenty minutes. is able to activate according to his own taste. we are confronted with the problem of aesthetic structuring. Forms of aesthetic activity can be imagined which allow the viewer to enter into a sort of dialogue with the computer or the aesthetic program. and the entertainment industry. the shaping of our environment was left to the more or less spontaneous ideas of individuals. An additional stimulus was created by the advancement of microelectronics which added a new dimension of artistic activity: the old dream of being able to play freely with colours and shapes has come true. however. educators. Particularly the opportunities opened by microprocessors. (4)Shaping of the Environment. Apart from the task of a technical transformation and often adaptation to existing psychological and sociological conditions. From the viewpoint of the theoretician or the behavioural scientist who is concerned with aesthetics. The visualization of instructional material is one of the great tasks of our future. At the beginning of computer graphics activities. The 46 .L10: The New Visual Age: The Influence of Computer Graphics on Art and Society Only a few years ago it would have seemed ridiculous to discuss the influence of computer graphics on art and society. now promoted to the successor of the hitherto passive onlooker. 'Free' computer graphics can serve as a source of new programming methods and of ideas for creating new shapes. The sudden interest in visual computer art has had repercussions on its artistic forms. have drawn the attention of designers. at times even half an hour or more. as in text analysis. but only by animated sequences. computer-generated drawings represent examples of simulated pieces of art. is also essential. by interaction some sort of a play with graphic structures may emerge. mechanical plotting represented the only possible choice. The possibility of rapid creation and of variation in structures. It is through playful experiments.. Although computer-generated graphics had already been applied in important areas of science and technology. The new interactive method facilitated through the above-mentioned improvements even allows a sort of graphic improvisation: the artist conceives the general framework for multitude of graphic creations which the user. The result was an image which could be hung on the wall: which means that at least from an external viewpoint. Computer graphics is nearly indispensable when one is confronted with dynamic processes which cannot be illustrated by individual pictures. But today we are convinced that an optimal coordination of our living space with its inhabitants has become a necessity. their decreased execution time and increased storage capacity allowing ever greater access at lower prices to larger groups of interested amateurs have opened new perspectives to the most diverse ranges of activity. which.

b. made possible the old dream of being able to play freely with colours and shapes. d. allows a sort of graphic improvisation B. They help a lot in aesthetically structuring of our living space. influence was not yet felt in the arts or in society at large. made possible a new dynamics that exploded the classical frame and led to a new way of expression. the advancement of microelectronics a. makes the integration into classical art forms possible. b. have opened new perspectives to the most diverse ranges of activity. d. They represent examples of simulated pieces of art and offer the possibility of rapid creation and of variation in structures. 2. In what respect and to what degree do you think computer graphics influence society? Give arguments to support your ideas.Computer graphics a. b. 3.by means of microprocessors. They help with the visualization of instructional material c. . A. have influenced art and society since decades. c. That means no less and no more than that the program can be used to create and to structure musical and linguistic elements artistically. Which is the wrong variant out of the four? 1. The aesthetic programs they may offer are meant only for serious stuff and not for entertainment. It is clear that the old ways can no longer satisfy the needs of these expanding forms of expression. d.universality of means and the peculiarities of data processing systems make the traditional categories questionable for yet another reason: acoustic instruments can be used for the output of data just as well as the screens. 'Free' computer graphics can serve in several ways: a. c. could lead to a turning point in the history of computer art by using the most recent developments in microelectronics. 47 .

on it all spring. Barton had been planting trees all day. When he became president.all day. Lincoln ran for political office again. 5. 6. 3. Example: Mr. He ………all day evening. dig in the courtyard 8. She ………. ski on the slope 3. The guardian was still standing in front of her door at 12 p.Grammar A. They ………. The students were working on a difficult project in May.30 p. Example: How long had you been standing in a queue when you bought your ticket to Brasov? I’d been standing in a queue since 3 p. He …………all afternoon.m.. The policemen were still investigating the case in December. The actor was rehearsing at 8.m..all afternoon. C. Use past perfect continuous with the verbs in brackets: Abraham Lincoln (do ) manual labour on the family farm before he was sent to local school. 10. Answer the questions using past perfect continuous and SINCE/FOR./ for about ten minutes. How long had your parents been saving up when they bought a car? 2. 7.it all winter. B. Barton was still planting trees at 6 p. The children were still preparing for the show at 1 p. How long had you been waiting for your girl friend when she showed up? 48 . speak on the phone 4. In fact she………. The surgeon was still operating her on at 6 p. 2. 1. 8. read that novel D. They………the case all winter.. He ………. It………. They…………all morning.. solve puzzles 7. listen to music 5. They…………. 1. Ann was wearing her green winter coat yesterday.m. Ask and answers according to the model: mend the car How long had you been mending the car when grandfather came home? I‘d been mending the car for one hour and a half /since 2 o’clock when grandfather came home.all morning. 1. America’s national unity was threaten because the southern states and the rest of the country unsuccessfully (try) to settle the question of slavery. He (study) law for a short time when in 1834.m. Diana was ironing her dresses yesterday afternoon. The girls were still skating at noon. translate the passage 6. play the new instrument 2.in front of her door all morning. He (work) hard for years before he overcame defeat in politics. 9. Mr.m. 4. The wind was blowing in the morning.m. Fill in the blanks with the past perfect tense continuous.

1. 1. How long had you been trying to persuade him when he left the room in a hurry? 10. All the documents in this office are colour-coded. 6. Why was Jane so tired? (she/work/4 hours) 2. How long had you been walking when it started to rain? 5. Each of these sentences contains a colourful expression. 5.escape • run into.use all one’s supplies • run over. 6. Why did your friend look so amused?(he/watch a comedy/1/2 hours) 3. Why was she broken? (she / spend a lot of money/December last year) 8. Why were they so furious? (the policeman/ ask questions/ an hour) 5. How long had your friends been filling-in that form when you decided to help 9. Why was she so enthusiastic? (she/ speak on her favourite topic/2 hours) 7. 2.meet someone by chance • run on. It was only when he had won the match and started jeering at his opponent that he saw him in his true colours. How long had your neighbours been living next to you before they moved? 4. What do you tjhink of the colour scheme in this room? 7. Why was he so relaxed? ( he/listen to a wonderful Chopin piano concert/ an hour). Don’t allow your personal interest to colour your judgement. How long had your mother been cooking when you offered to help her? 7. Vocabulary 1. Why were they so frozen? (they /stay in a cold room/ 5 hours). She didn’t go to work because she was feeling a little off colour. E.continue happening for longer than planned or expected • run out of. 3.3.repeat for practice 49 . 2. The context will help you to guess. 4. What do they mean? Don’t use a dictionary. The detailed descriptions in the story gave local colour to the book. How long had your neighbours been making noise when you complained? 6. Everyone in the class passed the exam with flying colours. Follow the model and answer the questions: Example: Why was Nick angry? (he/wait/20 minutes) Because he had been waiting for 20 minutes. Far more men are colour-blind than women. 8. them? 9.knock down and drive over the top • run through. How long had you been playing this game when you join a club? 8. Phrasal verbs with run • run away. Why were they so hungry? ( they/ have a proper meal/ several days) 9. Why were they so happy? ( they/ do something they enjoy/ 2 hours ago) 10. How long had Mary and her friends been standing in line when someone offered them two tickets. Why were you so busy? (I /make travel arrangements/ 3 days) 4.

(anti/de/non/un) -alcoholic: a drink which does not contain alcohol 10.it 4. not as it should be 8. (anti/ill/mal/un)comfortable: not comfortable or not relaxed or calm 9. 4. selfish 6. Choose the correct affix: 1. 1. She knows all about cars. Rewrite each sentence. Would you like to give me your opinion of my work? rely / count comment 4. Guess who I……. She sold her fur coat as she ……… 7.in the middle of the town? Mel Gibson himself! 3. not true.all night! 5. (anti/ill/in/mis)considerate: not caring about other people or their feelings. I told the visitors you’d be late but she was determined to wait. You can’t trust him. 5. 6. 6. 7. replacing the underlined words with a suitable form of the word in bold on the right and adding FOR or ON. (de/dis/non/un)frost: to (cause to) become free of ice. We let the monkey out of its cage for a while and it……. but you can trust me. To hear the next track you should make the tape go forward. (dis/mal/mis/un)cast: to choose (actors and actresses) that are unsuitable for the characters in (a film or play) 7. Let’s get going! I don’t want this meeting to……….it once again. (counter/dis/im/un)possible: (of a person) extremely difficult to deal with or behaving badly 4. It was a tall story but he was so gullible that he believed it.. an expert insist wind fall grow 2. or to (cause to) become no longer frozen 50 . (a/de/in/non)correct: not correct. 3. Greg …………an enormous bill at the bookshop this year. I dropped my glasses in the street and a car ……. 1.cause to have bills or debts Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb with run. (de/in/non/un)flammable: burning very easily 3. (dis/in/non/un)content: a feeling of wanting better treatment or an improved situation 5. (dis/ir/non/un)relevant: not related to what is being discussed or considered and therefore of no importance 2. I didn’t understand the passage so I should………. 3.. I used to hate that song but then it became more pleasant to me.We’ve never seen it again. 2.• run up.

a group of knowledgeable engineers whose sole task is to reinforce the integrity of the internet. Often described by the media as “the information superhighway”. On the same year. The only costs involved in using these internet services. broadcasting companies and radio stations are transmitting regularly over the internet. it was not designed with tight security in mind. by so-called “crackers”: growing minorities of people with nothing better to do than spoil everyone else’s enjoyment. can effectively dive into an immense range and selection of merchandise. and many others not mentioned. First. The internet is. transfer their money and even trade their stocks. transformed to inoperative rather hundred thousands of computers and thousands of networks around the globe for quite few days. This opens up a new international world of trading. which is slowly but surely replacing the regular phone. enables anyone to make free long distance calls. and the telephone lines used to dial in. pay their bills. This is not true anymore with the expansion of the internet to include online banking. the dark side of the internet reveals some serious drawbacks. the most efficient and economic tool of the next generation. One of the recent innovations the internet made available is online commerce. access their bank accounts. This was demonstrated. but it also transports compact and yet very harmful intruders: computer viruses. With the appearance of “streaming” technologies. at least once a month. overcoming any kind of disability. once concealed inside government agencies and universities. Secondly. beyond doubt. for instance. the Internet's boundaries can only be imagined. financial institutes deciphered the heartbreaking event to more than a few million dollars of 51 . has become the largest single form of communication worldwide. Nevertheless. which makes them accessible anywhere on the globe. Perhaps. the modem . all of which can be relatively cheap. have existed since the very first birth of personnel computers. successfully capturing and distributing credit card numbers of NBA and ESPN users. the internet’s structures do not only transport data. waiting to carry out regular transactions in financial centres is very frustrating. last century’s award winning virus. which includes online shopping. the “internet tasking force” (ITF).L11: The Information Superhighway The Internet. is taking significant measures to prevent such unlawful actions. With a number of online individuals exceeding thirty millions and the number of networks that act as gateways for users exceeding fifty thousands. efficiently supplied with new viruses. anytime and anywhere from the globe. the internet offers to customary users a wide variety of services. are the costs of the user's computer. allows any user on the internet to send nearly instantaneous electronic message to anyone else. online trading and many more. The “internet phone”. The electronic mail (email). virus authors have been faced up to nothing but a widespread gate to the information superhighway. Crackers dedicate their work to purposely infect programs and distant computers that access the internet. effortlessly compare prices and quickly shop from remote locations. “Veronica”. These artificial clever beasts that destroy data. but also some drawbacks. People can. online banking. But. Consumers. Any form of communication via the internet is cheaper and rather faster than any service from other facilities. In July 1997. another cracker known as “Snak” was taken into custody by FBI agents after he had stolen over one hundred thousands credit card numbers from an internet service provider (ISP) located in northern California. With the growth of the internet. crackers achieved the first widely known attack on internet credit card data. through the computer.

The “information superhighway”. according to the example: advantages COMPUTER’S Any form of communication via the internet is cheaper and rather faster than any service from other facilities. Comment upon this statement. cracker. as any other invention. effortlessly. as any other invention. B. disadvantages C. Fill in the following chart. and retrieving information improve. are being improved. and on the internet's paths.vanished money. This is one of the main reasons behind the delays. information takes lengthy periods to load on the computer’s screen. but not at the same level as the number of new users. This is wonderlessly why internet communities are very much concerned about security. some of which can be very damaging. A. The rate at which data is transmitted and the number of systems. that these drawbacks will be overcome in time as technology advances and methods of securely transmitting. Make your own sentences with the following words: exceeding. adding your own arguments to the ones previously stated in the text above. which can be thought of several four lane roadways with neither traffic officers nor civilized drivers. receiving. drawback. has its strengths residing in its popular aspects – the World Wide Web. online commerce. however. wonderlessly. 52 . and many others. email. gateways. Occasionally. The “information superhighway”. The internet has also its weaknesses. endpoint. This is often due to delays that occur at endpoints. has its strengths (…) and also its weaknesses. I believe. just enough to frustrate impatient users.

53 . I had met nobody before.……….? 6.. The sun was shining. hadn’t you? 1. What had you done before you went to the airport? 2. (come out. Yesterday you went to the airport to meet him.? 3. the door was locked and the lights were off. Tom was supposed to go on a trip with his friends yesterday. 3.. 1. you found out you had won the jackpot 5. It was raining outside.Grammar A. When he came back the train wasn’t there. Add tag questions to the statements bellow and answer them.…………? 4. the skyscraper fell down. but he said no. Say what you had just done when……. When he got to the meeting place. (arrive home. The principal had just come. How had you felt until the plane landed? 4.. He invited Dan to come to come with him.have dinner) 2. I hadn’t promised anything. The film had already started. What had you done before your father was in the customs? D.………? 2. Example: You had seen Mary.……….stop raining) 5. Greg had two tickets for the film. your aunt told you the great news 4. neither the coach nor his friends were there. The sun had already set.leave) B.……? You had seen Mary. (come back.? 7. your parents arrived home..………. Her mother was washing up after dinner. 1. Comment upon these situations using past perfect simple. Mike got out of the train to buy a newspaper.. (invite Dan-see the film) 4. She came out half an hour later.……. Chris went to the shop.? C.? 5. (get to the baker’s-close the shop) When Doris got to the baker’s they HAD CLOSED the shop. The students hadn’t finished the tests.……. (get to the meeting place-leave) 3. How long had you been in the airport by the time the plane landed? 3. Mary had a meeting and arrived home late. Example: When Doris got to the baker’s. the alarm clock rang in the morning 2. Nobody had tried it before. Imagine your father was away on a business trip last week. 1.

Use the past perfect simple and FOR and SINCE. At 12. Greg’s pen ran out of ink. The guest left before they’d finished their dinner. 5. HARDLY. 3.30 the sky got dark. Why didn’t she have dinner? (mother. (emphatic) Hardly had they got on the train when it left. Sissy went out. AFTER. Why couldn’t Carmen wear the new dress? (she. Why was the little boy unhappy?( he win the prize) 54 . We hadn’t finished our main course. 1. The audience laughed. Choose from NO SOONER. The hostess served coffee. UNTIL. 3. BEFORE. 8. They hadn’t heard the end of the joke. Why couldn’t she tell anything about the book? (she-read ) 2. 1. She hadn’t recovered from her illness. watch TV 2. The sun set and then we stopped 6. Join each pair of sentences bellow using BEFORE and the past perfect simple. visit anybody 5. Why did they have to stand. Why didn’t Jane take the coach? (she-catch the train) 3. 2. They’d hardly got on the train when it left. He hadn’t corrected his mistakes.cook. We unpacked our things and then we put out our tents. The sun rose and immediately we started. (they. H. yet) 5. It was cloudy for an hour and then the sun came out again. 4. Model: see any films Doris hadn’t seen any films since she came home/ for two weeks. 1. Answer the following questions using the past perfect simple. AS SOON AS. 1. go swimming 6. F. 7. play tennis 4. We went to bed and immediately we fell asleep. Adams have a room in the hotel? (she-reserve) 4. Why didn’t Mrs. We stopped at noon and immediately we had lunch. 4. Connect the following sentences by using the appropriate connectors. 5. The student handed in the essay. They hadn’t finished their dinner. Example: Why did the clock stopped? (Tim –wind) Because Tim hadn’t wound it. WHEN. write any letters G. ride her bike 3. We started immediately and didn’t stop at all.iron) 7.book seats) 6.E. Example: The guest left. He hadn’t finished his paper. 2. Be careful about the past tense you use! Example: They got on the train and immediately it left. We had supper and then we washed the dishes.

The police caught him in the act of committing the crime. you in getting a job. both parties have to ……. He’s dedicated to work. 7. She’s very famous so we must give her VIP treatment..his fitness. There will be a full investigation to …….Vocabulary 1. These figures ……. 6. 3. She ……stress by running for at least half an hour every day. He phoned me completely unexpectedly to tell me he was back in town. but he needs to ……. His dancing technique is good.what caused the accident. He became very angry when I told him he had made a mistake.to get rid of a feeling by doing something energetic: • on something. I’m ready to start when you tell me to go ahead. 2. 8. 9. 10.differently each time I add them. especially for a long time work like a Trojan. 8. 9.a candidate looking for a job.to try hard to achieve something • something off.it. 3. 10.any enthusiasm for going on this trip.to understand something or to find the answer to something by thinking about it • up something. 4. 7. 11.to work very hard • till/until you drop. He ………..to make it more difficult for someone to achieve something • for somebody. in the red red-handed see red red carpet red tape once in a blue moon out of the blue blue-collar green green green with envy give the green light 1.to work extremely hard. Most manual workers receive wages and are paid weekly. How environmentally friendly are you? 5.to provide a home and food for seven children. Inexperience can ……. but I can't ……. 6.to make it easier for someone to achieve something • at something. Being patient could ………. Phrasal verbs with work • against somebody. 2.. after a period of effort or time expressions with work • one’s fingers to the bone. She ……. 4. Most couples would agree that for a marriage to succeed. Our new clerk makes a lot of mistakes because he is still inexperienced. They were very jealous when they saw my new Porsche.to be the result of a calculation • something out. It's strange. A lucky coincidence like this happens very rarely. 5.to spend time repairing or improving something • out. 12. Replace each word or phrase in italics with one of the idioms bellow. Dealings with government offices usually involve bureaucratic delays. I can’t afford to buy anything because I’m still in debt after my holiday.to develop an emotional or physical state that you feel strongly. 55 .to work until you are so tired that you cannot work any more Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with work 1. 2.

com. By using hypertext he could link together all the different kinds of information available on the Internet. libraries. sold for $290. After the Cold War the Government wanted a reliable line of communication. and several different programs for accessing databases.in schools. It all started with the DOD (Department of Defense) in 1996. Time Magazine’s Person of the Year of 1999. 56 . This was the birth of the Internet. This all changed in 1989.com. and now that the Internet is everywhere. both on eBay. In the beginning. If a network link became damaged by enemy attack. one for news groups. For instance. Now thanks to the web everyone all aver the world can have a chance to bid on these items and help make Sharone richer. the information on it could be rerouted automatically to other links. anyone from a big corporation or even the average joe can build his or her own web page. Many companies are trying to more like Amazon. this has happened.L12: E-Commerce The Internet has caught on like wild fire. you must first understand where it came from. To fully understand what e-commerce is. one for the mail. With as much support as e-commerce has gotten. that lets everyone clean out his or her attic and make a profit. Berners-Lee called the software pack the World Wide Web. no one anticipated that one-day people could buy books and cars over a computer. and even cafes – anyone can order just about anything from anywhere. A researcher at CERN (a big European physics laboratory) named Tim Berners-Lee started to work on hypertext. as we now know it. With a loan from the bank. She could make nowhere near that much by selling these items in her hometown. Now with the invention of the web. it is easy to see that it will be a lasting innovation in the world of computers. Ecommerce is a worldwide commodity that has taken the place of trips to the supermarket and has given us the freedom to conduct business at our house in our pyjamas. Jeff founded Amazon. It is now easier than ever to have and start your own web page. Though with the advancement of certain technologies. each page has it’s own address that the web recognizes using a system called HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol). This language tells the computer how to display a page. it is required that you learn to operate a separate program.com and trying to be as profitable as Bezon and Amazon. Businesses can use pictures to help sell their merchandise online. E-commerce is still in its developmental stage at this point.com in his garage and helped start e-commerce. its main purpose was to send and receive messages. For the World Wide Web to work. Just like Jeff Bezos. There is room for improvement for the creators as well as for the manufacturers of these goods being sold on the web. Each page has to be written with a special language called HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). an online web auction site. In order to use anything on the Internet. Like Sharon Balkwitsch who has sold antiques on eBay. An example of this is eBay. No one ever intended for it to be so commercially successful. and a vase she bought for $5 sold for $585. an Art Deco ashtray that she bought for $20.

c. b. E-commerce a. 5. 1. Find the incorrect variant out of the four. b. is commercially successful nowadays. has sold antiques on eBay. was considered Time Magazine’s Person of the Year of 1999. had once as its main purpose sending and receiving messages.. are based on hypertext b. has taken the place of trips to the supermarket. started e-commerce. enables people buy books and cars. is helped willingly by people to get richer. d. d.A. as we now know it. 2. b. Jeff Bezos a.com in his garage. Sharon Balkwitsch a.” 57 . d. bought an Art Deco ashtray for $20. has caught wild fire. d. made all that money by selling those products in her hometown. was first used in 1996. founded Amazon. has given people the freedom to conduct business at one’s house in our pyjamas. “ Anyone from a big corporation or even the average joe can build his or her own web page. loaned some money from a bank from a bank. 3. The web sites a. b. is a worldwide commodity. c. Starting from the following statement tell your own opinion on ECommerce. The Internet a. have each of their page written with a special language called HTML 4. c. were founded by a researcher at HTML c. c. are of common use nowadays d. B.

Mike had been studying the problem for three hours when he finally found the solution. so the country was called a melting pot. 2. At 10. He had been studying since 6 p. 2. 3. 6. 3.m. in 2002.m.A. 7. They ordered the dishes at 8 p. 3. It was nine o’clock when he finally found the solutions.m. He lost control of his car so he had a terrible accident.m. using past tense and past perfect: Example: I made many mistakes so I got a bad mark. Miss Brown started taking driving lessons in February 1999. we(remember) we (forget) our luggage in the cab. 6. He retired when he was 65. The doctor came at 8 a. 6. 4.Grammar A. 1. 9. She complained a lot about my relatives so I felt embarrassed. The operation began at 10 a. She didn’t hear the phone so she didn’t answer it. She (feel) nervous before the plane 9 took off. B. She (wonder) if the taxi-driver (understand) the address she (tell) him. 58 . The McGregors’ went to a restaurant last night. because it had been very complicated. It finally ended at 6 p. When we reached the house. and the waiter brought them at quarter to 9. We gave her a lot of attention so she felt nice in our company. 5.m. 5. He didn’t understand my name so I repeated it again. My friend (find) a luggage trolley when I offered to help her. She finally passed her driving test in August 1999.30 she went to bed. Laura began studying for her degree in 1998. Mike studied the problem for three hours. C. 5.S.m. They redecorated the house so it looked lovely. My friend never saw a baseball so he didn’t understand it.m. 7. Many immigrants from many nations came to the U. 2. 4. Example: Mike started studying the problem at 6 p. I got a bad mark because I had made many mistakes. They spent a lot of time together so they came to know each other well. Re-estate the following sentences. 10. Comment upon these situations using the past tense simple and the past perfect continuous. 1. They (leave) the hotel when you (call) a taxi. George (wait) in the lounge before his flight (be announced) 4. They didn’t come in time so I left. 1. The first patients came into the waiting room at 7 a. Mary turned on the TV set at 8 p.m. Use past tense simple or past perfect. Roger Harrison got his first job in the publishing house when he was 20. 8. She finally got her B.

6. 3. 1. Two things your colleagues had done before they left the lab. When I noticed the speed limit I (drive) at a high speed.D. 2. 10. 10. Two things you had done before you left home in the morning. Ne-a întâmpinat secretara care încerca să prindă Bucureştiul la telefon de la ora 6. When she warned me about the danger I (drive) at a high speed for about 20 minutes. Example: It had been raining for about half an hour when I looked out of the window. The woman didn’t know that the man (look) at her. ne-am hotărât să-l aşteptăm în hol. Când în cele din urmă a ajuns la gară. 8. Nici n-am apucat bine să închid uşa că a şi sunat cineva. Two things your colleagues had been doing for a couple of minutes before the professor entered the lab. Two things your friend had been doing for half an hour before he called you. As we (make) pizza for an hour they lost their patience and (leave). 8. 9. Pentru că oaspetele nu sosise încă. It was raining when I looked out of the window. The thieves were not aware that the police (follow) them for 10 minutes. Two things your friend had done before he went to bed. 3. 6. 9. . Two things you had been doing for one hour by 10 yesterday morning. Toţi colegii mai şi-au cumpărat romanul lui Balzac după ce au văzut serialul la televizor. 7. She (read) when I entered the room. 5. Conferinţa urma să aibă loc la ora 7 p. Nu mai vizitasem oraşul meu natal de multă vreme şi eram hotărât să-mi petrec vacanţa acolo. Write: 1. 6. Mi-a spus că invitase pe un cunoscut scriitor să ţină o conferinţă despre literatura modernă. Translate the following into English: 1. 59 . 4. He (sleep) for several hours when I came into the room. 4. 2. Before I was in Mall she (visit) the Art Museum. She (read) a very captivating book when I got into the room. trenul plecase. 5. Era în magazin de jumătate de oră când şi-a dat seama că şi-a uitat poşeta acasă. 2. 4. Use past perfect continuous or past continuous. Nici n-am apucat să mă mişc că s-a şi trezit. 3. E. iar oamenii aşteptau în sală cam de jumătate de oră când a sosit invitatul.m. 5. We didn’t realize that they ( watch) us for a few minutes. 7.

he’s trying to……. It’s hilarious ……….it. They’re not getting married in a registry office: they’re having a ……… 7.. We need silence.because I didn’t want her to get into trouble. compensate for Expressions with make • make an effort. I don’t like people who always ………about things.do something wrong • make a noise..about an unsuccessful murderer. 3.Why has the project been (allowed/aloud) to continue if it's such a disaster? 4. His dream is to be successful and to ……. 2. become friends again after a quarrel • make up for. black comedy white elephant white lie white wedding black comedy black eye black look black market blackout in black and white 1.There was nothing on the table but a few crusts of (bread/bred). I told a………. During the war. 7.This jigsaw puzzle has two (peaces/pieces) missing.The plaster cast will help to (heal/heel) the broken bone. It’s important not to………when you want to win the prize. 3. 9.Vocabulary 1. She can never…………about what to wear. 3. 9. 8. Fill the gaps in these sentences with one of the idioms bellow.1. 2.Go up the (stairs/stares) and her flat is on the left.complain. some things could only be bought on the ……… 4. It’s an important course so could you ………to be here on time? 5.do well financially • make up one’s mind.A greater proportion of students with first degrees are now going on to study for (higher/hire) degrees. Chose the correct word between the homophones: 1. 7. Send me a letter about this – I need to have all the details………. show unnecessary excitement • make a mistake.make a meaningless. so don’t…… 2.it’ll be a………… 2.try • make a fuss. Phrasal verbs with make • make up. No one will visit the museum.decide Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with make. 6.repay. 10.You need to have nerves of (steal/steel) to be a fighter pilot. Most ………. usually unwanted. 8. 3. invent . 6. 5.he’s got a ……. 4. 6.I told that (to/too/two) George and he was enchanted. 5. sound • make it – arrive in time • make money. He behaved awfully to me last night and now. He showed his disapproval by giving me a ………… 2. He must have been in a fight. She had a …………and didn’t regain consciousness for several minutes.American pit bull terriers are (bread/bred) for their fighting instincts 60 .workers receive a salary and are paid monthly. 1.

and possibly millions of dollars. president Clinton created the Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection. hackers were basically known as just computer experts. This protects the innocent and helpless from hackers and gives them the right over the power of Cyber Terrorists. very little research has been done on the hacking world and its culture. In 1998. including the best. (…) A. and do not have full-time jobs or own property. Young hackers do not know what a System Administrator is faced with on a day-to-day basis. Although hacking is a growing trend in our society. national security documents. Nowadays hacker means the same thing as a cracker. and neither do they realize the problem they cause for already overworked people. Divide this article into paragraphs and give each of them a suitable title. to be faced with. Make sentences of your own using the following: unstoppable. it is not one that is accepted in the United States or any other country. Also in many government organizations. to gain access to. The bad hackers are dangerous if they may gain access to classified information. Hackers like to hack in order to impress each other. Write an article in support of /against hacker. b. C. overworked. The art of computer hacking has grown since the computers first started to appear. they could cost the company thousands. 61 . they have formed some type of group to deal with cyber terrorist and block them from stealing money as well as information. The image of a computer hacker has grown from a harmless nerd into a vicious technocriminal. Newcomers to the hacking community learn the rules by associating with established hackers. simple mistake. Write the portrait of the hacker from your own point of view . There are hackers out there that will do there best to harm any system they can. unintentional.L13: Hacking Hacking has been developed over the years to be unstoppable. trend. There is a number of things that our country (USA) is realizing about Cyber terrorism. Hackers also do not know about the cost results of their actions. I think that every computer professional. Choose between these two: a. B. a person who pirates software. All studies show that hackers are generally young. Despite the growing trend of hacking. service or money. nerd. and malicious hackers. have made a mistake that has caused the loss of data. They do not consider that if they do get into a system and make an unintentional. In the past.

amount course graduation outline requirements calendar credits major prospectus technical class hours curriculum number specified three college electives opportunity subjects week Selecting courses The course given by a 1………….number of credits. or university are called its curriculum. a course that meets three times a 9……usually gives……credits towards graduation.. These are usually equal to the number of 8 …………devoted each week to the course.. as well as the credits given for the 6 ……. Each course is designated as giving a 7………….Liberal-arts colleges usually give students more 19………. To choose than do 20………. Orator spoke clearly and……. a) idea b)nail c) pin d) point A few jokes always ……….on C++ next week? a) conference b) discussion c) lecture d)meeting The lecture was so ………that almost everyone felt asleep.. Almost all schools have a certain 16………….down the main points that are maid. Choose the right answer: Are you going to attend Prof. a) inspire b) liven c) loosen d) raise Miss Duffer looked as if she hadn’t a…………what Prof. the lecture starts at eleven tomorrow morning. Wise’s ………. Sophisticated was talking about.Students can also usually choose nonrequired courses called 18……………. a) distinct b) distinctly c) distinguishable d)legibly During a lecture I always try to …….the scene in your mind. a) bored b) dull c) exhausted d) tired According to my…………. a) draw b) model c) paint d) picture Would you please………from smoking while the lecture is in progress? a) avoid b) keep yourself c) refrain d) stop Prof.up a lecture.of required 17………. Put each of the following words or phrases into its correct place in the passage bellow.so we could understand every word he said.Between 30 and 40 of the required 12……………must be in the student’s 13…………subject..Vocabulary 1.schools.. The 2…………of the institution 3…………the complete 4…………. It gives the 5……………for entry to each course. For example..of freedom given students in 15 ………their courses. a) clue b) guess c) point d) thought 62 .. a) doodle b) jot c) noting d) sketch That’s precisely what I mean.require about 120 credits for 11………….. You’ve hit the ………on the head. Schools vary considerably in the 14 …………. a) accept b) catch c) listen d)take Use your imagination and try to ………. a) belief b) information c) knowledge d) opinion Prof. Rush was speaking so quickly I couldn’t ………what he said. 2.. Schools using the semester 10……….

disciple e) person in charge of a division of study 6.professor k) anyone devoted to the acquisition knowledge especially attending university 12.your shorthand by taking notes during lectures. trainee i) someone learning a trade who works in return for being taught 10... dean d) the lowest teaching rank at a university 5. Students12…………vary considerably from13……….degrees.to school. instructor g) the head of some universities or schools 8. The undergraduates belong to one of four 5………. headmistress f) person who teaches you driving 7. student m) follower of a religious teacher.. 1. but are not working towards a 11………. while 4……….or a college is divided into 2…….. authority classes degree located special women bachelor’s coeducational freshmen schoolstudents year bodies coordinate graduates separate undergraduates campuses courses junior sex university Students The student body of a 1.. Most schools also admit 9……….. let’ take an………. sophomore.. 63 . a) away b) in c) over d) up The example you have just referred to has no…….You can……….have not..with both men and 15………students. a) keep b)keep in c)keep on d) keep up To begin the lecture. Graduates have already received their 3…….students who take a number of 10…………. a) bearing b) connection c) dependence d) relation 3.. apprentice a) female teacher in charge of a school 2. 3.and undergraduates... a) oversight b) overtone c) overture d) overview The lecturer spoke so fast I found it hard to take………. 4. Others admit 16………of only one 17……… A 18……… institution has 19……. principal j) person undergoing some form of vocational training 11. 8………. Some institutions are 14……….what he was saying.and senior classes..men’s and women’s colleges. Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage bellow. lecturer h) a person studying to become an officer in the army or a policeman 9.of the present situation. coach c) highest grade of university teacher 4. cadet b) person who trains sportsmen for contests or prepares private students for an exam.on the matter under discussion. They are controlled by the same central 20………. according to their 6 ………of study.and are usually 21…………on the same campus or nearby 22………. Match the words for people in education with the correct definition.. These are 7…….. ……. pupil l) attends primary school 13..

She leaned forward to stroke the dog but quickly ……….for another hour with a series of tedious questions. Like a lot of short men. 2.5.off your troubles. They were……….whether to get married . brain or mind. If there’s a problem to solve. 1. 6..to cause something to last longer than is usual or necessary • draw somebody out of . 9. don’t panic-try to keep your………. to move a chair near to someone or something • draw oneself up -to make yourself look bigger by standing straight.a little of her home-made wine just to taste.to his full height in public. They tried to ……me …. 3. I try to keep an open………… 11. She ……. She had a wealth of experience to………. ………. in writing. 4. 7. 8.over heels in love.to act in a more careful way than you did before.wave.. 3.a list of candidates that I'd like to interview. If there’s an emergency. Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable form of head.to remove a small amount of liquid from a larger amount • draw on something . 8. it slipped my ………. 5... That’s too difficult for me to follow. I've ……. 9. 2. Phrasal verbs with draw • draw back. especially by spending less money.are better than one. but suddenly I had a…………. When it comes to politics.. 10.their argument but I refused. 6. They were in two……….to use information or your knowledge of something to help you do something • draw something out . We couldn’t solve the problem.when she saw its teeth. he tends to ………. usually something official. usually because you are surprised or frightened • draw somebody into something .now he's lost his job 5.people ……themselves. Like all good interviewers he manages to …….to move away from someone or something.. 4. The director ……the meeting ……. -2.it’s over my…………… 7.. She’s very good at Maths. I’ll spin a coin to see – do you want to call ……….to help someone to express their thoughts and feelings more easily by making them feel less nervous • draw something up -1.. He can’t climb a ladder because he has no …………for heights. two ………..or tails? 6.. 12. Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb or expression with draw. I’m sorry I didn’t make that phone call. 64 . 1.she has a good ………for figures. 7. A good book can help to take your………….a chair and I'll tell you all about it. 10.. usually to try to seem more important Expression with draw • draw in your horns. He'll have to ………his ……. to prepare something.to make someone become involved in a difficult or unpleasant situation • draw something off .

and Taiwanese. up-to-the-minute news. 1). ASM used to be an Asian trade magazine that eventually installed software and offered an interactive catalogue of products and factories on CD-Rom and converted its catalogue to a Web site. The Internet is very essential for Sina to operate its business.S. Sina is hoping to generate profits through charging subscription fees for access from users to their sites and to add electronic commerce and Internet telephone capabilities to its Web sites. product alerts and discounted prices from factories.L14: Internet Advertisements The Internet can be very useful for companies to advertise and sell their products. it also offers popular chat rooms.” (About Sina. The Internet saves the customers time and money by proving a fast way to retrieve what they are looking for. Both of the companies generate all their revenues through use of the Internet. If there were no Internet. The whole make up of these two businesses relies wholly on the Internet to run them. 18).” (Laudon. Revenues are generated for Sina by advertising for companies on its Web site that is primarily for the U. Sina is a company that has “ … become the most heavily trafficked Web sites in the Chinese language market. The Internet is the way that Sina operates with its users. “ Sina is known in China for providing firstrate. Sina would not be able to advertise on the Internet therefore not being able to generate revenue and not surviving as a company. search and free email throughout its four sites. They can just click a button and find whatever they need or are looking for in less time and money. Using email and the Web sites helps the buyers and sellers come together saving money on costly travel or telephone calls. Since anyone can have access to the Internet. ASM helps to provide users online information on trade shows.” (18) as well as getting paid for listings by sellers and very soon to be buyers. sellers can reach the majority of the consumers through the use of the Internet. The two companies Sina and ASM both rely on the Internet to run their companies receiving revenues through the Internet and reaching their audience. Both of the companies use the Internet to better serve their customers and potentially adding new customers in the long run as well. community platforms. 18). Without the Internet the customers would have to search for products and information by going to these sellers to shop around or by sitting on the phone for hours calling these sellers for information. 65 . online shopping platforms. Consumers view products and then contact the sellers using email. Sina uses the Internet to link people all over to other Chinese language sites. ASM earns its revenues by “ … accepting ads to be displayed on its Web site. comprehensive. financial information. Asia Source Media (ASM) “ … offers services via Internet for companies participating in global trade.” (Laudon. Without the Internet these companies would not be able to operate their business and not serve their customers or gain potential new ones. These two companies help their customers find what information or products they are looking for in the comfort of their houses or offices.

search and free email throughout its four sites. financial information. product alerts and discounted prices from factories. 10. It offers services via Internet for companies participating in global trade. It is hoping to generate profits through charging subscription fees for access from users to their sites and to add electronic commerce and Internet telephone capabilities to its Web sites. community platforms. It uses the Internet to link people all over to other Chinese language sites. 3. 6. B. 7. What do you think on internet advertisements? Could we do without them? Are there any disadvantages/risks that we should be aware of regarding these internet ads? 66 . 12. 5. It is known in China for providing first-rate. online shopping platforms. up-to-the-minute news. It earns its revenues by accepting ads to be displayed on its Web site as well as getting paid for listings by sellers and very soon to be buyers. comprehensive. 4. It uses the Internet to better serve its customers and potentially adding new customers in the long run as well. Which of the following information refers to Sina and which to ASIM and which to both? 1. 2. It used to be an Asian trade magazine that eventually installed software and offered an interactive catalogue of products and factories on CD-Rom and converted its catalogue to a Web site.A. 8. It helps its customers find what information or products they are looking for in the comfort of their houses or offices. It helps to provide users online information on trade shows. The whole make up of this business relies wholly on the Internet to run it. 11. It generates all its revenues through use of the Internet 9. It relies on the Internet to run its company receiving revenues through the Internet and reaching its audience. it also offers popular chat rooms.

B.……………… life …….……………… botanist a…….………. 3. his English is excellent. each 19…………writes a detailed 20.. Your pronunciation would improve if you………. with a mark.……………… meteorologist e……. E..……………… 2.……………… graphologist IS THE STUDY OF ……..…… keeps a record of each student’s 4………in order to have some basis for measuring his 5……….……………… …….……………… t……. about 80 per cent.………. Universities and 7…….Vocabulary 1. Almost every 3...……………… e…….……………… …….……………… zoology …….system at all.……………… …….students in the class who could speak Russian. a) exercised b) practised c) repeated d) trained 4. a) alone b) one c) only d) single 3. and for 15.……………… b…….. ………. of 100 per cent representing 12. The 13 ………… mark for a 14.……………… …….…….……………… religion …….…………was usually 70 per cent .at home as she thought she would learn English more quickly that way.method of recording achievement was by 10….………to the parents.work. Such letters report the student’s progress.The record supplies information for 6…………to parents. Fill in the missing information: SUBJECT TEACHER Geology …….……………… words unborn babies ……. We were the ……….often use this piece of information to help determine whether they should 8………a student. Today the letters A. 67 . activities.achievement..……………… …….……………… ……. and E or F means 17……… A few schools use no 18…………. or 11………….……………… ……. C. a) accounting b) considering c) imagining d) wondering 2. that he only started learning it one year ago. Instead.……………… …….……………… ……. The mark A stands for exceptional achievement. D.……………… ancient ruins ……. Choose the correct variant: 1. the most 9………. and social 22.……………… ……. For a long time.………….……………… ……. Priscilla asked for ……….with a tape recorder.……………… entomologist agronomy ……. and 16…………are much more commonly used. Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage bellow. 21………….. achievements average grade minimum perfect school adjustment colleges letter occasionally progress teacher admit common marking pass record attitude failure method percentage reports Grading Grading is a 1………used in schools to 2…………student achievements.

Please ……. a) complains b) giggles c)scolds d) sneers 2. a) anticipated b) foreseen c) hope d) worry 4. They were most impressed by the overseas student whose English was ………… a) impeccable b) infallible c) irreproachable d) spotless 20.. but they haven’t ……. a) give it up b) look it up c) make it up d) show it up 13. a) by hook and by crook b) by leaps and bounds c) from time to time d) slow but sure 17. he GRUMBLES no matter how you try to please him. If you want to learn a new language you must …………. a) cords b) fibers c) strands d) threads 16. 1. a) assist b) attend c) follow d) present 8. in his English. a) definite b) fluent c) liquid d) national 7. a) copied b) corrected c) retyped d) reviewed 3. a collection of English words and phrases arranged by the ideas they express RATHER THAN in alphabetical order. a) differ b) distinguish c) separate d) solve 6.the headmaster. If you don’t know what that word means. Vivian REVISED her paper carefully. language of most Spaniards.that students will have doubled their vocabulary in three months. Would you ……. Chose the best synonym.Cyril’s understanding of the language is growing …………. a) rusty b) scratchy c) sloppy d) stale 18. There has been a great ………. following the professor’s suggestions. The student is discourteous.now. They are learning English.much progress. It is …….classes regularly. At the language school each student is assigned to his or her own……… a) director b) professor c) staff d) tutor 15.a) particular b) peculiar c) personal d) private 5. The school’s exam results …………. Jonathan was surprised that Sonia’s English was so…………as she had never been to England. a) done b)got c)made d) performed 11.your hand if you want to ask a question. Learners of English as a foreign language often fail to …………between unfamiliar sounds in that language..to my studying English privately? a) allow b) agree c) approve d) permit 9. a) as well as b) instead of c) restricted d) unless 68 . a) celebrated b) delighted c) enjoyed d) rejoiced 19. ………….in the dictionary. a) home b) mother c) native d) natural 10... Spanish is the……. “Roget’s Thesaurus”. a) arouse b) put out c) raise d) rise 14. a) escalation b) improvement c) increase d) rise 12. A role play session is particularly useful in bringing together different ………of teaching. It’s fifteen years since Timothy worked in Holland and his Dutch is pretty ……….

2. She’s such a snob.. a) interrupted b) regarded c) seized d) withdrew from 8.. a) corrected b) created c) repeated d) showed 10. If you admit to making such a serious mistake you may lose ………. as when a student of the guitar practises and memorizes different fingerings. nose. You can’t support both sides at once. 3. eye. 6. The dog trotted off to (berry/bury) its bone.open. I tried to catch the waiter’s ………but he didn’t look my way. My supply of confidence slowly DWINDLES as the day of the exam approaches. The teacher told the student that his paper was ILLEGIBLE. Don’t bother to tell me how to get there-I’ll follow my ………. or ear. 11. a) faint b) fall asleep c) sweat profusely d) yawn widely 9. I have to go away for a while. 4. 69 . 8. Choose the correct word between the homophones: 1. They live in a remote farmhouse on the (Aisle/Isle) of Skye. 5. The children's club (meats/meets) every Thursday afternoon. Habits can be CONSCIOUSLY strengthened. 7.4. During the wedding someone started giggling and I couldn’t keep a straight … 6.but in this case they disagreed. 5. The student BROKE IN ON the conversation without waiting for the speaker to stop talking.don’t be so two-………. The warmth of the lecture hall made the student DOZE. a) pale b) red c) shaking d) wet 7.everyone. 9. The speaker DEMONSTRATED his knowledge of the subject by his excellent lecture. 12. She gave him a long (stair/stare) but didn't answer his question. They pulled out of the deal at the last minute leaving us (hi/high) and dry.she looks down her ……….. Anything you say to them goes in one ……….to…………. 10. can you keep an……. Don't walk around outside in your (bare/bear) feet. When they said they’d got engaged I couldn’t believe my………. 6. 1. a) conveniently b) deliberately c) lastingly d) robustly 5. They were so hungry they had to (steal/steel) in order to eat. He knew the risks and went into it with his…………. Not everybody agreed that winning was the (be-all/bee-all) and end-all.you’ll have to play it by………… 2. I can’t tell you exactly what to do. Fill these gaps with a suitable form of face. 9. 10.. His face was FLUSHED because he had run all the way from the dorm so as ot to be late for the lecture. Pair/Pare/Pear) off any bits of skin that don't look very nice. 7.on them for me? 4. He had an accident while he was driving a (higher/hire) car. a) illegal b) indecipherable c) outstanding d) sloppy 5. 3. a) diminishes b) emerges c) grows d) revives 6. 8. They normally see ………….and out the other.

Cambridge University Press. 2000 -internet resources 70 . Ed. Mariusz .Mistzal.New Cambridge Advanced English. Leo.Jones.Test Your Vocabulary. 1994 .Bibliography . Teora.