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CHAPTER 2 DYNAMIC MODELS AND DYNAMIC RESPONSE

2.1 Revisiting Examples 2.4 and 2.5 will be helpful.


(a) R(s) = A;
Y s
KA
s
( )
+ J 1
y(t) =
KA
e
t
J
J /
; y
ss
= 0
(b) R(s) =
A
s
; Y(s) =
KA
s s ( ) +1
y(t) = KA( )
/
1

e
t
; y
ss
= KA
(c) R(s) =
A
s
2
; Y(s) =
KA
s s
2
1 ( ) +
y(t) = KA( )
/
t e
t
+



; y
ss
= KA( ) t J
(d) R(s) =
A
s
M
M
2 2
+
; Y(s) =
KA
s s

( )( ) + + 1
2 2
y(t) =
KA
e
KA
t
t

2 2
2 2
1
1
+
+
+
+
/
sin( )
= tan ( )

y t
t
( )
~
=
KA
t


2 2
1 +
+ sin( )
2.2 (a) The following result follows from Eqns (2.57 - 2.58)
y(t) =1
1
2
1
2
1
2

+

F
H
G
I
K
J

e
t
n
t
d

sin tan

d
=
n
1
2

The final value theorem is applicable: the function sY(s) does not have poles
on the jM-axis and right half of s-plane.
y
ss
= lim ( )
s
sY s

0
1
(b) The following result follows from Review Examples 2.2.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 3
y(t) = t
e
t
n
t
d
d
n
+ +

F
H
G
I
K
J

2
2
1
1
2

sin tan
y
ss
= t
n

The final value theorem is not applicable; the function sY(s) has a pole on
the jM-axis.
2.3 Revisiting Review Example 2.1 will be helpful.
E s
E s
R
RCs
i
0
4
10
1
( )
( )
/

+
;
E s
s
i
( )
10
2
e t
R
t e RC
t
0 4
10
10
( ) ( );
/
+

J J J
J
For the output to track the input with a steady-state delay 100 10
6
sec, it
is necessary that
R
10
1
4
, and J

RC 100 10
6
This gives R = 10 kO; C = 0.1 F
Steady-state error = 10 t - (10 t 10J )
= 0.001
2.4 Revisiting Review Example 2.2 will be helpful.
M M
n n
100 3 2 6 100 ; ; / / sec = 60 msec
Steady-state error = 25 25 25
2
t t
n

F
H
G
I
K
J

M
= 1.5
2.5 My t By t Ky t ( ) ( ) ( ) + + = F(t) = 1000 (t)
Y(s) =
1
10 100
2
s s s ( ) + +

n
= 10, = 0.5, u
d
= 5 3
Using Eqns (2.57)-(2.58), we obtain
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4 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
y(t) = 0.01 1
2
3
5 3 3
5 1
+
L
N
M
O
Q
P

e t
t
sin( tan
2.6
Y s
R s
G s
s s s s
( )
( )
( )
( )( )

+ +

+ +
6
7 6
6
1 6
2
| ( )| G j
=2
=
3
5 2
; G(j2) = 81.87
y
ss
=
3
5 2
2 81 87 sin( . ) t
=
3
50
sin 2t
21
50
cos 2t
2.7
Y s
R s
( )
( )
= G(s) =
s
s s
+
+ +
3
7 10
2
=
s
s s
+
+ +
3
2 5 ( )( )
(a) R(s) =
1
1 s +
y(t) =
1
2
1
3
1
6
2 5
e e e t
t t t

F
H
I
K
( )
(b) (s
2
+ 7s + 10) Y(s) sy(0) y(0) 7y(0)
= (s + 3) R(s) sr(0)
Initial conditions before application of the input are
y(0

) = 1, y(0

) =
1
2
, r(0

) = 0
Y(s) =
s
s s
s
s s s
+
+ +
+
+
+ + +
15 2
2 5
3
2 5 1
/
( )( ) ( )( )( )
y(t) =
1
2
3
2
2 5
e e e
t t t
+
2.8 X = X x I I i + + ;
M
d X x
dt
2
2
( ) +
= F X x I i Mg ( , ) + +
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SOLUTION MANUAL 5
Mx = F X I
F
X
x
F
I
i Mg
X I X I
( )
, ,
+ +

F
H
G
I
K
J
+

F
H
G
I
K
J

F X I ( ) +
= Mg =

8 4 10 9 8
3
. . Newtons
For this value of force, we get from Fig. 2.8b,
X I = = 0 0 6 .27 ; . cm amps
Again from Fig. P 2.8b,
K
F
X X I
1
0 14
o
o

,
. Newtons/cm
K
F
I
X I
2
0 4
o
o

,
. Newtons/amp
;
( )
( )
.
.
x
K
M
x
K
M
i
X s
I s s
+

1 2
2
47 6
16 67
2.9 Mx Bx Kx K y x ( ) + +
1
Gravitational effect has been eliminated by appropriate choice of the zero
position.
X s
Y s
( )
( )
= G s
s s
( )
.
( . )( . )
=
+ +
0 1667
0 0033 1 0 0217 1
u = 2 1163 F v / . rad /sec
| ( |
.
G j
=11 63
= 0.1615
x(peak) = 7.5 0.1615 = 1.2113 cm
2.10 (a) Mx Bx Kx F t ( ) + +
Gravitational effect has been eliminated by appropriate choice of the zero
position.
X s
F s
( )
( )
=
1
2
Ms Bs K + +
Force transmitted to the ground
= K X(s) + Bs X(s)
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6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
=
B
K
s F s
M
K
s
B
K
s
+
F
H
I
K
+ +
1
1
2
( )
F(t) = A sin Mt
Peak amplitude of the force transmitted to the ground at steady-state
=
A
B
K
M
K
B
K
1
1
2
2
2
2
+
F
H
I
K

F
H
G
I
K
J +
F
H
I
K


(b) Mx B x y K x y ( ) ( ) + + 0
X s
Y s
( )
( )
=
Bs K
Ms Bs K
+
+ +
2
Peak amplitude of machine vibration
=
A
B
K
v
Mv
K
Bv
K
1
1
2
2
2
2
+
F
H
I
K

F
H
G
I
K
J +
F
H
I
K
`
2.11 M y K y y B y y K y y B y y
1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 2 2 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + + = 0
M y K y y B y y
2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1
( ) ( ) + + = 0
Gravitational effect has been eliminated by appropriate choice of the zero
position.
2.12 The following result follows from Section 11.2 (Eqn (11.9)).
(a)
E s
E s
i
0
( )
( )
=
1 2
1 2
2
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
+ +
+ + +
RC s R C C s
R C C s R C C s ( )
(b)
E s
E s
i
0
( )
( )
=
1 2
1 2
1 1 2
2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2
+ +
+ + +
R Cs R R C s
R R Cs R R C s ( )
2.13 Refer Example 11.6
2.14 Refer Example 11.7
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SOLUTION MANUAL 7
2.15 The following result follows from Example 12.9.
x x x z x z r F t
1 2 3 4
B B ,

, , , ( )
x = Ax + br
A =
0 1 0 0
4 4537 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
.
.5809
L
N
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
; b =
0
0 3947
0
0

L
N
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
.
.9211
2.16 Mixing valve obeys the following equations:
( ) [ ( )] ( ) Q q c Q Q q c Q c Q
i i H i i C i i
+ + + + H G H G H G
q
i
= k
v
x
The perturbation equation is
K
H C v
( ) G G x(t) = Q t
i
G ( )
or, x(t) = K t K Q K
i H C
G G G ( ); / [ ( )]
v
The tank obeys the equations
V c
d
dt
H
G
= Q c t t
id id i D
H G G G G J ( ); ( ) ( )
This gives
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
i
=
e
s
s
+
1 5
1
.
2.17 C
d
dt
1
1

=
q t
R
R
UA
m
( ) ;
G G

1 2
1
1
1
C
d
dt
2
2
G
=
G G G G
1 2
1
2
2

+

R R
i
; C V c R
Q c
2 2
1
H
H
;
From these equations, we get

1
= + + 1 1 4 46
1 2
.92 .92 . q
m

2
= 0 078 0 2 0125
1 2
. . . G G G +
i
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8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
2.18 At steady-state
0 =
G G G G
1 2
1
2
2

+

R R
i
; this gives
1
120 = C
0 = Q
m


1 2
1

R
; this gives Q
m
17 26 . / min kg
2.19 Energy balance on process fluid:
V c
d
dt
2 2 2 2 2
( ) + = Q c UA
i 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
[ ( )] [ ] + +
At steady-state
0 = Q c UA
i 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
H G G G G ( ) ( ); this gives G
1
40 C
The perturbation equation is
V c
d
dt
Q c UA
2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2 1
H
G
H G G G ( )
This gives
544 5 0
2
2 1
. .432 + +
d
dt
G
G G
Energy balance on the cooling water:
V c
d
dt
1 1 1 1 1
H G G +
d i = ( ) [ ( )] Q q c
i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + H G G G
+ UA[ ] G G G G
2 2 1 1
+
At steady-state
0 = Q c UA
i 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
H G G G G [ ] [ ]; + this gives
Q
1
= 5.28 10
3
m
3
/sec
The perturbation equation is
V c
d
dt
1 1 1
1
H
G
= ( ) ( )
i
c q Q c UA
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
+
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SOLUTION MANUAL 9
This gives
184.55
d
dt
G
G
1
1
+
= 0.465 G
1
1318.2 q
1
Manipulation of the perturbation equation gives
G
G
2
1
( )
( )
s
s
=
557 6
100 10 729 0 8
3 2
.
.5 . + + s s
2.20 Tank 1:
C
dp
dt
1
1
= q
1
q
10
q
11
q
10
= flow through R
0
; q
11
= flow through R
1
A
g
g
dh
dt
1 1
H
H
=
q
gh
R
g h h
R
1
1
0
1 2
1

H H ( )
or
dh
dt
1
=
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+ +
H H g
A R R
h
g
A R
h
A
q
1 0 1
1
1 1
2
1
1
1 1 1
= 3h
1
+ 2h
2
+ r
1
Tank 2:
C
dp
dt
2
2
= q
2
+ q
11
q
20
q
20
= flow through R
2
A
g
g
dh
dt
2 2
H
H
=
H H g h h
R
gh
R
q
( )
1 2
1
2
2
2

+
or
dh
dt
2
=
H H g
A R
h
g
A R R
h
A
q
2 1
1
2 1 2
2
2
2
1 1 1
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
= 4h
1
5h
2
+ r
2
2.21
A
d
dt
H h ( ) +
= Q q Q q Q q
1 1 2 2
+ + +
At steady-state
0 = Q Q Q
1 2
+ ; this gives
Q
= 30 litres/sec
The perturbation equation is
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1 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
A
dh
dt
= q
1
+ q
2
q
The turbulent flow is governed by the relation
Q(t) = K H t ( ) = f(H)
Linearizing about the operating point, we obtain
Q(t) = f H
f H
H
H H
H H
( )
( )
( ) +
o
o
F
H
G
I
K
J

= Q
K
H
h t +
2
( )
Therefore
q(t) =
K
H
h t
2
( ) =
K H
H
h t
2
( ) =
Q
H
h t
2
( )
dh t
dt
( )
=
+ +
1 1 1
1 2
A
q t
A
q t
A
q t ( ) ( ) ( )
= 0.01 h(t) + 0.133 q
1
(t) + 0.133 q
2
(t)
Mass balance on salt in the tank:
A
d
dt
H h t C c t [( ( ) ( ( ))] + + = C Q q t C Q q t
1 1 1 2 2 2
[ ( )] [ ( )] + + +
+ + [ ( )][ ( )] C c t Q q t
At steady state,
0 = C Q C Q CQ
1 1 2 2
+ ; this gives
C
= 15
The perturbation equation is
AH
dc t
dt
AC
dh t
dt
( ) ( )
+ = C q t C q t Cq t Qc t
1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) +
This gives
dc t
dt
( )
= 0.02 c(t) 0.004 q
1
(t) + 0.002 q
2
(t)
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 1
2.22 e
D
s
= 1
2 3! 4 5
2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5
+ + + J
J J J J
D
D D D D
s
s s s s
! ! !
...
It is easy to calculate with long division that
1 2
1 2

+
J
J
D
D
s
s
/
/
= 1
2 4
2 2 3 3
+ + J
J J
D
D D
s
s s
...
1 2 12
1 2 12
2 2
2 2
+
+ +
J J
J J
D D
D D
s s
s s
/ /
/ /
= 1
2 6
2 2 3 3
+ J
J J
D
D D
s
s s
+ +
J J
D D
s s
4 4 5 5
12 144
...
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CHAPTER 3 MODELS OF INDUSTRIAL CONTROL DEVICES AND
SYSTEMS
3.1
R G
2
G
1
Y
G +G
3 4
H
2
H G
1 2
G G + G
2 3 4
+ + +

Y s
R s
( )
( )
=
G G G G
G G G G H G H G
1 2 3 4
2 3 4 1 2 1 1 2
1
( )
( )( )


3.2
R
Y
G
1
G
2
G
4
+
+
+ +

H
2
G
3
(1 )H G
1 1
Y s
R s
( )
( )
=
G
G G G
G G H G H G
4
1 2 3
2 3 2 2 1 1
1 1

( )
3.3
Y s
R s
( )
( )
= ( ) / P P P P
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
, , , , ,
P
1
= G
1
G
2
; P
2
= G
1
G
3
; P
3
= G
4
H
2
G
1
G
2
;
P
4
= G
4
H
2
G
1
G
3
= 1 ( G
1
G
3
H
1
H
2
G
1
G
2
H
1
H
2
)

1
=
2
=
3
=
4
= 1
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 3
Y s
R s
( )
( )
=
( )( )
( )
1
1
4 2 2 3 1
1 1 2 2 3


G H G G G
G H H G G
R 1 1 Y
G
1
G
2
G
4
H
2

H
1
G
3
3.4
R
G
2
G
1
Y
G
3
1+G H
3 2
H /G
3 3
H
1
+ +

Y s
R s
W
( )
( )
0
= M(s) =
G G G
G H G H G G G H
1 2 3
2 3 3 2 1 2 3 1
1+ + +
W
G
3
Y
H G
2 3
(G
1 1 2 2
H G +H )
+
+
+

Y s
W s
R
( )
( )
0
= M
W
(s) =
G H G
H G G G H G H
3 3 2
3 2 3 1 1 2 2
1
1
( )
( )
+
+ + +
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1 4 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
3.5

Y
1
Y
2
G
1
G
2
G
3
G
4
G
5
G
6
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
R
1
R
2
H
2
H
1
Y
R
R
1
1
0
2

=
P
1 1
,
,
=
G G G G
G G G G H G G H G G G
1 2 3 4
1 2 4 1 2 4 5 1 1 2 4
1
1
( )
( )


Y
R
R
1
2 0
1
=
=
G G H GG G
4 5 1 1 2 3
,
Y
R
R
2
1 0
2
=
=
G G G G H
1 4 5 6 2
,
;

Y
R
R
2
2
0
1

=
G G G G G
4 5 6 1 2
1 ( )
,
3.6

+ +


e
r
e
t
K
A
K
g
i
f
i
a
R
a
K
b
Js
K
T
1 1
w
K
t
M( )
( )
s
E s
r
=
50
10 375 s .
For E
r
(s) = 100/s,
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 5
M(s) =
100 50
10 375

s s ( . )
M( ) t = 481.8 (1 e
10.375 t
)
3.7
+

q
R
q
M
q
L
K
P
K
A
K
T
sL + R
f f Js + Bs
2
1 1
1
50
G
G
L
R
s
s
( )
( )
=
1
01 1 0 2 1 1 s s s ( . )( . )
3.8 T
M
= K
1
e
c
+ K
M 2

=

J B
eq M eq M
G G
K
2
= slope of the characteristic lines shown in Fig. P3.8b
=
3 0
0 300

= 0.01
K
1
=

T
e
M
c
M

=0
=
3 2
30 20

= 0.1
J
eq
= J
M
+
N N
N N
J
L
1 3
2 4
2
F
H
G
I
K
J = 0.0032
B
eq
=
N N
N N
B
L
1 3
2 4
2
F
H
G
I
K
J = 0.00001
G
M
c
s
E s
( )
( )
=
10
0 32 1 s s ( . )
;
G
L
c
s
E s
( )
=
1
0 32 1 s s ( . )
3.9 (i) J
eq
= J
M
+ J
L

G
G
L
M
F
H
G
I
K
J
2
= 0.6
B
eq
= B
M
+ B
L

G
G
L
M
F
H
G
I
K
J
2
= 0.015
K
T
= K
b
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1 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
G
M
a
s
E s
( )
( )
=
K
s J s B sL R K K
T
eq eq a a T b
[ )( ) ]
=
16 7
100 19 2
2
.
( . ) s s s
(ii) A sketch of multi-loop configuration may be made on the lines of
Example 3.5.
(iii) It will behave as a speed control system.
(iv) Relative stability and speed of response may become unsatisfactory.
3.10
J = J
M
= n
2
J
L
= 1.5 10
5
; n = 1
B = B
M
+ n
2
B
L
= 1 10
5

M
R
s
s
( )
( )
=
13 33
3 13 33
2
.
.5 . s s + +
+ + +

K
A
K
1
K
2
1 1
K
s
e
c
Js +B
T
M
q
R
q
M
K
t
s
q
M
3.11
+
+

K
A
K
g
K
b
K
T
Js + B
1
R
a
1 1
K
s
sL +R
f f
q
R
q
M
s
q
M

M
R
s
s
( )
( )
=

L
R
s
s
( )
( )
=
15 10
54 200 15 10
3
3 2 3

+ + + s s s
3.12 (a)
( )
( )
s
E s
r
=
K
s s
n n
1 2
1
2
2

+ +
; K = 17.2, = 1.066, M
n
= 61.2
(b) Modification in the drive system may be made on the lines of Fig. 3.64.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 7
+ +


K
T
Js + B
1
sL +R
a a
e
r
w
K
A K
r
K
b
K
t
3.13

+ +

K
P
K
A
K
T G s ( )
N s ( )
q
L
T
W
T
M q
R
T
M
= J
M

(

) ( ) G G G G G
M M L M L
B K
B K
M L M L
(

) ( ) G G G G = J T
L L W

G
(J
M
s
2
+ Bs + K)
M
(s) (Bs + K)
L
(s) = T
M
(s)
(Bs + K)
M
(s) (J
L
s
2
+ Bs + K)
L
(s) = T
W
(s)
G
L
s ( ) = G(s) T
M
(s) N(s) T
W
(s)
G
G
L
R
s
s
( )
( )
=
K K K G s
K K K G s
P A T
P A T
( )
( ) 1
G
L
W
s
T s
( )
( )
=
N s
K K K G s
P A T
( )
( ) 1
G(s) =
Bs K
s J J s J J Bs J J K
M L M L M L


2 2
[ ( ) ( ) ]
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1 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
N(s) =
J s Bs K
s J J s J J Bs J J K
M
M L M L M L
2
2 2

[ ( ) ( ) ]
Revisiting Example 2.7 will be helpful.
3.14 The required block diagram easily follows from Fig. 3.49.
K x Ay
1
= K p
2
,
( ) K p
A
K
2
2
,
= My
(r y) K
p
K
A
K = x
Y s
R s
( )
( )
=
2
0 02 2
2
s s .
3.15
Y s
Y s
r
( )
( )
=
K K K AK K
Ms B A K s K K K K A K
A r
A
v
v
1 2
2 2
2 1 2
/
( / ) /
s
y y
Ms + B
+ +
+


K
r
e
r
e
0
e
a
x
y
r
K
A
K
s
K
1
K
2
F
w
A
A
1
s
1
K
v
3.16 Revisiting Example 3.7 will be helpful. From geometry of the linkage, we
get
E(s) =
b
a b
X s
a
a b
Y s

( ) ( )
Y s
Y s
r
( )
( )
=
bK AK a b K
Ms B A K s K aAK a b K
r 1 2
2 2
2 1 2
/ ( )
( / ) / ( )


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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 9
y
Ms + Bs + K
2
+ +

K
r
y
r
x e
K
1
K
2
a + b
a
a + b
A b
sA
1
3.17 Let z(t) = displacement of the power piston
Y(s) = e
s
D
J
Z(s) ; J
D
=
d
v
sec
Y s
E s
r
( )
( )
=
G s
G s H s
( )
( ) ( ) 1
G(s) =
( / )
( / )
K K K A K e
s Ms B A K
A
s
D
v 1 2
2
2


J
; H(s) = K
s

z
+ + +

F
w
K
2
s
Ms + B
A
A
y
e
st
D
1
z x i
1
K
1
K
s
K
A
e
r
e
0
K
v
3.18
A
dh
dt
1
1
=
q q
gh
R
w 1
1
1

H
A
dh
dt
2
2
=
H H gh
R
gh
R
1
1
2
2

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2 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
+
+

R / g
2
r
q
1 h
r
h
2
Q s
w
( )
H s
2
( )
Q s
1
( )
(t s + 1)
1
t
1
t
2 ; = =
(t s + 1)
2
e
r
e
0
K
s
K
a
rg rg
A R
1 1
A R
2 2
K
e
K
v
K
s
3.19
C
d
dt
t
G
=
h
R
a
t

G G

+
+
+

q
a
q
q
1/R
t
R
t
h
e
r
ts + 1
t = R C
t t
R
f
R
2
K
t

R
1
K
h
h
e
A
R
1
3.20 Heater:
C
d
dt
1
1
G
=
h
R

G G
1
1
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SOLUTION MANUAL 2 1
Air:
V c
d
dt
H
G
=
G G
H G G
1
1


R
Q c
i
( )
These equations give us
J = R
1
C
1
, K
g
=
1
Q c H
,
M
n
Q
R C V

1 1
2M
n
=
R C Q c V c C
VR C c
1 1 1
1 1
H H
H

+
+
+
q
i
q
r
q
q
h
ts + 1
1
+ 1 s
2z
K
g
s
2
w
n
2
w
n
K
g
K
s K
A
e
A
K
h
h
K
s
e
r
e
0
3.21 Process:
V c
d
dt
2 2 2 2 2
H G G ( )
= Q c UA
i i 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
H G G G G G G ( ) ( )
Q c
2 2 2 2 2
H G G ( )
Linearized equation is
V c
d
dt
2 2 2
2
H
G
= Q c UA Q c
i 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
H G G G H G ( )
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2 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
Rearranging this equation and taking Laplace transform yields
( ) ( ) J G
2 2
1 s s = + K s K s
i 1 1 2 2
( ) ( )
J
2
= 544 0 423 0
1 2
.5; . ; .577 = = K K
Cooling water:
V c
d
dt
1 1 1 1 1
H G G ( )
= ( ) ( ) ( Q q c UA
i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
H G G G G
G G H G G
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
) ( ) ( ) Q q c
Linearized equation is
V c
d
dt
1 1 1
1
H
G
= Q c c q UA
i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
H G G H G G ( )
Q c c q
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

From this equation, we obtain
( ) ( ) J G
1 1
1 s s = + + K Q s K s K s
i 3 1 4 2 5 1
( ) ( ) ( )
J
1
=
182 1000 4184
3550 5 4 1000 4184
1
.
.

Q
K
3
=
( )
.


27 1000 4184
3550 5 4 1000 4184
1
1
G
Q
K
4
=
3550 5 4
3550 5 4 1000 4184
1


.
. Q
K
5
=
Q
Q
1
1
1000 4184
3550 5 4 1000 4184

.
G
1
and Q
1
are obtained from the following energy-balance equations at
steady state:
Q c UA
i 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
H G G G G ( ) ( ) = 0
Q c UA
i 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
H G G G G ( ) ( ) = 0
These equations yield
G
1
= 40C; Q
1
= 5.28 10
3
m
3
/sec
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SOLUTION MANUAL 2 3
+
+
+
+
+
+

q
i1
q
1
q
r
q
2
q
2
q
i2
K

5
q
1
q
1
K

2
K

3
K

4
e
1 1
t
1
s + 1 t
2
s + 1
K

1
K
1
K
1
K
2
K
3
K
4
With these parameters,
J
1
= 184.55 sec, K
3
= 1318.2, K
4
= 0.465, K
5
= 0.535
G
G
2
( )
( )
s
s
r
=
G s
G s
( )
( ) 1
; G(s) =
( . )
. .
5 55 10
7 26 10 119 10
3
1 2 3 4
2 3 5


K K K K
s s
Refer Fig. 3.57 for suitable hardware required to implement the proposed
control scheme.
3.22

+
+


q
1
q
r
q
2
Controller I
Set-point
adjustment
Controller II
Sensor II
Sensor I
Process II Process I
Refer Fig. 3.57 for suitable hardware required to implement the proposed
control scheme.
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CHAPTER 4 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FEEDBACK CONTROL
4.1 S
G
M
=
1
1 G s H s ( ) ( )
=
s s
s s
( )
( )


1
1 50
| ( )| S j
G
M
M
M1
= 0.0289
S
H
M
=

G s H s
G s H s
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 1
=


50
1 50 s s ( )
| ( )| S j
H
M
M
M1
= 1.02
4.2
Y s
R s
( )
( )
= M(s) =
P
1 1
,
,
P
1
=
K K
s s
3 1
2
1 ( )
;

, = 1
5
1 1 1
2
1 2 3 1
2

F
H
G
I
K
J
s s
K K
s
K K
s s ( ) ( )
; ,
1
= 1
M(s) =
5
1 5 5 5
1
2
1 1
K
s s K K ( )
S
K
M
1
=

M
K
K
M
1
1
=
s s K K s
s s K K
2
1 1
2
2
1 1
1 5 5 5
1 5 5 5
( )
( )


| ( )| S j
K
M
1
0
M
M
=
5
5 5
1
K
= 0.5
4.3 For G(s) = 20/(s + 1), and R(s) = 1/s,
y t ( )|
open-loop
= 20 (1 e
t
)
y t ( )|
closed-loop
=
20
21
1
21
( )

e
t
For G'(s) = 20/(s + 0.4), and R(s) = 1/s,
y t ( )|
open-loop
= 50 (1 e
0.4t
)
y t ( )|
closed-loop
=
20
20 4
1
20 4
.
( )
.


e
t
The transient response of the closed-loop system is less sensitive to
variations in plant parameters
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SOLUTION MANUAL 2 5
4.4 For G(s) = 10/( ), J s 1 and R(s) = 1/s,
e
ss
|
open-loop
= 0
e
ss
|
closed-loop
=
1
1 10 K
p
= 0.0099
For G'(s) = 11/( ) J s 1 , and R(s) = 1/s,
e
ss
|
open-loop
= 0.1
e
ss
|
closed-loop
= 0.009
The steady-state response of the closed-loop system is less sensitive to
variations in plant parameters.
4.5 J
f
|
open-loop
=
L
R
=
2
50
= 0.04 sec
For the feedback system,
K e Ki
A f f
( ) =
L
di
dt
R R i
f
s f
( )
This gives
I s
E s
f
f
( )
( )
=
K
sL R R K K
A
s A

J
f
|
closed-loop
=
L
R R K K
s A

=
2
51 90 K
= 0.004
This gives K = 4.99
4.6 The given block diagram is equivalent to a single-loop block diagram given
below,
+

0.4
10( + ) K s
1
W s ( ) Y s ( )
s + 1
s + 1
Y s
W s
( )
( )
=
0 4
11 10 1
.
s K
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2 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
For W(s) = 1/s,
y
ss
= lim ( )
s
sY s
0
=
0 4
10 1
.
K
= 0.01
This gives K = 3.9
4.7 Case I:
Y s
W s
( )
( )
=
s s
s s K
( )
( )
J
J


1
1
for W(s) = 1/s, y
ss
= 0
Case II:
Y s
W s
( )
( )
=
K
s s K ( ) J 1
For W(s) = 1/s, y
ss
= 1
The control scheme shown in the following figure will eliminate the error in
Case II.
+
+

K
c
1
1 +
T s
I
W s ( )
Y s ( )
Plant
4.8 A unity-feedback configuration of the given system is shown below.
+

q
r
q
D s ( )
e 200 0.02
( + 1) s ( + 2) s
G s ( )
=
E s
s
r
( )
( ) G
=
1
1 D s G s ( ) ( )
;e
ss
= lim ( )
s
sE s
0
; G
r
s ( ) =
1
s
(i) e
ss
= 1/3
(ii) e
ss
= 0
(iii) e
ss
= 1/3
The integral term improves the steady-state performance and the derivative
term has no effect on steady-state error.
4.9 (i) s
2
+ 1 = 0; oscillatory
(ii) s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0; stable
(iii) s
3
+ s + 2 = 0; unstable
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SOLUTION MANUAL 2 7
The derivative term improves the relative stability; and the integral term
has the opposite effect.
4.10 (a) e
r
= 50 0.03 = 1.5 volts
(b)
V s
E s
r
( )
( )
= M(s) =
0 65
1 5 1 0 0195
.
( )( ) .
K
s s K
e
e

S
K
M
e
=

M
K
K
M
e
e
=
( )( )
( )( ) .
s s
s s


1 5 1
1 5 1 9 75
(c) V(s) =
325
1 5 1 9 75
19 5 1
1 5 1 9 75 ( )( ) .
( )
. ( )
( )( ) .
( )
s s
E s
s
s s
W s
r



Suppose that the engine stalls when constant percent gradient is x%. Then
for E
r
(s) = 1.5/s and W(s) = x/s,
v
ss
=
lim ( )
s
sV s
0
=
325 1 5
10 75
19 5
10 75

.
.
.
.
x
= 0
This gives x = 25
4.11 (a) The block diagram is shown in the figure below.
+
+

K
A
K
A
K
g
I
L
R
a
e
o e
r
1
sL + R
f f
(b)
E s
E s
r
I
L
0
0
( )
( )

=
10
2 1 10 s K
For E
r
(s) = 50/s,
e
oss
=
lim ( )
s
sE s
0
0 =
500
1 10 K
= 250
This gives K = 0.1
With K = 0.1, we have
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2 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
E
o
(s) =
10
2 2
2 1
2 2 s
E s
s
s
I s
r L

( ) ( )
When E
r
(s) = 50/s and I
L
(s) = 30/s, we get
e
oss
=
10 50
2
30
2

= 235 V
Let x V be the reference voltage required to restore the terminal voltage of
250 V.
10
2
30
2

x
= 250; this gives x = 53V
(c) E
o
(s) =
10
2 1 s
E s I s
r L

( ) ( )
e
r
= 25 V gives e
oss
= 250 V when I
L
= 0
e
r
= 25 V gives e
oss
= 220 V when I
L
= 30 amps
(d) The effect of load disturbance on terminal voltage has been reduced
due to feedback action.
4.12
+ +

w
r
w
0
K
g
K
T
R
a
Js
K
A
K
t
1 1
K
b
K
t
(a)
M
M
o
r
s
s
( )
( )
= M(s) =

K K
s K K
A g
A g
2 5 ( )
For M
r
(s) = 10/s,
M
o
(t) =
125
13
1
130
( )

e
t
; M
oss
= 9.61 rad/sec
(b) When the feedback loop is opened,
M
M
o
r
s
s
( )
( )
=
50
2 5
K
s
A
( )
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SOLUTION MANUAL 2 9
K
A
= 0.192 gives M
oss
= 9.61 for M
r
= 10.
M
o
t ( ) = 9.61 (1 e
5t
)
Time-constant in the open-loop case is 1/5 sec, and in closed-loop case
is 1/130 sec; system dynamics becomes faster with feedback action
(c) S
K
M
A
=

M
K
K
M
A
A



2 10
2 10
s
s K K
A g
Kg = K
g
, where K is a constant.
S
M
K
K
M
M
K
K
M
s
s K K
g
M
g
g
g
g
g
g
A g
M
M
M




2 10
2 10
The open-loop transfer function of the system is
G s
K K
s
A g
( )
( )

2 5
Therefore
S S
K
G G
A g
1
M
S S S S
K
M
K
G M G
A A g g
;
M M
4.13

+ + +

K
A
K
P
K
P K
g
sK
b
K
T
T
w
R
a J s
2
eq
q
L
q
R
q
M
= q
C
1
sL + R
f f
1
1
1
2
(b)
G
G
L
R
g
g
s
s
M s
K
s s s K
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )


5
1 4 10
S
M
K
K
M
s s s
s s s
K
M
g
g
g




( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 4
1 4 10 100
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3 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
S j
K
M
g
( ) ~
.
M
M

0 1
4
4 10
(c)
G
L
w
s
T s
( )
( )
=
( ) /
( ) ( )
s
s s s K
g


4 2
1 4 10
Wind gust torque on the load shaft = 100 N-m.
Therefore, on the motor shaft
T
w
(s) = n 100/s = 50/s

Lss
= lim ( ) .
s
L
s s

0
0 1 G rad
(d) Replace K
A
by D(s) = K
T s
c
I
1
1

F
H
G
I
K
J
to reduce the steady-state error
to zero value.
4.14 (a)
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
r
open loop
= G(s) =
K K K K s
s s s
P A e
( )
( . . )
25 1
0 25 0 02 1
2


G
G
( )
( )
s
s
r
closed loop
= M(s) =
G s
G s
( )
( ) 1
S
K
G
= 1; S
K
M
=
s s s
s s s K K K K s
P A e
( . . )
( . . ) ( )
0 25 0 02 1
0 25 0 02 1 25 1
2
2


S S
K
M
K
G

(b) A PD control scheme with proportional controller in the forward path


and derivative action realized by feeding back

G, will increase aircraft


damping.
4.15 (a)
G( )
( )
s
T s
w
=
1
1
/ B
s
J
B
s
sK K
BR
K K
BR
b T
a
T A
a

F
H
I
K

For T
w
(s) = K
w
/s,

ss
= lim
s 0
s (s) =
K R
K K
w a
T A
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SOLUTION MANUAL 3 1
(b)
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
r
= M (s) =
K K BR
s
J
B
s
sK K
BR
K K
BR
T A a
b T
a
T A
a
/

F
H
I
K
1
S
J
M
=

M
J
J
M
=

F
H
I
K

J
B
s
s
J
B
s
sK K
BR
K K
BR
b T
a
T A
a
2
1
(c) Excessive large magnitudes of signals at various levels in a control
system can drive the devices into nonlinear region of operation. The
requirement of linear operation of devices under various operating
conditions imposes a constraint on the use of large values of K
A
.
4.16 (a)
dV
dt
= q
i
q; V = C h(t), q = h(t)/R
(b)
+

h
r
q
i
q h
R 1
R RCs + 1
K
(c)
H s
H s
r
( )
( )
= M (s) =
KR
RCs KR 1
S
R
M
=



M
R
R
M RCs KR
1
1
S
R
M
s = 0
=
1
1 KR
(d) For H
r
(s) = 1/s, h
ss
=
KR
KR
e
ss
1
; =
1
1 KR
Replacing K by K
T s
c
l
1
1

F
H
G
I
K
J
reduces the steady-state error to zero; and the
system becomes insensitive to changes in R under steady dc conditions.
4.17 V
d
dt
C c Q q C c Q C c
i i i i
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + = + + +
The perturbation dynamics is given by
J
dc t
dt
( )
+ c(t) =
C
Q
q t
Q
Q
c t
V
Q
i
i
i
i
( ) ( ); J
Block diagram of the closed-loop system is shown below.
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3 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
+
+

q
i
1
c
ts + 1
K C /Q
i
c
i
Q /Q
i
C s
C s
i
( )
( )
= M s
Q Q
s KC Q
i
i
( )
/
/
=
+ + 1
For C
i
(s) = A/s,
c
ss
=
AQ
Q KC
i
i
+
With integral control, c
ss
becomes zero.
4.18 (b) Open-loop case:
(i)
G( )
( )
s
E s
r
= G(s) =
KR
R Cs
S
K
G 1
1
1
1

;
+
K
+
+

q
q
i
e
r
K
1/R
1
K
t
e
r
e
t
K
R C
1
s + 1
R
1
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SOLUTION MANUAL 3 3
(ii)
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
i

1
1 1
R Cs
s s
i
i ss
. ( ) / , For G G
(iii) = R
1
C
Closed-loop case:
(i)
G( )
( )
s
E s
r
= M(s) =
KR
R Cs KK R
t
1
1 1
1
; S
R Cs
R Cs KK R
K
M
t



1
1 1
1
1
(ii)
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
i
=
1
1
1 1
R Cs KK R
t

. For
i
(s) = 1/s,
ss
=
1
1
1
KK R
t
(iii) =
R C
KK R
t
1
1
1 +
(c) K(e
r
e
t
) = C
d
dt R R
R
UA
R R C
R R
i a
G
G G G G
J

1 2
2
1 2
1 2
1
; ,
+
K
+
+ +
+

q
q
a
q
i
e
r
K
R
1
K
t
e
r
K
R
2
( + ) ( R R
1 2
ts + 1)
R R
1 2
1 1
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
a
open loop
=
R
R R s
1
1 2
1 ( ) ( ) J
;
G
ss open loop
= R
1
(R
1
+ R
2
)

( )
( )
s
s
a
closed loop
=
1
1 2 1 2
( ) ( 1)
t
R
R R s KK R R J

ss closed loop
=
R
R R KK R R
t
1
1 2 1 2
+ +
4.19 (a)
Y s
W s
( )
( )
=
0 1 1
2 3 1125
2
. ( )
.
.
s
s s


For W(s) = 1/s, y
ss
= 0.089
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3 4 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(b) Replace K
c
by K
T s
c
l
1
1

F
H
G
I
K
J
(c)
Y s
W s
s
s s
K K
s
f c ( )
( )
. ( )
.

L
N
M
O
Q
P
0 1 1
2 3 1125
1
1
2
For W(s) = 1/s, y
ss
= 0.089 (1 K
f
K
c
)
y
ss
= 0 when K
f
= 1/K
c
= 0.8
The PI control scheme increases the order of the system; this makes it less
stable.
The feedforward scheme does not affect the characteristic roots of the
system. A difficulty with feedforward compensation is that it is an open-
loop technique; it contains no self-correcting action. If the value of K
c
is not
accurately known, the gain K
f
will not cancel the disturbance completely.
The usefulness of a method must be determined in the light of the specific
performance requirements. If the uncertainty is large, self-correcting action
can be obtained by using PI control law in conjunction with the feedforward
compensation.
4.20
+ +

e
f
i
f
w
1
Js B + sL + R + 1
f f
K
A
K
t
r
K
t
K
T
Time-constant (without current feedback) = L
f
/(R
f
+ 1)
I s
E s
f
f
( )
( )
=
K
sL R K
A
f f A
1
Time-constant (with current feedback) =
L
R K
f
f A
1
Position control system is shown below.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 3 5

+ + +

w w
r
K
t
i
f
1
s
K
t
K
P
K
P
K
A
sL + R + 1
f f
Js B +
4.21 (a) s
2
+ K
c
T
D
s + K
c
= (s + 1 + j1.732) (s + 1 j 1.732)
This gives K
c
= 4, T
D
= 0.5
(b) Alternative control scheme is shown below.

+ +

q
q
r q 1 1
s s
K
1
K
2
G
G
( )
( )
; ,
s
s
K
s K s K
K K
r



1
2
2 1
1 2
4 2
4.22 Fig. P4.22a:
G
G
( )
( )
( )
s
s
M s
K
s s K
r


25
5 25
2
S
M
K
K
M
s s
s s
K
M




( ) 5
5 25
2
S j
K
M
( ) . M
M

5
1 41
Fig. P4.22b:
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
r
= M (s) =
KK
s KK KK
s
2
2
1 2
1 ( )
=
25
5 25
2
K
s s K
This gives K
2
= 25 and K
1
= 4
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3 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
M (s) =
25
1 4 25
2
K
s K s K ( )
S
K
M
=
s s
s s
( )

1
5 25
2
| ( )| S j
K
M
M
M5
1
This shows the superiority of the two-loop system over a single-loop
system.
-
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CHAPTER 5 CONCEPTS OF STABILITY AND THE ROUTH
STABILITY CRITERION
5.1 (a) All the elements in the first column of the Routh array are +ve.
Therefore, all the roots are in the left-half plane.
(b) Two sign changes are found in the first column of the Routh array.
Therefore, two roots are in the right-half plane and the rest in the left-
half plane.
(c) s
3
-row of the Routh array has zero pivot element, but the entire row is
not all zeros. We replace the pivot element by A and then proceed with
the construction of the Routh array. As A 0, two sign changes are
found in the first column of the Routh array. Therefore, two roots are
in right-half plane and the rest in the left-half plane.
(d) s
1
-row of the Routh array is an all-zero row. Auxiliary polynomial
formed using the elements of s
2
-row is given by
A(s) = s
2
+ 1
We replace the elements of s
1
-row with the coefficients of
dA s
ds
( )
= 2s + 0
and proceed with the construction of the Routh array. There are no
sign changes in the resulting Routh array; the characteristic
polynomial does not have any root in the right-half plane. The roots of
the 2nd-order auxiliary polynomial are therefore purely imaginary.
The given characteristic equation has two roots on the imaginary axis
and the rest in the left-half plane.
(e) Since all the coefficients of the given characteristic polynomial are
not of the same sign, the system is unstable. The Routh array
formation is required only if the number of roots in the right-half plane
are to be determined.
Only one sign change (the s
0
-row has ve pivot element) is found in
the Routh array. Therefore one root is in the right-half plane and the
rest in the left-half plane.
(f) s
3
-row of the Routh array is an all-zero row. The auxillary polynomial
is
A(s) = 9s
4
+ 0s
2
+ 36
We replace elements of s
3
-row with the coefficients of
dA s
ds
( )
= 36s
3
+ 0s
The resulting Routh array has s
2
-row with zero pivot element but the
entire row is not all zeros. We replace the pivot element with A and
proceed with the construction of the Routh array. Two sign changes
are found in the first column; the characteristic polynomial ,(s) has
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3 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
two roots in the right-half plane. Three possibilities exist: (i) the 4th-
order auxiliary polynomial has all the four purely imaginary roots and
the two right-half plane roots are contributed by the factor ,(s)/A(s),
(ii) the 4th-order auxiliary polynomial has complex roots with
quadrantal symmetry (two roots in the right-half plane) and the factor
,(s)/A(s) has all the roots is the left-half plane, and (iii) the 4th-order
auxiliary polynomial has two real-axis roots and two imaginary-axis
roots with quadrantal symmetry and the factor ,(s)/A(s) has one root
in the right-half plane. Examining A(s) we find that auxiliary-
polynomial roots are s = 1 j1, 1 j1.
The given system, therefore, has two roots in the right-half plane and
the rest in the left-hand plane.
5.2 (a) s
1
-row of the Routh array is an all-zero row. The auxiliary polynomial
is
A(s) = s
2
+ 9
By long division
,(s)/A(s) = (s
4
+ 2s
3
+ 11s
2
+ 18s + 18)/A(s) = s
2
+ 2s + 2
Therefore
,(s) = (s
2
+ 9) (s
2
+ 2s + 2)
= (s + j3) (s j3) (s + 1 + j1) (s + 1 j1)
(b) s
3
-row of the Routh array is an all-zero row. The auxiliary polynomial
is
A(s) = s
4
+ 24s
2
25
,(s)/A(s) = (s
5
+ 2s
4
+ 24s
3
+ 48s
2
25s 50)/A(s)
= s + 2
,(s) = (s + 2) (s
4
+ 24s
2
25)
= (s + 2) (s
2
1) (s
2
+ 25)
= (s + 2) (s + 1) (s 1) (s + j5) (s j5)
(c) s
3
-row of the Routh array is an all-zero row. The auxiliary polynomial
is
A(s) = s
4
+ 3s
2
+ 2
,(s)/A(s) = (s
6
+ 3s
5
+ 5s
4
+ 9s
3
+ 8s
2
+ 6s + 4)/A(s)
= s
2
+ 3s + 2
,(s) = (s
2
+ 3s + 2) (s
4
+ 3s
2
+ 2)
= (s
2
+ 3s + 2) (s
2
+ 1) (s
2
+ 2)
= (s + 1) (s + 2) (s + j1) (s - j1) (s + j 2 ) (s j 2 )
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SOLUTION MANUAL 3 9
5.3 With s = s 1, the characteristic equation becomes
s
3
+ s
2
+ s
+ 1 = 0
s
1
-row in the Routh array is an all-zero row. The auxiliary polynomial is
A( s
) = s
2
+ 1 = ( s
+ j1) ( s
j1)
We replace the elements of s
2
-row with the coefficients of
dA s
ds
( )

= 2 s + 0
and proceed with the construction of the Routh array. There are no sign
changes in the

resulting Routh array. The s-polynomial does not have roots
to the right of the line at s = 1, and there are two roots at s = 1 j1. The
largest time-constant is therefore 1 sec.
5.4 (a) Unstable for all values of K
(b) Unstable for all values of K
(c) K < 14/9
(d) K > 0.528
5.5 With s = s 1, the characteristic equation becomes
s
3
+ 3K s
2
+ (K + 2) s + 4 = 0
From the Routh array, we find that for K > 0.528, all the s-plane roots lie to
the left of the line at s = 1.
5.6 G(s) =
4
2 1
20 1
1 20 0 1
K
s
s
s


L
N
M
O
Q
P
/ ( )
.2 / ( )
H(s) =
0 05
4 1
.
s
1 + G(s) H(s) = 0 gives
8s
3
+ 46s
2
+ 31s + 5 + 4K = 0
From the Routh array, we find that the closed-loop system is stable for
K < 43.3.
5.7 (i) s
3
+ 5s
2
+ 9s + K = 0; K < 45
(ii) s
3
+ 5s
2
+ (9 K) s + K = 0; K < 7.5
(iii) s
4
+ 7s
3
+ 19s
2
+ (18 K) s + 2K = 0; K < 10.1
5.8 (a) ,(s) = s
3
+ 10s
2
+ (21 + K)s + 13K = 0
(i) K < 70 (ii) K = 70
(iii) for K = 70, A(s) = s
2
+ 91 = 0
,(s) = (s
2
+ 91) (s + 10) = (s + j9.54) (s j9.54) (s + 10)
(b) ,(s) = s
3
+ 5s
2
+ (K 6)s + K = 0
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4 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(i) K > 7.5 (ii) K = 7.5
(iii) For K = 7.5, A(s) = s
2
+ 1.5 = 0
,(s) = (s
2
+ 1.5) (s + 5) = (s + j1.223) (s j1.223) (s + 5)
(c) ,(s) = s
4
+ 7s
3
+ 15s
2
+ (25 + K)s + 2K = 0
(i) K < 28.1 (ii) K = 28.1
(iii) For K = 28.1, A(s) = s
2
+ 7.58 = 0
,(s) = (s
2
+ 7.58) (s
2
+ 7s + 7.414)
= (s + j2.75) (s j2.75) (s + 5.7) (s + 1.3)
5.9 (a) ,(s) = s
4
+ 12s
3
+ 69s
2
+ 198s + 200 + K = 0
From the Routh array we find that the system is stable for K < 666.25.
For K = 666.25,
A(s) = 52.5s
2
+ 866.25 = 0
This gives
s = j 4.06
Frequency of oscillations is 4.06 rad/sec when K = 666.25.
(b) ,(s) = s
4
+ 3s
3
+ 12s
2
+ (K 16) s + K = 0
From the Routh array, we find that the system is stable for
23.3 < K < 35.7.
For K = 23.3,
A(s) = 9.57s
2
+ 23.3 = 0; s = j1.56
For K = 35.7,
A(s) = 5.43s
2
+ 35.7 = 0; s = j2.56
Frequency of oscillation is 1.56 rad/sec when K = 23.3; and 2.56 rad/
sec when K =

35.7.
5.10 ,(s) = s
3
+ as
2
+ (2 + K) s + 1 + K = 0
From the Routh array we find that for the system to oscillate,
(2 + K)a = 1 + K
Oscillation frequency =
1 K
a
= 2
These equations give a = 0.75, K = 2
5.11 ,(s) = 0.02s
3
+ 0.3s
2
+ s + K = 0
(a) K < 15
(b) For K = 15, the auxiliary equation is A(s) = s
2
+ 50 = 0. The
oscillation frequency is 7.07 rad/sec at K = 15.
(c) With K = 7.5 and s =
s
1,
,() s = 0.2 s
3
+ 2.4 s
2
+ 4.6 s + 67.8 = 0
Two sign changes are there in the first column of the Routh array;
therefore two roots have time-constant larger than 1 sec.
5.12 (a) Unstable for all K
c
(b) For stability, T
D
> J
5.13 (a) ,(s) = s
3
+ 15s
2
+ 50s + 25K = 0; K < 30
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SOLUTION MANUAL 4 1
(b) ,(s) = Js
3
+ (1 + 5J)s
2
+ 5s + 50 = 0; J < 0.2
(c) ,(s) = Js
3
+ (1 + 5J)s
2
+ 5s + 2.5K = 0; K <
2
10
J

F
H
I
K
5.14 ,(s) = s
4
+ 5s
3
+ 6s
2
+ K
c
s + K
c
= = 0; = =
1
T
I
From the Routh array, we find that K < (30 25=) results in system
stability. Larger the = (smaller the T
I
), lower is the limit on gain for
stability.
5.15 ,(s) = s
3
+ 15s
2
+ (50 + 100K
t
)s + 100K = 0
From the Routh array, we find that for stability K < (7.5 + 15K
t
). Limit on
K for stability increases with increasing value of K
t
.
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CHAPTER 6 THE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDBACK SYSTEMS
6.1 (a) Refer Section 6.3 for the derivation
(b) The characteristic equation is
s
2
+ 10s + 100 = s
2
+ 2M
n
s

+ M
n
2
= 0
(i) M
n
= 10 rad/sec; = 0.5; M
d
= M
n 1
2

= 8.66 rad/sec
(ii) t
r
=
F
M


cos
1
d
= 0.242 sec; t
p
=
F
M
d
= 0.363 sec
M
p
= e
F / 1
2
= 16.32%; t
s
=
4
M
n
= 0.8 sec
(iii) K
p
= lim
s0
G(s) = ; K
v
= lim
s0
sG(s) = 10;
K
a
= lim
s0
s
2
G(s) = 0
(iv) e
ss
=
1
1 K
p
= 0; e
ss
=
1
K
v
= 0.1; e
ss
=
1
K
a
=
6.2 Characteristic equation is
s
2
+ 10s + 10K
A
= s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
= 0
(a) K
A
= 2.5 gives = 1 which meets the response requirements.
(b) K
p
= , K
v
= 2.5
e
ss
=
5
1
1

K K
p v
= 0.4
6.3 (a) Using Routh criterion, it can be checked that the close-loop system is
stable.
(i) e
ss
=
10
K
v
=
10

= 0 ; (ii) e
ss
=
10 0 2
K K
a v

.
=
10 0
0 1

.2
.
= 2
(b) The closed-loop system is unstable.
6.4 The closed-loop system is stable. This can easily be verified by Routh
criterion.
G(s) =
5
0 1 1 1 0 1 ( . )( )( .2 ) s s s
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SOLUTION MANUAL 4 3
e
ss
|
r

=

10
=
10
1 K
p
=
10
1 5
Y s
W s
( )
( )
=
0 1 1
1 0 1 0 1 1 5
.
( )( .2 )( . )
s
s s s


For W(s) = 4/s, y
ss
= 4/6
e
ss
|
total
= 7/3
6.5 (a) The characteristic equation of the system is
900s
3
+ 420s
2
+ 43s + 1 + 0.8 K
A
= 0
Using Routh criterion, we find that the system is stable for K
A
< 23.84.
(b) Rearrangement of the block diagram of Fig. P6.5 is shown below.
+

q
r
q
50
1
0.016
30 1 s +
10 1 s +
3 1 s +
K
A
G(s) =
0 016 50
3 1 30 1
.
( )( )


K
s s
A
H(s) =
1
10 1 s

; the dc gain of H(s) is unity.
K
p
= lim
s0
G(s) = 0.8 K
A
; e
ss
=
10
1 K
p
= 1
This gives K
A
= 11.25
6.6 (a) The system is stable for K
c
< 9.
K
p
= lim
s0
D(s) G(s) = K
c
; e
ss
=
1
1 K
c
e
ss
= 0.1 (10%) is the minimum possible value for steady-state
error. Therefore e
ss
less than 2% is not possible with propor-
tional compensator.
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4 4 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(b) Replace K
c
by D(s) = 3 +
K
s
I
. The closed-loop system is stable for
0 < K
1
< 3. Any value in this range satisfies the static accuracy
requirements.
6.7 (a) K
v
=
1000
10
K
c
= 1000
=
10 1000
2 100

K
D
= 0.5
These equations give K
c
= 10 and K
D
= 0.09.
(b) The closed-loop poles have real part = M
n
= 50. The zero is
present at s = K
c
/K
D
= 111.11. The zero will result in pronounced
early peak. is not an accurate estimate of M
p
.
6.8 (a) K
v
= K
I
= 10
(b) With K
I
= 10, the characteristic equation becomes
,(s) = s
3
+ 10s
2
+ 100(1 + K
c
)s + 1000 = 0
With s = s 1,
,( s ) = s s
3 2
7 + + [100(1 + K
c
) 17] s + 1009
100 (1 + K
c
) = 0
In Routh array formation, K
c
= 0.41 results in auxiliary equation with
purely imaginary roots. Therefore K
c
= 0.41 results in dominant
s-plane poles with real part = 1.
(c) Routh array formation for ,( s ) gives the following auxiliary equation.
A( s ) = 7 s
2
+ 868 = 0; s = j11.14
The complex-conjugate s-plane roots are 1 j11.14.
M
d
= M
n
1
2
= 11.14; M
n
= 1
These equations give = 0.09.
(d) ,( s ) = ( s + 7) ( s + j11.14) ( s j11.14) = 0
The third s-plane closed-loop pole is at s = 8. The dominance
condition in terms of third closed-loop pole is reasonably satisfied.
The zero is at s = K
I
/K
c
= 24.39. The zero will not give pronounced
early peak. Therefore approximately represents M
p
.
6.9 (a) With T
I
= ,
D(s)G(s) =
80 1
8 80
2
( )

T s
s s
D
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SOLUTION MANUAL 4 5
The characteristic polynomial becomes
,(s) = s
2
+ (8 + 80T
D
)s + 160
T
D
= 0.216 gives = 1
(b) The zero is at s = 1/0.216 = 4.63. Real part of the closed-loop pole
= M
n
= 12.65. Therefore, small overshoot will be observed.
(c) The characteristic equation becomes
s
3
+ 25.28s
2
+ 160s +
80
T
I
= 0
T
I
> 0.0198 for stability.
6.10 (a) G(s) =
K
s s ( ) 1
; K
v
= lim
s0
sG(s) = K
K = 10 will give steady-state unit-ramp following error of 0.1.
,(s) = s
2
+ s + K = s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
K = 10 gives = 0.158.
(b) G(s) =
10
1 10 s s K
t
( )
,(s) = s
2
+ (1 + 10K
t
)s + 10 = s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
K
t
= 0.216 gives = 0.5.
K
v
= lim
s0
sG(s) =
10
1 10 K
t
=
10
316 .
e
ss
= 0.316
(c) G(s) =
10
1 10
K
s s K
A
t
( )
K
v
=
10
1 10
K
K
A
t

,(s) = s
2
+ (1 + 10K
t
)s + 10 K
A
= s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
From these equations, we find that
K
A
= 10 and K
t
= 0.9 give e
ss
= 0.1 and = 0.5.
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4 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
6.11 (a)
2
=
( )
( )
In
In
M
M
p
p
2
2 2
+
M
p
= 0.1 gives = 0.59
t
s
=
4
M
n
= 0.05. Therefore, M
n
= 135.59
G(s) =
5
0 1 100
1
2
K
s s K ( .2 )
,(s) = 0.2s
2
+ s(1 + 100K
2
) + 5K
1
= 0
Therefore s
2
+ 5(1 + 100K
2
)s + 25K
1
= s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
This equation gives K
1
= 735.39 and K
2
= 0.31
(b) K
p
= , K
v
=
5
1 100
1
2
K
K
= 114.9, K
a
= 0
6.12
G( )
( )
s
T s
w
=
4
1 10 10 s s K K s
t
( )
For T
w
(s) = 1/s, G
ss
=
4
10K
= 0.05
This gives K = 8
,(s) = s
2
+ (1 + 10K
t
)s + 10K = s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
K
t
= 0.79 gives = 0.5
6.13
Y s
F s
( )
( )
=
1
2
Ms Bs K
. For F(s) = 9/s, y
ss
=
9
K
= 0.03
This gives K = 300 Newtons/m
e
F / 1
2
=
0 003
0 03
.
.
= 0.1
This gives = 0.59
t
p
=
F
M
n
1
2

=
F
M 0 81 .
n
= 2
This gives M
n
= 1.94 rad/sec
From the equation
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SOLUTION MANUAL 4 7
s
2
+
B
M
s
K
M
= s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
we obtain
M = 79.71 kg, B = 182.47 Newtons per m/sec
6.14
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
R
=
K J
s
B
J
s
K
J
T
T
/
2
+ +
=
M
M M
n
n n
s s
2
2 2
2
+ +

q
R
q
1
Js + Bs
2
K
T
T
w

2
=
( )
( )
ln
ln
M
M
p
p
2
2 2
+
For M
p
= 0.25, = 0.4
Steady-state error to unit-ramp input =
2
M
n
= 0.04
This gives M
n
= 20
G( )
( )
s
T s
w

=
1
2
Js Bs K
T

G
ss
=
10
K
T
= 0.01
From these equations, we obtain the following values of system parameters.
K
T
= 1000 N-m/rad
B = 40 N-m/(rad/sec)
J = 2.5 kg-m
2
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4 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
6.15 J

M + BM = K
T
(M
r
M)
M
M
( )
( )
s
s
r
=
45
100 50 s
M
r
= 50
2
60
F
rad/sec = step input
M(t) = 1.5F (1 e
0.5t
)
M
ss
= 1.5F rad/sec = 45 rpm; e
ss
= 5 rpm
A control scheme employing gain adjustment with integral error
compensation will remove the offset.
6.16 J

G G B = K
T
(G
r
G)
G
G
( )
( )
s
s
r
=
2400
150 600 2400
2
s s
G
r
(s) =
F
3s
; G(s) =
F
3
16
4 16
2
s s s ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
G(t) =
F

M
M
3
1
1
2
1

L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P

e
t
n
t
d
sin cos ( )
=
F F
3
1 11547 3 46
3
2

F
H
I
K
L
N
M
O
Q
P

. sin . e t
t
M
p
= e
F / 1
2
= 16.3%
The following control schemes have the potential of eliminating overshoot:
(i) gain adjustment with derivative error compensation; and
(ii) gain adjustment with derivative output compensation.
6.17
+ +

q
R
e
c
e
q
L
q
M
K
s
K
A K
1
sK
2
1
1
50 Js + Bs
2
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SOLUTION MANUAL 4 9
(b) G(s) =
4
100
K
s s
A
( .5)
K
v
= 4K
A
/100.5
For a ramp input G
R
(t) = F t, the steady-state error =
F
K
v
The specification is 5 deg or
5
180
F
rad.
Therefore
100
4
.5F
K
A
=
F
180
; this gives K
A
= 904.5
The characteristic

equation is
s
2
+ 100.5s + 4 904.5 = 0
M
n
= 60.15; = 0.835; M
p
= 0.85%; t
s
= 0.0796 sec
(c) With PI control the system becomes type-2; and the steady-state error
to ramp inputs is zero provided the closed-loop system is stable.
G(s) =
4 1
1
100
K
s
s s
A

F
H
I
K
( .5)
; K
A
= 904.5
The characteristic equation is
s
3
+ 100.5s
2
+ 4 904.5s + 4 904.5 = 0
It can easily be verified that the closed-loop system is stable.
(d) The characteristic equation can be expressed as
(s + 1.0291) (s
2
+ 99.4508s + 3514.6332) = 0
or
(s + 1.0291) (s + 49.7254 + j32.2803) (s + 49.7254 j32.2803) = 0
The dominance condition is satisfied because the real pole is very close to
the zero. Therefore, the transient response resembles that of a second-order
system with characteristic equation
s
2
+ 99.4508s + 3514.6332 = 0
M
n
= 59.28; = 0.84; M
p
= 0.772%; t
s
= 0.08 sec
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5 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
6.18
q
L
q
R
e
J
L
L
f
K
A
R
f
e
t
I
a
(const)
Ke
t
+ +

q
R
q
M
q
L
K
A
sKK
t
K
P
K
P
e
K
T
1
J s
eq
2
1
50
(c) The characteristic equation of the system is
s
2
+ 100 KK
A
s + 6K
A
= s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
= 0
This gives K
A
= 2.67; K = 0.024
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SOLUTION MANUAL 5 1
6.19
+ +

q
R
q
L
K
A
K
P
K
A
sK
b
K
T
R
a
1
Js + Bs
2
1
10
(b) Open-loop transfer function G(s) =
20
4 202
K
s s
A
( )
K
v
=
20
202
K
A
=
1
0 01 .
; this gives K
A
= 1010.
The characteristic equation becomes
s
2
+ 50.5s + 5050 = 0 = s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
This gives = 0.355; M
p
= 30.33%
(c) G(s) =
20
4 202
( )
( )
K sK
s s
A D

K
v
=
20
202
K
A
= 100; no effect on e
ss
.
Characteristic equation of the system is
s
2
+ (50.5 + 5K
D
)s + 5050 = 0 = s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
This gives K
D
= 6.95.
For = 0.6, M
p
= 9.5%
(d) System zero: s =
K
K
A
D
= 145.32
Real part of closed-loop poles = M
n
= 42.636.
The zero will affect the overshoot. The peak overshoot will be slightly
more than 9.5%.
6.20 (a) G(s) =
3
0 3 1 1 2
K
s s s
A
( . )( )
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5 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
K
v
= 3K
A
; e
ss
=
0 03
3
.
K
A
=
0 01 .
K
A
(b)
Y s
F s
w
( )
( )
=
0 3 1 2
0 3 1 1 2 3
. ( )
( . )( )


s
s s s K
A
y
ss
=
0 1 .
K
A
(c) Characteristic equation is
0.6s
3
+ 2.3s
2
+ s + 3K
A
= 0
For stability, K
A
< 1.28.
Minimum value of error in part (a) = 7.81 10
3
Minimum value of error in part (b) = 0.078
6.21

Controller
Power amp
1
e
u i
100
x
47.6
s
2
16.67
(a) Characteristic equation of the system is
s
2
16.67s + 4760K
c
= 0
Unstable or oscillatory for all K
c
> 0.
(b) U(s) = K
c
(1 + sT
D
) E(s)
Characteristic equation becomes
s
2
+ 4760 K
c
T
D
s + 4760K
c
16.67 = 0
For stability, K
c
> 3.5 10
3
and T
D
> 0.
(c)
2
=
[ ( .2)]
[ ( .2)]
ln
ln
0
0
2
2 2
+
; = 0.456
t
s
=
4
M
n
= 0.4; M
n
= 21.93
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SOLUTION MANUAL 5 3
s
2
+ 4760 K
c
T
D
s + 4760 K
c
16.67 = s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
This gives K
c
= 0.1045, T
D
= 0.04.
6.22 (a) System-type number = 2
(b)
H s
Q s
w
( )
( )
=
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
2
.5 ( . )
( . ) .5( )
s s
s s K sK
c D
+
+ + +
h
ss
=
0
0
.5
.5K
c
; K
c
> 10
The characteristic equation is
0.1s
3
+ s
2
+ 0.5K
D
s + 0.5K
c
= 0
For stability, K
D
> 0.1K
c
6.23

+ q q
r
K
2
1
+ K
1
s
s + 1
Characteristic equation is
s
2
+ (1 + K
1
)s + K
2
= 0 = s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
M
p
= 20% = 0.456; t
s
= 2 M
n
= 4.386
K
2
= 19.237; K
1
= 3

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CHAPTER 7 COMPENSATOR DESIGN USING ROOT LOCUS
PLOTS
7.1 (a) o
A
= 2 ; o
A
= 60, 180, 300 ; intersection with ju-axis at
j5.042; angle of departure o
p
from 1 + j4 = 40.
(b) o
A
= 1.25 ; o
A
= 45, 135, 225, 315 ; intersection with ju-axis at
j1. 1; angle of departure o
p
from 1 + j1 = 71.6; multiple roots at
s = 2.3.
(c) Angle of arrival o
z
at 3 + j4 = 77.5 ; multiple roots at s = 0.45.
(d) o
A
= 1.33 ; o
A
= 60; 180, 300; intersection with ju-axis at
j 5 ; angle of departure o
p
from 2 + j1 = 63.43; multiple roots
at s = 1, 1.67.
(e) o
A
= 1.5 ; o
A
= 90, 270
(f) o
A
= 5.5 ; o
A
= 90, 270; multiple roots at s = 2.31, 5.18.
(g) o
A
= 0.5 ; o
A
= 90, 270; intersection with ju-axis at j2.92.
7.2 (i) o
A
= 2; o
A
= 60, 180, 300; intersection with ju-axis at j 10 ;
angle of departure o
p
from 3 + j1 = 71.5.
Two root loci break away from s = 1.1835 at 90. Two root loci
approach s = 2.8165 at 90
jw
j
10
s
3 + 1 j
2
(i)
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SOLUTION MANUAL 5 5
(ii) Intersection with ju-axis at j2 3 ; angle of departure o
p
from
3 + j 3 = 60.
Three root loci approach the point s = 2, and then break away in
directions 120 apart.
jw
jw
j 3
s
s
2
(ii) (iii)
9 4
3 +
60
j23
(iii) o
A
= 4 ; o
A
= 90, 270
The characteristic equation has three roots at s = 3; the three root
loci originating from open-loop poles approach this point and then
breakaway. Tangents to the three loci breaking away from s = 3 are
120 apart.
(iv) o
A
= 1 ; o
A
= 45, 135, 45, 135; intersection with the ju axis
at j 1.58; angle of departure o
p
from 1 + j2 = 90
There are two roots at s = 1, two roots at s = 1 + j1.22, and two
roots at s = 1 j1.22. The break away directions are shown in the
figure.
(v) There are four roots at s = 1. The break away directions are shown in
the figure.
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5 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
jw
jw
s s
1 + 1 j 1 + 2 j
2
2
(v)
(iv)
45
45
7.3 o
A
= 1 ; o
A
= 60, 180, 300; intersection with the ju-axis at j 2 ;
multiple roots at s = 0.42.
The = 0.5 loci passes through the origin and makes an angle of 0 =
cos
1
= 60 with the negative real axis. The point s
d
= 0.33 + j0.58 on
this line satisfies the angle criterion. By magnitude criterion, the value of K
at this point is found to be 1.04. Using this value of K, the third pole is
found at
s = 2.33. Therefore,
M(s) =
1 04
0 33 0 0 33 0 2 33)
.
( . .58)( . .58)( . s j s j s - - - -
7.4 o
A
= 3 ; o
A
= 45, 135, 225, 315; intersection with the ju-axis at
j3.25; departure angle o
p
from 4 + j4 = 225; multiple roots at s = 1.5.
At the intersection of the = 0.707 line with the root locus, the value of
K, by magnitude criterion is 130. The remaining pair of complex roots for
K = 130 can be approximately located graphically. It turns out that real part
of complex pair away from ju-axis is approximately four times as large as
that of the pair near ju-axis. Therefore, the transient response term due to
the pair away from the ju-axis will decay much more rapidly than the
transient response term due to the pair near ju-axis.
7.5 o
A
= 2.67 ; o
A
= 60, 180, 300 ; intersection with ju-axis at j 32 ;
departure angle o
p
from 4 + j4 = 45.
The point s
d
= 2 + j3.4 on the = 0.5 line satisfies the angle criterion.
By magnitude criterion, the value of K at this point is found to be 65. Using
this value of K, the third pole is found at s = 4; the dominance condition is
not satisfied.
7.6 o
A
= 2; o
A
= 60, 180, 300; intersection with the ju-axis at j 5 ;
multiple roots at s = 0.473.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 5 7
The least value of K to give an oscillatory response is the value of K at
the multiple roots (K = 1.128).
The greatest value of K that can be used before continuous oscillations
occur is the value of K at the point of intersection with the ju-axis. From
the Routh array formulation it is found that the greatest value of K is 30 and
at this gain continuous oscillations of frequency 5 rad/sec occur.
7.7 The proof given in Example 7.1.
7.8 The proof follows from Example 7.1.
Draw a line from the origin tangential to the circular part of the locus. This
line corresponds to damping ratio for maximum oscillatory response. The
tangential line corresponds to = 0.82 and the value of K at the point of
tangency is 2.1.
7.9 The proof given in Example 7.2
7.10 s = o + ju
tan
1

u
o
u
o
-
-

1 1
1
tan = tan tan ( )

-
-
-
1 1
2
180 2 1
u
o
u
o
q
Taking tangents on both sides of this equation, and noting that
tan tan

+

L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
2
180

=
u
o - 2
,
we obtain
u
o
u
o
u
o
u
o
-
-

-
F
H
I
K

F
H
I
K
1 1
1
1 1
=
u
o
u
o
u
o
u
o
-
-

F
H
I
K
-
F
H
I
K
2
1
2
Manipulation of this equation gives
o u
F
H
I
K
-
L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
2
5
4
2
2
= 0
There exists a circular root locus with centre at o = , u = 0 and the radius
equal to 5 2.
7.11 Use the result in Problem 7.7 for plotting the root locus. Complex-root
branches form a circle.
The = 0.707 line intersects the root locus at two points; the values of K at
these points are 1 and 5. The point that corresponds to K = 5 results in lower
value of t
s
; therefore we choose K = 5(s
d
= 3 + j3).
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5 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
For = 0.707, M
p
= e
* / 1
2
= 4.3%
t
s
=
4
u
n
=
4
3
sec
G(s) =
K s
s s
( )
( )( )
-
-
4
2 1
E(s) =
1
1 - G s ( )
R(s) =
( )( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
s s
s s K s
R s
- -
- - -
2 1
2 1 4
For R(s) = 1/s (assuming selection of K that results in stable closed-loop
poles)
e
ss
= lim ( )
s
sE s
0
=

-
2
2 4K
For K = 5, e
ss
= 1/9
Therefore, steady-state error is 11.11%.
7.12 Breakaway points obtained from the solution of the equation dK/ds = 0,
are s = 0.634, 2.366. Two root loci break away from the real axis at
s = 0.634, and break into the real axis at s = 2.366. By determining a
sufficient number of points that satisfy the angle criterion, it can be found
that the root locus is a circle with centre at 1.5 that passes through the
breakaway points.
Both the breakaway points correspond to = 1. For minimum steady-
state error we should select larger value of K.
s = 0.634 corresponds to K = 0.0718
s = 2.366 corresponds to K = 14
7.13 The characteristic equation is
1 +
0 8
10 1 30 1 3 1
.
( )( )( )
K
s s s - - -
= 0
or 1 +

-
F
H
I
K
-
F
H
I
K
-
F
H
I
K
K
s s s
1
10
1
30
1
3
= 0 ; K' = 0.000888 K
o
A
= 0.155 ; o
A
= 60, 180, 300; intersection with the ju-axis at
j 0.22; multiple roots at s = 0.063
The point on the = 0.707 line that satisfies the angle criterion is s
d
=
0.06 j0.06 ; the value of K at this point, obtained by magnitude criterion,
is 0.00131. Therefore K = 1.475.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 5 9
7.14 (a) Ideal feedback sensor:
1 +
K
s s ( . ) 0 1 1 -
= 1 +
10
10
K
s s ( ) -
= 0
K = 10 gives = 0.5.
(b) Sensor with appreciable time-constant:
1 +
K
s s s ( . )( . ) 0 1 1 0 02 1 - -
= 0
or 1 +

- -
K
s s s ( )( ) 10 20
= 0 ; K = 500 K
Locate a root locus point on the real axis that gives K = 5000 (i.e., K
= 10). Complex-conjugate roots can then be found by long division.
The process gives = 0.4.
7.15 Characteristic equation is given by
A(s) = s
3
+ 6s
2
+ 8s + 0.1K(s + 10) = 0
which can be arranged as
1 +
-
- -
K s
s s s
( )
( )( )
10
2 4
= 0 ; K = 0.1K
o
A
= 2 ; o
A
= 90, 90; intersection with the ju-axis at j 20 ; multiple
roots at s = 0.8951.
The point on = 0.5 line that satisfies the angle criterion is s
d
=
0.75 + j1.3. The value of K at this point, obtained by magnitude criterion,
is 1.0154. Hence K = 10.154.
The third closed-loop pole is found at s = 4.5
7.16 Characteristic equation of the system is
s
3
+ s + 10K
t
s + 10 = 0
which can be rearranged as
1 +
Ks
s s
2
10 + +
= 0 ; K = 10K
t
Notice that a zero is located at the origin and open-loop poles are located at
s = 0.5 j3.1225. As per the result of Problem 7.9, a circular root locus
exists with the centre at zero and radius equal to 10 .
The point on the = 0.7 line that satisfies the angle criterion is s
d
=
2.214 + j2.258.
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6 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
The gain K corresponding to this point is 3.427. Hence the desired value of
velocity feedback gain K
t
is 0.3427.
7.17 Characteristic equation of the system is
A(s) = s(s + 1) (s + 4) + 20K
t
s + 20 = 0
which may be rearranged as
1 +
Ks
s j s j s ( )( )( ) - - 2 2 5
= 0 ; K = 20K
t
o
A
= 2.5 ; o
A
= 90, 90; departure angle o
p
from s = j2 is 158.2.
The following two points on = 0.4 line satisfy the angle criterion:
s
1
= 1.05 + j2.41, s
2
= 2.16 + j4.97
The value of K at s
1
is 0.449, and at s
2
is 1.4130.
The third pole corresponding to K = 0.449 is found at s = 2.9, and for
K = 1.413 at 0.68.
From the root locus plot, one may infer that the closed-loop pole at s =
0.68 is close to system zero at the origin. This is not the case. In fact the
closed-loop system does not have a zero at the origin:
Y s
R s
( )
( )
=
20
1 4 20 1 s s s K s
t
( )( ) ( ) - - - -
In the root locus plot, the zero at the origin was introduced because of the
process of modifying the characteristic equation so that the adjustable
variable K = 20K
t
appears as a multiplying factor.
K
t
= 0.449 satisfies the dominance condition to a reasonable extent.
For K
t
= 1.413, complex-conjugate poles are not dominant.
7.18 The characteristic equation of the system is
s(s + 1) (s + 3) + 2s + 2u = 0
which may be rearranged as
1 +
K
s s s ( )
2
4 5 - -
= 0 ; K = 2u
o
A
= 1.3333 ; o
A
= 60, 60, 180 ; intersection with the ju-axis at
j 5 ; departure angle o
p
from complex pole in the upper half of s-plane =
63.43; multiple roots at s = 1, 1.666.
The point on = 0.5 line that satisfies the angle criterion is s
d
=
0.63 + j1.09. The value of K at this point, obtained by magnitude criterion,
is 4.32. Therefore u = 2.16.
The third pole for K = 4.32 is at s = 2.75.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 6 1
7.19 The characteristic equation of the system is
s
3
+ 9s
2
+ 18s + 10u = 0
which may be rearranged as
1 +
K
s s s ( )( ) - - 3 6
= 0 ; K = 10u
o
A
= 3 ; o
A
= 60, 60, 180; intersection with the ju-axis at j3 2 ;
multiple roots at s = 1.268.
The point on = 0.5 line that satisfies the angle criterion is s
d
=
1 + j1.732. The value of K at this point is 28. Therefore u = 2.8. The third
pole for K = 28 is at s = 7.
7.20 (a) 1 +
K
s s ( ) 2
= 0
System is unstable for all K > 0.
(b) In practice, the poles and zeros can never exactly cancel since they are
determined by two independent pieces of hardware whose numerical
values are neither precisely known nor precisely fixed. We should
therefore never attempt to cancel poles in the right-half plane, since
any inexact cancellation will result in an unstable closed-loop system.
(c) 1 +
K s
s s s
( )
( )( )
+
+
1
2 8
= 0
From the Routh array, we find that the loci cross the ju-axis when
K = 19.2. For K > 19.2, the closed-loop poles are always in the left-
half plane and the system is stable.
E s
R s
( )
( )
=
1
1- G s ( )
=
s s s
s s s Ks K
( )( )
( )( )
-
- - -
2 8
2 8
For R(s) = 1/s and K > 19.2 (required for stability),
e
ss
= lim
s0
sE(s) = 0
For R(s) = 1/s
2
and K > 19.2,
e
ss
= lim
s0
sE(s) =
16
K
7.21 o
A
= 2 ; o
A
= 60, 180, 300; intersection with the ju-axis at j 5 ;
multiple roots at s = 0.473.
The value of K at the point of intersection of the root locus and = 0.3 line
is 7.0.
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6 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
K
v
= lim
s0
sG(s) = K/5 = 1.4 ; t
s
= 4/u
n
= 11.6 sec.
With the compensator, the characteristic equation becomes
1 +
K s
s s s s
( )
( )( )( )
10 1
100 1 1 5
-
- - -
= 0
or
1 +
-
- - -
K s
s s s s
( . )
( . )( )( )
0 1
0 01 1 5
= 0 ; K = 0.1K
The value of K at the point of intersection of = 0.3 line and the root locus
is 6.0. Therefore K = 60.
K
v
= lim
s0
sD(s) G(s) = K/5 = 12, ; t
s
= 4/u
n
= 12.7 sec.
7.22 1 +
K s
s s s
( .5)
( )( )
-
- -
2
1 u
= 0
Desired closed-loop pole; s
d
= 1.6 + j4. Angle criterion at s
d
is satisfied
when u = 5.3. The value of K at s
d
is 23.2. The third pole is at s = 3.1.
7.23 (a) 1 +
K
s s ( ) - 2
= 0
= 0.707 ; t
s
=
4
u
n
= 2. Therefore, u
n
= 2
Proportional control does not meet this requirement.
(b) 1 +
K sK
s s
c D
-
- ( ) 2
= 1 +
K s K K
s s
D c D
( / )
( )
-
- 2
At the points of intersection of = 0.707 line and u
n
= 2 line, the
angle criterion is satisfied when K
c
/K
D
= 4.
The root locus plot of
1 +
K s
s s
D
( )
( )
-
-
4
2
= 0
has circular complex-root branches (refer Problem 7.7). At the point
of intersection of = 0.707 line and u
n
= 2 line, we find by magnitude
criterion that K
D
= 2. Therefore K
c
= 8.
7.24 G(s) =
K s
s s s
( . )
( . )
-
- -
0 1
0 8 4
2
; K = 4000
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SOLUTION MANUAL 6 3
D(s) =
s s
s s
2
0 8 4
0 384 10 42
- -
- -
.
( . )( . )
D(s) improves transient response considerably, and there is no effect on
steady-state performance.
7.25 = 0.45 (specified). Let us select the real part of the desired roots as u
n
=
4 for rapid settling.
The zero of the compensator is placed at s = z = 4, directly below
the desired root location. For the angle criterion to be satisfied at the desired
root location, the pole is placed at s = p = 10.6. The gain of the
compensated system, obtained by magnitude criterion, is 96.5. The
compensated system is then
D(s)G(s) =
96.5 4
2 10 6
( )
( )( . )
s
s s s
-
- -
K
v
= lim
s0
sD(s) G(s) = 18.2.
The K
v
of the compensated system is less than the desired value of 20.
Therefore, we must repeat the design procedure for a second choice of the
desired root.
7.26 Desired root location may be taken as
s
d
= 1.588 + j3.152
It meets the requirements on M
p
and settling time. With D(s) =
s
s
-
-
1
10
,
angle criterion is met. Magnitude criterion gives K = 147. The compensated
system has K
v
= 2.94.
7.27 = 0.707; 4/u
n
= 1.4 u
n
= 2.85
u
n
= 4 ; u
n
1
2
= 2.85
s
d
= 2.85 + j2.85
With D(s) =
( .5)
( .5)
s
s
-
-
1
3
2
2
, angle criterion is satisfied at s
d
. The value of K,
found by magnitude criterion, is 37.
7.28 From the root locus plot of the uncompensated system, we find that for gain
of 1.06, the dominant closed-loop poles are at 0.33 j 0.58. The value of
is 0.5 and that of u
n
is 0.66. The velocity error constant is 0.53.
The desired dominant closed-loop poles are 0.33 j0.58 with a K
v
of
5. The lag compensator
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6 4 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
D(s) =
s
s
-
-
0 1
0 001
.
.
gives K
v
boost of the factor of 10. The angle contribution of this
compensator at 0.33 + j0.58 is about seven degrees. Since the angle
contribution is not small, there will be a small change in the new root locus
near the desired dominant closed-loop poles. If the damping of the new
dominant poles is kept at = 0.5, then the dominant poles from the new root
locus are found at 0.28 j 0.51. The undamped natural frequency reduces
to 0.56. This implies that the transient response of the compensated system
is slower than the original.
The gain at 0.28 + j0.51 from the new root locus plot is 0.98.
Therefore K = 0.98/1.06 = 0.925 and
D(s) =
0 0 1
0 01
.925( . )
.
s
s
-
-
7.29 The dominant closed-loop poles of uncompensated system are located at
s = 3.6 j4.8 with = 0.6. The value of K is found as 820.
Therefore K
v
= lim
s0
sG(s) = 820/200 = 4.1.
Lag compensator D(s) =
s
s
-
-
0
0 025
.25
.
gives a K
v
boost of the factor of 10.
The angle contribution of this compensator at 3.6 + j4.8 is 1.8, which is
acceptable in the present problem.
7.30 (a) 1 +
K
s s ( )( .5 ) 2 1 0 1 - -
= 1 +
K
s s ( .5)( ) - - 0 2
= 0
From the root locus we find that no value of K will yield u
n
= 0.75.
(b) D(s) = K
T s
c
I
1
1
-
F
H
G
I
K
J
= K
c
+ K
I
/s = K
c

s K K
s
I c
-
F
H
I
K
/
D(s)G(s) =
K s K K
s s s
c I c
( / )
( .5)( )
-
- - 0 2
At the point corresponding to = 0.6 and u
n
= 0.75, the angle criterion is
satisfied when K
I
/K
c
= 0.75.
The gain at the desired point is K
c
= 2.06. This yields K
I
= 1.545.
7.31 K
v
= 20 demands K = 2000. However, using Routh criterion, we find that
when K = 2000, the roots of the characteristic equation are at j10. Clearly
the roots of the system when K
v
requirement is satisfied are a long way
from satisfying the requirement. It will be difficult to bring the dominant
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SOLUTION MANUAL 6 5
roots from the ju-axis to the = 0.707 line by using a lead compensator.
Therefore, we will attempt to satisfy the K
v
and requirements by a lag
compensator.
From the uncompensated root locus we find that corresponding to
= 0.707, the dominant roots are at 2.9 j2.9 and the value of K is 236.
Therefore necessary ratio of zero to pole of the compensator is
| |
| |
z
p
=
2000
236
= 8.5
We will choose = 0.1 and p = 0.1/9. For this choice, we find that the angle
contribution of the compensator at 2.9 + j.2.9 is negligible.
7.32 D(s)G(s) =
K s s
s s s s s
( / )( / )
( )( )( / )( / )
- -
- - - -
1 1
1 5 1
1 2
1 2
. .
u. u .
1
1
.
= 0.05 ;
1
2
.
= 1 ;
1
1
u.
= 0.005 ;
u
.
2
= 10
D(s)G(s) =
K s
s s s s
( . )
( . )( )( )
-
- - -
0 05
0 005 5 10
For = 0.45, we obtain
s
d
= 1.571 + j3.119, K = 146.3, K
v
= 29.3, u
n
= 3.49
7.33 D(s) = K
c
+ K
D
s = K
c
1-
F
H
G
I
K
J
K
K
s
D
c
(a) D(s)G(s) =
K
K
K
s
s
c
D
c
1
1
2
-
F
H
G
I
K
J
-
s
2
+ 1 + K
c
+ K
D
s = (s + 1 + j 3 ) (s + 1 j 3 )
This equation gives K
c
= 3 and K
D
= 2
K
p
= lim
s0
D(s)G(s) = 3.
(b) With PID controller
D(s) =
K s s
s
( .2)( . ) - - 0 1 3332
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6 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
the angle criterion at s
d
= 1 + j 3 is satisfied. The gain K is 2.143.
7.34 (a) Uncompensated system:
M
p
= 20% = 0.45
At the point of intersection of = 0.45 line and the root locus, u
n
=
1.1 and K = 56
(b) t
s
= 4/u
n
= 3.6 sec
K
v
= lim
s0
sG(s) = 2.07
(c) Compensated system:
M
p
= 15% = 0.55
t
s
=
3 6
2
.
.5
= 1.45 ; u
n
= 4/1.45 = 2.75
u
n
=
2 75
0
.
.55
= 5 ; s
d
= 2.75 + j4.18
K
v
> 20
Lead-lag compensated system:
D
1
(s) D
2
(s) G(s) =
K s s
s s s s s
( .9)
( . )( )( . )
- -
- - - -
3)( 0
0 15 3)( 9 13 6
; K = 506
7.35 G(s) =
K
s s KK
t
( ) - - 2
E s
R s
( )
( )
=
1
1- G s ( )
=
s s KK
s s KK K
t
t
( )
( )
- -
- - -
2
2
For R(s) = 1/s
2
,
e
ss
=
2
0 35
-
s
KK
K
t
.
> 0.707 ; t
s
s 3 sec.
The characteristic equation of the system is
s
2
+ 2s + KK
t
s + K = 0
which may be rearranged as
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SOLUTION MANUAL 6 7
1 +
KK s
s s K
t
2
2 - -
= 0
The locus of the roots as K varies (set KK
t
= 0) is determined from the
following equation:
1 +
K
s s ( ) - 2

= 0
For K = 20, the roots are 1 j4.36.
Then the effect of varying KK
t
is determined from the locus equation
1 +
KK s
s j s j
t
( . )( . ) - - - 1 4 36 1 4 36
= 0
Note that complex root branches follow a circular path.
At the intersection of the root locus and = 0.707 line, we obtain KK
t
=
4.3. The real part of the point of intersection is o = 3.15, and therefore the
settling time is 1.27 sec.
7.36 The characteristic equation of the system is
1 +
KK s
s s K
t
2
2 - -
= 0
or
1 +
KK s
s j K s j K
t
( ( )( ( ) - - - 1 1 1 1
= 0
The root contour plotted for various values of K with K
t
= = KK
t
varying
from 0 to ~ are shown in the figure below.
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6 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
jw
s
1 j
2 j
1 j
K =

t
0
K =

t

K

t
K =

t
0
K =

t
0
K = 2
K = 5
K =

t
0
j2

5

2
1
7.37 G(s) =
AK
s s s KK s
t
( )( ) - - - 1 5
The characteristic equation is
s(s + 1) (s + 5) + KK
t
(s + A/K
t
) = 0
which may be rearranged as
1 +
KK s A K
s s s
t t
( / )
( )( )
-
- - 1 5
= 0
The angle criterion at s = 1 + j2 is satisfied when A/K
t
= 2.5. Let us take
A = 2 and K
t
= 0.8.
K
v
= lim
s0
sG(s) =
AK
KK
t
5 -
With K = 10, K
v
= 1.54
The closed-loop transfer function of the system is
Y s
R s
( )
( )
=
20
1 2 1 2 4 ( )( )( ) s j s j s - - - -
7.38 The characteristic equation of the system is
s(s + 1) (s + 5) + KK
t
s + AK = 0
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SOLUTION MANUAL 6 9
or
s(s + 1) (s + 5) + [s + u = 0 ; [ = KK
t
; u = AK
The root locus equation as a function of u with [ = 0 is
1 +
u
s s s ( )( ) - - 1 5
= 0
Sketch a root locus plot for u varying from 0 to ~. The points on these loci
become the open-loop poles for the root locus equation
1 +
[
u
s
s s s ( )( ) - - - 1 5
= 0
For some selected values of u, the loci for [ are sketched (refer Fig. 7.44).
7.39 e
s
=

-
( ) s
s
2
2
1
K s
s s
( )
( )( )

- -
2
1 2
= 0 = 1 F(s)
F(s) =
K j
j j
( )
( )( )
o u
o u o u
-
- - - -
2
1 2
=
K j
j
( )
( )( ) (
o u
o o u u o
-
- - - -
2
1 2 2 3)
2
ZF(s) = tan
1

u
o
u o
o o u

-
- -

2
2 3)
1 2
1
2
tan
(
( )( )
= tan
1

u
o
u o
o o u
u
o
u o
o o u

-
- -
-

-
- -
L
N
M
O
Q
P
R
S
|
|
T
|
|
U
V
|
|
W
|
|
( ) 2
2 3)
1 2
1
2
2 3)
1 2
2
2
(
( )
(
( )( )
ZF(s) = 0 if
u
o
u o
o o u

-
- - 2
2 3)
1 2
2
(
( )( )
= 0
Manipulation of this equation gives
(o 2)
2
+ u
2
= 12
Centre = (2, 0) and radius = 12 = 3.464
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7 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
It can easily be verified that at every point on this circle, ZF(s) = 0.
Revisiting Example 7.14 will be helpful.
7.40 The proof runs parallel to that in Example 7.2, with a change in angle
criterion as K s 0.
Centre at zero at s = 0
Radius = u [
2 2
- = ( .5) ( .5) 0 0
2 2
- = 0.707
The root locus plot is shown in the figure below.
j0.5
0.5
K
K
K = 0
K = 0

7.41 G(s) =
20 7 3)
2 8
. (
( )( )
s
s s s
-
- -
(i) u = u
0
+ Au = 8 + Au
The characteristic equation is
s(s + 2) (s + 8) + Au s(s + 2) + 20.7 (s + 3) = 0
When Au = 0, the roots are (may be determined by root-locus method
or the Newton-Raphson method)
i
1,2
= 2.36 j2.48, x
3
= 5.27
The root locus for Au is determined using the root locus equation
1 +
Au
x x x
s s
s s s
( )
( )( )( )
-

2
1 2 3
= 0
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SOLUTION MANUAL 7 1
The angle of departure at s = x
1
, is 80.
Near s = x
1
, the locus may be approximated by a line drawn from
2.36 + j2.48 at an angle of 80. For a change of Ax
1
= 0.2 Z 80
along the departure line, Au is determined by magnitude criterion:
Au = 0.48
Therefore the sensitivity at i
1
is
S
u
x
-
1
=
A
A
x
u u
1
0
/
=
0 80
0 48 8
.2
. /
Z
= 3.34 Z 80
(ii) Sensitivity of the root s = x
1
to a change in zero at s = 3 is determined
as follows.
[ = [
0
+ A[ = 3 + A[
The characteristic equation is
s(s + 2) (s + 8) + 20.7 (s + 3 + A[) = 0
or
1 +
20 7
1 2 3
.
( )( )( )
A[
x x x s s s
= 0
The angle of departure of x
1
is 50.
For a change of Ax
1
= 0.2 Z + 50, we obtain A[ = 0.21.
Therefore
S
[
x
1
=
A
A
x
[ [
1
0
/
=
0 50
0 3
.2
.21 /
Z -
= 2.84 Z + 50
The sensitivity of the system to the pole can be considered to be less
than the sensitivity to the zero because of the direction of departure
from the pole at s = x
1
.
7.42 (a) The characteristic equation is
1 +
K s
s s s
( )
( )(
-
- -
5
2 3)
= 0
It can easily be verified from the root locus plot that for K = 8 the
closed-loop poles are
x
1,2
= 0.5 j 3.12, i
3
= 4
(b) s(s + 2 + ) (s + 3) + 8(s + 5) = 0
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7 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
or
1 +
s s
s s s s
( )
( )( ) ( )
-
- - - -
3
2 3 8 5
= 0
or 1 +

x x x
s s
s s s s
( )
( )( )( )
-

3
1 2 3
= 0
Case I: > 0
From the root locus plot we find that the direction of departure from
the pole at s = x
1
, is away from the ju-axis.
Case II: < 0
From the root locus plot we find that the direction of departure from
the pole at s = x
1
is towards the ju-axis. Therefore the variation < 0
is dangerous.
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CHAPTER 8 THE NYQUIST STABILITY CRITERION
AND STABILITY MARGINS
8.1 (a) Revisiting Example 8.1 will be helpful.
(i) 1Z 0 (ii) 0Z 180 (iv)
J J
J J
1 2
1 2
90
+
Z
(b) Revisiting Example 8.2 will be helpful.
(i) J j~ (ii) 0Z 180
(c) Revisiting Example 8.3 will be helpful.
(i) ~Z 180 (ii) 0Z 270
(d) (i) (J
1
+ J
2
) j ~ (ii) 0 Z 270
(iii)
J J
J J
1 2
1 2
180
+
Z
(e) (i) ~Z180 (ii) 0 Z 0 (iv)
J J J J
J J
1 2 1 2
1 2
90
( )

+
Z
8.2 (a) Number of poles of G(s) in right half s-plane, P = 1
Number of clockwise encirclements of the critical point, N = 1
Z = number of zeros of 1 + G(s) in right half s-plane = N + P = 2
The closed-loop system is unstable.
(b) P = 2
Number of counterclockwise encirclements of the critical point = 2
Therefore N = number of clockwise encirclements = 2
Z = N + P = 2 + 2 = 0
The closed-loop system is stable.
(c) P = 0
N = (Number of clockwise encirclements of the critical point number
of counterclockwise encirclements of the critical point) = 0
Z = N + P = 0; the closed-loop system is stable.
8.3 The polar plot of G(jM) for M = 0
+
to M = + ~ is given in Fig. P8.3b. Plot of
G(jM) for M = ~ to M = 0

is the reflection of the given polar plot with


respect to the real axis. Since
G j ( ) M
M0
= ~Z 180,
G(s) has double pole at the origin. The map of Nyquist contour semicircle
s = He
jB
, H 0, B varying from 90 at M = 0

through 0 to + 90 at M =
0
+
, into the Nyquist plot is given by ~Z 2B (an infinite semicircle
traversed clockwise).
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74 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
With this information, Nyquist plot for the given system can easily be
drawn.
(i) P = 0, N = 0; Z = N + P = 0
The closed-loop system is stable
(ii) P = 1, N = 0; Z = N + P = 1
The closed-loop system is unstable
(iii) P = 0, N = 0; Z = N + P = 0
The closed-loop system is stable.
8.4 (a) The key points to the polar plot are:
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 18Z 0
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 0Z 270
The intersections of the polar plot with the axes of G(s)H(s)-plane can
easily be ascertained by identifying the real and imaginary parts of
G(jM)H(jM). When we set Im [G(jM)H(jM)] to zero, we get M = 4.123
and
G j H j ( ) ( )
.
M M
M4 123
= 1.428
Similarly, setting Re [G(jM)H(jM)] to zero, we get intersection with
the imaginary axis.
Based on this information, a rough sketch of the Nyquist plot can
easily be made. From the Nyquist plot, we find that N = 2. Since P = 0,
we have Z = N + P = 2, i.e., two closed-loop poles in right half s-plane.
(b) The key points of the polar plot are (refer Problem 8.1d):
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M0
= 3 j ~
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 0Z 270
Intersection with the real axis at M = 1/ 2 ;
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M
1
2
=
4
3
The map of Nyquist contour semicircle s = He
jB
, H 0, B varying
from 90 at M = 0

through 0 to + 90 at M = 0
+
, into the Nyquist plot
is given by ~Z B (an infinite semicircle traversed clockwise).
Based on this information, a rough sketch of Nyquist plot can easily
be made.
P = 0, N = 2. Therefore Z = N + P = 2
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SOLUTION MANUAL 7 5
(c) G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M0
= 2Z 180
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 0Z 90
No more intersections with real/imaginary axis. From the Nyquist plot,
we find that N = 1. Since P = 1, we have Z = N + P = 0; the closed-
loop system is stable.
(d) G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M0
= 0Z 90 ; G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M1
= 2.6Z161 ;
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M2
= 2.6 Z 198 ; G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M10
= 0.8Z 107
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 0Z 90
The Nyquist plot is given in Fig. P8.2b.
P = 2, N = 2 ; Z = N + P = 0
(e) G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M0
= ~Z 180
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 0 Z 90
No intersections with real/imaginary axis.
The map of Nyquist contour semicircle s = He
jB
, H 0, B varying
from 90 at M = 0

through 0 to + 90 at M = 0
+
, into the Nyquist plot
is given by ~Z 2B (an infinite semicircle traversed clockwise).
With this information, Nyquist plot for the given system can easily be
drawn.
P = 0, N = 0 ; Z = N + P = 0
(f) G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M0
=
1
100
0 Z
G j H j ( ) ( ) u u
u

10
= ~ Z 0
Consider the Nyquist contour shown in figure below. For the semi-
circle s = j10 + He
jB
, H 0, B varying from 90 at M = 0

through 0
to + 90 at M = 10
+
,
G(s)H(s) = lim
H0

1
10 100
2
( ) j e
j
+ + H
B
= lim
( )
H
B B
H H

+
0
1
20 e j e
j j
= lim
H
B
H

0
1
e
j
It is an infinite semicircle from M = 10

to M = 10
+
traversed clockwise.
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 0Z 180
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76 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
The Nyquist plot is shown in the figure below.
The Nyquist plot passes through 1 + j0 point. The Nyquist criterion
is not applicable.
1 + 0 j
10 j
10 j
s
j
j
Re
Im
w =
jw
w = 0
+
w = 10
+
Nyquist
plot
Nyquist
contour
100
1
(g) G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M0
= 8 + j~
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 0 Z 90
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M 3
= 2 + j0
No intersection with the imaginary axis.
The map of Nyquist contour semicircle s = He
jB
, H 0, B varying
from 90 at M = 0

through 0to + 90 M = 0
+
, into the Nyquist plot is
given by ~Z B (an infinite semicircle traversed clockwise).
With this information, a rough sketch of Nyquist plot can easily be
made (refer Fig. P8.2a).
P = 1, N = 1. Therefore Z = N + P = 0.
8.5 G(jM)H(jM) =
+
+
+

+
K j K ( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1 1
2
1 2
2 2
1
2
1 2
2 2
1
2
M J J
M M J
M J J
M M J
(i) For J
1
< J
2
, the polar plot of G(jM)H(jM) is entirely in the third
quadrant as shown in figure below.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 7 7
P = 0, N = 0. Therefore Z = N + P = 0; the closed-loop system is stable.
(ii) For J
1
> J
2
, the polar plot of G(jM)H(jM) is entirely in the second
quadrant, as shown in figure below.
P = 0, N = 2. Therefore Z = N + P = 2; the closed-loop system is
unstable.
Re
(i) (ii)
Im
w =
w =
w =
w =
w = 0

w = 0

w = 0
+
w = 0
+
8.6 (a) G j ( ) M
M0
= 4Z0 ; G j ( ) M
M~
= 0 Z 270
Intersection with the real axis at 0.8.
The critical point 1 + j0 will be encircled by the Nyquist plot if
K > 1/0.8. Since P = 0, we want net encirclements of the critical point
to be zero for stability. Therefore K must be less than 5/4.
(b) G(s) =
4 1
1 0 1
2
( )
( . )
+
+
s
s s
=
+
+
K s
s s
( )
( )
J
J
2
2
1
1
1
; J
1
< J
2
The Nyquist plot for this transfer function has already been given in
the Solution of Problem 8.5. From this plot we see that the closed-loop
system is table for all K.
(c) G(s) =
4 1 0 1
1
2
( . )
( )
+
+
s
s s
=
+
+
K s
s s
( )
( )
J
J
2
2
1
1
1
; J
1
> J
2
The Nyquist plot for this transfer function has already been given in
the Solution of Problem 8.5. From this plot we see that the closed-loop
system is unstable for all K.
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78 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(d) G(jM) =
e
j
j
+
0 8
1
. M
M
=
1
1
2
+M
[(cos 0.8M M sin 0.8M) j(sin 0.8M + M cos 0.8M)]
The imaginary part is equal to zero if
sin 0.8M + M cos 0.8M = 0
This gives
M = tan 0.8M
Solving this equation for smallest positive value of M, we get M =
2.4482.
G j ( ) M
M0
= 1Z 0 ; G j ( )
.
M
M2 4482
= 0.378 + j0
G j ( ) M
M~
= 0
The polar plot will spiral into the M ~ point at the origin (refer Fig.
8.39).
The critical value of K is obtained by letting G(j 2.4482) equal 1.
This gives K = 2.65. The closed-loop system is stable for K < 2.65.
8.7 The figure given below shows the Nyquist plot of G(s)H(s) for K = 1. As
gain K is varied, we can visualize the Nyquist plot in this figure expanding
(increased gain) or shrinking (decreased gain) like a balloon.
Since P = 2, we require N = 2 for stability, i.e., the critical point must
be encircled ccw two times. This is true if 1.33 K < 1 or K > 0.75.
Re
1.33
1
1
Im
w =
w = 0
+
w =
11
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SOLUTION MANUAL 7 9
8.8
1
0
K
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M
= 1 + j0 ;
1
K
G j H j ( ) ( ) M M
M~
= 0.05 + j0
1
0 62
K
G j H j ( ) ( )
.
M M
M
= 0.167 + j0
The Nyquist plot is shown in the figure below. If the critical point lies
inside the larger loop, N = 1. Since P = 1, we have Z = N + P = 2 and the
closed-loop system is unstable.
If the critical point lies inside the smaller loop, N = 1, Z = N + P = 0
and the closed-loop system is stable. Therefore, for stability
0.167K < 1 or K > 6.
Re
0.167
1
Im
w =
w = 0
+
8.9 Eliminating the minor-loop we obtain forward-path transfer function of an
equivalent single-loop system.
G(s) =
K s
s s
( .5) +
+ +
0
1
3 2
By Routh criterion, we find that the polynomial (s
3
+ s
2
+ 1) has two roots
in the right half s-plane. Therefore P = 2.
1
0
K
G j ( ) M
M
= 0.5Z0 ;
1
K
G j ( ) M
M~
= 0Z 180
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80 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
1
1 4
K
G j ( )
.
M
M
= 0.5 + j0
The polar plot intersects the positive imaginary axis; the point of
intersection can be found by setting real part of
1
K
G j ( ) M , equal to zero.
With this information, Nyquist plot can easily be constructed. From the
Nyquist plot we find that the critical point is encircled twice in ccw if
0.5 K < 1 or K > 2. For this range of K, the closed loop system is stable.
The figure given below illustrates this result.
Re
0.5 0.5
0.5 j
1.5 j
1 j
Im
w = 1.4 w = 0
+
w =
1
K
G j ( ) plot w
8.10 Fig. P8.10a:
G(s) =
Ke
s s s
s
+ +
2
1 4 1 ( )( )
1
0
K
G j ( ) M
M
= ~Z 90;
1
0 26
K
G j ( )
.
M
M
= 2.55 + j0
1
K
G j ( ) M
M ~
= 0
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SOLUTION MANUAL 8 1
The polar plot will spiral into the M ~ point at the origin (refer Fig.
8.39).
It is found that the maximum value of K for stability is 1/2.55 = 0.385
Fig. P8.10b:
D(s)G(s) =
Ke
s s
s
+
2
2
4 1 ( )
1
0
K
D j G j ( ) ( ) M M
M
= ~Z 180 ;
1
K
D j G j ( ) ( ) M M
M ~
= 0
The polar plot will spiral into the M ~ point at the origin. A rough sketch
of the Nyquist plot is shown in figure below. It is observed that the system
is unstable for all values of K.
Re
Im
w = 0
+
8.11 Revisiting Example 8.15 will be helpful.
1 + G(s) = 0
may be manipulated as
e
s s
s
D

+
J
( ) 1
= 1 or G
1
(s) = e
s
D
J
; G
1
(s) =
1
1 s s ( ) +
The polar plot of G
1
(jM) intersects the polar plot of e
j
D
M J
at a point
corresponding to M = 0.75 at the G(jM)-locus. At this point, the phase of the
polar plot of e
j
D
M J
is found to be 52. Therefore,
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82 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
0.75J
D
= 52(F/180)
This gives
J
D
= 1.2 sec
8.12 G j ( ) M
M0
= 2.2. j ~; G j ( ) M
M~
= 0Z 270
G j ( )
.
M
M15 9
= 0.182 + j0; G j ( )
.
M
M6 2
= 1 Z 148.3
GM = 1/0.182 = 5.5 ; .M = 31.7
M
g
= 6.2 rad/sec ; M
B
= 15.9 rad/sec.
8.13 (a) This result can easily proved using Routh criterion.
(b) General shape of the Nyquist plot of given transfer function is as
shown in Fig. P8.2c. When K = 7, the polar plot intersects the negative
real axis at the point 1.4 + j0. The resulting Nyquist plot encircles
the critical point once in clockwise direction and once in counter-
clockwise direction. Therefore N = 0. Since P = 0, the system is stable
for K = 7. Reducing the gain by a factor of 1/1.4 will bring the system
to the verge of instability. Therefore GM = 0.7.
The phase margin is found as +10.
8.14 (a) The system is type-0; so the low-frequency asymptote has a slope of
0 dB/decade, and is plotted at dB = 20 log 25 = 27.96.
Asymptote slope changes to 20 dB/decade at the first corner
frequency M
c1
= 1; then to 40 dB/decade at M
c2
= 10, and to
60 dB/decade at M
c3
= 20.
Asymptotic crossing of the 0 dB-axis is at M
g
= 16.
(b) The system is type-1; so the low-frequency asymptote has a slope of
20 dB/decade and is drawn so that its extension would intersect the
0 dB-axis at M = K = 50. The asymptote slope changes to
40 dB/decade at the first corner frequency at M
c1
= 1; then to 20
dB/decade at M
c2
= 5, and back to 40 dB/decade at M
c3
= 50. The
asymptotic gain crossover is at M
g
= 10.2.
(c) The system is type-2; the low-frequency asymptote is drawn with a
slope of 40 dB/decade, and is located such that its extension would
intersect the 0 dB-axis at M = K = 500 = 22.36. The asymptote
slope changes to 60 dB/decade at the first corner frequency M
c1
= 1;
then to 40 dB/decade at M
c2
= 5, to 20 dB/decade at M
c3
= 10 and to
40 dB/decade at M
c4
= 50. The asymptotic gain crossover is at
M
g
= 10.
(d) The system is type-1, and the low-frequency asymptote has a slope of
20 dB/decade and is drawn so that its extension would cross the
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SOLUTION MANUAL 8 3
0 dB-axis at M = K = 50. The asymptote slope changes to
40 dB/decade at M
c1
= 10; then to 20 dB/decade at M
c2
= 20; to
40 dB/decade at M
c3
= 50; and to 80 dB/decade at M
c4
= 200 (note
that the corner frequency for the complex poles is M
c4
= M
n
= 200).
The asymptotic gain crossover is at M
g
= 26.
8.15 (a) The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 20 dB/decade and
passes through the point (M = 1, dB = 20). The asymptote slope
changes to 40 dB/decade at M
c
= 10.
Compensate the asymptotic plot by 3 dB at M = 10, by 1dB at M =
5 and by 1 dB at M = 20. The compensated magnitude plot crosses
the 0 dB line at M
g
= 7.86.
The phase is computed from
ZG(jM) = 90 tan
1
0.1M
The phase shift at M
g
= 7.86 is 128.2, and the resulting phase margin
is 128.2 ( 180) = 51.8. Because the phase curve never reaches
180 line, the gain margin is infinity.
(b) Low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 20 dB/decade and passes
through the point (M = 1, dB = 20)
The asymptote slope changes to 60 dB/decade at the corner
frequency M
c
= 10. Compensate the asymptotic plot by 6 dB at M =
10, by 2 dB at M = 5 and 2 dB at M = 20. The compensated
magnitude plot crosses the 0 dB line at M
g
= 6.8. The phase is
computed from
ZG(jM) = 90 2 tan
1
0.1M
The phase shift at M
g
= 6.8 is 158.6. Therefore, the phase margin is
180 158.6 = 21.4. At a frequency of M
B
= 10, the phase shift is
180; the gain margin is 6 dB.
(c) The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 20 dB/decade and passes
through the point (M = 0.1, dB = 20log 200 = 46). The slope changes to
40 dB/decade at the first corner frequency M
c1
= 2, and back to 20
dB/decade at the second corner frequency M
c2
= 5. Compensate the
asymptotic plot by 3 dB at M = 2, by 1 dB at M = 1, by 1 dB at M
= 4, by + 3 dB at M = 5, by + 1 dB at M = 2.5 and by + 1 dB at M = 10.
The compensated magnitude plot crosses the 0 dB line at M
g
= 9. The
phase shift at this frequency is 106.6. Therefore the phase margin is
73.4.
Phase never reaches 180 line; the gain margin is infinity.
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84 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(d) Reconsider the bode plot for system of Problem 8.15c.
The time-delay factor e
0.1s
will not change the magnitude plot; it will
change only the phase characteristics. For the system with dead-time,
M
g
= 9 rad/sec; .M = 22; M
B
= 13.65 rad/sec; GM = 4.2 dB
(e) G(s) =
40
2 4 5 ( )( )( ) s s s + + +
=
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
5
1 s s s +
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
The low-frequency asymptote coincides with 0 dB line; its slope
changes to 20 dB/decade at M
c1
= 2, to 40 dB/decade at M
c2
= 4,
and to 60 dB/decade at M
c3
= 5. Compensated magnitude plot can
easily be obtained by applying corrections.
The phase plot crosses the 180 line at M
B
= 7 rad/sec, and the gain
margin is 20 dB. Since the gain never reaches 0 dB (M
g
= 0), the phase
margin is infinity.
(f) From the Bode plots of G(jM) we find that gain crossover frequency
M
g
= 3.16 rad/sec, and the phase margin is 33. The phase plot is
asymptotic to the 180 line in the low-frequency range; it never
reaches 180
Therefore the GM = ~
8.16 G(s) =
K
s s s
/
( )
5
1
1
5
1 + +
F
H
I
K
From the Bode plot of the system sketched for K = 10, we find that .M =
21, GM = 8 dB.
Increasing the gain from K = 10 to K = 100 shifts the 0 dB axis down by 20
dB. The phase and gain margins for the system with K = 100 are
.M = 30, GM = 12 dB
Thus the system is stable for K = 10 but unstable for K = 100.
8.17 (a) G(s) =
K
s s s
/ 40
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
5
1 +
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
Since G(s) has all poles in left half s-plane, the open-loop system is
stable. Hence the closed-loop system will be stable if the frequency
response has a gain less than unity when the phase is 180.
When K = 40, the gain margin is 20 dB (refer Problem 8.15e).
Therefore, an increase in gain of +20 dB (i.e., by a factor of 10) is
possible before the system becomes unstable. Hence K < 400 for
stability.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 8 5
(b) From the Bode plot of G(jM) with K = 1, we find that the phase
crossover frequency M
B
= 15.88 rad/sec and gain margin = 34.82 dB.
This means that the gain can be increased by 34.82 dB (i.e., by a factor
of 55) before the system becomes unstable. Hence K < 55 for stability.
(c) From the Bode plot of G(jM) with K = 1, we find that M
B
= 0.66 rad/sec
and GM = 4.5 dB. Thus the critical value of K for stability is 1.67, i.e.,
K < 1.67 for the system stability.
8.18 From the Bode plot of G(jM), it can easily be determined that (a) when J
D
=
0, the GM = 12 dB, and .M = 33; and (b) when J
D
= 0.04 sec, the GM =
2.5 dB and .M = 18. The relative stability of the system reduces due to the
presence of dead-time.
(c) The value of J
D
for the system to be on verge of instability is obtained
by setting the phase margin equal to zero, i.e.,
G j
g
1
( ) M
M M

M J
F
g D
180
= 180
where G
1
(jM) is the system without dead-time, and M
g
is the gain
crossover frequency. From the Bode plot of G
1
(jM), we get M
g
= 7.4
rad/sec and ZG
1
(jM
g
) = 147.
Therefore,
147
7 4 180 . J
F
D

= 180
or J
D
= 0.078 sec
8.19 Since the systems have minimum-phase characteristics, zeros (if any) are
in left half s-plane.
(a) The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 20 dB/decade and its
extension intersects the 0 dB-axis at M = 4. The system is therefore
type-1; 4/s is a factor of the transfer function.
The asymptote slope changes from 20 dB/decade to 0 dB/decade at
M = 2 (this corresponds to the factor (1 + s/2)), then to 20 dB/decade
at M = 10 (this corresponds to the factor (1 + s/10)). The transfer
function
G(s) =
4 1
1
2
1
1
10
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
s
s s
(b) The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of + 20 dB/decade and it
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86 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
intersects 0 dB-axis at M = 0.2. The system is therefore type-0; Ks is a
factor of the transfer function with 20 log 0.2K = 0 or K = 5.
The low-frequency asymptote has a magnitude of 20 dB at a frequency
M
c1
, where
20 log (5M
c1
) = 20. This gives M
c1
= 2.
The transfer function
G(s) =
5
1
1
2
1
1
10
1
1
30
s
s s s +
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
(c) The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 6 dB/octave with a
magnitude of 9 dB at M = 1. The system is therefore type-1; K/s is a
factor of the transfer function with 20 log (K/M) = 9 at M = 1. This
gives K = 0.355.
The transfer function
G(s) =
0 355 1 1
1
20
1
1
40
. ( ) + +
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
s s
s s
(d) The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 20dB/decade with a
magnitude of 40 dB at M = 2.5. The system is therefore type-1; K/s is a
factor of the transfer function with 20 log (K/2.5) = 40. This gives K =
250.
G(s) =
250
1
1
2
1
1
40
s s s +
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
.5
(e) The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of +12 dB/octave; the
system is therefore type-0 and Ks
2
is a factor of the transfer function.
The first corner frequency M
c1
= 0.5. The slope of the asymptote
changes to +6 dB/decade at this corner frequency. Therefore
1/(2s + 1) is a factor of the transfer function.
The asymptotic plot of Ks
2
/(2s + 1) is shown in the figure below.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 8 7
w
20 log Kw
2
20 log 2w
20
10
20
10
0.1 1
0.5
0
32
dB
From this figure, we find that
(20 log KM
2
20 log 2M)|
M = 1
= 32
This gives K = 79.6.
The transfer function
G(s) =
79 6
1 2 1 1 0
2
.
( )( )( .2 )
s
s s s + + +
8.20 The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 20 dB/decade. Ks is a factor of
the transfer function with 20logK = 30. This gives K = 31.623. The transfer
function
G(s) =
31 623
1 1
1
5
1
1
20
.
( )
s
s s s + +
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
(i) 20 log (31.623M
g1
) = 0; this gives M
g1
= 0.0316
(ii) 20 log (31.623M
g2
) 20 log M
g2
20 log
1
5
2
M
g
F
H
I
K
20 log
1
20
2
M
g
F
H
I
K
= 0; this gives M
g2
= 56.234
8.21 The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 6 dB/octave and has a
magnitude of 11 dB at M = 3. K/s is therefore a factor of the transfer
function with 20 log (K/3) = 11. This gives K = 10.64.
The transfer function
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88 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
G(s) =
10 64
1
3
1
1
8
1
.
s s s +
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
ZG(jM) = 90 tan
1

1
3
M tan
1

1
8
M
ZG(jM) = 180 at M = 4.9
The gain obtained from asymptotic magnitude plot at M = 4.9 is
20 log
10 64
4
20
4
3
.
.9
log
.9
= 2.5 dB
Therefore, GM = 2.5 dB
8.22 Revisit Review Example 8.3.
G(s) =
5 1
1
10
1
1
2
1
0 6
50
1
2500
2
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
+ +
L
N
M
O
Q
P
s
s s s s
.
8.23 From the asymptotic magnitude plot we find that the system is type-0 with
a double pole at s = 3. The transfer function obtained from the magnitude
plot is
G(s) =
0 1
1
3
1
2
.
s +
F
H
I
K
ZG(jM) vs M may be compared with the given phase characteristics to
check the accuracy of identification of corner frequency at M
c
= 3.

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CHAPTER 9 FEEDBACK SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
BASED ON THE FREQUENCY
RESPONSE
9.1 For derivation of the result, refer Section 9.3; Eqn. (9.9).
9.2 For derivation of the result, refer Section 9.3; Eqn. (9.18).
9.3 For derivation of the result, refer Section 9.3; Eqns (9.15) (9.16).
9.4 The relations

4

2
+
1
4
2
M
r
= 0 ; M
r
= M
n
1 2
2

yield = 0.6 and M


n
= 21.8
Note that M
r
relation gives two values of for M
r
= 1.8; = 0.6 and
= 0.8. We select = 0.6 as damping ratio larger than 0.707 yields no peak
above zero frequency.
The characteristic equation of the given system is
s
2
+ as + K = s
2
+ 2M
n
s + M
n
2
= 0
This gives K = 475 and a = 26.2
t
s
=
4
M
n
= 0.305 sec
M
b
= M
n
1 2 2 4 4
2 2 4
1 2
+ +
/
= 25.1 rad/sec
9.5 From the response curve, we find
M
p
= 0.135, t
p
= 0.185 sec

2
=
( )
( )
ln
ln


M
M
p
p
2
2 2
+ F
gives = 0.535 for M
p
= 0.135
F
M
n
1
2

= 0.185 gives M
n
= 20
The corresponding frequency response performance indices are:
M
r
=
1
2 1
2

= 1.11 ; M
r
= M
n
1 2
2
= 13.25
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90 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
M
b
= M
n
1 2 2 4 4
2 2 4
1 2
+ +
/
= 24.6
9.6 - 0.01B
m
The characteristic equation of the system is
J s
2
+ (1 + KK
t
)s + K = 0
This gives
M
n
= / K J ; =
1
2
+ KK
K
t
J
= 0.01B
m
K =
1
2 10 2 10 10
4 2 2 4 2
K
K K
t
m t m m t


B J B J B J
9.7 The polar plot of G(jM) crosses the real axis at M = 1/ J J
1 2
. The
magnitude |G(jM)| at this frequency is given by
|G(jM)| =
KJ J
J J
1 2
1 2
+
Therefore
G
m

KJ J
J J
1 2
1 2
+
= 1
This gives
K =
1 1 1
1 2
G
m
J J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
9.8 (a) It can be determined from the Bode plot that M
g
= 1 rad/sec and
.M = 59.2
(b) .M = tan
1

2
4 1 2
4 2

+
.M = 59.2 = 0.6
M
g
= M
n
4 1 2
4 2
+
This gives M
n
= 1.4
Therefore,
M
p
= e
F / 1
2
= 9.48%
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SOLUTION MANUAL 9 1
t
s
=
4
M
n
= 4.76 sec.
9.9 The low-frequency asymptote has a slope of 20 dB/decade and intersects
the 0 dB-axis at M = 8; 8/s is a factor of the transfer function. The forward-
path transfer function can easily be identified as
G(s) =
8 1
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
8
1
1
24
1
1
36
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
s s
s s s s
The phase curve can now be constructed.
From the phase curve and the asymptotic magnitude curve, we obtain
.M = 50 ; GM = 24 dB
Phase margin of 50 gives = 0.48 which corresponds to M
p
- 18%.
9.10 (a) From the Bode plot, we get .M = 12
(b) For a phase margin of 50, we require that G(jM) H(jM) = 1 Z 130
for some value of M. From the phase curve of G(jM)H(jM), we find that
ZG(jM)H(jM) ~

130 at M = 0.5. The magnitude of G(jM)H(jM) at


this frequency is approximately 3.5. The gain must be reduced by a
factor of 3.5 to achieve a phase margin of 50.
(c) .M of 50 gives = 0.48 which corresponds to M
p
~

18%.
9.11 G(jM) =
K j
j
( )
( )
M
M
+ 2
2
ZG(jM) = tan
1

M
2
180 = 130
This equation gives M = 2.3835
The magnitude of G(jM) must be unity at M = 2.3835.
K j
j
( )
( )
.
M
M
M
+

2
2
2 3835
= 1
This equation gives K = 1.826.
Since the phase curve never reaches 180 line, the gain margin = ~.
9.12 (a) From the open-loop frequency response table, we find that M
B
= 10
rad/sec and GM = 20 log
1
0 64 .
= 3.88 dB; M
g
= 8 rad/sec and .M = 10.
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92 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(b) For the desired gain margin of 20 dB, we must decrease the gain by
(20 3.88) = 16.12 dB. It means that magnitude curve must be lowered
by 16.12 dB, i.e., the gain must be changed by a factor of >, given by
20 log > = 16.12. This gives > = 0.156.
(c) To obtain a phase margin of 60, we must first determine the frequency
at which the phase angle of G(jM) is 120, and then adjust the gain so
that |G(jM)| at this frequency is 0 dB. From the Bode plot, we find that
lowering the magnitude plot by 16.65 dB gives the desired phase
margin. It equivalently means that the gain should be changed by a
factor of = where 20 log = = 16.65. This gives = = 0.147.
9.13 A 9.48% overshoot implies = 0.6. For this damping, required phase
margin is 59.2.
G(s) =
100
36 100
K
s s s ( )( ) + +
=
K
s s s
/ 36
1
36
1
1
100
1 +
F
H
I
K
+
F
H
I
K
Make a Bode plot for say K = 3.6.
From the plot we find that at M = 14.8 rad/sec, ZG(jM) = 120.8. At
M = 14.8, the gain is 44.18 dB. The magnitude curve has to be raised to 0
dB at M = 14.8 to yield the required phase margin. The gain should be
changed by a factor of = where 20 log = = 44.18. This gives = = 161.808.
Therefore,
K = 3.6 161.808 = 582.51
M
g
= 14.8 = M
n
4 1 2
4 2
+
This gives
M
n
= 20.68
t
p
=
F
M
n
1
2

= 0.19 sec
9.14 (a) From the Bode plot, it can easily be determined that GM = 5 dB and
.M = 30. The gain crossover frequency M
g
= 0.83 rad/sec.
(b) The magnitude plot should be lowered by 5 dB to obtain a gain margin
of 10 dB. This is achieved by reducing the gain by 5 dB.
(c) The gain at M = 1.27 is 4.8 dB. Therefore, the gain should be
increased by 4.8 dB to obtain a gain crossover frequency of 1.27
rad/sec.
(d) Gain at the frequency which givesZ G(jM) = 135, should be 0 dB.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 9 3
From the Bode plot we find that this requires reducing the gain by 3.5
dB.
9.15 The requirements on .M and M
g
are satisfied if we increase the gain to the
limit of zero GM with a phase margin 45. From the Bode plot we find
that K = 37.67 meets this requirement.
9.16 (a) From the Bode plot we find that 0 dB crossing occurs at a frequency of
0.47 rad/sec with a phase angle of 145. Therefore, the phase margin
is 35. Assuming a second-order approximation, .M = 35 =
0.33, M
p
= 33%.
(b) The zero dB crossing occurs with a phase angle of 118. Therefore
the phase margin is 62. .M = 62 = 0.64, M
P
= 7.3%.
9.17 The 0 dB crossing occurs at M = 0.8, with a phase angle of 140 when J
D
= 0, and 183 when J
D
= 1. Therefore phase margin of the system without
dead-time is 40; and with dead-time added, the phase margin becomes
3. We find that with the dead-time added, the system becomes unstable.
Therefore, the system gain must be reduced in order to provide a reasonable
phase margin.
We find from the Bode plot that in order to provide a phase margin of
30, the gain would have to be decreased by 5 dB, i.e., by a factor of >
where 20 log > = 5. This gives > = 1.78.
We find that the dead-time necessitates the reduction in loop gain is order
to obtain a stable response. The cost of stability is the resulting increase in
the steady-state error of the system as the loop gain is reduced.
9.18 Make a polar plot of
G(jM) =
50 18
1 3)(1 6
/
( / / ) j j j M M M + +
G j ( ) M
M0
= ~
25
18
j ; G j ( ) M
M~
= 0 Z 270
The polar plot intersects the negative real axis at M = 4.24.
The polar plot is tangential to the M = 1.8 circle (refer Eqn. (9.22)).
Therefore, the resonance peak M
r
= 1.8.
The bandwidth of a system is defined as the frequency at which the
magnitude of the closed-loop frequency response is 0.707 of its magnitude
at M = 0. For the system under consideration, closed-loop gain is unity at M
= 0; therefore, bandwidth is given by the frequency at which the M = 0.707
circle intersects the polar plot. This frequency is found to be 3.61 rad/sec.
Therefore M
b
= 3.61
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94 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN

4

2
+
1
4
2
M
r
= 0 ; M
p
= e

F / 1
2
100
M
b
= M
n
( ) 1 2 4 2 2
2 4 2
+ +
t
s
= 4/M
n
The M
r
relation gives = 0.29, 0.96 for M
r
= 1.8. We select = 0.29
because damping ratio larger than 0.707 yields no peak above zero
frequency. = 0.29 corresponds to M
p
= 38.6%.
For = 0.29 and M
b
= 3.61, we get M
n
= 2.4721. The setting time t
s
=
5.58 sec.
9.19 The polar plot is tangential to M = 1.4 circle (refer Eqn. (9.22)) at a
frequency M = 4 rad/sec. Therefore M
r
= 1.4 and M
r
= 4.

4

2
+
1
4
2
M
r
= 0
M
r
= M
n
1 2
2

M
r
= 1.4 = 0.39.
The corresponding M
p
= 26.43%.
M
r
= 4 and = 0.39 M
n
= 4.8. The settling time t
s
= 2.14 sec.
The M
r
relationship has been derived for standard second-order
systems with zero-frequency closed-loop gain equal to unity. The answer is
based on the assumption that zero-frequency closed-loop gain for the
system under consideration is unity.
9.20 From the Bode plot, we find that
M
g
= 8.3 rad/sec ; M
B
= 14.14 rad/sec;
GM = 8.2 dB ; .M = 27.7
For each value of M, the magnitude and phase of G(jM) are transferred from
the Bode plot to the Nichols chart. The resulting dB vs phase curve is
tangential to M = 6.7 dB contour of the Nichols chart at M = 9 rad/sec.
Therefore M
r
= 6.7 dB and M
r
= 9. The dB vs phase curve intersects the
3 dB contour of the Nichols chart at M = 13.6. Therefore bandwidth M
b
= 13.6 rad/sec.
The following points are worth noting in the use of Nichols chart.
(i) The frequency parameters (M
r
or M
b
) can be easily determined by
transferring the dB and/or phase data from the dB vs phase curve to the
Bode plot.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 9 5
(ii) The open-loop dB vs phase plot may not be tangential to one of the
constant-M contours of the Nichols chart. One must do a little
interpolation. In the present problem, M
r
= 6.7 dB has been obtained
by interpolation.
9.21 Plot the given frequency response on a dB scale against phase angle. From
the dB vs phase curve, we obtain,
GM = 7 dB ; .M = 17
The dB vs phase curve when transferred on Nichols chart gives M
r
= 10 dB;
M
r
= 2.75 rad/sec; M
b
= 4.2 rad/sec
Note that the 3dB bandwidth definition is applicable to systems having
unity closed-loop gain at M = 0. We have made this assumption for the
system under consideration.
9.22 For parts (a) and (b) of this problem, refer Problem 9.10.
(c) Since the data for 3dB contour of the Nichols chart has been
provided, we dont require the Nichols chart for bandwidth
determination. On a linear scale graph sheet, dB vs phase cure of the
open-loop frequency response is plotted with data coming from Bode
plot. On the same graph sheet, the 3dB contour using the given data
is plotted.
The intersection of the two curves occurs at M = 0.911 rad/sec.
Therefore bandwidth M
b
= 0.911.
(d) .M = tan
1

2
4 1 2
4 2

+
M
b
= M
n
1 2 2 4 4
2 2 4
+ +
.M = 50 = 0.48 ; M
p
- 18%
M
b
= 0.911 and = 0.47 M
n
= 0.7025 ; t
s
= 11.93 sec.
9.23 The frequency-response data from the Bode plot of G(jM) when transferred
to the Nichols chart, gives the following result.
M
r
= 1.4 ; M
r
= 6.9 rad/sec
From the relations
M
r
=
1
2 1
2

; M
r
= M
n
1 2
2
we obtain
= 39 ; M
n
= 8.27 rad/sec
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96 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
Note that the given type-0 system has zero-frequency closed-loop gain
= 54/(25 + 54) = 0.6835. The approximation of the transient response of
the system by = 0.39 and M
n
= 8.27 has large error since the correlations
(M
r
, M
r
) (, M
n
) used above, have been derived from systems with unity
zero-frequency closed-loop gain.
9.24 (a) Transfer the frequency-response data from the Bode plot of G(jM) to
the Nichols chart.
Shifting the dB vs phase curve down by 5.4 dB makes this curve
tangent to the M = 20 log1.4contour. Therefore gain must be changed
by a factor of >, where 20 log > = 5.4. This gives > = 0.54.
(b) The gain-compensated system intersects the 3 dB contour of the
Nichols chart at M = 9.2. Therefore bandwidth M
b
= 9.2 rad/sec.
Note that the 3dB bandwidth definition given by Eqn. (9.2b) is applicable
to systems having unity closed-loop gain at M = 0. The given system does
not satisfy this requirement. The answer, therefore, is an approximation of
the bandwidth.
9.25 (a) From the Bode plot we find the phase crossover frequency M
B
= 2.1
and GM = 14 dB. For the gain margin to be 20 dB, the magnitude plot
is to be brought down by 6 dB. The value of K corresponding to this
condition is given by the relation
20 log K = 6
which gives K = 0.5
(b) From the Bode plot it is observed that .M = 60 will be obtained if
gain crossover frequency M
g
is 0.4 rad/sec. This is achieved if
magnitude plot is brought down by 7 dB. This condition corresponds
to K = 0.446.
(c) From the dB-phase plot on the Nichols chart, we find that for this plot
to be tangent to M = 1 dB contour, the dB-phase curve must be brought
down by 4 dB. This condition corresponds to K = 0.63. The
corresponding value of M
r
(read off from Bode plot) is 0.5 rad/sec.
The value of bandwidth (M
b
) is the frequency at which the dB-phase
plot intersects the 3dB contour. It is found that M
b
= 1 rad/sec.
(d) The dB vs phase plot on the Nichols chart when raised by 2.4 dB,
intersects the 3 dB contour at M = 1.5 rad/sec. This condition
corresponds to K = 1.35.
9.26 Plot the given frequency response on a dB scale against phase angle. From
this dB vs phase curve, we obtain
GM = 16.5 dB ; .M = 59
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SOLUTION MANUAL 9 7
Transfer the dB vs phase curve on the Nichols chart. We find that this curve
when raised by about 5 dB, touches the M = 20 log1.4 contour of the
Nichols chart. Therefore the gain should be increased by a factor of >,
where 20 log > = 5. This gives > = 1.75.
The gain-compensated system has GM = 11.6 dB and .M = 42.5.
9.27 The dB vs phase plot becomes tangential to 20 log1.4 dB contour on
Nichols chart if the plot is lowered by about 11 dB. This means that the
gain K must be reduced by a factor of = where 20 log (1/=) = 11. This
gives = = 3.5.
Phase margin of the gain-compensated system is 42.5
M
r
= 1.4 = 0.387 ; .M = 42.5 = 0.394
The following comments may be carefully noted.
(i) Zero-frequency closed-loop gain has been assumed to be unity.
(ii) One is usually safe if the lower of the two values of is utilized for
analysis and design purposes.
9.28 S
G
M
(jM) =
1
1+ G j ( ) M
=
G j
G j

+
1
1
1
( )
( )
M
M
Magnitude of S
G
M
(jM) can be obtained by plotting G
1
(jM) on the Nichols
chart.
The dB vs phase plot of G
1
(jM) is tangent to M = 20 log 2.18 dB contour of
Nichols chart. Therefore
| S
G
M
(jM)|
max
= 2.18
The peak occurs at M = 7 rad/sec.
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CHAPTER 10 COMPENSATOR DESIGN USING
BODE PLOTS
10.1 (a) From the Bode plot of G(jM)H(jM), we find that GM = 6 dB and
.M = 17
(b) Now the gain and phase of the compensator with K
c
= 1 are added to
the Bode plot. From the new Bode plot we find that the gain must be
raised by 1.5 dB to have a gain margin of 6 dB.
20 log K
c
= 1.5 gives K
c
= 1.2
10.2 (a) From the Bode plot of G(jM)H(jM) we find that M
g
= 4.08 rad/sec; .M
= 3.9; GM = 1.6 dB
(b) Now the gain and phase of the compensator are added to the Bode plot.
From the new Bode plot, we find that
M
g
= 5 rad/sec; .M = 37.6; GM = 18 dB
The increase in phase and gain margins implies that lead compensation
increases margin of stability. The increase in M
g
implies that lead
compensation increases speed of response.
10.3 (a) K
v
=lim
s 0
sD(s)G(s) = K = 12
(b) From the Bode plot and Nichols chart analysis of the system with
K=12, we find that .M = 15; M
b
= 5.5 rad/sec; M
r
= 12 dB; M
r
= 3.5
rad/sec
(c) The phase margin of the uncompensated system is 15. The phase lead
required at the gain crossover frequency of the compensated magnitude
curve = 40 15 + 5 = 30
= =
1 30
1 30

sin
sin
= 0.334
The frequency at which the uncompensated system has a magnitude of
20 log (1/ = ) = 4.8 dB is 4.6 rad/sec. Selecting this frequency as
gain crossover frequency of the compensated magnitude curve, we set
1
=J
= 4.6
The transfer function of the lead compensator becomes
D(s) =
12 0 376 1
0 128 1
( . )
.
s
s

(d) .M = 42; M
b
= 9 rad/sec; M
r
= 3 dB;
M
r
= 4.6 rad/sec
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SOLUTION MANUAL 9 9
10.4 Lead compensator D(s) =
10 0 5 1
01 1
( . )
.
s
s

meets the phase margin and steady-


state accuracy requirements. These requirements are also met by the lag
compensator D(s) =
10 10 1
100 1
( ) s
s

In this particularly simple example, specifications could be met by either


compensation. In more realistic situations, there are additional performance
specifications such as bandwidth and there are constraints on loop gain.
Had there been additional specifications and constraints, it would have
influenced the choice of compensator (lead or lag).
105. The settling time and peak overshoot requirements on performance may be
translated to the following equivalent specifications:
= 0.45 ; M
n
= 2.22
is related to the phase margin by the relation
.M

0 01 .
= 45
M
n
is related to the bandwidth M
b
by the relation
M
b
= M
n
1 2 2 4 4
2 2 4
1 2

/
For a closed-loop system with = 0.45, we estimate from this relation
M
b
= 1.33 M
n
Therefore, we require a closed-loop bandwidth M
b
~

3. The gain K of the


compensator
D(s) =
K s
s
( ) J
=J

1
1
may be set a value given by K = M
n
2
. This gives K
~

5. To provide a
suitable margin for settling time, we select K = 10.
The phase margin of the uncompensated system is 0 because the
double integration results in a constant 180 phase lag. Therefore, we must
add a 45 phase lead at the gain crossover frequency of the compensated
magnitude curve. Evaluating the value of =, we have
= =
1 45
1 45

sin
sin
= 0.172
To provide a margin of safety, we select = = 1/6.
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1 0 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
The frequency at which the uncompensated system has a magnitude of
20 log (1/ = ) = 7.78 dB is 4.95 rad/sec. Selecting this frequency as
the gain crossover frequency of the compensated magnitude curve, we set
1
=J
= 4.95
The closed-loop system with the compensator
D(s) =
10 0 083 1
0 1
( . )
.5
s
s

satisfies the performance specifications.


10.6 K
v
=
A
e
ss
=
A
A 0 05 .
= 20
K = 20 realizes this value of K
v
.
From the Bode plot of
G(jM) =
20
0 1 j j M M ( .5 )
we find that the phase margin of the uncompensated system is 18. The
phase lead required at the gain crossover frequency of the compensated
magnitude curve = 45 18 + 3 = 30.
= =
1 30
1 30

sin
sin
= 0.334
The frequency at which the uncompensated system has a magnitude of
20 log (1/ = ) = 4.8 dB is 8.4 rad/sec. Selecting this frequency as the
gain crossover frequency of the compensated magnitude curve, we set
1
=J
= 8.4
Therefore the compensator
D(s) =
0 1
0 0668 1
.2
.
s
s

The phase margin of the compensated system is found to be 43.7. If we


desire to have exactly a 45 phase margin, we should repeat the steps with a
decreased value of =.
From the Nichols chart analysis of the compensated and uncompensated
systems, we find that the lead compensator has increased the bandwidth
from 9.5 rad/sec to 12 rad/sec.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 0 1
10.7 From the Bode plot of
G(jM) =
20
0 1 j j M M ( .5 )
we find that the phase margin of the uncompensated system is 18. To
realize a phase margin of 45, the gain crossover frequency should be
moved to M
g
where the phase angle of the uncompensated system is:
180 + 45 + 5 = 130.
From the Bode plot of uncompensated system, we find that M
g
= 1.5. The
attenuation necessary to cause M
g
to be the new gain crossover frequency
is 20 dB. The > parameter of the lag compensator can now be calculated.
20 log > = 20
This gives > = 10. Placing the upper corner frequency of the compensator a
decade below M
g
, we have 1/J = 0.15.
Therefore, the lag compensator
D(s) =
6.66 1
66.6 1
s
s

As a final check, we numerically evaluate the phase margin and the


bandwidth of the compensated system. It is found that that .M = 45 and
M
b
= 2.5 rad/sec.
10.8 From the steady-state requirement, we set K = 100. From the Bode plot of
G(jM) =
100
0 1 0 1 j j j M M M ( . )( .2 )
we find that the phase margin is 40, which means that the system is
unstable. The rapid decrease of phase of G(jM) at the gain crossover
frequency M
g
= 17 rad/sec, implies that single-stage lead compensation may
be ineffective for this system. (The reader should, in fact, try a single-stage
lead compensator). For the present system, in which the desired K
v
is 100,
a phase lead of more than 85 is required. For phase leads greater than 60,
it is advisable to use two or more cascaded stages of lead compensation
(refer Fig. 10.15). The design approach may be that of achieving a portion
of the desired phase margin improvement by each compensator stage.
We first add a single-stage lead compensator that will provide a phase
lead of about 42.5, i.e., the compensator will improve the phase margin to
about 2.5.
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1 0 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
Since the phase curve of the Bode plot of the uncompensated system at the
gain crossover frequency has a large negative slope, the value of = = 0.19
given by
= =
1 42
1 42

sin .5
sin .5
will not yield a phase margin of 2.5. In fact, when we set = = 0.08 and
J = 0.1, the single-stage compensator improves the phase margin to 3.
Therefore D
1
(s) =
0 1 1
0 008 1
.
.
s
s

Notice that the single-stage lead compensator not only improves the phase
margin, but also reduces the slope of the phase curve of the gain crossover
frequency. By adding another stage of the compensator with D
2
(s) = D
1
(s),
we obtain
D
2
(s)D
1
(s)G(s) =
100 0 1 1
0 1 0 008 1
2
( . )
( .2 )( . )
s
s s s


Note that pole and zero at s = 10 cancel each other.
The final compensated system has a phase margin of 45.
10.9 G(s) =
2500
25
K
s s ( )
K = 1 satisfies the steady-state performance requirement. The phase margin
of the uncompensated system, read at the gain crossover frequency M
g
= 47
rad/sec, is 28.
The phase lead required at the gain crossover frequency of the
compensated magnitude curve = 45 28 + 8 = 25
= =
1 25
1 25

sin
sin
= 0.405
The frequency at which the uncompensated system has a magnitude of
20 log (1/ = ) = 3.93 dB is 60 rad/sec. Selecting this frequency as gain
crossover frequency of the compensated magnitude curve, we set
1
=J
= 60
The transfer function of the lead compensator is
D(s) =
0 026 1
0 01 1
.
.
s
s

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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 0 3
The phase margin of the compensated system is found to be 47.5. By
Nichols chart analysis, it is found that the lead compensator reduces the
resonance peak from 2 to 1.25 and increases the bandwidth from 74 to 98
rad/sec.
10.10The phase margin of the uncompensated system
G(s) =
2500
25
K
s s ( )
; K = 1
read at the gain crossover frequency M
g
= 47 rad/sec is 28. To realize a
phase margin of 45, the gain crossover frequency should be moved to M
g
where the phase angle of the uncompensated system is:
180 + 45 = 135.
From the Bode plot of the uncompensated system we find that M
g
= 25.
Since the lag compensator contributes a small negative phase when the
upper corner frequency of the compensator is placed at 1/10 of the value of
M
g
, it is a safe measure to choose M
g
at somewhat less than 25 rad/sec,
say, 20 rad/sec.
The attenuation necessary to cause M
g
= 20 to be the new gain crossover
frequency is 14 dB.
The > parameter of the lag compensator can now be calculated.
20 log > = 14. This gives > = 5
Placing the upper corner frequency of the compensator a decade below M
g
,
we have 1/J = 2. Therefore the lag compensator
D(s) =
0 1
2 1
.5
.5
s
s

From the Bode plotNichols chart analysis we find that the compensated
system has
.M = 51; M
r
= 1.2 and M
b
= 27.5 rad/sec.
10.11K
v
= lim
s0
sG(s) = 5
From the Bode plot we find that the uncompensated system has a phase
margin of 20; the system is therefore unstable.
We attempt a lag compensator. This choice is based on the observation
made from Bode plot of uncompensated system that there is a rapid
decrease in phase of G(jM) near M
g
. Lead compensator will not be effective
for this system.
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1 0 4 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
To realize a phase margin of 40, the gain crossover frequency should be
moved to M
g
where the phase angle of the uncompensated system is:
180 + 40 + 12 = 128
From the Bode plot of the uncompensated system, it is found that M
g
= 0.5
rad/sec. The attenuation necessary to cause M
g
to be the new gain crossover
frequency is 20 dB. The > parameter of the lag compensator can now be
calculated.
20 log > = 20. This gives > = 10
Since we have taken a large safety margin of 12, we can place the upper
corner frequency of the compensator at 0.1 rad/sec, i.e., 1/J = 0.1. Thus the
transfer function of the lag compensator becomes
D(s) =
10 1
100 1
s
s

From the Bode plot of compensated system we find that the phase margin is
about 40 and the gain margin is about 11 dB.
10.12It easily follows that K = 30 satisfies the specification on K
v
. From the
Bode plot of
G(jM) =
30
0 1 1 0 1 j j j M M M ( . )( .2 )
we find that gain crossover frequency is 11 rad/sec and phase margin is
24. Nichols chart analysis gives M
b
= 14 rad/sec.
If lead compensation is employed, the system bandwidth will increase still
further, resulting in an undesirable system which will be sensitive to noise.
If lag compensation is attempted, the bandwidth will decrease sufficiently
so as to fall short of the specified value of 12 rad/sec, resulting in a sluggish
system. These facts can be verified by designing lead and lag compensa-
tors. We thus find that there is need to go in for lag-lead compensation.
Since the full lag compensator will reduce the system bandwidth
excessively, the lag section of the lag-lead compensator must be designed
so as to provide partial compensation only. The lag section, therefore,
should move the gain crossover frequency to a value higher than the gain
crossover frequency of the fully lag-compensated system. We make a
choice of new gain crossover frequency as M
g
= 3.5 rad/sec. The
attenuation necessary to cause M
g
to be the new gain crossover frequency
is 18.5 dB. This gives the > parameter of the lag section as
20 log > = 18.5; > = 8.32, say, 10
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 0 5
Placing the upper corner frequency of the lag section at 1/J
1
= 1, we get the
transfer function of the lag section as
D
1
(s) =
J
>J
1
1
1
1
s
s

=
s
s

1
10 1
It is found that the lag-section compensated system has a phase margin of
24.
We now proceed to design the lead section. The implementation of the lag-
lead compensator is simpler if = and > parameters of the lead and lag
compensators, respectively, are related as = = 1/>. Let us first make this
choice. If our attempt fails, we will relax this constraint on =.
The frequency at which the lag-section compensated system has a
magnitude of 20 log (1/ = ) = 10 dB is 7.5 rad/sec. Selecting this
frequency as gain crossover frequency of the lag-lead compensated
magnitude curve, we set
1
2
=J
= 7.5
The transfer function of the lead-section becomes
D
2
(s) =
J
=J
2
2
1
1
s
s

=
0 422 1
0 0422 1
.
.
s
s

The analysis of the lag-lead compensated system gives .M = 48 and


M
b
= 13 rad/sec.
10.13
2
=
( )
( )
ln
ln


M
M
p
p
2
2 2
F
M
p
= 0.2 = 0.456
t
p
=
F
M
n
1
2

t
p
= 0.1 M
n
= 35.3
M
b
= M
n
[ ]
/
1 2 2 4 4
2 2 4 1 2

= 46.576
.M = tan
1
2
4 1 2
4 2

48
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1 0 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
In order to meet the specification of K
v
= 40, K must be set at 1440. From
the Bode plot of
G(jM) =
144000
36 100 j j j M M M ( )( )
we find that the gain crossover frequency is 29.7 rad/sec and phase margin
is 34.
The phase lead required at the gain crossover frequency of the compensated
magnitude curve = 48 34 + 10 = 24
= =
1 24
1 24

sin
sin
= 0.42
The frequency at which the uncompensated system has a magnitude of
20 log ( / ) 1 = = 3.77 dB is 39 rad/sec. Selecting this frequency as gain
crossover frequency of the compensated magnitude curve, we set
1
=J
= 39
The transfer function of the lead compensator becomes
D(s) =
1440 0 04 1
0 0168 1
( . )
.
s
s

It can easily be verified by Nichols chart analysis that the bandwidth of the
compensated system exceeds the requirement. We assume the peak time
specification is met. This conclusion about the peak time is based on a
second-order approximation that should be checked via simulation.
10.14K = 2000 meets the requirement on K
v
. We estimate a phase margin of 65
to meet the requirement on .
(a) From the Bode plot we find that the uncompensated system with K =
2000 has a phase margin of zero degrees. From the Bode plot we
observe that there is a rapid decrease of phase at the gain crossover
frequency. Since the requirement on phase lead is quite large, it is not
advisable to compensate this system by a single-stage lead
compensator (refer Fig. 10.15).
(b) Allowing 10 for the lag compensator, we locate the frequency at
which the phase angle of the uncompensated system is:
180 + 65 + 10 = 105. This frequency is equal to 1.5 rad/sec. The
gain crossover frequency M
g
should be moved to this value. The
necessary attenuation is 23 dB. The > parameter of the lag com-
pensator can now be calculated.
20 log > = 23. This gives > = 14.2
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 0 7
Placing the upper corner frequency of the compensator one decade
below M
g
, we have 1/J = 0.15. Therefore the lag compensator
D(s) =
6 66 1
94 66 1
.
.
s
s

The phase margin of the compensated system is found to be 67.


(c) The bandwidth of the compensated system is found to be M
b
= 2.08
rad/sec.
10.15Approximate relation between B
m
and is 0.01B
m
= 0.4 B
m
= 40
Let us try lag compensation.
The realize a phase margin of 40, the gain crossover frequency should be
moved to M
g
where the phase angle of the uncompensated system is:
180 + 40 + 10 = 130. From the Bode plot of the uncompensated
system we find that, M
g
= 6. The attenuation necessary to cause M
g
to be
the new gain crossover frequency is 9 dB.
20 log > = 9. This gives >
~

3
Placing the upper corner frequency of the lag compensator two octaves
below M
g
, we have 1/J = 1.5.
The lag compensator
D(s) =
0 67 1
2 1
. s
s

Nichols chart analysis of the compensated system gives M


b
= 11 rad/sec.
Using second-order approximation
M
b
= M
n
1 2 2 4 4
2 2 4
1 2

/
we get M
n
= 10
Therefore t
s
= 4/M
n
= 1 sec
Note that the zero-frequency closed-loop gain of the system is nonunity.
Therefore, the use of 3 dB bandwidth definition, and the second-order
system correlation between M
b
and & M
n
may result in considerable error.
Final design must be checked by simulation.
10.16(a) From the Bode plot of uncompensated system we find that .M = 0.63
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1 0 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(b) Phase margin of the system with the second-order compensator is
9.47. There is no effect of the compensator on steady-state
performance of the system.
(c) The lead compensator
D(s) =
1 0 0378
1 0 0012

.
.
s
s
meets the requirements on relative stability.
10.17 K
v
= 4.8
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CHAPTER 11 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMON
COMPENSATORS
11.1 (a)
E s
Y s
( )
( )
=
R
R C s
D
D
1 /
=
T s
T s
D
D
= 1
; = = R/R
D
; T
D
= R
D
C
D
(b)
E s
Y s
( )
( )
=
R
R R sR C
1 2 2
1 / ( )
=
K T s
T s
c D
D
( )

1
1 =
K
c
=
R
R R
1 2

; = =
R
R R
1
1 2

; T
D
= R
2
C
11.2 Z
1
(s) = R
2
+ R
1
/(1 + R
1
Cs); Z
2
(s) = R
1
+ R
2
E s
E s
2
1
( )
( )
=
Z s
Z s
2
1
1
( )
( )
[ ]
=
J
=J
s
s

1
1
; J = R
1
C, = =
R
R R
2
1 2

< 1
Refer Section 11.2 (Fig. 11.4) for the Bode plot and filtering properties of
the lead compensator.
11.3 Z
1
(s) = R
1
+ R
2
; Z
2
(s) = R
2
+ R
1
/(1 + R
1
Cs)
E s
E s
2
1
( )
( )
=
Z s
Z s
2
1
( )
( )
=
J
>J
s
s

1
1
; J =
R R
R R
C
1 2
1 2

, > =
R R
R
1 2
2

> 1
Add an inverting amplifier of gain unity. Refer Section 11.2 (Fig. 11.7) for
the Bode plot and filtering properties of the lag compensator.
11.4 Z
1
(s) = (R
1
C
1
s + 1)R
3
/[(R
1
+ R
3
)C
1
s + 1]
Z
2
(s) = (R
2
C
2
s + 1)R
4
/[(R
2
+ R
4
)C
2
s + 1]
E s
E s
2
1
( )
( )
=
Z s
Z s
R
R
2
1
6
5
( )
( )

L
N
M
O
Q
P
=
K s s
s s
c

F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J
1 1
1 1
1 2
1 2
J J
=J >J
J
1
= (R
1
+ R
3
)C
1
; J
2
= R
2
C
2
; = =
R
R R
1
1 3

; > =
R R
R
2 4
2

;
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1 1 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
K
c
=
R R R
R R R
R R
R R
2 4 6
1 3 5
1 3
2 4

F
H
G
I
K
J
11.5 Z
1
(s) = R
1
/(1 + R
1
Cs); Z
2
(s) = R
2
+ 1/C
2
s
E s
E s
2
1
( )
( )
=
Z s
Z s
R
R
2
1
4
3
( )
( )

L
N
M
O
Q
P
= K
c
1
1
1

L
N
M
O
Q
P
T s
T s
D
K
c
=
R R C R C
R R C
4 1 1 2 2
3 1 2
( )
= 39.42; T
I
= R
1
C
1
+ R
2
C
2
= 3.077
T
D
=
R R C C
R C R C
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2

= 0.7692
These equations give
R
1
= R
2
= 153.85 k9; R
4
= 197.1 k9
11.6 Z
1
(s) = R
1
/(1 + R
1
C
1
s); Z
2
(s) = R
2
/(1 + R
2
C
2
s)
E s
E s
2
1
( )
( )
=
L
N
M
O
Q
P
Z s
Z s
R
R
2
1
4
3
( )
( )
=
R R
R R
R C s
R C s
4 2
3 1
1 1
2 2
1
1

F
H
G
I
K
J
= 2.51
0 345 1
0185 1
.
.
s
s

F
H
I
K
This equation gives
R
1
= 34.5 k9; R
2
= 18.5 k9; R
4
= 45.8 k9
11.7 By Trapezoidal rule for integration:
e t dt
kT
( )
0
z
= T
e e T e T e T e k T e kT ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
...
( ) ( ) 0
2
2
2
1
2




L
N
M
O
Q
P
= T
e i T e iT
T
i
k
( ) ( )
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P

1
1
By backward-difference approximation for derivatives:
de t
dt
t kT
( )

=
e kT e k T
T
( ) (( ) ) 1
A difference equation model of the PID controller is, therefore, given by
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 1 1
u(k) = K
c
e k
T
T
e i e i T
T
e k e k
I i
k
D
( )
( ) ( )
[ ( ) ( )]


R
S
T
U
V
W

1
2
1
1
11.8 Taking sampling frequency twenty times the closed-loop natural frequency
(which is a measure of bandwidth), we have
M
s
= 20M
n
=
2F
T
; this gives T = 0.5 sec
Settling time t
s
= 4/M
n
= 13
1
10
th of t
s
is 1.3 sec; T = 0.5 sec is therefore a safe choice.
U s
E s
( )
( )
=
2 2 0 1
0 01
. ( . )
.
s
s

u(t) + 0.01 u(t) = 2.2 e(t) + 0.22 e(t)


1
T
[u(k) u(k 1)] + 0.01 u(k) =
2 2 .
T
[e(k) e(k 1)] + 0.22 e(k)
This gives
u(k) =
2
2 01 .
u(k 1) +
4 62
2 01
.
.
e(k)
4 4
2 01
.
.
e(k 1)
Configuration of the digital control scheme is shown in Fig. 11.19.
11.9 (a) u(t) + au(t) = K e(t) + Kb e(t)
By backward-difference approximation:
u k u k
T
au k
( ) ( )
( )

1
=
K
T
[e(k) e(k 1)] + Kbe(k)
By backward-rectangular rule for integration:
u(t) = u(0) a u d Ke t Ke Kb e d
t t
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) J J J J
z z
0
0 0
u(k) = u(k 1) aT u(k) + K e(k) K e(k 1) + Kb T e(k)
By both the approaches of discretization, we get the following
computer algorithm.
u(k) =
1
1
1
1
1 1
1

aT
u k
K bT
aT
e k
K
aT
e k ( )
( )
( ) ( )
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1 1 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(b) u(k) = u(k 1) aT
u k u k ( ) ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
2
+ Ke(k) Ke(k 1)
+ KbT
e k e k ( ) ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
2
=
1
2
1
2

aT
aT
u(k 1) +
K
bT
aT
1
2
1
2

F
H
I
K

e(k)
K
bT
aT
1
2
1
2

F
H
I
K

e(k 1)
11.10 For a choice of T = 0.015 sec, sampling frequency M
s
= 2F/T = 418.88
rad/sec which is about 11 times the closed-loop bandwidth. This is a safe
choice.
U s
E s
( )
( )
=
s s
s
2
2
2
36
112
36
1
740
1
( )
.

F
H
I
K
1.826 10
6
u(t) + 2.7 10
3
u(t) + u(t)
= 7.7 10
4
e(t) + 0.03 e(t) + e(t)
Using the results of Eqns (11.36) (11.37), we get
1.826 10
6

u k u k u k
T
( ) ( ) ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
2 1 2
2
+ 2.7 10
3

u k u k
T
( ) ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
+ u(k)
= 7.7 10
4

e k e k e k
T
( ) ( ) ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
2 1 2
2
+ 0.03
e k e k
T
( ) ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
+ e(k)
This gives
1.1881 u(k) 0.1962 u(k 1) + 0.0081 u(k 2)
= 6.42 e(k) 8.84 e(k 1) + 3.42 e(k 2)
By direct digital design, we will be able to achieve the desired closed-loop
performance using longer value of sampling interval.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 1 3
11.11
B s
Y s
( )
( )
=
K s
s
t
J 1
J

b(t) + b(t) = K
t
y(t)
b(t) = b(0)
1
0
0
J
G G
J
b d
K
y t y
t
t
( ) [ ( ) ( )]
z
b(k) = b(k 1)
T b k b k K
y k y k
t
J J
( ) ( )
[ ( ) ( )]

L
N
M
O
Q
P

1
2
1
=
1 2
1 2

T
T
/
/
J
J
b(k 1) +
K
T
y k
K
T
y k
t t
/
/
( )
/
/
( )
J
J
J
J 1 2 1 2
1

11.12 The set-point control, proportional action and derivative action are all
included in the op amp circuit of Fig. 11.43. Only the integral action is to
be added. Connect the integral-action unit of Fig. 11.41 in cascade with
the proportional action unit of Fig. 11.43; the output e
4
of the proportional-
action unit of Fig. 11.43 becomes input to the integral-action unit (output
e
3
).
The resulting op amp circuit is governed by the following relation (refer
Examples 11.6 and 11.7);
E
3
(s) = K
c
(1 + T
D
s) 1
1

F
H
G
I
K
J
T s
I
[Y(s) R(s)]
K
c
=
R
R
2
2

; T
D
= R
D
C
D
; T
I
= R
I
C
I
11.13 E
2
(s) = Y(s) R(s) ; E
3
(s) = T
D
sY(s) ; T
D
= R
D
C
D
E
4
(s) = K
c
[E
3
(s) E
2
(s)] ; K
c
=
R
R
2
2

= K
c
[R(s) (1 + T
D
s) Y(s)]
11.14 K
cu
= 1.2, T
u
= 4.5 min
From the tuning rules given in Table 11.1:
K
c
= 0.45K
cu
= 0.54 or
1
0 54 .
100 = 185% PB
T
I
= T
u
/1.2 = 3.75 min or
1
3 75 .
= 0.266 repeats/min
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1 1 4 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(b) K
c
: 110% PB ; T
I
: 0.355 repeats/min ; T
D
: 0.45 min
11.15 From the process reaction curve (refer Section 11.9) we obtain
J
D
= 6 sec, J = 12 sec, K = 1
From tuning rules given in Table 11.2;
K
c
= 1.8, T
I
= 19.98 sec
11.16 The model obtained from process reaction curve (refer Section 11.9):
K = 1 ; J = 1.875 ; J
D
= 1.375
From tuning rules given in Table 11.2:
(a) K
c
= 1.36
(b) K
c
= 1.23 ; T
I
= 4.58 min
11.17 J
ND
= 0.2 for process A, 0.5 for process B, and 0.5 for Process C. Process
A is more controllable than processes B and C, which are equally
controllable.
11.18 (a) From the tuning rules given in Table 11.2:
K
c
= 3 ; T
I
= 4 min ; T
D
= 1 min
(b) J
CD
= J
D
+
1
2
T = 2 min +
1
2
8 sec = 2.067 min.
Replacing J
D
by J
CD
in the tuning formulas, we obtain
K
c
= 2.9 ; T
I
= 4.13 min ; T
D
= 1.03 min
11.19 Replace J
D
in tuning formulas of Table 11.2 by J
CD
= J
D
+
1
2
T. Increase
in sampling time demands reduced K
c
and increased T
I
and T
D
.
11.20 From tuning rules given in Table 11.1:
K
c
= 2.25 ; T
I
= 28.33 sec
Correction to account for sampling is not required since the test has
directly been conducted on the digital loop.
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CHAPTER 12 CONTROL SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING
STATE VARIABLE METHODS
12.1
+

x
4
x
3
x
2
x
1
K
g
K
b
i
a
i
f
u
K
T
1 1 1 1
sL + R
f f
sJ + B
e e
s
n
s
a g
( ) L + L + R +R
a g
q
M
q
L
q
M
J
e
= n
2
J = 0.4 ; B
e
= n
2
B = 0.01
x
1
= x
2
; 0.4 x
2
+ 0.01x
2
= 1.2x
3
0.1 x
3
+ 19x
3
= 100 x
4
1.2x
2
; 5 x
4
+ 21x
4
= 4
or x = Ax + bu
A =
0 1 0 0
0 0 025 3 0
0 12 190 1000
0 0 0 4 2

L
N
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
.
.
; b =
0
0
0
0 2 .
L
N
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
y = G
L
= nx
1
= 0.5x
1
12.2
x
3 x
2
x
1
i
f
u
q
q
K
A
K
T
s
f f
L + R + 1
1 1
Js + B
1
s
x
1
= x
2
; 0.5 x
2
+ 0.5x
2
= 10x
3
20 x
3
+ 100x
3
= 50u ; y = x
1
A =
0 1 0
0 1 20
0 0 5

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
0
0
2 5 .
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 1 0 0
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1 1 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
12.3 x
1
= G
M
; x
2
=

G
M
, x
3
= i
a
; y = G
L
x
1
= x
2
2 x
2
+ x
2
= 38 x
3
2 x
3
+ 21x
3
= e
a
0.5 x
2
e
a
= k
1
(G
R
G
L
) k
2

G
M
= k
1
G
R

k
1
20
x
1
k
2
x
2
A =
0 1 0
0 0 5 19
40
0 5
2
21
2
1 2

L
N
M
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
P
.
( . ) k k
; b =
0
0
2
1
k
L
N
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
; c =
1
20
0 0
L
N
M
O
Q
P
12.4 x
1
= M ; x
2
= i
a
J

M + BM = K
T
i
a
R
a
i
a
+ L
a

di
dt
a
= e
a
K
b
M
e
a
= K
c
e
c
= K
c
[k
1
(e
r
K
t
M) k
2
i
a
}
A =


L
N
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
B
J
K
J
k K K K
L
R k K
L
T
t c b
a
a c
a
( ) ( )
1 2
;
b =
0
1
k K
L
c
a
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
; c = 1 0
12.5 A = P
1
AP =

L
N
M
O
Q
P
11 6
15 8
b = P
1
b =
1
2
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; c = cP = 2 1
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
P
1 1
,
,
=
s
s s



2
1 2
1 3 2 ( )
=
1
3 2
2
s s
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 1 7
X
2
X = Y
1
s
1
2
3
1 1
U
s
1
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
P P P P
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
, , , ,
,

=
2 1 8 15 1 2 1 11 2 6 2 1
1 11 8 15 6 11 8
1 1 2 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
s s s s s s s
s s s s s s




( ) ( ) ( )[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ( )( )] [( )( )]
=
1
3 2
2
s s
X
2
X
1
Y
s
1
1
6
2
15
11
2
1
8
U
s
1
12.6 A =
0 1
0 0
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; b =
0
1
L
N
M
O
Q
P
A= P
1
AP =
1 1
1 1
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; b= P
1
b =
0
1
L
N
M
O
Q
P
|I A| = |I A| =
2
12.7 X(s) = (sI A)
1
x
0
+ (sI A)
1
b U(s)
= G(s)x
0
+ H(s) U(s)
G(s) =
1
,

s s s
s s s
s s
( )
( )



L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
3 3 1
1 3
1
2
; H(s) =
1
1
2
,
s
s
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
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1 1 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
, = s
3
+ 3s
2
+ 1
12.8
3
1
u
x
3
0
x
2
0
x
1
0
x
1
x
2 x
3
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
12.9 Taking outputs of integrators as state variables, we get (x
1
being the output
of rightmost integrator),
x
1
= x
2
x
2
= 2x
2
+ x
3
x
3
= x
3
x
2
y + u
y = 2x
1
2x
2
+ x
3
A =
0 1 0
0 2 1
2 1 2


L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
0
0
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 2 2 1
12.10 (a) G(s) = c (sI A)
1
b
=
s
s s


3
1 2 ( )( )
(b) G(s) =
1
1 2 ( )( ) s s
12.11 x
1
= 3x
1
+ 2x
2
+ [ 2x
1
1.5x
2
3.5x
3
]
x
2
= 4x
1
5x
2
x
3
= x
2
r
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 1 9
A =

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
5 0 5 3 5
4 5 0
0 1 0
. .
; b =
0
0
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 0 1 0
G(s) = c(sI A)
1
b =
14
1 2 7 ( )( )( ) s s s
12.12 (a) x
1
= output of lag 1/(s + 2)
x
2
= output of lag 1/(s + 1)
x
1
+ 2x
1
= x
2
; x
2
+ x
2
= x
1
+ u
y = x
2
+ ( x
1
+ u)
A =


L
N
M
O
Q
P
2 1
1 1
; b =
0
1
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; c = 1 1 ; d = 1
(b) x
1
= output of lag 1/(s + 2)
x
2
= output of lag 1/s
x
3
= output of lag 1/(s + 1)
x
1
+ 2x
1
= y ; x
2
= x
1
+ u
x
3
+ x
3
= x
1
+ u ; y = x
2
+ x
3
A =


L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
2 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
; b =
0
1
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 0 1 1
12.13(i)
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
s
s s


3
1 2 ( )( )
=
2
1
1
2 s s

A =

L
N
M
O
Q
P
1 0
0 2
; b =
1
1
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; c = 2 1
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1 2 0 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
1
2
2
u +
+
+
+
+
+
x
2
x
1
y
1
(ii)
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
>
= = =
3
s s s
3
1
2
2 3

=
5
4 5 2
3 2
s s s
From Eqns (12.46), the second companion form of the state model is given
below.
A =
0 0 2
1 0 5
0 1 4

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
5
0
0
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 0 0 1
2
u
+
+ +

x
2
x
1
x
3
= y
2 5 4
5
(iii)
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
> > > >
= = =
0
3
1
2
2 3
3
1
2
2 3
s s s
s s s


=
s s s
s s s
3 2
3 2
8 17 8
6 11 6


From Eqns (12.44), the state model in second companion form is given
below.
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 2 1
A =
0 1 0
0 0 1
6 11 6
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
0
0
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 2 6 2
6
8
y
8 1
6
17
11
u +
+ + +
+ + +
+ +
+ +

x
2
x
1
x
3
z z z
12.14 (i)
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
s
s s s


1
3 2
3 2
=
> >
= = =
2 3
3
1
2
2 3
s
s s s


From Eqns (12.46):
A =
0 0 0
1 0 2
0 1 3

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
1
1
0
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 0 0 1
(ii)
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
1
6 11 6
3 2
s s s
=
>
= = =
3
3
1
2
2 3
s s s
From Eqns (12.44):
A =
0 1 0
0 0 1
6 11 6
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
0
0
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 1 0 0
(iii)
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
s s s
s s s
3 2
3 2
8 17 8
6 11 6


= 1
1
1
2
2
1
3

s s s
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1 2 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
A =

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 3
b =
1
1
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
c = 1 2 1 ; d = 1
12.15 (a)
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
1000 5000
52 100
3 2
s
s s s


=
> >
= = =
2 3
3
1
2
2 3
s
s s s


From Eqns (12.44):
A =
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 100 52
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
0
0
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 5000 1000 0
(b)
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
1000 5000
52 100
3 2
s
s s s


=
50 3125
2
18 75
50 s s s

. .
A =
0 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 50

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
50
3125
18 75

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
.
.
; c = 1 1 1
12.16
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
2 6 5
1 2
2
2
s s
s s

( ) ( )
=
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
( ) s s s

From Eqns (12.55):


A =

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
1 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 2
; b =
0
1
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 1 1 1
x(t) =
0
t
z
e
A(t J)
bu(J)dJ
e
At
=
1
[(sI A)
1
] =
e te
e
e
t t
t
t

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
0
0 0
0 0
2
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 2 3
e u d
t
t
A
b
( )
( )

z
J
J J
0
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
t e d
e d
e d
t
t
t
t
t
t

L
N
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P



z
z
z
J J
J
J
J
J
J
0
0
2
0
=
1
1
1
2
1
2

L
N
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P

e te
e
e
t t
t
t
( )
y = x
1
+ x
2
+ x
3
= 2.5 2e
t
te
t
0.5 e
2t
u
y
+ +
+
+
+
+
+

x
3
z
z
z
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
x
2
x
1
12.17 F = e
AT
=
0 696 0 246
0123 0 572
. .
. .
L
N
M
O
Q
P
g = (e
AT
I) A
1
b
=
. .
. .
0 304 0 246
0123 0 428
L
N
M
O
Q
P


L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P

L
N
M
O
Q
P
3
4
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
5
=

L
N
M
O
Q
P
0 021
0 747
.
.
c = 2 4 ; d = 6
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1 2 4 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
12.18
Y s
U s
( )
( )
=
e
s
s

0 4
1
.
( ) x t
1
= x
1
(t) + u(t 0.4)
J
D
= 0.4 ; therefore, N = 0, , = 0.4, m = 0.6
F = e
1
= 0.3679
g
2
= e d

z
I
I
0
0 6 .
= 0.4512 ; g
1
= e
0.6
e d

z
G
G
0
0 4 .
= 0.1809
x
1
(k + 1) = 0.3679 x
1
(k) + 0.1809 u(k 1) + 0.4512u(k)
Introduce a new state x
2
(k) = u(k 1)
x(k + 1) = Fx(k) = gu(k)
y(k) = cx(k)
F =
0 3679 01809
0 0
. .
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; g =
0 4512
1
.
L
N
M
O
Q
P
c = 1 0
12.19
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
2
x
1 x
2
x
2
0
x
2
0
2
1 1
1
1
u
G(s) =
G s G s
G s G s
11 12
21 22
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; H(s) =
H s
H s
1
2
( )
( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
X s
x
1
1
0
( )
= G
11
(s) =
s s
s s s s s


1 1
1 1 2 1 1
1 2
1 2 2 2 2
( )
( ) ( )( )
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 2 5
=
s s

1 1
1 2 ( )
,
=
1 2
1
1 2
3
/ /
s s

X s
x
1
2
0
( )
= G
12
(s) =
s
2
1 ( )
,
=
1 2
1
1 2
3
/ /
s s

X s
x
2
1
0
( )
= G
21
(s) =
s
2
1 ( )
,
=
1 2
1
1 2
3
/ /
s s

X s
x
2
2
0
( )
= G
22
(s) =
s s

1 1
1 2 ( )
,
=
1 2
1
1 2
3
/ /
s s

X s
U s
1
( )
( )
= H
1
(s) =
s s s


2 1 1
1 1 2 ( ) ( )
,
=
1
1 s
X s
U s
2
( )
( )
= H
2
(s) =
1
1 s
Zero-input response:
x(t) = e
At
x
0
=
-1
[G(s)x
0
]
=
1
2
3 3
3 3
1
0
2
0
e e e e
e e e e
x
x
t t t t
t t t t




L
N
M
O
Q
P
L
N
M
O
Q
P
Zero-state response:
x(t) = e d
t
t
A
b
( )
( )

z
J
u J J
0
=
1
[H(s)U(s)] =
1
1

L
N
M
O
Q
P

e
e
t
t
12.20 A =
0 1
2 3
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; eigenvalues are
1
= 1,
2
= 2
Y(s) = c(sI A)
1
x
0
+ c(sI A)
1
b U(s)
=
s
s s s s s


4
1 2
1
1 2 ( )( ) ( )( )
=
3
1
2
2
1 2 1
1
1 2
2 s s s s s

/ /
y(t) =
1
2
2
3
2
2


e e
t t
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1 2 6 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
12.21 x
1
= 3x
1
+ 2x
2
+ [7r 3x
1
1.5 x
2
]
x
2
= 4x
1
5x
2
A =

L
N
M
O
Q
P
6 0 5
4 5
.
; b =
7
0
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; c = 0 1
e
At
=
1
[(sI A)
1
]
=
1
3
2
3
0 5
3
0 5
3
4
3
4
3
2
3
1
3
4 7 4 7
4 7 4 7
e e e e
e e e e
t t t t
t t t t




L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
. .
y(t) = x
2
(t) = 7
4
3
4
3
4 7
0
e e d
t t
t

L
N
M
O
Q
P
z
( ) ( ) J J
J
=
28
3
1
4
1
1
7
1
4 7
( ) ( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P

e e
t t
12.22 e
At
=
e
t


L
N
M
O
Q
P


te te
te e te
t t
t t t
x(t) = e t
t t A
x
( )
( )

0
0
Given: x
1
(2) = 2 ; t
0
= 1, t = 2
Manipulation of the equation gives
x
1
(2) = 2e
1
x
1
(1) + e
1
x
2
(1) = 2
If x
2
(1) = 2k, then x
1
(1) = e
1
k
Thus
e k
k
1
2
L
N
M
O
Q
P
is a possible set of states
x
x
1
2
1
1
( )
( )
L
N
M
O
Q
P
for any k 0
12.23
e
e
t
t

L
N
M
O
Q
P
2
2
2
=
a b
c d
L
N
M
O
Q
P

L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
2
;
e
e
t
t

L
N
M
O
Q
P
=
a b
c d
L
N
M
O
Q
P

L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
1
This gives
e
At
=
a b
c d
L
N
M
O
Q
P
=
2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
e e e e
e e e e
t t t t
t t t t




L
N
M
O
Q
P
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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 2 7
=
1
[(sI A)
1
]
(sI A)
1
=
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
s s s s
s s s s

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
(sI A) =
s
s

L
N
M
O
Q
P
1
2 3
A =
0 1
2 3
L
N
M
O
Q
P
12.24 V =
c
cA
cA

n
L
N
M
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
P 1
is a triangular matrix with diagonal elements equal to unity;
|V| = ( 1)
n
for all =
i
s. This proves the result.
12.25 U = [b Ab ... A
n1
b] is a triangular matrix with diagonal elements equal
to unity; |U| = ( 1)
n
for all =
i
s. This proves the result.
12.26 (i) U = [b Ab] =
1 2
0 1

L
N
M
O
Q
P
; H(U) = 2
Completely controllable
V =
c
cA
L
N
M
O
Q
P
=
1 1
3 3

L
N
M
O
Q
P
; H(V) = 1
Not completely observable.
(ii) The system is in Jordan canonical form; it is controllable but not
observable.
(iii) The system is in controllable companion form. The given system is
therefore controllable. We have to test for observability property only.
H(V) = H
c
cA
cA
2
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
= 3
The system is completely observable.
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1 2 8 CONTROL SYSTEMS: PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
(iv) Given system is in observable companion form. We have to test for
controllability property only.
H(U) = H[b Ab A
2
b] = 3
The system is completely controllable.
12.27 (i) Observable but not controllable
(ii) Controllable but not observable
(iii) Neither controllable nor observable.
Controllable and observable realization:
A = 1 ; b = 1 ; c = 1
12.28 (i) G(s)= c(sI A)
1
b =
1
2 s
Given state model is in observable companion form. Since there is a
pole-zero cancellation, the state model is uncontrollable.
(ii) G(s) =
s
s s


4
2 3 ( )( )
The given state model is in controllable companion form. Since there
is a pole-zero cancellation, the model is unobservable.
12.29 (a) |I A| = ( 1) ( + 2) ( + 1)
The system is unstable.
(b) G(s) = c(sI A)
1
b
=
1
1 2 ( )( ) s s
The G(s) is stable
(c) The unstable mode e
t
of the free response is hidden from the transfer
function representation
12.30 (a) G(s) =
10
2
s s
=
>
= =
2
2
1 2
s s
A =
0 1
0 1
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; b =
0
1
L
N
M
O
Q
P
; c = [10 0]
(b) Let us obtain controllable companion form realization of
G(s)=
10 2
1 2
( )
( )( )
s
s s s


=
10 20
3 2
3 2
s
s s s


=
> >
= = =
2 3
3
1
2
2 3
s
s s s


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SOLUTION MANUAL 1 2 9
A =
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 2 3
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
0
0
1
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 20 10 0
(c) Let us obtain observable companion form realization of
G(s) =
10 2
1 2
( )
( )( )
s
s s s


A =
0 0 0
1 0 2
0 1 3

L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; b =
20
10
0
L
N
M
M
M
O
Q
P
P
P
; c = 0 0 1
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