SHOESAND PATTENS

OBITTARY ]largrethe de Neersadd, Fn Hr
n ,^@i 19s7,d Virye$e de Neelqad dred tbe hd.:iy ear\ 4e or 34,ju* as $s bo.k il ror sev.ralyeds, andn h r dbde i. her bnvery, dekhiidloi rd sheer 4ihusi$m lor the sbjEd thd dApire pati,r dr$birity sheMs,ble ro bhns$ose sections respons'ble for {hi.h shesas ctue0y shamtiw ard Cat,ttn4 ai Shu: in An atu Lit rdLutu

MEDIE

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2 IN LONDON: EXCAVATIONS FROM FINDS MEDIEVAL SHOESAND PATTENS FrancisGrewandMar$ethe de Neergaard Mitford lllustrationsbI Susan PRISS THE BOYDELL .

brcad@i ptr6LL5hcd.gillanon . msmiftcd. wwboticll. UK .idlieePiP. ttijeval noRd in a tdcE no p of rhn work nrl be phoo@picn.dp. Lihnrd. \Uoodbidgq Sullolk lP r 2 3DF.r.ECItHN olg uk w.ry Ofll< Nsv <dnion2001 2004 Repin(d 2002.!dd. 6ook aron dr Brni5hLihflry Libdryof Corgr.IsSbdon. pdlomrd i'rpubli.NY 14604-4126.hle AdRlogucrt.mNunoflondon 'r]t Bovdclllre$ n in iDpi'n ol Boldrll & Brew{ Ltd PO Bo\ 9.1/ R(r' -erdl.od aorrh. ilrpriorPcmrsion of thc !oP)iigbI ow!& Fn$ puunhedlt33 Hd Maie5.200r l.rmiticd ddd flff.t oiBoldcll& Bre$fht USA Ro. l. r P. Voodbridse 333 2 rsBN o35rr5 o! rubln on A Nlu$uDofL I ondorVtll.o uk i anil. NtuRum of London.hen(. Th. (did€d or (Pioduced in uv rdm or bv nf nsnq {irhotr. PO Box41026. rdaFtd.urcurolLondon @ rt33. Bolde[ r(s. 20010i2'r20 Ths pubkrtiooir princdona. Btr. ff.ySt P'e!5 Sr Edmundstu4 .f lrinad in Ct{ BiGin by Sufiolk Edmund5.$CrhlogcardNuDbo.

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.th"p".t.v 'taat L.h.l.. d 5e. d / o. d.nrr . \ ' \ \ D o . 5t OANE B & PHILTPOTTS. ta sitrb..199t. C. .O....e ofohi .. pp 129r0 *trh Egin& rlnchrid 199r. Bdnhr undSndi.D.\'outJ .. ".... : .CR.^.Bit/.:. ".L1" Di nrnktttih.no. .U S.DJon. l rhecoNo(la(<. T .m srder witrrmbss lc/t!trarrr .ttjtAj 97t 197r. \ \ .Sl . irdo inaonudon . a r i r i " roup onr .T" 1-. L . rolto. . ']an..%. -.' \.. I (Mu$um oi London) : r!!J..ed.krz4. j . Axtr4rtrSi4Tt.Do s.and'\ MaL\s \Ionac(fh sri. t .o: .hd{ivixnUntve6i* . $c at$ EFn & prndDa r9.fheBrJ.c.". . C.o .C.Jor) i{)\'L{S.rc..6ou rhc5ire5trndlhcndng.Lir"\N\'\ t r L A c r .snb!. o o 0.!:. F.d".o.. d. . . o -3. . j....nT tMpD I l" I . pt. .rs.".ri.-. Aan :::btrnBen !' schlsNig.:lTH.hxJd 1991. tritll ont H^rifut.rd. . h a.l0 (Neu.gg.r I r\lBErfr.po..a . l9t7 Eaura$ i.nprpr6.. tr 0 .:r{NAC.5i \12 :_iRsF:N.}. r35.rtzr Sometr...t C4 c!1r'ftlE M$an af bnbn Artir. it.6 s) : :.oroer.o. . 5 R r d . .ov. ''d f... L O. Sthi.. n ro.i.or Fxardonsin L. *nLout lhe gricrcus r!$n. au..kls.l-12The t6!e -.uig A. *r .itr(./or." . rf i. oP^ !. BtrBo.. b k . stid! r.eooB i .ttt.q o pF .66_/ s67 .r rd hm ben pcdtrtcio Nrnr thi5tnrcdudo.1192 tooa.4(unive(i(oaBqx.s.r( bu.o-h... .se Egtrr & prir.o( otro ".s...n.

5 Grain/flesh stitching Edge/flesh stitchirg Birding-stitch Tmel-stitching .Key Fe nnld spleadon of d. cc wd e clNry. r2]. pp.

Ni . . q.ie pmisrnorniior r..dhff dn!ni* riJ iiru. r.n.oponri des.ndu?r mr.i -...ddor\lusdm l93a: re10)n 191)3.llLo. :Lsdr pr!dudoiinun.e .irm the b.lurtr!lone!oIallLotrdor rird..slAt.nbediorn)n0.LncL|dednriuLLtr4.rioN ltrthrfirt.c tuilj.othaTudol rid rltr Lordon rLL\ bd$e.oDi nerrrod. . plob:bl!b.n rlre q.Introduction r.'obn. dll]LL 'lr.ded ruturaseie.mL (for ordlrter!'r { fle: : r\lde^ e iri d 'he cvoLution l-.ndiorsrM dd:ilr rbef m ll9) bLr i' hi! blsl pErd . trm.lrfd fotl'.bsoter.eillig d.r pFLensi!.oitrtrsi {lji.r. brnrt oJ the lrime\ (rar. foilDjd:Ll. abloqEs lCuiLdhiLL rni e[|1o hi]eni l-. rr lhn d!! lrnr. trl.ondL.i 11[ :ildr lf.rr rh.o. Sixo\omnfidrer.

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rLsaNe tu rc. (3) rh.. {ef51i ihnugh the r. quncn +o.rrnriL thrt re d'$trsad ii rhe se.rhnt s$r(.r inro tqi6) Parotr r sone is$ drrdDrrnrs . ndsed.!.bipter. r.ontions..r blLdr $ id. cDmpai!.l. p*bi0! fd mo seientions d d! nde lred boor.r/ mrde plsLbLe b! th.. or de. tu iniD...h $ *rii. h:d .i beDg (ouldte y\i inh the Arisimq ro*:lrlie ?endd!drr!r. heighror tl'.3er ot1h.ond eignred rdrte morfsts. srr.re popu f d di.em'ry :|d trstrh. fd r nrp.{.n rodi!.ghms or rlp rrli .hDque or !wtn*i tr0r I inerubl! to r0.e.ltb . . ..rrri.!.r (rr 11 90).cffuc n!riin! +r: f.tdl rr.. b.hrpr.on nu\t hi!e heei iLm.i iii ! r! drdl ig rheupDer rrom i or dr b!*L! r.n r (l) rlr.rrDd(r drrrer or lrctngk.r!nigx. rrrL6L ry nl(in brmfr irn. btrl rhoserbdm:da:hoesnorerde4niof .n r'rtrli eiiolld I brer losue lhith \.& intobeiisrryt2i? ir rh?cred Fire!rtdude: rnr d&r!d . . The Lrrer nrLes\rcrt qft!i rlr! nds riar vrLk donffiDs dtr slft l+drLr.s :hofn n ihe loLLoiN .

:.ji.d Fsq\ ne m6' -rn 0i $r.!lr.! &hfolo4(nrttu.m rro0 lk d'Pt{ d si/i 0rr df &r !r. \hd' Pre\firbtr Nde nor .h i.'tsA\jL[nrtrrl|u]itrg|iUe ng r4iL d thp ...ijlcul]dnl. rhtrs n) m! ind f'r m trtr . i': .itrL)lnh1.i{|[0Log]iLliidl\mtd !..i.fde]{vhd! :. :. d |'-n![rl..dN Tl]!|]d fol|l[pi'trtrmdd$tn ']n.e ltrebLods md lrkns '!Do{r l !{nfds uhlitrm ?r ro(5."' nr.. {i s -.i { 2 013!&T?rrb:2) ue 1!r trlren |jtrd']. rhe\ Dl! IIQ rfrd$ I'on sDoi iid..A lhi ) ti rehjY.r.r om$ids :!!! rrri Ei? ft +!dd mtLlo: 'il. .h..{ Ddidl d'd+t id's ir moDrrndmd rNsibrelrdminn' ift nlLri+Likd.:i...r .h.d*!'-"..Qr{ rhi.fhtrl6butllntbriitr!tldkj||!kle t]fN'!lbd'Bn[Llltr.dj.". r'fi r Ldsif dirla\ rh6 ri b .

.lvas hcljued lry Fide.r.'georides at€venthe hnhlestlcv. r idther indistid of s. d€ srudyotfoo!{€d in L\elre&nt olldidn 6 b.ly b ilE iistory ofLndd burb tnebi*ory olEnropes a whole.rrly r.rd !sed. hl!fuiioBl cll'mtd oJmrtLwest Europ.de ii the lms tr vilass vhm they weE sold. h mdi*altim*'pnendr.fieexch. h thir f. s$dbiE snd@ass !wel. resarrled 6 a snhluiim nd o. .

re r.rb{ oa . mdtehLgetllment{ilhd. archive and conventions used in the report r.rifllril! {trrixnr.d Frds : ue rt I ' \. irh ii utT! LliFrr n B ms_-ni irs? F. {. F...t olJ ir N.Jr n.rtrds c*lLr ui Trig Lrie *4e eilo:cd n ]ibe]hd {j$ trr mn|.1 'ht iidnsben.* .bj]s'ii?$enDg' Ra(i*{... pi .Recording methods. Th.

ffi *.rri"ttil" .lli[l :. s nih$ thev mavl'c e\:mred S ''ft''Illti.:-*{r.""'" h..ruti'.'.rrk.tsll'ur*+t*t ...i.:jirii..:l*' .1.slrlt i.il"iffi ff*ffi --n'f.n .s.i+.i*:ru rlr:.'@rdri Pd'ta_ +l.l**.i bv pnor {herc..

hiiquei of theDre&ding l!. 126 30) iod.h. and frrNnB.posns ! rlhjfh the! \ere jou .{saso.dividnLddes.mre hn ind nshl kom rhe$yles?ndt. Lzth .Shoes fromLondon sites. d.elrury ([ig 3) rb. aie to 6eian\dnnheL tnI/t$q odn.oe h$jo^s jn i_o on Dytr a Egi*otion iu. { Scr Ho$e xnd tsilljngsgde Tlre respedLvPl' ) bf !i id Lnihe jnu*Etions ro d. 51 71)..ard'"attp.prripp."\pLoded dn\unesotn yshoes.enn'n rnd rlert lound ln jui ts! drpor6.bG {d.1100-1450 I rrtrsd'iprer n. lhe eaitinid 121h.i]td{iiljt[!nlesjlrDseNesf 1 J' d'.

onsh. pns. .rion the sole(F.r!r5&Fi$. .nset srishdy fron the edgeGeealsoFE. s1).centdryshoessen either to haye beenpoft . t5-16) $hereby se.r Irn.aidhasakpeniB. onri:llr rulju$. aL$ough sr qdte suaigr.eer$iffen8r' {hose rom my id tad hare $nps oroids warefomdin rhepresenr deposirs . 6) .Pnrhd oi rhe one h?nd G. At rhe srme tina the bsic .le n irrghr sided s yet wirho4 the ruif rhar rypilies m/Ly :l r:rer nediev.:id ii h tr r kD.hed to a shoe thdthehnlgmginsnonanyhaveverysnd doselyapaced eithes Gee belov o. e p.13)is a Edly l2th.eding .hr4tenstic rcdurcs or London rootsetr or rhe rxh .sided fe invaroblt rlardd rouideda! the heel. w{e by rar the mon pop'nr s$le.boye theankLe bone. rhen.axt (pp. and he shoes only oie booi: &is h of a distincrie typero bedescribed i. rt \€s :r. Th8re ee ody $o (FiF. Pnthad.omm.tu p 47) shoeGeeberow and usins {ool n(her lo$iblr noh. ed the r refr tmt.s slip.hnses shaped cm-om Lntlrl qurde^. 5 & 3).slomed by dis.rnd the fact no0eoI these ath.ontaned: (Parhed forh. sroupot sevendosety paf ol deposib $se$ Norldhave. Fus.3.The qnden $ere sone!fusdrenlthenedonlhensde$1tnati 'r.hes onrhesole. ro{ ol ruiner$jr. 4).'fhe s. Trreupper is .id thosensing t oi 2 inches (25-50 m) aboreit (e{.gsFte is r in*nc indii'on mcoaoDting man]orthe.Finledheel*hi.$n hos rheshoe itselt All the other items in the e t lzi]]reiturt respeds.).enlury (rig.onsor to hayebeenhiened {ilhaleatherthoq.dnwnriq' suppofredin heisht betveei $osecut di.nlde la g Ft.oniq) shodinteNoyenthones Theserhongs wert prGun:bry onuneibr .L ? q-mz4in on theeper aid .c r. sboes.tion of shoes *A t?.r .{hdDins) 10thoseol the hter 12th oDeot lbe sboes tromBilli.io{ cetuidt ?n anueshoe.bht onthelne ofthe .or d no* helped to holdrheloperin +apert the qftteG . 7 & l1). The nod obviors is rhd the sotes.r. ?nd noder.

h is nov misine or tr4mlr hile been*ufed to Eiain thcn sMpe. p(ryidefleibitih * the point i mon inva.e or? ledhered!ru $np. sriFn IFe Mh .tu4emen6d th. 7. bd Ilo{ shoes {er poinr.eads rhi: rms .tr tur rhinsshi.rdod D ihe hr rxh 33) sqsens thd d'c i'isi's i.d d rheroe. builor a sdlLi. froar oIthesr. The kcond 5de OneG.ortd hrE been osed ro serre a fabn.ds havesuflved.enruncs.i aid rhei.sirs Do{.sen an nsht (Parclrrdronh. olner exp]?fr rt .ominsr. rd(! Lu! \'hi.e ol rhtuughasinsrarovotslor(Ft 5) Asonmtr) niidios Gis. ibeie openq d lbeump trmar. butrbeposiron or$e sifubiljl(Fi3 $urcs sho{ !. b n{k rhelomer pre {hfte ir baids slrarpry ftom the hoazonbr ro irE sen.ddi0s. {hei ve!. nreryin dep.ue sho4 ron sear Hruse (Fts 5 6). add. it maybp &t tbe edges:s meieh boDd {irh dnsr. th.oe nle sblrh fldier Londor6nds md hinondl m uideu.omplcr. or topbmd . .erorrhn suniyesThis{as a tbread The..5e( d rhe iikre shoerequned io insers?ndzppem ro lunp ihro* aDd {s rareiedb! quire r brord bzrt beei .o adduioial dnrEtrne ({id$ oarqtre$jd 6 mm) pasing lzneut OB 0) ln ilns ssc.ll50 rhe siun fl:p oa lje olhs side.h is fr$ lbe in$ep dd mtryelen h?!r orertapped tund od.o $jde^. ru! o.r idcp t. 34) lhocs ord'is'he (ql Figs.losed ro niudiod {nh i i14.bsei..ln this ':y the |dhshmsacla'gesollutlh{NeIepmb?bl! drosesyLnrdnolthe ao. 3):.l.' low slth ioob:.Ior ther? i aid early l3rh.s on ls! a.:t mainseam otrrlE iin4 rolm a snug doubleahnkies se.urand se?med edle Fromthe lar813$ .bu1 nieLr {n rhF hzre beenso essse red . The . A oi n.ablr sc.$e leainer hrsbeen.d larer.$ shoes d rhndde..eitufy o.

helos.ixlshr$ li'.ind h i.oeslcr.eitury. or in one cAe i double. .177(Fig.bo!t .om' *iri rho larscr boo6ind ankkr. oie iiid. thoud the toes de odl pninted A r:rge nmber.. .g.orcspoMing to the moded stes l0 (.3) (Fis 7).onted vlrh eFbrdide.nhedre. probably.ur on o$cr 3hoes{ thi\ pcnod. pcrhaps popuh Ior . In mrnyftspecGit is rery olese]:]]Ioigpie.r tha \ anan*leshoe(F.! insen (Do{ ni$ing) toig lbe dpper edse ontheinnerside.oidedin Loidon deposiis Lre 11th cenrury.s r smalvediul tened *lrh drapsrid8s vhich Dds tkoush a siisle. rrso ofsizcs(tbelourthd are'io* . i ?5 9. The illu*Eted exmpb (r.Shoesdi vanp ii .tus oI slot usuany o.omprete ne*Ure . drouehthet re{aded to those o(high{.hiro r1 Gbird)I (aduu) 3 (xdtrLt) ad. l13l munbave lon by both mei lnd woner.e sLot oneitber side ol therrep.5) sboes mriDly rnd jt is po$ible thd ilq rer.e alsouth ? b?ndoi rle qndcA Gc.e. Frisoi q relsht!!ndE ol rlis kndseem Fis. s) hd a *npe made upoI . nns is a lom ol orabeii oI ihe $b. o'rly one ol rbe embrojdered presedgroups r cedai'nrtroD a d'oe ntl'. hostver F sliEhtLy de.h r 6r* re.Mey of the fedurts des.thoushdsawl'u.) iormally {ith a btri in dnpcrmingdomthe.7).g.e re ofihevamp. brely odlrws the {npcs *ere mrde 12thanttrq.es in th. respedllely) and as been ixunntiomGeebelo{ p.oistructiod:]beil*'i'h a shU d. inrended pie.

uns.hiLi Il is md lord rr't uo! jm b! joiiiag 'rr '. bd tr'. h{e(d rhr rin shoen. sho.ad i! u\e rrr.13.<hr$).:irt..rdsijlhl po. be dlsru*ed i\ qrne d ieieit b! i dn\diD! rni."rotlh5d.d. oie tom IIlk streer(3 re{is frq! ser House o0 .r6 i.i oi rhe iLes rme ol sibh|smpl.6r$ hallol the.il.bnr rhe. Frn uy rrri kb rrhi eerequitebtu:d md tumded(liss..en .J'dqblein.i{ diotr.e. rri thnil\?srr{flred[]rdirnni!ormf ir{ iin+ lnrc beei N)."ndr uliiredrhida trbsaft lro.s|[66F.r)iil 1lr mfre nqa:ln! .h rNed DL. r6-r7?ndFi!: |)0 ::r. edmvhrr Geereror..nrr' lhe rll]./ Frs r2).xnle i'mmrised lifrlr lse [!Ldr.i nnre. duiebi.ipodfl irruri:riois (see belo\.e .e]r!r} ceelelo{ p 13) :'dfud:.ldefl.tun!r !nir rhelerl ed '( ihe medLeyrl lenod AF D! .-imr t) lrve lr.s 'flr{e slot (rI FE J) m d LeFrIir eii . :\rAo.relshof teredh on. ! r..e iri$$rnD! +ori rlremelres. Fr! !. Lf. ile tii^{!lu rtir(o(. rrt \iDp. $ggeiln! Ibd iher h?d -iBju m rheiiier sida([( -. fu d!t.\ sl[4.16) uJe : $:ll rnaqulaL i$str ("o'y trrsiig) r rhe 9) rbjsrs 'he jlai rnie\ d Seil lloule. nr$ rr e'iLr. As rn th.e +oe rarher rlun : rqle 'tssered.

bo*eyer.ortinmusly rouid $e l* or seren sepute srints lied tosetherat the liont On a s.bnu ms ashi acro* $e insrer.! ro! opening. r5).iirudslyupwaldsdtrdgljth€sldshdtbdg 'nre purpose of the snalL sudivinsknotii the ot[er end oi thedfts$nns is uncleai.h w6 se{n to the rdp thro..onsidered herein rhe $ieal dh. 200 nn ind thus rcached nea y ro uid olt rr G oI. perhaps for de. The boot hs only one veni. $ongs nere themsehes L\readed l@*ly 6rou$ paiF or slob. is kioned d the rd{en sbt on the outer side. ud erh hada spad. concenriccides on $e exmpres:lready dennbed rhe dw*dngs pAseddroush slob cut in the upper but aftangenentvheftbytheypasgddYotrghloops -fhes upvrds. vhere ii rd &ree senesoI heel.tiodBth:sm.shzped lemin:l {hi. .id mu. .ured byaknot tied4ainn theinside oithe o. ft is ol zo'dal insenon$e im{ side. io suppon $e dia{striig.t attheb.hmoreiragmenbl_r boot remins in prz.iod. qhilh orisin:nysmd ro a heishiof .sirs.{np{rcund constd.lmod ce.ecryromdedd i[e im. this s@eis thd n wA then {ound ontinuousiyuprrds i. Theslring itseuis posiblethd it oily Dafrly in ph.s.seand lorned m overlapping a.enain.ontve ared.11).lor binding or a overtheopedngflapsaldE'onliJd'si(e sti.r.bove rheindep. ftther diterent siyle.s of har been delrtsately ivlsred. butn seems str se.6sion ol the sb'le (F.The boothA susivtug fragneft wheiner &is was a stnste stiq sound. dre sme de!.. sbdler . rheresa to $ilchiq doq the DFr edse. irere re &ree ri. biilytheress a torsle 6oushrbs itselihmnot sudlvedandns fom is un.h vas mchorcd againntne bve{ slot on the jislde T}e mo$ complet!booiol il'is rypaco@s lron a deposn oI the 13thcenrury butis bes .:l thoq on(heoutersde overinc anlde.ond. (Fig.ntda4rnainsgdalihe sboesnd booc of ihh pe.a ropbodadda loig tmrqxh edsinc $np $hi.e. ft ar teAt twelvelrasnen$ ot . a bx (fi8 'Dkle{hoe or tunboot The mo{ compreie 13)is a nn\ boot.nd rso more iisens $e topind.

middleor $e in{ep (Fis 16). sillligsgac 3.vrD ai{i qude^ . flic ol.e 'vcp.s oily Lliee it h likelr thd 6i bootrlsos^ hled.h cenrq (Fig l7) h is b the6rd h? oIthe13thcentu4rbattlre r Sd flo$e (t{o strresive deposiis.ompreleof thesehm rhreeremaining oneoneithersideand thethndin $. rd rhesotes haye (hree deposits.riods.?l thons.e ii rrieryDes topleseded.rtt) urn oder exanphsol lnis !'pe badnore !b& one reni.en the r2th.edtrJ h.s.r both sides ol thefoo( This B a typ! lables t 2). sever:r exafpks ol shoesrode in rro main li k lmmediately obriousthd the Sel House se.lindly thepncti.nd robibly sFivas io ih oridMr height.hoe.liveL.mplc.ediii becadse n h6 : 0I tle sidatlonss hG lor. ror ex.areund .onsddion.Tne moi . nLss 21. {d B iqscare asemblagesm very sinil.?3). and24 rc&$ quiie. ." tflt'4 r'.{ith seznx on (r'ts.theupp*sm mostiy oroncpie. L@ps bul rhe.) \i.onunuously withr jde dn{fing Th€ erlr/nid r3.oirainins r1 dd s redsbied sho$ respe. 25. prond!rceds?istedshipe geneElly{ith rred shoes) These ue smmadsedin Tables i tuund or oul sh?ped toe Gee.24)Asw.cs4 but incr m ror rle fi6r time dlrerei. dthougheren this is not . Ii n an:nue .id b3en d$.onnnd'onloundspondrdxydYotrghofiine .nbred{Ir @ds..entuo. uth insers dded *hcrc nc. ti.

.ontion 1.ome.i&spread und rhe se.d b& seamjoining'he sdLa td the upper. is passd otrt or fashioi though shotrtd iot be lor$trei rhd the concendcl.De.Ig!=- be. Theresas bndiis or x rorb.irdes on otL may have had some otumenhl.ur rTxbras betow 0re ankre. bdh irde f.n orfoorwer.ondhatfot rhe pp 3r-3).enry lrodps(F!qs.ny {ithour ftnds. {hereA thoodpr (Fis 19)G.1$.D singte orr€r) thin.soitrearher\ith ? 6nely nitch.ul rery lo$ . 13)n conve.eniuryG3ebelos. :.o!iting ior overh:tf ine tobl iumber of i0diliduany regi*ered 6nds r-2)'fbere aft !d sn shoes.N *ellas tundional !:he @ by lir the no{ . 13) The t{o vlnch are pnces mos comprete wer. 3t'nos . hjshar ihc in*ep.ing .iionaly{yred.?nd three or i]jese nay h:ve beena spehl typeoI ndoor slrpper siellar to rhd found in one of the eadyr?th.onmonro.id (noL strrtjling) bd noree ot dJl fa{ening one (Ft..erir.

Fts..*emd wnn a ia{sting vound onc. toe. or t{j. .bles 1-2.ndtonsemu.. lois $rip iisen round th.e rtuDd t$ leg.hhuherur 6e h3th. . but againthen ?pperan.nrury thc mo{ comon sii..ement in ihe eventol selere wetr io as in d'e 12ii c. rJ:l in thd it h. lo$lblt destDedror $sy rcpla. .lrpre$'oc md the sueolthe sloGsho{ roro r 5 nnaro$ T[e 13$. tun booG and sideli. rs the low boot or:nue sl'oe f.ss pd ot rhe quafrers.s .e :he imrft$jor $ar rlris was a style lavored :ii. :.imallyju( belowihe rnlle fl.ithe[ 12r]! :Jdtrded at th.enIu4 eianples :. .ed shoes(descabed ?low) :Inoi al rem Io h?!ebeen{om by nc. 10 23).

The|lNtled bool (Ft 24) h very si'iil:.rnd ftinforcnenrpie.o eftelt.dt wilh I panot holesonerher side.hloned rre vanp on lie hrer side ed .nds andotherreinrorcefterlple. a ledure +ded {iih oneoI the strruive anue shoes desnbed bero{ (Fu. has beerfound o'ny spoddi.esde not .There m slxeMnples ii all.r to relieve .mied oia serof lace.aid on the yrmpihrod h ./.ire.h the$tug pNsedLbroush (. 26) is mde entnelyin onepiece.rhepresen. rough k. ro ore found li the edlier srolps (Ft t3) . . 43).This style oI lastenAsenblases od.s as the lsu cc. ed n or ivoft thoselaed d $e side.!!eD.ve retuined opedat the top.ed on the mer sde.1 Fiss.bles I 2).n. is iow mising rhe o$er shoe(Ft. 27) and boleson the mde. om €t 25) h?selaborde open{ork de.n. smzllinfni whi.lso refr(kable lo{ at L\e heelibo$ roy orytrxy hale hadrop.The elab. cnc'rtd. Anois the shoes.ienr sDe rd quariiyd ds be Gee rectag d dd cfrdlom moliis.enfu4'ilmerJdeveihA '}ose id Figs.e ora The tull bootldamd wiil' a drtrsstridssound mt tines rouddrheles h tr lurher *yle Fhlch codinuedinuse inio6e edly r3th.. in rhi.:nl'sSnnniMslldinsen*inebaf di.h m mo* complere de ahon idenqunehighd rheinnepbui verr licarin rom.23). of suff. Ior the iumbn . vhichpo$iblr wasmade by thevee. 21-23 ftpb.nue{boes (T...all! iDlitr onesbelor enelqi.v0 *hi.of inbd but. 15 1O.tury Gee belo{.eeei to the extentol vlnchLLyee afeshoes cui belostheanl]edd rvo ee.orarioi b:*d on tun*e.!e beenh. All saeh!o h. beins dnrub$$d2 6marcs l! h. 3) ln but mat h.Fiss.i compbrnyol lhe iisens on buds(.efrdo ertei erdpres js lne absen. ue .nte tFe. o.enhry.o oyerthelace the nner side.27&e0) thoush ireseio loiler . n 4asp|4olt}esinplereren.hird\ shft illu*Eted (Fig.ad. This dafpjcsddcdinFig eiii|e|yhthelzih.e of e olen?ppingfirp optnjns (4 Figs 5.holes.

e roh.ory $e ep dse 1oiorn a lap ope@ !m]I ro rzdi.d tuhindotred rheLonon hoLes.It t) ln thissse (helr. l:.el4d. .oneol thr r le-+oas tbre spmt inseis (Fi! .e u4:hos (d Fis.e .dd dmadcdupwds od pres mrbLr.e irselr $6 rA knot.e L:4e p'e. rd a d'ird (.t) o. thGesetr on some ramiix in postjon.onhiis jtr{ tr si"sl..p pe ips m . easknod.ideds ii to tu h.'isrd n.

ry tidd! onthe ldi Th.. t . . . .ehoks.ofttive..v.enpuledod orrh.&aL\eriheaboadthmg-pfubablyasDg|e ].elkeadedupwdsinthemneri||lstdedin or The lererenaniig sho.omdete aDheshre n ndi.ond heldtheshoa .l stilieier ?Dd owibel. i .bd h seneDl 3 . .ned *irb a buckle.jg 231 There{as i . rtinrorcmcnLp'ece topbdd.:ny didered i" mn mh joined by jdeDli. . ror inpresions shos 6d dieyh.shichdehlgeddMgft' '1he hoLes de ueven n number(lblec on one beenr sde.peb! a snrll romd |.a he. .sn Lhssoup de aLL rd meniodt bnei types disdsed ekevhere onglmlly l:r. sds n the $me posilon oi bod.sidc ol the loot o.. iou oi the o$d) rd scn io have hEt palily de. sc.veb.

ds nErkd wereieorsdsed .knes (seetuther. shoe$brb{rsooooulreelier.ed.ciaiDl! Ii{ened in..enlury trle (. r+ns d Ihe sjdes :. r.dabor€(pp.il..nurt This .ble . iobllr.ompleteoI rhese d[koftrhe{y|4!ldPgivmedf€lFriod totl'oscol rpinNu.-udgre :bocs: Table'1) ilrnrarerrrese derdf0med5 <=-- ---4 .v b. ror ilimrle Ft :I) rh! rrll boot.: rndn .9 3r) Ii is rena*rble thd this $a &e ody Iypeor tuneniu definirelt :.d iniep 3ndibar u.rto r.ond h3lr Tbe nion .r nse oi 33 ie&neied shoes.i ns s. but t aooeirs a sho'vfasl'ionsind'elate13$ & Tibles 3 nnd :id no* ilEs {m murh sreds unifo.l nrLevhi. m:!b./. ioi esnpla Fis 63)z alnion. Lane 3).latemedrrl.eptionshlesol lk.onsidenbly d thn iime .oin. .-' L nyb n sertr kr.ot immedirtelr obriots r shouLd be rtn€dLeredrln E a'lJr:ho.o reiiorce ole ig nros add oihft pp 22.. ..\hon \liihod e\.e?ni unuri{D n. croups 'f^ble Rlliosssr.krotheLondon n...{ nriejhoes $nh a rossle iltrm.as ol pdeitial{c. T!du. ne..oF!n?[le (9slioes*irl' lo]qrlcs ind rEt 4 . (10regin.reas rhose in thelrrq tre miinryol lhe hlf r4vsrins rypedennb.f *es.flBiihcsuppriesofiileno.nrhbl! :ppeu?n.enajnly shourd fanems.s iuntd in theformer & xLhcriLL orllie lo{ rggLe ranened type uia(ed jn Fjts :l-3 rb.iiinfd to b.thedilNnaisr:{eiiis kofr r.h reff k)hiFoniMrd 13$ .17 13 & rrrE {s me mijor m dion in nmurador rs ecbnique h the e^rua. by iie avodmceof iresrhny sbaped rosglehnenjng (Fts .mjr! ir ind.Thnlad E .I n .ommonedy l5th.nh i irn scam on theiider rde.iotha 'va}. (26 (rTshoen 16shoct TrigLane rnd.L15 f thel2rhrd edy 13th redqn.ordsathedDsinside : r{ ed3e.cntury ad beume in reNi.r'd the rgures ror Bilinss 3{e re broadLr. $cuseol?$out.or or bn rkl.ided anrL a srat. s{:r rh.burit seems thd $e l.Fdshoes.lioeor![oe.edonessere doniidedby il'e :trdruhr.slt hshioi.a y l4th.dly .{t .

rroraiioi in the vamp rhroat dd ifuhed down otr rhe on ai ha{ odesh@ol this iype ine lahp hA beenllashedrh{ugh viih a knife.ve beentomed lion a reather k. Ther {ae trsd oi booh ud sboesrude in ? vmeiy ol $yles.ue (Fiss.ed o( and r]]e sl6hes.e . but it mighrposib! be .end.lu. e(h *ih a 'buroi.hrede$mDles nqemi lhd th€. {hi.e werr dGned n edry noden times b4! intothe rTrh ceDbrybd io! deiniretyinb $e medieEl aj'ue sho6 nsi4 sltndy Nsheroverthe:.s1h. . . nomly uis ian aton!theiiside sd(e and{m h3ldin pla. simitarlr-stAbed Itom rhe ^usiin Fna(. MUtd h.md ihere n a Loisseni.ti. l-ci.ompmd $iih &e proce$ or ntuardeh.6ner dread stjrcheddoss ir kee ftniner p 5r dd Fie 31r.bty a shoe or mue+hoe.onpletety lod. ed onshanydere Ms a topbad sriiched to alllneuppnetues exceor irle toigle rreroggte. l55i lolosiis svm) h.ing to a silsle los1e in $e cefte The &st inu*nied exampte (Fu.h hks $e lom oI etongated lozeqes. ril. b{ause tnere n ? rov or shod bui brdad $irh impresiois tumiq in $e - .s tE. 31 and F1g. ro (ede r tum of opa sidd. ihe ltaps*ere 6rn ssred iidependeny to die rode on ihe ts.The rroii ot rhe shoeis atmo{ .r be tush{ Fns of dre i\hD (Fii 32r In some . This{A prob:bry donetoi decontiveor pra. hole'foi hne.ement{hereby shoes are phed as a gdod.nd .orded.a*s $e etuesot &e laos yeE sre.bd oi oneof. but roggtas$in accout ror vel . hG a Danoi identi€l raps.r sideFs m insen which dmedasjnsle bftoiliole andei$er oneor rHo iosres pasins $rorgh sloh ad sdched doM oi the m'de.ut klow or oi thelineoiih3 anlle.ti.ri.ncuhr ion&e {hi.k offerins in the .ed this pn. seemonsbd] ro havebeenrmsed rousHy D t{o brds doss the foot (Fia.6oud rery oft€n (r'. 29) is nde anurelyin one pie.e {hose end*x tuled backon itse[ p66ed though a slr rd pulledrighr. dre oder endrA thenthrsd-adlnrolsh ihe p. 30). To dose rhe sho.-fhe toe oi ihe illu*frtd exrmplehA b. The simple*.od.etr sli. e\.nre iised .32-3). TheyreE very simih in stie.e bv a se.ordnalr!x shhhci |Fls.. hv. dsoiov brsry.Tft Lue $ere is a seakr mge or hdedis.he 'nu. clare Allln (Menor& Fede 193t.h nG nghtacro$ rhevamp $rod io providene$ iiy over ihe inieD *hite d $e sme hme covems be op€i rcm b€hiM rhe fl?ps.d purposes.IJJ lbroqh &e redher. rn her discssidn of .36 nom a subsequeii asa sioupl oneof the fl.hinney or dtic oI a nc{ bundiq.onshdiod to the shoes xlftad! desnbed.ps w6 made sep.!er hril rhe ttpes e.ept trraron the im. medw'u.otrd.

o*lderblesisiijidi.en rtnnded to bods oI L\s genecl rom r?ni slarciis..h.yn'eetdthe rlp $c sides {ere ed3ed{ith Lirq naps. :.h 'v.din?!i?n York) Here .Fig 72No.anled the rco0d bdtonhole is alsomj$ing fromtheliner :uns of fas@nirg shoes ihe roggle hffi r -: srr iirelmjtkd I'isto4.k ir susiye! c! bs n !o big thd the flxrs jdh|Edcedtighilyotrthein*{md arlea{200ra*.: i6r ?ppem on a hre sdotr :nue shoein $e ?10 ?nd ?46mm (noden (PritclHd lodh ::.D erkr dcpcr (Fig. d lca* in London clild s ste 3 The orher 6!ee !.31)E drndrenT[e sm:le* ii irF co]recrioi ror$e andbpbind ?ninsen{hj.f lkccr*or 1982.r Nilh lrcesd tie side.le?l ukun coLLe.\r.anemmple rom Inero su. one .'*or. .der:'dc $tr r r.re .Tossk hnened shoes ind i*Lejhoesappear to harebeermrde in a cnge (Fis. hshion shoeeros the iniep by meam0l tso oovable l'4eidrtrn$iredtor. I'ychdnotonee. not kan beause iL +ems to :'.:.spodins sct of sloted uss {l'i.i..:{rudolerthctogg|esdihe|roiLollljoboot' .ndLngtoihe tuLLheisl'rarih. b.1) &ont.e ' $e derelopmenr rl medje{l sho.lnmoncAas .lroot.ohpleie eimple ol ttus rtDe (Ft 3. {lehgslo6ltheitrd'!'du..F!ler solcs ' .bulvhereih.lt ropeds .62710r . mo{ .n iLbeit id much Les exaggeuted tishioi mal : : bootfom.dy up rhemer sider on ihe.*e#g $i{ia*$.l3J ?n1l '.i^g. been iFlosible ro adjun the Lensthoi rhe .lidi _iis .

a .

Le-ur il sbo$ i tudh* n?ceinthe delerq.lrh cenrury(Fig 35) _:: p$oJ i5 Fony rtpresenred b! 6nds fiom :roo 'rhere is i0rr one rarse grotrp llom : .d.d urrDi.d shmt.etr Th6e .e $i.ontheoneh d.belordie i:. :iJ erl! 13rh enrurl rre Neurt rr lbe rhoes we f:*ened Eoors*irh loggle lanemss ol ihe type |i!e beenglrn no loiger.o. Theoiryakh.Iern. Lor boos rhindi.r.prbed in Flinsio.bre.omprere boor lni! beisht{orLd b! $ibbre roflro* andoddoor . Asenl]L4eisolespe..$l.md ihe fou.rod sr'o.epron -.is!!.i D. but iorlundel! ii n . \et r.ond r lron Dorsra (9regsteiedshoes) ad ue Lbnd r (1r.n. (6r.oihdin 10those mrdein rheedt :lthtedu. r'd d€sinlsr rqD 10 haF dieppe red codDLe.Fedoi rhereDdrfiFr d ni.erdA id.s jun aboyethe :nuc./ Fts. :M .33i.gto ieftr mid .x.h| neier. r:lisqDntdsiiesunbeeipeded to orovida de.rqi*c'.Dd.s) truDcu{oF House Th.:rriershi $hi. so !oLe!$rr nom r30 r! 245nn io leu1h..on$e od. 5 cmfle .erhe! tomeftumthreeqdo .20-23) b ir seems rhat .y (.rrroe ot rhG :blel) ue ol similrdrm. i '*:'l_it_l lroD Tac La..wh!re]sll*s]iAnilbtltmue rlcd irLes lanedsrjdnL) rromone!1aa ro rd.nsioN.acd t4l -rD' rldll siD.fupatidr.r xike{hoes Nnh dh€inns lrs :rg5: n possible tht rhese {ere yeq old . fte mid l. a:(rud fori ri(h Gee Table t.s. these.se.B:liJds. lrcept b! yer:/sn' $tdren (.bersei.r: Fis.h $e dem?nds ?od ':r/jrs ollhe ( inhdi(mG.er rtrLLbooc asi. TheLudgda lrr booh. id n.es itum rhe B?tnads Cmtle .

?nd s i r0$ boot shiik?se .n dshrer grotrps krt made oI incisions mrjor b. excndins lrod rhc mh ol de loot md '3h1 A siFi6. snce and nore .nt deklopmert in the dsign or r ! ! ! l ef a n .irdisriisishrble rrom &e mderial Jlap ihelJ ro be t. {1tr. rehned io lashion.dofcoi*ndion vth.nde m'".ewr iir hBlto ' probably proyLded .d BaYruds CGde d re ol shoes lea$.onronable n rhe um!. cusomH.'sc ud Dowaate. Dowr*e rnd i{o hom E!/'r d' cstLe ol thce is ilLtrstded (Fu. 1he fo* .fsrening lacing for bmG tu ioi so prt. .ome badryslo en or d.. but odL) inc mer side 37) equ.enluci some ol the tosslerasered shoes.*mr$*r09ni'dd'esole lor s i* 2 lalLo{Lng lenrh the iodar chird thd rr r0 pft.in odnuLd. as d 'B?t!rds C?sde.fomed cee belov.d! rlliltr togsleJAcned togg|e ni lha in(ep . saa attheheelA ropband Th€ im{ sideihell . s .ll tliee sites. The sl'oes . A 'i sidc laced shoes renrins de lragnenury at .'[ftonbo]e'oi &e [rp d erh side (he fnrce|abolatcy*sjoi'wL$addnion.lmg $e rPFred*\ rd q?.esol harhcr.onhins n iiseted sedioi 'md. mu. flaps Nould have acted 6 a continuous i.h olfered.knEs leather {l'i. slro? \^ ulDcrifll loser do*n ihe top edseorthe shoeto a position br Losna ror: ruuph. poi. ed il !l rhe anish.butoned an.tlE bAi./.h hs ? 'bnonhole . Fig s5) edse wheretrthe {rontsedionis orsotrl sinde or thjs Ns to providea vdenrght si. $e lwe sith r siigL. roMdedioesbut quitepronou..mu.d and slthed io ledrer in such? n(y rhd the krge* p€ct [es d i u l e a ( h e f o l d e d o l b et o s i \ €i r o o b pitlr bebId the othertvo (Fig.u lhiLd lri.tedsiyLe the 13th .nd. h o \ n b Jt r o t u n l e s b. .|ioggleSon one oI the laps had avidlndt pssad Mion br thn dde.tr. Jodns rc sinnld rond neih.lier the ovalroeshapc d the endor bnervope ol a nor. oneoI Hi.nsleiied lrom the d eiabLd the rppFn rJ m!!hu' Ttu.( and side lor shoes bei{eetrtoggk.ofplelelt od ol lashion larel3(h..omDlere n lhollr 0cseflcd.37.mdsean i! s chd ihd oi rhcimer side ad Iromrhesoles ih.eiiury. have in ttrm {ouLd side This !'e 61. novable buto"ole'fla!. up of three sran pie.cn0.Ge: lmni borh bcre lor ex?Dpre. i .ato ihoseofihe ihe inuinred evnples lFis 3ri)Gmmu:l n thd {cre veo smlLd neds onborhsides ol thesboe abole tbeoder{irb.hrougher The purpose sei hehind . J\ 4 c .ed \r:idJ d llre Table 5 sho$s Lrrat. singl.

rds loig recbnsh insen $hnb exteidad the tull ryles iornally lon by adulh (FE.and $Er sedion shi./ Fig 97). 33) ln.o6 ol the lzth ard l3in cenrunes {ith plaindit. sem b have !i de innep and: tianslar in*d ier &e bse doselv and$e staighr vedM! se.T kn. 0n ved l2rse or.. the 40). rather esDe.nere ud the bootby A nrh as 30 mn (Fis heishtened Ilre! aie roqNy A klLr thel ft lons.i d $e brk. md lhe sunivingex.ialysin.bins.39 ..vs pmvidedlen shoe. s r ennre oi one ekmple thcre rhe nde hled booE m all ol sinihr relaave Fig.iigs on &e holes this inside(. hoos a dip wA oltenused rrao wd reiiJored eitheriith d appledband (.!e rund.1 Fig e7).b heldthe vhole bootin sh. the la.s! !r orknbe+ei h€re {A mrdt a rddrtionalpje.e elei tlnrqh the holes leacheddno* !o ih! *aE.e (Fiss. sits ||aa utu g 33'39.e 39 .Theupper wereinvan?b!or ?bh.e sere no eisnei r.fl i]]esoletothebodompanolh. bur rhe.snce most dn{{nng ankLe littedthelootquE b. moreorobabLy. trrap round rype(. inn{ sideGl FiF.sh@\ Itun Lrn10. resretably.e tle bmi {s gene4lly a ltde $an beiig on sepdde uss andthe edgeor ihe klier d $e liont th.Tl]e lace' holesrcre Einlorcedurh ledher fa. 131.hannsr horizonklsean bllity d m abnpt chanseor ansle.e .on .igftrappeamnceo!e!ttresM nnlded by rhreelogsLesThe bu&iholeJ rc or diredlv in the llao on &e outer !de. shi.' abLv re.10) The onLy c*tle Th.os ol $k ryp. to mse &e tdp ed8e.ind plob opbadsseenbhavebeenprovidedns./ ju* tr onb.40Erly]ddld{eitrq heiqhr fromthe in$epi the honzonbl*am which loinid it to the vamp*ould h.fld pdeid:lpoini weaki$5.h in rhe rd serer u i.chedabouta third or the dnhn.pe.n nav tuve o dr.andon the'nner leatherloldeddoubleover the edge. 2r & 23l but it {* gilganther.40). or beei: J$x s h.es dcmselveshave lFia5 not remained ii place on ay of $e b.b en.nded the qu. 'Bayn.nplasre Lrir stips 0.

ds .i ir.Jr ro:. r.de]!iih rrr B mrds ciiL! ririds 1: {n b.( r d.r\n.d Tirr ri 8.r 5:r 1) bft Jtirns rP .'dtiL rkr: drrre:h!!: rNUn niun riEr ! rlr. r srs.0.e rnNtl! bnaNd xturr rre iin. .r rrt.

i.nLe:.nr nL.s .il: ." L. nd drr vrflleNotrhe Lonion !n)u|x tr lftl d..rnsDrsrlp6 rtd rirn..i.ed bob {d rronrli.!.h ir LeJtl)!th!haso l. ') :i rl[ iorth fl thr 'Dr!n.r '\.I". ri..d: (..d o.r. bllN LLL[tdifis (see pp ll.e d:ru 26) N nrld lr b'..n(4 Ioot L!iqrl.etncdcn srrt !2 rniFr ri bDb o! r'liLe rxt' D N 1.:r."'... .nf vm r Drnrrr cdL! lr: ligs .hLLd.nnr!1. '.f .iur... tb.i\e Dr deorll. r!!h.'r b*irp:fti : il.ough.ntabu nirthrbef.illl.ilenei h 1r. d(!n.\ r.rt.n. .r.ofi. '* ' .l' . been?r(trdeJqrLr L! (h. 3l .| TiLl!! 5 md ll] 'lr drt..rnN. LDsen (Trb ! sr) ]n{.rd :hr* o' aMe ..Le..rorLdh:f.D en.!F{nrhl?scl: U Dr aq.l ide ri. h Di(l'r bee$eded.rd r hrr slrghrLt ]...rrlr iod rhent.rtrtre s.wd... 'il.ar:shos hll(ur oronofic.j 't:].r Lon(oi!lF\ 8i.1 F. n . l r .dtrdd.rl. !J{LLLru'|trrrrvrlt . .0..ajd Ci{le \itr .

.l 0 0f 1 l Fron Lece i . i .on Latc . . F.A (l tl n l. i .

l. . .i . taced Front Latchel ].. side Lalchot -.idtrrruuem JDdMs $rhA.bisrb tFronlLaced Side. L. l. Euckle Latche Toggle t3 l.sioia|| lhe Douih.|'. rli 'Tibe 3t oc.+d.

As TabLe 9 sho{s.rb. md thd n for ? very sni. rLoil jd{ me eds (r oL' hive m?de (.hafing on tlre Lnnep.L{ Irofr BirDdds Ch e therem (FLgs s0 slr below so * io proredshoes LLr! rhey thd \Dden pp 91 6) senen oseceeberor!. alegadt .{. Fig 93).rhet wereinydrbrrol exFpr ror one oI $.d bI !m('fabGs 6 7) .uoud Fdhqr r.:l ihe! hzdno topband or heel.). ntrre n t!{ me errnple oropetr{orkdemmiod. c..nnd b. dcmntionn a!.ShN:t d ?ttu": rioiai .. Larchct rypcs (the side.j'..it saefrs rhI lMkhd sboes - . rhe outer rde hdlefihonbnt ontheintr{. 10? l0'1).5r).li ditu GlE ricro{.p.. order d'irdren ard aduh. quinen of a Lov. horerer.rtlnforce.udserroo rhe ud tu meirremeil.kd$e ledher fromskt. Fo'&nyenieile ad qudm sm sprdc oneprte.As d :ll p. &nnndio.rl deuis .y {de vntu:llt iden. rhs \us Nurry ${.n chird(!iq.urre belo$ lhe rdkle o.hing md chdng d the weake$ poinc kt Fis.e IFm .riods.F 30-r ind Fig 115.niiued rdioi {* theidditioiol r tonee sin rtothd ']j|dt. he ?b?idoned ror mic joii.so th. YinosIu6|hetrlsiDdderl.id lere yery sinllr in {y!ng {Figs.dd uourd rtre nore u00er $hrrroot bur$ourdh?!eprereDrd the la.1217: i9. 53) AnkLe shoesandbooc.'.

Lr. rr dr! r!e.s m. d. rFnrery.hed!ir r reD?n: lllssen\r!! d h?!ebeen .oolLrin. bjturded ir d' rhe n desoondrrq Fir ot troL.kd }nh $s nr[ iFj^ rs n) Al]redr {d!loi {rcs dr r. srrc (Flg.r ilr tedrr{ $np .12)tn oiLf: n.iardlrlit sbo.d!\j r{ xin< Lrr orher.ruLILdki6oftinPdilo^{hiim r..n smp. rtLun(rd tsd|'l[t.LdD pt?ce by tuldjng or.kiesr but riedh.Th€ eiLl i juFlsiosthmugh the hoLeiDiljg n'nf oJ.:ie (r..n oi rhr r fL . h[h. hs bEendr do*i b?reLy.i.hide D oa! ( is 0asiste rhi.on[.kted sh.l +oer eDml$ise +i hsli f:s|ion *so.liershoes ilirLir4eridulrs?$ Fron rhf il Lr abre3r) xnd tlj. i^!. . jid5r e\rmDles oi deonrioi F. umJj I ihuesi rirr md r ioinihe yrnp ind qkr.ore( the ro.d or {Fig 50Jir lie.str .isoneotrheo0Fr.uFDc 'riou n. c9)r.n.4reds re lrry difiird .$ 50 5l) }e r5o aso.d dorrk lnLr ktrn ro!rLh.h r.:0)is slighdr one dnlFddrtreqm'lfls rd :rdrhee.r :dtrhrmr laidPr shG (r'is 16Jn dt rre.( \h{c tu sf(r! hr rrc.a Ln rnd zrc. iinqr ir a s. olr|t +re The (F f.! ot The adulrb!.y{?llsn.rrr. rnd br:u\e ol tlje leigrh or rheshoe .rs.uloti Both the i]lnnkd sd.i ifh.dorrre lu xinehs bc$.r oi.t9 r) r onrtu sdon lrulanc_(Fr! la) th.b pAser oy{ rh.son 'rth d]e.d !r Tric Lrrlhd snp nrlt\m mari:Ll! m:d.r i] lerh:os N l one or Frgs .os \+i.

Or re 19 .id F.i.rlhe hr! h iefrrii li\ed.Dphleso|es'vl'nr|'eadfilfooile..!rd. rhe nth{ r i ..ggnde d poulaincJ l.e ras I sinqrc rd!d.r nrroN *np ot Gith.s 3n bd.en oped rhe \hoe ot th! lidedde ro the nnusurl dher rFLgn) i: dnided LJ jurdr'trnd\nba *aes ordirl iedrsu..r the ri.e sid!.rlhe yrmpDpe0inFmd roberhrtaded rhroqhrrores n (d bero".6to.t Tablesb).. hdE b!5 pr. .solthequii{s h thl5ase belo{ bo$ Mr r.{ pine5 retieEd oilr bf upper. : toque \€: seNnedgeto edse:lois d'e torhose\om bidoeleihxdd adulc.. Thn rc.ikle :M ? to inddeniinde iyFs Eur 6 is eideir diieied 10the ere'r t|a alnos i"varobh lney 'flieie \ere lanened bt l.hhors! ei. r y d t h e l m d p r o v i i i n g r f i m e r 6 t o f { r l r e sh?pl.ios d rr'e ltu is.!ihcanbe eniFded n hs dai t70 nn (miomlr equn! dioes belongtobeLowihe{nkleshoes.ounb lo.

h apperre single rront lithet shoe io h:ve beenrepaned d thc qudreG arrerit hrd {om bt r.1).hed md been pbose iootptrshed n abnomdl!outrurds Gee . pie. TheLa.pases froh ibole rhrcushrhehotes on r]le sidewr.s e'imples seemro hava bad loi$es.Thebuckie.d aloy rarherrra noi. which G knoned at erh end.kle 11). not hom betowas :E .e. now nostl] ro$. 47) {hi.1 Figs.bonn $ar ir is of on. u00 har (Fi!. h orre.The nonrta. burin !(e 0f rheadrft lersiotrs.ed shfts (.dM it.5?-. dto.and: sqle shoe 107-3) (Fig.on{rudiotr.althotrs[ shoes discusedabove noneor lne suflrv.efeit h L*ened.brrd{ho wA plsed.thd /. tu$ened*ithabu. one ol those ituinred (Fig 53) h hL'iue Ln lrreEesentcofe.e.

i.sof:. biturcded laichetrypehgs \r bl.oid illu$rtrred ex.ipla{A :dopied.i'ph lFig..s dn lindile 0e1 d lcAl oI ie Balmds cArlr' jn verysmallnmb*s (TibLe6)?0daredernrred dftnbebr{p.hLLd r [oor(Ft 57)rcrrmo$idetr the h. .oe hadbeei ^sembL?d bul rheorhq n mu.hremrinii kd 0.hro\e i0lhe fun [e4ht orllre5hoe.a modifiution oi rbe li that prii.st to hale deveLoped is :. hi thn in*a.ept i.rr! rls .in io h:!e mdhodsor ri+eiiis sde La. $hj.e hohs 0i the boorths €i Le seanodLl rainfoftmenb suflilt oadnLLy in ph.jrd's nkh. erenry soard. 'fhe illu*rtd . The fas?ms :nrye (Ft. {s seM edee ro edge:]o..s rhis ide ilyi (Flg.otrtrioi ('f.bles 6 l) rid ibe exrmples ol rhi: d& ue 50 slmllir ln cofr htd tiiB ei. tl'emd side: rhebq!!. nponani methodror l6tnios rkle+hoes :M A wiib h. ru *ens t. s.etbeyanh.5s)rd rhclo\r bool (Fig 53) shde i slmllrr onerece \*aD \!irhr dglrd mrinseio on siound'con$ndion.iigappean bes negii.Tr.ipde?Lshion 0r ibe othert{o o.ted [.ll hA a titry Douhine {uffed Niih hi.:Id.e the li.ds \rlrli re : sm:lkr d ud' L.shoe 56) ad rhe. 55).id n :DinreFiLDdt oithe rlrd frcnth.sin.ikLeilioe (Fis.b 'nore s$*addr . 41). d they may bzre rbesr.rhe ie.nt lacedshoes.e kl !jg.e is or the bild.

2B %) Tie 59F}lJ|5dend^betddafu'si&som Fer rrt hd bdbn id.1 be obq.\ lor b€L$c€irhe err.ehDnt.'endJ deltqde]J atuJ whe' 'n.-. LomTrBLim lhse ' tiltle perc€pdh djqsa n. ur bqe re r& rels mnprete . .. rsg trs*e*d 'r-'..re at. ihar sefliq dr m. sds€d rp:Ekh I' r lts br rr i.m hEd iks bom the tmdoi qderemr Ercig rc h€ 0r blr or L\e Lrh csr6 and lerc rcbd r bre€ dlFsnr 'Ihe odrdon ot rhe sm.€rr hae udd s. iw.om (vr Lde r 5Bm'y eekr hj th.ryoi.e:d) r pi{slnough rct ap.er ot rh€ ssd lde qtui pftcded tr Gs "bde @.ny r. qai&d.) uie d dre srouF ..:he€&J}IslhGnh4!Ts'50| .oo p.\e snrl*t .hF.r dE+ doq|[ME+N!s'ori@|lyn[direr9h.s md roar. ode^ and^ bfn ^.

hrc nlered ttuougl'the rerher.rhough mo$ {uf6'B w?s some- Fro Latc Sid L!tc ' . rbeorher . .orcded brt fen ro hlve beei omimenld Dunq &e iseny or dMl Ien rh ahp*d deporiloiorlhe hEr Ss?nLde rnd'1.nd i o md SNm LrDebrk ed orlarhe!finenql nres 'tr*op tu di ode side$ thr dher 'frrG lotrr ol 'Bric $as{onj as: s|jpotr . B{c Lrtc Iot Xno . . shols. (Fq.{ilh quiteex. re b?dtr. .ii e .ie hne Fro Lac Sid lacl 60E{Lys6educd|e$elde every kiid .r r.gs' oneof ron. b:sgr" no$ $uned pouraii. 60) rr hasm hpbiDdor heet- rjmes sin nsed r. a^dhrrheb andbckles re lhe oilr linenins typesderDit.'unb( akr.sgeEtod pnulamsI lo\r cu shoes ou.Ddh(ns.Ly a rarceankre sboe $itr.||'end. Nhi. gie ? mok eyen pn.] fit.dr a)o!.

.aL deleropmenb oi ihe Front Laced Side' Laced l'' l'' ]'.dherparen {iL\ slighrdileieocesir con*rudio.ed inpd bva neNrlpeor:ll r. :r3 10) {{e mr ron A ora^boes bui sifrpLf $s an eniirel! neq slle shouLd beresd.h n sh&d nii! Ieduresol deslsn iid cod Burit {m the re. l'.(cdkl bdo*. l'.rEsugg. the side ]]ced . p.an.d A a repLa.hiDs ?bonr i $nd ot . .inrh. i]]e fron!qHlns buckled ankre shoe or ro{ boo(.esty' :]bei| ii a les sbD{j. .:lklssrrr. 101 x Figs.bni.rLoi (h({s re!. Fronl Latchet Side Latche Euckle Latchet llot l'. Tbe other.eDEd lor dE ftonr I nirce js m?de lor the rzrgenumb.trdised |0F rDd ::.onoo hshion){m a nrk {hih hd a lons *hi.rof uncff oie. l'.-i.

bores. Table 16).rpdcs 'I.otriprld {ilh 20-45per reuse .ent.hes eere somehoesaddedro x shor It ms'ng be enp ro ftare z :lrghdy *epped.abl. F?kiis ( ?n ntesnl ..d b! od}5ollbe359legl*{edsho.hed andItom theboton conp.nnde .r"F run sboesore The i6oLelarsnin lidewN.omlonolrheshoe Th. (Dhisiiftted .!duw upen have be.dumps it dreyare tuiie Lstjt. beroN.id joined {ith a rrlcal fanat rhc r.ur sr. *eoptifi.r dr$us].$e iower sohsm?rbedi6.*nchoD (for ru[. wi j btr kLe or L{.nn ge*s rhattr'ed'r'ses Narehriq DLa.snned b! the doubterow ot nilch.. ind mti.tionaL eremeni..eeL(F3567 ind 107) Thjs:dded impona.o.fonrion d ibe qmoihnd:l|'isJggen\i|rdi'hadab$le I so ir NouLd be rhe .. pror'te liltleorlhGshoe suFres.D.sunrves ror.ber tajeoine Disurlle rou.Nere ro.entinedieisroupsr.butrlieiede kods or i (np pAlng llroughi pe.(rrher so rhar the quae^ {ere hide n tro the nroden seNe . trratrddir.*u eady lsrh.rJ ersiry ru.n..l.Dr! .r.ut upIor subsequenr (.d mqor?dvancesDsoremudacrui!.oiillr lo$ndiis -J .nonl rhejndividu?\ relrsered [nds :] iorsh*lrialrnpsortum weLi t.e d jus orh{ !?np hasb! roys of tonBirudLmt iuiml beiq deposiied.and hr{ shoes rt r nobc. (Fig 6e ResrerhbLr rarherlrn nNided.idsrodmuih:Eadded mNideiblyblhe.lr'.a(edin the bulk ndani $.10p.D{i merLt*o* ot $e dna ([ig ]trid TooLiure orrheupp.eruinre.rfe .. of tlf heer{ilietr{.onsh. adlaice {s the introduction0I &e tlrn Nelr melhodot co.orlF.on shd'on.rrhoushihe elrends np{ads of.eis pattens ormurllr?yer below.i Dta sepmte nsob to ttu mrn.. rhd vheD &mpred nth 13rh aid rr f. . ras r3q-10Jjl Gee Deconiionis spme oi Londonshoesof rhs le. swd or ire shore shoeaid irs sedry rbe durabrrity iun {ch r[oes . oae dv?n.r lne in{ep (Fis 61)..on nndion or ]?th cenu!.sfron'T4l-ne and.uu ro drsrjnpishfton ren. see 74) ThG invoLved the ove^aiLed theedse ol theshoe ad could b.hen round sepmt.one fromS*anLane.e.z. burit see4sr eryrh il {n ? lor .

oailtr R'led eximDlers rhd r dd nd liarr a ddrn'l1di3!e.rke theshoe enrrely eidosed aid {deoroof gather oD.klc. sisni[mndro'ny . bu. :id d.o rr . thert vas e insense{i iru+ h m.s.e urybu.nep wnh sofaud./ .(!.rrecourd r iishdy overrrf [.kres had madyanbeeiof rmed mn bd m$ rhcy*ort :rm.s.{enD8 lrltL aikLe. The tonses tudy strivile. burinierd.t lrbk rr Lupres dr$us. rvhertas thechrrtuen s sdne shoes *ld0mhzdmorcL\aasngl.. \u.kle'dje:dtrli lt6ion IA oIt.s.brldren pfthaps be-se oritsesea.d vrs requned b nise the innerside L (s lunheuht(Figs 6. si4te!te.Lres r0-rr). bcro{.d abov. 7s 6 nrFt Lr 0). 56).rnd spedrle. sone {ere de.1 Fig n{) seen to hale beenrit.ktes tude thetr6rn ?pperece G.106).r . to edges or tu vanp.oirespotrdrt nnp p6sed dnoushsLo6di lir. r rhenodr by v4y .hed io onesideody orthc m)p q*D.allr topband. dd iis .bu.f Lead ad noie otuneiut.pe ! (q/ Fig.n proridedwn|': pair (Fig (jo i\n unusuar i.i|e 12 Thissrsgersrh{ il iune.urtd nsde Geetunbcr.1 5) Thercs6 rqcncr:Iy ) . whid. pp. but moieolien ri hader ws suriLiedr .ll ins.+oe rTibl* l0 11) r\! T.h oo.aa ".t popuh.amy (T. ?5) In rheLile l4rh. ld rrr6e rhd do(.. 36 rflr F.s.n $orn bul rtrfar) ii th! fint hrLJ ot dr lsrtr .mp openjng aid $ee se.vas li{ed ti x ledher tho. p.. ni.e (Fig 63).hirdren t. on the other lde {s probablra ren Iotement cord Th.!.slts.er sjded rher.bu.onted wi$ baading r rheetue.arur.

8rt rsrh{nbry bob. Ssb 1. :l 69'dyr5m*furyalrlld€'s6leL3 .3Dd.

.rrod\nrr Lrr? tc'hob.e\ ror ra{cmp nerrodrions ene( or . ii+n d drem{s (f !.de rhe .{tflsqrd d i4b4d. tra.ide {ed bods f rr" fe deotr p.: " 3 ib I h_F L' m bip.m pere $F dr |re qppts dll.. m. 6rr h M.idn u.{ rha .qr ote{rn rhi\ tre.s t5cr To udpe b.hordij€rllu. . as.nd. it3& F.4trc {etna_5 belrlf I hrdD rnf .4n rr h:\e bem rtro qu:dec ioiicd d rhe h{rhd Mdr 5\n ftrnd 0n n3 $. "a: evrtuuy. L!(eJ.. aruiviq e. :it5.uM\ed roirpr?re &d mry n. impr6 hasd !. noh mry dJom bJ reo )u!ic lhrtdreibu rh bcr Lsrhrd r6rh4dh_s. tLn u50 r.f quF to4 anlJe+c\ G!.71 rie€ h€€r. _ rno o. rmea. { h m d b e b p o f r h e b o d4 i s r u l r r k e nt dod 0rh\ sne E 'he prc\.< Dveb@n: piii' if .q4rdr r rq .ms m 4dre !d. k n''ng l . dFrufw&eplodfrd'}Iuushodtheshoh meir!. n re prt.o hn€ d:md€. o i l d € n b j .bnoIo.nher tJF of b! rded fodqer.e p€( qu?ners ed jnsen d rF tmit {E.ral th rtrree pr.tsh!! r ureinkte byEse mo.. ni:ps d rr poinilh€re ...".63r .J! dong MP dge d irrr olkr de d Fp rmi rddbrhe mssd.rtunrnin form. D .hdip.hofrd {mc m. inj!!. \ h€Fiireier".8n4 se b. . a n e i e d mflbd ss: a rr. ' mh .umondh.remiidcrsh4_: I ns r.J! uie .he rrm0 L "ndci snrp I hm rh€honrcd: bderedatrh.T|esde!pm4l*rrn6fn{. $hlhftp^u j relA{reLt. .or .oibued dostr fllh ?dpc^f th€frlnt "Mb opems n 3i d dre innlp {d rhseafts o.:. h e ) u + .. b.! Dmr tr q r0r 5armhlrlebeei dF Do{ spr4 hnud n3 morathr r0 pjFm die blh4r 4 n.ne o h. rh.:l h. LF{.Fjotuqs \ mrarb.l rrr riir tra< { : b e 1 2 ) T h eh e ' s h ' ! v .*dbyylin4n!?hpl]rd'ean..shk: tnh Loda.uht but . rtu rne : o{ 000r hs 50 rrrblen tomd onlr h rhedddf :tr4 N.ol oF{ ! de.Nmrb. r $eLrri:. yres..

tb.d . hid lhe h?n remoy.as d s l a s h l r p F F b b ' o & t r ( o n l h e h 5 t i 4 {e[ ?sle$ paise visua] rnd Iactileffirion.es. 235 Lr bc soncthrcushbcrorca shoeiEker.ve beeu I . .1 Reen 1972.lJ buicher wlh hooves Id h. {ere kDned (or tull l t l h j l y u s d i o r d 5 p u @ f 6 : l ] s c o ' c ! a { ] b e. i .ation lby tjlyN Edwedsof ir. lintly. n{p d Meq rn &nddd a nirdr G N|LE ii.dd. whhhh. . rin@d. de!.t . 624 k 't rf Md it N4 sdttu^ I I t .liht ph k4. t4tu.ounh oI the pro. '5'h Ed{rlds ndes in h* rcpon (1936) rhd tone .iderHq*bd rhosede{nbed as sh€elgod nay h. lf.borabry).alihouh ii shouldbe nored tlut ru'ioAFtro'kls|Fshin&oo6evd| (Nueeed.ole.l rFen '& M.ou!dbesin simibrnjesbeiweensheep/gct ud deet.e upprs prob:hryd sore tift rtrscrd .tion (Table13).eE{ere prdesks {hi. bui {e ae not yet atuii ol L\e dhsiosii.ch&geintheiyp€sof hidesukd for d. .ns sln ilk. n stu eaq { w^s4 bdk ttu srtg rl'ut 6 bw Nt.hgd.s bee domm N6 si{y sh€s spimiq the tull dde Rnseof the .ord*ain) . $lzman l9z3).ather identf. the bil(bfushadlJysndeds|]GIis@$bh biised tvdds sheep/god d e 5 F i l g a Y 4 6 e F ! 3 [ d e s o l l b e L l s h g (.:rite hide.e An. C.Shoemaking andcobbling tn n6t utbps .eii MoimeiG L.rhe sklis were ihetr $Ahed.h had seveiaLlong to pdien ol $e lafrel (. 'D.desthdihele*A.

:_ : : : = -: .

eAi\' predon'inds amoic$ lne saopleduppec oaNloit exanohsoI sheep/soat vere loundin arrsoups. Tosre rnd ra(het thoA+ *i ui coftan4 {jth Goubitz s sqse$ion rhr lhese verc norc rikery ro besr,eep/god beftuseoI rhe srensrh,id fleribiriry orlhd tedh{ (o. coubrz, pers. .omm.) Heel- ffenen kre bothdll and sheep/go*,the latel not ortUrringafierlhe nid lrth cenrury.^t lea{ t{o s[oes (Ft 13, t.te mid 1,lrh..eirury) my hrve had dllskii upp.6 md sheepor sodskitr heel.stlffenen- rn indsin! .ommenb!- on a .kuse in some ordimnces or i]je r-otrdo. cordvaine^ conipany (dded 1303 Maider 1931 33 4) ihd eipre$ry torbade shoerokec One theory thd hm been advanced lor the change in the 6'!es or Intus trred is ihd rhe &lLds,btri,otrihe other,nay have been theres'it methodof tuse had beenchansed: bu! Roy oiade(e6e inthermuitolin'ponedcodsbn, Tho,npsoi, hinslrabiier. betieyeslhdhnning or.ordMin from Spaln lollowiry.he expulsion ol re@ined hrsely un.h.ised tdm the Sdon thevoois'Iiglish penod b ther6rho.rith.entunes. dth bmes n nnyusnuGr (thourqh srrppnu n vbarevereLse (heimpoded.ord\ai. $th.:lfhide $hih ilFy fl,e) thotrshrthey ourd ser trwl) wi.h). The in dr€d a reddish coLour dlie S{ain, pec cofrn) deaseduseoI calf may, on the one hand hr€ ductioiinrhelatel4&.entq olorsmsd dnves of cdde !o rl'e Londonrolk.b rhis Mll hr€ hides in ihe ensEd a con$.ntsllply ol cadLe city vhereaspreiouslt the Loidoi shoem.kes
o(6be[Yhldedgdle$strkk5eev6ekI

(PhilipAinitaga,pere.com.) Thelsrh{entq ma@n ii the preseii .olledion shows, de ftaf both in the tumber oI uppersth:t have beenrepanedOabb r5) andh tbe nufrbei rhd h,vebeenderibeEtely cut oplor rcuf fl rble 16), rads th* night be dhbutable to bete.qualjt able10shoetukererd mbbles. The tmed hidesoI pd, deeror call shjch hid b-"enpuchAed by the shoemakqsould be laid number{ith the njllmuf {Abse. fhere r eridence fom Ssedei dit dtring patens wefa uscdto pide the knile thrcushthe thi.knes of ihe lea$er ouneSwm, peB com) :lthoughit pedom rhehsk teehand certniily rhe quotjty

.r rongmro$ tri,.lliig pieles thd hzre been shoertmaied:ehrivdl.rn:istenr {iib dr. m: I Leaving:ide ihe eden !lio. (Fir 3l). Nhjfh l:*lis mgin $d fto! he nre edgeGeetur .br a Nooded r.rm rtu fncdr: i qle ,Jrhe :coi 1.r Fig rlt: for dlo.rmrte\ rron yo*. +e IJ,.Ckeor 1932 114 5.nd Fjg il) Ttr

trr{, Parl'rd tudh.rmins) rr'ri riw +ri hd 'hr ir. rd upperjo;ed

saLaft!r!fro. r,11 t

nrrcr ituldtn! rnd iirch

rvslhotuDedngh'sdedt:ltrm|dtrDDe

rrrn!ho.

Irrho,3h

nrdiiis a snrLL tnrnsk otrr ott.dtr, ! a buaei thervo main eL.'nem(fis i3). ti rbe d'ddre or ihe 15rh.. ! llt mdh ol .Dn nnr.on {A irered\nh thei.rodudion orrh. nD 'ydr rr ji F$rhre thd rhE onginftd rirr ;o1.,0. . uqi Gee

rid 20) rideedrrdi0:m*F$.dr r:i: rr. bddrrs .onr$,itneE ohnLr .rrd nDDers to drke$oesnpry itu frie ,rrb{s otitre.{t k]no{edthe$holepr..l$Ihl eblrombmiig rhe lndc r.nariisini sLingrbe nroer rMrider 1931, ls-30). Desorca setrrt, iheRi.e ro eirs Lnt..hriquas rrl Fdres bei{e.trom th. r,me kompae r0r Throush.trl rhe pen.d

rhluBh.F.ombffr n NouLd be L( x rrlt de 'dui'p to d,js. nrr rbesboe h:d boerrumld. ndi.r'6m rorhesoreor!pp.f(Fisi{J rDihi! kDin,onal*as.tuimr*(riirs mjlhrnL hrye (showi beeiNed0i rl'eoulr sola infE. i.1) as inde.d sflispfi rerb!dterr one1'th.eniuq afohthe Cjrvor Londor Bo]J SdriLlne (er r/vired Ln1936. ro. hre ior olb (rion h.'e) FULLy dcrcroped rtrh.,y.rshoes ho*ey( sem

sradflesh nrt.hes, ln the n:iier or thc boron unirs ol conportcsoled pdrens Gee, tor 1930,3 ad Fif 2 No t7rr13/9, e'l! r6th.ertufy). orobabty Tl'e ro$ impotr,ii *,m $s that ot rhet.$ins nesii. Fmc rhesoleto thc !p!.r Du6 (FiF. 72 3) The n le $?sarrhed r. lbe k*.d uppe usns a etue/fl.sh slrh (F]$ 2 3), whi.h o(er sain s|lr. orirresole.subjedrorhemo{ ner.'l*o tkeirls {ere rob,bv Ned. fioles sourdb€made {ith ,n atr1 lFts 7rb) &d $ei the thrsds,dosc ends seem rohave been 4h.hed h i bndk s drq Jr bd,. hFpi. €d h r o ! 3 h h 0 m . | f u s i j e s i d e".utd sIJo!|!diqhlIJ F 3 . 7 r : n d :+ ! r m , k s . \ t d r h e l : n o k r e r olth! r51h.enrury Gvrtrtrre36 5) vhi;hlns bnslesc@1ofhnkD Il hA.ot beeipo$tble ro dentify thl $n.hiu md{i,t oi ihe ealier shoes. butoi rhelarel4rh{edr!^ shoes r vA iound to beplied, *ded itix (F p;rh,rd. Deij. .onh ). The{,xing.l rhetkead 'nade !h; ioin noe{*edgbl'ind3]some|tthdtbeupp.r andsore herdro&ther, erci r oi[ bne0y,Nh€r

smrrer rebroren.ni pierest. pbce. Tnanqutar p,cc( orierrrer sere *nn inio rlf rreer se.iror p/ticlrady i. dE hishertoins oI too$ed. b n .nen ymed rlhendousty Gonrmt ror cramrle, Figs.93 lorer edg. or rlie rrirngte*?s serr inroihe h$ ,ns.magtr Mh FD/IEb (ii.lres dr .rhert{o edcslere ?icrrred to rhefieshrde of rheuDDer Nnn a sh:ltov bindins.jirch{hi.h dtd nor pene. ra@ rhe full thi.kde* ot rhe tedher (ne 75). rbe useor diis iir.tr on the heel*ifiei;. md reDror.emeirs. E evidedr ftomthef$en.e ot: slighdy $aloped edxewherethe r]riead hA beeD puned !e4 tighr L{e hole reintorenetu are on de ealier side.Lmed shoes oig! 39 90),and .lmonimli,btv ontha ber vnFs Frg.103r {! n rh€lEe ;d Fr{ 5r(hFdrtoihc 6i nsnrgn:id thei itnhed n pb.eotr theuDer{irh bindiry{tilch:loig borh
.ra-; rl *e.r Ih€!:add DpP i,h4e

a 6ne, sh:Ios ldse/flesh biidiig $itdr is pr$eni on mtr:/ shoesriom $e eaLy/.id t2!b (flun onkrdsrlongdreopeds?o'h€lopFr ]n.on e qVs lb' nly \ m!l\ h}r beeil! rein iorce lbe edge(Nhcc.*or 1932 140) steras ii oth{s it sefied io se.ur. , i.do{ nir oI da t ih" !o@r \L\ rclhed rt5osfc sm;Ll rerher of ropband,. Tbese toDba.ds. {trhh $ert drolr sdse/flesh *ir.bes ! mn xpafr?nJ2 nn some.mes single thi.kne$ 0.i9. 97) bui more ft om rheedqeof rhelearher The sh?norles oa o kr of rrri $,her futded dolbe (Fss s9 90 theseam.onpled *idi rhaeirem..loseie$ oi o 1 j * r | r J \ € c i v e ' l m o r e [ n + . r r T D s n i l e r the stircnes,nakes I untikety ihar rhesese.ms .onhineda rand(see.bo!e) This trpe of se,.r o(uE oi onlt a res e*nples, aid. sinceii o-m in thesame 6 shoes $ith ihe n re Broups conl€ntionar Frn/resh ri$ing mgin (.1 Fis. 6e i,r 6*rts d de sd$ ed $ {e ; sibh d prob.bLrbe reFded s ransirioml 33), shourd betveen rheearrier $onged.'d the latersesi hdnjons. Ar thistime, gari/fleshlastu! haqi. -.2 5 mm alsotendedro beonthesh:xow sida rron rhe edgeot the teatherwith sman.ncular .!trh€s r\eEging6 nm !p!d 4 gfune\h n rh onrheupper medni thr 'h..€,m lortdbe deeper and$e ihreds thi.keri lado4 Nhi.h?tso facirihredrhe indusionor nids bet*een L\e uppe Ddthe sole.lr the llrh{enrurysmtrps. ex.mDres $ere norcd orsdrch.holes 3 nm :&Fs Thc hsd,s,n4in atso seied to echor

sni:rr dlref o.r r.ftdarttu Nrisr $rb ar edger0erh bu! se.. . n r.A third oprl.p r\(.ition: io t. os 'ay luv! besl r19t9.ufrreiefu.(rom sltl)enedF/lleshmfgoilojhed]eT]r rnd mr b:!e t{l itld repa.!md rb.d r Io{ Njor shocpie.i. i l l l t.d'. The lie \ns r'0..oiried of r heerx^di'crtrr.es.rhe sboe. and me mjor fam d rhe lde i'ofe co'nplrcrcd . otr.onfr.d 'do roiser co lnuor $. {{rqr irlqr Fr\t1.s Gee LeloN.dtrre the faieoie.uid wii[ io nrei r$ i one-ple.l (Fs rr As 'vtrbi[e LanngDI?'h[thEadsweFob?bLsed' .er otei[( eere*ose{nrNetbeshoeusinsideoul The m:ii so:ms. sugseied by tudndsoi 'h rit l.onhini^slbe iemaiis. ff (he to(gl.l$1[r (Che Thorrs rrr irv posibl! be 3 Linmg re md eloh.irher !de]. 39i. sldejolis {ers rulrcrablc. emne .f.11! :nd ihrn lfrhed olr (nor tb.oded a .id j. IidaiLig (p 43r.I dr r3'llrdtrn dr{rnq boo6 bItr rc.hei oD. nd iddo. rhes. our rnd Ih.5 r$ered . r.l0t) |rhr sl'o. :nd I her cL*bhe&lioDgdde . It ryA rhei runed nshr sid.h 'fhe slde *amsjolnln!rhe +0e q{. rr th! Lhiing mrp.diiq ldrem5 beaoe nLghd! \rrh ihe jnrodudlo.e addrtjonsor major m0di6.

eottins parens ({.Thera hNins thelacins ona sepanteinset (. ud.t Fiss 23aid40).u1. whikt some of the Lrlershoes *ir shov eviden.roserfi 'rhesasems ansre {k mff. mentpie. one pie. 39).hoes dDt oie sees shoemkeis besrnnins to . 103)oneotthem Gu'usu?ly.! awr ind ALdoqh n {6 @sibre to makea drawsring sboekom one p'eceoI learher{Fig.es.ould have beed Fig 40shox e6ilr reused a lo{ boo. urh a hrle re. snaller pie.e of hner pp.93) ortonses(.l lrce. b6ed round .' Figs. Iis. Fis. e0).hed fith a binding seam pos. a iecessiry pci ineir doseias . res.e .m (4 qirhboth Ft.! tuc edrqe/lesl' but sam joiin'c Figs 39 :id 90 rep6ent someoI the edies leisiom ol the side-lmed foot{er *hich. bods Geebelow.ros hA: septrma vafrp andq!.e p'e. drh edy/mid l5th..rher rhd . additoml pieces.holes in the quafteE(Iig.bly trsiu a ieedra . The ra€ horeshavefiirore.UtMlrheed]qesoI$elaa$eronI (ric. 0rbengbmedonsinsre !is. Pds. seG. The eianple sho{i ii Fig.ings tl Fi3337.ertry sroes ar r.e hoks down one side.Lisular imen covenq the rrod oI rherootandhking moi orthe la.i.91.uiq extEhe'ght'Erendththgdtap'ms.id $e righhe$ wirhsb.h rhe boot Ms evidenuy hced to 6t the werers .kne$ Ms i' oblious impturemeni.thde ee n o.r ce 4per.s L.ovenapped seam{Fig. bu. 23 olleis 3 possible expladiioi lor rhe suonslru .bsen. 73) ed a b t sem sx mhicvcdby. ll3-9).3s :rong ther tun kn&h.9D. 7e)roobt.h 6 Ia. srensrhei iha deas or ue shoemo$ subjedio {e&.ly sed bioin theni. r07) {ere (Fig 30) This oJten {h. su.in a . 33) there {0[e4oi{hm.ddiiio!:rfuighlwArearred roon anrde shoe or lo{ booi(.id {e.

deliLest (asooposed ro raidon) $eds to bk.lDeDb e Latli.ord ol rlns tlpe orthe {A oltm nrhedju( jiside iie dcr edrqe ieribillN A ihe shoes?s beins pd o. Thesebadrso min lo$ fli bdt krN on.ord (Fjss ) . on {hif}' ihe ilirad ra$ened shoesi rr'i. rej]fo(0etoig0{6Pdiuhi!olddb rcns 10 h.e shoe rprdc qrde6.ple.r {nh th. enhrt rossles or'bunodoles (F€5 9t 2) Th. and a !h.lhe r..i or brtJc inps beld E phft Nirh a but *an aid reLntorme .wu onepie.gihen the edser desp dunncl *nddled b! liiel stithes.etom'B.ve beed a re$JoremeDt cord !l 'fhis i\ irrkcd b! a brord nr. (Fig 92) It ii r.k iltraad or .ynds CFiLe.utiis p en {A zbandon.e. n.d ol a t{o.ith{ sde o.

rt !F. h36ftdcd!i6'b'di4{tjd'd!ard edlexrBr bub dbn. wddir6 tued de lnrui @ 1h 3ol! 0oG.rl. 4hr! ade. a sdl Ed4uL. 4idr) E ynbrlr d4hr{id. d rheqts. 0e.fth Fid b (dd/qdd r?rh4Nry. .fu ri6 a e4e/&!r hd @. .33 oGt@ dnrelns slic.d. id. TlF be sds.b !td. .

..Pjecshc(edy/ddr. eni4) vi'h u e4de$ hr s'n d rhe (rusiad frd { edse/nsh bu( lam (. $o's sdth8 6! u snio slde .G{Yod r2rlr{.h.deol ssom.iuryr oie rictu vrp aig]edcdgdlesh6d|eandde.

rF edse&denge/dahbutsmdlhe!trordt hot'. Th! sli !.dbh &is d.d d th.hj4rulcdaF. ritl' a bi'd4.ftelhc@igi'[yhidhofud-1ti4fu iceddthesideofefuL'idrsdlEdryur' iN. .de (rrt) Bbo% r enb@dded @ *i!. seb r:3.a:t/nid 16 NlahFl orI eBd4. tk€t held h rLe V d €d!e/04hbln 3m'Tdmkb''.ir]}she uib€tod.i'oddi' kbdllin Hjddr tiiKiq).(.

ru1!iiud]rcL{DlhcvihalijlcLudh! slith.r I / I .# 33 Dcesd3 a&r shoeGnry u6 edqt .qFIonpbEdfidain'gu{4rn L l .b'4.Th.

d@ (at l3s-@bry). sek 13. .bed ur.39 Sn ..md dG . 6iodi4.2l sd@ ortu dDbd (Ede 6@ di! stio. loldld dabk 3!d *.t'ttd4hod'edFdebfoh Eibleldl oit ! r.]aRbrb'theq!8fu'IteEi9.@fu'Bdi'3. Trelile. bhdnedbi) t ltuhnld.bolk&tn!'aft dh.

de she Gdv l3s mtql eo sid.ojn@WleAenotr' @tollhe!4bed.tstyLe$hshcisoE!..ill$nEdsdht:3' .-la. 3ed ot d'eeft M.{erj!\debchobs llr4dedddasiigl.ed adoushm&oFno dn tu.

nD dh rie is-M..i4. 3!dr riaubr dw.n d m. Vd b th! lab ba*pud''gd!6hes'sgLlj' .tl.hd dq tu). Fa. @&!tet! .te*d th.h€djolgiLAcdisnri!'!nd'n dd M bsd€ (d. (!. . 12)h di.idd LT rfl!{ne oft $d' @td !!'r. Ie !h.tritr M !d.!i.3 : rnbhoL 6!nth. d.d& or 6.b.s.53 |\ $s sr i4lAh@d lor drd*ne Gtdr3s c6tur). tube rft' r hiidiiFd.Sd. 9:! Tordea.o@!i4@.nd tr.

oyn" ue lnp ed.6 rq 3r reF herdhpr&. dF!h$lb]nd4$tis!*|3 . qria bud. :r.s 5u(.. rrc @osdom.

dql fiis i !t[ h|sd o ..l i! a !@/!dh hd @ ndr'.lv.t Tqde.r €fu3t}u. rNiua tr d (o!ry ' 3d *did ihshd).q8.dbylh!ovllF*nqorrhekd'. 3@ d dE h.€*!d lhe GndLn{.selel:3' .id. A14ti4!h14!l.a eulib rbi"dia{bbn and rlED. h.ilru /\* 9.E' rn . Fi4 el) ie d3r. dEitrrice.o@od ( q!ft4 e6dia frm fi.d3Bifl. but fid k r .di6sdh|Eb *ndodg e tublsrhof 6e €4 ft d (d.ddidodal.!'@d@el{6bl's. Nd rE EF pi@ 6rdE sh iidEr. litrd.

dgi@tgidud@)'mde EoseB|evaD3!dqll:4'oI6emg5id.hb or l 'oDbd' rhe bs H. nade'n th.i s rld4. DE hh @eEddd qi.s'Idgl.dd.69b. u!@sfubi d dE dtl de pI ift &.|x. h.! 'o FnoiD 3wit4) rr{h uRi@du$: . o@o turoor d bbkehoru€ M'.

si bu @ Tnh B I rd $r'if hd 4 tne hdqr@hbn se p bardE 6 !d. Tb€ bootl'ld r sidepin *.dft601.:1. bn mdb6t(fnl4rh+dis). .!E!i4hFrro!.&e/f. NoG eoddourusti'dfd's.1:3' e6 cdds bsd.!i6'died!:| .r\ l! \ i t 1 :) \ fl fl fl I) Tb.

e? sd'bad bmi (nid r1d{ob4). rb ntu rcPeoudlidea'ddec*@kfsdv.r toied Eddy , rhebtep, FrA {i$ ai ed3e/re,hbdt $u dd ea{r ffi a bbdb8*am. Ms a rk r2c bh vde oriqiianysftqered niiJdcnor pise (Dissind, vhich ts dhdd fuBhotheds6dsbidbsstithes'ThebPbod 36*s'bdasmlti4fub*{'iebs6& m4b n Dv nistu. sere li.

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s Frerhed sie (bid llrldns), d h eope'cofutded4drfuq!i@Tiul e d adu ddae &\o8, {.i s riq. es,ddr 9E d !u?i4br '@s d! hid otfi. i.el hh rhq ft {dr d e hdr 6d d0 ts 4 dds sid.. rn shc had ' shdc bc d a r4r auci.d drl
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99 Frdt-rdd 6pic trc &E l!rh{4br), Th@ftbcjd[.3edsdbnd|o]!dtlelze iok.'Allloqhth€qd.cad]4ew .d6urupi66oflalj.l'ftqJfutlht!. blcl'plonedftheeld'i.h'a!d!do|n. do. (Irs. s6). &:j. 1:3. F€wrs r4ia

h*sieod''N@tlE':jrdhftbl.*niiJoMFbhdeiE'idei! mi rave b.u# 10 Frcdhd:nldeshe 0n! 14nie!bd).de vabiq3eh*!erauinbdon2jdo'the @tird .!n 'dded 4/t rr. T!€ @tsr B oisii'ny iad! j! m liF (fo sin'tu eriig-Ftu se nq. 16). erFcm3 b€ed ('| e ftd{.dr rr5) bur etitmsjicldedd$eluh@oIth.ditnwhm&etlbbM'T}. hurdie rhetu bhdgfty.dhcd' d s r mjdr &prn. Ile due ffi !tr d3! Gd3e 'irh hiidqFdb! otr rh. o@ side@b.!. |.34Dr d !h.d'|abhd' .

s'enekeuPdeheqhd6e jhpesioosroud'eedesol$eunD'|ad' .1o1 rrc hed &Hrsh@ (|ab !16.edq).Iblt*it. ntre i oe @h pke. ht a s@[ i*fr (oo] mrsid q"s *wn in. Fnt vih bjnd4{rithes Firygj.h.

+ lhd io4 s" "d3e.14s.eiinry).loi . TYlpd oNrru.dde 'tuu' .

( sedlenglholbo|ibigdgs'aditysldhd .te4deEdbybeidi4deeldoqatrdnithinet - =E = = = =. .

P.T hq @ b!h@DltitdEdinblhdctt$tleside3futsd. rh4 . h€@!.bo.de!tlesheh'dgpfteFd'sdH' I ..&e. d.r04 s.ud'dql}.r. -diM or l biidnq*4n vhich d drc h*plegcdsoEf4dIF&4ine* {@ @b'bt dded aEg'iE 'nd.bnyrlq.. b e oricn'd pd oI dE e.r|l'6Eiii).u@ .vid sdernchd i^bids &r 1{iL etu4' Tre hd6 & rLn by e c@6 ad niirord srt! i ard rtu tdrd w siqiDie d h pLe ffi n c&e/r!si bfti€n oirheii@ cdermols!1c!iol.md@d'@ml bu.

dil'bd .opreftdnslDpiqMsn$.lheshFi4akryesp:d.etrhryl lhed6elolco.1os oiepiec dh*hc (ary sd.'sfuFj tfu.

ms.hadrend.t6 o!!.st.hA!'ltle id.uNiblI.tr99*tlqtdEbsDh 5. 3ro' tur sho.tI.l.fudmb ns.'saLB' hus@ nrha E .derr d'n a.pi!4 zln$be G'nt $$€bry) lb!€dbyMh.|'si'd]tr@.&elf!i fut'ldsdMg'. td rboYe nE bsEq @h.r4@nq.

'Thelolsomssev!tl v4eBJdteft9IabDbod [-l t / \-/ .e^ruB) sl]'leE.ro7 !@r (e!ny bd.

rlr qlfu (dsily losDw *vD ii bel'ob Eiihft.1|3' . Th fup:d'fi.mt ri$hndi4sdbhodbothsns'NdlilE$rirr .ftdtr'fudy{p'dd'bks'sd.Led td (edr rtudtry).ii $ fl 1 103 sile.i!&*!trdeos|l'e@ fu"d$0ede/iBbhhe$dth'6\eq4ad joiled ritr' 4 c&erlsh bdt *e.

rdr{ groQs(6n Z.es dri {cre Tli.hnlqF: Naiearso ioud r rb. l1th.r ro strJlbr he'll .eln$d oi ft ronhneir )u1 ns '-.s!a0n 09$rl ti.onbins nedl! :10 h*on! /nd Sroii:1.Pujjhtr Comnrn\exrlh..iis enblLlthcd ol n!.iLm .n) Lndrmt. llub.ll0 espenrllt ahemral $d tens (rry Irb. FnL)'.kl* hmrsho!i lz2DdJiDuiq. Dut 00bu.A 'vel s a.id. i2rir The rd Ldhim & vdther$ rcTi)-33. bd rhiss i.uF loop(ILg edr.a rbr Fnn s Pnt.tembiord. rhl5penod 1l'n!n orkid illr \irh nooiDs 12:c\r^|.nrrd Nnh lj'ds bart ivishLf enl. r.lild nrc\ Thcydc ves similir The oDeiiru{nki io Fis r j dnsn6 oI rn und{onlediediis'h p{e ol : slir (.tiirolll'.lsd.omnk tr thebu. iir eirmoe5 iDois vbrb m those bnhops oI crndlrlrti. rl*t allrbe ht.eiiu[ oltinning(Txbbr{J snply notdetded bI rlrem llflLre.rr/ *em to l':vebpe.i endo.ei theinponri.:djoihth.d rhoe bLrkle\ d.kles Lnris.hrdl sh.ol!. Cd Nos 16ad 29) frt{rl!.nsilrd ten d rtr: n.lftoLoF.nd lsrh{rdu^ lu. rhennp 'rrll I'r€ pasedthmurqh .n \rrlter (d lr0t) zid hdmlid Ri.1933.au{.Les) rlrougha sln r he[ to ftde : se.5.e oldE June r00i).i'broid(cdshlesoJ \l:rr lboesdo merted$ b.i somesoirhelruhnrf or..htl r:11) rcMni.I.lL.Jri./ L! rartli! rrio. .

.-:d @ @ m RL. . q tc? I dd6k brdtr q ft @deG ju{ betow L\e :itb. E r ffi@ .@ @ @ .

qn Lrne..d !'e F. trr fn !d +uq!eldkE48i|dcd*nF{rf]ed&. dntrrh.h€e Jk tuoro$! ! ie nbd rhre.or F m u<d h.I de.t dsn rhsydprrr. agoid inpes 3lo{ thc siis A ven A d4n rh.* irihrclrh heh $ bu Fsreruhr i. e " n e d l ! .rhnrr nr." ! iHendnr.en.o h" . nlh i.i. nrir rm!'t hN tron Lvndd \r.rr{ Ii€{lhPmp]old orrherb4d cmi. r -.h.} qdr simihr{.! .rerjr n?-n.r!h€ A{'i|d||Iei]rudoid€|nl.hlo|nlol|r.i'lobeveom r$^ r{dnpr \hoe. -nt.lmek |rfrqleqA^|btrldM?|i. +u Iz ) ie.edrB depos$ (Fis rLz.Ju!(Urvn]||10!rd mrp.!um .hD6ol [ine rrrrs .n rt'.mp!i-.tmmLhe ihbe\atrlrddF Duso he \tiid ur\litlharen.i4'rrehenopli4onJik dltr jt l.. srJ?d 0.!e rlibmered spred 3 nr aDid m F*edo.ob Lre rtu€d rqs ne( swi lromside rostde 0.-r o' \eitr{of! h. rh.ne.Jbiuq]r.lq]b!hi.rt.rol. Lh..hr.ries reiuin inrad Tbee rhe 4rhd rlroi $outd h. rieh soheolrhe stir.mdr .nr4berrm Biting. a.\Fid4 rcdflr!tii t jh"'In "Iefl r..enb.lrdm!. r . L i r h !G . $nh uneharft .\najhr.sre Fs rl.. nq ! 'n pdr. b rq rLf rrnd dr r i ftrrolg'hr q!i or rts.nkle !ho.hoe ho".d r\imr. r0rlr4 !rrj Id {t!.s usibG m i& $rJ.. 6 7 q n d e o rT h .s. rurrcL\.hu \hoe Dnrb d:!A .'lnlhedge\bgd]€Iqhjreth .nbelr.. . LnLi. sr As : conse r n . rheshoe frcn s. be* re.iry nor v{e sub hrflLJjs 'hr!p .....s f M h c u Lh e t s { t r e r r .)p calrng uirue {hin:M hf. or e. mj\ ! hcrr Llred. h e r { h l€ ih e.fu'il^ bero{hede.r4 Jl!.nrf r$ f..orrh.1 hr or flre 12'h ! tu^ T a !d\ ollLq nfredJe|lb.L.c {tiL Th€ inpes{ekimbrordekdr \irk.e of rooi{. An .0 ]m! JJr mI 'h{ amD L!6 |oll @.

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bre a Fp ro be 6led in $e tunon.hbishop Nauer de Gny (d [t5).ontion on the sbo6 in rhe .av*rlike hdenal usedlor rheroundation h:s (ctuistie 1933.oE rion seemsto haveb. The edtst evmple.ora il.ndin Durham York. Lin. conpded pirh lakr eximpres.ndon shoes mde rron redher. d. stins thai ir vtr nounshing on a coNide{bte sde 'n be lzth centurya *€ll as in su(eeding ye. TheiechniqF ofdrii-$irh i:lls inroa dtesory ol enbmideryknoM ffi onym work.rz.pers.loricigfMscje l14)i ro$er.ord of this foh orembroidery.{ithout the ssisbn. yampfipes. The reFdotre oI nitches .50. Nosay has : iurber oI nore elabocielyembroidered shoesand rhese show rhd dirfernrbro.uttiq pden.h and*tu sbrch.rbeit matnlr ta.n doie fleehand.Al 6e upF^ virh thisson orde.ss. OxJord. No.ed d.e ol gllde fith some sod ol .ven8id8 3 by 2 mm :: = : = = -= =- .com.orour veie some tines preseit dong a single nripe (Inge.en sfieded afiei rh3 shoe p'e. 36. cushions 33). 115 11? The de. coEitry. sonetims .]so emb€.L4r in any sewing thread havebeen eravated in Encl. cro&asrer .ks or. ton Swan Line.).:g -€ oar & corn*ei lri Gl es: yaip nnps s6F$*|igh]'. lrasredandwhite shoesfrom Be4e0.entnrr.is.'B Ph. wo(e*er. R.cdetuly spmedro miiinj* the possibilityol reas be.es hadbeencul out aid tdore &e sh@*xs $itd'ed rocether 'fhe {ork s*ms ro havebe.npressd in $r4hi tines. mosdytne shmos{ere i.. l1sa.ushionit n in a fr. *.i tuy be seenin Iirqs. rhisis rhehon AJterembroideed connon rom of de.Gen.$jt.a nore res ied mtenal :.irh a v.oln.{hire the p4tefr of rhedshion lion the sped&ulir bmb ot Femandode la (d.ombined$rr sed skil dd efed.ushjoi rrom rhe gove oI d. *tr couched in cord dread on a sround {orked n plaii sotch iid tros{tirch (King1971.aned. 129).Ph. The d. daresro the ft* baLI of rher3th . Tne L. .r' in rhe 13thcenrurybe ase I wtu a FNlar nsm ol desndns (chn{te1933. Ft. the {o. The lide exrd or rha pacrice cm per broidered shoes. 1&. Pedeneihd Ane L.snenkiy . tnusei.arre.rxiv).olle.ondjtionsinceihe .nd wincheder.1275). = L5!n. whowx! r re&nt or Engrad dunry rneminonry ol Henq u.r'a 4r.q+ M I =.Irus &e tul nnge of pdremson the Lddon shoes sn odr be.}lthoqhsonciimeslhedasignscoddb€ .siihh btri rike rhe de Gny .k *cm vary &trijous.h. iidi.oijeduftd in iev or the decay of ho$ ot rheembrcidery rhread.nett or 4 snd roffs .le of u. Cat.h.soEdi.tion.nbishop Hubed walter is an edier embroidery n praii. cerda in6e mausoreum oiihecdrirm roy:l famiLy d the mmeni or Las HFIgA in entnely in ptiit{rikh (c6me7[Ioreno1946.iii-.dEs.a.

oLL.ad ur rr.r Loddoi .h re mor {idet !.Ds lmFrd br thn iyo.ft{i.€ lluseun.oadkeD rr.dE\dqedi l iarq. tdu!.diiJn 1674)*hi.6 lbe qn?rtenoiry ths rine de.. otdelondon doseryspred The snitkr moirs $Li. (r\lor_ rlbp i!.oiled \i1b elongdcd lhe !. n5.h afu/Lly!0mbin6 opeNorksnh cnsaecd hrice {ork) b\rured(he {rhqro*rerchrddsrorthffe Tlre shoer Fre. ir. sroe i i. bordrhe shao.e mort tanJrrt sntr die limihrj.rrme or Ft w r& & 4 .dFsTrp dFniqs eeLyimid L3d. ot rltr ii.csr. r* $drsr .Frsio viftor mvLrcsLlar.ding ihd $e rnestr:rlhtLynoi..

The p. The sbmpsh.(dcder.. ingbon sr.in then shap. to*sof o!. x6d is :lso rhe6nen. $& tr'. b oiiy h.. Fis.9.#:.tecomrioioi lhe sh@s depicted h a paiit.Thster(FL.e strrt ce ot ihe v. cai Me. Besids dleseaft naaof rmverse ross of snall dosesL $ wellas *ids pmeh of dte. ho6. wesl. work .tpdon. sbphei\ chaFl.enrri. 117.ye opeo{ort deoErion einmins $en bw.::i: FE'S _""--.As in $e oinerexanrDles. sdehftd $tr Garry 13d cetu$ forE@6rru. T].b€enplred venj.zm{d dd pjder panels by the ditreent rotiG dd con biiatioft oI mbls The widestro{s ft 6lmd by semred lozenses edsed{ior plainriusuta! sraps..dm $e Fig.ally d 6e lwow eqes to u] tbe spre fore evedy.rc been@e6rly -4 m apd buritnprcb md.ompfsbd od liasit€.(iisideJ $oh.adury). rhe isd b bk'bopsiBl{e|iohsisdsbg'fu.The shoes ii Fu!. ad is refiiisent oitbe fne open. The hs exmpre b $is sedion (Fis. ns).rosely spa@d ablethat $e ?Ieaating nmow b*s of smans sbmpsheb fte {jds pdels rer.em cnb sid.tten k both. theie is noiidietion ollhe useorsudelnes.4r vmp L\r@ts.::g /"::tEiqEzzi . Fhshsid. vhisr 11?bha fou prns ot lons iam.mrios ri:nstes.r aurt{s dbrrde dhri€r ra$4cdshoe (]ft !$..ii7: h:sRooi.mp n divided ine .

t .F4ord n.h $oe d !tumu ryF cdrdd 1nn iz?!3P3.

c No.J the rcauPr iom b{\reen o..0.Baytrrds cfnk.i {e s4e4ed by phjDnripsedsed b! o?m$ ines 'tr.nd. f re dronb rheNOiLodrhis shoedlNdr it {iI benot. 40 and13) Thc ji.es $irhsone.f nrch{ork is dtei. rttuLroa$rpiis brk ihe sd:e.eituo r r\eEd qrh shaLLowLf r'ld. r u n { e ^ .on r-ad tn this vi y.ler jnosoi ol rhehtrrt ArF IhE.i . bnefl! or rhe learhor 11 r{r trhFr d! te. .orded0n ledtE srrrbrd\ ot rhe enr peno'ris fam! . d. or otb s(nqabolimpL.re rher(rrer surhe hs been$rap€dbak F'met.rrs h der.nersorio.Ds hcli de de.tih. Dnor o rhcdr.onrjon (Mrha bh. colL.p ) d ihe rqnh sideoarharedberb rac : dffert* n:bLltrds rr.k. d "t h ! .d rorbecryined de.. rhe:tr wd or rhis!"mpin sc$ t oie. sd deordj. drkbleto rhe lah r. de*4 of :\ N. clo$LfsD:.evd i. b. rad rh.rs sopop*ron orher forms orLerrenork (cN&ll.Ao@$dbha ilit.drhd rhelDes $ed t]r]nllllN.De {hdher rhetoaatdifterei.ei oleLt L^r osor.ri.! h:.d t.hoih5r]mgilflbi]|Ut|'F ^ r l h ed \ s u n i n .dlol sdbtud ardrhN req#eda sfar. Nrdqerd & cnfltrlB 1937.\rgin. or I sligtrdr srrjer dac ie.Tbefngiri!.ei .nr rNnftdr 'rirr tr.m.e..r d.llk mderedst0s yns N{e or btk .Lrr. rhe p.n.h h! b.jjed \ork Nh.c opentng rhe "d rig rtga.rrc. cedrry (c.ed rfti.. deNeeqard& cd6ths 1937 4r) tu ir {A tror Dosibteb rhose rr.

lt .

rltree dshhei fbol..ft Ll.q pre$ r on* The nes qrher':rl'crdn L! theshzrp nor : rrii\ i5etucdby rs! 0 dh rins andb).i uler tor thr r.Fig t2L.r.ddrlt.rs $ . \irh linet! ?r 8'red pm e tnes scr.isbeeid$rt{edN$"rsdu.fhe .rh sidehave rD4i?rcddors ihe sLoo'trs hms. Th! {rres d .D rgemprrsp:.e(s?.

gnled.dh.onted aith a.I dre birder b fir rhe leaftip.prr.oiation qhi. the outidr bire tlblei deLideted muling our oI de. $ouldhir beenpo$ibLe to rdjun rhe liia.h on slmmetn.oDtive mas in advan. nther thzD :ltrio{ geooetniN ibnid .e is il*!bdst?entD*ingb:ckgdidOlo[' Tbe shoc in Frs. i.eohieterts Nnb eigrljig.ed rhrterealdesigns bsedonade{gnorsrfrrrehn.0 Fig l2ld h?s beende.oi$in niii ee6 ot de.

.

'!ry5mir FprnG!krve.4ld{'\bjr?'t|remo. o(uf ii :i!. besrdes. r l F s t 2 2l d I r rour.beot pro pen'cs tr poleirnny duabre dinbure ror rlE nu6is of i shoe ody ts.Gr rhd onespr.tP'ruI'bFrc ibtrds or rrrenmpl. : r . eten$r orrued NoodLand don. ?rdifu.r have. $ hnhn at€ r!pnis r d d e zr l o r! . oiher noses.dcd ooneurrttobsn soG ln oedicvrl .r rems rooscry b rh.onsider. soil.ias.:id n is .r l4dl4. Rhliniu&bhf tnqtdn5 n^rrot.l1o$ rrom lnnl al difleEni stras {A ex nmned. rhey hde Ethc'$jfi. si. sisili.s 123er:o et tr n : pio.er :bs.DunbeE(rj:M 7 eimples iesp{bfln.andgenenny soN in . . e .

1.'itl.'t. :"r.i :i:..ia..qil1. ffi U-i:1*.ii..t i .i i:iJ.'i:..i:i:::i...ii**ry it*:1:fr5f]r:*r.. :..:ffi tri$ftil$ud'.i..:' .#r. 1 .. :.

Sha: uut Pdtt^ k Hmpo$rbleh deF ihe fttreoadorrt..r^, tit eith .aitairr' a! shoesh rr'c .oLlc.ton thd .Lsrcn or iiLhes:lotrg the linios'trrsiN ol

irrt orviers l,elorc tlry rtre 6n:lh disardcd Equxiry *.king rr rha kry ro,! !4oirion 1l4s rad 10 ler.en() in tlie latc l4llte ury stir,ls cisd.'qrouD sji.e, theoreiiftl\ at lcmi thisSbN|djfplylhd'h.lolmrdFdsdhe n6h+ dn.nhd Lnihe iile!.ouid xttud r.{ rdediied Derhxrs,bdd,eyhidrlienr.panedbf rlm agrid Gee above.r 23) k .ord{;ds. mjghl{eshtthdlhrsepoJtieFeacm r.p,n.d 0rb1e 15) o(d'on' been seehto l,ave ally,addiri.ial*ii.h ii$resions s,gs€s dDt a tvoe ofteDiir is : Dd.h seNnin on the 'nsideor ntr 5i;e {i&bi iisjrii.h (i. the 'idmer olr heel stitientr or lr.e lmle ianloi.ened) to corer I o.e orthecleuer 4amplesol Nornneaorbole. rlns is sboM n Fig. 10r, here 610 su-e$"e iltr side ;fr, Fd@s dtr die slrce b?d srlir 4:n Reoansor rltrs |rd seen iot ro ba'e been siLLhire \rorn ihroqghlois betort the Dpp.n

be tun soLes 0f the irp. ibat shoLrld 4!ded:i bded odr t! .obbler. These thLmDs '. rtrrk inesula y shrped ieles oI hr$er rnd rere (Iig 123) NoF dM.hed vtrL tunneLjtilchins srflxltogeiher(FLss 91,93)bulmo&otetrr'c ,ir evdeme rhir a dn has been douled s (Fl3 prolidld by nith mdks. a$er on rhesoLe (fla\. s,l 106).As 33i or Lo{ dou on the uDDer

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r ddw{d

dd rresh

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Jr"lr';Xii,T,,ilJi,.:iJ:J;.i:Ti:l,,il; 1:' l:"ili::* i:,JlJl:,"i,.::: ;"; ;i 'flil',;:..i x",i+::liii:,i;'i,jl l,1l

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. ro!. Bndsthd {rte iijL j:bL! rFrs: 123 13rr. nar h:* h?da c.qLroaoi d fh var ..o'r."!byrh ' !hmro i. \sn bde ur s.p w.rypou|#e't.poDhr.d.rrph. tr hrchoir rhe grouid diE rri.3 r?drd. ' s 4 H ! u _ e .r Nrs rreb:Ll!s rbd ther srtd b.r Th_". rr ll. radle . b n:ke r bqe .\ $ e n h r d € F T . . J s l ' e |t J r h e ' J c \ r r r n n ^ ] ' i J 'rlli[!i rded D Fr3s.ri$. ' e . . D eN orrhbdd! rer pr.\ f L p r !h i u J . !."d{irli idnpal itortb. 126 i br ro&in!rrorion. bur ioo. l p e J f r o m o r e h l o 4! s t r ! d ! $ i .ms. mdo trom t{o p r€s orGdhefj#ed d rhe citie aid dc.opletaledhcf sdem@! rsrs lb.Lan.lidcdr h ro. tFetmdroFFn hd * ' tunse md r lbe eme tinr.ar ThE]!i hzrr rltoftdiheod.TlN h. yd ir is trrh mor di!(rLf ritrhed r ro jldre n m lhe $Lqor!haFenfldcdotoa].LTih. r r o ^ sr ! a F s m.

:s. r4i'+dq).d lh*): !'."/ 123 Pzb t-4ldr (bjdr'r. Tn I.rsu@!md4hkfuiddklm oflldvldaocEdrit]'.Fid€d56Pe (mrr. 1zr.F vr robrbryD bidiis d ii! .F-@* l. Ttu hsbt4 *s eft*d si@t lirl a Lonia[. 'Eilsck:rt Fg @! dr srldida (l])4M It.Ed.n N h dd. soL . haup i\.deJ.

oon s! 5lnfrebaj pisrs toid .u7 1/.rO er@denFrh! (ddrte !6 . 6c c(e (ore .sb4r.

3 Lme andswa Lae.s hd exrlr.el! Misted sotas ind nthor btu^1 : 4t ..r t_oiiii (& belov.trens $rh 1l..dges Lrilh : bDdi4 To protcd rlr ledh{ fromduftr! uid{ thc . rhetu* tim.dudei Hiryed{oodei D.h is no{ n0nl! b$ sevn ioscder ions rhe .onedions 0Irtre}rusam.d rlm ta*ened \rnh: bu. d redber oneoI $ln.e ury Trje rypeDred .sm]x {ere oroded fo. i BoyJSchoolsite litrrs36 roo larcrobe.p.ar Dicp a.r!o es. as o.i wedsGis vo.h. nO Eadr lsitr &nbry pdr.isingty able.oniinued robe {on' the6i{hrtofttf151h.t trom borhr. thd]lh ns en porary'nunEtions and{ Niying llahrles in ihe e*abr(hed . Th. rr4.

ds0de(ed rl t.d r! Ro\em(nlc.or xid rt hre dufd les iE$ oyer rdgeorth.onmoi r llD r4rhanrun n r:l siniLdb thr:e lsei $ith thecontem pd.bdo{r.rn {. r Feseir dd{ (.6 s ) FouprrP definile :id (o.r! orrhr i..vhorc.) ind p.il.dr i:4tun detrioNd.mlllons k {.rrilt srrnrftl TLr hrn ir r Mer rrorlr rLoq rj. ixirh?. .d' O.'{"i t:t'' ttro]ghut'dtr(dh}!d.--.i(${ll]"ldj.t z.adi[e 0aflE r.rhde..r.. miNd m Tabbri T[sshoNslli]r i|!r liom the b.dlerhd niredpdtensGe.l :' li lrrerre ei r h e r o e ( ! i g s m Nlr rlre broad brds.jun N.l(llJ .:oh behiidrh.

.tr o!.*1. nowfai. re. {md n sbllsFfl ro P.vehojodryou'Jdl]rtf..n!e ro sprirenr]t.u red A 'mrrr meiloLl ! asprobib !.tred trdmrheduiErjn ii rheMendejHo!y m8h tr $ ' rbre rorprFn m!Mc.r6 'id. rre bur '\.{ergj rd riush. ceiemoDnotbediirflhhed an aron.r! 'uer. P't.i re igrr. wr. F! tht s easity sorked Resitienr rnd c!_ rehdy duuble whe.t.'olomoereth< dj .i a smoorh soe\ rclstor rhln ih.iny Ahe.srr a/ia4d .dI 0rleonlqr :). it h6 bccn rhe h\olrEma.rrforlros mikfs I F4t:id rirhr up. \/rtr0uah norseier:x! an rnd€ $q uil hi:lndr dehtuFlj tr mor.orcrFsei.sed rn '.endyto nake paddtes ror rdeRheel\ ed {eaneft.:7 :1 .rimodem spr bul th.init shrinkre b. hrh l re!n. n sofred tishr.

1.estogdhe id sonedhes.el*l thebundred-slrir|.nrm{ \ertj.re Pdie :id andlthti Tjmber.ra usad lor sabds. torembellishned Nerl!:ll.. sin. I .J iu. .9 hldeind on m.r.B:!iids c$de (nor iihncrd).iLiiad (. bui Inmoden Fiai& n hd Leetr Lnmedield Englindil \6 !H 6{aLly r.'l.rows jire lelied .s is iot:p! sufi.rl *noe.diEmopsdi i liirdri!fu' (o: (frs r2l :nd .i rhtnteilher edris tr sive 3 re\s D3sedipF{ince rn the F ] e t h e 6 N { | l y f i f r ! P | a t e r ' n 1 4 6 1 5 .r.i doM.e piin(edin bdlliint Ed.otr4erJ3r. .\nes(Figs.@ed h m. roker $ho dained!tu Asptinb{ bei[e ben p.ient.. ior codreilentobe mide j^h (rFoNshilb)(r t.l kioLvtr pnndoaLoLe orrheNblnerury othes hiye 60.t kte r4tb .rh{eor n:ed \A lermnrn Gentified by s. fh. Dmar.1.|trnetr is hrd bd penshibLe Yet mther rhe|reseii iieds rc ol asp.red eitensirelr by medievdr. one (Fi3 123)hA.enturypat.rdri some decoc rior r. Britsh ilu:eum) nlnch {s v.. The puDose Law ol 1416 or ihrs lor nd{a arc{s addto lreen(bepnceor.r . on.l! t. .123 9) ThetwopFcA reshfa.!..ns mr ofdoubreihi.

ft rne 'fhe $itch hotes.61) v:nos rmprepfums $eE devnedto ft inro rhed!k. {trd shapeol the inrs: Enidl or honzonbl llies (Fis:.sbrh {A used bu. it is p.otr 1936.o rDr be rhre:dsould ' h?je &i.e nexl . fte mon &. ro$+ Fg.Ior ttus vodd h?!e Drodu.ie reety cir.oi!ehshrshiedb] rhreld!otronGsMr . peids. 133). vas :pp& ty nadc wiill x siryle punhdrnp!dr rin.i m for4!eprnrhredpcs bm. o!d. ric P6E ons.e ler ot rhe drreds h?!e su! nved tr is i.bn sii.$ibte rbd 3 sinple nmig..a lom oI semi or.nmonmees ot de.nri!.! Thethird.enher singl) or:nrcssad p?rhap. ?73 4 ud nis 9. .hing (Fig.hes(Fjgs.i.-ad a.137cd) More .het m st.onssMt or tour r4cr pdets beseer pj6 or sdh." dessns.rnidenij.:r.enain ho$ the se. jrTbr {d tori.omped tl@ert (Fa orwxvredsedsqures.ontinuous raitrerrhai { nrem .msmotd h've looked o4in:nv.oftion s4 by sbkhine.€! oi Ieaves {irhn arcaded ni. Fis rljn. 137e-0 roy be in€ refrianr or rcry elabor.ared sries oI nfth holes tFiss. redansurai stjls .l. \____ -)) .oro!E.nov hcaoabG of reconsrrtlon. re drtE ed turod{'thd du qrcdir s cur&r norn:rry . btrrit is roomrn rd dis.ohpl.noreDrobabb 6d ir {A a type or bak*ii!.12330).r.n! 5rlistrr " pulled bc blr { trtd h}€ beei npht r d dqre il.deitaL serm com ionr! usedtodayb! hames make 6 ind saddle4 (saran.oyerfiomlpdren Themotitibex. r d e'y naN G.

uflhclie n.sortucs oribe 14. vould e\psed!o drmp onrhe unde^ide oI thesoLe ?nd !. om llig 112). {hi. ehirh L .k. llir afflh * oi. togerber {iih.r:l o(a!.. r ro aie ir hklrd oft {ri. beenrry litlle rcomu.li h e! ri:!e h.e'isahr!eernrdeitumLry{sorrh. rflr bdrim r.d .h. ]\tr :ddiiiomLlald $I 'JkD :. Tlre soles rr.r.'s. I ll .rhe {aD! wie mrre rior siide pGcs ol plxin Ledher.dq rheroe*mps.d be$er anda rlthlLr Fi ed roe. patr0trhfads lfig r4L).at .!(oDr{eldrro.ireio! rs r riid rcFir. srouid.5ometimes biturded rt 'he!frFis 110J xni {ere ind{i.itersresFdlrelt (!iss 139 40).

cdomer to sared a s&bte pajr by tn.i S$?nt-mo rd Tir L:ie.T:ble t9.entunei$e\uisr le(me qoglesirery 4ros.itiiaG.onvesion to modcnj tudiry inierisl[h ed pd]t io ta. TtEprernr *ud! n. .hu6 andlni?ns rblur 'rtr iri !( medifldl Thn dr.t or itp sojeis kely to prodtr.urare appmiiy be.ium dft esFa:lly at rlreheel. io jud..onseFedresisiered sboes.e .r'a '..e$es ot cotr*nition. rortss:t *Gk wirh!* $tfi. 4&nnicsoI$e poDddroD. meAurenenr ot 'e shoe $ithin r]tr !. simpleno5urtmenbaeunf0dliate]'o. . d rlm !r ' ir.(oss rhe (orepd.3ra) r aDDers itut beNeenihe 12$adirrersrh.r.r ?.at dD. does it seen rhd shos kre 'mdeii.e r. a[boug[ s obsesed*ith ih? shoestrcm ]rngs rym (clde & cder19??.id the ft:s neda.oy!ry. .lt re dsouded andd'a &ehureneir hken ro a poi.podaine iis.. sDe $mdrds. *rn iid heelol shorsir.s. ro so'neerenr. fesetably.meAlreme. nnse or {idrh 1i!t4s: rhe $drh ot rhe shoe nornr:llyla.r. blr ir m?t:rsohave sh4ik sin..ords or rhe Loidon cordsaiE6 LonDiny make io menhoior {ch Nor.orlined 10&e . rhe .oict0sions abodlhense of ro.qrher rh.rNertnrhe ciiy hd.ause liey bad stnik d diiteEri .ied in dned pmpoftion ro irs tensrh.be n !.Der. Snc! ft e n s.d shoes$rh 'po'raines.The unconsesed bulk araem€m*ould dinoned jor m.y ft.d e&r.i in oyer e$'mab . Ntodern shoe stcs eDreseit lhe i.if. borh dunng ed drer rhe pm.A mrnum oyeran bi31h of the shoesores Eqll hShlnsuesole. 'fhe pu@f or lbe .ug[ arronroton to ilie orisinrt size of an beendiiodld by rhetonspeaodot buril].:{ som!.. Th4e is no re*on to suppose rhd rhey ohened sPe. hr kno*nabouti€|olenrialchaqes n rdNime h$ beennDdefor rhis.i.i lhe equfttent sne. n Do.be prednied: keezedned terhd Ldtth.Ne) or.(Table lsr lD'heo-.mran (Fsp.burshn k3ge doq beimed hA beeiqriftiied ad c& n) some e$enr. ra$er L\d ihe teqrh or rtre sole ba sinc.ern onder. ?bout rhephysi. vrncr ern dE toli tirsst smps Irom neAuremenb b*e.Sizes andwearpatterns: social inferences Fmhrer G$mbtagEsm ltuse A lhof &on .t otror !s beyodd rheestinr@dexrenity o( rhe ba roe Gee ibove pp ?9-313nd T:bre3).

!ed re.i(pp.10 p.enknes 5tes 2-7 md 123ycm GeeRhodrs 1030.. it na] be possibte to Foeed tur oerhod used torerh bddr GeeTrbre rl) ili!. rlF ne\pedad m'tr|u $eie litlledirtereii li son thd medieval shoes Yer lr*clcr muclr rbesh. sMi L e md Tne Lane)shre a disinbuio0of stes thd tu { Lo$rr d ddli ste\ I mon popuh sizes or:drLrnei's:rd $orai s rhe sidala. io {.e Table 19. b.h m?! hav.FDg lrom4 to 3 (Clarks Ltd 1972.Fisuresfron' moden Im.hhebnnedin{ersoil:sene!oroakEte orone sre eve.ed:ftr 16teas). FiA.\I these ftiisti. crot lin DneL.!..yirds cArla . ir isioposrbre to ordrook the infom{io.l lu remrins quii! inoo$ibLe ho!e!er.usehisronslddrtoslibEiemediev.lii rbofrron bes:na cxpemeri nr 1959. : hypotbesis rhn seens10be iecenins rqepr:r trceohi(e od rhd rcrtd the 6sres ilreadr adjNed for po$ ercrvd'on sbrinkagen ri'uLdlaadr.trral r:4qe or sr6 befirDs nedGaL men3nd dlldratr s n !e Gee[?loN) mrkesn mu.efi ofaduLr . and'fal. Thn wrdrh orrhelod h?sinneakdin proporiotr. so rap'dly d firn bul1hdthente decres.onyened h modem stes byM.e or2or3srosbeiwe.h.e $trsrrie otren\ om by somen rid shoes m.t0pcr.r7) burihesroup:m rits 12 131.hmore dirfi.rhererore. {itr' addtrioit rliese figues rom hle vdonan dudionol .edunRoman rodsand drirn s.id .ho{ev4...ourdb! tuboyed ntr fromNeiL M:cD.dirr oireandfemitepeaks.. . irNhi.k4r rhi.s or so(iitormarion biied lenh{ srips rhd. nnge or Ar'houshii ma! be posibre ro idedi! die !. li$res.uhr0 ddeloiDe rlherhd .l Loidonas{ded in TabLe 19.ir iDd moden. pdhaps lmt xi. .orcry Lot|t cto|t Nuttun.n uril idlal shoe rusNohby?minorrsomrn'thismiumrns.dsing).dr nthr\ $ nejirrednilhstesri 9 a.:ier trt tn. eom rhe late lstied! 3rd-. $.ftd cmrm.s mry hrve sbrunk in /rrrlt rms. *ourd thusbecomhreit in iididlidt .ps sh nk by .= : = .igiiit ste ol lhe shoes sd4. tunn:: !. di(ere. popuraloi dd or r o. dd'iLdreiGeexbore. D.s.d.tlenatrs d s.dt.lrd) 20rh ..es soLleDl. ff this E so.n s rikre sh.eni rorpresumed nhe.h less dun4 burirrlban tter re. rr.e m ddr nies {h.c. 133 I Tabreaux 1 5: rJorn. 60@r. 2 G4n6thtt.and represent '. Ntren iheobjed $3s ducred byclarks Ltd oyerrho9a{r.tt winrer193617). imdrc.tion rromchra s) honds). ..m retromblr ba de ifi?dis ejLmate :s :ny ol d'.rbuiq.Le 22) To predu.dryiq dNatrredrdionorupto. onred6t aIonfmlioi.rr.ouni ror atrr sbri.oredre?rs sbl buned J..i'v ludennge t974.7 @r . r0r-r. zusnnnel ad Kreiner retdburs (Tablel9r .illurny h?s ev.stbcrc F Lvere no$ immon in :tui (l'e n. *fula ol lhl nediev. xdurlremxre !h.endr. Rhodrs .rheotdermethod Gi *rE.s B r itr 1929 D. ol omboRdle evidence.e r yery simirrr soLqed.r Eislrd nrrespo btudy h ihoseimm nedi re.ed shoe !?s popuLrrion vem shoes male rmsinslrom sDeslj ro I l andme tentlrsol rh.t20re. tr pems dMt thctr/dd'y stes ciden€l thd the threeLarsen tfoupssl'oM n Table 19(froo'E.cd sler 1 (Chrk Lrd 1972Tabte s.djunad L! r0 per .

12 3 4 v 5 6 7 O .. l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 l r 1 2 ' 3 .

il! anoit lhe shoe5 ol lbe l h &en : shoes bery.Lrd 1972['g ]4) Ih. b. (fur|o ns rd rh. r pr)rtleFs oriire@f EtiotrdE:e !r -fh!se.st b judge bl 'rrr roe! 0r (be 210 sbo.d oi lidlrd.n ndrul sho..uc shors rl'ougl' tro{ f:Jaied \ri. tr sbrurd benored.Lle ud lemLe ? miro6 rh.rdar ha{ i!r..h. Ni(hin doNn rie ruoiLl iv.isr! rr PnGs\u.h i \ur i. hoNers. todrr & ordtrLdrer 6r rlildtn ?!ed?bour L nortis (cLllls.:\rie5 rn r'8 mm (nLghtyequiva $r mn Lo. 110 / ?14 Dn Lol'g.1 rinire5 rhell[.rnd 13ln&dGer m. id rM' n r .nrpx^q oj aLod{ iz.hrrdie. Nlri.i!. Doin' d. oodem. orhdr. b.onobor :durlt..lih. it.i. {rn'nr. 2e Frred ed.Le s sne5 and io moDly nrd.s iro'n rrrird! or rh.r.. nuddd m. 'ylFruthe:dJt nr dirnblrjd^orrr peaks.ar panems and deldmitics ofrbe fccr 'fhe poibirlr' dr reint4 rhour the lrefLrh ot L.:sre:3id ! afrrrlel2)a0d:o rhildren s shoer ft: siliLiihr .t is io.r \ oelierr ojiul?ron ltuo rhe*!ar pd B. e I'n.hidrei 'ydp baiig dereLoped In ihe \eri.d.s Elen so ib! soanai dr lb! dimFlire soted pdt.i d.h rrur the nmpLe (lun :.lr drens izer I -3 l'f .s(.rjirdr.potr. h jnur b} nmlln.odor c'oe.: see simih r qrm tr {ber. noddl]d!Ll \k ').! ir*lJ. d r.gsttud &(ros Nth tompLete sol. rlrbLe12) soo?r hd06 coddb.rti 1r..3eFnlfbN: th. 65 ton Tng Lrie lTibte t9). tar 1)\ rt 1r1 t : !ur dcspir..rs .ri\ CAle :rsem .j5 iul.Ds h:nded '. $eE to{ r.

! i a .frrlei teyns.iab6t heads rlre Li!r| d rhe r0d: :.hrr.d. ar tsrn oi pdhologicl$iditions. ihe Modem adtrll snes th! shocs rouMsrt\equently hr€ beei !u{6 oenrr'sen prtfdtd to provid.voden reseu.nc.r @otrnslnrbb on Dur:/sores (Fic.:. Fr..Thf !\]| is the N-.d t ((h ide.r d p e . . . o .tritd ie0.li r) [i i] .orrli.rre..l ach nep (fl]l.der.) i1 f-\ / -l 1 i ^ r f { ) i l .e:bteoit! m oLd or j!!r s nor runyroi.oisiDFnee lnsre of ?boui5 dsstuesb rhediFdion or q:lk mg d tbebesin trc. (sellpmpehilil mu:desrrltrcrLildiilhe roor ointsn r r eL r .rcd betor rhe rge lJ ibonr q rhod caNiig ohilus dr$ohturt (cta*s Ltd TheGet* c.1.mideupot nmr sndrmNis rrds $hrli :fa subrded 10hfl$ rmdsFordi]sreEon Diryr.h$8cens dd i.di.141i .rL 'r!rslnvpiel! rros rr. n. h er oI tde loes. inrbe stDdu.I r h r .d. bui ir Ii iohil Nrfins ih.om!.t4 =2 ModenChild Snes l.nr of rb. llre Found. dnordcrNhi.tedel d.13r. drn p.{dresjoliris vef sorn notodLl t! ?dtrs burb! luhs.

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rqr..rjojrl h rrL* .:.4ibL' esF. butrion turJrr L?n ThE.urjDs'her joint irsLfnay bEd.rr:i) o(trs sb. (Fis 1J?].e !i nled aid I svdLn* rrqn rr.{p.a:an utl.Orlltr itlrrtrd eMftples onLrbliuse then lld ft iloropodrmt.iddrJ .Irr..n./ j.+dnk4r] {9.rirr se.! (.r\ tr\ii itr.i !r (Fl! llri) The vrD.4rmererenoy{r. bemNe rh.Niitrs rrsuL\. tor exmple a! Oth{ delibei te nirsii the .tr. !{.In ji{ep\ $ou|d ljtr'l nbLad ujdil.'. lon is a sri in th....i 11i.e drnrd{r5 IFif ii.lr rvhrrh oroyLd*nsunddn d{r [o dri!'s rri onthe nier side oIuDri !. !{e) \'ere Oncrtrre n. umo rbrortt!_.mp f0d ib0omrl is rb.in' (mes imFiLlln .gs.oD ro..r be the rcsun ot ftuiu .orspoM.25..rpcd.rnh rherb !frbc Fext to.od'riotr ofrl'e jr Fd !.i o(ur ndurary {i$ ace .ll lie ini Dosir.dd rr.rs r.h.j\ uirjon.! lnp I i.ry 6Qoflind\ rrerru n$rls) eilber .50).h b rhd jnnrmed 14 !is.1r thtush I iirm oi 'fhi! o.d*ubb[( dihe r]e.

shlri rt|po iltr nilt h ns trd sone Ir !r nrs {.Shoes in art andliterature n feN uilikt|| rhd r\er rhepoo'a! oeillr ro {af th!.rs r$ Iadtu t l.Ur!\ i \ido{e $ithoLrsti!\.dpfr ni0rF{rDr\ f.tr nsht go b?reri ur 0 LsiDr m. r*ose or i. }riuif Frendrpo4 crnfuncdeLdis.rtu tirtr4 ja ]rn\r' 'rtat4arettc\ clrlter hinE.re Nom tlrdu{h (Fq rr0r r{'0e i{e!q. rook i ilDn tr L!!r 4 ltnt i.ei. {ays+d The 13d. Bihk.rb.exr xtnknn) ..

: \irlr h i n g J o r r bo n a N i . n.. i\o.edL.139t) r. dtedim Gpe o. oi e.:cLirrnd g?i \ii fnerims srrtr r!!*. .trsrir! tdrp o1rhr unp. r j r L n r h e ri drs i.cfciit'rrI d o z.r1ia r98{.r I uinritr r^r LLI !].tron.d.\trn rJlrrerrLrr.\rd$Lrlrrdrlo*id.F r nrlL r z r h .diid on |r! \\ .^ :o \err s)o. \trsn 11.1?.llriJ {n!! Th. iiN.sianidlLf*!5 lnriL \hldedr. . .u r|[ ! rh.r.xilsip$ Eigh'd rLLd.trloirL .!r.rF l{. $ n .. i t r r \D r i d g . Lo\r btuL.ilnri(a.

\ . rhd br d rh.d s tn$r rrJ r. 'r$i i'..r \da rr tu tr. This! b.d or L u r k [ d d o l n r ] b r o r J 6 d ' f t r e! d r l .. r i i D ? r r cor.r.ri b theoursid!or|l]! rree dd li.r.nh 4i ttt:i i!t!!rnr') (.ut bd nrher n \ :.d skert rLrrilsh rb! rrc! Lllunrrd A Nfined are n .d n s Fiirbr! m roiriden. rx4 rdr.T.rr..j a(td . i! Jen.bl$L&! fh.

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altt.! dtrdu46, ! tu tut :ia h. lttl al Rih-dtu2 tek, h. be. b d, ass doqhbl '/ r^dots K;4 't h6) tr hq unrh tul LEkr ErrI i,lld tM !!tu6, n d b tltn r,€s uth rkq k4', t .rw 4.t t:ttt

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di.es fion LoDdon, but rsxin it f ftnher a 'ooulaine nor eyen poiiad (Thornton ]e{i I !.8. 'P.!r,iies ! , sone elabontehde.o.at.d. doswiverromcoleds (ThoDsr$0). bdre dabbreonlyby$)le. Dorby mkxi -rhe fhroDid?r y,ho .ompiled the ,rr,4r,, .eil!ry spe.ijlftu! dtnbukd rh. fist rDreaF ad !f someorharequaur

oJth. cLn,nr: lt E4b^1 trsB)

But siice ihe tarcr resardinsthe iyitra oI rikes io rhe kneesurh .besorla.cs istnoscetui'Jyiditio'sceo Lelo{),t n,y be rhd dretr{;ad shoLld be souce bll moretjkety,perh.ps rhar ii $s 3n educted sues, nade tn rhe knowledce rhd the npon{r,dru rledraorKnto$ !h4$e lri a hundred 6lles

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whdever rhepre.jscdde ot rheintodudm or 'poLrrain4 , irch?eolosict:id hi*on.:r sources ft .ois$enr r denoinrahng thd popllanry @$iblr rhe1370s. Then hret ro. an)oF or sober b{€s $th rn de ro lnnd ad in the yees arohi ihe PeAaG' Revoh theiewerendyofrhese.wini:n L:i!. l d, Ior innaa, us ierer morerh,i r Do;r .hanrrypne* itrrh! cir! oflondor Herehemun monAt.nA {ee "hose bekr!re. r]]rre + trdde..nbe prold!nr{s r be .ompa.r'or se xnr chrd s neiingrr*d :ra e{ Ptourhna, r33rj,i590)rdd. evenif h! did nor sriic rr,e himsetfhevould trod.ubt h?!eagreed DAsase in .ond.rnDs rhe Fnn.isons in rbe toltowin! Fe4x4 tu tu btkt4.tund b utlht !r( i1ttht!i{d&ntu k,bb,yr.,lj!{rtus tanan, Itoq Phrttnu adt 24 3nr

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c|lhou|'h||ot||l!|d tue trt 446 t &'rs Eh- rtu tu ,qrri4\ ll 'fhee*kritude{ith$hnh$lsddeissiven

mmedErer!a.olsess$phror, especislty sin.e ii rhe $me )ads EngLmd Qs shake. 4 a sdrns re.ureme df rhe Bla.k rearh Deademe a.d in the cbronidors friid, iu( A ii Frace ti 1374 tueled by the feeling thar demon. presen.essere ponoiiig s..teiy Noth ns po'nbd nore surelv to $e Devtt hrdi*ork the pourriet vrricb aI h:d beed denomcedso ofien by de crers lTuchhan 1979, 260). sro$, on tbe othe' h,id, in his dh.usloi .t the cordw#en Han h Rrcad st.d *ard, traes n'e nrftdudion ol pouhjnet to 1332,$.tiry ihd

'Ponra.cJ rhiayed su.h ioi.ne$, ind $.f the bur or so muchddi.utc, rhd ir i5 otrenditi.trLr

rhd drcyrrad kr bered to rG rneetor *aj{) s ri

s..itr k, hrye beome poputarB! the middlc of lne I trh .enrufl ho*ocr. tr,.y asxin rerunedro sumpluq'lccislaljol"}Fjedtopmlnbittheil

r.rod b srnrt 1312jj236nore 3) aDDdenrLf 0 r r e r r ! f J i m 4 rnd (o .otr.irira rhe lniom.', d a lrft rlher rh. kiig ndralr rv, no* needed rhensuppon r6lrrierl! r7ib..enrury ari@dins. stow Gee Inn, rheni. t403itHs.irFd rh{,r{,ktt ?rroyc) ad aanden o614,23? 3).sto*sjyesDo tn,ttth, sftkal. La Lsttlrrt,G,nk,tah "t lr.ri.dtf arnb&t tus Rd: h.n4 !1ra tdswt th L'"e1h at ru) the Eutosith Htbntfl,t (3 rrir n. r r, the useoa.p.uhtneJ evei rhough{h.rj /,./trs o.p:r Gn (reproducd rbole)tus inDsldlon oithesrhepE c. mtrlp rh.i. r$s. eyrnrhnlrbeny{A$irhdn{n so rhd r[ lnrdrnin{srnd.obblon !nhinrhe c r! of inrcrp.hriors. lr m:! be rhd hjs c.s 0r rhe Loidf tr rs sufoundLqs l,ere io$iddcn ro bdditilthctaudrnrrai be.o t.nedir s.m\

rite llin.eriu4 bn$er orafllu!ddienheE ot

'pouhriei Ircmdi. sho4lhemselvcs tioi. d jn rbepfAed.onedion tbeshoes a*.nd mDre nnpped- either inp,id brkre or larchct rhai3-1mhesl?5-r00mm) beroid rhe bq toe ThjsimFssionr.ms -r:Lre Geeaboye 3). brt evai rht \!uld aopaf. h$. ntr'oitn rhe 1,1d' cedury shoes poi ed roes re commoi, il ior !ni!en3l butlherme mtud besrid lor rherryerrenior .r !hi5 n!L. 'Potrrdeshid pEsed our orfishjon r' 1100rf

Nonrnh.idrheknee.:lso {ddseehsrobeapatrof siiltu.ver fhenthefteq!er. ot ibe ii rhemidl5rh.De xe[] rid s.nue{hoes wirh fi: paA 0r hotes lcroenoa yan lY?denq.:l ^reotlases a.diotr ex.kles (Fjq.t.l Fls 66J The sfred nvl.otuslr Groeihin-ve Warnige hA sussesred (pec.otr{tudlon.rboo( tsnorable.ertury.t .d rhe bra$es.aydion m! befr.23 Gee 9)..5t). orreabe!rur n bkei inlorcou. rhede.embroidered decomioi i .on.edu!-. pe6 .eor Io.or onuous radis hlve p?iredholes$hib .nd sidehcedshoes in $e London. drho!8b the:ho.ng updE srde rbrour+ sae4pinsothe.v(h tii By iie eadyrrdj cedud.butr. ho$6er r s ov sde-Lrcedinkre boor lbd doDintu boih rhe nbieolog. rbb.om.holes lFig 159) Di.raroi. rhen tre feN cianpras \rh uneyen Dben ortz.etDe5kt F.onlnlous ru.aboy.d' .orlripi (aded io b! . Thebns 0rThon* EokeihiD (d r.b]€beo9?2.T:Lre6andpo.32) $4e$ dd n $asdthistimeibarb.e of deiliiabte trrgmcft ol hEh.s6 Tsirb & rcit 1975. pnoftorhet5th.doflf resebbtes ? lc$ . rhebo$ot\icbohsc:ders (d 143rJ n Nrargd!.ed shoes is siniLxr kt FEs.onra$s raced sboer a is! p:ns oI holes. Abb.hsen.s 2) boihueot o0epie.oujd [e cLofd b! rtrrhes (.cnaiiry numbes or toN booG a elen boo$ raehins lldr $?! bdveen rhennkle.rhe doruair-pe insoups t h 1tu dare.h thevrv d .:id lrcnt h. .6970.!m o.cr eys{eac lo* inkie-boohwiilj tr ioobmd.! is sifriLr.s 53withi6id.e..trsr sreDhen s ctrmch.e aiapirou.ut rrP boor rtnfu predomi r. rlfD$ Jd !chrdr rhqrc [. the silte is 1rr) sfrLLd to rhe \boes ircn Tng L:ie jnus tr&d inFjgs.) orhod ra. In ddrndLng exanpre of lsthced!ry too$r& r.d He oonunrrr the lrrrrnk r5th cenrur!sroupsrrom 'tus L:ie There rre .sorrhe bras.o boocn !hi.i60).tury Pour. fhe frod .5 3) Fir.27 ddedto rbe eurt r3rh .t Frs.e ur rurh shoe (r. P. . bnt rbe iobr .ed .ept $hore there is . 100: .t03 Abb 5 4 a). pod ddingthe Finred and relred rhe Etun io frshto.

d$ellngsYet.?nd. bur. drady h:ve loig dftd ro rhehte 12rh or edy r3th.ontmponrlinunntions seem to diferen.enruryor. 'flie hsue ofnatus B d iiing ngone.lls) as the in. Ho*everLthe mdea.Baymrds crd.v belons to rhetihe of thepiket reium io raror ii E. oiahA. Fl lxivi?.ps.don Foups or riis perjod The panens n rhe eiovded in $e Lcmsble churh in Noraf and vanEyckD.b signilidnceshourd berkched (o rheprcsen.inliry.hon otihe soleE lappedoy{ the oth{ to .onrior in the preseit .ole.ory.e quaran.oLledloi niks n nnllkelt thd mu. F. (Fis. dted 1.lciFred Engrand r its rcadoprroi ortrris*yle in de rfth.1 Fis 23 and dirusroi.e or rrreseshoesii rhe Loidon soups Manusnp6 becmeldu:ry i daDLe etemenl in lsrb .trs if the +oes de . $ith 'vetues (. uidyedankh. p.n ihprovenHt prain n rrre buradjoiil rourd d .127).iiIledhercom@site solelcuildhaLlMuseun 1s03.ite er"F\" nudy. the absei.hsho{s .onted side-h.h. pikes.shes rhd oth.r c:rrerr London) li Fis 43 {r ?n indicdio.L ligs. po'JaineJ rfon the end oi rlre lrth cenrury 27 23 $hi..e.pp..ehndiidier:!er450sor1460s. rlre C rj d Londo' de!.e .utenheriior rhe cotrbeii nifteenlh{enluryirhnmtiotrs.r ruu boo6 reroins Pttens $oodetr f?*ened ro rhe rooi wnh redher cm${inps ro dis.equently on undecomied.Ni A ontha simpleshp onsl'oes. 161) or rheran '5 pre$hpllous rlito ot rhemiddte d?s it is vie paintiis br qi E .r fton . lnere ll.h rhe ensid{ed obFds of pdcurft *ds bui sevenl in rbe e$rbrished nusum 0f Loidon.br anlde.i $yte ihsenttrcm?ll rh..su.iid.oes m vea"srfrihro ihof show0 tn Figs. Pl Ldri.ad hek {!is. \atjon.b!! anorhq hasr hiisedEoden solewhi.$ocided rvilhspecii.shoes Yerihe hish prcpotion ol shms $ith srcb de.139 40).lna(1977.Bke drejoiir morcsdenighr(./ F!q.ed shoes L.esbothn idus aid . ifte onrhh sire Tter remains $e F$LbrL[t lrrd brod rear]E $rips {tu.ould inu*mions hd the pdren sho*i bv mren:l fh{hTo|ogic|sitA i.91 101). ..ofplete(.enrq hav.ons in baE rounded toas.ro fn.onedion n. besuse in turope sr.Nhe appear robe . ths isie. r0).ard.133)ri !hd one se.eni4 ju$beLo$ Engrand GeeaboR. conrndrcb nsth. of somenatus. .Brynds cA e and Trig1. simDLr oi the b6G or sr]le ed ex.k celebDtinsdF Aidol[i] m:ia:ce (iov D ih.ausetne Low coundes beenidentiied b! S. tefl A pan of uide.h h:F beenro* of re'sed heishten ankre.s). ailher be.131. Giei lne l4rh{edrury re&tion ro rhe rhr reprodu.thebootlec $crc seprde Dieces.perh.

ilury it *A pcsbk !o sodn .ords $el $nh sho.id prolde anider ol the vaidion thd s:s posstble.r p?d'cuh. {hLLe in th. cdn tln Armon . i penny lor .utiis :id nvopence wA rhe Drymenr Ior .ge 0310r)i !rr@?r44 sri o83djs-51 The shoes oithe peopt! .(.outd be eon 6 thekqq to rhepoor.eori rxn ot dong$rhother shoes rheayeDge ii the rme sres $ith tbe $oes.PesHenaa\ 1$ lj tt. tntt ih.I so. plesunzblr iu|i. q'd 4'N.onrai0 a number at a lree pmpodbi erhrbn rps ol reDan or sho. n re n!d! oI m.^tbr{s rn4 at fin ujt . tun \jd ht a tw.nd a pen'y fof the soles.&( hrt othei\ .e or si\pen. er 4 repreyrtiig ihe footwer or an *e& tound ii sizes uppe6. fir." {hht tt t. kt tur ut.eslor pFcerolk l. L r ! .id heel Nih e\tu rhi.!nj d rhur Hdtt.douLte sote.t tl tdt.n ot booh i' their entuety:$d n. i r i r o rt r l j l t r .ssu.nes.hvEin. rotrgdr equi$leni to a day\ wages lor I skjled rhe 5ho* in rhe oresetri medon TheRoy:rwdrobe rcolrG .m (0 Gotrbirz Dec. su.n.larrt les iifluemto{n rhef {ere piinzndhe:d! r.$eri'olwelledshosaiJthdAfughl noad mh. riethcn&dsholhyGLdedrheemetlposorrhoes.nB ro nile.$nprjoi gEn b! rhe (crhlnglon & cuininsron 1973 Il) ac.ommon donor seem to hrc beei expensre r.n. A requisition br Ed{Id Ivn 1130Io!lns.r is rhese Nhirhhzreiepan r! E Rrel! po$Lbh \hen eraniiinq shoes!o difieEniid.seem! ro have been ?boui ilEpei. coubrz Fc.mbes. $lzmrr h$ed.bove.ltd ulth hd Nt! .orated andb&l! {om Ntri dis. tt.5-7) ftu:?d b\ the rinLr '?rajid\ (0.r ra Pttt nnd ad\\nt 6. lor T! Robn h Fwt rNb. lkt ! d 4.:t Asenb .ond.r !rn: /!' \j tatr iatlq k^rd h b4 . {are de.toe.alded.. bP atdd .e(yand{ 1931.c 6 NeLl r {hd tlE} serepayi4lorthenshoes. ?s6). 4 pan ri :t!4 rtuut.lt! shoryn D ontmpon( rllunniois either{nh rhenso*is vmp{err !o'enig 'her f€rof \nh nse! rhe ds.knssas ot ledh. Bnnd in 1364 rs dreepenceror nukiis a p. Nlh : tufher penn! IorhnDs 6rr2tun1923. willhxve h7 t6u wtr Fd!/eb!qtt tt I.dioyal lodrlea lrca(ms n rhe ro{ns orDordfechr ind s fieflosenbonhti th. rhe ![DD.efraiJy sone of rhef. i D r d e r e d . j|| :rtrq: h4nt h'fuxng':]6.nrnn1tlt'21ir|}'a!' brd rry sin d b ftems in rhe F6d one. hl t tiM lttu" lt stqltr L&t dd.) cdbiiz ii44F6lhe enis6 ofa e$ oir n !er.heori.no(the boob rea.ttu at Fbbtr!.e uries pa.h A hrtbt be disribuieddinhb|y by q'iden rur otr \0 rhd rher . \romenaregenrt.n.Inm'cesind inknionca !i!e !.hiis aboEthekiee)iid theledher'pdyns .abes ihe \Iiie ol Brh in ?r.B.bty ideDtifabte ro espea:n!i0 the $hs Geeabor?. h ! d b .po 39 90. ri iher3rh addl4rh. such s itE \hoon ine botewJ (btr.me ideaor{lh ihe v erLth'er n'-.is ard 'doppes trreid sorcadityientjfiedrrn*odb norDg rhd by lrreendoa$e r5th. r.4 ald@n& at I h rnQb4 th||r Nn ue lrear r Mh md di trp for ieNe Trbles ls 16) The d. 4ch presm. be. roe .e.n.rlei tho* wom r\ romei and those$onbrmenexceprbrsne Geedstusbn ..ieiyscrc No.rip r03 5). tar al bh rtt b\d' ot 5& @td r/D: tl ./ Raft$ lj b!n4 st ys:r hht ht 'rt k' ln Ed Rd.drt !td6 hd( rd tid tn( | r: . ta^ ttr . .

en anu.rn1200.i: RihA H'xfls t! t?a.! oo*ibte Dn.s rhd lbis*as ind. oDe Iour olvlnch sA to b.PL 7).iiL! t. eachorh. N er!tshocs rhr ry{e pmhasod on a lqqre o(nri ror jun ror . atrdror$en n!!n lohn or Bflrxny 0ohn{om rq22_3 dennbld as r44r (odtups usedherc as a gen{.nnei peekre I' on uidarherdres (ch{or 106r.itot rotryot derh{ skds (F.?s. illdrlel bods linedwirb !o& rmpry Gee:bove.s*ont!dkDruebooGperb:FtheIngb akle shoes Ioundso fr.Pole(.fo.irdri ! sLoes ii .g.. soures.ru./.idr1344.dLti. tu :ll.liinsJohnorder. rmood 0979 32) r..ed.. b0ltrl.irDDre srro{slons 'pour.4u..:de ro.hild.is n.id tu.r the suDnei: thd . rjnetrn\ {ey tu le|utw t 4itl btta4u.4 sortrom LrdyEl?r[4h ! 6rn lltrr& rems Ja..umeikrysourc\ de ndimrhd yotrtrs.h! d! taTorr td 1310) $bdi shos mr! rheradyt bs r. dcnlcar i.h s the ilusdion ro.ydio. a irLLr.rr21h..4 Hetr i shephedes Lvfmjng hcr tccr rt sems lkely rhd in the 12i[ aid r31h.is t 1) ai lenin iqotunl u. .9) 'id x FEn. j run or* rro . {. sked 1912. Do.th.IerinoD Lolhr rhef:rrN daiedievaffoot rv{r :d io di! r{djr $rh \rrit..oen listthesh@sinduding ino!.2loha cd H.:lty .r (coiiin 1976 r.r dm srllin.qu. trb.ili.(ndi4 trd) js lrpi. lablet9 Dvenvbe.30r orEd{ardt.rrtems ot wlrtrs Ld rhemoun h:ve d{rlioLGd *hcn oie I'd rr m.. iifonidi(r lnn someracesN4e Frchased sepmrel| ior Et anots \rne: tL n ttr dmt i trt nttta|: brtu Atidv.Trrecn4enrer's r! e itr The illiller s Tat..h:eo|ogi.timl rboutbtr. Dt. r]€ J.. deFsilsorrhFpe.ce s '.r reh nth.kts. 162). Do 101 s) I'tr is i coicesion io lne$Ld (sind 13. rft 4 dl TheLq.ssened dBr $. ]ir led.r.ikre \ho* ) r'd exceDr for th. sidenbk nutr$lA rre abore.ehorcsp.tr b n\ ka) attd4t.od.s hr!!.dtrbnionuNedbytrhlth nte or nrd mo'lalii) rherem ma. trbe.e fienryhimfLrtorhf \ nerEreanor..d {r Therrns of Ladrde.s hrre lErdcd d.on!! o{$$q h look d lvidei.dt tor beto{ rbe . .h {nrr oI simirddre ${es thd iie wo|elbemdsoefr!4ageas$ee.eH.r.nn. rr r!!r.e shoesradd .44 rae. " Irom the corii. T[e vrlprure fromrhehht oi liin. r.d)r. rn t473 I.1330).hildErgro$ our or i.edu. vJn d rhe nDs s huMlo.s and feei d:d ii frodenh shao.hirdrc. sn s rtri sldoor{r seila h Lbf brsshoa.h .r. &:lrieotosml lcndeQmpanions*erbuskDs.19) bold a(ounE 0rPdn.nb Rrtk.d pin: olboohforlii\ !jfe.. si:: Lit. Febdaq i L^ r.t i s.:ke! .Dsih sktd6 {en.zl 'fhe hoNe Duns t Ilontmaftrc *.*oes her mte.12.k (pre$mibl!und!.oas ArchreoLogLcat e!. rb.

kr*mcd rlie&rkdmisnl. td!NeeE:ard1935) Pr$uiubry.uld EieL)..?. w.r/ .r cunirtun ard tucir o965 23)r)d.il otr mh.orred shoes tud hrdty 0y pdre's Hol$. r...r31).on or $n subr.rB h iDdid.) dnr d'drti to rhelounger. mg! rl hieh booG nrM jn nunurn$s ir robltr {nh $hjth thcy {eie {om.endrd$eaf r. The Erpe o.d oi 4idei.e srsren ihotd be dE dse.dorm ihissdli rirb suftrtnr ddrb|em|'}.f1 'B:yrtrdr C?nk (Figs 53 1) x mebs ltket! rd sere {6 n p..ipc q&nunit! to. u4d! orcnooked b! cmtun. .anh.nnrn rlsfdions ad L'55es dier.ing 'poura.l. d r \ ' haneri. no de..\hen MoNr. odrtidy ririe ristshi b:crNredclytrr.jrlrtcs E$ nshr rrep laslrioN r.dui clltd. orib.d{trrd.ir rhei's nrins seems ro rrie teen ab:idoied hercsoir rhe doseddjns sequ. r.p:sdl&[cc M.undesad ledh( thi.f reD(oNrlr.ft.rq rooLed Thee!iden.mDrd r0'. 5lor lilhLon n. suF.r.rred ovr rrk D6t hudrei lcais llw rrcen btr.ri' (l.Lof]cfinds'i61notbc.s|.rd.y poprLtjrn E r Nli.ft and Ie ih{.itu{ i-(trelt Psltor rFi! 163r d. d{i!!ms nrurd bc inldi6ed.L m d o m .o\e $ or oiolnor. Iednrc ir trrru!.htds relred upor lrr I(Fr.3 fio oinm.hid s l abs(f oI sho.ireis IndthesingLedild.or s'q.e! .insroolder rhtdreior tonr Tli.sri rhe rmltd \tes rirtr ex i[ nn tjonsol d'iuren $eai4 rdrinei s.nd upo.jnl.l!.ey. rhe !drrbcage.enjntb.sla. ( oldrtsiq rhe. ilil . be.t0. l oneol e i!* titetjk. rhosenbo 'yo. .s l]f rhe Londorvrer ?ere rt&frty hsucdNirh shoe!alld.erhem.$ e .r r . or ... md thisi!:iD rrnigs b:tkmeisnrollltrdJFofthe{€*Andlhl rlth c.re t4rh Fdrrt burE tro. I Ihat rhedj]]d nandad foollttu otrh.m q " 1 ! e p r l .ler qrorc r{67 r bol5 lea.r.ss kter.hildren $ef !\. r.edosiulsitA danLrarfrDcrs &nm. ti {ere ftcor.?is o(f exiensiycLyid i_ond ff I " h J p .ll r335.0fitr sho$ Ln rberr*eni srcdioi !{e{s dui hin. orhine.r h .

rde rdi -dc i.s orF*r.Le Lti'jAlnlLi]liiglelo.i".Glossary IreD or rodtrer Nhid erlends to jtr{ itrk rhe:." leruLrrrDF (rrq r' oddlrrrmirlr.r ntLd qlmLLf bma.q fe .

r rre uDo{ Nhi.r!/. te pretened.h is irn.r rheshoe R€i.y ).pk| . yrnp ituod (FLs r.ured by Liidii( nit.jn. r03) d mu. ffD oneilher sjde or hc.hisFn.r.rrre !re 'rhe*?m nru?lr! lnd|des a md.7?).hN pulled I rt'.r.a.dLotr. dlnote. Eitoi'aly trrrdf 0.e ii dp 15rh .hed by ioo! rumel*irchtrurodE mLnsol!tFt.cnrury d !.ulirer.. u3).akerhehnin!.k rmph d! sl! pedpj!.eniury su. p:{ .I rhjlr hdher iit. somctim. r!mo* Ntrnbly hxde rir h rhesn Lnsid.d ttu tr$.ad. ur!.diltroush a pa.d au nadeb\ aE tnr rh srai res[ s!rh6 (FLg 7ii) Itan ofr0o$?d$hi. sin..re\ lltrhnenry. !r hi. Iifi h{e E ? gen.i.e {.derpanolsr'oeusurrrr rrihi. !iF.h does mt exie f.ord .tu. rxoodEibrr. whi.s uoo! nn!.r:r rem ior ri it .edie Pnod mor zDd thesor.eiiury ad in rhemtddre oI hiriroir rh.k{ledher rhm rheupper.. ded be sdled Nithnor or hanrohold rlr ltth.€. or.ctrsiotuLllr seem 10hrv. nonDll! ol lerlpr. o. ilraadad rbrollh @irsot hok N ert'jshjrir rbriirg sri0 or srher nirhed onto th.{L prot. Usuall! .eDr .ror ertrhrre on Lnenings?nd?lors th.lleshsdeol rlp lpperIr nrtn!1hei diehehores (.r '. drousri.100.burn rhe.tr[Lr b!fort rbe]3th. b.e.s ! rorm ol open sidrl rroh i sdpooledty Polishongin. Johnadebr bunin!roge len Fr:id dojBthem q(h m edse/aesh seaD lFie.for.I-q.o! iiq.hsoles o. tnrnslrr spht thons {h.mdgin moE {denishi cordk. anonsii:lrrt1.s kno{nA : cLrmp solc. do{n{3rd: lred con(rudom lq.05 r.{ Tb.ht.

sofll]!\ii!|\|n' 'ht trr.r) \r 'l' '1.{ b j0itr .i theroD surrecl!'s. usedrorpthria rff rjningrqo h edF (!.ni.hiq:rl (fr! 75).{dttu'g Sd. .irllrs-n dr4 arsled nil.r I is rl dr .hing dorclnh a !ryr..(.dg| .n cdae srhd hs..!ide lFrlr ir :.rF dJPr orroNnd0i (q.is30) oe.rhr p.133) olsimpl'roejiroieth.l orrhe r Ln/.'lxs.. !o rhd i tonrinuou: Er. rhiearrhrr r0trsrd5 h!r hdesrndbrk oF.!!d'u\u!r J{Ed i rrrt rr{r c.?n\ rlk nrsr.r. sjdo tre q.. r .! *i.

ier qhr.i tr6n(]r).n\qr/r e \nt keis) erh !(. hen deDosired r\r.!N. Jr(fsr' BrCulred li. 4&jl rel(s0) o( \'aknut nr oe.r oa iirirFdion a. srr $6)i*r) rrde{ilir!.e i\r) l hDsenod Nr.!rtorr rr . lrliru) rf. rr0.d Ln i63rl rrli Pqodvlr r .Ljed rhe5ir.l. tayeiroieini0s $n .t tt t t t. +i( L:lA. 0l Iric i? liorr 1118. rrad. Brr r. lrulcos) s. trr'rrurr r.Lrstol lrsures anoconcoroance [x.. rlo 5hf!.a\!. rlft i!44) Pentrrnr? ss r lr$l is8). (TL ?4. r2r0 aeeplo.a.: J4dt@ EIG3.(rqi r . i cfry.[D sHir lr&l cs) !@pk4' lrde6o^t nJ .tit a Frei.Pdodtx. z l4!t or3) Peo.trorni . !! ru l5fl i4i).\riretro^rfir r..d rlr Nooi or Ledher are mr or '! turrr Funherinrormrrlr rbld rhe Nhtrhs peiai!(]! l[dvrds 1936).. a b. Ldf. tu l jr.Ljed is thotrgbt to h?f.t 6 t. Blrl r\ppo ix 11.ri&d EJC!ti$rcrft )..) Tr'edd e: ! pended t o.inris 1r6 :]l1he illunnrd !ho$ m nlii rcun c\ iri ioi. n{.nh $rrt rrbnft. Ar thd ihrcc ii. .1!0 Adul .pirorr]|krsrrds*N. I616t 1r?0t s! tr ^di' s h!.r. Brc r ft271 (|sr) sH i.1tr5 . the aI r d r I y I t a. $nenffrrlt.r Brcy rirll5i3r ieprar P!d( \ru3.e requned r.hrb.) l1rllori) lvr. ur M!n\ irktr$4.li&lc16).

dr TL a a68l 1. d{( trl Ladr6 i (! rh u rb j\rA & cu2l .l & lr]!n {c0) l!$l i3rir) d!.orslrucrN r3! 50.ft rrd!{b s{. ldr tutru^ +fs \.-.r41r5 r lr4l . s\r.r@ t3FJ ir23). !xH. ris: $4prsnr r.Q[ Bc2lLstc$t drr ! c 2 l ! 1 1 ( 3 r t ir ) .( nd. r5 J.. ( i n Lc lr:01 (3303) i'd ntr ilri :5h!+r!'r B. n[. l34ti*rn c@4cri. d{k.drefr:.i !rehbLanLr Bc 2 tzl !c 2 ptol (4Ge).dlhd sors: d[ Bc 2 Ii5] Bc2t33t . 2 erlt c[3).6{ f chLdt rh Bc z ffiJ orn).r3{ 2 rrslr36e3) dod-rj)rdotr L3o i tu Lhe 2@i !e0) bur rse se fj! m. 4 4ir I rLr ndi rn pb rL ir [r6t uo{i .fu.rj&. 18c ar sHz 1316l ar ^ddfs $oe !m..{.l e .if sL\ s c!$ {lcc| olj l.r0!Dd.io Adi' snp! sde:Qnelp*ca[ rq( 'f ! ! 1 e 1 2 0 1 1 ( r $ er)r.do.r s[ DC 2 ttg BC z tat (r!!) do* tllt i3!i) Gi!!pc1r.[ntu 13ii rro l!31 sorqli Fs6Lr a I BC2 soli3i0).r lit mtr tsc7:J]jol3jqt odDi! D ror \[h r] p' !c 2 Fn (rr!r) a tr5riFro) cro@cr5..

Pour6e$e. [?5-!00 BC 2 ni011372). L: radrioJLr \ n(tu rr-r 13631(r60t . .75] 4t Niftb{l.6hnas et5l cmt TL ru ].'tL 7! 275)<!i) a !i ]k4e[rq ht lrbnd.held({trI$4'slel{ ir r.cuthgFkn.xdrri!!{irr'ir(r!ir. 3 ? iL i o -r.TLaLr[l(16:3).6eleBc 2 nsl ir66e). dotkfir.{!triigji!fuu.&*ndr .

'Rsn*.i sp s! n lrel (sr) .: tsadrsd6rq6@rpu rLr !. I nd . siv:3i trDlislD |]6811:rI) i: vl4 Bc '.M&irrl d BG M Ltoftt l$r9) Peni Jri.) iel 0i B.-{tr6.r Pn€n sirDdJurl (3i) 160 !00.qn s\\r3t tr. '. aui(ds cri Bc rr rrur(I33).!k iit !!! . TL r 13$ (3ar).r I ri4 mdiirernh rfun t301tG36s). -l i r lrin lrur). 33] rr I I r.'qionr J ..q!h &rPi h .. ! : v a o r c d Jr L a e 7 5 l i [ ! ) . r . . 3rR 33 l15ut ct l3il cu6t l30l rror) D P ' i e r 3 1 v B $l o l l s ) . 6 ! e& M. Lair'hrbr {irlLi^pr 6 bdlndL.i r Bc 7r lre ca3i) d!*fir 1r a nrts cjr Bc7179€$r).tpyoght. d* ni d.2 rietc$3) &rl (5s)i B c 2 l 5 t i m o r )& c d e ) & r .]{oh. c r c u p c r s r: vi D crr Ec ? l33l(r55.! osd{\ 3c 2 rsl . rll 1: !ar![d]e^tu($G s< Fiq . . ri R(i e rTmrt (si) Pend r!.1 !00 \inru]s{(D. rl. h€ Dr: '4rieh h thldd{tu z(nolia{ gi sqns l3o1t G32) @d]re12ftrru^ sHt4rlsrtcor r. c!0).

plq!cnnd.(D. 1360 BIyB $ t10€t uno.olnotErde.ii3e b lhe @€d by [. crdp e2. dd hf[. BWB $ eet €0r).-140./& 'ttdr&'.rs0.. 165PLoofrhsOrrdktrdotr. BLMsjut D. swae Pr0rt (168). C@e P.M rdh Mnh!1932. TL 7r 806l(w).130 Pz6.Nwid' ftr Deei sho"iisDdc6 hd. BG1{0o. Tr 74Ela (1O9).arz?o.Lym'N. (s). .na &rizu. se Delr f64 ees ofrrdEts cokF. S4ri&e. 136. st Jorn3 s'.ar4o.r0o. . c@ c1s. lh@tusd!bdmof h^4HdEbedbJds'scdeo6s'35' . aqrBB I@l {25$). Fe. Prtu. C@ c[. TL 71E53l€m6).deonBLRqJM6zA'flI' Bc ?2lrsl G2a). AddMs4130 fl96b.pootaimJ. rL 74t?r16t (979). crcut shA dnnPalkns l5tD.fu. rL 71ts3t o2r3). wsdsb olfublnBfumhe'sr' Me&acaci@h'I{na. TsiElfideoFtdishehionDl*lllj4' @rdsdbyI'(dmeiq'Fde*@' 115{e{penddsbdi0trhdby'a[d4g $6 Dd non bnh of'. 13?+l. Ped.1{3n.. CGs mr.13s0. Prb. rL 7r Basl{2M).

L '!L\ L" rtrLr rs.'i otr i.ad{ s summinsad ::-_:Jf'\r .I APPENDIX The excavations ri{il.d dd:b r . burlor i.trp t' ir ernDie tlui tlk.ieJ. Ldarih d'.rjundddlun ^ r'tri r.rnt. ro .br$G (.srDtion or lidnld rYat. lDr.. r.hriB b.oms pdrerf 0 Lsii' belo{.{!d ilre 5te or ?rd' s'.

oHt _ .(m'l. p@uyep@dnoMefu.tmt@' t2 .

r€ether N h a very l:rse orrhedrrhes.ndichronolosi:l eiden.430{mrdrereredammd* . r r*d in th.oi rhe eAr.. (ii) The ardupAso. Rntmd: cnthlcit aJ r. aM i*li be.l6s 1) sevei.enturrd?c:onlbe$e$.. akb. renrheses :aer . Funher L.hetunmne { eeh n. The . shi.iated dh rheC2lc3 revelmenb . Urrtt Thrrs s*x.i:rad with the se.h vas buitl bv wini:n r .iying reniins vere of r{rh.eptomllyhrl]e quanriries orpurelrorsani. Differert p:ns ot rhe litLiis Nere eianinedii ditferent *. coi dLlons otpresrudlo. Auy. mrds cx{re.oisldenbLf to the !oud. the {:n5 or.larcema or.rereiied ro vince 0935).ciaied buirdinss (MiLn!& r{itne 1932) Four n€d dtrhpsrhar{de pai o(ihs tou nain n4e (') Ille edie* Foup.!p d it jn hre4 reanered shoes and5 pdreis Ms tound derosited rlhen rhe HGtonftl anddo.h ser mo* neti. (Mrseumor lo|doi.nd maybedivLded i.ut svenl rnes in llre Late $xor nd nedle!?l peiods.eitury. Ec1. .enruq varercte iilet.ris. No lft.Fis. 1974 Tbeer.edunes|bebj]qs a $lies . bui id rhose ecs {r. Ec!.edr/ all rhe shoeson4n:lly Dre..N.id *A L* $hei treshry nified Ba)tui.appendcd ii !. ol the onginat B?v.hsn lne inlei rsell NG . rere so poorrharreN nen6 *ere erecred soon arrer. asens orlmLer dockleading 10a publi Mre4de and.1270.de kio{n ton thr hmeoiwdds6 .tesile hmber A !e4 .. r$6] or n the sepa*e publiilrions as lsred Tne site rode. vnbno srx!. *hich h?d?pparendy beei hveued wlrh nbbnh h a s.ert?tntvb! 1340.onhins jrn 17 registared !"red qu(e exrmtre\.ntiries 3ithe.rdion eiteided oy* a ver. t93t tB\D 31: F)!.' as. t932 (LH7{rl|r 32. mdenar.3trd !h 2-3 TtiE 1.!it' lrdury Tre pre smdioi of redheNork $A beserhercn.162 3&Fig 60) Thts n .f oi deporG in th€ do.ste opeotion .avarioi.fb.m ddioinms p reprEd\. shosingr ro liale beenE.onnnded Tlis is dded bv porery andjerons Fob:Lr! 10the $dl (r) a lery k4e group(4r7 resi*eied sboes and r2 pdtens) *A round aong dE enomous quatilesotrubbjsh \lnnh{ere used to rtill the dock b DreprnrionIor lne southwd - . atrd .ppeen0y deiroyed inthehte r3th.6 reenered shoes.ai o/ a@zr .h d Ltrdl{e. shen2 ro$ oIhouses *A btriLr onrop.Jorhation :boui de silesrhensetves is ?latablef rtreDLrrl rl{tid c'aial. hd lalqe qu.umeikd somes sr spes the llns *?s Drcbab|v bedreo 14. su.m.Lsedions{ere .d t 6 otd Bdilq/12-6 Lunsak Hi . lnreecoins lourretoA atrdseEnl pirsam s.ulenin sugge*$:r llh {m donc in rheb$ q!.rdo.. Ec1. . r]tkt ThdDcs shat Ec1.uLorny ersvded pedaPsA mucb * h:[ $e tokl r is tikelr thit very .The pai.i.Dd .l - The ex.onposedot soilNhnh .r ridss rheciiy dtr.ner ot thc l.ip.olercd an enonousaea over rm n {ide to ine sodh oi upper .. Ba$ srlhot.ry.!s.id main (c7) is sihtadysnauand@on! rev4menr praenrd 16 rerinered stra) In rhe ab sence oI d. The rootrlef de{ribed ti this volunc wA arl fouid ii lhe li.onuhed tev tedherobiedsor rhd th.4.k andrhe Dresei. pot. I1-urlon erposed seyer:t su.onmonl! knovnas Bamads caire .he drnps wee.to hyosroups (i) A sm:rL group or 4t reeieed shoes w3s round n dunpsdeposited d rheiine s..aor Evelients(cl cl5) nnging rrofrrhenrd 13rh Io thend lsth.eof ex.t.e ol thI or aiy olher royal srtrdure *€s round.inity orrhetlrh-.Brynrds&sde.mes stie-4 ovebscr&chefyrgft.sso. 1931Geebelos) $"s sub{anti:lly rtblih in the l5$ centu!-.

13J06o. Lsetul o kmN I rllt honqeneryon(jnrr\ Ptrtit ctb^nq 11r Lbrook nrouih nerrhenedle\iisrerirdui lubrt rlrrloll)ow*te.rs tdr q."iorrhrqlhorr("hblrre rhen Nse od l.t^ sttxj.1310 1. erorsed i Lrl! ro r:ra or been dded[r da'drodroiologv rder.d t. .e*.'td sho. g'pi!isiii*rl {. sr o|er{$ (jn Tlt [NdhsrnDsbyhrrhebe*preser-. Drorl iron lnrh'se (l2ii1 r..oiir 4enLnbn (rr Tli.rtfl t rr.oi.xdiei.oI.vrr.d.ho[eld ]9i3) Theonry6idsd$mbed iih s\oruncr.mdon .rordsoe (r0'tFi.Lg i rdrglL &.mnll! drhble objcds a iid.nt. Lrt.onsis6 ofru! lile 'tan. ..000 sq 0.t crnl l 6Jfiasfi r..agi!.onr.xeroup otrr(rtsl) hcdded br p.kd\ nny oD (i I70) brng tu i'.. LVpt rh.!jd.d L. lr )Theth. rcz J9r6(uLK i6rFig 165 5) r!dpil5rf3inNi^dn.ik.rtlr !^i 4?4 riry or ThoDA Be. Ltn{ tilttr 1h.) ?nd seremL dunp5 behind iherr[e.r.o\ekdin rLqge rheDddre or(he1{rhftntr[ (.r. s. dunD{ 1 ri) Ih.lt.me tom red. the*me depor 6?r$rfkii: forunaaxdked 'rn plilibr\ tr er!r rdre rrrloirr! lJ'he Fe.. r di! n!er b.Ed shos) rnd .edlis d'ns ? iob oi dmosrlrflrerr$.rrnr The shoes ds \r Lk sreernsen(Rosk1ms * s.rr re..]Qs re.o.d . Su.Dr\ l smrLl codrclled evrvdlo..iL06.rd jcrotrs:trd. F.

.nred relerme. nai dr.r 11\lniofund.n(Penoi v|) run 13fegrft.LL rerned drld..: I i.r {. ns5tssoggenedby the6ndDs..d iotrronhirt J uirennrfr ii(r rhe rlub ot ! Borotrih r^d r.iirtrs ytrr.d rrnr il.ordLy dd:blcb llr 6rn hiilrrfrheL3tb Eru4.rary. lur the nc d orosre$ so'.r[r: r'!.o.. ( rrt JitriL snir tr br tu lt.atr. b.r tite hPr reidm{hron..arroi ordnns 550so n shov. rbrd grotrli i:. buidiry ii x \rdetoded NE fiurbfltrlr freor trrr\ Th{.r !traj.nd L3rb.ri( n otHenq n {1130 9r rd b! tri.d lqli.!f.idthd..rior! llnrNnhi md se.Li'Tll|ie{gnlpl9FeijledJ].rrun6.r riit |h. ..f h. robl ot33 I sens ot tlrce 'tr.ia 1)r'he mon mponin brd:dr! rl rhemidrht. L{en r1rr9 Dde|]!.xh i ]rP rr Laise rrnr! $nh th.:r!\$fe\lnpl{a EC].\ dre uf.ed nr!\.o ii0s.L.nun. rb..r. t932.riod!nl !Di*5'fr smup krgm.e di! sf.D rhet vnr p.l2ihcPdrn (iirTha:etond (r..81C E\.d .$ I's+drDlhdrbree Inob{snlD dr ss.rr i^h (ou souF it Ti.rsr. dlk orlheroLLo$rg rcrerNd (q y J (rr Therhtd srcnp. Foblrrt! ddcsto .d dln!(r(d [e l2th.ertsif er i r2errtArrnotrif 1r$.

d.ome rromdepcns (croDps c11c2)$hich {er.oin of Heq.o!05 ot finds r.bn lne (Penqjs dcposirs x. lcl ?r7JlCLIS i3.rr &s 4!d of c.Ill issueorJohn 0223 a3).n pub lsbed $nh lreiouslyUons lgis) and iosdher non or the oth{ 6. xr) A ddeoi.dry $eft srnsld .(Penods lnh jl5.a cu$om lonse (Tdron BroNn r9.behiid them. x. sm:I dispeised beatH 14rh en.oii (120i 11j)A. nhrtQ/q.Iate.ro$ Fnns Flt a tfl.ompLered mdslEn0l!l]miled ro .r bcproposed rorrh! brjldjDs ol rhe revetn'en rseil . xJ.i s"! m .\.165.t dded by aM g. .hronoroF.4 rgit The sboes haF be.isienl .hmmlosy \iere re. 6ml gr. Ltu-1hd ^stt{t. Fjg.lry rimber .nry rlnh a relelme.bitioi du. sires r slighdylarer p.oi&hp. in (iv)1h.obably dde 1t thedeposibollcnodxl.ds.iard hili!ieletmenr ont! one or vri.onrndon rfter rhefomarerallioi hid been. 1210 .li rriere we 94 examples in rhe During subsequld {ork br buitdtn! res{ered shoesNhi.trp {16 rsi$ered shoen . dendrc.onsntent nth a.ov*ed $hen Nndq s?s ilieadr hr iinLe^ md thisseems.h . holger.€ tr.onnrudion f.!a.cvdneft a.id tor the pnmiry * devribed 'tr rhisvolu'ne(pp 93 100)..10) Dxftlation in 6frce.lhe lounddions ot rhe hr ]4th. cane rrom red.nps aso.

s .d.bnrirrod s rsendh.odiu' oli'dplilill pb. smrr inrounr ot er { ind no pros. orh{s maf li:fe (r5ii{Jt!Le:ssD(e Free. pi.objedr rorcd {. {. p 'lible:t) som.'i .i IL6n:Pne.i'le .in d dr.nnirn ( mide m(ed. s.r! bL.0fl) mcpsar.dllmt aos.APPE\DIXII Conser-vation Tmning hee ?rrof.ri some ii lli.omftendedh'ngi.lIiJL|tionolrre.r brg rrur\irh onLf .rin rr! di. r.ln{dtr5ndipo{r rLs. (.s lftrqDllkoi3]tr+i. ririir$ ad fic v Lhile b!s.c.elI'xdutnnybedailc.

tone or rl. re& r fl.1930idrsirg {A:ririli.e1933 rl'evuseun o{Loidon h6 Dhntrises ba. ..es.D re31) ThLis?ge repro. Trirtssho$.d ro \hie:pntr(RedorleTn ]..tr:idpLEd.ge rr0ro.d drr rhe dunos sollenr dnis rlabLe 22) li rhisrdhod theledh{s'iu.o iTi])le.tu.rodrarro' treez. 5h?0.h M! ind rrl'elbd llF !\iyrled !r {A :5 \hen buacd or \* enh{ $lollen or sltruikei s.ja\&!um.hc coisidertd nh.hl5ksrLt.ili nlirrtoud?!\Hssnaltbri too rqS0 freeTe-d ng rs ritrrAiryLv trld. dryLnq ndhod sin.ohol) {hi. the au$s i[e ne aomed 10subtime {dd n rtdorad 'iihoui goi.d 0lieiLbLe .. ltu rin 12lem lts h rrsopu6 njnjmrl nnitrotrdeLdr obirdi. 12) F{u.yiq rido^ ra8 !:rir ind finishes 1..khs dyes and iitrsr./0i 14.o10tr rid ile bm . hhAbeaiiisrDde^.h eiier d sunft rlDnrD (i.r slriir.lso i. methois shcr.rLh e.snG oI dni@ ii 1.! rDayid 1$rr n:6.ettuough a L([d phAe TheiiiliiLeoit.A sj\e dr(ere efieds ot bolh rt$Lr D a slde nige ofr0 0E mcLtrdLtrsbls& L'rher reated b! rtmoul orv&r itoie un { LLbe nth. usLfn manr rabon. nrcns ard noi rolo.rifsid lbrr':id rheieDx!ijn be ror{ ire.{ (Redor r97J) thev m:ke {udr rnd hrndhir ou. coisDiig The.|h]5 . rhd is.nA i.I) (L) sr. d4.r ev rd The m€dlods cbos.e: !fl! 'he5edlmensions asdGEl\ r oosibL.

1dftin{niIhplA'j|JdJrt scli.\:lh.r .:jjDh r" rrr.l]ii orLl ne nPij]h''iD]FjtD}dl.. r si ridDlnril ind rj.3l:q'{nD'!!rj L rqi' 12% rrsze Dred -rA*bm Dred .drr .

B. od f. zrd. Btn J&r Rtttu Ib. r9Sr iM. 1s40Mq1iful@d@ .Tr'js*.ar.t wtdt.it Mriorqi' d$ cAxoE|'w')614fu. htar. Loiddi cosc4 J. F s (d). a/dB b tQ dd alrq .'.2tu . sia Die Pon'if.z'ad"ia tucra d. w. 1em EahdtNroltebh aed ztyd.E 8t. ii J A rric Bry.hd6. 1969-30 EwtiMldNrnea' xi4\I. 6! scm B!. n2-r6 E8$LD...6 @ ta. J. M P. 197033 I/e.t 196sfuboei4ibnMifuHb. l 3 a ?M d n v t r e l h w t u d t u t : ctutqwolth.fu. le31 I enriturol (d6eRD. Tdroi Btuw Frceadqi4|e4l'ddtb l. R.Bibliography BrAir.. k aMn B^ca.Eat.BatuMd.wM-fu.dsdei !!d Mi@o.l. d ar.tu.ru&ud Abbitusen. J. J. 3r.3 ena. reh Med ha$.. M. Md.q. qlLtuaMt yr6 ktu cdidr'n MeM N. & Cflmrs.2 s.J.se? tu' a /&t 3 J@ms. cu6bD. i1h'hNbtu t!'.cLGd).+rstu.dtM cMs L6 h tu Mw cMiittu. tuitud csr+oN.1919 M. . .Rijktitutuhd atudtlodb boc.1 cfu^.gJ cMN. & MA]rrEm.saa.1s t'4dtt @d. Kftri4nlh{|cje|uit rrjdderbua. Mtw @tu. Irfbr r^Ybr. 1399 Dtr Pameibser a cskrs. 1937 '. re12 Et .rD(d). Etrbickl. cmNd. Een ddreidludg draet in deAh4 h Middtb4 ir.I l.!rry..1.6!e.q der scrur.mdeh 9500Jaini. DF NrDrcdb. rsdt Lit kwtid EEM BMs.r.bE4M:d'. drneG in2 ..4M Mtu4.dr r9$) Ddsbad$ Hrifl. 1a ud sdr*nq .1o. 11.rs7r l. rB4 reLry.2 eit' roNB. J. H./8. 1^d6 BRR'S. M. D63 cddrzu ol d:F . r97 Owdng. F M.1922 atE. A tu@ olLo'dd hrr^M' R. i.M@MieR|ibifl:b|l steiatt Et4ttu.rMla6. le76 .3 E!@ n E*bnN N.d di. M (€o.2eL3a tdr7tutu.

i|tfuh ]r'd\'ah'Pl|. : d^ ke! J R Prirr.|r|1|d11.4 \vrtu\ zyr - . J. !tu Diolq &J 1B{!ir \ik sr*r r. Eti4bh lt fqr qtu nlttar: 4 u\r . cilt li tet fb uDd r&:.r cqlt).i'Kw.116 I Rtrs{"..I s!ts.1i Etoi srh.6tn$ Ith.ut lt coeai. I !.rrr' J !fi sa Nli t h (.^ n r.414441| rdk i^r(d/.rhl.n.'|.&rhr|6'l E\a!^a.ttnr ..|1! r' ri 5h{r u . rttuh rtdt{ru zaltrrd ^tilr4. J r*e Jisr I xr J. sra$ q/l.lF3l.dra4.)4Lsn.phR1fu.r ruu r: !r5 r3r! $! sri.dBll|'.||. rs.4ri hbl:l||t4jtrL|ll!\i'jn.}'Il4{'i@4'.

Sho*a vNcE.ntorc.Ac'1$5ThesqsamdjedFe'of naw.dryke En'tih4bt d|g. & OaR.hniqa b tu|bgtd tdt*tu' wB@r. D.d a979)rl k.l. Lo'doi . J. Pattt s Bnb!' s ed.1w te. L E. rsB idild Y^R{000. r97S tdnt.

..s. d|rns{ rn.n.. Jidolf.nld. r50 L: pLlprli eirr. rir L$ dii.llJfl'ogii.i.r.rrirtdlirr rr.s nrLlr de . r{ ^ I oranr\. rrnF.r rofl ur a lar r.rs rmr.nitnsrr .ien.e ce.: p daN.so]!Ltrrj].niita:d.Summaries R6sumE 5.t d.ii. q! trnarnr .: Nu ! cr rr.

lrnanen und Riehmeneidei.Z.s ct brsbriqres do tes utunmrions.pite.uh poinhsa h 6ndc dh6orogiqu.hiedeied Aned Bkher w kein verglenhbuesNiai Schuhe in GroBblihnniei lorhanden(T?iel l) Der se$mte Zeihum ht mbnelt n sebenPhapnm. breite Eidfihdis ii die le6.nedlons Toures reschisarsd€.s.?r An:Enb{uu. und Lb.come pa exemple das tc os de h node desb. demMoos.S.nde €.o!e$.hausurcs senbl. satr shh fli den we $ofien auseinander: dem l-ed{. Ilaa-u.r. die zur Ledgesimutrg a Nordde der Th lultdlchte. rn rrdhen 15.h beinahe1500 Schub. zusammeluassung {uden kiir[.keElen Lo.tiv kreinen Auzm vonshdr I mdriten K:pneL Ur^rrlrir.homente trndCcrienngetr gezetl. F{eirs uiserahr5oJrven nr diediejeveilisen Modetederren bes.1 e\t\ e tmls dae eig datiene.huhe zus der Zen von ungeEltr 1100 1450 leluiden Die freisten hgei io schichtn.on.hrieben itrden. Parfoh. u.D londmiemee{ $s d:t coi*irue ue des prus impotunre\ . s. que des modesd-A .nre.d.riresdz. roi Fd fri.omlu nsdtrdedier. ptus sur h .{dsetomrlioseie L4enq hd die Funderu$*oidenfu.uebl dfl s.h.belei d* Re* DN u{eite xapltel.!. Dieambe*en erh:uenen Beispiele sind ihre Gruppeabgebildd.huh mt einer zusmme4esetlei Lede(ohh .ontinentet cn crudc Biebsne. dem .hnimJen.ti..bbs Jarrteniftp?Ddues da: lrmope dtriofd.n. neueAn S.s illu$fttions de mmu{nG m.qrl d ped mnprd o e qui coicemeres.hausures mddiivres.La mle.rilrtu.Jatuhunded vude eine gai.odent ms t.i drespeuven( itre eEmies sf dem.Jdlhhdeds *lrden s.t!r&tu'. Konshktionsmelhoden unddie Haupden dd N:il e siid nii debllli wddei sii. Crl$yuid.rrr.huheii Nla*trprodu]|oi untervaN-enduns eiief rel. dajlin r 2 J. nird gerej31.evolune sod aunus6edeLondres.. ci Ln T.. weitr r{odakmei..plus Uredes importates.um Au$t?f6eren. Seitder Mtte de31. . ie sdd Fs roujouG unpide sr t.h pl D* e6t Kapilel.iditiv x. rrl s.

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