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CHAPTER I PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction For over years, the food industry has become great in number. With this occurrence, various businesses started to rise. One of these is the street food trade. It is an activity that provides employment to many while selling fast, tasty and ready-to-eat foods to people in the streets or other public places by a vendor and hawker, often in portable stalls. Being low cost and convenient, street foods are preferred by almost 2.5 billion people in the world to satisfy hunger (FAO, 2007). Moreover, it has contributed 40% to the daily diet of urban consumers in developing countries (Steyn, PhD, 2011). In the Philippines, street food is known as pagkaing kalye and has become a part of the culture and lifestyle of Filipinos. Many street foods are connected with takeout, snacks, dumplings, and fast food with various local flavours. In fact, everyone enjoys it. They benefit from its healthy consumption as well as it grants one important aspect in Filipino culture finding pleasure in eating. However, the informal nature of this sect of the economy sometimes allows poor hygiene standards, making consumption of street food a potentially hazardous source of nutrition. Since street foods are located along busy public areas such as pavements, school premises, rail and bus stations, problems such as microbial contamination, unhygienic practices, and lack of basic facilities like potable water are associated with it.

Most handlers of street-vended foods as well are largely ignorant of basic food safety issues. Thus, street foods are commonly exposed to dangerous abuses, often at all stages of handling (VOCTA, 2010). Although street vending provides source of nutrition, satisfaction and economic livelihood, the unconsciousness of the community to the hidden dangers of street foods urged the researcher to come up with this study to be able to dig deeper into the world of street foods, unfold its practices and to somehow come up with possible solutions to the problem. This study is targeted primarily to street food vendors who serve as the vital handlers of food before consumption; and secondarily to consumers who patronize and live by the culture of street food vending. This study is not intended to be a technical manual, but rather a discussion of issues relating to food safety and sanitation of street foods.

Theoretical Framework Globalization, industrialization, urbanization, food culture, and government policyall of these have contributed to the rapid growth of street food vending (FAO, 2007) Since street food vending is affected by economic, social, cultural, historical, and legal factors, this research adopts a multi-disciplinary approach. This study was premised on the concept of self-employment that can be sprung from Karl Marxs discussion of petty commodity production. According to Marx, petty

commodity production, which is pre-capitalist, has low division of labour and little specialization. It was widespread in the transition from feudalism to capitalism (Scott 1979, p. 109-110). Use of family workers makes this mode of production mere survivalist, intended for social reproduction rather than capital accumulation. Two systems of production were developed: the bazaar economy and the rm-centered economy (Geertz, 1963). This dualistic model highlights the distinction between self-employment and wage labour. The bazaar economy, in which a large proportion of the population of these cities was engaged, was seen as a disadvantaged sector comprising low-income people. This model also served as the basis of the informal-formal sector dualism by Keith Hart. Hart rst coined the term informal sector before it was popularized by the International Labour Ofce Report on Kenya in 1972 (Harper, 1996). Thereafter, the informal sector was characterized by the following: ease of entry, reliance on indigenous resources, family ownership, small scale production, use of labour-intensive technology, and facing competitive markets (ILO, 1991, p.4). With the development of these informal sectors in the market, the street food trade sprout. However, because of the continuous globalization, hygiene practices were set aside. And so, diseases started to reign especially during the Middle Ages. This was recognized as the Miasma Theory. In the miasma theory, it was believed that vapour, mist, or bad air, originating from decomposing material (called miasmata) with its foul smell, would enter the body and cause disease.

The existence of the miasma theory was central to the new convention in Public Health practice as scientists now began focusing their attention on environmental problems as a cause of disease, instead of just focusing on personal health and infection. The seeds of Public Health were being sown. Unsanitary conditions in the home and in public spaces were finally being connected to disease contamination. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE Food Safety Hygienic Practices DEPENDENT VARIABLE Street food

The researcher therefore conceived that the food safety and hygienic practices of the respondents can affect the street food in several aspects.

Conceptual Framework Input Street food vendors Sanitation practices Hygienic amenities Food handling methods Ways of food preparation Adequate knowledge of work Attitude of respondents Output Process

Conduct a survey through giving questionnaires


Instruct the respondents what to do and how to answer

Safety and Sanitation Level of Street Foods

The constructs shown in the figures above illustrate the variables of the study which are sanitation practices, hygienic amenities, and food handling methods done by street food vendors. The second figure involves the process of the study comprising of the actions that the researcher will perform in order to come up with the desired output which is the food safety and sanitation level of street foods. Hence, the figure above shows the direction flow of the study and the different concepts about the study.

Statement of the Problem The main problem of this study is to find out the health safety awareness and cleanliness of street food vendors in handling street foods for the consumption of students along private and public schools in Dumaguete City for the academic year 2013-2014. Specifically, it seeks to find answers on the following questions: 1. What hygiene practices are exercised by street food vendors in preparing food? 2. How often do street food vendors attend orientations and trainings regarding proper food handling? 3. What health benefits do street foods offer? 4. What health risks do street foods give? 5. Why are street foods well-liked by students? 6. Are street foods really dirty? 7. How safe are street foods?

Hypothesis To address the problems of this study, the following hypothesis were formulated: Null Hypothesis a. If consumers continuously eat street foods, then health illnesses may occur. b. If street foods will cause illnesses among students, it may be banned by the school administration. Alternative Hypothesis a. If street food vendors undergo orientations and trainings on public health safety and sanitation, then street food consumption will be much safer. b. If street food vendors practice hygienic methods in preparing food, foodborne-diseases may be minimal.

Assumptions The following assumptions were formulated by the researcher for this study: a. Policies on street food vending take into consideration the operational and individual environment; diversity of food vendors; economic performance; types of food sold; food hygiene; and of course the role of street food vending in strengthening economic reliance.

b. Street food vendors shall comply with all sanitary requirements at the commissary to ensure safety among customers and to facilitate a healthy business. c. Consumers (students) have their preferred ways in choosing foods they want to eat. These are affected by several factors. d. The street food business will continuously boost its influence in the society with the constant need of man to meet his basic needs especially food. Scope and Limitations This research was conducted to find out the safety and sanitation of street foods along private and public schools in Dumaguete City as perceived by street food vendors in the academic year 2013-2014. It involves more or less 30% of the total population of hawkers in the city. The aspects looked into were the food handling methods of vendors, their sanitation practices, hygienic amenities, and ways of food preparation and adequate knowledge of the work they are into. The study is limited only to vendors located at public and private schools in the city other than that, the sample is invalid. However, every member in the sample population was given equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Correlation survey method was also used with the use of a questionnaire to determine the links between the vendor and the food being sold.

Significance of the study As perceived by the researcher, the study proved very important to the following: a) The vendors The study will aid the vendors to correct their wrong practices in preparing and handling food and enable them to strive to do the right one to guarantee health safety.

b) The students and the public The study will aid the learners as well as the people in the community to be cautious of their choice of food in order to avoid any diseases that may weaken their bodies and affect their daily activities.

c) The parents This study will aid the parents in a way that they will be guided and aware of the food their children are eating when they are away from home and so they could monitor their childrens health from time to time.

d) The school This study will aid the school by providing them ideas to detect poor hygiene practices of its students so that it may seek ways to tackle the issue.

Definition of Terms Street food any ready-to-eat meal or beverage found in the markets and public places Hawker a person who tries to sell things by calling at peoples homes or standing in the street Commissary shop that provides food and equipment Food safety awareness of handling, preparing, and storing of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness Hygienic practices regular actions of cleanliness Foodborne illness the sickness that people experience when they eat contaminated food