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Third Asian Ministerial Conference on DRR, Dec 09 Summary of Presentations

Third Asian Ministerial Conference on DRR, Dec 09 Summary of Presentations

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Third (3rd) Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 2009.

Summary of presentations made on disaster management and disaster risk reduction.

Third (3rd) Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 2009.

Summary of presentations made on disaster management and disaster risk reduction.

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Third Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction

2-4 December 2008

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Summary compilation of material presented at the Third Asian Ministerial on Disaster Risk Reduction 2-4 December 2008 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

The purpose of this document is to provide a concise and user-friendly summary of information from presentations made at the Third Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, December 1-4, 2008 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It represents the summarization of over 130 presentations on various areas of disaster risk reduction which can be found in original form at http://www.amcdrrmalaysia.com.my/ In developing this project, UNISDR acknowledges the support received by the German Federal Foreign Office as well as the Government of Malaysia in the organization of the conference. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) or conference organizers. UNISDR cannot guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication, and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of its use.

Table of Contents
• Part 1: Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction • Part 2: Public Private Partnerships • Part 3: Urban Disaster Risk Reduction • Part 4: Community Disaster Risk Reduction • Part 5: Information Communication Technology • Part 6: Early Warning • Part 7: Space Tools • Part 8: Safe Hospitals • Part 9: Education and Disaster Risk Reduction • Part 10: Indigenous Knowledge • Part 11: Implementing HFA • Part 12: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction • Part 13: Regional and Country Profiles

Overview: Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• • • • • • • • Overview: Disaster risk reduction Disaster frequency Disaster frequency by type and region Disaster risk reduction components Shift to DRR Damage assessment process Remote sensing Disaster risk reduction and poverty

DISASTER STATISTICS

Disaster frequency

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including Disaster Risk Reduction.”

DISASTER STATISTICS Disaster frequency by type and region

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session on “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction.”

DRR

CONCEPTS

Disaster Risk Reduction Components

“Building culture of prevention is not easy, while the cost of prevention had to be paid in the present, its benefit lie in the distant future. Moreover, the benefit are not tangible; they are disasters that did not happen”
- Kofi Anan, Former UN Secretary General

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including Disaster Risk Reduction.”

DRR

CONCEPTS

Shift to DRR

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

DRR

CONCEPTS

Damage Assessment Process

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

DRR

CONCEPTS

Disaster preparedness

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including Disaster Risk Reduction”

DRR

CONCEPTS

Remote Sensing

Remote sensing (passive and active sensing) critical in earth observation of weather satellite collection platforms critical for monitoring, prediction and detection

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including Disaster Risk Reduction.”

DRR

CONCEPTS

Disaster Risk Reduction and Poverty

Vicious cycle of disaster and poverty

Source: Saidur Rehman, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

DRR

CONCEPTS

Disaster Risk Reduction and Poverty

“There are indications of close linkages between poverty and vulnerability to natural disasters and of their mutually reenforcing effects. The poorer communities tend to be the most vulnerable. Data show that at the household level, poverty is the single most important factor determining vulnerability.”

Source: Saidur Rehman, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

Part 1: Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• • • • • • • • • • • • Salient global statistics Salient statistics in East Asia Impacts in coastal areas of Asian countries Potential climate change impact Natural disaster and climate change linkages Case for climate change mitigation Managing climate risk framework The UN Convention on Climate Change Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Knowledge gaps Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer Issues in CCA and DRR

Part 1: Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction

• • • • • • • • • •

Climate Change Adaptation Climate change adaptation and ICT Climate Change and Health Fire and Rescue Perspectives Case Study: Northumbria Infectious Disease Risk Management Case Study: Climate Disaster Resilience Initiative (CDRI) Case Study: Cholera in Mozambique Case Study: Malaria in Ghana Case Study: Korea Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent

CLIMATE CHANGE
Salient statistics
Ch

Salient Global Statistics

• Relative changes in precipitation (in percent) for the period 2090–2099, relative to 1980–1999 (IPCC 2007) • Mean temperature increases by the end of this century of up to 4 percent centigrade and sea levels rising by up to 60 centimeters • The 10 warmest years on record have all been since 1990 • Over the last century, average global temperatures have risen by 0.6 degrees Celsius being the most drastic temperature rises over 1000 years in the northern hemisphere • Glaciers are melting and Sea levels are rising and forecast to rise another 88 cm by 2100 • Globally sea level rise threatens 100 million people living below this level • Number of people affected by floods worldwide has risen from 7 million in the 1960s to 150 million today
Source: Various presentations

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Global Statistics

Projected surface temperature changes for the early and late 21st century relative to the period 1980-1999

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Global Statistics

Updated 100-year linear trend of 0.74 ºC for 1906-2005

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Global Statistics

Global climate change from man-made activities

• Undeniable evidence that global climate is changing • This change is human-induced
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Global Statistics
Change in climate variation: generally the emphasis until now has been on changes in the mean climate. We need to understand the impacts of changes in climate variability at a range of scales: decadal, interannual, seasonal, daily, and taking into account large-scale atmospheric regimes

Attribution of a single event to global warming is therefore difficult

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Global Statistics

Warm nights increasing; cold nights decreasing

Frequency of occurrence of cold or warm temperatures for 202 global stations for 3 time periods: 1901 to 1950 (black), 1951 to 1978 (blue) and 1979 to 2003 (red)
Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Global Statistics

Proportion of heavy rainfalls: increasing in most land areas

Regions of disproportionate changes in heavy (95th) and very heavy (99th) precipitation

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Global Statistics

Small changes in temperature, increase in disaster risks

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Statistics in East Asia

Changes in number of heavy rainfall days and hot days over locations in the East Asian Region

Source: Trevor Tague, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Statistics in East Asia

Changes in the Frequency Distribution of Extremes

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Salient Statistics in East Asia

Projections of Regional Tmax and Daily Rainfall Changes

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Impacts in coastal areas of Asian countries

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Potential Climate Change Impact

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Potential Climate Change Impact

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE Impacts of climate change and disasters
• The increase in GHG concentration and atmospheric warming impacts sea level, temperature, precipitation, and extreme events • This negatively affects sectors and quality of living in cities

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

Ch

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Natural disasters and climate change linkages

Source: G. Srinivasan, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Natural disasters and climate change linkages

Source: Rebecca McNaught, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Case for climate change mitigation

• Reducing the production of GHGs, i.e. mitigation climate change impacts, would not only be cheaper in the long-run however, also lead to a reduction in temperatures
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Managing Climate Risk Framework

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.””

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

The UN Convention on Climate Change
COP Conference of the Parties

IPCC Secretariat

SBI Subsidiary Body for Implementation

SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice

IPCC

Source: Yap Kok Seng, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Plenary UNFCC Secretariat WMO/UNEP in Switzerland

Working group I The science of climate system

Working group II Impact and adaptation

Working group III Mitigation

Task force on national greenhouse gas inventories

Technical support unit

Technical support unit

Technical support unit

Technical support unit

Experts, authors, contributors, reviewers
Source: Yap Kok Seng, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Knowledge gaps in the areas of climate change and disaster risk reduction

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch Overview

“Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters”

• Report by World Bank and UNISDR (2008) • Focus on climate change adaptation & disaster risk reduction in East Asia region • Moving from theory to practice • Tool for city level managers to develop a strategy for adaptation and mitigation • For both cities in beginning and advanced stages in dealing with climate change and disaster risks • Presents a “hotspot” tool for identifying city-specific priorities for action • Presents “no regrets” endeavors
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

“Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters”

Hotspot Exercise • The heart of decision-making • Given: • Geographical location • City size and growth rate • Governance structure • Disaster history • “Influentiable” • -City management • Financial resources • Built environment • Disaster response systems
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

“Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters”

Hotspot assessment excerpt

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Issues in CCA and DRR
Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction –main crux now for the development of Asian cities

Case evidence is strong enough for action:
• Asian urban growth • Local decentralization • Capacity gaps in cities • Financial pressures • ↑Vulnerabilities

Key is the local level to build resilient cities

CCA and DRR are complex problems involving all sectors require innovation and ingenuity–takes time and need to start now

Paradigm shift –takes time and needs to start now

Cities need to know how much they are really affected by climate change and intellectual capital to deal with these complex problems

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Once we know, what do we do? -Prioritize actions -there are both urgent and important areas that need to be looked at-

Issues in CCA and DRR
“No regret” interventions recognizing opportunity costs associated with interventions

Leveraging experiences of others but not following a “one size fits all” approach

Need to consciously go beyond the same theoretical areas to most challenging areas in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction

Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

Ch

Need for monitoring and evaluating of progress and gaps Need to factor positive feedback effects in the system Remember how long the environmental movement took!!

Need to go beyond “token” and “pilot” projects -taking good projects and replicating & scaling

Kalamazoo! Stating hard truths as they are!

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change Adaptation

Since the inception of UNFCC, adaptation has been poor. At the Climate Change Conference in Bali, it was realized that all countries would need to adapt.

Definitions
Adaptation • “ Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation” (IPCC TAR, 2001) Adaptation capacity • Ability of a system to adjust itself in order to cope with climate change variability
Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change Adaptation Definitions

Flexibility • The ability to adapt to climate change through appropriate judgment and strategies Mainstreaming • Taking on board climate change issues when designing national policies, programmes and priorities (to include climate related risk, vulnerability and options for adaptation in the ICT sector) Vulnerability • Degree to which an area is susceptible to harm due to exposure to such as climate change

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change Adaptation

Effective approaches for adaptation
Effective approaches for adaptation • Engage stakeholders • Identify and set priorities for action • Assign responsibility for action and monitor implementation • Keep adaptation strategies under regular review Key issues • Under-adaptation: climate change factors are given insufficient weight • Over-adaptation: climate change factors are given too much weight • Mal-adaptation: decisions are taken resulting in more vulnerability to climate change Adaptation = flexibility

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change Adaptation

Adaptation Continuum
Impacts Vulnerability to Adaptation Adaptation and Development
 Adaptation that naturally builds livelihoods  Livelihoods built by entitlement focus  Development demonstrably achieved

Development to Resilience Resilience
 Development built on local coping mechanisms  Coping mechanisms safeguarded  Social resilience “Take the Punch” “Bounce back and beyond”

 Identifying the poor  Explaining prepoor livelihood insurance strategies  Giving practical “voice” (governance) to the voiceless

Source: Phil O’Keefe et al., Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change Adaptation and ICT

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change and Health

IPCC projections and hypothesized impact on health (adapted from IPCC 2007)

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change and Health

Overview
• The under 5 infant mortality rate in Africa is largely attributable to infectious diseases • For Ghana, Mozambique, and Bangladesh, climate change influences, to a high degree, infectious disease outbreak and its control • The third figure is a simplified infectious disease risk assessment

intensifying climatic conditions, together with a range of environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic factors, are bringing about changes in the exposure of populations to infectious diseases ” -WHO World Health Report 2007

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change and Health

The health ecology approach to infectious disease risk reduction for health security at the global, community, and individual levels

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change and Health
Risks get understood through various research approaches such as:         Pathogenic Clinical-epidemiological Temporal-climatic Spatial-environmental Socio-economic Behavioral Perceptual Multivariate and integrative

Integrated health risk reduction in contexts of disease and climate change

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Climate Change and Health

A moving target for reducing climatic health risks:

“ Pathogenic adaptation in
relation to climate change is not fully understood and to a large extent still has to be regarded as unpredictable. It is therefore important to focus research into human vulnerability, coping and resilience, where more certain links to disease risk may be understood ”

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Fire and Rescue Perspectives

 First responders like police, fire and rescue services, and ambulance are involved in climate change-related incidents such as fire, search and rescue, and mass
decontamination

 Example: how first responders deal with floods:
1) Preparation Phase
Multi-agency collaboration with police, ambulance, fire Identify hazard areas Produce emergency response plans Setup service level agreements Identify strategic holding areas Purchase food defense equipment Rescuer training

3) Response Phase
Flood watch/flood warning - act on information and deploy people Rescue of vulnerable people Swift water rescues – i.e. cars, rivers, roofs Command and control - logistics, crew changes accommodation

2) Rescuer Training
Two kinds of training: i. First responder – basic water access skills ii. Swift water rescue technician – advanced rescue skills

4) Recovery Phase
Transport (boats, sleds, inspections) Utility services (gas, electric, water, communications) Water removal (HVP, peristaltic pumps, water vacuums) Home risk assessment (safety advice)

Source: Trevor Tague, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Program overview Ch

Case Study: Northumbria Infectious Disease Risk Management Program

• Infectious Disease Risk Management (IDRM) at Northumbria University, Disaster and Development Centre (DDC) • Aim of the program is to reduce disaster through risk reduction and health security History of activities • 2002-05: In Mozambique and Bangladesh sponsored by DFID, WHO, UNICEF, Governments of Mozambique and Bangladesh, ICDDR • 2007-10: Mozambique and Bangladesh sponsored by British Council • 2007-09: Health Security and Disaster Resilience in Bangladesh (ESRC, DFID)

“In terms of climate change
linkages, the rationale is identifying the contexts whereby different aspects of health are prone to change to decide how much climate change may be tolerable or acceptable, what type of adaptation is necessary, and who, how, when and where the costs might be borne”

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Case Study: Northumbria Infectious Disease Risk Management Program

Integrated (Community) Disease Risk Reduction (IDRR) Methodology
Reduce uncertainty through comprehensive disease risk assessments
• Participation, appropriate frameworks, monitoring, evaluation of relative causality • To know who, when, where, and the circumstances of changes in hazards, vulnerability and capacity • Empirical verification of disease hazard

Through the following mechanisms:
• • • • Locally-owned research Capacity building Systems development Disease risk assessment in the community • Using local committees

Community engagement
• Empower people • Sensitize institutions • Delineate responsibilities of the state • Legislate rights of individuals, and responsibilities of informal and private sectors

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Case Study: Climate Disaster Resilience Initiative (CDRI)

Goals
• To measure the level of climate disaster resilience of urban poor communities • To develop a yardstick i.e., Climate Disaster Resilience Index (CDRI) to measure the level of climate disaster resilience the methodological approach to do that • To map the communities’ position in the level of climate disaster resilience • To help policy formulation by the development organizations and take necessary action to enhance climate disaster resilience of communities

Source: Rajib Shaw, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

CLIMATE CHANGE

Case Study: Climate Disaster Resilience Initiative (CDRI)

Expected outputs
• • • • Methodology of CDRI development CDRI to measure city’s climate disaster resilience Climate Disaster Resilience Map for each city Policy tools for Government and development organizations, to prioritize the sectors in vulnerable communities • Strength and weakness of different sectors of each dimension of CDRI (physical/social/economic/institutional/Natural) of a city

Source: Rajib Shaw, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

Ch

CLIMATE CHANGE
Case of cholera in Mozambique
Ch

Case Study: Cholera in Mozambique

• Population of 18.5 million; capital 0.5 million • Vulnerable to diarrheal diseases • High incidence of absolute poverty • Low elevation, estuarine • High humidity, temperature, seasona l rainfall • Concentrations of populations near aquatic environments • Adaptive Vibrio cholerae 01 serotypes Ogawa and Inaba

There is high correlation between the variation in cholera cases in Beira, Mozambique compared to rainfall, temperature and humidity from 19992003

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Case Study: Malaria in Ghana
Distribution of number of malaria cases and mean air temperature in Ashanti, Ghana

Distribution of number of malaria cases and rainfall amount in Ashanti, Ghana

Source: Andrew Collins, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch Statistics

Case Study: Korea

• Average temperature has increased 1.5 degrees Celsius in Korea • By the end of the 21st century, it is expected that temperatures will increase by 4 degrees Celsius and rainfall by 20 percent • Economic costs of climate change have generally increased in Korea: • 1960s - US$100 million • 1990s – US$600 million • 2000+ – already US$2.7 billion • Examples: • Typhoon Rusa, 2002 – US$5.1 billion • Typhoon Maemi, 2003 – US$4.2 billion

Source: Yeon-Soo Park, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Case Study: Korea

Statistics • Hourly precipitation has changed from an average of 94.6mm/hour from 1998 to 2000 to 97.4mm/hour from 2000-2008 • Daily precipitation has also changed from 355.8mm/day to 415.2mm/day in the same period • Sea level has also increased by 37 percent compared with1990 levels • In addition, raised sea level temperature has increased by 50 percent compared with 1990 levels
Source: Yeon-Soo Park, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Case Study: Korea

The Government of Korea is taking the threat of climate change as an opportunity to develop new initiatives:
• Promoting and fostering “green” industries

• Climate Change Task Force under the Office of the Prime Minister • Disaster managers participating in “adaptation” area

Establishment of risk prediction systems
Programs for DRR
• Establishing a national standard climate change scenario • Setting up a natural hazard and disaster prediction system • Vulnerability system for floods

Linking land development plans
• Regional flood safety system through levees • Relocation from flood planes

Establishing “naturefriendly” disaster prevention initiatives
• Examples include nature-friendly water cycle systems, runoff reduction systems, strengthening of land constitution

Setting design codes for prevention facilities
• Changing the design code that is based on historical events to improving the design code for future extreme events

Source: Yeon-Soo Park, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ch

Case Study: Korea
Promoting a natural disaster insurance program
• Managed by NEMA and operated by private insurance companies

Development of disaster and safety technologies using IT interventions
• Development of a National Disaster Management System (NDMS) • Cell Broadcast Service (CBS) for Disaster Information • Automated rainfall warning system and disaster damage survey system and needs analysis

Programs for DRR

Strengthening emergency rescue and relief systems
• Preparing for disaster rescue and response

Strengthening climate change adaptation including health

Source: Yeon-Soo Park, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CLIMATE CHANGE
Lessons learned Ch

Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent

• Assessing and addressing current and future climate risks at national levels • Assessing and addressing current and future climate risks at community level • Education and awareness raising • Non-traditional partnerships and networks • Advocacy • Integrating climate change into existing training, plans and strategies Funding mechanisms • Don’t currently match the scale of the problem • Growing risks need growing efforts and funding • Polluter pays principle • Funding should be additional to existing ODA • Funding mechanisms need to take into account changing climate risk
Source: Rebecca McNaught, 4 December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

Part 2: Public Private Partnerships for Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• • • • • • • • • • Overview Catastrophe risk insurance Statistics: Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia Challenges of insuring catastrophic risks in Asia Government Instruments to Finance Natural Disasters Catastrophe Risk Insurance Needs in Asia Role of Government vs. Private Sector Pre-requisites Attributes Benefits

Part 2: Public Private Partnerships for Disaster Risk Reduction

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Data requirements for insurance companies Increasing Catastrophe insurance penetration Asian Regional Catastrophe Pool Conclusions Case study: Swiss Re Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake Insurance Pool Case study: Mexican catastrophe risk financing Case study: Catastrophic insurance in Japan Case study: Turkey Earthquake Pool Case study: Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility Case study: Earthquake coverage for Guatemala and El Salvador Business Continuity Planning Case Study: Business Continuity Management in Malaysia Case Study: Nestle Malaysia Case Study: UEM Group and Mercy Malaysia Case Study: Anti-Disaster Glass Promotion in Japan Case Study: Petronas Corporate Social Responsibility

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Overview: Public Private Partnerships (PPP)

There are variations in the phrase representing public private partnerships: • Public-Private Partnership (3Ps) • Public-Private and People Partnership (4Ps) • People-lead and People-oriented Public Private Partnership (5P)

Private institutions • Business Corporations • Corporate social responsibility • Public relations • Business opportunities • NGOs • Mandated • Funded • Academic, religious, and civil society institutions

Public Sector institutions • Central, provincial, and local governments and government owned, managed, supported entities • They are mandated by the constitution to be involved in DRR • Multilateral and bilateral development partners • United Nations Organizations • World Bank • Asian Development Bank • Regional institutions (ASEAN, SAARC) • Bilateral and multilateral development partners

Source: Various presentations, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Statistics: Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Low catastrophe insurance penetration in Asia

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Statistics: Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Consequences of low insurance penetration

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Statistics: Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Heavy burden of natural disaster loss as a percentage of GDP and Government Revenue

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Challenges of insuring catastrophic risks in Asia

Conventional commercial insurance market financing for catastrophe risks is ineffective in Asia:
• Lack of risk awareness for Individuals, Corporations, Regulators • Lack of spread and critical mass to make insurance affordable –vicious cycle • Anti-selection

High Concentration of Cat Exposures in Mega Cities
Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Challenges of insuring catastrophic risks in Asia

Challenge of modeling and pricing catastrophe risks:
• Low frequency, high severity nature of the risk • Lack of reliable data on: • Historical record of events • Vulnerability of buildings • Exposures • Cost of model development vs. market size • Unbalanced heterogeneous portfolios • High concentration of risk

Taiwan: The Challenge of Modeling Unbalanced Portfolios

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Challenges of insuring catastrophic risks in Asia

Little incentive for commercial insurance markets to promote catastrophe insurance:
• The challenge of modeling and pricing risk • High levels of capital required to retain the risk • Heavy reliance on reinsurance with volatile pricing • Uncertainty in the remote risk • Accounting and tax rules discourage the build up of cat reserves • Slim margins and low ROE

Commercial Insurers Reluctant to Cover Earthquake in China

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Government Instruments to Finance Natural Disasters

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Insurance Needs in Asia

Recommendation to strengthen financial mechanism for disaster reduction: Delhi Declaration (2007)

On the 7th and 8th November 2007, New Delhi hosted the Second Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction

As a result of the conference, the Delhi Declaration 2007 was adopted, among other points urging,
•“… the national governments to strengthen financial mechanisms for disaster reduction, including risk transfer and risk finance including innovative approaches in microfinance, micro insurance …”

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

To absorb large natural catastrophic events, risks need to be shared between individuals, corporations, the domestic insurance and global reinsurance industry, and capital markets • Absent is an efficient re/insurance market (i.e. in developing and emerging countries) and governments play a more active role as risk taker • We need to find new forms of public-private partnerships to tackle climate-related and natural catastrophe risks

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Role of Government vs. Private Sector

Role of private insurance • For many disaster types, private insurance provides an efficient tool to cover financial losses • Reasons for insurance pools are manifold. Pools are neither good nor bad per se and must be evaluated case by case • The primary role of insurance in disaster prevention is to ensure risk-adjusted pricing, as this provides an incentive for preventive measures • State, NGO and charity organizations may compensate victims for non-insurable losses, but should not do so for insurable risks which are deliberately not insured

Role of government • The primary role of governments is to set a regulatory framework which allows for effective private risk transfer • Government interventions can lead to unexpected effects and may trigger further interventions instead of addressing the root causes • In specific cases, government interventions can supplement the private insurance industry and expand limits of insurability. Market inefficiencies or failures may require state intervention • In public-private partnerships governments can take different roles: Insurer, reinsurer, rule setter, (re)insurance buyer, risk aggregator, provider of financial support for insurance schemes

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia: Pre-requisites

Insurability is a key prerequisite for effective private insurance
Assessibility: loss probability and severity must be quantifiable Randomness: time of occurrence must be unpredictable, occurrence itself must be independent of the will of the insured

Insurability criteria Mutuality: numerous exposed parties must join together to form a risk community, to share and diversify the risk Economic viability: private insurers must be able to obtain a risk-adequate premium

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia: Attributes

Key Attributes of Catastrophic Insurance Pools for Residential Risks • • • • • • • • • Government Mandate –compulsion Limited cover for an affordable premium Public Private Partnership Distribution of policies and claims by the private sector Contribution to risk capital by both private sector as well as government Government contingent capital or guarantee for remote risk-critical subsidy Initial Administration by private sector Seed capital and technical assistance provided by development banks Bespoke Cat Loss and Financial Modelling

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia: Benefits
Value of Catastrophe Pools

• National and regional catastrophe risk pooling schemes provide the platform to meet the pressing need for wider catastrophic cover in Asia • Pooling risk across a wide area provides better spread and more efficient use of Asian capital to finance Asian catastrophic risk • Mandatory pools create the spread of risk and critical mass to make catastrophic insurance affordable and effective • Compulsion a key requirement to overcome lack of risk awareness and anti selection • Provide a more efficient platform to transfer catastrophic risk into international markets (reinsurance or capital markets) • Reduces uncertainty and the need for costly ‘sleep easy’ cover purchased by individual insurers • Provides a mechanism to encourage risk mitigation and safer construction practices • Provides the platform to increase risk awareness • Public campaigns • Facilitates the build up catastrophic reserves through concessionary accounting and tax rules • Facilitates research and investment in the modelling and pricing of cat risk
Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

National Catastrophe Pool Conceptual Risk Transfer Programme • Uninsured cat risk already carried by Governments • Insurance pool provides the vehicle to build a fund to finance the risk • Risk in excess of local fund/market capital transferred to the reinsurance and capital markets • Remote ‘top’risk guaranteed by government through post loss funding –not economic to reinsure • Over time build up self supporting fund Government
Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Data requirements for insurance companies
Hazard Data
• Meteorological Data • For tropical storm, Rm, ⊿p, Translational Speed etc • Geological Data • Fault, Soil Type etc.

Vulnerability Data
• Building Code • Code Itself, Historical Transition, Enforcement System, Inspection System etc. • Since most buildings in Asian countries are nonengineered, contractor’s quality is a key issue • Vulnerability is unknown so parametric trigger typed transaction is acceptable for risk taker in spite of basis risk

Calibration
• Historical Loss Data • Type of Hazard, Date, Place, Inju ry, Affected Area etc. • Some data available through Nat Cat Event Database, EM-Dat, and GLIDE however, not sufficient to design the financial product

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Increasing Catastrophe Insurance Penetration
Enhance Awareness of catastrophe risk Sharing good practices
• Disseminating knowledge to stakeholders including local insurers • Many DRR projects done in the region like • Insurance contracts are normally difficult for community based risk reduction and early people with complex policy wording which warning system for safe evacuation decreases their interest in purchasing the • Not much knowledge on risk financing insurance coverage • More opportunities are required for dialogues • On the other hand, parametric trigger type on risk financing products are very easy to understand for the client. • There is the basis risk problem that is the difference between received amounts and actual loss amount

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Unbalanced domestic cat risk from Asian insurers transferred into regional pool –written by a dedicated reinsurer (ACP Re) The diversified and balanced portfolio of cat risk written by the pool is shared amongst Asian insurers More efficient use of Asian capital for Asian cat risk
Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for
Conclusions

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

• Risk needs to be assessed properly with Probabilistic Natural Catastrophic Risk Analysis model • Insurer and re-insurer want to know the risk more accurately; it is necessary for their decision making to enter the new market • In case of US, Europe and Japan, the Nat Cat risk is recognized clearly with probabilistic Nat Cat model • On the other hand, for Asian Countries, one cannot obtain and access basic data to develop the model easily, for example, meteorological data, fault data etc. • The following are some problems: • Lack of Observation (no instruments installed) • Lack of time series data • Lack of uniformity in data • Lack of accessibility to the data (paper based, language problem)

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Catastrophe Risk Markets in Asia

Conclusions • Vulnerability of many Asian economies to cat risk • pressing need for action • Local insurance markets ineffective and lack the incentives to promote catastrophe insurance • International reinsurance market has the expertise and capacity to underwrite the cat risk • Development banks keen to promote pre event risk financing schemes to reduce dependency on post loss funding • National and Regional pooling schemes • Make the insurance of cat risk effective and affordable • Provides an efficient platform to access the international cat market • Commitment and prioritisation can lead to major economic and social benefits

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Swiss Re

Swiss Re • • • • A financial services firm with 144 years of experience The world’s leading and most diversified reinsurer A proven expert in risk and capital management A pioneer and leader in capital market solutions

Overview • • • • • • • Revenues CHF 42.8 billion Net income CHF 4.2 billion Total investments: CHF 228 billion Market cap CHF 29.8 billion 11,000+ employees 90 offices in 25 countries Headquarters in Zurich, Switzerland

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Swiss Re

Contributions in Risk Management

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake Insurance Pool (TREIP) Overview

• September 1999 Chi Chi Earthquake • Less than 1 percent of residential houses insured for earthquake • Technical insolvency of 2 provincial banks due to NPL • Insurance Law amended to establish legal framework in July 2001; Commenced operations April 2002 • Basic cover of US$ 35,000 (NTD 1.2m) for total loss arising from EQ and associated perils • Affordable fixed premium of US$ 49 (NTD 1,459) • Compulsory extension for homeowners purchasing insurance policies –generally those that are mortgaged
Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake Insurance Pool (TREIP)

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake Insurance Pool (TREIP)

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Taiwan Residential Earthquake Insurance Pool (TREIP)

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Mexican catastrophe risk financing

The purpose of FONDEN • The FONDEN is a financial tool, whose purpose is to provide resources for the 32 Mexican States and the Federal Agencies (that are in charged of federal infrastructure) to attend the harm and damages caused by a natural phenomenon Change from a reactive system to a preventive system • In order to attend this new preventive perspective during 2002 and 2003, two more funds were created: Fipreden (Preventive Trust Fund) and Fopreden (Natural Disaster Prevention Fund)

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Mexican catastrophe risk financing

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Mexican catastrophe risk financing

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Mexican catastrophe risk financing
New challenges and results

• FONDEN’s legal regulation aim to promote a prevention culture, compelling the Federal Agencies and State Governments to keep enough resources in their next budgets and annual programs for the infrastructure damaged by a disaster • If the infrastructure turns out to be damaged again in the future by a new natural disaster, FONDEN provides the resources again • The Mexican Federal Government implemented a risk financing strategy in order to provide emergency relief to population affected after a earthquake of severe consequences. • The “Mexican Cat-bond”, formally is a mixing of parametric insurance policy and parametric cat-bonds covering earthquakes in specific zones of the Mexican territory

Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Mexican catastrophe risk financing
New challenges and results

• Besides earthquake risk, the Mexican Government is working on a structure to include other risks such as: • Parametric insurances against hurricanes • Loss excess insurance to protect the patrimony of the Fonden trust • The target of FONDEN is to assign the resources to pay the risks coverage of catastrophic insurances and retain only a small sum for recurrent less destructive events • In this way, FONDEN has an enormous capacity to confront catastrophic events of great magnitude without affecting public finances
Source: Rubem Hofliger, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Catastrophic insurance in Japan

Background • PPP for earthquake risk reduction started in 1923 after the Great Kanto Earthquake that killed over 140,000 people. Fire following the earthquake killed the most number of people • At that time, the fire following earthquake was exempted by the fire insurance policy as almost all homes were wooden • Social pressure led to the fire being included in spite of the exemption • The earthquake insurance mechanism was revisited and studied • After Niigata Earthquake in 1964, first Earthquake insurance was introduced • Now the loss limit is up to 5,500 Billion Yen covered with Government and private insurers • After Sendai Earthquake in 1978 and Hanshin Awaji Earthquake in 1995, interest in it increased • Reinsurance capacity was sought

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

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Ch

Case study: Catastrophic insurance in Japan

Background Continued • Insurance companies were reluctant to provide earthquake insurance due to the huge uncertainty of the size of earthquake and frequency • Government of Japan shared the earthquake risk with private insurance company. That is good example of Private-Public Partnership in Japan • To stabilize the mechanism, reinsurance and CAT-bond are useful tools to diversify the insurance company’s retained risk in accordance with re-insurance market cycle • Government support is incentive for the private insurance companies to provide the Natural Catastrophe Insurance

Source: Hiroyuki Watabe, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case study: Turkey Earthquake Pool
Involved parties • Insurance supplier: TCIP, a legal public entity • Operational manager: Garanti Sigorta • Distributors: 30 local insurance companies and their agencies on behalf of TCIP • Reinsurers: Swiss Re and other overseas reinsurers Natural hazard background • Earthquake: very high (at least one quake per year) • Tsunami: low to moderate • Thunderstorms: moderate • Floods: medium to high exposure to flash floods

Solution features • For earthquakes • Insured assets: Private residential dwellings • Significantly increased penetration of earthquake coverage in Turkey • Limit of policy coverage: TLY 100 000 (USD 69 000 approx.), likely to be increased. Additional cover can be bought from private insurers • Inception: 2000 • Funding: Compulsory premiums paid by homeowners

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for
Solution features

DRR
Ch

Case study: Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility (CCRIF)
Background • Caribbean states are highly susceptible to natural disasters and have only limited options available to respond. With small economies and high debt levels, they often depend on donors to finance postdisaster needs, but donor resources often arrive late or not at all • The CCRIF was launched in June 2007 on behalf of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) heads of government under the guidance of the World Bank with financial support from international donors • CCRIF participating governments are: Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize , Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Ja maica, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands

• The CCRIF offers parametrically triggered hurricane and earthquake insurance policies (akin to business interruption insurance) to 16 CARICOM governments • The policies provide immediate liquidity to participating governments when affected by events with a probability of 1 in 15 years or over • The mechanism will be triggered by the intensity of the event (e.g. winds exceeding a certain speed). This means countries will get automatic payments, without having to wait for an assessment of the damage • Member governments choose how much coverage they need up to an aggregate limit of USD100 million Involved parties • Reinsurers: Swiss Re and other overseas reinsurers • Reinsurance program placed by Benfield Ltd.

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for
Solution features

DRR
Ch

Case study: Earthquake coverage for Guatemala and El Salvador
Background • Such a program will help these organizations in becoming more proactive in planning and anticipating relief needs in areas of the world affected by severe catastrophes • In case of a triggering event, funds will be readily available for relief efforts rather than post event fund raising • The transaction was well received by investors (oversubscribed)

• Parametric earthquake coverage of USD 25m for Guatemala and El Salvador • This is the first ever securitisation of earthquake risk in Central America • Innovative trigger mechanisms: Index is based on the population exposed to certain levels of ground-shaking intensity as measured by the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale • This transaction successfully demonstrates that charitable foundations, governmental relief organizations and corporations can leverage their funding to the benefit of developing nations affected by natural disasters • Donation to coverage leverage can be as high as 45 times (USD 1 million of donations can be used for USD 45 million in relief) • Other triggers are being developed for a wide variety of disasters

Source: Andreas Bollmann, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

PPP for
Definition

DRR
Ch

Business Continuity Planning (BCP)

• Holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business operations that those threats, if realized, might cause, and which provides a framework for building organizational resilience with the capability for an effective response that safeguards the interests of its key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value-creating activities.” (British Standards Institute) International standards and guidelines • BS 25999-1:2006: Code of Practice • BS 25999-1:2007: Specification • HB221:2004 • BCI Good Practice Guidelines 2007 • DRII/BCI Professional Practices for • Business Continuity Practitioner 2004
Source: Various presentations, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for
Purpose

DRR
Ch

Business Continuity Planning (BCP)

• The purpose of a Business Continuity Plan is to enable an organization to recover or maintain its activities in the event of a disruption to normal business operations • These plans are activated to support the critical activities required to deliver the organization’s objectives. They may be invoked in whole or part and at any stage of the response to an incident
Source: Various presentations, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for

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Business Continuity Planning (BCP)
2. Establish the Maximum Tolerable Outage (MTO) of each activity by identifying:
• The maximum time period after the start of a disruption within which the activity needs to be resumed • The minimum level at which the activity needs to be performed on its resumption • The Length of time within which normal levels of operation need to be resumed

1. Assess the impact that would occur over time if the activity was disrupted

Business Impact Analysis

3. Identify any interdependent activities, assets, supporting infrastructure or resources that have also to be maintained continuously or recovered over time

4. Consider the impact upon:
• Staff or public wellbeing • Damage or loss of premises, plant or data Sample BIA template • Breaches of statutory or regulatory duties • Damage to reputation or financial viability • Deterioration of product or service quality • Environmental damage

Source: Author unknown, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for

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Case Study: Business Continuity Management in Malaysia

Malaysian standards and guidelines • SIRIM – MS 1970:2007 • Bank Negara Malaysia – BNM • Guidelines 2008 Implementation varies by sector • In general, sectors with comprehensive BCM programme are (in descending order): • Financial services • Multinational Oil & Gas corporations • Telecommunication • Airline and aerodrome operators • Other sectors are more ad-hoc
Source: Ong Ai Lin, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for

DRR
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Case Study: Nestle Malaysia

Business Continuity Planning Organigram/Structure

Source: Author unknown, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Nestle Malaysia

Source: Author unknown, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for
Overview

DRR
Ch

Case Study: UEM Group and Mercy Malaysia

• UEM is owned by Khazanah Nasional Berhad (Investment arm of the Malaysian Government) • UEM setup UEM ALERT during the Johor Floods of December 2006. The directives included: • UEM ALERT as a part of the Human Capital Development Program • UEM ALERT leading and facilitating programs for all employees in humanitarian and charitable causes • UEM ALERT channeling group effort riding on Group synergies • UEM Group employees came together to help contribute physically and in terms of food & money to help those in need • UEM Group & Khazanah immediately pledged approximately US$250,000 (RM1M) in funds and resources to provide emergency relief assistance Lessons learned: • UEM has a culture of systems and processes for long-term effectiveness • UEM has economies of scale in resources • Efficiencies in partnerships can be gained where skills and resources are lacking
Source: Masahiro Takeda, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for

DRR
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Case Study: UEM Group and Mercy Malaysia

UEM partnership with Mercy Malaysia • To develop UEM’s employees understanding of humanitarian relief • UEM pledges funds to Mercy Malaysia • Mercy may work with UEM Academy and UEM Leadership utilizing facilities • Trained UEM employees enrolled as UEM ALERT volunteers for humanitarian response • 2007 • Inaugural Volunteer Induction Programs • UEM ALERT volunteers involvement in Mercy’s Basic Mission Training Programs • Short Band Radio training and qualification programs for both UEM ALERT members and staff of Mercy Malaysia • Flood preparedness initiatives • 2008 • UEM ALERT members involvement in Mercy’s Disaster Preparedness Programs • More structured approach to flood preparedness programs
Source: Masahiro Takeda, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for

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Ch

Case Study: Anti-Disaster Glass Promotion in Japan

Breakdown of usage of glass
Source: Masahiro Takeda, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

PPP for

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Case Study: Petronas Corporate Social Responsibility

Volunteer Opportunity Programme • Program launched in April 2005 • Enlisted 350 staff members • Deployed or trained volunteers through the programme or with Mercy Malaysia • Over 100 staff have been deployed on missions • Approximately 150 have specialized training Objectives • Focused on developing a pool of volunteers trained in Total Disaster Risk Management and exposed in the area of humanitarian relief efforts for communities stricken by disasters • Aimed at inculcating the spirit of volunteerism • Providing a platform for PETRONAS employees to contribute their time, skills and experience for the benefit of the community through specialized humanitarian relief programmes conducted by partners such as Mercy Malaysia • Provides an opportunity for cultural integration, leadership development, character building,
Source: Rosli Abdul Rahim, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Private Sector’s engagement in DRR in Malaysia.”

Part 3: Urban Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• • • • • • • • • Statistics Urban Disaster Risk Reduction and HFA UCLG Istanbul Declaration Asia Regional Task Force on Urban Risk Reduction Case Study: EMI Projects on Urban DRR Case Study: PURR Case Study: ADPC Promise Program Case Study: United Nations University Challenges and Recommendations

URBAN

DRR
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Statistics: Urbanization in Asia

Levels of Global Urbanization in 1950

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

URBAN

DRR
Ch

Statistics: Urbanization in Asia

Levels of Expected Urbanization in 2015

Source: Neil Mathison, 3 December 08, Technical Session 1 on “Public-Private Partnerships in Disaster Risk Financing.”

URBAN

DRR
Ch

Statistics: Urbanization in Asia

• Concentration of people in cities is increasing their vulnerabilities to natural hazards, civil strife, and climate change impacts • In Asia there are more than 30 mega cities (populations more than 5 million)
Source: Rakhi Bhavnani, December 08, Side Session “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction”

URBAN
Overview

DRR
Ch

Urban Disaster Risk Reduction and HFA
Trend in urban disaster risk reduction • Launching of several urban DRR programs by international organizations (e.g., World Bank GFDRR, UNDP/BCPR, UNISDR IAP, RTF-URR) • DDR Initiatives of regional organizations (e.g., ADPC, ADRC, JICA, WHO-Kobe, UNU etc.) • Recognition of and action on urban risk by national governments • Increasing awareness and action among local governments and local government organizations UCLG, CITYNET, METROPOLIS, ICLEI, EMI Current initiatives • Words into Action for Local Governments for HFA Implementation • Radius +10 • ADPC-Project PROMISE • JICA Technical Training on DRR • Urban Risk Profiling UNISDR, Citynet, Kyoto University) • EMI Cluster Cities Project /3cd Program in Metro Manila, Kathmandu • WB/GFDRR Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities for Climate Change Impacts and Strengthening DRM In East Asian Cities

• No “standard” of practice for local level DRM • Lack of coherency and complementarities among ongoing urban DRM initiatives • No adequate mechanism for measuring effectiveness in terms of mainstreaming DRR in local government functions • Inadequate financial, technical and human resources at local level

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 2 December 08, Special Session on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific .”

URBAN

DRR
Ch

UCLG Istanbul Declaration

UCLG Istanbul Declaration Local Action For Disaster Risk Reduction • This calls to states, multilateral and bilateral agencies and the UN System, the UNISDR and all stakeholders to support the following: • Local DRR strategies and actions and sharing of best practices at the local level • Improve communication and coordination of actions with representative organizations • Set up capacity building/training programs for municipal staff, launch awareness raising and education campaign • Adapt and develop a local framework for action derived from HFA • Set up a Global Forum for local governments as institutional support for implementation of the HFA at the local level
Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 2 December 08, Special Session on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific .”

URBAN
Why urban?

DRR
Ch

Asia Regional Task Force on Urban Risk Reduction

• Vulnerability due to urbanization is increasing • Urban areas are prone to geological and hydro meteorological disasters • Urban risk has been neglected • There are weak institutional arrangements • Lack of political feasibility • Insufficient knowledge, experience, capacity Why Asia? • Urbanization is high in Asia • Population density is high • Greater vulnerabilities History • UN/ISDR Hyogo Office together with close partners took an initiative to develop the Asia Regional Task Force on URR as a thematic group on urban risk reduction within the ISDR system in Asia to facilitate and accelerate efforts and actions for urban risk reduction

Source: Yuki Matsuoka, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

URBAN

DRR
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Asia Regional Task Force on Urban Risk Reduction

Asia Regional Task Force on Urban Risk Reduction • 15 members and open for expansion • Goal is to enhance decisive actions to reduce risk and increase community resilience in the urban areas in the Asia region • Objective is to act as an advocacy vehicle to major urban policy bodies; • To provide a platform for collective information and knowledge • development sharing ; • To facilitate interactions and cooperation among related organizations and stakeholders for collaborative efforts

Source: Yuki Matsuoka, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

URBAN

DRR
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Asia Regional Task Force on Urban Risk Reduction
Inventory of urban risk reduction initiatives in the Asia Region
• HFA Status Report on urban risk reduction in Asia • Distribution at Global Platform

Short Thematic Review on Urban Risk in Asia
• Contribution to the Global Assessment Report

Guidelines for implementation of the HFA
• Production of guidelines for implementation of HFA for local governments

Radius plus 10
• Support analysis of seismic risks for cities, and development of risk scenarios and an action plans for cities ,a set of recommendations

Urban Risk Profiling Initiative
• Climate Disaster Resilience Initiative (CDRI) for Asia-Pacific Cities • Led by Kyoto University in cooperation with Citynet, UNISDR, UNU • Development of a climate disaster resilience index

Meetings of the Regional Task Force

Production of basic documents
• Terms of reference • Flyer and CD ROM • Work plan and relevant meeting list

Intranet of the RTF-URR within PreventionWeb

Source: Yuki Matsuoka, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

URBAN

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Case Study: EMI Projects on Urban DRR Activities for 2009

ProVention Consortium Project - Disaster Risk Reduction in Megacities and Complex Urban Metropolises – Phase II (Aug. 2007Jul. 2009)
• Development of DRM tools and eLearning courses • MEGA-Index, MEGA-Know, MEGA-Learn, MEGA-Plan, MEGA-Safe

World Bank Institute - Distance Learning
• Program on Natural Disaster Risk • Management (Aug. 2006 – Dec. 2009)

German FFO – DKKV Project: Phase II (Jul. 2008 - Dec. 2009)
• Development of a risk-sensitive land use plan for Kathmandu • Structuring and implementing a competent disaster risk management unit in Kathmandu • Urban redevelopment planning for one of the most disaster-prone neighborhoods of Makati City • Training of disaster management professionals within Metro Manila on competent, local-level emergency management practices

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

URBAN

DRR
Ch

Case Study: EMI Projects on Urban DRR Activities for 2009
Partnership for Urban Risk Reduction (Apr. 2008 – Apr. 2009)
• Worldwide awareness campaign • Local capacity building • Building and strengthening a Global Platform for Local Authorities

UNDP – Amman (Apr. 2007 – Apr. 2009)
• Reducing earthquake risk in Amman, Jordan through a Disaster Risk Management Master Planning approach

World Bank/GFDRR Project Phase 1
• Jun – Dec 2008 • Strengthening the DRM capacity of local government units in the Philippines

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

URBAN

DRR
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Case Study: EMI Projects on Urban DRR

Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

URBAN

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Case Study: PURR

Overview • PURR is an ad hoc coalition composed of UCLG, ICLEI, Metropolis, CITYNET and EMI, set up as an advocacy and support initiative to local authorities worldwide Objective • Worldwide awareness campaigns about risk reduction in regions regularly affected by natural disasters • Building capacity at the local level to foresee and manage risks by transferring technical know-how to local actors and decisionmakers • Setting up a global platform for local authorities and their partners in order to build and promote a sustainable strategy for disaster risk reduction within the broader international context
Source: Violeta Somera-Seva, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

URBAN
Overview

DRR
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Case Study: ADPC Promise Program

• Program for Hydro-Meteorological Disaster Mitigation in Secondary Cities in Asia (PROMISE)
Member countries
Bangladesh

Lead institution
Bangladesh Disaster Preparedness Center (BDPC) Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) Aga Khan Planning and Building Services Center for Disaster Preparedness (CDP) Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Sangamana (Sarvodaya) Center for International studies and Cooperation (CECI)

City
Chittagong

Activities • Enhancement of emergency response capacity • City demonstration projects • Setting up community level EOC • Safer shelters • Guidelines • Improve construction practices • Small scale disaster mitigation initiatives • Regional level capacity building initiatives • National level capacity building initiatives • School safety programs • Advocacy for mainstreaming DRR • Regional networking • Information dissemination

Indonesia Pakistan Philippines

Metro Jakarta Hyderabad Dagupan

Sri Lanka

Kalutara

Vietnam

Da Nang

Source: ADPC, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Reducing Disaster Risk in Urban Areas.”

URBAN

DRR
Ch

Case Study: United Nations University

Activities for 2009
• Disaster Management • International Programs • Flood Risk Assessment • Landslides • Managing Basin Water Cycle • Urban Water Cycle • Mekong Basin - Research Network • GEOSS/AWCP Capacity Development • Climate Change • Adaptation for global dimming • Workshop: Making Adaptation Work

Initiative on Catastrophic Flood Risk Reduction: The need for an Asia Pacific Initiative on Catastrophic Flood Risk Reduction was identified at a regional workshop in 2003 with representation from Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

Source: Akhilesh Surjan, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Asian Urban Task Force (UTF).”

URBAN
Challenges

DRR
Ch

Challenges and Recommendations

• As urban centers grow and develop, there are new risks • Increased floods, underground space flooding, etc. • Ensuring human security in urban areas • Infrastructure development that takes into consideration vulnerability • Guidelines for catastrophic flood resistant urban communities • Training programs for professionals • Rapidly training trainers, especially in preparation for extreme events • The implementation of local-level urban DRR faces both challenges and opportunities on the ground • To fast track collective action among local governments and local government organizations must be vigorously pursued and supported Recommendations • Urban renovation and rejuvenation • Enforcement of construction standards • Raising of standards of practice, care and work ethics • More favorable legal and institutional arrangements • Building a culture of prevention • DRR mainstreaming through systemic strategic planning • Generation of resources –financial, human & technical • Collective action, e.g., Partnership for Urban Risk Reduction (PURR)

Part 4: Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• • • • • • • • Overview HFA and CBDRR Process Critical Guidelines Risk Governance Critical Perspectives Case Study: DelPHE Project and RRCs Case Study: CBDRM Joint Advocacy Network Initiative (JANI) in Vietnam • Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies

Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction

• • • • • • • • • •

Case Study: Bangladesh Case Study: Vietnam Case Study: Myanmar Case Study: IFRC Case Study: IFRC Malaysia Case Study: IFRC Sri Lanka Case Study: IFRC Philippines Case Study: ADRRN Case Study: Langkawi, Malaysia Challenges in CBDRR

COMMUNITY
Definition

DRR
Ch

Overview: Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction

• A process of disaster risk management in which communities at risk are engaged in the identification, evaluation, analysis, planning, monitoring of disaster risks in order to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their response capacities • Sustained involvement of communities in the process of development decision-making to ensure reduction of risks to potential disasters that threaten them, and facing disasters better collectively and individually Characteristics include • Combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches • Flat organizational structure • People-centric approach • Empowerment • Community ownership • Top-down approach • Hierarchy • Authoritative • Government decision making • Governmental ownership
Source: Aini Mat Said, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management” and Vishaka Hidellage, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR)

Comparison of roles and responsibilities

Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

HFA reinterpreted in a community-led process

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Community Based Disaster Management Process

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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CBDRM Critical Guidelines
Potential Application • Serve as Benchmarks for the sector • Guidelines for Project Planning & Design • Indicators for Project Evaluation & Impact Assessment • Basis for Advocacy & Policy formulation • Materials for staff orientation/training Potential Users • Individuals, groups, organizations & departments • Concerned with the: • Planning, design and implementation of community based initiatives & projects • Evaluation of community based initiatives • Advocacy on mainstreaming CBDRM • Policy making on community-based disaster risk reduction

Overview • Guidance on Shared Standards of Performance • Where “Sphere” Guidelines were 15 years ago • Developed under PDR SEA Phase 3 in March 2006 • Drafted in 2005-2006 at 4 National Workshops and 1 Regional Workshops • Work in Progress

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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CBDRM Critical Guidelines

Level 4: • Related to all the preceding levels: core values, strategy Implementation and tactics Principles

Level 3: Tactical Principles

• Practical outworking of the strategic principles

Level 2: Strategic Principles

• Policy direction of CBDRM that will be informed and be based on the ethical principles • Underlying shared beliefs and concerns of the organization and of its mandate as it seeks to undertake CBDRM

Level 1: Ethical, Core Value Principles

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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CBDRM Critical Guidelines
Level 2: Strategic Principles
PRINCIPLE 5. Strategic Considerations

Level 1: Ethical, Core Value Principles
PRINCIPLE 1. Observe Basic Rights

Level 3: Tactical Principles
PRINCIPLE 9. Baseline Data PRINCIPLE 10. Measuring Quantifiable and NonQuantifiable Indicators PRINCIPLE 11. Measuring Minimum Requirements

Level 4: Implementation Principles

PRINCIPLE 15. Cultural Adaptation of Indicators

PRINCIPLE 2. Share Information concerning those ‘at-risk’ PRINCIPLE 6. Trust vs Control PRINCIPLE 3. Share Assessment Information

PRINCIPLE 12. Relevance of Indicators PRINCIPLE 13. Updating of indicators within a context of dynamic change PRINCIPLE 14. Mainstreaming

PRINCIPLE 4. Collaborate rather than compete

PRINCIPLE 7. Ensuring Staff Commitment and Competence

PRINCIPLE 16. Side-Effects

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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CBDRM Critical Guidelines

Process 1: Undertake groundwork for CBDRM

Process 2: Select communities for CBDRM through risk assessment

Process 3: Build rapport and understand the community

Process 4: Participatory disaster risk management planning

Process 5: Community-managed implementation of risk reduction measures

Process 6: Participatory monitoring and evaluation

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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CBDRM Critical Guidelines Process Outcomes
Outcome 2: Community Disaster Risk Reduction Fund Outcome 3: Community Hazard, Vulnerability, Capacity Map (HVCM)

Outcome 1: Community-Based Organization (CBO)

Outcome 4: Community Disaster Risk Management Plan

Outcome 5: CBO Training System

Outcome 6: Community Drills System

Outcome 7: Community Learning System

Outcome 8: Community Early Warning System

Outcome 9: Active Link with Local Authorities

Source: Mel Capistrano, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Risk Governance

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Risk Governance

Policy Context • The institutionalization of disaster risk reduction in recent years has created greater realization of the relevance and need of studies that can inform the manner in which risk and resilience can be locally governed. i.e. Hyogo Accord (2005) Proactive Engagement • Strategy to engage civilians • Identify risks, vulnerabilities and hazards • Locally owned prevention and response • Counteract moral/social downturns in society, with potential economic and environmental benefits • Benefits • Engage knowledge, attitudes and practice • Sustainability • Address multiple hazards and risks, not just some
Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Risk Governance

Balancing Issues

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Risk Governance Household based resilience building

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Risk Governance Strengthened Community

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Risk Governance Weakened Community

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Risk Governance

From integrated vulnerability to integrated wellbeing

Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Risk Governance

The Community Risk and Resilience Committee • Community based risk and resilience assessment is the beginning of a process whereby local people take the lead in building their capacity to manage their own disaster risk reduction processes • It can produce a high level of acceptance at community level • Political context within which it operates has a crucial influence – gates open and close • Broad concept of community involvement in risk reduction is not new but is hugely under-utilized, awaiting wider sets of experiences. • Links rights, representation, knowledge, capacity and disaster risk reduction
Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Risk Governance

Purpose of RRC programme • To trial a series of Risk and Resilience Committees to identify the circumstances within which they may effectively enhance community owned hazard and vulnerability mitigation • To examine the impact of Risk and Resilience Committees in varied settings as a community based approach to disaster reduction • To seek empirical evidence for strengths and opportunities in a people centered risk reduction and resilience building approach • To understand locally based governance of risk and resilience Activities • Joint community-university-government research and learning on localized disaster risk reduction • Assessment of the manner in which communities build resilience • Assessment how risk and resilience committees can improve wellbeing (i.e. not just to cope with disaster but through promotion of sustainable development and wellbeing) • Monitor changes in risk, resilience and wellbeing
Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Risk Governance

Applications of RRC • • • • • • • Disaster risk reduction Health risk reduction Community strengthening Good governance Cost effectiveness Sustainable development Preparedness

The risk and resilience process • Reducing knowledge gap (R+R assessment) • Localizing solutions (R+R management) • Engaging people (R+R governance) • Empower people – communication and research • Sensitize institutions - same • Delineate responsibilities of the state • Legislate rights of individuals, and responsibilities of informal and private sectors
Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Risk Governance

Questions • Is there evidence of the need for new forms of local risk and resilience governance, such as through RRCs, or similar, or are we really looking at small adjustments to existing societies using existing community routines? • Uncertainty ongoing over balance of individually driven motivation to risk manage versus structurally motivated interventions Towards some conclusions • Putting people at the centre of change. • People interact with and adapt to hazards, manage risks, demand rights, develop resilience and secure livelihood niches • However, supportive research and governance contexts are needed to identify how to harness this to reduce conflict and other risks, regenerate societies and enhance community wellbeing
Source: Andrew Collins, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Critical perspectives and concerns on CBDRM

Critical Perspectives on CBDRM • Effective CB approaches need strong state support (Veron 2006) but DM in poorer countries is characterized by missing expertise of the state (Rajan 2002) • Poor and marginalized groups may not get their interests met as local elites may capture resources (Pelling 2007, Veron 2006) • CBDRR may be an added burden to communities, especially when not matched by resources (Allen 2006, Mansuri and Rao 2004) and where livelihood strengthening is a higher priority than disaster preparedness (Paton and Johnson 2001, Chen, Liu and Chen 2006) • Little research on effective institutional arrangements (Rajan 2002) or factors promoting/undermining community institutions (Coombes 2007)
Source: Samantha Jones, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: DelPHE Project and RRCs

Study Overview • DelPHE project: ‘People centered hazard and vulnerability mitigation for DRR in Nepal and Bangladesh’ • RRCs: Municipal or village platforms that monitor, record and promote localized DRR and dialogue • Two very different institutional arrangements formed the comparative case studies Research Questions • Where does ‘the community’ think responsibility for DM should lie? • Do CBDRR institutions represent the interests of marginalized/ vulnerable groups? • Are communities interested/ motivated in DRR (or only livelihood strengthening)? Is DRR an added burden? • What institutional arrangements are most effective, sustainable and show greatest capacity for DRR?
Source: Samantha Jones, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: DelPHE Project and RRCs

Study conclusions • Panchkhal and Dhankuta of DelPHE project differed considerably in terms of where communities felt responsibility for DRR should lie • Motivation in elite groups/ socially minded to contribute some time but directing agenda (elite control) • Longstanding power imbalances make true representation of marginalized groups challenging (elite capture?) • DM capacity is not very strong, but institutionally embedded arrangements show greatest potential • At the CBO/VDC level, livelihood strengthening activities may be better supported • Municipality may be the most appropriate institutional level for DRR – with independent, representative committees
Source: Samantha Jones, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: CBDRM Joint Advocacy Network Initiative (JANI) in Vietnam
JANI Members
• CARE International in Vietnam (CARE) • Save the Children Alliance • Netherlands Red Cross • Development Workshop France (DWF) • Canadian Centre for International Studies and Cooperation • (CECI)/ACTAID • Action Aid • ADRA • WHO • World Vision • Spanish Red Cross • Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC)

Existing national DRM networks in Vietnam

Source: Aslam Perwiz , Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: CBDRM Joint Advocacy Network Initiative (JANI) in Vietnam
Integration of CBDRM into development • CBDRM integration training workshops (advocacy skill, integration skill) • Integration of DM into school curriculum • Policy dialogue platforms (disaster management legislation, regulations, NDMP, etc) • Technical workshops on the National Strategies and SNAP Public Awareness Raising • Media Campaigns for DRR at national and local levels (engagement of the media into DRR, joint TV and radio broadcasts, etc) • Advocacy activities on the National and International Disaster Days (22 May and 2 October)

Better synergy/information sharing • Regular Coordination Meetings – Align with the DM Working Group • Online CBDRM repository (www.ccfsc.org.vn/ndm-p) • Conceptualize CBDRM and develop CBDRM framework (what it is, how to do, procedures, target audience, etc) • Disaster tours (for experience sharing, relationship strengthening, human resource building) • CBDRM Good Practices (leadership, human resources, means and logistics on the spot) • Promote Indigenous knowledge on DM and CC (linking local knowledge and scientific research) • Joint Partnership and innovative IEC materials (leaflets, brochures, articles, etc)

Source: Aslam Perwiz , Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies

Background • Theme of RCC 7 Meeting, Colombo, May, 2008 was ‘Community led disaster risk reduction’ • 12 RCC member countries submitted Country Papers on CBDRR • 5 RCC member countries presented country experiences on national programmes on CBDRR at the RCC 7 Meeting • 28 delegates from 19 RCC member countries participated in a group discussion during the meeting on meeting the challenges to institutionalize and up scale CBDRR • Working Paper on ‘Implementing national programs on CBDRR in high risk communities: lessons learned, challenges and way ahead’ developed by the RCC for the 3rd Asian Ministerial Conference on DRR, 2-4 December, 2008
Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies
Outcome 1: CBDRR prioritized in the National Policies and Frameworks on DRR

Lessons Learned from RCC country experiences

Outcome 7: National initiatives on Capacity Building for CBDRR and Partnerships for CBDRM

Outcome 2: National DRR Plans identify CBDRR as a priority component

Outcome 6: Funding schemes for CBDRR

Outcome 3: National Programs on CBDRR

Outcome 5: National Tools on CBDRR

Outcome 4: Integration of CBDRR in National and Local Development Planning

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies
• National Disaster Management Framework mandates the preparation of community based mitigation, preparedness and response plans

CBDRR prioritized in the National Policies and Frameworks on DRR

India Lao PDR Malaysia Mongolia Pakistan Sri Lanka

• National Strategic Plan for Disaster Management to 2020, 2010 and Action Plan 2005, recognizes the importance of involving the community in dealing with disaster risk and the necessity to build their capacity • The National Security Council Directive No. 20 (NSC No. 20 ) attaches priority to CBDRR through educational programmes and drill or exercises.

• National Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management Framework for Action 2006-2015 identifies CBDRM as a priority direction for supporting vulnerable population in hazard prone areas • Identifies CBDRM one of the nine priorities (Priority 6) of the National Disaster Management Framework

• National Disaster Management Plan 2008-2012 and National Disaster Management Policy emphasize the importance of community engagement in disaster management

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies

National DRR Plans identify CBDRR as a priority component

Bangladesh Indonesia Sri Lanka

• National Plan for Disaster Management (2007-2015) recognizes community empowerment which is operationalized by CBDRR as one of the six key result areas • National Action Plan for DRR (2006-2009), Indonesia, prioritizes implementation of CBDRR and integrating it with the local development master plan • Road Map for Safer Sri Lanka (2006-2015) prioritizes CBDRR as one of its seven program components

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies National Programs on CBDRR

India Sri Lanka Thailand

• GoI DRM Programme -2002-2008, initiated in 25 districts in 3 States and expanded to 169 multi-hazard prone districts in 17 States based on the 1st edition of the Vulnerability Atlas of India

• Program Component 6 of the Road Map for Safer Sri Lanka aims to establish a sustained national program on CBDRM to build the resilience and capacity in at-risk communities for response and disaster risk management. This is planned to be achieved in a phased manner over next 10 years

• Over the past years the Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation had up scaled the implementation of CBDRR initiatives from 51villages in 2004 to 367 in 2007

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies

Integration of CBDRR in National and Local Development Planning

Cambodia Maldives The Philippines

• The Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) on DRR (2008-2013), in its implementation plan of the first two years includes Integrating DRR into the formal commune development planning process

• CBDRR activities are led by the Island Development Committees. Local authorities are members of the Island development committees and they act as the link between the regional head office and the Ministry of Atolls Development and the National Disaster Management Center

• Have integrated CBDRM into national and sub-national development plans such as the Philippine Medium Term Development Plan

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies National Tools on CBDRR

Bangladesh The Philippines

• Developed the tool on Community Risk Assessments (CRA) and Risk Reduction Action Plans (RRAP)

• Ongoing initiative to produce multi-hazard maps under the project on Hazard Mapping and Assessment for Effective Community-based Disaster Risk Management READY project. It has three main components: multihazard identification and assessment, community-based disaster preparedness and mainstreaming risk reduction into the local development planning process

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies Funding schemes for CBDRR

Bangladesh Sri Lanka Thailand

• A minimum of 25% of the total Local Disaster Risk Reduction Funding Guidelines (LDRRF), is earmarked for community proposals drawn from the Community Risk Assessment (CRA) and Risk Reduction Action Plan (RRAP) processes.

• Identified priority projects and budget estimates for program component six on CBDRR in their Road Map. Total budget estimates for CBDRR is more than USD 28M phased over a 10-year period

• Cabinet has approved central budget for CBDRR in 2007— USD 2.6M for evacuation drills in provinces and districts; and USD 377,000 for One Tambon One Search and Rescue (OTOP) project

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies

National initiatives on capacity building for CBDRR
• Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) of the Government of Bangladesh has identified Capacity Building as one of priorities

Bangladesh Pakistan

• National Disaster Management Authority of Pakistan has developed training manuals for communities and district authorities. It is also in the process of establishing the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) that will offer courses for CBO, NGOs, local authorities on CBDRR

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies

Partnerships for CBDRR in RCC member countries

Vietnam
•Disaster Management Working Group (DMWG)

Cambodia
•Cambodian Disaster Risk Reduction Forum (CDRR Forum)

The Philippines
•Corporate Network for Disaster Response (CNDR)

Indonesia
•Indonesian Society for Disaster Management (MPBI)

Nepal
•Disaster Preparedness Network (DP-Net)

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies

Challenges in implementing national CBDRM programs • Conceptual understanding on CBDRR • Community largely dependent on relief & support • Linking with Local Development Planning • Most development partners (NGOs) have the tendency of bypassing government mechanism while implementing DRR projects at the community level. • Need to increase capacity and skills at community level to improve livelihoods and food security and reduce environmental degradation • Creating ownership • Increased participation and involvement of the sub national governments • Integrating Gender • Linking local DM plans to relevant marketable livelihood training, micro finance and disaster insurance

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies
CBDRR implementation activities of NGOs and CBO • Advocacy and networking; Cost-benefit analysis to influence policy makers • Institutionalization through sustained dialogue between government, NGOs and CBOs • Funding/Resources for CBDRR program implementation at the local level • Establishing and strengthening coordination and regulatory mechanism between NGOs, CBOs and government agencies. • Building capacity of CBOs and NGOs • Clarity of role of CBOs/NGOs in the whole process

Scaling up implementation of CBDRR programmes in all high risk communities • Policy agenda for CBDRR such as integration of • CBDRR in the national development policy framework and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers • Funding for CBDRR • Partnerships (NGOs/Government) for implementation of programmes • Capacity Building • Institutional capacity & commitment, delegation authorities • Community awareness and ownership, knowledge of benefits • Sustainability by engagement of community • Transparency, credibility and politicization

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies
Steps necessary for linking CBDRR programs to development planning • Increasing linkage of CBDRR programs to development planning with strengthened partnership between national disaster management office and national planning agency • Increasing linkage of CBDRR in Sectoral Planning such as in development of school curriculum and training of teachers • Capacity building of technical people in the planning and sectoral agencies on CBDRR. • Adoption of appropriate legislations outside of the executive branch

Steps for sustained implementation of CBDRR • Establish clear policy framework for support by national governments and partnerships between local government and CBOs • Setup /adapt appropriate and suitable institutional mechanisms to accommodate CBDRR • Establishing scheme for recognition of good practices in CBDRR and utilizing experiences of CBDRR award scheme in member countries • Enhanced resource from national and local government

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Regional Consultative Committee (RCC): Country CBDRR Case Studies

Role of UN agencies, partner organizations, and donors in scaling up CBDRR • Appreciate and promote CBDRR as a window of opportunity for community empowerment • Linking CBDRR to development planning and implementation • Support CBDRR backed-up by local authorities and integrating local/traditional knowledge with science and technology • Serve as bridge among communities, governments, donors, and other stakeholders • Involvement of private sector in DRR • Support formulation of national policies, plans or strategy papers on CBDRR as part of disaster risk management framework • Prioritize high-risk communities • Support capacity development • Support and disseminate research and documentation of good/bad practices • Revise agency policies • Resource mobilization for CBDRR • Set an environment for transparency and accountability to communities

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

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Case Study: Bangladesh

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

COMMUNITY

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Case Study: Bangladesh

Tools for Effective Community Risk Assessment and Management • National Models Frameworks • Policy Reform • Advocacy • Institutional reform and capacity building • Guidelines and Planning Frameworks • Collaborative partnerships • Funding Mechanisms • Coordination Mechanisms

Frameworks and Models • Visualizes what needs to be done and how the pieces fit together • Creates a common conceptual understanding among stakeholders • Provides guidance for the review of policy and planning frameworks and also the design of training and other tools

Policy Reform • Policy reforms create the top down support mechanisms necessary for operational zing and sustaining development risk reduction efforts • Policy opens the door to mainstreaming which is essential for effective and sustained risk reduction at the community level (ECNEC Decision) • Policy reform opens the door to more effective regional cooperation

Source: Faud Hassan Mallick, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY
Advocacy

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Bangladesh
Institutional Reforms • From the highest to lowest levels • Expanded roles to include risk reduction and emergency response • Engagement in the management of risk reduction efforts at the broader community level • Mainstreaming community risk reduction action plans into institutional systems Guidelines and Planning Frameworks • CRA and RRAP Guidelines have been developed through collaborative process • Follows international risk management standard • Provides uniformity in how we identify and manage community risk • Links with government risk reduction funds • All hazards and all sector analysis incorporating climate change impacts and other hazard prediction models • Provides the basis for developing uniform partner capacities • Ensures full involvement of communities in identifying and • managing risk

• Advocacy creates a common and united understanding of risk reduction among nonpractitioners • Advocacy brings on board the key stakeholders including political, policy, government, NG O, media and the community

Source: Faud Hassan Mallick, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

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Case Study: Bangladesh
Funding Mechanisms • The key to successful CRA is in the ability to fund risk reduction projects • Government programs such as VGF, FFW, CFW and KABITA targeting RRAP’s for the identification of risk reduction priorities • Grants program to assist local government disaster management committees in implementing community risk reduction projects

Collaborative Partnerships • Over 70 collaborative partner organizations supporting national risk reduction efforts at the community level • Includes government, INGO, NGO, LNGO, Private Sector (technical agencies), regional partners • ToT and Capacity Building provided by government • Robust monitoring and evaluation systems established • Regular refresher courses for core trainer group

Source: Faud Hassan Mallick, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

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Case Study: Bangladesh
CRA Tools • CRA Guidelines follows international risk management standard • CRA process adherence to human rights through compliance with social and gender inclusion framework • Risk reduction action plan documents CRA outcomes and priorities

National Coordination and Knowledge Management • A National CRA Working Group is formed under the leadership of DG-DRR to provide quality assurance and coordinate CRA activities in Bangladesh • UN, International Organizations, GoB relevant agency, academic institutions, research organizations and national and local NGOs are the member of the working group • The working group is responsible to coordinate, avoid duplication and overlapping of similar activities, disseminate CRA outcomes and to do advocacy for using CRA information in development program/project designing • CRA working group aims to open a web base interface for all relevant stakeholders’ CRA information dissemination

Source: Faud Hassan Mallick, Side Session on “Strengthening Municipal and Village Disaster Risk Reduction Platforms through Risk and Resilience Committees in South Asia.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Bangladesh

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Bangladesh

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Bangladesh

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Bangladesh

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Vietnam
P2: Provision of the capacity building to the DRR response agencies at provincial, district and community levels • ToT curriculum development • Establishment of a professional CBDRM training team at all levels • Improvement of the EW&D system at provincial and district levels • Provision of CBDRM training to key officials • Disaster vulnerability study • Adaptation of the DRR into the Climate Change • Database system on DRR • Disaster damage assessment system

P1: Establishment and strengthening of institution and legislation on CBDRM • Review and improvement of existing DRR management institution (includes the establishment of the DRR Center at national and provincial levels) • Development of CBDRM guidelines • Development of guidelines on the integration of the DRR plan into the CD plan • Creation of a CBDRM platform for multi-stakeholders including private sector • Integration of the DRR into the school curriculum

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Vietnam CBDRM
P4: Improvement of the small scale DR mitigation structures system at disaster vulnerable community • Development of the essential infrastructure system • Improvement and development of the natural disaster protection system

P3: Strengthening of the community’s response and resilience • Community training curriculum development; • Establishment of a professional CBDRM training team at community (school teachers) • Establishment the warning & dissemination and drill system in community • Integration of the DRR plan into the CD plan and Poverty Reduction plan • Establishment of the M&E system in community • Development of guideline on community DRR • Provision of annual CBDRM training to community • Community database system • Disaster damage assessment system • Community vulnerability study

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Vietnam
Challenges • Unification of the risk reduction of all disaster types • Overlap of institution and legislation in some areas of DRR • High commitment but low achievement • Difference of DRR capacity among the institutional levels • Understanding on DRR at community • Low achievement of the integration of DRR into the development plan • Difference of level of interest on DRR of the responsible agencies • Coordination and cooperation among Gov. agencies and between Gov. agencies and private sectors

Lessons Learned • Legislation and institution in DRR has been established and developed at all levels • High level of commitment given by DRR agencies at all levels and community • Socialization of the DRR for a long period • Gov. and community are proactive and motivate in DRR • Strong institution in emergency response • DRR is not a new concept at community • Involvement of the private sectors in emergency response

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Myanmar Cyclone Nargis Organizations
CBOs& Cyclone Nargis • Town Association: Bogale, Pyapone, Laputta, Manadalay • Main Focus: Relief Program • Village / Community Base Organization: Relief and Recovery Program FBO & Cyclone Nargis • Buddhist: Sitagu, Ahsin Sein Kein Da and etc • Christian • Islam and etc.

NGOs & Cyclone Nargis • MRCS: Largest NGO and working with IFRC • Mingalar Myanmar: 700 villages, Livelihoods & CBDRM • Metta Foundation: Ethnic Based, Livelihood, WASH • Shalong Foundation: Ethnic Based, Psychosocial • Yadana Metta: Health Sector Based Organization • Nargis Action Group: Business Based Organization • CBO (Towns, Villages) • FBO (Buddhist, Christian, Islam) • Business Company and Chamber of Commerce

Source: Phone Win, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Myanmar Cyclone Nargis Organizations

Business Company and Chamber of Commerce • Construction Companies: Htoo, Yuzana, Dagon, Eden, Asia World & etc • Chamber of Commerce: – UMFCCI, Fishery Federation

Professional Association • Health: Myanmar Medical Association, Health Worker Association • Engineering: Myanmar Engineering Association, Myanmar, Architect Association

Source: Phone Win, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

Case Study: Myanmar DRR Disaster Risk Management National Level
Ch
DRM ToT Program

• • • •

Collaboration between Ministry and MM Completed 4 batches Produce 150 trainers until now Plan to produce minimum 40 trainers per month
Participants Development • Jointly designed and developed by the Ministry, UN agencies, INGOs and local NGO • Delivered by various local and international resource persons • A mix of knowledge, skills and practice sessions Evaluation • Intense engagement of participants • Agreement on follow up actions • Collaboration between the Ministry, UN agencies, INGOs and local NGO Expected outcomes • 150 Local Trainers trained in (DRM ToT) • 180 Local trainees trained in township level by local trainers • 40 villages local-level disaster risk assessments undertaken • 40 local-level DRM Action Plans developed

• From 6 State & Divisions • From Nargis & Non Nargis Area • Mostly Teachers & Administrators

Source: Phone Win, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Myanmar DRM ToT Program

Partnership • National: • Ministry of Social Welfare, Myanmar Red • Cross Society, CBOs • International • ASEAN, ADRRN, Mercy Malaysia, ADPC, • Action Aid, DFID, IMC, Singapore Government

More Space • Local organizations can work together with the ministry • Local Organizations can work directly with community • International Community can work directly with Local Organizations

Trust Building • Between Government, Local Organization, Local Community and International Organizations • Maintaining Trust is important

Source: Phone Win, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC: Legal Issues
People-centered early warning systems • Domestic legislation should • Clarify the role of RC National Societies in early warning, bearing in mind liability/capacity concerns • Enable access to information about hazards to facilitate early warning • Establish a multi-hazard approach • Approve the use of relevant early warning technology such as GPS

Establishment of National Platforms for DRR • Domestic legislation should • Establish and support National Platforms • Integrate RC National Societies into National Platforms • Recognize the auxiliary role of RC National Societies to public authorities • Encourage greater involvement of civil society

Public education • Domestic legislation should • Protect the public’s right to know about hazards and risks • Enable and encourage organizations to inform the public about hazards and risks • Establish standard information about the DRR to prevent contradictory messages reaching communities • Integrate DRR information into school curriculum • Approve the use of relevant early warning technology such as GPS

Source: Victoria Bannon, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Legal Issues

Community participation in decision making •Domestic legislation should •Formally recognize and ensure government participation in existing community-based DRR activities •Ensure that government at all levels involves community participation in decisionmaking •In developing legislation on DRR, governments should: •Consult communities and civil society organizations during the development and drafting process

Land management and urban planning •Domestic legislation should •Clarify the role of National RC Societies regarding relocation of populations following land zoning, which respects the Fundamental Principles of the RC •Ensure that, in the case of zoning or resettlement, all people are provided with essential supplies and services, with particular regard to especially vulnerable people •Ensure that National RC Societies have continuous access to minorities and other vulnerable populations to provide essential services •Establish evacuation points as part of urban planning regulations

Building Codes •Domestic legislation should: •Ensure the establishment and enforcement of hazard resilient building codes •Integrate good practices and draw on other expertise regarding the development of building codes •Identify priority buildings for safe construction or retrofitting such as schools, hospitals and blood centers

Strengthening accountability •Domestic legislation should •Ensure that governments are fulfilling their obligation of primary responsibility for DRR •Ensure sufficient budget allocation for DRR activities and implement transparency measures •Establish basic minimum standards on disaster risk reduction, supported by training programmes •Ensure basic liability protection for civil society organizations engaged in DRR activities

Source: Victoria Bannon, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC

Strengthening accountability • Domestic legislation should • Ensure that governments are fulfilling their obligation of primary responsibility for DRR • Ensure sufficient budget allocation for DRR activities and implement transparency measures • Establish basic minimum standards on disaster risk reduction, supported by training programmes • Ensure basic liability protection for civil society organizations engaged in DRR activities

Preparedness for response • Domestic legislation should: • Establish clear institutional arrangements for disaster response • Clarify the role of National RC Societies in disaster response • Anticipate and plan for receiving international disaster response

Source: Victoria Bannon, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC

The Way Forward • Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance (IDRL Guidelines) • Not legally binding, but endorsed by different international forums • The IDRL Guidelines provides recommendations to Governments on: • Facilitating international cooperation for disaster relief (e.g.. enable fast and easy to access to people affected by disaster, allow visas, customs and tax exemptions etc) • Effectively managing international relief operations (e.g.. ensure good coordination, promote good quality and accountability standards, ensure all organizations abide by humanitarian principles)

Legislative Advocacy Manual for National RC Societies • Key messages for integration into domestic legislation • Examples, cases studies, good practices • Advocacy approaches

Source: Victoria Bannon, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Malaysia
MRCS Auxiliary Roles • National Security Council Directive 20 • Auxiliary role to the following ministries • Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (JKM) • Ministry of Foreign Affairs • Ministry of Health • Ministry Youth & Sports • Ministry of Higher Learning • Ministry of Education • National Security Council Directive 20 • Ministry of Welfare • Preparation of food • Distribution of relief to affected victims • Registration and rehabilitation for victims

Malaysian Red Cross Society Strategic Plan 2005-2009 • A 5-year Strategy to strengthen MRCS capacity in caring for the most vulnerable in the community • Core areas: • Promotion of Fundamental Principles and Humanitarian Values • Disaster Management including Risk Reduction • Healthcare • Organizational development • MRCS Institute (undertakes Training Program)

Source: Hisham Harun Hashim, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY
Area selection

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Malaysia

• Disaster Prone Areas, recommended by PMI, LGU, NGO • Community has commitment to have active participation on disaster risk reduction activities • How LGU & NGO will ensure their support for program implementation Capacity building • Building a “culture of coping with crisis” and “culture of disaster risk reduction” • Number of volunteers, staff and community members received training and had skilled to delivery of disaster risk reduction • Provided necessary skilled from LGU and NGO Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment • Consistent application of Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment by using several tools, i.e. PRA tools, Baseline Survey, etc • Conducting Hazard and Risk Mapping to map out hazard, risk, vulnerability and capacity lies at community • Community is able to identify hazard, risk, vulnerability and capacity • LGU & NGO is able to acknowledge its strengths and weaknesses to contribute with community vulnerability and capacity

Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Malaysia

Community Action Plan • Community is able to consider ways to mitigate against disaster risk and impact, covering health, environment, livelihood and climate change issue, etc • Prioritize risk, vulnerability and solution based on locally resources • Define role and responsibilities for each related stakeholders (Community, PMI, LGU, NGO) • Integrate into Master’s Plan to reduce community vulnerability DRR Promotion • Having knowledge and understanding about Hazard, Risk, Vulnerability and Capacity in their respective areas can inform and be a catalyst for wider decision making then translated into practical risk reduction measures • Conducted by volunteers and community members by using peer educator approach, assisting by community leaders, for sustainability purpose • Involving technical support from LGU and NGO for several issues, such as health, environment, climate change, etc
Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Malaysia

Preparedness to Response • Community has emergency response planning at individual and community level • Enhance knowledge of disaster sign, safe evacuation route and danger warning signal and establish structure of EWS to deliver message promptly and effectively across the community • Mobilization of volunteer to respond disaster effectively, in coordination with LGU and NGO • Conducting joint simulation of Disaster Response amongst stakeholder (Community, PMI, LGU, NGO, etc.) Risk Mitigation • It is identified based on priority problem and solution • It accomodates environment, livelihood, health and integrate climate change components • It elaborate community resources, LGU’s and NGO technical support and funding from planning, implementation, and maintenance • It has reduced the potential risk and problems related with local hazards
Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Malaysia
The Way Forward (at PMI level) • Addressing the risk in broader context (associated with environmental degradation, poverty, populatio n growth, urbanization, climate change, etc) and integrate it into disaster risk reduction programme • Strengthen capacity to deliver profressional services to the most vulnerable people through its links to communities and volunteer network • Expand community based programming through wider engagement and participation of beneficiaries and relevant stakeholders The Way Forward (at LGU) • Mainstreaming DRR into Development Policy, Planning and Budgeting • Establish a mutualistic environment for DRR linkages to the global climate change adaptation that contributes to disaster occurrence • Provide early warning system infrastructure to deliver message promptly and effectively across the community • Supports to the beneficiaries and stakeholders participation • Encourage the DRR culture by increasing disaster risk awareness at community level

Challenges • Many actors has caused overlapping on the DRR activities at the community level • Not all of DRR activities haven’t been integrated into LGU’s Development Policy, Planning and Budgeting • Acknowledgement of Community Participation, not just “a victim” • DRR issue has been growing in broader context (associated with environmental degradation, poverty, population growth, urbanization, climate change, etc) • Incoherent linkages of Action Plan for DRR and Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation • Sustainability of DRR Programme at community level

Source: Bevita Dwi M., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Sri Lanka
Public Awareness in DRR • Awareness campaigns/Poster Exhibitions on DRR • Short Drama Festivals/Competitions related to disasters • CBDRR • Community Awareness campaigns • Risk reduction group activities • IEC Materials distributions to communities related to DRR • School DRR • School awareness rallies • School Poster competitions • Teacher trainings on DRR • Exhibitions on DRR Public Awareness in DRR cont. • Disaster Early Warning • Facilitation of Tsunami Alert lessons learnt (September 2007) with key stakeholders of the GoSL and other agencies • Mass awareness Rallies • Mock drills • Simulation exercises • Warning messages (Reliability/ accuracy/ response) • Importance of volunteers • Health promotion awareness related to DRR • Water and sanitation awareness especially during disasters

Sri Lankan Red Cross Society engagement in DRR • The Sri Lanka Red Cross Society identified as one of the main actor of the national DM plan of SL Govt • Representation DRM at all levels • DRM Capacity Building/ Public Awareness • Response Preparedness • Public Early Warning Dissemination • CBDRM • SLRCS developed its 5 year strategic plan (2009-2013) in line with the govt. mandate • This strategy is in line with IFRC Strategy 2010 and HFA 2005-2015

Source: S. H. Nimal Kumar, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Sri Lanka
Issues and challenges • Integration of DRR in to the development programme • Harmonization of disaster management at all levels • Lack of legal authority to the disaster management govt. institutions • Lack of system & resources on last mile warning dissemination and response mechanism • Long term commitment from the donor community to integrate DRR into sustainable development

Achievements in DRR • Member of the National Disaster Management Coordination Committee (NDMCC) of SL govt. • MoU to be signed with the DMC of the Ministry of DM & HR to implement DM activities • Development of national CDBRM framework for Sri Lanka • Initiation of CBDRM/EWS in more than 500 communities in 15 districts • Participation in the regional DRR curriculum development and field testing • Key partner of the GoSL national DM and Health plan

Source: S. H. Nimal Kumar, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Overview

Case Study: IFRC Philippines
PNRC Tasks • organizes DRT in PNRC establishments; • conducts DMT courses and assist in the training of DCC and their emergency welfare service units at all levels; • assist in providing emergency relief assistance to victims of disasters; • makes available whole blood and its derivatives in times of disasters; • interfaces its’ other emergency welfare services (warning, rescue, evacuation, medical/nursing, first aid / ambulance and social services) with the activities of member agencies at all levels; • provides tracing services (local and foreign) during emergencies

• Vision • To be the foremost humanitarian organization in the Philippines, in services provided and number of people served • Six major activities • Disaster Management • Community Health and Nursing • Blood Program • Safety Services • Social Services • Red Cross Youth • Legal Mandate • To establish and maintain a system of national and international relief in time of peace and in time of war and apply the same in meeting the emergency needs caused by typhoons, floods, fires, earthquakes, and other natural disasters and to devise and carry on measures for minimizing the suffering caused by such disasters

Source: Catherine Marie G. Martin, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

Ch

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Philippines
Integrated Community Disaster Planning Programme • Features • Community-based • Multi-sectoral • Multi-disciplinary • Proactive • Responsive • Replicable • Based on urgent needs • Community-owned and managed • Components • Prevention • Engineering • Physical protection measures • Legislative actions • Mitigation • Risks and resource mapping • Preparedness • Formation and Organization of Disaster Action Teams(BDATs) • Development of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Materials • Community Disaster Mitigation Measures

Relationship with Government • Member of the National Disaster Coordinating Council • Represented in the Local Government Units as Member of the Provincial/City Disaster Coordinating Council • Member of the Task Force for the consolidation and formulation of the Strategic National Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction in the Philippines

Source: Catherine Marie G. Martin, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: IFRC Philippines
Key lessons learned • Social preparation should be done with out the idea of implementing a project, but simple integration and assessment of the situation • The prodding of the LGU to have counterpart and to influence the development planning process is a very good innovation • CBDM trainings and events must be incorporated and mainstreamed into the formal calendar and curriculum of the community, and schools • Utilizing and re-enforcing existing community ethics, values and strategy and plan of the PNRC in itself • The trained volunteers in the community should be acknowledged, accepted and integrated in the existing structure of the local government • We cannot build safe and resilient communities through our DRR actions alone. We make our contribution but the systematic reduction of risk can only be achieved through building a strong working partnership between all stakeholders- communities, local and national government, local NGO and other local organization. • DRR initiatives must be reinforced with local legislations

ICDPP Effects and Impacts • Reduction of the Communities’ Vulnerabilities to Physical Hazards • Capacity Building of the beneficiaries • Organizational Capacity Building of the Chapter • Improved Community Relations of the Chapter • Enhanced LGU relations and involvement • Training of LGU Officials on DM • Meeting of Municipal Officials and all barangay captains to explain the goal and mechanics of the program • Formation of TF in the LGU that would implement the disaster mitigation project • Providing financial contribution for the disaster mitigation projects • Providing technical assistance in designing the mitigation projects • Implementation and monitoring of the projects

Source: Catherine Marie G. Martin, 3 December 08, Side Session on “Building Safer and Resilient Communities through Disaster Risk Reduction actions of Red Cross and Crescent National Societies”

COMMUNITY Mission

DRR
Ch

Case Study: ADRRN

• Promote coordination and collaboration among NGOs for effective and efficient disaster reduction and response in the Asia-Pacific region • ADRRN member NGOs working in Asia at the grassroots, directly in touch with the “Change Agents” – workers, community leaders, school teachers, masons, health workers Activities • “Inamura-no printed in eight Asian languages • Swayam micro-credit programme • Tsunami resource centre, Indonesia • Hands on training • Bio-island promotion • Working with village disaster management committees
Source: Manu Gupta, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Case Study: Langkawi, Malaysia

Overview • After the Indian Ocean Tsunami (2004), Government of Malaysia allocated US$(RM4 million) towards a seismic and tsunami hazards and risk study in Malaysia in September 2005 • Community Preparedness and Emergency Response Plan for Tsunamis in Langkawi, Malaysia Objectives: • Evaluation and assessment of awareness, preparedness and weakness of the community, local and state agencies in facing tsunamis • Review and make use of existing tsunami risk assessment system for evacuation route mapping • Enhancement of public awareness through education of community • Formulation of tsunami evacuation plan • Observation and evaluation of a simulated tsunami drill
Source: Manu Gupta, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Challenges in CBDRR
Strengths of Local Governance
• Represent local people • Closer to local communities • Lead local development • Significant infulencing and decision making force given with decentralization trends

Community level initiatives are not enough!
• Local interventions are not sufficient for sustainable DRR • Macro and micro level decisions have local impacts • Capacity to plan is low • Formal leadership exists • Need to link and influence local authorities

Weaknesses of Local governance
• Weak institutional setup • Capacity gaps • Disempowered • Corrupt • Mostly implementing/service provision arm of government • Low reputation

Source: Vishaka Hidellage, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

COMMUNITY

DRR
Ch

Challenges in CBDRR

Acceptance
• Protocols – permission and consent • Accessibility - approaching gate keepers • Trust – assurance of impartiality

Participation
• Lack of commitment and participation from government agencies • Clash of activities • Loss of income of residents

Resources
• Financial resources • Infrastructure/facilities • Transport

Centralization of authority
• Need approval from central authority • Constraints in decision-making • A long time lag for consent • Lack of consultation with the local community

Turnover of Personnel
• Transfer of government personnel • Promotion

Socio-economic variance of local residents
• • • • Educational background Economic status Ethnic composition Political alignment

Source: Aini Mat Said, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

ICT for DRR

Contents
• Statistics • Case Study: ICT in Myanmar • Case Study: International Telecommunication Union • Challenges

ICT

DRR
Ch

Statistics

The countries with the most disasters have the lowest connectivity
Asia and Africa have the highest occurrence of floods and droughts however, the lowest number of fixed and mobile telephones as a percentage of overall population

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including Disaster Risk Reduction.”

ICT

DRR
Ch

Case Study: ICT in Myanmar
High level imaging Approaching cyclone

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including Disaster Risk Reduction.”

Post-disaster

Pre-disaster

ICT

DRR

Case Study: International Telecommunication Union

Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including Disaster Risk Reduction.”

ICT

DRR
Challenges
Ch

Challenges

• Need to forge multi-disciplinary partnerships • Need for better coordination • Need for disaster prediction, detection and monitoring systems (emergency. telecom + GIS) • Need for linking Climate Change and Disaster Management • Need for Standard Operating Procedures • Need to develop and integrate National Emergency Telecommunications Plans into Disaster Management Plans • Need to ensure redundancy and resilience in the network
Source: Cosmas L. Zavazava, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “The Role of ICTS in Disaster Management including Disaster Risk Reduction.”

Part 6: Early Warning And Communication

Contents
• • • • • • • • • • • • Tsunami Early Warning Case Study: IOC Tsunami Early Warning Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China Case Study: Regional Multi-Hazard Integrated Early Warning System (RIMES) Emergency communication Amateur radio Case Study: Telecom Malaysia disaster alert system Early warning and media Case Study: ABU Technical Committee Early Warning Broadcasting System Case Study: Early Warning Broadcasting System in Japan Case Study: Early warning and media in Bangladesh UNDAC Preparedness Missions

EARLY

WARNING
Ch

Tsunami Early Warning

Tsunami probability
Pacific ocean Atlantic ocean Mediterranean sea Indian ocean

Tsunami warning systems in four oceans

4% 12%

25%

59%

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

EARLY

WARNING
Ch

Tsunami Early Warning
Purpose of early warning systems

• Identify, detect, verify and predict natural extremes, such as tsunami, cyclones, earthquakes with potential implications to mankind (upstream component) • Raise awareness and preparedness to react appropriately to warnings of such extreme events (downstream component) End-to-end system • From detection to evacuation • overall clear responsibility • legal authority • accountability • authenticity • national, regional, local clear line of command Build National / Regional Capacity to: • Assess national tsunami (and oceanrelated ) risk (Hazard assessment) • Operate national /regional warning centre covering local and regional tsunamis (warning guidance) • Promote education/preparedness and risk reduction against tsunami (and ocean-related) hazard (Mitigation and Public Awareness)

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

EARLY

WARNING
Ch

Tsunami Early Warning

Generation mechanisms for tsunamis

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

EARLY

WARNING
Ch

Case Study: IOC Tsunami Early Warning

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) • Established in 1960 in UNESCO • In 1965 the IOC established the ICG/ITSU International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning & Mitigation System in the Pacific (PTWS) • In response to the 1960 Chilean earthquake and tsunami: • Recommends & coordinates tsunami programmes, including timely ocean wide tsunami warnings • Successful & operational since more than 40 years • System is based on 26 national and 4 regional centers • Central system with PTWC and JMA on 24/7 watch

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

Tsunami threat worldwide

EARLY

WARNING
Ch

Case Study: IOC Tsunami Early Warning

End-to-end tsunami early warning system

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

EARLY

WARNING Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China
Ch
Monitoring capacity
M≥4.0 nationwide M ≥2.5 50 percent of land area M ≥1.5 provincial capitals and their adjacent areas in the Eastern part of China M ≥1.0 capital area

China Digital Seismic Observation Network

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

EARLY

WARNING Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China
China Earthquake Precursory Network
Ch

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

EARLY

WARNING Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China
China Digital Strong Ground Motion Network
Ch

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

EARLY

WARNING Case Study: Earthquake Observation in China
Ch

China GPS Network

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

EARLY

WARNING Case Study: Regional Multi-Hazard Integrated Early Warning System (RIMES)
Ch

Objective: Establish, maintain and operate a Regional Early Warning facility to cater to differential needs and demands of countries to address gaps in the end-end multi-hazard early warning system
Institutional Arrangements • Regional Steering Committee heads of national focal points to provide policy advice, guide, monitor and evaluate implementation of regional activities. Myanmar as Chair, Sri Lanka and Thailand as Vice-Chairs for 2 years. • Regional Technical Committee experts to provide guidance • Working Group Lao PDR, Maldives, Myanmar, SriLanka, Thailand to ensure system and institutional sustainability Services • Tsunami watch • Capacity building and technology transfer to NMHSs for providing localized hydro hydrometeorological disaster risk information • Enhancing capacities to respond to early warning information at national and local levels for disaster preparedness and management • Acting as a test-bed to identify promising new, emerging technologies and pilot test, and make it operational through demonstration of tangible benefits Costs • Capital cost for tsunami information and capacity building requirements of member countries: US$ 4.5 million – UNESCAP • This compares very favorably with the US$115 million required to establish tsunami EWS for 23 developing/ least developed countries • Approximate investment cost by Australia, India, Indonesia, Iran, a nd Malaysia US$250 million • Capital cost for weather and climate information and capacity building requirements of member countries: US$1 million – Danida • Total annual recurring cost: US$ 1.5 million (for tsunami and all other hazards)

Source: Abdul Muhusin Ramiz, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

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WARNING Case Study: Regional Multi-Hazard Integrated Early Warning System (RIMES)
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Next steps • The Working Group, through Maldives Secretariat, submitted a proposal to UNESCAP to mobilize resources to support regional facility operation while member countries incorporate support into national budgets, and work out international agreements to formalize system ownership under UNESCO/IOC framework • Maldives received approval of around US$ 375,000 from UNESCAP to undertake activities for sustaining RIMES • Another proposal submitted to UNESCAP: Recurring cost for first year August 2009-July 2010 and partial recurring cost for 2nd year August 2010 – July 2011 • Member States to meet partial costs of RIMES from July 2010June 2011 and fully meet all costs from July 2011 and beyond What makes RIMES possible • Economy of scale and scope, with least recurring cost • Integration of all early warning services into one holistic system • System built to address needs and demands of countries with differing capacities and vulnerabilities • Catalytic investment by UNESCAP for tsunami and capacity building subsystems • Critical investment by DANIDA for hydro- meteorological subsystem to transform EWS into a multi-hazard end-to-end early warning system • Full ownership by Member Countries

Ownership by Countries • Member countries collectively manage and draw services from RIMES • Member Countries need not put up their own system • Member countries need not depend on other tsunami watch providers

Source: Abdul Muhusin Ramiz, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

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Emergency Communication

Overview • Emergency communication is communication method employed when regular communication methods such as the telephone and various radio services are disabled or overwhelmed • It has been shown countless number of times that timely and reliable communication is the most important need during emergencies and disasters to avoid loss of life, property and to speed up relief and recovery especially in the first 72 hours Need • Each individual, family or organization is responsible for its own alternative means of communication in the event that regular communication method is unavailable • Emergency communication complements regular communication method during peace time • Emergency communication must work when other conventional methods of communication fail
Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Numbers Around the World

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Numbers Around the World

Global trends • An increasing number of nations are adhering to the international movement of developing a country-wide 3-digit public safety system • As a result of this trend, international organizations have been formed as a platform to exchange best practices between participating countries
Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Numbers Around the World

Countries with Consolidated Emergency Numbers

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Numbers Around the World

Countries with Unconsolidated Emergency Numbers

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Communication
Satellite Phone • The use of satellite phone for emergency and disaster for SAR is not practical. To place a call, the phone needs to find the satellite signal and establish a link. This takes time and requires operation in an open area • Usage is very limited in tropical rain forest areas. Satellite phones do not work in sheltered or confined spaces Trunk radio systems • Trunk communication systems do not cover all areas • Trunk communication system is designed for urban areas

Problem of landline and cellular phones during emergencies • These phone systems: • Are sized for peaks during business and consumer use, for the peaks during in regular use and NOT peaks during an emergency • Usually rely on copper or fiber optic cables which when exposed to the elements are prone to damage especially in flood, high wind and storm conditions • Are usually not portable AND reliable enough to meet the demands of an emergency • These are the common reasons why regular public communication means may not be to function effectively during emergencies

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Communication: Amateur Radio

Overview • Amateur radio, also known ass ham radio is a hobby enjoyed by several hundred thousand people in the US and by several million people worldwide • Radio amateurs call themselves “radio hams” or simply “hams” • Frequencies are specified by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Benefits • Amateur radio does not rely on services and intermediary facilities provided by common carriers and phone companies and thus is immune to disruptions normally faced by the telephone system • Regardless of the specific brand model of radio equipment, radio amateurs who use the same frequency band and mode can communicate with each other • Radio amateurs use a wide range of radio transmissions, each one with its particular strength in overcoming the barriers to radio communications – voice, digital, morse • Radio amateurs use their equipment regularly which verifies that it is maintained and operational • Radio amateurs can be distributed throughout the community, near schools, community halls, and park facilities which are often used as evacuation shelters
Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Communication: Amateur Radio
Radio amateurs in action • Earthquake in China – 2008 • Hurricanes Katrina and Rita –2005 • Asian Tsunami – 2004 • Hurricanes Charlie, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne in Florida – 2004 • Severe weather in Virginia – 2004 • Tornadoes in Illinois –2004 • Amtrak train accident in Mississippi –2004 • Earthquake in Central California – 2003 • Hurricane Isabel – 2003 • Northeast blackout – 2003 • Midwest tornadoes – 2003 • Pahang Flood – 2001 Radio Amateurs Cont. • Wildfires in Colorado – 2002 • Tornado in Maryland – 2002 • Flooding in Kentucky – 2002 • World Trade Center and Pentagon terrorist attack – 2001 • Flood in Texas and Louisiana (Storm Allison) –2001 • Earthquake in India – 2001 • Wildfires in Kelowna – 2001 • Earthquake in El Salvador – 2001 • Ice storms in Southwest – 2000 • Tornado in Alabama – 2000 • Avalanche in Alaska – 2000 • Fires in Los Alamos, New Mexico – 2000

Radio amateurs assisting in emergencies • During an emergency, radio amateurs may communicate with various/multiple agencies on various frequencies and transmission modes • Unlike EMS communication equipment, amateur radio equipment does not have the restriction of limited radio channels/frequencies or single-mode operation

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Communication: Amateur Radio Recommendations
Official federal and local government recognition and support of the role amateur radio can play during and after an emergency. Local amateur radio clubs and operators can play a significant role in assisting the respective emergency management services in communication and coordination, thus alleviating the communication role of and allowing respective agencies to focus on their specific roles

Establishment of a common radio frequency for inter-agency communication during an emergency. Based on experience, during disasters like the Highland Tower collapse, Asian Tsunami, and floods of Johor and Pahang, there was the absence of a common radio frequency for the various emergency and rescue agencies

Appointment of an official body to manage the deployment of radio amateurs in the theatre of operations

The inclusion of amateur radio organizations in the standard operating procedure of emergency and disaster response. Advance planning saves precious time during actual deployment

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Emergency Communication: Amateur Radio Recommendations
A review of the communication and coordination process and technology be made

Joint coordination drills of no less than once a month until an optimum level of communication coordination between the radio amateur volunteers and the respective emergency management services is achieved

The formation of a Communication Working Group to formalize communication system/protocol during disasters for this region

The introduction of a Weather Alert Radio News service to inform the public about the weather in their area. This has worked very well in the US, especially in areas prone to natural disasters

Source: Malaysian Amateur Radio Emergency Services, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Case Study: Telecom Malaysia Disaster Alert System

Disaster Alert System (DAS) • A system used to inform and alert public in the event of any disaster • Able to alert people in targeted area of incoming disasters such as tsunami and earthquake • Capable of reaching public in shortest possible time : 50,000 to 150,000 calls within 15 minutes • Different types of alert messages based on level and type of disaster • Available 24/7 all year round • Priority dialing based on predetermined groups • Slice and dice information of every outbound calls – dashboard view and customized report
Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Case Study: Telecom Malaysia Disaster Alert System
Telecom Malaysia MERS999 • Provide uniformity and consistency in processing Emergency Call requests by having • Standardized pre-planned call categorization and prioritization protocols for each call type • Clear written policies and procedures governing proper use of and compliance to the call taking protocols • Structured call processing protocols for handling scaleable incidents including large-scale incidents both natural and manmade disasters. • Given the opportunity to start from a clean slate, Malaysia has a unique opportunity today take capitalize on the experiences of more established countries in this field Benefits of MERS999 • Improves the quality of information and therefore the quality of decisions • Eliminates wasteful processes and information related delays so that Public Safety professionals can focus on their core activity • Improves interactions and collaboration between agencies • Allows us to access, share and process information from computer and communications devices from anywhere and at anytime • Provides valuable data for management and operations analysis • Reduces costs of operation • Shows objective evidence of Government commitment to better serve their citizens

Global trends • An increasing number of nations are adhering to the international movement of developing a country-wide 3-digit public safety system • As a result of this trend, international organizations have been formed as a platform to exchange best practices between participating countries

Source: Rozinah Anas, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

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Early Warning and Media

Warnings overview • Warnings or Emergency Messages are nationally mandated • Each country has to decide itself • Warnings have an information part, and an active instruction part: RUN TO A-HILL! • Warnings are followed by a cancellation. That is equally important, do not ignore • Advisories, Alerts, Alarms are international – they are not warnings! The media and tsunami warnings • Problem is not whether or not broadcasters or other media technologies will broadcast warnings but who initiates the warnings. • A Government responsibility, not the responsibility of broadcasters News and freedom of the press • Broadcasters can say and broadcast whatever they like. They cannot broadcast an 'emergency message' unless it comes from an authority which has the power to do so. • They should NEVER change the warning !!!!! • They cannot be forced to broadcast that • message... • They relay such messages because it is in the • public interest to do so and is often part of the • charter for the licensing requirements of a • radio/TV station

Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Early Warning and Media

News and freedom of the press • Broadcasters can say and broadcast whatever they like. They cannot broadcast an 'emergency message' unless it comes from an authority which has the power to do so • They should NEVER change the warning • They cannot be forced to broadcast any particular message • They relay such messages because it is in the public interest to do so and is often part of the charter for the licensing requirements of a radio/TV station What media can do • ABU can ask all its members to commit to relaying urgent messages on tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes, when received from the authorities • Do not question the “Warning”: There is no time! • Agree on a standard procedure with the responsible agencies NOW • Empower the night editor to act, not to call back. Do not have the night editor of SLBC (Sri Lanka) or RRI (Indonesia) or FBC (Fiji) or MBC (Maldives) to scramble for a memo • Train together, every week
Source: Peter Koltermann, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Implementation of EWBS in the ABU region Techniques employed for EWBS Media suitable for EWBS (SW, MW, FM, etc) Connection of broadcasting stations to governmental or international organizations which issue the disaster forecast • Emergency warning codes (Intrinsic code, Area code, Time code, etc.) • Receivers for EWBS including digital broadcasting Deliverables • Guidelines for implementation of EWBS in the ABU region • A set of rules that may be observed in establishing EWBS in the ABU region
Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Elements of Disaster Relief Broadcasting
• • • • Disaster detection and prediction Warning for evacuation in advance of disaster Notification of correct information to the public Providing of well-being information

The Emergency Warning Broadcasting System (EWBS) uses broadcasting facilities to alert people and enable them to prepare for emergencies EWBS signals embedded in analogue TV and radio broadcasts will
• Automatically switch on or change channel to the one providing warning and information in TV and radio sets in the home and handheld receivers and, • Issue an emergency bulletin, alerting people to an impeding disaster, e.g. an tsunami, earthquake, cyclone, flood, or volcanic eruption

Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Some issues to be overcome in the implementation of EWBS in the ABU region
• The equipment for issuing the control signal installed in broadcasting stations • The EWBS receivers • The regulation put up by the government and the support for EWBS by the government • The attribution of EWBS control signal and the security against the abuse of EWBS • Connection of broadcasting stations to governmental or international organizations which issue the disaster forecast • Funding of the EWBS
Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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EWBS over digital broadcasting • In operation since 2000 for satellite TV channels and 2003 for terrestrial TV channels • The EWBS signals are multiplexed with the broadcast signals • Automatic activation of TV set in the home and handheld receivers • They are still under development • The issue is to reduce the amount of power these devices consumewhile they are in stand-by mode • NHK is currently developing technology to reduce such power consumption Earthquake and tsunami information services via data broadcasting • Has been provided since January 2007 • To digital satellite TV, digital terrestrial TV and One-Segdata broadcasting Earthquake early warning information • Has just been provided since 1 October 2007 • To analogue and digital satellite TV channels, analogue and digital terrestrial TV channels, OneSegservices and AM/FM radio services • The information issued from the Meteorological Agency using P wave detection

EWBS over analogue broadcasting • In operation since 1985 • To terrestrial and satellite TV channels and AM/FM radio services • The control signal is dual tones, which are readily audible to the human ear

Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Nepal • The model for EWBS network and delivery system as well as code configuration are studied • This work has been carried out by Mr. UdayaKrishna Shresthaof Radio Nepal in NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories as a visitingresearcher under NHK Research Award 2006 China • The standard for CMMB includes EWBS, which automatically changes channel India • The work on attributing EWBS codes in India is being carried out by Mr. Mohammed Shafique Ansari of AIR in NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories as a visiting researcher under NHK Research Award 2008

South Korea • KBS is now doing indoor outdoor tests of the DMB receiver compatibility by using test stream • By first test result of LG & Samsung DMB receivers in April 2007, there was no problem by T-DMB AEAS (Automatic Emergency Alert Service) signal • KBS do the second indoor test for other ten company receivers in September 2007, all receivers normally operate with T-DMB AEAS signal. After preparing the system experimental On-Air was doing later in last year

Source: Kazuyoshi Shogen, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Case Study: Early Warning Broadcasting System in Japan

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Case Study: Early Warning Broadcasting System in Japan

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Case Study: Early Warning Broadcasting System in Japan

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Case Study: Early Warning Broadcasting System in Japan
Broadcasting Zone Nationwide Broadcasting media All 8 NHK channels (TV & radio)

Classification Warning of large-scale earthquake

Tsunami warning

Nationwide, or by prefecture or region Be prefecture or region

All 8 NHK channels (TV & radio) General TV, Radio-1, FM

Broadcasting request about natural disaster from local government

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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1980 1981 1982 1984 1985

Case Study: Early Warning Broadcasting System in Japan
• Consultation by Radio Technical Council • Consultation of basic EWBS by Radio Technical Council • Draft of EWBS by Radio Technical Council • Ministry of Post and Telecommunications reaches agreement with broadcasting stations and other organizations • EWBS legislation enacted

NHK starts EWB on General-TV, EducationalTV, Radio-1 and -2 FM and BS-1 1986 1988 2007
• NHK starts EWB on BS-2 • NHK starts EWB in English on sub-audio channel of General-TV, BS-1 and -2, and Radio-2 • NHK starts EWB in Chinese, Korean and Portuguese on its sub-audio channel of General-TV,BS-1 and -2, and Radio-2

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Case Study: Early Warning Broadcasting System in Japan

Track record
• Emergency Warning Broadcasting has been aired 15 times in Japan. • All of the broadcasts were tsunami warnings

Prevalence of EWBS receivers
• Analog receivers (radio & TV) about 550,000 sets • Digital TV about 200,000 sets

Test Broadcasting at NHK
• (First day of every month, 11:59:00 – 11:59:50, GeneralTV, Radio-1, FM) • to promote EWBS • to check EWBS receivers at homes • to check EWBS equipment in broadcasting stations

Everyday training for EWB, breaking news of earthquakes after the last newscast at NHK Tokyo News Center

Source: H. Minamizaki, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Case Study: Early warning and media in Bangladesh

Overview • Standing orders on Disaster (SoD) were introduced in 1999 by the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management, which includes the media role for DRR: • “BTV Must Telecast on receipt of warning signal no 4 along with explanation given by Bangladesh Metrological Department every one hour and continue such telecast if advised by the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management”
Source: S M Morshed, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Case Study: Early warning and media in Bangladesh
Capacity Building for Media Persons • CDMP imparting training on Risk Reduction Feature Writing for the students of Journalism Department, University of Dhaka • After training course the students interact with the beneficiaries of CDMP at community level and then prepare features on local risk reduction initiatives Media award on disaster management • Ministry of Food & Disaster Management introduced Media Award on Disaster Management in 2005 with the support of CDMP with a aim to encourage the Media person for the production of Risk Reduction Report/feature

Capacity Building Initiative for BMD • Strengthen capacity of Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) • MoU signed between Ministry of Defense and MoFDM for data sharing • Computerized 35 metobservatory stations • Developed and deployed web-based data acquisition system for fetching and disseminating met-data and information • Installed LAN, broadband Internet connection • Developed website for BMD

Distribution of Radio for Fisherman in the coastal belt • CDMP provided Radio set for the fisherman in the coastal belt through Cyclone Preparedness Programme(CPP) to facilitate the access to disaster information

Source: S M Morshed, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

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Case Study: Early warning and media in Bangladesh

Regular Programme on Disaster Management with Bangladesh Television • CDMP Advocacy Component supporting Bangladesh Television for production of a regular monthly programme on disaster management on different issues

Inclusion of Risk Reduction Issues in National Television Debate Competition • As part of strengthening information service on disaster management risk reduction issues has been included in the National Television Debate Competition on stage owned BTV and private TV channel ATN Bangla

Prospects for Strengthening Media Role towards DRR • Expansion of Private TV Channels • Endorsement of Rights to Information Act 2008 • Establishment of Community Radio in Bangladesh by NonGovtInitiatives • Commitment of Young Journalists for Risk Reduction Reporting

Source: S M Morshed, 4 December 08, Technical Session 5 on “Media involvement in DRR”

DISASTER

PREPAREDNESS

UNDAC Preparedness Missions

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OCHA • In 1991 the GA adopted Resolution 46/182 to strengthen the UN response to complex emergencies and natural disasters under a Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) within the UN Secretariat • In 1998, DHA was reorganized into OCHA. In 2008 OCHA employed 1,700 staff members in New York, Geneva and in the field • OCHA’s Core Functions are:–Policy development–Advocacy of humanitarian issues–Coordination of humanitarian emergency response • Mr. John Holmes was appointed ERC and USG of Humanitarian Affairs in 2006, following Mr. Jan Egeland • Missions in Asia include: Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, Philippines, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia (planned in 2009)

Source: Gerhard Putman, 3 December 08, Side Event C on “Strengthening National Response Preparedness in Asia – UNDAC Preparedness Missions Experience”

DISASTER

PREPAREDNESS

UNDAC Preparedness Missions

24 hours duty system

Environmental Emergency Section

Source: Gerhard Putman, 3 December 08, Side Event C on “Strengthening National Response Preparedness in Asia – UNDAC Preparedness Missions Experience”

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OCHA Response Mechanisms and Tools
ReliefWeb, IRIN & HIC Register of Disaster Management Capabilities Emergency Cash Grants

MCDA & CM Coordination staff

Brindisi Warehouse

RDRAs and OCHA field and offices

DISASTER

PREPAREDNESS

UNDAC Preparedness Missions

OCHA Response Mechanisms and Tools UNDAC Support On Site Operations modules (from Coordination UNDAC Teams (from IHP Centre (OSOCC) in Countries) field
Virtual OSOCC (evolving into GDAS) International Urban SAR Teams Standby Partners (short term staff for OCHA Field Offices)

Source: Gerhard Putman, 3 December 08, Side Event C on “Strengthening National Response Preparedness in Asia – UNDAC Preparedness Missions Experience”

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The surge capacity

DISASTER
Lao

PREPAREDNESS

UNDAC Preparedness Missions
Bhutan • March 29, 2008 • Stakeholder workshop – ToR • Review documents • Relevant stakeholders • Roles/responsibilities, res ources, expectations, gaps • Field visit –accompanied by focal persons • Levels of government • Report writing • Presentation of the assessment findings – NCDM Philippines • November/December 2004 after consecutives typhoons • UNDAC Mission • Mission assessment report: • Re-affirmed NDCC’s Four-Point Plan of Action for Disaster Preparedness • Underscored NDCC’s roadmap to improve capacity • Served as impetus for the re-definition of Office of Civil Defense’s Vision and Mission

• Translation of UNDAC Mission Report in local language • Continued consultations by IASC-CT with NDMO • Prioritization of recommendations for implementation • Wider consultations: incountry and regional actors

Source: Gerhard Putman, 3 December 08, Side Event C on “Strengthening National Response Preparedness in Asia – UNDAC Preparedness Missions Experience”

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Part 7: Space and High Technology Tools

Contents
• • • • • Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM Case Study: UN-SPIDER Case Study: Sentinel-Asia Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center Case Study: India Space Programme

SPACE
Overview

TOOLS
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Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

• Regional arm of UN Secretariat in the Asia-Pacific • The biggest of five UN regional commissions • 62 member and associate members • Population about 60% of world total Regional Space Applications Programme (RESAP) • Initiated by Ministerial Conference on Space Applications for Development, 1994, Beijing, China • Continued by second Ministerial Conference on Space Applications for Sustainable Development, 1999, New Delhi, India • Capacity building at policy, institutional and technical levels • Promoting operational use of space technology in priority fields • Focused on disaster management since 2002
Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
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Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

Disaster risk reduction as priority focus area • ESCAP resolution 64/1 established its subsidiary bodies: • Committee on Disaster Risk Reduction • Policy options and strategies on multi-hazard DRR • Regional cooperation mechanisms for DRR, including space and other technical support systems • Multi-hazard assessment, preparedness, early warning and response to disaster risks • Committee on Information and Communications Technology • ICT applications for DRR Established sub-programme on ICT and DRR, and the ICT and DRR Division for its implementation • RESAP to be implemented by Space Applications Section • As a comparative advantage of ESCAP

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
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Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM

ESCAP efforts related to space applications • Focused on analytical and normative work for capacity building at policy and institutional levels • Through regional cooperation: • Sharing of information, communications and space technology infrastructure and resources through strengthening existing and developing regional cooperative mechanisms • Regional cooperative mechanisms on use of satellite information for disaster management • Exploring possibility of regional and sub regional disaster management communication supporting capacities • Promoting regional network of networks on multi-hazards disaster management related information sharing and analysis • Enhance disaster preparedness and early warning at community level, with emphasis on use of community e-centers, including those connected through communication satellites
Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

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Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM Current initiatives in the region

Regional cooperation initiatives • Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) • Sentinel-Asia with resources of India, Japan, Korea, Thailand • Using both earth observation and communication satellites • Asia-Pacific Multilateral Cooperation on Space Technology and Applications (AP-MCSTA) towards APSCO with 9 founding members • 8-satellite constellation for disaster monitoring • First phase --3 satellites: 2 launched Other initiatives supporting cooperation • UN Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (SPIDER) • International Charter on Space and Major Disasters • China, India, Thailand and FAO to support drought disaster management
Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM TOOLS Promoting Regional Cooperative Mechanisms
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Objective: towards a regional space information supporting platform for disaster reduction
• Based on existing and planned initiatives covering the region • To create a scientifically sound, diplomatically acceptable and politically relevant • Harmonized platform for affordable access and effective use of satellite information products and services • For effective disaster management and decision making

Policy studies conducted by ESCAP
• Framework on regional cooperation on space technology supported disaster management • Framework on space information products and services for disaster management

Cooperation projects with JAXA to promote Sentinel Asia Joint activities with UN OOSA to promote UN SPIDER
• As a regional component of UN SPIDER

Cooperation with AP-MASTA and APSCO Major contributions ESCAP may make
• Assist national capacity building at technical and institutionallevels –partnership of local service providers and end-users • Recommendation of national policy frameworks for effective adoption of such technical tools and for regional cooperation • Identifying national needs for relevant space information products and services, and their delivery channels • Harmonizing initiatives for consistent products and services • Developing end-user network for easier access to and benefit from these initiatives and to adopt operation models

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

Case Study: UNESCAP space tools for DRM TOOLS Promoting Regional Cooperative Mechanisms
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Objective: towards a regional space information supporting platform for disaster reduction
• Based on existing and planned initiatives covering the region • To create a scientifically sound, diplomatically acceptable and politically relevant • Harmonized platform for affordable access and effective use of satellite information products and services • For effective disaster management and decision making

Policy studies conducted by ESCAP
• Framework on regional cooperation on space technology supported disaster management • Framework on space information products and services for disaster management

Cooperation projects with JAXA to promote Sentinel Asia Joint activities with UN OOSA to promote UN SPIDER
• As a regional component of UN SPIDER

Cooperation with AP-MASTA and APSCO Major contributions ESCAP may make
• Assist national capacity building at technical and institutionallevels –partnership of local service providers and end-users • Recommendation of national policy frameworks for effective adoption of such technical tools and for regional cooperation • Identifying national needs for relevant space information products and services, and their delivery channels • Harmonizing initiatives for consistent products and services • Developing end-user network for easier access to and benefit from these initiatives and to adopt operation models

Source: Wu Guoxiang, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

Case Study: UN-SPIDER TOOLS Promoting Regional Cooperative Mechanisms
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Objective • The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is responsible for promoting international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, and assisting developing countries in using space science and technology. • The Office implements the decisions of the United Nations General Assembly and of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its two Subcommittees, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Legal Subcommittee.

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

Case Study: UN-SPIDER TOOLS Promoting Regional Cooperative Mechanisms
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Main activities of the office • Secretariat for the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) and its two Subcommittees (Establishment of a legal and regulatory framework governing space activities) • Implement the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) • Implement the United Nations Programme on Space Applications • Secretariat for the Inter-Agency Meeting on Outer Space Activities • Executive Secretariat of the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG) • Treaty obligations UN-SPIDER • The United Nations General Assembly established the “United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UNSPIDER)”as a programme within the United Nations to provide universal access to all types of space-based information and services relevant to disaster management. (A/RES/61/110)
Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: UN-SPIDER

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: UN-SPIDER

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: UN-SPIDER Space-based solutions
Satellite communications help warn people who are at risk, especially in remote areas. They help connect a disaster zone to the outside world.

Global navigation satellite systems enable us to obtain positional information on events that have to be mapped

Images from earth observing satellites help assess the damage caused by disasters like earthquakes, volcano eruptions, oil spills and floods.

Source: UN-SPIDER, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE
Overview

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: Sentinel-Asia

• The Sentinel Asia initiative is a collaboration between Space agencies and Disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and Web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region • Sentinel Asia is lead by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share Disaster information in the Asia-Pacific region by the Sentinel Asia System and to make the best use of Space technologies for disaster management support in the Asia-Pacific region

Source: Chu Ishida, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: Sentinel-Asia Main activities

Emergency observation Emergency observation request Capacity building MTSAT
Source: Chu Ishida, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

Wildfire monitoring

Flood monitoring

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Overview • Regional Specialized Collaborative Center • Recommended at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction 2005 Kobe, Japan • Tehran, Iran hosting the center • Launched in May 2007 • Agreement formed between Government of Iran and UNISDR Objectives • Enhancing capacities in the field of seismic risk reduction and vulnerability assessment • Reducing human losses and economic damages caused by seismic risks and disasters • Facilitating exchange of information, knowledge and expertise on seismic risk reduction among governments and institutions and enhancing public awareness • Promoting regional and inter-regional networking and partnerships on disaster risk reduction (DRR) • Assisting governments in implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA)
Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Functions • To develop existing methods or establish appropriate ones for exchange of information, knowledge and expertise on seismic risk reduction and support related scientific programs and public awareness raising activities in the region • To mobilize and coordinate adequate resources and make necessary arrangements to conduct and support policy oriented research on seismic risk reduction • To hold specialized trainings courses, workshops and seminars on seismic risk reduction • To contribute towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, including support for the establishment of national platforms on risk reduction and mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into developmental programs as well as providing technical assistance Expected results • Building a culture of safety and resilience and enhancement of public awareness and knowledge on seismic risks • Training and research at academic level on seismic risk reduction • Training and enhancing awareness of authorities, managers and experts dealing with disasters in countries of the region and seeking the attention and support of policy-makers • Assessment and analysis of seismic risk reduction Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the countries’ development programs • Facilitating access to necessary information and data by specialists working on disaster in the countries of the region

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Advocacy and Communication • Collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant knowledge and information on seismic risks, vulnerabilities and capacities • Supporting the related scientific programs • Enhancement of public awareness • Sharing of research findings, lessons learned and best practices • Campaigning through schools, hospitals, medias and authorities for greater public awareness of the earthquake hazards • Planning the modalities of participation of public in prevention and risk reduction • Enhancing knowledge networking by means of website, e-newsletter, periodical earthquake risk management and planning meetings on different aspects of earthquake risk reduction • Developing common approaches for training and capacity building on best practices to strengthen national capacities forearthquake risk reduction, community preparedness, and risk communication (including earthquakes • Working on earthquake risk management issues through holding specialized training courses, workshops and seminars • Developing specific training and self-learning programs on seismic risk reduction targeted at specific sectors (developmentplanners, local government officials, etc.)

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Enhance Technical, Research and Human Capacity • Mobilization of adequate resources for seismic risk reduction • Promotion of seismic risk assessment • Developing seismic early warning systems • Supporting integration seismic risk reduction into sustainable development programmes • Support researches on seismic risk reduction • Transfer of know-how, technology and expertise to enhance capacity building for earthquake risk reduction • Support enforcing more effectively the urban building codes designed to make buildings more earthquake resistant and extending control to the smaller towns and the country side • Supporting and developing earthquake zonation and microzonation • Supporting new building retrofitting approaches • Identifying various capacities on seismic risk reduction in the region
Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Promote Regional Cooperation • Establish a network of seismic related institutions and organizations in the region • Establish a network of relevant national responsible bodies in the countries of the region • Defining new ways and means for promotion of regional collaboration on SRR • Developing guidelines for retrofitting historical buildings • Developing the capacity for building material quality
Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: Asian Seismic Risk Reduction Center

Promote and Support Implementation of HFA • Support establishing or strengthening National Platforms on disaster risk reduction • Exploring the possibility forserving as a regional platform on SRR, DRR and DRM • Support countries of the region in developing national strategies on seismic risk reduction

Source: S.M.R. Emami, 3 December 08, Technical Session 2 on “Hi-tech & Scientific Application to Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: India Space Programme

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: India Space Programme

Systems for watch on weather and climate

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: India Space Programme

Satellite (INSAT) based Emergency Community Systems

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: India Space Programme

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: India Space Programme

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Ch

Case Study: India Space Programme
Earthquake
• Damage Assessment

DMS: Operational Services provided currently
Floods
• Flood Inundation Maps • Damage Assessment • Hazard Zonation • Bank Erosion Studies

Cyclone
• Inundation Maps • Recession Maps • Damage Assessment

Landslide
• Damage Assessment • Hazard zonation

Drought
• Monthly Agril Drought Report • End-of-the-Season Agril. Drought Report

Forest Fire
• Active Fire Detection • Damage Assessment

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

SPACE

TOOLS
Communications
Ch

Case Study: India Space Programme Other activities
Remote Sensing & GIS • Agriculture • Water Resources - Surface water & groundwater • Potential Fishing Zone • Watershed development • Wasteland mapping & monitoring • Drought assessment, monitoring & proofing • Flood & cyclone monitoring • Fuel wood & fodder assessment • Land Information Systems • Rural Roads connectivity

• Education, Awareness • Healthcare, Hygiene • Training, Skill development • Information dissemination • Strengthening Panchayat Raj • Rural Empowerment

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

Part 8: Safe Hospitals

Contents
• World Campaign on Safe Hospitals • Case study: Western Pacific Region Safe Hospitals Campaign • Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign • Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign • Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

World Campaign on Safe Hospitals

The Regional (Asian) Context • Asia region highly vulnerable to disasters • Regional health facilities have sustained considerable damage in the wake of these events. Although, progress has been achieved in several countries, much remains to be done Buildings Patients Hospital beds Health workforce Equipments Basic lifelines and services
•The location, design specifications and resilience of the material used, all contribute to a hospital’s ability to withstand natural hazards •Damage to hospitals multiplies patient vulnerability and increase in numbers

•Increase in demands for emergency care •The loss or unavailability at the time of disaster, hiring outside personnel to sustain response capacity – add to the overall economic burden •Damage to non-structural elements can cost 80 percent of the total costs •Electrical power, water and sanitation, waste management and disposal – can affect the entire health facility

Source: Arun Mallik, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

World Campaign on Safe Hospitals
Health issues • Disasters create an intensive demand for health services. In addition to treating disaster victims, hospitals must quickly resume treatment of everyday emergencies and routine care • The hospital network are integral components of a nation’s public health system • The long-term impact of losing these services is difficult to quantify and therefore may be overlooked Economic issues • Hospitals represent an enormous investment for any country • Destruction or loss of functionality poses a major economic burden • Direct economic losses involve more than the structure: the value of nonstructural elements can be higher than the structure itself • US$350 million estimated amount for projects and programmes to rebuild health facilities in Aceh post tsunami • US$57 million to rebuild health facilities after the Gujarat earthquake of 2001

Social/political issues • Safe hospitals have symbolic social value; losing a health facility leads to a sense of insecurity and social/political instability • Health facilities are occupied around-the-clock with the most vulnerable population • Disaster-resilient hospital must be able to protect the lives of patients and staff and continue to function

Source: Arun Mallik, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

World Campaign on Safe Hospitals

Case: Gujarat, India • January 26, 2001 a magnitude 7.7 earthquake destroyed 227 health facilities in Gujarat, India • All health facilities were rebuilt to international standards to make this critical infrastructure disaster resilient Case: Nepal • Vulnerability assessments for structural and non-structural aspects of hospitals in Kathmandu • Specific methods were used to cover the architecture typical in Kathmandu Regional Consultation • Regional consultation on keep health facilities safe from disasters, held in New Delhi from 15-17 April 2008 • Increase awareness and understanding of the issues surrounding “hospitals safe from disasters” • Identify opportunities to strengthen disaster risk reduction and preparedness in health facilities during and beyond the two-year global awareness campaign launched by UN/ISDR and WHO • Develop a national and regional framework plan of action, including mechanisms to capture progress WHO-ECHO Project • Regional roll out of ISDR campaign in: • Cambodia • Lao PDR • Philippines • Vietnam

Source: Arun Mallik, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

World Campaign on Safe Hospitals
Evidence based assessments and mapping

Advocacy and awareness activities

Appropriate tools and guidelines

Structural integrity of health facilities ensured

Capacity for disaster preparedness and response enhanced

Source: Arun Mallik, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”

SAFE
Mission

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Western Pacific Region Safe Hospitals Campaign

• Through a concerted effort across WHO, to increase the capacity and self reliance of countries in the prevention of disasters, preparation for emergencies, mitigation of their health consequences, and the creation of a synergy between emergency action and sustainable development Situation in Western Pacific • Health systems frequently fail as a consequence of disasters from natural hazards • Essential health services are disrupted due to loss of functionality of health facilities during disaster • Lack of knowledge, skills, tools and plans of local health officials on disaster preparedness and emergency management • Weak guidelines for safe construction and designs • Facilities are located in unsafe places • Concept of health as a system of services dependent on functioning of infrastructure and logistics Activities in Western Pacific Region • Managing crisis situations • Capacity building • Development and dissemination of health knowledge • Health emergency & humanitarian action projects • Strengthening institutional capacity of WHO • Strengthening collaboration with national and international partner agencies

Source: Art Pesigan, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign

Strategy for Safe Hospitals in the Philippines
Policies Physical Facilities Enhancement Plans Protocols, Pro cedures, Guid elines Program Development Peso and Logistics People

Promotion and Advocacy

Partnership

Practices

Source: Carmencita A. Banatin, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign
Policies (organizational) • Institutionalized Health Emergency Management unit in all health facilities directly under the Head of the Office • Designated HEMS coordinators, assistant coordinators and response teams • Organizational shift during emergencies • Hospital Emergency Incident Command System Plans • Hospital Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Rehabilitation Plan, a requirement in licensing of all hospitals whether government or private • Developed “Easy Guide for HEPRRP Development” • Updated plans for the 72 DOH hospitals and 17 regions • Presently assisting all other private and LGU hospitals to develop/update their own plans

Policies • AO 168 – “National Policy on Emergencies and Disasters” • AO 155 – “Implementing Guidelines for Managing MCI during Emergencies and Disasters” • AO 182 – “Code Alert System for DOH Hospitals during Emergencies and Disasters” • Department Circular FAO – 64-A – “Health Emergency Alert System Reporting”

Source: Carmencita A. Banatin, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
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Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign

Protocols, guidelines, procedures • Manual of Operation for Hospitals edition) includes: dispatching, alerting, reporting, communication, MCI, etc. nd edition) with WHO • Pocket Emergency Tool (2 • Manual of Treatment Protocols for common diseases during emergencies and disasters • Guidelines on an Integrated Code Alert System • Adaptation on the IASC Guidelines on Mental Health Psychosocial Services (MHPSS) (2nd

People • Training needs assessment with the health sector (2003) – targeted 6 groups • Training agenda to include management and skills • Training modules developed

Physical facilities enhancement • Operation center • Equipped ambulances for emergencies • Special hospital service units/facilities; identification of receiving facilities for WMD • Decontamination areas for the BCRN hospitals • Toxicology centers in the country • Hospital assessment

Source: Carmencita A. Banatin, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Philippines Safe Hospital Campaign
Practices • 10 P’s as evaluation tools for all hospitals • Postmortem evaluation of major events and disasters • Clustering approach in disaster management • Research and evidence based management • MCM Survey 2005 with WHO • Developed MCM module based on the study • WHO Project 2006 – evaluation of damaged health facilities and inputs into the development of policy on the design and construction of health facilities in Typhoonprone areas Peso and logistics • Actively involved in advocacy creating demand for such services • Increasing awareness and role of policy makers in DRR • Providing inputs to policies and planning especially in government budget preparations • Co-sharing with LGU/Health Sector in training, drills, and other HEMS activities • Established good networking and collaboration with partners • “Opportunities in times of adversities” • Effective external fund sourcing to augment meager budget in the past

Safe Hospitals Program • Launching of the program last August 2008 • Technical working group (TWG) for structural, non-structural and functional • Manual (with WHO) for use of hospital administrators • Nationwide drill of all DOH hospitals last July 2008 • Assessment tool for hospitals for their preparedness to emergencies and disasters • Nationwide research for all tertiary hospitals using the tool • Advocacy to academe for development and inclusion to their curriculum

Partnership building • Organization of the health sector -2001 • Establishment of the health cluster – 2006 • Establishment of hospital network to include referral systems • TWG composition from members of the health sector • Establishment of nutritional and WASH clusters • Increasing partnership with the academe in terms of training and development of modules

Source: Carmencita A. Banatin, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Overview • 80 percent of hospitals have life safety threat to occupants (patients and medico) and in the case of disasters, will be completely non-functional • 20 percent will be partially functional

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Structural assessment is that retrofitting is necessary • Most hospitals • Feasible • Easy • Cost effective • Some hospitals • Possible • Complex • Non-Structural assessment: lifelines • Most rely on city lifeline system • Some alternatives exist in each hospital mitigation • Moderate earthquake – low cost and easy • Severe earthquake – high cost and difficult

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Outcome of possible intervention

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Earthquake Hospital DRR activities of NSET
Community Free Clinic • WDMC 17 Implementing • GON/DUDBC Financial Supporting (Partial) • NSET: Technical support Capacity building • Multi-hazard HOPE COURSE • HOPE training for instructors • 4-5 days • OFDA-PEER standard • Monitored • 5 days

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

Need to work even in condition of “no policy”
Policy Program Implementation

Alternative approach

Activity

Plan
• Retrofit our hospital buildings • Increase non-structural safety • Insure safety of critical facilities • Increase capacity

Policy

Nepal Campaign

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

What is required next in Nepal
Political Feasibility/Commitment • Legal Framework-New Paradigm of Thinking • Institutional Mechanisms should be at Highest Level • Credibility-public Interest • Risk Communication Specific to Policy Making • Advocacy/synthesis • Leadership • Indication of Priorities • Workable Time Line /Indicators Risk Identification & Monitoring • Financial and Technical Resources • Political Support • Resistance from Administrator • Workers about Liability • Risk Communication Strategy • Information to Communities Education and Knowledge Management • Flood management • Accessibility to Training • Lessons Internalized and Practiced • Two influence policy • Sharing of best Practices • Piloting –TestingRefining-Dissemination

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case study: Nepal Safe Hospitals Campaign

What is required next in Nepal
Reducing Risk Factors • Policies to Fix Existing Buildings: • Structural, Non-structural & functional deficiencies • Hospital Preparedness/Evacuation Plans • Reducing Underlying Exposure of Population to Hazards (Flood plain Construction, standards etc.) • Absorbing Liability Preparedness for Effective Response • Pre event Planning (Facility) • Emergency Operating Procedures/Information Management System, Customize to the type of Disaster • Provincial- Local- national • Community Reach-out and Involvement • Logistical and Resource Planning

Source: Amod Mani Dixit, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)

Overview • The Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital is in Albay, Philippines • Average of 22 typhoons in a year in the country; 3-5 pass through the Province of Albay • Typhoon Reming hit on November 30, 2006 • Extraordinary disaster response • Hospital rebuilt after disaster
Source: Rogelio G. Rivera, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)

Typhoon Reming

Destruction of all facilities and equipment • Cut off lifelines: electricity, water system, communication systems • Hospital personnel direct victims • Replenishment of hospital supplies were difficult due to inaccessibility and closed establishments

In spite of this, hospital services remained functional

Source: Rogelio G. Rivera, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)

Stages of hospital response activities

Post-Impact Phase
• Rapid assessment of damages • Assessment of In-Patient Conditions • Restoration of lifelines • Clearing and Restoration of Communication System • Networking and coordination • Gov and NGO assistance • Logistics management

Impact phase
• Code Red • HEMS, doctors, nurses and staff on duty were called for an emergency meeting • HEICS – Hospital Emergency Incident Command System was activated • Identification of problems i.e. electrical power water, supplies, manpower and transport • Contingency measures

Pre-impact phase
• Nov. 29, 2006 Code White was declared • HEMS - Health Emergency Management Staff was mobilized • Unit heads were advised to secure their respective areas

Source: Rogelio G. Rivera, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”

SAFE

HOSPITALS
Ch

Case Study: Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)

What made the difference in the disaster response?
Dedicated and committed staff Trained personnel Organizational structure in place

Organizational shift

Office procedures shortened

Implementation of emergency procurement system

Established hospital emergency preparedness

Source: Rogelio G. Rivera, 4 December 08, Side Event I on “Regional implementation of the 2008-2009 World Campaign on Hospitals Safe from Disasters ”

Part 9: Disaster Risk Reduction and Education

Contents
• • • • • • Overview The Education Model Building community capacity through education Structure of DRR Educational Interventions Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal Conclusions and Recommendations

DRR

Education
Ch

Overview: Schools as centers for implementing change

Source: Manu Gupta., Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction; Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations”

DRR

Education
Ch

The Education Model
Safeguard Students, Teachers
• Reduced conflicts with authorities in Post-Disaster situation

School DRR programs make community safer
• DRR Knowledge permeates into Households and ultimately to the community

Importance of School DRR Programs Centre for Continuity of DRR
• Continuous Disaster preparedness – Evacuation Drills, Culture of Safety

Provide Training opportunities:
• Masons, builders, contractors, hous ewives

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR: promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education
Ch

The Education Model

To Teach and Empower

To Learn and Experience

To Practice and Reflect
Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR: promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education Building community capacity through education
Ch

Education and public awareness is not a ‘dipstick’ exercise but consciously built into the DRR process

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education
Ch

Structure of DRR Educational Interventions

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education
Ch

Global Open Forum for Risk Education

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education
Ch

Disaster Preparedness Education for Children with Disabilities

650,000,000 disabled people

Estimated 433,333,333 people in Asia and Pacific are disabled (2/3 of total)

10.6% of the population in Asia and Pacific is disabled

Biwako Millennium Framework (BMF) Plus Five 2003 –2012 • Biwako Millennium Framework for Action Towards an inclusive, barrier-free and rights-based society for persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific • “Disability-inclusive disaster management should be promoted. Disability perspectives should be duly included in the implementation of policies and initiatives in this area, including the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, an international framework for promoting the commitment of Governments to disaster management. Universal design concept should be integrated into infrastructure development in disaster-preparedness and post-disaster reconstruction activities”

Source: Sae Kani, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education
Ch

Disaster Preparedness Education for Children with Disabilities

Bangkok Action Agenda (October 2007) • Design formal and informal educational strategies and materials specifically for children with various disabilities, with their participation, and in accordance with their needs • Reach out to children who are not in schools, including children with disabilities • Update the minimum standards for the construction and operation of school buildings to incorporate disaster mitigation, allow for flexibility to suit local condition and ensure that new school construction and disaster management planning includes the application of “accessibility standards” for students and staff with disabilities • Special outreach efforts should be made to reach children with disabilities, their teachers and parents, both in mainstreamed school settings and special schools.

Source: Sae Kani, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education
Ch

Disaster Preparedness Education for Children with Disabilities
2. Lack of appropriate simple DRR education materials for CWDs
• Special teaching materials needed for each disability such as Visual materials for deaf and audio and Braille based materials for blind • Teachers’ guide for how to teach DRR for more complex disabilities is needed

1.Generally low skills of teachers for teaching CWDs
• Continuous capacity building of teachers for CWDs is needed • Acknowledgement and better social status of teachers for CWDs

Challenges for sustainability of DRR education for CWDs
3.Low awareness and understanding on disability issues among community members
• Increased awareness and acceptance of families with CWDs in the community • Increased capacity of community in DRR in order to assist families of CWDs

4. Low awareness and lack of active initiatives of national and local government on disability issues
• Better information flow between different government departments regarding assistance available for CWDs and their families • Budget allocation for improving physical accessibility to school buildings and for safe evacuation

Source: Sae Kani, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR
Overview

Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal
Ch

• Most schools in Nepal are especially public schools are vulnerable to disasters • There is an urgent need to address safety of schools, including disaster curricula for children, teachers, parents • There are methods and means to make schools in Nepal safer against hazards • These methods are technically, socially, economically and politically feasible and affordable • Strategic intervention by Government is necessary

Schools in Kathmandu Valley

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal
Ch

Nepal Draft National Strategy • Focused on the development of a national program to reduce vulnerability of school buildings to natural hazards • Planned survey of all existing school to create a vulnerability profile • Institutionalization of disaster preparedness and drills • Plan for training all teachers, management committee, and parents • Development of draft curricula for secondary level • Development of school maintenance plans

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal
Components of NSET School Earthquake Safety Programs
Ch

Challenges
Need to cover about 35,000 public schools and about 15,000 private schools

Hazard vulnerability assessment of school buildings Repair/Retrofit to national building code level and higher Earthquake preparedness plan and conducting drills
• Provide earthquake awareness programs to students, teachers and parents • Disaster safety clubs: new or existing

Earthquake awareness programs in the hinterland communities
• Shake table demonstration • Awareness materials - explanation • Students to conduct awareness programs in communities

Institutionalization in the existing education system
•Implement National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management •Develop National Strategy for School DRR

Mason training on earthquake resistant construction technology Student/teachers exchange, meetings, and summits

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal Building Technology
Ch

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education Case Study: School Earthquake Safety in Nepal Building Technology
Ch

Source: Amod Dixit, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

DRR

Education
Ch

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions and Recommendations • The Hyogo Framework of Action and Disaster Risk Reduction FA/DRR cannot be achieved without safer schools • Methods of comprehensive disaster education and school safety has been shown to be feasible • Development and implementation (with budget allocation) of formal and non-formal education and awareness programs should be mandatory in annual plans of governments in the education sector • There should be a fixed percentage allocation of budget outlay in education sector for retrofitting of vulnerable schools and preparedness plans and drills • Create special task forces on knowledge and public awareness within national platforms/NDMOs • Education Sector needs to be more inclusive addressing disaster prevention education on priority

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

Part 10: Indigenous Knowledge and DRR

Contents
• • • • Overview Transferring Indigenous Knowledge Case study: Kyoto University Activities Case Study: Major Initiatives in Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch
Context • • • • • •

Overview: Indigenous Knowledge

Increasing trend of disasters Evolution of DRR field versus indigenous knowledge existence Compelling evidence Technology and IK – cultural invasion Mandated by Hyogo Framework for Action Cost effectiveness

Entry Points • Climate change and food security • Rural development • Gender • Urban risk reduction

Thematic focus • Mountain • Coast • River • Water • Housing

Tools • Education • Advocacy • Institutionalization strategies • Research, documenta tion, implementation

Source: Author unknown, 2 December 08, Side Session on “Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Indigenous Knowledge

Definition • Definition: Indigenous knowledge is the knowledge that people in a given community have developed over time, and continue to develop. It is based on experience, often tested over centuries of use, adapted to local culture and environment, dynamic and changing Needs • Raise awareness about the importance of indigenous knowledge for disaster risk reduction • Analyze the value and transferability of indigenous knowledge for reducing vulnerability • Develop ways to further integrate indigenous knowledge into disaster-related policy and practice
Source: Author unknown, 2 December 08, Side Session on “Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Overview • Transferable indigenous knowledge is the traditional art of disaster reduction that is indigenous to specific region (s) but having potential to be applied to other regions and having time-tested reliability Criteria for transferring indigenous knowledge • Originated within communities, based on local needs, and specific to culture and context (environment and economy) • Provides core knowledge with flexibility for local adaptation for implementation • Uses local knowledge and skills, and materials based on local ecology • Has been proven to be time tested and useful in disasters • Is applied or applicable in other communities or generations

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Implementation issues in transferring knowledge

How to transfer • Documentation • On-site visit • DRH database • Workshops • Internal, external facilitation • Link to modern technology

What to transfer • Principles and Methodology

Whom to transfer • Vulnerable communities, policy makers

Who to transfer • Community leaders • External facilitators

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Transfer of knowledge classification
Five thematic areas • Mountain Ecosystem • Coastal Zone Management • Integrated Water Resource Management • Arid land management • River basin management • Housing and Shelter Two types of TIK • Based on technology • Based on belief systems Three phases of Disaster Cycle • Pre-disaster • During disaster • Post-disaster

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Transferring Indigenous Knowledge

Transferring indigenous knowledge in education • Cross-discipline collaboration • Civil society: Document and analyze • Education and Research Community: Validation and analyze • Policy maker: Policy decision • Regional and International organization: Policy advocacy • Steps (not necessarily in this order) • Education: link to curriculum • Policy: regional, national and local advocacy and decision • Pilot: Implementation and validation

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Transferring Indigenous Knowledge
•Priority Thematic areas •Climate change and food security •Rural development •Urban Risk reduction •Gender and inclusion

Critical Entry Points Policy Tools Action Agenda

•Research, documentation •Education •Advocacy •Institutional Framework

•Establishment of a resource group •Documentation and research •Education •Policy advocacy •Enabling environment •Change agents •Special focus areas

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Case study: Kyoto University Activities

2006
• Development of the concept of TIK • Field Survey in Japan (January 2007) • Idea -Workshop in Delhi (February 2007)

2007
• Criteria development of TIK (July 2007) • Seven Templates of TIK (March to December 2007) • Action Workshop in Delhi (February 2008)

2008
• Development of TIK databases (April to December 2008) • Good practice document (Oct 07 to July 08) • Policy Workshop in Kyoto (July‘08) • Side event in KL (December 08) • Policy Document of IK and DRR (Feb 09)

Source: Rajib Shaw, 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Ch

Case Study: Major Initiatives in Transferring Indigenous Knowledge
International Workshop on Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction • Kyoto, Japan (July, 2008) • Objectives • To discuss the transferability issues of indigenous knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction –what to transfer, who transfers, whom to transfer to and how to transfer • To discuss the policy implications of IK –to link practice and policy and enhance the use of IK in decision making • To identify future directions in research and implementation Recommendations and Policy document (from International Workshop on Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction • Recommendations • Create a database of IK practices • Distribute responsibilities according to institutions, identifying what role and task each contributor/participant can complete • Establish general guiding principles to help guide policy • Analyze and assess examples of IK, both positive and negative; Both failures and good practices can provide lessons • Ownership of IK is with the community, so validation should be done by communities (CBDM process) • Engage with policy makers, from the beginning and at different levels in order to identify issues • Specific focus areas can help guide discussion, advocacy and policy

Good practices publication • “Indigenous Knowledge for Disaster Risk Reduction: Good Practices and Lessons Learned from experiences in the Asia-Pacific Region” • Provide a forum for knowledge sharing • Build awareness for indigenous knowledge as an effective tool for reducing risk • Share concrete successful experiences and strategies • Inspire all practitioners and policy makers to consider knowledge and invest in gathering cases • Trigger further analysis for policy making and curriculum development

Source: J. Baumwoll, 2 December 08, Side Session on “Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction”

Part 11: Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA)

Contents
• • • • Overview HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9 Role of Stakeholders Case Study: AADMER and HFA Implementation in ASEAN • Case Study: SAARC and HFA Implementation in South Asia • Case Study: India and HFA Progress • Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and HFA Implementation

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Hyogo Framework of Action: Overview Priorities of Action

Source: Manu Gupta , 4 December 08, Technical Session 6 on “Public Awareness and Education for DRR ~ promoting resilience through public awareness and education on DRR.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9 Dimensions of reporting

National Reporting • Coordinated by National HFA Focal points through national consultations • Findings recorded on “HFA Monitor” developed by UNISDR Regional Reporting • Sub-regional progress reports coordinated by regional inter-governmental institutions (ASEAN, SAARC, SOPAC) • Regional synthesis report on progressing HFA implementation (UNISDR) Thematic Reporting • Reporting on sectors or cross-cutting issues relevant for the region Global Reporting • Regional inputs to the ISDR Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) for the 2009 Global Platform on DRR
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9
Reporting period: July 2007-June 2009

Roll Out of 2007/9 HFA Review Process
In Asia & Pacific • Formulation of Regional HFA Progress Review Framework to guide regional and national level roll-out in Asia & Pacific • Introductory sessions at various regional meetings: • ISDR Asia Partnership Meetings, February and September 2008 • Meeting of the Pacific Disaster Risk Management Partnership Network March 2008, Suva (jointly with SOPAC) • Orientation Workshop on Biennial HFA Progress Review, April 2008, Bangkok (jointly with UNDP) • Regional Consultative Committee Meeting, May 2008, Colombo (jointly with ADPC) • Regional pilot testing of HFA Monitor in May 2008 • Technical assistance arrangements with UNDP and ADPC to assist selected countries with HFA reporting
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9
Reporting period: July 2007-June 2009

Roll Out of 2007/9 HFA Review Process
National level • Complete (13):Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, South Korea, Lao PDR, Marshall Islands, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu • Ongoing (7):Bhutan, India, Maldives, Samoa, Singapore, Pakistan, Cambodia Regional Level • Sub-regional Reports (2):draft reports by ASEAN, SAARC, SOPAC • Regional Synthesis Report (1):interim draft report prepared by UNISDR Thematic Reports • Report on Urban Disaster Reduction in Asia (Regional Task Force on Urban DRR) • Report on Space Technology Applications in Asia (UNESCP and ADRC)
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

Lessons Learned: Positive Impact of HFA Reporting • Reached out to new stakeholders, usually not part of official DRR functions • More commitment towards shared responsibilities to achieve DRR objectives • Humanitarian sector more aware of relationship of DRR and development/MDG (Bangladesh) • Learning and capacity building, especially of newly appointed HFA focal organizations • Opportunities to review long-term national DRR visions and priorities in relation to HFA (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Philippines) • Enhanced capacity of NDMOs to initiate strategic analysis of DRR (Nepal, Sri Lanka) • HFA reporting more widely accepted as important political obligation and plans to institutionalize the process in some countries
Based on findings from the joint UNISDR and UNDP initiative to support national HFA reporting capacities in selected countries: Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, India, Philippines, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Lao PDR

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

Lessons Learned: Challenges • Comprehensiveness of reports is determined by the level of participation of sectors and stakeholders • Individuals tasked to coordinate progress review did not have adequate training in DRR monitoring and evaluation • Limited networking and facilitation skills weakened the consultation processes • Tight reporting schedules and deadlines put additional pressures • Commitment of HFA Focal Point influenced effectiveness of reporting • Assessment of progress often subjective with little objective evidence provided • HFA reporting framework lacks a section on profiling risks and baseline information • Some repetition and overlap in reports due to nature of the five HFA priorities • Difficulty of non-native speakers to fully grasp meaning of progress indicators and drivers
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

Recommendations for Immediate Follow-up Action • Review of HFA reporting guidelines and ‘HFA Monitor’ by those involved in the current reporting cycle • Analysis of trends and patters of reporting, including strengths and weaknesses • Identify strategy to close eventual information gaps of national reports • UNISDR and UNDP to continue their collaboration to: • Carry out a training needs assessment of focal organizations/ individuals designated with HFA reporting functions • Devise a strategy to build M&E capacities (as part of UNDP systematic DRR capacity assessment process) • Consider developing and roll-out of a training module on HFA/DRR monitoring & reporting • Clarify supportive role and operational responsibilities of regional and sub-regional organizations and institutions in the reporting process
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9 Regional Progress Overview

1. Regional Frameworks - based on HFA priorities and principles • ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response • ASEAN Regional Programme on Disaster Management • Pacific Regional DRM Framework for Action 2005 –2015 (SOPAC) • SAARC Comprehensive Regional Framework for Action 2006-2015 • APEC Strategy for DRR and Emergency Response & Prep. 2009-2015

2. Regional Mechanisms - aim to accelerate HFA implementation • SAARC Centre (2006) • Regional Platforms on DRR/DRM: Asia (2007), Pacific (2008) • UNESCAP Regional Disaster Management Committee (2008)

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9 Regional Progress Overview

3. Regional Meetings - More high level participation, alignment and synergies • Asian Ministerial Conferences on DRR (China ‘05, India ’07, Malaysia ’08) • Pacific Regional Disaster Management Meetings (since 14 years) • ACDR (Seoul 2006, Kazakhstan 2007) • RCC (Hanoi 2005, Kunming2006, Bangkok 2007, Colombo 2008) • South Asia Policy Dialogues (2006, 2007)

4. Regional Partnerships and Networks - better organized exchange, linking more partners • World Bank Global Facility for Disaster Reduction & Recovery (2006) • ISDR Asia Partnership (2003; UNISDR) • Pacific Disaster Risk Management Partnership Network (2006; SOPAC)

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

Progress at a Glace
New Revision of Legislation New Institutional Frameworks and Systems New National Platforms/Coordination Mechanisms National DRR Strategies and Frameworks Strategic National Action Plans Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka India (NDMA), Maldives (NDMC), Pakistan (NDMA), Sri Lanka (NDMC), Thailand (NDWC) Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka Bangladesh, Bhutan, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Indonesia, Philippines, PNG, Republic of Marshall Islands, Samoa, Thailand, and Vanuatu India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal

Dedicated Resources for DRR

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

HFA Strategic Goal 1
The integration of disaster risk reduction into sustainable development policies and planning • Range of initiatives to design and enact new DRR policies, plans and legislations has been impressive But: • Policies and plans not based upon comprehensive multi-hazard risk and capacity assessment • No adequate budgets available and implementation is dependent upon selective external support • Weak buy-in from stakeholders in line ministries which jeopardizes mainstreaming objectives • Participation of a wide cross-section of stakeholders in policy and planning development remains weak
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9
HFA Strategic Goal 2

The development and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and capacities to build resilience to hazards • Most progress has focused on strengthening national level capacities of disaster management/disaster reduction authorities Therefore: • More needs to be done to build capacity of local government and community level actors, as well as of key development sectors • Multi-stakeholder platforms are also required at the sub-national and local levels • Public awareness campaigns and school education programs need to devise long-term and coordinated strategies • Curricula and DRR trainings require more targeted, hazard and sector specific inputs • Role of women remains largely ignored and their capacities remain under-utilized
Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

HFA Biennial Progress Review Process 2007/9

HFA Strategic Goal 3
•The systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches into emergency preparedness, response and recovery programs • The linkage between hazard monitoring, risk assessment, and disaster preparedness, including early warning and response, remains insufficient Therefore: • Greater emphasis needs to be placed on local risks, capacities and knowledge that influence community decisions to act • Alternative financial instruments to relieve from the burden of response and recovery are needed, e.g. micro-finance, micro-insurance and reinsurance • Contingency plans need to consistently cover disaster recovery to ensure risk reduction is note ignored in the aftermath of disasters

Source: UNISDR, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Role of Stakeholders
Innovative Partnership between stakeholders
• Policy and Decision-makers • Scientists • Local Communities • Private Sectors

Overview
• The Need for Policy Research on Integrating DRR into Development Planning Policy Framework to Implement Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) Priorities

Policy and Decision-makers
• Provide institutional and legislative frameworks • Allocate adequate resources • Effective implementation in an integrated manner • Facilitate capacity building

Scientists
• R&D to Address Knowledge Gap • Promote Informed Decision-Making • Provide Expertise and Advisory Services • Education and Training

Local communities
• Be aware and informed • Be responsive and proactive • Implement community based DRR • Build culture of resilience

Private sectors
• Mobilize resources • Promote risk financing • Implement projects with DRR in mind • Corporate social responsibility

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Role of Stakeholders

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Role of Stakeholders

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Interaction between Stakeholders

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: AADMER and HFA Implementation in ASEAN

Disaster Management in ASEAN • Disaster management is one
of the founding principles of ASEAN dating back 40 years • Momentum created and sustained since 2003 • Major disasters provided critical momentum • Disasters remain a major challenge to achieve a disasterresilient community by 2015

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: AADMER and HFA Implementation in ASEAN

ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM)

Objective •“To enhance regional cooperation in all aspects of disaster management including prevention, mitigation, preparedness, respons e and recovery through mutual assistance activities in order to minimize the adverse consequences of disasters on the economic an social development of Member Countries”

Institutional Framework •ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Disaster Management (AMMDM) •ASEAN Standing Committee (ASC) •ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) •ASEAN Secretariat

ASEAN Regional Programme on Disaster Management (ARPDM) •Launched in Bali, Indonesia, in May 2004, ARPDM outlines five regional priorities: •Establishment of ASEAN Regional Disaster Management Framework •Capacity Building •Sharing of Information and Resources •Promoting Collaboration and Strengthening Partnerships •Public Education, Awareness and Advocacy Programme

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: AADMER and HFA Implementation in ASEAN

ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM)
Legal framework • ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) • Initiated in mid 2004, mandate given 3 weeks before tsunami, draft negotiated in 2005 within four months • Signed by Foreign Ministers of ASEAN on 26 July 2005 in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Ratification underway • Embodies ASEAN’s commitment to effective disaster risk reduction ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) • Objective :To provide effective mechanisms to achieve substantial reduction of disaster losses in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of the Parties, and to jointly respond to disaster emergencies through concerted national efforts and intensified regional and international cooperation (Article 2)

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: AADMER and HFA Implementation in ASEAN Programs
• A reference point, adaptation throughout implementation, expire in 2010 • A regional mechanism with a mandate to pursue regional cooperation on disaster management • “THE” regional framework, comprehensive legal document, yet to enter into force • Full-blown simulation exercise held yearly to test preparedness • The only region commemorating the International Day of DRR jointly with its own Day • Potentially playing a key operational coordinating role • Website to promote ACDM and inform public of its activities

ARPDM ACDM AADMER ARDEX ADDM AHA ACDM Online

Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: AADMER and HFA Implementation in ASEAN Programs
• Two-year, five training priorities to support capacity development in line with AADMER and HFA • An information sharing network

ASEAN -HFA Capacity Development

ASEAN DISCNet

OSADI

• Disaster inventory database, tool for decision making

SASOP

• Standby arrangements and standard operating procedure

ASEAN ERAT

• Deployed for the first time for Cyclone Nargis response

PEA

• Public education and awareness programme

Technical Working Group on Pandemic • Promoting multi-stakeholder, multi-sectoral coordination in PPR & Preparedness Response (PPR) Source: Adelina Kamal , 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing
Overview

HFA
Ch

Case Study: SAARC and HFA Implementation in South Asia

• South Asia has a multiplicity of natural hazards • Layers of vulnerabilities • High level of unmitigated risks • Low levels of preparedness • High incidence of disasters with large loss of lives and property National initiatives • Every country has set up new institutional mechanisms for disaster management • 3 countries have enacted new laws, 3 countries have drafted laws, 2 are in the process of doing so • Early warning of disasters have improved • Many innovative efforts being made to mainstream DRR in various sectors of development, particularly • Education at all levels, school safety • Building bye laws, zoning regulations • Housing design, construction technology • Poverty alleviation, micro-finance and insurance etc • Yet there lots and lots that remain to be done
Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: SAARC and HFA Implementation in South Asia

Regional initiatives • SAARC Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework • SAARC Disaster Management Centre • SAARC Road Maps on Disaster Management • Community Based Disaster Risk Management • Application of S&T for Disaster Management • Coastal and Marine Risk Management • Integration of DRR in Climate Change Adaptation • Mainstreaming DRR in Development
Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: SAARC and HFA Implementation in South Asia
South Asia Disaster Knowledge Network (SADKN) Unlocking Indigenous Knowledge • Documenting indigenous knowledge on disaster risk reduction • Four pilot projects of documentation of IK completed in Nepal, Sri Lanka and India • Framework developed for integrating such knowledge with community based disaster risk reduction

Natural Disaster Rapid Response Mechanism • SAARC Summit in Aug 2008 at Colombo entrusted the responsibility to SDMC to develop a Natural Disaster Rapid Response Mechanism for coordinated and planned approach to meet emergencies in South Asia • Work is in progress to develop Agreement on SAARC Natural Disaster Rapid Response Mechanism, and Standard Operating Procedure on NDRRM

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: SAARC and HFA Implementation in South Asia
Challenge: Accelerating progress

• Good foundation made for DRR but lots more remain to be done • Steps required for accelerating progress: • Political: Raising awareness and generating demand for risk reduction • Economic: More solid evidence that DRR pays • Technical: Developing simple but useful tools for mainstreaming DRR in development • Strategic: Building partnerships with corporate, media, civil society etc • Level of both ‘total’ and ‘acceptable risks’ being very high in South Asia the focus of the countries is more on preparedness for a better response • Within the preparedness umbrella efforts more on: • Pre-disaster planning at all levels • Early warning and last mile connectivity • Mock drills, evacuation, emergency medical preparedness • Training, capacity building • These are more cost effective and pays rich dividends in short period in reducing loss of lives and properties

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing Priority 1

HFA
Ch

Case Study: India and HFA Progress

• Strong political commitment towards disaster risk reduction in India • Disaster Management Act has been constituted in 2005 • Disaster Management Authority has been constituted at national state and district level • National Policy on disaster management is on anvil • National Executive Committee has been constituted to assist National Disaster Management Authority in executing its function which is represented by the secretaries to the government of India in the ministries or departments having administrative control on a variety of disaster areas • The requisite mechanisms for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction has been laid down in the Act and every Ministry of Central and State Government has been assigned roles and responsibilities to address disaster risk agenda • National Disaster Response Fund has been constituted • National Disaster Mitigation Fund is in process of creation
Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing
Priority 2

HFA
Ch

Case Study: India and HFA Progress

• India has established an interim Tsunami Warning centre at National Centre for Ocean Information Services ( INCOIS) Hyderabad. • Government of India has identified key departments/organizations to provide early warnings on different hazards • Work is under progress to establish a Disaster Management Support Control Room in Geological Survey of India and connected to NDMA and MHA to make direct contact with the landslide prone states to collect landslide related data • Central Water Commission (CWC) provides flood forecast on all major flood prone rivers and inflow forecasts for selected important reservoirs. The National Flood Atlas has also been prepared by the commission • The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) has been set up by the Survey of India (Department of Science & Technology), to collect, compile, analyze and prepare value added maps for use by various agencies in the field of DM; for management of natural resources, industrial applications etc. • National Emergency Operations Center (NEOC), in place since 2005. Emergency Operations Centres opened up at the State and district level • Macro scale Vulnerability Atlas for India has been prepared
Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing
Priority 3

HFA
Ch

Case Study: India and HFA Progress

• Government of India in its 10th Five year Plan emphasized the need for integration of Disaster Management in the existing education system • Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) as well 13 other State Education Boards have included Disaster management as a subject in the curriculum of secondary education • For effective curriculum transaction, the CBSE has taken up extensive training programmes for teachers in a phased manner across the country • Many of the state engineering and architecture colleges have introduced Hazard Resistant Technology as a subject • National Institution of Disaster Management, (NIDM) has been established • NIDM has introduced web based Online Training Programme on Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Framework in collaboration with the World Bank Institute • India Disaster Knowledge Network is under development • Few of the universities and autonomous institutes in the country running formal courses on disaster management • DMI Bhopal has also been identified as the regional training institute for imparting training on Incident Command System by Ministry Of Home Affairs
Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: India and HFA Progress

Priority 4 • Ministry of Home Affairs, prepared a model guideline and has proposed the necessary amendments to existing building byelaws, Town and Country Planning Act, Development Control Regulations and Land use Zoning regulations to ensure structural safety against natural hazard prone areas- State governments are in the process of amending their bylaws/DCR • National Action Plan on Climate Change • The Coastal Zone Regulations of Government of India in place. • National Standards/Codes for construction practices relating to structural safety from natural hazards including the National Building Code • Hazard specific codes designed by Bureau Of Indian Standard to ensure structural safety against natural hazards like Cyclone, Landslides and Earthquakes. • ‘Building Back Better’ has become the guiding principle of disaster recovery and reconstruction programmes in India

Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing Priority 5

HFA
Ch

Case Study: India and HFA Progress

• Capacities enhanced at institutional and community level to effectively respond to a disaster • Every Ministry /Department of central and state government will prepare their Disaster Management Plans • National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) has been constituted • The National Emergency Communication Plan has been conceptualized by NDMA to provide last mile connectivity • Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India and United Nations Development Programme is jointly implementing the largest Community Based Disaster Risk Management Programme in the world covering 176 districts across 17 multi hazard prone states • Revamping of the Civil Defence System in the country is under progress • Ministry Of Home Affairs, GOI is also implementing the Disaster Management Support Project with support of USAID which aims at strengthening the existing Disaster Management systems for effective response
Source: O. Ravi, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 “Accelerating Progress in Implementing HFA in Asia and the Pacific”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and HFA Implementation
Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 2: Risk Mapping • Risk Assessment and Mapping • Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA) • Regional hazard maps (Mongolia) • DRR Indicators • Jointly with DFID, development of DRR indicators and characteristics of a disasterresilient community (South Asia Regional DRR Programme) • Data Collection and Information Management • Disaster Management Information System; GIS/GPS (Indonesia)

Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 1: Governance • Mainstreaming DRR • National Platform (Sri Lanka, Indonesia) • Support in the development of NDMC (Cambodia) • DRR in the development policy 2008 (Nepal) • Legislation to support DRR (incorporating IDRL into Indonesia DM law and regulation) • Decentralization • Disaster Management centers in 5 zones (Malaysia) • Political Commitment • Working with NDMO, Climate Change Division and Met Office to include climate change issues in risk reduction programmes (Solomon Islands) • Community Participation • Community Vulnerability Reduction (China) • Integrated Community Approach (Indonesia, Kiribati)

Source: Jeong Park, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and HFA Implementation
Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 3: Knowledge Management • Information Sharing with Stakeholders • Dpnet(Nepal) • DRR forum (Cambodia, Indonesia) • Exchange and Dialogue through Networking • RC/RC regional networks (e.g. Southeast Asia RDMC, South Asia DMWG, Pacific EMCG) • Research • Role of women in DRR • Applied studies on the relationship between climate change and disasters (India) • Participatory Action Learning

Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 2: Early Warning • Community-based Early Warning System • Flood early warning system (Cambodia); • Community awareness campaign as part of CBEWS • “Last Miles” • Alarming villages by riding around on bicycles and shouting warning messages through megaphones(Bangladesh during Cyclone Sidr) • Radio Network • HF/VHF in disaster prone areas • Simulations • Evacuation drills (Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia)

Source: Jeong Park, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Implementing

HFA
Education

Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and HFA Implementation
Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 4: Risk Reduction • Sustainable Environmental Management • Mangrove plantation to protect the sea dyke system (Vietnam) • Tree planting in CBDP programme (DPRK) • DRR into Climate Change Adaptation • Climate adaptation actions with DRR programme (Cook Islands, Tonga) • Food Security for Resilience • Vegetable garden as an alternative food source (Timor Leste) • DRR into Health and Safer Hospital • Integration of CBDP and CBFA • Construction of multi-hazard resilient health facility or inclusion of Avian Influenza (Laos) • Protection of Public Facilities • Cyclone shelters (Bangladesh, India) • Multi purpose community centers (Sri Lanka, Nepal) • Recovery • Micro-credit schemes for housing construction, small boats or fishing nets • Income generating activities (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, India, etc.)

Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 3: • School DRR • Inclusion of DRR into school curricula (Nepal, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Vietnam, Fiji, etc.) • Higher Education • Post graduate diploma course in disaster preparedness and rehabilitation (India) • Community DRR Training • DRR training programme • CBDRR handbook, jointly with ADPC ( Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) • Public Awareness • “Disaster Safety Mind” campaign (Thailand); • Brochures, leaflets, posters, plays, puppet shows, street drama, TV shows, radio programme, etc.

Source: Jeong Park, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

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Implementing

HFA
Ch

Case Study: Red Cross/Red Crescent and HFA Implementation
Cross-cutting issues • Multi Hazard Approach • Applied to community programmes(multi hazard early warning system) • Gender and Cultural Diversity • Gender perspective into DRR policies and practices (strive to have more female volunteers in Bangladesh) • Respecting traditional coping mechanisms and local wisdom • Community and Volunteer Participation • Communities are at the centre of RC/RC actions, and volunteers are the backbone of DRR actions • Capacity Building • Organizational development as part of core program areas; • Foundation of the Maldives Red Crescent Society

Red Cross activities for HFA Priority 5: Preparedness • Contingency Planning • Agreement with UNDP in community contingency planning (Tsunami affected countries) • Emergency Fund • AusAID prepositioned emergency funding ( Indonesia) • Volunteerism and Participation • National Disaster Response Teams (Malaysia, Philippines) • Regional Disaster Response Teams • Logistics • Regional Logistics Units • Prepositioned stocks

Source: Jeong Park, 2 December 08, Special Session 1 on “Accelerating Progress in Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) in Asia and Pacific.”

Part 12: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction

Contents
• • • • • Case Study: RCC Program Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines Case Study: RCC Program in Sri Lanka Case Study: RCC Program in Nepal Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program
RCC 2: Comprehensive disaster risk management approach to be adopted by all member countries and creating awareness, political will and support for disaster management

RCC 1: Integration of disaster risk reduction into national development process

RCC Recommendations on Mainstreaming DRR into Development RCC 3: Members endorsed action by RCC and its member countries to develop a program to promote the CDRM approach building on work done in Bangladesh, China, India, Vietnam and the Philippines

RCC 4: Launched RCC MDRD Program with support from AusAID

Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program

Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program

Component 1: Mainstreaming DRR into National Development Process • Themes include; National Development Plan, PRSP, Country Programming of bilateral and multilateral development partners, EIA, NAPA • Develop RCC MDRD Guidelines • Provide guidance to RCC members and respective National Ministries on how to initiate mainstreaming of DRR in the said theme • Process document to complement the existing technical guidelines • Provide examples of good practices from countries of the region • Includes experiences from Implementing PIPs on the same theme under the MDRD Program • Undertake Priority Implementation Partnership (PIP) between RCC members and national development agencies on Mainstreaming DRR • Progress made • RCC Guideline on Mainstreaming DRR into PRSP under development • PIP on Mainstreaming DRR into National Development Planning currently being undertaken in Nepal
Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program

Component 2: Mainstreaming DRR into Sectoral Development Process • Priority Sectors Identified: Agriculture, Education, Health, Housing, Infrastructure • Specific Themes selected under each Sector for implementation • Develop RCC MDRD Guidelines • Undertake Priority Implementation Partnership (PIP) between RCC members and sectoral agencies on Mainstreaming DRR • Progress made • RCC Guideline on Mainstreaming DRR into School Curriculum and Road Sector developed • RCC Guideline on Mainstreaming DRR into School Construction and Land Use Planning currently under development • 6 PIPs undertaken/ongoing in 5 RCC member countries • Health Sector in Bangladeh • Education Sector in Cambodia • Education Sector in Lao PDR • Education Sector in the Philippines • Road Sector in the Philippines • Housing Sector in Sri Lanka
Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program

Component 3: Advocacy for building awareness and political support • Development and dissemination of Advocacy Kits for Ministers and Parliamentarians of RCC member countries on “Why DRR Mainstreaming is needed?” • Facilitate one national high table discussion on DRR in 3 RCC member countries • Conduct National Workshops on DRR for senior officials of all key ministers in 3 RCC member countries • Presentation on Mainstreaming DRR at relevant regional meetings at Ministerial and senior official level and/or at Regional Forums of Parliamentarians
Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program

Component 4: Knowledge Management Platform for mainstreaming of DRR • RCC MDRD Website currently under development • RCC members were requested to nominate information and knowledge management focal point • Website; “Mainstreaming DRR in Asia”. Will host information on initiatives in RCC member countries on mainstreaming DRR • Questionnaire on status of mainstreaming filled by RCC member countries in 2005, would be uploaded on the website • Would include web pages on RCC MDRD Program (Progress made and planned activities) • Separate webpage on RCC (Past meeting, themes, proceedings)
Source: Loy Rego, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines
Key sectors/government agencies • Education Sector: Department of Education (DepEd) • Infrastructure Sector: Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) • Sub-National Development and Physical Planning: National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) • Local Governance: Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Strategy in the Philippines • Sectoral Approach - DRR being mainstreamed in policies, strategies, programs, projects and activities by sector/agency • Focus on critical sectors • Infrastructure • Education • Development Planning • Local Governance • Priority Implementation Project / Pilot Areas • Technical Support from ADPC and UNDP • Emerging need to shift from projectbased to partnership/programmatic areas of collaboration • Advocacy for building awareness and political support

Source: Glenn J Rabonza, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Education
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines

• Safe Schools Program • Building Safe Learning Environments (BSLE) Project • PIP on Mainstreaming DRR in the Education Sector • Supported by ADPC, UNDP Manila, and ECHO • Impact of Disasters on Education Sector (physical/social/economic) • DRM secondary school curriculum modules • Pilot-test (3 provinces) • Training of Teachers • Revision of Modules
Source: Glenn J Rabonza, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Infrastructure

Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines
Local Governance • Mainstreaming activities (strengthening of LDCCs, Gawad KALASAG, integration of DRM into local development planning, etc) • Community-Based DRM • PDRSEA Phase 4 (ADPC and ECHO) • Documentation of DRM Good Practices (Oxfam Great Britain) • Donor funded projects (GTZ, AusAID, JICA, USAid, Oxfam, and ECHO) • Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction Project (GFDRR) • Identification of “At Risk” Provinces • Risk Transfer Mechanisms

• Title: Mainstreaming DRR into the planning process before construction of new roads and bridges in Philippines • Implementation Period: June 2006- June 2007 • Implemented by: • Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Philippines • Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) • Supported by UNISDR and SIDA • NDCC-TWG Working Group (DPWH, ASEP, PICE, MGB DENR,PHIVOCS, PAGASA, and OCD) • PIP developed in-depth study with recommendations • National Workshop was conducted in February 2007 to seek feedback on the findings of the PIP and to identify the ‘way forward’

Source: Glenn J Rabonza, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

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MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in the Philippines
Sustaining MDRD Initiatives • Development of a national DRR mainstreaming framework and strategy with formal endorsement from the national government • Based on the national mainstreaming framework and strategy, develop sectoral/agency mainstreaming plans to facilitate the integration of DRR in agency-level plans • Expansion of NDCC umbrella and/or the national DRR agenda to formally include other sectors such as housing, tourism, women, etc., and to formally include representatives from civil society and other stakeholders • A review of the level of prioritization that DRR gets in agency-wide • planning, programming and budgeting in the agencies covered by the study • Development of a national monitoring and management framework for DRR

Gaps and Challenges Identified • There is a need to improve/update the policies and strategies of government agencies to allow for the formal integration of DRR mainstreaming to their regular functions • This need is evident in varying levels of support (often fragmented) given to DRR mainstreaming • The geographical planning aspect of DRR mainstreaming is facilitated by the national agency’s reach • There is limited capacity of sectors to implement program/project development and management

Source: Glenn J Rabonza, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Sri Lanka

PIP Project in Sri Lanka • Government of Sri Lanka submitted an Expression of Interest to the RCC to undertake PIP in the Housing Sector • This is aimed at contributing towards the implementation of the ‘Towards a Safer Sri Lanka; Road Map for Disaster Risk Management’ by increasing disaster resilience in Housing Sector • Initial funding received by ADPC from AusAID for the year 2008 to initiate the PIP • ADPC as the RCC Secretariat will provide technical support to the Government of Sri Lanka in the implementation of the PIP • Initial activities to be implemented over the period from November 2008 to January 2009

Proposed Activities for Implementing PIP • Study of the Housing Sector in Sri Lanka • Identifying opportunities for incorporating DRR in the National Housing Policy • Study of the Housing Sector Plans as a part of National Physical Plan and identification of opportunities to incorporate DRR • Stocktaking of National Guidelines/ Codes/ Manuals on construction of houses • Study of a hazard prone province to identify gaps and propose recommendations on integration of DRR in housing • National Workshop to highlight the gaps and recommendations of the Technical Working Group and identify the next steps

Source: Author unknown, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Sri Lanka

PIP Implementation Mechanism

Source: Author unknown, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Nepal
The Systematic interpretation of DRR approaches • Several municipalities enforcing building code • Enactment of Local Self Governance Act (1999) – provides authority to Local Authorities • Prepared National Strategy for DRM • National Platform • Disaster Management Act

Strategic Goals • The integration of DRR into Policies and Planning • 10th National Development Plan • 3 yrs Interim Development Plan • Development & Strengthening of Institutions, and Capacities to build resilience to hazard • Establishment of Disaster Focal Desk in 10 key sectoral Ministries • Post Disaster Activities • I/NGOs • CBDRM

Source: Thir Bahadur, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Activities Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Nepal
Expected Outcomes • A substantive report • Process followed by the PIP for integrating DRR into periodic and annual Planning guideline of district and municipal development planning • Recommendation of the TWG for integrating DRR into periodic and annual planning guideline of district and municipal development planning • Process Followed by the PIP for integrating DRR into periodic planning guidelines on village development planning • Recommendations of the TWG for integrating DRR into periodic guideline on village development planning

• Initiation of mainstreaming DRR into the periodic planning guideline and the annual planning • Guidelines for districts and municipalities • Periodic planning guideline for village development planning • Mainstreaming DRR into periodic plan of one hazard prone municipality • Conduct a national workshop – to seek feedback from experts

Source: Thir Bahadur, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Overview • Mainstreaming into overall development planning • Legal framework • Long-term National Development Plan (PRJPN) 2005 – 2025 • Mid-term National Development Plan (RPJMN) 2004 – 2009 • Annual Government Work Plan (RKP) • DRR Policy Recommendation on RPJMN 2004 – 2009 • Law on disaster management • Law on the management of coastal areas and small islands

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia
Agriculture • Strengthening of institutions and regulation framework to improve resilient of farm production and reduce drought risk • Strengthening food security, increasing productivity, production competitiveness and value added of agriculture and fishery • Utilizing forests for diversification of economic activities • Supporting food production by taking into account gender quality and sustainable development • Improving water resources management in integrated manner to strengthen the resilience to the increasing drought and flood risks, specifically in national strategic river basin in Java Island

Housing and Infrastructure • Developing technical guidelines for the disaster risk assessment for the purposes of spatial and land use planning and area risk disaster index • Promoting the use of hazards risk assessment into spatial and land use planning • Formulating guidelines for hazardresilient housing and infrastructure designs • Promoting the utilization of hazardresilient building codes and disseminating in the community level;

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Education • Integrating DRR modules into school curriculum and religious education at local levels; • Introduction of DRR into extra school curricula and youth scouts activities and implementation public awareness on DRR • Developing DRR training modules for teacher • Promoting school retrofitting

Environment • The inclusion of DRR in the Bali Action Plan is a major success that will have positive repercussions for reduction risks in the future • Better collaboration between climate change bodies, focal points and experts and their DRR counterparts • More accessible DRR information and tools for climate change adaptation negotiators and managers • Socializing and implementing the new disaster management law, NAP-DRR and NAPA at all administrative levels as well as at the community level

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR

Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia

Health • Improving community resilient through the provision of clean water, sanitation and waste management • Formulating disaster preparedness plans for hospitals • Developing DRR training modules for managers and staff at hospitals

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

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Cross Sector • Developing End-to-End Early Warning System

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia
Lessons Learned

• Shifting the paradigm mandated in the DM law No 24/2007 enhances the participation form non-government multi stakeholders, mainly international community and NGOs in the DM and DRR activities • Indonesia experiences in recent disasters (Tsunami Aceh, Earthquake Jogya, Tsunami Pangandaran, etc) implies to: • generate government in the acceleration of the finalization and implementation of DM and DRR regulatory and institutional frameworks • enhance the awareness of people in the importance of DRR; • attract international communities in supporting government in the promoting DRR • Commitment and support from international communities and donors significantly provide advocacy policy frameworks and generate the implementation of mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development, such as Program SCDRR supported by UNDP, GFDRR by the World Bank, AusAID, JICA etc.

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

MAINSTREAM

DRR
Ch

Case Study: RCC Program in Indonesia
Challenges

• Develop technical guidelines as the derivation from the DM Law in line with the mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development • Integrate and synergize strategies adopted by each sectors into a holistic approach of DRR in the development • Formulate national strategy on the disaster education in order to synergize and to consolidate the current disaster educations that has already introduced and implemented fragmentary in the local levels by NGOs and International donors • Develop law enforcement on the DRR implementation • Strengthen capacity of government institutions and apparatus in the DM and DRR aspects • Improve public awareness through campaign, simulation drill, etc • Introduce DRR Sensitivity Planning Approach as the bottom up development planning approach starting at the village levels • Formulate policy recommendation and strategy for the implementation of CBDRM, that currently implemented fragmentary by INGOs and NGOs at sub district and village levels • Shift the international donors and community on the DRR implementation from ‘favorable areas’ (Aceh, Jogya, Central java, NTT) to other prone disaster areas , such as Sulawesi Island, South Kalimantan, etc • Formulate sustainable tools to link from rehabilitation and reconstruction stage to DRR and mitigation efforts
Source: Suprayoga Hadi, December 08, Side Event on “Mainstreaming DRR into Development: Experiences and lessons learned from the RCC MDRD programme”

Part 13: Regional and Country Profiles

Contents
• • • • • • • • • • • • • ASEAN: Response to Cyclone Nargis UNISDR in Central Asia South Asia: SAARC Bangladesh China India Indonesia Korea: Beef Crisis Malaysia Philippines: Albay Province Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami Sri Lanka Vietnam

CASE
Overview

STUDY
Ch

ASEAN: Response to Cyclone Nargis

• Cyclone Nargis, 2-3 May 08 • The worst natural disaster in the country in living memory • 84,537 dead with 53,836 missing • 19, 359 injured • 2.4 million severely affected • 800,000 displaced with 30 percent in camps • 37 townships affected covering 23,500km2 • 8th deadliest cyclone of all time • Independent private broadcasters who only use notebook computers and webcams ASEAN situation • This disaster put ASEAN on center stage • Lack of access was the main concern • ASEAN was expected to widen the space and bridge the gap • Regional instruments were in place but not fully operational • ASEAN was not fully equipped • First-ever experience • ASEAN is not an implementing agency Source: Adelina Kamal, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction.”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

ASEAN: Response to Cyclone Nargis

ASEAN Response activities
• Activation of SASOP and AHA centre • Daily situation updates, 24/7 monitoring, offers of assistance, recommendations for action • First ERAT between 9-18 May 08

Source: Adelina Kamal, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction.”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

ASEAN: Response to Cyclone Nargis
Maintaining the momentum • Are the NEEDS still there? • Has the ASSISTANCE been delivered? • How to ensure SUSTAINABLE recovery? • Next steps after 1 year: • Periodic Review of situation on the ground • Start planning for recovery efforts - Recovery and Preparedness Planning (PONREPP) • Coordination at the township level

Post-Nargis Joint Assessment • Cooperation of both humanitarian and development actors • Role of ASEAN in humanitarian field • Brought together relief and recovery in one report • Validating unimpeded access • A snapshot of moment in time • Baseline for monitoring • Basis for recovery planning Post-assessment • ASEAN-led mechanism to continue for another year • Periodic review of assessment on the ground • ASEAN was expected to widen the space and bridge the gap • Regional instruments were in place but not fully operational • ASEAN was not fully equipped • First-ever experience

Source: Adelina Kamal, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction.”

REGIONAL PROFILE
Ch
Objective

UNISDR in Central Asia

• Increase public awareness to understand risk, vulnerability and disaster reduction • Obtain commitment from public authorities to implement disaster reduction policies and actions • Stimulate interdisciplinary and inter-sector partnerships, including the expansion of risk reduction networks • Improve scientific knowledge about disaster reduction National Coordination Activities in Central Asia • National Platform reported by Kazakhstan • Draft National Disaster Risk Management Strategy and Action Plan prepared by Tajikistan • National reports on implementation of HFA submitted by Kazakhstan and Tajikistan • National focal points assigned to represent governments in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan • Integration of DRR into national strategies (NDS, PRS, UNDAF) Regional Coordination Activities • Regional DRR Initiative in Ferghana Valley (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) • Facilitating the establishment of a Regional DR and DRR Center in Almaty(Initiative of the Government of Kazakhstan supported by OCHA) • Promotion of the regional coordination mechanism in Central Asia • Inclusion of Turkmenistan in DRR activities in CA

Source: Goulsara Pulatova, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “DRR initiatives in Central Asia.”

REGIONAL PROFILE
Disaster Risk Reduction Education

UNISDR in Central Asia

• Tajikistan: • Integration of disaster risk reduction into national secondary education curriculum • Curriculum Revision Working Group • DRR training program • DRR manuals and school books • Kazakhstan • Development of DRR course for universities • Local seismic risk management project in secondary schools • Uzbekistan • Voluntary search and rescue teams training program • Development of educational materials and training modules • Training of trainers and rescue teams

Capacity development
• Establish and strengthen the network of interaction, knowledge, and information exchange on disaster prevention • Conduct national and regional conferences and workshops

Seismic risk reduction
• Development of a manual on safer construction practices using local materials • Raising awareness of secondary schools administrations about seismic safety rules through a series of workshops for secondary school headmasters Source: Goulsara Pulatova, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “DRR initiatives in Central Asia.”

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CASE
History

STUDY
Ch

SAARC Disaster Management Framework

• The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) setup a Disaster Management Centre in 2007 • A Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework was developed in an Expert Group Meeting in Dhaka in February 2006 • The Framework was approved by SAARC Environmental Ministers in July 2006 and adopted at the 14th SAARC Summit of Heads and Governments in New Delhi in November 2007 • The framework is aligned with the implementation of the Hyogo Framework of Action • Specific to South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka Definition of disaster • Holistic management of disasters covering all its phases – prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, relief and reconstruction Objectives • Establish and strengthen the regional disaster management system to reduce risks and to improve response and recovery management at all levels • Identify and elaborate country and regional priorities for action • Share best practices and lessons learnt from disaster risk reduction efforts at national levels • Establish a regional system to develop and implement regional programmes and projects for early warning • Establish a regional system of exchanging information on prevention, preparedness and management of natural disasters • Create a regional response mechanism dedicated to disaster preparedness, emergency relief and rehabilitation to ensure immediate response • Create a regional mechanism to facilitate monitoring and evaluation of achievements towards goals and strategies

REGIONAL PROFILE
Ch

South Asia: SAARC

Objectives of SAARC Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework • Establish and strengthen the regional disaster management system to reduce risks and to improve response and recovery management at all levels • Identify and elaborate country and regional priorities for action • Share best practices and lessons learnt from disaster risk reduction efforts at national levels • Establish a regional system to develop and implement regional programmes and projects for early warning • Establish a regional system of exchanging information on prevention, preparedness and management of natural disasters • Create a regional response mechanism dedicated to disaster preparedness, emergency relief and rehabilitation to ensure immediate response • Create a regional mechanism to facilitate monitoring and evaluation of achievements towards goals and strategies Expected Outcomes • An efficient Disaster Management System • Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the development policies and practices of the government at all levels • Disaster resilient communities that have enhanced coping capacities in relation to all hazards • Development of policies and programmes that recognizes all risks to the communities, and mitigation strategies that are based on a risk management assessment • Greater levels of coordination and cooperation at national, regional and international levels; and • Enhanced information, warning and reporting systems within governments at all levels

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

REGIONAL PROFILE
Ch

South Asia: SAARC Priorities for Action

Develop and implement risk reduction strategies • Development of methodologies and standards for hazard and vulnerability assessments • Development of strategies to make a right balance across prevention, preparedness, response and recovery (PPRR) programming • Development and implementation of risk

Establish Regional and National Response Mechanisms • Establish, strengthen and improve Regional Early Warning Systems • Develop systems and procedures to establish an effective Community Alerting System • Establish and improve Search and Rescue Mechanism • Develop and standardize Damage, Loss and Impact Assessment • Methodologies and Relief Management Procedure • Establish a post-disaster recovery and reconstruction mechanism

Establish Regional Information Sharing and Develop Network of Institutions and Organizations • Mainstreaming and advocacy • Community risk assessment • Geo-information technologies • Research information database • Emergency response management • Networking with relevant national, regional and international systems

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

REGIONAL PROFILE
Ch

South Asia: SAARC Priorities for Action

Develop and implement disaster management training, education, research and awareness programs • Conduct training need assessment • Develop strategies for HRD • Develop training modules for various stakeholders • Standardize training curriculum • Mainstream disaster risk reduction in education at all levels • Exchange trainers and experts • Conduct research, documentation and publication • Compile best practices and indigenous knowledge • Develop indicators for measuring the impact of training Apply the ICT for disaster management Establish an effective monitoring and evaluation mechanism

Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

REGIONAL PROFILE
Regional Road Maps
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South Asia: SAARC Priorities for Action

• SAARCC Disaster Management Centre has developed Regional Road Maps on certain key areas of disaster management through a consultative process. • These include: • (a) Community Based Disaster Risk Management • (b) Application of S&T for Disaster Management • (c) Coastal and Marine Risk Management • (d) Integration of DRR in Climate Change Adaptation • (e) Mainstreaming DRR in Development • The Road Map on Earthquake Risk Mitigation and Management will be finalized in December 2008
Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

REGIONAL PROFILE
Ch

South Asia: SAARC

SAARC Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework • Developed before the SAARC Disaster Management Centre was set up in Delhi in 2007 • Developed in an Expert Group Meeting in Dhaka in February 2006 • Approved by SAARC Environment Ministers in July 2006 • Adopted at the Fourteenth SAARC Summit of Heads and Governments in New Delhi in November 2007 Framework alignment with HFA • The Framework is aligned with the implementation of the Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015 • It is more specific to South Asian situation • It provides a more comprehensive framework that includes not only pre-disaster risk reduction but also post-disaster response and recovery • In South Asia ‘disaster management’ means holistic management of disasters covering all its phases – prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, relief and reconstruction
Source: Dhar Chakrabarti, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Government of Bangladesh’s vision on Disaster Management: “To reduce the vulnerability of people, especially the poor, to the effects of natural, environmental and human induced hazards to a manageable and acceptable humanitarian level” Year 1970 1988 1988 1989 1991 1996 1997 1998 2004 2007 2007 Disaster Cyclone Flood Cyclone Drought Cyclone Tornado Cyclone Flood Flood Flood Cyclone(SIDR) Death 300,000 2,373 5,704 800 138,868 545 550 1,050 747 1,071 3,363

Bangladesh
Salient statistics Total population Total geographic area Population density in coastal areas Floodplains Rivers Major hazards Floods Tropical cyclones Storm surges Tornados River bank erosion Drought Earthquake Arsenic Fire 140 million 144,000 sq km 1000 per sq km 80 percent of area > 300 (57 transboundary)

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

Ch

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Bangladesh

Disaster Management Institutional Framework

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Bangladesh

Elements of National Development Risk Reduction System

Source: Masud Siddiqui, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.””

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Bangladesh

Disaster Risk Reduction Framework

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

Bangladesh COUNTRY PROFILE Disaster Risk Reduction Framework
Ch

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Bangladesh

Resource Allocation for Preparedness

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR
Factors that made a difference in response 1. Improved disaster prevention measures including an improved forecasting and warning system 2. Coastal afforestation projects 3. Cyclone shelters – 2033 and 2097 proposed 4. Embankments 5. Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP) 6. Increased resilience of the poor 7. Paradigm shift from a relief centric approach to a more holistic, multi-disciplinary DRR approach 8. Community based disaster preparedness 9. Volunteers – 42,000
Disaster statistics Death toll 3,406

Missing Wounded Affected Loss of livestock Crops damaged area

1001 55,282 8.9 million 1.7 million 2.4 million acres 16,954

Affected educational institutions Total economic loss

US$1.7 million

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR
Resource Mobilization
• GoB responded with timely aid and assistance. • Allocated US$ 6.7 million (for relief and housing construction) • Armed Forces launched search and rescue and early relief operations • US Marine Forces participated in the rescue and relief operations • Impressive coordination with international donors, civil society and INGOs • A medium and long term disaster funding strategy • JDNLA identified the needs and quantified financial requirements which is US$ 360 million for immediate recovery activities and US$ 953 million for medium-tolong term recovery and reconstruction phases

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR

Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Bangladesh: Cyclone SIDR

Conclusions and recommendations • The usual instruments for resource mobilization after any catastrophic event are Flash Appeals or Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP). These are not very applicable for countries like Bangladesh since the process requires formal declaration of a “state of emergency” by the Government. Such declaration are difficult politically • Bangladesh maintains very good cooperation with bilateral and multi-lateral donors and Bangladesh is an example where it is possible to mobilize resources of over US$200 million within one week of Cyclone Sidr without a flash appeal or CAP • Insufficient funds allocated for DRR/DP at all levels; should be high in the list of priorities • International support will be essential as domestic resources and capacities are limited
Source: K H Masud Siddiqui, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

China

Distribution of Earthquakes in China (1900-2004)

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Ch

China

• Improvement of legislation system and seismic design codes • Law of the People’s Republic of China on Protection against and Mitigating Earthquake Disasters • New lab and facilities • Engineering assessment for key projects • National key construction projects • Three Gorges Project • Dayawan Nuclear Power Plant • Qinghai-Tibet Railway Project • Gas West-to-East Transportation Project • Water South-to-North Transportation Project • Electricity South-to-North Transportation Project • Earthquake emergency response and awareness of earthquake disaster mitigation
Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

China

Source: Ibrahim Komoo, 3 December 08, Side Event on “Innovative Partnerships for Transmitting Knowledge to National and Local Levels ”

CASE
Disaster Overview Date

STUDY
Ch

China: Earthquake in Wenchuan

12 May 2008

Magnitude Affected areas

8 Richter; surpassed Tangshan earthquake Wenchuan county, Sichuan province and 10 other provinces; 417 prefectures, 4667 counties, 48810 villages; 500,000 sq. km Geo-quake hazards including land collapse, landslide, mud and rock flow in Sichuan, Gansu, Shanxi provinces might have occurred in 13,000 points resulting from the earthquake. 35 quake lakes were formed.

Secondary disasters

Source: Pang Chenmin 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

China: Earthquake in Wenchuan

Disaster Overview Continued Economic loss US$12.4 billion (RMB 84.5 billion) US$ 11.3 billion (RMB 77.2 billion) in Sichuan 69, 227 46,250,000 15,106,000 17,923 374,600 7,960,000 245,430,000

Deaths (Oct 10, 2008) Affected Evacuated Missing (Oct 10, 2008) Wounded Collapsed houses Damaged houses

Source: Pang Chenmin 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

China: Earthquake in Wenchuan Response Activities

“In response to the destructive large-scale earthquake, the Chinese government set life rescues as a top priority by launching the operation of earthquake resistance and relief with rapid rescue efforts, wide resources mobilization and the most extensive input to have maximized rescue operation and minimized the impacts induced by earthquake.”

Command headquarter set-up

Rescue forces dispatched

All-out effort to save trapped people

Utmost assistance to injured people

National mourning day introduced

Assurance of basic life conditions provided

Wide social mobilization

Immediate repairing and restoration of lifeline projects

Safeguarding the market supply

Strict prevention from secondary disasters

Open media information flow

Scientific planning for reconstruction

Source: Pang Chenmin 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

China: Earthquake in Wenchuan

Review and Lessons Learned • Top priority was to rescue lives • Unified guidance, scientific deployment, highly effective operation system • Rapid response, quick decision decisionmaking, emergency response capacity • Wide social mobilization, participation to make the integrated effort • Open information flow, policy transparency, positive interaction with media • International understanding and selfless support
Source: Pang Chenmin 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch
Salient Statistics • 58.6% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to high intensity • Of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis. • Floods are recurrent events causing huge damage to properties and assets every year. • 68% of the cultivable area is drought prone • Hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches Social Vulnerability • 90 % affected by disasters are poor, marginalized & small farmers. Pockets of poverty are semi-arid & arid regions, flood plains, mountainous regions of NE, Himalaya Economic Impact • More than 2% loss to GDP. In some States (Assam, Bihar, AP), the loss is to the extent of 10-20 percent of state GDP. • Drought of 2001-02 led to 15% reduction in food production & significant drop in GDP (210 Mt to 180 Mt)

India

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Multi-stakeholder mechanism for DRR

India

• A paradigm shift from response and relief-centric approach to proactive prevention, mitigation, preparedness, rehabilitation and reconstruction • Disaster Management Act, 2005 • Legal, Institutional, Financial and Coordination mechanisms at National, State, District and Local level to integrate disaster risk reduction and mitigation in the developmental agenda • National Executive Committee (NEC) comprising of Secretaries from key Ministries/Departments of Government of India-a coordination mechanism • National Policy on Disaster Management is on anvil • National Plan on Disaster Management • National Response Plan • National Mitigation Plan • National Capacity Building Plan • “DRR is everybody’s business” in that every Ministry of Central and State Government has been assigned roles and responsibilities to address DRR • DRR integral part of planning process • National/State/ District Disaster Response Fund • National/State/ District Disaster Mitigation Fund • “Building Back Better”-the guiding principle of disaster recovery and reconstruction programmesin India
Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

Ch

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

India Disaster Management: Long-term vision

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

India Resources for Disaster Management
• Disaster Management Act 2005 • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) • State DMA, District DMA • National Executive Committee (NEC) • National Disaster Response Forces

Legal & Constitutional Provisions: Autonomous Authorities, Empowerment, Governance

Financial Mechanisms: Finance Commissions, Short term - Relief Funding, Aid mechanisms, Long Term - DM Act, Rehabilitation & Reconstruction Funds

• Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)/ National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) • For 2005-10 US$4.7 billion (Rs. 21,333 Cr.); 2000-05, US$2.4 billion (Rs. 11,007 Cr) • Long term Mitigation Fund –US$1.183 billion (Rs. 5,323 Cr.) for 2 Yrs (2008 & 09) • Cyclone, Earthquake, Flood & Drought Mitigation Funds

Technological Resources: Early Warning Systems, Information, Communication & Space, Technologies (ICST)

• Building Capacities • Space enabled Disaster Management Support • National Tsunami & Storm Surge EWS • Modernization of Met. Observation Systems

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Legislation for DRR • National Rural Employment Act,2005-an unique legislation aims at livelihood security and reducing vulnerability of community • The Environment Protection Act ,1996 • Environment Policy,2006 • Coastal Zone Regulations • Disability Act 1995 • The National Policy for Empowerment of Womengender mainstreaming for DRR • Panchayati Raj Act-73rd and 74th Amendment of the Indian Constitution

India
Disaster Preparedness for Effective Response • Tsunami Early Warning System established by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services ( INCOIS), Hyderabad • Key Departments/ Organizations identified to provide early warnings on different natural hazards • National Disaster Response Force • The National Emergency Communication Plan to provide last mile connectivity • The National Flood Atlas has been prepared by the Central Water Commission • The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) has been set up by the Survey of India to collect, compile, analyze and prepare value-added maps for use by various agencies in the field of DM. • Disaster Management Support Project –MHA-USAID initiative (training on ICS, procurement of advance search and rescue equipments etc.) • Community Based Disaster Risk Management Programme in 176 multi-hazard prone districts in the country-an initiative of MHA-UNDP • Emergency Operation Centers established at National, State and District level for effective coordination during disaster response

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

Ch

COUNTRY PROFILE
Capacity Development for Disaster Risk Reduction • National Institution of Disaster Management, (NIDM) established. NIDM also hosts SAARC-DMC • National Disaster Management Programme (NDMP) for training and capacity building of disaster managers. • National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management • National Programme for Capacity Building of Architects in Earthquake Risk Management. • Disaster Management in School Curriculum

India
Reducing the underlying risk factors through appropriate social, economic and sectoral development policies • The DM Act has made it mandatory for every Ministry/Department at National and State level to prepare disaster management plans and integrate DRR in the ongoing development programmes • DRR is not a stand-alone activity-integral part of developmental planning • Climate Change is unequivocal-disaster vulnerability closely linked to Climate Change • Mitigation measures indispensable for sustainable development • National Action Plan on Climate Change-identified Eight missions • National Solar Mission • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency. • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem • National Water Mission • National Mission for Green India • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture • National Mission for Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

Ch

COUNTRY PROFILE
Some of the key developmental programmes with Disaster Risk Reduction content • Drought Prone Area Programmeand Desert Development Programme. • National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme –provides wage employment in the rural areas, food security and creation of durable community assets • ISRO Disaster Management Support (DMS) Programme • National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (US$350 Million) • National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project (US $119 Million approx.) • National Landslide Risk Mitigation Project • School Safety Project • Retrofitting of select life-line structures

India
Contextual Challenges • Vast geographical spread and population pressure • Multi-hazard profile of the country with diverse physical topography • Capacity gaps in implementing Disaster Risk Reduction measures • The provisions of the DM legislation requires more time to get implemented on ground • Mitigation requires long-term planning and is resource intensive • Need to develop a strong mechanism for disaster information sharing • Need to strengthen the knowledge management systems • Enabling environment and roadmap for sustainable development

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

Ch

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

India

Source: O. Ravi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

India: Gujarat (Bhuj) Earthquake

Direct Losses • Human lives • Livestock, other animals • Private property • Municipal infrastructure • Power/ Telecommunication infrastructure • Health/ Education assets • Estimate: US$3.15 billion

Indirect Losses • Export/ import • Agricultural output • Industry/ Services output • Remittance income • Fall in earning potential due to disability, trauma • Unemployment • Health hazards • Estimate US$2.07 billion

Tertiary losses • Long-term development • Overall investment climate • Funds reallocation • Community migration/ relocation • Estimate US$628 million

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

India Gujarat (Bhuj ) Earthquake

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

India Gujarat (Bhuj ) Earthquake

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

India Gujarat (Bhuj ) Earthquake

Source: VS Hegde, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

Indonesia COUNTRY PROFILE GoI Policies on Disaster Management
Ch

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

Indonesia COUNTRY PROFILE Integration of Disaster Management Plans
Ch

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Indonesia Policies on DRR financing

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Indonesia Comprehensive Planning and Funding Arrangements for DRR

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Indonesia Position of NAP DRR within the Planning and Budgeting Process

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Indonesia DM and DRR related budget allocation in annual work plan 2007-2008

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Ch

Indonesia DM and DRR related budget allocation in annual work plan 2009

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Multilateral and Bilateral Loan /Grants for DRR
Ch

Indonesia Non-government budget for DRR

• Institutional and Regulatory development at national and local levels • Revitalization of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Areas • Conservation critical upstream watershed areas • Poverty reduction programs • Community Development Programs (livelihoods, settlement infrastructure program) • Development and strengthening on Early Warning System (including strengthening multi sector and multi stakeholder coordination and cooperation within early warning chain) • Infrastructure development (incl. regulation and building standards) • Strengthening BMG on Climate and Weather Services Capacity • DRR Education and Training Program • Raising Public Awareness

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Lessons Learned Ch

Indonesia

• Shifting the paradigm mandated in the DM law No 24/2007 enhances the participation form non-government multi stakeholders, mainly international community and NGOs in the DM and DRR activities • Indonesia experiences in recent disasters (Aceh & Jogya) have catalyzed the following: • Government acceleration of the finalization and implementation of DM and DRR regulatory and institutional frameworks • Enhancement of awareness of people of the importance of DRR • Attract international communities in supporting government in the promoting DRR • Commitment and support from international communities and donors provides significant advocacy policy frameworks and generates the implementation of mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development, such as Program SCDRR supported by UNDP, GFDRR by the World Bank, AusAID, JICA etc.
Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Challenges and the Way Forward

Indonesia

• Develop the derivation from the DM Law in line with mainstreaming DRR into sustainable development • Integrate and synergize strategies adopted by each sectors into a holistic approach of DRR in the development • Strengthen capacity of government institutions and apparatus in DM and DRR aspects • Improve public awareness through campaign, simulation drill, etc. • Introduce DRR Sensitivity Planning Approach as the bottom up development planning and budgeting approach starting at village levels • Formulate policy recommendation and strategy for the implementation of CBDRM that is currently implemented fragmentary by NGOs at sub-district and village levels • Shift the international donors and community focus on DRR implementation from ‘favorable areas’ (Aceh, Jogya) to other prone disaster areas • Formulate sustainable tools to link from rehabilitation and reconstruction stage to DRR and mitigation efforts, as well as integrate DRR and Climate Change (NAP-DRR and NAPA)

Source: Suprayoga Hadi, 3 December 08, High Level Round Table 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

Ch

CASE
Overview

STUDY
Ch

Korea: Beef Crisis

• Korea was third largest overseas market for US beef • In 2003, import stopped after the discovery of BSE or “mad cow disease” and resumed after trade talks in 2008 • There was still fear of the disease by Koreans and mass candlelight protests • Protests • Started with the fear of the unknown • Amplified by the internet-based media • Somewhat political and may have been anti-American instigated by leftwing groups

Source: Ji Bum Chung, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Korea: Beef Crisis

Social amplification of risk
• Relatively minor risk – as assessed by technical experts – elicited strong public concerns and impacts on society as a whole

Source: Ji Bum Chung, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Korea: Beef Crisis

Amplification Process
Cyber activists post plans and schedules about upcoming street protests on online discussion forums

Virtual petitions online to hundreds of thousands of people

Stir people’s anger or nationalistic sentiments

Social networking sites, instant messenger (IM), SMS, are used to help organize

Mass protests

Agents amplifying risk
• News providers • Internet discussion groups, internet forums • Independent private broadcasters who only use notebook computers and webcams
Source: Ji Bum Chung, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Malaysia

Official definition of a disaster • Incident that occurs in a sudden manner, complex in nature, resulting in the loss of lives, damages to property or the environment as well as affecting the daily activities of local community • Such incident requires the handling of resources, equipment, frequency and extensive manpower from various agencies as well as effective coordination and the possibility of demanding complex actions over a long period of time

Type of disasters covered in definition • Natural disaster such as floods and landslide • Industrial & technological disasters • Accidents of dangerous or hazardous materials • Collapse of high rise buildings & special structures • Aviation accidents in public areas • Railway accidents • Major Fire Incidents • Collapse of hydroelectric dams or reservoirs • Nuclear & radiological accidents • Release of poisonous & toxic gases in public places • Air & environmental disasters such as haze

Criteria for disasters: • 10 people or more killed, or • 100 people or more injured, or • 10 000 people or more evacuated, or • Vast area affected and causing extensive environmental degradation or ecological destruction, or • Level II or Level III disaster response activated

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CASE
Chronology

STUDY
Ch

Malaysia

• Uniform Building-By-Laws developed in 1984 and implemented in 1986 • Formation of HAZMAT team in 1994 • Occupational Safety and Health Act in 1994 • Special Malaysia Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team (SMART) in 1995 • Directive 20 of the National Security Council in 1997

Disaster Management and Relief Committee (DMRC)

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Malaysia

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Malaysia

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Malaysia

NGOs involved:
-Malaysian Red Crescent Society -MERCY -JIM, ABIM -Global Peace Malaysia -Global Sikh Malaysia -AMAN Malaysia -St. John Ambulance -Force of Nature -Haluan Malaysia

Incident Command Structure

Source: A. Fakhru’l-Razi, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Climate Change, Disaster Risk Governance and Emergency Management.”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

Major Disaster Events in Albay Province, 1990-2008

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

Development defined as: Albay Provincial Goal revised to: Climateproofed, Disasterproofed Development
• Compliance with MDG and improvement in Human Development Indicators • Disaster risk reduction and climate action are components of the central economic strategy, not the contingency plan

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

Key elements of Albay DRR Strategy
Risk Reduction • Risk Mapping • Geostrategic Intervention • CLUP • Climate change adaptation Disaster Preparedness • Work with Warning Agencies • Communitybased Warning Disaster Response • Info board • Preemptive Evacuation • Damage and Disaster Assessment Relief Operations • Demand-side relief Recovery • Cluster Approach

Disaster Proofing Development as an intervention in in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Adaptation

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

Resources for Institutionalized DMO • Permanent office created in 1994 with regular plantilla, operating funds • Sources of Funds • Regular allocation from the annual provincial budget (IRA) • Access to calamity fund for the operations of PDOC (5% of IRA) • Intermittent but steady flow of technical and logistical assistance from NG agencies, NGOs and INGOs for capacity building and skills training

PDOC Facilities and Equipment • Facilities include: Two-storey Apsemo building in center of capital city, office spaces, information room, conference room (50 -70 person capacity), radio room, staff quarters, warehouse, powerhouse and 3 units of power generators, communication and documentation equipment, GPS, 2 vehicles • Source of funds • Annual regular capital outlays • Some donated equipment (Italian Cooperation before and now Spain AECID)

Risk and resource mapping • PHIVOLCS • Earthquake mapping • Volcanic Hazard Mapping • REDAS training for LGUs • PAGASA • Flood Mapping • Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau • Landslide mapping • Manila Observatory • Mudflow (Lahar) mapping • LGU • Population and Resource Mapping • Comprehensive Land Use Plan

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

Structural (hard) interventions • • • • • • Geostrategic Interventions Dike construction Levees Slope protection Roads and Bridges River control

Non-Structural (soft) interventions • Comprehensive Land Use Plan • Environmental protection including Coastal Resource Management
Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Guicadale Business Platform
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

• This geostrategic intervention is both flagship economic project and main DRR strategy • Redirection of centers of business and residential activities • Components: • Relocation of 10,076 households in high risk areas; cost: Philippines 3.4 billion from NHA, province, INGOs • New international airport; cost-P3.4bn from DOTC national government • Road networks: cost-P878m - multi-year from 20% economic development fund of the province and DPWH allocations • New government center: cost-P176m from REPOA of PVB and province to acquire via long term loan
Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

Comprehensive Land Use Plan • Training of 18 municipalities in preparation of CLUPs and integration at provincial level • Integration of climate and disaster risks • Source of Funds: P16m from UNDF MDGCF Soil Analysis • BSWM-led soil testing of 15 LGUs with 3 already done (Polangui, Ligaoand Tiwi) • Source of Funds: P5m from DA MOOE to Provincial Government CLUP • No or selective investment in High Risk Zone • Maximum Protection in the low to moderate risk zone • Safe zone as the site for new development investments (GUICADALE Platform in Albay)

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE
GIS

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

• Upon completion, CLUP and Soil Analysis to be integrated into a comprehensive GIS • Source of Funds: DENR/NAMRIA, INGOs REDAS Training & GIS Software • Rapid Earthquake Damage Assessment System (REDAS) software in partnership with PHILVOCSDOST conducted last Sep. 2008 • Source of Funds: PhIVOLS for facilities, training materials and trainers • LGU counterpart for travelling and accommodation
Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province Systems for Preparedness

Health and Sanitation
• DOH

Relief and Rehabilitation
• PSWDO, PNRC, NGOs

Transportation and Engineering
• LTO, DPWH, PEO

Security
• PNP and AFP

Resources

Risk Mapping and Emergency Research Inventory of population-at-risk Inventory of safe evacuation centers Identification of safe evacuation route Livelihood analysis Skills inventory Source of Funds: Regular provincial budget Technical assistance to LGUs, Local Institutions and NGOs

Warning system
• PAGASA, PHIVOLCS, MGB, OCD

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province Community Based Early Warning System

Early Warning System • Establish Rainfall Monitoring Stations at the community Level Communication Protocol • Established through trainings, seminars and table-top-exercises • Install community emergency warning board Evacuation Procedures • Develops selection criteria on safe evacuation centers • Develops community evacuation plan with identified safe routes, triage system, pick-up safe areas and community assigned safe temporary holding areas
Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE
Info board

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province Response Systems
Critical Evacuation Centers
•Preemptive Evacuation •Camp management system

Relief
•Supply side (food items, non-food items) •Demand side (cash relief)

•Training/Workshop of 720 barangays •SMART INFOBOARD (SMS Broadcast Facility) •Free SMART Sims totaling 15,750 officials for the Disaster & Climate Risk Reduction Monitoring system

Search Rescue and Retrieval

Security

Price Monitoring and Control of basic and prime commodities

Water, Health, Sanitation and Nutrition

Management of Disaster Operation Center

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province Damage Assessment System

Damage and disaster assessment is coordinated by Apsemo that leads a interdepartmental team that coordinates with national counterparts

• PAS for agriculture with DA • PSWDO for housing with DSWD • PHO for casualties with • PEO for infrastructure

The damage assessment process starts with disaster risk assessment, preparedness activities and the pre-disaster warning phase and the emergency phase and even extends into the rehabilitation and recovery of the community

• Priorities prescribed • Scheduling prescribed • Forms prescribed • Protocols in information established

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Philippines: Albay Province

Lessons Learned on DRR & Development
Disaster Recovery and Development • Humanitarian resources are the same resources for development • Rehabilitation should be pursued in the context of a development strategy • Building back better • Building back elsewhere Disaster proofing of development • Disaster risk reduction must be a basic input to the Regional Master Plan • CLUP or zoning policy is key DRR instrument • ECC/EIA is second line of defence • Engineering intervention should be last recourse. • Disaster preparedness = development preparedness • Without disaster, DRR = economic expansion

Source: Joey Sarte Salceda, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE
Disaster Overview Date Magnitude Impact

STUDY
Ch

Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami
Costs (in SBD) Shelter 34,100,000 289,604,507 104,229,388 144,141,176

2 April 2007 8.1 Richter; wave of up to 10 meters 52 dead Thousands displaced 2777 destroyed structures 1614 damaged structures SBD $52 million - cost of response Landslides Transport & infrastructure Education Health infrastructure & medical services Agriculture Fisheries & Marine resources Future risk reduction Total

Secondary impact

6,215,000 8,569,460 4,835,000 591,694,530

Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

The Response • The National Disaster Council (NDC) activated the New Entry Officer Course (NEOC) immediately and set the Central Control Group (CCG) to work • Police Resources deployed immediately • Donor support was immediately made available to support the Government respond • Local communities immediately took charge of the situation • Red Cross and NGOs immediately got deploy their resources
Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

Lessons Learned • The NEOC was able to be activated immediately with the government taking the lead • Local communities were able to mobilise their own resources prior to support coming in • Donor support was very good • The resources held by NGOs were quickly deployed to impacted communities • Costs associated with mobilizing transportation for relief and assessments purposes. • Government agencies not sure of their roles and responsibilities thus limited effectiveness of the NEOC in coordinating government resources • Lack of capacity and arrangements at the provincial level. Members of the Provincial Disaster Committee were victims themselves • It was largely left to the NDMO with limited resources to coordinate Govt. response, interact with donors, UNDAC, NGO’s and deploy staff to the affected provinces for assessment and relief activities • The need to have donors understanding receiving countries needs and how they operate –cultural sensitivity • Non-standardization of assessment methodologies and forms
Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

Going forward • There is a realization in government that things did not go well and a determination amongst key officials and agencies that that should not happen again • There is acceptance that the institutional frameworks need to be strengthened with explicit arrangements and accountabilities across agencies and levels of government addressing risk reduction as well as disaster management • The institutional frameworks have been reviewed and the ND Act and National Plan are being rewritten • Implementation of the new arrangements will require a significant commitment over a number of years to create capacity at the national, provincial and community level • Engagement with government sectors, donors, NGO’s and the private sector will be necessary to achieve the outcome
Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

CASE

STUDY
Ch

Solomon Islands: Gizo Tsunami

The New Solomon Islands Institutional Framework for DRM (including Climate Change Adaptation) sets its basis on the following principals:

It is the role of the Solomon Island Government to provide for DRM through local, provincial, sector and national planning and to support community self help

DRM is supporting communities to understand and manage hazards and disasters safeguarding lives, property and livelihood

DRM is everyone’s business and a whole of country approach with:
• All agencies, communities and individual taking ownership • Everyone knowing their roles and responsibilities and accountabilities

Good governance is building on existing processes across all levels – national, provincial and communities with:
• Transparency, accountabilit y, efficiency and best practise • Strong relationship and clear arrangements within and across all sectors

Source: Loti Yates, 3 December 08, Technical Session 4 on “Resource Mobilization for Disaster Risk Reduction”

COUNTRY PROFILE
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Hazards • Floods • Landslides • Droughts • Coastal Erosion • Cyclonic Storms • Tsunami (2004) Shift to DRR • Prior to Tsunami of 2004, disaster management in Sri Lanka was more reactive than pro-active • Realized the urgent need for comprehensive disaster risk management in Sri Lanka Disaster Management Act No. 13 of 2005 • Provides for a legislative framework for DRM and addresses disaster management holistically, leading to a policy shift from response based to proactive approach towards DRR • The act provides for the establishment of National Council for Disaster Management (NCDM), a high level policy making body chaired by H.E. the President • Disaster Management Centre (DMC) as the operational arm of the National Council

Sri Lanka

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

COUNTRY PROFILE
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Sri Lanka

Towards a Safer Sri Lanka: Road Map for Disaster Risk Management • Policy, Institutional Mandates and Development • Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Assessment • Multi Hazard Early Warning • Preparedness and Response Planning • Mitigation and Integration of DRR into Development • Community-based Disaster Risk Management • Public Awareness, Education and Training

National Disaster Management Coordination Committee • Representatives from Govt. agencies, Donors, UN agencies, INGOs, NGOs, Media, Professional and Academic institutions, Private sector, and CBOs under the leadership of Secretary, Ministry of Disaster Management • Joint work planning to minimize duplication of efforts • Regular monthly meetings • Four Core groups • Preparedness Planning • Disaster Mitigation • Training & Awareness • Education

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

COUNTRY PROFILE
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Sri Lanka

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

COUNTRY PROFILE
Develop and implement risk reduction strategies • Development of standards for hazard and vulnerability assessments (risk profile of Sri Lanka for different hazards) are presently in progress by technical institutions. This process is being coordinated by the Disaster Management Centre • National and Sub-national level Disaster Management Plans of Sri Lanka which are under preparation – right balance across preparedness, response and recovery • Disaster Mitigation programs (both hard and soft) - with GOSL and donor funding

Sri Lanka Priority Areas
Establish Regional and National Response Mechanisms including EWS • A 24 x 7 Emergency Operation Centre has been established at the Disaster Management Centre • An Emergency Response Committee at national level has been established • Identification of national organizations esponsible for early warning in the case of more frequent disasters already identified • Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) are being developed • Focal institutions responsible for EW have developed linkages with regional and global centers • National early warning systems have been strengthened

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

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COUNTRY PROFILE
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Sri Lanka Priority Areas
Develop and implement Disaster Management training, education, research and awareness programs • Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in education curriculum already in progress in collaboration with GTZ & NIE • Post graduate programs have been initiated in local universities • Several programs are planned to encourage research in DRR (e.g. Symposium on DRR, Research Grants etc.) • A lot of awareness material on different hazards has been developed. More in progress

Strengthening of Early Warning Systems • Tsunami Hazard • three tide gauges at Colombo, Kirinda and Trincomalee • Only one seismograms (at Pallekele) • Two more planned for A’pura and Hakmana in 2009 (Geofon) • Meteorological Hazards • doppler weather radar will be added to the observation system in 2009 • a network of automatic weather stations (38) • a network of automatic rain gauge stations • improvement of GTS line speed (512k)

Source: Lalith Chandrapala, 1 December 08, Pre-Conference Event on “Operationalising SAARC Comprehensive Framework on disaster Management”

COUNTRY PROFILE
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Overview Location Total area Population Southeast Asia 333,000 km2 3200km coastline 86.5 million (2008) 226/km2 Urban: 27 percent Rural: 73 percent Flood Typhoons Fire Landslides Drought 700-800 dead or missing 1000s injured Over US$300 million (1-1.5 percent of GDP)

Vietnam

Hazards

Annual impact from hazards

Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

Vietnam COUNTRY PROFILE Structure of National Response
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Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.”

Vietnam COUNTRY PROFILE Organization for Flood and Storm Response
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Source: Đào Xuân Học, Technical Session 3 on “Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Involvement & Empowerment of Local Governments and Non-governmental Organizations.””

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