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Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Historical Background

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Historical Background

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Published by: Srikar Chandra on Oct 10, 2013
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Adapted from

The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Lesson in Perspective
Created by: MaryLynne Fillmon and

A Historical Perspective on the Arab-Israeli Conflict and Peace Process
The Institute for Curriculum Services: National Resource Center for Accurate Jewish Content in Schools

Historical Background Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
 Zionist: Supporter of a homeland for the Jews in the area of Palestine. Movement began late 1800’s.  Many Jews began to immigrate to Palestine in the late 1800’s.  Pre-WWI: Area of Palestine under Ottoman Empire  After WWI: Area of Palestine under control of British (British Mandate) until it became independent  Balfour Declaration: 1917: Britain supports idea of a Jewish homeland w/ rights of non-Jews protected
4/24/2010 2

Historical Background Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Israelis Palestinians • Ancestors lived in area • Ancestors have been nearly 2000 years ago living in area nearly 2000 years • Jerusalem home to 3rd most important Muslim site-Dome of the Rock/Al-Aqsa Mosque • Jerusalem home to most important Jewish site—Western Wall 4/24/2010 3 .

2 million Arabs living in area • 600.8 million • 1.UN Plan for Palestine (1947) • • • • • • • • • Partition (separate) the area into 2 countries Israel (Jewish State) and Palestine (Arab State) 55% of land goes to the Jews 45% of land goes to the Arabs Total Population: 1.00 Jews living in area Jerusalem:―international city‖ controlled by UN Accepted by Jews Rejected by Arabs No Arab on committee 4/24/2010 4 .

750.000 Jews in Arab countries also fled or were forced to leave for Israel • Israel After War: Jordan controls West Bank and Egypt controls Gaza Strip • Israel takes much of Palestine and West Jerusalem— East Jerusalem. 1948: Israel attacked by six Arab nations • Approx.000 Palestinians fled or were forced to leave • Over approx. 800.• May 14. including many religious sites taken by Jordan.1948: Israel is officially formed • May 15. who denied Israelis access 4/24/2010 5 1948 War .

Perspectives on Partition and 1948 War Israelis Palestinians  Creates state of Israel  War of Independence • They had no input •Nabka: ―Catastrophe‖  Holocaust and other periods •Land set aside for Palestinians of violence against Jews now under control of Arab throughout the past centuries countries or Israel might not have happened if there was a Jewish Homeland 4/24/2010 6 .

• Israel attacks Egypt with later reinforcements from France and the United Kingdom • Ceasefire agreement and withdrawal of Israeli troops • United Nations Peacekeepers sent to maintain peace in the area 4/24/2010 7 .1956 Suez Canal Crisis • Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal in 1956 and closed the Straits of Tiran to Israel. which blocked Israeli access to the Red Sea.

Jordan • Takes control of West Bank and East Jerusalem (from Jordan) • Control of Sinai and the Gaza Strip (from Egypt) • Control of Golan Heights (from Syria) 4/24/2010 8 . 1967 – Also attacks Syria. Jordan – Within six days Israel defeats Egypt.1967 War • Israel believes neighbors are preparing for war – Egypt requests withdrawal of UN in May 1967 and denies Israel access to the Red Sea by closing Straits of Tiran – Jordan and Egypt sign mutual defense agreement – Continued terrorist attacks from Syria’s Golan Heights region • Israeli surprise attack against Egypt on June 5. Syria.

9 4/24/2010 .Perspectives on and Aftermath of 1967 War Israelis •Land gained is a buffer zone to deter future attacks •Begin to build settlements in West Bank. Gaza Strip and Golan Heights •Unified Jerusalem under Israeli control Palestinians • West Bank and Gaza Strip become known as ―Occupied Territories‖ •Some will accept Israel at pre1967 War borders •Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) later begins to use terrorism to attract attention to its cause of an independent state.

the war reinforced the need for buffer zones gained in 1967 •After the war. Israel retained the territories captured in 1967 (West Bank. Egypt became the first Arab country to recognize Israel and entered into a peace treaty 4/24/2010 10 . in 1979. but Israel pushed back the attack • For many Israelis. Gaza. Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. 1973 • On Yom Kippur in 1973.The Yom Kippur War. Golan Heights) but gave back land gained in the 1973 war • Eventually.

The Camp David Accords • 1977: Egypt (led by Anwar Sadat) engages Israel in peace efforts • 1978: Camp David Accords – U.S. President Carter invites Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin to Camp David – Egypt recognizes Israel as a country – Israel gives Sinai peninsula back to Egypt – First agreement between Israel and an Arab nation 4/24/2010 11 .

4/24/2010 12 .Perspectives on Camp David Accords Israelis Palestinians • Shows that the country is willing to trade land it has conquered for peace • Egypt recognizes that Israel is a country and exists • Sadat assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists • Jordan signs peace agreement with Israel in 1994.

– Includes Palestinian demonstrations. some a result of Palestinian in-fighting 4/24/2010 13 .The Intifada • Palestinian uprising or Intifada against Israeli occupation. • Israeli military response • Over approx. strikes. rock throwing and gasoline bombs. 1500 Palestinians killed. and to demand independence that begins in 1987. 400 Israelis killed • Over approx. living conditions. boycotts.

– Arafat and Rabin received the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts • In 1994. the United States. 1993 • In the 1990’s several advances towards peace were made with several meetings taking place in places such as Egypt. Spain.Oslo Accords. and Norway. Israel and Jordan signed a peace agreement • Rabin assassinated by Jewish extremist in November of 1995 4/24/2010 14 . – 1993 Oslo Accords: Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat and Israel’s Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met to begin to work out a peace deal that included each side recognizing the right of the other to exist.

President Clinton. and Palestinian President Yasser Arafat met at Camp David to negotiate a final peace agreement •Prime Minister Barak agreed to pull out from the majority of the West Bank but President Arafat refused •The two sides were not able to bridge their differences to reach an agreement •Though the negotiations were conducted secretly. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak. some say that President Arafat refused to compromise and made no proposals 4/24/2010 15 .The Camp David Summit • In 2000.

fast food restaurants. Israeli political figure Ariel Sharon visits Temple Mount (Western Wall area and Al Aqsa Mosque area) in Jerusalem • Palestinian violence erupts beginning the Second Intifada • Buses. peace process has faded. discos.• By 2000. hotels. Israel begins building a security barrier in the West Bank. • In 2000. to protect Israelis from terrorists 4/24/2010 16 Second Intifada . etc in Israel blown up by Palestinian suicide bombers • Israel responds militarily • From 2000-June 2008 •Over 4500 Palestinians killed •Over 1000 Israelis killed • In 2002.

it calls for Israel to return to its pre-1967 territories.three phases to attain an independent Palestinian state and secure Israel .S.. Russia.has never progressed due to the 2006 Hamas election 4/24/2010 17 .Peace Proposals • In 2002. endorsed by all members of the Arab league . recognition of Palestine with East Jerusalem as its capital. and UN . the prince of Saudi Arabia proposed the Arab Pease Initiative. EU. and a solution for Palestinian refugees •Road Map for Peace is proposed in 2003 by the U.

coastline) • Gaza later comes under the control of Hamas. airspace. 4/24/2010 18 . a group considered by Israel and other countries to be a terrorist organization.The Gaza Strip • In 2005. Hamas and Israel have entered into a cease fire agreement. • As of June 2008. Israel removed its settlements from the Gaza Strip and gave much control of the area to the Palestinian government (with exceptions such as the border.

Current State of Affairs • With the election of a majority of Hamas to the Palestinian Authority (PA) legislature in 2006. Hamas is internationally recognized as a terrorist organization. thus many countries have imposed sanctions and suspended aid to the PA. violence and tension erupted once again. 4/24/2010 19 . and their platform calling for the destruction of Israel. Hamas controls Gaza and the PA controls the West Bank. Suicide bombings through the use of human shields (including women and children) continues to kill Israelis. the PA president dissolved Hamas. •The rise of the radical organization Hezbollah has further increased violence and instigated the 2006 Lebanon War. Now. • After Hamas attacked PLO Fatah members. • President Obama continues to try to facilitate negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

terrorism. But the following issues remain: •Jerusalem •Settlements •Security (including barriers.Current Issue : Is Resolution Possible? Palestinian and Israeli leaders backed by US and other countries are working towards the existence of Israel and of Palestine. checkpoints) •Refugees and Right of Return •Two States or One/Borders 4/24/2010 20 .

etc. Refugees & the Right of Return Two States or One/borders If Palestinians living in Arab nations or in the Occupied Territories return to Israel to reclaim land. Security Barriers. therefore. Palestinians believe they should be able to return to their or their families land in Israel and receive reimbursement for expenses incurred as refugees. Palestinians should be granted all of the West Bank and Gaza independently and as a separate state. 270. Israelis see this as needed security to prevent terrorism. Movement. Israeli settlements go against the idea of a future Palestinian state. Palestinian government denounced terrorism. political. Palestinians need permission to leave West Bank.000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank Israel is building a barrier between it and the West Bank. and security reasons a large number of Israeli settlements exist in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. health care. education. Israelis do not want to give up Jerusalem to Palestinian Authority. contributing to standard of living in West Bank being significantly less than that of Israel. Terrorist organizations like Hamas (which controls the Gaza Strip) and Hezbollah (based in Lebanon and who was at war with Israel in the summer of 2006) continue to fire rockets into Israel. and that Israelis settled there should leave. Many Israelis do not recognize Palestinians as a people separate from Arabs. Israel sees this as a way to prevent further suicide bombings. it can mean the end of Israel as a Jewish state. Can’t stereotype all Palestinians as terrorists as the majority are not terrorists. Individuals also continue to commit other acts of terror. 4/24/2010 21 . they are not entitled to their own state. As refugees.Challenges to Resolution Issue Jerusalem Israelis See united Jerusalem as its capitol Palestinians See East Jerusalem as its capitol Settlements For religious. and Terrorism The barrier goes beyond the border between the West Bank and Israel: the barrier route is 449 miles. while the ―Green Line‖—the ―border‖ between the West Bank and Israel is 199 miles The restriction on movement limits jobs.

79 billion2 $2.400 $58.6% West Bank $12.8 billion $1.900 $30. Health is measured by life expectancy at birth. and Annual Budget figures for the Gaza Strip.Economic Comparative Analysis Statistic GDP Per Capita Annual Budget (expenditures) Annual Budget (revenue) Human Development Index3 Unemployment Rate Population below the Poverty Line 1 The Israel $194 billion $28. knowledge.6 billion $45 billion 27 out of 182 7. The Fact Book does not report independent GDP.4% 23. 2 The West Bank experienced a revival in its economy in 2009 due to a lifting of some restrictions by the Israeli government and an increase in aid donations. Per Capita. The HDI – human development index – is a summary composite index that measures a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health. and a decent standard of living.undp.63 billion Gaza Strip 1 See West Bank figures See West Bank figures See West Bank figures 110 out of 182 (Palestinian Territories) 19% 46% 40% 70% CIA Fact Book lists the West Bank and Gaza Strip settlements separately as part of the Palestine Authority due to PA and Hamas control.org/en/statistics/ 2009 CIA World Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ 4/24/2010 22 . and standard of living by GDP per capita (PPP US$). 3 Sources: United Nations 2009 Human Development Index (HDI): http://hdr. secondary. knowledge is measured by a combination of the adult literacy rate and the combined primary. and tertiary gross enrolment ratio.

2010 World Bank GDP Israel & Palestine Territories World Bank Indicators: http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators?cid=GPD_WDI 4/24/2010 23 .

gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ World Bank Indicators: http://data. http://www.cia.edu/outreach/files/Sec.org.arizona. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Lesson in Perspective: 2008. www.%20Lesson%20-%20%20Israeli-Palestinian%20Conflict%20%20Perspective/The%20Israeli-Palestinian%20Conflict%20A%20Lesson%20in%20Perspective.ppt United Nations 2009 Human Development Index (HDI): http://hdr.org/en/statistics/ 2009 CIA World Fact Book: https://www.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators?cid=GPD_WDI A Historical Perspective on the Arab-Israeli Conflict and Peace Process: A Curriculum for Modern World History Teachers.undp.cmes.icsresources. 4/24/2010 24 .Works Cited MaryLynne Fillmon. Institute for Curriculum Services.

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