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Health & Safety Executive

HSE

Elevated temperature and high strain rate properties of offshore steels

Prepared by the Steel Construction Institute for the Health and Safety Executive

OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

2001/020

Health & Safety Executive

HSE

Elevated temperature and high strain rate properties of offshore steels

B Burgan Steel Construction Institute Silwood Park Buckhurst Road ASCOT SL5 7QN

HSE BOOKS

Crown copyright 2001 Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to: Copyright Unit, Her Majestys Stationery Office, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ First published 2001 ISBN 0 7176 2023 9 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

This report is made available by the Health and Safety Executive as part of a series of reports of work which has been supported by funds provided by the Executive. Neither the Executive, nor the contractors concerned assume any liability for the reports nor do they necessarily reflect the views or policy of the Executive.

 


 
  
 




 
     

  
     
    
   
  

 
 
   
  
  

   
 
  
  


       
   
  
 
  


  


 
  



        




 
     


  
    

 

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CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 SURVEY OF COMMONLY USED STEELS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Structural steel for topsides and sub-structures High strength steels for jack-ups Pressure vessel steels Piping in topside facilities Casing steels TEST METHODS USED FOR MEASURING MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL Methods to measure elevated temperature material properties Methods of measuring strain rate effects MATERIAL DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE AND EXPLOSION DESIGN Material property data for fire resistance design Material property data for explosion resistance design EXISTING ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA FOR HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL CARBON STEELS Eurocode 3 Part 1.2 Quenched and tempered steels Thermo-mechanically rolled steel Fire resistant steels EXISTING ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA OF STAINLESS STEELS Grade 1.4301 (304) stainless steel Grade 1.4404 (316L) stainless steel Grade 1.4462 (2205) duplex stainless steel Grade 1.4362 (SAF 2304) duplex stainless steel

1 1 6 8 9 10

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2

11 11 13

2.1 2.2 3

15 15 17

3.1 3.2 4

21 21 28 29 32

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5

35 36 40 45 50

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

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1 SURVEY OF COMMONLY USED STEELS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES


 
   
 
    
    
  

    

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1.1 STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR TOPSIDES AND SUB-STRUCTURES 1.1.1 Design premise

 
 


 
 

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10

2 TEST METHODS USED FOR MEASURING MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL




 
  


 
 
 
  


 
 
  

  
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2.1 METHODS TO MEASURE ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MATERIAL PROPERTIES

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MATERIAL DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE AND EXPLOSION DESIGN

  
  
 

 
  
   
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3.1 MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA FOR FIRE RESISTANCE DESIGN

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Figure 6 Typical stress-strain curve profile at a high strain rate



 

   
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Figure 8 Linearized stress strain curve allowing for strain rate effects

19

20

EXISTING ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA FOR HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL CARBON STEELS

 

   





   

 
  
  
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22

Table 14 Reduction factors at elevated temperatures for stress-strain profiles at elevated temperatures

         
  
    
 
    





          
  
      
 







 

   
    

  





  

  


  
         
 
  

  

    

10 "000 "000 "000 "000 "00 "000 "000 "000 "000 100 "000 0#11 0B0! 0#00 (00 "000 0B/) 06"( 0B00 /00 "000 0!!0 0/10 0!00 )00 0!B0 06") 0(60 0600 600 0/!0 0()/ 0"B0 0("0 !00 01(0 0"6! 00!) 0"(0 B00 0""0 00B! 00)0 00#0 #00 0060 00)" 00(B 006B "000 00/0 00(/ 001) 00/) ""00 0010 00"! 00"( 001( "100 0000 0000 0000 0000 >=*D 7 


 
  




 
 
 
    

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Effective yield s trength Proportional lim it Slope of elas tic range

Reduction factor k

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 200 400 600 800

1000

1200

Temperature  C

Figure 10 Reduction factors for the stress-strain relationship of steel at elevated temperatures

23

4.1.1 Stress-strain relationships at elevated temperatures


 
    
  


 

 
  

  
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700 C 800 C 600 C

Strain Figure 11 Variation of stress-strain relationship with temperature for grade S355 steel (strainhardening not included, see section 4.1.2)

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6


100 C 200 C 300 C 400 C 500 C

a/fy

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600 C

0.3 0.2 0.1


800 C 700 C

0.0 0 0.005 0.01 Strain 0.015 0.02

Figure 12 Variation of stress-strain relationship with temperature for grade S460 steel (strainhardening not included, see section 4.1.2)

24

Table 15 Stress-strain relationship at elevated temperatures for grade S355 steel


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25

Table 16 Stress-strain relationship at elevated temperatures for grade S460 steel


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4.1.2 Strain-hardening of steel at elevated temperatures

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27

4.1.3 Thermal properties



 
   

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Figure 14 Thermal elongation of steel as a function of temperature

4.2 QUENCHED AND TEMPERED STEEL






 
  
   

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500 450
Grade 55F RQT 501

0.2% PS MPa

400 350 300 250 200 0 100 200 300 400 500

Temperature C
Figure 15 Effect of composition on strength of RQT 501 steel

    


 
  

 


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4.3 THERMO-MECHANICALLY ROLLED STEEL 4.3.1 Grade S355 M

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2 Strength N/mm

Yieldstreng th 25mmp l

400 350 300 250 200 0 100 200 300 400 500 Tem perature C

Yieldstreng th 50mmp l

T ensilestreng th 25mmp l

T ensilestreng th 50mmp l

Figure 16 Elevated temperature material properties for S355 thermo-mechanically rolled steel - Dillinger

4.3.2 Grade S420 M

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Temperature C Figure 17 Yield strength reduction factor ky, for the structural steels studies at temperatures up to 700C

  

   
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2 Strength N/mm

400 Yield strength 20mm pl Yield strength 50mm pl 200 Tensile strength 20mm pl Tensile strength 50mm pl

300

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0 0 100 200 300 Temperature C 400 500

Figure 18 Elevated temperature material properties for S460M thermo-mechanically rolled steel - Dillinger

    


  


 
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Yield Strength factor

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 S275 FR2 FR1

Temperature C

Figure 19 Yield strength factor at elevated temperatures for fire resistant and S275 steels

33

34

5 EXISTING ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA OF STAINLESS STEELS


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Figure 20 Elevated temperature stress-strain curves for 1.4301 (304) stainless steel derived from transient state tests


 
  

    
      

 

 

  
     
  
 
  

   

                  





 
     
 
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36

Table 18 Strength factors at elevated temperatures for grade 1.4301 (304) stainless steel based on transient state tests

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0.5% 1.0% 1.50% 2.00% 3.00%

"(00 ""/# "06) "010 0##0 0#6" 0#(( 0#0) 0B!6 0B/B 0B10 0!#0 0!/0 06/# 0)"B 0/"" 0(1/

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Tem perature C

Figure 21 Relationship between strength factor and temperature for various strains

5.1.2 Comparison of steady state and transient state test results

   


      
 
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Table 19 Comparison of strengths at 0.5% and 1.0% strain derived from steady state and transient state tests
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5.1.1 Comparison of results with previously published data

7
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Strength factor at 2% strain

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Ref [11] Ref [10]

700

800

900

Temperature C Figure 22 Comparison of strength factors at 2% strain derived from SCI ECSC transient state test programme [10] with those obtained from the Helsinki transient test programme [11]


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1.1 1.0 0.9 Strength factor 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Tem perature C
0.5% s train B S 5950 Pt 8 1.0% s train B S 5950 Pt 8 0.5% s train S CI ECS C [10] 1.0% s train S CI ECS C [10]

Figure 23 Comparison between SCI ECSC data (transient tests) and existing guidance (steady state tests) for elevated temperature strength of grade 1.4301 (304) stainless steel

7
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300 0.2% Proof strength (N/mm 2) BS EN 10088-2 Min values 250 SCI ECSC data [10]

200

150

100

50 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Te m pe rature C

Figure 24 Comparison of minimum specified 0.2% proof strength in EN 10088-2 with the measured 0.2% proof strength data from the SCI ECSC transient state test programme

7
1/  
 
 

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39

5.1.3 Elastic modulus

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Reduction in elastic modulus

0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Aves ta S heffield T hys s en Ugine B S E N 10088 Nordberg [13]

700

800

900

Tem perature C

Figure 25 Reduction of elastic modulus with temperature

5.2 GRADE 1.4404 (316L) STAINLESS STEEL

4  
  

  
 

  

   

 
 
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16 ,   
      


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40

400 350
100 C

Stress (N/mm)

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

200 C 400 C 600 C


700 C 800 C

Strain %

Figure 26 Elevated temperature stress-strain curves for grade 1.4404 (316L) stainless steel derived from transient state tests

5.2.1 Ambient temperature and steady state tests





 





 

 

 
  

   
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Table 20 Ambient and elevated temperature steady state tensile tests
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1!/0 "B0( "!/# "6"6 "6(6 ""B0

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((01 1)// 11/" 1"00 10)) "1)!

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(6 (B (B (6 /1 #1

5.2.2 Transient state tests

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41

Table 21 Temperatures for 1.4404 (316L) stainless steel for various critical strains and strength factors 

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1.0% 1.5%

Strength factor

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

2.0% 3.0%

800

900

Temperature C

Figure 27 Relationship between strength factor and temperature for various strains

 
11 
    
    
    
 

  
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    &17: 41&: &17: 41&: 417: 01&: 51&: 71&:

         


               

 
             
     
 

  
 
     
   


       

     




 

 
  
      

        


 
 
 
 
   
   
    

          


 
 
           

       


   
 
 
 


   


      
     
 
   
    


5.2.3 Comparison of steady state and transient state test results

 
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Table 23 Comparison between the results measured by the steady state and transient state heating test methods

#   &17:
   
  
    


   
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   41&: 417: 01&: 51&: &17: 41&: 417: 01&:
     
 
      
 
  
       

 
    
   
 
    
    
 
  

51&:

    

5.2.4 Comparison of results with previously published data


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1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 Strength factor 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Tem perature C
0.5% s train B S 5950 P t 8 1.0% s train B S 5950 P t 8 0.5% s train S CI E CS C 1.0% s train S CI E CS C

Figure 28 Comparison between new data (transient tests) and existing guidance on the elevated temperature strength of 316 stainless steels

 
   


    
 
   

    
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1.0 0.9 0.8

Strength factor

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
EN 10088 Min vals SCI ECSC [10]

Temperature C
Figure 29 Comparison of minimum specified 0.2% proof strength in EN 10088-2 with the measured 0.2% proof strength data from the SCI ECSC transient state test programme

7
1#  
 
 

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5.2.5 Elastic modulus

4  

       
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1.00 0.95 Reduction in elastic modulus 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Te m pe rature C Inco Avesta Shef f ield Thyssen Ugine BS EN 10088 Nordberg [13]

Figure 30 Reduction of elastic modulus with temperature

5.3 GRADE 1.4462 (2205) DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

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45

5.3.1 Steady state tests results

4 
  

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1/
Table 24 Elevated temperature material properties for 1.4452 (2205) stainless steel obtain by RWTH[10] - (Steady state tests)

#  10 100 /00 600 !00 !)0 B00 #00

  100000 "B)000 "!6000 "/!000 "1)000 B(000 "00000 !)000

    )66 (## ()1 16! "6! "/( "11 6#


   )#1 /(0 /0) (0B "BB "!0 "!" !0

   !!( 616 6(( /"# 1B0 1(B 100 "(0

    )66 /0( (6/ 1B" "!) "/B "1! !0

    6(# /)( /(" (1/ 1() 1"" "BB "1!

4  
 
 
 
   
1)
Table 25 Elevated temperature material properties for 1.4462 (2205) stainless steel obtain from various sources[13] - (Steady state tests)

# A 10 )0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 )00 600 !00 B00

, - 4&&%% /)0 2 (60 (() (") (00 2 2 2 2 2

   #

B 

+.

  B  +.

)00 2 /"0 2 ()1 2 ()( ((1 1(0 "(# ""0

2 /10 (60 (/0 (10 ("0 2 2 2 2 2

2 /") (60 2 ("0 2 1B0 2 2 2 2

2 6/0 610 )#) )B0 )B0 2 2 2 2 2

2 660 610 2 )!0 2 )60 2 2 2 2

     
  01J   
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 9
 
 

      7
 ("  (1

46

600
S CI E CS C

500

B S E N 10088 T hys s en [12]

Rp0.2 (N/mm )

400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500

Aves ta S heffield [12]

600

700

800

900

Temperature C
Figure 31 Comparison of 0.2% proof stress values for Grade 1.4462 (2205) duplex steel from various sources[13]

900 800 Ultimate strength (N/mm 2) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Te m pe rature C SCI ECSC [10] Avesta Shef f ield [12] Ugine [12]

Figure 32 Comparison of ultimate strength values for grade 1.4462 (2205) duplex steel from various sources[13]

5.3.2 Transient state tests

 
 

   


  

 

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47

1.0 0.9
3.00% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00% 0.50% strain strain strain strain strain

Strength factor

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0 100 200 300 400 500

600

700

800

Temperature C
Figure 33 Grade 1.4462 (2205) duplex steel - relationship between strength factor and temperature for various strains - SCI ECSC[10] tests

5.3.3 Comparison between steady state and transient state test results

    
  


 
 
  
 

     
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(/ >
  
   
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Table 26 Comparison of results between steady state and transient state tests for grade 1.4462 (2205) stainless steel

    #  00 /00 600 !00

#
   

 
/0( (6/ 1B" "!)

 

   
/)( /(" (1/ 1()

   
/1# (!" 1!! ")!

   
/#" /0/ (10 1(6

48

600 500

Strength (N/mm2)

400 300
0.5% Is o' tes t

200 100 0 200

2.0% Is o' tes t 0.5% anis o' tes t 2.0% anis o tes t

300

400

500

600

700

800

Temperature C

Figure 34 Comparison of data obtained from steady state and transient state tests, which were performed by RWTH

  


 

 
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5.3.4 Elastic modulus


   




  
     

 
  
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Reduction factor for elastic modulus

1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Ugine [12] Nordberg [13] SCI ECSC [10]

Temperature C

Figure 35 Reduction of elastic modulus with temperature for Grade 1.4462 (2205) stainless steel

49

5.4 GRADE 1.4362 (SAF 2304) DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

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Table 26 Avesta Sheffield elevated temperature data for Grade 1.4362 (SAF 2304)
# 

)0 "00 100 (00




0


/00 (60 (") 1!) 160

 

 



/)0 /"0 (B0 (10 (00

 


6/0 600 )!0 )(0 )00

*



 

  
 
  
 


  
 
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1! 
 
 
 
    

  
 
 
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Table 27 Elevated temperature material properties for Grade 1.4362 (SAF 2304) stainless steel taken from Avesta research report[17]
#   
/B/ /(! (#! (6B ((0 (11 (06 1#( ((" 1#) 11" "!) ")( "1" B# !1 (") ""# /(



)/( /B# /(! /06 (66 ()! (/) ((1 (!6 (1# 1/6 "#! "B6 "/( B# !B () "( 6

0
)0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 /00 /)0 )00 ))0 600 6)0 !00 !)0 B00 #00 "000 ""00

6B6 6)" )#/ )61 )(6 )(" )(( )"" )11 /6B (60 (01 1!! 11) "() ""1 66 () "#

50

700 600 500


0.2% P S T yp 1.0%P S T yp Ult s trength T yp 0.2% P S Min 1.0% P S Min Ult s trength Min

Stress N/mm 2

400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

800

900

1000 1100

Temperature C

Figure 36 Elevated temperature properties for Grade 1.4362 (SAF 2304) stainless steel based on steady state tests

5.4.1 Elastic modulus

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1B 

  
  7
(!  

  
     

 

Table 28 Elastic modulus at various temperatures for Grade 1.4362 (SAF 2304) stainless steel
#  0& 4&& 0&& 5&&

+ 
     '>5 ;
   
1.00

100 "

"#/ 0#!

"B6 0#(

"B0 0#

0.98

Reduction factor

0.96
B S E N 10088-1

0.94

0.92

0.90 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Temperature C Figure 37 Reduction of elastic modulus with temperature for Grade 1.4362 (SAF 2304) stainless steel

51

52

6 EXISTING ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA FOR HIGH STRENGTH STEEL USED FOR VESSELS AND PIPING
6.1 VESSEL STEELS

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6.1.1 BS EN 10 028 Part 2 steels

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Table 29 BS EN 10 028 Part 2 alloy steels and equivalent BS 1501 steels

, - 4& &0% 
 0

A())'@ "" 3 + #2"0

-C .
   
  , 47&4 +# 4 +# 0 2 2 2 611 2 )") 

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53

Table 30 Elevated temperature material properties for BS EN 10 028 Part 2 alloy steels

# ' 
A())'@

60 O60"00 O"00")

  &10: 
 
    

 7& 4&& 47& 0&& 07& 5&& 57& 6&&  
("B 1#B 1!B 1#0 1!0 1)0 1!0 1)) 1/0 1)) 1/0 1(0 1() 110 1"0 1") 100 "#) 100 "#0 "!) "B0 "6) "))

Table 31 Elevated temperature material properties for BS EN 10 028 Part 2 steels

 
1!"

# ' 
1) O1)!) O!)")0 1) O1)!) O!)")0 1) O1)!) O!)")0

  &10: 
 
    

  4&& 47& 0&& 07& 5&& 57& 6&& 67& 7&& 77& 
/10 /01 (6( /10 /01 (6( (") (00 1#0 /06 (B# (/# /06 (B# (/# (0) 1#0 1B0 (#B (B0 (/" (#B (B0 (/" 1#" 1!! 16B (B# (!1 ((1 (B# (!1 ((1 1B0 16) 1)6 (!/ ()/ ("0 (!/ ()/ ("0 166 1)0 1(# (6( (/( (0" (6( (/( (0" 1)) 1(B 11! ()" ((1 1#1 ()" ((1 1#1 1)" 1(/ 111 (/! (1# 1B# (/! (1# 1B# 1/) 11B 1"! ("/ (0" 166 ("/ (0" 166 1(B 11" 1"" 2 2 2 2 2 2 11! 1"" 10"

1B"

61"

6.1.2 BS EN 10 028 Part 3 steels




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2  
  

  
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Table 32 BS EN 10 028 Part 3 weldable fine grain normalized steels and equivalent BS 1501 steels

, - 4& &0% @ 5 A ()) > A ()) >@ A ()) >?" A ()) >?1 A /60 > A /60 >@ A /60 >?" A /60 >?1

, 47&4> +# 4 11) 2 /#0  ? 10 11) 2 /#0  ? 10 11) 2 /#0  ? )0 11) 2 /#0  ? )0 2 2 2 2


A()) > 

 

 

 

  
 
  

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Table 33 Elevated temperature material properties for BS EN 10 028 Part 3 weldable fine grain normalized steels and equivalent BS 1501 steels

# ' 

 *> "0 01B A

 ")0" 2 11) 2

 *> "0 01B A

 ")0"

"00 ")0 () O()!0 O!0"00 O"00")0

() O()!0 O!0"00 O"00")0 "6 O"6/0 O/06(

  &10: 
 
   + #

  7& 4&& 47& 0&& 07& 5&& 57&  ((6 (0/ 1B/ 1/) 116 1"6 "#6 ("( 1#/ 1!) 1/) 116 1"6 "#6 (00 1!) 1)) 1() 1"6 "#6 "!! 1B0 1)) 1() 1"6 "#6 "!! ")! 2 2 1B/ 1)B 1/0 110 106 2 2 1B/ 1)B 1/0 110 106 2 2 1B/ 1)B 1/0 110 106 2 2 16" 1(! 11" 101 "#0 2 2 1(( 1"1 "#! "B0 "6# 2 /01 (!( ((( ("/ 1#/ 16) 2 (#1 (6( ((( ("/ 1#/ 16) 2 (!( (/( (1/ 1#/ 1!) 1/) 2 ()( (1/ (0/ 1!) 1)) 116 >= 3=;;* A=>4>' ';4*

6&&

"6! "6! "/! "1! "#) "#) "#) "!# "60 1() 1() 1"6 "#6



E 
 
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Table 34 Elevated temperature material properties for ISO 9328-4 weldable fine grain steels with high proof stress supplied in the normalised or quenched and tempered condition

A@5A?@ ()) > A@5A?@ (#0 > A@5A?@ /10 > A@5A?@ /60 >

  &10: 
 
   + #

  47& 0&& 07& 5&& 57& 6&& 1B/ 1/) 116 1"6 "#6 "6! ("/ 1!) 1)) 1/) 1"6 "B6 (/0 (0/ 1!) 16) 1() 106 (!( ((( ("/ 1#/ 16) 1()

6.1.3 BS EN 10 028 Part 4 steels

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6.1.4 BS EN 10 028 Part 5 steels
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55

6.1.5 BS EN 10 028 Part 6 steels

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Table 35 Elevated temperature material properties for BS EN 10 028 Part 6 weldable fine grain quenched and tempered steels

7&

   

*> "0 01B A ()) C@ *> "0 01B A /60 C@ *> "0 01B A )00 C@ *> "0 01B A 6#0 C@

(/0 //) /#0 6!0

  &10: 
 
   + #

  4&& 47& 0&& 07&   ("0 1B) 160 1() /1) /0) (B0 (60 /!0 /)0 /10 /00 6/) 6") )#) )!)

5&&

1") (/0 (B0 )!0

4       

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E 
 
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Table 36 Elevated temperature material properties for ISO 9328-4 weldable fine grain steels with high proof stress supplied in the normalised or quenched and tempered condition

47&

A@5A?@ /60 C A@5A?@ )00 C A@5A?@ ))0 C A@5A?@ 610 C A@5A?@ 6#0 C
6.1.6 BS EN 10 028 Part 7 steels

(6/ /") /66 )(! )B!

  &10: 
 
   + #

  0&& 07& 5&& 57&   (/! ((B (1B (") (#B (BB (!# ()/ //# /(# /1# /"( )10 )"0 )00 /B" )!0 )60 ))0 )(0

6&&

1#" ((# (B! /)( )00

 *> "0 01B A  !D  




    



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56

Table 37 Elevated temperature material properties for BS 1501 Part 3 corrosion and heat resisting steels


  0& 4&&

(0/ "" (0/ (" (0/ )" (0/ 6" (0# "6 ("0 "6 ("6 "" ("6 "( ("6 (" ("6 (( ("6 )" ("6 )( ("6 6" ("6 6( (10(" (1" (" (1" )" (/! (" (/! )" ("B "( #0/ "(

"B0 "#) "#) 1!0 10) 10) "#0 "#0 10) 10) 10) 10) 1B0 1B0 1"0 100 "!) 10) 10) /B0 110

"1" "(1 "(1 "#6 "/0 "/0 "/1 "/1 ")) ")) ")) ")) 10/ 10/ "6) ")/ "1B "!" "!" (60 "!)

  &10: 
 
   

  47& 0&& 07& 5&& 57& 6&& 67& 7&& 77& 8&&  "0B #B #0 B1 !6 !/ !" !0 6B 6! "10 "0# "00 #( B! B/ B" !# !B !6 "10 "0# "00 #( B! B/ B" !# !B !6 "6# ")) "/( "() "1# "1( ""# "") ""( ""0 "1B ""6 "0B "00 #/ #" B6 B) B/ B1 "1B ""6 "0B "00 #/ #" B6 B) B/ B1 "(0 "10 "0# "0" #6 #0 B! B/ B" !# "(0 "10 "0# "0" #6 #0 B! B/ B" !# "// "(1 "1" ""( "0! "0" #B #) #1 #0 "// "(1 "1" ""( "0! "0" #B #) #1 #0 "// "(1 "1" ""( "0! "0" #B #) #1 #0 "// "(1 "1" ""( "0! "0" #B #) #1 #0 "!B "6/ ")/ "/6 "/0 "(6 "(1 "1# "16 "1/ "!B "6/ ")/ "/6 "/0 "(6 "(1 "1# "16 "1/ ")0 "(! "1B "11 ""! ""1 "0# "0) "01 "00 "/# "// "(# "() "1# "1/ ""# ""6 """ "0B "1( ""! ""/ ""0 "0) "00 #) #( #0 BB "61 ")( "/! "(# "(( "1# "16 "1/ "11 "1" "61 ")( "/! "(# "(( "1# "16 "1/ "11 "1" (() ("0 1#) 1B) 2 2 2 2 2 2 "6) ")) "/) "() "(0 "1) "10 ""0 "0) 2

87& 9&&

2 2 2 "0B 2 2 !B !B B# B# B# B# "11 "11 #! "0) B6 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 "06 2 2 !! !! BB BB BB BB ""B ""B #6 "01 B/ 2 2 2 2

6.1.7 Commentary on vessel steels

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700
2 0.2% Proof Strength N/mm

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

271/281 P 355 NH P 460 QH P 690 QH

400

450

500

Temperature C

Figure 38 Elevated temperature material properties for a selection of pressure vessel steels

6.2 PIPING STEELS









 

  
 
   


 

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58

Table 38 Elevated temperature material properties for BS 3602 Part 1 pipe steels

)00>

(/(

  &10: 
 
    

  0& 7& 4&& 47& 0&& 07& 5&& 57& 6&& 67&
((( ("( 1#" 16! "// 111 10( "BB "!!

Table 39 Elevated temperature material properties for BS 3604 pipe steels


 4

  &10: 
 
    

  0& 7& 4&& 47& 0&& 07& 5&& 57& 6&& 67& 7&& 77&
(#B //B 2 2 2 2 (B6 /(1 2 2 2 2 (6( /06 /11 1B0 (") 1#1 (/B (BB /"1 1!0 (0) 1B( ((/ (!/ /01 1)B 1#" 1!) ((0 (60 (#1 1/! 1B0 166 (16 (/B (B1 11B 166 160 (11 (/0 (!( 1") 1)) 1)1 ("6 (16 (/( 1"" 1)" 1/) ("" (0# 2 106 1/) 1(" 1#0 1B" 2 2 2 2 1() 1/( 2 2 2 2

61#2)#0 !61 )#"


 0
610 61" 611

Table 40 Elevated temperature material properties for selected BS 3605 pipe steels

(0/ (0/ ("6 ("6

"" ("5)" ""5"( ("5((5)"5)

"6B "!B "!! "B#

  41&: 
 
    

  4&& 47& 0&& 07& 5&& 57& 6&& 67& 7&& 77& 8&& 87&
")0 "60 "6" "!1 "(! "/! "/# ")# "1B "(# "(# ")0 "11 "(1 "(( "/( ""6 "1) "1! "(! ""0 "10 "1( "(( "0B ""! ""# "1# 2 2 2 "1) 2 2 2 "1" 2 2 2 ""# 2 2 2 ""6

500
2 Min 0.2% Proof Strength N/mm

B S 3602 - 500Nb

450 400 350 300 250 200 150 0 100 200 300 400

B S 3604 - 629-590 B S 3604 - 762 B S 3604 - 591

500

600

Temperature C

Figure 39 Elevated temperature material properties for a selection of pipeline steels

59

60

7 EXISTING MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA AT HIGH STRAIN RATES


 
 


 
      


      

   
   



  
 

    
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7.1 STRUCTURAL CARBON STEELS

     


   


  

 


  
   

  

 
 
 
     
 

 
  
     
  

 
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7.1.1 Strain rate sensitivity in structural steels

      


  
   




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Figure 40 Effects of strain rate on the behaviour of mild steel





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62

1.7

Dynamic increase factor

1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0.001

A 36 A514

0.01

0.1

10

Strain rate s-1

Figure 41 Dynamic increase factor for yield strength of mild and high strength steel versus strain rate

7.2 COWPER-SYMONDS RELATIONSHIP

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316 S AF 2304 2205 D=240s -1; q=4.74 D=3489s -1; q=5.77 D=5958s 1;q=6.36

Strain rate s -1

Figure 45 Variation of 0.2% proof stress with strain rate and the Cowper-Symonds relationship which best describe the effect for 316L, SAF22304 and 2205 stainless steels

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Table 7.3 Strain rate enhancement for 0.1%, 0.2% and 1.0 % proof strengths


 
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68

8 NEW ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MATERIAL PROPERTY FOR BS 7191 GRADE 355EM(Z) AND 450EM(Z) STEELS
     
  
   

 
 

    
  






 

  
    



  





 

  
  
 
     
     
      

  
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Table 41 Ambient temperature tensile properties of the plates supplied




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Table 42 Strength factors at various critical strains for Grade 355EM(Z), 12mm plate (Normalised)


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41&:

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71&:

74

Table 43 Strength factors at various critical strains for Grade 355EM(Z), 30mm plate (Normalised)

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51&:
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71&:
""61 """) ""0" "0## "0#/ "0#1 "0B0 "0!) "0)) 0#1B 0!1( 0)!B 0/1/ 0(00 0"B"

Table 44 Strength factors at various critical strains for Grade 355EM(Z), 60mm plate (Normalised)

# 
10 )0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 ()0 /00 /)0 )00 ))0 600 6)0 !00


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01&:
0#!) 0#/0 0B6) 0B/B 0B(( 0B1/ 0B") 0!B# 0!60 06B) 0)6# 0/!0 0(/# 01(B 0")0

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71&:
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75

Table 45 Strength factors at various critical strains for Grade 355EM(Z), 12mm plate (TMCR)

#  0
)0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 ()0 /00 /)0 )00 ))0 600 6)0 !00


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0#B0 0)10 0#(B 0#"B 0BBB 0B0B 0!"B 06#0 0666 06") 0)1# 0/"6 0((1 016/ 0"#!

41&:
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417:
0#B6 0#)# 0#// 0#1" 0B#/ 0B!1 0B/1 0B11 0!B) 0!1# 06/0 0/#/ 0(!B 0(00 011)

01&:
0##0 0#60 0#/) 0#11 0B#6 0B#/ 0B!0 0B)) 0B16 0!66 066# 0)10 0(#( 0(0B 01(1

51&:
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71&:
"0B0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0() "010 "00) 0##0 0B#6 0!/) 0)#) 0/(0 0((( 01)6

Table 46 Strength factors for Grade 355EM(Z), (Normalised) applicable to plates up to 63mm

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10 )0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 ()0 /00 /)0 )00 ))0 600 6)0 !00


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01&:
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51&:
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71&:
"0#" "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0/) "0(( "00) 0BB/ 06B0 0)/0 0(#) 01!( 0"B"

76

Table 47 Stress strain data from transient tests for Grade 355 EM(Z), 12 mm plate (Normalised)


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0000 00!B 00B! 00#1 00#6 0"00 0"1( 0"1) 0"(" 0"(# 0")0


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00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

4&&
00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1!6# 2 2 1#/! 1#!B 1##( (000 (000 (000 (00( (00! (0"0 (0"/ (0"B (01) (01B (0(1 (0() (0/1 (0)( (0!B ("0( (1#/ (/!# 2 2 (60( (!1B (!1B

0&&
00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1)1" 2 1)B/ 2 16"6 16(/ 16/) 16)1 16)) 16)# 166( 1666 16!( 16B0 16#" 1!0) 1!"# 1!(/ 1!)" 1!B! 1B") 1#(1 (0(1 (110 ((#0 2 2 (/#! ()#( (!1B

5&&
00 2 2 2 2 2 10/" 2 2 2 10#) 2 1"1( 1"// 1")B 1"6# 1"B0 1"#0 110B 1111 11(! 116B 1(1# 1(B6 1//1 1/#6 1)/) 1666 1!B0 1BB( 1#B1 ("!/ (()) 2 2 (/#! (6"0 (!"0

6&&
00 2 2 2 2 "/)6 2 ")"6 2 2 ")66 2 "6"1 "6)/ "6#( "!(1 "!6B "B0( "B!" "#() "##1 10/" 1"1( 1"#0 11/! 1(00 1()0 1/!" 1)B/ 16#" 1!#0 1#B1 ("60 2 2 ((0# (/// ()6B

67&
00 2 2 2 "16! 2 2 "(!! 2 2 "/(B 2 "/#" ")(! ")B0 "611 "6)B "6#0 "!)0 "!#6 "B() "B6! "#() "### 10)) 1"0# 1")) 11)/ 1(/" 1/10 1/#6 16(/ 1!)) 2 2 1B!6 1#!) ("/#

7&&
00 2 2 2 "06) 2 2 "")/ 2 2 "11) 2 "1B) "((B "(BB "/1! "/)6 "/B0 ")1! ")66 ")#B "616 "6!# "!1# "!!) "B"B "B)( "#() 1006 10!0 1""# 1"#/ 11)/ 2 2 1("" 1(6" 1/1"

77&
00 2 2 2 B"! 2 2 #"1 2 2 #6# 2 "0") "0)" "0!# ""0/ ""1) ""/! ""B6 "11) "160 "1#1 "()( "(## "/(/ "/6( "/B! ")// ")#/ "6(! "6!6 "!/0 "!B6 2 2 "B(1 "B!" "#/1

8&&
00 2 2 )B6 2 2 2 6)! 2 2 !"0 2 !/6 !!0 !#1 B0# B1! B/) B!! #0) #(0 #/B #B( "0") "0// "06# "0#0 ""/0 ""!) "10! "1(# "1#1 "(1/ 2 2 "(/# "(6! "/01

87&
00 2 ((! 2 2 2 2 /0) 2 2 /// 2 /!1 /#! )"B )/0 ))! )!) 60/ 61) 6/( 660 6B# !"/ !() !)( !6! !#) B10 B/" B)# BBB #"1 2 2 #(! #)# #B!

9&&
00 "6! 2 2 2 "#) 2 1"! 2 2 1(6 2 1)/ 1!" 1B! (01 ("6 ((0 ()) (!6 (#B /") /// /61 /!6 /#0 )0/ )(6 )6/ )B6 60/ 61" 6() 2 2 6)0 66 6B1

0"!" ())0 0"!) ()0! 0100 ()0! 011) ()0! 01)0 ()0! 01!) ()0! 0(00 ()0! 0()0 ()0! 0/00 ()0! 0/)0 ()0! 0)00 ()0! 0600 ()0! 0!00 ()0! 0B00 ()0! 0#00 ()0! "000 ()0! "1)0 ()"" ")00 ()"" "!)0 ()"" 1000 ()"" 1)00 ()") (000 ()") ("00 ()"B (100 ())0 ()00 (6/1 /000 (!6( )000 (B!(

77

Table 48 Stress strain data from transient tests for Grade 355 EM(Z), 30 mm plate (Normalised)


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 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( )- ( )--) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( )--) ), )+,* )*+ -,

4&&
 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( - ( *, ( ( *, , , ) ) )+ ), )+ ) )+ )*)*)** )** ), ), ( ), ),* ),* ) )) ( )-)) ), ), ),*

0&&
 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (  ( ( , ( ( )  ,+* +, +, +-+ + +,  , -)  ) ) +) , ))+ ))) ), ( ( ( )-)) ))+ )-

5&&
 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( *+ ( (  ), ( ( ,* -,  ,)* ) )* ) ), ))+ )+) -  + + )+ *-) ( ,), )+ )+( ( ( ), )-+ ), )+

6&&
 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( - ( ( ( +* ) ( ( ,*, *+ *, ,* ,- ,* , +  +  * )) )* -, , ( +*+ ,, ( ( ( )*))) )) )+-

67&
 ( ( ( ( ( )), ( ( ( ( ( -*, ( ( +* +++ * - ) , *-+ ** , ,-, +  -, , *) ( -  + ( ( ( *, ), )

7&&
 ( ( ( ( * ( ( ( ( ( (  ) ( ( )+) -* --, -*  -, + +- +*  ) * *+) , ,)   ( )+ * + ( ( ( ) ) - -,-

77&
 ( ( ( ** ( ( ,-, ( ( ( (   ( ( ,  + *) * *  )* )), )++ - -+ -,* , + + ( * ) ** ( ( ( *+ ,) ,) ,,-

8&&
 ( (  ( ( ( + ( ( ( ( ++,  ( ( - ) * * *- *++ ,,) ,+ ,*  + * ), ,) (  ,)) ( ( ( )+) ), -* -+)

87&
 ( , ( ( ( ( )+ ( ( ( ( ), -( ( --, -+, -**   ) , * , ++- +) +, * ) ) * ( *) *, ,( ( ( ,- ,+, ,,)

9&&
 )* ( ( ( ( ( , ( ( ( ( ) ( ( -  +) ) *) ,) ) )* )- ) )* - -* -)+ - -*) (  ) , ( ( ( * , + +-

78

Table 49 Stress strain data derived from transient tests for Grade 355 EM(Z), 60 mm plate (Normalised)


  : 0&      
 
                                  
                      
  


4&&    


         
 


 
 
 
                   


  I  .
 

  0&& 5&& 6&& 67& 7&& 77& 8&&          
      


  
      
 
                
       
 
     

  
 
  
  
 
  
  

     
 
    
    
   
    
    
   
  
    
     
  
    
      

     
      
   
       
 
     

      

     
 

   
  
   

   

              
 
      
       
           
 

87&            

       
 




 


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79

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  7&& 77& 8&&         


     


                 
  
  

                    
         
  
       
     
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Table 50

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Table 51

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1B 10 ("

Table 52 Strength factors v temperature at various critical strains for 10 mm Grade 450 EMZ plate

# 
0
)0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 ()0 /00 /)0 )00 ))0 600 6)0 !00


  (
  H
 
  &17:
"00/ 0##" 0#!B 0#60 0#)" 0#(0 0#"( 0B#/ 0B)" 0!#) 06## 0))! 0/06 01)! 0"//

41&:
"010 "0") "0"" "00/ "000 0##) 0#B6 0#60 0#11 0B6" 0!6) 061! 0/6B 0(0# 0"!6

417:
"0/! "0(0 "010 "0"B "0") "0"0 "000 0#!) 0#)) 0BB( 0!B/ 06)6 0/#) 0((( 0"#/

01&:
"06/ "0/! "0(0 "01B "01) "010 "0"0 0##0 0#!) 0#00 0B00 06!0 0)0B 0()0 01"0

51&:
""00 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "00) 0#16 0B"/ 06B! 0)1! 0(!) 0116

71&:
""/1 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 "0)0 0#/) 0B(0 0!0B 0))0 0(#1 01)0

81

Table 53 Strength factors v temperature at various critical strains for 40 mm Grade 450 EMZ plate

#  0
)0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 ()0 /00 /)0 )00 ))0 600 6)0 !00


  (
  H
 
  &17:
"0"0 0#60 0#)" 0#/6 0#(( 0#10 0#0) 0B!B 0B"! 0!)/ 06!1 0)!/ 0/)( 0(0! 0")!

41&:
"0)( "001 0#60 0#)) 0#)" 0#/6 0#/0 0#1! 0#0( 0B/( 0!/! 06(6 0)0( 0()# 010"

417:
"0)B "00! 0#6) 0#61 0#6" 0#)/ 0#)" 0#/! 0#(( 0BB6 0!!B 06!" 0)(1 0(B1 01"6

01&:
"0)B "0(0 "00) 0##0 0#B0 0#!) 0#!0 0#6) 0#)( 0#0B 0B06 06#0 0))0 0(#) 011B

51&:
""0B "0#/ "0B0 "0!) "0!0 "0)/ "0/" "010 0#B) 0#(6 0B1( 0!0) 0)6( 0/"" 01/#

71&:
""!/ ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 "0!B 0#)# 0B/0 0!"! 0)B( 0/(0 01B0

Table 54 Strength factors v temperature at various critical strains for 60 mm Grade 450 EMZ plate

# 
10 )0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 ()0 /00 /)0 )00 ))0 600 6)0 !00


  (
  H
 
  &17:
"000 0#!" 0#/( 0#1B 0#"0 0B#" 0B6/ 0B(6 0B0) 0!)1 06B) 0)#/ 0/6" 0(11 0"#0

41&:
"000 0#!" 0#/( 0#1! 0#1( 0#10 0#0B 0B#1 0B66 0B(0 0!)) 06)" 0)"0 0(!1 011)

417:
"000 0#!" 0#/( 0#1B 0#1) 0#1( 0#10 0#"/ 0B#B 0B61 0!B0 06!1 0)1! 0(B# 01/1

01&:
"006 "00( "000 0##! 0##/ 0##0 0#B1 0#!0 0#)6 0B#0 0!## 06B6 0)/0 0/00 01)6

51&:
"0!) "0!( "0!0 "06B "06) "061 "060 "0/# "011 0#/0 0B(1 0!0! 0))B 0/") 01!"

71&:
""/6 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 "0B1 "0)) "0"0 0B6# 0!(0 0)B" 0/(# 01B#

82

Table 55 Strength factors at various critical strains for Grade 450 EMZ, combined data from 40 mm and 60 mm plates for thickness range 25 mm < T  75 mm

#  0
)0 "00 ")0 100 1)0 (00 ()0 /00 /)0 )00 ))0 600 6)0 !00

&17:
"000 0#!" 0#/( 0#1B 0#"0 0B#" 0B6/ 0B(6 0B0) 0!)/ 06!1 0)!/ 0/)( 0(0! 0")!


  (
  H
 
  41&: 417: 01&: 51&:
"000 0#!" 0#/( 0#1B 0#1) 0#1( 0#10 0#"/ 0B#B 0BB6 0!!B 06!" 0)(1 0(B1 01"6 "006 "00( "000 0##! 0##/ 0##0 0#B1 0#!0 0#)6 0#0B 0B06 06#0 0))0 0(#) 011B

71&:
""/6 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 ""00 "0B1 "0)) 0#)# 0B/0 0!"! 0)B( 0/(0 01B0

"000 0#!" 0#/( 0#1! 0#1( 0#10 0#0B 0B#1 0B66 0B/( 0!/! 06(6 0)0( 0()# 010"

"0!) "0!( "0!0 "06B "06) "061 "060 "0/# "011 0#(6 0B1( 0!0) 0)6( 0/"" 01/#

83

Table 56 Stress strain data derived from transient tests for Grade 450 EM(Z), 10mm plate


  :
 
          
                  
          
          

0&    


          
         
      

    

4&&    



   
      
   
       


  I  .
 

  0&& 5&& 6&& 67& 7&& 77& 8&&       
  
  
               

  
      
 

        


 
  
             
    
 
   
                    
  
 
  
     
            
     
    
   
   
     
   
       




 
 
 
 
       

     

    
  
  
                        
  

87&  
 



   
        
   


 

9&&              


   

     

     
    

84

Table 57

Stress strain data derived from transient tests for Grade 450 EM(Z), 40mm plate 
  
    .
 

  : 0& 4&& 0&& 5&& 6&& 67& 7&& 77& 8&& 87& 9&&             
                       
            
         
 
       
     


   

 

          
        
 
 
              
 
 
    
  
       
    

            
 
  

 
  
   

      
    
    
     
 


       


     


  

   
   
     

 
 
     
  
     
    
  

     




   
       
   
 
      

    
 
 

    

  
   
 


  

 

 
  
            
 
 
            
        
   



            

   
   
     
 
    
 

85

Table 58 Stress strain data derived from transient tests for Grade 450 EM(Z), 60mm plate


  :
          
            
              
            

0&             

4&&  


    
 
 
 

     
 
      


    .
 

  0&& 5&& 6&& 67& 7&& 77& 8&&        
  



                             
   
    
 
      
  

  
 
  
  

            


   
 
  

 
     
     
  
     
 


         
         
          
 
        
 
         
 

   
 
  
 
   
         
     
  
 
                  

   
    

87& 
   

   
    
     
       


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86

 

Stress strain data for Grade 450 EM(Z), for plate thickness range 25mm < t  75mm derived from transient tests

Table 59


00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2


00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ()#B (6// (6#/ (!(# (!B" (B"0 (B/! (BB0 (#0) (#"( (#"B 2 2 2 (#"B 2 (#11 /0/6 /")0 2 2 ///" /)6) /)6)


             
00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1BBB 2 2 2 2 1##6 (0!) (")0 (110 (1!# ((B1 (/6# ()(6 ()B6 (6/B (6B) (!"/ (!/( (!6B (B0" (B"B (#B/ /0!) 2 /1(! /(## //#0 /)6) 00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1)(1 2 2 2 16)6 1!(# 1B"0 1B!6 1#(B (0)/ ("61 (1)B ((/" (/") (/6# ()") ())! ()#/ (66/ (!1! (B16 (#6! 2 /"1" /1/" /((! /(!B 00 2 2 2 2 2 2 11B( 2 2 1(B6 2 2 1/#0 1)!! 16)6 1!1! 1!B# 1B#! 1#BB (06( ("1# (1(! ((10 ((#" (//# (/#B (601 (6!! (!1! (!6B 2 (B(# (BB/ (#(B (#B0 00 2 2 2 2 2 10)/ 2 2 2 1""! 2 2 1110 11#" 1(6" 1/1/ 1/!B 1)6# 16)6 1!1! 1!B# 1BBB 1#6( (01" (06! ("00 ("!" (11# (1!# ((10 2 ((!/ (/") (/)( (/B6 00 2 2 2 2 2 "6"# 2 2 2 "!6/ 2 2 "B6B "#)# 10(/ 10#1 1"(! 1110 11#" 1(/) 1(B1 1/// 1/#B 1))1 1)#B 16(# 1!"B 1!B) 1B(0 1B6/ 2 1#0) 1#16 1#)) 1#!6 00 2 2 2 2


00 2 2 )60 6/( 2 2 2 2 2 !!6 2 2 B/! #"! #!) "01# "0!) ""/" ""#) "1/" "1!/ "(1B "(!B "/"# "/)! "/#0 ")/B ")B) "6"# "6(# 2 "6!! "!06 "!)) "!B)


00 1(! 1)! 2 ((1 2 2 2 2 2 (6) 2 2 (#/ /1! //B /!! )01 )// )B" 6"B 6)1 !"/ !)) !B# B"( B(/ B!1 B#6 #1" #/6 2 ##6 "0(( ""0/ ""60

0000 00B1 0"00 0"(# 0")0 0")6 0")! 0")# 0"6# 0"!1 0"!) 0"!! 0"B0

"0!# 2 2 2 2 "166 2 2 "(#0 "/!( ")/B "6"0 "660 "!/( "B0" "B/! "BB0 "#(B "#B/ 101) 10)B 10B! 1")B 110B 11/# 11B( 2 1("1 1((6 1(B1 1/"#

((!0 (/") (/6) ()0! ()/B ()B6 (660 (!(" (!)6 (!!! (B06 (B"B (B11 (B16 (B(0 (B(# (B(# /016 /"1) 2 2 //10 /)// /)6)

0100 /")0 011) /")0 01)0 01!) 0(00 0()0 0/00 0/)0 0)00 /")0 0600 0!00 0B00 0#00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

"000 /")0 "1)0 2

")00 /")0 "!)0 /")0 1000 /"!0 1"00 /1!0 1)00 /(!0 (000 //60 /000 /6(0 )000 /!)0

87

6 5 Total Strain % 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
SR = 0.10 SR = 0.15 SR = 0.20 SR = 0.30 SR = 0.40 SR = 0.50 SR = 0.60 SR = 0.70 SR = 0.80 SR = 0.95 SR = 1.00

Temperature (oC) Figure 47 Elevated temperature transient tests, Grade 355 EM(Z) 12 mm plate (Normalised)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800


Temperature (oC)
SR = 0.07 SR = 0.1 SR = 0.15 SR = 0.2 SR = 0.3 SR = 0.4 SR = 0.5 SR = 0.6 SR = 0.7 SR = 0.8 SR = 0.91 SR = 0.96 SR = 1.052 SR = 1.101

Figure 48 Elevated temperature transient tests, Grade 355 EM(Z) 30 mm plate (Normalised)

Total Strain %

88

6 5 Total Strain % 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
SR = 0.07 SR = 0.10 SR = 0.15 SR = 0.20 SR = 0.30 SR = 0.40 SR = 0.50 SR = 0.60 SR = 0.70 SR = 0.80 SR = 0.96 SR = 1.178 SR = 1.106 SR = 1.080

Temperature (oC) Figure 49 Elevated temperature transient tests, Grade 355 EM(Z) 60 mm plate (Normalised)

6 5 Total Strain % 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
SR = 0.10 SR = 0.15 SR = 0.175 SR = 0.20 SR = 0.25 SR = 0.30 SR = 0.40 SR = 0.50 SR = 0.60 SR = 0.70 SR = 0.80 SR = 0.90 SR = 0.95 SR = 0.991

Temperature (oC) Figure 50 Elevated temperature transient tests, Grade 355 EM(Z) 12 mm plate (TMCR)

89

1.2

Strength Factor

0.8

0.6 0.4
0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 3.0% 5.0%

0.2

0 0 100 200 300 400


o

500

600

700

Temperature ( C) Figure 51 Strength factors v temperature at various critical strains for 12 mm Grade 355 EMZ plate (Normalised) 1.2

1.0

Strength Factor

0.8

0.6
0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 3.0% 5.0%

0.4

0.2

0.0 0 100 200 300 400


o

500

600

700

Temperature ( C) Figure 52 Strength factors v temperature at various critical strains for 30 mm Grade 355 EMZ plate (Normalised)

90

1.2

Strength Factor

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 3.0% 5.0%

0 0 100 200 300 400 Temperature (oC) 500 600 700

Figure 53 Strength factors v temperature at various critical strains for 60 mm Grade 355 EMZ plate (Normalised) 1.2

1.0

Strength Factor

0.8

0.6

0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 3.0% 5.0%

0.4

0.2

0.0 0 100 200 300 400 Temperature (oC) 500 600 700

Figure 54 Strength factors v temperature at various critical strains for 12 mm Grade 355 EMZ plate (TMCR)

91

1.2

Srength Factor

0.8
0.5% 2.0% 5.0% 0.5% 2.0% 5.0% 0.5% 2.0% 5.0% (12 mm) (12 mm) (12 mm) (30 mm) (30 mm) (30 mm) (60 mm) (60 mm) (60 mm)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Temperature (oC) Figure 55



   
  (
  40/ 5&  8& 
  

1.2 1 Strength Factor 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 3.0% 5.0%

Temperature oC

Figure 56Strength factors at elevated temperatures for Grade 355 EM)Z) Normalised plates up to 63mm

92

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Temperature (oC)
0.5%,BS5950:Part 8 2.0%,BS5950:Part 8 0.5% (TMCR) 2.0% (TMCR) 0.5% (Normalised) 2.0% (Normalised)

Strength Factor

Figure 57 Comparison of the Strength factors at elevated temperatures between TMCR and Normalised steels (12mm plate) with BS 5950:Part 8

93

400 350 300 Stress N/mm 2 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 Total Strain % Figure 58 Elevated temperature stress strain behaviour of grade 355 EM(Z) 12mm plate (Normalised) derived from Transient tests 400 350
20 C 20 C 100 C 200 C 300 C 400 C 450 C 500 C 550 C 600 C 650 C 700 C

300
2

100 C 200 C

Stress N/mm

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 Total Strain % 4 5

300 C 400 C 450 C 500 C 550 C 600 C 650 C 700 C

Figure 59
#      +   
  "" #$%    /      (    

94

400 350 300 Stress N/mm 2 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 Total Strain % Figure 60 Elevated temperature stress strain behaviour of grade 355 EM(Z) 60mm plate (Normalised) derived from Transient tests 400 350 300 Stress N/mm 2 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 Total Strain % Figure 61 Elevated temperature stress strain behaviour of grade 355 EM(Z) 12mm plate (TMCR) derived from Transient tests 4 5 6
20 C 100 C 200 C 250 C 300 C 400 C 450 C 500 C 550 C 600 C 650 C 700 C 20 C 100 C 200 C 300 C 400 C 450 C 500 C 550 C 600 C 650 C 700 C

95

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400


0

Total Strain %

SR = 0.10 SR = 0.20 SR = 0.25 SR = 0.30 SR = 0.40 SR = 0.50 SR = 0.60 SR = 0.70 SR = 0.80 SR = 0.90 SR = 0.95 SR = 1.052 SR = 1.034 SR = 1.110

500 C

600

700

800

Temperature Figure 62

#         


  "#$%   

5
SR = 0.050 SR = 0.075 SR = 0.10 SR = 0.20 SR = 0.30 SR = 0.40 SR = 0.50 SR = 0.60 SR = 0.70 SR = 0.75 SR = 0.80 SR = 0.90 SR = 0.96 SR = 1.087

4 Total Strain %

0 0 100 200 300 400 500


0

600 C

700

800

900

Temperature

Figure 63 Elevated temperature transient tests for grade 450EM(Z) 40mm plate

96

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 Temperature


O

SR = 0.075 SR = 0.10 SR = 0.15 SR = 0.20 SR = 0.40 SR = 0.50 SR = 0.60 SR = 0.70 SR = 0.80 SR = 0.85 SR = 0.90 SR = 0.95 SR = 1.030

Total Strain %

500 C

600

700

800

Figure 64 Elevated temperature transient tests for grade 450EM(Z) 60mm plate

1.2

Strength Factor

0.8
0.5% 1.0% 1.5%

0.6

0.4

2.0% 3.0%

0.2

5.0%

0 0 100 200 300 400


O

500 C

600

700

Temperature

Figure 65 Strength factors at elevated temperature for various limiting strains, Grade 450 EM(Z) 10 mm plate

97

1.2

Strength Factor

0.8
0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0%

0.6

0.4

3.0% 5.0%

0.2

0 0 100 200 300 400


O

500

600

700

Temperature

Figure 66 Strength factors at elevated temperature for various limiting strains, Grade 450 EM(Z) 40 mm plate

1.2

Strength Factor

0.8
0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0%

0.6

0.4

3.0% 5.0%

0.2

0 0 100 200 300 Temperature 400


O

500

600

700

Figure 67 Strength factors at elevated temperature for various limiting strains, Grade 450 EM(Z) 60 mm plate

98

1.2

Strength Factor

0.8
0.5% (40mm Plate)

0.6

0.5% (60mm Plate) 2.0% (40mm Plate)

0.4

2.0% (60mm Plate) 5.0% (40mm Plate) 5.0% (60mm Plate)

0.2

0 0 100 200 300 400


O

500 C

600

700

Temperature

Figure 68 Comparison of the strength factors at elevated temperatures between 40mm and 60mm Grade 450EM(Z) plate

1.2

Strength Factor

0.8
0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0%

0.6

0.4

3.0% 5.0%

0.2

0 0 100 200 300 400


O

500

600

700

Temperature

Figure 69 Design recommendations for strength factors at various limiting strains in Grade 450 EM(Z), plate thickness range = 25mm < t  75mm

99

1.2

Strength Factor

0.8

0.6

0.5%,BS5950:Part 8 2.0%,BS5950:Part 8

0.4

0.5%,Grade 450 (25 - 75mm Plate) 2.0%,Grade 450 (25 - 75mm Plate)

0.2

0.5%,Grade 450 (6 - 16mm Plate) 2.0%,Grade 450 (6 - 16mm Plate)

0 0 100 200 300 400


O

500

600

700

Temperature

Figure 70 Comparison of strength factors between Grade 450 EMZ with those given in BS 5950 Part 8

100

600 500 Stress N/mm 2 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 Total Strain % Figure 71 Elevated temperature stress strain behaviour of Grade 450 EM(Z) 10mm plate 500
20 C 100 C 200 C 300 C 400 C 450 C 500 C 550 C 600 C 650 C 700 C 20 C 100 C 200 C 300 C 400 C 450 C 500 C 550 C 600 C 650 C 700 C

400 Stress N/mm 2

300

200

100

0 0 1 2 3 Total Strain % 4 5 6

Figure 72 Elevated temperature stress strain behaviour of Grade 450 EM(Z) 40mm plate

101

500
20 C 100 C 200 C 300 C 400 C 450 C 500 C 550 C 600 C 650 C 700 C

400 Stress N/mm 2

300

200

100

0 0 1 2 3 Total Strain % Figure 73 Elevated temperature stress strain behaviour of Grade 450 EM(Z) 60mm plate 500
20 C 100 C 200 C 300 C 400 C 450 C 500 C 550 C 600 C 650 C 700 C

400 Stress N/mm 2

300

200

100

0 0 1 2 3 Total Strain % Figure 74 Elevated temperature stress strain behaviour for Grade 450 EM(Z) - Combined data for plates in the thickness range 25mm < t  75mm derived from transient tests 4 5 6

102

9 NEW MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA AT HIGH STRAIN RATES FOR BS 7191: GRADE 355EM(Z) AND 450 EM(Z) STEEL
  

    
     
      

 

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9.2 DATA ANALYSIS

 

  

 

    
  


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9.3 RESULTS FOR 355EM(Z) STEEL




 
 
 

        


 
 
 

 
   

    

 

 
 
  

  
 

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9.4 RESULTS FOR 450EM(Z) STEEL




 
 
 

        


 
 
 

 
   

    

 

 
 
  

  
 

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9.5 CONCLUSIONS

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Table 60 Chemical analysis of Grade 355 EMZ steels (by Weight %)


 
   

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Table 61 Properties of Grade 355 EMZ welds

 

     
 

 







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Table 62a Properties of Grade 355 EMZ 11.5mm TMCR plate

  
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118

Table 62b Properties of Grade 355 EMZ 11.5mm TMCR plate (continued)


 
 
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119

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Table 63a Properties of Grade 355 EMZ 12 mm Normalised plate

  
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120

Table 63b Properties of Grade 355 EMZ 12mm Normalised plate (continued)

   


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121

K  
 .

Table 64a Properties of Grade 355 EMZ 30 mm Normalised plate

  
0001 00"# 0"#6 "B00 6)00

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122

Table 64b Properties of Grade 355 EMZ 30mm Normalised plate (continued

   


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K 

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000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 1() 1/( 1)" 160 16# 1!# 1B/ 1#( (0/ ("/ (16 ((! (16 ((B (/# (61 (!/ (BB (!( (B6 /00 /"/ /1B //( /(B /)( /6# /B6 )0( )1" /B" /#B )"6 )(/ ))( )!1 /## )"6 )() ))( )!( )#(

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  # 
  :
01 000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 "00 "0( "06 "0# ""1 "") 0) "(" "() "/0 "// "/# ")/ " ")) "60 "6) "!" "!! "B( 1 "B0 "B6 "#1 "## 106 1"( ) 1"( 11" 11# 1(6 1/) 1)( "0 1() 1// 1)1 16" 1!0 1B0 ") 1// 1)( 161 1!" 1B" 1#0

123

K  
 .

Table 65a Properties of Grade 355 EMZ 60 mm Normalised plate

  
0001 00"# 0"#6 "600 /!00

B  
()0 /0# /10 /)6 /6B

)  
()0 (6( (B# /06 /1/

B# 
)0/ )") )/0 ))0 )))

+BK0103  @  


    
   0 //! 00() 0 0 /0/ 001) 0 0 )/6 00"( 0

H   


    
+BK0103  @   0001 00"# 0"#6 "600 /!00 (60 (B# /11 /)/ /!1 (/6 (66 (BB /0# /10 )0/ )"# )() )/# ))!

- 
 
  


     
 
 

000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 ()" (B0 /"1 //! /B) )1) (/0 (60 (B" /0/ /1B /)( /## )"/ )(0 )/6 )6( )B0

K
 (
 
  
 
  &1&&4
000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 "00 "0B ""! "1! "(B ")0

K
 

"00 "06 ""1 ""# "16 "(( "00 "0( "06 "0# ""( ""6

124

Table 65b Properties of Grade 355 TMCR 60mm Normalised plate (continued)

   


 .
+BK0103  @   0001 00"# 0"#6 "600 /!00

K 

&10 

&17 


 
  : 4 0 7   
()# (66 (#( /0! /1/ /1( //" /)B /60 /#"

4& 
/B" /#) )"B )11 )/0

47 
/#6 )"" )(6 )/) )))


    
   0 #6B 00"! 011

H   


    
+BK0103  @   0001 00"# 0"#6 "600 /!00 11" 1(0 1(# 1/B 1)( 1!0 1B" 1#1 (01 (0B ("( (1) ((B ()0 ()! (60 (!/ (#0 /0/ /"" /1! //( /6" /!B /B! /!1 /#0 )"0 )1# )(# /#" )"0 )(" ))0 )6"

- 
 
  


     
 
 
   
 

000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 1"# 11B 1(! 1/6 1)6 166 16! 1!! 1B# (00 ("1 (1) (0# (1" ((/ (/B (6" (!6 ()6 (!0 (B) /00 /"6 /(( /11 /(# /)6 /!/ /#( )"( /6! /B) )0) )1) )/6 )6! /B) )0) )1) )/6 )6B )#0

- 
 
  


     
  
   
 
 # 
  :
01 000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 "#" "#B 10/ 1"" 1"B 11) 0) 1)" 16" 1!0 1B0 1#" (0" " 1## ("" (1( (() (/B (6" 1 ()0 (6/ (!B (#( /0B /1/ ) /"# /(6 /)( /!" /B# )0# "0 /6) /B/ )0( )1( )// )66 ") /B) )0/ )1/ )/) )6! )#0

K
 (
 
  
 
  &1&&4  &10:  
  # 
  :
01 000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 "00 "0( "0! ""0 ""/ ""! 0) "(" "(6 "/" "/! ")1 ")B " ")6 "61 "6# "!) "B1 "B# 1 "B( "#0 "#B 10) 1"( 111 ) 1"# 11B 1(! 1/6 1)6 166 "0 1/( 1)( 16( 1!( 1B/ 1#6 ") 1)( 16/ 1!/ 1B) 1#6 (0B

125


"0 /0 60

Table 66 Chemical analysis of Grade 450 EMZ steels (by Weight %)


 +

  -H
0(/ 0(B 0(6

00! 01/ "1! 00" 000 00" 0"B 00/ 00/ 000 001 00" 000 00# 016 "1( 00" 000 00" 0"B 00/ 00/ 000 0) 00" 00"

00! 0(( "1B 00" 000 00" 0"B 00( 00/ 000 0/! 00" 000




 
  : K  -    &10 &17 4 0 7 4& 47 B#           
 

%#*" 0000"B %#*" 0(1 %#*1 00000! %#*1 0(! 0001 )"B 0001 )1B 000( 000( /6" //1 /!0 /B# ))! /)" /#" ))) /6" /!# )0/ ))B /)# )0B )6" /B0 )00 )10 )6( /!0 )1! )6B )0" )1/ )/0 )B! /#B )/) )B6 )(( )!" )!0 616 )() )B) 61/ )(! )B! )!) 6)1 ))1 60/ 6)0 )/6 )B# )(# 6/! )(( 60" 6/6 )/6 )B# )!) 6)1 ))1 60) 6)"

Table 67 Properties of Grade 450 welds

"0

/0

4

 %#*1 0000") 60  %#*( 0000") %#*( 0(6

126

K  
 .
+BK0"67 * ' 3 + @ 

-  
00001 000"( 00")0 00BB0 0"!B0 061B0 06B!0

Table 68a Properties of Grade 450 EMZ 10mm plate

  
0001 00"6 0"B) "0) 1!# B## #(

B  
/)0 /60 /BB )"/ /B/ )61 )!1

)  
//! /60 /B1 /B6 /!B /#0 )"B

B# 
)(0 )// )61 )!) ))# )B) 601


    
   /00 ""6 0"/B 0 /00 B6 00# 0 /00 "!/ 00/! 0

H   


    
+BK0"67 * ' 3 + @  00001 000"( 00")0 00BB0 0"!B0 061B0 06B!0 0000"B 000"1) 00") 00BB 0"!B 061B 06B! 0001 00"6 0"B) "0) 1!# B## #( //6 /6( /#0 )"! )() )6" )6" //# /)# /!/ /B6 /#/ )0) )0)

- 
 
  


     
 
 

000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 //1 /)# /B( )"6 )6( 61# //6 /)! /!0 /B6 )06 )(0 )16 )/0 ))6 )!/ )#/ 6"6

K
 (
 
  
 
  &1&&4
000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 "00 "0) ""0 ""! "1) "(/

K
 

"00 "0/ "0B ""( ""B "1) " "01 "0) "0! "" ""(

127

Table 68b Properties of Grade 450 EMZ 10mm plate (continued)

         




 

 
     

 

 

        ! " #

          

          

 

         

       

      

      

       

 
  


                                                                                                                               

 
   
  


       

          

                




     
  
    
 



            

             




     
  
    
 

 ! 

           


 " # $    
   
  
! 

      

      

      

      

      

      

      

128

K  
 .
@#*"3 G *  ' > K

-  
0000" 0000/ 000"" 0006" 00""6 00/6! 01!B0

Table 69a Properties of Grade 450 EMZ 40mm plate

  
00010 000#0 001(0 0"0)0 010/0 0B0#0 (!000

B  
)1) )10 )(1 )1/ )/" )!6 )#1

)  
)"" )"/ )"1 )"( )11 )1# )1!

B# 
60# 60! 6"( 60! 6"/ 6(1 6(0


    
   /00 "6) 0061 0 /00 "1B 001) 0 /00 11/ 00") 0

H   


    
@#*"3 G *  ' > K 0000" 0000/ 000"" 0006" 00""6 00/6! 01!B0 00010 000#0 001(0 0"0)0 010/0 0B0#0 (!000 )"1 )1( )(" )/( ))0 )6( )!# )"0 )"/ )"6 )1" )1( )1! )(1 60/ 60# 6"1 6"! 6"# 61( 61B

- 
 
  


     
 
 

000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 )0B )1/ )/( )6) )#0 610 )0B )"/ )1" )1B )(6 )// 601 60# 6"6 61/ 6(1 6/0

K
 (
 
  
 
  &1&&4
000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 "00 "0( "0! """ ""6 "11

K
 

"00 "0" "0( "0/ "0) "0! "00 "0" "01 "0/ "0) "06

129

Table 69b Properties of Grade 450 EMZ 40mm plate (continued)

         


 $    %                 




 

 
     
                    

 
      

 
      

 
  

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! 

                                        

      

      

130

K  
 .
+BK0103  @   K G

-  
0000" 000"0 000B( 00110 00/00 0"600 0"B00

Table 70a Properties of Grade 450 EMZ 60 mm plate

  
00010 001(0 0"!10 0/#(0 0/##0 1!#00 16#00

B  
/66 /!# /#) )"/ )"0 ))( )61

)  
/)( /6( /B" )0( /BB )1" )10

B# 
))# )!( )#( 60" )#6 61# 6(1


    
   /00 "1# 0"1" 0 /00 "0/ 0""! 0 /00 1"( 00)" 0

H   


    
+BK0103  @   K G 0000" 000"0 000B( 00110 00/00 0"600 0"B00 00010 001(0 0"!10 0/#(0 0/##0 1!#00 16#00 /6" /B1 )0/ )"B )"# )/6 )/) /)0 /6! /B) /#6 /#6 )"! )"! ))) )!6 )#) 60) 606 61/ 61/

- 
 
  


     
 
 
   
 

000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 /)6 /!/ /#B )1# )!0 61) //6 /6" /!# )0/ )(6 )!B ))0 )6B )B# 6"( 6/0 66#

K
 (
 
  
 
  &1&&45

000" 00" 0" " "0 "00 "00 "0/ "0# ""6 "1) "(!

K
 

"00 "0( "0! ""( "10 "(0 "00 "0( "0! ""1 ""6 "11

131

Table 70b Properties of Grade 450 EMZ 60 plate (continued)

K 

 
         &                              '                $                 !  "  #  
                     &                                   '                      $                

         
                                                                

         
 
      
                                                                        !  " 
  
                                                         
132

-    &10   

&17 


 
  : 4 0 7   

4& 

47 

HIGH STRAIN RATE TENSILE 12mm PLATE THICKNESS

HIGH STRAIN RATE TENSILE 30 OR 60mm THICK PLATE.

10 198 50

350 WELD

50

10

WELD SIDE VIEW

SIDE VIEW

ALL DIMENSIONS IN MM NOT TO SCALE. 120 50

ALL DIMENSIONS IN MM SCALE 1: 2 (APPROX)

Figure 75 Tensile test piece

Stress MPa
0.00 0.02

0.05

0.1

0.15

Strain

Figure 76 Tensile test analysis

133

600 550 500 450 400 350 300 0.001


UYS LYS UT S 5% P S 10% P S 15% P S

Stress MPa

0.01

0.1

10

Strain rate s -1

Figure 77 Influence of strain rate; 11.5 mm grade 355 EM(Z) Thermo-mechanically rolled plate

700
UYS

650 600

L YS UT S 5% P S

Stress MPa

550 500 450 400 350 300 0.001

0.01

0.1

1
-1

10

Strain rate s

Figure 78 Influence of strain rate; 12 mm Grade 355EM(Z) Normalised plate

134

600 550 500 450 400 350 300 0.001


UYS L YS UT S 2% P S 5% P S 10% P S 15% P S

Stress MPa

0.01

0.1

10

Strain rate s-1

Figure 79 Influence of strain rate; 30 mm Grade 355 EM(Z) Normalised plate

600 550 500 450 400 350 300 0.001


UYS LYS UT S 2% P S 5% P S 10% P S 15% P S

Stress MPa

0.01

0.1

10

Strain rate s -1

Figure 80 Influence of strain rate; 60 mm Grade 355 EM(Z) Normalised plate

135

600

Measured True Stress (MPa)

550

500

450

400

350 350 400 450 500 550 600


Calculated True Stress (MPa)

Figure 81 Confirmation of theory for 60 mm Grade 355 EM(Z) Normalised plate

700 UYS LYS Stress (MPa) 500 UTS

600

400
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100

300

200 0.1 1 Total Strain (%) 10 100

Figure 82 Design stresses for 60 mm Grade 355 EM(Z) Normalised plate

136

700
UYS

650 600 550 500 450 400 0.001

L YS UT S

Stress MPa

2% P S 5% P S

0.01

0.1

1
-1

10

Strain rate s

Figure 83 Influence of strain rate for 10 mm Grade 450 EM(Z) plate

700 650 600 550 500 450 400 0.001

Stress MPa

UYS LYS UT S 2% P S 5% P S

0.01

0.1

1
-1

10

Strain rate s

Figure 84 Influence of strain rate for 40 mm Grade 450 EM(Z) plate

137

700
UYS

650 600 550 500 450 400 0.001

LYS UT S 2% P S 5% P S

Stress MPa

0.01

0.1

1
-1

10

Strain rate s

Figure 85 Influence of strain rate for 60 mm Grade 450 EM(Z) plate

700 Measured True Stress (MPa) 650 600 550 500 450 400 400

450

500

550

600

650

Calculated True Stress (MPa)

Figure 86 Confirmation of theory for 10 mm grade 450 EM(Z) plate

138

700 650 600 550


Figure 87

Measured True Stress (MPa)

500 450 400 400 450 500 550 600 650

Calculated True Stress (MPa)

Figure 87 Confirmation of theory for 40 mm Grade 450 EM(Z) plate

700 650 600 550 500 450 400 400 450 500 550 600 650

Measured True Stress (MPa)

Calculated True Stress (MPa)

Figure 88 Confirmation of theory for 60 mm Grade 450 EM(Z) plate

139

700 UYS 650 600 LYS 550 UTS

Stress (MPa)

500 450

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100

400 0.1 1

Total Strain (%)

10

100

Figure 89 Design stresses for 10 mm Grade 450 EM(Z) plate

700 UTS 650 UYS

600 Stress (MPa) LYS 550 500


0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100

450

400 0.1 1 Total Strain (%) 10 100

Figure 90 Design stresses for 40 mm Grade 450 EM(Z) plate

140

700 UYS 650 LYS

UTS

600 Stress (MPa)

550

500
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100

450

400 0.1 1 Total Strain (%) 10 100

Figure 91 Design stresses for 60 mm Grade 450 EM(Z) plate

141

142

      


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Printed and published by the Health and Safety Executive C0.35 5/01

ISBN 0-7176-2023-9

OTO 2001/020

30.00

9 780717 620234