MEE 09: 17
MASTER THESIS REPORT MSc IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING WITH EMPHASIS ON TELECOMMUNICATION
TRASMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN MANET
BLEKINGE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MARCH 2009
Author: Muhammad Ijaz firstname.lastname@example.org
Supervisor & Examiner: Adrian Popescu email@example.com
In the name of greatest All mighty ALLAH who has always bless me with potential knowledge and success.
I am thankful to my supervisor Adrain Popescu, my friends who help me during my hard times when I need their assistance during simulation.
I am especially thankful to my Parents, Uncles and Grandmother, who had always provided me the courage, strength, best wishes, moral and financial support during my whole career.
I also have best regards for BTH faculty including Mikeal Åsman and Lena Magnusson who had been helpful throughout my maters degree.
Mobile Ad hoc network routing protocols have been divided in several different categories such as Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocol. The performances of these categories are evaluated in different scenario with TCP variants. We present a comprehensive TCP performance evaluation study to understand the nature of the TCP performance in different scenarios with variable amount of payload and number of nodes. The traffic consists of three different packet sizes i.e. 512, 1000, 1500 bytes each. Three different routing protocols (AODV, DSR and TORA) are to be evaluated with three different TCP variants (Tahoe, Reno and New Reno) in three different scenarios having 3, 5 and 8 nodes. The performances parameters on the basis of which routing protocols are to be graded are mainly throughput, congestion window and delay. Conclusions are drawn based on the simulation results and the comparisons between them have been elaborated.
LIST OF OBSERVATIONS
ABR ACK ALP AODV BER CLR CWND DAG DREAM DSDV DSN DSR FORP FSR GLS GPS GPSR GSR IEEE IP LAN LANMAR LAR LMR LRR MANET MAC MDSR MSS OLSR OPNET PHY RABR Associativity -Based Routing Acknowledgement Adaptive Link-State Protocol Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Bit Error Rate Clear Congestion Window Directed Acyclic Graph Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility Destination Sequence Distance Vector Distance Sequence numbers Dynamic Source Routing Flow Oriented Routing Protocol Fisheye State Routing Grid Location Service Global Positioning System Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Global State Routing Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers Internet Protocol Local Area Network Landmark Ad Hoc Routing Location-Aided Routing Lightweight Mobile Routing Least Resistance Routing Mobile Ad hoc Network Medium Access Control Multipath Dynamic Source Routing Maximum Segment Size Optimized Link State Routing Optimized Network Evaluation Tool Physical Layer Route-Lifetime Assessment Based Routing
RERRs RIP QRY RREQs RREP RTO RDMAR ROAM RWND SSA STAR SWND TCP TORA TTL UDP WRP ZHLS
Route Errors Routing Internet Protocol Query Route Requests Route Reply Retransmission Time Out Relative Distance Micro-discovery Ad Hoc Routing Routing On demand Acyclic Multipath Advertize Window Signal Stability-Based Adaptive Source Tree Adaptive Routing Send Window Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm Time-To-Live User Datagram Protocol Wireless Routing Protocol Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State
4 Figure 4.3 DESCRIPTION Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Three Nodes Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Five Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Eight Nodes PAGE 35 36 37
.7 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Table 5.1 Figure 5.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.6 Figure 5.1 Table 5.5 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE Figure 2.3 Figure 5.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 3.8 DESCRIPTION Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance Mechanism Hidden and Exposed Node Terminal Problem Route discovery for target node Maintenance for Error Route Route Discoveries in TORA – QRY Message Route Discoveries in TORA – Update Message Research Methodology Simulation Model MANET eight node scenarios Simulation Flow
Throughput comparison in three nodes scenario Throughput comparison in five nodes scenario Throughput comparison in eight nodes scenario Delay Comparisons in Different Scenario Congestion Window dynamics
PAGE 15 18 23 24 26 26 30 32 33 34 36 37 38 39 40
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE Table 5.
Background Aims/ Objectives Research Questions Thesis Structure Expected Contribution
11 11 11 11 11
TCP and Ad hoc Networks
Types of Wireless Networks Infrastructure Networks Ad hoc Networks TCP working mechanism and Variants of TCP Working Mechanism of TCP Various Flavor of TCP Tahoe Reno New Reno Challenges and Limitation of TCP in Wireless Network Dynamic Topology/Mobility Multi Hopping Differentiating Transmission and Congestion Losses High Bit Errors Channel Contention Hidden and exposed terminal problem Out of Order Packet
13 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 19
Ad hoc Network Routing Protocols
Proactive routing protocols Reactive routing protocols Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Temporarily Order Routing Algorithm (TORA)
22 22 23 24 25
Research Methodology Author Approach Research Design Problem Selection / Identification Literature Review for TCP and MANET Building Simulation Environment Simulation Results Simulation Tools
29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30
.1 2.1 2.3.2 2.2 188.8.131.52 4.1 184.108.40.206 CHAPTER 2 2.6 220.127.116.11.2.2 3.3.1 4.3.5 2.1 2.3 CHAPTER 4 4.1.3 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.2.4 1.2 2.1 1.7 CHAPTER 3 3.4 2.3.2 2.LIST OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 1.2 18.104.22.168 3.3.1 3.2 2.3 1.2 4.3 22.214.171.124 1.2.4 4.2.2 4.2.1 2.3.
126.96.36.199 5.5 188.8.131.52
Simulation and Empirical Study
Simulation Environment Model OPNET Network Entities and Functions Application Definition Profile Configuration Mobility Configuration Server Mobile Nodes Simulation Configuration Simulation Flow Scenarios
32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34
Conclusions Future Work
.1 5.4 CHAPTER 6 6.4 5.1.2 5.2 184.108.40.206.3.3 5.3 5.1 6.1.1 5.1.1 5.2 5.CHAPTER 5 5.1.
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
DSR and TORA protocols in focus. Reno and New Reno explicitly using AODV. industrial and military growth and realistic practical approach for internet access. To measure the performance of different TCP variants. TCP is reliable and connection oriented protocol developed in 1981. TCP has poor performance in MANTE due to dynamic topology. during the early stages congestion collapses occurred because of lack of congestion control mechanism. While in addition to these three algorithms. particularly Tahoe. TCP Tahoe congestion Control includes slow start. With the advent of Jacobson congestion algorithms for TCP as a remedy. data exchange based on mobility networks for commercial purpose i. channel connotation and multi hop architecture. the need to implement TCP is of great important but it faces many problems especially in an ad hoc networks.1. congestion avoidance and fast retransmission. TCP is updated to its new version known as TCP Tahoe. Overall internet traffic is somehow dependent upon underlying networks and vice versa. reliable and robust data transmissions. To cope with multiple simultaneous data networks internet requires and efficient algorithmic techniques to support data transmission successfully. business organization or it could be better utilized during emergency within and out of remote areas. Pledged data delivery is TCP utmost drawback in wireless networks but possible solutions are available to recognize the data transmission effects. shared medium. ad hoc networks are growing dynamically and its true development fact lies in the problems associated with the seamless internet access and connectivity. This IP based dynamic wireless networks works effectively. Communication devices and medium have significant impact on overall internet. Now currently TCP Reno is widely used in Internet. It’s based on simple sliding window flow control. As an evident. Problems are associated with in the MANET performance. TCP Reno also adds the fast recovery algorithm. Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a famous ad hoc network can be utilized well for emergency situation and military applications. but with the technology emerging towards wireless medium.e. An important aspect form  defines the data flow method that applications are responsible for the selection of the protocols and IP plays a central role all TCP and user datagram protocol (UDP) for data transmission. With evolution in the hardware devices and software that offers wireless access to the internet by means of an intermediate connection through access point ad hoc tends to improve and increase gradually. simulation study has been conducted in practice. an evaluation and optimization techniques are necessary to opt and adhere for the better execution of the transmission medium. Most important things to know about the technology is the ability of autonomously establishing and managing the network  while the an effective military consensus applications.1
Internet evolution thrives with time and development in the diverse technology improvements. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) has been very effective in data transmission delivery and have also developed variants to possess the possibility to increase performance and multiple packet loss recovery.
. high error ratio. Mobile ad hoc network is sub field with enormous commercial. TCP is design for wired network. Numerous networks mixtures are present at the internet and even within these networks different preposition and parametric approaches for implementations are deployed subject organization needs.e. MANET utilizes TCP and UDP for data transmission and our study focus on different variants of the TCP i.
Chapter 5 contains simulation environment description. It focuses following issues in the thesis: Detail literature study for “state of the art” technology in TCP and MANET. simulation and results hierarchy. their types. it also include the detail study about the TCP flavors and its limitations. Chapter 3 is associated with the study of MANET routing protocols specific to ad hoc networks.3
Q1: Q2: Q3: Q4:
What are different TCP variants and its need? What are important routing protocols used in MANET? What is the impact on TCP performance during different protocol selection/ implementation in MANET? Which factors influence the TCP performance and why?
. Suggest better protocol and TCP variant for MANET. Performance comparison between the different protocols used in MANET through congestion window.5
The thesis will address the scientific society about the TCP and MANET implementations in reality. Performance comparison in delay and throughput by increasing number of nodes. It will contribute through using multiple different numbers of nodes to describe the behavior of the TCP performance over different variants.4
Chapter 2 defines wireless networks and an extension to ad hoc networks and its working.
Thesis aims to understand the performance of the TCP variants in MANET and its behavior with respect to different protocols. working and algorithms.
1. delay and throughput. it should reveal the idea to developing commercial and non commercial business project for MANET deployments and the results in reality should have utmost significance.1. list of figures and assumptions. Chapter 6 holds the brief discussion about the simulation results and future work. implementation. Chapter 4 depicts the overall project flow explicitly starting form problem definition and following it towards solution.
Chapter 2 TCP AND AD HOC NETWORKS
1. is one of the important elements in such types of networks.e. One of the good features of such networks is the flexibility and can be deployed very easily. Wireless nodes connect through the fixed point known as base station or access point. or access point. Therefore one can say that ad hoc networks basically have two forms. The nodes are free to join or left the network without any restriction. Types of Wireless Networks One of the unique features of wireless networks is compare to wire network is that data is transmitted from one point to another through wireless links i. All of the wireless connections must pass from the base station.1. The base station. Thus it is suitable for the emergency situation. In most cases the access point or base station or connected to the main network through wired link. Infrastructure Networks Infrastructure network have fixed network topology. Then before to discuss the different challenges transmission control protocol (TCP) is facing in wireless networks.1. Whenever a node is in the range of several base stations then it connect to any one of them on the bases of some criteria . From the introduction of new technologies such as IEEE 802. Ad hoc Networks Ad hoc networks also called infrastructure less networks are complex distributed systems consist of wireless links between the nodes and each node also works as a router to forwards the data on behalf of other nodes. Wireless networks or divided into two categories. They just need to be in the transmission range of each other.11 the commercial implementation of ad hoc network becomes possible .2. 2. one is static ad hoc networks (SANET) and the other one is called mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). it is better to give a look to the TCP working mechanism and its different variants. In ad hoc networks the nodes can be stationary or mobile. Each node is responsible to handle its operation
. But on the other side it is also very difficult to handle the operation of ad hoc networks. there is no need of wired link between the two nodes for transmission. Infrastructure wireless network and infrastructure less or ad hoc wireless network. 2. Thus the networks have no permanent infrastructure.1.In this chapter first to discuss the taxonomy of wireless networks such is infrastructure networks and ad hoc networks or infrastructure-less networks. 2.
In case if there are two or more TCP connection between the end points for this TCP uses the port assignment mechanism to differentiate each connection from others. Receiving data from the sender the receiver ACK the reception of data to the sender. from this the sender conclude that all the data segments which have sequence number less than the indicated one are delivered correctly. While in case of packet loss. Now the size of the flight window or send window is set to the minimum of the congestion window and advertize window.2 TCP working mechanism and Variants of TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)  is a Transport Layer Protocol and originally designed for wired network in 1981. In coming sections we are discussing the TCP working mechanism and challenges for TCP in ad hoc networks in more detail.independently. the receiver is actually indicating the sequence number of next expected data segment in ACK. It is equal to the available buffer size on the receiver. The data is transmitted in the form of continuous stream of octets. 2. Then the receiver sends a duplicate
. When a connection is established the initial size of congestion window is set to One MSS (Maximum Segment Size). Basically the congestion control mechanism has two phases the slow start and congestion avoidance phase. TCP performances are also very poor in mobile ad hoc network. The basic responsibility of TCP is to provide reliable transfer of data between the nodes i. whose construction is a complex task. out-of-order packets arrive at the receiver. to ensure that the data is reached the destination correctly without any loss or damage. Topology changes are very frequent and thus there will be need of an efficient routing protocol.1 Working Mechanism of TCP The congestion control algorithm employed by TCP is window based. Congestion windows shows the total amount of data the sender is allowed to output to the network without any Acknowledgement (ACK). Another aspect of TCP is the tree way handshakes mechanism to establish a connection between the end points (nodes).2. It uses three types of windows called congestion window (cwnd). While on the other hand the advertise window indicates the amount of data the receiver is ready to accept. The mechanism is adopted to assign a sequence number to each octet of data and receiver respond with positive acknowledgement to ensure that the data is received correctly.e. 2. advertize window (rwnd) and send window (swnd).
1.2. So after observing the congestion collapses 1988 Jacobson introduced several Congestion Control algorithms  and this version is called TCP-Tahoe. Reno. 2. This whole process is depicted in Fig.1. here we are discussing the most famous implementation of TCP called Tahoe. 2.ACK to the sender in response of each out-of-order packet arrival.2. In slow start phase exponential incrimination occurs until it reaches to the slow start threshold. Various Flavor of TCP After the introduction of first version of TCP several different flavors exist. it is concluded that the packet is lost and retransmission of data packet take place. This window growth is limited to a maximum window size. While in congestion avoidance phase the cwnd is incremented by one packet. The congestion control algorithms introduced in this version are:
.2. 2. Tahoe In the first version of TCP there was no congestion control mechanism. When sender receives three duplicates ACK.2.1 Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance Mechanism  If sender receives non-duplicate ACK Then the congestion window is incremented. New Reno and Vegas.
Slow Start threshold Time out Occured
Slow Start threshold
24 22 20 18
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Number of Acknowledgement Slow Start Congestion Avoidance Phase
All these factors are responsible to create different types of challenges that restrict the range. so that Fast Recovery dictates the sender to perform congestion avoidance directly after fast retransmission rather than immediately reducing the data flow using slow start mechanism.3. Reno The fast retransmit phase was first introduced in TCP-Tahoe followed by Slow Start. New Reno TCP Reno recovers only one lost packet during the recovery process.2.2. These challenges are as follow.3. share medium and signal fading. 2. Then two types of problem occurrence are possible .1.2. This affect will be more serious in high
. in wireless ad hoc networks the devices are free to move which leads to frequent topology changes. (a) Path loss (b) Network Partition Path loss leads to the path re-computation at sender side and during this phase there will be no transmission which ultimately causes throughput degradation. Challenges and Limitation of TCP in Wireless Network As compare to wired network wireless network have some special characteristic such as Mobility. Dynamic Topology/Mobility In contrast to wired network. Thus there will be data retransmission. data rate and reliability of the wireless transmission. 2. Another possibility during this phase is that if path re-computation take more time then may be retransmission time out (RTO) occurs.2.3. RTO is increased exponentially and TCP enter to slow start phase.a) Slow start b) Congestion Avoidance c) Fast Retransmit 2.2. So TCP-New Reno  is just adding the capability to TCP Reno to deals with multiple packets losses to recovery in a single transmission window. 2. But TCP-Reno  also added the algorithm of Fast Recovery.
Thus leads to nonoptimal performance .3. which leads to low throughput and low utilization of available bandwidth.
2. 2.3.4 High Bit Errors In wired network the Bit Error Rate (BER) is ranging from 10-6 to 10-8. due to these blockages the transmission signals are reflected.Differentiating Transmission and Congestion Losses Since wireless network have open medium. when the number of try for channel access exceeds the predefined limit. in since of hops. So TCP has no such mechanism to differentiate between congestion losses and transmission losses. Multi-hoping
In Ad hoc Network Environment every node is also supporting the responsibility of router to forwards packets on behalf of other nodes.3. diffracted and scattered and thus causes packets loss. having longer round trip time and higher packet dropping probability and high fluctuating end-to-end throughput as compare to flow having small number of hops. In such situation multiple consecutive transmission of the same segment are possible. 2. signal passing through the medium they have to face different blockage such as building.3. then cause to drop the packets and the Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol notifies (wrongly) the upper layer that the path is
. In case of network partition the sender and receiver remains at different network and all the packets will be dropped. It can occur between different flows passing through the same vicinity or between different packets in the same flow. Since due to high BER the packet losses are very frequent and TCP reaction to these losses reduces the congestion window. while in wireless network this range is from 10-3 to 10-1.
2.2.5 Channel Contention
Another reason of TCP performance degradation is the channel contention due to increasing number of nodes. In IEEE802.3. while the receiver will be disconnected and it is called serial time out. Thus longer flow.11. TCP assume that this loss is occurred due to congestion and it activate its congestion control and result in congestion window reduction.mobility environment.
unavailable.2 representing the hidden and exposed terminal problem of IEEE 802. If there is no equal access to the medium for each node then the unfairness occurs between the flows passing from different nodes. because A and B do not know about the transmission of each other due to hidden node problem. The circles show the transmission range of A and B.6 Hidden and exposed terminal problem
Due to the share medium and multi hoping capability the nodes facing the hidden and exposed node problem.2: Hidden and Exposed Node Terminal Problem
Now let that there is a transmission between C and B.11 standard. In response the upper layer starts the route recovery procedure  and TCP stop its transmission and the throughput drop to zero during route recovery process. but when A senses the medium.11 standard and known as exposed terminal problem. so there will be collision at C. This problem exist in IEEE802. Fig: 2.
2. This unfairness also happens among the flows passing from the same path. This channel contention also leads to unfairness problem. where C is in the transmission range of both A and B.
. while at the same time A wants to transmit data to D.
Figure 2. it find that the medium is busy due to C transmission and thus A stops its transmission.3. Actually in this situation A transmission for D will not going to collide with C transmission. Let A and B both want to transmit data to C. The unfairness also occurs between the nodes so that each node has or not the equal access to the medium as compare to other node.
7 Out of Order Packet
When a receiver receives out of order packets. after receiving three duplicate ACK the sender retransmit the packets and congestion control is activated.2.
.3. But the problem is that congestion control is activated wrongly most of the time. the receiver transmits duplicate acknowledgement. because out-of-order packet occurrence take place due to different reasons such as multipath routing protocol and rout failure and not only due to congestion.
Chapter 3 Ad hoc Network Routing Protocols
The source floods a route request packet to construct a route when it needed. Then some new protocols were proposed to modify and enhance the distance vector algorithm. Routing protocol efficiency in bandwidth and energy consumption could be made by reducing the control overhead. Pure distance vector algorithms (e. Distributed Bellman Ford.  In generally mobile ad hoc wireless networks routing protocols can be classified by their routing strategy. Then route reply packet is sent to the source through new best route. Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol. and the protocol by Lin and Liu. Nodes travel freely and randomly in the network and routes are often find connection or disconnection. Several protocols of this type have been propose d. Protocols such as Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP). Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV)
. The third one is on-demand routing protocols which are planned only for ad hoc network. maintaining and reconstruction in time are the main task for routing protocols. mobile nodes) are communicating with each others. There is no requirements of periodic exchange of route tables and control traffic overhead is greatly reduce by on-demand routing protocols. Data packets send efficiently must be utilized by control packets and be generated only when needed.g. The source establishes routes on demand. Routes are multi hop in ad hoc networks because the propagation range (250 meters in an open field) of wireless radio is limited. etc. Fisheye State Routing (FSR) protocol.. Adaptive Link-State Protocol (ALP). Establishing strong routes. Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) protocol.) do not give a good result in mobile networks because of some limitation. In general route means the way and protocol is the set of rules through which two or more devices (computers. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Route to every destination of the networks on a regular basis is not maintained by on-demand routing protocols. The destination use route selection algorithm and select the best route for which destination receives request. except generating excessive control message overhead. Least Resistance Routing (LRR). Theses protocols include Global State Routing (GSR). Routing Internet Protocol (RIP). and Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) protocol.In this chapter routing protocols are described. All the above responsibilities are performed by the routing protocol. The protocols which are based on link state algorithms.
Temporarily Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA). Permanent routing information is not kept by these protocols. Multipath Dynamic Source Routing (MDSR). Relative Distance Microdiscovery Ad Hoc Routing (RDMAR) protocol. This type of protocols has some advantages and disadvantages. in the early stages protocols was using node location information while building routes have been proposed recently. In reactive routing protocols we describe in detail DSR (Dynamic Source Routing) protocol. In addition we can say routing protocols are categorized as reactive. Even if there is no data flow. Lightweight Mobile Routing (LMR). Route-Lifetime Assessment Based Routing (RABR). GPS routing protocols are Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR). proactive and hybrid (combination of both is called hybrid). Flow Oriented Routing Protocol (FORP). The fourth category is GPS (Global Positioning System). and Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State (ZHLS). The disadvantage is: There is too much data kept by the nodes for route protection and restructure is slow when there is a failure in exacting link. and Routing On
demand Acyclic Multipath (ROAM) algorithm are on demand routing protocol. Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM). AODV (Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector) protocol. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). routing can require more cost to exchange location information. and TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm) protocol. One of the main advantages is that nodes can get easily routing information and easy to set up a session. Routes are built when the source needed. 
3. For this achievement control message are transmitted periodically.2 Reactive Routing Protocols
Reactive routing protocols are specially planned for ad hoc networks.routing. Through information node position. Route request is sending across the network to achieve this. Grid Location Service (GLS). Proactive routing protocols are not bandwidth well-organize. This is free of whether or not the route is needed.1 Proactive Routing Protocols
This type of protocols has to construct and maintain fresh routing information to all the nodes.
. the control message is broadcasted. Location-Aided Routing (LAR). Associativity-Based Routing (ABR). DSDV is an example of proactive routing protocol. Signal Stability-Based Adaptive (SSA) routing.
The network using DSR is not requiring existing network infrastructure or administration.
Figure 3. To set up a route. Node 2 is the initiator and node 9 is the target.1 shows route discovery of DSR. DSR works for ad-hoc network of approximately 200 nodes. Nodes receive a REERs message remove any route entry (from their route cache) which uses the out of order link. The nodes in the network easily join or leave the network without any information.1 Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)
DSR was developed at Carnegie Mellon University.3. This monitoring is achieved by inactively listening for communication of the adjacent to the next hop or sitting a bit in a packet to ask for open acknowledgment. Each node participating in adhoc network should forward packets and discard the erroneous packets (corrupted). 
In LAN routing the main improvement of DSR is in route maintenance and monitoring in the attendance of mobility. The node desiring to transmit a packet define route for the packet because it is based on source routing.1: Route discovery for target node.2.
. Figure 3. DSR has two mechanisms: route discovery and route maintenance. The RERRs packet is sent to the creative sender to raise a new route discovery stage when a node fails to accept an acknowledgment. DSR based on the acknowledgments of data packets sent to adjacent nodes to monitors the validity of existing routes. When the destination receives this request message or a node which has destination route information then it transmits RREP message back to the source with route information. It is simple and efficient reactive routing protocol which is specially designed for multi-hop ad hoc network of mobile nodes. the source floods RREQs message with a distinctive request ID. 
The source starts a route discovery when sending data packet to the destination but have no routing information.
Route Request (RREQs) and Route Replies (RREPs).2 Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)
The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol. AODV establish routes between different nodes as needed by source nodes. In an ad hoc network when two nodes want to make a connection with each other. it yields a long delay when a packet wants to go through a new link.
3. So this selective transmission reduces control overhead (if no packets pass through a link). and this is one of the most important quality and feature of this algorithm. . The group members compose the trees and the members are connected by the nodes. DSN (Distance Sequence numbers) is used by the AODV to avoid counting to infinity.When a node has problem transferring packet during that link then REER message is propagated. It has also the feature to select optional route which is based on the sequence number. Its performance is reduced by high mobility. AODV is designed for ad hoc mobile networks and of both routing. 
There are three messages which are defined by AODV. In a network the requested nodes send the DSN with other routing information from the source to the destination.2. Node 9 cannot be reached by node 6 anymore and a REER is returned to node 2. AODV maintain these routes as well as form trees which connect different multicast group members.2: Maintenance for Error Route. AODV enable multihop routes within the nodes.
DSR main advantages are that it reduce routing overhead and does not need to discover routes to all the nodes in the network. Ad hoc On-demand distance vector is free loop.
Figure 3. The disadvantage of DSR is low mobility and static networks. that is unicast and multicast routing. . These messages are Route Errors (RERRs).
A DAG is accomplished for the network by handing over each node i with a height metric i. A data packet goes from up flow to down flow according the height difference between nodes. the logical time of a link failure. Highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks can be used by TORA. The IP address of the nodes is also mentioned in the message as the next hop for the destination. A RERR message is delivered or generated when there is a failure in the link. State. Routes of the PREQ from the originator to all the stations that receive message are cached in these stations.255.255. In the ad hoc network the number of hops a particular routing message is determined by the TTL (Time-To-Live).e.2. The RREQ is broadcasted by the requested node when a route is needed to be created to the destination. Life time and network interface. [17 and 20]. hop count. There are three basic functions in TORA. or itself by the destination .
3. TORA has the capacity that many nodes can send packets to a given destination is provided by DAG. The routing table has the following entries i. A node uses its IP address as the source address in the IP header of a message when it request for a route.255. next hop. the list of precursors. The message has all the important information about the node which is not reachable because of the failure. hi.For discovering and maintaining routes in the network these three messages are used. DSN. Route Creation Route maintenance
. by using UDP packets from source to destination. a reflection indicator bit and a unique ID of the node which defines the new reference level. All the information about the routes in the network is stored in this table. The height of the node in TORA is defined as quintuple. and for broadcast 255. It makes scaled routes between source and destination and Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is used to build in the destination node. which contains the unique ID of the node. The first two values identify an offset with respect to the reference level and the last three values jointly represent the reference level. a propagation ordering parameter.3 Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)
TORA is a reactive routing algorithm based on the conception of link reversal and used in MANETs to improve the scalability. flag. It is an adaptive routing protocol and used in multi-hop networks. When the next hop node received the message a new route is determined. IP address. It also guarantees that all routes are loop free. Directional from the link i to j means hi > hi .e.
AODV is table based.
So they will propagate updates as shown in next figure. A non-NULL height node responds with UPD packet containing its own height.Route erasure A route creation operation start all the nodes height is set to NULL i. The higher height of a node is measured as up flow and lower height of a node is measured as down flow. The route erasure operation in TORA floods CLR packets through the network and remove unacceptable routes.
Figure 3.0. a node increment its height with one than that of the UPD generator.-.e. With the reception of UPD packet. Route maintenance operation is a main part of TORA. Then the links reproduce the topology change and adjust to the new reference level. (-.e.0.-.dest). (0.-. Node D and node G is one hop neighbours away from the destination. . A QRY message containing the destination’s ID is broadcasted b y the source. It has an exclusive quality that control message are contained into a small set of nods near the happening of topology changes.0.
Figure 3. Then the DAG from source to destination is constructed. The nodes height is flexible according to the topology.i) and
destination is set to ZERO i.4
Route Discoveries in TORA – Update Message
Route Discoveries in TORA – QRY Message
In this figure node A shows and node B shows destination. A node generates a new reference level and broadcasts the reference to its neighbours when it loses its last down flow link.
which causes dependence on the traffic requirement. In case of gradually positive increase in the network volume.
. It is measured as change in rate with regard to total number of nodes participating in network traffic.The algorithm . contains many flows with most severe in which algorithm extremely depend upon the numbers of nodes during initial stage. TORA is not considered as better solution.
Chapter 4 Research Methodology
Quantitative research is carried out by means of inquiry strategies including certain experiments and simulations which produce some form of statistical data for analysis or decisions.3. Author divided the overall research into four stages.1 Problem Selection / Identification
In problem selection stage author adhere to only MANET and TCP as focus area of research interest. It is also vital to determine that simulation tool also requires some time during configuration and simulation. MANET protocols and related work.4. Creswell  enlighten two major form of research i.3. Problem has been selected in consideration to data performance issues in MANET due to wireless nature of the network.
. It generalizes the understanding about author concept in developing multiple steps or stages for whole work.2
Thesis is carried out through multiple stages starting form literature review about the state of art technology specific to TCP and MANET and then performing the simulation in OPNET v14.3
Author believes that the most of the time is spent in identifying and selecting the problem and conduction literature review.2
Literature Review for TCP and MANET
It is necessary to conduct literature study for understand basic and expertise concept regarding TCP variants. quantitative and qualitative.
4.e. OPNET simulator study is also important to develop the scenario. run simulation and collect result.
4. as results are often indispensable. So both molds of approaches are necessary to complete the thesis work and have been administered. Qualitative research is based on the researcher knowledge through participatory and /or constructive perspectives. Ad hoc networks.1
It illustrates the overall thesis work to be carried out in as in the form of research activity.
validity of the simulation results and the tools is highly reliable. possibility to develop and run this simulation environment. robust and efficient. Reno and New Reno relative to each selectable MANET protocol i. Another factor of choosing OPNET is the author’s familiarity and trust over the tool.
4. Also it conceptually accelerates the whole simulation work efficiently and smoothly.4 Simulation Results
The last stage is to grasp the relevant results of interest for research study. AODV.
.3. DSR and TORA.State of art
State of art study
Problem Identification and Selection
Literature Review of TCP and MANET
Problem Simulation Implementation
Assumption and Conclusions
Books TCP Variant Selection Tool Configuration
Figure 4.3. Simulation graph results consist of TCP performance for Tahoe.4
OPNET is selected as it offer easy graphical interface.e.3 Building Simulation Environment
This stage is critical to understand as it exhibit deep understanding of how and why these specific nodes and protocols are chosen.
Chapter 5 Simulation and Empirical Study
5. maximum technologies. multiple protocols and virtual environment for simulation. it is important to setup simulation environment to observer TCP behavior over MANET.1
Actual problems are simulated through computers by modeling design for actual systems and theoretical described systems. offers drag and drop communication devices. OPNET technologies Inc . simulations are executed through computers for the collection of relative informational results.
5.1: Simulation Model. Learning by doing .1.2
Optimized Network Evaluation Tool (OPNET version 14.3
Network Entities and Functions
Simulation network model contain important entities as depicted in the figure
. is a primary concept about systems in study which requires modeling and operating them.1
This section is the major portion of the thesis.5) modeler is used in for simulation network design and execution.1. 
Figure 5.5. Quantitative analysis is conducted to with the help of OPNET tool.
MANET eight node scenarios
. [Appendix].1. I have set default random waypoint and adjusted some parameters.3.1.3
A detail configure is described in [Appendix].
5.3. dynamically allocate the IP addresses to all mobile nodes including server as well as different routing protocols.3. [Appendix].1.2 5.
In this configuration I set the profile name with start time offset and starts time.5
I have set the mobility options. this module has been configured to achieve the desired results. [Appendix].4
This module controls the traffic for MANET.
This module is required to produce the mobility options for the mobile nodes. [Appendix].
5.1. [Appendix].Figure 5. Basically we administer application name as FTP_Application and made necessary configurations.1
In our thesis. Following model for simulation flow is drawn.1. protocol selection and TCP flavor has been selected through this module.
Step by step approach is used to keep the simulation flow clear and easy.3.
1 shows the detail of routing protocol and TCP variants in three nodes scenario.jpg files to further use in the thesis report.3: Simulation Flow MANET network is designed for the simulating the model and configuration statistics are applied on the whole model separately and the with regard to each individual scenario. Without these three nodes there is a fixed node which working as source. To keep clear analysis let us consider each scenario separately. A connection has been established from each node to transfer a file of the same size over each connection. Mainly we are concern with throughput of each variant of TCP and to find out which variants out perform with what type of routing protocol. In simulation there are three type of different scenarios based on the number of nodes. Then to find out that which variants of TCP perform well and what was the underlying protocol. Simulation is executed multiple times to obtain accurate results describe in each scenario. Some graphs were plotted one over another and with different protocol selections and TCP flavors to observe the require statistics.
Three nodes Scenario
The table 5.
5. Results from each scenario are gathered as graphs and stored in .MANET Network design
Apply Configuration and Statistics
Running/ Executing Simulation
The results obtained during the simulation are depicted in this area. starting from the three node scenario.
Comparing AODV with TORA at the approximation of 95 sec. if dropping of the route occurs. AODV has better throughput performance over DSR. maintenance and erasure. It means that TORA has worst throughput performance in each of the three cases for MANET 3 nodes. Total time consumed by each protocol for send the data through New Reno.
. Reno and Tahoe is relatively smaller for AODV followed by DSR and than TORA. AODV provides better throughput performance.The cause behind the TORA less performance is considered as the reality of TORA working for route recreation. which requires more time and have bad impact in the data performance.Table5.1
Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Three Nodes
THROUGHPUT/ DELAY/ CONGESTION WINDOW MEASUREMENT Stages A A A B B B C C C TCP Variants New Reno New Reno New Reno Reno Reno Reno Tahoe Tahoe Tahoe Protocol AODV DSR TORA AODV DSR TORA AODV DSR TORA Number of nodes 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Speed of Nodes m/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
From figure 5. in all the three graphs. by looking at the throughput performance between AODV and DSR at approximately 25 seconds.4.
2.4. but when comparing figure 5.2 Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Five Nodes
THROUGHPUT/ DELAY/ CONGESTION WINDOW MEASUREMENT Stages A A A B B B C C C TCP Variants New Reno New Reno New Reno Reno Reno Reno Tahoe Tahoe Tahoe Protocol AODV DSR TORA AODV DSR TORA AODV DSR TORA Number of nodes 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Speed of Nodes m/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Form figure 5. comparing all the three graphs with each other I have more or less same assumption as for node three scenario. For five nodes scenario the detail of different protocols as shown in Table 5.4: Throughput comparison in three nodes scenario Five Nodes Scenario. and to transfer a file of the same size over each connection.5 with figure 5. we observe that as the number of the nodes are increased approximately 75% (3 to 5).A
Figure 5. Table5.
.5. throughput has been decreased for every TCP variant and each desired protocols. There are five nodes working as clients to establish connection with a fixed node working as source.
Table5.6) as compared to the DSR and TORA. Further we observe that the AODV have the higher throughput in the start in all the three figures (5. which means that if more and more nodes are added in MANET.3 Detail of TCP Variants and Routing Protocol for Eight Nodes THROUGHPUT/ DELAY/ CONGESTION WINDOW MEASUREMENT Stages A A A B B B C C C TCP Variants New Reno New Reno New Reno Reno Reno Reno Tahoe Tahoe Tahoe Protocol AODV DSR TORA AODV DSR TORA AODV DSR TORA Number of nodes 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Speed of Nodes m/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
From figure 5.6.5. A small change has been observed in the number of data packets when nodes are increased to 8 in figure 5.4.5: Throughput comparison in five nodes scenario
Eight Nodes Scenario
Different protocols evaluated in this scenario are listed in Table 5.6. The highest number of data packets are reduces from approximately 750 to 575. 5. Like other scenario depending on the number of clients eight simultaneous connections has been established with a fixed source to download a file of the same size over each connection.3.
. and 5.A
Figure 5.4 are also acknowledgeable. we conclude that the graph behavior remains same and the assumption made for figure 5.
TORA and DSR have approximately same delay.6 Throughput comparison in eight nodes scenario
It has been concluded that throughput performance of DSR and TORA are minutely affected with increase in the number of nodes and due to mobility. MANET could have dynamic number of nodes connectivity in mobility.
Table 5. reflection. Similarly TORA takes more time when the numbers of nodes are increased to 8.throughput will reduce. as we encounter numerous losses and delays due to SNR.7 hold the simulation results of each and every TCP variant with respect different routing protocols all together. AODV has better throughput performance shown in all three figures as compared to DSR and TORA and is the best solution for MANET. With 5 node and 8 node scenario. In general. it maybe because the high resolution graph will show us small difference in each graph subject to 3.
. so the delay measure is considered highly sensitive. as compared to 3 nodes and 5 nodes. so it’s important to realize that when the number of nodes is higher. TORA has the highest delay as compared to DSR and AODV which validate our simulation results. DSR and TORA would be avoided. diffraction and inter symbol interference. which is not considered as a good perception in wireless networks. 5 and 8 nodes respectively. With three node scenario. so our proposed solution in this case will be New Reno as it offers multiple packet loss recovery.
Figure 5. AODV on the other hand have similar delay for 9 results. Reno and Tahoe depict that throughput is the same in all the cases. However simulation results for AODV with respect to New Reno.
Figure 5.7 Delay Comparisons in Different Scenario
Figure 5.8 hold 6 graphs define earlier for all the simulated scenarios; there are much dissimilarity within each set of variants and routing protocols. Considering 3 node scenario, congestion window of TORA reaches to the maximum of 160,000 bytes and will remain there which depicts that the exponential increase in the congestion window leads to the delay and lower performance, as there are not enough space in the buffer to manage incoming data and the window remains constant.
Figure 2.8 Congestion Window dynamics Secondly, DSR have different results in all the six cases, variations for congestion window are found approximately between 65,000 bytes to 80,000 except for case 3, where it had reached around 11,000 bytes. So it’s likely to know that DSR congestion window is quite uncertain
and its use in the MANET network will have severe results. Congestion window will ultimately influence throughput and delay parameters important for the performance evaluation. Third protocol, AODV have similar results during individual 3 nodes and 5 nodes (New Reno, Reno and Tahoe). It explicitly defines that AODV has the formal behavior of TCP as within the normal networks. The congestion window is dynamically increasing and decreasing after receiving reply for the receiver. It is however not much clear whether it doubles the size of the congestion window after each successful data packet transmission or not, but the behavior of the graph exactly resembles with the actual TCP congestion window graph with increase and decrease. We suggest AODV as the best possible solution and recommendation for MANET.
Chapter 6 Discussions/ Results
Research questions 1 and 2 defined in chapter 1 are answered through state of art study and literature review. another possibility of doing the same work can be done through another tool like NS-2.2
As I have selected these numerous MANET routing protocols of interest by simulation in an OPNET tool. DSR and TORA clearly describe us about the performance evaluation through measuring throughput. Research question 3 and four are based on the simulation results and explanations. We adhere to the simulation results as an evident that TCP variants have minor affect on the overall results except in few cases defined earlier. Also.
. Simulation observation based on AODV. but the major dependence lies on MANET routing protocols.1
The overall research has been conducted in the well organized way as defined in chapter 4. selection of other routing protocols can be use for the performance evaluation or other parameters of performance could be considered for simulation.6. delay and congestion window that the best routing protocol for MANET is AODV.
Select Create empty scenario and click Next
Click on File and select New then click ok
Enter name to project and scenario then click ok.Appendix: Simulation Steps
Open the OPNET simulator.
Select Campus Network then Click Next
X span: 1000 Y span: 1000 Units : Meters then Click Next
Select the Technology (MANET) then Click Next
.Now Click Finish
From object Palette Tree select one by one Application Config. Profile Config. Mobility Config. Wlan_Server (Fixd Node) and Wlan_wkstn (Mobile node) with the requirements of the user.
Right Click on Application Config.Drag all these object one by one in the working area. profile Config. mobility Config and Server to set their name.
1 Application Configuration Right Click on Application Config then Edit Attributes and configure the Application.
At last Click Ok
2 Profile Configurations Right Click on Profile Config then Edit Attributes and configure the Profile.
Select all Nodes and Server Click on Protocol menu IP Addressing AutoAssign IPv4 Address. Tick Apply to Selected Objects Ok
.g. Select all Nodes and Server Right Click on Server Edit Attributes Select ADHOC Routing Protocol . Tahoe. AODV. In TCP Select the Parameters e.e.g.
.3 Server Configurations Right Click on Server Edit Attributes Application set Application Supported Services and Click Ok.
Click on Application: Supported Profiles and set some values Tick Apply to Selected Objects. Click Ok.
.4 Mobile Node Configurations Select all Nodes Right Click on one Edit Attributes. Click on Applications Application: Destination Preferences and set some parameters.
.5 Click Topology menu Select Random Mobility set Mobility Profile Click Continue Click Ok.
6 Mobility Configurations Right Click on Mobility Config Edit Attributes Click Default Random Waypoint Click Random Waypoint Parameters. Click OK.
8 Click DES Menus Click DES or Right Click on work area and select Individual Statistics.7 Save the Project.
and Seconds.ctrl+R. Then Click Run. Here you can set Time in Weeks. Hours. Days. 9 Run the Project Click on DES menu Select Configure/Run Discrete Event Simulation …. Minuets. Right Click on it then choose Change Collection Mode then Tick Advance and Select All Values then Click Ok.
b) Expand Wireless Lan Tick Delay (sec) and Throughput (bit/sec) then Right Click on both one by one and select Change Collection Mode then Tick Advance and Select All Values then Click Ok.Expand Node Statistics a) Expand TCP Connection and Tick the Congestion Window Size (byte).
When Simulation is Completed then Click Close.
10 Show the Result Click on DES menu or Right Click on Work area then Select Results then View result
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