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# Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Pipewall Thickness Calculation

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Piping & Valves File Reference: MEX10103

For additional information on this subject, contact K.S. Chu on 873-2648 or R. Hingoraney on 873-2649

CONTENTS

PAGE

OVERVIEW: DETERMINING PIPEWALL THICKNESS ............................................1 Normal Operating Conditions............................................................................................2 Design Conditions .............................................................................................................2 Contingent Design Conditions...........................................................................................2 CALCULATING THE MINIMUM REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR THE INTERNAL DESIGN PRESSURE..................................................................3 Equation for Internal Pressure Thickness for Transportation Piping: ASME/ANSI B31.8 and B31.4..........................................................................................3 Equation for Internal Pressure Thickness for Plant Piping: Code ASME/ANSI B31.3.....4 Determining Design Pressure and Temperature ................................................................5 Determining Allowable Piping Hoop Stress and Joint Quality Factor ..............................6 Transportation Piping ........................................................................................................6 Plant Piping .......................................................................................................................9 Determining Design Factors and Temperature Derating Factor for Transportation Pipelines ..................................................................................................14 Design Factor ..................................................................................................................14 Temperature Derating Factor...........................................................................................18 Determining the Proper "Y" Factor for Plant Piping .......................................................19 ADJUSTING PIPEWALL THICKNESS FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE .....................21 IDENTIFYING THE PROCEDURE FOR EVALUATING OTHER LOADS THAT ARE APPLIED TO BURIED PIPE .......................................................22 Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Piping & Valves File Reference: MEX10103

For additional information on this subject, contact K.S. Chu on 873-2648 or R. Hingoraney on 873-2649

Engineering Encyclopedia

Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation

SELECTING PIPE SCHEDULE THAT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE MANUFACTURER’S TOLERANCES AND SAUDI ARAMCO’S MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR PIPEWALL THICKNESS.......................................................23 CALCULATING THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE OPERATING PRESSURE (MAOP) ......................................................................................................24 WORK AID 4: GUIDELINES FOR CALCULATING MAOP ......................................26 GLOSSARY ....................................................................................................................27

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

and contingent conditions of the piping system when determining the pipewall thickness. Increasing the calculated thickness. Pipewall thickness is a function of the allowable hoop stress.03 refers to ASME/ANSI B31. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 1 . as applicable. Selecting a thickness from an ANSI/API table of standard pipe thicknesses. as needed. Calculating the required thickness for internal pressure. It is important for the engineer to keep in mind the design conditions. Design Stress Criteria For Pressure Piping. and pipe material. The process discussed in this module is consistent for all the B31 piping codes.8. The MAOP for the pipe can be calculated after the final pipewall thickness is determined. to account for corrosion allowance and mill tolerance. variables.01.3 for plant piping and B31. Each code provides the equation that is used to calculate internal pressure thickness. pipe diameter. established by each code and of SAES-L-003.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation OVERVIEW: DETERMINING PIPEWALL THICKNESS Given the design temperature. Pipewall thickness is calculated by: • • • • • Determining the applicable ASME/ANSI B31 Code. for transportation piping. the Saudi Aramco engineer can determine the required thickness of the pipewall. These conditions establish the necessary parameters for pipewall thickness calculations. normal operating conditions. and definitions or values for allowable stress differ. as discussed in MEX 101. the equations. However. design pressure. and checking the thickness against the Saudi Aramco minimum thickness requirements. The text of MEX 101. Checking the calculated thickness to determine its acceptability for external pressure and other applied loads.

and the occasional. shut-in of wells at the GOSP. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 2 . Startup and controlled shutdown of plants. Certain multiple. such as storms. operator error. Contingent Design Conditions Based on SAES-L-002. unrelated contingencies or failures. Failure of a device or function. normal operating conditions are those expected to occur during normal operation per design. which have an expected average return interval of less than 100 years. and similar foreseeable events also are included with normal operation. contingent design conditions are: • • • • • • Uncontrolled shutdown of plants. excluding failure of any operating device. short-term variations stated in the applicable code. Improper operation due to a single act or operating decision. Fire. Ambient conditions. Design Conditions For Pressure Piping. A margin is used between the normal operating and design conditions to account for normal operating variations. and are based on the most severe conditions expected to occur in service. design conditions are all conditions which govern the design and selection of pressure piping components.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Normal Operating Conditions Based on SAES-L-002. in accordance with the code. coincident. Design Conditions Based on SAES-L-002.

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-L-003 provides values for the design factor.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation CALCULATING THE MINIMUM REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR THE INTERNAL DESIGN PRESSURE Calculating the required internal pressure thickness is the first step in determining pipewall thickness.4 ASME/ANSI B31.4 systems. SAES-L-002. and SAES-L-003. Temperature derating factor. Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS). the Saudi Aramco engineer must use the applicable code (as discussed in MEX 101.01). Design factor.L-003 require that this same equation be used for B31. The method for determining each of these values will be discussed in subsequent sections. ASME/ANSI B31. The standard also should be referred to for other considerations for each value in the equation. The sections that follow highlight several aspects of this procedure. However. Equation for Internal Pressure Thickness for Transportation Piping: ASME/ANSI B31. Work Aid 1 outlines the procedure for calculating internal pressure thickness. To calculate internal pressure thickness given certain design conditions. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3 .8 and B31. Outside diameter of pipe. Design pressure. design requirements that are contained in SAES. psig. gives the equation for calculating the internal pressure wall thickness of gas transmission and distribution piping (transportation piping) as follows: t = PD 2 SEFT where: t P S D F E T = = = = = = = Internal pressure wall thickness. F. in. Longitudinal-joint quality factor.4 uses this same basic equation in a more simplified form. psi.8. in.

in. calculation of pressure design thickness for straight pipe requires special consideration of factors such as theory of failure. the internal pressure thickness for straight pipe shall not be less than that calculated in the above equation. For t _ D/6 or for P/SE > 0.385. psig. This module will not discuss this situation. effects of fatigue.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Equation for Internal Pressure Thickness for Plant Piping: Code ASME/ANSI B31.3 gives the equation for calculating the internal pressure design thickness for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping (plant piping) as: t = 2 ( SE + PY ) PD where: t P D E S Y = = = = = = Internal pressure design thickness. Outside diameter of pipe. in. Longitudinal-joint quality factor.3 ASME/ANSI B31. Internal design pressure. Wall thickness correction factor. The method for determining each of these values in the equation will be discussed in subsequent sections. psi. For thicknesses t < D/6. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4 . Allowable hoop stress. and thermal stress.

normal operating conditions and potential contingent design conditions (such as pump failure at a downstream pumping station which causes a pressure surge) will be determined. For example. The design pressure is used directly in the thickness calculation equation.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Determining Design Pressure and Temperature The design pressure and temperature are used to calculate the internal pressure thickness of pipe. 4. The design temperature is used to determine the allowable stresses. The values for design pressure and temperature typically are determined by the process engineer based on process requirements. The hydrostatic head in a liquid-filled piping system could also prove to be a significant factor in cases where there is a large difference in elevation between sections of the system. will have specified design pressure and design temperature based on the more severe design conditions of the two vessels. a plant piping system that is attached to two process vessels. Verifying values with the process engineer. 2. such as upsets not protected by pressurerelieving devices. Considering contingent design conditions. For a transportation piping system attached between two pump or compressor stations. Identifying the equipment to which the piping system is attached. Piping system design conditions generally are determined based on the design conditions of the equipment to which the piping is attached. Determining the design pressure and design temperature for the equipment. The values used for piping thickness calculations allow for the worst combination of design pressure and temperature. Determining the piping design conditions consists of: 1. 3. as previously shown. especially for plant piping. each with different design conditions. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 .

4 determines allowable hoop stress in a similar manner. E. Paragraph 8. spare. The joint quality factor depends upon the pipe manufacturing process. The allowable hoop stress is defined by each code. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . is determined by using Table 841.8 (or Table 402.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-B-064.4/B31. The pipe material specification and grade. The pipe material specification and grade are required to determine E. as specified by the code. shall be assumed to operate as intended. surge-relief valve is required for each surge protection system. Self-actuated surge protection systems.8. Surge protection systems shall be of fail-safe design. Surge analysis shall be made for liquid-packed services. critical subassemblies sufficient to overcome single-mode system failures. • • • • Determining Allowable Piping Hoop Stress and Joint Quality Factor Allowable hoops stress (stress in the circumferential direction) is the allowable stress in tension for the pipe material. as Figures 1 and 2. the allowable stress appears in tables in an appendix of B31. such as inadvertent closure of a valve. identifies design pressure considerations for transportation piping in which surge can occur.8 in location class 3 and 4 zones shall be established by determining the maximum expected surge pressure from a single contingency.4. if provided. These tables are shown.4). Onshore and Nearshore Pipeline Safety.115A of ASME/ANSI B31.3. are required to determine its SMYS.3 of ASME/ANSI B31. For plant piping. Surge protection systems shall be installed if surge pressures are calculated to exceed 110% of the MAOP. Surge protection systems shall include duplicate. Transportation Piping For transportation piping. ASME/ANSI B31. the allowable hoop stress is a function of the material's Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS). or failure of a sensing or regulating device. These are highlighted as follows: • The design pressure used to determine the minimum pipewall thickness per ASME/ANSI B31. The joint quality factor. An installed. to mitigate the single worst contingency. The SMYS for commonly used piping materials may be found by using Appendix D of ASME/ANSI B31. in part. as modified by the joint quality factor.

NO.000 40. S ERW. ERW S.000 46.000 56.000 35.000 35. DSA ERW.000 35. DSA ERW. S ERW.000 35.000 52. DSA ERW. DSA BW ERW.000 35.000 65.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation ASME/ANSI B31.000 75. ERW S.000 48.000 42.000 30. DSA ERW.000 52. PSI 25.000 35.000 Source: ASME/ANSI B31. S.000 60.000 30.000 35. S.000 42. DSA ERW. S. ERW S S. S.1989.000 42.000 60.000 65. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. S.000 52.8 APPENDIX D SPECIFIED MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH FOR STEEL PIPE SPEC. S S S S EFW ERW ERW EFW EFW EFW EFW EFW S. S.000 35.000 30. ERW. ERW DSA DSA DSA DSA DSA DSA DSA DSA DSA SMYS.000 (NOTE 3) 30.000 25.8 . ERW S. S. DSA ERW. DSA ERW.000 56. S.000 35.000 70.000 30.000 50.000 46. S. DSA ERW. ERW S.000 46. API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) API 5L (Note 2) ASTM A 53 ASTM A 53 ASTM A 53 ASTM A 106 ASTM A 106 ASTM A 106 ASTM A 134 ASTM A 135 ASTM A 135 ASTM A 139 ASTM A 139 ASTM A 139 ASTM A 139 ASTM A 139 ASTM A 333 ASTM A 333 ASTM A 333 ASTM A 333 ASTM A 333 ASTM A 333 ASTM A 333 ASTM A 381 ASTM A 381 ASTM A 381 ASTM A 381 ASTM A 381 ASTM A 381 ASTM A 381 ASTM A 381 ASTM A 381 GRADE A25 A B X42 X46 X52 X56 X60 X65 X70 X80 TYPE F A B A B C A B A B C D E 1 3 4 6 7 8 9 CLASS Y-35 CLASS Y-42 CLASS Y-46 CLASS Y-48 CLASS Y-50 CLASS Y-52 CLASS Y-56 CLASS Y-60 CLASS Y-65 TYPE (NOTE 1) BW.000 80.000 46.000 30. S. DSA ERW.000 35. FIGURE 1 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 .

32.electric-resistance welded. ASME/ANSI CODE B31.42.8 APPENDIX D SPECIFIED MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH FOR STEEL PIPE.seamless.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation ASME/ANSI B31. For the minimum specified yield strength of other grades and grades in other approved specifications. (EXCERPT) LONGITUDINAL JOINT FACTOR.flashwelded. (2) Intermediate grades are available in API 5L.80 1. Number ASTM A53 ASTM A106 ASTM A134 ASTM A135 ASTM A139 ASTM A211 ASTM A381 ASTM A671 ASTM A672 API 5L Pipe Class Seamless Electric-Resistance Welded Furnace Welded Seamless Electric-Fusion Arc Welded Electric-Resistance Welded Electric-Fusion Welded Spiral-Welded Steel Pipe Double-Submerged Arc Welded Electric-Fusion Welded Electric-Fusion Welded Seamless Electric-Resistance Welded Electric-Flash Welded Submerged Arc Welded Furnace Butt-Welded E Factor 1.00* 1.00 for classes 12.53 FIGURE 2 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . NOTES: (1) Abbreviations: BW .00 0. S . ERW .8 . DSA .1989. CONT'D GENERAL NOTE: This Table is not complete. E Spec.52 0.00* 1.23.115A.00 0.00 1. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.00 0.furnace butt-welded.80 for classes 13.60 *1.00 0.00 1.60 1.22.43. TABLE 841.80 0. (3) See applicable plate specification for SMYS. refer to the particular specification. EFW .80 1.00 1.electric-fusion welded. FW .8.00 1. Source: ASME/ANSI B31.00 1.double-submerged arc welded.

Using a pipe material at temperatures beyond the single solid line is not recommended. Allowable hoop stress is determined directly from Table A-1 of ASME/ANSI B31. An excerpt from this table is shown in Figure 3. SAES-L-003 specifies values for F based on location class. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . Identify material Spec. and considers the yield.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation After determining the allowable hoop stress and the joint quality factor from the code. and creep strengths of the material at the design temperature. Going beyond the double solid line is prohibited. For transportation piping. and for other specific situations. SAESL-003 must be checked to determine if there are any other restrictions on the allowable hoop stress. based on pipe material and manufacturing process from Table A-1B in B31. SAES-L-003 states: For cross-country and submarine pipelines in hydrocarbon service within the scope of ASME/ANSI B31.3. • • • • Pipe material and design temperature must be known. Once these values are determined. For plant piping. as shown in Figure 4. and Grade in the table.8.3. and use linear interpolation between temperatures if required. tensile. Table A-1 is used in the following manner to determine allowable stress for plant piping. No. E. Obtain the allowable stress by looking under the appropriate temperature column at the specified material. SAES-L-003 must be referred to for restrictions on the allowable hoop stress. the allowable hoop stress is a function of temperature and material. near populated areas as defined and classified in SAESB-064. SAES-L-003 states the allowable stresses as shown in Appendix A of the code shall be used for wall thickness calculations.4 or B31. the maximum allowable hoop stress due to internal pressure shall not exceed the Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS) times the design factor. Obtain the value of the joint quality factor. Plant Piping For plant piping. F.

3 TABLE A-1 (EXCERPT) BASIC ALLOWABLE STRESSES IN TENSION FOR METALS Source: ASME/ANSI B31. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation ASME/ANSI B31.1990.3 . FIGURE 3 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 .

CONT'D FIGURE 3.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation ASME/ANSI B31.3 TABLE A-1 (EXCERPT) BASIC ALLOWABLE STRESSES IN TENSION FOR METALS. CONT'D Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 .

or normalized temperature conditions. and SP-5 of carbon steels are not included in P-No 1 because of possible high-carbon. 59. Conversion of carbides to graphite may occur after prolonged exposure to temperatures over 875°F. 55. Qualification of any high-carbon. The maximum operating temperature is arbitrarily set at 500°F because hard temper adversely affects design stress in the creep rupture ranges. which would require special consideration in qualification. Sp-2. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. SP-3. 52.3 . Source: ASME/ANSI B31. Copper-silicon alloys are not always suitable when exposed to certain media and high temperature. or microalloying. normalized. Pipe produced to this specification is not intended for high-temperature service. Special P-1. this material is not recommended for service above 800°F. The stress values apply to either nonexpanded or cold-expanded material in the as-rolled. 54.1990. For temperature above 900°F. consider the advantages of killed steel. SP-4. 58. high-manganese grade may be extended to other grades in its group. high-manganese combinations.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation 51. Because of thermal instability. 56. The user should satisfy himself that the alloy selected is satisfactory. 57. Stress relief treatment is required for service above 450°F. particularly above 212°F. 53. CONT'D Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 . FIGURE 3. Conversion of carbides to graphite may occur after prolonged exposure to temperatures over 800°F.

Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation TABLE A-1B BASIC QUALITY FACTORS FOR LONGITUDINAL WELD JOINTS IN PIPES.3 . TUBES.1990. AND FITTINGS. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. FIGURE 4 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 . E Source: ASME/ANSI B31.

and temperature derating factor. T. RER is the distance on either side of a pipeline that must be included in a PDA. design pressure.) 2.200 m (7. diameter: 36 in.280 ft. which must be used for transportation piping systems. the procedure for determining the design factor. to less than 36 in. to less than 26 in. S (or SMYS).) 1. the pipe diameter. Design Factor For transportation piping. diameter: 12 in. as defined in Paragraph 6 of SAES-B-064. E.8 pertaining to the population density index.) - Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . and an H2S concentration of less than 1.200 m (3.940 ft. and joint quality factor. and then SAES-L-003 to determine the design factor. F. can be determined for use in the equation for internal pressure thickness. diameter: 500 m (1. The PDA. supersedes instructions in ASME/ANSI B31.100 m (6. P. and is a measure of the zone that could be potentially affected by a pipeline rupture.) 2. the following RER values shall be used: Pipe size less than 12 in.890 ft.260 ft. allowable hoop stress. The last two values that need to be determined are the design factor.000 m (3. Paragraph 5 of SAES-B-064 defines RER. to less than 48 in. F.5 mol %.) 1. requires using SAES-B-064 to determine a pipeline location class. D.4 and B31.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Determining Design Factors and Temperature Derating Factor for Transportation Pipelines Up to this point. to less than 60 in. For pipelines carrying combustible gas or liquid hydrocarbons with a true vapor pressure of 100 kPa (15 psig) or greater. diameter: 18 in.300 ft) for all sizes of lines.5 mol %. the RER is 400 m (1.) 800 m (2.625 ft. to less than 18 in. The procedure for determining the design factor for transportation piping is as follows: • Refer to SAES-B-064 to determine a location class. Location class is based upon a population density analysis (PDA) of the population located within the Rupture Exposure Radius (RER) along a pipeline route. as follows: For pipelines carrying liquid hydrocarbons having a true vapor pressure less than 100 kPa gauge (15 psig) and an H2S concentration of less than 1. diameter: 48 in.640 ft. diameter: 26 in.

100 m (23. No Saudi Aramco-controlled land shall be developed or released for development unless the requirements of this standard are met.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation - For pipelines carrying liquid hydrocarbons or combustible gas.100 ft. Buildings having more than four occupied stories shall be included in the density index as a number of equivalent buildings. • The boundaries of areas in which building/development is present or planned within the RER of the pipeline shall be indicated or approved by the Land and Lease Department of the Saudi Government Affairs Organization. the RER shall be set equal to the largest RER of any well that is connected by that line. the following RER values shall be used: Pipe size less than 18 in. to less than 48 in. Count the number of buildings and equivalent buildings in each of the segments. For other producing lines. Approval for the use of such land for Saudi Aramco facilities shall be processed by the Facilities Planning Department.5 mol % or greater.) - The RER for a flowline shall be equal to the RER of the well that is served.400 ft. diameter: 4. An existing density index shall be calculated for each 1 km (0.) 36 in.000 m (36. The whole number count is the existing density index for each segment.) 26 in.500 m (14. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 .) 18 in.400 m (17. with an H2S concentration of 1.800 ft. The population density index for a pipeline is the sum of the existing density index and the virtual density index for each segment of the line.) 48 in. Divide the pipeline and associated RER zone into 1 km (0.6 mile) long segments. to less than 60 in.300 ft. diameter: 4. and shall be used as the design basis of the line. to less than 26 in. to less than 36 in. To determine the existing density index for a pipeline. diameter: 5. per SAES-B-062. The existing density index for a location shall be determined from a count of the number of buildings lying within the RER of the pipeline. diameter: 11.700 ft. • • • • In areas where development is planned.700 m (15. diameter: 7.6 mile) section of the pipeline. The number of equivalent buildings shall be calculated by dividing the number of stories in those buildings by three and rounding up to a whole number. establish a zone that extends 1 RER wide to each side of the pipeline. the estimated number and function of future buildings are used to determine the virtual density index.

Construction Type 2 shall be the minimum used for the portion of these pipelines located between the LAT-line and the onshore anchor. Locations are areas for which the population density index is more than 30. and the location class designations shall be marked on plan drawings. Locations are areas for which the population density index is 11 through 30.25 mile) on the seaward side of the LAT-line shall be designated for Construction Type 2. the population density index for each km of pipeline shall be provided in all pipeline project proposals. The portion of subsea pipelines located between Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) and points 0. or which include primary or secondary highways as defined by the Saudi Arabian Government Ministry of Communications. To determine the virtual density index for a pipeline. • Class 3: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 .Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation - A virtual density index shall be calculated for each specific 1 km (0.6 mile) of pipeline. Pipeline location classification is determined using Paragraph 7 of SAES-B-064. the boundaries between location class areas.00075 (exactly) and round up. The resulting whole number is the virtual density index for this segment.6 mile) long segments. Multiply the included area by 0. establish a zone that extends one RER wide to each side of the pipeline route. Divide the pipeline and associated RER zone into 1 km (0.6 mile) segment is 10 or less. The extent of RER zones. Calculate the land area in square meters for any development planned for this segment. based on the PDA: Class 1: Class 2: Locations are undeveloped areas for which the population density index for any 1 km (0. Additionally. • • Temporary facilities which will be in place for less than six consecutive months are not to be included in these calculations.4 km (0.

based on the location class.50. A single transportation pipeline typically will have multiple location classifications associated with it. Paragraph 3. the design factor. as well as any Class 3 areas which include buildings of more than four occupied floors. • Refer to SAES-L-003 to determine the design factor. For cross-country and submarine pipelines in hydrocarbon service. 0. Check additional requirements regarding design factor in SAES-L-003.6 of SAES-L-003 states that for any buried piping in hydrocarbon service within 150 m (500 ft. Paragraphs 3. hospital.50. F.2. shall not exceed 0. For instance. hotel.2. 0.40.2 through 3. prison.2.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Class 4: Locations are areas in which a school. 0. the design factor is an follows: Location class 1: Location class 2: Location class 3: Location class 4: • F F F F = = = = 0. F. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 .60. based on the PDA results along its length.72.) of critical plant equipment. or shopping mall or similar retail complex is located.8.

Table 841.1992.0 for ASME/ANSI B31.4 system is 120°C (250oF). ASME/ANSI B31. which is shown in Figure 5.933 0. is a function of temperature and accounts for the reduction in pipe material yield strength as temperature increases. T 1.8 at 120oC (250oF) or less. since the maximum permitted design temperature for a B31. With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.8.967 0. Source: ASME/ANSI B31. T.4 systems.116A TEMPERATURE DERATING FACTOR T FOR STEEL PIPE TEMPERATURE oC oF 120 OR LESS 250 OR LESS 150 300 177 350 204 400 232 450 Note: TEMPERATURE DERATING FACTOR.000 0.116A of ASME/ANSI B31. T may be taken as 1.900 0. This is consistent with B31. provides values for T.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Temperature Derating Factor The temperature derating factor for transportation piping.867 For intermediate temperatures. FIGURE 5 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 .8 .8 TABLE 841. interpolate for derating factor.

4 0.050 566 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.000 538 0.4 950 510 0.7 0.3. oF Temperature.4 1.4 1.1.7 0.100 593 0. Y equals 0.4 1150 and above 621 and above 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 The value of Y may be interpolated between the 28 oC (50oF) values shown in the Table. and is determined from Table 304.1 of ASME/ANSI B31. oC Ferritic Steels Austenitic Steels Other Ductile Metals General Note: 900 and below 482 and below 0.3 TABLE 304. For cast iron.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Determining the Proper "Y" Factor for Plant Piping The "Y" factor is a function of the type of steel and the temperature.5 0.3 . With permission from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. FIGURE 6 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 .0.7 0.4 0.1. This is shown in Figure 6.1990. ASME/ANSI B31.1 VALUES OF Y Temperature. Source: ASME/ANSI B31.4 1.

and thread allowances are determined in conjunction with the corrosion or process engineer and are often specified in a pipe specification.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation Identifying Corrosion. Erosion. Thread allowances apply only to smaller diameter pipes which may be threaded. Corrosion. Calculating the Thickness Value Everything necessary to calculate the required pipe thickness for internal pressure has been discussed. and Thread Allowances Allowances for corrosion. To determine the internal pressure thickness. or threads must be accounted for in determining the required pipewall thickness. Work Aid 1 summarizes the overall calculation procedure. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . erosion. substitute the values discussed into the appropriate equation. This is more of a problem in plant piping because high fluid velocities or changes in the pressure of the fluid can corrode a pipe. erosion. The appropriate allowance is added to the thickness that was calculated for internal pressure to arrive at a total required pipewall thickness.

the pipe may collapse or buckle. and design temperature are used to determine the thickness required to resist external pressure. Section VIII. Paragraph UG-28. Pipe is subject to compressive forces such as those caused by dead weight. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . Work Aid 2 outlines the procedure for calculating the required pipe thickness for external pressure. or underwater pipelines. material strength. This might be the case for large-diameter/thin-walled process plant piping that is subject to vacuum conditions. earthquake. and thin wall. the thickness must be increased. Division 1. These forces are often identified by the process engineer. Therefore.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation ADJUSTING PIPEWALL THICKNESS FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE A piping system may be exposed to an external pressure. This applies particularly to pipe that has a fairly low internal pressure. wind. In failure by elastic instability. This difference in behavior is due to buckling or elastic instability which makes the pipe weaker in compression than in tension. and the required wall thickness may be governed by external pressure rather than internal pressure. provides a procedure for evaluating cylindrical shells under external pressure. and vacuum. (unsupported length. Pipe geometry factors. If it is not adequate. Piping components behave differently under these forces than when they are exposed to internal pressure. outside diameter. For example. which must withstand the hydrostatic head of the water above them. a submarine pipeline may be exposed to an external pressure due to the liquid head of surrounding water being greater than the internal pressure. the Saudi Aramco engineer must ensure that the pipewall thickness is adequate for a given external pressure. large diameter. and thickness). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

internal pressure and soil and traffic loads as follows: S = 3 6 K b WERT ET + 24 K z PR 3 where: S = P = R = T = Kb = Kz = E = W = Circumferential stress due to external loads. The pipe must be designed for the traffic load. Bending parameter. Deflection parameter. F. as well as the required parameters. the pipe must be designed according to API Recommended Practice 1102. Traffic load (SAES-L-046). in. Liquid Petroleum Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways. in. soil weight. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22 .7 of SAES-L-046. These loads cause a circumferential bending stress in the pipe. psi. Pipeline Crossings Under Roads and Railroads.) All the load factors required by SAES-L-046 are in the computer program. It should also be noted that SAES-L-046 contains criteria for when a protective casing is required. The required thickness of these buried sections will be affected by soil and traffic loads. It is beyond the scope of this course to determine the stress. Wall thickness. without considering the longitudinal joint factor. psi. The Saudi Aramco engineer needs to determine if the pipe is thick enough for these soil and traffic loads. Modulus of elasticity of metal. At railroad and highway crossings where the loads may apply. Saudi Aramco has a computer program that makes the calculation. in addition to the design pressure.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation IDENTIFYING THE PROCEDURE FOR EVALUATING OTHER LOADS THAT ARE APPLIED TO BURIED PIPE Transportation pipelines often have buried sections of pipe. The equation gives a stress that is based upon the thickness. This can be done through the Consulting Services Department (CSD. lb. Outside radius. It provides the formula for determining circumferential stress in a carrier pipe with internal pressure due to external loads at highway and railroad crossings. and how the casing should be designed. and passive soil reaction. Internal pressure. The stress calculated in accordance with this equation is limited to the Specified Minimum Yield Stress times the design factor. Specific requirements for how traffic loads are determined are found in Paragraph 2.

Plate is manufactured to more stringent thickness tolerances than pipe manufacturing standards. Most seamless piping systems will be in the 12. piping that is used for transportation pipelines is often rolled from plate material specifications. the cost increase associated with ordering a special thickness is far outweighed by the savings associated with not paying for excess thickness. In addition.5% of the nominal thickness. When pipe is supplied.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation SELECTING PIPE SCHEDULE THAT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE MANUFACTURER’S TOLERANCES AND SAUDI ARAMCO’S MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR PIPEWALL THICKNESS After the required pressure thickness is determined. Stainless Steel Pipe.8 systems inherently account for the mill tolerance. Specification for Line Pipe specification). For high-alloy steels it is 10%. ASME/ANSI B36. (only for carbon steel pipe that meets this The maximum manufacturer's undertolerance for pipewall thickness is 12. The design factors used in B31. Standard pipewall thicknesses are specified in the following standards: • • • ASME/ANSI B36.4 and B31. the actual thickness can be minus 12.19.3 piping. API/5L.4 and B31. Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe (for carbon and lowalloy steel pipe). The procedure for selecting pipe schedule is outlined in Work Aid 3.10. the next greater available standard pipe thickness must be selected. it is sometimes advantageous to specify the exact thickness required rather than using a standard pipe thickness. taking into account the manufacturer's tolerance. but does not need to be considered for B31.5% category.8 piping systems. Because a transportation pipeline can be many miles long.5% for carbon and low-alloy steels. This undertolerance must be accounted for in B31. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23 . For transportation pipelines.

The MAOP of a pipe or other piping component will be at least equal to the design pressure. The procedure for calculating MAOP is outlined in Work Aid 4. This module discusses MAOP for pipe. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 . The engineer must determine MAOP for pipe as well as other piping components. However.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation CALCULATING (MAOP) THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE OPERATING PRESSURE MAOP establishes permissible operating limits to withstand internal pressure. the MAOP can be higher than the design pressure since use of a standard wall thickness will typically provide an additional margin. especially for transportation piping.

) Diameter/135 in.3 The minimum wall thickness (Schedule) of carbon steel pipe shall be as follows: Nominal Size mm _ 50 75 .Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation SAES-L-006. FIGURE 10 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 .250 in. _2 3-6 8 .5 mm (0. PARAGRAPH 2.) Diameter /135 Low-Pressure Utility Service SCH 40 (see 3.5 mm (0.9) SCH 40 6.250 in.150 200 .800 _ 850 Note: Hydrocarbon Service SCH 80 SCH 40 6.32 _ 34 Schedule 160 nipples shall be used for 50 mm (2 in.) and smaller pipe sizes in vibration service where bracing cannot be effectively provided.

(expressed as a decimal fraction). Transportation Piping.supplied thickness. Subtract any other allowances. use the following equation to calculate MAOP: MAOP = 2 tSE D − 2 tY For ASME/ANSI B31.8. 4. c. use the following equation to calculate MAOP: MAOP = 2 St D FET Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 . to calculate the minimum possible pipe thickness. from the nominal pipe wall thickness. such as corrosion allowance. as follows: t=T-c 3.3. GUIDELINES FOR CALCULATING MAOP Subtract mill tolerance.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation WORK AID 4: 1.3 piping to determine the minimum possible as . t.4 or B31. 2. as follows: T = (1 − x ) T “x” may be taken as zero for ASME B31. Plant Piping. Calculate MAOP with the factors identified earlier. T .8 piping systems. For ASME/ANSI B31. T. x. Reverse the applicable internal pressure equation to calculate a value for MAOP.4 and B31. for ASME B31.

A pipe through which the carrier pipe is installed. Failure of a device to function. Factor used for internal pressure calculations. A stress caused by the bending of pipe caused by a circumferential moment applied locally to the pipe. Uncontrolled shutdown of plants.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping & Valves Pipewell Thickness Calculation GLOSSARY allowable hoop stress ANSI API carrier pipe casing circumferential bending stress contingent operating conditions design factor location classification normal operating conditions The limit on stresses due to internal pressure. American National Standards Institute American Petroleum Institute The pipe used to transport any liquid or gas. Improper operation due to a single act or operating decision. that depends on the pipe material and the pipe manufacturing process. A value based on the number of buildings within the area defined by the rupture exposure radius. excluding failure of any operating device. Factor used for transportation piping that depends on population density or other factors. fire. operator error. short-term variations stated in the applicable code. population density index rupture exposure radius weld-joint efficiency factor Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 . A classification for pipelines going through populated areas. Used when doing a population density analysis. The distance on either side of a pipeline. Conditions expected to occur during normal operation per design. used for conducting a population density analysis. and the occasional. based on the actual or expected population density index. or ambient conditions.