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Publication No. 41/05
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study or criticism or review, as pennitted under the Copyright Design and Patents Act 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form by any means without the prior permission of the publishers or in the case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the UK Copyright LicensingAgency, or in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organisationoutside the UK.
Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers, The British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd at the address given below. Although w8 has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data and information contained herein are accurate to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact o r accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, The British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd, the authors and the co-ordinator assume no responsibility for any errors in or misinterpretation of such data and/or informationor any loss or damage arising from or related to their use.
The British Constructional Steelwork Association Limited (BCSA)is the nationalorganisationfor the steel construction industry: its Member companies undertake the design, fabrication and erection of steelwork for all forms of construction in building and civil engineering. Associate Members are those principal companies involved in the purchase, design or supply of components, materials, services related to the industry. Corporate Members are clients, professional offices, educational establishments which support the development of national specifications, quality, fabrication and erection techniques, overall industry efficiency and good practice.
The principal objectives of the Association are to promote the use of structural steelwork; to assist specifiers and clients; to ensure that the capabilities and activities of the industryare widely understoodand to provide memberswith professional services in technical, commercial, contractual and quality assurance matters. The Association’s aim is to influence the trading environment in which member companies operate in order to improve their profitability. A current list of members and a list of current publications and further membership details can be obtained from:
The British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd 4 Whitehall Court, Westminster, London SWlA 2ES Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7839 8566
F a :+44 (0) 20 7976 1634
BCSA’s website, www.SteelConstruction.org, can be used both to find informationabout steel construction companies and suppliers, and also to search for advice and information about steel construction dated topics, view publications, etc.
Publication Number 41/05
First Edition November 2005
ISBN 0 85073 049 X British Library Cataloguing-in-PublicationData
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Q The British ConstructionalSteelwork Association Ltd
Designed and Printed by Box of Tricks www.bot.uk.com
During that period the mix has moved from being predominantly industrial to being predominantly mmsrcial. Dr Roger Pope. Director General The British ConstructionalSteelwork Association Limited. the fundamentals of good detailing advocated by our authors stii apply. At the same time as ste8l has been developing the shed structures that are now the common feature of our industrial landscape. In terms of engineering connectiis. S t W & contractm will mm that their businesses depend on economic detailing and for this reason it is important that the BCSA should ensure that sound advice is available m i n g steel details. it provides a f m for steekwak eqxxts to explain their views on what engineering issues affectefficient detailing. The contributory authors are experts in their particular fields and sincere thanks are given to them. it takes architectural details k m actual structures and allows both engineers and architeds to intemgate these. However. Secondly.Whilst actual details evidently differ f r m standard ones. Pernaps it is no coincidence that during the same period many of the UKs leading architects have established their credentials as household names on the world stage. there has been a marked improvement in steel's UK market share for both buildings and bridges.Whether it is true that m e deity is in the details is uncertain. what is less widely appreciated is that the nature of steel construction has changed. . O u r gratitude is also due to Susan D a m who drafted and compiled the architectural details and to the co-ordinator of the book. Factories with lattice cantilever columns supporting heavy overhead travelling cranes have been replaced by officeswith atria featuring m p l e x glass-supporting space structures. It is common knowledge that during the last 25 years. Dr Derek Tordoff. E M there is more to detailing than is covered by the Green Books. and most notably has established itself as the modern material without equal for highly-visible prestige structures. This publication is intended to develop an understanding of the wider issues in two ways. We trust that the mix of ardritectural details that we have selected to feature in this publication is a fittihg testimony to the pioneering work of those leaders and the structural engineers who have supported them. it has been improving its competitive position for commercial and residential multi-storey frames. What is true is that steelwork costs are as much determined by connection details as they are by raw materialcostsOT site methods and Conditii. the "Green Books" promoted by BCSA and SCI have proved a valuable source of standard details. FIRAY.
................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 3 4 Chapter 2 Connection design in relation to frame design ........................................................................................................ Implementation of the design on site .......................................................................................................................................................................... Composite construction........................................................Alastair Hughes Introduction............... Semi-continuous Plastic design ............................. Connection types ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................John Rushton Introduction......................................................................................................Graham Couchman Introduction............... Range of software................................................................................................... Conclusion ............................................... Use of numerical analysis .. Semicontinuous Elastic design ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ry to 'laptop ..................................................... Design-analysis-detail design: a virtuous circle .................................................................... 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 Chapter 3 Connection design programmes ....................................................................... Future needs ................................................................................................................................................................. Underlying design models ............................................................... Advances foreseen ............................................... Methods of global analysis. 10 10 12 13 15 Chapter 4 From laborato............................. Some particular issues ......................................................... 'Simple' versus moment-resisting frames .............................. Challenges and opportunities ..........................................................................................................CONTENTS ENGINEERING CONNECTIONS Chapter 1 Structural details are engineering ............. The Green Books and the Connections Group ............................................................................Alan Rambone Introduction........................David Nethercot Getting the knowledge base........... Conclusion ............................................................................................................ Tubular construction .............................. 18 18 18 ........................................................................................ Continuous Elastic design .................................................................... 16 16 16 Chapter 5 Connection rotational characteristics ..................................... Continuous Plastic design ................................................................................................................................................. Simple construction .........
................................................................................. Introduction........................................................................ Conclusion ........... 33 33 34 W i n g European pdoaded bolts ............... Cladding connections ................................. Conclusion........................................................................................................................... Wall claddings.. 34 35 35 36 36 37 ....................................................................................................... Column bases and HD bolts................................................... Preloadedbolts to EN 14399......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ComparativeCOsts............... 19 19 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 Beam connections............................................................................................. Construction issues .... Suitability test........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Health & Safety .................................................................................................... 40 41 41 41 42 43 43 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Cantilevers ......................... Loading and design issues............................................................................................................................. Connection groups 26 26 26 27 31 32 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Cladding systems ........................................................................... mm 33 Introduction............................................................................................................................................. Keep it simple1............................................Introduction.......... 38 38 39 40 Thermal bridges.................................................. Basic fabrication machinery ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Truss details ............................................................................................. Fabricationdetails................. Erection details ............................................................................................................. CE Marking ............................................................................................. General details ......................... ........ Weld details ....................................................................................... Current UK practice................................................ Background............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Roofs............................ Conclusion....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Installation Non-preloadedbolts to EN 15048.......................................................... Bracing connections........................................................................................................................................................ Air leakage and robust details ..............................Richard'B Barrett Introduction............. Column splices ...................................... Gutter and downpipe supports............................................. Conclusion..............................................................................
................. Welding .................................................................................................................P&& Jojntg under Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................................... Conclusion ...... Principles of acoustic detailing............ Castings ..![anBq@@....................................................................................................................................................................... Acceptability of floors for walking vibrations................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65 65 65 67 68 69 70 70 70 ........................................... Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................ 51 51 51 52 53 53 Chapter '1 2 ....................................................... Observed behaviour in Cardington fire tests ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Limitations for plastic design ........................................................................................................................................................................... conditions .............. Behaviour of joints in fire ......................................................................... Design considerations ..... Serviceability ..................................... Introduction.................................................................................. Component-based approach................... Response of steel composite frames to fire ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Acoustic regulatory requirements.........................!FQ@r ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Conclusion ....................... 44 45 46 49 49 49 Chapter I 1 Introduction....................................................................................................................... Suggested variants of simple joints ........................ Moment-rotation at high temperatures................................................................ Design considerations for joints ............ Integration of columns and services. Conclusion .......................................................................... Beam-column joints ............................................................................................. Mechanical fixings ............ Joints in lattice construction...................................................................................................................................................................... 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 57 57 57 58 58 59 59 61 64 ~Hollolr~l section joints ........................................................................................................................................................................ Principles........Eddk 'Mole Introduction........................................................................................................................ In-line jointing ............................................................................... Bolted connection systems ......................................................................................... Eurocode requirements................................................... Observed behaviour at World Trade Center ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Conclusion ........................................................................................................Chapter 1 1 0 Background on acoustics and sound............ Connection temperatures .............................................. Floor and ceiling treatments ..... Simplified approach ........
...................... Stay linkages................................................................................................................... Bracing connections ....................................................................................................................................................................... Conclusion ................................................................... Box girders................................. Brim Smith Leg-to-leg joints ........ Footbridges........................................ 85 86 86 87 ...................................................................................................................................................................................Chapter 15 Bridgework connections ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Design issues.......................................................................................................... Plate girders...................................... 71 71 74 76 76 Chapter 16 Tension connections .....................................Richard Thomas Introduction......................Roger Pope Introduction.................................................... Connection types ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... Applications ...................................................................................................................... Key issues ............. Conclusion .......................... 77 77 77 81 84 84 Chapter 17 Lattice tovvers and masts .......
Dublin's Design Pinnacle..................................................................................................... FQte of Twist ......................................................................................................................... Revolutionary Motion......................................................................................................... Barajas Airport, Madrid, Spain........................................................................................... Office Building, St Mary Axe London ...............................................................................
A Stand of Two Halves.......................................................................................................
102 106 110 116 120 124 128 132 136 140 144 148 152 156 160 164 168 172 176 180
Racing Times .....................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................ Pump Up the Volume......................................................................................................... School Campus, Bromley, Kent ......................................................................................... Roof in a Landscape..........................................................................................................
Making a Splash Watertight Design...............................................................................................................
............................................................................................. Footbridge, East Ham, London ......................................................................................... A Bridge for Shanks's Pony...............................................................................................
Stretching a Steel Hyperbole
Tyne and Cheer ..................................................................................................................
Steps to Better Study ........................................................................................................ Office, Devonshire Square, City of London ....................................................................... Right Royal Restoration..................................................................................................... Factory for Rolls-Royce, Goodwood, West Sussex .......................................................... Theatre, Plymouth.............................................................................................................. Space odyssey
by Roger Pope
To the Steelwork Contractor the core of the organisation has always been the Drawing Office. It is there that the client’s aspirations, the architect’s whims and the engineer’s scheme are converted from ideas into nuts and bolts. Until the shop fabrication details are finished not a piece of steel can be cut, and without cut steel there is no fabrication and there is no erection. The pressure is always there, such that the works are always pleading for drawings to be released for fabncation othennrise overhead recovery will be lost and contractual delay, disruption and damages will ensue. Not an easy atmosphere in which to collaborate creatively with others in the design team; yet this creativity is what happens on every new project each with its unique challenges, as John Rushton’s article emphasises. In particular, Alastair Hughes describes how the engineer designing the frame needs to interact with the connection designer. A further pressure arises because the engineering connections shown on the detailed drawings determine the extent of nearly every cost within the Steelwork Contractor’s control. Decisions on the number of boits, the thickness of welds, or the location of splices are committed once the connection is drawn. This emphasis on cost implications runs through the articles of both Kim Dando and Dave Chapman. Other than buckling (member and frame stability), connection behaviour is the area of steel construction that has been researched most extensively. Articles by David Nethercot, Graham Couchman, lan Burgess and Roger Plank provide an insight into these ongoing developments. The “Green Books” represent the distillation of this research into practical everyday designs, and Alan Rathbone explains how much the current generation of connection design software relies on these standard references.
The details shown in the Green Books serve to meet the needs of a wide section of the steel construction market, but there are sectors with specialist requirements. To illustrate these needs, there are articles by Richard Thomas on bridgework, Eddie Hole on hollow section joints, Roger Pope on tension connections. and Brian Smith on lattice towers and masts. Thomas Cosgrove brings readers up to date on developments with structural fasteners -the nuts and bolts basics again.
As is so richly illustrated in the Architectural Details section of this publication, steel details are much more than structural connections. Even in engineering terms, the interfaces with cladding and other building elements raise thermal, acoustic and vibration issues that need to be solved by the connection. The articles by Richard Barrett, Andrew Way and Stephen Hicks describe what is involved.
It can be seen that connection design and detailing is not an easy job, but the steel construction industry has thrived through the efforts of generations of steel draughtsmen with the personal skills and nous to sort out such problems. I like to think that this publication is a testimony to all their efforts. It is surely no coincidence that the largest proportion of senior managers in the industry started their careers in the Drawing Office.
John Rushton, Peter Brett Associates
Structural detailing is in danger of becoming neglected by structual designers. Pemapsthisarisesfrompossible misleading s definitions w3-1 cormotationsof theword detail; the Web gives u as: ‘something considered t r i v i a l enough to ignore’, and ‘the smaller and less significant features of a subjwt’. Modern construction practice tends to compartmentalise suppliers and their detailing input to facilitate manufacture. The importance of details can be lost as designers bypass design and go straight to analysis. Practical experience and buildability advice are often not readily accessible when design decisions are being developed further exacerbating the situation. Stnrctural details are an intrinsic facet of structural designs in any material. When details go wrong failure often results.
Design analysis detail design: a virtuous circle
Whatever the structural material, whether it is formed on site or manufactured and assembled on site, at the initial stage there is the idea, the concept. It may use bespoke andor proprietary components but whatever concept is used, ‘joining’ details are an intrinsic part of the concept. In addition to structural details making the frame work as a whole there are ‘key’ details that drive concept decisions.
Countersunk splice on 9m continuous spans used to achieve thin floor depths
Upstand box beam used to provide clear zone below slab edge adjacent to service riser
transport. --Countersunk column splice to allow use of compact column casings Flat slabs to meet MBE engineer’s wish for clear soffits Manufacture!. -. The process then iterates in a virtuous circle of design. Overiy complex codes which obscure an understanding of the mechanical principles in action pose a further risk. In conceiving a design in either steel or concrete the engineer needs to have made conscious decisions on the buildability aspects of his design.In summary. design processes and sometimes dominate in a structure where ofkite manufacturing methods are employed.F Internal exposed soffits -- The engineering decisions outlined above are often driven by detail. Both need to have simple and safe connecting techniques. Perhaps a better way to describe the complex transition of concept through to construction is in terms of a ‘virtuous circle’ of design. desmm. This often leads to redefining the details initially assumed following mathematical validation. details are major parameters affecting engineering decisions and. and joining concepts in the design phase. analysis and detail design. these are design constraints and major subjects in their own nght. transport.I !PDetails are part of the design brief and an essential consideration in modelling for analysis. They precedethe analysis stage and will involve key architectural and structural details which are reflected in the way the model is constructed and analysed. analysis. . Change to the concept design parameters can often be negotiated if under the control of others or adjusted within the structural concept for example by changing structural principles. Precast concrete tends to have weight as the dominant factor. Structure free floor depth adjacent to main service riser on the right.S-. The third stage occurs after analysis and involves detail design. to suit large ducts emerging into ceiling space . analysis and detail design. uansport. These decisions are made in the design stage described above. Steelwork with its light weight and high strength characteristics tends to have handling and transport length issues to deal with. a whole new set of parameters to be considered! Twin 152 UC integrated with external walling for flush internal walls p . They validate the conversion of structural design principles into an engineered solution. I . In hybrid construction a mix of materials can be used in both the members and connection details. They exist in parallelwith the design.. erection and connecting on site. erecting and connecting As noted above. in the case of any structure made off site there are issues of manufacture. In industry there are constant complaints from contractors about the construction difficulties leading on from designers’ ‘impractical’ designs which can often be linked back to a focus on computer analysis often with little o r no attention paid to detailed construction aspects. the assumed material characteristics or construction method.
lengths and joints designed to be within economical transport limits c I Splices in top and bottom chord introducedto limit lift weight in the factory for this heavy suspension transfer truss Implementation of the design on site Introduction Construction procurement is not considered here except to accept and acknowledge the risks implicii when interfaces and overlaps exist in design concept and detailing for construction. Reinforcement drawings and schedules by specialist teams of detailers and more contractor designed components in the structure have created new.detail design described above. As with steel. Proprietary shear stud rails . As with steel. in architectureseparation of concept from practical details is not uncommon. the most efficient structural form and details have developed as much from process improvement as from enhanced material properties. insitu concrete and composite.timber. mixed or hybrid combinations of these. Use of preformed steel meshes/mlls. iteration occurs in the virtuous circle of design -analysis . In situ concrete frames owe their efficiency to the principles of structural continuity at moment transferring connections betweenvertical and horizontal members. Changes in designer working practices have also occurred. success will result. Where concentration of shear has posed a challenge to the use of shallow/thin floors engineering ingenuity in the development of special shear reinforcement configurations has been applied. Significant advances in flat slab construction cost and construction speeds have been made on the basis of proprietary formwork suppliers influencing designs to suit their products.'-situ concrete eel construction is undertaken alongside other forms ot construction . It is important to review and capitalise on the significant developments taking place in these other fields. Details make the structure work and there is a continued need for a single point of responsibility for ensuring compatibility of details and design in the overall structure. In the UK designs in insitu concrete were traditionally done by the designer who provided all the information needed for construction on site. shear head assemblies and post tensioned slabs further promoted change. precast concrete. masonry. The design of details in a monolithic concrete construction has tended to be closely linked with member and building component designs. Engineering is the practical application of scientic principles and consideration of detail needs to be applied at each stage as does the equally important concept of overall structural stabili. An understanding of both the concept and construction of details has remained as important to the overall designer as it was before. conceptual and practical interfaces. It is worth noting that new health & safety regulations are being introduced soon which will govern the actions of designers tending to formalise design for construction responsibilities. 21+m long roof beams being transported to site. This is a good example of how a design approach has been integrated with the practical realisation of the structural concept. the detail design challenge is transmitting forces and moments through the congested connection zone between horizontal and vertical building elements. The responsibility for good engineering practice has w a y s existed in the past but has sometimes been obscured by working practices. In the design process as the concept gets nearer to being validated as acceptable in all aspects of design. Buildabilii considerations are becoming a more formal process in design and if the approaches described above have been effectively carried out.
Whatever developments occur in procurement processes. are sometimes used. The concrete industry has made significant advances over the last few years in terms of rationalising site construction. both in areas of research and construction. by necessity led to relatively close integration of design and construction techniques. off-site manufacture and site assembly in new hybrid structural forms brought about by the agenda for sustainable design. success will depend on concrete details being developed that satisfy the parameters of design and practical construction. Integrated steel design and manufacture is comprehensively reviewed in the ‘Computer integrated manufacture of steel’ (CIMSTEEL) program (SCl P-178). Outside the UK specialist detailers. prefabricated reinfoment assemblies and advances in offsite production of components. expertise in mechanical joint behaviour. Just like steehnrork. Neither detail nor concept can exist without the other when applied to construction engineering. independent of the steelwork contractors manufacturing the building. Here again we see the importance of details to structural designers and a big opportunity for the structural steelwork industry to apply its manufacturing and logistical skills. Demands for rapid construction on site and continued pressure on price and cost of labour combine to act as further impetus to use off site manufacturing methods. The rigour imposed by modem methods of factory production has. Designers. Buildings have become more complex and use of structural I materials more varied as designers respond to the challenge wl-*pFecaat cladding support Bracketextendedthrough Inner wall skin t o laterally support pretest cladding of integrating structure with building sen/ices and architectural challenges of exposed structures and natural ventilation. Hybrids exploit the most favourable structural characteristics in the materials. details will remain at the heart of steelwork design. Steel details have a major role to play where transfer of loads needs to be done in small structural zones allowing the maximum volume of material to be in members manufactured off site. A mix of architectural and building w i c e parameters will tend to dictate structural positions and shapes. the main structural connections. design U . Hybrid construction Hybrid construction involves combining site and off-site manufactured steel andor concrete members. This initiative has not had the publicity it deserves and the reader is strongly recommended to consult this reference. i. there are key architectural and structural details that drive the structural design.e. There are advantages and disadvantages in this traditional decoupiing of frame analysis from connection design. The two have come together in some building forms. all participants need to have suffcient competence in detailing for them to carry out their respective roles. delivery and erection. This form of construction seems likely to make an ever increasing i m p t on the UK. will be responsible for overall stability as well as the detail design. There is a convergence evolving between the two industries where the designer/consultant integrates the work of specialists in concrete structures in the same way as has evolved in steel structures. There is an enormous body of research and knowledge in the design and detailing of conventional steelwork and in the UK the steelwork industry remains at the forefront in the off-site production and site assembly of structures. in this case the contractor. Here there is generally a steelwork design and construct contractor and the single leading designer. contractors and detailers have dflerent primary and secondary roles. The structural ‘joining’ details will generally incorporatehigh strength material to facilitate factory manufacture. and the contractor making the structure? The steelwork industry has a tradition founded in craft-based workshop skills. notably single storey buildings in the UK. Challenges of interface management and by implication design of details will become crucial for UK based designers and contractors if they are to compete with well-developed continental expertise in hybrid construction (see Goodchild 1995 in R e f m e s ) . Whatever the construction material. Challenges and opportunities So how do we draw on the design and detailing skills of the designer. In buildings which incorporate different structural materials.aids. It is well positioned to exploit. Common practice in UK steel construction is for the engineer/ overall designer to conceive the design and the steelwork contractor to detail and manufacture the structural ‘joining’ details.
T h i s does dictate that the connections and the frame are designed together. we are not prepared to weld in the field and must accept the constraints which come with bolting. to push the size beyond M24 or the strength beyond 10.as an unrealistic concept. Atthough any given connection could be both semi-rigid and partial strength. the mnection only needs to be as strong (moment-resistant) as the design bending moment envelope locally demands. or the pursuit of lateral s t i e s s in a high-rise structure. but for practical site connections bolting is usually the first choice. This election has a profound inffuence on the properties the connections require. To summarise the principles: CONTINUOUS SEMI-CONTINUOUS implies connections are FULL STRENGTH or RIGID implies they are PARTIAL STRENGTH or SEMI-RIGID implies they are NOMINALLY PINNED SIMPLE For elastic analysis.to analyse it elastically or plastically. but the c a p a c i t y of a bolt is limited . Bolts are versatile and convenient to use. not one after the other. hyperstatic frame analysis was much more involved than it is today! There will always be circumstances inwhich simple construction is not an option. In other words the angle between the connected members must stay the same. The codes recognise f the this. an understrength connectii would obviously invalidate a plastic analysis in which members are assumed continuous. Pari of its appeal has always been that beam design and column design are decoupled by the nominally pinned connection. Mostly. as our computer assumed. but they are too space-consuming and workmanship-intensive to feature strongly elsewhere. by definition. What makes it challenging is the tendency of the bending moment diagram to peak right where we want to make the connection. In an elastic analysis. The disadvantage is that the beams have to be designed as simply supported. Methods of global analysis For any frame w h i i is not statically determinate the designer must exercise another important choice . It is not rekvant to plastic analysis. so that the beams come as individual span lengths with a connection at each end. One member. . usually the column. In the slide rule era. The term 'semi-rigid' was applied to both. In order for the elastic bending m m t distribution to be v a l i d . lt is in the nature of steel constructionthat continuitycannot be taken for granted. for lateral resistance. Welding is favoured in the workshop. There is also the appealing middle course of semi-continuous construction.one w h i i matches the bending and shear resistance of the connected member .CHAPTER 2 Connection design in relation to frame design Alastair Hughes. in portal frames. connection in steel building design is the beam-to-column connection. one in which the relevant condition for continuity either to be full strength or to be Rigid is not satisfied. but portability and erection convenience limit the size of a welded unit. For instance. this term was familiar before plastic theory was invented.9. it offers reduced beam size in return for modest extra connection cost. For plastic analysis ditto for 'rigid'. Both fastening methods have their merits. by bolting or welding. Nevertheless the method is economic and enduringly popular. Available space also limits the number of bolts which can be made to act. Introduction Frame design and connection design are inseparable. Pressure on structural depth. connections. A semi-continuous frame is. The 'partial strength' connection in a semi-continuous plastically analysed frame needs very different attributes from the 'semi-rigid' connection in a semi-continuous elastically analysed frame. and set a rotational stiffness (relative to that o member connected) which is high enough for the flexibility of the connection to be neglected in the analysis. and certainly the most challenging. It is therefore common to find connections located at junctions between beams and columns. Also. hence less costly. Essentially we connect together prefabricated lengths. not a condition for the validity o conditionfor structural adequacy of the frame. historically having been somewhat obscured in BS 5950. - - 'Simple' versus moment-resisting frames The customary response to this problem in UK engineering practice is to adopt what is known as 'simple construction' in which the connections are not asked to transmit moment. but the confusion is regrettakk. it could equally be one and not the other. bracing is compulsory. This is a f conventional elastic analysis. The most common. Real connections are not perfectly rigid. However there is a different precondition. Tube Lines bracing. not just shear force. the cxrwwtm . For all but the smallest beam sections it can only be achieved if the depth is locally increased by a haunch.8 and are reluctant. applicable with or without At this stage it should be acknowledged that the advent of Eurocode 3 (EC3) has been helpful in imposing a clear distinction between the plastic and elastic approaches to semi-continuous design. but the global analysis needs to take account of the connections. Admittedly. can continue through the joint. If bracing is unacceptable the frame must be moment-resisting. may dictate a continuous frame. In a braced frame. blank out the term including the word 'strength'. Haunches do have their place.must be Rigid. In an unbraced frame the benefit comes in the form of less elaborate. is to be transmitted. The problem is much more severe where bending moment.we standardise on M20 8. i e not simple construction. the same condition does not apply. The frame is moment-resisting. Indeed it is not too far from the truth to regard the 'ideal' bolted connection . in buildings at least.
For example. the bending moment distribution will be invalidated. will not invalidatethe analysis if they are modelled as such (and are not present in such numbers as to create a mechanism!). To realise the design assumption its rotation capacity. this could be said to expose EC3's lack of practitioner influence. might typically need to be something between 1 and 2 degrees. some of them feel better if the column web is stiffened. Does this matter? Yes. and this is as good an example as any of the hazards which lie in the path of those who would computerise the design process from start to finish. however. while maintaining the degree of mutual restraint that is assumed in the design of the individual members and makes for safe erection. and it is acknowledged that connections also appear in statically determinate situations where none of this subtlety applies. Nominally pinned connections. Continuous Plastic design Not least among the advantages of plastic design is that all this is irrelevant. it isn't the connection but the frame (or the design) t h a t is semi-continuous. Not rigid in the sense of resistant to rotation (not a pin). or wrongly ignored. The validity of elastic analysis of the unbraced frame is arguably less. the fasteners .moment resistance not less than the member . continuous plastic design has had very limited success in penetrating the market. especially if EC3 influence becomes more assertive. The options are reviewed below. It only takes one connection that falls short of full strength or the Rigid assumption (whichever is relevant) for the frame analysis to need to take account of it. Steel sections sometimes exceed their minimum yield strength (of 275 MPa or whatever) by a substantial margin. and some cling to the idea that if a connection is designed for strength it will be stiff enough to qualify as Rigid. but it is a concern that EC3 latches onto with its provision that overdesigning the connection by 20% will do nicely. Let's give this special meaning of the word a capital R. Of course the word 'negligible' is open to interpretation. not rigid in the sense of perfectly stiff (the theoretical ideal) but Rigid in the sense of rigid enough to qualify according to code rules. 8EVL is about twice what BS 5950 might have been construed to require. but EC3's multipliers are perplexing. . Even for a braced frame. really. or columns might receive significant moments not designed against. So in practice efforts are made to ensure that 'simple' connections are reasonably flexible. this is a rather theoretical concern. today's designers face an extended range of choice.essentially. It is at this point that it must be admitted that a gap exists between theory and practice. the unrestrained bottom flange of a beam might find itself under compression.are at risk and so long as design rules for these remain relatively conservative '100%' will suffice. The danger foreseen is that a plastic hinge. In view of the difficulty of designing a '100%' bolted connection. The bending moment diagram is immune to rotation at a cantilever connection or a midspan splice in a simply supported beam (though serviceability is not). Arguably. Curiously. It does seem logical to relate the required rotational stiffness to that of the member. That is something more than six times the rotatonal stiffness of the member end. on the other hand. Standard approaches presented in the Green Book on Simple Connections (P-212) can be relied upon for most situations. There is. The characteristics it needs are rather negative ones. and most practical connections fall some way short of perfect limpness. With the significant exception of portal frame sheds. at least sometimes. There's no gainsaying the fact. and is the other traditional option. fleetingly.Actually. It's all rather academic. who could classify connections almost like airships (types A:rigid and 6: limp). Others are more particular. elasto-plastic analysis (taking account of every property the connection has!) is mentioned. to the disbenefit of a member or connection somewhere in the frame. would transfer itself to an adjacent connection not capable of acting as such. In contrast to their predecessors. not more. still less a '120%' one. requiring a rotational stiffness of 25EVL. so more than one motive may be in play here. Judgement is not consistently applied. that even the 100% connection tends to be an daborate and expensivefabrication involving haunching and stiffening. To make this conspectus complete. in the absence of a satisfactory way to quantify the connection's rotational stiffness for comparison. sometimes axial force such as code tie force. however. The BCSNSCI Connections Group attempted to fill the guidance vacuum in the Green Book on Moment Connections (P-207) but this cannot be expected to remain the last word on a very problematic subject. EC3 is over three times as demanding for frames that are unbraced. In the world of elastic analysis there is always the possibility that if the stiffness of one part of the frame is wrongly judged. supposed to form harmlessly in the member.and that can be calculated with reasonable confidence. A more reasonable opinion is that only the brittle components of the connection . measured as the change in the angle between the connected members. Code rules vary between the vague and open to interpretation (Traditional British) and the unambiguous but maybe unachievable (Modem European). a concern that allowance ought to be made for overstrength members. sensitive to connection flexibility than if the frame is braced. because the stronger the members are the less likely that any plastic hinges will need to form and rotate. All that matters for the analysis IS that the connections are full strength . Elastic analysis is the traditional method of global analysis and when these come together the connections are required to be Rigid. Simple construction The nominally pinned connection is only required to transmit force: usually shear force. In practice designers exercise judgement. Continuous Elastic design Continuous construction is the opposite of 'discontinuous' simple construction. Throughout this rotation the connection must offer negligible resistance to moment.
BCSA Ha: Simple construction Another use for standard ductile connections has been observed. P = = Semi-continuousjoints were used on the Atup Campus L El . the ductile connection can provide it -together with the rotation capacity that allows it to be harmlesslysubstituted for the nominally pinned connection of the original design. It is not recommended. and there are situations in simple construction where a connection designed to be limp is far from ideal in the incomplete frame. the issues of serviceabilityand stability must also be addressed.and gravity-induced moments. questions would remain about the sensitivity of the resulting bending moment distribution to the accuracy of the input. semi-continuous elastic design has to be mentioned. Prwided that the proper connections are used. Safe erection is an industry preoccupation. . virtually guarantees that plastic hinges will form at the connections. rather as a class 1 ‘plastic’ cross section is. Design with partial strength connections. usually at beam ends. published by SCI. They are quite ordinary looking end plate connections in which plate thickness is controlled (relative to bok tension) to ensure safe deformation. Even if they were. I Semi-continuous Elastic design For completeness. which in its original form was regarded with affectkm by some and with suspicion by others. Their performance has been verified by testing. Sharp-pencilled designers would be tempted to contrive a SCI Ha: Wind-moment frame Semi-continuous Plastic design The answer may lie in semi-continuous plastic design. This is semi-rigid design in the strict sense of the word. and if they are ductile they are qualified to perform as such. In d i . i c a nreverse). they differ only in having the same pattern of bdts top and bottom @ecausewind moments I . but can in practice be selected from the standard range of predesigned connections. If a full depth end plate connection is desired to cater for this condition. Ductility implies rotation capacw without loss of strength. and it is worth emphasising that the benefit which comes in the form of reduced beam depth will often outweigh the direct cost saving. Up to date guidance is found in S I ’ SP-263 and P-264. semi-continuous plastic design should be thoughtof as the new name for the very trrvtiinalwind-moment method. the method is now thorwghly respectable and recommendable. This approach promises to be the next evolutionary step in multistorey braced frame design. The connections were supposed to possess ‘unusual powers of discrimination’ between wind. they just need to be ductile.In unbraced frames. Ductile connections need to be carefully designed. In terms of elaboration and therefore cost they have more in common with ‘simple’ connections than with those for continuous construction. because reliable formulae for connection stiffness (to be fed into the analysis as rotational springs at member ends) are not available. so that the frame can adapt phsticaly. A point to watch is t h a t strength deagn is only part ofthe process. to be found in the yellow pages of Design of Semi-continuous Braced Frames (P-l83). standard ductile cxmwckm ’ s for wind-moment frames aretabulated in the Moment cormectis Green Book.
with industry and taxpayer support. EC3's formula. such as the standard ductile connections. which are a specialist subject . It sets out to encompass a wide population of connection styles. More reliable formulae for connection stiffness are worth pursuing for serviceability checking purposes. This has implications for the division of labour between the connection designer and the frame designer. now including EC3. These may increase interest in hybrid multi-storey frames using square hollow columns partnered with conventional beam sections. the more likely that serviceability will control. The way our industry operates means they are liable to be different people working in different organisations. not least for plastically designed frames. and helps to minimise the issues which arise at the interface between design and construction. joints are rarely capable of transmitting the full capacity of the intersecting member. Standardisation. or to be more precise the rebar. and that is for serviceability checks. Another is the wish to avoid spending more on welding compression stiffeners at bottom flange level than is being saved elsewhere. their authority aspires to the level of British or European Standards but ultimately derives from the esteem of the practical people who use them. researchers. Designers of this type of connection are operating not far behind the research front and are advised to consult the Composite Connections Green Book (P-213) and be aware. can deliver process efficiencies for all styles of connection. There is no guarantee that a semi-rigid connection will qualify as ductile. The latest ediiion of the Simple Connections Green Book (P-212) has been expanded to include these systems. 2001 in References). the responsible frame designer must. The Green Books and the Connections Group A shared understanding of connection design principles and best practice is vital to the smooth running of our industry and our projects. 'Class C' bar. proves to be a more successful approach (see Brown et al. which are done elastically irrespective of how the analysis for strength design was done. In fact. For UK steel construction.bending moment diagram with equal end and span moments. Moment connections in composite construction are another matter. it is the key which unlocks obstacles and makes the method a practical proposition. for simple construction. These not-so-slim volumes are sometimes described as Industry Standards. As all its users are aware. TClbular construction A section in a general survey cannot do justice to tubular connections. Connections betwean two (or more) hollow sections. They will never be all-embracing. However. and the geometry-dependent reduction factors can be quite low. the vehicle for connection design guidance is the series of Green Books prepared by the B C W SCI Connections Group. are covered in the familiar CIDECT design guidance which is published in several forms. The more refined the frame design. more ductile. commonly encountered in trusswork and the like. although an improvement on its predecessor. There are positiive as well as negative aspects to the inevitable wholesale revision exercise. Composite construction The popularity of composite construction in the multi-storey market is such that it may Seem remiss not to have mentioned it so far. at least. with the development of innovatie 'blind' fastening techniques for bolting direct to the face of a hollow section. but . In the case of ductile connections for semi-continuous construction. is not well respected. Compression in the bottom flange of the steel beam is coupled with tension in the concrete slab. An encouraging development in the rebar supply chain is the promised availability of a new. and jointly published by BCSA and SCI. the Group's next challenge is to adapt to the new 'correctness' coming our way from Europe. there is really no difference in connection design. but over the years since the Group was established in 1987 most areas of connection design practice have received attention. bolt manufacturers and the increasingly important stakeholder group of software developers. one of which is the prospect that a wider steelwork community may benefit from the Group's efforts and investment in this field. steelmakers. so as to size the beamjust as if it had been plastically analysed but without the ductile connections. indeed it can be argued that the traditional designer-contractor handover o f responsibility for connection design is only really valid for simple connections. 1 I El . Currently the Connections Group has around 25 members. representing steelwork contractors. take steps to establish that a practical connection can be made to transmit the design forces and moments. Of course this holds true for many non-tubular connections as well. Under the chairmanship of SCI Director Graham Owens. Restricting the scope to a single family. design firms. semi-rigid analysis does have a valuable role. Connection stiffness contributes immeasurably to serviceability (true to some extent even of nominally pinned connections). it does more than that. of design approach as well as detail configuration. whose elongation capadty becomes an important consideration.and a fast moving one.
but it is also influenced by such wild cards as initial lack of fit. unforeseen composite action and load history. It is a comfort that steel frames. .Conclusion To conclude. and the important differences identified between needed connection properties under the different design regimes. differential settlement. we do well to remind ourselves that nobody told the frame how it was analysed. are a function of the means as much as the end. The state of stress in the real frame is influenced by our design. however designed. have a forgiving nature as evidenced by past performance over a century and more. The distinctions drawn between elastic and plastic analysis.
The range of connections covered includes splices and base plates.e. gusseted brace and truss connections.Ensuring ductility and rotation c a p a m is handled in the design models by applying detailing rules which research has shown will provide an adequate measure of both. This requires both ’ductility‘ and ‘rotation capacity’ from the ‘simple’ connection. Hence.the software input should reflect this or. column bases. The design model component was written in a form that was clear and concise but more importantly supported the logic associated with implementing the design models into software. Without well researched design models the software suppliers have some difficulty providing robust and safe calculation routines.) These models have become the de facto standard for such connections. fin plates were widely used in some parts of the world but not in the UK. Usually it is not commercially viable to carry out the research themselves be it desk study andor physical testing. if integrated within a wider design or detailing model (see below). of course. splices. These models have become the de facto standard for such connections. also provide the function of allowing quick design estimates. these two publications have been combined into one volume (P-212) with additional material and in compliance with BS 5950-1: 2000. This publication was later enhanced by the separate publication of a set of worked e x a m m and safe loadtables (P-206). However. Consequently. Underlying design models The publication of the ‘Green Book’ on simple connections in 1991(P-205) provided a definitive set of design models for the most common types of simple connections . However. tend not to be blessed with definitive design models. The latest and most efficient design models for moment connections have been written assuming that nobody would attempt such a design by hand. this assumption of pinned ends infers that the beam end and hence the connection will rotate relative to the supporting member. For those simple connections that are within the scope of the software (or can be modelled within the given scope). not simple to design. if it is a ‘good’ detail then it will most likely be adequate structurally. lt is no surprisethen that the prevalent 3D steelwork modelling/detailing software incorporate modules for simple connection design. There is no consideration in the design model of applied moment . variations from the ‘standard’ do occur but using the principles laid down in the design models many of these can be accommodated within the scope of the software. This is partcularty true of moment connections. This provided a definitii set of design models for the most common typesof moment resisting connections. For connections in ‘Simple Construction’ e. nearty all of these types of connection are designed using software. Most recently. no moment) is consistent with including pins at the member ends in the analysis model. The safe load tables and worked examples ensured that quick hand designs could still be carried out by those who do not have access to the requisite software. It is believed that most current software packages currently do not include any calculation to check these requiremmts. fin plate and double angle cleat. you may find these beyond the scope of your current software.e. Introduction For some time now. the size of the connection is usually governed by good detailing. Thus for simple connections the design considers only Ultimate Limit State checks for applied shear and tension due to tying forces. The safe load tables. CSC (UK) Limited Most simple connections are driven by good detailing practice i. Where structural integrity requirements also need to be met (more often since the revised version of Part A of the Building Regulations was published in December 2004). the program should carry out the appropriate strength checks. In both cases (simple and moment connections) not all of the connections that ‘appear’ on site can be dealt with clearly in the software. there is often a need to either ‘model’ the connection within the scope of the particular program or resort to hand calculations. Hence. It is important that the designer understands connection design per se and then uses the software to assist with the (boring!) calculations. . by their very nature.CHAPTER 3 Connection d programmes Alan Rathbone. the data passed to the design engine in the program should be limited to this. Whether the connection you are designing is clearly within scope or you are manipulating the software to give some reasonable answers. This must be borne in mind if you are tempted to stray from the standard details (usually the default settings in the software) or you are using the program to model an unusual configuration.flexible end plate. The Green Book was ground breaking in not only providing design models and standardised connections but also in promoting a new type of simple connection.g. Anything that is unusual or very variable e. fin p!ates and double angle cleats.g. bolted end plate -flush o r extended with OT without haunches: direct welded. it should always be remembered that the software is only a tool. Moment connections The design of moment connections is the subjfxt matter of another publication in the ‘Green Book‘ series which was published in 1995 (P-207). Indeed the underlying design models in the Green Book provide no method for doing so. Simihrly. the program will check the ultimate resistance of the various components based on the distribution of forces within the connection arising from applied vertical shear. the majority of steelwork design has been carried out by software. The Ultimate Limit State loading as described above (i. flexiMe endplates. moment connections are. (Notethat at the time of writing the first edition of the Green Book.
Such connections are thought to be like used and the author is unaware of any software that deals with this type of connection.. complex or critical and different that a more fundamental approach is required. To model these sufficiently accurately will necessitate the use of ‘high end’ analysis software. therefore.g. of stiffness is dependent upon the type of connection e. It draws on the principles embodied in but is different to the design model for simple bases. Each component was then checked for the force that it ‘saw’. Under most circumstances this allows plastic redistribution to occur which can lead to more efficient designs than the earlier models. the resistanceof each component is calculated and the minimum resistance of each component ‘summed’ to give the overall moment of resistance. U I l1 I . It is believed that most software packages currently do not include any calculation to check these requirements. It also has an effect on the approach adopted in software (see below). You are advised to read Section 2. This must be borne in mind if you are tempted to stray from the usual details or you are using the program to model an unusual configuration. prior to the introduction of this Green Book there were a number of design models for bolted end plate and other types of moment connection (seeBCSA’s Manual 1982 and Horne 8. Further discussion is. The approach in these earlier models differed from that contained in the Green Book.g.e. However the effects are believed not to be overfy significant. However. Responsible software vendors are likely to have amended their programs to suit these changed requirementswhilst continuing to comply with the principles of the current or earlier design models as appropriate. . and the situation in which it is to be used. normal engineering criteria e. If the component had insufficient strength then its size or strength had to be increased or stiffened in some way. It should be noted that those provided for portal haunch connections are rather conservative.5 of the Green Bad< on moment connections (P-207). It is most appropriate for bases with significant applied moment and some axial load (as opposed to an axially loaded base with some moment). The design model takes a ‘reinforced concrete approach’. complex stress states e. The publication also deals with the effects on frame design.g. there may be Occasions when connections are sufficiently large. post yielding behaviour. haunched connections tend to be very stiff. Ultimate Limit State loading includes moments (of course). beyond the scope here and the reader is recommended to refer directly to the Green Book.mpositc . Worked examples ensure that the design process can be understood and hence assist in the confirmation of expected results from the software. allowing for lack of fit and tolerances. 3D brick elements. In a 3D model this is equivalent to providing rotational restraint about the local major axis. complex Interconnectivity e. Ensuring adequate s t i e s s is usually a question of experience. the underlying design models in the Green Book provide no method for doing so. You need to know what you are doing and be confident to consider such items as: complex finite element types e. This requires an assessment of the s t i of the connection.g.mnectlc. A new but logical design model for column bases is provided in the Green Book. built-instresses due to weldlng or residual stresses due to rolling. . Using elementary structural mechanics these bolt forces were distributed into and tracked through the connection components. Monis 1981 in References) that were basedon an essentially linear distribution of bolt forces. This will provide an analysis of the connection only and not the design. Resistances are generally based on code requirements. The latter is a so called ‘capacity model’. Such detail is obviously beyond the scope here. That is.However. This approach suits the vast majority of connection types that you will come across in every day design. The design model component of the Green Book was written in a form that was clear and concise but more importantly supported the logic associated with implementing the design models into software. This is consistent with including ‘fixed ends’ to members in the analysis model. Most bolted end plate connections have lile moment of resistance about their vertical axis and hence in the analysis model the rotational restraint about the local minor axis should be free (i. Current and past design models have not been updated to comply with BS 5950-1: 2000. It should be noted that the assumption of fixed ends infers that the beam end and hence the connection will m a i n at the same angle to the supporting column until its reaches its maximum moment of resistme. This is then compared with applied moment. complex material behaviour e.- There is a publication P-213 in the Green Book series that deals with composite connections. the approach is based primarily on the application of relatively simple structural mechanics. yield or semi-empirical requirements based on either physical tests or experience. Indeed they have been written assuming that nobody would attempt such a design by hand! The safe load tables provide the function of allowing quick design estimates for those who do not have access to the requisite software. The importance In all the above design models. The author is not aware of any ‘official’ information on the effects of these changes on the earlier design models. In this casethere may be no given design models and the performance of the connection can be ascertained using full finite element modelling. pinned out of plane). Indeed. Specific software usually exists for most of these (see below).g. shear and axial load-the last is usually glossed over or ignored in the earlier models.g.
the orientation of the members and number of bolts in each connected leg determines the effective length used to establish the buckling resistance.g. The most common foms of moment connection that you are likely to encounter are the haunched beam to column bolted end plate connection and the beam to beam bolted end plate connection found at the eaves and apex of portalframes (respectively)as illustrated. For members in tension. beam to beam and beam to column using flexible end plates. for simple connections. in trusses. gusset plate to CHS or CHWSHS internals to I. for ‘design and build’ the situationis slightly different and designers have the choice to check their simple connections either at the building model design stage or at the steelwork detailing stage. connection design software is usually built into the steelwork detailing or 3D modelling software. Unlike simple connections. hybrid connections e. software will be available as ’stand-alone’ programs as well as integrated into the building design or detailing software. For members in compression. Other connections Software is also available for.Range of software Be aware that the all the various connection types simple. This type of software will usually deal with the standard details for simple connections e. programs for simple connections are not often run in ‘stand-alone mode’. the final connection design influences the member design. fin plates or angle cleats. Consequently software applies principles rather than discrete design models. the complex nature of the calculations effectively means that software is essential. as used in trusses between double angle bottom chords and single angle internals or as used between braces and the main framing steelwork can vary widely in their configuration. moment. the steelwork contractor or the design-and-build contractor usually with most effort expended at the detailed design stage. Apex connection (courtesy CSC F.may be packaged differently e. Clearly. If not then you will need to make a judgement as to whether for your connections in your structure the impact of the changes is significant. these are major connections requiring significant design effort. It should be remembered that. design may be carried out by the building designer. they may be one product or several products.or H-section chords. Gusset connections e. a facility for design in building modelling software might be useful. Simple connections The nature of the steelwork industry in the UK is such that simple connectionsare usually ‘detailed’ rather than ’designed’ and the work is carried out by the steelwork contractor and not the building designer. you should ascertain whether the necessary changes have been made to the software. splices.g. consequently.rbnk) Moment connections There is a wide range of software for the design of moment connections. Simple bases and splices are normally included. El .g. The consequence is that. It should be noted that software is not available for 100% of the connections you may encounter.g. hollow section connections typically used in tubular trusses. The software may be based on the Green Book approach and/or the earlier design models described above. This can have a number of effects. skewed or offset connections. the number of bolts and their layout will determine the ‘effective net area’ required by BS 5950-1: 2000. A range of non-standard but reasonably common connections may also be included e. connections.g. Whilst the Green Book has not been updated to the latest version of BS 5950-1. bases . Vierendeel connections. There is also a wide range of software for moment base design.
typically only the full profile weld to the underside of the cap plate is provided and relied upon in design. Justifiable but conservative design assumptions are made until such time that the steelwork industry can establish a reliable calculation model for this area.0mm!). As an example of the combination of these two effects. In BS 5950-1: 1990. a fillet weld with a 6mm leg length applied each side would suffice for both S275 and S355 steel. failure of the brittle components (welds) should be avoided. the required leg lengths of the weld are 6. efficient design models encapsulated in the Green Book for moment connections (and in EN 19931-8 . a cap plate can also be considered as a stiffener and indeed may be provided for that sole purpose. Detail of junction of stlffeners . They are normally cut short of the flanges to avoid any interference with other components of the connection or frame (as illustrated). The effect becomes more complicated if you are welding an S355 beam to an 5275 plate and/or you are using non-matching electrodes! h I . % :! *-.9mm for S275 and S355 steel respectively. Any bending effects I. due to the asymmetrical nature of a single sided weld are usually ignored owing to the comparatively stiff nature of the surrounding detail. shear stiffeners are often required in the web panel of portal frame eaves connections. It is suggested that this rule was based on original research using S275 steel and that later work showed that this could not be assumed for S355 steel. This is required to be 'full strength' i.the part of EC3 dealing with connection design) requires plastic redistribution of bolt forces.Some particular issues Welds Designersmay have noticed an increase in the required size of certain welds over recent years. Assuming matching electrodes. Due to the usual shape of the web panel. This can cause difficulties in achieving a sensible weld size since all of the design force is resisted by a single sided weld. there is insufficient access for the weld apparatus such that placing the weld with any degree of consistency. consider the weld between the web of a beam and an end plate in a moment connection. There is a temptation to provide a weld between the cap plate and the edge of the flange but there is a fear that this could become ineffective due to lamellar tearing in the stanchion flange. Taking a web of 8. Since this rule no longer appears in BS 5950-1: 2000 these welds must be 'designed'. This results in an increased weld size for the higher grade material (assuming that you agree that 6. There are various configurations including the 'Morris stiffener'. Hence.e. a 'cap plate' is sometimes provided to the top of a stanchion to assist with connecting parapet posts for instance. accuracy and consequent quality is very difficult. This has been brought about by two effects. to ensure adequate ductility in a connection. I3 I. These criteria lead to the necessary provision of 'full strength' welds in certain locations. This can be exacerbated by the juxtaposition of a compression stiffener at the same location (see illustration).lmm is within an engineering tolerance of 6. *The modem. Firstly. Hence for higher grade steels this rule was not safe and consequently the rule was removed from the 2000 version of BS 5950-1. there was a rule for symmetrically placed fillet welds that allowed their combined resistance to be taken as equal to the capacity of the janed plate when the sum of the throat thickness was equal to or greater than the thickness of the joined plate -the so-called "sum of throat thickness" rule. When present. these stiffeners are often steep and abut the column flange at a very acute angle.5mm thickness and applying the 'sum of throat thickness' rule. b Although not part of the same effectthere are a couple of other issues that have been addressed in rethinking the weld requirements contained in BS 5950-1: 2000. the welds fall well outside the d o 0 rule in BS 5950-1: 2M)o.1 and 6. Also. Secondly. . This angle is often so shallow that. be able to generate full yield in the web.
those subject to axial load and no moment is consistent between the Green Book and BS 5950-1: 2000. where members are ‘design’ members and not ‘analysis’ members then the end fixity can be set in a more appropriate manner by default e. of course. beams cannot be assumed to have fixed ends. The Green Book model can be applied to connections used in the Wind Moment Method and to semi-rigid design for the calculation of resistance at the Ultimate Limit State. current UK design guidance does not include methods for the calculation of stiffness and this has a number of impacts.e. Since most of the work and hence cost is in the preparatin and welding of the member endsthen attempting to minimise the section size is counterproductive. the design models for both strength and stiffness of connections into the web of I. the resistance of each component is calculated and the minimum resistance of each component ‘summed’ to give the overall moment of resistance. However. None of the components fail as such and thus it is only the overall moment of resistance that is adequate or not. You should bear this in mind and decide whether it is possible to ignore very small moments and design the base as simple. Bases The design model for simple bases i.e. Since the design models are discrete then it is likely that the software will also be discrete. Essentially the earlier models used elementary structural mechanics to distribute and track the bolt forces through the connection components.M o m t connections The difference in approach for moment connections between earlier models and that contained in the Green book was described above. simple beams have pinned ends. that means no software and dimcult fabrication. rf not at the interface level then certainly in the calculation routines ’behind the screen’. Despite the fact that the internals are fully welded to the chords. In a similar vein. The wind moment connections detailed in the Green Book do possess this attribute. This allowed logic to be built into software to decide how to deal with any component that failed a design check. Hallo\ wtion connections Hollow section connections are most typically used in tubular trusses. the other effects described are not taken into account and these have an effect on the frame design. This is then compared with applied moment. then due to the efficient way in which hollow sections carry the applied forces (mainly axial). Later. whereas this woukl be modelled as an actual beam or column in design. if the connections are ‘partial strength’ e. the stiffness of the connection may be insufficient to hold the connecting members at the same angle all the way through the load response history i. a PASS. Such connections are still often called for by the designer. Each component was then checked for the force that it ‘saw’. this type of connection behaves as if it were pinned at the final stage of loading i. it may be found difficult to j u s t i the connections between such minimum weight members and stiffening may be required. Since no individual item fails it is much more difficult to develop a logical strategy that can be built into software to automate the process of achieving a satisfactory configuration i. This is so that the model will analyze without any instability in the solution and relies on the designer making a positive effort to change the end fixity to something more realistic. all leading to increased costs. For example a simple base with 1000 kN axial load will not give the same result as a moment base with the same axial load and 1 kNm moment. update the analysisfdesign model and then check the member sizes.e. This terminology refers to an element between two nodes in analysis. With no design models.g. the lack of stiffness can markedly increase the deRections under the Serviceability Limit State loading.e. If the truss is designed first. being generous on the sizes selected. This model (as mentioned above) works well for bases with significant moment and some axial load. as assumed in the Wind Moment Method then they must have adequate rotation capacity. However. the design model for moment bases with significant axial load and very little moment does not coincide with the simple base model.e. When using software it may be best to be prepared for some iteration in the analysiddesign process i.or H-sections and into hollow sections are as yet undeveloped. relatiMy small. at Ultimate Limit State. guess the member sizes for the truss analysis. That is. All of these effects are taken into account in the Wind Moment Method but over a limited range of building arrangements. For moment resisting bases there is no definitive design model in BS 5950-1: 2000 but is well covered in the Green Book. very thin walled sections can be found to be adequate. as for the Ultimate Limit State in the first bullet point. check the connections. However.g. The approach contained in the Green Book is based on a so called ‘capacity model’. They can. This is due to the relatively thin walls of hollow sections and the large deformations that such connections can sustain. If the component had insufficient strength then its size or strength had to be increased or stiffened in some way. Software for general analysts was often blamed for these occurrences since in a general analysis package the assumptlon has to be that all member ends are fixed. with modem building model software . Whilst the software will calculate the strength of semi-rigid connections for use in the general case. also be designed to resist significant moments so that Vierendeel action can be generated. . This can have a significant effect on the deformations of the structure under Ultimate Limit State loading and significantly increase any second-order effects.
However. Whilst the assessment of the adequacy of the behavioural characteristics is currently based on experience. recent research by some members of the TC10 committee of ECCS has shown that with little stiffening such connections can sustain substantial moments. no re-input of data (and hence fewer mistakes) etc. . This an area of potential concern since the design model is so new and untfled that there may be idiosyncrasies and flaws that might produce designs that are quite different to those currently in use. This has a number of advantages including keeping all the data together. given a commercial case. A good example of the latter would be the design of moment connections to webs . This should ease the adoption of the Eurocode rules into the UK for those types of connection. Such connections are normally avoided due to the difficulty of making and proving an adequate detail. This draws heavily on the principles developed for moment connections and as such it is very different from current design models.Advances foreseen Design models The terms stiffness. Any safety issues that arise would of course be addressed by the software vendors whilst.once the research is complete and a robust design model exists it is only necessaty for customers to perceive a benefit in having this type of connection for the software vendors to react and include them.or H-sections columns are required. methods for their calculation are becoming available with the introduction of the Eurocodesand accompanying documents. This has already been present in detailing software particularly for simple connections for a number of years. no replication of data. The research is incomplete and has not yet addressed the thorny issue of stiffness. occasionally moment connections into one side of the web of I. but the main topics that are likely to be influenced by the Eurocodes either directly or indirectly are: the checks for structural integrity in simple connection may improve with work that is going on in parallel with the introduction of the Eurocodes under the auspices of Technical Committee 10 of the European Convention on Constructional Steelwork (ECCS. Whilst this model is no longer in an annex the requirements remain essentially unchanged in the forthcoming part of EC3 that deals with connections. the design model for moment connections contained in the Green Book is based on the ENV version of EC3 -the socalled Annex J method.Accidental. in time full design models for such connections are likely to become available. It is important that you understand connection design per se and then use the software to assist with the calculations. ductility and rotation capacity have been mentioned above in the context of both simple and moment connections. Actions . it should always be remembered that the software is only a tool. Software Any changes to design models as described in the previous sub-section will obviously affect the software. the umbrella body in Europe for all the trade associations such as our own BCSA). It is becoming increasingly popular for building modelling software. This may be a double-edged sword in that it will now allow us to calculate such things but in some cases we may not like the answers! The approach to strength design in the Eurocodes will see some relatively minor changes to the way we carry out some of the checks. EN 1993-1-8. Whatever type of connection you are designing. One of the main areas of change for software for connection design is in 'integration' that is allowing the connection design from within a larger software package. However. facilitating change control. new connection types are likely to be included as the design models become available. Design forces for structural integrity checks will be contained in EN 1991-1-7. EN 1993-1-8 also provides a design model for bases.
obtaining the full load . My assessment is. some 15 years ago we were attempting to understand composite action in connections between steel columns and composite floors. Residual stresses due to welding. software is cheap to run 1--May be run on any suitable platform. rotations etc) taken in both series against which to check these. Shear connectorhetal deckingkebar interaction in compositejoints. to some extent. Subsequent studies. more comprehensivemonitoring of performanceand more serious attempts to convert this knowledge into behavioural models for various connection types.g. contradictory behaviour.strains. "it all depends on what features you are considering". No doubt members of the research community in many parts of the world are currently working on these and other challenging issues but for the foreseeable future the laboratory will remain one important component. during which time the role of laboratory testing has. then an appropriately configured FE run would be much more convenient than a Laboratory test. that we were able to appreciate subtle changes in the exact mode of failure between the two series. therefore. Pre World War 2 such work was largely confined to laboratory testing. Nowadays numerous commercially available FE packages do the job far more quickly and cheaply. In two separate series of tests we had observed seemingly Future needs Currently. the correct response to the question is that both approaches are required and that the most influential gains in understanding are likely to come from an'intelligent combination of the two. Experiment Exact replica of practice Numerical Need to model the interaction of several complex features and phenomena. To take one illustration from my own experience. technician and I experimental skills replaced by "the intelligent user" Physical size of the connection studied has negligible effects Now feasible to conduct many runs with systematic variation of all key parameters Possible numerical problems and/or false results I I I Sharp rise in costs and complexity with increase in physical size Impossible to fully cover the range of all important parameters Possible experimental malfunction e. To take an example from a different field: when did you last read of an elastic test on a perspex model of a bridge deck designed to produce a set of influence coefficients? Forty years ago this was normal practice. on which to base better design methods started in the early part of the last century. changed. The table below contrasts the main features of the experimentaland the numerical approach. for the other it appeared to influence the ability of the connection to develop its full moment capacity. It was not until we developed a fully validated FE model. Lack of fit effects. premature failure due to inappropriate specimenfrig design . the following features of connection behaviour remain difficult to model: Friction and slip of bolts loaded in shear positioned in clearance holes. In one case the ratio of moment to shear applied to the joint appeared to have no effect.even for the most expert research team. However. We postulated various explanations but did not really have sufficient evidence from the different measures of response (deflections. For the present.CHAPTER 4 From laboratory to laptop David Nethercot. Bolt pretension for bolts subsequently loaded in tension and bending.deformation response for a bolted fin plate connection represents a substantial challenge . e. in tubular joints. making small changes to key parameters. For steelwork connections. After the war this became more scientific. Provide confidence in the numerical approach by careful validation. if we were interested in the elastic stresses in an all welded beam to column joint using UB and UC sections. The past few decades have seen the emergenceand growth of numericalwork. the contrast with the situation a century ago is that it now has a powerful ally in numerical analysis. Imperial College Generating the knowledge base Research necessary to provide the improved understanding of the behaviour of connections. some of which are still "too difficult" Post peak loading response often difficult to follow Full range behaviour I Expense (time and cost) = m e I b u i l t and skilledmanpower I Once validated. of course. with better conceived tests.g. that there will always be a need for experiments that both: Permit the key behavioural features to be identified by observation. Use of numerical analysis The key question is "can numerical analysis replace physical testing and if so when?" The answer is. clearly showed that both sets of tests were correct but that without the supplementary numerical studies we simply did not have sufficient test results to understand all aspects of the problem.
.lusas. Illustrationof lab t e s t (above) Reproduced courtesy of LUSAS.PDF Illustrationof FE graphic (below) .t-* . For more details of the worked example by Jim Butterworth see: http://www.comlpdf/CS502~FEA_of~Structural~Steelwork~Beam~to~Column~Bolted~Connections.
which are clearly the most common. lack of ductility could lead to connection failure at low load). to redistribute moments into the span. These are most commonly used in what are termed wind-moment frames. composite connections present a whole range of issues particular to themselves. A particular problem with composite connections is their use with unpropped beams. Rigid connections do not generally need to be particularly ductile. but is normally achieved inherently because the detailing needed to achieve strength (‘thick‘ plates. Pinned connections are designed primarily based on past experience (and previous test data). even the names of these three types are potentialiy misleading. introduction Prompted by the development of Eurocode 3 in recent years (decades). Stiffness (or rigidity). lots of ‘big’ bolts etc) is compatible with that needed to achieve strength. namely ‘pinned’ (or ‘simple’) and ‘rigid’. As considered below. This is a particular problem when more complex performance is needed. normally by considering only the strength requirements. Different components (the connection rebars. These are: Strength (moment resistance). No explicit consideration is normally given to ather the stiffness or ductility of such connections. the lower fibres in the beam) are then strained as part of different regimes under dead and imposed loads. they are unlikely to have sufficient ductility (choosing connection components that deform to give ductility is often in conflict with a need to provide strength and stiess. for example in wind-moment frames (even if the connections were not always recognised as such). Ductility (rotation capacity). The former characteristic is just as necessary as the connection strength. perhaps by using tabulated data for standard connections in the Green Book on Simple Connections (P-212). Substantial amounts of local reinforcement are needed to achieve a moment resistance that is not too low compared with the sagging moment resistance of the composite beam (which of course is much higher than that of the steel section alone). problems. Whilst these characteristics are very important (excessive strength could lead to columns being overloaded. Building on this theme of connection characteristics. using large amounts of reinforcement in a confined area poses practical. the traditional approach to steelwork connection desigrddetailing in the UK has been to consider two types of connection. At face value their use seems very interesting. certan stiffness (semi-rigid) and high ductility. However. ‘semi-rigid’. This can provide significant benefits in terms of reducing beam deflections. P-264) include standard connections that have been shown by testing to petform appropriately. The SCI publications covering wind-moment design (P-263. BRE example is connections that. but also in semi-continuous braced frames (SCI publication P-183). Using substantial reinforcement means that the need for connection rotation. connections. but all the requisite rotational characteristics (low strength. Analysis becomes rather complicated! . there is nothing to suggest this reliance on past experience is inadequate. including anchorage. The shear resistance of such connections is explicitly considered. has occasionally been used. to be compatible with the frame member designs. specialists in the steelwork sector have been giving considerable thought to the rotational characteristics of steel.-’ Graham Couchman. Connection types Rigid connections are designed using one of various models. but care is needed to ensure the connections ’work properly’. Personal experience suggests that designers who do not follow this guidance but detail non-standard connections. A third type. is not a problem. it is precisely because of the importance of all the connection’s characteristics that designers should seek to understand the basics of how they perform. The rebar also helps to ensure the connection has reasonable ductility and stiffness. there is a danger that this will not always be the case. An ConcIusion The rotational behaviour of composite connections is complex. so a fine balance must be achieved). so the inability of ‘thick’ plates and ‘big’ bolts to deform. more guidance is needed before they will find more widespread adoption. whilst a book of standard composite connections has been produced by BCWSCI as part of the Green Book series (P-213). However. Somewhat in contrast to this. or perhaps tabulated data for standard connections from the BCSNSCI Green Book on Moment Connections (P207).CHAPTER 5 Conne-’ion rot-’!-. low stiffness. high ductility) are assumed to be implicitly achieved based on past experience. do so at their peril. simply by adding local slab reinforcement. high levels of strength and stiffness can be achieved without the need for complex (costly)steel detailing. Whilst these connections are likely to be sufficiently stiff. Whilst good practice detailing will normally ensure that ‘compatible’ Characteristics are achieved (as noted above). to calculate their strength. and indeed steel-concrete composite. However. need to have a certain strength (partial). can be limited. allowing rotation.
The saw is accurate to a fraction of a millimetre for length. The medium sized steelwork contractors (50-300 tonnedweek) complete the majority of structures and the following equipment is likely to be available to them. If drills are liquid or air-cooled this allows an increase of three times the spindle speed. which is cbmped in the hydraulic jaws. Corus Construction and Industrial Introduction Simple details and simplifying awkward details are the key to ensuring a successful project. welder and portable magnetic dnll. Occasionallya CNC controlled coping machine capable of cutting in three dimensions will be available. are available. For example bolted cleats may be favoured if an automated drill line and angle line are available. Another factor to be considered is the machinery available to a particular fabrication shop and therefore choosing details to suit.2% of the depth of the cut for square. The drills only operate at a certain point on the drill bed and therefore offer maximum economy if the holes in the flanges and web are in line. This blade descends on the member. and fully welded trusses should be avoided if a limited lay down area is present. Band saws are used and although more suited to cutting smaller members and tubes are becoming economic for midsized profiles. An option is a swivelling saw bed that allows bevel cuts of up to 45O. It would be simpliclty itself for the steelwork contractor to deliver plain beams to site just cut to length and leave the erectors to site weld the elements together! This happens on sites in countries where works facilities are rare and the weather is fine. The members still may require coping or notching. Multi-head and automatic dnll changers I Manual notching Automatic coping . however there are many practical aspects beyond calculation. The blade speed adjusts itself automatically on ts way through the work piece dependent on the thickness of material. which an engineer will learn through experience or adversity. but here it is efficient if a standard 22mm diameter hole for an M20 bolt is used throughout to avoid downtime to change the drill bits. Three axis drills are CNC controlled and include a measuring head. These two items combined in a fully automated machine comprise the ubiquitous "saw and drill line". Circular cold saw Basic fabrication machinery Available equipment The tools and machines owned by the various steelwork contractors in this country vary widely from the largest with CNC fully automated everything to the smallest just with a saw. but for UK construction the objective of a deslgn engineer is to apportion the tasks in a way that all personnel in the chain here work efficiently. The items below are written with an engineer in mind who has recently started designing steelwork. and within 0. The piece is clamped between rollersthat move the piece along the conveyors. Notching is often still done by the traditional method of marking out then cutting with the "gas axe" (oxy-propaneor oxy-acetylene torch). allowing all three drills to work at the same time. Rotating the saw to form bevel cuts takes time and the detail should take into account whether it is easier to form the angle requiredwith the Mting or incoming member.CHAPTER 6 Simple connections and iasic 2brication Dave Chapman. Drill line Processing main members Circular saws rotate slowly cutting away sizeable chips of steel rather than the small particles obtained from a hacksaw. There are good publications on the design of connections.
and therefore less costly. crop and mark angles and flats up to 150mm x 150mm x 15mm. As well as rectangular plates. stieners and flat bracing plus many other items can be formed using the angle line. marks and bwns large plates typically up to 600mm wide x 50mm thick with 40mm diameter holes. However at a thickness of 25mm some distortion of the cut edge may become evident. Plate guillotine c3 Flal bar processor Manwl wedding . splice plates and large end plates. fin plates. but stick welding is used for awkward locations and on site. large gussets. Welding is a complex process of using an electric arc to generate heat to melt the parent material in the joint. base plates. A separate filler material supplied as a consumable wire electrode also melts and combines with the parent material to form a weld pool. purlin cleats.Processing fittings Alongside the processing of the main members. The wire electrode is fed from a spool. however. profiles can be produced. Punching holes in steelwork is much faster. o r to secondary members. This machine is ideal for baseplates. bracing tongues and caps. complex plate The angle line is a very versatile and swift tool being able to punch. Wide plate is quickly cropped on a guillotine to make floor plate. truss gussets. the fittings will be made to the draughtsman’s details. angle cleats. clamped and sheared. The illustration shows a component that has been punched and marked prior to cropping. is generally limited to predominantly statically loaded structures with limited thickness. These are formed from plate. A Rat bar 7 drills. Assembly The fittings and members are brougM together for shop bolting occasionally or more usually “MIG welding” (strictly speaking this is MAG welding). Fittings can be end plates. The maximumthickness where punching is applicable depends on the material grade and quality. flat or short lengths of section. its use. The weld pool is susceptible to atmospheric contamination and is shielded by gas during the critical liquid to sdid freezing state. Standard end plates. than drilling. This is still conducted manually except for the most advanced production of plate girders. The plate is marked. or a required width of flat.
This is an example of the draughtsman considering “buildability” by making life easier on site. side and internal columns may be at different orientations and formed from U& or UCs the temptation is to use the minimum size base plates resulting in rectangular plates. End plated beam Holes in beam web Square base pla. Beams to flange and web Rectangular bracing gusset Preferred sizes of holding dow bolts and anchor plates Diameter HD bolts Length (rnrn) M20 I I M24 300 375 450 1 I I M30 375 1 4 5 0 120 x 120 15 20 450 I I Anchor plates (rnrn) Size (rnrn) Thickness (for 4. as once installed they look the same.6 bolts) 100x100 150 x 150 20 12 Thickness (for 8. all of the welding is on the primary beam.8 bolts) Standad lengths of HD bolts for each diameter are shown in bold type 15 25 El . If a primary beam has incoming fin plated secondiuy beams supported by it. resulting in more work for the design engineer. end plates and fin plates.8 x 600mm long and M24 grade 4. A subsequentiy erected beam must avoid the bolts already present. For example. the endplate does not need to be the full width of the flange and this is also true for moment connections. especialiy if they are moment jants. A frequent call from site is that bolts have been cast at 900 to the direction required. If a portal or gable column forms part of the office area a similar bolt layout can be employed to avoid differences or eccentric centre lines. A fin plate is preferred in many locationsdue to speed and ease of erection. An end plate is welded to the end of a beam and then bolted to a beam or column. The problem of bolt and tool access is not restricted to columns as it also applies to the top of steep apex joints and trusses/spliceswhere large air powered socket drivers are used to tighten the bdts. In s ~ cases 8 a larger o r different shape column will pravide a better overall solution. There is a wide range of bolts and anchorages existing. A similar beam is drilled and bolted to a fin plate welded to the supporting member. To avoid this potential risk all bases and bolt setting should be square and use easy dimensions to aid the groundworker.6 x 450mm long on the same site. To help ensure the correct holding down (HD) bolts end up securing the correct column only one diameter should be used for a certain grade and length. Access for bolting beams to small columns. the common choices are shown in this table.1 Column bases and holding down bolts In an office building frame where the front. 1 1 Fin plate on beam Bolting access iI As seen in the illustration. which allows the secondary beams to flow straight to the paint shop and thus reduce handling costs. L plab to common holding down b o b 1 1 ~ Beam connections There is a choice of two common forms of beam-to-beam and beam-to-column connections. and the first erected beam must not prevent fixing of the next bsam. needs to be carefully considered. . do not specify M24 grade 8. .
04mm change in length. Hower. This is a bearing splice using a thick division plate allowing the spread of load from the smaller section above to the resisting lower flanges. Is the extra cost of a few hundred pounds worth it to save 32mm (2x16)? Computer detailed gusset plates are most simply drawn using a rectangular plate. Although a continuation of a similar rectangular plate to the tongue of the bracing is the best use of material. Countersinking bolts is expensive and time consuming. The first is "direct bearing' where the upper shaft stands on the top of the lower one. This form is by far the most common until the number of bolts and size of splice plates becomes very large when bearing splices have to be employed. Also stabili during erection may Bolt diameter (mm) M20 M24 M30 Bolt head depth (mm) 14 1 6 7Lpical comparative cost of b o b per 100 Qrade8. a vertical side does assist accurate placement of the part. the bearing capacity in a 12mm thick flange is 132kN and for a countersunk bolt 66kN.I - I ' '-Rf After some design practice on similar joints A will become clear that for a given load the same group of bolts. This style is ideally suited to very heavily loaded columns because when fitted on site any small gap between the two pieces due to lack of fit would require filling. although all the member centmids node (i. In non-bearing splices a distinct gap between columns is detailed and the loads are transferred from one stack to the other through the bolts and splice plates only.e. There are two t y p e s of splice. a critical condition is the temporary condRion of a high level column under wind load before any beams are attached. dictate the use of 2 or 3 storey shafts. This is not the case as a 15mm movement in a 6m flat is equivalent to less than 0.8 bolts are required. meet at a single point). Bracing connections "K" bracing resists compression and tension forces and is frequently formed by using circular or square hollow sections. at a workshop rate of say MOhour (still cheaper than many car main dealerships). or a simple tensioning system can be added to one end. The bolts present may be resisting a moment or providing a tensile resistance from forces to avoid progressive collapse. the line of action passes through thin air and is not coincident with the centre of the weld group. If this flange were then countersunk the column would require checking for the net section. Column splices Column splices are required in buildings over 4 or 5 storeys to keep the lengths transportable and to break the structure into manageable phases. In a bolt-bearing splice a further complication would be to run the splice plates inside the flanges and save the thickness of the plate from the overall width. Crossed flat bracing works in tension and is weak horizontally and can be moved by hand on site leading to allegations of lack ofiit. to ensure a t a u t bracing system the flats are draw a few millimetres short and have to be fought into place. Flats can be full h g t h but reducing their letqthwith a central plate aids erection iftheybecomeunwieldy. This eccentricity produces a moment in the weld group that may result in the originally designed 6mm fillet weld needing to be 8 or 10mm. In braced bays it is prudent to use end plates as these typically have greater vertical capacity than fin plates and the shear in the beam due to wind can be greater than the g r a m loads. taking about 10 minutes per hole including handling. This may appear the simplest and most logical method but the real risk of gaps encourages the use of the second type "non-bearing" or "bolt bearing". If we consider a similar modest arrangement to that in the photo where 32 regular M24 grade 8. After a column passes through the drill line countersinking is often completed manually.8 Countersunk €24 € 4 4 8 f72 f144 f400 20 €1 60 . It is possible that. The illustration shows a splice using bolts that have been countersunk into the splice plates to avoid the protruding bolt heads. For splice design forces. weld and plate will give a balanced answer where each element is working equally hard.
Cantilever floor Truss noded at column Truss noded at end plate Truss boom noded Cantilevers Shallow bolted connections for cantilevers inevitably rotate a small amount. While this is true. Even if a boom size has to change or the internals made narrower as viewed. The fully noded example will experience horizontal shear in the region indicated along with local tension at the top and bearing/buckling below. If it is in compression. BS 5950-1 states "eccentricity should be introduced" for hollow sections to give a gap or allow adequate overlap to transfer the forces involved. If insufficient contact is present betweenthe boom and diagonal elements a triangular infill plate can be attached to transfer the horizontal shear. The example noding on the end plate has the vertical shear resisted at the same place. It could be cut manually by a saw or more likely with the oxy-gas burner during fit up. The illustrations show two arrangements of a truss top boom and the last diagonal fixing to a column. We are taught member centroids should coincide to ensure the forces resolve to zero at one point. This also applies to tied portal frames and bracing structures. This operation is made more awkward if the booms are precambered. Truss Details If an economic member design of a truss has been completed independently it is a fair certainty that the ensuing connection design will take longer.4. If the position of the boom splices can be determined. One of the fully noded internals on the bottom boom requires a second cut at both ends. stiffness and depth are much more important properties than strength as these members will exhibit significant deflection and movement. This change must be conducted with the approval of the member designers and the induced local effects checked by them or the joint designer. leaving no tolerance for adjustment. The fit up of the internals will be awkward as every internal fixes to its adjacent members. I I I I Truss boom gap Truss boom welding Lintel welding . For cantilevers and members subject to torsion. unfortunately this avoidance of eccentricity can cause more problems than it solves. This becomes less economic than turning the UC boom upright and adding a few extra bottom boom restraints. Some re-noding can significantly increase the fabrication speed of trusses. a pin can be introduced into the computer model to make the splice design more economic by removing any bi-axial moments. the truss restrains its weak axis vertically and the horizontal strong axis may only need one or two bottom boom restraints to be stable over the full span. This may not be a problem for a portal column but for a 203 or 254UC in simple construction it will.7. the welding is made harder because of the joint on the overlap. Stiffened gussets may have to be welded to the boom first and then the tubes slotted and welded to the gussets. because it A bottom boom made of a UC on its side may be a suitable section especially when subject to wind suction on the roof when the member may be in compression. produce more calculations and may require strengthening of local joint zones in the main members. the changes are still very likely to outweigh the cost of partial overlap joints. which will also be applied to determine a nominal moment based upon an eccentricity of lOOmm from the column flange according to BS 5950-1 c1. The analysis will change a minuteamount from the fully fixed case but it may be a better model and will certainly aid economy by reducing the amount of connection design and welding.7. If however between the internals a small gap of about 2540mm dependent on weld size is developed. is already short it may not be able to be sawn automatically due to roller infeed spacing and other reasons. The big advantage is the horizontalforces are resolved within the truss. therefore as a minimum the tip should be preset upwards by the deflection under dead load. Hollow section internals are efficient sections and may work well. After fit up. Similarly it is reasonable to pin the internal joints as they are often welded to flanges of UCs or side walls of hollow sections which are flexible. a real problem may occur when directly welding internal hollow sections to UC booms. One easy solution is to bury the cantilever beam within the floor or roof structure running it over the support. these problems can be eliminated.
As discussed above over-specification of welds can be a problem and very costly.4. If a full 4 is required to an end plate upstand above the beam flange. the temporary case is often overlooked. When a series of holes is taken out of a boom at a splice location there may not be enough steel left to take the load. if the splice were anticipated to be in an area of high stress.BS 5950-1 CI. For example. Consider that in a splice 6 M24s (2 in each flange and 2 in the web) represent a length of 6x26=156mm which is a significant portion of any member. Although this may mean additional steel the design avoids risks involved in installing.3 allows an effective increase in net area of 20% for S275 and 10%for S355. A wider plate allows balanced symmetrical welding to avoid horizontal deformation. with a bare 8mm upstand. 6. To allow batch sawing of members and easy location on site. thus they are often selected to work very near their maximum axial capacity. shelf angles on beams plus many Others (s. are often more suitable. which is fine for the member design. For economy and reduction of deformation. Individual tubular bracing members in areas such as a roof bracing system may all appear the same. Full strength MI penetration butt welds are not required in the majority of structural cases. In conclusion. Partial penetration butt welds. additional erection bolts should be added to one beam to avoid the need for a triple-ply fit up. spare holes can be positioned local to joints to allow a harness clip to be easily secured. Where two beams join to a web using ccinmon bolts. Where the tips of two members are unsupported. The supporting beam needs to be wide flanged and it helps considerably if a further beam frames at right angles into its web to provide a stable base for erection. but can be considerabie if the size and length of welding is over-specified o r conducted without using proper procedures. Mitres at corners should be avoided to simplify the fabrication. Where the erector is working out of an access platform. either with or without overlaid 5 O 8mm fillet weld fillet welds.Fabrication details Following the calculation design rules a perfectly good fitting can be drawn and made. Erection details The designer can aid the safe erection of elements by thoughtful detailing. a check that a bolted splice is suitable would be prudent by the member designer. however the member will try to deform upwards by a small amount. Weld details Welding producesa massive amount of heat to produce molten metal. If the allowed increase in effective area is not successful.7. with a plate to the bottom that supports the outer leaf of masonry.4. 3. The short plate may be cheaper but the section will tend to contract to the left and exhibit a bow to the right and thus may fail to provide adequate beating for the strajght outer leaf. but plates should either be fully symmetrical plates or obviously asymmetrical to help the plater. the natural tendency is for some welders to deposit more weld on the larger surface and thus create a non-symmetricaland slightly weaker fillet weld.3 gives guidance on staggered holes but this leads to longer ptates and mcreased complication for drawing. Thankfully BS 5950-1 cl. Within a project where S355 matenal is specified. consider the lintel illustrated. and when it cools the weld area contracts and can distort the member. Web erection bolts . intermittent or stitch welding is usehlly employed where gaps are left in long welds. Stitch wlding is used to secure compound sections. manufacture and erection. the stiffer member should be run through as a cantilever to ensure the other has simple pinned ends. Although not calculable this can be considered a beneficial pre-camberingfor the applred load from above.2. but small offsets and varying situations can mean the lengths vary by just a slight amount. Stitch welding AsymmeMc pletes Adequate restraint is often present for truss booms. using S275 fittings matenal is perfectly acceptable.5).the upstand must clearly be more than 8mm to allow for tolerance. Also. using and removing of temporary guy lines. portal frame haunches. then cl.4. If the final structure requires a column to be supported by a beam. the draughtsman can adjust gussets and setting out points to produce as many identical items as possible. 3. Thii deformation is usually too small to notice.
welding and plating preferences which should be accommodated. The keenest purlin design may require two anti-sag bars to stabilise the member under wind reversal. dimensions. All steelwork contractors will have their own company standard fittings. workshop and site. as far as possible. but consistency of style throughout the project for varying member sizes used in a certain manner is important to allow the draughtsman to follow the logic of the calculations. to maintain their common overall work flow across other projects through the drawing office. Nowadays with 30 solid modelling anything can be drawn and plasma plate profilers can produce any shape. One hole is used.Single bolt fixings may have adequate strength but with two bolt holes there is a real erection advantage. however it is still good practice to keep bolt layouts. plate shapes and flat widths simple. cross-centres. but one (or fewer) anti-sag bars and a larger purlin may be prudent to reduce the erection time and risk when fixing sag bars at height. . Single bolt fixings can be used for small sections such as purlin and rail stays but for larger members an additional podger hole i s better. as well as ensuring an easier design check. along with a podger spanner to line up the other for bolt insertion. set-outs. Conclusion It is possible to design every connection individually for a one off specific economy.
as I’m sure you will have heard before. Kim Dando. It really cannot be stressed enough: the strategy with connections must be simplicity. or a particular structural requirement at an early stage in the design process. and so it should. simply because there has been no clear understanding of bracing or stiffness requirements. symmetry. low/medium rise and even some high rise structures. aesthetic constraints which have little or no consideration for the forces involved. and based upon recognised standards like the B W S C I Green Books. and that is largely about economy and efficiency. which at times appears to be completely divorced from the main member design process. but those are not our core activities and in turn can be heavily influenced by the manner in which the connections are designed and detailed. What do we do? We take plain lengths of steel and add connections to them. and at worst a seriously flawed design. Advancement in computer technology has driven us forwards and backwards at the same time. It must be understood however that as well as not normalb achimng full fixity. but correctly proportioned. Of course we paint and erect structural steelwork as well. using standard achievable bolt sizes and spacings etc. with the steelwork contractor taking over often unnecessarily complicated member connections. This will not be the case. The design and fabrication of connections is therefore a fundamental part in establishing and maintaining this position [Previous studies have suggested connections can influence between 40 and 60% of the total frame cost. and the problem could so easily be addressed! CAD drawing o f simple connection Connection groups It is customary to group connections in terms of their structural performance. The UK fabrication industry is a world leader. and if not given adequate consideration will at best give an unnecsssarily expensive solution. This could be seen as being a gross over simplification. Frank H Dale Limited Introduction Many years ago when considering how to incorporate a then. a similar proportion to the cost of steel itself]. ‘state of the art’ 3D modelling package into a steelwork contractor’s drawing office. it could also be suggested that insufficient consideration is generally given to connection design at the main project design stage. but not at the expense of increasing labour and workshop costs . We are older and wiser and qualify our bids according to the perceived complexity. but we have witnessed many times needlessly over-complicated connections. This is an important choice. which ‘fixity‘ classification will be adopted for the connection. ‘minimum weight does not mean minimum cost’. and has been for some years.a fine balance. un-notched/stiffened. Taking a controversial line for a moment. In other words minimising the use of expensive steel is commendable. It is very important not to apply fixity to all joints in the analysis model on the premise that members wlll have minimum size and cost. hence the concept of flexible end plates. how many times does the design process stop at member end fixity definition and member design. of course. This. Recent significant raw material increases will have had an impact on the consideration of efficient use of steel balanced with minimum workshop effort. it became apparent that structural stdwork fabrication is only about connections.single storey. protects our interests but does nothing to advance the quality of steel framed projects or reduce costs.CHAPTEH Keep it simple! There are a great many connection forms. or lack of information available. unworkable geometry. in most structures true ‘pinned’ connections are also not achiied. making no allowance for beam eccentricities and actual member sizes? The days of the poor steelwork contractor being stuck with connections which are impossible to develop or massively expensive to fabricate at his expense are largely gone. the connection design is clearly an integral part of even the concept design. and sensible rationalisation (acknowledging haunched moment connections will invariably not be symmetrical). This classification can be applied to both beam end connections and column bases. less high profile projects which form the bulk of our steel fabrication production .keep it simple! In this context simple does not mean ‘pinned’ and complicated ‘fixed or moment’. We hesitate to use the word ‘fixed’ from ‘fixed ended’ because this suggests a totally rigid connection with no rotation . Compliting the situation further we have conditions like ‘nominally pinned’ and ‘semi rigid’ all introducing different degrees of stiffness and rotational limitations on the connection form. Two broad classifications as mentioned earlier will be ‘Pinned’ and ‘Moment’ connections. Generally speaking a designer should define either from experience. A golden rule must be . If ever achieved. Admittedly. However.rarely. This criticism is aimed at the much more straightforward. I I 26 U . and no appreciation or understanding of fabrication practises. but it does help to rationalise these into a few groups in order to understand where costs are being expended. impractical (usually too small) member sizes. but now it is making serious inroads into the design process. for most architecturally sensitive projects and the highly engineered super projects like T5 and Swiss Re (seepage 110). 3D modelling has become commonplace in the fabrication world.
as well as information on basic workshop practises and general cost centres].Hawig made this point. The costs are based on comparable capacities across types 1 to 12. CAD drawing o f moment connection Fin plate . but types 13 to 16 would have significantly different capacities to types 1 to 12. 5) This IS a good general-purpose connection particularly suited to beam-to-beam connections where secondary beams can be detailed with no welding i. or some additional shear capacity. Fin plates (types 1.SCI publition P-150 has some useful information giving relative load capacities of major connection types. bolt holes (and notches) only. Primary beams can also adopt fin plates but as they are usually connected to columns flexible end plates may be a more appropriate condition. and concentrate more on considering connections in terms of their cost of manufacture and ease of erection. especially if it is required to introduce some rotational stiffness to aid erection.e.shear and moment. w i n for Manufacture Guidelines . are undertaken correCr. we must assume that these choices Comaarative costs iction TheraDie below shows comparativecostsfor the 19connection types described further below.
Assembly and welding is normally very accessible. The use of ‘rolled Tees’ as bolted outstands should be avoided. fabricate it from standard flats (not plate). especially when there are beam-to-beam and notched conditions. to negate erectlon nightmares. especially double row bolted connections. Can it be shortened because the beam is spanning between column flanges. right up to very specialist highly loaded complex three-dimensional assemblies. This should potentially allow two components to be correctly assembled without actually ‘studying’ the detail drawing. however. Angle cleats (types5 6 ) In many ways double or single angle web cleats offer similar qualities to fin plate connections. and an experienced designer will appreciate the real dfficulties of actually nesting these members. with highly loaded members. but once in a while it does pay off. not centre lines?Where is the actual point of support? Is there any advantage in moving it from the end of the supported beam to a point within the connection? Normally this would not be recommended because of torsion and other connection design complications. which can take virtually any form from simple angle and flat tension braoings. Modern plate punching and cropping machinery also handles flats and can produce these fittings very quickly. and can be used with most connection types. which crops up time and time again in the ‘shed’ market particularly. Bsam-ends will require notching in certain configurations. In the case of notched beams. Steel and manufacturing costs are high for these sections. so standardising on 12mm flat is not the way forward. Also stieners in columns hinder all forms of beam erection. Most erectors welcome the use of fin plate connections as the beams are normally short and therefore easy to position and also partly self-locating. particularty with large runs of identical members. or quite pedantic about members intersecting on their neutral axis. I Welded angle cleats Flexible end plates (types 3. l O ) These largely fall into two camps. Unfortunately there is a tendency with increased rationalisation to overlook the fact that the end plates must remain flexible.short tacks. tubular brace connections and all others. Seating cleats or shear plates used in conjunction with web cleats can be very efficient in certain circumstances and provide fast ‘off hook’ capabilities when lifting beams into position. If a boltedTee section is to be used.Fin plates are very inexpensive to manufacture.7) This is another good general-purpose connection. align the top edge of the plate with the top of the beam noting the current design guidance recommends not fully welding the plate to the flange . One point to mention with all bracing joints is to check load paths carefully especially. Particularly with fin plate connections. One detail point to watch. again not plate. Whilst it is not conventional to design for any end fixity. probably being one of the most widely used (and abused) forms. is to ensure the beams are always positioned on the ‘leading’ side of the joint. should go unchallenged. Both are correct of course provided eccentncities are accounted for in the main member designs. In addition they are quite efficient and easy to analyse when designing for tension forces (disproportionatecollapse). the only real downside of this connection type. One detail. always make the end plates symmetrical top to bottom so that they cannot be welded on upside down. I Bracing connections (types 9 . align the plate with the top of the notch. they feed along and can rest on the outstanding fin plate and only a few connection bolts are required in most instances before unhooking the crane. The intention is not to dwell too much on the ‘others’. so intelligent grouping of connections is worthwhile. Secondly. fin plates can sustain (very) small moments which may be used to g o d effect when tweaking mid-span moments to justify or utilise a particular beam section. but may have lost some popularity these days mainly because of higher steel costs and time spent on or off site assembling the connection prior to erection. is Flexlbleend plate I I 28 . Firstly. and can cause significant difficulties in multi storey situations where beams are expected to ‘drop down’ columns. especially when handling time changing different bars vastly exceeds the time taken to produce one or two components. There are two detailing points to consider. Designers can be quite relaxed about spreading joints to get members to fit. with current automated machinery producing these in minutes. Use a limited range of standard flats as shown in the Green Book. check the design span of the beam. and shaping or Wing of plates is not normally required.
With other connection types bolt shear and tension capacities can be broadly remembered. weld lengths and leg lengths have known capacities. which may or may not be preset to account for end plate misalignment. but may also be subject to shear and moment forces which in the worst cases are bi-axial. the final choice of beanng or non-bearing types tends to be company specific rather than project specific. but often not considered. or even steel availability issues. but probably more economical steel purchasing and no long lengths to worry about. Fully welded tubular assembliesare requiredon certain projects. This is largely why the slotted/inset version is utilised. which means the ‘T’ stalk is acting as a strut. but fabricated Tees from flat. These are best suited to specialist steelwork contractors in terms of both design and fabrication capability. but of course can apply when joining any member within its length. Reinforcing ‘gluts’ on alternate sides of the joint may be required to reduce the flat thickness to acceptable dimensions. also probably promotes the greater use of non-bearing splices these days. jigging.14. This is a correct and proper detail from a construction viewpoint. the connection IS initially more ‘flexible’. Design guides are available for both beanng and non-bearing conditions. in the portal frame ‘shed’ market the connection design becomes an integral part of the main frame analysis. This can be improved by not using rolled Tees. With ‘cranked’ members. stopping vertical bracings above finished floor level.Tee connect-. but have limitations on their load carrying capacity. and resulting weld stresses concentrated around the stalk. One easy trap to fall into is to forget the tube has to cope with compression. From a design point of view. Returning to tubular bracings there are many ways to connect tubes to sections. handling and painting. In this context guess is typically to call upon years of design experience and try and correctly proportion the connection. Splice connections (types11. This can be anything up to a metre away from base level (even more in dock leveller conditions) . against an asymmetric arrangement. Column splice automated machinery. if only to cut down on time in manufacturtng and erecting long and heavy packing plates. a balance needs to be struck between locating the joint in the centre of the beam (high forcedexpensive connection). Moment connections (types13. one from fabrication and the other from erection. This is then followed by different but equally problematic (which means expensive) site issues. Even then the design of the joint can be quite intncate. but in practice things may be different. In addition column alignment (or even misalignment. Assuming manufacturing of components is by . the design process being much more straghtforward. Wlth little consideration. and end plate thicknesses can be recalled. it is very difficult to ‘guess’ a moment connectton. the increasing importance of disproportionate collapse introducing tension into the splice. Finally the welded assembly will have built-in two sets of tolerances. and needs to be designed as such. web shear problems can usually be spotted. connection slippage and beam deflection. machining.16) Moment connections are significantly different from all other connection types particularly with regard to design and fabrication.15. these are primarily designed for axial load. As always. rather than butt weld two sections together. Considering simple column splices initially. consider introducing welded or bolted division plates. Also. Firstly.a fair eccentricity with a highly loaded vertical brace onto the minor axis of a column. Beam splices tend to be at positions of higher moment. to be vefied as necessary at a later date. It may also be reasonableto assume that an erector would prefer nonbeanng splices because. inspecting and testing. assembling. although there are more bolts to place. usually limited by transportation or site access difficulties. welding. the two main forms being ’T‘ connectors and slottedbird-mouthed ends. 12) These are normally associated with joints in columns. The fit-up process will have to cope with these. allowing bolts to fit better. although splicing together dissimilar sections will probably sway more towards bearing splices. This can fundamentallychange the detail away from flange and web plates towards bolted end plates. a workable detal can usually be put together without too much calculation. especially when considering deformation of the flat under load welded to the end of the tube. ‘T’ connectors are the most straightfmard to fabricate.pullingcolumns apart in the upper lifts to allow for easier high level beam placement). but the fabrication costs are significantly greater. The same is not true of a highly loaded moment connection. On paper a one third/two thirds arrangement will always score better. has lts advantages. and ineffcient transportation. Needless to say they can carry ‘mind blowingly’ high fabrication costs as a result of complex setting out.
the amount of stiffening if any. The possibilities are virtually endless. The Green Book virtually stands alone in prescribing a set of moment Connections. we are designing the connections to deform. but it does enable standard bolts to be used. it is very unusual these days to machine (for f!atms) column base plates and cdumn shafts. -Haunched rafter Unfortunately most moment connections are bespoke in some form or another. whereas legs of 10mm and upwards require multi-pass welds which treble or quadruple or more the welding times. cap plates are not. This requires special ‘drilling’ equipment. single passes are possible with leg lengths of 6 and 8mm. Usually axial compression is transferred by direct bearing. unusual geometry. differing materials. arguably a significant omission. Reinforcing base plates. Pre-heating before welding may also be required with thicker material (in practice not usually below about 50mm thickness. sound and thermal issues. 18. Blind fixings for closed sections eg tubes. The connected member is usually standard. Juggle the geometry to pare away at steel and weld sizes. but do check!). especially on braced columns is the normal design criterion. How does this affect manufacturing costs? Standards are quite difficult to adopt. although there is no reason why narrower plates cannot be manufactured from standard flats. so not all steelwork contractors will be geared up for this. usually associated with moment bases. which in turn depends on deformation capacity. . so are to be used sparingly. and demountability requirements. and workshop machinery. and capacities are usually not up to grade 8. Another mechanism for connecting members to tubes is the ‘flowdrill’ method. generally thicker and profiled. and should not impact greatly on fabrication or erection periods. Blind filng Misce I pecial) connectior plates (types17. and certainly if the specific design condition is not tabulated. flame cut. but thii may be required in special circumstances. The amount of time taken to manufacture and assemble base plates. shear is not normally a major factor. but may cause issues with painting and long term corrosion protection (exposed edges are notoriously difficult to paint adequately). depending upon required quantities. the methods adopted will likely allow a particular condition to be engineered. These usually take the form of ‘drop’ bolts or ‘expanding’ anchors. but accuracy of the drilled hole diameters can be critical especially for expanding (hollow) bolts. and attach them to column shafts is a function of the plate size and thickness. In other words. and weld sizes. Base plates will generally be manufactured from ‘plate’. punched. and avoid any form of butt-welding if possible. maybe with the exception of moment connections into column webs. Moment bases like all moment connections require careful design. so uplift. The principles are excellent (as far as they go). plasma cut. Intermittenthtaggered or one sided welding is possible. Putting aside moment bases. Weld sizes are important. material availability. Thankfully. is very labour intensive as weld sizes are usually also large. and this will require a specific hand or computer calculation. 19) These are usually driven by member constraints (connections to closed sections). The fixings themselves can also be very expensive. drilled or any combination of these operations.8 black bolt values. especially the many metres of weld between the haunch web and beam flange.In wind moment designs great care has to be taken to demonstrate rotation capacity. but three or four relatively common situations have spawned solutions which are becoming widely adopted. weld sizes should be kept to a practical minimum. It is also possible to ‘buy in’ pre-manufactured plates from a specialist. Work hard on the design and remove all stiffeners possible! Fitted stiffeners are hugely expensive. so as a (very) general principle simple bases are preferred in the first instance. Plates can be sheared. Consider every weld. Fire bases (a form of mment base designed to cope with the perimeter boundary requirement in fire) are also generally not reinforced. Minimise haunch lengths where possible.
bolted temporary joint as well . both for ste operatives and protection of the more combustible parts of the site. These bolts are more expensive and on longer delivery lead times.QuiconB. moment connections in particular. additional erection procedures (torque control and checking). may require pre-heating as part of the process. then obviously efficiencies will drop. Finally it is worth remembering that steel is sometimes connected to other materials. Most alternatives (mechanical expanding fixings or resin type anchors) have significantly reduced load-carrying capacity in comparison with their conventional holding-downbolt counterpart. it is worth pointing out that sometimes alternatives to cast-in bolts have to be used. Furthermore. [Remember to u s some ~ form of locking device on nuts where either movement or cyclic loading of a joint is expected. If operatives are taken away from their normal workplace and environment. as slag and weld spatter is minimal. Tension Control Bolts are in many ways similar to HSFG bolts. 24 and 30mm diameters for the ‘rare cases‘ when 20mm diameter bolts will not do! Similar conditions apply with holding down bolts and. and to a given value. Butt welding also requires greater operator skills. The manufacturing goal posts have Punching machine . so direct substitutionis rarely possible. This again will have time and cost implications. adopting a MIG welding process on the shop floor usually means that 6mm and 8mm fillet welds can be executed quickiy and efficiently. slow the process down. Bolting Do not specify or design connections using nonstandard bolt diameters. These can be significantly more expensive than conventionalfixings. again incurring time and cost. HSFG bolts have particular perforrnance-enhancing features. prior to erection commencing. This enables a steel-to-steel connection of some form to be adopted. and can produce them all day long with minimal problems and consistent sizing. Modern punches are only limited by design constraints imposedon connections. mainly in connections where any form of ‘slip’ or movement would be unacceptable. Weather will also play a part. requiring multi passes. grade 8. inspection and therefore cost. Some years ago the industry standardised on a limited range of fully threaded 20mm diameter bolts.accurate and secure location of two pieces to be joined by site welding will often involve quite a significant Punching The use of punched holes is a long-established means of forming holes in flats and angles. This has worked well. and partial penetration welds. Fabrication costs will probably be higher than normal but the system scores on significantly reduced erection periods (costs). There are certain conditions however when site welding is the nght way forwards. and if undertaken by specialist operatives or contractors. often associated wtth thicker steel. General details Welding As mentioned earlier. Very large welds. Butt welds often do not need to be full strength. 16. on site. Whilst on the subject of holding down bolts. then recognise this fact and implement a configurationand process which can be undertaken as efficiently as possible. both in the shop and on site. however. and higher unit price. A guaranteed quality is also more difficult to achieve. may be cost effective. If it cannot. and usually the Steelwork contractor will step up the inspection routine which may sometimes include 100% NDT testing of these welds.8. In some respects the ideal solution is to supply and cast in (attach to formwork) a pre-engineered steel faceplate. Alternatively there are many cast-in Halfenm type fixings and ‘T’ bolts which allow adjustment during fixing. their application is limited becauseof additionalfabrication controls (maskingconnections from paint etc). usually concrete. or where members are suspended]. in that it is often impossible to rotate the assembly to give the welder the best position. and if it can be avoided then do so. Whilst not exclusively for demountable situations. Moisture. Site welding to most steelwork contractors is like ‘holy water to a vampire’.and that will generally need to be removed and 100% inspection and full treatment will the generally be needed. Resin anchors in particular should be load tested after installation. dust and other factors can sometimes mean that pullout capacities are dangerously lower than expected. requiring more expertise. especially on a repeating detail. Welders get used to these szes. can be surprisingly quick and efficient to execute. a reputable bolt supplier will quickly advise which ’standard’ lengths and diameters are stocked. which can manifest itself during the erection of the steelwork with potentially serious consequences. a method of connecting components without using bolts but special studs and key-hole slotted connectors. but other standard diameters are available including 12. and enhanced inspection and testing. Consider each condition carefully. Complex geometrical welded arrangements cany a further problem. Welds with longer leg lengths. it is obviously ideal in this condition. greater operator skill. It also makes possible prefabncation blast cleaning. but offer improved site performance capabilities (see SCI P334). meaning less than ideal ‘positional’ welds are required. usually resulting in enhanced inspection procedures. if in doubt. but again can be successful in reducing site durations in the right circumstances. However. There are additional hazards with site welding.
moved. and why connections cost money.invariably one set will not fit. cheap. Stocking and availability aspects far outweigh any benefits usually derived from using higher-grade fittings. together with the facility to spin and view the joint from any perspective should in the hands of an experienced CAD operator reduce. The welding of varying grade steel sections at any one time usually means that welding wire or electrodes are normally chosen to suit the higher grade material. but recognising that design and drawing is relatively . It's not a black art but. - The use of 3D modelling systems has enabled engineers and draughtsman to more ably appreciate the physical problems associated with site assembly. Connection design as suggested earlier can be seriously under-considered in the project design process. Connection designers must obviously bear this point in mind. On certain types of work this design can be more complicated and time consuming than the main structure design. Muiti-punching to form a long slot is to be avoided if possible. but limits the length of the slot. and the correction of a poorly engineeredor incorrect detail on site will be a designer's nightmare. but often crops up when fixing brickwork restraint members which are adjustable for brick placement and coursing. fabrication and erection are not. accepting that the weld does become parent metal at some point. and erection requirements. Interestingly. Can the bolts be positioned from either direction? Is there enough room to turn a spanner? Can a socket be fitted over the bolt head (surprisingly large for a 30mm diameter bolt)? Will welds from stiffeners encroach upon the head o r washer positions? Do not use different diameter bolts in the same connection. fabrication. Punching standard slots is also efficient. beam-punching equpment is not so commonplace in the UK unlike America. Consider the assembly of the joint on site. These points although seemingly minor can 'make or break' a project on site. like so many engineering problems it's about compromise. rather than continually changingto suit higher and l o w grade steels. juggling the design and drawing. The use of inbuilt clash detection mechanismsand also the careful setting up of the connection macros. and hopefully eliminate the instances of connections not being able to be assembled. This is in addition to the fact that the code safety factor for weld sizing etc is greater than that for main material as well. This will arguably introduce a small extra measure of safety W h the weld design (not to be taken into consideration). which carries its own rewards when undertaken correctly. and it is recognised that punching 26mm diameter holes in 25mm thick steel is readily achievable. Do not mix grades of the same diameter bolts. Steel Grades It should be pointed out that plate and fittings material generally will not be in htgher-grade steel for any connection type unless there are Specmc project constraints (irrespective of the main &in grade). and increases costs at an alarming rate when not. When undertaken correctly it brings into consideration all aspects of the steel construction process. Avoid connections with bolts in two planes eg vertical and horizontal . usually not satisfying any of them in an ideal manner. Avoid single bolt connections (except knee stays) the point of a 'podger' spanner is essential to locate the joint. Conclusion It is hoped what is described here conveys a little of the mystery of what happens behind the 'beam basher's' doors.
Recently however. Thomas Cosgrove. In time. have developed unique and successful but different solutions for structural fasteners. Preloaded (i. the bolt standards used in the UK have remained largely unchanged although the steelwork design standards in that time have evolved from an allowable stress to an uitimate limit state approach. That generation of BS EN standards was listed in the 4th edition of the National Structural Steelwork Specification and for grade 8. Progress was made when it was agreed to develop European product standards for all the major bolt solutions that already exist across Europe and not impose the bolts from one country on another.e. and BS 4395 for preloaded bolts installed to BS 4604) are tried and trusted. particularly for preloaded bolts. These solutions are based on assumptions of site control and supervision which vary from country to country. “pre-loadable”) bolts have a greater market share in certain European countries than in the UK because they are commonly used in a preloaded or non preloaded manner depending on the tightening specified for their installation. many of these European standards are out for public comment and enquiry and thus they may change. more detailed guidance will be avalable through the SCI and the BCSA. much progress has been made and the first product standards (actually Parts of Standards) have been completed and will be available shortly. dating back to the 19th century in most cases. Current UK practice Since approximately 1970.8 fasteners included non-preloaded bolts to BS EN IS0 4014 and 4017. For the purpose of simplicity in this general introduction all European standards are referred to as EN documents irrespective of their official statues. This option will remain with the introduction of Eurocodes for steelwork. The main British Standards for botts (BS 3692 and BS 4190 for non preloaded bolts. SCI Introduction The launch of Eurocodes for steelwork is associated with the introduction of new European product standards for structural bolting. Some have passed formal votes and are awaiting notification in the Official Journal before becoming BS ENS by the addition of national forewords where required. Although permitted by design and execution standards.but in the immediate future it is likely that each country will start to use the European bolts or product standards that have been developed from their own national standards. Others are at the prestandard or prEN stage and have been issued for public comment and enquiry. At the time of writing the European standards dealt with in this introduction are at various stages of development. The major reason for the difficulties is that several of the larger Europeancountries have their own successful fastener industries. The bolt descriptions. while others still are at the committee document stage. At first glance some of these bolts will appear strange.let the market decide . at this time. whereas a British engineer will find strange the European version of the preloaded fit bolt with its actual diameter larger than its nominal diameter. The use of such BS EN IS0 fasteners has been very rare as they have been more expensive than the equivalent fasteners to BS 4190. Not surprisingly these industries. although it is often used in German bridges. These standards will allow bolts to be specified that are suitable for steelwork designs to the Eurocodes. in conjunction with their steelwork sectors. the standards should be consulted when finally completed and issued for a detailed understanding of their provisions. In the long term the wider European market may choose to focus on one or other of these bolts . this is contrary to long-standing British practice because it requires greater site supervision and control on projects where different connection types Head Washer Typical tension oontrol bolt assembly (TCB) .CHAPTER 8 may coexist. Background The task of agreeing common Europeanproduct standards for structural bolts has been very difficult and protracted. Furthermore. Therefore the preloaded bolt standard is likely to have at least 10 and perhaps even 11 or 12 parts when complete. and nuts to BS EN IS0 4032. The relevant technical sub-committee is currently working on the outstanding standards which should be published over the next year or two. A German engineer will find strange the European version of our common load-indicating washer (the BS 7644 Direct Tension Indicator) from the UK. ’preloaded bolt’ for high strength fnction grip bolts and ‘non preloaded bolt’ for ordinary or black bolts are used throughout. The purpose of this introduction is to provide a brief description to the background and major issues that are likely to be encountered in connection with structural bolting over the next few years in the UK. As the purpose of this introduction is to give a general overview. This is to be encouraged for the foreseeable future until the Eurocodes have bedded down and experience has been gained in their use as well as with their supporting product and execution standards. Around 1990 attempts were made to introduce other international standards in the UK however the market continued to specify non preloaded bolts to BS 3692 and in particular to BS 4190.
the ductile failure mode of the bolt assembly offers an indication of pending failure.i. grade). the SCI has produced an industry standard for one of the types on the UK market (P-324).9 with nuts to class HR 10. and preloading is complete when the spline shears off. Preloading is normally carried out by an electrical shear wrench at the threaded end of the bolt (i. Design standards will permit preloaded bolts to class 10. Typically the TC bolt head is round but may be hexagonal. The HR system will have two grades. The standard constantly emphasises that preloaded bolted assemblies are very sensitive to differences in manufacture and lubrication. The German approach. The BritisNFrench approach.e. For the HR system the following possibilities exist: Bolts to class HR 8.e.The emergence of the tension control bolt (TCB) as a preloaded bolt in the last 10 years has been the one major development in the UK market since 1970. TC Bolts are quite distinctive in appearance. using DIN 6914 bolts. Therefore bolts and nuts for both systems are standardized in separate parts of the product standard EN 14399 and the marking of the same system is uniform. BS 4395 for example. Owing to their splines. If severely overtightened during preloading the brittle failure mode of the bolt assembly offers little indication of pending failure. HR (British/French)and HV (German). In load tests these bolts tend to fail in a ductile manner by rupture in the shank of the bolt at the root of the thread . Although the original Torshear bolt was developed in the UK many years ago. The fact that the thread may be locally subject to plastic strain during tightening means that such fasteners may not be re-used if removed.Countersunk head bolt and nut assemblies EN 14399-8:System HV .8 or 10. Both systems have long histories and are well proved. Therefore in developing the European product standard (EN 14399) for preloaded bolts it was agreed to develop two general parallel systems. the bolt breaks in two.8 bolt is very similar to the Part 1 general grade HSFG to BS 4395 and likewise. HR or HV. which reflect the above two philosophies. At least three variations are presently available in the UK. The longer threaded length is necessary to ensure that the induced strain is not too localised. Furthermore.i.9 or 8. 8.9 for bolts and 8 or 10 for nuts as appropriate.Bolt and nut assemblies with calibrated preload EN 14399-10 will cover TC bolts and it still has to be decided whether HV countersunk head bolts and HR fit bolts will be added to the series. the nut flies off. A further variation relies on paint inserts in the washer which squirts out bright coloured paint due to compression when the preload has been achieved. if severely overtightened during preloading.e. the HR 10. Although the failure mode of the bolt assembly is brittle. The spline does not shear off with this variation.9 while the HV system will only have one grade. Bolts and nuts from the same system will be stamped with their system designation. In addition bolts and nuts will be stamped with their property class (i. DIN 6914 bolts have an under head radius and therefore require a washer with an internal chamfer (and for this to be installed in the correct orientation if only chamfered one side).8 with nuts to class HR 8. the modern TCB has been introduced into Britain from improved versions currently used in the USA and Japan.e. Both systems have under head radius and thus require chamfered washers to be placed under the heads of the bolts. It is quite common to use DIN 6914 bolts in non preloaded situations. These bolts are generally insensitive to over tightening during preloading and thus require less site control. A typical TC bolt assembly is illustrated. These bolts are generally more sensitive to overtightening during preloading and thus require more site control. It is therefore important that the assembly . The HR 8.Hexagon bolt and nut assemblies EN 14399-4:System HV . Existing European preloaded bolts Across Europe two different philosophies exist to achieve the necessary ductility in preloaded bolt/nut/washer assemblies. in order to avoid confusion. BS 4395 bolts only require plain hardened washers. has been to use deep nuts and longer thread lengths in the bolt assemblies and thus obtain ductility predominantly by plastic elongation of the bolt.9. the nut or spline end). 8.8 and 10.Hexagon fit bolt and nut assemblies EN 14399-9: Load indicating washers EN 14399-10: System HRC . It is important to avoid mixing up the components of both systems.9 bolt is very similar to the Part 2 higher grade HSFG bolt to BS 4395. it is argued that it is a more ductile failure mode for the steelwork connection because the bolt shank remains in place after failure and may act as a 'peg'. Preloaded bolts to EN 14399 EN 14399 has the general title: 'High-strength structural bolting assemblies for preloading' and has been divided into the following parts: EN 14399-1: General requirements EN 14399-2: Suitability test for preloading EN 14399-3:System HR . In load tests these bolts tend to fail in a brittle manner by thread stripping . 10. has been to use shallower nuts and shorter thread lengths in the bolt assemblies and thus obtain ductility by plastic deformation of the engaged threads rather than in the threaded shank zone outside of the engaged length. or Bolts to class HR 10.Hexagon bolt and nut assemblies EN 14399-5: Plain washers EN 14399-6: Plain chamfered washers EN 14399-7:System HR . Although a British Standard has not been developed.8 to carry applied tension.
if required. K1 and K2. According to EN 14399 a bolt assembly may have one of three k-classes. and if no k-class is specified. the relative rotation between the nut and the bolt. This is reinforced by the arrangements for CE marking as this relies on testing of complete fastener assemblies to EN 4399-2.No requirement for k-factor. The torque/bolt force curve or an analysis based on the data necessary to produce it will only be required if torque is used in the tightening method employed on site. The three k-classes are as follows: K O .Individual test value ki. In addition EN 14399 requires that the maximum bolt force recorded in the suitability test must be greater than 0. The k-class is related to how the coefficient of friction or k-factor. K1 . the bolt elongation. The angle A-2 and the limitation on the maximum bolt force ensure sufficient margin against failure from overtightening when the tightening methods permitted in the execution standard are employed. the following parameters: the bolt force. of the bolt assembly is calculated from five specimens subjected to the torque suitability test. The test may be stopped if the angle A-2 has been realised and the bolt force is still greater than the specified preload. as with load indicating washers . If the bolts delivered to site have had their surface condition altered for whatever reason. F P specified preload (0. during tightening. If torque is not part of the tightening method employed. KO. From the recorded data several graphs may be plotted for each test but the two most likely to be used are the rotation test curve and the torque test curve (see illustrations). The tests shall be carried out on test assemblies in the condition of delivery without alteration of the lubrication of the various components. The manufacture has to test 5 bolt assemblies from a single assembly lot or extended assembly lot (see EN 14399-1 regarding assembly lots). Bolts and nuts cannot be CE marked separately. if required for the tightening method. k-class K O applies. the torque. Section 5 in EN 14399-2 states that the principle of the test is to tighten the bolt assembly and to measure. This is the angle of rotation between the nut and bolt after the specified preload has been achieved and before the bolt force falls back to the specified preload again. needs to be obtained from k-classes K1 or K2. EN 14399-2 states that the purpose of this test is to check the behaviour of the fastener assembly so as to ensure that the required preload can be reliably obtained by the tightening methods specified in the execution standard with sufficient margins against overtightening and against failure.7fub Ad Torque Idealised torque/bolt force curve The various parts of EN 14399 specify minimum angles A-2 for the HR and HV systems depending on the length of the bolt. For the same reason it is important that hot dip galvanizing is under the control of one manufacture.is supplied by one manufacturer who is always responsible for the function of the assembly. Bolt 1 force Suitability test In view of the differences in backgrounds and philosophies between the HR and HV systems it was decided to develop a suitability test (EN 14399-2) as part of the European product standard for preloaded bolts. ki. K2 .Mean test value km and coefficient of variation of kfactor Vk.9 fubAs. they should be retested. if required. Idealized rotationbolt force curve The k-class of the bolt assembly is integral to the tightening method employed on site and the data required to calculate the torque. Installation EN 14399-1 requires that at the time of ordering the manufacture shall obtain the specified k-class of the bolt assembly.
If k-class K need only cany out the rotation suitability. with a slightly deeper nut which is required to pass the suitability test. Since the Construction Products Directive(CPD)was promulgated in 1989this initiative has been thwarted by an absence of harmonisedstandards for fasteners. and for this reason it is whole assemblies that need testing.15mm instead of 0.for example and probably TC bolts. The first step. The second step is to apply an additional torque to each bolt such that the total applied to a bolt is up to 110% of the required nominal torque value. After the joint is bedded the preloadingtakes place in two steps. the standard does not specify bolts directly being more of a performance standard than a prescriptive one. on tightening the bolt the gap reduces as the protrusions depress under load. However. by which fastener performance is linked to design values and the associated differing methods for executing and controlling installation (as described above). Combined method This method is a combination of toque control and the traditional “part-turn” method. . All the usual strength grades from 4. The k-class may be K O when the direct tension indicator method is used to control the preload in the bolt. to allow a variety of manufacturers’ products to comply. the US and elsewhere.6 to 10. depending on the bolt length. is to apply a torque of up to 75% of the required torque value to all the bolts. CE Marking The driver for common product standards across Europe is the imperative to open the market and gain comparable efficiencies of scale that suppliers enjoy in the US with its common standards. EN 15048-1 sets out mechanical and other minimum requirements and EN 15048-2 specifies suitability tests for non-preloaded assemblies. The first step is to apply a torque of up to 75% of the required torque value to all bolts (as with the torque control method). After the joint is bedded down. As an alternative to using the specified angles. Finally. the necessity for CE marking has resulted in Europe being on the threshold of getting common product standards. These protrusions create a gap prior to preloading in the installed assembly. HR and HV. the CPD asks manufacturers to demonstrate that their products meet such test standards before placing them on the market. When the actual gap is less than the maximum specified gap the bolt force will not be less than the specified preload. If a bolt to any national standard can satisfy the general requirements and pass the suitability test it may be placed on the market as a non-preloadedbolt to EN 15048. then k-class K O may be O is specified then the boit manufacture specified. Details of the procedure test for determining the slip factor in connection with preloaded bolts are found in Annex G of EN 1090-2. Therefore a much simpler product standard is being developed for non-preloaded bolts than for preloaded. as noted above with respect to EN 15048 in particular. In the UK bolts to BS 4190. EN 1090-2 permits the selection of a tightening method from the three methods outlined below unless otherwise specified: Non-preloaded bolts to EN 15048 There are many more types or variations of non-preloaded bolts across Europe than preloaded bolts although their technical differences are not as large as that of preloaded bolts. The two systems. It is expected that K O will also be used in conjunction with TC bolts. EN 15048 has the general title ‘Non-preloaded structural bolting assemblies’ and is divided into two parts as follows: EN 15048-1: General requirements. It is somewhat more complex than the traditional British approach in that it requires five tests instead of three and slip is measured at a higher value of 0. The second step is to apply to each bolt a predetermined rotation or “part-turn” to a specified angle. The required torque value is determined using the data from k-class K2. It should be noted that the simple part-turn method used in the UK for many years will no longer be permitted under EN 1090-2 due to the risk of overtightening bolts. Two factors have delayed this development: Abortive attempts to widen the common approach to develop IS0 standards for structural fasteners which stumbled due to conflicting commercial interests in Europe. should be able to conform to EN 15048. However. after bedding of the joint. the angle of rotation may alternatively be determined by test.lOmm. Toque control method The torque is to be applied in two steps.9 are included. which is the same reason that the simple part-turn method has not been allowed for Part 2 higher grade HSFG bolts to BS 4395. Direct tension indicator method This method is the most popular in the UK and relies on protrusions on special washers often called load indicating washers. The required value for the pre-torque is determined using data from either k-class K2 or K1. the common standards are driven by performance requirements and the associated suitability tests. At its simplest. The extra 10% is to offset the subsequent preloading force decrease. However. the slip load is averaged over the five tests instead of taking the lowest of the three test results as in the BS 4604 approach. EN 15048-2: Suitability test.
one may see preloaded bolts to BS EN 14399 replacing HSFG bolts to BS 4395 sooner rather than later. For that reason. . but it is also possible that the requirement to re-tool or invest in additional testing will mean that the “new” products will be more expensive . However. Hence.ConcIusion It remains to be seen what effect the new standards for structural fasteners will have on the European market.at least initially. it is likely that BS 4190 bolts will remain in the market for a few years yet. there is likely to be a greater need to change in public sector works than in the private sector owing to the additional directives that cover public purchasing. It is possible that the wider market will be competitive. for bridges in particular.
if the steelwork has been designed for wind loads to BS 63992 using the hybrid method in the SCI guide “Recommended Application of BS 6399-2 (Electronic publication SCI ED001)”. and consequently the thermal performance of new buildings has become a key focus of the government’s CO2 strategy. The cladding designer needs to use the Same load calculation method for the design of the cladding system. It is important that consistent design loads are used for the design of both the steelwork and the cladding. Part L of the Building Regulations. Petebrough . sets tough standards and these will get even tougher with an amendment due out at the beginning of 2006. but are also required to provide lateral and torsional restraint to the purlins and side rails. Loading and design issues The roof and wall claddings are an important structural element of the building. For example.CHAPTER 9 Cladding connections Richard 6 Barrett. The separation of these two environments is provided by the building’s envelope. particular of secondary items such as purlins and rails. Also considered are the other cladding related issues that main contractors. They must not only cany the external loads such as wind and snow. otherwise there is a nsk that certain cladding sheets will be overloaded. this will have resulted in purlins and rails distnbuted to suit these loadings. tolerances and accuracy of the steelwork. factories and leisure centres. introduced in 2002. and is therefore under ever increasing levels of scrutiny. The UK government is trying to reduce energy consumption in an effort to reduce levels of greenhouse gas emissions. and focuses in particular on the specific actions needed to comply with Part L. steelwork designers and steelwork contractors need to consider in order to successfully build quality sheds. buildings account for approximately half of all energy consumption. The general cladding issues described here are those that need to be taken into account when designing and erecting structural steelwork for “sheds” such as warehouses. Barrett Steel Buildings Limited Introduction One of the primary functions of all buildings is to provide a controlled internal environment that is protected from the varying external environment. which in turn provide stability to the main frame itself. or insufficient fixings provided Debenhams Distribution Warehouse. Crucial to that performance are the design. Operationally. A vital factor in the performance of the building’s envelope is the supporting steelwork. The building envelope is a crucial factor in the energy performance of the building. retail stores. detailing.
Too often details like this are left to be developed on site with pieces of light gauge pressed metal angles. as it is very difficult retrospectively to remedy air leakage problems in a satisfactoty way. Deformed purlins and rails are another potential cause of air leakage. the over- c . a purlin should be at least 25% of the depth of the member being restrained.draughty buildings lose lots of heat.Manufacturers of purlins and rails normally assume that their products receive lateral and sometimes torsional restraint from the cladding. The result is often a poorly built hip. diagonal struts or rafter stays will need to be provided. Cold rolled sections are easily damaged on site. but care is needed at interfaces such as hips. the key requirement is to provide a robust and continuous fixing face for the cladding joints and gutter supports. Most purlin manufacturers give guidance on which types of cladding systems adequately restrain their purlins. riding issue is the ability of the cladding sub-contractor to fix the cladding to purlins and rails without compromising air-tightness. and out of position steelwork. One effective solution is a purpose made dihedral angle supported directly from the hip rake. Purlins and rails are often required to provide lateral restraints to rafters and columns. As a rule of thumb. corners. the more likely it is to incur damage. A failure to achieve the required standard would have potentially serious consequences for the design and construction team. as shown in the photograph. particularly in portal frame buildings. Hip: robust support using a purpose made dihedral angle El . and this guidance should be followed carefully. For example. For the steelwork element. two slopes come together at a complex faking angle. parapets. Looking firstly at the design elements. It is important that the purlins or rails are large enough to have sufficient stiffness to act as restraints. Difficulties can arise due to three main causes. Designers need to satisfy themselves that the sheeting and its fixings can provide this restraint. The longer a cold rolled element is on site before being fixed. This is straightforward for the main runs of purlins and rails. deformed secondary steelwork. Therefore on a well planned project it is normal for the delivery of cold rolledcomponents to be phased to suit precisely the erection sequence. The cladding sheets need a robust continuous support to both slopes. For the outer flange this will be provided directly by the pwlin connection. Items that need to Air leakage and robust details Part L requires that new buildings are arr tested to check that the building meets demanding targets to minimise air leakage . and openings. at the hip ridge. with the risk of serious air leakage. poorly designed supports. In cases where the inner flange is in compression. If damage is severe it will prevent the cladding from being properly fixed to form an air tight envelope.
a thermal packing will not be possible on a substantial moment connection. and therefore exceedingly difficult for the roofer to fix properly. as it may result in the cladding fixings "missing" the purlin altogether. used in both built-up systems and composite panels. which can be avoided by selecting high quality experienced steelwork contractors. and composite panels. This may be due to poor fabrication or bad site practice. Consequently it can be used down to lower pitches. but is also the structural element that supports the external loads through to the spacer and then to the structural frame. although they can be assembled on site. If. are not acceptable. made from profiled steel sheets. insulation line. Finally. A new publication on metal cladding is expected from the SCI in late 2005 ("SCI Cladding Guide") and this may address specifically a number of cladding/steel related issues. and hence has no penetrations through the weather sheet. Cladding systems There are many types of cladding. but here the focus is on the two most commonly used. crucial to the performance of the cladding system is the accuracy of the installation of purlins and rails. poor site fixing could lead to the purlins festooning down the slope. Unlike built-up systems. Thermal bridges Part L also considers the impact of thermal bridges on the thermal performance of the building. in which a line of steelwork. These systems dominate the "shed" market due to their economy.should be kept off site and delivered later. For roofs. performance and installation speed. it should be placed in a safe. Point thermal bridges. In the meantime. The liner and weather sheets are usually similar to those used with built-up systems. Spacer system to support the outer sheet at the required distance from the liner. Built-up systems consist of the following site assembled elements: Liner sheet generally made from steel with a shallow trapezoidal profile. This form of cladding is attached using a clip system. If the steelwork has to penetrate the . Most commonly panels are factory made units.such as rails across access bays or purlins for canopies . Alternatively the angle of the rafter pitches may vary slightly. Composite panels comprise of a rigid layer of insulationbonded between two metal skins. as the insulation is strong enough to support the outer sheet. and asked to keep vehicles out of the way. the effects of which will need to be accounted for in calculations of the building's thermal performance. Insulation comprising a mineral fibre quilt (e. and therefore any penetration of steelwork through the building envelope will create a thermal bridge. The whole panel acts as a restraint to the purlin. Top sheet or weather sheet which has the primary role of keeping out the weather. However. such as a capping channel or eaves beam.be left off in the first fix . This is probably the most serious tolerance problem. Whilst some tolerance may be deduced from BS 5950-7 (now withdrawn in favour of DD ENV 1090-2) and from the National Structural Steelwork Specification. causing the roof ridge to vary up and down the building. The steelwork needs to be detailed to ensure that the whole of the linear member is either inside or outside the envelope. which results in a strong. traffic free area. stiff panel. These sheets are usually zinc coated steel painted to provide the required appearance. there is a concentration on primary frame elements such as beams. Linear thermal bridges. This will result in the purlin being offset from the joint in the roof cladding. Some cladding contractors report problems in this respect due to secondary steelwork being out of position. for some reason. Poor fabrication may result in purlin cleats being out of position on the back of the rafter or being fixed to the rafter out of square. such as brackets penetrating the envelope. as they will create thermal bridges. there is no need for a spacer system. The requirement is for the cladding to be fixed without compromising air tightness. it is probably best to approach the issue from a practical point of view. if possible. is a "standing seam" outer sheet. However the clip system may not give the level of restraint to the purlin that is required. a neoprene thermal isolator packing should be used to reduce heat loss. modern twin skin built-upsystems. with the fixing screw passing right through from the outside of the weather sheet to the purlin top flange. The main contractor needs to be made aware. including secondary steelwork tolerances. cold rolled steelwork has to be stored on site. an alternative to the trapezoidal weather sheet. The spacer is always positioned directly over the purlin and fixed securely to it. This will result in heat loss from the building and also create a risk of condensation. This is particularly effective on minor brackets and connections such as parapet posts.g. such as a canopy cantilevered from the main columns through the insulation line. rock wool). and the purlin manufacturer should be consulted for guidance on purlin restraint for these types of system. and site fixing is undertaken by competent erectors. so that the sheet is not actually attached to the purlin at all. One way to help ensure that steelwork contractors have these competences is to select them from the Register of Qualified Steelwork Contractors. are also not desirable and should be avoided wherever possible. who will ensure that fabrication is carried out to good standards. Finally. These are all practical problems. Such architectural details should be avoided. Steel is an excellent conductor. supports the insulation and forms a weathertight layer prior to the fixing of the outer sheet. details of which are available from the BCSA. The liner tray restrains the purlin or rail. There is little guidance on specific erection tolerances for secondary steelwork in the UK. penetrates the envelope.
Therefore.Roofs With regard to air tightness. When the cladding spans vertically. In this way the horizontal outer sheet can be fixed without the need for a complex framing system for the rails. all of which are more complex and hence more expensive than for vertically fixed cladding. to achieve modern insulation standards. it is also necessary to consider the gutter drainage method. and there are stnct end bearing requirements for this type of panel. sometimes ludicrously tight tolerances are specified.for example horizontal rails can be fitted with a secondary vertical grid between them forming the cladding supports. This is because the provision of a lap between liner sheets allows moderate deviations to be accommodated. and will certainly need some form of secondary adjustment mechanism. such as packing or slots. Normally side rails are prevented from sagging with a manufacturer's anti-sag system. such fine tolerances can only be achieved with extensive surveying and numerous adjustments. similar to a composite panel. These consist of a set of struts or rods between the purlin to set the correct horizontal spacing. The outer sheet then spans horizontally between the spaces. often for no apparent reason. a relatively simple solution is to fix the liner panels to span vertically. and needs to be known when positioning steelwork supports. as specified by the manufacturer. built-up roof systems are more tolerant of minor problems with the steel frame than composite panels. made from galvanised pressed steel. creating a smooth fixing face for the cladding. One particular issue with horizontal panel cladding is the tolerance required by the cladding manufacturer. and if syphonic drainage is specified. The new SCI Cladding Guide suggests that a variance in dimensions between adjacent purlins of up to 25mm is acceptable on built-up systems. Composite panels require tighter tolerances in the positioning of the purlins because there is no adjustment possible in the liner panel laps. the side rail system operates in a similar way to the purlin system on the roof. It is important with all these systems that care is taken in design and fixing to ensure the system is adequately supported to stop the rails sagging. Supporting them was relatively easy. together with diagonal wires or rods to take the vertical dead loads back to the supporting columns. and will also have implications for the building programme. For built-up systems. El . so that any extra steelwork costs and extended programme times can be taken into account before a selection is made. These should be fixed in the correct sequence. When positioning steelwork under gutters. Wall claddings Built-up systems and composite panels can be specified to span either vertically or horizontally on side walls. When the cladding spans horizontally. The thickness of the gutter is also considerable. depending upon architectural preference. gutters are now usually made with insulation bonded to them. that is vertically between the rails. and then fix the spacer bars at 90 degrees to the rails. and when fixing and aligning purlins for this type of cladding. Whilst inmany cases it is not a particular problem. with side rails running horizontally. However. spanning from column to column. or the rails can span vertically onto a number of substantial steel members spanning between the columns. It is impatant to get the rails into gm3 alignment. Space may be needed for sump outlets. so great care needs to be taken in fabricating the steelwork. Another problem that can arise is with air tightness: vertical spanning rails need to be correctly aligned so that their outside flanges line up across the supporting members. This can be done in a number of ways . when comparing cladding systems it is prudent that manufacture's recommended tolerances are carefully checked. This will be costly. These can be almost impossible to achieve. there are a variety of ways to form a supporting system. ' A -'& Klngspm MultUmam ralls with anti-system Gutter and downpipe supports Gutters used to be relatively light weight items. Alternatively the rails need to be designed to support horizontally spanning cladding sheets. in order that the cladding sheets can be properly fixed. These are quite heavy. The SCI Cladding Guide suggests just lOmm tolerance is acceptable as the v m c e in dimension b e t w m adjacent purlins. in order to achieve a good level line to the rails. the pipe runs need to be considered to ensure there are no clashes with the steelwork. weighing up to half tonne over a 7 metre bay width and they need a more substantial steel member to support them. usually through the careful positioning of an appropriate purlin or rail. Rail manufacturers show various options in their literature.
and their load carrying capacity is much reduced. and so needs to be determined at the earliest possible stage.Erecting sheeting rails from mobile elevating working platforms Construction issues When developing the project programme. the gutters are now generally heavy items. Finally. For example. Therefore the project programme should show this as a later fix item. Consequently. and the relevant steelwork should be planned for later delivery than the main building. and positioned at rafter positions. In some cases in may be necessary to alter the sequence of roof steelwork. the cladding contractor will probably require some purlins to be left out. As noted above. for final fixing by the cladding contractor. to allow a crane to lift the cladding onto the roof. On some contracts it may be more appropriate for the steelwork contractor to lift the gutter sections into place. Firstly. If in doubt. and not in the mid-span of purlins. This could affect positioning of bracing etc. Until the roof sheets are fixed. it is safer and quicker to fix vertical cladding above a canopy or lean-to area before the steelwork is erected in that area.. this may avoid the cost of a substantial crane to reach over the finished steelwork to a distant valley gutter location The Big One. to load the cladding materials onto the roof. It is also important that the unfixed mfing materials are placed appropriately on the roof. the cladding contractor should consult the purlin designer before loading the roof. For example. Proiogis Developments Ltd.. the purlins are completely unrestrained. issues may arise relating to allowing safe access for the cladding operatives to get to particular areas. packs of cladding should be kept relatively small. so that a hoist can be used to load the roof. Northampton . the sequencing of operations between the steelwork erection and cladding fixing needs to be taken into account.
the clamps can potentially damage the rails. it is now common practice in the UK for the roof area to be netted. and the handrailing system prevents wall cladding operations until the roof is completed and the handrail scaffolding removed. the posts of the handrail being formed by clamping scaffold poles to the top two or three lines of sheeting rails. such as a missing rafter stay or bolt. so that cladding fixers do not fall to the ground if they fall off the leading edge of the roof. and competent contractors are selected. but the increasing sophistication of cladding systems has increased the number of issues that need to be considered when designing and erecting these buildings. it is not possible to access the roof steelwork from below. Around the perimeter of the roof. with early appointment of all the key contractors. if care is taken with the issues covered here. To fix the roof cladding safely. However. In particular. This handrail will be attached to the steelwork. need to be attended to before netting takes place. and these will increase as the Regulations become more onerous. Minor items of snagging. To achieve this level of coordination will require a well managed supply chain. preventing any clamping damage and allowing wall cladding to start before the roof is finished. then the steel-framed single storey building offers a high-quality fast-build solution for today’s clients. It also suffers a couple of drawbacks. or otherwise it may have to wait for a number of weeks to be rectified. A better solution is to attach the handrailing to sacrificial brackets built into the steelwork. This will only provide a satisfactory solution if the rails are adequate and in the appropriate position.Health i 3 Safety There are certain safety issues for the installation of the roof cladding that may have implications for the steelwork and its erection. Often this is done using scaffolding. The nets are tied to various points on the steel by qualified netting installers. However. as a consequence of the roof being netted. the cladding contractor will need to fix a safety handrail to protect operatives from falling. Conclusion Most single storey buildings are straightforward. Therefore it is essential that all this steelwork is completely finished before netting begins. .the impact of Part L of the Building Regulations has imposed a number of new demands on the steelwork.
These measurements are made at a number of different frequencies. In the case of sound levels. This can initially be confusing for the architect or designer trying to interpret specifications or manufacturers' literature. The level difference is measuredbetween w o rooms and the mult adjusted to be independent of the t both the area of the panel and the acoustic absorption of the room. sound insulation methods can be divided into two types: Airborne sound insulation: Impact sound insulation. give the normalised impact sound pressure level Ln. The resulting sound in the receiving (downstairs) room is measured and this value is termed the impact sound pressure level L.5 seconds. These laboratories comprise two massively constructed adjacent rooms which are isolated against flanking transmission (see below) and connected by an aperture containing a test panel of the building element. the level differences can be adjusted to a standard reverberation time of 0. the lower the value of L'nT or Ln. The resulting value is the sound reduction index R. Some typical sound levels and sound insulation values are illustreated. certain frequencies within a sound are likely to be attenuated more effectively than others by a given construction (low pitched sounds are normally attenuated less than high pitched sounds). The following attempts to explain some of the main terms. doors or windows can be tested in acoustic laboratories. comprising a row of hammers which strike the floor repeatedly at a standard rate. the better the impact sound insulation. the dB rating is a representation of the volume of the sound whilst in the case of sound insulation values it is a measure of the amount by which sound transmitted from one room to another is reduced by the separating construction. and the frequency -whether it is high or low pitched Sound levels and sound insulation values are expressed in decibels (dB). A standard impact sound source (a tapping machine) is used. SCI In buildings. . The difference between the two levels is referred to as the level difference D. The normal frequency range of measurements is illustrated. More comprehensive descriptions are given in BS EN IS0 140-1. The movement in turn causes air particles to vibrate giving rise to rapid pressure fluctuations which are detected by the ear. In order that measurements in different buildings may be compared. Sound Level Pneumatic drill 120 100 Inside undergroundtrain T Sound insulation 8o Normal Living room (suburban) 40 t Specialist broadcast studio wall Sdid brick wall (225mm) Acwstic double glazing Bedroom at night 2o Threshhold of hearing 0 t 1 (de) Single sheet of steel Nowall m a l sound levels and sound insulation values (de) Impact sound insulation The sound insulation properties of walls or floors vary with frequency and. The manner in which humans perceive sound governs the way it is measured and described. This level difference is influenced by the amount of acoustic absorption around the receiving room. Impact insulation tends only to be relevant to floors.Tests in laboratories. Two important charactetistics of sound which humans can detect are: the level how loud a sound is. Sound insulation can be described in a vanety of ways. In view of this. whilst pitch or frequency is expressed in Hertz (Hz). This gives the standardised level difference DnT Individual building elements such as partitions. Thus. normalised for area and absorption. Measurementsin buildings can be standardised to a reverberation time of 0.5 seconds. as most sounds are a mixture of several different frequencies. Background on acoustics and sound Introduction Sound is caused when objects vibrate in air. This gives the standardised impact sound pressure level L'nT (a field measurement). - The frequency range of building acoustics (Hz) Airborne sound insulation Airborne sound insulation between rooms can be measured by generating a steady sound of a particular frequency content in one room (the source room) and comparing it with sound received in a second adjacent room (the receiving room).CHAPTER 1 0 Acoustic details Andrew Way.the time taken for the reverberant noise to decay by 60 dB. The absorption can be estimated by measuring the reverberation time T . the sound reduction characteristics of walls and floors are usually measured at a number of different frequencies across the hearing range.
including the requirements for dwellings given in Building Regulations. In this way.w when generated from DnT Weighted sound reduction Rw when generated from R. A similar method is used for impact sound. but very high levels of sound insulation at some frequencies can offset poor performance at others. An obvious method is to take the arithmetic mean.w+Ctr 245 dB 243 dB 243 dB 243 dB Floors Airborne Impact DnT. for a certain amount of sound to cross between a typical domestic kitchen and living room. . The acoustic requirements detaited in the documents stated above are expressed using different terms and methods as appropriate to the different building types. Standardised weigMed impact sound pressure level CnT. The most m m o n method of overcoming this is to comparethe measuredresults with a set of 16 reference results i. the need to sleep or to hold a conversation. The method used for airborne sound is given in the figure. one or two very good results have much less effect on the single figure value. however it is not acceptable in modern homes for conversations to be audible between dwellings. for many purposes. a reference curve. Building type Walls Airborne DnT. It is apparent that the standards of acoustic insulation that are required in different parts of a building will vary. walls between offices and a workshop are likely to require greater acoustic insulation properties than those between a trade counter and the same workshop. Health Technical Memorandum 2045 "Acoustic design considerations" produced by NHS Estates. For schools.w 245 dB 243 dB 245 dB 243 dB S62 dB S64 Purpose built dwellings hhrellings formed by material change of use Pwpose built rooms for residential purposes dB 562 dB Rooms for residential purposes fotmed by material change of use Ss4 dB . a single figure rating is required. There are several methods of reducing the sound insulation values at the 16 individual frequencies to a single figure value. specifies the requirements.e. However.Therefore. . and the general expectancies of building uses. Regulations The acoustic requirements for dwellings and rooms for residential purposes are specified in Approved Document E of the Building Regulationsfor Englandand Wales. For hospitals. The acoustic requirements from Approved Document E for separating walls and floors are given in the table.w+Ctr CnT. should be adopted. I o"+) 60 601- Acoustic regulatory requirements Introduction Acoustic standards are a product of both physical needs i. O n . in Northern Ireland it is Technical Booklet G.w when generated from L'nT Normalised weigMed impact sound pressure level Ln. and that the performance required of individual building elements will reflect this variation. 40 30 20 10 d / l \ 'Value a 600 HI. The equivalent document in Scotland is Section 5 of the Domestic Technical Handbook. The rating is made by considering only those sound insulation values which fall short of the reference curve. It is generally acceptable. However. . Building Bulletin 93 "The acoustic design of schools" produced by the Department for Education and Skills. For example. the principles of good acoustic detailing are consistent.usually 16 one-third octave bands from 100 Hz to 3150 Hz.e. a direct comparison of requirements is not straightforward.Single figure rating values Swnd insulation is normally measured at a number of different frequencies .w when generated from Ln. . - 49 The single figure values are called: Standardised weighted level difference DnT. for instance.
Alternative. tlankmg transmission can account for the passage of more sound than direct transmission. see following. however. in oertain drcumstances. Ctr is generally in y p e construction.Note: The Ctr term is a spectrum adaptation term. Sound transmission across a solid wall or a single skin partition will obey what is known as the mass law. special details are likely to be neceSSary and advice can be sought from manufacturers. who administers the RD scheme. wall linings should not be penetrated by services. the region of -5 dB to -8 dB for steel framed t Approved Document E explains that there are two methods of demonstrating compliance: Cany out on-site tests to measure the acoustic performance of separating walls and Roofs. These routes are indicated in the illustration. airborne sound can travel by two routes: directly through the separating structure . and the degree of isolation that is achieved between the various layers of the construction. A wider range of details is given in SCI publication P-336. The overall perfmance of a double skin partition can therefore generally be determinedby simply adding together the sound insulation ratings of its constituent elements. . Use Robust Details (RDs). A combination of the acoustic principles of mass. and is further illustratedhere.flanking transmission. where walls abut profiled metal decks.5 mn platehard Two layers of 12. Where service penetrations do occur in sensitive locations particular attention should be given to the way in which these are sealed. Principles of acoustic detailing Direct and flanking transmission When a room is separated from another room. isolation and sealing can be observed in the details shown in the following figures. Flankingtransmissionis more difficult to predii since it is influenced by the way in which the building elements e m configured and detailed. "Acoustic detailing for multi-storey residential buildings". that the sound insulation of a solid element will increase by approximateiy 5 dB per doubling of mass. Mass. One layer of 1 2 . proprietary details are available from some product manufacturers.direct transmission. In principle the law suggests Separating floor and wall junctions The following details are examples of steel framed construction that will meet the acoustic requirements for domestic buildings. two comparatvely lightweight parttions of 25 to 30 dB sound reduction can be combined to give an acoustically enhanced partttion \Mth a 50 to 60 dB sound reduction. Where there are movement joints at the edges of walls. The mass law does not however a p w to litweight framed constructions which achieve far better standards of sound insulation than the law would suggest owing to the presence of a cavity. A is notable that. throughout the building. Usually walls are sealed by the plaster finish. Direct transmiim depends upon the properties of the separating wall o r ffoor and can be estimated from laboratory measurements. Isolation. It has been demonstrated that the sound insulations of individual elements within a double skin parttion tend to combhe together in a simple cumulative linear relationship. This law may be expressed in a variety of ways. In this way. or similar elements. Before construction the developer must also register the site with Robust Details Limited.to confirm that the performarmstandards in Approved Dccument E are m t . 6 m platerboard Two lsyers of 12.6 mm plarerboardon separae m a d t frsnes with quilt in m t y 26 dEl insulation 30 dEl inallation 80 dB insuietlon Sound insulation by layers Sound insulation for both routes is controlled by the following three characteristics: It is important to provide adequate sealing around floors and partitions since even a small gap can lead to a marked deterioration in acoustic performance. Ideally. Sealing. which is generally negative and adjusts the airborne performance index to take additional account of the low frequency sounds that often cause problems in residential buildings. This is particularly important for separating walls between dwellings. This is the basis of many lightweght partrtion systems. such as where separating walls have a high standad of acoustic insulation but s i d e walls am constructed to lower standardsand are continuous between rooms. whereas the mass law alone would have suggested only a 5 dB improvement. sealants may be required. as published in the Robust Details Handbook. and around the separating structure through adjacent building elements .
if an RHS is used it does not have Robust Detail status and on site testing is required. C 2 300mm. Dimension D depends on the ceiling treatment used. Wall inner leaf must not be continuous between storeys. Wall and ceiling boards should not be in direct contact with any steel beams or columns. Ceiling board should not be in direct contact with any steel beams or columns.60 kglm') or unfaced mineral wool quill 110 kglm' mln 1 Mineral wool pacbng or Other firbstopping m a t a m between primary ~ l t t o beam l and light steel channel Llght 31-1 Dmre minerd wool hame SeparaUng well Performance levels similar to those of a Robust Detail could be expected with A 2 80mm. B 2 130mm. Ceiling board should not be in direct contact with any steel beams or columns. Dimension D depends on the ceiling treatment used. Internal light steel separating wall and shallow composite deck floor (with downstand beam) .l foamed polpthrrsns '011limt flanbng strip This detail is a Robust Detail when it is used with an ASB edge beam. Floor treatment should not be continuous under separating wall. the concrete density is at least 2200 kg/rn3 and the light steel frame inner leaf has insulation between the studs. Decking may be trapezoidal or re-entrant and may span in either direction. voids (above the beam) are filled with profiled mineral wool inserts and caulked with acoustic or flexible sealant. the concrete density is at least 2200 kg/m3 and the light steel frame inner leaf has insulation between the studs.""Ct. Concrete density should be at least 2200 kg/m3. Decking may span ineitherdirection. C 2 300mm. voids (above the beam) are filled with profiled mineral wool inserts and caulked with acoustic or flexible sealant.O Uineral wool packing Shallow decking Light steel frame layer of gypsum-bared board OpflOnd 4nP"latlOn between suds IN01 optional 10. Dimension D depends on the ceiling treatment used. Decking may span in either direction and may be trapezoidal or re-entrant. Wall outer leaf may be masonry or precast panels. A 2 80mm. B 2 130mm.] loamed polysmylsne ilient flanking strip ACOUS~ sealant ~C Notes Floating floor treatment C a n N barria to fl00dW811 . A 2 80mm. E 2 200mm and F 2 50mm. Where deck profiles are at a right angle to the walls. Where decking profiles are at a right angle to the walls. Notes Unfaced mineral wool balls 133 . Wall inner leaf must not be continuous between storeys.Rigid insulation ~n *xtorna C a n t Y 2 layers of gypsum-based beard nominal 8 k g m * each layer 5 mm (min. However. Wall outer leaf may be masonry or precast panels. RDI ACOUstio redmt Dense mineral wool end fire protection BI requlrd External cavity wall with light steel internal leaf and shallow deck composite floor (with downstand beam) This detail is a Robust Detail (RD) when it is used in conjunction with an approved RD floating floor treatment. The edge beam may be an RHS with welded plate or an ASB. Notes Floating floor treatment Hallen or similar stainless steel brickwork suppo Optional insulation between SNds (Not optional for R Acoustic sealant 1 layer of Wpsum-bases board nominal 8 kglm' External cavity wall with light steel internal leaf and deep deck composite floor (with RHS or ASB edge beam) 5 mm Imln. in conjunction with an RD floating floor treatment.
E 2 200mm and F 2 50mm. Concrete density should beat least 2200 kg/m3. Screed density should be at least 80 kg/m2. Floor treatment should not be continuous under separating wall. Dimension D depends on the ceiling treatment used. Wall or ceiling boards should not be in direct contact with any steel beams orcolumns.l foamed polyethylene resilient flanking strip 2 layws 01 gypsum-bared board nominal 22 Xglm' each Itotall Performance levels similar to those of a Robust Detail could be expected with A 2 80mm. Precast unit density should be at least 300 kg/m2. nominal 8 k d m ' board or ofher firbitopping mats Internal light steel separating wall and deep deck composite floor (with ASB) Notes 2 . ' One layer 01 gypsum-baled boaidnominal 8 kplm' Scrssd lsand and Cement 1 layer 01 15 mm gypsum-bared board Performance levels similar to those of a Robust Detail could be expected with A 2 40mm. Decking may span in either direction. Floor treatment should not be continuous under separating wall. Internal light steel separating wall and precast floor (with downstand beam) . Precast units must butt tightly together and all voids between units must be grouted. E 2 200mm and F 2 50mm.Notes 5 mm lmin. Dimension D depends on the ceiling treatment used. Voids between the wall and floor must be filled with acoustic or flexible sealant. B 2 150mm. Wall or ceiling boards should not be in direct contact with any steel beams or columns.
'. .. Ceiling boards may be supported by: Propriety metal frame system with a void dimension D of at least 75mm: on profiled e1. . " ..p*: .d decking or pr*ca. . a . R. The usual solutions for services within a wall are to stagger services on either side of the wall and provide additional layers of gypsum-based board where the wall board is penetrated or to construct a special void within the wall to house the services.. . ... Modern styles of living probably create greater volumes of noise. . . The usual solution for services that penetrate separating floors is to box in the service with two layers of gypsum-based board. Possible detailing solutions for structural columns built in to a separating wall are provided in the two figures. '. :.*. .. . .. .''? ' -. .-- ' . See SCI publication P-336 for further guidance. \ Floor slab ( I h m b l COnCRb dab an prolilsd alwl dsckng or ~ m c s s unita) t \Prbbonded r s ~ l l l a layer l Conclusion Detailing of buildings to diminish the effects of airborne and impact sound is an important factor in providing a pleasant environment for occupiers. mm (mm) h i c k tongue end groove I8 floonng bosd . l B mm Imm) hick tongue a d groove Jllooring b a r d . The six illustrated floor treatments may be used with floor slabs constructed from insitu concrete with deep or shallow profile metal decking or with floor slabs constructedfrom precast units a n d screed topping. :.... ". :. Integration of columns and services Any element. . . . .si .. cndkndb... . . and the steel construction industry has been active in building a portfolio of pre-qualified Robust Details. whether it be services or structural.. . . . ~.(1. ' .m(loor . . . but regulations are now in place to define suitable acceptance criteria... . Standdbonontbr 18 mm lmin) thick longua a floonng b o r d d groove I . . that penetrates or is built into a separating wall or floor must be detailed appropriately to ensure that the acoustic performance of the separating wall or floor is not impaired. . . . . . . .. . " .t ""ltJ R o p r u l w bmtdsnr on proprisbrv cradles on resilient pad8 Timber batterns and counter batterns with a void dimension D of at least 100mm. .... . *'. ' .: . .. Exact minimum void dimension D depends on the mass of ceiling board being used and the floor slab construction. . . .. Scientific evaluation of sound insulation performanceenables designers to select suitable building details. Advisory desk note AD 287 "Acoustic detailing of steel columns within masonry separating walls" deals with acoustic detailing of steel columns within masonry separating walls and provides further detailing solutions.. Ceiling treatments All separating floors should have a ceiling treatment of at least one layer of nominal 8 k g h 2 of gypsum-based board. .. 9*. . . . This portfolio will grow as more and more buildings are completed that satisty the current requirements..* . Resilient bars with a void dimension D of at least 15mm. . . . . .. The details are given in descending order of estimated acoustic performance. .*~. * c.Floor and ceiling treatments Floor treatments ''?. " . .. Pmprwbrv lightweight or end ormat aqd 25 mm dense minsral wool or l o m board mm lawr \ floor dab l l h r w concrew 4sb on profiled steel dscbng or P M b t unite) . .. . .
2 layers of plasterboard I (minimum mass 22 kg/m’) t Cavity filled with mineral w o o l 130 m m thick dense ‘ .30 m m thick dense mineral wool board \ Cavity filled with mineral wool 2 layers of gypsum-based board nominal 22 kg/m2 (total) not fixed to primary steel frame Light steel frame studs isolated from steel primary frame and not fixed to primary steel frame Integration of column in a masonry separating wall I 1 J I Cavity masonry separating wall complyin with requirements of A p p r o v e 2 Document E \ . Steel column isolated mineral wool board from blockwork with mineral w o o l Integration of column in a light steel separating wall \ .
A significant tensile force at an increased lever arm can make a massive difference to the potential moment capacity of a connection. Amp Principles The basic principle of composite connections is to use reinforcement in the slab as an additional bolt line in an end plate moment Connection.1 and Eurocode 4 give advice on the use of elastic global analysis for continuous composite beams. This should be read by anyone using. This will not be an efficient use of the strength of the beams. this form of construction. However even with redistribution the resulting support moments are likely to be of the same order of magnitude or greater than the midspan moments. Composite connections (designedto transmit moment) are rare. The connections are also covered in Eurocode 4. This compares to about 450kNm if eight T16 reinforcement bars are added in the slab. A plastic analysis will allow the capacities to be used but requires knowledge of the connection capacity and sufficient rotation at the connection. This is the process proposed in P-213. Because of the lack of ductility of welded mesh this cannot be taken into account in the design and bar reinforcement must be used to providethe required area. Limitations for plastic design (b) beam-to-beam The connections have many common characteristics but significant differences. the reasons for this are a mixture of technical. An explanation of these reasons will help people identify where they may be appropriate and implement them successfully. It took into account lessons learnt from North America and has developed to give steel a 70% share of the UK market in this field. The rotation capacity of the connection is from elongation of the reinforcement. The most important factor is usually the reinforcement. The composite connections considered here fall into two basic types: beam-to-column and beam-to-beam as illustrated. Although this may seem a significant moment it i s about half of the composite moment capacity at midspan. Introduction One of the major steel SUCCBSSBS of the past 25 years has been the use of composite construction for multi-storey construction. Composite connections can be used in cantilevers and of course in that case there can be no redistribution.CHAPTER I 1 Composite connecllul IS Mike Banfi. The plastic rotation of the connection means that components of the connection must deform. I I . Normal bar reinforcement has an elongation at maximum load of 5% and in some cases more ductile reinforcement may be required to ensure the required rotation. Redistribution is allowed even for semi compact sections. slip of the shear connections and compression of the bottom flange. for a 457xl91x74kg/m UB a flush end plate connection could have a capacity of about 2OOkNm if connected to a suitable column. To make sure that the reinforcement is strained over a significant length it is recommended that the first stud is located away from the connection i. I' I Ibl' Forces in compostte connection to an internal column (from P-213) fa) beam-to-column BS 5950-3. managerialand cultural.e. A typical feature of this construction is that the beams are designed as simply supported despite the fact that in many cases the slab and steel beam are continuous either side of the support. or considenng. at least lOOmm from the face of the column or 200mm from the centre of the connection where there is no column. The BCWSCI have published a guide on composite connections as part of the Joints in Steel Construction series (P-213). In these cases the capacity of the connection during construction may govern the design. For example.
(Values assume support to span moment ratio (Msup/Mspan) is not less than 0. It is worth remembering that composite connections rely on there being continuous lines of beams. For unpropped constructionthe stress in the steel due to the construction dead load must also be considered.25 for beams subject to UDL. in particular in many cases high ductility reinforcement is required.53 0.68 0. Irregular layouts and offsets are not going to be suitable for this form of construction. Beam to column connections are often end plate connections anyway so an upgrade to a composite connection does not mean a major change to the steelwork detailing. The limits are given in terms of the maximum allowable ratio of the maximum stress in the steel prior to hardening of the slab concrete (adl)to the nominal yield stress (ay).16 0.39 0. At the edge of the building there cannot obviously be a beam to beam connection and for beam to column connections the anchorage of the reinforcement behind the column can be difficult. In beam to column connections the tensile load in the reinforcement is transferred to the column by being anchored into the concrete behind the column and the concrete bearing on the column flange. Because of the locked in stresses in the steel section the steel at midpsan will yield at a lower applied load and as the load is increased further the stresses in the beam section at midspan must redistribute.00 1.21 S275 0.85 Mp. i Steel grade s355 Beam location 2PL Spanldepth = 15 UDL 3PL 1.53 I I 52 U .31 0.78 0.81 0. There are other limits on dimensions and loading. the applied moment at midspan should be limited to 85% of the beam capacity.51 0.18 0.73 0.00 1. The reinforcement must therefore be placed close to the column and the concrete bearing capacity can limit the force that can be transferred. They will need a lot more consideration with composite connections. between 2 and 4 storeys high and between 2 and 4 bays wide. This leads to increased curvature in the middle of the beam and more rotation at the support.58 0.26 0. the ratio of the span to the total depth of beam and slab should be limited to: Design considerations Moment connections at the ends of beams can be used for two main purposes.31 0.28 0. Obviously the stronger the connection the less plastic rotation it will need to undergo. The following table (see Byfield 2005 in References) shows limits for the stress due to construction dead load. They are based on the support moment being greater than 30% of the span moment and the maximum design sagging moment being 85% of the capacity. The SCI guide suggests limits for these three factors: the connection capacity should be at least 30% of the sagging moment capacity of the beam. a UDL or 3 Point Loads. On the other hand beam to beam connections in simple design are likely to be fin plate or even angle cleats and the change to an end plate connection can mean a change in normal practice. Another advantage of composite construction . 2 Point Loads. In this case the weight of the concrete slab is not applied to the composite connection and the connection can undergo slightly more rotation. The use of composite connections in moment frames means the connections will include a column.13 0. They can improve the performance of the beam at both Serviceability and Ultimate limit states and/or they can be used to frame into columns and provide stability to a building.The moment capacity of the connection. Beam to column connections also need the beam to be on the centreline of the column.89 1.21 UDL 3PL Internal External Internal 0.30 0.00 0.42 0. Where they are used to help the beam they may be beam to beam connections as well as beam to column.00 0.54 0.4 External 0. Similarly if the moment at midspan is reduced there will be less curvature and less rotation at the end connection. However this advantage can be more than offset by the additional rotation requirement. The connections proposed are those in P-213and similar limits and restrictions apply.44 UDL 3PL Spanldepth = 25 2PL 0. Another SCI publication (P-264) gives guidance on Wind-moment Design of Unbraced Composite Frames.00 1. As composite connections are likely to be partial strength their use in frames can be quite complicated but simple methods are available in certain situations. Removing a beam to create a major opening will require assessment and possible strengthening of adjacent beams and columns. One advantage of simple construction is that alterations are relatively easy. the beam and the span influence the amount of rotation required at the connection.) The depth to be used in evaluating the span to depth ratio is the total depth of the composite beam including the slab.00 1.20 for beam subject to point loads at third points.44 0.29 0. Beam to beam connections are also very unlikely to have significant moment capacity at the construction stage and hence there will be higher stresses due to construction dead load and possible increased rotation of the connection as described above.67 0.00 Spaddepth = 20 2PL 0.53 0.3 and the sagging moment is not greater than 0. .80 1. multiple point loads or a central point load. Longer spans will also give more rotation. The three columns for each ratio relate to different loading patterns. The method is limited to frames in one direction only.
In the countries where composite connections are very common steel does not have a high market share. Serviceability It can be seen that for efficient strength design with composite connections the stress in the beam under dead load may need to be controlled and it may be necessary to specify non-standard reinforcement. Plastic design must therefore be used and the resultant rotation of the composite connections can require nonstandard reinforcement and/or limits on stresses during construction. Unfortunately the strength of typical connections is such that normal elastic designs are not efficient. When the deflection under imposed load needs to be controlled to less than the normal span/depth ratios composite connections can be useful. On the edges of buildings the cladding often requires strict limits on deflections. Another possible use due to the increasing floor spans where the normal span/depth ratios imply quite significant deflections i. They should be located with 20mm cover to the deck. In many cases there is only 60 to 70mm of concrete above the deck. Composite connections have been used for this reason on a recent project. El . Reinforcement will be bars most likely 16 or 20mm diameter. Locating one set of bars in the right location will need some care. However in particular situations composite connections can have a benefit and they should not be disregarded. for example such a beam spans adjacent to a core this would be a significant differential deflection and may need to be controlled. Where deflections govern it is more likely that composite connections can make a useful contribution. the area where the main reinforcement for the connection is located. Composite connections may be appropriate for these cases but often it is difficult to incorporate the reinforcement adjacent to the columns. It should be noted that composite connections will not really improve the vibration performance of the floor because normal connections have enough stiffness to be considered as continuous under these conditions.e. ConcIusion The idea of using composite connections as end connections to improve the design of composite frames may appear a good idea.is the ability to form small service holes in the slab. Where serviceability governs the restrictions may be less and the benefit of continuity in reducing deflections will be significant. The simple construction method used in the UK is adapted to the particular behaviour of steelwork and has been very successful. A popular area for these is adjacent to columns i.e. span/360 for an 18m span is 50mm. Locating bars in two directions will be quite difficult and with normal slab thicknesses composite connections will be limited to one direction. These deflections are not usually a problem in the main part of the floor but where.
This. and therefore they retain a greater proportion of their strength. because of the changes in joint forces described above. These are further increased as a result of restraint to thermal expansion from the cool structure surrounding the fire compartment. If joints fail. especially for composite construction. These elements have traditionally been designed for fire by considering them in isolation. the assumed response of the structure will not be able to develop fully. Practical beam-column and beam-beam joints. initially because of differential expansionof the steel and concrete. As the temperatures increase further. which are acceptable provided that the fire is contained within the compartment of origin. Sheffield University Introduction All structural elements (slabs. very large flexural deformations can develop. they are restrained by their connection to the surrounding structure and exert increasingly high tensions on the correspondingjoints. For simple braced frames the joints typically possess very low rotational stiffness and are assumed to transfer only vertical shear forces into the columns. the temperature of the joint tends to be lower than that of the connected members. Ultimately. There is therefore considerable scope for load-sharingand for both advantageous and disadvantageous effects of restraint to rotation and horizontal movement. joint failure can precipitate failure of the structural floor system. As temperatures increase the exposed steel beams initially heat rapidly and expand. leading to a much more extensive structural collapse. when the moment-rotation characteristics are most important. Those which separate different compartments must also retain sufficient integnty (there should be no cracks or openings which could allow penetration by hot gases or flames) and provide sufficient insulation (the temperatures on the non-exposed surface of separating elements must not exceed ignition temperatures) to prevent fire spread. further magnifying this effect. especially in the case of composite floors. However. and the fact that connection temperatures are often lower than the connected members. Furthermore it is important that the fire should be contained within its compartment of origin. with little reduction in strength. It is implicitly assumed in fire engineering design approaches that joints retain their structural integrity. usually have a residual stiffness which becomes significant when the connected beams have lost much of their own strength and stiffness at high temperature. restraint to thermally-induced movements may exist in respect of both translations and rotations at the ends of beams and the edges of slabs. causing loss of compartmentation. and partly becauseof the inevitablebending deformation which they have suffered. Hence. The real behaviour of these connected structural elements can therefore be very different from that indicated by standard furnace tests. deformations locally are likely to be increased dramatically. and the dominant action in the joints is therefore very diierent from that at ambient temperature. As the beams try to shorten. The resulting temperature differential causes thermal bowing towards the fire. When passive fire protection is used on the members this requirement is generally considered to be fulfilled if the same thickness of fire protection is applied to the joints.CHAPTER 12 Joints under fire conditions lan Burgess and Roger Plank. particularly within bare steel beams. whilst the concrete slab heats much more slowly. means that significant moments can be generated. In fire conditions such joints can be exposed to much more onerous conditions than at ambient temperature. and building fires often remain localised. If joint failure occurs. In real buildings structural elements form part of a continuous assembly. This depends on the continued integnty of the joints. joints and columns) must maintain their load-bearing function for the required fire resistance time. temperature increases). In addttion to the development of forces described above. which are subject to marked changes in force during a fire. this is can be a considerable oversimplification. beams. Once a real fire starts to decay temperatures reduce and the process reverses. they have effectweiy become shorter during the fire. Because of the concentration of material. and subsequently because of the large beam deformations at high temperature. Response of steel composite frames to fire The structural behaviour of steelwork during a building fire is strongly influenced firstly by softening of the material (the progressive degradation of the stress-strain curves as its . and secondly by expansion. which may in turn either overload lower floors causing progressive failure or may allow the supporting columns to buckle. with the fire-affected structure receiving significant restraint from cooler areas surrounding it. even in joints which are designed as 'simple' for ambient temperature. The heated beams regain strength and s t i e s and also try to contract. In composite constructioG-continuous slab reinforcement can create a much stiffer overall joint. which may be treated as perfect hinges in the ambient-temperaturedesign process. thereby compromising safety levels. and the physical integrity of floors needs to be maintained. Whilst there may be sufficient redundancy within the structure to sustain this. Design considerations for joints The fire resistance of joints must be at least the same as for the connected members. the concrete floor slab may have very limited ductility and may not be able to accommodate such deformations without significant cracking. This means that beam-to-column joints should be able to transmit the internal forces during the whole fire resistancetime. even at very high distortions. These lead to changes in structural behaviour which interact with other parts of the building so that the net structural response can be very different from that at ambient temperature. Under these conditions tensile action can develop. However. yet evidence from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings and full-scale tests at Cardington indicates that joints may be particularly vulnerable during both heating arid cooling. inducing very high permanent compressive strains in the weakening steel beams. partly as a result of the permanent compressive strains developed during heating. joint rotation is very much higher.
and local buckling due to compression and shear. the same progressive fracture can take place during cooling. Depending on the design details. this joint fracture may lead to progressive structural collapse. explosion induced damage and/or fire induced weakening of materials. bolt-holes. beam web or end-plate. and when designing the building for robustness this is a key consideration. Even if no fracture occurs during the heating phase. e. Local buckling of the lower beam flange adjacent to the joint does not in itself constitute a failure in the fire situation. as illustrated. Eurocode 3 Part 1. especially if some of these members are unprotected. because of the local concentration of material and relative lack of exposed surfaces. Three degrees of simplification are allowed. However. The simplest ISto treat the connection temperature as uniform and to calculate using the maximum value of the section factors A/V of the connected steel members. Behaviour of joints in fire The principal structural effects which would normally be considered as "failure" at joints are fracture due to tension and shear. which is a genuine structural integrity failure.Local buckling and potentialforce concentration in top b o b This can contribute significantly to reducing deflections of the connected beams. Observed behaviour in Cardington fire tests Partial-depth end plates were used extensively in the Cardington fire tests. simplified temperature calculation methods for joint zones. using a residual end moment for the beam. this could involve failure of the bolts. although simplified fire engineering design calculations. The diagonal tension field action caused by this shear buckling has the potential to concentrate the shear and tying forces at the top part of the connection. In no case did this happen on both sides of the end plate.2 provides Partial fracture on an end plate connection after cooling El . During cooling a partial failure of these connections was often Observed. This suggests that Connection temperatures The temperature distribution in a joint zone is usually considerably lower than that of the members it connects. in combination with shear buckling of the webs. Little research has so far been done on the behaviour of semirigid and rigid joints in fire. must be used with caution because of the possibility of local buckling as observed in a number of tests. especially when the beam is at high deflection and catenary tension is developing. welds. this local buckling did not appear to prejudice the overall structural performance. and it is doubtful whether they can maintain their rigidity in fire. given that the beams had been designed as simply supported.g. in which the end plate fractured on one side of the beam web adjacent to the welds. This could trigger a progressive fracture of the joint from the top downwards. when local buckling is likely to occur at the beam-end adjacent to the connection. but is known to trigger shear buckling in the web as illustrated. The latter is most likely to occur in parts of the structure which are restrained against thermal expansion. or for the connection as a whole but with a linear or bi-linear temperature gradient through the depth of the connection. Under unfavourable loading conditions. Alternative approaches involve incremental calculations and allow the temperature to be estimated for the different connection components separately. and in many cases local buckling was seen in the bottom flange of the beams.
but in other c a m might happen as it expands during the heating phase. It identified joints as critical components in structural frames. including the need to understand connection performance under impact loads and during fire. i I I I I i I I I Column tree detaH from WTCS (from FEMA R H The joint illustrated was fire protected but failed as a result of the effects of fire alone. and to quanti this for design. which explains the "nominal" edge distance between the bolt holes and the end of the steel plate. There is also no mechanism of partial failure which would allow the development of ductile behaviour as was the case with the partial depth end plates. these edge distances are clearly inadequate and Mock shear failure occurs. In several cases it was observed that the bolts had fractured in shear at the interface between the fin plate and the beam web.e. The connection utilised a simple shear plate. but otherwise the bolts and bolt hde positions are designed for vertical forces only. The eccentricity between the bolt rows generates a small moment. At a more detailed level the report provided evidence that bolted shear splices can be vulnerable to catenary forces in fire if they are not designed for an appropriate tying capacity. Shear failure of bolts in fin plate connections in cooling Observation of behaviour at World Trade Center The final report of the World Trade Center Building Code Task Force identified a number of issues relevant to the safety of all buildings. r 4 Failed tab plate and column tree edge from WTC! (from FEMA Report) . the remainingconnection performed in a ductile fashion and was sufficient to transmit the structural actions. Fin plates rely on steel in direct tension and shear. This again is thought to have occurred as the secondary beam contracted during cooling. was constructed using pre-fabricated "column trees" supporting suspended beam spans. - Fin plates were used at Cardington to connect secondary beams to their supporting primary beams. and so will always behave in a less ductile fashion than a bending element such as a partial-depth end plate. combined with vertical shear. which was subject to a severe fire following the collapse of the Twin Towers. and referred to the importance of assessing performance of structural members and connections as part of a structural system in building fires. The upper storeys of the building were not damaged and remained intact while several floors below collapsed during the fire. It is probable that the failure initiated at one level and the resulting impact on successive levels below led to progressive collapse. designed to transfer the vertical shear force along the member. Under the catenary forces generated at high deflection. as illustrated. Building 5 of the World Trade Center.the increased flexibility produced by the fracture allowed the tensile forces developing in the cooling beam to be relaxed through deformation of the joint i.
It does not allow any of the load-deflection behaviour to be predicted.Alternative simple beamcolumn joints seatinghcatingcleats. the strength of bolts and welds is assumed to degrade according to strength reduction factors similar to those for normal structuralsteel.8. The details shown are variants which may be useful in providing some of the above requirements in particular circumstances. Based on these studies. and finite element analyses. so that catenary tension is reduced by allowing the effective shortening caused by large deflection. The sliding bearing can accommcdate high axial movement and rotation. so that they are assumed to have slipped. sliding bearing. Under fire conditions. semi-empirical rules have been developed. seating brackethe4 cleat. These ignored any effect of axial thrusts. In the case of friction grip bolts. As temperature increases. together with the final strength to resist these forces. Annex D is 'informative" and deals only with s i m p l i connection temperature calculation. allowing the progressivedegradation of strength and rotational stiffness Mmmt @Nm) 180 160 140 120 Mommt (IrNm) 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Eurocode requirements Eurmcde 3 Part 1. typically on cruciform arrangements. and the reduced strength of bolts and welds at elevated temperatures. there is an increasing need to understand how joints behave in fire. the work initially centred on moment-rotationcharacteristics and the effect of these on limiting beam deflections. in contrast to the highly advanced treatment which is possible for joints at ambient temperature under Eurocode 3 Part 1. 100 80 60 40 20 ' 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rotmm (Mdluads) 0 I I 57 . slotted fin plate Suggested variants of simple joints For optimal behaviour in fire a simple joint ideal needs the following characteristics: High rotation capacity to cope with the large beam deflections in fire: Relatively flexible behaviour in horizontal tension. Data has been gathered from full-scale furnace tests. Adopting a similar approach to ambient temperature studies on real connections.2 has relatively little to say about joints. it is assumed that the heating effectively relaxes the contact pressure. such connections are therefore treated in the same way as for ordinary bearing bolts. and Sufficient vertical shear resistance to wry the vertical load component appropriate to the fire limit state at the final steel temperature. Some suggested details for beam-to-column joints are illustrated. The slotted fin plate shown and the seated web cleat can be designed to give the flexibility in rotation and axial movement which is required to minimise catenary forces. Moment-rotation at high temperatures As structural fire engineering becomes increasingly based on the behaviour of whole structurss. but has no tymg capacity other than that provided by the slab reinforcement. Sufficient strength when distorted to resist the catenary tension. Research is currently progressing in this area but detailed design procedures have yet to be developed.
but with less consistent patterns of behaviour than forthe bare steel case. Whilst this work has provided a very sound basis for understanding some of the ways in which fire influences joint behaviour. the compression zone in the column web. the Cardington full-scalefire tests have demonstrated th at design procedures based on isolated member behaviour have limited validity. Each of the components i s represented as a non-linear spring. as illustrated. compression or shear. combinations of moment and thrust are simply different combinations of the horizontal forces in each of these nonlinear springs. top bolts and column flange. which degrade as the temperature rises. each including several components. A steel joint under the action of a member endmoment alone can be divided into the three principal zones shown:the tension. The development of moment-rotation-thrust surfaces at diffemnt temperatures would require prohibitive numbers of expensive tests. These are sufficient to represent the moment-rotation characteristics without axial thrust in the beam o r column. each contributingto the overall behaviour. and these have been validated against fumace tests and against detailed finite element simulations. Simplified analytical models have been developed for the characteristics of some of the main components of flush and extended end plates at elevated temperatures. without attempting to predict the overall joint behaviour in fire. The results have typically been presented as a family of curves for specific connection details. and compare very well with the earlier furnace tests on cruciform arrangements as illustrated. allowing simpler treatment of the large number of variables and a dearer assessment of robustness. In principle any joint can be considered as an assembly of individual zones. Composite connections have also been considered. potentially a very significant effect. to enable semi-rigid behaviour to be taken into account in the analytical fire engineering design of steel-framed and composite buildings. with its own strength and stiffness in tension. . Thus. Further components are currently being investigated and these will enable a more generalised approach to be developed for a range of different connection types under various combinations of axial load and bending moment. This approach is also being used to examine the ultimate strength of joints and this will be of major importance in considering the robustness of buildings.to be represented as illustrated. Component-based approach More recently the focus has been to consider the joint as an m g e m e n t of different zones. This is a more practical alternative and is a logical extension of the principles of the "Component Method" of joint analysis used at ambient conditions to design at elevated temperatures. in the absence of high column a x i a l force. as illustrated. compression and shear zones. Components whiih have so far been evaluated in this way are: the tension zone comprising the end plate. with individual curves representing a particular temperature. For joints this means that rotational behaviour has to take account of the accompanying axial forces caused by restrained expansion. I Berm Rmne TC~ID- PO I Bum web rn rher II unckrnmmni II compcnm Cornparkonofcomponent-- joint modd against moment- rotation characteristicstaken from cruciform teas The three zones and components in an end plate j o i n t Conclusion The principles of the Component Method can be used directly in either simplified or finite element modelling.
in some circumstances. as this is used to assess the acceptability of the structure. and so can be neglected in building design. conveniently modelled as a viscous (or oil-pot) damper.q . where I is the impulsive force (in Ns) from the walker (which can be taken as I = 190 / 6l. the response of the structure to a common cyclic load (e. which is defined as the frequency.‘ ”’ CHAPTE. 1 I 3 rations Acceptability of floors for walking vibrations The basic design procedure for assessing the vibration performance of floors subjected to human activities is as follows: Stephen Hicks. the root-mean-square(rms) acceleration is given by: %PO 1 arms =d2M 25 where a .g. vibrations occurs in floor structures. For ‘low’ frequency floors (frequency. the most important parameter of vibration response is the amplitude of the motion. A simple model that illustrates the vibration behaviour of a floor structure is shown in the figure. but perceptible. the higher the response). Although there are many possible ways in which the magnitude of the vibration response can be measured. For ‘high frequency’ floors (frequency 6 > 10 Hz). For structures that possess a ‘low frequency’ of between approximately 3 to 10 Hz.6N). the response is dominated by impulsive excitation. such that it is effectively ‘tuned’ out of the main harmonic components of walking force. However. In most cases. Practical floor structures possess a low level of natural damping (normally in the order of 1%). the vibrations are imperceptible. is the Fourier coefficient of the nmharmonic (which can be taken as 0. Frequency of the )r structure The frequency determines how the structure will behave when subject to human activities. the resulting vibration response is shown in the figure. However. and the floor mass is modelled by a point of mass m. The key issues are summarised here with a consideration of the implications for steelwork connection details. For structures that possess a sufficiently ‘high’ frequency (greater than approximately 10 Hz).4 for floors with fo < 3. the lower the modal mass. the higher the response). Floor response The response is simply calculated using Newton’s second law of motion in that acceleration is proportional to the force (from the walker) divided by the vibrating mass of the floor. Modal mass of the floor For both resonant and impulsive excitation. but may be more noticeable within the working environment of modern offices and residential dwellings as spans have increased.) is sufficient to produce a response that is perceptibleto the occupants of the building. the amount of mass that is mobilised is needed to calculate the response (in a similar way to the damping ratio. In this case. M is the modal mass and 5 is the damping ratio. In design. As can be seen the period T defines the time taken for one complete cycle of oscillation to occur. POis the static force exerted by an ‘average person’ (normally taken as 76 kg x 9. This is not a new phenomenon. Any structure will vibrate if subjected to cyclic or sudden loading. this parameter provides a measurement of the number of cycles per second (or Hertz) the structure will vibrate.55 Hz or 0.f between 3 to 10 Hz). the response is relatively insensitive to the level of damping. the level of damping is important as it defines the amount that the response will be magnified (the lower the damping ratio. Damping refers to the loss in mechanical energy within a mechanical system. SCI Introduction Specifiers are more frequently facing the need to consider the vibration response of floors in detail. the rms acceleration is given by: Idealised single-degree-of-freedom system (a) basic componentq and @) undamped free vibration response If the spring-mass is set into motion in some way and it is assumed that there is no damping. The bending stiffness is modelled as a spring of stiffness k. it is often convenient to describe the amplitude of the motion in terms of acceleration.81 = 745. All practical structures will have some damping. harmonic components of the walking force can coincide with the floor frequency causing resonant excitation: in this case. the inverse of the period is normally considered. The most common example of such small.1 for other cases). walking act es etc.
even when the calculated multiplying factor is greater than the values given above.09 0. a factor of 1.O may conservatively be applied for preliminary design. should a more systematic check be made. hospital wards Day Night Offices. general laboratories II I Day Night I 1 2 to 4 1. whrle for x.28 0. and are therefore appropriate for floors that are very heavily trafficked with walkers continually present.8 Note It Is not consklered appropriate to use a dose value assessmcnrt on especially sensitive floors.O. This is accounted for in the current vibration standard BS 6841 (which is similar to IS0 2631-1) by adopting the ‘basicentric’ coordinate system shown in the figure below (note that the z-axis corresponds to the direction of the human spine)* and an appropriate frequency-weighting curve such as that also shown in the figure.56 0. precision laboratories Residential. The current standards define the level of vibration at the threshold of human perception by a ‘base value’ of rms acceleration. general laboratories Workshops 0.& y-axis 0. According to BS 6472. = arm Vibration dose values Human F eption limits The multiplying factors presented in the table above are based on continuous vibrations.28 0. such as within an operating theatre . walking activities will produce intermittent vibrations. hospital wards 1 Offices. Some commonly Place Time Multiplying factor for continuous vibration Operating theatre. the base value for z-axis vibrations corresponds to 5 x 10-3m/s2.14 to 0.and y-axis vibrations.4 x. For less heavily trafficked floors.’5) or VDV z-axis Residential.and y-axis vibrations the base value reduces to 3.2 to 0.Frequency-weightedfloor response The human perception of the floor response is affected by both the direction and frequency of the vibrations.4 0. and a cumulative measure of the floor response may be made through the use of vibration dose values (VDVs).13 0.’ d s 2 . the rms acceleration should be multiplied by the following factors for z-axis Vibrations: or Wdghted or weighted a r m s = arms for 4 Hz fo 8 Hz (3) 8 arms = arms x f0 for fo > a HZ fo 2 accepted multiplying factors cited in BS 6472 for different environments corresponding to a ‘low probability of adverse comment’ are provided in the table below (note that calculated multiplying factors greater than those shown correspond to an unacceptable human reaction if the vibrations are applied continuouslv). For x. Since weighting factors are 1. These ratios are known as ‘multiplying factors’ or ‘response factors’. Satisfactory vibrations for different environments are defined by the ratio of the calculated weighted rms acceleration to the appropriate base value. Weighted for fa > 3Hz. In these circumstances it can sometimes be shown that the floor would be acceptable. However.4 4 8 I I I Workshops Place Time Vibration dose value (m/s’.57 x 10.
the calculated dose values should be less than or equal to the values presented in the table below.37 h3' I Trapezoidal deck Trapezoidal deck Trapezoidal deck I I I 60 80 I 0. Should the designer wish to undertake a VDV assessment.19 h3' I I 0. summing the deflection calculated from the beam and slab components. Iband I. L is the span of the secondary beams. VDV = 0.o b 368b3L I.A recent study of steel-framed floors (see Ellis 2001 in References) showed that VDVs can be estimated from the following equation: Simplified approach The following simplified approach can be adopted to assess the vibration response of typical steel-framed floors.37 h3 0. Notes: o is the load per unit area. where a(rms) is the weighted root-mean-square (rms) acceleration and t is the total duration of the vibration exposure (in seconds). lslab NWC LWC 0. b is the spacing of the secondary beams. which conespond to a 'low probability of adverse comment. h.65 h3 Re-entrant deck 51 0. and placing this value within the equation below.68 x a(rms) x (4) Floor frequency The fundamental frequency of the complete floor fo may be calculated by considering an appropriate mode of vibration.40 h3 0.] As above 'P Lj Ib 92b3 L4 6 = 384E( . (mm) Dynamic second moment of area per metre width..12 h35 225 0.05 h3' . (5) Total deflection of a floor panel for a variety of framing arrangements Framing arrangement Secondary beam mode of vibration Condition when mode shape is governed by the motion of the primary beams Primary beam mode of vibration As above 16b3 lpI -Ib L3 wb 64b3L L4 6=384EI I.. am the dynamic second gross second moments of ama of the composite secondary beam and primary beam respectively (which may consenfathrelytaken as that used in the static design and increased by 10%) and lsiab is the second moment of area of the composite slab (which may be determined from the table below) Profile type Deck height.23 h3 ' I 0.. 'T'd +T+.
The values of S and Leff should be taken from the table below (reproduced from the SCI guide P-076). muttiple d e v i i may be required to damp an entire floor structure. in collaboration with Richard Lees Steel Decking. The advantage of this form of damping is that it can simultaneously damp several modes of vibration. given by: S‘ s* =4. discrete dampers are difficult to incorporate within floors since they need to connect two points that are moving relative to each other (along the axis of the damper) in the vibration mode. Tuned mass dampers (IMD’S) are common inertial devices. well-furnished floors. Higher damping depends on the energy dissipation through non-structural components such as partitions. calculated from effective composite beam stiffness. In the UK a system known as ‘Resotec’ has been developed by Arup where E/sM is the dynamic flexural rigidity of the slab in Nm2per metre width.205 x 0.0% for normal. the value of a may be determined from the table below). A TMD consists of a mass mounted on a structure via a spring system and a viscous damper. which can effectively double the damping values given above for modern composite floor construction. These devices function in a similar way to shock absorbers and dissipate the energy by the movement of a piston passing back and forth through a fluid.& = 0.. the partition lines are perpendicular to the main vibrating elements of the critical mode shape). be concealed within the structure of the floor. Viscous dampers are an example of discrete damping elements.’ = 41 12969 Nm2 Modal mass The effective vibrating mass M in equations (1) and (2) may be taken as equal to mSLeff / 4. 4.g. The spring and mass are ‘tuned‘ so as to have a natural frequency close to that of the floor structure.where U is the total deflection (in millimetres) based on the gross second moment of area of the composite beam and slab (for cases when the floor grid is regular. For design purposes.5% for a floor where the designer is confident that partitions will be appropriately located to interrupt the relevant mode@)of vibration (i. it is suggested that the following damping ratios Ts) should be used for estimating the response of ‘low frequency’ composite floor systems: 1. preferably in a location where the floor structure’s deflections are the greatest.e. thereby reducing the overall floor response. 3. In the remainder of the span. given by: where E/b is the dynamic flexural rigidity of the composite secondary beam (NmJ and b is the Secondary beam spacing (m) W is the width of the floor plate under consideration (rn) is the span of the primary beam (m) is the total length of the secondary beam when considered to act continuously (m) . Constrained layer damping can. However. for floors that may possess a number of modes of vibration. Discrete damping elements connecting between two points. it should be noted that TMD’S have a narrow frequency range of effectiveness and. e.1% for completely bare floors or floors where only a small amount of furnishings are present. where: RFP is the relative flexibility of the primary beam is the effective width of the floor participating in the vibration. where m is mass per unit area (kg/mJ of the floor plus any loading that is considered to be permanent. Although successfully used on the Millennium Bridge in London. which are largely dependent on frictional forces. Damping can be dramatically enhanced by dampers based on: Inertial devices. and other permanent loads.5 1 2 1 - I \ 1/4 L’ is the effective span of the secondary beam participating in the vibration. This product comprises a layer of high-damping visco-elastic material of approximately 3mm thickness. Damping Damping is often the most difficult property to predict for dynamic analysis. through deck welded stud connectors are introduced to provide a partially composite beam. in principle. which is sandwiched between two thin steel plates. for a 140mm NWC slab with a 60mm trapezoidal deck E/. with a load corresponding to the self weight. open-plan.23 x 1403. this is then introduced at the interface between the top of the steel beam and the underside of the composite slab towards the ends of the beam. calculated from the effective slab stiffness. plus a proportion of the imposed load that can be considered as permanent (10% of the imposed load may be considered as an upper limit in modern offices). Incorporation of high-damping materials within the form of construction.
In the illustrationthe time taken for a walker to walk from one end of a corridor to another is maximized by considering the slowest < 0.2 Greater of s' or Lm but s W I=L 2L 2L 0. pace frequency that may be practically achieved (1.8 L L R f D< 0.2 L s' but s W R f .Values for dimensions Leff an i used in determining the effe ive mass of the flo Indicative floor layout Qualifying conditions Leff (m) RF.6 0 . < 0.7 w. w.8 w.6 ~~ L'butslmax w. > 0. b for Case (3) abovl 1. Based on multiplying factors that exceed the requirements for continuous vibrations from BS 6472 quoted above.8 w.c C 2L W E R f D> 0.7 L I < 0. > 0.5 Hz).8 L < I < L As for Case (1) above f 1 1. = w. w. vibration dose values For cases when the designer wishes to take advantage of the fact that floor vibrations occasioned by walking activities are intermittent. the graphs illustrated may be used. I lrn -erlooob '- El . the number of crossings per hour have been calculated which would provide VDV's consistent with a low probability of adverse comment also in accordance with the earlier table.
Factors to be considered that will affect the assessments outlined above include: The framing arrangements. Whether beams frame onto columns as primary beams or onto other beams as secondaries. The choice of prestressed or simply reinforced slabs when precast units are used. Whether beams act compositely with the slabs. The positions and the connection points necessary for installing and maintaining active dampers.Conclusion The engineering connections and architectural details chosen can have an influence on the dynamic response of the structure to vibrations. The stiffness of the beam-to-beam or beam-to-column connections. and whether special hysteretic materials are used to increase damping. The choice of normal weight or lightweight concrete for floor slabs on metal deck and whether composite action is required. and whether there is potential for hysteretic damping within the connections. . especially whether beams are designed as continuous or simply supported as this affects the mass mobilised.
This is essentially true for external structures but also will have an effect for internal steelwork. Welding represents a major method by which structural hollow sections are connected and. which can freeze. Any joint can be approachedfrom two directions. External structures can experience lower temperatures than internal steelwork and entrapped water. at ends of individual mill length members). Open ends of hollow sections can be simply sealed by use of welded cap plates. Cleaner lines. steelwork contractors will. Plates are cut by cropping or profile burning and. Full use should be made of the fact that for a given size of section the thickness change is internal and not external. up to upto over In-line weldad joints with backing and weld pmpalatlons . there is a financial price to be paid for the increased workmanship required in architecturaljoints. the more basic joints are often more than acceptable and can even be used to create an architectural expression. care and attention is required to weld preparation and weld quality to ensure sound non-porous welds are deposited. preparation and detailing. as a result. Welding can be considered in a number of stages: design. welding procedures. consideration must be given to the question of water ingress and internal corrosion protection. is involved in all forms of hollow section joints. The principal reference source for general rules for execution of welded structures and supplementary rules for hollow sections are given in DD ENV 1090-1 and DD ENV 1090-4 respectively. Joints are made in the most accessible way for shop fabrication or site erection and will normally be left exposed. can achieve clean lines with economy. Use of these techniques. they will need to be jointed. can cause deformations or lead to splitting of members. Where however the jointing system penetrates the tube wall without sealing or leaves the section open. In reality. Industry guidance can be found in Corus Tubes publication CT15 SHS Welding with specification guidance given in the National Structural Steelwork Specification. The choice of joints and the means of connecting individual members can have an influence on the choice and the performanceof the corrosion protection system used. A common connection will be an in-line joint of two similar sized or possibly different sized hollow sections. Many architectural joints are often approached with the aim of being "unseen" and. CONS Tubes Introduction Joints with hollow sections are often said to be complicated and expensive but in reality they can be simple and cost effective. be achieved without incurring substantial extra costs. Also of consideration for external structures is the effect of using of jointing systems or details that penetrate the hollow section wall or leave open-ended sections. may need further attention either by simple means of shaping plates or by totally enclosing the connection. thus a constant external dimension can be achieved even when differing thickness are being joined. in today's economic climate. with the exception of bolted connections. In essence good architectural detailing can.e. no additional shaping is made. In-line jointing Introduction As most structures are higher or wider in dimension than the length of an individualhollow section component. Welded butt joints In-line joints of equal size members are easily made by full penetration butt joints. In general it is often not internal surface corrosion that is the issue but rather the effects of entrapped water. Although simple and often non-load bearing. whilst sharp edges and burrs are removed. especially when used at natural joint positions (i. In many cases hollow sections are being used for their aesthetic appearance and in these cases care is required in the choice of joints that must still develop the mechanical strength required but. when the actual joint is seen in the context of the whole structure.CHAPTER 14 Hollow section jn:n+n Eddie Hole. dependent on their locality and proximity to public attention.provided a sense of proportion or scale is maintained. simpler details and absence of areas that entrap water or debris contribute to a longer life for the chosen protection system. plan for basic mechanical joints. Whilst it is true to say that very few things are impossible. Many details will automatically seal a hollow section and in this situation no internal protection is required. welder approval and qualification and weld testing. first as a basic mechanical joint and second as an architectural joint. Given freedom of choice and considering that. Basic mechanical joints serve to connect two or more components in the simplest and therefore usually cheapest way. it's the lowest bid that usually wins. unless requested otherwise. a number of the simple but exposed types are not used.
the latter being useful for external elements such as tubular towers that require galvanizing both internally and externally. Flange j o m Flanges are particularly suited to site joints as the final connection is by bolting. Site work will also be affected by weather variances and consideration must be given to welding and weld procedures. As an alternative to flanges. They can vary from simple flat plates or off-cuts of rolled sections to complicated brackets. angle sections or stub column sections welded to closing plates on the main member are connected by use of bolted splice plates. Also. provided with a central hole or be ring type to permit filling. thus reducing the effects of distortion caused by single sided welding needed for use of blank flanges. For multi storey construction the flange joint can normally be accommodated within the floor construction depth. Ring flanges also permit internal galvanizing but when bolted together cannot be guaranteed to stop ingress or water. This is not a problem in the workshop where equipment is readily available and components can be jig assembled. The joint can either be left exposed or. except where the plates become so thick that preheat and other special welding procedures are required. In-line bolted flanges can be of any shape or size but those most generally used are rectangular. have a smooth external appearance. Similar joints can be used for RHS and CHS in lattice construction. a minimum tube thickness of three times wall thickness is required for ring flanges and twice wall thickness for blank flanges. in-line joints can be made by bolted splice joints. Ring flanges are thicker than blank flanges but have the advantage of permitting welding from both sides. it is generally more economic to use thicker plates for flange rings or blanks.In-line joints need careful alignment and jigging to ensure correct fit-up. cleats or brackets often form a part of many joints whether for main components or secondary items. Attention must therefore be paid to water drainage in external structures. Flanges can be blank or. Some typical examples used for lattice towers and masts are shown later in this publication. a simple joint usually creates a direct load path between the elements being connected. Flanges can be of the 'blank' or 'ring' type. Plates. as a further bonus. by use of connection cover plates. Assuming the same grade of material is used for the flange as the main hollow section. Flange joints can equally be used in lattice or multi storey construction with either the same or different size members. 1 In-line flange joint Column bases are effectively flange joints welded to the column. Thickness is based on strength and may need increasing to control distortion. They should be kept as small as possible but have sufficient thickness to give adequate joint strength and prevent distortion during welding. square. At heads of columns ring flanges can provide hand access to permit bolting of connecting floor/roof beams. round or triangular. As with all joints simplicity is the key and simple joints are often the most economical and can be visually acceptable. either thick enough to withstand any direct load and bending or provided with stiffeners to reduce the bending and plate thickness used. . in overall perspective their effect is diminished. For site work provision is needed for temporary cleats to provide alignment and restraint or scaffolding for temporary support. Rather than using welded stffeners. Whilst in close up these can look bulky. where composite concrete filled columns are used. I 4 i 1 Flanged CHS member connections Secondary joints frequently referred to as fittings.
All of these factors are determined by the selection of the relative main member sizes and therefore.e. noting that sealed SHS members must be vented if galvanized. but repair by welding may be required on the weld and outer edges of the tube due to the amount of cold working carried out. Small wthl members c a nbe used at purlin positionsto removethe top chord bending but these may ilKxeasejoint complexity. A warren bracing system is W l y preferred as. the capacity of the hollow section joints must be adequate to resist the loads being imposed through it. The strength capacity of such joints is dependent on a number of co-existing issues being: the relative size of the bracing and chord members. unlike joints in open profiles.it can reduce the number of bracings to befittedwhen comparedto an N brace system. gap joints or overlap joints. Whilst overlapping of bracings is usually not preferred. This factor has too often caused a problem with hollow section construction. change bracing sizes or joint geometry or indeed a combination of all. The design procedure usually involves initial sizing of members on the bass of centreline noding (i.End forks with single or multiple bolts or pins can be made from standard rolled sections or from plates. being highly efficient in compression the hdlow section strut member need not be constrained tothe shcitest possible !engthas with t h eN brace systems. As an alternative to adding plates. The msultant condition will directly affect the joint capacity as will the issue of chord face deformation. ends of CHS members may be fully flattened and drilled or punched to make bolted connections. dependent on member sizes and angle. As previously noted. intersection at a single setting out point). Joint strength As with all structural joints. the angles of the bracings. Cdd flattening may be used. Joints in lattice construction Introduction Structural hollow sections are highb efficient in compression as well as tension and the addedfact of a clean. the designer pre-determines the capactty of the joint @ernaps without realisation) when selecting members whilst carrying out structural frame calculations and initial member load capacity checks during the scheme design. When two or more bracings overlap using a central division plate can reduce the shaping required. Creating an eccentricity and producing a gap joint can often eliminate this overlapping. produce a gap or overlap condition. the member selection i s usually made on the basis of centreline noding which will. Double forks reduce plate thickness and put bolts or pins into double shear. This will however increase the fabrication work due to the double shaping required unless a full overlap is made. r overlap each whether the bracings have a gap between o other. The gap joint i s the easiest for fabrication as it confines the work to single bevel cutting or end profiling of the bracing members. End plates or sections also seal the SHS member and negate internal corrosion. Such changes are relatively simple (and economic) to effect at the design stage I Warren braced tfuss configuraHon Central plate reduces fabrication complkstlons . slender appearance means they are regularly used in lattice construction. the thickness of the chord and the order of the chord load if in compression. Single forks can be either on or off centreline. A minimum bracing angle of 30" is recommended to ensure adequate access for welding. which is affected by the ratio of the bracings to the chord. the joint strength can be increased by the bracings overlapping. Lattice bracing joints are basically in two types. This is especially useful for overlapped CHS bracings or where an additional vertical bracing is required when a divisron cap plate can be added to form a T connection. In addition. Full overlaps can reduce the double shaping required but will mean the cutting of members and the sequence of fitting members into the truss during fabrication has to be carefully controlled. Such eccentricities need to be included in the chord design check. The problem being that to remedy insufficient joint capacity in the main member it may be necessary to increase chord thickness. For a given combination of bracing angle and member sizes this may mean that bracing members are overlapped at the chord face connection. but the design rules allow this check as well as provision to take eccentricitieswithin the depth of the chord into account.
WMorMpmRbwWnglanOIB With CHS bracings the technique of partial httening can be used to increase welding access and mducdavoid profiling or double shaping. are not easy to affect an increase in capacity once members have been selected and purchased. due to the nature of the hollow section profile. In these cases necessary weld clearance can be obtained by partial flattening of the ends of the bracings. i. When bracings are betwe%n 1/3rd and 2/3rds of the chord diameter partial profiling is needed and when over 2/3rds full end profiling is needed to achieve the weld fit up requirement. Joint complaxrty c a n increase with multi-planar joints such as those found in triangulated girders. T end and angle cleat connadons . Short b n g t h CHS for mukipb connsctiOnsobaraco Profiling For joints involving CHS members end profiling needs to be considered. cap plates and shoes may be used with structural hollow sections to make joints between columns and rolled beam sections or fabricate trussedlattice girders.but. In part these alternatives will vary dependent on the form of the column profile.e. but which are adequate to perform the task for which they are required. It is therefore essential that the designer making the structure calculations undertakes initial checks of the ovefall joint capacity at the time of structural design. It should always be remembered that chords could be made of twin members. Where multiple bracings occur the bracing connection can be moved back from the intersection point until a simple joint is formed. Local connection design of the welds between components within the joint can then be confldentty passed to the fabrication detailer. This method will however increase the bracing width and the resultant fi-up should be considered. Failwe to do this can cause extra fabrication and complicate Mails. This can reduce the bracing complexity and also allows the girders to be split for fabrication and transport. Formulae and joint parameter limits are given in: Eurocode 3 which is based on CIDECT design guide publications or the Corus Tubes publication CT16 Design of Welded Joints. although not all bracings need to be profiled or saddled. which will keep fabrication to minimum. There is scope for the designer to exercise ingenuity to produce aesthetically pleasing connections. This can be achieved by introducing a short length of CHS or by employing hollow spheres. Design rules have been established for most of the common range of joints in lattice construction. double shaping the bradngs or alternatively the main member diameter may be increased to ensure necessary weld clearance is obtained. Using the joint geometry. For bracings smaller than 1/3rd of the chord diameter a single end cut will normally achieve the required fit up which is then filled with the attachment weld. the selection of member wes for the bracings and chords must be done by considering their relative sizes and fit up. if the column is an open UC or UB profile or hollow section of either a circular or rectangular form. wwt. member sizes and co-existing member loads the capacity of the joints can be established. When RHS members are used in triangulated girders. Beam-column joints A wide range of varieties of end plates. Spheres give the advantage of a square c u t bracing end regardless of the intersection angle but are limited in their source. Rotating the chord member and avoiding expensive 'bird mouthing' can often eliminate additional work.
This method prevents distortion of the RHS and seals against water ingress. Such connections are equivalent to flexible end plates or angle cleats and are probably the cheapest type of joint. Some methods leave a collar at the root and as a result holes in connection plates must be chamfered or recessed to clear the collar or clearance washers fitted. where thicker sections are used. When RHS columns are used it is possible to bolt through the column wall as with open sections but from a single side. It is important that these use twin seal washers to avoid water penetration. Combinations of simple connections. threaded pads or nuts can be welded on. Generally fixings can be put into two categories. the walls of the sections may be drilled and tapped. Where four-way beams connect the final face will require captive nuts. For joints at other locations a joint box technique (using a heavier wall insert and a hand access hole) can be adopted. Such mechanical fixings may be used with CHS but the flat surfaces of RHS are better suited to their use. the section is drilled and spacer tubes welded in position. a simple plate flange. ARernatively.Design rules for joints in simple construction have been developed for joints between beams and hollow section columns. hand access for installation and tightening can be obtained and a single side fixing made. A wide range of other fixings including J and U bolts is available. A range of single-sided connections is available for such joints and further information is given below. Where joints are located at the end of the section. In the case of RHS and CHS columns checks are required on the local connection face for tearing etc. t Double angle4 cleat connections using Mind bolting Through bolting can be used as an alternative to single side fixings. which may give rise to difficulties during erection and necessitate an excessive amount of 'shimming'. if the section thickness is insufficient. Care must be taken during fabrication to avoid cumulative tolerances. Beams can be joined to SHS columns through end plates or angle cleats in conjunction with proprietary mechanical methods such as Hollo-bolt or bolted systems such as Flowdrill (seeFlowdrill and Hollo-Bolt jointing below). In many cases pre assembled joint locations can be made and added to the overall column . beams can be twin channels (parallel beam system) that provide access for vertical services and can be connected to the column through a simple plate welded to the column and bolted to the beams. Mechanical fixings A range of mechanical fasteners or fixing systems is available from specialist suppliers. Flowdrill showing thermally drilled holes befom and after threading . Cladding may be fixed direct to hollow sections by using selfdrilling self-tapping fasteners. Alternatively.hence minimising the need to handle the total column length. Details are shown below. often exposed. These are published by SCI and BCSA in the Green Book series which include design procedures and examples. Cover plates can be used to restore the visual appearance of clean lines. or. When using UC or UB profiles. In such cases flexibility of the connection parts must be developed with sufficient robustness. For joints in simple construction the fin plate is the generally chosen method. a threaded column wall or a one sided mechanical fixing to be used. those that require special tools and those that can be used in normal clearance holes without special tools. In all cases it is the joint area that requires the fabrication work. can with ingenuity create aesthetic and highly visual structures. effectively. connections can use the flange to transmit the loads and it becomes. Studs can be welded onto the section face. It should also be borne in mind that the connecting bolts transmit all the internal loads in the truss or girder. As with open profile structures. face connections can be made by combination of plates or section off cuts.
the scheme designer needs to pay early attention to the implications of connection detarls by basing main member thicknesses on typical connections. Both Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt use fully threaded bolts that allow standardisation of bolt lengths throughout the construction. Castings Castings can be effectively used in tubular jointing and are particularly useful for multiple member joints where joint complexity is high. For thicknesses of 16mm and over. without excessive weight penalties. particularly with thicker items whose metallurgy is constrained by the production route. Metal can be added at required points and to hgh dimensional accuracies. HoIIo-BoR Castings can range from those with simple form to those having complex highly intricate forms. Both Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt are suitable for use with the standard grade of Cows Tubes structural hollow sections to BS EN 10210-1 of S355J2H. Economy depends on complexity of joints and numbers of castings required. 4 Cast joint in CHS roof structure Conclusion Hollow sections are widely used because they combine clean aesthetic lines with structural efficiency. a particular advantage when considering fatigue sensitive structural joints. They minimise the change in the fabrication process by using connection details which are standard in the construction industry. At present.5mm. The combined check for the column axial load and the structural integrity tensile load recognises that the flexibility of the RHS face caused by the tensile load can.Bolted connection systems Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt give a choice of two methods to produce single sided bolted joints in hollow sections. reduce the overall joint capacity. Procedural checks are given for bearing. punching etc. However. They reduce fabrication by removing the need to weld plates or other fittings onto the outside surface of the RHS. depending on the casting process employed. although due to the RHS material strength being lower than that of the grade 8. A wide range of surface finishes can be achieved. Care is needed with both machined and cast fittings to ensure that all material properties (including weldability and toughness) are suitable for fabrication and use. The guidance results from Corus Tubes initial research work undertaken on connections with CIDECT and it has been consolidated into the published information. Where beams are connected to adjacent faces of an RHS column a check must be made with the chosen bolt length to ensure that assembly is possible. pull out strengths may be below the bolt tension capacity. giving thickness variations where required. conventional drill and tap methods are recommended. created by the detailed joint configuration itself.8 bolts in conjunction with Corus Tubes hot finished structural hollow sections is given in the BCSNSCI Green Books. They maintain aesthetics by producing a flush face on the RHS after fabrication. application of the Flowdrill process is limited to RHS thicknesses up to and including 12. Both systems offer the following benefits: They produce bolted joints of structural capacity in hot finished structural hollow sections (HFRHS). it may be economic to machine connection fittings of similar size and strength from d i d steel blanks. The design guidance for Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt systems with grade 8. As it is generally not possible to decouple these detail design factors from frame design with hollow section joints. achievement of clean lines relies on not having to provide extensive stiffening in the joint zone where main members interconnect. The final shape can accommodate blending of section profileswhich reduce stress concentrations. They simplify erection by using fully threaded bolts . . particularly in welded truss configurations. They can be designed to locate the hollow section ready for welding and allow graceful joints to be made. Advice and guidance on castings can be found in SCI publication P-172. As an alternative for small numbers. These zones are precisely where the material is working hardest as it copes with global forces as well as the local forces arising from eccentricities. in the presence of the column axial load.an increasing practice in the construction industry. shear and local bolt pull out of the RHS wall and for the combined effect of the column axial load and the structural integrity tensile load of BS 5950-1.8 bolts.
For bridgeworks changes in materialthicknessare accommodatedby machining "'Wener conf'---wtIons web sfiffeners are provided to improvethe web capacity as well as to provide an attachment for bracing systems. Transverse web and flange butts are welded in this way prior to girder assembly. generally preferring to maintain overall girder depth constant and shaping the web plate to accommodate changes in flange thickness. Introduction The nature of bridgework manufacturing and site installation substantially dictates the types of connection and joints required for assembly of component parts. Most major steelwork contractors have sophisticated numerically-controlled machinety to cut. Leaner construction programmes and cost conscious customers demand nothing less. but at site there are design and m o m i c issues to consider before choosing a wdded or bolted connection. Plate girders Shop . The position of these joints is usually agreed by the interested parties and to suit material availability. although there is no reason not to use an alternative arc welding process provided the appropriate procedure approval is in place and inspection and testing is conducted in accordance with the specfied requirements. In workshop conditions. angles. Flat plate. Plate thickness changes are an added difficulty but experienced steelwork contractors devise methods to overcome the problem. Transport and site constraints may also influencethis decision. Many steelwork contractors use purpose-built mechanised equipment to assemble and weld plate girders into the Iconfiguration.-Jlne joints The design of plate girders often necessitates making up available material lengths to suit the span or size of the structure. Most machine welds are deposited using the submerged arc process and the steelwork contractor then takes advantage of the deep penetration characteristics of the process to achieve the design throat thickness using a smaller weld size. Non-destructive testing is carried out using ultrasonic testing for sub-surface examination or magnetic particle inspection for surface examination. destructive testing of production run onloffextension pieces is undertaken to confirm the mechanical properties of the welded joint. Simplification of connection design enables the steelwork contractor to maximise the use of machinery and therefore produce quality components at budgeted cost. steelwork contractors usually prefer to manufacture stiieners from plate material as this is cheaper to purchase and modern process machinery can produce component parts quickly and accurately. If there are no machine resources or perhaps the parameters of the girder are beyond the capability of the machine in terms of dimensions andor weight.These machinesare usually capable of producing Z-girders or "off-centre" flanges and can also accommodate a degree of camber inherent in the design of the girder. particularly where there are significant differences in plate thickness at the joint. In addition. Typical details for tubular truss footbridges are also considered. Butt welds are very expensive in comparison not only in terms of weld metal volume but also in the additional cutting operations to produce the preparation and the increased inspection and testing required to demonstrate weld integrity. lLplcal weM preparations w .I15 Richard Thomas. The design and construction process has to achieve a balance of economics. For bridgeworks.. Major steel bridges in the UK are predominantlyplate girders rather than box girders but both are important. but it is important to involve the steelwork contractor at an early stage of the work to ensure that production performance achieves design and functional requirements. The purpose here is to summarise the significant types of connectionljoint required on various bridge structures and to highlight the advantages or disadvantages to the designer and steelwork contractor. Thicker joints necessitate in-process turning to minimise distortion and to maintain plate flatness. productivltyand integrity to ensure the best possible solution. steelwork contractors resort to traditional methods of manual assembly.. either in a single or double vee configuration depending on the plate thickness. Welding is nomlally the key workshop process to manufacture all types of bridge structure. and tees are used to form the web stiffeners. the steelwork contractor prefers to weld flange and web full penetration joints. drill and weld sections and plates with a high degree of precision and repeatabilii. Web plate thickness changes are generally shared either side of a common centreline. usually using a mechanised submerged arc process for speed and integrity. web stiieners produced from plate are frequently shaped to provide adequate area for connecting bracing systems. ~ow8com Engineering Limited a 1 in 4 taper in the thicker material but the designer should be aware that there are increased costs associated with this. Typical weld preparations are illustrated. saw. M n g s t i f f e n w are proVded at support locations and t h e s e are normally "fitted" to the bottom flange to distribute the bearing loads. Shop web flange joinl Fillet welds are usually specified for these joints.
Typical arrangements are illustrated. Some typical arrangements are illustrated Cross girder connections The configuration of cross girder connections is to a large extent a function of loads to be transferred. whilst being easy to cut. This detail is much easier to weld and inspect and enables effective corrosion protection. A variation is to connect to both sides using splice plates in which case packing plates may be required to overcome any differences in web or flange thickness. 1 I I II I II The preferred method is thus to cut a small snipe to just clear the web to m e weld and to completely seal by welding continuously through the corner. Ether cope holes or sniped/ chamfered corners are used to achieve this. Simplicity is again the key for steelwork contractors to manufacture and erect cost effectively and bolted connections am prefemd. Connecting the cross girder to one side of the web stiffener is the most economical option. In the case of the radiused cope hole it is difficult to prepare the surface and apply adequate protectii treatment to the internal face of the hole.I Typical bracing within span I I x-Bracing K-Bracing Typical b w n g at supports The corners of the stieners need to be shaped in order to miss the flange to web weld. It is good practice in fabncation and erection at site to keep the bracing systems as simple as possible and generally these are bolted connections with possibly a welded sub-assembled frame detail. Large clearance snipes. The number of bolts in the connection may increase but the overall cost is likely to be less than that for an endplate connection where a tee section web stiffener is necessary in the plate girder cross section. Bracings at intermediate positions are provided to stabilise the girders in the span during the erection of the structure prior to casting the composite deck as well as to provide a load path for the transverse loads. The arrangements can become quite complex with significantly skewed structures which have to accommodate a camber.subject to design a m plate girder I mica1 cross girder arrangements . Typical bracing amngements Bracing systems Bracing systems are usually provided at the supports as well as intermediate positions within the span. minimising the numbers of holes and providing adequate access for fastener installation and tightening operations are the principal rules for simple solutions to bracing design. ass girder nges stop short of stfieners aker . are not suitable for welding and testing and are even less likely to receive adequate protection. Bracing members at supports provide a load path for the transverse loads to the bearingdsubstructure. Maintaining square ends of sections.
Experienced fabricators have welding procedures to address this type of joint configuration. In addition. Every effort should be made to weld as much of the work in the flat position where productivity is higher. The predominant site welding process remains manual metallic arc welding because of equipment portabiltty and versatility. whether the joints are welded at ground level for subsequent lifting as long components or whether the joints are welded in situ with the girders erected. although it is sometimes necessary to provide additional support where Ranges are thin and liable to bend. Y e boltea ja i Main girder connections are usually formed by drilling the ends of the flanges and webs and connecting by splice plates fastened either side of the part effectively clamping them together. It is good practice for the joint configurationto be staggered as illustrated and this also provides a landing support. Therefore it is normal to weld the flanges with a single vee preparation up to say 40 mm thick and only to change to a double vee for thicker materials. There are considerations of time and cost. There are significant productivity gains in using these processes and a suitable balance of the economic I I Main girder connection The design normallyrequiresa preloaded bolt in the connection which. however if welds are required to be smooth.Site welded joints The design of site welded joints is dependent on several factors including the location of welding. Temporary works considerations include the structural stability in the unwelded condition. Major projects with extensive site welding are often set up to weld with flux-cored wire or the submerged arc welding processes using mechanisation for increased deposition rates. shelter and protection from the elements and method and means to accurately align the joint prior to welding to ensure that construction tolerances are achieved. More information on developments in structural fastening using bolts is given elsewhere in this publication. non-destructive testing and the provision of samples for destructive tests are required as for shop welded joints. applies a tension in the bolt sufficient to impart frictional resistance to the interfaces thus preventing slip. Web joints up to 20 mm are again single vee changing to a double vee for thicker materials. It is desirable to leave welds in the as-welded condition with neat capping runs. Precision manufacture ensures that site connections can be assembled quickly and accurately. In all cases inspection. when tightened. for example. The advantage of using a tension control bolt is that consistent tension is applied clamping the plies together so that appropriate friction between the interfaces is achieved. It is also necessary to provide a draw cleat arrangement to provide basic stability and initial positioning. mggered joint contlgwalon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The size and configuration of bridgework girders means that much of the welding is canied out in the vertical (web) and overhead (underside of flanges) position. This is achieved. together with enhanced skill level requirements for welders when welding in these positions. Gas shielded processes are more susceptible to adverse weather conditions and therefore shelters need to be more efficientin preventing draughts. cope holes are required in the web at the flange certreline to enable the flange weld to be continuous. It is important to emphasise that correct sequencing is followed to limit welding distortion and maintain the girder alignment in all directions. careful flushing by grinding is necessary to maintain the plate thickness at the joint. using tension control bolts (often termed TCBs or TC bolts). I I 73 . either using high strength friction grip bolts or perhaps nowadays more commonly. The designer instructs whether these are filled after main component welding. Major fabricators drill the component parts using numerically controlled machines utilising data downloaded electronically from drawing information. A typical connection is illustrated. benefits is necessary to offset the increased equipment costs.
In addition for composite construction. the closed shape of the box offers substantial rigidity in resisting torsion. The connection designer needs to be aware of some potential difficultieswith boltedjoints. U Diaphragm at box girder cross-section Boxcome Internal access is frequently the deciding factor in selection of joint detail. the size and weight of plates likely to have to be man-handledto final positionand the need for packing plates where there are changes in thickness of flanges or webs.# access is restricted o r fillet weld on both External long welded joints are usually made using mechanised equipment. -1 I Weld details ll Butt weld from one side . as illustrated. the internal weld is deposited in an open box situation. The difference between the two forms of construction occurs when lengths of box girder are shop joined into a long length for delivery. These have to be carefully positioned to avoid causing an obstruction during bolt tightening operations. Correct sequencing is necessary to minimise distortion effects and to distribute the residual welding stresses in the joint. During the tightening procedure the residual gap is monitored to ensure that the appropriate load is generated. rolled sections or formed trough sections. Internal stiffening and diaphragms The box girder is very effective in resisting bending due to the wide bottom flange. The full penetration weld is normally deposited on a backing strip with sufficient root gap to provide good access for welding. For small section girders. Box girders hop In4 In principle. The usual method of doing this involves the provision of internal backing.Highstrength friction grip boltsare tightened in accordance with standard procedures.e. The provision of a diaphragm at the joint assists in maintaining good cross-sectional shape. The closing weld is then a single bevel partial penetration or full penetration weld. A single vee joint preparation with a root gap of 6 to lOmm provides good access to complete the joint. . Particularly. Depending upon the size of the box and the design loads the web and flange plates may require longitudinal stiffening formed from welded flats. In this situation designers need to be aware of the difficulty in providing continuity of any longitudinal flange or web plate stiffening. followed by a measured turn to apply the preload. Direct tension indicator method -tension or load indicating washers are included in the bolt assembly. but care is necessary to balance the weld sequence to avoid distortion effects inducing twist and out of straight flanges. These are devices with raised protrusions designed to compress under load. Rectangularlsquare Box Typical corner detail Filletwelds preferred. The use of this type of fastener assembly may cause difficulties in successfully applying a protective treatment system owing to the residual gaps above the indicator washer. Combined (or part-turn) method -this is a two stage procedure requiring an initial bedding torque to bring the plies into contact. without one flange in place. In addition. either as a strip or as a diaphragm. There are three principal procedures: Torque control method -the tension in the bolt is established by applying a controlled torque to the boit. it is necessary to calibrate the equipment and method to ensure that the appropriate level of tension is achieved. A typical configuration is illustrated. Fillet welds on both webs are adequate for most applications. i. the uppermost top flange splice plate is likely to require stud shear connectors in between bolt positions. With all large bolted connections it is necessary to sequence the tightening method to ensure proper seating of the plies and this generally involves working outwards from the centre of a bolt group. pre-assembly joints are welded in exactly the same way as for plate girder joints using similar preparations and processes. If the section is too small for safe internal access it becomes necessary to weld the transverse web to flange joints from the outside only. Inspection and testing requirements are common to both types of girder.
g. 180 x 180 SHS for the chords and 150 wide Overlap 7 Simple "gap" joint with all round fillet weld . e. recommended Transverse member SHS/RHS idi II Transverse member SHS/RHS iagonal stiffener inserted through bottom chord .8mm min.additional preparation required h ottorn chord Preferred details /Truss web eck plate . plate and minimize stiffening Provide adequate space for drainage Stiffening arrangements [Truss web The most economical detail is achieved by having the width of the web member narrower than that of the chords.lates or Sections illet welded on all sides hole .economical Overlap joint .600mm minimum .
The ideal width ratio is 90%. In open-top boxes. The current bridge standard. Bolted in-line joints This type of connection is only possible when there is internal access and the connection configuration is the same as for plate girders. readers are referred to the BCSA Guide to the Erection of Steel Bridges.8. BS 5400 does not cover hollow section connection design. . The use of appropriate connection details is essential for fabrication of these structures. Unless the box section is large wth good access and egress it is likely that most site welded joints are welded externally using a backing arrangement described in the section on shop welded joints. Wherever possible the width of the section forming the web member should be less than that of the chord section. however publications are available from CIDECT to assist with the connection details. particulariy at support positions. although it is sensible to utilise the bracing arrangement in considering overall structural performance. This arrangement facilitates joining the sections using fillet rather than butt welds. there may be a need to have stffeners slotted in the bottom chord section. Substantially reducing the width of the vertical (or inclined) web section may result in having to reinforce the chord section against punching/tearing and this is clearly undesirable. Readers requiring a fuller understanding of the issues involved are recommended to refer to the Guidance Notes on Best Practice in Steel Bridge Construction (SCI P-185) which contains ten data sheets on steel bridge detailing. Footbridges Designers and architects generally prefer to use hollow sections in the construction of footbridges. bridgework is likely to require site welded connections and friction grip connections made using high strength preloaded bolts (neither of which is generally common in building frames). inspection and testing requirements are the same as for plate girders.Internal diaphragms are required to reduce cross-sectional deformations and to maintain shape. This is to be avoided as it is a very expensive detail. Frequently. ConcIusion M i n i n g suitable connection details for bridgework poses a different challenge in that the structure being built is generally made of larger components. Additional advice on hollow section details is given elsewhere in this publication. For short to medium spans the common constructionis a halfthrough truss where the compression chord is restrained by means of U-frame action. Welding. the fabricator will require addnional internal stiffening/ frames to maintain the shape of the box during fabrication. To transfer the moments generated efficiently. S i in-line joints Access and the consequent health & safety issues remain dominant with respect to selection of joint preparations. Thus the type and positioning of joints is often dictated by the chosen delivery and erection process. The final selection of the joint type is a function of the design and sometimes it is possible to achieve an economic connection by simply increasing the wall thickness of the hollow section forming the structural member. Typical internal stiffening arrangements are illustrated. In terms of the detailed construction engineering decisions that underpin the delivery and erection methods. top lateral bracing is required mainly to stiffen the box girder during transport and erection. Some simple prefened details suitable for footbridges are illustrated. Where this is not the case. In particular. Overlappedjoints where diagonal members meet are used only where the intersection points cannot be spaced sufficiently due to the loading or the geometry of the structure. The CIDECT design rules for joint design have largely been incorporated into Eurocode 3 Part 1. The designer should be aware of the even greater difficulties of man-handling splice plates inside a closed section. Temporary works are necessary to provide structural stability and are often designed to set the joint alignment quickly and accurately. it is usual to ensure the transverse member forming the horizontal arm of the U-frame has the same depth as the chord section. These are usually profiled plates or a sub-assembled fremework of rolled sections fillet welded into the box girder.
then significant secondary bending may be imposed on the tension member that could critically jeopardise its paformance. are often formed using actual pin joints and the structures can be close to becoming mechanisms. who provided all the information upon which this article is based. If deep trusses are not used. Halgavor and Swansea bridges) and to RambQll (for the Malmij bridge).g. tensile structures can be relatively lively such that they often deflect significantly as load patternsvary with time. Their architectural attractiveness has also led to their use in the public circulation areas of prestige buildings such as office atria and statron concourses. J ision wnnecrior Roger Pope. the need for long column-free spans also occurs in stadia and some very large industrial or commercial buildings. therefore. grp deck. The designer needs. Structurally. If the tension connection does not properly align with the tension member it secures. steel cables. This may require finite element methods to model sufficiently accurately if hot spots are to be eliminated. and even if designed as nominal pins. wire strands of strength grade 1570 MPa) that accommodate relatively high and highly concentrated loads. Industrial cableways. timber planking. concrete foundations - Conventional structural assemblies are relatively much stier than those using primary tension members. cable cars and ski-lifts are also common applications where the terrain is remote or mountainous. the spread of the load into the main structure will be determined by relative strains in the 30 force field. High localised force concentrations combined with potentially large deflections may also give rise to P-A effects that cause lateral stability problems to arise in the overall structural assembly.with suspension bridges now being largely superseded by cable-stayed bridges except on the very longest spans. the alternative would be to support shallower roof members from masts using tension members. These require tension connections for their steel edge cables and mast stays. . Varying geometrical set out in 3D on Swansea Sail Bridge -_ Halgavor footbridge steel masts. BCSA Technical Consultant Key issues o r Conwntratea T In the zone where the connection is made. however. Applications The traditional application for tension members has been guyed masts and towers and of course bridgework . Acknowledgement is due to lan Firth. Furthermore. Tension connections. Thus the designer needs to review how movements might influence the global behaviour and Pernaps mod@ the layout to "triangulate" the forces into a stable configuration under large potential deflections. conventional connections generally offer enough StrengtWstiffmss to maintain the local geometry. to Wilkinson Eyre (architectsfor Lockmeadow. Introduction Structural members subjected to tension are often made from relatively high strength steels (e. to review the behaviour of tension connections over a 3D envelope of predicted local geometries for the load paths.'HAPTER. The detail designer's primary task is how to engineer a tension connection to distribute these concentrated localised forces back into the main structure. Large lightweight roofs and canopies for stadia and other open spaces have been provided by cable net structures. The attractively light appearance of structures that make extensive use of tension members has now led to them being favoured for footbridges particularly those in scenic or heritage areas. Flint & Neill Partnership.
and further attachment points for jacking equipment and access equipment used during installation or removal. The higher safety factor needed for the connection materials plays a part here also.Economy and aesthetics cT i CE. the completed connection is externally exposed to the weather. the holes will require quite generous edge distances to meet code requirementsfor avoiding net section failure. -- As tension connections are prominentlyvisible. If pins are used for all these attachment points. coping with moisture in the connection zone . However. keeping a tension connection neat and tidy can be quite a challenge. Hence. Neat and tidy group of connections visible at mast head Neat and tidy connections on Malmb swing bridge r I Whilst toughness requirements can be tackled through the specification. experiencing low temperatures and wet conditions from rain and condensation. Lockmeadow Bridge showing splayed stays Environmental exposure In bridges and many other applications. taking forces from 1570 MPa wire strand into a connection made from 275 MPa carbon steel would dictate that the connection material has at least six times the area and this can look relatively out of proportion. the connection zone may become congested with duplicated tension members required for reliability or replacementreasons. The low temperatures mean that the connection designer needs to be careful about the fracture toughness of the materials specified as this will require steel with improved Charpy properties where thick materials are necessary. Additionally. they often need to look aesthetically clean. To some extent the conceptual design of a tension connection may emerge directly from the load paths in the way that form follows function. 1 .
the designer has more than one weapon to use. Hence. As tension members form generally shallow catenaries. water-resistant and water-repellent products (e.g. true intersection points. paints. One detail that can assist is the provision of a suitable circumferential crevice that assists in retaining the grease or sealant in place. Firstly. The designer has four weapons to use in coping with this problem: stainless or "rust-free" steels. Cable sealed with zinc paste and cover plate sealing connection zone from ingnrss of rainwater running down cable I .g. Lightning protection straps may need to bridge the connection zone. Manufacture and installation The key concern during execution is that cumulativetolerances do not impair performance or aesthetics. under load or temperature effects local movements can cause surface-applied corrosion prevention products to crack. Not what the architect expected! If the local geometry around the connection zone is complex. greases and pastes). and an additional precaution relevant to high strength and zinc coated materials in particular is the need to detail in a way that eliminates any direct contact with cementitious materials. Again. and this access can be used later if. These include smooth transitions that avoid sharp edges and sharp changes of shape as presented to the load path. say. sealants and wrappings) and planned maintenance. Over time a pattern of high enough stresses can lead to fatigue failure as the number of cycles mounts. For threaded couplers etc. lay-up of the wire and catenary sag.requires considerably more design ingenuity. water is notoflously good at penetrating seemingly sealed spaces owing to capillary action and relative pressure differences induced by temperature and humidity changes. Sleeves used to pmvent Ingmss of water running down tie bars it may be necessary to ensure that reference points for setting- out are clearly marked in accessible locations with known offsets from. For example. Secondly. Fatigue Tension members exposed to the wind will vibrate and this vibration can induce cyclic stress variations in the connection zone. The vibration can be reduced by mounting dampers on the tension member itself. local details can be used that mitigate fatigue effects. or the fluid dynamic behaviour and mode of vibration of the whole member might be modified in other more sophisticated ways. Thirdly. The sag is directly linked to the relative length of the tension member compared with the direct distance between its connection points.. This i arises from elastic stretch. access to that position to complete the corrosion protection system will be necessary during installation. A typical problem is posed by a threaded coupler or turnbuckle used to join or adjust a bar tension member. they also include specifying rolled threads that have a higher resistance to the propagation of fatigue cracks. say. In the connection zone. grease needs replacing. impermeable covers (e. less than 5mm difference in installed length between a pair of nominally parallel ties will be readily visible in terms of differing sags. the continuing flow of water (with air) will result in continuing potential corrosion. until after installation. The threads cannot be fully treated with paint etc. tolerances affect their s because their effective stiffness as-installed shape. unless the water is standing.
In many cases there WIII need to be a facility for adjustment of length after installation. As load is increased. e. possibly using a turnbuckle in a tie bar. In other cases. or cam adjustment to the coupler attachment pin at the end of a cable tie.In some cases careful control of specified lengths may be sufficient when combined with progressive checks during trial and final assembly. Otherwise possibly significant secondary moments will be induced in the tie. 1-1 A pair oftapered paclcmnga usaa ror nm a a m ConnacUon at lower end facilitating adjustment for length or load in tie Collars Wecl to limit local bending . Above this load it may be assumed that the connection is no longer pinned but s t i and it will remain so in service. pre-stretching of the assembly will usually be necessary to remove any inelastic stretch. the ease of rotation reduces such that at some point it “freezes” into a fixed alignment (unless the connection is furnished with a property engineered lubricated bearing sleeve).g. where wire ropes are being used. possibly using pairs of tapered packings. Adjustments are also needed to correct local alignment. as these might seem to permit local relative rotation between members but only do so during the installation process. Local bending Another installation precaution concerns the use of “pin” connections. Detailers should keep remote connection points simple and incorporate the more complex adjustment mechanisms at the more readily accessible end. The installation procedure needs to ensure that the tension connection at the end of the tie itself is “presented” at the correct tangent set angle through the pin to its attaching plate etc. to control its length and to check its effective elastic tensile stiffness.
For instance. This may arise from overall misalignment in the design where lines of action do not reach a common intersection point. A Jacking shoe with threaded permanent attachment used for adjustment at end connection I K e q ~ plate ~ r securing pin in connsctlon to foundation Connection types End connections These are generally made with tie end couplers as spades or forks attached using pins to gusset plates. plates may be shaped as "deltas" etc. even if the initial installation is correctly aligned. Alternatively it can arise from local effects such as slip in a bolted connection group or slop in a pin connection.g. At nodes where several ties join together. the end assembly will be much stiffer than the bending stiffness of the hanger tie such that movements of the whole structure will cycle the hanger through a bending regime that can cause fatigue conditionsto arise locally where the hanger enters its end coupler. e. It may be neceSSary to use the end connection to make adjustments to load andor length during installation. Eccentricity Reflecting on the highly concentrated nature of the forces in the tension member. Collars can be detailed to spread the bending zone and limit the local effects. the local force distribution around a pin assembly can be critically affected by even quite tight manufacturing tolerances. An example is the "short" hanger on a suspension structure. Special cases arise where the end connection attaches to a foundation. Thus. Neat and well-aligned connection group on M a l M swing bridge . the detail should use "keeper" plates to retain the pin in its correct position. to ensure that the pin is symmetrically embedded in the joint. traditional rigging tackle is often used.Similarly. In simpler structures. high local bending can arise from relative movement in service. In the case of very large span structures the cable anchorages become major structures in which the layout and securing of the fan of cable anchorages requires careful thought. "D" shackles. it can be seen that even quite small eccentricitiescan induce unintended high local bending in the connection itself. Although "pinned*.
Some means of turning the turnbuckle when under load may be needed. As the bars and the couplers might be sourced from different suppliers. thread tolerances and fit to ensure the assembly does not fail prematurely by thread stripping. a soft metal zinc liner inside a clamp. Otherwise. These are either clamps or saddles. .g. S355J2 up to 400mm thick). longer "turnbuckles" would be used that require left-handedthreads at one end. specifiers may need to be careful about embedded thread lengths. but for general use there are manufacturers who offer proprietary systems. In both cases care has to be taken to ensure that the attachment does not chafe the primary cable by using.1' Mid connecl Non-aligned ca 0 0 0 fl 0 I . and to facilitate machining some higher strength grades require strength improvement by heat treatment after machining. All threads may be right-handed unless adjustment is needed. Although plates are available in structural steels to BS EN 10025 (e. the larger bars are generally only available as wrought steels to BS 970. Smaller proprietary components are usually cast or forged. Larger and bespoke components are usually machined from steel bars or plates. Generally their designs have been proved by full-scale testing combined with code verification such that there should be a high degree of confidence backed by the manufacturer's warranty if the products are used in accordance with the manufacture's recommendations (see Bridon and Macalls in References). A clamp would be used where a hanger attaches to a suspension cable. for example. ary typas Bespoke design is often necessary. r il The manufacture of the connection components vanes with type. a saddle where the suspension cable passes over a pier or other structural support. d 0 I I Hanger clamped to suspenslon cable on Halgavor footbridge Saddles and end connections on the Wye Bridge In bar tensile members these are made using threaded couplers. If bespoke castings are used. then it is prudent to specify over-production to ensure that suitable as-produced specimens are available for testing as destructive methods may be the only ones possible.
If bespoke items are deslgned to accommodate significant outof-plane forces. A familv of besDoke machined made end connections El c I . specifiers need to ensure that thicker materials do reach the required toughness in terms of the Charpy value. As noted above.I 1 Hanger replacement In progress on the Severn Bridge Welding is needed for irregularly shaped items that are too large to be economically machined from a single solid billet. and the same applies to procedures for heavy welds. it may also be necessary to specify throughthickness properties in the parent material. BS EN 1993-1-1 0 provides recommendations on both these issues.
There could also be significant over-strength in the tie material that exceeds the likely over-strength in the connection components. Thus. whether fatigue has been considered). it is practical to base the validation on the serviceability limit state when using traditional UK codes or in some cases the accidental limit state when using the Eumodes. it is sound practice to keep the cyclic component as a low proportion of the total stress. However. whilst a simple steel tension member may be designed using a factor of safety of 1. it may be necessary to interrogate the manufacturer’s data carefully to ensure that the designs are validated on assumptions that are consistent with the particular design philosophy the specifier is using (e. The most important structural issue is the need to avoid local effects arising from very high forces at unintended eccentricities. there are several aspects of the detailed design that require special attention and that are not so readily appreciated at first glance. they are some of the most readily visible. For these reasons a decision will be needed as to what connection components should be upgraded to retain the principle that the tie should fail before its connection. .O. and for welds to keep the nominal imposed stresses well below yield.25. there are many examples of actual connections readily visible around us and in technical publications. it is also important to give careful consideration to the avoidance of corrosion. their nature is such that it is often possible to develop a model of their structural behaviour “by inspection”.Design issues Components of tension connections need to be designed using common rules for other connections. For externally exposed connections. depending on the code. Where fatigue is a factor. the main tie member might be increased in size or doubled up for reasons of added safety or redundancy. However..g. When considering cable replacement etc. Given the applications favoured for the use of tension connections. the connection should be sized using a partial safety factor of 1. Furthermore. ConcIusion As with most steel structures. Even where proprietary systems are available.
Bolts need to be preloaded and care is needed in designing the welds. Unacceptable fabrication control on flange plate details can occur. It----t Circular flange plate I I I Clrwli m r flange plate f 4 (a) Solid round legs " p I (b) Solid round or tubular legs I Circular flange plate Bolt centres I Illet weld Spllce plate welded to leg (c) Solid round or tubular legs (d) Solid round legs . Tension is carried by bolt tension through the flanges. the stay linkages and bracing connections. drainage (or sealing) to prevent corrosion needs to be considered.at Brian Smith. Typical details are illustrated. particularly if fatigue is an issue. When type (a) is used the ends of the legs need to be ground to provide wen end bearing and the flanges need to be designed for ptying action. Leg-to-leg joints When angle sections are used for leg members joints are normally through conventional cover splice plates designed to transmit axial loads (in tension and compression) through bolt shear to the plates. and the illustration shows a situation where the edge distance of the b o W holes is inadequate. Type (b) relies on compression and tension being carried through the ring flange and in this case the load should be able to be c a r r i e d by the outer welds as the inner welds cannot be inspected. Again prying action of the flange needs to be taken into account. However when tubular or solid round legs are used several alternative details can be used.CHAPTER I7 . Fatigue again becomes an important design aspect. The most common is to use ring or disc flanges and direct compression is either taken directly through bearing of the leg (only when solid round legs are used) or through the flanges. Type (c) is the simplest but is not generally a good fatigue detail and when used with tubular legs. Flint & Neill Partnership Important details For lattice towers and masts. The use of wing splice plates as in (d) is rare although this detal was adopted for the wry tall Clyde Crossing transmission towers where large solid round legs were used and a flange plate detail became impracticable. the most important details are those described here which are associated with leg-to-leg joints.
The long threaded rods provide the adjustment and facility for inserting a tensioning head to tension the guys. stay linkages In guyed masts it is necessary to provide adjustment at the guy anchorages. have been designed over many ceptable leg flange joint years using strut curves developed from full-scale testing to destruction of transmission towers. bdtsusedandtheassodatedeccentnat 185. needs an extensive system as may be seen in the illustration. t i I I _ !3tay connection detalls (courtesy of National arid Wireless) . and the subsequent re-tensioning due to any loss o f tension due to ‘bedding in’ o f the guys (which may occur even if they have been prestretched prior to installation). although more sophisticated details have been necessary elseuvhere. Bracing connections Lattice towers. The resulting details thus need to be exactly maintained if the enhanced strut curves are to be relied upon.. Full-scale testing was practical as such structures were used in situations where many towers of an identical type were needed on a given transmission line. and through the tensioning system. both to adjust the tensions in the guys and. of the end and edge distances of bolts and tolerances on bolt hole diameter all need to be specified and maintained.. . to facilitate replacement of the guys thmsdves.A&. during the life of the structure. For tall guyed masts (of say 300m height) the installation and tensioning of the guys. in particular. . Lateral freedom has been a c h i i by using a pin plate at the guy connection which allows the guy itself to be free to rotate in the lateral plane. Economythusbecameparamountand asa resultthe strut cwves tended to provide higher strengths for a given configuratbn than me of standard building code curves. Here ‘spherical’ holes have been used in plates. ik w #- I To minimise the risk of cable vibration causing excessive local bending in the anchorage steelwork. The important vertical freedom is achieved by horizontal pin connections at the anchor block. Close control of back-marks.. freedom for the guy to rotate in both the vertical and lateral planes is usually provided. In addition better accwnt was taken of the spedfic end details in t m of the number of . .
Conclusion Lattice towers and masts are a specialist field of steelwork in which.. The author is currently prepm'ng a publication for Thomas Telford Limited that gives much wider advice on design issues related to towers and masts. Designers can take advantage of this catalogue of successful past practice provided that the details are repeated faithfully as departure migM bring in unforeseen factors like local bending or fatigue sensrtity.As opposed to strut or strut-tie bracings. but possibly at the penalty of increased costs and the need to pretension the bracing system. owing to the repetitive nature of transmission lines etc. A good example is illustrated. The final illustration here shows unacceptable bracing (and leg) connection details: poor welding. it is often practical to use full-scale testing to validate design details. Tension bracing system (courtesy of Rambell) I - Unacceptable fabrication of guyed mast . lack of continuity of the shear-bracing system. the use of a tension bracing system can provide lighter and more pleasing structures. The leg joint here is made through bolted spigots but this introduces problems of misalignment that can also be seen in the illustration. and inaccuracies in the lengths of adjacent leg members can all be seen.
m working M l s are intendd to collate ideas m u t the detailing and oonstruction of buildings. start efresh -with d l the axpenscaof time and l3nergythatthat entails when vtey cwld be building on the eqxrbnceof their fellow prof&WmJs.4 Architects' Working Details were first puMished in 1953 EWK~ rantoawiesof 15classicMedc-boundvdumes. TheysfHvsanaddltknral pwpose to enable architects to exchange information on contemporary proMems in design. isa selectono f details published in the Architects' Journal (AJ) In 2001 and 2002. others refine tried and tested methods of construction. some details demonstrate new and innovativetechniques. the most recent volume. the tenth in the new s w k .Afteralong lull they were revived in 1988. Too many archiitects. - - '1 Previous page is blank . feted with € S I Unfamiliar detailing problem.
I have also included details w h i i demonstrate what ltalo M n o has called ‘the second industrial revolution. of steel channels. the heroic scale of American citieswas detmined by steelframed skyscrapers. good detailsare afusion of imaginative design and sound construction. Many ideas about steel detailing havethek roots in the Modem Movement . Peter F q g o andDaddThomas’sSpaceHouseinEastGrinstead. Mary Axe building. M i van der Rohe’s reductbnist structures. a tepering stainless steel spire 120 metres high.Designing the details of a building involves importantpractical decisions. a stnrctwe of sturdy and rugged Cor-T~l. but they obey the orders of weightless bits. Jean ProuvtYs refinement of industrial detailing and u s e of liimweight sheet metals have been explored by the recent generation of High-Tech architects such as Richard Rogws and Nicholas Grimshaw.wasbuilt in 1965 and has been recently updated. the site and its requirements.But !he design of a buildingo r structureis also a unique.Adassic UK emempleof thii. WMCh does not present us m such crushing images as rolling mills and molten steel. In the past one of the key plDMems ofdealgning in steel was t h a t the desire to axpressthesteel structwecanfficted with theneed to protect it from fire. or. BennettsAssociates has detailed an office building in DevonshireS q m to solve that pmblem. over the last few years.the fow bridggs.” Today the process of design and fabrication are being dramatily altered by these weightless bits. The fdlowing 23 Architects’ Working Details were originally p u b i i i In The Architects’ Journal between2000 and 2005 and are examplss of how.were developed with a parametric 30 model and the steel plate ribs were cut on a computer controlled plasma-cutting machine. this offers great Mwe potentialfor detailingin steel. based on the Fibonacci sew. This selection is not intended to give a comprehensive exposition of standard steel details.Nowadays a deeper wlclerstandl ‘ng ofthe structwal behaviour o f steel has allowed longer spans to be achieved with minimally-sizedsteel elements. show steel structuresof striking delicacy and gram. rather it shows how imagination and oreativity are an integral part of the design and detail of steel elements. was also deveEoped with a 3D modelling tod. In contrast. the transfer of technology from m i l i and aeronautical i n d u m generated new metal fon-ns.making it possible to build upwards. weretwtiy elegant expreasians of a new minimalistaesthetic. fuffil Build@ Regulationrequirements and a c h i i a weatherproor endosweand so on. &-Ten weathered steel can be used. It has been used with great elegsnce in lan Rttchle’s Spire of DuMim.Like architecture it&.but with ‘bits’ in a flow of imlmmtion travelling along circuits in the form of ektronii impulses.the details are the means by which t h i s unique msponse i s aohieved. imaginativemponseto its brief. The sports and school buildingswhich follow are examples of how steel can provide l i i h t almost ‘hands-free’ endoswes. The structure and fabric of the Spiral W. The iron m a c h i still dst. inspired by the Seulptues of R i c h a r d Sena.not only for a bridge structure but also as a rainscreen fapde to a theatre. The of Foster and Partner‘s St. a complex curtain wall of diamondshaped panels w h i i are faceted at their edges in both plan and section.as a material it has had a radical influence on architechrre. El Previous page is blank . each utterly di fferent. The devekpmentof stainlesssteel a t the beginningof the 20th centuryprolridedan~stablemetalthatcwld sustain a polished kwtrous appeerance. New programs can handle complexity more efficiently.Inthe 19thoenhny steel skeletal strwturalframs l i i e d buildingsfrom the inhibibionsof the loadbearing wall andrelatedccmmctm ‘ . angles and universalbeams. architects and engineers have explored and developed details in steel. M e r the war. clearly the buitdiig must be structurallystable.
the headquarters for the Easter Rising in 1916 and a place of pilgrimage for Republicans evetywhere. The effects of light on a peened surface am much softer than with a conventional brushed finish.a slender spire at the heart of the city which soars 12Om above the rooftops. Ritchie's inspiration for the @re's form evolved from a study of standing stones and obelisks and from an ambtin t o create a monument which would be as slender and vertical as possible as it escaped the mfllne of Georgian Dublin . withwt visually intenuptins the streetscape.Gordon T-t. The top 12m of the spire is perforated with approximately 12. n ARcHmcT lan RncM Architects: lan Ritchie.ooO holes to allow light to escape and to illuminate the upper surface of each hole. a t e e l beads to create a lightly process which uses stainless s textured surface that enhances corrosion resistance and diffuses Iiht. a necessary factor in an environment where traflc pollution and wind-borne marine saits are both present. the base glows gently while the illuminated tip shines out like a beacon over the city. a memorial built in 1808 and blown up in 1966 by the Irish Republican Army. the stainless steel spire reflects the city's changing light and shadow. - The spire is a stainless steel cone. It is also next door to the General Post office. The stainless steel surface was given a shot-peened finish. the winner of an international competition for a monument to celebrate the third millennium and to be the centrepiece of wide-scale urban improvements. This was the site of Nelwn's Pillar. It was decided that the maximum desirable base diameter should be 3m and this led to a proportin of base width to height of 1 in 40 an elegant but technically challenging specification. But the research undertaken into the materials. crucially.Dublin has a new monument . the spire is extremely simple 150m at the pinnacle in a simple cantilever. tapering from 3m in diameter at the base to 150mm at the tip. .is significant in Dublin's history. would capture the light of Ireland's skies. An elegant logarithmic spiral design was machined into the surface of the 16 bronze plates to produce an anti-slip surface.and.' says Rtchie. Its position on OConnell Street at the junction with Henry Street and North Earl Street . The concept and design is by lan Rtchie Architects. Bronze was chosen for its historical assodations with the development of art in Ireland and for the fact that it weathers well. finishes and structural implications belies the simple elegance of the final result - The spire was fabricated in eight sections from stainless steel grade 316L (L denoting low carbon content) manufactured and supplied in accordance with EN 10088. The spire rises from foundations below ground and passes through a 7m diameter bronze base plate set at pavement level. This grade is extremely resistant to corrosion. 'The spire reintroduces a vertical counterpoint to the prevailing horizontal nature of OConnellStreet's buildings.a cone which tapers from 3m to In concept and basic structure. Robin Cross (project architect). By day. p h i 1Coffey cum Dublin City Council STRUCTWIALAND SERVKXS ENGINEER AWP QUA"WSURVEY0R Davls Langdan 8 Everest WGWnNG lan Futchie ArcMtectsRa conch MAIN CONTRACTOR Q-eyEngim jdnt venture SUPPLIERS Steel forming Barnshaw Steel Bending . by night.
fatigue analysis involved fundamental research into the physics of specific probiems. The project was full of engineering challenges. Structure of the spire The Spire of Dublin is a true collaboration betweenarchitecture and engineering. a tuned mass damping system was built into the fifth of the Spire’s eight frustums (sections). Ontario. but the really satisfying side to it was the holistic approach to design and the 1158 of processes from outside the mainstream construction industry. Engheer Arup worked with lan Ritchie Architects a t the competition stage and undertook detailed t-esmch into the design of the structure and its geotechnic. ektrlcal and public health aspects. Designedby h p and Motieering. damper design and tolerances. a. joint design criteria. such as polishingand peening. these factors determined plate thicknes6. which houses electrical and drainage This in is supported on @ht steel-reinbrced 900mm diameter concrete dies anchored into the bedrock. . This technology has been around for some time. mechanical. The complexities were further compounded by a specified design life of more than 120 years. wind analysis and wind profiling. The spire is supported on stain. weld fatigue criteria. Once the piles were in place. but the spire marks the first use of tuned mass dampers in Ireland The mass damping system had to be coordinated to fit into a very tight space without hitting the internal access ladders o r the electrical cables supplying the lightingsystem. But the most demanding issue was the height of the spire and the effects of the wind‘s many moods. mass is connected to four viscous damping units and tuned to a specific frequency by adjustment of the length of the suspension cables.=.ess steel reinforced aoncretewalls of an access chamber. . Each - Many other aspects of the design . The company also provided wind enginesving services and supervised onsite construction. this is a passive system consisting of two stainless steel masses suspended on cables. of Guelph. pile design. To counter dangers of wind-induced vortex shedding.the selection of materials. the pile cap was Mnollthically connected to the bottom of the m r e t e chamber.
which is 1 m above ground level. . Each frustum was formed from a series of short sections. wMch were too small for conventional rolling. A stainless steel plate was cut to a cuwed template. rolled to formahalf-sectbnand weldedwith v e t t i i joints to form a complete short sectii. I--- Theladderissetinthecentral vdd ofthespireand leadsto an open grik platform at about 7om above ground level.ooOtonne press W e . The ladder access also allowsthe mass damper system to beadjusted. These are maintained by means of a liftand lower mechanism . The uppermost frustums have a threadedconnectim. fabricated as follows. where it is 35mm t h i i . A series of these weremweldedtogetherwith cinxlmferential joints to create a fnwtum. and the topmost section. The spire was fabricated in eight sections (Wums) of up to 20m in length. it tapers to 150mm in diemeter at the tip.the upperfiustums. were formed using a 1. The thicker frustums at the base of the spire wem curved using a modern asymmetric ’ ptate-forming machine. except for the lowest 4m of the spire.a pulley is housed at the very tip Of the --and by ladder acc~ss with integral fall-arrest system. The plate is 2omm thick. It is fabric%td from Grade 316L rolled stainless steel plate with a shot-peened finish.The spire is 3m in diameter a t its base. The lowest seven frustums are connected by m e d flanges. which is 10mm thick. The tip of the spire is fitted with IigMing and with aviation warning lights. The l i i h g unit is composed o f liiemittingdiodesand is l0m in overall length.
/ \ ]PLAN A T PLATFORM AT LEML69A67m I f .A h o M M g .
The shell-like form of the new cafe could well be taken for one of t h w pieces. but one that also serves a good cup of cappuccino. is also clad in copper. The curved ribs are clad on the cutside with post-patinated copper sheets and on the inside with smooth bronze plates finished with clear lacquer.Although the cafe floor spans across the shell. partly in the form of laminated glass so that the continuity ofthe structwe is visible.like opening an oyster shell. The Bullring regeneration pfcjest has comrnissianed art and sculpture to enhance its public spaces.the front face o f the setvery. A small s t m to the cafe is slotted against the reer side of the ribs. where it emerges on the inside. as the terrace had to be reinforced substantially below grouml level anyway to take the weight of the caf4. ‘The outside is weathered. with a curved wall to match their profile.’T o maintain the logic.’ explains Faer. I t s side wells am made of s t d plate and brace the main structure. but you look inside to a smooth interior . This contincrity maintains the structural integrity dthe SRape and works well in practice. ‘We saw it as something organic. the integrity o f the structure is maintainedby makingthe ribs continuous. lhelloor spans across the ribs. they curve under the floor and emerge in the main interior of the cafe as a low curved wall that acts as the servery. .
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As part of the design process. glass Pilkington (Planar). which together act as a cantilevered truss supported a t the outer tips of the first three ribs. copper and b r o m supplier KME. The level of accuracy in t h e steelwork allowed us to use the frame as a building-widetemplate for production of other information later in the programme. The eight structural ribs are artan@ radislly in plan and each tilts up relative to its neighbour to create the shelllike form.gadner. To simplify fabrication as much as possible.com THOMASVALE ClTy AND INTERIORS www. taking sections and profiles from it to develop further details that were not modelled three-dimensionally. A series of CHSs are set diagonally between the ribs. CREMIYC CLIENT The Birmingham A l l i i ARCHITECT Marks BarReld Architects: Ralph Parker STRUXURAL ENGINEER price 8 hnyers 3D Engineering:Tim h a s PROJECTMANAGER Oitrdiner8Theobald MAlN CONTRACTOR RKxnas\Eale city and lntsriors SUBCONTRACTORSAND SUPPLIERS steel fabricator ShefAfabs.uk GARDINER 8 THEOBALD www.co. Elements such as capping pieces m i d be designed on the three-dimensional model with full confidence that they would lit to what was on site. The ribs are supported at points under the Row of the servery and a t the roof level ofthe rear annexe. such as cladding profiles and glazing interfaces. glazing contractor Ide Contracting.3dengneering. before cutting the metal. A very high degree of fabricationaccuracy was a c h i i inthis way. Tim Lucas is a structural engineer with Price & M y m 30 Engineering.Forming the structure The form of the cafe is derived from sweeping a Fibonacci spiral to create a shell-like canopy. Drawingsgeneratedfrom thethree-dimensionalmodelincluded a set of true plans of each component.marksbarfield. The programme was used to model all structural elements and many architectural elements. A product design programme was used to develop a parametric three-dimensional model.Obviously three-dimensional modelling was critical to the design. such as bolt holes and splice locations. with a number of cutved ribs defining its shape. The structure is contained bdwwn the inner and outer curved surfaces of the canopy. This allowed the fabricator to take the profiles and add addiiinal information.thomasvale. coppr patlnation CaplSGo THE BIRMINGHAMALLIANCE www. Further s t i i is generated by the CHS braces betweanthe a s . it both supports the cantilevering roof and provides accurate formwork from which the rest of the constructioncan take its shape.co.binninghamaJli.com PRICE 8 MYERS 30 ENGINEERING www. Thii meant that the form of the buildingcould be manufacturedeasily. together they act as a cantilevering shell structure.uk M A R K S BARFIELDARCHITECTS www. the archiitect and the structural engineer worked together on the same three-dimensional model. writes Tim Lucas. the structure was made from mild-steel plate ribs cut on a computer-controlled plasma cutting machine.com .
that is. The ribs of the structure Project beyond the bronze panels and taper at the upper edge to a delicate bull-nose: this incorporates a notch in which the glass panels are restrained. laser-cut and welded between a series of diagonal CHS struts.7mm-thidc postpatinated copper sheet with standing seams. some reinforced with an additional 15mm plate rib.to create the enclosure. They are supported from beelow and only restrained at roof level. On the outside. The 12mm toughened low-iron glass panels are fixed with planar stainless steel bolts to toughened glass fins.panels of lacquered bronze sheet on a vapour-control layer . laid on to a bitumen ‘sandwich’ waterproof membrane and a ply deck. A new pit incorporating a concrete beam spans between paints of support to provide the main foundation. The existing reinforced-concrete terrace structure was adapted to support the weigm of the new building and to provide some extra terrace space around it. The resulting frames were taken to site and theribs ofadjacmt curvedframeswerebolted together into pairs. The curve continues below the floor and emerges as a low wall that acts as the senrery. The construction involved two individual curved ribs of 15mm s t d plate. with 20mm high-performance foillattice insulation. the rib structure i s dad with O.The cafe structure takes the form of a series of eight steel ‘ribs’ that curve . the continuity maintains the structural integrity of the shape. the roof is not supported on the glass. The internal finish .each tilted in relation to its neighbour .is also laid on a ply deck both ply deck are curved to follow the rib profile. .
they travel along an m . alternating h o n r compression to tension.As a pieoeof steel engbreering. At the end. dedded to talce the oppcxtunity to mats a new taKist attraction. they connect two longderelict canals: the Grand Union Canal and the Forth and Clyde Canal. The project also indudes an extension o f the Grand Union canal. a caisson awaitsthem to take them a M-fevdution on the wheel to the basin below. The curved boxbeam arms are made from 12 pieces. a staircase of 11 locks. Around 15. Mer j o i n t m mm t r M m . The aates then shut and the wheel rotates. As it moves. stability g m maintain the hor. a new aqueduct and a lock. The wheel cmsists of two massive steel arms that revolve araund B central hub.a €7@million invesbnent to link the east and west coasts o f Sootland wlth an inlandwaterway. Boats approadrmg . 'was to reinvent the brief. As well as M n g practical. all0W~ boats to mtw.esS revmak as they turn. when they emerge.a tunnel undermth the Antonine Wall.Ooo bob Wem required. the whesl is a majw tourist attmdon. Thecam1now has anew purpose: to servescottand'slaiswe and t&st industry. !3pdatist equipment w used to carve the huge pieces of steel. Manufacturing took place in the workshops of Butterby Engi neeriw in Derby. the structureis simplified and it is made more dramatic. The 35m IR is equivalent to a nine-storey buildlng. a firm that specialises in heavy engineeringfor shipyards.' says Kettle. the wheel was barn. which lifts boats 35m from one canal tothe other and viceversa. also dssigmd by RMJM.the boat lift is the mosst exciting and dramatic part of the Millennium Link . Its orgmic form the semi-War canal mting in circular openings was inspiredby the design of 8 fwh skeleton.' CREDcrs ARCHITECT RMJM CML ENGINEERINGCONSULTANT W P STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICALENGINEERING SUBCONSULTANT MG Bennet and Associates DETAILED STRUCTURAL ENGINEERINGSUB-CONSULTANT Tony Gee & Partners MAIN CONTRACTOR Monison-Bachy Wtanche WHEEL SUPPLIER Butterby Engineenng - - . RMJM was invited to help wsth ideas.the Falkirk wheel is revoiutionary in every sense.l o n g semi-circular conmte aqueduct t h a t passes like attKead through the eyes of a serlw of five giant concrete needlea -the support piers. basedon very accurate steel templates. and ~ v e boasts n its own visitor centre. and slrchitect Tony M e produoeda concept for a rotating bridge. when the wheel is stationary ther gate8 open.w sdetanche won the corrhact in 1999. Steel thkkmws range from 10mm to 50mm. a f t e r which the boats leave the caissons and the crclebeslnswn. together with British Wamways. as in a Ferris wheel. using a Lego mxkd to demonstrate his plan. with 45.a steel contak'ler-that can hdd two boats. The helf-revolutii takes 15 minutm. 'Our W n g point. BMWateMtayscwlCelvgd ' the ideafor a link to recMlnectthe Thewheelis built on a massivescalethat is hardtovisualise. connectedthe cmals. - By W n g two arms with circular openings and using hooked leading ends to add a sense of directin. Set in the txunWysWnear Falkirk in t h e Scottish Lowlands. dependirig on the atressea Involved. t3Wmtbd in 1933. Previwsschemes had beenclm&ped on the simple ideaof the wheel as a cide. It is the first-ever rotating boat lift. Its advantages wertheoriginal Ferris wheel proposal arethat only t w o caissons are needed.000 bo8t-hdss drilled into the s t d sections and M g e ptatw.80ntality o f the o e i m . The rotation of the elements m t e d serious p r o b h s in design. and the weight of four boats plus water is about 400 tonnes.Formerly. Together with the wheel. The caissons have a sel: of lack gates at both ends to allow boats to enter from one side and leave from the other. RMJM's concept grew from thedesignfor the connecting aqueduct. two central Scottish canals SOmeyerrrs ago butthe scheme was dekyed by funding pmbbns and a sutxwmt redesign. the company. which had produoedthe~~'Qinalproposals. set 25rn l o w . Each arm contains aceisson . fIwlthehigherGranuunioncanalnow sailalong a new &ension b e f mentering a tunnel that takes than wrdemeath the ancient Antonine Wall.as individualekmfmtsface repeated100percentstt.
i I .
one around each circular opening in the arms. I==== ' and geared. In this way the caissow cannot rod< lxdwwds and forwards but are posltlvely located a t all times.5m diameter axle.Twosmallergaers revdvearolndthiia8 thewheel turns. . The joint between the two is made by a section of steel aqueduct that account of the -t ~modateamovementwhiletaking requked to mvideawaterproofseel. The mtml stability gear i s fixed in a sratk posltii around thecentralaxle. only w of power are UmCi m the operation.A ::@&@ I I- The wheel is a t the head of a semidrcular dnfomed concrete aqueduct standing on piers at 25m centres. which we attached to the ends of the caksons. rotate through 180 degrees on a 3. Aseriesofffvestabitiigam iswedto trensmittherotationofthecentral~ t o the caissons. each with acentral drcutar aperture which supports a water-fined steel caisson. gears do not drive the arms o f the wheel-theyere". cenying up to two canal boats in each caisson. The arms.) m At the base of the wheel is a dry well that SMaWs the caissons to move without Coming into contact wfth the Hlaterinthebasin. which pumps oil thtwgh 10 hydraulic motors.. Themotorsusesyndwonisedgearsto tum the wheel at a contrdled pace o f rnrevolutionineight minutes. each the size o f a telephone. maintainlngthe horizontatity o f the Anal pak of arter stability gears. WMCh allowthsllooked m to rotate freely. by one powerpack.Thedtywellindudes twodeep slots. BecaussthearmsarecountennreigMed T. . The s y s t e m is Qfvrw. The wheel consists of two messzve hooked steel arms.
free of all services. And a satellite provided extra capacky. The new Madrid terminal are designed as international and intercontinental hubs.four teams had been shortlisted . with large numbers of transfer passengers. aiarge Madrid practice.The new airport terminal building at Barajas Airport . Estudlo Lam&. equally legible as a series of wings. movingto Madrid when work started on site in summer 2000. The solution was the introductionof ‘canyons’ separating r 1 . For Madrid. In terminals on the scale of BareJas the single-levelsolution is likeiyto leadto passengers having to walk daunting distances. O O O . - The main terminal is covered by an undulating roof.2km long as buitt allowed for the installation of up to 40 boarding stands attached to the main terminal.with a second satellite as a long term move. But given the multi-level section. t h e project is part of a reassertion of the capital cny‘s s m . where it oversailedto provide sun shading. acoustics. a firm that first worked with Rogers in Team 4 days. supported in each bar on central ‘trees’ and proppedat the edges. and a r k s for 9 . A very long pier . Spain sees Madrid as the key link between Europe and Latin America. passport and customs control to lounges and finally to the waiting aircraft. The competition scheme depicted a series of parallel ‘bars’ across the building.the RRP/Lamela team worked initially from the Rogersofice in London.is probably Europe’s largest current car p construction project. i M e d RRPto become part of the joint venture consortium being formed to enter the 1996 competition. including. for example. a marriage of architecture and engineering that evokes the spirit of Beaubourg. collaborated with the archtects on the d e d i of the terminal and satellite structures. it is designed to handle 35 million extra passengers annually. Anthony Hunt Associates. After kinning the competition .a prerequisite of the competition brief and 1. landscape and lighting consultants. Including the car parks and rail station.together with the associated satellite. The new airport metro link and the ambition to connect Barajas to the EuropeanTGV rail network reflect Madrid’s increasingly expansive mood. is punctuated by rooflights providing controlled daylight on the upper (departures) level of the building. This is a landmark project for Richard ROQWS Partnership (RRP).During this period Luis Vidal was responsiblefor assembling the project team. The terminal and associated satellite totals 700.000m2. The roof. each with its own distinct function. which a decade ago lagged behind Barcelona in terms of its global image. the building t h a t launched Richard Rogf~s’ global c a r e e ra quarter of a century ago. rail and road connections. over a million quam metres of space is under construction. a strategy was neededto bring natural light to the lower level. through which passengers progressed from drop-off adcar-parks/raiI station through check in.
a highly practical material. the aim was to achieve a smooth. but it sits on a massive base of concrete. . The luminous steel and glass pavilion of the terminal is classic Rogers. Much thought went into their setting out to a c h i e a seamless and flowing look. so that the impact of themain fapde was deliberatelyminimised. underlining the dear sense of dirsCtian fundamental to the scheme. It may look crafted. - The roof is intended to float over the buiiing. IntwnaIly. It adds to the m s e of texture and integrity in the building.) The essence of the Barajas project. like one building sitting on another.with a sense of place far removed f r m the Mank conidors which greet m n g passengers at most airports. I CREDITS ARcHmcT Richard Rogers Partnership STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Anmorry Hunt Associates STEELWORK aluminium roof coverlng and deck PHOTOGRAPHS simxl Smithson - I 1 1 I . unlike the carpets ubiqukow in British airports. requiring a layer of c h d d i C Q V e n n gthe steelwork and the thick layer of acoustic and thermal Insulation. It is in the skilful use of natural light that the project most clearly reflects an energy-saving agenda. is its use of modular components on a standard grid. Full air conditioning is provided only in enclosed spaces. Baggage handling (thelargest system ~ v ebuilt) r and other servicing are mmmted at basement level.'I. could share a really imposing spa. though segregated. (The floor is curved up where it meets the fapde to avoid damage r o fm trolleys . The canyonsare also directional locators within the terminal. emphaticany propped rather fhan supported a t the perimeter.a simple and elegant device. are USBd to form the terminal C e i l i i . Laminated Smps of Chinese bamboo. and into addressing demanding Spanish fire mgulations. spanned by bridges. Services are designed to fit around the modular structure and located at the edge of the floor slabs. in constructional terms. Natural stone is used as a flooring material throughout the tminal. but it was designed for rapid realisation and maximum flexibility. the linear blocks of the terminal full-height spaces. in which arriving and departing passengers. waceous form for the roof. Elsewhere a low veloclty displacement ventilation system is used. a lgnewBble material.
It extends over the glazed north and south facades to shade them. A set of ties and jacks wem set up behindthem and tensioned to draw together the roof and R o M beam to a maximwn loading of 60 tonnes. The truSseS m tensioned to resist wind loading and formed of five horizontal cast stainless steel arms connected by pairs of stainless steel rods.34x 3m long doubleglazed panels.The threestorey terminal building is covered with a sinuous curved and vaulted roof. lil I 1 I I A The trusses wem factoty-assembled. so as not to bmk t b flow of the roof. delivered to site and loosely pinned and bolted. fhe glazed facade and its 'W tvuss support structure were designed to be minimal and delicate. The disposition and varying lengths of the m create the fish-like shape (hence the m e ) and reflect the line of StMtUrai forces.75mm gaps were left between the gkpss panels to accommodate r o t a t i movement. inside to out.ts three 2. Two stain4Ss s t d drop rods at 3m centres between the kippers take out vertical denection from the transoms . bdted together with weldsd flanges and dad with profiled aluminiwn. -1 r .L e.tested and loaded to 40 tonnes. Each transom. SuSlANRp . Th8y were sealed with a concertb-lii eoctruded Nbber gasket. supported intmally on palm of canted columns.propped on external Canted Y-shaped props a t 18mCW@8S. a set of paired 78mm diameter CHSs. Each arm o f the truss supports a transom. The kipper trusses run at 9m centres. suppol. mey are pinned to the bottom flange ofthe beams with forked connectors andsrndxxed at their bases to apostttx&omdconmteed6lebgam. aligning with the main roof beams. The maximum m t a l movement ofthe facade will beabOUt15mm. The trusses werethenattached. in turn.
though. It is nearly 70 years. Svvlss Reinsurance (SwissRe). Foster and Partners' &storey 30 St Mary Axe tower (fomwly Swiss Re). which continued in the Foster scheme for the World Trade Center site. At 590 ft (18Om) St Mary Axe easily oversails its Sixties neighbour. The award was also a welcome reassartion a t t m as much as that of the that the design of workplaces m public. The Foster scheme was developed by swissfte in assaciafin with Skanska. since the City promulgated the St Paul's Htsights policy to protect distant views of Wren's cathedral.I OFFICE B JILDING. long before the advent of modem highrise buildings here. If the sculptural. a lavish but. not especially distinguished structure of the 1900s. choice for the 2004 W i n g W e .' In its reinstatement of 'extcirnal drama' as a key element in the design of the tall building. the critic Martin Pawley has argued. the issue of rethinking office design is one that has preoccupied Foster since Team 4 days. cultural and infrastructural projects t h a t have virtually monopolised the Stirlingsince it was established. r 1 . the Commercial Union tower. Tall buildings have long bean a contentious issue in London. Willis Faber. p r o m deliberately. LONDON The realdriving force behind tall office buildings. which occupied a number of buildings in this quarter of the City. in truth. has captured the public imagination and was the popuiar. it allows the NatWmt tower (completed in 1981 and now m e d Tower 42) to retain its pre-eminence as the City's tallest building. took an interest in the site late in 1997. a process whose external drama has been drained by repetition for neatly a century. as much as the critical. 'has been the production of an enclosed interior landscape. The location of the Foster tower in a cluster of tall buildings in the eastern quarter of the C i t y was a strong argument in its favour and helped to secure the blessing of English Heritagle. the Hongkong Bank and the Frankfurt Commerzbank (credibly claimed as the first 'green skyscraper) are landmarks in the quest. ST VIARY AXE. The site for 30 St Mary Axe was created by the 1992 IRA bomb that wrecked the Baltic Exchange. Norman Foster sees St Mary Axe as 'a considered attempt to break down baniers and improve the quality of life in the workplace'. curvilinear form of the building has precedents in earlier Foster projects such as the Bilbao metro and Canary Wharf station.
. a paradigm of the responsible environmental practice that is a quest for both architect and client. structural. 'The C i within a city has always been full of surprises.While EH was eventually convinced by the basic rationale of the Foster proposal. for example.) while much attention had focused on the long-distance impact of the building. that. and the use of paint to emphasise the vertical four-storey diamonds in the dagrid cladding. spatial . largely thanks to the double-skin ventilated fawde. are near neighbours. The churches of St Helen. (The spiraling light wells clad in grey glazing.at one stage it was a portly egg . considerably more than that on offer from the groundscraper solution.57ha was an irregular rectangle. to sacrifice the remains of the Baltic Exchange for an outstanding new building. are the incidental glimpses seen through gaps in the building line. with horizontal elements played down to reflect the structural agenda. bounded by two narrow passages to north and south and with the modest thoroughfares of St Mary Axe and Bury Street (with Berlage's famous Holland House) to the west and east. it representsthe realisation of aspirations that have been present in Foster's work for many years. It is claimed. and taken with its aerodynamic shape. In its entirety. The final version at 180m is more bullet-like than gherkin-like. Foster and Partners claim that this is 'a radical building. A planning application was lodged in June 1999 and the project began on site in 2001.is fundamental to the whole. Bishopsgate.' he noted. it wanted a slimmer profile even if that meant an increase in overall height.from the 130m proposed at concept stage. This provided for a building containing around 46. Foster was equally concerned with the way it would be experienced at close hand. in effect. The Baltic Exchange had filled it completely.reaching its final form during 1998 after protracted negotiations with City planners and with English Heritage (EH). it is the practical embodiment of Buckminster Fuller's vision of 'a micro-climate within an energy-conscious envelope'. though a reduction on the potential area of the earlier egg scheme. for example. The site of 0. both precious survivors of the Great Fire. and St Andrew Undershaft. .' For Norman Foster.social. The most impressive views of St Paul's. energy consumption is potentially half that of a prestige aircondiioned office building of similar size (though fine-tuning by the building's users will be critical in this respect). emphasise the v e t t i d i of the tower. which was prepared. environmental.000m2 net office space.. with its spiraiing internal atria corkscrewing through the fingers of office space. The great strength of this project is the degree to which every aspect of the programme .The profile of the tower went through a series of revisions .
the perimeter supeFstructure.76mm laminated inner. They wefe l i i to the top of the building and welded together to form the structure.10mm tougbmd (heat-&) grey body-tinted outer with interpane coating to the inner face.in effect a dome. It is Ranked by a ring of insuleted aluminium panels connected to air-extract and smoke fans. the 4Q-stomy building is a pmkte spheroid. which was welded to the tops of the ladder members.5m in diameter at t h e base and 22. it W the top.5m Mgh . The mullionsand transomswerewekfed at the factory into a series of ‘ladder’ member$ and ‘loose’ members. which also house messed l i lfittings. Two ladder members were placed In a 300 jib on site and welded together with the loose member between. The upper three storeys . sLJ%AMDAWSoN . The domeis clad with triangular doubleglazed panels . is a diagrid fonned of tings of two-storey A-shaped s t d frames W e d together and dad with aglazed curtain-we8 system of facetedtriangular panels. 30. 2420mm in diameter. 18mm argon-fillled cavity and 12.1 YldLtjU UUI 1 VVltl I d In shape.conterin private dining rooms. The Sire of each ladder member was determined by the maximum size for transpart. The fans a m concealed by curved aluminium panels. At convex glass lens. a restaurant and bars for theu s e r s of the building. the dome terminates in a si n a circular ’spider’ s t m r e . I t s structure is sehpporting and rests on the final ring of the A-Shaped SUperstnrctUB. The lens is a doubleglazed unit.apart frornthetop three storeys. an arrangement determined by the lift capacity of the tower crane. R consists of fabricated mullions and transoms welded to fdkw the complex 1 o Dfaceted geometry of the cladding.
creating column-free interiors. the complex angular relationships between mponents are resolved before erectii. It has a central steel core from which floor beams radiate to a perimeter superstructure. weldedtothenodesalthepreciseangle needed to create the diagrid. SUSAN DAWSON ---I - : e ' . a perimeter row of A-shaped frames is craned into position.the metaldeck of whlch is laid in t r a p e z M E d sedcm. They support a composite C O stNchaal slab. The diagrid steelwork is fire-protected with foil-badced mineral wool blanket ami cladwith V-shaped penelsof white polyester powder-coated aluminium. By prefabricating mponents to precise dimensions before assembly.s h a p e d panels which am facered at their edges in both plan and section. radiating from the core. an3 bofted to the backs of the nodes. Tie plates at both sides of each node aw bolted to hoop-ties by means of tapered flanges. The superstructure is a diagrid. Each frame consists o f a pair of columns boked to a fabricated steel node.The 40-storey building is 8 prolate spheroid in shape. The columns havecircularendplateswhichareboked to matching circular connection plates. The sequence of construction is as follows: as soon as two floors of core structure are erected. Both sets of plates are machined s m t h and flat in the factory and drilled ta achieve an accuracy of within lmm when bolted fam-to face. formed from a series of two-storey A-shaped frames bolted together. connecting the nodes horizontally. A ssrles of floor Isams. Ctadding brackets bolted to the node and to the hoop-ties support a curtain wall O$ d i i d .
lifts.when the first fans passed through the gates of Chelsea Football Club's Stamford Bridge ground. with careful planning. which severely restricted the size and height of the new stand).-.was won by Atherden Fuller Leng (AFL)in competitive interview 'We won the job.conveniently provided by excavation of the Underground'sDistrict Line Standswere built and improvedover the years. executive and conference suites and the roof . which accommodates concourses. with the last of these. . eight-seats deep and projecting where club directors sit. staircases and circulation areas. seating 42. get more than 750 extra seats in without compromising comfort or increasing the plan or overall building height. The chairman's lounge and two VIP suites are at the rear. WCs.------.5m cantilever. detailed design of the second phase .rising debts forced the club to sell the ground to developers After some anguished years. the only shelter was a single covered stand on the east side of the pitch The other three sides were terraces. is the prime viewing area. with 23 rows of seats.Whitby Bird & Partners was the structural engineer for both phases. but an attempt in the 1970s to develop the ground into a 50. open to the weather and formed of banked earth . an extra 750 seats 2 --k-- .eight people per box . the West Stand.__ -_ Careful planning of its second design stage. Projecting above it. Stamford Bridge is hemmed in by adjacent buildings.runs at the back of the lowest tier with two lounges at the rear. together with two lounges for 300 people on each side. with covered stands on all four sides of the pitch. and the need to slot in three levels of executive seating between the upper and lower tiers.000 all-seater stadium ended in disaster . in an 1 1. A row of executive boxes with glazed fronts and outdoor seating . The tiers rest on a cast in situ frame six levels high. Stand design is determined by spectators' need for a good view of the whole pitch over the head of the person immediately in front.three upper tiers. it was finally bought back in 1992 The Stamford Bridge site on Fulham Road has now been transformed into the largest league ground in London.450 fans Three stands have been rebuilt in the past five years.' (Like many other traditional football grounds.. now completed The West Stand was built in two phases the concept and first phase -the lowest tier and ground-floor concourse -was designed by KSS Architects. 'because we found that we could.' explains architect John Roberts. The sectional shape of the second phase was determined by the rake of the upper tier. I i -- In 1905.
and are backed up by additional clubrooms at the rear.2m cantilever over the directors‘ seating. a gently arched steel canopy of steel cellular beams supported by a pyramid mast structure. Des Mairs PROJECT MANAGEMENT MPM Capita MAIN CONTRACTOR Multiplex Constructions SUPPLIERS Steelwork Westbury Tubular Structures Roof covering Lexan polycarbonate. a series of 24-person self-containedsuites. The upper tier is the largest and most dominant element when seen from the pitch .two-seats deep and projectingin an 8. is linked to the Millennium Suite. which have fully glazed openings facing the pitch. shelter and a clear view . They are available for daily use as individual offices and are designed to ensure that the club maintainsan income whether or not matches are being played. The suites. contain conference and dining facilities including kitchens and WCs.it rises at the rear to just below the back edge of the roof. CREDITS ARCHITECT Atherden Fuller Leng (AFL) Project architect John Roberts STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Whitby Bird 8 Partners Ben Rowe.A third level.something to celebrate in addition to scoring goals. PMF profiled steel sheet . The new stand gives fans comfortable seats.
. The top chord of the truss fdlows the curved profile o f the roof white the bottom chord is straight. while the t W . These are supported in turn by 1.The roof is a gently arched canopy of steel cellular beams supported by a pyramid mast structure that spans 104m to shelter the stand. 72m apart. It is COvBIBd with profiled steel sheet at therear. with a central span of 72m and cantilevers of 16m at eech side. each an asymmetric ‘A-frame’ Of three 61Ommdiameter CHS supports. A walkway gantry for lighting and speakers cantilevers from t h bottom chord of the main t r u s s . m apart. transmii a large tension force.014mm-deep cellular beams at 6m centres.500 x 300mm steel column in the reinfortxd-concretegable wall. The inclined truss runs the length of the stand. by ‘pyramid’ structures.and withprofiled polyabmte sheet at the front to ensure that high levels of llght are transmitted through it to promote healthy grass growth on the pitch. The truss is supported at two pinned swpension points. so that the trussdepthwwiesacrossthelength of the roof. and span over an inclinedtruss to cantilever 15m beyond ittotheedge. Two of the supports transmit iarge ccfnpression forces. at the rear corner of the roof. The beams are propped at the rear of the stand. The sheeting is supported by recZangular steel purlins 2 .Vertical truss members are rigidly connected to the cellular beams to carry the gamy and the end cantilevers. Each pyramid structure is suppotted by an 864mm-diametw CHS mast at the gable. the mast has a splayed base for connection to a 1.
like other new sportsbuildings. is four-storeys high and accommodates staircases. The new grandstand is designed primarily for racing but. They have open corridors between them Wit give access to the bettinghall. plant and secvices. The building is formed of six huge steel X-frames. with Mly glazed walls that run the length of the grandstand. Berkshire. also fully glazed for racecourse views. exhiMtions and . the restaurantand bar have beendes&ied so that they are suitable for receptions. 12m apart. - - - The steppings rise to a bar. a conventionalstd-frame structure set within the X-kame legs. demonstratesthat a simple cantilever roof is not the only way of sheltering large numbers of viewers whether o f racehorses o r football. The top legs support the roof rather A k e the legs of an ironing board while the lower legs enclose alarge betting hall on the ground floor and fdlow the line of the ‘steppings’ -the stepped terraces on which spectators stand to watch the r a w . with projecting balconies set between the upper legs of the xframes. banquets.n I r The new TatterSals Grandstand at Newbury Racecourse. The rear of the grandstand. The floor above houses a m seater restaurant. WCs.
not just on the days of racing fixtures. Michele McShany. so that an exact schedule of components could be extracted from it. The front and side walls of the grandstand. A finite-element analysis showed that. "-2 A . . Steel's ability to be prefabricated ensured fast construction -the client had stipulated that the old stand be demolished and the new one be in place between the dates of the annual November Hennessy Gold Cup race meetings. . even with a restaurant MI of spectators jumping up and down in unison. although the layout created significant "out-of-balance"bees which had to be stabilised'. This imposes unusual dynamic bads on what Is essentially a lightweight structure. and was used to provide all workshop drawings. Hoise Plunkett MAlN CONTRACTOR Heery lntematial STEELWRKCOMRACTOR w a t m steel conferences. which won the contract to fabricate and erect the steelwork. Due to the angle of the raking legs. which include the load created by the large balconies cantilevwing from the front edge of the restaurant floor. To prevent thii. an e vertical tie was fixed between the rear upper and lower tip of each X-frame leg. iftware provide STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Whitby Blrd 8 Partners Charlie &enson. ready to be assembled. Unlike football fans. w l d tend to causethe upper sections o f the X-frames to pivot forward at the node crossing. are largely glared. An electronic format of the model with the tender documents.and are available to generate revenuethroughout the year. Steelwas t h eobviousmaterialfor the structure. With less than a year allowed for construction of the grandstand. a package that fms a three-dimensional model of the s t e e l structural members from the earliest stages of a project. Dominic Sldnner. This removed the need for a detailed Bill of Q u a n t t i and shortened the tender Perid. It was . but enhanced by an overlay of stainless steel mesh.. The four-storey structure at the rear is clad with grey profiled metal sheeting the 'crinkly tin' familiar on industrialestates. the design made the most of off-site fabrication so that it could be delivered to site as a 'kit-of-parts'.ith both the the dynamic loads oers move about. there was no risk of excessive movement. W W e Smqkalova 3 X-frame +hm+ IcopF uctural . The model was passed to Watson Steel. Ch&s Rich. giving important views of the racecourse. .. Matthew White. and connected to an adjacent column at the rear of the restaurant support beam. - The structure was modelled using XSteel software. racegoers move around between races.1 E = - - CREDITS ARcHmcT Foster and Partners: Ken shumewocth. The simple logic of the X-frame structure ensured value for money the whole project cost only E9 million. the Xframes do not behave like simple columns but combine vertical defotmation with sway. These forces. Charlie Benson of engineer Whitby Bird & Partners explainsthe advantages of the design: 'Stnrctural stabiiity is inherent in the plane of the X-frames. The two materials combine to produrn a material of classic quality with a matt finish so that horses are not dazzled by r e W i n s as they race towards the winning post.
the upper leg8 are fofmedof 508mm diameter CHSs ftom the node crossing to the balcanies. The restaurant floor rests on fabricated steel beams fixed between the uppfx legs o f the x-frames.OBmmUC w h i i is cast into the grolmd-f)Oorslab so that onfyvwtical and lateral wind loads are transferred to the piled foundatigns. The ffoor ofthe berabove rests on a central steel spine beam tked just b&riv the node crossings ofthex-frames. The lower legs are formed of660mm diameter CHSS. The legs are formed of cits members. Bar and restaurant floors. Thenodecrosdngswerepmfabicated in the factoly and brought to site.they areset I n precastshoesand tied together with a 356x4. where the legs were welded to them. At foundation W. he beams am connected to them by saddle-plates. w h i i reduced the need for secondary s t and shortened the constructii programme. are canstructed of prewt concreteplankswithstructwal topping. the ends of opposing legsspan 18m. ltsupportsaprofiled metal deck covered with a singleply membrane. and of 275mm diameter CHSs from the balconiesto the tips. each end is also bolted to a vert& column that prevents the tendency of the upper section of the X-frame to pivot a t the node crossing.The newgamhtad has a structure of sbc exposed X-frames set 12m apart.The stepped beams that support the steppings are fixed to the spine beem. The diagonal framework of the roof strueture@s as a diaphrasm and ties the top ends o f the x-frames together t o p m m t m . . chosen for their CaPaGity to accommalete highcompressiveloads. I 111 The six lower members of the X-frame enclose the maln betting hall.
The cast insitu concrete diving platforms have 3m springboards together with 3. Along the north elevation and facing the spectator seating and entrance runs a s e r i e s of plate girders 7. a double ridgetruss flanked by rooflights.a series of stone-dad service 'chimneys' and glazed walls . me 1OOm long south side . and give access to the main spectator gallery of loo0 seats which will be used for the Commonwealth Games. a sports medicine room and a land training m m containing isoldnetic fitnessequipment. designed by ORMS. has unclmater observation windows and a constant 2m depth which can be made shallower by two movable floors. with a cafe overlooking the pool. Supporting accommodation is arranged in a three-storey concrete frame structure along the south side of the pool hall. synchronised diving. Upper levels contain a fitness suite and a dance studio.forms one side of a new pedestrian public space and contains the main entmce. over the leisure area to give up to 2500 spectator spaces.7metres apart. an 'heroic' 32 x 1OOm space. this new building is more than just a swimming pool. Visitors enter a wide doubleheight reception which leeds to the caf6 and pool hall. synchronised swimming and weter pdo. At the west end of the hall is a free-form shallow water lagoon for chldren. which spring from stone-clad thrust blocks. The new pool building fronts the busy Oxford Road and forms part of the UMlST campus. a sports science room. in part. The 32 x 100m pool hall is a column-free space formed by a steel roof structurewhich arches asymmetricallyover the pools reaching almost 20m at its apex and spanning 37m over the spectator seating. The pool has a traversible boom to adjust f its length to 25m. the pool can also be divided by submersible booms. The central pool. Commissioned by Manchester City Council in collaboration WHh the three universities in the city. The mechanical and water treatment plant is contained in the basement. The gable end on the west faces the main road. They rise. increasing in depth and curving to meet a flattened ridge. This also containsa unique facility. emphasising the leisure. student halls of residence are M n d and the building is adjacent to the new School of Management. 8s opposed to serious swimming. at this point the plate webs change to trusses which slope down to the south elevation to bear on cast-in-situ concrete columns and core . The changing village and health suite are set on each side of the double-height reception. a play area. The complax will be one of the major venues of the Commonweafth Games to be held in Matxhester. function. it offers flume rides and a toddlers' paddling pool but also caters for every sspect of competitii swimming including solo diving. an additiinal 50 metre training pool whose purpose is to provide dedicated &e swimming training. For such occasions extra temporary seating can be provided. and a retractable floor to allow water o varying depth for teaching. At the east end a 5 metre deep diving pool incorporates underwater observation windows and a retractable floor. the 50 metre competition pool. flume rides and bubble p l s are landwith artificial palm trees. it has its own storage a n d changing r m s .7 and 10 metre fixed platforms.5. it can be used by students and locals.As the name implies.
The curtain Walling s y s t e m below it comprises a polyester powder coated aluminium frame with bands of double-glazed units of clear glass inset with adjusWle micro-blinds.The facade is divided into horizontal bands by painted steel walkways with G W grid Roars. The top and bottom flanges of the main girders are made up from 254 x 254mm univmal cdumns with 12mm t h i c ks t e e l plate webs welded betweenthem.' i walk beyond. Newcastle on Tyne Gordon Mungall. with horizontal and diagonal CHS pwlins and bracing members between them. a more articulatedtraqezoidal profiled liner. give lateral m l i t yto the structure. These pairs of frames support the ridge trusses which in turn support shallower intermediate frames. The junction is concealed by stiffener plates w h i i . The technology of corrosion prevention has been highly developed for areas with much greater risk. for its ability to span large volumes economically.John Gregoty John Laing construCtlon MECHANICAL a STEELWORK CONTRACTOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEER watson s e d Ove h p & Partners. cut and flash6d to replicate the girder shape behind it. The west ~lable of the pool flanks the pavemerrt and busy highway ofoxfwd Road. Manchester . Protectingthe steel structure Steel was the natural choice of structure for the pool. They are partly screened by a waved acoustic ceiling which helpsto providethe acousticenvironment needed for the voice a l a r m evacuati system. together with the site-welded purlins. acting as box trusses. I CREDITS ARCHITECT I I The differencebetween the paired girders. Jean Paul Colback FaulknerBrowns Er@-teering STRUCTURAL ENGINEER SeMces Q U A " Y SURMYORS Tozer capita ove Arup & Partners. The gable girder pairs are braced with additional CHS props which are pinned from the bottom boom of the outer girder to the top boom of the inner girder to stabilise the gable and transfer wind loads from thegable tothe roof plane. The webs of the girders were welded in sections. such as oil exploration platfons. at each side of the main staircase. providinglateral stiffness and mating a simple and elegant structural rhythm along the north wall.7m centres and are braced by a series of horizontalCHS purlinswelded to the webs. The fabricated steel components were shot-blasted and treated with 50 micron epoxy zinc phosphate primer. articulate the fawde. the large paired girders are l i i with structural 'Kal-deck'. they give WATER TREATMENT FaulknerErowns ENGINEERING Nick Deeming. the welded junctions are designed to OOCUT where the CHS pwlins are wewed to the webs. The girders are set a t 7. and opaque ceramic-backed glariryl units backed with insulated aluminium t r a y s . solar shading. A 20mm thick 254mm wide steel phte replaces the universd column forthetop flangeso f the i n m i t e frames. and the smaller girders which run between them is emphasised by a subtle change in soffit treatment.The pairs are located at the gables and at mid-point. and give access to the curtain wall for maintenance. The shwgty curved girder form is reflected in theverga w h i is dad with sihrer-co9ted Luxaton sheet. The smaller g am lined with a perfondedBcoustlc structural 'Kal-tray'. a barrier coat of 125 micron micaceous iron oxide followed by a 50 micron decorative top coat. EigM of the plat@girders are deeper than the others and are anrvlged in four pairs. Sarah MAIN CONTRACTOR Clemmetsen.
Insectioneachmullionisan asymmetric oval. the line of the girder: The walkways are supported on bracketswhiohcantjleverfromthemain mulliandmaddiidditionanypropped by 25mm diameter rods suspended from the verge. tapering at one end. the other flange is shortened and welded to a half-tube of 114mm dlameter. . - The geMe mullions are restrained by a Series of CHS props which retain the mulFims within the slots. It is formed of an inner 406 x 17mm U9 lined with 12mm steel plate. They support the gable wall and the walkways with a top fixing that accommodates movement ofthe roof stmctwe in three planes. A 50mm stmtud thermal break penetrates t h e facadsat all cannections. it was nec~ssary to design the gable wall as an element of structure which allowed the roof to move above it.The rodsare hekl by tapered F & i connected to the bottom boom of the gable frame.> l m l I I lUlllUl 1 3 3UtJrJUllI Astheroofstructurerunsforloometres without movement joints. LGU yd The gable wall structure consists of a sedes of fabricated steel mullions at 3 . Each mullion has a W e d lug at the top whiih slots inside a pair of plates wekled to ttm bottom m g e of the outer gable girdec The slot allows the girder to move up to 10 15mm vertically and horizontally. An insulated slotted movement joint is incorporated in theckdding onthe same plane. The lower props are horizontal. The curved ends are formed by CHS tubes cut in a half-tube of 244mm diameter is wekled to one Range. mcerr&es. the topmost prap is curved to fdknn.
*e- . .~. .
the gallery measures 8m wide and nearly 40m long. which i s being converted into a technical museum. it can also be used m. These aresupportedat each end on trestle-like propswith canted legs dd station. the equipment has reached the end of its life. it consists of four 20m triangulated truss girders. sewage tanks and plant. containing pumps. This is where the real technical business is done. standing as wonderfully robust monuments to its industrial past. This has meant that for nearly a hundred years drainage and sewage have been distributed by mechanical pumping. The city has 140 pumping stations. which bridge the central well. the mezzanine . - - . with its steel structure. was built in 1903-6.a gallery resting on a mezzanine is visible through a glass facade that minimises the impact of the bulky 20 x 40m building. In a deliberate contrast to the cathedral-likeproportionsof the Av i s i t to the gallery gives a true picture of the building. The old red-brick station at Wilmersdorf. Staircases and gantries in the central well give access to the four levels of plant. gsnerators. Look over the railings and a Piranesian underworld Is revealed.a solid enclosure f m e d of concrete slabs supported by sheer walls and composite steel columns runs at the sides of the central well. Running along each side of a huge well. Although its structure is sound. The interior .book launches or small parties. The first-floor gallery. Following a proposal to build a new pumping station next to the d d one. on the west of Berlin in the heart of a densely developed urban district. Clearly visible through the glass skin. The vast basement is flanked by concrete walls measuring more than a metre thick. This was won by the Munich architect Ackermann und Partner. some approaching 100years-old. the Berlin water author@ organised a competition. ducts. sits on top of the mezzanine. two-storeys high. Although this may seem a relatively unusual construction method. the new building announces itself as a delicate steel and glass structure.1 I - I I I\ n n I in TI i r \ / n iI I F The cily of Berlin squats on a flat plain with a very high water table. Above ground. The whole basement block was cast above ground as a caisson and then lowered 18m to its final position by flushing out the sandy subsoil beneath R. The gallery is open to the public and while most of the visitors are expected to be schoolchildren. it is frequmtly used in Berlin because of the high water table.
. These are ffled with prismatic glass. giving the structure a machinelike quality: a reference to the great pumping machines below. braced at the corners with tension rods.000m3ihour. Similar columns at 1. The composite roof is fitted with a series of large rooflights above the well. The connection between the trusses and the props . rb The facade support structure is independent of the main building.3m centres on the outer layer of the facade. 1 CREnITs AFlwm Ackermann und Partner PROJECTARCHmcTs Christof Simon. Bath and HappoM Ingenieurbtiro. It consists of two separate glass layers. The six electric and diesel pumps emit 199kW of waste heat. Eoin Bowler STRUCTURAL ENGlNEER Bum Happdd. Although there are no permanent workplaces in the pumping station. which directs daylight into even the deepest parts of the basement.65m centres support the inner layer. M i d Vtzthum . with a total capacity of 20. temperature extremes had to be avoided. - m 'f.Berlin: Terty Ealey. There is an external layer of 15mm toughened glass sheet connected by stainless steel structural bolts. No additional energy is used to keep this temperature constant. It uses a series of 200 x 30mm steel columns at 3. Because it is closely surrounded by houses and flats. Even under exceptional weather conditions. an intermediate space 700mm wide that allows for maintenance and gives a means of escape in a fire.is made by an articulated cast-steel node. the huge glass facade of the pumping station was designed to provide sound insulation and save energy by exploiting solar gains.the most visible part of the structure .(seeWorking Detail). and an internal skin of steel-frameddouble-glazed units. the double-layer steel and glass facade is designed to maintain an internal temperature of about 14°C.
creating a cantilever action on both sides of the truss. The plates are p m i t i i on m 1 7 W . the roof and the facade are separated from the supportkyl structwe by elastomc antivibrationbearings. which iransfw loads from the top chords of the truss down to the concrete floor.3mm diametw CHS compression members.3mm dsvneter CHSs) are connected by canted 114. whiich is bolted to the top m S Of the t W S . down to the concrete SI& below ground. which support a stedhmcrete composite roof.3m deep and spanning 2 m . which would clearly indicatethe line of fwcss. loads were modelled on a computer program. through the conwetetable and sheer walls. B t e pod<ets to distributetheadditronahhorizontalforce component hwn the d i a g o n a l legs. At the perimeter. TO redthe level of rs& from the pumps. The load ftom the roof is transferred to the trusses by 168. The structure was designed as a delicate Migree of steel tubes. which rest on floorplates alongside the glass facade.3mm cws props. . rlHh n The roof consists of 180mm deap insitu concrete c a s t on a profiled steel deck. As some o f the Sheer walls did not match the position o f the legs. the roof is supported by a 300mm deep universal beam. It consists of four triangulated truss girders. each measwring 1. Each truss is supported at its ends by two pairs of mted 193. The plates also act 8s fixing points for a pal^ of vertical tension rods. Thewe are ooupled to the top and bottom chords of the trusses by 40mm d m i e rs t e e l tension rods.A framework of tubular trusses with canted supports rests on a solid mezzanine floor. Both are visible through the two-storey glazed f a of the 20 x 4 m pumpingstation. The p a i d top booms and bottom boom 1168.7mm dameter CHS legs.
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and the one which sets the image for the whole) sohool. But it is much more than a corrkbr. The fkst new feature.TheschodiS~frornttmroad througn mature trees -these werettm grounds of a SubstanW wfm dull.L - ayes s c h ~ d in B m k y comprised an existing V i house. pert of amotkrycdlection of rypicas post-war school buildings (mo9ttyfrom the '5Oband 'eOS) and temporary huts. awkward and left over outside spaces have been transftormed into the unifying spine o f the schoal's cimkffion. and as it emerges from . T h e m m p e t l t i o n brief s e t out amquirement for several general residence-andthevi$it~riSpresentedwith theboldfacadeof the new l i m . This w e n t ofa circle is rooted to the ra€nalQeometryofw~ and belanoed by t h e m geofn&y of ttm 'lodge' (which approlxlalely contains the raception and adminisaation).a round ane-attheerrbar\ce.b the creation of a new 'square' .
a tree-iike column. - - There are a number of nice spatii touches. ne &these lightwells f the wati separating the cmrictm is cut out on both sides o from the library. 'Ihro w t i i methods have been adoptxito mete asense o f unity and an individuality t the cam* its previous. everyday materials and techniques: steel frame. The conidor arwnd the new music rooms is in the rniddleofadeep spaoe and.lg. rendered blmkwork. there am three very long and narrow c~nred s 1 in the fnst floor W.t CREDeTs ARCHITECT PcKomects SlRucNRAL ENGINEER RCeBMyers PHOTOGRAPH Grant Smith between buildings into the daylight A is a genuine promenade anda usable space kits own right.d and i s an L-shaped range of t-Mw in the angle between hail and library that Mps to defKle a separate.Whmtheschoolstreetmeststheexist an internal twam with sinuously curving front wall makes a .''~ng~wnewbuildi~m comtrmted using simple. courtyard. and theTOW of seemingly random cdumns in the schod street the wtect has devlssd. tmnchii at the top into four orsix struts.without reinventingdetails.to bring l i t in. For the two particularly visible elements of structure . keaviwthe glazed conidor intriguimly freestandh. the engineer.the columns vvhich support theweboming roof ovemang to the l i . The third W of the. aluminium curtain walling the pfoiiiedmetal roofing am all used. classnxKns subsidiary.
and three-storey teaohing Mocks has been endosed with an 8m high roof and a glazed wall to form a 'streat'.3mm d i e r CHS struts. 114. each with a 323. The~chroofrises8mtoaverlap the eaves of a three-storey block. jointed together with silicone.9mmdiameter x 25mm CHS 'trunk' with a splayed ovai top plate. 7m wide and 60m long. The glazed roof is supported by five branched steel column 'trees'. Glering barcleatsam fixed to angle brackets wekfed to the CHS strudure.T o reduce soler heat gain. The roof is composed of singleglazed 6 . The curtain wall is supported bya row o f 139. Fwr panels of glass form the roof slope.7mm dmeter CHS columns braced by horizontal CHS members.The spaca between two '60stwo. The branches. . laminated glass panel$ on 134 x 51mm & m i n i m glazing bars at 800mrncankes. are hed to the trunk with pin joint connections a t irregular heights and inclinations: their design refers to the informal arrof large matwe trees on the site. The branches are triangulatedwith the CHS roof members and lateral support i s provided by fixing t w o branches back tothe Second-nw slsb oftheadjam clessroom block. It Hnks the okl buildiigs with new ones and matwan i n f o r m a l space for children to meet as well as a momstrucnKedspaceforexMbitions or displays. a Tow of akrminium louvres set below the ridge ventilates the street by stack effect. the two upperpanelsam laminated with a white trenstucentinterlayer. Rainwater drains into an aluminium channel fixed totheends ofthe gwng bars.
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t h i s allowed him to mscue and propagate plants which had been on the verge of extWi -not only from the wildest places in the world but also from neglected gardens nearer home. The entrance canopy. to be unified. By 2000 the popula~?&~ of the garden was such that access.- . We felt the need to embed the buiing in its s u m w ~The .it wcsthe pewHionstcQethwandSedKnIIto how efforue6dywerthewells.000plants of around 12.80.OOO visitors a year come to visit. H i l l i i SeOwBd theMure ofthe gardens by b m i i a charitable trust. Hampshire County Council asked its architects to design a new visitor centre. it is the roof of the centre w k h catches the eye. of which Hampshire County cwneil was the sole trustee. project architect. the restaurant. some years previously they had drawn up a detailed master plan which sought to grasp the whole area and gently re-shape it to give better access and circulationand to create a logical site for a new visitor centre at the main put& entrance. circulationand visitor facilities had to be improvedto cope with the numbers. beyond.- I - - . Heowned a large and successful nursery but his dream was to create a significant plant collectbon. In 1952 he bought a modest country house set in 32 hectares to the east of brnsey in Hampshire to m s i e this ambition. Today the Si Hmld H i f l i GartRfs ark?l ArtxKetum contain one of the g r e a t e s t collectloos of hardy trees and shrubs in the workl and are an important centre for education and consBNatkx1. it was devalaped in collabaration with landscape architect Colvin & Moggridge. Since then thegardens haveexpamkd: they now COVBT 72 hectares with 42. The roof extends overthe three sides of the COMtyard in a U-shaped pkvl.000 taxa (types) and house the largest number of N a t i i l Rant collectionS to be found on any one site. extending out beyond the building encloswes to shetter pxhtrkn routes and forming at the W h .M EUI MMIwsIY damrg cantilevered oomer which acts as a t the main entrance.To the right is a self-contained shop and WC block. is W e d by the main foyer space on the left with its ticket desk and. itconsistsofthree simple yet mparate pavilions amnged on ttKee sides to form a cowtyerd around a landsGaped pod. with their individual requirements for endoswe and open space. Forthe visitor walking up from the main c a r park. the block at the w t .. roofline has been kept as low as possible but it has a very delicate edge which cants upwards'. 'aims to create a new threshold for the visitor to experience the bndscape. 'The design' explains Georgine Hall. The choice of roof design albwed the three pavilions. through which visitors pass to enter the courtyard. As you apprcwch the canopy the laycwt of the visitor centre beccme8 clear.- HaroldHilliers(1905-1985)h~apassionforplants. Hilliers exchanged plants from every comer of the world. cjxkmMg beyondthem and sloping gently cqnvasds to terminate in an elegant tapered ewes..
. Simon Jewel1 . ..temecoated stainless steel WANTlTYSURVEYoR HCC QS Depatiment STRUCTURAL ENGINEER PriceandMyers Paul Batty.. .i ' 1 . _ . ..- CREDITS ARCHITECTS HampshireCountyCoundI Richard Gooden GeorgiM Hall Colin Henay. Paul Bulkeley Philippa Didcson LANDSCAFEARCHITECT Cdvin&Moggridge STEELWORK SUBcoNTRAcToR Allslade SUPPLIERS Roof . . . _. r -- 1 .
the structural engineer used a spisot detail.theyactasmnuat&ns of the trusses while allowing thermal breaks to be illcqxmed. forms a c o n t i i shelter. courtyard side. After thecolumns w m erected. The same detail was used but with adcwmal s b plates to a l b the d@M members to be slotted tcgetk - Richplatesare setintotheaxtemelwalls ofthepavili. This elegant connection requiresonly afew locating bdtswhere thetrusssitsonhcoJumn. sloping downwards to cantilever over 3. Over each column.9mm diameter CHS sleeve which forms the spigot.U-sheped in plan. - 1S2XlSbmrlK The CaMikrVer a t the m required a SKSmry different steel s t t u c t m a dlagrkl. the beams of the truss are wewed to a 323. The roof structure. The trusses are formed of fully welded 152 x 152mm UC members and theh connectton to the circular columns neededto havesome moment capacity to provide portal action.6m centres.a 244mm d i a m e t e r CHS main column and asmsli 150 x lOOmm RHS post propping the high point of the truss.o circular column 7he visitor centre consists of three single-storey p a v i l i grwped to create a cowtyard with a landscaped water garden. c a n t i m beams with via t y i broken connectiocrs project from the ends ofthe trusses to support the roof edges. OVerthethnspaViliOnS. The trusses are supported on pairs of COlwTlns at 6. Each tNss is over 1Om long. insteacl ofthe more conventional approach which would rely on a bolted connection. each trusswas individually craned over a column and the spigot was lowered onto it and after lining and IeveUii the spaces between them were then filled with grout. . a series of inverted steel trusses.Thetnrssee w e r e s b o l t b d t e d togetherwith 152 x 152mm UC purlins.3m on the inner.
I 152X15hWn ‘c I I I .
. protecting the offices from the afternoon sun. The hall flows into the width of the 'street'. The three horizontal legs are open-plan office spaces. are set at the west side of t b 'street' and act as an environmental buffer zone. The plan is E-shaped. Communal spaces. with pauses for a waterfall sculpture.8 i". You arrive (served by a shuttle bus to reduce car use) at the upper het. These spaces are set on an I . a It is hard to imagine a more beautiful site. It steps down. to continue a t a lower level. supported by a delicate steel framework. The building fsllows the contours of its sloping site in three steps. T h r w h the glazed entrance is the hall. enhancing natural ventilation and giving everyone the chance of views over the wooded valley.reVeaing glimpses of the open-plan office spaces on the east side. - . The layout has produced a building with a great diverstty of space and a wonderful quality of light. which is roofed with a series of vaulted coffers. The new operations centre of Wessex Water faces south on the edge of the Umpley Stoke valley. and nowhere is it higher than two storeys. A B R E W assessment has shown the Wessex Centre to be the greenest commercial office in the UK. and an appropriate place for a very g m building. W e it opens out to meeting looms and a glass-walled restaurant. consuming less than a third of the energy required to power a standard headquarters office building. east-west axis to catch the prevailing wind. an area of outstanding natural beauty on the aftskiis of Bath. and floored with natural stone.000m2 headquarters for 580 staff into the landscape..running north-south and stepping down the slope with two staircases.the 'street' or main circulation route . Bennetts Assocites has snuggled a substantii 10. such as the mtaurant and meeting rooms. with the long spine of the E . .
In conjunction with Buro Happold.3. meeting rooms and WCs. the structural and building-service enginraers. a s y s t e m of pWC& e x p o d concrete c o w units was designed. with its own buskress centre. It commissioned Bewuletts Aseacizttes because the firm has long recognised the link lxrtwsen economic prosperity.99) in Edinburgh. On its prrpvous low-energy ofke structures. To optimise natural ventilation and day#@. the floors are only 15m wide. to r d w a embodied energy and comwnptkKl of mourn. Their solidity contrasts with the delicacy of the steel structure. Bennetts Associates' approach to sustainable architectwe has been continually refined since it designed Powergen.95). low-energyissues and the qualii of the workplace. giving savings in the cost of foundations and dlowing the use of a liihtwelghtsteel structure. Precast concrete coffer slabs run behnJeen the secon&w beams. Wessex Water has a commitment to Sustainability and wanted its headquartersto be 'an exemplarof erriifonmentanysensitive architectwe'. At Wessex Water the aim was to achieve similar thermal p e r f o r m m but using h s concrete. Secondaty beams run at right angkts to the spine beam at 3m centres. Bennetts used insitu and precast concrete coffer slabs to achieve the required t h m d mass to cool the building.Detailed design of the steel structure I " WI The three wings of &ice space open off t h e east side of the 'street'. On the south elevations the facade is protectedfrom sdar gain by intmal blinds and a W s t o r e y Sxtemal brise-soleil. Each has an identid layart. L! . The structure of a typical offbe wing consists of a box-section spine beam of paired channels. supported on a central row of steel columns.11. its first low-mwgy headquarters building (AJ 2.1 0. kitchenette. The cofkKs and structural topping weed USB 50 per cwlt less concrete than earlier ns. followed by the John Menzies headquarters (AJ 30.and extend to the north and south facades to res€on delicate 120 x 12Qmm SHS columns.95) and the BT headquarters (AJ7.
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311 ULLUIG V Y l l l I
The structure of a typical 15m office wing cansists of a box-section spine t m m , formed by paired 430 x 1 O O m m channels set toe-to-toe and suppotted on 18Ox 1Bomm steel columns. These d i i the oflice space into a 9m and a 6m bay. A series of seconddvy 457 x 191mm univeml barns rww at right angles tothe spine beam. These beams mset3rn apart and extend to thenorth~southfacades,~ they rest on d e l i e 120 x 120mm SHS columns. Rows of CWVBCI precast eoncmte m wide, span betweenthewbeamsandrest on the b o t o m llanges. The deslgn Is reminiscent Of nineteenth-oentLlly'jackasch'lxnwn&m . ,wheremarches span betweenwmght-iron beams. An in-situ CanCrete topping ties the coffer units togeth, v h i i appear as a series
covers, each 7
o f smooth white-painted Vauns with dane-grelr steel strips between -these tleirlgthe visible bottom flanges of the
T h e v a m act as t h path flrons which
tlaild ~ - v e n t i h t i o from n the high-
level windows is channelled (zdlowing heetexchangebetweentheairand the rxmmte for m i g h t coding). To maintain this path, there are no dawnstand edge beams - the spacing of perimeter columns allows the last coffer unit to act pwely as a tie. This amngement also enables the l i i of the structure to be expressed rhracgh the double-gked facede, as the shrrpe of m coffer frames one openingandonefbcedwindow.
The constnrctlon of the spine beam from toe-to-toe channels allows sewices to be carried in the void. The beam is m e d m200 x2Qornfn ~wlthredirrsedcorners, t0continue the path of naturei emss-ventiiation. Extemed soter shading to south rrnd west eievatbns m o d u l a m and contmls direct solar heat gains wtthin thebuilding.
CHING A STEEL HYPFRBDLE I
On 15 June 1996 a huge bomb exploded in the centre of Manchester, injuring 220 people, causing immense physical damage to buildings and disrupting the social and economic fabric of the city centre. One of the most vivid images of that day is the shattered footbridge which ran across Corporation w o shopping centres. As part of the Sttwt, connecting t restoration programme a competiiion for a new footbridge was held; it was won by Hodder Associates and structural engimwr Ove h p & Partners with what may well be the first hyperbolic paraboloid bridge. Both sides of Corporation Street have now been restored; to the west is a new Marks & Spencer, to the east is the new Arndale Shopping Centre. The completion of the bridge between them is a symbol of Manchester's recovery.
Corporation Street, a canyon-like route running northhuth through the city,terminates in the civic space of Albert Square. Stephen Hodder conceived the bridge as a transparent link stretched 19m across the street, a delicate membrane of steel tubes glazed to enclose the walkway inside it. The steel
structure, rather than the walkway deck, is the dominant element. It is in the form of a cylindrical hyperbolic paraboloid - circular in section, but with a slender waist at the centre which increases in diameter towards each end. The curved shape enhances its transparency, giving unintenupted views to those walking through the bridge while shoppers below in Corporation Street can see through the tructure.
The symmetry of Hodder's design resolves a number of problems in changes in levels and sizes of openings a 1.2rn drop between the Amdale opening and the lower, m e r Marks & Spencer opening - with public access and height regulations. As Hodder describes it, 'the downward slope of the walkway at 2.8m regulation width was restrict4 by the lower circumference; raising the walkway increased the width but reduced available head height'. The problems were resolved by 3D modelling with CAD.
A curved hyperbolic paraboloid structure, though fiendish to
draw in conventional plan and section, is relatively simple in principle. Imaginetwo rings with steel wires stretched between
and the joints are silicone-sesllsd. them. tixed in a ring a t each end-collar and mted to create the p a r W M . the interlayef is extended s corner a s a prqecting tab (asshown in the connection at A.The rods are to the ~tntCtut% At each end pOSt-t~Siorred to add ~tiffness t h e tubes and rods am anchored to a 300 x 200mm RHS double colter. Graham Dodd.castings bolted to it. which is bolted to the structure of the adjacent building. The bridge is dad with triangular laminated-glasspsnels which lie just inside the structure and are fixed to stainless-steel ARCHITECT Hodder Associates: Stephen Hodder.hold one dng still and just twist the other a half-turn to create the paraboloid. Arup Facade Engineering: Stud Clarke. and in fact had to be a safe support wen when broken. it is then inserted into a slot in Me outer plate of the casting to which the inner plate is then M e d . Andy Foster. overlea9. The two plates are with siteapplied silicone. peter WlIliamS. Simon WebSt6f SERVICES ENGINEER Ove h p &. A W e s of circular hoops within the network of mods and tubes restreins the structum against buckling and s u p w s universal beanvs on which the walkway deck rests. Stllart Bull. floonng and Mu-strades J W Tayler . These glass triangles have a dwMe PET interlayer laminated with Amp teem studied ways t out of casting due to . the cladding and the delicate emergency-light fittings. The hoops are famed of 76 x 75mm d i d steel Sections with machined grooves tap and bottom. The space below the walkway deck level acts as a plenum for the W n g system and is fitted with lighting. Richard Summers. Cdjn Jackson. Paalo MIGUCC~. stainless-steeA casting Dane Architectural Systems. glass panels &sun-a-Glass. Stewart Jones STRUCTURAL ENGINEER ove Arup & Partners: Richard Houghton. forming an H-shaped pfib which provides connectkm pointsfor the steel structure. Here the glrtss had additional p e r f m m p n c c 4 requiments: it had to suppwt majntenanoe workers walking on it. The collars are clad with perforatedsteel sheet. The solution is ingenious. The bridge structure ConsESts Of 18 straight 114mm diameter steel tubes alternating with 18 straight 30mm diameter s o l i d ste8l rods. ~I~eted to an alwninim flat and wrapped round it to he@ build friction. Each casting ccnwists of @-I inner and an outer disc with 8 'picWcsd' finish which clamp six t d m k r glass co~nefstogether. Partners: Andy Sedgwick CON8TRUCTlON MANAGER Bovis SUPPLIERS steelwork Watson Steel. a PET (polyethylenetemthalate)interlayer laminatedwith poured resin and an inner pane of 8mm heat-stlgnghenedglass. The panels are faceted on a 1 4 three the th~-dmensionai curvature. braced with a circular lattii truss. Above walkway deck kwel each laminated glass triangle comprises an outer pane of 12mm toughened glass.
Thebridge, span~19matfkst-nOor levelacross' Stmt,isa cunredhyperbollcperabdoid.
anetworkofstraight114mmdiametw steel tubes and 3Omm diamew sdM steel mds. A series ol d W steel hoops runs within the network o f rods
andtubes to restr8hthestluctureand support the bridge walkway deck.The hoops are formed o f pahd 75 x 75mm
insMe the steel smrcture, faceted a ta n three edges to form the awvB. They are fixed to a seriss of stainless steel eaairqs which am bolted to the sxrwtlm. Eachcmtingconsistsofaninner~an outer disc which each havea 'picldad' fwsh; these clemp six triangular glass
D W I A showsacastingbaltedtothe mein CHS sbuctureat the lowsr part of the bridge* the^^. pansls m doubkt-laminated PET interlayers were u98d here sor safety; thgrcanbewalkedonfarmaint~ end the interkym will maintain the integrityofthep€mlssh0Uldthe
To prevent the panels dropping out of theclampwhendamged, thepm i n ~ y w w a extmded a with projecting tadw WMCh were rhreted to aluminium flats, wrapped BlDund them and inserted into slots in the casting.
o f the casting boned to a 75 x 75mm H-proflke steel hoop the tap Of
thebrklge.ltisintwoseCtionsto straddle the hoop; each M-casting
accommodates the ends of three
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spanning 65m over a busy road to [ink two school buildings. A 193. A 12mm diameter bar runs between them. detailedto provide delight on rainy days'.is w e d ~n steel pi.a pair of universal beams with a box girder deck wetded to the bottom flanges . In contrast the hoops. .and coYeredwithaligMweigMPTFEgtass fibre fabric stretched over a series of $ p l w l b d steel hoops. skeved with lOmm diameter stainless steel cables.with wekled plates which are bolted to the fbtlge. Rainwatercollectionis. The 913 x 305mm universal beams are clamped to the two central piers by wedges driven thrwgh large hollow pins. The U-sheped composite structure . hoppers and gargoyles are o f litweight steel and are bolted to the beams. lighting cables and telecom cables. Rainwater ooaects in an upstanding fabric gutter on each side of the canopy and is directed through ga)vanised Steei hoppers into a pipe set inside each CHS handrail. steel gargoyles with chains a t their ends spout the rainwater down the inside face of the piers to bvd gulleys. 'axpresslvely .7mm diameter CHS welded to the top of each beam acts both as a hendrallandaconduitforroofdrainage. inthearchitect's wwds. The top flange of each hoop has a pair of l0mm diameter steel bars welded along the outer edges. The fzdges of the mcoated glciss fibm fsbric canopy. The steel hoops are assymetrical in shape and alternate along the length of the bridge to give the fabric r i g i i .11 K The bridge takes the form of an S-stwpe. are stretched over the cuter bers and fixed tothe central bar with s t d bands.
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1 i x 1 1 . Ll .
and a mmendgtiMl In the S W d steef DesignAward8 2001. CRPMS ENGINEER WhitbyBiKl&Partners W N CONTRACTOR May Gwney SlEELWORKCONTR4CTOR Fai*Mabey . it won theswEard for bridge design in the Royal Fine Art B u i i of the Year 2001.The Mdge hasalready reoelved accdades.
ledestrian walkwaThe cwved Cor-Ten box girder w t i i i f m the bridleway deck is of lOmm and12mmphtewithintemalstiffeners. The deck is swfaced with 90mm csst-in-situ conmte to give a durable and solid surface s u m for horses. while helping to dampen potential live movement within the structure. . am lixed to the frames. which ambcbd tothe raised L-shapedarms. It consists of a ssries of Cor-Ten frames of 80 x 1Omm flats. if startled. The girder has a tapering canted upstand along its outer edge to p r o v k l e s t m and to act as a base forthe balustrade. less massive feel. it was fabrkated in 12 sections which were butt-welded together on site. The arms project above the balustrade to support a60mm diameter pdished stainless-steel handd. The balustrade corwists of rows of 45 x 8mm Cor-Ten flats welded 100mm apart to canted 32 x lOmm krgs. A COr-Ten box-frame W e d between each pair of arms supports a deck of loo x 31mm cwnaru boards with slipresistant inserts. The 1 .from climbingthe parapet. panelsof horizontal 40 x 30mm curnaru hardwood slats. m wide pedestrian walkway is raised above the bridlewey deck to give the s t W a lighter. The 1. they run a t 1800mm centres and am bolted to the sides of CorTen OUMggers welded to the &.Aiswpportedbyaseriesof paired L-shaped Cor-Ten arms which cantilever from the edge of the box ginfer.8m high balustrade is canted to give hmes and their riders= much spaceas possibk3 and to deter horses. with lOmm gaps between them.
The GatesheadMillennium Bridge is a structureof breathtaking
elegance; a pair of soaring parabolic arches which span 105 metres BCTOSS the Riv& Tyne.
One arch is a delicate crossing deck for pedestrians and cyclists; in weryday mode it forms a gentle w e across the river with the other arch acting as its support above it. Seen from the quayside in this position, the slender profile of the main arch frames its neighbour, the famous Tyne Bridge. To a l W ships to pass below, both arches pivot from t h e i r Springing points; as they do so the composition metamorphoses into a new parabolic shape, a ‘grand arch’ of greet width and space, with an action reminiscent of a closed eye opening.
bridge in the world. Further upstream is Robert stephenson’s high-level railway bridge of 1845-49.
The new bridge continues the North East’s proud trad~on of
engineering and is worthy of comparison with the other great engineering structures on the Tyne.
The design was the winning entry in a 1997 competition
promoted by Gateshead Metropolitan B o r o ~ Council, Newcastle’s less well-known ndghbour across the Tyne on the south bank of the river.
This is a striking new example of an innovative steel structure, in a tradition that has been realised in many of the bridges that have linked Newcastle and Gateshead since Roman times. A medieval bridge crossed the river close by, at the point where the swing bridgs, built in 1878, now stands; that opened to allow tall-mastedships to travel further upstream. When it was built in 1926the Tyne Bridge, the best known of the six bridges whikh now exist on the river, was the longest single-span
The bridge links Newcastle’s newly developedquayside district with ambitious new developments on the Getesh6ad side of the river - including the new visual arts centre at the Baltic Flour Mills by architect E i b Williems and the Northem Regional Music Centre by Foster and Partners.
The design for the Gateshead Mllennium Bridge had to
reconcile two seemingly opposed requirements: to retain a clear channel for shipping a navigable vvidth of 3Om and a height of 25m and to provide a low-level crossing for pedestrians and cyclists.
The solution is deceptively simple: a pair of arches,one forming the crossing deck, the other supporting it. Both pivot
The stunningly elegant Gateshead MillenniumBridge was put in place by an enormous floating crane. The structure has a unique opening mechanismwhich tilts to resemblea blinking eye, and i s a valuable addition to the varied b r i m of the Tyne
The crossing d e & and the support arch are connected by 8 SerGeS of cables. The motion is Mcient and rational, yet MI of drama and solves an old proMem in a unique way. The s p m r i points of the bridge am on two new concrete islands which have been orwed parstlel to the querysides on each side ofthe rhw and which house the op8Ming gear. Glazed trails on each side offerdramatiGviewsoftown, bridge andriwSmp0 The supporting arch is a gently tapered box bawGm that forms aparebda with a radius of 46m a t its crown; in section it is Idte-8hEtped. The cmssingdedc is also a terpered b o x beam which forms a similar perabola The main deck formsthefootway; the cyclewayrunsoutsideit, suppomd on C s n t W s t d bradcets.
The box beams were formed of steel plate t h a t varied in t h i i between 15 and 25mm, reinforced with trend lmgitudii stlffsners. The beams wem fabricated into 13 huge tapered segments a t Wrctson steel in Mock, Bdton, lmmshire and awmMed into a singie element at Hadrien's Yard, wellsend, Newcastle.
The footway and are separated by a semen -the 'hedge'that accOmmOdateS the change In level between the two and g h m e wind protection to walkers and cyclists. Gaps in the httdge are fitted with steps and tubular stainless SWhendrails. At intervals of about 3Om along the deck,the hedse is reeonflguredto form benches.
WHkinson Eyre Architects: KekhBrownlie, Martin Knight STRUCTURALAND SERVICES ENGINEER Gmord 8 Partners: Peter cwm
The Gateshead Millennium bridge opened to the public for the first time on 17 September with rxtebrations includinga runpast by competitorsin the Great North Run.
The River Tyne has one of the world's finest cdlectlons of innovative and historic bridges. This, its first bridge of the new millennium, is a worthy addition.
U m G CONSULlANl Jonathan Spein BAssoGiarn
it can be used for walkers to lean on and enjoy the view without becoming a shelf for litter. The top edge ofthe hedge.100mm high. the panels are hinged with stainless-steel piano hinges to give 8oc85s to the lighting for maintenance.They am formed o f 12mm paimd steel balusters bolted to the box beam on the pedestrian side and t o the I-sections on the eycleway side. The balustrade is made of steel flats rand is topped with a 48mm cliameter stainlsss-steel handrail on w i n g lugs. The two b a l m e s are canted inwards to discourage people from dimbing on them. The cydeway surface is an aluminium Neatdeckopen-grid deck system of w h i the upper surface is SBndblaSted to give grip to tyres.Itrestson152x 102mm steel T-shaped sections. The lenses direct l i monto thecyclsvvayw. The matwial is strong and resilient yet when the brldge deck Is ralsed it appears partiaHytransparent. they make the steel panels appear l i t e r and at n w t they disseminate the lighting from m i d lxtho&rey tubes that are fixed tothe steel suppolt frame inside. is canted. The cydeway is supported by a series o f Cshaped steel &is with 1Wmm fiensesandlommthiitapered~ w h i centileverfrom the box beam at 3m cgntres and taper at their ends to a s t e e l nosing.uu1vvay a 1 IU b y b l t 4 1 t h a 'he leJscreen The hedgeand benchesaremadeof perforaled stainb-steel sheet panels on a stainless-steel support frame $0 as to be m a n ie tn a n c e r f e e and t-ewant to vandalism. 1. AI along the cychvaythe base of the hedge is fitted with louvred panels backed with 3mm opalescent acrylic lmw. The lozengeshaped perfmtitions are grouped in m e bays. .
The ramp and the atrium form part of the lighting and the natural-ventilation strategy. Part of the ground-floor slab has been removed to create a double-height study area in the basement. And it is not a continuous helix. the ramp is constructed of a steel rectangular box-like section with two canted steel plates welded to the underside to form a tapered. To accommodatetorsional forces. supported by a ring of six slender steel tubular columns and framed with a delicate curved steel balustrade. Air is drawn in through the perimeter windows. The students walk from the ramp along passages defined by bookstacks which act as superb acoustic attenuators between the social hum of voices in the atrium and quiet study areas at the perimeter of the building. The fourth floor and a new fifth floor. while eliminating glare and solar gain. A stepped helical ramp curves around the atrium from basement to third floor providing a social and circulation hub . The stepped form of the ramp has its own logic . have a separate entrance and lift. Pinned steel brackets above the props and fixed to the outer string act as restraints. curving from floor to floor. The ramp was assembled in sections. A pair of glass lifts provides an alternative vertical route.F I I rooflight pours daylight into the heart of the building. facing the windows.a spiral of constant movement. 1 . The sinuous steel structure makes a dramatic statement in the atrium. now double-glazed and operated by the building management system and extracted through vents in the dome. The sections were lifted in by a tower crane through the rooflight opening. boltedtogether and strip-welded through specially designed holes in the strings. rather a series of helical segments connected to projecting landings at every floor. A series of tubular props and splayed plates shaped like outstretched hands extends from the columns to give support to the underside of the ramp. both ends have welded connection plates that align the position of each tapered baluster. which house a research centre.a conventional sloped helical ramp from floor to floor would have made too steep a gradient. hull-like profile.
designd to @e a less bulky appeerance.9mmdiameterCHScolumns that run at the perimeter ofthe void. TherampissuppartedbyFMsand restrained by brackets. It is supported bysbc323. I 'I L I The bakrstrade is of 20mm sdid rods welded totapered balusters of 20mm tMdc steel flets and topped bya48mm dimwter CHS handrail. to eedl Column. the library is five Storeys plus a basemmt. Thespace is cavered with adome 14m in diemeter and 8m high. in the shape d an O U t s t r e M had. with acanted inset mflight.lmm diameter CHS prop pinned at the end with forked COM8CtorSweldedtothetheurnn. h m A A The ramp takes the f o n ofa broken MwitheachgegmentbolEedatb ends tothe flow slabs. The ramp treads am topped with screed to reduce vibration. ea191 secfion ofthe ramp is a torsional box restrained at the landing positions. supported by a 76. . insectiontherampisarectangularstd box with sides of 275ff~n cuvBc( s t r i n g plates and a hull-like base of two canted steel plates. The box sections were fabricElted from steel plate cut to radial cufws. services run throughvoids in the box. welded one above the other. Each arm takes the f0m-1of a plate. and then wekledtogether. The balusters align with the rarnp steps and the mectlonpb.?lIC origlnallyabookwareholwe des@& in 1916. an 1 8 x 18m tw-shaped void htS been mated through which rise a pair of glass lifts and a stepped helical ramp. The deep plan was origtnally lit by a large I b M l WMCh has been transfomred into the main verticel circulation hub. Structurally. twisted to d e the incline.
A I . . .. . .
3 T " ' I .
rising above level 3. and on the south-east and north-& corners of the building. that retains a few Geargian houses. - J L The fine materials and careful detailing .E.hence the rather curious address (2. There is a steep fall in pavement level from northto south. which are used for parking. with their granite treads and landings. there is an attempt to minimise energy use by m q ~ of . for example. up St Mary Axe. the building is a sober but far from oppressive presence. Houndsdiich. Service cores are lacatadat three points. ARCHITECT Bennetts Associates STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Whitby Bird 8 PartnerWaterrnanPartnership STEELWORK CONTRACTOR Wescd PHOTOGRAPH Peter COddvlRN . The natural point of entry to the building is on the north-west oomer of the site.in-cavity blinds. services and storage.~ sensible low techndogV . Though the building is air-conditioned.providing the requisite open-plan fiexible spaces the perforated beams which Qave the Interiors a strongly industrial character at pre fit-out stage have now been covered by ceilhg panels t h a t conceal a plethora of services running through them. evm today. dad in crude Post Modern brick which does nothingto reduee its impact. The strategy has obvious advantages in terms of delivering unencumbered office floors but also reflects Bennetts’ dea’re to animate the edges of the Room. as Wen as the overall air of quality in the completed scheme. lacks cachet . On De\Fonshire Square it provides a welcome contrast to the bulk of an adjacent sub-station. it is a short hop to Liverpool Strsat W t o n .5 Devonshire Square) for the new office developmsntthat occupies a sitebetweenthe busy street and the still-tranquilsquare tucked away behind. The office floors are conventional in terms of their scale and appearance.A stepped series of aMa. on the western perimeter. hence the decision to locatethe mainreceptin area at fir5t-floor level areas of the ground floor are occupied by the service yard and bya baraccessed from Houndsditch. where the main benk of lis is adjacent to the reception area. reflects this idea. where the m @ s o nwith a Victorian factory is not inappropriate. for example. From hem. and sunshade lowres on the southem elevatii. provides increased natural l i i . but these remain standad C i floors. via a pedestrian alley used by thousands of commwters daily. - The building includes nine office floors and three basement levels. Seen from the surrounding streets.seen in the staircases (framedby stone-clad ‘bookends’). to allow the building’soccupantsviews out and visual contact with their sumwndings.
> L G G l IIQI I IG The steel frame consists of a c w i w of 356 x 406mm universal columns and 886 x 254mm universal beams. The d o u b l ~ l ~ d buter pane and urns hawe etou-eu a laminated inner pane with a Low-E eowing to ttle outer face. facade. and the gap formed by the speteers is filled with rigid insulation. which extend bey& them at the sides. Fire prateaionis achievedby a combination of strategies.9 IClLdUG V V l L l I d l In sympathy wm rmarby ViGtOrian wamhowm. . SMelding them from heat. The cladding is a grid end panel system supported by thermally isolated brackets. The exposed steel frame. the office buildlng expmses its structure with a tugged.g l a z e d . s u p p o r t s six stories of composite concrete giabs on cellular s t e e l beams. The gap between ~wesndpanelisdrained and ventilated to avoid conbensation. the m e m m am &zd in relation to thek lading. load-steal and g b 6 facclde. On ths soutr. _/-- _-- The $tmlt m is painted to 8 high spedftcation using a zim-rloh primer and M10 barrier coatwith a decorative flnlsh to match the claddling. ’Thermal bridging is minimised by a t M break b # v m intm&I and Wmal sttuctud elements. trle gwng is scteened wiltr so& shades whi m are pivot-hung to dow the glazing to be c*urmrul. end they 818 backed with a series of 60-mhKcte integrity and lnsulatiin firemistant mposlte panek. The lower glazed panels open to vm the office ffoor for m&e evacuati. which is oonstructerd to haif National structural stesfwork speciflcaUon Mer-ences. The polvestsr pawder coatedaluminium tramesare structural s i b t ~ . Shear bdts with fewrue spacers separate column and beam connectkm plates.
s50 x 14gmm cdwrbevn I“ bm / I Id ~Imi-bULl I sdwr f .
yet its showcase was an utterly conventional Victorian theatre in what was . But the site was restricted. but it was also seriously short of ancillary space: backstage faciliies were cramped. ‘Instead of a complete reconstruction behind the original facade. The only two directions to expand were along the side of the theatre and beneath Sloane Square. lately refurbished and extended by the architect Haworth -Tompkins.but is now more open and ‘permeable’. staged John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger. bolted iron plates of the original structure which supports the upper circle. which is culverted in a sewage pipe at basement level. adding new facilities while respecting the theatre’s history. The play was to change British drama forever. the original r through the building and is visible on all levels. the theatre faced closure. now reflects the radical and contemporary approach of the stage company under its roof. ‘It was a fantastically delicate operation’ explains Steve Tompkins.and still is . The heart of the sctnxne is the original audiorium. New backstageandadministrationfacilitiesarehousedinafourstorey extension at the side of the theatre.a post-war pastiche has been removed to reveal the tough. In 1995. London. while a cavernous . - The original theatre needed refurbishment. there was no access for scenery and the stage itself lacked any modern technological systems. The structure was unsound. PWTOGRAPHSBY ANDY CWOPPlNb On 8 May 1956 the Royal Court Theatre in Sloane Square. The frilly plasterwork .a swanky shopping area. Haworth Tompkins was asked to double the floor area of the building. and front-of-houseand backstage conditions were damp and overcrowded. was painted by artist Antoni Malinowski. The Victorian Sloane Square facade has been retained . This. we undertook a kind of open-heart surgery’. which was the easy option.I RIGHT ROYAL RESTORATON I Court Theatre in London’s Sloanb Square e architectu I equivalent of open-heart surgery BY 8 U W D A W N . flanked by Sloane Square underground station and the residue of the Rier Cranboume. which has been sttipped down to its essentials. the theatre. But all that has now changed.it was listed. and the inviting entrance gives tantalising glimpses of a curved vermilion wall e a r wall of the auditorium that rises beyond.
Cor-Ten was chosen as a cladding material for its inherent richness and durabili. bushes and sleeves. Sliding doors and hinged screens of Cor-Tenare fixed in front of the oak-framed windows to give further control of view. electrical conduit. solar glare o r gain (theside extension runs alongside an alley which is only 3m wide in some places). They are operated by a pulley-and-wheel system.’ says Hany Montrhr. who acted as cladding consu)tant to the project. The ground ffoor is clad with solid profiledweathering steel Cor-Ten panels. overleaf) with nybn spams. painted to take additional wear and tear. washers. and its walls are of polished cast in situ concrete. -perforated to allow actors and office workers to control any probiems of overlooking. Since it has been installed the cladding has weathered from light orange to a subtle dark purple-brown. A wide stainless steel gutter has been positioned at first floor level to collect this.r 1 “ I ‘I I for shade and privacy. while the theatre’s listed facade on Sloane Square remains intac new badrestaurant was created by burrowing beneath the road and the square. Matching the stripped-down aesthetic of the refurbished interior and auditorium. The four-storey extension houses dressing rooms and offices on the upper floors. the new spaces are clad with simple materials that will westher and age naturally. An additional problem is the rust-coloured rainwater run-off from the panels which occurs during the first few years after installation. it shoutd grow old gracefully.focings. ‘but the detailing is critical. The bar is fitted with redaimedtimber and dark leather seating. And all contact with other materials. ARCHITECT HaworthTompldns STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Price & Myers SERVICES ENGINEER Max Fordham CLADDINGCONSULTANT Montrhr Partnership FABRICATOR Custom Metal Fabrications . ‘&-Ten is a very attmctie material. These are clad with an open rainscreen O f ftat weathering Steel (Cor-Ten) panels. like the theatre. All joints and profiles must be designed so that rainwater can run off . lighting. Run-off from the painted Cor-Ten panels below is directed into a stainlesss t d box gutter inset into the floor siab and covmd with a perforatedstainless-steel plate. sound attenuation.must be avoided.’ In practice this meant that the Cor-Ten facade panels and their stainless-steel fixings had to be clearly separated (seeWorking Details.them must be no retention of water.
500 bhp engine. 0-60 mph in 5. Each car takes 260 hours to build. Car production m e d to Derby. The Rolls-Royce car celebrates its 100th birthday this year. yet the site i . Many cars are bespoke models with a Mure owner v select everything from the body colour to the details of the hand-sewn leather upholstery. in 1947. starting with body shells made in Germany . Firstly. There were two other major imperatives. the right to produce Rolls-Royce cars was sold to BMW in 1998. The choice of the Goodwood site reflects the demands of a luxury market. Royce met Charles Rolls f o r dinner in the city's Midland Hotel and a famous partnership was launched. Rogers and Foster in the 1960s and 70s. Manchester. then. BMW resolved to recreate the Rolls-Royce c a r from scratch and its new Phantom model (basic cost: f250. a process that could have extended over some decades.7 seconds) has been acclaimed as a reinvention of the marque. though sales.to Crewe Rolls-Roycameanwhile became a major manufacturer of aero engines. design and managerialfacilities are also provided. The new factory was commissioned specifically to buildthe new Rolls.The Rolls-Row site on the Goodwood Estate.000. Shortly afterwards. fw example) was another factor that attracted the company to Sussex. It was on 1st April 1904 that engineer Henry Royce's first model emerged from the factory in Cooke Street. The basic function of the 55. It is now occupied by a building that is a model of discretion and sensitivity in terms of its landscape impact and a rational development of the new workplace model.the plant turns out just five cars a day. After a period in which the marque seemed to lose its way in design t m s . though there was general local support for the project. The availability of craft skills in the area (there is an old-established boatbuilding tradition. with its promise of s in an Area of Outstanding hundreds of jobs. derived from the USA and pioneered by Grimshaw.000m2 factwy is to build cars. a few miles from Ch-ter and close to the famous racecourse and car-racing circuit was earmarked for gravel extraction.
which extends on a north/south axis. taikKed to the specific needs of external elevations (and those facing internal courts where simple profiled aluminium is used). The Rolls-Royce factory and headquarters is a camfully composed family of buildings. including potential buyers. The impact of the building on the landscape had to be benign. . the SBCondary ctadding is far more economical. Any notion of management sitting in luxury with the workers consigned to a basic shed is immediatety dispelled. by the final production area and. While tt-.I Natural Beauty. steel-framed structureof the complex on a 2Om square grid is essentially straightfonwd. a second cladding layer forms an environmentel screen. arrive from the west in a large paved courtyard which is flanked. ‘The height of the building was a key issue‘. panelsof western red cedar In movable frames that allow for the atterati and possible extension of the buildings in the Mure. showroom. ussd by all staff.000 trees and shrubs will also help to blur its impact. The 50. to the south.rduty. The planting of 400.given the nature of the landscape. with staff parldng areas at the south end and the paint shop at the north end . Elsewhere. facing west. boardroom and offices. The restaurant. ‘A clear 8m inside was a basic client requirement. to the north. however. The timber is already starting to weathw to a satisfying silver grey hue. views of the building from above were also important. Material left over from excavation was used to create earth mounds. and that of the reception area and offices m the pavilion. feature bespoke sunscreening systems. facing south. the BMW group is a progressive employer that places stress on good amenities for staff and on quality design generally.bodies are sprayed here as the first step in the production process. while locals wanted the factory kept low . Second. by the two-storey pavilion that houses VIP lounges. The production area is contained within the largest of these buildings. says project architect Paul McGill.000m2sedum-planted roof sets a new record for the UK. is contained in a pod.’ The excavation of the valuable gravel from the site prior to construction work starting late in 2000 allowed the complex to be partly sunk into the ground. raised on piloti. -. A more formal notion of architecture has displaced the machine aesthetic of the recent past. The significance of the pavilion is emphasized by the use of areas of stone cladding. con$idBTBMB attention was @en to the fine-tuning of the facades to m u r e optimum emrimnmcsntal conditions temper the impact of the plant on primary steel and glazed cladding. The main elevation of the production area. Visitors to the site. by views into the production areas from the courtyards. Productionstaff enjoy ample natural riiht and views out to the courtyard and the country beyond. that forms a link between the pavilion and the production building.
NOAWSON . Workers are protected from glare by a series of vertical louvres which am motorised to respond to sunlight.Ac L JI r l c The west facade of the manufacturing building faces the main entrance courtyard and is singleglazed to give views of the main production line. Below the louvres the facade is of 12mm toughened glass. TheloUVreSare Supported at top and bottom by a series of splayed. The inner chennel is bolted to t h e columns and is braced with a profiled 15mm steel flat and 75mm dia CHS stiffener between each column. Each louvre is formed of t w o 25mm western red cedar boards framed with leading and trailing edges of aluminium and set between a vertical aluminium centre post. The OuteJ channel runs along the facade and the outriggers are bdted to it with M12 bolts. A pair of steel channels. Afixed brise-sdeilat theeavescuts out glare from high-level summer sunlight. avoiding sharp contrasts when the louvres are almost dosed. cast aluminium outriggers. The 1Om high f a d e is supported by ellipticalsteelcolumnsw h i runbehind it at 1 O m centres and are cxmnected to the main roof structure with torsion brackets. The derestory glazing is of 12mm annealed glass. Behind t h e m it is lOmm annealed glass. set one behind the dher and m m e dby insulated steel studs. Sin@ glazing cwld be wed since the frames are fully supported and the louvres reduce them?el shock. The aluminium trailing edge is perforated to allow a small amount of l i i t through. set n d supported in aluminium frames a by 120 x 60 x 6mm RHS i&rend& frames. supports the outriggers. The centre posts of the louvres rest on an aluminium axtrusion which houses the motors.
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while creating minimum dktwtwm to c a T K n u n i t y ~ ~ g r w p s . J a n q 2001-IuowmM sotromthecityoentremarecently’haugmtedbwinesspevk.its education depamnent has one of the the building from north to south. The reheamd spaoes are contained withi perkneter ‘pdd -three have been built and the f m waits for funding . Asaconsequsnce. one of many depressing losses irifliied on p3nnouth by wartime bombing. mo&mbitiouspro$rammesofanytheatreintheprovincesand connectingbridhles. is plymouthsmost architects. Each element in thebuildinghasitsownfirnctionalandengMngrequirements and this is reAectsd in the plan -TFC? can be seen as a ‘family’ o f buildings. Ritchie sees the pods as beached structm. The steel-framed structure. o p w a t m s . sheds has been transformed by a pmcess of redamation. says lan Ritchie. to attract wider audienceg and Breatty develop be LIsBd as a useful introduction for visitors to the ecth/ities izs educational rde. it finawv has the spaces it needs to expand its w. much m m on the other. The remeinder of the buiJdii the central cirwlatiioffice spine and the big assembly studiipaint-shop block to the west . The generosity of the building is apparent even Unforzunsteiythe brief fa the Moro tnJilding was cut 8vBn as theschemewas~.separated from the central spins of the building. that Ritchii pioneered but which has a particular twoname on this site. Like 0 t h Wily-funded ~ arts the building a t menanine level. The W k l i was ~ f o r c o n t r d l e publlcaccef3s-workshop d areas.is dad in a mixture of zinc sheet and zincqdvankd steel. theTheatre F@ydis ercpected tobe increasitlgly T-these routes. The pods are wrapped in a woven wire cladding of phosphor bronze. notanindustrialbox’generatedapassionsneresponsefromthe s o m e r e s p e d s t h i s i s ~ sinoeTR2 . s o m e ~ s t r o n g . Moro’s building has worn well and is popular with audknces and p e r t o m e r s . far example.on land owned bythe Duchy concrete slabs (usefulfor acoustic insulation and pmidingthe of Cornwall. EU and c&where. drHtwood -the stains left by seagulls and the wind and rain are pert ofthelr character. thouqh they are included in regular guided t o m f a educationalgroups. lmwter. major theatre west of Bristol. ‘The buiktbyJ may become funding from the W e y . Wrth of the Theatm Royal deuelop.peter M o r o ’ sreplacement for the old Theatre Royal. the Theatre Rayal has a nwnber of going on within TR2. tough building in an wrashamedly hxlwrtrial The TR2 site a t Neptune Park is dose to the estuary of the mouid. . designed to -her and evohre in the sea ak. Externally. Beyond this is the cammud route w h i extmds along the entire eastern eleyation. but the architectural intent wil endwe’. it hosts visits by major national companies induding Birmingham Royal Ballet and Welsh NationalOpera. For 20 pars theThaEdre Royal has students. TFQ is. W n g is either of a standard double-glazed variety o r insulated U-pfile sheets of low iron @asswhich provide insulation and solar protedi while giving the building a satisfying giow by night and calm.As the only where a director and cast can work out ideas-largast allows sets forthe main Theatre Royal stage to be assembled forreheEirsals.says building was constructed in just under t w o years betweeKl lan Rltchii.fully-gked on both sides devdved these activitkssto chwch halls.‘It’s tactile in every way’.In w m. had to be secure. iskcatedamileor - The client’s deske to meate a buildingthat was ‘architecture. WEtreharSes and Othei ad hoc spaces Blound the city. The architects envisege with rock q Mn e a r b y used to create M l land from mud that spaces will be treely mngufed as the practical needs flats. The client brief was for four reheard spaccrs. lan Ritchie ArdJtects’ n e w production Cenn-efathefheaEreRayal. eest of the c i t y centre. can acc%dbb. They are private spaces set apart. weH-lit interiors by day. workshops f o r and of painting a s .with views intoworking spaces. ‘Thii is the first soft metal-dadbuilding’. TFQ is a big-boned. lan Ritchie ArcMteczs was appdnted in June l S 7 .Theappomvnitrtohouserehsersal frosn the double-height reception area extending rism BCTOS~ the building and well-equipped to handle a busload of school Spacesandworkshopsforseeneryxpropsand-onthe main site was lost forever. . infilled with geo-textile matting. an industtialZ e n garden. forming the main ch‘culation artery.for props and costumes plus a d e d i i e d w t i o n basewith oftices and classrooms. Also.swroundsdby roads. is designed with Rexibiiity In mind. h’stkatmstandsonatighttyconstrafned ’ site.TFC? is rootedto its site by a landscapeof distinguished newbuildk7g indecx%syet cxmrkutes little tothe broken rocks. gemrating showsmtransferto Londonand beyond. and is B leading producing house. was completed In 1982. AparaW route is provided alongthe Gentre #neof than atechnical fadlii. plusthegabkm wall@ public face of acity eager to transfwm W. wlth floors of p a s t r h w Rym.ThecentralciiculationzonersadsasagreatsHtthrough use the new buikling. an alwigwmthat has been wlth views tothe river ontheone sideandintoworlcshopspaces uneconomic and inconvenient. advamge of this ammgemm is t h a t the spaces are acoustically self-contained. the €5. w h i c h staff. christenedTR2. one . The cladding is fixed with stainb steel ships on cedar battens.8 million unrecognisable. The decaying tenain of boat shops and storage thermal mass which is part ofa low energysetvim &ategy).
Their steel portalframe structuresand precast colxrete plank roofs are covered with an insulated single-layer roof membrane. The mesh is a 'Dutch' weave with a 0. Parepets am clad with natural zinc to match other elevations.3mm diameter weft wire set at 95 to the inch. linked by acoustic lobbies. visual opacity and limits stretch within the mesh. The mesh is fixed in lm-wide panels. providing sufficient pull-out stmngthfor the stainless steel security fuings. up to 7.5m hQh and sepamed by a lOmmjoint. green and goid. the theatre's three rehearsal spaces are designed as 'pods'. The vertical edges of each panel are wrapped arowl stainless steel strips and perforated with eyelets.4mm diameter warp wire set a t 10 to the inch and a 0. All edges are fixed through a cedar batten covered with bronze mesh and sealed to the stud wall by a butyl strip. A stainless steeldripshedsthebrometun-offwater awayfromthe w n g below. this provides the mquired Iorgwity. n- Y SUSWMpSON . phosphor bronze is a 95/5 copper alloy needing no surface treatment and weathering to form a patina of black. giving it form. To accommodate thermal expansion and to avoid 'Rapping' and work hardening. s a 'soft and tactile' The bronze mesh i pillowed rainscreen to an insulated and weatherproof metal stud wall. The walls are 'wrapped' with phosphor bronze wwen wire mesh clasldlng wkh gahmised steel-framed glazing Wow. Allmateriakusedinthecladdingsystm are non-fenous to avoid bi-metallic cOrrOSiOn with the bronze.\ l d l l lbLlt3~k3 I LldUU 35 IUI UlUl IL'd dll' To isolate them from noisy workshops. the mesh i s tensioned against three layers of cOmpreSSive geotextile mat.
built to a budget. which became one of the icons of its time in 1965. Inside. The result has been to increase the feeling of space and the experience of natural light inside and out. notably black-coated aluminium external doors in place of glazed cedar.living. It well deserved listing but luckily this was one that got away. which are - . walls and calings. in Boaham Hoe. w i n g and sleeping with four rectangular steel trusses braced with internal and external tie rods (prefiguring Reliance Controls). with which the practice had worked in refurbishing the earlier Foggoflhomas timber-framed deck house. Space House is a raised. Along with other changes. finishes that have darkened over the years. single-storey pavilion in three zones . The extensive single glazing is retained in its original neoprene gaskets. Lee/Fitzgerald Architects won the job of bringing it into the new century through the recommendation of Foggo Associates. were keen to retain the spirit of the place and lived on site. Painting the originally black frame in white makes a startling difference. West Sussex. lifting the building ‘closer to the cloud. Sorrel House.l = F = = - i Space House in East Gnnstead was a speculative prototype. leaving its present owners free to update and ’improve’ on thedesign of Peter Foggo and David Thomas. Space House had grown darker and heavier as it aged. The owners. Andrew Spurgeon and Ann Kelly. It is glazed wall-to-ceiling at the front and back. managing the project themselves. the flow of light was muted by the use of timber boarding for floors.
The architect favoured more cedar reinstatement than the client. Yet more light has been let into the house by replacing some cedar walls and yellowed British Colombian pine ceilings with white painted plaster. Natural ventilation comes from sets of vertical louvres while doubleskin pleated blinds help reduce solar gain. I . External cedar cladding. Outside a large oval pool has been removed.k' CREDITS ARCHITECT IadFii~AnShiis I c in excellent condition. Full-height central glazed double doors have been added to the rear set back of thehouse to improve the connection between the (refitted)kitchen and the garden. which lurked under a heavy build-up of varnish. has been sanded and re-coated. The deep through living-diningroom now feels more connected to the outdoors and the removal of corridor doors round the service core increases the flow of space and light. Wall insulation has not been upgraded and the single glazing remains. The two somewhat cramped core bathrooms have been reorganisedto produce a large bathroom and a shower room. only the truss walls are now timbered. which does have architectural clarity. allowing the house to breathe a bit more though there will always be the sense that it needed a larger site. who preferred the lightness of painted plaster. hence the powerful warm-air heating system.
the other legs of the RSA$ dp~er-@@d to the adiecentglass-. the fhges face inward to house the joists and the downstand Is connected to the (originld 114" plate) gless partes by a neoprene 'zipper" gasket.W. draWn to full-size.!I Ievv j 3 d l l VI UuULJle-yldLeu U U W l S IWI d I Y( fhe detached s i * s t m house. It is clad with large penes of glass o r JS 1 IC t of vertical cedar board S. takes theform of aflatroofed pavilion raised Off theground on a steel-framed strumre.rleoedbyapalfofcentrally pktced wtward-opening glazed doors. me fasda is a 203 x 76mm Rsc with an upstand welded to the top flangeand adownstand welded to the bottom. in the doorsill to act as a watw bar.T h e m atfiaor level is slotted intoa groow. Folkwving the original front door detail. The glazing bevs am subdivided by Tsheped steel mullions. welded to a 203 x 2O3mm UB. dedgned in 1964 by Peter Foggoand David Thomas. Foss0 and'llxxnas produced a seties of original and economical details. (far right). JSANDAWSON . 80me of which are illustmtecihen. the new doors have a top frame with a rebatedledge. orieinaaythekitchenopened out on to the reerterracethnwghtwo doors set a t each skteof a glafedwall.They have -raC. Each jamb is supported by a 65 x 65mm RSA. is dpper-gasketed t o the bottom edge of tha glass. At the sill a similar upstand. of which the ends am directly zipper-gasketed to the#=.whiifltsd&ectlybehind thefasciadownstandandissaewed to it. The exposed &gel structwe frames and supports the glass and cedar panets. The upstand trims the roof covering.
1 I I +-----&4CS*Lrk I ‘ .
P-076 Castings in Construction.org SCI www. 1 Rectangular hollow sections (RHS)joints under predominantly static loading.rlsd. CTl5 Design of SHS Welded Joints.corusconstruction.com Tubes www. assembly and erection of hollow section structures. P-166 Steel supported glazing systems. P-178 Design of Semi-continuous Braced Frames. Publication 9/82 Guide to the Erection of Steel Bridges. P-209 Brown Book Structural Fasteners and their Application. P-101 Connections between steel and other materials.macalloy.steelconstruction.com Green Books: Joints in Steel Construction: Moment Connections. No.org Corus Construction Centre www. 3 Fabrication. Code of practice for design of steel bridges BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building BS 5950-1 Code of practice for design. P-324 Design of Multi-Storey Braced Frames. P-334 Acoustic Detailing for Multi-Storey Residential Buildings. P-102 Electric lift installations in steel framed buildings. Technical requirementsfor the execution of steel structures (provisionaltitle) Previous page is blank . concrete and composite bridges. P-263 Wind-moment Design of Unbraced Composite Frames. P-185 Wind-moment Design of Low Rise Frames. 4th Edition. P-203 Grey Book Commentaty on the National Structural Steelwork Specificationfor Building Construction. CT16 Industry Publications Websites: BCSA www.com Resotec damping system www. P-183 Guidance Notes on Best Practice in Steel Bridge Construction. screws and nuts (superseded) BS 4190 IS0 metric black hexagon bolts. P-212 Joints in Steel Construction: Composite Connections.corusconstructionandindustrial. No.bndonltd. P-2061 Black Book: National Structural Steelwork Specification for Building Construction. 7 t e e l ropes for structural applications www. P-207 Joints in Steel Construction: Simple Connections.co.corustubes. 4th Edition.1 Design in composite construction. Metric senes BS 5400-3 Steel. P-103 Design of steel framed buildings for service integration. Grade SlOT. Code of practicefor design of simple and continuous composite beams BS 6472 Guide to evaluation of human exposure to vibration in buildings (1 Hz to 80 Hz) BS 6841 Guide to measurement and evaluation of human exposure to whole-body mechanical vibration and repeated shock BS 7644 Direct tension indicators BS EN 1090-2 Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures. Publication 38/05 Design Guide on the Vibration of Floors.Corus Tubes: SHS Welding. P-336 Interfaces: Curtain wall connections to steel frames. P-172 Design for Construction.com Bridon s Macalls bar and cable for tension structures w. Publication 4/78 Manual on Connections for Beam and Column Construction. P-213 [Note: P-212 superseded two previous publications Joints in Simple Construction: Volume 1: Design Methods. P-193 RecommendedApplication of BS 6399-2: EDOOl CIDECT Design Guides: Circular hollow section (CHS) joints under predominantly static loading.steelbiz. Rolled and welded sections BS 5950-3. No.com Construction and Industrial www. screws and nuts Specification BS 4395 Specification for high strength fnction grip bolts and associated nuts and washers for structural engineering BS 4604 Specificationfor the use of high strength friction grip bolts in structural steelwork. P-205. in Friction Grip Connections. and Volume 2: Practical Applications. P-264 Tension Control Bolts.uk Standards Publications BS 970 Specification for wrought steels for mechanical and allied engineering purposes BS 3692 IS0 metric precision hexagon bolts.
Eurosteel 2005 Ellis. Ph.robustdetails.D. ICE Structures & Buildings 146. HMSO Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations: Domestic Technical Handbook. London. HMSO Robust Details Handbook www. HMSO Health Technical Memorandum 2045: Acoustics . Hybrid Concrete Construction. The Structural Engineer 79. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements BS EN IS0 4014 Hexagon head bolts. Dhanalakshmi& Gwyder. Product grades A and B BS EN IS0 4017 Hexagon head screws. 1999 Brown. HMSO Building Bulletin 93: Acoustic designof schools. Resistance to the passage of sound. Granada. Conservation of fuel and power in buildings other than dwellings. Couchman.Structural fire design BS EN 10025 Hot rolled products of structural steels BS EN 10210 Hot finished structural hollow sections of nonalloy and fine grain steels BS EN 14399 High-strength structural bolting assemblies for preloading (provisional title) BS EN 15048 Non-preloaded structural bolting assemblies (provisionaltitle) BS EN IS0 140 Acoustics. The behaviour of steel and composite beam-tocolumn connections in fire". Academic Press Ltd. February 2001 Byfield. FEMA 403. 1996 Goodchild. University of Sheffield.89) Government Publications Building Regulations: Approved Document E. Hughes & Anderson. Section 5 Noise. 2001 Griffin. HMSO Building Regulations: Approved Document L2. Thesis. Serviceability evaluation of floor vibration induced by walking loads. Plastic design of low-riseframes.com World Trade Center Building Performance Study: Data Collection. Vibration in buildings (1 Hz to 80 Hz) DIN 6914 Sechskantschraubenmit groOen Schlusselweiten fur Stahlkonstrukionen (HV-Verbindungen)(Ausgabe 10. Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration. 1995 Horne & Morris. Product grades A and B BS EN IS0 4032 Hexagon nuts. HMSO Northern Ireland Building Regulations: Technical Booklet G Sound. Style 1. 1981 . Prediction of the initial stiffness of ductile end-plate steel connections.BS EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures BS EN 1991-1-2 General actions Actions on structures exposed to fire BS EN 1991-1-7 General actions Accidental actions from impact and explosions BS EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures BS EN 1993-1-1 General rules and rules for buildings BS EN 1993-1-2 General rules . British Concrete Association.Design considerations.Structural fire design BS EN 1993-1-8 Design of joints BS EN 1993-1-10 Material toughness and throughthickness properties BS EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures BS EN 1994-1-1 General rules and rules for buildings BS EN 1994-1-2 General rules . May 2002 Other Publications AI-Jabri. Handbook of human vibration. and Recommendations. Limitations in the use of composite connections with unpropped construction. Product grades A and B DD ENV 1090 Execution of steel structures DD ENV 1090-1 General rules and rules for buildings DD ENV 1090-2 Rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting DD ENV 1090-4 Supplementary rules for hollow section structures IS0 2631-1 Mechanicalvibration and shock. PreliminaryObservations.