ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF BULK LIQUID STORAGE FACILITIES

A SCREENING TOOL

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF BULK LIQUID STORAGE FACILITIES

A SCREENING TOOL

September 2006

Published by ENERGY INSTITUTE, LONDON The Energy Institute is a professional membership body incorporated by Royal Charter 2003 Registered charity number 1097899

The EI gratefully acknowledges the financial contributions towards the scientific and technical programme from the following companies:

BG Group BHP Billiton Limited BP Exploration Operating Co Ltd BP Oil UK Ltd Chevron ConocoPhillips Ltd ENI ExxonMobil International Ltd Kuwait Petroleum International Ltd

Maersk Oil North Sea UK Limited Murco Petroleum Ltd Nexen Shell UK Oil Products Limited Shell U.K. Exploration and Production Ltd Statoil (U.K.) Limited Talisman Energy (UK) Ltd Total E&P UK plc Total UK Limited

Copyright © 2006 by the Energy Institute, London: The Energy Institute is a professional membership body incorporated by Royal Charter 2003. Registered charity number 1097899, England All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, or transmitted or translated into a machine language without the written permission of the publisher. The information contained in this publication is provided as guidance only and while every reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents, the Energy Institute cannot accept any responsibility for any action taken, or not taken, on the basis of this information. The Energy Institute shall not be liable to any person for any loss or damage which may arise from the use of any of the information contained in any of its publications. The above disclaimer is not intended to restrict or exclude liability for death or personal injury caused by own negligence.

3.CONTENTS Acknowledgements Abbreviations 1. 4. 22 23 24 25 APPENDIX A – EXCEL SPREADSHEET APPENDIX B – RISK PHRASES . SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Introduction Background Objectives SCREENING ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY Steps 1 – 3 – Initial Assessment Step 4 – Aquifer (Groundwater) Vulnerability Assessment Step 5 – Tank Assessment Step 6 – Bund Assessment Step 7 – Risk Assessment INFORMATION RESOURCES REFERENCES 1 1 1 2 4 4 8 13 18 20 2.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This document was produced by: Atkins Limited. Woodcote Grove Ashley Road Epsom Surrey KT18 5BW Tel: 01372 726140 Fax: 01372 740055 .

ABBREVIATIONS API BAT BRef EEMUA HDPE IPPC SEPA American Petroleum Institute Best Available Techniques BAT Reference Note Engineering Equipment Materials and Users Association High Density Polyethylene Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control The Scottish Environment Protection Agency .

maintenance and monitoring regimes. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION 1. The screening methodology is based upon a standard source-pathway-receptor model. will be applicable to sites across Europe. vinyl chloride monomer. The ultimate layout and functionality of the tool may vary depending upon the feed-back received from operators. and the availability of containment and spillage control measures. toluene di-isocyanate. anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. in terms of the potential for an uncontained release of a hazardous material to impact upon a nearby sensitive receptor. anhydrous ammonia. and in particular groundwater resources. published in January 2005 by the European Commission. 1. 1 . the physical condition of the tank and its surrounding bund.1. (iv) any associated gas or condensate. and ethylene”. unloading or other handling of. and will support requirements in the IPPC Reference Document on Best Available Techniques on Emissions from Storage. such that significant pollution will not be caused1. the geological setting of the storage tank site.3 1. (ii) stabilised crude petroleum. Guidance on what represents BAT is provided in 1 Bulk storage is covered under: A) “The loading. and (v) emulsified hydrocarbons intended for use as a fuel”. (iii) crude shale oil. and B) “The storage of chemicals in bulk: acrylates. 1999 – requires operators of bulk hazardous materials storage facilities (an “Installation”) to use Best Available Techniques (BAT) to prevent or minimise pollution from the operation of the installation. the storage of. It is still under development and is being released for field-trial by storage tank operators.5 The European Directive 96/61/EC on integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC) – as enacted in the UK under the Pollution Prevention and Control Act.1 This document describes a screening tool for assessing the risk to the environment of aboveground bulk liquid storage tanks. acrylonitrile. The final document. when published. and takes into account factors such as the hazardous properties of the stored material.2 1. Future releases of the tool are likely to be in the form of a run-time programme in Microsoft Access with improved data management and integral help menus. the proximity and sensitivity of nearby surface and sub-surface receptors. It is currently structured in the form of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The screening tool is contained in Appendix A. with the input parameters being selected by the user from picklists. or the physical.4 BACKGROUND 1. chemical or thermal treatment of: (i) crude oil.

and the extent of inspection and monitoring regimes. 1. and an evaluation of BAT for the installation – a “BAT Assessment” – must be included within the application. in terms of the potential for an uncontained release of a 2 . Tanks are also equipped with bunds which provide a measure of security against the spread of pollution should a release occur. tank rupture. Above-ground storage tanks have the potential to cause pollution to the surface and subsurface environments via the release of hazardous liquid.7 1.. and general interactions with the Environment Agency on the subject of bulk hazardous materials storage risk. The ultimate impact on the environment of a release.1]. where a release can arise through leakage and corrosion-induced failure of the tank and its associated pipework. an installation (new or existing) covered by the Directive must obtain a permit. tank over-filling or.11 The objectives of the screening tool are as follows: • To provide a qualitative assessment of the risk to the environment of above-ground bulk liquid storage tanks. A detailed risk assessment of a storage tank facility can be a time-consuming and costly undertaking. A secondary intended purpose was to support Applications and BAT Assessments required under IPPC. 1. will depend upon the presence of nearby sensitive receptors such as potable groundwaters. the extent of gauging and alarms. For this reason the Energy Institute commissioned the screening methodology described below to enable storage tank operators to carry out a rapid assessment of their facilities based upon readily available. and the presence of a Receptor. should it not be contained within a bund. the storage tank and its hazardous liquid contents). and the design and operation of the tank and bund arrangement. However.. The likelihood of the occurrence of a release will be dependent upon a range of factors such as the tank’s design. such as an aquifer. from the Environment Agency or the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). operational procedure. the degree of corrosion protection.8 1. etc. referred to as the Storage BRef note. A permit must be applied for. the presence of a Pathway (ie.10 OBJECTIVES 1.the Reference Document on Best Available Techniques on Emissions from Storage [Ref 1. and options for the reduction of this risk to be explored. The purpose of the assessment was to enable the environmental risk to be determined in qualitative terms (High. Medium or Low).9 1. The overall environmental risk posed by a storage facility will therefore be dependent upon the condition of the Source (ie. the effectiveness of this secondary containment measure – including its effectiveness at preventing a spillage from penetrating the underlying ground and any groundwaters – is dependent upon the bund’s size. to continue to operate. materials of construction and physical condition. in the extreme.6 In the UK. made possible by a pervious bund and pervious subsurface geologic formations). or easily obtainable information on the receiving environment.

and. • To identify additional measures which could be implemented to reduce the environmental risk of a storage arrangement. and in particular groundwater resources. • 3 . To support an Application and BAT Assessment required under IPPC. and assess their relative significance.hazardous material to impact upon a nearby sensitive receptor.

4 Step 1 2. Step 4 – Aquifer (Groundwater) Vulnerability Assessment. for the storage arrangement.1 SCREENING ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY The screening assessment methodology is based on a seven step process: • • • • • Steps 1 to 3 – Initial Assessment.3 The purpose of the Initial Assessment is to determine whether. The description is for record purposes only and does not affect the outcome of the assessment.2 Steps 5 and 6 also enable a user to enter cost data on specific tank and bund mitigation options and thereby carry out an initial evaluation of the likely costs of risk reduction measures. 2. Steps 1 to 3 should be completed as follows: 2. and Steps 4 through 7 must be completed. and. STEPS 1 . there is a source-pathway-receptor linkage. 2. then no further assessment is necessary. Step 5 – Tank Assessment. for example “Fuel Oil”. “Diesel”. for example due to the absence of receptors. Figure 1 – Step 1 Data Input 4 . Step 7 – Risk Assessment. Step 6 – Bund Assessment. If the linkage is broken. If such a linkage does exist then a full screening assessment is required.5 A description of the stored material should be written in the response box.3 – INITIAL ASESSMENT 2. etc.2. The assessment stages are described below and are illustrated overleaf in the form of a flow diagram.

Figure 2 – Screening Assessment Flowchart Step 1 What is the stored material? Step 2 Is the material hazardous? No Yes STOP Step 3 Are there any nearby sensitive receptors? No No further assessment necessary Yes Complete Aquifer (Groundwater) Vulnerability Assessment Step 4 Step 5 Complete Tank Assessment Identify risk mitigation options and ascribe costs Step 6 Complete Bund Assessment Risk Assessment Low Risk Step 7 Medium Risk Yes High Risk STOP No further assessment necessary Is Risk ALARP No STOP No further assessment necessary 5 .

Figure 3 – Step 2 Data Input 2.0 should be left blank.7 6 . It is not intended that all appropriate risk phrases be recorded and space has therefore only been left for the entry of five. it is defined as hazardous and the assessment box will turn red. If a single risk phrase is selected for the stored material. Those applicable to the stored material – which if not known can be obtained from Materials Safety Data Sheets – should be selected from the pick list as illustrated in Figure 3. If a description is entered in error it can be removed using the “Delete” key on the keyboard. as illustrated in Figure 3.Step 2 2. If none of the risk phrases apply then the response cells under item 2.6 The hazardous nature of the stored material has been defined in the screening tool by means of standard risk phrases. a complete listing of which is given in Appendix B.

No further assessment necessary STOP .8 As a final step in the initial assessment it is necessary to identify the presence of nearby sensitive receptors. The options are available for selection from the response box pick lists are listed below.GO TO STEP 4 7 . The site is situated above an aquifer. The outcome options are summarised in Table 1 below. There is a public water abstraction point from the non-tidal surface water course within a distance of 5 km downstream. If a single sensitive receptor is selected from the pick list the assessment box will turn red. The site is situated in a Groundwater Source Protection Zone. There is a private potable water abstraction point from the non-tidal surface water course within a distance of 5 km downstream. There is a public water abstraction point within a 5 km radius of the site. There is a private potable water abstraction point from the tidal surface water course within a distance of 5 km.No further assessment necessary CARRY OUT RISK ASSESSMENT . Table 1 – Outcome of Initial Assessment Is the material stored hazardous? Are there any nearby receptors? Not Hazardous Hazardous No nearby sensitive receptors STOP . Note: If the above information is not known. details can be obtained from the Information Resources listed in Chapter 3 of this report. as illustrated in Figure 4.No further assessment necessary Nearby sensitive receptors STOP . 2.Step 3 2.9 The outcome of the Initial Assessment is listed in the OUTCOME box at the bottom of the spreadsheet (reproduced here in Figure 4). There is a public water abstraction point from the tidal surface water course within a distance of 5 km. There is a non-tidal surface water course within a 5 km radius of the site. There is a tidal surface water course within a 5 km radius of the site. There is a private potable water abstraction point within a 5 km radius of the site.

10 The purpose of Step 4 is to provide the information upon which an assessment of. A list of the available options is provided in Table 2.2 to 4.11 should be entered by selecting the most appropriate option from the pick list within each response box (see Figure 5). groundwater vulnerability can be made. 8 .Figure 4 – Step 3 Data Input STEP 4 – AQUIFER (GROUNDWATER) VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT 2. A response to Items 4. primarily.

Figure 5 – Step 4 Data Input 2. all response boxes (with the exception of Item 4. orange for Medium and red for High. Where information is not known. An evaluation of the environmental vulnerability is given at the foot of the data input sheet for Step 4 in the form of a “traffic light”: green for Low vulnerability. with no completed responses. The traffic light is reproduced as a band on the right hand side of the data entry fields. On a blank sheet. details should be available (for a small cost) from the Information Resources listed in Chapter 3. A predetermined score will then be allocated by the screening tool to each response in order to calculate a measure of vulnerability. Where this is not the case the option “Don’t know” can be selected. although it should be noted that where this option is entered the highest level of vulnerability will be assumed. a response must be returned. 2.11 For Step 4. Note that the evaluation changes dynamically as the responses are selected.12 9 .1 – see below) must be completed. it will default to red/High.

Don't Know. Don't Know. Don't Know. Non-aquifer. 0 m to 500 m radius. 0 m to 500 m radius.9 Closest Other Abstractions from the Aquifer 500 m to 1 km radius. 4. Intergranular/fractured.11 Closest Ecological Systems 10 . 4. 4. Don't Know. Don't Know. 1 km to 5 km radius. Don't Know. Fractured.2 Depth to Groundwater 4.4 Nature of the Strata forming the Aquifer 4. 5m to 10m below ground level.1 Assessment Item Geological Sequence beneath the Site 0 m to 1 m below ground level. Inner (Zone I). 500 m to 1 km radius. Option - 4. 4. Intergranular. 4. 4. None. 0 m to 500 m radius. 0 m to 500 m radius. Outer (Zone II). Major Aquifer.5 Type of Aquifer Beneath the Site/Tank Farm Minor Aquifer. Don't Know. Don't Know. 1 km to 5 km radius.8 Closest Private Potable Water Supplies Abstracting from the Aquifer 500 m to 1 km radius. Don't Know. 1 km to 5 km radius.Table 2 – Step 4 Data Input Item No 4. More than 5m of continuous clay in the superficial deposits. 1 km to 5 km radius. 1 km to 5 km radius. 3m to 5m below ground level. 10m+ below ground level.10 Closest Surface Water Course/Springs/Wetlands 500 m to 1 km radius. 0 m to 500 m radius.6 Closest Public Water Supplies Abstracting from the Aquifer 500 m to 1 km radius. 1m to 3m below ground level. 4.3 Nature of the Deposits above the Groundwater Table Less than 5m of continuous clay in the unsaturated superficial deposits.7 Groundwater Source Protection Zones Total Catchment (Zone III). Don't Know.

are presented in Figure 6. based on existing site records or geological maps.13 The response box in Item 4. in illustration of the groundwater vulnerability. it should be noted that no scoring is allocated to the response. However. Examples of the information which could be recorded here. and the absence of information will not affect the ultimate outcome of the screening assessment.1 should be used to enter a free form description of the geological sequence beneath the storage tank site.2. 11 .

Thick clay soil and Moderate unsaturated drift with deep water zone table but potentially rapid lateral Minor aquifer and distant from any potable movement to river water supply borehole. Thin unsaturated zone ie high water table Major aquifer and upgradient of nearby potable water supply borehole. Complex drift Thick clay drift Large unsaturated zone ie deep water table Non-aquifer Distant from potable sources. possibly aided by drainage systems.Figure 6 – Groundwater Vulnerability No drift. Soil Drift Major aquifer Minor aquifer Non aquifer Rest groundwater level Pumping groundwater level 12 . Sandy drift Moderate unsaturated zone Major\minor aquifer and nearby potable water supply borehole.

6 Is the tank heated? Yes No Emergency repsonse plans in place. High level & High High level alarms. Don't know 5. Manual. or equivalent.21 should be entered by selecting the most appropriate option from the pick list within each response box.10 m 10 .14 The purpose of Step 5 is to provide the information upon which an assessment can be made of the likelihood of a release occurring from an above ground storage tank based upon factors such as its design. Emergency response equipment available for rapid mobilisation. Annunciation & automatic shut-down.15 Item No 5. A list of the available options is provided in Table 3.1 5. The response to Item 5.000 .100. extent of gauging.8 Emergency Response Equipment Emergency response equipment available but not for rapid mobilisation. Don't know. Annunciation only. Item 5. High level alarm. Don't know. Table 3 – Step 5 Data Input 2.10 Tank gauging & alarms Tank level measurement. 5.7 Emergency Response Plans No emergency response plans.9 Out-of-service Internal tank Inspections 13 . etc. Inspection based on risk-based variable time methodology as per EEMUA 159 or equivalent.000 m 3+ 5. However. a response to this item is not essential.20. Don't know. Once again a response to Items 5. Tank level measurement. Internal tank inspection frequency for the product stored is equal to or better than those provided in EEMUA 159 or equivalent.000 m 100.STEP 5 – TANK ASSESSMENT 2.000 m British Standard. Instrumentational. 5. No alarms. or equivalent. Annunciation only. a response must be returned. 0-5m 5.000 . High level alarm.3 to 5.2 is read from Step 1 of the Initial Assessment.5 Average product working height 5 .000 m 3 3 3 Option 5. Other design code. No emergency response equipment available. 5.5.4 Tank Design Code API. not equivalent to recognised industry standard.3 Tank maximum working capacity 20.2 Assesment Item Tank reference number Tank material contents 0 . 5.15 m 15 m + 5.1 enables the recording of a tank’s unique identification number. No alarms.

Don't know. Don't know. Annunciation & automatic shutdown. Don't know. Cathodic protection. None. 5. Steel. Monitoring wells near to tank site only.12 Maintenance and inspection Observations made for leaks.Thin Film. Don't know. Observations made for leaks. Don't know. Observations made for leaks.14 Tank bottom design Double skin bottom.16 Tank cathodic protection No cathodic protection.Thick Film (Laminate). Internal bottom protective coating .20 Floor inspection techniques Full floor coverage using test equipment (eg magnetic flux). High-density polyethylene. Sand or soil. None. Product(s) stored contains adequate corrosion inhibiter. Internal bottom protective coating . 5. Don't know. Inventory reconciliation only. Don't know. etc on a monthly basis. Internal bottom protective coating . Don't know. Visual and detailed external tank inspection frequencies for the product stored are equal to or better than those provided in EEMUA 159 or equivalent.11 Spillage Response Written operator instructions which identify action in the event of a leak or spill.18 Under-tank leak detection/monitoring Visual perimeter leak detection systems plus electronic sensors. Training and drills only. Bit-sand. Visual and detailed external tank inspections undertaken but less frequent than recommended in EEMUA 159 or equivalent. 5.17 Tank corrosion protection Additional corrosion allowance on bottom plates.19 Off-tank leak detection systems Monitoring wells and inventory reconcilliation. plus training and drills. 5. No written instructions. Don't know. Single skin bottom. Visual perimeter leak detection systems only. 5. etc on a daily basis. 5. None. Written operator instructions identifying action in the event of a leak or spill. 5.Thick Film (Glass Flake). 5. 14 . etc on a weekly basis. No training and drills. 5.15 Tank under-bottom materials Clay.13 In-service detailed external tank inspection 5. None.Item No Assesment Item Option High level and High High level alarms. Don't know. Tank and pipework not subject to regular observation. None. Concrete.

Install tank level measurement.9 Out-of-service Internal tank Inspections 5. The evaluation is given at the foot of the input table (labelled as “Tank & Bund Risk Rating”) and as a band on the right hand side of the data entry fields. mitigation options can be selected from the pick lists provided (a list of available options is provided in Table 4 below).” could be selected. at the bottom of the table and labelled as “Total Mitigated Risk Rating”. for the product stored. Visual inspection only. ie. Instrumentational. Annunciation & automatic shut-down. A traffic light evaluation is given of the risk posed by the tank and bund together.8 Assessment Item Emergency Response Plans. The format of the traffic light is the same as for Step 4. Where relevant. 5. Table 4 – Tank Mitigating Options Item No 5. 2. as described in Step 7) is given as a second traffic light. Annunciation only.17 A revised evaluation of tank and bund risk is then given at the foot of the right hand side input table (labelled as “Mitigated Tank & Bund Risk Rating”) and as a band on the left hand side of the data entry fields. Install high level alarm. Mitigating Options Put emergency response plans in place. Emergency Response Equipment.16 The worksheet for Step 5 is set out in two parts as illustrated in Figure 7. orange for Medium and red for High.” is entered. Conduct inspection based on risk-based variable time methodology as per EEMUA 159 or equivalent. green for Low risk. 2. 15 . “Install high level alarm. This is the outcome of the assessment. equal to or better than those provided in EEMUA 159 or equivalent. if under Item 5.10 Tank gauging & alarms. Don't know.10 a response of “Tank level measurement.. The purpose of the table on the right hand side of the worksheet is to enable the selection and costing of mitigation options to investigate whether the tank and bund risk can be reduced and at what overall cost. as described later in Step 7. Install emergency response equipment. Annunciation only. Manual. say. Install high level & High High level alarms. A second traffic light is given at the very bottom of the table and labelled as “Total Risk Rating”. The outcome of the revised assessment (once again. The left hand side of the sheet is designed for entry of the storage tank details. Costs are then ascribed to this option as described below.Item No Assesment Item Option Partial coverage using test equipment (eg spot measurements with ultrasonics). The evaluation uses the same format as above. then a mitigation option of. No alarms. As an example.7 5. No alarms. Conduct internal tank inspection at a frequency.

Thick Film (Glass Flake).Thin Film. Produce written operator instructions. Install high level and High High level alarms. Develop written operator instructions together with training and drills. Investigate further. Conduct inventory reconciliation only. 5. 5. Install bit-sand under tank bottom. Install steel under tank bottom. 5. Install monitoring wells near to tank site only. Install internal bottom protective coating . Install internal bottom protective coating . Investigate further. 5. Inspect by full floor coverage using test equipment (eg magnetic flux). equal to or better than those provided in EEMUA 159 or equivalent. for the product stored. Install high-density polyethylene under tank bottom. Annunciation & automatic shut-down. 16 . 5. Install monitoring wells and conduct inventory reconciliation. Inspect by partial coverage using test equipment (eg spot measurements with ultrasonics).19 5. Initiate a monthly programme of observation.13 5. Investigate feasibility.20 Floor inspection techniques.14 In-service detailed external tank inspection Tank bottom design.15 Tank under-bottom materials.Thick Film (Laminate). 5. Tank corrosion protection. Initiate a daily programme of observation.17 Tank cathodic protection. Install internal bottom protective coating .11 Spillage Response. Install visual perimeter leak detection systems only. Install clay under tank bottom.16 5. Conduct visual and detailed external tank inspection at frequencies. Implement training and drills programme to supplement existing operator instructions. Conduct visual inspection only. 5.Item No Assessment Item Mitigating Options Install high level alarm. Install visual perimeter leak detection systems plus electronic sensors. Install cathodic protection.12 Maintenance and inspection. Annunciation & automatic shut-down. Install concrete under tank bottom. Off-tank leak detection systems. Initiate a weekly programme of observation.18 Under-tank leak detection/monitoring. Install double-skin bottom.

Figure 7 – Step 5 Data Entry Tables 17 .

18 . scrap) (£) The cost total will be calculated automatically.2. The traffic light risk evaluation given at the foot of the left hand side table and as a band along its right hand side is a reproduction of the traffic light system in Step 5. It is not generated automatically and can not be selected from pick lists.19 It is recognised that the costs of mitigation options will vary between sites and even between tanks. 2.20 STEP 6 – BUND ASSESSMENT 2. before investigation of the mitigation options. to determine unmitigated tank and bund risk.18 Where a mitigation option is selected the following cost data should be entered in the boxes provided: • • • • • • • • Remaining Tank Life (Years) Design Cost (£) Installation Cost (£) Annual Operating Cost (£) Annual Maintenance and Repair Costs (£) Replacement Costs (£) Design Life of Mitigation Option (Years) Residual Value (e. A response to Items 6. It should be noted that the risk reported in Steps 5 and 6 is for the tank and bund together.21 Step 6 is similar to Step 5 but is concerned with the design and condition of the storage tank bund rather than the tank itself.g. 2.7 must be entered in the left hand side table by selecting the most appropriate option from the pick list within each response box. For this reason the Step 6 bund data entry table (see below) should be completed.1 to 6. A list of the available options is provided in Table 5. For this reason the above cost data must be directly entered into the spreadsheet by the user.

6. Soil/clay walls: designed. Pipework in bund runs both above and below ground.designed.4 Bund wall materials of construction Concrete walls: access points backfilled with soil/clay . Formal engineering inspections indicate good condition with no cracks or other damage. 19 . Less than 80% of tank working volume. Equal to or greater than 100% of tank working volume but less than 110%. the table on the right hand side of the workbook enables the selection and costing of mitigation options. 6. Formal engineering inspections indicate good condition with no cracks or other damage. Soil/clay: compacted but not engineered. engineered and maintained. All pipework within bund runs above ground. Cracks and damage to bund potentially prejudicial to spillage containment. Height and profile maintained to designed bund capacity.2 In-bund pipe-work 6. Perimeter liner. Don't know. Don't know. Don't know. Soil/clay: compacted and degree of compaction known and maintained. Clay/Bentonite liner throughout. 2. 6.1 Bund net capacity Equal to or greater than 80% of tank working volume but less than 100%.condition not known. 6.5 Physical condition of bund floor Visual inspections indicate good condition with no cracks or other damage. Don't know. engineered and maintained. Don't know. 6. Don't know. A list of available options is provided in Table 6. Soil/clay: not compacted. Concrete walls: access points backfilled with soil/clay . Don't know.22 As per Step 5.7 Bund wall profile Height and profile not maintained. HDPE liner throughout.3 Bund floor materials of construction 6. Asphalt liner throughout. Cracks and damage to bund wall potentially prejudicial to spillage containment. Concrete liner throughout.6 Physical condition of bund walls Visual inspections indicate good condition with no cracks or other damage.Table 5 – Step 6 Data Input Item No Assesment Item Option Equal to or greater than 110% of tank working volume. All pipework within bund runs below ground. Soil/clay walls: condition not known.

2 Assessment Item Bund net capacity In-bund pipe-work Mitigating Options Increase bund size ≥ 110% of tank working volume Relocate some pipework above-ground.3 Bund floor materials of construction Install clay/bentonite liner throughout. 6.Table 6 – Bund Mitigating Options Item No 6. Install perimeter liner. The overall level of risk is then determined by the tool according to the risk matrix shown in Figure 7.1 6. Cost to investigate conditions of bund floor by visual inspections. 6. Compact soil and clay bund.4 Bund wall materials of construction Design. Repair/renew bund floor and validate by formal engineering inspections. engineer and maintain soil/clay walls. Cost to investigate. 6. Repair/renew bund wall and validate by formal engineering inspections.6 Physical condition of bund walls Cost to investigate conditions of bund floor by formal engineering inspections. Cost to investigate type and condition of walls and access points. Install concrete liner throughout. The risk may fall within three categories: • Low. The screening tool determines the unmitigated risk posed by the existing storage tank arrangement. This is given in the table headed “Unmitigated Risk Rating”. STEP 7 – RISK ASSESSMENT 2. 2. 6. Relocate all pipework above-ground. Install HDPE liner throughout.24 20 .5 Physical condition of bund floor Cost to investigate conditions of bund floor by formal engineering inspections. Design. Install asphalt liner throughout. Engineer previously compacted soil/clay bund or determine and maintain compaction. Cost to investigate conditions of bund floor by visual inspections.23 Based upon the information provided in Steps 4 through 6 the screening tool allocates a qualitative ranking to the vulnerability of the environment and the storage tank and bund arrangement.7 Bund wall profile Engineer and maintain height and profile to designed bund capacity. either because of low environmental vulnerability or the low risk posed by the tank and bund design and operation. engineer and maintain soil/clay access points in concrete walls. where the overall risk is considered to be acceptable. 6.

Low. the assessment is concluded and no further work is necessary. Where a risk rating of either Medium of High is returned it is necessary to evaluate the mitigation options in Steps 5 and 6.• • Medium. High. 2. ideally. namely Low. and mitigation measures must be implemented. Medium and High (as explained earlier. and. High is not an acceptable mitigated rating. before any data is entered into the tool in Excel format. However. 2. where the overall risk is considered to be unacceptable.25 Where the screening tool determines that the overall level of risk is Low.27 21 . Figure 7 – Step 7 Output 2. where the scope for the implementation of risk mitigation measures and the associated cost should be investigated further.26 The effect on risk levels resulting from the implementation of various risk mitigation options is recorded in the table headed “Mitigated Risk Rating”. At this point the assessment is concluded. it will default to a High risk rating). Three risk levels are reported. The costs associated with the selected mitigation options are summarised in the table headed “Cost of Mitigation”. and mitigation options must be selected until such time as the rating is Medium or.

uk/) Landmark Information Group (http://www.3.landmarkinfo.1 INFORMATION RESOURCES Environmental risk information for UK sites can be obtained.jsp) 22 .org.uk/) Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) (http://www. 3.uk/corp/index.sepa. on commercial terms.co.gov. from a number of sources which include: • • • Environment Agency (http://www.environment-agency.

4. REFERENCES 4. European Commission. January 2005. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques on Emissions from Storage. 23 .1 Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control.

APPENDIX A – EXCEL SPREADSHEET Microsoft Office Excel Worksheet 24 .

Spontaneously flammable in air. etc) have not been employed in the assessment as they are not directly relevant. Toxic by inhalation. Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed. Heating may cause an explosion. Explosive with or without contact with air. Toxic by inhalation. Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin. Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R14 R14/15 R15 R15/29 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R20/21 R20/21/22 R20/22 R21 R21/22 R22 R23 R23/24 R23/24/25 Explosive when dry. Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases. may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture. Extremely flammable. Reacts violently with water. Those used to define the hazardous properties of the stored material as part of the Initial Assessment (Step 2) are unshaded. Highly flammable. liberating extremely flammable gases. Flammable. Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin. Contact with combustible material may cause fire. in contact with skin and if swallowed. friction. Extreme risk of explosion by shock. in contact with skin and if swallowed. Contact with water liberates toxic. Explosive when mixed with combustible material. Explosive when mixed with oxidising substances. May form explosive peroxides. fire or other sources of ignition. Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds. Harmful by inhalation. Harmful if swallowed. Reacts violently with water. Risk of explosion by shock. Harmful in contact with skin. fire or other sources of ignition.APPENDIX B – RISK PHRASES The table below presents a complete list of standard risk phrases. extremely flammable gases. May cause fire. 25 . In use. The shaded phrases (R1 to R20. Harmful by inhalation. friction.

Can become highly flammable in use. Danger of very serious irreversible effects. in contact with skin and if swallowed. Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin. Toxic if swallowed. respiratory system and skin. Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation. Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed. Danger of cumulative effects. Very toxic by inhalation. Irritating to respiratory system. Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin. Very toxic by inhalation. Contact with acids liberates toxic gas. Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation. Toxic in contact with skin. Irritating to skin. Irritating to eyes and skin. Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed. Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed. Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed. Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed. in contact with skin and if swallowed. Causes burns. Very toxic if swallowed. Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin. in contact with skin and if swallowed. Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed. Irritating to eyes. Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed. Very toxic in contact with skin. Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin.R23/25 R24 R24/25 R25 R26 R26/27 R26/27/28 R26/28 R27 R27/28 R28 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 R36/37 R36/37/38 R36/38 R37 R37/38 R38 R39 R39/23 R39/23/24 R39/23/24/25 R39/23/25 R39/24 R39/24/25 R39/25 R39/26 R39/26/27 R39/26/27/28 R39/26/28 R39/27 R39/27/28 Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed. Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation. Causes severe burns. Irritating to eyes. 26 . Irritating to respiratory system and skin. Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin. Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation. Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed. Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.

Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed. Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation. May cause sensitisation by skin contact. May cause sensitisation by inhalation and skin contact. Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin. 27 . Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed. Toxic to aquatic organisms. Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation. Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin. Harmful to aquatic organisms. in contact with skin and if swallowed. Toxic to flora. Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation. in contact with skin and if swallowed. Very toxic to aquatic organisms. Toxic to bees. Risk of serious damage to eyes. Toxic to soil organisms. May cause heritable genetic damage. Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin.R39/28 R40 R41 R42 R43 R42/43 R44 R45 R46 R48 R48/20 R48/20/21 R48/20/21/22 R48/20/22 R48/21 R48/21/22 R48/22 R48/23 R48/23/24 R48/23/24/25 R48/23/25 R48/24 R48/24/25 R48/25 R49 R50 R50/53 R51 R51/53 R52 R52/53 R53 R54 R55 R56 R57 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed. Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin. Very toxic to aquatic organisms. Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed. May cause cancer by inhalation. Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed. may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Toxic to fauna. Harmful to aquatic organisms. may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure. Toxic to aquatic organisms. Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation. May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed. Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed. May cause sensitisation by inhalation. Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. Risk of explosion if heated under confinement. May cause cancer.

Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.R58 R59 R60 R61 R62 R63 R64 R65 R66 R67 R68 R68/20 R68/20/21 R68/20/21/22 R68/20/22 R68/21 R68/21/22 R68/22 May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment. Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed. May cause harm to the unborn child. in contact with skin and if swallowed. Possible risk of irreversible effects. May impair fertility. Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed. 28 . Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin. Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. May cause harm to breast-fed babies. Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation. Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation. Possible risk of impaired fertility. Dangerous for the ozone layer. Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin. Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed. Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed. Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.

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