WORLD

DEVELOPMENT
INDICATORS

2009

The world by income
Low ($935 or less)
Lower middle ($936–$3,705)
Upper middle ($3,706–$11,455)
High ($11,456 or more)
No data

Designed, edited, and produced by
Communications Development Incorporated,
Washington, D.C.,
with Peter Grundy Art & Design, London

Classified according to
World Bank estimates of
2007 GNI per capita

2009

WORLD DEVELOPMENT
INDICATORS

Copyright 2009 by the International Bank
for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK
1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433 USA

All rights reserved
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First printing April 2009

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Vice Presidency, and the judgments herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent.

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2009

WORLD DEVELOPMENT
INDICATORS

PREFACE
World Development Indicators 2009 arrives at a moment of great uncertainty for the global economy. The crisis that
began more than a year ago in the U.S. housing market spread to the global financial system and is now taking its toll
on real output and incomes. As a consequence, an additional 50 million people will be left in extreme poverty. And if
the crisis deepens and widens or is prolonged, other development indicators—school enrollments, women’s employment, child mortality—will be affected, jeopardizing progress toward the Millennium Development Goals.
Statistics help us understand the events that triggered the crisis and measure its impact. Along with this year’s 91
data tables, each section of the World Development Indicators 2009 has an introduction that shows statistics in action,
describing the history of the current crisis, its effect on developing economies, and the challenges they face.
World view reviews the housing bubble and other asset bubbles that preceded it, the global macroeconomic imbalances
that fed the bubbles, and the role of financial innovation. Economy looks at the record growth of developing economies
preceding the crisis. Environment reviews the increasing impact of developing economies on the global environment.
Global links discusses the transmission of the global crisis through the avenues of global integration: trade, finance,
migration, and remittances. States and markets reminds us that as information and communication technologies
change the way we work, they will be part of the solution to the current crisis. People contains most of the statistics
for measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. Its introduction, prepared by our partners at the
International Labour Organization, examines new measures of decent work and productive employment now included
in the Millennium Development Goals.
High quality, timely, and publicly available data will be central to managing the response to the crisis. We need high
frequency—quarterly or monthly—data on labor markets to better track the impacts of macroeconomic events on
people. We also need to know more about the characteristics of households and their response to economic conditions. While income distribution data are improving, they are weak at both ends of the spectrum, missing the very rich
and the very poor. We know little about household assets in most developing economies. There is little information on
housing markets, and financial data need to be enriched with more information on nonbank financial institutions (such
as insurance companies, pension funds, investment banks, and hedge funds) in many countries.
Official statistical agencies need to take a long range view of their public role—to think broadly about data needs and
build strategic partnerships with academia and the private sector. In a time of crisis the careful, systematic accumulation of statistical information may seem a luxury. It is not. We need better data now to guide our responses to the
current crisis and to plot our course in the future.
The World Bank stands ready to support countries with their statistical capacity-building efforts. We will also continue
to maintain the World Development Indicators as a rich source of development information, bringing to you new and
critical data areas as availability and quality improve. And as always, we welcome your comments and suggestions for
making World Development Indicators more useful to you.
Shaida Badiee
Director
Development Data Group

2009 World Development Indicators

v

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This book and its companion volumes, The Little Data Book and The Little Green Data Book, are prepared by a
team led by Sulekha Patel under the supervision of Eric Swanson and comprising Awatif Abuzeid, Mehdi Akhlaghi,
Azita Amjadi, Uranbileg Batjargal, David Cielikowski, Richard Fix, Masako Hiraga, Kiyomi Horiuchi, Nino Kostava,
K. Sarwar Lateef, Soong Sup Lee, Ibrahim Levent, Raymond Muhula, M.H. Saeed Ordoubadi, Beatriz Prieto-Oramas,
Changqing Sun, and K.M. Vijayalakshmi, working closely with other teams in the Development Economics Vice
Presidency’s Develop ment Data Group. The CD-ROM development team included Azita Amjadi, Ramgopal Erabelly,
Reza Farivari, Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu, and William Prince. The work was carried out under the management
of Shaida Badiee.
The choice of indicators and the contents of the explanatory text was shaped through close consultation with and
substantial contributions from staff in the world Bank’s four thematic networks—Sustainable Development, Human
Development, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management, and Financial and Private Sector Development—and
staff of the International Finance Corporation and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. Most important,
the team received substantial help, guidance, and data from external partners. For individual acknowledgments of
contributions to the book’s contents, please see Credits. For a listing of key partners, see Partners.
Communications Development Incorporated provided overall design direction, editing, and layout, led by
Meta de Coquereaumont, Bruce Ross-Larson, and Christopher Trott. Elaine Wilson created the graphics and typeset
the book. Joseph Caponio and Amye Kenall provided proofreading and production assistance. Communications
Development’s London partner, Peter Grundy of Peter Grundy Art & Design, provided art direction and design. Staff
from External Affairs oversaw printing and dissemination of the book.

2009 World Development Indicators

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FRONT
Preface
Acknowledgments
Partners
Users guide

1jj
v
vii
xii
xx

1kk
1ll
1.2a
1.3a
1.4a

1. WORLD VIEW
Introduction

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1a
1b
1c
1d
1e
1f
1g
1h
1i
1j
1k
1l
1m
1n
1o
1p
1q
1r
1s
1t
1u
1v
1w
1x
1y
1z
1aa
1bb
1cc
1dd
1ee
1ff
1gg
1hh
1ii

Tables
Size of the economy
Millennium Development Goals: eradicating poverty and
saving lives
Millennium Development Goals: protecting our common
environment
Millennium Development Goals: overcoming obstacles
Women in development
Key indicators for other economies

14
18
22
26
28
32

Text figures, tables, and boxes
Developing economies had their best decade of growth in 2000–07 2
Long-term trends reached new heights
2
Most developing economy exports go to high-income economies 2
Increased investment led to faster growth in low- and middleincome economies
2
Large current account surpluses and deficits were concentrated
in a few economies during 2005–07
3
Current account surpluses and deficits increased
3
Trade surpluses led to large build-ups in reserves
3
Trade deficits were financed by foreign investors
3
Private capital flows to developing economies took off in 2002 . . . 4
. . . And investors perceived less risk
4
Prices of assets, especially in real estate, were rising rapidly in
some countries . . .
4
. . . And so were equity asset valuations
4
Indebtedness ratios have improved for most economies
5
Growing reserves comfortably covered short-term debt liabilities 5
Commodity price rises accelerated in recent years
5
Food and fuel importers were hurt by rising prices
5
Output in the largest economies slowed or declined in the
4th quarter of 2008
6
U.S. household debt rose rapidly after 2000
6
U.S. house prices peaked in 2006
6
As housing bubbles burst, investors lost confidence
6
Savings and investment in China . . .
7
. . . And the United States
7
The five largest current account surpluses and deficits
7
U.S. foreign assets and liabilities doubled
7
Assets underlying over the counter derivatives rose sevenfold . . . 8
. . . While the market value of derivatives rose ninefold
8
U.S. domestic financial sector profits averaged almost
30 percent of before-tax profits during 2000–06
8
Derivatives can undermine capital controls, leading to linkages
that make market dynamics difficult to predict
8
The number of banking crises rose after the 1970s
9
The latest crisis is affecting a large portion of global income
9
The cost of systemic financial crises can be very high
9
Borrowing costs have climbed, reflecting perceived risk
10
Equity markets have suffered large losses
10
Low-income economies depend the most on official aid,
workers’ remittances, and foreign direct investment
10
Remittances are significant for many low-income economies
10

2009 World Development Indicators

11
11
11
21
25
27

2. PEOPLE
1

Introduction

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
2.21
2.22
2a
2b
2c
2d
2e
2f
2g
2h
2i
2j
2k
2l
2m
2.6a
2.8a
2.8b
2.8c
2.9a
2.15a
2.16a

viii

Fiscal positions have generally improved but remain weak for
some developing economies
Finding fiscal space in low-income economies
Recent World Bank Group initiatives
Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 1–4
Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 5–7
Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goal 8

Tables
Population dynamics
Labor force structure
Employment by economic activity
Decent work and productive employment
Unemployment
Children at work
Poverty rates at national poverty lines
Poverty rates at international poverty lines
Distribution of income or consumption
Assessing vulnerability and security
Education inputs
Participation in education
Education efficiency
Education completion and outcomes
Education gaps by income and gender
Health systems
Disease prevention coverage and quality
Reproductive health
Nutrition
Health risk factors and future challenges
Health gaps by income and gender
Mortality

35
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
67
72
76
80
84
88
92
96
98
102
106
110
114
118
122

Text figures, tables, and boxes
Different goals—different progress
35
What is decent work?
36
Employment to population ratios have not changed much
over time . . .
36
. . . But variations are wide across regions
36
High employment to population ratios in some countries
reflect high numbers of working poor
37
Fewer women than men are employed all over the world
37
Many young people are in the workforce, at the expense of
higher education
37
For many poor countries, there is a tradeoff between
education and employment
37
Although there are large regional variations in vulnerable
employment . . .
38
. . . Women are more likely than men to be in vulnerable
employment
38
Share of working poor in total employment is highest in South
Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa
38
Labor productivity has increased across the world
38
Scenarios for 2008
39
Children work long hours
63
While the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day has
fallen, the number living on $1.25–$2.00 a day has increased
69
Poverty rates have begun to fall
69
Regional poverty estimates
70
The Gini coefficient and ratio of income or consumption of the
richest quintile to the poorest quintiles are closely correlated
75
There is a large gap in educational attainment across gender
and urban-rural lines
97
There is a wide gap in health expenditure per capita between
high-income economies and developing economies
101

3. ENVIRONMENT
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3a
3b
3c
3d
3e
3f
3g
3h
3i
3j
3k
3l
3m
3n

Introduction

127

3o

Tables
Rural population and land use
Agricultural inputs
Agricultural output and productivity
Deforestation and biodiversity
Freshwater
Water pollution
Energy production and use
Energy dependency and efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions
Trends in greenhouse gas emissions
Sources of electricity
Urbanization
Urban housing conditions
Traffic and congestion
Air pollution
Government commitment
Toward a broader measure of savings

134
138
142
146
150
154
158
162
166
170
174
178
182
186
188
192

3p
3q

128
128
128

3.6a

Text figures, tables, and boxes
Energy use has doubled since 1971
High-income economies use almost half of all global energy
The top six energy consumers use 55 percent of global energy
High-income economies use more than 11 times the energy
that low-income economies do
Nonrenewable fuels are projected to account for 80 percent
of energy use in 2030—about the same as in 2006
Fossil fuels will remain the main sources of energy
through 2030
Known global oil reserves and countries with highest
endowments in 2006
Production declines from existing oil fields have been rapid
Economic activity, energy use, and greenhouse gas
emissions move together
Decarbonization of energy reversed at the beginning of the
21st century
The top six carbon dioxide emitters in 2005
High-income economies are by far the greatest emitters of
carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide emissions embedded in international trade
Impact of Policy Scenarios: carbon dioxide concentration,
temperature increase, emissions, and energy demand

3r
3s
3.1a
3.2a
3.2b
3.3a
3.3b
3.5a
3.5b

3.7a
128
129

3.8a
3.8b

129

3.9a
129
129
130
130
130

3.9b
3.10a
3.10b
3.11a
3.11b

130
131
131

3.12a
3.13a

Reductions in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by
region in the 550 and 450 parts per million Policy Scenarios
relative to the Trend Scenario
131
Energy efficiency has been improving
132
Electricity generated from renewables is projected to more
than double by 2030
132
Top 10 users of wind to generate electricity
133
Cost and savings under the Policy Scenarios
133
What is rural? Urban?
137
Nearly 40 percent of land globally is devoted to agriculture
141
Developing regions lag in agricultural machinery, which
reduces their agricultural productivity
141
Cereal yield in low-income economies was less than 40 percent
of the yield in high-income countries
145
Sub-Saharan Africa had the lowest yield, while East Asia
and Pacific is closing the gap with high-income economies
145
Agriculture is still the largest user of water, accounting for
some 70 percent of global withdrawals
153
The share of withdrawals for agriculture approaches
90 percent in some developing regions
153
Emissions of organic water pollutants declined in most
economies from 1990 to 2005, even in some of the top
emitters
157
A person in a high-income economy uses an average of
more than 11 times as much energy as a person in a
low-income economy
161
High-income economies depend on imported energy . . .
165
. . . mostly from middle-income economies in the Middle East
and North Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean
165
The 10 largest contributors to methane emissions account
for about 62 percent of emissions
169
The 10 largest contributors to nitrous oxide emissions
account for about 56 percent of emissions
169
Sources of electricity generation have shifted since 1999 . . . 173
. . . with developing economies relying more on coal
173
Developing economies had the largest increase in urban
population between 1990 and 2007
177
Latin America and the Caribbean had the same share of
urban population as high-income economies in 2007
177
Selected housing indicators for smaller economies
181
Particulate matter concentration has fallen in all income
groups, and the higher the income, the lower the concentration 185

2009 World Development Indicators

ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS
4. ECONOMY
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4a
4b
4c
4d
4e
4f
4g
4h
4i
4j
4k–4p
4q–4v
4w–4bb
4cc–4hh
4.3a
4.4a
4.5a
4.6a
4.7a
4.9a
4.10a
4.11a
4.12a
4.15a

x

5. STATES AND MARKETS

Introduction

197

Tables
Growth of output
Structure of output
Structure of manufacturing
Structure of merchandise exports
Structure of merchandise imports
Structure of service exports
Structure of service imports
Structure of demand
Growth of consumption and investment
Central government finances
Central government expenses
Central government revenues
Monetary indicators
Exchange rates and prices
Balance of payments current account

204
208
212
216
220
224
228
232
236
240
244
248
252
256
260

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12

197

5d

197
198
198

5c
5e
5f

198
198

5g

Text figures, tables, and boxes
Economic growth slowed in 2007
Large middle-income economies with economic growth
above 10 percent
Asian countries invested more
East Asia and Pacific is the largest saver
High-income economies still produce the largest share of
manufactured goods . . .
. . . And account for the largest share of manufactures exports
Twelve developing economies had a cash deficit greater than
3 percent of GDP
Five developing economies had a public debt to GDP ratio
greater than 60 percent over 2005–07
Modest inflationary pressure affected 74 countries
Real interest rates declined in 66 countries
Growth in GDP and investment 2007–08, selected major
developing economies
Growth in industrial production 2007–08, selected major
developing economies
Lending and inflation rates 2007–08, selected major
developing economies
Central government debt 2007–08, selected major
developing economies
Manufacturing continues to show strong growth in East Asia
through 2007
Developing economies’ share of world merchandise exports
continues to expand
Top 10 developing economy exporters of merchandise goods
in 2007
Top 10 developing economy exporters of commercial services
in 2007
The mix of commercial service imports by developing
economies is changing
GDP per capita is still lagging in some regions
Fifteen developing economies had a government expenditure
to GDP ratio of 30 percent or higher
Interest payments are a large part of government expenses
for some developing economies
Rich economies rely more on direct taxes
Top 15 economies with the largest reserves in 2007

2009 World Development Indicators

5a
5b

5h
199

5i
199
199
199

5j
5k

200

5l
200
200
200
215
219
223
227
231
239
243
247
251
263

Introduction

265

Tables
Private sector in the economy
Business environment: enterprise surveys
Business environment: Doing Business indicators
Stock markets
Financial access, stability, and efficiency
Tax policies
Military expenditures and arms transfers
Public policies and institutions
Transport services
Power and communications
The information age
Science and technology

270
274
278
282
286
290
294
298
302
306
310
314

Text figures, tables, and boxes
Improving governance and contributing to growth
Seventy percent of mobile phone subscribers are in
developing economies, 2000–07
Internet use in developing economies is growing, but still
lags behind use in developed economies
Competition can spur growth in mobile phone service
Broadband access in developed and developing economies
International bandwidth has increased rapidly in Europe and
Central Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean
Prices for mobile phone services have declined in many
countries
Internet service prices have fallen in some Sub-Saharan
African countries, 2005–07
East Asia & Pacific leads in share of information and
communication technology goods exports
India leads developing economies in information and
communications technology service export shares, 2007
Developing economies have only about 4 percent of the
world’s secure servers, 2008
Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development

265
266
266
266
267
267
267
267
268
268
268
269

6. GLOBAL LINKS
Introduction

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6a
6b
6c
6d
6e
6f
6g
6h
6i
6j
6k
6l
6m
6n
6o
6p
6q

Tables
Integration with the global economy
Growth of merchandise trade
Direction and growth of merchandise trade
High-income economy trade with low- and middle-income
economies
Direction of trade of developing economies
Primary commodity prices
Regional trade blocs
Tariff barriers
External debt
Ratios for external debt
Global private financial flows
Net official financial flows
Financial flows from Development Assistance Committee
members
Allocation of bilateral aid fromDevelopment Assistance
Committee members
Aid dependency
Distribution of net aid by Development Assistance
Committee members
Movement of people
Characteristics of immigrants in selected OECD countries
Travel and tourism
Text figures, tables, and boxes
The importance of trade to developing economies has increased
High-income economies and a few large middle-income
economies account for a majority of world exports
Most developing economy exports were directed to
high-income economies in 2007
Merchandise imports of Group of Seven industrial economies
have declined, reflecting slowing demand for imports
Primary commodity prices have been volatile over the past year
For some economies food imports were equivalent to more
than 7 percent of household consumption, 2005–07 average
Large middle-income economies received increasing amount
of portfolio equity flows in recent years
Other developing economies borrowed increasing amounts
from private creditors
Much global FDI is directed to high-income economies and
a few large middle-income economies . . .
. . . But as a share of GDP, FDI net inflows are a large source
of private financing for low-income economies
FDI net inflows to Indonesia and Malaysia declined
immediately after the East Asian financial crisis hit
FDI net inflows to the Republic of Korea and Thailand
remained resilient for several years after the plunge in GDP
Net portfolio equity flows to large middle-income economies
increased considerably
Stock market capitalizations declined after the financial crisis
Spreads on emerging market sovereign and corporate bonds
have widened, increasing the cost of borrowing
Private lending to Europe and Central Asia increased
ninefold between 2003 and 2007
For middle-income economies nearly 80 percent of long-term
debt was from private creditors while for low-income
economies 90 percent was from official creditors

319

6r

328
332
336

6s

339
342
345
348
352
356
360
364
368

6u
6v

372
374
376
380
384
388
390

6t

6w
6x
6y–6dd
6ee–6jj
6kk–6pp
6qq–6vv
6.1a
6.3a
6.4a

320

6.5a
6.6a

320

6.7a

320

6.9a
6.10a

320
321

6.11a

321

6.12a

321
321

6.15a
6.16a

322

6.19a

322

Net nonconcessional lending to middle-income economies
from international financial institutions, declining since
2002, recently increased
324
Aid is equivalent to 5 percent of the GNI of low-income
economies
324
s
Aid for long-term development has remained about the
same as in the 1970s
324
Aid flows declined after the Nordic banking crisis in 1991
325
Two U.S. financial crises in the late 20th century—aid down,
then up
325
Migration to high-income economies has increased
325
More remittance flows are now going to developing economies 325
Merchandise trade 2006–08, selected major developing
economies
326
Equity price indices 2007–09, selected major developing
economies
326
Bond spreads 2007–09, selected major developing economies 326
Financing through international capital markets 2007–09,
selected major developing economies
326
Estimating the global emigrant stock
331
In 2007 around 70 percent of exports from low- and middleincome economies and from high-income economies were
directed to high-income economies
338
High-income economies’ tariffs on imports from low- and
middle-income economies fell between 1997 and 2007 but
remain high for some products
341
Trading partners vary by region
344
Commodity prices increased between 2000 and the last
quarter of 2008—the longest boom since 1960
347
The number of trade agreements has increased rapidly since
1990, especially bilateral agreements
351
The levels and the composition of external debt vary by regions 359
The burden of external debt service declined for most regions
over 1995–2007
363
In 2007 middle-income economies received nearly 20 times more
private capital flows than low-income economies did
367
Net nonconcessional lending from international financial
institutions has declined in recent years as countries have
paid off previous loans
371
Official development assistance from non-DAC donors, 2003–07 379
Most donors increased their proportions of untied aid
between 2000 and 2007
383
High-income economies remain the main destination for
international travelers, but the share of tourists visiting
developing economies is rising
393

322
322
323
323
323
323

BACK
Primary data documentation
Statistical methods
Credits
Bibliography
Index of indicators

395
406
408
410
418

324

2009 World Development Indicators

xi

PARTNERS
Defining, gathering, and disseminating international statistics is a collective effort of many people and organizations. The indicators presented in World Development Indicators are the fruit of decades of work at many levels,
from the field workers who administer censuses and household surveys to the committees and working parties
of the national and international statistical agencies that develop the nomenclature, classifications, and standards fundamental to an international statistical system. Nongovernmental organizations and the private sector
have also made important contributions, both in gathering primary data and in organizing and publishing their
results. And academic researchers have played a crucial role in developing statistical methods and carrying on
a continuing dialogue about the quality and interpretation of statistical indicators. All these contributors have a
strong belief that available, accurate data will improve the quality of public and private decisionmaking.
The organizations listed here have made World Development Indicators possible by sharing their data and
their expertise with us. More important, their collaboration contributes to the World Bank’s efforts, and to those
of many others, to improve the quality of life of the world’s people. We acknowledge our debt and gratitude to all
who have helped to build a base of comprehensive, quantitative information about the world and its people.
For easy reference, Web addresses are included for each listed organization. The addresses shown were
active on March 1, 2009. Information about the World Bank is also provided.

International and government agencies
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary global climate change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy. The CDIAC’s scope includes anything that would
potentially be of value to those concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including
concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation;
and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.
For more information, see http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH is a German government-owned corporation for international cooperation with worldwide operations. GTZ’s aim is to positively shape political, economic, ecological, and social development in partner countries, thereby improving people’s living conditions and prospects.
For more information, see www.gtz.de/.

Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations, was founded in October
1945 with a mandate to raise nutrition levels and living standards, to increase agricultural productivity,
and to better the condition of rural populations. The organization provides direct development assistance;
collects, analyzes, and disseminates information; offers policy and planning advice to governments; and
serves as an international forum for debate on food and agricultural issues.
For more information, see www.fao.org/.

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2009 World Development Indicators

International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, is responsible for establishing international standards and recommended practices and procedures for the technical,
economic, and legal aspects of international civil aviation operations. ICAO’s strategic objectives include
enhancing global aviation safety and security and the efficiency of aviation operations, minimizing the
adverse effect of global civil aviation on the environment, maintaining the continuity of aviation operations,
and strengthening laws governing international civil aviation.
For more information, see www.icao.int/.

International Labour Organization
The International Labour Organization (ILO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, seeks the promotion
of social justice and internationally recognized human and labor rights. ILO helps advance the creation of
decent jobs and the kinds of economic and working conditions that give working people and business people
a stake in lasting peace, prosperity, and progress. As part of its mandate, the ILO maintains an extensive
statistical publication program.
For more information, see www.ilo.org/.

International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization of 185 member countries established
to promote international monetary cooperation, a stable system of exchange rates, and the balanced expansion of international trade and to foster economic growth and high levels of employment. The IMF reviews
national, regional, and global economic and financial developments, provides policy advice to member
countries and serves as a forum where they can discuss the national, regional, and global consequences
of their policies.
The IMF also makes financing temporarily available to member countries to help them address balance
of payments problems. Among the IMF’s core missions are the collection and dissemination of high-quality
macroeconomic and financial statistics as an essential prerequisite for formulating appropriate policies. The
IMF provides technical assistance and training to member countries in areas of its core expertise, including
the development of economic and financial data in accordance with international standards.
For more information, see www.imf.org.

International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the leading UN agency for information and communication technologies. ITU’s mission is to enable the growth and sustained development of telecommunications and information networks and to facilitate universal access so that people everywhere can
participate in, and benefit from, the emerging information society and global economy. A key priority lies
in bridging the so-called Digital Divide by building information and communication infrastructure, promoting adequate capacity building, and developing confidence in the use of cyberspace through enhanced
online security. ITU also concentrates on strengthening emergency communications for disaster prevention and mitigation.
For more information, see www.itu.int/.

2009 World Development Indicators

xiii

PARTNERS
National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent U.S. government agency whose mission is to
promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the
national defense. NSF’s goals—discovery, learning, research infrastructure, and stewardship—provide an
integrated strategy to advance the frontiers of knowledge, cultivate a world-class, broadly inclusive science
and engineering workforce, expand the scientific literacy of all citizens, build the nation’s research capability through investments in advanced instrumentation and facilities, and support excellence in science and
engineering research and education through a capable and responsive organization.
For more information, see www.nsf.gov/.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) includes 30 member countries sharing a commitment to democratic government and the market economy to support sustainable economic

growth, boost employment, raise living standards, maintain financial stability, assist other countries’ economic development, and contribute to growth in world trade. With active relationships with
some 100 other countries it has a global reach. It is best known for its publications and statistics, which
cover economic and social issues from macroeconomics to trade, education, development, and science
and innovation.
The Development Assistance Committee (DAC, www.oecd.org/dac/) is one of the principal bodies through
which the OECD deals with issues related to cooperation with developing countries. The DAC is a key forum
of major bilateral donors, who work together to increase the effectiveness of their common efforts to support sustainable development. The DAC concentrates on two key areas: the contribution of international
development to the capacity of developing countries to participate in the global economy and the capacity
of people to overcome poverty and participate fully in their societies.
For more information, see www.oecd.org/.

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) conducts research on questions of conflict
and cooperation of importance for international peace and security, with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solutions to international conflicts and for a stable peace. SIPRI’s
main publication, SIPRI Yearbook, is an authoritive and independent source on armaments and arms control
and other conflict and security issues.
For more information, see www.sipri.org/.

Understanding Children’s Work
As part of broader efforts to develop effective and long-term solutions to child labor, the International
Labor Organization, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the World Bank initiated the joint
interagency research program “Understanding Children’s Work and Its Impact” in December 2000. The
Understanding Children’s Work (UCW) project was located at UNICEF’s Innocenti Research Centre in Florence, Italy, until June 2004, when it moved to the Centre for International Studies on Economic Growth
in Rome.

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2009 World Development Indicators

The UCW project addresses the crucial need for more and better data on child labor. UCW’s online database contains data by country on child labor and the status of children.
For more information, see www.ucw-project.org/.

United Nations
The United Nations currently has 192 member states. The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in
the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations;
to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of
nations in attaining these ends.
For more information, see www.un.org/.

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, Global Urban Observatory
The Urban Indicators Programme of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme was established to
address the urgent global need to improve the urban knowledge base by helping countries and cities design,
collect, and apply policy-oriented indicators related to development at the city level.
With the Urban Indicators and Best Practices programs, the Global Urban Observatory is establishing a
worldwide information, assessment, and capacity building network to help governments, local authorities,
the private sector, and nongovernmental and other civil society organizations.
For more information, see www.unhabitat.org/.

United Nations Children’s Fund
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) works with other UN bodies and with governments and nongovernmental organizations to improve children’s lives in more than 190 countries through various programs in education and health. UNICEF focuses primarily on five areas: child survival and development, basic Education and
gender equality (including girls’ education), child protection, HIV/AIDS, and policy advocacy and partnerships.
For more information, see www.unicef.org/.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is the principal organ of the United
Nations General Assembly in the field of trade and development. Its mandate is to accelerate economic
growth and development, particularly in developing countries. UNCTAD discharges its mandate through policy
analysis; intergovernmental deliberations, consensus building, and negotiation; monitoring, implementation,
and follow-up; and technical cooperation.
For more information, see www.unctad.org/.

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics
The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of
the United Nations that promotes international cooperation among member states and associate members

2009 World Development Indicators

xv

PARTNERS
in education, science, culture and communications. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics is the organization’s
statistical branch, established in July 1999 to meet the growing needs of UNESCO member states and the
international community for a wider range of policy-relevant, timely, and reliable statistics on these topics.
For more information, see www.uis.unesco.org/.

United Nations Environment Programme
The mandate of the United Nations Environment Programme is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and people to improve their
quality of life without compromising that of future generations.
For more information, see www.unep.org/.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization was established to act as the central coordinating
body for industrial activities and to promote industrial development and cooperation at the global, regional,
national, and sectoral levels. Its mandate is to help develop scientific and technological plans and programs
for industrialization in the public, cooperative, and private sectors.
For more information, see www.unido.org/.

The UN Refugee Agency
The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) is mandated to lead and coordinate international action to protect refugees
and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of
refugees. UNHCR also collects and disseminates statistics on refugees.
For more information, see www.unhcr.org

World Bank
The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance for developing countries. The World
Bank is made up of two unique development institutions owned by 185 member countries—the International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA).
These institutions play different but collaborative roles to advance the vision of an inclusive and sustainable
globalization. The IBRD focuses on middle-income and creditworthy poor countries, while IDA focuses on the
poorest countries. Together they provide low-interest loans, interest-free credits, and grants to developing
countries for a wide array of purposes, including investments in education, health, public administration,
infrastructure, financial and private sector development, agriculture, and environmental and natural resource
management. The World Bank’s work focuses on achieving the Millennium Development Goals by working
with partners to alleviate poverty.
For more information, see www.worldbank.org/data/.

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2009 World Development Indicators

World Health Organization
The objective of the World Health Organization (WHO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, is the
attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health. It is responsible for providing leadership
on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating
evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries, and monitoring and assessing
health trends.
For more information, see www.who.int/.

World Intellectual Property Organization
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations dedicated
to developing a balanced and accessible international intellectual property (IP) system, which rewards creativity, stimulates innovation, and contributes to economic development while safeguarding the public interest.
WIPO carries out a wide variety of tasks related to the protection of IP rights. These include developing
international IP laws and standards, delivering global IP protection services, encouraging the use of IP for
economic development, promoting better understanding of IP, and providing a forum for debate.
For more information, see www.wipo.int/.

World Tourism Organization
The World Tourism Organization is an intergovernmental body entrusted by the United Nations with promoting and
developing tourism. It serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and a source of tourism know-how.
For more information, see www.unwto.org/.

World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade
between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. It does this by administering trade agreements, acting as a forum for trade negotiations, settling trade
disputes, reviewing national trade policies, assisting developing countries in trade policy issues—through
technical assistance and training programs—and cooperating with other international organizations. At the
heart of the system—known as the multilateral trading system—are the WTO’s agreements, negotiated and
signed by a large majority of the world’s trading nations and ratified by their parliaments.
For more information, see www.wto.org/.

Private and nongovernmental organizations
Containerisation International
Containerisation International Yearbook is one of the most authoritative reference books on the container
industry. The information can be accessed on the Containerisation International Web site, which also provides
a comprehensive online daily business news and information service for the container industry.
For more information, see www.ci-online.co.uk/.

2009 World Development Indicators

xvii

PARTNERS
International Institute for Strategic Studies
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) provides information and analysis on strategic trends
and facilitates contacts between government leaders, business people, and analysts that could lead to better
public policy in international security and international relations. The IISS is a primary source of accurate,
objective information on international strategic issues.
For more information, see www.iiss.org/.

International Road Federation
The International Road Federation (IRF) is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization whose mission is
to encourage and promote development and maintenance of better, safer, and more sustainable roads and
road networks. Working together with its members and associates, the IRF promotes social and economic
benefits that flow from well planned and environmentally sound road transport networks. It helps put in
place technological solutions and management practices that provide maximum economic and social returns
from national road investments. The IRF works in all aspects of road policy and development worldwide with
governments and financial institutions, members, and the community of road professionals.
For more information, see www.irfnet.org/.

Netcraft
Netcraft provides Internet security services such as antifraud and antiphishing services, application testing,
code reviews, and automated penetration testing. Netcraft also provides research data and analysis on
many aspects of the Internet and is a respected authority on the market share of web servers, operating
systems, hosting providers, Internet service providers, encrypted transactions, electronic commerce, scripting languages, and content technologies on the Internet.
For more information, see http://news.netcraft.com/.

PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers provides industry-focused services in the fields of assurance, tax, human resources,
transactions, performance improvement, and crisis management services to help address client and stakeholder issues.
For more information, see www.pwc.com/.

Standard & Poor’s
Standard & Poor’s is the world’s foremost provider of independent credit ratings, indexes, risk evaluation,
investment research, and data. S&P’s Global Stock Markets Factbook draw on data from S&P’s Emerging
Markets Database (EMDB) and other sources covering data on more than 100 markets with comprehensive
market profiles for 82 countries. Drawing a sample of stocks in each EMDB market, Standard & Poor’s
calculates indices to serve as benchmarks that are consistent across national boundaries.
For more information, see www.standardandpoors.com/.

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2009 World Development Indicators

World Conservation Monitoring Centre
The World Conservation Monitoring Centre provides information on the conservation and sustainable use of
the world’s living resources and helps others to develop information systems of their own. It works in close
collaboration with a wide range of people and organizations to increase access to the information needed
for wise management of the world’s living resources.
For more information, see www.unep-wcmc.org/.

World Information Technology and Services Alliance
The World Information Technology and Services Alliance (WITSA) is a consortium of more than 60 information technology (IT) industry associations from economies around the world. WITSA members represent
over 90 percent of the world IT market. As the global voice of the IT industry, WITSA has an active role in
international public policy issues affecting the creation of a robust global information infrastructure, including advocating policies that advance the industry’s growth and development, facilitating international trade
and investment in IT products and services, increasing competition through open markets and regulatory
reform, strengthening national industry associations through the sharing of knowledge, protecting intellectual property, encouraging cross-industry and government cooperation to enhance information security,
bridging the education and skills gap, and safeguarding the viability and continued growth of the Internet
and electronic commerce.
For more information, see www.witsa.org/.

World Resources Institute
The World Resources Institute is an independent center for policy research and technical assistance on
global environmental and development issues. The institute provides—and helps other institutions provide—
objective information and practical proposals for policy and institutional change that will foster environmentally sound, socially equitable development. The institute’s current areas of work include trade, forests,
energy, economics, technology, biodiversity, human health, climate change, sustainable agriculture, resource
and environmental information, and national strategies for environmental and resource management.
For more information, see www.wri.org/.

2009 World Development Indicators

xix

USERS GUIDE
Tables

simple totals, where they do not), median values (m),

not be complete because of special circumstances

The tables are numbered by section and display the

weighted averages (w), or simple (unweighted) aver-

affecting the collection and reporting of data, such

identifying icon of the section. Countries and econo-

ages (u). Gap filling of amounts not allocated to coun-

as problems stemming from conflicts.

mies are listed alphabetically (except for Hong Kong,

tries may result in discrepancies between subgroup

For these reasons, although data are drawn from

China, which appears after China). Data are shown

aggregates and overall totals. For further discussion

the sources thought to be most authoritative, they

for 153 economies with populations of more than

of aggregation methods, see Statistical methods.

should be construed only as indicating trends and

1 million, as well as for Taiwan, China, in selected

characterizing major differences among economies

tables. Table 1.6 presents selected indicators for

Aggregate measures for regions

rather than as offering precise quantitative measures

56 other economies—small economies with popu-

The aggregate measures for regions cover only low- and

of those differences. Discrepancies in data presented

lations between 30,000 and 1 million and smaller

middle-income economies, including economies with

in different editions of World Development Indicators

economies if they are members of the International

populations of less than 1 million listed in table 1.6.

reflect updates by countries as well as revisions to his-

Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or,

The country composition of regions is based on

torical series and changes in methodology. Thus read-

as it is commonly known, the World Bank. A complete

the World Bank’s analytical regions and may differ

ers are advised not to compare data series between

set of indicators for these economies is available

from common geographic usage. For regional clas-

editions of World Development Indicators or between

on the World Development Indicators CD-ROM and in

sifications, see the map on the inside back cover and

different World Bank publications. Consistent time-

WDI Online. The term country, used interchangeably

the list on the back cover flap. For further discussion

series data for 1960–2007 are available on the World

with economy, does not imply political independence,

of aggregation methods, see Statistical methods.

Development Indicators CD-ROM and in WDI Online.

separate social or economic statistics. When avail-

Statistics

in real terms. (See Statistical methods for information

able, aggregate measures for income and regional

Data are shown for economies as they were con-

on the methods used to calculate growth rates.) Data

groups appear at the end of each table.

stituted in 2007, and historical data are revised to

for some economic indicators for some economies

reflect current political arrangements. Exceptions are

are presented in fiscal years rather than calendar

noted throughout the tables.

years; see Primary data documentation. All dollar fig-

but refers to any territory for which authorities report

Indicators are shown for the most recent year
or period for which data are available and, in most

Except where otherwise noted, growth rates are

tables, for an earlier year or period (usually 1990 or

Additional information about the data is provided

ures are current U.S. dollars unless otherwise stated.

1995 in this edition). Time-series data for all 209

in Primary data documentation. That section sum-

The methods used for converting national currencies

economies are available on the World Development

marizes national and international efforts to improve

are described in Statistical methods.

Indicators CD-ROM and in WDI Online.

basic data collection and gives country-level informa-

Known deviations from standard definitions or

tion on primary sources, census years, fiscal years,

Country notes

breaks in comparability over time or across countries

statistical methods and concepts used, and other

are either footnoted in the tables or noted in About

background information. Statistical methods provides

the data. When available data are deemed to be

technical information on some of the general calcula-

too weak to provide reliable measures of levels and

tions and formulas used throughout the book.

Data for Indonesia include Timor-Leste through

Data consistency, reliability, and comparability

Montenegro declared independence from Serbia

include data for Hong Kong, China; Macao, China;
or Taiwan, China.

trends or do not adequately adhere to international
standards, the data are not shown.

Unless otherwise noted, data for China do not

1999 unless otherwise noted

Considerable effort has been made to standardize

and Montenegro on June 3, 2006. When avail-

Aggregate measures for income groups

the data, but full comparability cannot be assured,

able, data for each country are shown separately.

The aggregate measures for income groups include

and care must be taken in interpreting the indicators.

However, some indicators for Serbia continue to

209 economies (the economies listed in the main

Many factors affect data availability, comparability,

include data for Montenegro through 2005; these

tables plus those in table 1.6) whenever data are

and reliability: statistical systems in many develop-

data are footnoted in the tables. Moreover, data

available. To maintain consistency in the aggregate

ing economies are still weak; statistical methods,

for most indicators from 1999 onward for Serbia

measures over time and between tables, missing

coverage, practices, and definitions differ widely; and

exclude data for Kosovo, which in 1999 became

data are imputed where possible. The aggregates

cross-country and intertemporal comparisons involve

a territory under international administration pur-

are totals (designated by a t if the aggregates include

complex technical and conceptual problems that can-

suant to UN Security Council Resolution 1244

gap-filled estimates for missing data and by an s, for

not be resolved unequivocally. Data coverage may

(1999); any exceptions are noted.

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2009 World Development Indicators

Classification of economies

Symbols

For operational and analytical purposes the World

..

Bank’s main criterion for classifying economies is

means that data are not available or that aggregates

gross national income (GNI) per capita (calculated

cannot be calculated because of missing data in the

by the World Bank Atlas method). Every economy is

years shown.

classified as low income, middle income (subdivided
into lower middle and upper middle), or high income.

0 or 0.0

For income classifications see the map on the inside

means zero or small enough that the number would

front cover and the list on the front cover fl ap. Low-

round to zero at the displayed number of decimal

and middle-income economies are sometimes

places.

referred to as developing economies. The term is
used for convenience; it is not intended to imply

/

that all economies in the group are experiencing

in dates, as in 2003/04, means that the period of time,

similar development or that other economies have

usually 12 months, straddles two calendar years and

reached a preferred or final stage of development.

refers to a crop year, a survey year, or a fiscal year.

Note that classifi cation by income does not necessarily refl ect development status. Because GNI per

$

capita changes over time, the country composition

means current U.S. dollars unless otherwise noted.

of income groups may change from one edition of
World Development Indicators to the next. Once the

>

classifi cation is fi xed for an edition, based on GNI

means more than.

per capita in the most recent year for which data
are available (2007 in this edition), all historical

<

data presented are based on the same country

means less than.

grouping.
Low-income economies are those with a GNI
per capita of $935 or less in 2007. Middle-income

Data presentation conventions

economies are those with a GNI per capita of more

A blank means not applicable or, for an aggregate, not analytically meaningful.

than $935 but less than $11,456. Lower middle-

A billion is 1,000 million.

income and upper middle-income economies are

A trillion is 1,000 billion.

separated at a GNI per capita of $3,705. High-

income economies are those with a GNI per capita
of $11,456 or more. The 16 participating member countries of the euro area are presented as
a subgroup under high-income economies. Note

Figures in italics refer to years or periods other
than those specified or to growth rates calculated
for less than the full period specified.

Data for years that are more than three years
from the range shown are footnoted.

that the Slovak Republic joined the euro area on
January 1, 2009.

The cutoff date for data is February 1, 2009.

2009 World Development Indicators

xxi

Introduction

T

he world seems to be entering an economic crisis unlike any seen since the founding of
the Bretton Woods institutions. Indeed, simultaneous crises. The bursting of a real estate
bubble. The liquidity and solvency problems for major banks. The liquidity trap as consumers
and businesses prefer holding cash to spending on consumption or investment. The disruptions in international capital flows. And for some countries a currency crisis.
Plummeting global output and trade in the last quarter of 2008 brought the global economy
to a standstill after years of remarkable growth, throwing millions out of work. The United
States, as the epicenter, has seen unemployment rising to more than 11 million, an unemployment rate of 7.2 percent. Most forecasts show world GDP growth slowing to near zero or
negative values, after a 3.4 percent increase in 2008.
What brought about the crisis? Why is it so severe? How quickly has it spread? In this introduction, and in the introductions to sections four (Economy) and six (Global links), the data
describe the events that have brought us to this point. Could the crisis have been anticipated
by looking more closely at the same data? Perhaps. Perhaps not. But there is still much we
can learn about how these events unfolded.
The crisis must be seen in the context of dramatic changes in the global economy. First, record
export-led economic growth in emerging market economies shifted the balance of global
economic power, evidenced by their growing share in world output, trade, and international
reserves. High savings rates outstripped their capacity to invest in their own economies while
policies to sterilize large inflows and protect against financial shocks led to a large build up
in international reserves. So poorer economies were financing the current account deficits
of high-income economies. Second, financial integration has accompanied expanding trade,
spurred by remarkable developments in information technology and financial innovation. This
extended the reach of global markets, lowering costs and increasing their efficiency, but also
spreading systemic shocks farther and faster.
The financial crisis had its origins in a U.S. real estate asset bubble fed by a boom in subprime mortgage lending. The availability of cheap credit fed asset bubbles in other developed
economies and among major emerging market economies. The rapid and massive growth of
long-term, illiquid, and risky assets financed by short-term liabilities contributed to the speed
with which the crisis spread across the world economy and to its severity.
Global growth will be negative in 2009, and growth in developing economies will fall sharply
from the 6 percent or higher rates of 2008. This reflects both a sharp decline in export
demand from high-income economies and a major reduction in access to commercial finance
and an increase in its cost. Slower growth will inevitably affect the ability of low-income
economies to reach the Millennium Development Goals. How far the global recession extends
and how long it lasts will depend on the effectiveness of policies adopted by rich and poor
economies alike in the months ahead.

2009 World Development Indicators

1

Growth accelerated in the 2000s

Exports led growth

The years preceding the 2008 global crisis saw the strongest

Integration of the global economy was marked by a rapid in-

economic growth in decades (figure 1a). Global economic

crease in trade. Growth in low- and middle-income economies

output grew 4 percent a year from 2000 to 2007, led by re-

was led by exports, which grew at an average annual rate of

cord growth in low- and middle-income economies. Develop-

12 percent over 2000–07. China and India were among the

ing economies averaged 6.5 percent annual growth of GDP

fastest- growing exporters. Export growth was led by manu-

from 2000 to 2007, and growth in every region was the high-

factures in China and by services in India. Some smaller

est in three decades (figure 1b). Europe and Central Asia and

economies with exports of oil, gas, metals, minerals, or manu-

South Asia had their best decade in the most recent period

factures were also among the fastest growing. Exports from

(2000–07). East Asia and Pacific almost equaled its previous

low- and middle-income economies in 2007 made up 29 per-

peak, reached before the 1997 crisis. For others the peak

cent of the world total, up from 21 percent in 2000. Although

was in 1976— before the oil price shocks of the late 1970s

trade between low- and middle-income economies has been

and the debt crisis of the 1980s. But growth rates in high-

growing, 70 percent of low- and middle-income economies’ ex-

income economies have been on a downward path since the

ports still went to high-income economies in 2007 (figure 1c).
Fast-growing, export-oriented economies attracted new

1970s.
China and India have emerged in recent years as drivers of

investment (figure 1d). Some of it came from domestic sav-

global economic growth, accounting for 2.9 percentage points

ing. In low- and middle-income economies savings rose from

of the 5 percent growth in global output in 2007. Low- and

25 percent of GDP in 2000 to 32 percent in 2007. But growth

middle-income economies now contribute 43 percent of

also attracted foreign direct investment. The contribution of

global output, up from 36 percent in 2000. China and India

investment to GDP growth in these economies averaged less

account for 5 percentage points of that increased share.

than 1 percentage point before 2000 but rose to 2.4 percentage points over 2000–07.

Developing economies had their
best decade of growth in 2000–07
Average annual growth in
purchasing power parity GDP (%)

1a

Low income

Middle income

High income

8

Most developing economy exports
go to high-income economies

1c

Merchandise exports from developing economies, by destination ($ trillions)
5
4

To low-income economies

6
3
4

To middle-income economies

2
2
1
0
1970–80

1980–90

1990–2000

Long-term trends
reached new heights

To high-income economies

0

2000–07

Note: Data for 1970–80 are based on GDP in constant 2000 U.S. dollars converted
using market exchange rates.
Source: World Development Indicators data files.

1b

1990

2000

2005

2007

Source: International Monetary Fund’s Direction of Trade database.

Increased investment led to faster growth
in low- and middle-income economies
Contributions to GDP growth (%)
10

Annual growth in GDP per capita, 10-year moving average (%)
8
East Asia & Pacific

Net exports

1d
Investment

Consumption

8

6
4

South Asia

2

6

High-income OECD

4

0
Latin America & Caribbean
Middle East & North Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa

–2
–4

2
Europe & Central Asia

0

–6
1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

–2
1990

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

2

1995

2009 World Development Indicators

1995

2000

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

2005

2007

Structural imbalances emerged

Countries became more interdependent

Countries with trade surpluses accumulated capital beyond
their capacity to absorb it. Many ran large current account
surpluses and accumulated record reserves. Countries with
trade deficits financed their current account by increased borrowing abroad. From 2005 to 2007 the five largest surplus
economies accounted for 71 percent of total current account
surpluses, and the five largest deficit economies, for 79 percent of total current account deficits (table 1e).
China’s current account surplus rose from 2 percent of
GDP in 2000 to an average of 10 percent during 2005–07
(figure 1f). Oil and gas exporters such as the Russian Federation and Saudi Arabia also saw surpluses balloon. Unlike
many high-income economies, Germany went from a deficit
of 1.5 percent of GDP in 2000 to a surplus of 6 percent over
2000–07. But some countries with strong export growth had
equally strong import growth, with India and Mexico maintaining small current account deficits.
The largest deficits were in high-income economies, with
the United States accounting for more than half the world’s
current account deficits. The U.S. current account deficit
increased from 4.3 percent of GDP in 2000 to an average
of 6 percent in 2005–07. Spain’s rose from 4 percent to 9
percent of GDP.

As the global imbalance between savings and investment

Large current account surpluses and deficits were
concentrated in a few economies during 2005–07
2005–07
average
($ billions)
–1,303
–749
–113
–74
–47
–43
1,428
372
256
210
95
76

Economy
All deficit economies
United States
Spain
United Kingdom
Australia
Italy
All surplus economies
China
Germany
Japan
Saudi Arabia
Russian Federation

1e

Share of all
deficit/surplus
economies (%)

Percent
of GDP

57
9
6
4
3

–6
–9
–3
–6
–2

26
18
15
7
5

10
6
4
27
8

with surpluses, while fast-growing exporters depended on expanding markets in deficit countries. China and other surplus
economies accumulated record reserves (figure 1g) and sent
capital overseas. The United States and other deficit countries consumed more and financed their deficits by issuing
more debt and equity (figure 1h).
Savings and investment trends for China, the largest surplus country, and the United States, the largest deficit country, illustrate the growing imbalances. China’s savings rate
increased, exceeding investment by 11.5 percent of GDP in
2007. In the United States private savings almost disappeared,
and investment exceeded savings by 4.6 percent of GDP.
Countries with large reserves invested large portions of
their holdings in U.S. Treasury securities, widely regarded as
very low risk. At the end of 2008 China was the largest foreign
holder of U.S. Treasury securities, at $696 billion, followed by
Japan, at $578 billion. Total foreign holdings of U.S. Treasury
securities were $3.1 trillion, up from $2.4 trillion in 2007.

Trade surpluses led to
large build-ups in reserves

1g

Reserves ($ billions)

2000

1,200
800
400

0
Taiwan,
China

1f

Russian
Federation

Euro
zone

Japan

Saudi Arabia

China

Source: International Monetary Fund balance of payments data files.

Trade deficits were
financed by foreign investors

1h

Net flows of portfolio debt and equity securities ($ billions)

Current account balance (% of GDP)
30

2007

1,600

Source: International Monetary Fund balance of payments data files and World
Development Indicators data files.

Current account surpluses
and deficits increased

grew, countries with large deficits borrowed from countries

2000

2007

1,000
750

20
China

Russian Federation

500

10
250
0

United Kingdom
Spain

–10
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

2005

0

United States

–250
2006

2007

Brazil

Japan

Euro
area

United
Kingdom

United
States

Source: International Monetary Fund balance of payments data files.

2009 World Development Indicators

3

Foreign investments grew

Asset prices rose rapidly as well

Private capital flows to low- and middle-income economies more
than quadrupled from $200 billion in 2000 to over $900 billion
in 2007, reaching 6.6 percent of the economies’ collective GDP
(figure 1i). Foreign domestic investment accounts for most of
those flows, as multinational corporations established footholds
in new markets, shifted production sites to take advantage of
lower costs, or sought access to supplies of natural resources.
Portfolio investment in bond and equity markets also grew.
Foreign investors were drawn to emerging equity markets as the
prospects for these economies improved substantially and the
returns outpaced those in more developed markets. Net inflows
from bonds and commercial bank lending grew from $12 billion
in 2000 to $269 billion in 2007 as globalization of the banking
industry continued and perceived risk in many low- and middleincome economies dropped to all-time lows (figure 1j).
Brazil, China, India, and the Russian Federation attracted
the largest shares of capital flows among developing economies. But foreign domestic investment flows to low-income
economies also increased in recent years—some of them coming from developing economies with large current account surpluses—drawn by rising commodity prices into the oil, mineral,
and other commodity sectors and into infrastructure projects.

Stock market capitalization in low- and middle-income econo-

Private capital flows to developing
economies took off in 2002 . . .

1i

Private financial flows (% of GDP)
8

mies increased nearly eightfold, rising from $2 trillion in 2000
to $15 trillion in 2007, or from 35 percent of GDP to 114
percent. Stock markets in Brazil, China, India, and the Russian Federation accounted for $11 trillion. Foreign investors
increased their stakes in these markets, which outperformed
more developed markets. Foreign holdings of portfolio equity
securities increased from $37 billion in 2001 to $364 billion
in 2007 in Brazil, from $11 billion in 2000 to $292 billion in
2007 in the Russian Federation and from $17 billion to $103
billion in India, and from $43 billion in 2004 to $125 billion in
2007 in China. Other classes of assets such as housing also
appreciated rapidly (figure 1k).
Asset prices rose in part due to more optimistic expectations for future earnings. Price-earnings ratios, a measure of
valuation for equities, rose rapidly in low- and middle-income
economy stock markets (figure 1l). From 2000 to 2007 ratios
rose from 11.5 to 16.6 in Brazil, from 21.6 to 50.5 in China,
from 16.8 to 31.6 in India, and from 3.8 to 18.4 in the Russian Federation. And rising housing prices reflected expectations for continuing appreciation.
Prices of assets, especially in real estate,
were rising rapidly in some countries . . .

1k

House price indices (2002 = 100)
500
Russian Federation: average housing prices

6

400

4

300
South Africa:
ABSA House Price Index

2

200

Indonesia: residential property
price index (14-city composite)

Taiwan, China: Sinyi Purchase Price Index

0
1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

100

Malaysia: house prices

2002
Source: Global Development Finance data files and World Development Indicators
data files.

. . . And investors
perceived less risk

2003

2004

2005

2006

Singapore: property
price index

2007

2008

Source: Haver Analytics.

1j

. . . And so were
equity asset valuations

1l

Spread on emerging market sovereign bonds against 10-year U.S. Treasury notes
(basis points)
1,800

Price-earnings ratio (Standard & Poor’s IFCG index)
50

1,500

40

China

India

1,200

30

Russian Federation

900
20
600

Brazil

10
300
0
Jan-98 Jan-99 Jan-00 Jan-01 Jan-02 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07
Source: JPMorgan-Chase.

4

2009 World Development Indicators

0
2000

2001

2002

Source: Standard & Poor’s 2008.

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

External debt declined and
changed composition

Demand for primary
commodities increased

The Debt Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries and
the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative have helped some of
the poorest and most indebted countries, especially in SubSaharan Africa, significantly reduce their outstanding debt.
External debt to GNI ratios for Sub-Saharan Africa went from
more than 80 percent in the mid-1990s to less than 30 percent today (figure 1m). Elsewhere, especially in Europe and
Central Asia, debt increased in recent years. For Croatia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Romania, and a few small island economies
external debt to GNI ratios reached all-time highs in 2007.
As debt ratios fell, many countries gained access to private financing. Private nonguaranteed debt of low- and middleincome economies rose from 24 percent of total debt in 2000
to 37 percent in 2007. In Europe and Central Asia private nonguaranteed debt made up 55 percent of total external debt in
2007. Short-term debt in low- and middle-income economies
rose from 13 percent of total debt in 2000 to 24 percent in
2007. In 2007 in East Asia and Pacific short-term debt made
up 39 percent of total debt and 55 percent in China. But growing international reserves helped offset the risk of short-term
financing in foreign currencies (figure 1n).

Rapid global economic growth drove demand for commodities, boosting prices, especially for oil, metals, and minerals
used as inputs to manufacturing. After increasing gradually
from 2000 to 2006, prices rose more rapidly in 2007 and into
2008. Food prices also rose, due in part to the production of
ethanol from corn and other food crops (figure 1o).
Rising commodity prices benefited exporters, especially
in Latin America and the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Aside from the terms of trade gains, the higher commodity
prices increased government revenues from taxes on commodity exports and attracted foreign domestic investment into
commodity exports and supporting infrastructure projects.
But for food and fuel importers the spike in prices has
been costly. Current account balances of most oil-importing
low- and middle-income economies worsened (figure 1p). Price
increases have also pushed up inflation and interest rates, with
the impacts especially severe for poor people. In eight countries
higher food prices between 2005 and 2007 increased poverty
rates by 3 percentage points on average (Ivanic and Martin
2008). Globally, the number of people living on less than $1.25
a day may have risen by more than 100 million before commodity prices began to fall in the latter half of 2008.

Indebtedness ratios have
improved for most economies

1m

External debt to GNI ratio, by region (%)
100

Commodity price rises
accelerated in recent years

1o

Commodity prices (index, 2000 = 100)
400
Metals and minerals

75

300

Sub-Saharan Africa
Latin America & Caribbean

Energy

50 Middle East & North Africa

200
Food

25

100

South Asia
Europe & Central Asia

East Asia & Pacific

0
1990

1995

2000

2005

2007

Source: Global Development Finance data files and World Development Indicators
data files.

Growing reserves comfortably
covered short-term debt liabilities

1n
2000

Short-term debt, by region (% of total reserves)
100

2007

0
Jan-00

Jan-01

Jan-02

Jan-03

Jan-04

Jan-05

Jan-06

Jan-07 Dec-07

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

Food and fuel importers
were hurt by rising prices

1p

Current account balance of low- and middle-income economies, excluding
China and oil exporters (% of GDP)
0

75
–1
50

25

–2

0
East Asia
& Pacific

Europe &
Latin
Middle East &
Central Asia America & North Africa
Caribbean
Source: World Development Indicators data files.

South
Asia

Sub-Saharan
Africa

–3
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

2009 World Development Indicators

5

A perfect storm?
The current global financial and economic crisis is unlike anything the world has seen since the Great Depression nearly
eight decades ago. It embraces simultaneous crises in the
housing, equity, and financial markets, triggering what could
become a global recession. Output and trade declined sharply in the last quarter of 2008 (figure 1q). Projections for 2009
suggest global growth close to zero percent, with strong downside risks. Unemployment is rising sharply in both developed
and emerging market economies. The International Labour
Organization estimates job losses of up to 50 million in 2009.
The United States lost as many as 3.6 million jobs in 2008.
The crisis had its superficial roots in the rise in U.S.
household debt (figure 1r), financed largely by home mortgages, many of which did not meet prime underwriting guidelines. When home prices began to fall from their peak in
2006 (figure 1s), mortgage default rates rose sharply and
triggered a collapse in mortgage-backed securities. Subprime lending came to an abrupt halt, further driving down
the prices of U.S. homes. Investors, their confidence undermined, withdrew funds from other illiquid markets (figure 1t),
and investment banks had to liquidate assets or withdraw
financing from customers, forcing further deleveraging. Thus,
Output in the largest economies slowed
or declined in the 4th quarter of 2008

1q
2008 Q1
2008 Q3

GDP (% change from previous year)
15

2008 Q2
2008 Q4

the subprime mortgage crisis became a fully fledged financial
crisis (Lin 2009).
The impacts were felt throughout the increasingly integrated global financial markets, attacking stock markets
globally and reducing credit availability. Global stock markets
lost an estimated $30 trillion in market capitalization in 2008
over their inflated 2007 levels. Rising unemployment and the
wealth effects of falling asset prices contributed to a sharp
decline in consumer spending. Developing countries suddenly faced a sharp decline in demand for their exports and a
drop in commodity prices. As recessionary trends developed,
remittances from migrant workers declined, and migrants
began returning home.
Three major factors account for the scale of the crisis.
Underlying the bubbles in global real estate and stock markets were growing macroeconomic imbalances that fed liquidity into the system, lowering real interest rates and fueling the
asset price bubbles. Financial innovations pioneered by major
global investment banks turned out to be transmission mechanisms for instability (Lin 2009). And the failure of national
financial regulators to effectively regulate global financial markets encouraged investors to take exorbitant risk.
U.S. house prices
peaked in 2006

1s

U.S. house price index (1980 = 100)
400

10
300
5
200

0
–5

100

–10
0
2000 Q1

–15
United States

Japan

Euro area

China

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Japan Cabinet Office, Eurostat, China
National Bureau of Statistics, Haver Analytics, and World Bank staff calculations.

U.S. household debt
rose rapidly after 2000

1r

Household debt as share of disposable personal income (%)
160

2002 Q1

2004 Q1

2006 Q1

2008 Q4

Source: U.S. Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight.

As housing bubbles burst,
investors lost confidence

1t

Stock market capitalization ($ trillions)
80
Total household debt

120

Home mortgages outstanding

80

40

40

Consumer credit

0
1998

2000

2002

2004

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System data files.

6

60

2009 World Development Indicators

2006

2007

20
0
Jan-07

Jun-07

Jan-08

Source: World Federation of Exchanges data files.

Jun-08

Jan-09

Macroeconomic imbalances
Global savings and investment rates have been fairly stable
in recent years at 20–22 percent. But these global rates
masked a significant shift in the source of savings. In developing economies savings rates rose 7 percentage points of
aggregate GDP between 2000 and 2007, exceeding investment rates, while in high-income, Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development countries, savings rates fell
by about 2 percentage points of aggregate GDP.
The growing pool of savings in part of the world reflected
the rising new incomes of oil exporters, boosted by record
prices, deliberate policies to build up foreign exchange
reserves by Asian countries wishing to avoid repeating the
experience of the late 1990s, and the excess household and
corporate savings in China (figure 1u). Surpluses in Germany,
Japan, and some Asian countries were matched by substantial savings deficits, mainly in the United States (figures 1v
and 1w). U.S. savings rates fell nearly 4 percentage points
between 2000 and 2007, producing a savings-investment
imbalance of close to 5 percentage points of GDP.
The rest of the world’s savings surpluses left the United
States awash in liquidity. U.S.-owned assets abroad doubled
between 2000 and 2007 to 128 percent of GDP, reflecting the
importance of the United States as a source of both foreign
Savings and investment
in China . . .

1u

direct investment and portfolio flows (figure 1x). U.S. liabilities
rose from 77 percent of GDP to 145 percent over the same
period, increasing the negative net liabilities to 17 percent of
2007 GDP. Foreign official assets held in the United States
more than tripled, to $3.3 trillion, or 24 percent of GDP, the
bulk of it in U.S. government securities, the counterpart to the
buildup in reserves in developing and high-income Asia. This
kept U.S. interest rates low and stimulated a global “search
for yield.” It also led investors to underprice risk and shift
to risky assets, stimulating a boom in real estate and stock
markets globally.
Some see the savings surpluses in developing economies
as policy driven, ascribing a passive role to policymakers in
industrial economies who benefited from these surpluses.
Others see U.S. structural deficits as reflecting profligate
spending. Indeed, personal savings in the United States were
a mere 1.7 percent of GDP in 2000, falling further to 0.4
percent by 2007 reflecting consumption growth in “substantial excess of income growth” (Summers 2006). But until the
crisis rudely interrupted the party, both surplus and deficit
countries benefited: the first from high export-led growth; the
second from low interest rates and cheap consumer goods,
which held inflation down despite large fiscal deficits.
The five largest current
account surpluses and deficits

1w

Current account balance, 2005–07 average ($ billions)
400

Gross savings and investment (% of GDP)
60
Gross savings (% of GDP)

200
0

50

–200
–400

40
Gross capital formation (% of GDP)

30
1980

–600
–800

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

China Germany Japan

Saudi Russian Italy
Arabia Federation

Australia United Spain
Kingdom

United
States

Source: International Monetary Fund balance of payments data files.

. . . And the
United States

1v

Gross savings and investment (% of GDP)

U.S. foreign assets
and liabilities doubled

1x

U.S. international investment position (% of GDP)
160

30

Foreign-owned assets in the United States (% of GDP)
Gross capital formation (% of GDP)

120

20
80

U.S.-owned assets abroad (% of GDP)

Gross savings (% of GDP)

10

40
0
1980

0
1985

1990

1995

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

2000

2006

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis data files.

2009 World Development Indicators

7

The role of financial innovation
What distinguishes this crisis from previous crises is the
speed and depth of the transmission channels, as a U.S.based crisis turned global in a matter of months. This reflects
the transformation of the financial system during this boom
period by the dramatic growth in the share of assets held
outside the traditional banking system. The mortgage market,
for example, was transformed by an “originate and distribute”
model. Mortgage loans, made by loan originators, were resold to financial institutions, which “sliced and diced” pools
of mortgages and aggregated them into collateralized debt
obligations resold in turn to investors all over the world.
Derivatives, or financial instruments whose value is derived
from the value of an underlying asset (commodities, equities,
stocks, mortgages, real estate, loans, bonds) or an index
(of interest rates, stock prices, or consumer prices), enable
those who trade in them to mitigate risk through hedging or to
speculate. Derivatives can be bought and sold through over the
counter trades between two parties, or they can be exchange
traded. Over the counter derivatives had a notional value of
some $684 trillion in June 2008 (figure 1y), representing the
value of the underlying assets against which the derivatives
were issued. But the risk is better measured by the cost of
replacing all such contracts at the prevailing market price: their
gross global market value rose from $2.5 trillion in June 2000
to a still astronomical $20.4 trillion in June 2008 (figure 1z).
Assets underlying over the counter
derivatives rose sevenfold . . .

1y

Notional amounts oustanding ($ trillions)

Derivatives were pioneered globally by investment banks,
stimulated by high fees. Financial sector profits in the U.S.
averaged 29 percent of before-tax profi ts between 2000
and 2006 (figure 1aa). U.S investment banks quickly grew
to rival commercial banks but were not subject to the same
regulation. “The scale of long-term risky and illiquid assets
financed by very short-term liabilities made many of the
vehicles and institutions in this parallel financial system vulnerable to a classic type of run, but without the protections,
such as deposit insurance, that the banking system has in
place to reduce such risks” (Geithner 2008). Following the
collapse of the real estate market and the loss of confidence
in mortgage- backed securities, investors began pulling out
of these markets, creating liquidity and solvency crises for
investment banks.
Underlying these developments lay the failure to properly regulate financial institutions, weaknesses in internal
risk management systems, and the failure of credit rating
agencies to correctly rate risk. At the end of 2007, there
were reportedly 12 triple-A rated companies in the world,
but as many as 64,000 structured finance instruments were
rated triple-A (Blankfein 2009). Given the size of the market
in these new instruments, it is questionable whether any
single national authority can regulate cross-border transactions (figure 1bb).
U.S. domestic financial sector profits averaged almost
30 percent of before-tax profits during 2000–06

1aa

Share of before-tax profits (%)
40

800
Unallocateda
600

30

Credit default swaps
Commodity contracts
Equity linked contracts

400

20
200

10
Interest rate contracts
Foreign exchange contracts

0

Jun-00

Jun-01

Jun-02

Jun-03

Jun-04

Jun-05

Jun-06

Jun-07

Jun-08

a. Includes over the counter derivatives of nonreporting institutions, based on the latest
Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Derivatives Market Activity in 2007.
Source: Bank for International Settlements data files.

. . . While the market value
of derivatives rose ninefold

1z

1995

1997

1999

2001

20

Unallocateda

2003

2005

2007

Source: Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis data files.

Derivatives can undermine capital controls, leading to
linkages that make market dynamics difficult to predict
Market average daily turnover in over
the counter derivatives, 2007 ($ billions)
500

Gross market values ($ trillions)
25

1bb

Total
Foreign exchange
Interest rate

400

Credit default swaps

15

Commodity contracts
Equity linked contracts

300

10

200

5

Interest rate contracts
Foreign exchange contracts

0
Jun-00

Jun-01

Jun-02

Jun-03

Jun-04

Jun-05

Jun-06

Jun-07

Jun-08

a. Includes over the counter derivatives of nonreporting institutions, based on the latest
Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Derivatives Market Activity in 2007.
Source: Bank for International Settlements data files.

8

0

2009 World Development Indicators

100
0
Emerging China
Asia

India

Korea, Latin Brazil Mexico Central Russian South Turkey
Rep. America
Europe Feder- Africa
ation

Source: Bank for International Settlements 2007.

Why financial crises occur so often
Banking systems are inherently prone to crises. Banks borrow
short (take in deposits) and lend long. They rely on depositors not to withdraw their deposits all at the same time. But
depositor confidence in banks can be shaken by the rising
threat of nonperforming loans or by political and economic
developments. Even sound banks can be hurt by rumors and
a general loss of confidence. When that happens, depositors
may demand their deposits, causing a run on banks or a liquidity crisis. If banks sell their assets to maintain their ability
to repay depositors, that may reduce the price of their assets
and thus their equity base, a solvency crisis.
A recent study notes that banking crises “have long been
an equal opportunity menace,” (Reinhart and Rogoff 2008,
p. 2) affecting developed and developing economies alike. It
examines crises beginning with Denmark’s financial panic during the Napoleonic war to the current global financial crisis in
66 economies. The Great Depression of the 1930s was the
crisis that affected the greatest number of countries in the 109
years ending in 2008. The period immediately after World War
II, between the late 1940s and the early 1970s, when financial
markets were repressed and capital controls were extensive,
was marked by relative calm. Banking crises recurred again
after the 1970s following financial and international capital
account liberalization (figure 1cc). Major crises in this period
included the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, the U.S.
The number of banking crises
rose after the 1970s

1cc

savings and loan crisis of 1984, Japan’s asset bust in 1992,
and the Asian financial crisis of 1997–98 (figure 1dd).
Some key characteristics of banking crises include:
• Periods of high international capital mobility, which
have repeatedly produced international banking crises, possibly because they were accompanied by
inadequate regulation and supervision (Caprio and
Klingebiel 1996).
• Preceding period of sustained surges in capital inflows.
• Preceding boom in real housing prices, followed by a
marked decline in the year of the crisis and beyond.
• Preceding expansion in the number of fi nancial
institutions.
The cost of bailing out banks following a systemic crisis
(the exhaustion of much or all of banking capital) is often high
(figure 1ee). A study of 117 systemic banking crises in 93
economies between the late 1970s and 2002 shows that the
cost to countries of major crises could amount to as much
as 55% of GDP (as with Indonesia in its 1997–2002 crisis;
Caprio and Klingebiel 2003). This does not include the cost
to depositors and borrowers of wider interest rate spreads
from bad loans on balance sheets. The data need to be used
with caution, however, because in some cases costs include
corporate restructuring while in others they relate to restructuring and capitalization of banks.
The cost of systemic
financial crises can be very high

1ee

Cost of crisis (% of GDP)

Countries with banking crisis
60

Tanzania 1980–87
Hungary 1991–95
Finland 1991–94

40

Taiwan, China 1997–98
Czech Republic 1991–1994
Paraguay 1995–99

20

Bulgaria 1995–1997
Mauritania 1984–93
Malaysia 1997–2002

0
1970

Spain 1977–85
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

Senegal 1988–91
Benin 1988–90

Source: Reinhart and Rogoff 2008.

Venezuela 1994–95
Mexico 1994–97

The latest crisis is affecting a
large portion of global income

Ecuador 1998–2002

1dd

Uruguay 1981–84
Japan 1991–2002

Proportion of global income of countries with banking crises (%)
60
U.S. savings
and loan crisis

Japan
banking
crisis

40

Côte d’Ivoire 1988–91
U.S.-led global
financial crisis

Asian
crisis

Korea, Rep. 1997–2002
Israel 1977–83
Turkey 2000–2002
Macedonia 1993–94
Thailand 1997–2002
Chile 1981–86

20

Jamaica 1995–2000
China 1990s
Indonesia 1997–2002

0
1970

Argentina 1980–82
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2007

Source: Reinhart and Rogoff 2008 and World Development Indicators data files.

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Source: Caprio and Klingebiel 2003.

2009 World Development Indicators

9

The crisis spreads quickly . . .

. . . And developing economies feel the pain

Past crises show that equity prices typically fall 55 percent
over 3.5 years (Reinhart and Rogoff 2008). Housing prices
decline an average 35 percent over 6 years. Unemployment
rises 7 percentage points over 4 years. Output falls by 9 percent over 2 years. And the real value of government debt rises
an average of 86 percent. This pattern is beginning to play out
in the major high-income economies. In the fourth quarter of
2008 U.S. gross domestic output contracted by an annualized rate of 6.2 percent, Euro zone countries by 5.9 percent,
and Japan by 12.1 percent.
Many low- and middle-income economies have begun to
feel the impact as high-income economy demand for their
exports declines. The troubles of the financial sector have
increased risk aversion and reduced liquidity, impairing or
reversing capital flows to low- and middle-income economy
borrowers and equity markets (figures 1ff and 1gg). The subsidiaries of troubled banks are likely to curtail lending, pushing corporations with debt falling due into risk of insolvency.
Foreign direct investment flows may also decline as corporations adjust to an increasingly uncertain environment and as
plunging commodity prices make some ventures less appealing. Higher unemployment will also reduce workers’ remittance flows to low- and middle-income economies.

Low-income economies are the most vulnerable to potential
losses of official aid, workers’ remittances, and foreign direct investment, which often make up a large share of their GDP (table
1hh). But the slowdown in trade could also hurt low-income commodity exporters such as The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria,
Mauritania, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, and Zimbabwe, which
are expected to suffer large terms of trade losses as prices
fall. Lower commodity prices will reduce both export revenues
and fiscal revenues—and discourage foreign direct investment.
But food and fuel importers, which have endured soaring prices
since January 2007, will get some relief—oil importers such as
Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan and food importers such as Benin, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Madagascar, Niger, Senegal,
and Togo may benefit from improved terms of trade.
Remittances have proved surprisingly resilient, rising again
in 2008. But they are expected to fall as unemployment rises
in high-income economies and some migrants return home.
For many low-income economies, remittances are a big part of
total capital flows—10 percent of GDP in more than a quarter
of them (figure 1ii). And if the pattern of past financial crises
is a guide, there is also a risk that official aid will decline.
Low-income economies rely heavily on official aid flows, with
median official aid at 15 percent of GDP in 2005–07.

Borrowing costs have climbed,
reflecting perceived risk

1ff

Low-income economies depend the most on official aid,
workers’ remittances, and foreign direct investment

1hh

External financing, 2007 (% of GDP)

Spread on emerging market sovereign bonds against 10-year U.S. Treasury notes
(basis points)
1,000

LowMiddleincome
income
economies economies

Source
750

Workers’ remittances and compensation
of employees, receipts

5.7

1.8

500

Official aid

5.0

0.3

Foreign direct investment, net inflows

4.2

3.7

Portfolio equity investment

1.6

0.9

250

Bonds
0
Jan-08

Mar-08

May-08

Jul-08

Sep-08

Nov-08

Jan-09

0.2

0.6

Commercial banks and other lending, net flows

–0.1

1.6

Net exports of goods and services

–6.3

2.6

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

Source: JPMorgan-Chase.

Equity markets have
suffered large losses

1gg

Remittances are significant
for many low-income economies

1ii

Number of low-income countries
15

MSCI equity price indices (January 2008 = 100)
120

90

10
Group of Seven

60
5
Emerging market economies

30
0
0
Jan-08

0–5
Mar-08

May-08

Jul-08

Source: Morgan-Stanley.

10

2009 World Development Indicators

Sep-08

Nov-08

Jan-09

6–10 11–15 16–20 21–25 26–30 31–35 36–40 41–45 46–50
Private current transfers (% of GDP)

Source: International Monetary Fund balance of payments data files and World
Development Indicators data files.

Coping with the crisis

Protecting the vulnerable

In November 2008 China introduced a $585 billion economic stimulus package to counter the global crisis. Other
middle-income economies also have stimulus plans. Fiscal responses to the crisis must address short-term risks to macroeconomic stability and long-term fiscal sustainability—while
protecting the vulnerable segments of society and the longer
term investments that sustain economic growth and human
development. About 40 percent of low- and middle-income
economies have good fiscal and current account positions,
including many larger economies, and may be able to expand
fiscal policy without jeopardizing solvency (table 1jj).
In addition to strong fiscal and external positions, a successful fiscal stimulus requires administrative capability to
design and implement new programs, or expand existing ones
(box 1kk). Getting the timing and size right for a discretionary
fiscal stimulus is not easy. Packages often cannot be delivered
quickly enough, and expenditures may go to wasteful projects,
especially when subject to political pressure. Where administrative capacity is weak, easier to implement options are boosting
existing safety net programs, supplementing or replacing faltering foreign financing of infrastructure projects already under way
with domestic financing, creating jobs through public works projects, increasing fiscal transfers to subnational governments,
and facilitating central bank support of trade financing.

Poor people in developing economies are highly exposed to
the global crisis. World Bank estimates for 2009 suggest
that lower growth rates will trap 46 million more people below the $1.25 a day poverty line than expected before the
crisis. An extra 53 million people will be living on less than
$2 a day, and child mortality rates could soar. It is estimated that 200,000–400,000 more children a year, a total
of 1.4–2.8 million from 2009 to 2015, may die if the crisis
persists.
Poor consumers are the first to be hurt by lower demand
for labor and falling remittances. In addition, shrinking fiscal revenues and potential decreases in offi cial aid flows
threaten to reduce access to social safety nets and to such
social services as health care and education. Households
may have to sell productive assets, pull children out of
school, and reduce calorie intake, which can lead to acute
malnutrition. The long-term consequences can be severe
and in some cases irreversible, especially for women and
children.
Almost 40 percent of low- and middle-income economies
are highly exposed to the poverty effects of the crisis. Yet
three-quarters of them cannot raise funds domestically or
internationally to finance programs to curb the effects of the
downturn.

Fiscal positions have generally improved but
remain weak for some developing economies

1jj

Fiscal position (% of GDP; median)
Country group
Low-income economiesb
Large economies
East Asia and Pacific
Europe and Central Asia
Latin America and Caribbean
Middle East and North Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Small economies
Middle-income economies

Public debt
2007
40.5
36.7
40.6
31.7
37.6
41.2
57.1
28.0
61.0
34.1

Maximum
debt
2002–07
87.9
87.9
70.1
77.5
55.0
57.8
66.4
93.9
87.1
51.1

Fiscal
balance
2007a
–2.4
–1.9
–2.5
–2.6
–0.4
–4.8
–3.4
–1.7
–3.6
–0.6

Recent World Bank
Group initiatives

1ll

Establish a vulnerability fund. The World Bank has proposed a vulnerability fund financed by high-income economies to assist countries that
cannot afford to protect the vulnerable. The fund’s priorities would
be to invest in safety net programs and infrastructure and to finance
small and medium-size enterprises and microfinance institutions.
Substantially increase lending by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). IBRD could make new commitments of up to $100 billion over the next three years.
Fast track funds from the International Development Association (IDA).
A facility is now in place to speed $2 billion to help the poorest
countries deal with the effects of the crisis.

a. After official grants.
b. IDA-eligible economies.
Source: IMF 2008b; World Development Indicators data files.

Respond to the food crisis. Nearly $900 million is approved or in the
pipeline to help developing countries cope with the impact of high
food prices through a $1.2 billion food facility.

Finding fiscal space in
low-income economies

Ensure trade flows. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a
member of the World Bank Group that focuses on the private sector,
plans to double its existing Global Trade Finance Program to $3 billion over three years and to mobilize funds from other sources.

1kk

Low-income economies can allow fiscal deficits to temporarily
increase if they can access financing, but this generally has not been
the case in past downturns. Median public debt among low-income
economies was 41 percent of GDP in 2007. A quarter of developing
economies had public debt of less than 21 percent. Among larger
Sub-Saharan African economies median debt was 28 percent.
The ability to borrow depends on the size of the fiscal deficit, the
level of government debt, the country’s growth prospects, the government’s reputation for fiscal management, the structure of debt
(maturity, currency), and recent debt history.
Financing a larger fiscal deficit is generally easier if the country’s
starting external balance and reserve position are strong. A fiscal
stimulus package tends to increase the external deficit by bolstering domestic demand. For commodity-exporting countries current
account and fiscal deficits tend to rise when commodity prices fall,
as at present. Thus a large imbalance or a low level of reserves will
tend to limit the size of the fiscal stimulus that is possible.

Bolster distressed banking systems. IFC is putting in place a global
equity fund to recapitalize distressed banks. IFC expects to invest $1
billion over three years, and Japan plans to invest $2 billion.
Keep infrastructure projects on track. IFC expects to invest at least
$300 million over three years and mobilize $1.5 billion to provide
rollover financing and recapitalize viable infrastructure projects in
distress.
Support microfinance. IFC and Germany have launched a $500 million facility to support microfinance institutions facing difficulties as
a result of the crisis.
Shift advisory support to help companies weather the crisis. IFC is refocusing advisory services to help clients cope with the crisis. It estimates a financing need of at least $40 million over three years.

2009 World Development Indicators

11

Millennium Development Goals
Goals and targets from the Millennium Declaration Indicators for monitoring progress
Goal 1

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Target 1.A Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
people whose income is less than $1 a day

1.1
1.2
1.3

Target 1.B Achieve full and productive employment and decent
work for all, including women and young people

1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

Target 1.C Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
people who suffer from hunger

1.8
1.9

Goal 2

2.1
2.2
2.3
3.1
3.2
3.3

Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary
education
Share of women in wage employment in the
nonagricultural sector
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

Reduce child mortality

Target 4.A Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the
under-five mortality rate

Goal 5

Net enrollment ratio in primary education
Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last
grade of primary education
Literacy rate of 15- to 24-year-olds, women and men

Promote gender equality and empower women

Target 3.A Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary
education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of
education no later than 2015

Goal 4

Growth rate of GDP per person employed
Employment to population ratio
Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) a day
Proportion of own-account and contributing family
workers in total employment
Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age
Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary
energy consumption

Achieve universal primary education

Target 2.A Ensure that by 2015 children everywhere, boys and
girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of
primary schooling
Goal 3

Proportion of population below $1 purchasing power
parity (PPP) a day1
Poverty gap ratio [incidence × depth of poverty]
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

4.1
4.2
4.3

Under-five mortality rate
Infant mortality rate
Proportion of one-year-old children immunized against
measles

Improve maternal health

Target 5.A Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, 5.1
the maternal mortality ratio
5.2

Maternal mortality ratio
Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Target 5.B Achieve by 2015 universal access to reproductive
health

Contraceptive prevalence rate
Adolescent birth rate
Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least
four visits)
Unmet need for family planning

5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Goal 6

Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

Target 6.A Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the
spread of HIV/AIDS

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Target 6.B Achieve by 2010 universal access to treatment for
HIV/AIDS for all those who need it

6.5

Target 6.C Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the
incidence of malaria and other major diseases

6.6
6.7

HIV prevalence among population ages 15–24 years
Condom use at last high-risk sex
Proportion of population ages 15–24 years with
comprehensive, correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS
Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school
attendance of nonorphans ages 10–14 years
Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with
access to antiretroviral drugs

Incidence and death rates associated with malaria
Proportion of children under age five sleeping under
insecticide-treated bednets
6.8 Proportion of children under age five with fever who are
treated with appropriate antimalarial drugs
6.9 Incidence, prevalence, and death rates associated with
tuberculosis
6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured
under directly observed treatment short course

The Millennium Development Goals and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries, including 147 heads of state and government, in September 2000 (www.
un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm) as updated by the 60th UN General Assembly in September 2005. The revised Millennium Development Goal (MDG) monitoring framework
shown here, including new targets and indicators, was presented to the 62nd General Assembly, with new numbering as recommended by the Inter-agency and Expert Group on MDG
Indicators at its 12th meeting on 14 November 2007. The goals and targets are interrelated and should be seen as a whole. They represent a partnership between the developed countries
and the developing countries “to create an environment—at the national and global levels alike—which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty.” All indicators should be
disaggregated by sex and urban-rural location as far as possible.

12

2009 World Development Indicators

Goals and targets from the Millennium Declaration Indicators for monitoring progress
Goal 7

Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 7.A Integrate the principles of sustainable development
into country policies and programs and reverse the
loss of environmental resources
Target 7.B Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a
significant reduction in the rate of loss

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7

Proportion of land area covered by forest
Carbon dioxide emissions, total, per capita and
per $1 GDP (PPP)
Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits
Proportion of total water resources used
Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected
Proportion of species threatened with extinction

Target 7.C Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without
sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic
sanitation

7.8

Target 7.D Achieve by 2020 a significant improvement in the
lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

7.10 Proportion of urban population living in slums2

Goal 8

7.9

Proportion of population using an improved drinking water
source
Proportion of population using an improved sanitation
facility

Develop a global partnership for development

Target 8.A Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable,
nondiscriminatory trading and financial system

Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately
for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked
developing countries, and small island developing states.

(Includes a commitment to good governance,
development, and poverty reduction—both
nationally and internationally.)

Official development assistance (ODA)
8.1 Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as
percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income
8.2 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of
OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic
education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water, and
Target 8.B Address the special needs of the least developed
sanitation)
countries
8.3 Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of
OECD/DAC donors that is untied
(Includes tariff and quota-free access for the least
developed countries’ exports; enhanced program of 8.4 ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a
proportion of their gross national incomes
debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC)
8.5
ODA
received in small island developing states as a
and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more
proportion of their gross national incomes
generous ODA for countries committed to poverty
reduction.)
Market access
Target 8.C Address the special needs of landlocked
8.6 Proportion of total developed country imports (by value
developing countries and small island developing
and excluding arms) from developing countries and least
states (through the Programme of Action for
developed countries, admitted free of duty
the Sustainable Development of Small Island
8.7 Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on
Developing States and the outcome of the 22nd
agricultural products and textiles and clothing from
special session of the General Assembly)
developing countries
8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a
percentage of their GDP
8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity
Target 8.D Deal comprehensively with the debt problems
of developing countries through national and
Debt sustainability
international measures in order to make debt
8.10 Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC
sustainable in the long term
decision points and number that have reached their HIPC
completion points (cumulative)
8.11 Debt relief committed under HIPC Initiative and
Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI)
8.12 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and
services
Target 8.E In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies,
provide access to affordable essential drugs in
developing countries

8.13 Proportion of population with access to affordable
essential drugs on a sustainable basis

Target 8.F In cooperation with the private sector, make
available the benefits of new technologies,
especially information and communications

8.14 Telephone lines per 100 population
8.15 Cellular subscribers per 100 population
8.16 Internet users per 100 population

1. Where available, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used for monitoring country poverty trends.
2. The proportion of people living in slums is measured by a proxy, represented by the urban population living in households with at least one of these characteristics: lack of access to
improved water supply, lack of access to improved sanitation, overcrowding (3 or more persons per room), and dwellings made of nondurable material.

2009 World Development Indicators

13

1.1

Size of the economy
Population Surface Population
area
density

millions
2007

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Cote d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

14

..
3
34
17
40
3
21
8
9
159
10
11
9
10
4
2
192
8
15
8
14
19
33
4
11
17
1,318
7
44
62
4
4
19
4
11
10
5
10
13
75
7
5
1
79
5
62
1
2
4
82
23
11
13
9
2
10

thousand
sq. km
2007

people
per sq. km
2007

652
29
2,382
1,247
2,780
30
7,741
84
87
144
208
31
113
1,099
51
582
8,515
111
274
28
181
475
9,985
623
1,284
757
9,598
1
1,142
2,345
342
51
322
57
111
79
43
49
284
1,001
21
118
45
1,104
338
552
268
11
70
357
239
132
109
246
36
28

..
116
14
14
14
107
3
101
104
1,218
47
351
82
9
74
3
23
71
54
331
82
40
4
7
9
22
141
6,647
40
28
11
87
61
79
103
134
129
201
48
76
331
48
32
79
17
112
5
171
63
236
103
87
123
38
60
349

2009 World Development Indicators

Gross national
income

Gross national
income per capita

PPP gross national
incomea

Gross domestic
product

$ billions
2007b

Rank
2007

$
2007b

Rank
2007

$ billions
2007

Per capita
$
2007

Rank
2007

% growth
2006–07

Per capita
% growth
2006–07

8.1
10.5
122.5
43.0
238.7
7.9
751.5
348.9
22.6
74.9
40.9
436.9
5.1
12.0
14.3
11.5
1,122.1
35.1
6.4
0.9
8.0
19.5
1,307.5
1.6
5.8
135.8
3,126.0
218.6
180.4
8.6
5.8
24.7
17.8
46.4
..
150.7
302.8
34.6
41.5
119.5
19.6
1.3
17.2
17.6
234.3
2,466.6g
9.3
0.5
9.3
3,207.3
13.8
288.1
32.8
3.7
0.3
5.0

120
111
48
67
30
123
15
25
84
56
69
20
141
106
101
107
10
73
130
188
122
90
9
174
137
46
4
32
37
121
136
81
95
65
..
40
26
74
68
49
89
178
97
96
31
6
116
193
117
3
104
27
79
150
202
143

..c
3,300
3,620
2,540
6,040
2,630
35,760
41,960
2,640
470
4,220
41,110
570
1,260
3,790e
6,120
5,860
4,580
430
110
550
1,050
39,650
370
540
8,190
2,370
31,560
4,100e
140
1,540
5,520
920
10,460
..f
14,580
55,440
3,560
3,110
1,580
2,850
270
12,830
220
44,300
38,810g
7,020
320
2,120
38,990
590
25,740
2,450
400
200
520

..
116
108
128
85
125
29
19
124
184
100
21
178
151
105
84
86
97
186
209
179
156
22
189
180
76
132
33
103
207
145
90
161
66
..
56
9
109
120
144
121
202
61
205
18
25
80
195
135
24
177
40
130
188
206
182

26d
23
259d
72.3
512.4
17.7
702.0
305.6
56.3
211.4
104.3
375.3
11.8
39.5
30.3
24.2
1,775.6
85.0
16.5
2.8
24.9
39.3
1,170.7
3.1
13.8
204.7
7,150.5
304.3
363.4
17.9
10.4
46.9d
31.1
68.9
..
234.5
201.0
61.8d
94.8
405.3
38.6d
3.0d
25.3
61.7
183.9
2,088.8
17.8
1.9
21.0
2,857.7
31.0
311.5
60.3d
10.5
0.8
10.1d

..d
7,240
7,640d
4,270
12,970
5,870
33,400
36,750
6,570
1,330
10,750
35,320
1,310
4,150
8,020
12,880
9,270
11,100
1,120
330
1,720
2,120
35,500
710
1,280
12,330
5,420
43,940
8,260
290
2,750
10,510d
1,620
15,540
..
22,690
36,800
6,350d
7,110
5,370
5,640d
620d
18,830
780
34,760
33,850
13,410
1,140
4,760
34,740
1,320
27,830
4,520d
1,120
470
1,050d

..
107
104
135
78
117
34
21
114
177
90
26
180
138
102
79
97
87
186
206
170
161
25
201
181
82
120
13
101
207
152
92
175
68
..
53
20
115
112
121
118
204
62
196
28
32
76
185
129
30
178
43
131
186
205
189

5.3
6.0
3.1
21.1
8.7
13.8
3.3
3.4
25.0
6.4
8.2
2.8
4.6
4.6
6.8
5.3
5.4
6.2
4.0
3.6
10.2
3.5
2.7
4.2
0.6
5.1
13.0
6.4
7.5
6.5
–1.6
7.8
1.7
5.6
..
6.6
1.8
8.5
2.7
7.1
4.7
1.3
6.3
11.1
4.4
2.2
5.6
6.3
12.4
2.5
6.3
4.0
5.7
1.5
2.7
3.2

..
5.7
1.6
18.3
7.6
13.8
1.7
2.9
23.9
4.7
8.5
2.0
1.5
2.8
7.0
4.0
4.2
6.7
1.0
–0.3
8.3
1.5
1.7
2.3
–2.1
4.1
12.4
5.3
6.2
3.5
–3.6
6.3
–0.2
5.6
..
5.9
1.3
7.3
1.6
5.2
3.3
–1.8
6.5
8.4
4.0
1.6
4.0
3.6
13.3
2.6
4.2
3.6
3.2
–0.6
–0.3
1.4

Population Surface Population
area
density

millions
2007

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

7
10
1,125
226
71
..
4
7
59
3
128
6
15
38
24
48
3
5
6
2
4
2
4
6
3
2
20
14
27
12
3
1
105
4
3
31
21
49
2
28
16
4
6
14
148
5
3
162
3
6
6
28
88
38
11
4

thousand
sq. km
2007

112
93
3,287
1,905
1,745
438
70
22
301
11
378
89
2,725
580
121
99
18
200
237
65
10
30
111
1,760
65
26
587
118
330
1,240
1,031
2
1,964
34
1,567
447
799
677
824
147
42
268
130
1,267
924
324
310
796
76
463
407
1,285
300
313
92
9

people
per sq. km
2007

63
112
378
125
44
..
63
332
202
247
351
65
6
66
198
491
149
27
25
37
400
66
39
3
54
80
34
148
81
10
3
621
54
116
2
69
27
74
3
197
484
16
46
11
162
15
8
211
45
14
15
22
295
124
116
445

Gross national
income

$ billions
2007b

11.3
117.5
1,071.0
372.6
251.5
..
207.9
159.2
1,988.2
8.9
4,828.9
16.3
77.7
24.0
..
955.8
99.9
3.2
3.7
22.6
23.8
2.1
0.5
55.5
33.0
7.1
6.4
3.5
170.5
6.1
2.6
7.0
989.5
4.1
3.4
70.7
7.1
..
7.2
9.9
747.8
114.5
5.5
4.0
136.3
364.3
32.8
140.2
18.4
5.4
10.5
95.0
142.1
375.3
201.1
..

Gross national
income per capita

PPP gross national
incomea

WORLD VIEW

Size of the economy

1.1
Gross domestic
product

Rank
2007

$
2007b

Rank
2007

$ billions
2007

Per capita
$
2007

Rank
2007

% growth
2006–07

Per capita
% growth
2006–07

109
51
11
23
29
..
34
39
7
119
2
99
55
82
..
14
53
157
151
85
83
171
194
62
77
126
131
153
38
134
166
127
13
147
156
57
125
..
124
115
16
52
138
148
45
24
75
43
93
139
112
54
42
21
36
..

1,590
11,680
950
1,650
3,540
..h
47,610
22,170
33,490
3,330i
37,790
2,840
5,020
640
..c
19,730
38,420
610
630
9,920
5,800
1,030
140
9,010
9,770
3,470
320
250
6,420
500
840
5,580
9,400
1,210j
1,290
2,290
330
..c
3,450
350
45,650
27,080
990
280
920
77,370
12,860
860
5,500
850
1,710
3,410
1,620
9,850
18,950
..k

143
64
159
141
110
..
13
45
30
115
26
122
94
174
..
48
23
176
175
69
87
157
207
73
71
111
195
204
81
183
167
89
72
153
149
133
194
..
112
193
17
39
158
200
161
3
59
165
92
166
139
113
142
70
50
..

25.6d
175.6
3,082.5
804.5
769.7
..
164.6
188.9
1,792.6
14.2d
4,440.2
29.5
148.7
58.1
..
1,203.6
136.7
10.4
12.2
35.9
41.2
3.9
1.0
90.6d
56.8
18.4
18.2
10.5
351.2
12.8
6.3
14.4
1,464.4
10.6
8.3
125.1
15.5
..
10.6
29.8
646.5
107.3
14.1d
9.0
260.8
252.6
55.1
412.9
35.5d
11.8d
27.7
200.9
326.4
590.9
231.1
..

3,610d
17,470
2,740
3,570
10,840
..
37,700
26,310
30,190
5,300d
34,750
5,150
9,600
1,550
..
24,840
52,610
1,980
2,080
15,790
10,040
1,940
280
14,710d
16,830
9,050
930
760
13,230
1,040
2,000
11,410
13,910
2,800
3,170
4,050
730
..
5,100
1,060
39,470
25,380
2,510d
630
1,760
53,650
21,650
2,540
10,610d
1,870d
4,520
7,200
3,710
15,500
21,790
..

143
64
153
144
89
..
18
45
38
123
29
124
95
176
..
50
4
165
162
67
93
166
208
71
66
100
193
198
77
190
164
86
74
151
146
139
199
..
125
188
17
48
157
203
169
5
57
155
91
168
131
108
142
69
59
..

6.3
1.1
9.1
6.3
7.8
..
6.0
5.4
1.5
–7.3
2.1
6.0
8.9
7.0
..
5.0
6.3
8.2
7.9
10.3
2.0
4.9
9.4
6.8
8.8
5.0
6.2
7.9
6.3
2.8
1.9
4.7
3.2
3.0
10.2
2.7
7.3
5.0
5.9
3.2
3.5
3.0
3.9
3.2
5.9
3.7
7.2
6.0
11.5
6.2
6.8
8.9
7.2
6.6
1.8
..

4.3
1.3
7.6
5.1
6.4
..
3.4
3.5
0.7
–7.7
2.1
2.6
7.7
4.2
..
4.6
3.7
7.3
6.0
10.9
1.0
4.3
5.4
4.8
9.4
4.9
3.4
5.2
4.6
–0.2
–0.6
4.0
2.2
3.8
9.2
1.5
5.3
4.1
4.2
1.5
3.3
1.9
2.6
–0.1
3.6
2.6
5.6
3.7
9.8
4.2
4.9
7.6
5.2
6.7
1.5
..

2009 World Development Indicators

15

1.1

Size of the economy
Population Surface Population
area
density

millions
2007

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

thousand
sq. km
2007

people
per sq. km
2007

Gross national
income

$ billions
2007b

22
238
94
137.7
142
17,098
9
1,069.8
10
26
395
3.1
12
373.7
24
2,000l
12
197
64
10.3
7
78
95
33.5
6
72
82
1.5
5
1
6,660
148.4
5
49
112
63.3
2
20
100
43.4
9
638
14
..
48
1,219
39
273.9
45
505
90
1,314.5
20
66
310
30.8
39
2,506
16
36.7
1
17
67
2.9
9
450
22
437.9
8
41
189
459.2
20
185
108
35.3
7
143
48
3.1
40
947
46
16.3m
64
513
125
217.2
1
15
71
1.6
7
57
121
2.4
1
5
260
19.3
10
164
66
32.8
74
784
96
593.0
5
488
11
..
31
241
157
11.3
47
604
80
118.9
4
84
52
..
61
244
252
2,464.3
302
9,632
33
13,886.4
3
176
19
21.2
27
447
63
19.7
27
912
31
207.6
85
329
275
65.4
4
6
616
4.5
22
528
42
19.4
12
753
16
9.2
13
391
35
4.5
6,610 s 133,946 s
51 w 52,850.4 t
1,296
21,846
61
744.3
4,258
77,006
57
12,393.5
3,435
35,510
100
6,542.9
824
41,497
20
5,853.9
5,554
98,852
58
13,141.1
1,912
16,299
121
4,172.8
446
23,972
19
2,697.2
561
20,421
28
3,252.1
313
8,778
36
883.5
1,522
5,140
318
1,338.7
800
24,242
34
761.0
1,056
35,094
32
39,685.9
324
2,585
129
11,611.1

Gross national
income per capita

PPP gross national
incomea

Rank
2007

$
2007b

Rank
2007

$ billions
2007

Per capita
$
2007

44
12
161
22
113
76
176
41
59
66
..
28
8
80
70
164
19
18
72
160
98
33
175
168
92
78
17
..
108
50
..
5
1
86
87
35
58
142
91
118
145

6,390
7,530
320
15,450
830
4,540
260
32,340
11,720
21,510
..c
5,720
29,290
1,540
950
2,560
47,870
60,820
1,780
460
410m
3,400
1,510
360
14,480
3,210
8,030
..h
370
2,560
..k
40,660
46,040
6,390
730
7,550
770
1,290
870
770
340
7,995 w
574
2,910
1,905
7,107
2,366
2,182
6,052
5,801
2,820
880
951
37,570
35,818

82
79
195
54
168
98
203
31
63
46
..
88
36
145
159
126
12
7
137
185
187
114
147
191
57
118
77
..
189
126
..
20
16
82
172
78
169
148
163
169
191

266.2
2,036.5
8.4
554.4
20.5
72.6
3.9
220.0
103.7
52.9
..
452.3
1,380.0
84.0
72.5
5.6
343.0
335.3
88.1
11.5
48.7
502.8
3.3d
5.1
29.9d
73.0
946.7
21.0d
32.1
316.7
..
2,063.8
13,827.2
36.6
65.3d
337.8
215.4
..
49.3
14.2
..
65,752.3 t
1,929.7
25,666.2
15,748.8
9,943.8
27,592.5
9,503.1
5,018.7
5,426.0
2,318.7
3,853.6
1,495.5
38,386.0
10,554.9

12,350
14,330
860
22,910
1,650
9,830
660
47,950
19,220
26,230
..
9,450
30,750
4,200
1,880
4,890
37,490
44,410
4,430
1,710
1,200
7,880
3,090d
770
22,420d
7,140
12,810
4,350d
1,040
6,810
..
34,050
45,840
11,020
2,430d
12,290
2,530
..
2,200
1,190
..
9,947 t
1,489
6,027
4,585
12,072
4,968
4,969
11,262
9,678
7,402
2,532
1,869
36,340
32,560

Gross domestic
product

Rank
2007

% growth
2006–07

Per capita
% growth
2006–07

81
73
194
52
173
94
202
10
61
46
..
96
37
137
167
128
19
12
133
171
182
103
147
197
56
110
80
130
190
113
..
27
11
88
158
83
156
..
160
183
..

6.0
8.1
6.0
3.4
4.8
7.5
6.8
7.7
10.4
6.8
..
5.1
3.8
6.8
10.2
3.5
2.7
3.3
6.6
7.8
7.1
4.8
7.8
1.9
5.5
6.3
4.6
..
7.9
7.6
9.4
3.0
2.0
7.4
9.5
8.4
8.5
6.3
3.6
6.0
–5.3
3.8 w
6.4
8.2
10.2
5.8
8.1
11.4
6.9
5.7
5.9
8.4
6.2
2.5
2.7

6.2
8.4
3.0
1.2
1.9
8.0
4.9
3.3
10.3
6.2
..
4.1
2.1
6.1
7.7
2.8
2.0
2.4
4.0
6.2
4.5
4.1
4.5
–0.7
5.1
5.3
3.3
..
4.3
8.2
5.7
2.4
1.0
7.1
7.9
6.6
7.2
2.7
0.6
4.0
–6.0
2.6 w
4.2
7.2
9.1
5.0
6.8
10.5
6.7
4.4
4.1
6.8
3.8
1.8
2.1

a. PPP is purchasing power parity; see Definitions. b. Calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. c. Estimated to be low income ($935 or less). d. Based on regression; others are
extrapolated from the 2005 International Comparison Program benchmark estimates. e. Included in the aggregates for lower middle-income economies based on earlier data. f. Estimated
to be upper middle income ($3,706–$11,455). g. Includes the French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Réunion. h. Estimated to be lower middle
income ($936–$3,705). i. Included in the aggregates for upper middle-income economies based on earlier data. j. Excludes Transnistria. k. Estimated to be high income ($11,456 or
more). l. Provisional estimate. m. Covers mainland Tanzania only.

16

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

WORLD VIEW

Size of the economy

1.1

Definitions

Population, land area, income, output, and growth in

allowing comparison of real levels of expenditure

• Population is based on the de facto definition of

output are basic measures of the size of an economy.

between countries, just as conventional price indexes

population, which counts all residents regardless of

They also provide a broad indication of actual and

allow comparison of real values over time.

legal status or citizenship—except for refugees not

potential resources. Population, land area, income

PPP rates are calculated by simultaneously compar-

permanently settled in the country of asylum, who

(as measured by gross national income, GNI), and

ing the prices of similar goods and services among a

are generally considered part of the population of

output (as measured by gross domestic product,

large number of countries. In the most recent round

their country of origin. The values shown are midyear

GDP) are therefore used throughout World Develop-

of price surveys conducted by the International Com-

estimates. See also table 2.1. • Surface area is

ment Indicators to normalize other indicators.

parison Program (ICP), 146 countries and territories

a country’s total area, including areas under inland

Population estimates are generally based on

participated in the data collection, including China

bodies of water and some coastal waterways. • Pop-

extrapolations from the most recent national cen-

for the first time, India for the first time since 1985,

ulation density is midyear population divided by land

sus. For further discussion of the measurement of

and almost all African countries. The PPP conver-

area in square kilometers. • Gross national income

population and population growth, see About the data

sion factors presented in the table come from three

(GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident pro-

for table 2.1 and Statistical methods.

sources. For 45 high- or upper middle-income coun-

ducers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not

The surface area of an economy includes inland

tries conversion factors are provided by Eurostat

included in the valuation of output plus net receipts

bodies of water and some coastal waterways. Sur-

and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation

of primary income (compensation of employees and

face area thus differs from land area, which excludes

and Development (OECD), with PPP estimates for

property income) from abroad. Data are in current

bodies of water, and from gross area, which may

34 European countries incorporating new price data

U.S. dollars converted using the World Bank Atlas

include offshore territorial waters. Land area is par-

collected since 2005. For the remaining 2005 ICP

method (see Statistical methods). • GNI per capita is

ticularly important for understanding an economy’s

countries the PPP estimates are extrapolated from

GNI divided by midyear population. GNI per capita in

agricultural capacity and the environmental effects

the 2005 ICP benchmark results, which account for

U.S. dollars is converted using the World Bank Atlas

of human activity. (For measures of land area and

relative price changes between each economy and

method. • Purchasing power parity (PPP) GNI is GNI

data on rural population density, land use, and agri-

the United States. For countries that did not partici-

converted to international dollars using PPP rates. An

cultural productivity, see tables 3.1–3.3.) Innova-

pate in the 2005 ICP round, the PPP estimates are

international dollar has the same purchasing power

tions in satellite mapping and computer databases

imputed using a statistical model.

over GNI that a U.S. dollar has in the United States.

have resulted in more precise measurements of land
and water areas.
GNI measures total domestic and foreign value
added claimed by residents. GNI comprises GDP

For more information on the results of the 2005

• Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of value

ICP, see the introduction to World View. The final

added by all resident producers plus any product

report of the program is available at www.worldbank.

taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation

org/data/icp.

of output. Growth is calculated from constant price

plus net receipts of primary income (compensation

All 209 economies shown in World Development

of employees and property income) from nonresident

Indicators are ranked by size, including those that

sources. The World Bank uses GNI per capita in U.S.

appear in table 1.6. The ranks are shown only in

dollars to classify countries for analytical purposes

table 1.1. No rank is shown for economies for which

and to determine borrowing eligibility. For definitions

numerical estimates of GNI per capita are not pub-

of the income groups in World Development Indica-

lished. Economies with missing data are included in

tors, see Users guide. For discussion of the useful-

the ranking at their approximate level, so that the rel-

ness of national income and output as measures of

ative order of other economies remains consistent.

GDP data in local currency. • GDP per capita is GDP
divided by midyear population.

productivity or welfare, see About the data for tables
4.1 and 4.2.

Data sources

When calculating GNI in U.S. dollars from GNI

Population estimates are prepared by World Bank

reported in national currencies, the World Bank fol-

staff from a variety of sources (see Data sources

lows the World Bank Atlas conversion method, using

for table 2.1). Data on surface and land area are

a three-year average of exchange rates to smooth

from the Food and Agriculture Organization (see

the effects of transitory fluctuations in exchange

Data sources for table 3.1). GNI, GNI per capita,

rates. (For further discussion of the World Bank Atlas

GDP growth, and GDP per capita growth are esti-

method, see Statistical methods.) GDP and GDP per

mated by World Bank staff based on national

capita growth rates are calculated from data in con-

accounts data collected by World Bank staff during

stant prices and national currency units.

economic missions or reported by national statis-

Because exchange rates do not always reflect dif-

tical offices to other international organizations

ferences in price levels between countries, the table

such as the OECD. PPP conversion factors are

also converts GNI and GNI per capita estimates into

estimates by Eurostat/OECD and by World Bank

international dollars using purchasing power parity

staff based on data collected by the ICP.

(PPP) rates. PPP rates provide a standard measure

2009 World Development Indicators

17

1.2

Millennium Development Goals:
eradicating poverty and saving lives
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Share of
poorest quintile
Vulnerable
in national
employment
consumption
Unpaid family workers and
or income
own-account workers
%
% of total employment
1995–
2007a,b
1990
2007

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

18

..
7.8
6.9
2.0
3.4 d
8.6
5.9
8.6
13.3
9.4
8.8
8.5
6.9
1.8
6.9
3.1
3.0
8.7
7.0
9.0
7.1
5.6
7.2
5.2
6.3
4.1
5.7
5.3
2.3
5.5
5.0
4.2
5.0
8.7
..
10.2
8.3
4.0
3.4
9.0
3.3
..
6.8
9.3
9.6
7.2
6.1
4.8
5.4
8.5
5.2
6.7
3.4
5.8
7.2
2.5

2009 World Development Indicators

..
..
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
..
..
40
..
..
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
94
..
..
6
28
..
..
25
..
..
..
7
..
39
36
28
35
..
2
..
..
..
48
..
..
..
..
40
..
..
..
..

..
..
35
..
20
..
9
9
53
85
..
10
..
..
..
..
27
8
..
..
87
..
10
..
..
25
..
7
41
..
..
20
..
18
..
12
..
42
34
25
36
..
6
52
..
7
..
..
62
..
..
28
..
..
..
..

Prevalence of
malnutrition
Underweight
% of children
under age 5

Achieve universal
primary education

Promote gender
equality

Reduce
child mortality

Primary
completion rate
%

Ratio of girls to boys
enrollments in primary
and secondary school
%

Under-fi ve
mortality rate
per 1,000

1990

2000–07a

1991

2007c

1991

2007c

1990

2007

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
64.3
..
..
..
8.9
..
..
..
..
29.6
..
..
18.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.4
..
8.2
11.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.1
..
27.8
..
..
..

..
17.0
10.2
27.5
2.3
4.2
..
..
14.0
39.2
1.3
..
21.5
5.9
1.6
10.7
2.2
1.6
35.2
38.9
28.4
15.1
..
21.8
33.9
0.6
6.8
..
5.1
33.6
11.8
..
16.7
..
..
2.1
..
4.2
6.2
5.4
6.1
34.5
..
34.6
..
..
8.8
15.8
..
..
18.8
..
17.7
22.5
21.9
18.9

..
..
80
35
..
..
..
..
..
..
94
79
21
71
..
89
90
90
20
46
..
53
..
27
18
..
105
102
70
46
54
79
43
..
99
..
98
62
..
..
61
..
..
..
97
104
..
..
..
..
61
..
..
17
..
27

..
96
95
..
97
98
..
103
..
72
92
87
64
101
..
95
106
98
33
39
85
55
..
24
31
95
..
102
107
51
72
91
45
96
93
94
101
89
106
98
91
46
100
46
97
..
..
72
92
97
71
103
77
64
..
..

..
96
83
..
..
..
101
95
100
..
..
101
49
..
..
109
..
99
62
82
73
83
99
60
42
100
87
103
108
..
85
101
65
..
106
98
101
..
..
81
102
..
..
68
109
102
..
66
98
99
79
99
..
45
..
94

..
97
99
..
104
104
97
97
..
103
101
98
73
98
99
101
103
97
82
90
90
85
98
..
64
99
100
98
104
73
90
102
..
96
99
101
101
104
100
95
101
78
100
83
102
100
..
100
98
98
95
98
93
74
..
..

..
46
69
258
29
56
10
10
98
151
24
10
184
125
22
57
58
19
206
189
119
139
8
171
201
21
45
..
35
200
104
18
151
13
13
13
9
66
57
93
60
147
18
204
7
9
92
153
47
9
120
11
82
231
240
152

..
15
37
158
16
24
6
4
39
61
13
5
123
57
14
40
22
12
191
180
91
148
6
172
209
9
22
..
20
161
125
11
127
6
7
4
4
38
22
36
24
70
6
119
4
4
91
109
30
4
115
4
39
150
198
76

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Share of
poorest quintile
Vulnerable
in national
employment
consumption
Unpaid family workers and
or income
own-account workers
%
% of total employment
1995–
2007a,b
1990
2007

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

2.5
8.6
8.1
7.1
6.4
..
7.4
5.7
6.5
5.2
10.6
7.2
7.4
4.7
..
7.9
..
8.1
8.5
6.8
..
3.0
6.4
..
6.8
6.1
6.2
7.0
6.4
6.5
6.2
..
4.6
7.3
7.2
6.5
5.4
..
1.5
6.1
7.6
6.4
3.8
5.9
5.1
9.6
..
9.1
2.5
4.5
3.4
3.9
5.6
7.3
5.8
..

49
7
..
..
..
..
20
..
16
42
19
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
84
..
29
..
..
12
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13
..
..
..
..
..
..
34
..
23
36
..
28
19
..

..
7
..
63
43
..
11
7
22
35
11
..
36
..
..
25
..
47
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
22
86
..
22
..
..
17
29
32
..
52
..
..
21
..
..
12
45
..
..
6
..
62
28
..
47
40
45
19
19
..

Prevalence of
malnutrition
Underweight
% of children
under age 5

WORLD VIEW

Millennium Development Goals:
eradicating poverty and saving lives

1.2

Achieve universal
primary education

Promote gender
equality

Reduce
child mortality

Primary
completion rate
%

Ratio of girls to boys
enrollments in primary
and secondary school
%

Under-fi ve
mortality rate
per 1,000

1990

2000–07a

1991

2007c

1991

2007c

1990

2007

..
2.3
..
31.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.8
..
20.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.5
24.4
..
29.0
..
..
13.9
..
..
8.1
..
..
21.5
..
..
..
9.6
41.0
35.1
..
..
39.0
..
..
2.8
8.8
..
..
..
..

8.6
..
43.5
24.4
..
..
..
..
..
3.1
..
3.6
4.9
16.5
17.8
..
..
2.7
36.4
..
..
16.6
20.4
..
..
1.8
36.8
18.4
..
27.9
30.4
..
3.4
3.2
5.3
9.9
21.2
29.6
17.5
38.8
..
..
7.8
39.9
27.2
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
5.2
20.7
..
..
..

64
87
64
91
91
..
..
..
104
90
101
101
..
..
..
98
..
..
45
..
..
59
..
..
89
..
33
29
91
13
34
107
88
..
..
48
26
..
..
51
..
100
42
18
..
100
74
..
..
46
68
..
88
96
95
..

88
96
86
99
105
..
96
101
100
82
..
99
104 e
93
..
101
98
95
77
92
82
78
55e
..
93
97
62
55
98
49
59
94
104
93
110
83
46
..
77
78e
..
..
73
40
72
96
88
62
99
..
95
101
94
97
104
..

106
100
70
93
85
78
104
105
100
102
101
101
102
94
..
99
97
..
76
101
..
123
..
..
..
..
98
81
101
57
71
102
97
106
109
70
71
97
106
59
97
100
109
53
77
102
89
..
..
80
98
96
100
100
103
..

106
99
91
98
114
..
103
101
99
101
100
102
99e
96
..
96
100
100
86
100
103
104
..
105
100
99
96
100
104
78
102
102
99
102
107
87
85
..
104
98e
98
103
102
71
84
100
99
78
101
..
99
101
102
99
101
..

58
17
117
91
72
53
9
12
9
33
6
40
60
97
55
9
15
74
163
17
37
102
205
41
16
38
168
209
22
250
130
24
52
37
98
89
201
130
87
142
9
11
68
304
230
9
32
132
34
94
41
78
62
17
15
..

24
7
72
31
33
..
4
5
4
31
4
24
32
121
55
5
11
38
70
9
29
84
133
18
8
17
112
111
11
196
119
15
35
18
43
34
168
103
68
55
5
6
35
176
189
4
12
90
23
65
29
20
28
7
4
..

2009 World Development Indicators

19

1.2

Millennium Development Goals:
eradicating poverty and saving lives
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Share of
poorest quintile
Vulnerable
in national
employment
consumption
Unpaid family workers and
or income
own-account workers
%
% of total employment
1995–
2007a,b
1990
2007

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

8.2
6.4
5.4
..
6.2
8.3f
6.1
5.0
8.8
8.2
..
3.1
7.0
6.8
..
4.5
9.1
7.6
..
7.7
7.3
6.1
6.7
7.6
5.5
5.9
5.2
6.0
6.1
9.0
..
6.1
5.4
4.5
7.1
4.9
7.1
..
7.2
3.6
4.6

9
1
..
..
83
..
..
8
..
12
..
..
22
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
70
..
..
22
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
65
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
..
..

32
6
..
..
..
23
..
10
10
13
..
3
12
41
..
..
..
10
..
..
88
53
..
..
16
..
36
..
..
..
..
..
..
25
..
30
74
36
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
22
..
..
19
31
37
..
..
..
12

Prevalence of
malnutrition
Underweight
% of children
under age 5
1990

..
..
24.3
..
21.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.1
17.4
..
21.2
4.7
8.5
8.7
..
19.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
36.9
..
..
21.2
8.0
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2000–07a

3.5
..
18.0
..
14.5
1.8
28.3
3.3
..
..
32.8
..
..
22.8
38.4
9.1
..
..
..
14.9
16.7
7.0
40.6
..
4.4
..
3.5
..
19.0
4.1
..
..
1.3
6.0
4.4
..
20.2
..
..
23.3
14.0
23.2 w
28.0
22.0
24.8
..
24.1
12.8
..
4.4
..
41.1
26.6
..
..

Achieve universal
primary education

Promote gender
equality

Reduce
child mortality

Primary
completion rate
%

Ratio of girls to boys
enrollments in primary
and secondary school
%

Under-fi ve
mortality rate
per 1,000

1991

100
..
35
55
43
..
..
..
..
..
..
76
103
102
42
60
96
53
89
..
62
..
..
35
101
74
90
..
..
94
103
..
..
94
..
81
..
..
..
..
97
79 w
..
84
83
90
78
101
93
84
78
62
51
..
101

2007c

101
..
35
93
49
..
81
..
93
..
..
92
99
106
50
67
..
88
114
95
112e
101
69
57
88
120
96
..
54
101
105
..
95
99
97
98
..
83
60
88
..
86 w
65
93
91
101
85
98
98
100
90
80
60
97
..

1991

99
104
92
84
69
..
67
..
..
..
..
104
104
102
77
98
102
97
85
..
97
97
..
59
101
86
81
..
82
..
104
102
100
..
94
105
..
..
..
..
92
86 w
..
85
82
99
83
89
100
98
78
70
79
100
101

2007c

100
99
100
94
92
102
86
..
100
100
..
100
103
..
89e
95
100
97
96
89
..
104
95
75
101
104
90
..
98
100
101
102
100
106
98
103
..
104
66
96
97
96 w
87
97
95
103
95
99
102
103
96
89
86
104
..

1990

2007

32
27
195
44
149
..
290
8
15
11
203
64
9
32
125
96
7
9
37
117
157
31
184
150
34
52
82
99
175
25
15
10
11
25
74
32
56
38
127
163
95
93 w
164
75
81
47
101
56
49
55
77
125
183
12
10

15
15
181
25
114
8
262
3
8
4
142
59
4
21
109
91
3
5
17
67
116
7
97
100
35
21
23
50
130
24
8
6
8
14
41
19
15
27
73
170
90
68 w
126
45
50
24
74
27
23
26
38
78
146
7
4

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. See table 2.9 for survey year and whether share is based on income or consumption expenditure. c. Provisional data. d. Urban data.
e. Data are for 2008. f. Includes Montenegro.

20

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

WORLD VIEW

Millennium Development Goals:
eradicating poverty and saving lives

1.2

Definitions

Tables 1.2–1.4 present indicators for 17 of the 21

and undernourished mothers who give birth to under-

• Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

targets specified by the Millennium Development

weight children.

or income is the share of the poorest 20 percent of

Goals. Each of the eight goals includes one or more

Progress toward universal primary education is

the population in consumption or, in some cases,

targets, and each target has several associated

measured by the primary completion rate. Because

income. • Vulnerable employment is the sum of

indicators for monitoring progress toward the target.

many school systems do not record school comple-

unpaid family workers and own-account workers as

Most of the targets are set as a value of a specific

tion on a consistent basis, it is estimated from the

a percentage of total employment. • Prevalence of

indicator to be attained by a certain date. In some

gross enrollment rate in the final grade of primary

malnutrition is the percentage of children under age

cases the target value is set relative to a level in

school, adjusted for repetition. Official enrollments

five whose weight for age is more than two standard

1990. In others it is set at an absolute level. Some

sometimes differ significantly from attendance, and

deviations below the median for the international

of the targets for goals 7 and 8 have not yet been

even school systems with high average enrollment

reference population ages 0–59 months. The data

quantified.

ratios may have poor completion rates.

are based on the new international child growth stan-

The indicators in this table relate to goals 1–4.

Eliminating gender disparities in education would

dards for infants and young children, called the Child

Goal 1 has three targets between 1990 and 2015:

help increase the status and capabilities of women.

Growth Standards, released in 2006 by the World

to halve the proportion of people whose income is

The ratio of female to male enrollments in primary

Health Organization. • Primary completion rate is

less than $1 a day, to achieve full and productive

and secondary school provides an imperfect measure

the percentage of students completing the last year

employment and decent work for all, and to halve the

of the relative accessibility of schooling for girls.

of primary school. It is calculated as the total num-

proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Esti-

The targets for reducing under-five mortality rates

ber of students in the last grade of primary school,

mates of poverty rates are in tables 2.7 and 2.8.

are among the most challenging. Under-five mortal-

minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided

The indicator shown here, the share of the poorest

ity rates are harmonized estimates produced by a

by the total number of children of official graduation

quintile in national consumption, is a distributional

weighted least squares regression model and are

age. • Ratio of girls to boys enrollments in primary

measure. Countries with more unequal distribu-

available at regular intervals for most countries.

and secondary school is the ratio of the female to

tions of consumption (or income) have a higher rate

Most of the 60 indicators relating to the Millennium

male gross enrollment rate in primary and secondary

of poverty for a given average income. Vulnerable

Development Goals can be found in World Develop-

school. • Under-five mortality rate is the probability

employment measures the portion of the labor force

ment Indicators. Table 1.2a shows where to find the

that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five,

that receives the lowest wages and least security in

indicators for the first four goals. For more informa-

if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. The

employment. No single indicator captures the con-

tion about data collection methods and limitations,

probability is expressed as a rate per 1,000.

cept of suffering from hunger. Child malnutrition is a

see About the data for the tables listed there. For

symptom of inadequate food supply, lack of essen-

information about the indicators for goals 5–8, see

tial nutrients, illnesses that deplete these nutrients,

About the data for tables 1.3 and 1.4.

1.2a

Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 1–4
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
1.1 Proportion of population below $1.25 a day
1.2 Poverty gap ratio
1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed
1.5 Employment to population ratio
1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 per day
1.7 Proportion of own-account and unpaid family workers in total employment
1.8 Prevalence of underweight in children under age five
1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
2.1 Net enrollment ratio in primary education
2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary
2.3 Literacy rate of 15- to 24-year-olds
Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
3.1 Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education
3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the nonagricultural sector
3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
Goal 4. Reduce child mortality
4.1 Under-five mortality rate
4.2 Infant mortality rate
4.3 Proportion of one-year-old children immunized against measles

Table
2.8
2.8
1.2, 2.9
2.4
2.4

1.2, 2.4
1.2, 2.19, 2.21
2.19
Data sources
2.12
2.13
2.14

The indicators here and throughout this book have
been compiled by World Bank staff from primary
and secondary sources. Efforts have been made

1.2, 2.12*
1.5, 2.3*
1.5

to harmonize the data series used to compile this

1.2, 2.21, 2.22
2.21, 2.22
2.17, 2.21

un.org/millenniumgoals), but some differences in

— No data are available in the World Development Indicators database. * Table shows information on related indicators.

table with those published on the United Nations
Millennium Development Goals Web site (www.

timing, sources, and definitions remain. For more
information see the data sources for the indicators listed in table 1.2a.

2009 World Development Indicators

21

1.3

Millennium Development Goals:
protecting our common environment
Improve maternal
health
Maternal
mortality ratio
Modeled
estimate
per 100,000
live births
2005

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

22

..
92
180
1,400
77
76
4
4
82
570
18
8
840
290
3
380
110
11
700
1,100
540
1,000
7
980
1,500
16
45
..
130
1,100
740
30
810
7
45
4
3
150
210
130
170
450
25
720
7
8
520
690
66
4
560
3
290
910
1,100
670

Combat HIV/AIDS
and other diseases

Contraceptive
prevalence
rate
% of married women
ages 15–49
1990
2002–07b

..
..
47
..
..
..
..
..
..
40
..
78
..
30
..
33
59
..
..
..
..
16
..
..
..
56
85
86
66
8
..
..
..
..
..
78
78
56
53
47
47
..
..
4
77
81
..
12
..
75
13
..
..
..
..
10

2009 World Development Indicators

..
60
61
..
..
53
..
..
51
56
73
..
17
58
36
..
..
..
17
9
40
29
..
19
3
58
85
..
78
..
21
96
13
..
77
..
..
73
73
59
67
8
..
15
..
..
..
..
47
..
17
..
43
9
10
32

Ensure environmental
sustainability

HIV
Incidence
prevalence
of tuberculosis Carbon dioxide emissions
% of
per capita
population per 100,000
metric tons
people
ages 15–49
2007
2007
1990
2005

..
..
0.1
2.1
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
..
0.2
0.2
1.2
0.2
<0.1
23.9
0.6
..
1.6
2.0
0.8
5.1
0.4
6.3
3.5
0.3
0.1
..
0.6
..
3.5
0.4
3.9
<0.1
0.1
..
0.2
1.1
0.3
..
0.8
1.3
1.3
2.1
0.1
0.4
5.9
0.9
0.1
0.1
1.9
0.2
0.8
1.6
1.8
2.2

..
17
57
287
31
72
6
12
77
223
61
12
91
155
51
731
48
39
226
367
495
192
5
345
299
12
98
62
35
392
403
11
420
40
6
9
8
69
101
21
40
95
38
378
6
14
406
258
84
6
203
18
63
287
220
306

..
2.2
3.0
0.4
3.4
1.2
17.2
7.5
6.4
0.1
10.6
9.9
0.1
0.8
1.6
1.6
1.4
8.6
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
15.4
0.1
0.0
2.7
2.1
4.6
1.7
0.1
0.5
0.9
0.4
5.1
3.0
15.6
9.7
1.3
1.6
1.4
0.5
..
18.1
0.1
10.1
6.4
6.5
0.2
3.2
12.3
0.2
7.1
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.1

..
1.1
4.2
0.6
3.9
1.4
18.1
8.9
4.4
0.3
6.5
9.8
0.3
1.0
6.9
2.5
1.7
5.7
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
16.6
0.1
0.0
4.1
4.3
5.7
1.4
0.0
0.6
1.7
0.5
5.2
2.2
11.7
8.5
2.0
2.2
2.4
1.0
0.2
13.5
0.1
10.1
6.2
1.2
0.2
1.1
9.5
0.3
8.6
0.9
0.2
0.2
0.2

Proportion
of species
threatened
with
extinction
%
2008

0.7
1.5
2.1
1.4
1.9
0.9
4.7
1.9
0.8
1.9
0.7
1.3
1.5
0.8
13.1
0.5
1.3
1.1
1.0
1.5
29.8
5.4
1.8
0.6
1.0
2.4
2.4
13.2
1.2
2.5
1.0
1.9
3.9
1.8
4.2
1.5
1.6
2.1
10.4
4.1
1.8
15.0
0.6
1.3
1.3
2.5
2.1
2.2
1.0
2.2
3.7
2.1
2.4
2.2
2.4
2.3

Develop
a global
partnership for
development

Access to improved
sanitation facilities
% of population
1990
2006

..
..
88
26
81
..
100
100
..
26
..
..
12
33
..
38
71
99
5
44
8
39
100
11
5
84
48
..
68
15
..
94
20
99
98
100
100
68
71
50
73
3
95
4
100
..
..
..
94
100
6
97
70
13
..
29

..
97
94
50
91
91
100
100
80
36
93
..
30
43
95
47
77
99
13
41
28
51
100
31
9
94
65
..
78
31
20
96
24
99
98
99
100
79
84
66
86
5
95
11
100
..
36
52
93
100
10
98
84
19
33
19

Internet users
per 100
peoplea
2007

..
14.9
10.3
2.9
25.9
5.7
68.1
67.4
10.8
0.3
29.0
65.9
1.7
10.5
28.0
5.3
35.2
30.9
0.6
0.7
0.5
2.0
72.8
0.3
0.6
31.1
16.1
57.2
27.5
0.4
1.9
33.6
1.6
44.7
11.6
48.3
80.7
17.2
13.2
14.0
11.1
2.5
63.7
0.4
78.8
51.2
6.2
5.9
8.2
72.3
3.8
32.9
10.1
0.5
2.2
10.4

Improve maternal
health
Maternal
mortality ratio
Modeled
estimate
per 100,000
live births
2005

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

280
6
450
420
140
..
1
4
3
170
6
62
140
560
370
14
4
150
660
10
150
960
1,200
97
11
10
510
1,100
62
970
820
15
60
22
46
240
520
380
210
830
6
9
170
1,800
1,100
7
64
320
130
470
150
240
230
8
11
18

Combat HIV/AIDS
and other diseases

Contraceptive
prevalence
rate
% of married women
ages 15–49
1990
2002–07b

47
..
43
50
49
14
60
68
..
55
58
40
..
27
62
79
..
..
..
..
..
23
..
..
..
..
17
13
50
..
3
75
..
..
..
42
..
17
29
23
76
..
..
4
6
74
9
15
..
..
48
59
36
49
..
..

65
..
56
61
79
..
..
..
..
69
..
57
51
39
..
..
..
48
38
..
58
37
11
..
..
14
27
42
..
8
..
76
71
68
66
63
17
34
55
48
..
..
72
11
13
..
..
30
..
..
73
71
51
..
..
..

0.7
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
..
0.2
0.1
0.4
1.6
..
..
0.1
..
..
<0.1
..
0.1
0.2
0.8
0.1
23.2
1.7
..
0.1
<0.1
0.1
11.9
0.5
1.5
0.8
1.7
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.1
12.5
0.7
15.3
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.8
3.1
0.1
..
0.1
1.0
1.5
0.6
0.5
..
0.1
0.5
..

59
17
168
228
22
..
13
8
7
7
21
7
129
353
344
90
24
121
151
53
19
637
277
17
68
29
251
346
103
319
318
22
20
141
205
92
431
171
767
173
8
7
49
174
311
6
13
181
47
250
58
126
290
25
30
4

1.3

Ensure environmental
sustainability

HIV
Incidence
prevalence
of tuberculosis Carbon dioxide emissions
% of
per capita
population per 100,000
metric tons
people
ages 15–49
2007
2007
1990
2005

0.5
5.8
0.8
0.8
4.0
2.6
8.7
7.1
7.0
3.3
8.7
3.2
17.6
0.2
12.1
5.6
20.4
2.8
0.1
5.4
3.1
..
0.2
8.7
6.6
8.1
0.1
0.1
3.1
0.1
1.4
1.4
4.5
5.4
4.7
1.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
9.3
6.5
0.6
0.1
0.5
7.1
5.6
0.6
1.3
0.6
0.5
1.0
0.7
9.1
4.3
..

1.1
5.6
1.3
1.9
6.5
..
10.2
9.2
7.7
3.8
9.6
3.8
11.9
0.3
3.5
9.4
36.9
1.1
0.3
2.8
4.2
..
0.1
9.5
4.1
5.1
0.2
0.1
9.3
0.0
0.6
2.7
4.1
2.1
3.4
1.6
0.1
0.2
1.3
0.1
7.7
7.2
0.7
0.1
0.8
11.4
12.5
0.9
1.8
0.7
0.7
1.4
0.9
7.9
5.9
..

Proportion
of species
threatened
with
extinction
%
2008

3.5
1.8
3.3
3.4
1.0
11.0
1.8
4.3
2.2
7.7
4.9
3.4
1.1
3.9
1.3
1.7
6.3
0.8
1.2
1.4
1.2
0.6
3.8
1.6
0.9
0.9
6.4
3.3
6.9
1.0
2.9
24.3
3.2
1.3
1.1
1.9
2.9
2.7
2.1
1.1
1.3
5.1
1.3
1.0
4.3
1.5
4.2
1.7
2.9
3.6
0.5
2.8
6.6
1.2
2.8
3.6

WORLD VIEW

Millennium Development Goals:
protecting our common environment

Develop
a global
partnership for
development

Access to improved
sanitation facilities
% of population
1990
2006

45
100
14
51
83
..
..
..
..
83
100
..
97
39
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40
97
..
..
8
46
..
35
20
94
56
..
..
52
20
23
26
9
100
..
42
3
26
..
85
33
..
44
60
55
58
..
92
..

66
100
28
52
..
..
..
..
..
83
100
85
97
42
..
..
..
93
48
78
..
36
32
97
..
89
12
60
94
45
24
94
81
79
50
72
31
82
35
27
100
..
48
7
30
..
..
58
74
45
70
72
78
..
99
..

2009 World Development Indicators

Internet users
per 100
peoplea
2007

6.0
51.9
7.2
5.8
32.4
..
56.1
27.9
53.9
56.1
69.0
19.7
12.3
8.0
0.0
75.9
33.8
14.3
1.7
55.0
38.3
3.5
0.5
4.3
49.2
27.3
0.6
1.0
55.7
0.8
1.0
27.0
22.7
18.4
12.3
21.4
0.9
0.1
4.9
1.4
84.2
69.2
2.8
0.3
6.8
84.8
13.1
10.8
22.3
1.8
8.7
27.4
6.0
44.0
40.1
25.4

23

1.3

Millennium Development Goals:
protecting our common environment
Improve maternal
health
Maternal
mortality ratio
Modeled
estimate
per 100,000
live births
2005

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

24
28
1,300
18
980
14 c
2,100
14
6
6
1,400
400
4
58
450
390
3
5
130
170
950
110
380
510
45
100
44
130
550
18
37
8
11
20
24
57
150
..
430
830
880
400 w
780
260
300
97
440
150
44
130
200
500
900
10
5

Combat HIV/AIDS
and other diseases

Contraceptive
prevalence
rate
% of married women
ages 15–49
1990
2002–07b

..
34
21
..
..
..
..
65
74
..
1
57
..
..
9
20
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
34
..
50
63
..
5
..
..
..
71
..
..
..
53
..
10
15
43
57 w
22
61
63
52
54
75
..
56
42
40
15
72
..

70
..
17
..
12
41
5
..
..
..
15
60
..
68
8
51
..
..
58
38
26
77
20
17
43
..
71
48
24
67
..
84
..
..
65
..
76
50
28
34
60
60 w
33
68
69
..
60
78
..
..
62
53
23
..
..

Ensure environmental
sustainability

HIV
Incidence
prevalence
of tuberculosis Carbon dioxide emissions
% of
per capita
population per 100,000
metric tons
people
ages 15–49
2007
2007
1990
2005

0.1
1.1
2.8
..
1.0
0.1
1.7
0.2
<0.1
<0.1
0.5
18.1
0.5
..
1.4
26.1
0.1
0.6
..
0.3
6.2
1.4
..
3.3
1.5
0.1
..
<0.1
5.4
1.6
..
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.1
..
0.5
..
..
15.2
15.3
0.8 w
2.1
0.6
0.3
1.7
0.9
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.1
0.3
5.0
0.3
0.3

115
110
397
46
272
32
574
27
17
13
249
948
30
60
243
1,198
6
6
24
231
297
142
322
429
11
26
30
68
330
102
16
15
4
22
113
34
171
20
76
506
782
139 w
269
129
134
108
162
136
84
50
41
174
369
16
13

6.7
15.3
0.1
12.1
0.4
6.2d
0.1
13.8
9.7
9.0
0.0
9.4
5.5
0.2
0.2
0.6
5.8
6.4
2.8
4.4
0.1
1.8
..
0.2
13.8
1.6
2.5
8.7
0.0
13.2
29.3
9.9
19.2
1.3
6.1
5.9
0.3
..
0.8
0.3
1.6
4.3e w
0.7
2.8
1.8
6.9
2.4
1.9
10.4
2.3
2.5
0.7
0.9
11.8
8.4

4.1
10.5
0.1
16.5
0.4
6.5d
0.2
13.2
6.8
7.4
0.1
8.7
7.9
0.6
0.3
0.8
5.4
5.5
3.6
0.8
0.1
4.3
0.2
0.2
24.7
2.2
3.4
8.6
0.1
6.9
30.1
9.1
19.5
1.7
4.3
5.6
1.2
..
1.0
0.2
0.9
4.5e w
0.6
3.3
2.8
5.5
2.7
3.6
7.0
2.5
3.7
1.1
0.8
12.6
8.1

Proportion
of species
threatened
with
extinction
%
2008

1.6
1.3
1.6
3.8
2.2
..
3.2
9.7
1.1
2.1
3.2
1.6
3.8
14.0
2.4
0.8
1.4
1.4
2.0
0.8
5.1
3.4
..
1.2
1.7
2.1
1.4
10.7
2.5
1.1
14.1
2.8
5.7
2.6
1.0
1.1
3.5
..
12.6
0.7
0.9

Develop
a global
partnership for
development

Access to improved
sanitation facilities
% of population
1990
2006

72
87
29
91
26
..
..
100
100
..
..
55
100
71
33
..
100
100
81
..
35
78
..
13
93
74
85
..
29
96
97
..
100
100
93
83
29
..
28
42
44
51 w
26
48
41
77
44
48
88
68
67
18
26
100
..

72
87
23
99
28
92
11
100
100
..
23
59
100
86
35
50
100
100
92
92
33
96
41
12
92
85
88
..
33
93
97
..
100
100
96
..
65
80
46
52
46
60 w
39
60
55
83
55
66
89
78
77
33
31
100
..

Internet users
per 100
peoplea
2007

23.9
21.1
1.1
26.4
6.6
20.3
0.2
65.7
55.9
52.6
1.1
8.3
51.3
3.9
9.1
3.7
79.7
76.3
17.4
7.2
1.0
21.0
0.1
5.0
16.0
16.8
16.5
1.4
2.5
21.5
51.8
71.7
73.5
29.1
4.5
20.8
21.0
9.6
1.4
4.2
10.1
21.8 w
5.2
15.2
12.4
26.6
13.1
14.6
21.4
26.9
17.1
6.6
4.4
65.7
59.2

a. Data are from the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) World Telecommunication Development Report database. Please cite ITU for third-party use of these data. b. Data are
for the most recent year available. c. Includes Montenegro. d. Includes Kosovo and Montenegro. e. Includes emissions not allocated to specific countries.

24

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

The Millennium Development Goals address concerns common to all economies. Diseases and environmental degradation do not respect national boundaries. Epidemic diseases, wherever they occur, pose
a threat to people everywhere. And environmental
damage in one location may affect the well-being of
plants, animals, and humans far away. The indicators
in the table relate to goals 5, 6, and 7 and the targets
of goal 8 that address access to new technologies.
For the other targets of goal 8, see table 1.4.
The target of achieving universal access to reproductive health has been added to goal 5 to address
the importance of family planning and health services
in improving maternal health and preventing maternal
death. Women with multiple pregnancies are more
likely to die in childbirth. Access to contraception is
an important way to limit and space births.
Measuring disease prevalence or incidence can be
difficult. Most developing economies lack reporting
systems for monitoring diseases. Estimates are often
derived from survey data and report data from sentinel
sites, extrapolated to the general population. Tracking
diseases such as HIV/AIDS, which has a long latency

WORLD VIEW

Millennium Development Goals:
protecting our common environment

1.3

Definitions

between contraction of the virus and the appearance
of symptoms, or malaria, which has periods of dormancy, can be particularly difficult. The table shows
the estimated prevalence of HIV among adults ages
15–49. Prevalence among older populations can be
affected by life-prolonging treatment. The incidence of
tuberculosis is based on case notifications and estimates of cases detected in the population.
Carbon dioxide emissions are the primary source
of greenhouse gases, which contribute to global
warming, threatening human and natural habitats.
In recognition of the vulnerability of animal and plant
species, a new target of reducing biodiversity loss
has been added to goal 7.
Access to reliable supplies of safe drinking water and
sanitary disposal of excreta are two of the most important means of improving human health and protecting
the environment. Improved sanitation facilities prevent
human, animal, and insect contact with excreta.
Internet use includes narrowband and broadband
Internet. Narrowband is often limited to basic applications; broadband is essential to promote e-business,
e-learning, e-government, and e-health.

• Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women
who die from pregnancy-related causes during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. Data
are from various years and adjusted to a common
2005 base year. The values are modeled estimates
(see About the data for table 2.18). • Contraceptive prevalence rate is the percentage of women
ages 15–49 married or in-union who are practicing,
or whose sexual partners are practicing, any form of
contraception. • HIV prevalence is the percentage
of people ages 15–49 who are infected with HIV.
• Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number
of new tuberculosis cases (pulmonary, smear positive, and extrapulmonary). • Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil
fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include
emissions produced during consumption of solid,
liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring (see table 3.8).
• Proportion of species threatened with extinction
is the total number of threatened mammal (excluding whales and porpoises), bird, and higher native,
vascular plant species as a percentage of the total
number of known species of the same categories.

1.3a

Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 5–7
Goal 5. Improve maternal health
5.1 Maternal mortality ratio
5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate
5.4 Adolescent fertility rate
5.5 Antenatal care coverage
5.6 Unmet need for family planning
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
6.1 HIV prevalence among population ages 15–24
6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex
6.3 Proportion of population ages 15–24 with comprehensive, correct
knowledge of HIV/AIDS
6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of
nonorphans ages 10–14
6.5 Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access
to antiretroviral drugs
6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with malaria
6.7 Proportion of children under age 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets
6.8 Proportion of children under age 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate
antimalarial drugs
6.9 Incidence, prevalence, and death rates associated with tuberculosis
6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed
treatment short course
Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
7.1 Proportion of land area covered by forest
7.2 Carbon dioxide emissions, total, per capita, and per $1 purchasing power
parity GDP
7.3 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits
7.5 Proportion of total water resources used
7.6 Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected
7.7 Proportion of species threatened with extinction
7.8 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source
7.9 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility
7.10 Proportion of urban population living in slums

Table
1.3, 2.18
2.18, 2.21
1.3, 2.18, 2.21
2.18
1.5, 2.18, 2.21
2.18

• Access to improved sanitation facilities is the
percentage of the population with at least adequate
access to excreta disposal facilities (private or
shared, but not public) that can effectively prevent
human, animal, and insect contact with excreta
(facilities do not have to include treatment to render sewage outflows innocuous). Improved facilities
range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush
toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective,

1.3*, 2.20*
2.20*

facilities must be correctly constructed and properly
maintained. • Internet users are people with access
to the worldwide network.




2.17
2.17
1.3, 2.20
2.17

Data sources

3.1

The indicators here and throughout this book have
been compiled by World Bank staff from primary

3.8
3.9*

3.5

1.3
1.3, 2.17, 3.5
1.3, 2.17, 3.11

— No data are available in the World Development Indicators database. * Table shows information on related indicators.

and secondary sources. Efforts have been made
to harmonize the data series used to compile this
table with those published on the United Nations
Millennium Development Goals Web site (www.
un.org/millenniumgoals), but some differences in
timing, sources, and definitions remain. For more
information see the data sources for the indicators listed in table 1.3a.

2009 World Development Indicators

25

1.4

Millennium Development Goals:
overcoming obstacles

Development Assistance Committee members
Official development
assistance (ODA)
by donor

Australia
Canada
European Union
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Japan
New Zealand
Norway
Switzerland
United States

Net
% of
donor
GNI
2007

For basic
social servicesa
% of total
sector-allocable
ODA
2007

0.32
0.29

9.1
31.2

0.50
0.43
0.81
0.39
0.38
0.37
0.16
0.55
0.19
0.91
0.81
0.22
0.37
0.93
0.36
0.17
0.27
0.95
0.37
0.16

9.0
20.6
10.1
13.9
6.0
10.0
15.0
35.1
9.8
33.9
18.1
3.1
15.6
13.1
57.6
3.8
32.0
21.2
6.3
31.6

Least developed countries’ access
to high-income markets
Goods
(excluding arms)
admitted free of tariffs
% of exports from least
developed countries
2000
2006

95.9
39.0
97.8

49.1
85.9c
99.0
99.4
50.3

100.0
99.7
97.8

26.7
99.2c
99.0
96.7
76.6

Support to
agriculture

Average tariff on exports of
least developed countries
Agricultural products
%
2000
2006

Textiles
%

Clothing
%

2000

2006

2000

2006

% of GDP
2007b

0.2
0.3
3.0

0.0
0.1
2.4

5.7
6.0
0.0

0.0
0.2
0.1

22.5
19.3
0.0

0.0
1.7
1.2

0.28
0.68
0.91

4.7
0.0 c
3.6
6.1
6.9

4.4
13.1c
0.2
2.6
6.4

5.0
9.3c
4.6
0.0
7.0

2.7
0.0 c
0.0
0.0
5.8

0.4
12.9c
1.4
0.0
14.1

0.1
0.0 c
1.0
0.0
11.3

1.04
0.22
0.79
1.11
0.73

Heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs)
HIPC
HIPC
HIPC
decision completion Initiative
pointd
assistancee
pointd

Afghanistan
Benin
Boliviag
Burkina Fasog,h
Burundi
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Ethiopiah
Gambia, The
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyanag
Haiti

Jul. 2007
Jul. 2000
Feb. 2000
Jul. 2000
Aug. 2005
Oct. 2000
Sep. 2007
May 2001
Jul. 2003
Apr. 2006
Nov. 2001
Dec. 2000
Feb. 2002
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Nov. 2000
Nov. 2006

Floating
Mar. 2003
Jun. 2001
Apr. 2002
Jan. 2009
Apr. 2006
Floating
Floating
Floating
Floating
Apr. 2004
Dec. 2007
Jul. 2004
Floating
Floating
Dec. 2003
Floating

MDRI
assistancef

$ millions

$ millions

571
366
1,856
772
908
1,768
611
227
7,636
1,847
2,575
93
2,910
761
581
852
147

..
604
1,596
603
53i
747
..
..
..
..
1,458
199
2,095
..
..
402
..

HIPC
HIPC
HIPC
decision completion Initiative
pointd
pointd
assistancee

Honduras
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawih
Malig
Mauritania
Mozambiqueg
Nicaragua
Nigerh
Rwandah
São Tomé & Principeh
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Tanzania
Togo
Ugandag
Zambia

Jul. 2000
Mar. 2008
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Sep. 2000
Feb. 2000
Apr. 2000
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Dec. 2000
Jun. 2000
Mar. 2002
Apr. 2000
Nov. 2008
Feb. 2000
Dec. 2000

Apr. 2005
Floating
Oct. 2004
Aug. 2006
Mar. 2003
Jun. 2002
Sep. 2001
Jan. 2004
Apr.2004
Apr. 2005
Mar. 2007
Apr. 2004
Dec. 2006
Nov. 2001
Floating
May 2000
Apr. 2005

MDRI
assistancef

$ millions

$ millions

776
2,845
1,167
1,310
752
868
2,992
4,618
899
908
163
682
857
2,828
270
1,434
3,489

1,543
..
1,292
705
1,043
450
1,057
954
519
225
26
1,374
352
2,038
..
1,805
1,632

a. Includes primary education, basic life skills for youth, adult and early childhood education, basic health care, basic health infrastructure, basic nutrition, infectious disease control,
health education, health personnel development, population policy and administrative management, reproductive health care, family planning, sexually transmitted disease control
including HIV/AIDS, personnel development for population and reproductive health, basic drinking water supply and basic sanitation, and multisector aid for basic social services.
b. Provisional data. c. Calculated by World Bank staff using the World Integrated Trade Solution based on the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development’s Trade Analysis
and Information Systems database. d. Refers to the Enhanced HIPC Initiative. e. Total HIPC assistance (committed debt relief) assuming of full participation of creditors, in end-2007
net present value terms. Topping-up assistance and assistance provided under the original HIPC Initiative were committed in net present value terms as of the decision point and are
converted to end-2007 terms. f. Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) assistance has been delivered in full to all post-completion point countries, shown in end-2007 net present value
terms. g. Also reached completion point under the original HIPC Initiative. The assistance includes original debt relief. h. Assistance includes topping up at completion point. i. Excludes
$15 million (in nominal terms) of committed debt relief by the International Monetary Fund.

26

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

WORLD VIEW

Millennium Development Goals:
overcoming obstacles

1.4

Definitions

Achieving the Millennium Development Goals requires

lines with “international peaks”). The averages in the

• Net offi cial development assistance (ODA) is

an open, rule-based global economy in which all

table include ad valorem duties and equivalents.

grants and loans (net of repayments of principal) that

countries, rich and poor, participate. Many poor

Subsidies to agricultural producers and exporters

meet the DAC definition of ODA and are made to coun-

countries, lacking the resources to finance develop-

in OECD countries are another barrier to developing

tries on the DAC list of recipients. • ODA for basic

ment, burdened by unsustainable debt, and unable

economies’ exports. Agricultural subsidies in OECD

social services is aid reported by DAC donors for

to compete globally, need assistance from rich coun-

economies are estimated at $365 billion in 2007.

basic education, primary health care, nutrition, pop-

tries. For goal 8—develop a global partnership for

The Debt Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Coun-

ulation policies and programs, reproductive health,

development—many indicators therefore monitor the

tries (HIPCs), an important step in placing debt relief

and water and sanitation services. • Goods admitted

actions of members of the Organisation for Economic

within the framework of poverty reduction, is the first

free of tariffs are exports of goods (excluding arms)

Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Develop-

comprehensive approach to reducing the external

from least developed countries admitted without tar-

ment Assistance Committee (DAC).

debt of the world’s poorest, most heavily indebted

iff. • Average tariff is the unweighted average of the

Official development assistance (ODA) has risen

countries. A 1999 review led to an enhancement of

effectively applied rates for all products subject to

in recent years as a share of donor countries’ gross

the framework. In 2005, to further reduce the debt

tariffs. • Agricultural products are plant and animal

national income (GNI), but the poorest economies need

of HIPCs and provide resources for meeting the Mil-

products, including tree crops but excluding timber

additional assistance to achieve the Millennium Devel-

lennium Development Goals, the Multilateral Debt

and fish products. • Textiles and clothing are natural

opment Goals. After rising to a record $107 billion in

Relief Initiative (MDRI), proposed by the Group of

and synthetic fibers and fabrics and articles of cloth-

2005, net ODA disbursements from DAC donors fell

Eight countries, was launched.

ing made from them. • Support to agriculture is the

3.3 percent in 2007 to $103.5 billion in nominal terms.

Under the MDRI four multilateral institutions—the

One important action that high-income economies can

International Development Association (IDA), Interna-

ers arising from policy measures, net of associated

take is to reduce barriers to exports from low- and mid-

tional Monetary Fund (IMF), African Development Fund

budgetary receipts, regardless of their objectives and

dle-income economies. The European Union has begun

(AfDF), and Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

impacts on farm production and income or consump-

to eliminate tariffs on developing economy exports of

—provide 100 percent debt relief on eligible debts

tion of farm products. • HIPC decision point is the

“everything but arms,” and the United States offers

due to them from countries having completed the HIPC

date when a heavily indebted poor country with an

special concessions to Sub-Saharan African exports.

Initiative process. Data in the table refer to status as of

established track record of good performance under

However, these programs still have many restrictions.

February 2009 and might not show countries that have

adjustment programs supported by the IMF and the

Average tariffs in the table refl ect high-income

since reached the decision or completion point. Debt

World Bank commits to additional reforms and a

OECD member tariff schedules for exports of coun-

relief under the HIPC Initiative has reduced future debt

poverty reduction strategy. • HIPC completion point

tries designated least developed countries by the

payments by $51.3 billion for 34 countries that have

is the date when a country successfully completes

United Nations. Although average tariffs have been

reached the decision point. And 23 countries that have

the key structural reforms agreed on at the decision

falling, averages may disguise high tariffs on specific

reached the completion point have received additional

point, including implementing a poverty reduction

goods (see table 6.8 for each country’s share of tariff

assistance of $22.8 billion under the MDRI.

strategy. The country then receives the bulk of debt

1.4a

Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goal 8
Goal
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6

8. Develop a global partnership for development
Net ODA as a percentage of DAC donors’ gross national income
Proportion of ODA for basic social services
Proportion of ODA that is untied
Proportion of ODA received in landlocked countries as a percentage of GNI
Proportion of ODA received in small island developing states as a percentage of GNI
Proportion of total developed country imports (by value, excluding arms) from least
developed countries admitted free of duty
8.7
Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and
textiles and clothing from least developed countries
8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of GDP
8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity
8.10 Number of countries reaching HIPC decision and completion points
8.11 Debt relief committed under new HIPC initiative
8.12 Debt services as a percentage of exports of goods and services
8.13 Proportion of population with access to affordable, essential drugs on a
sustainable basis
8.14 Telephone lines per 100 people
8.15 Cellular subscribers per 100 people
8.16 Internet users per 100 people

Table
1.4, 6.13
1.4, 6.14b*
6.14b


1.4

value of gross transfers from taxpayers and consum-

relief under the HIPC Initiative without further policy
conditions. • HIPC Initiative assistance is the debt
relief committed as of the decision point in end-2007
net present value. • MDRI assistance is the debt
relief from IDA, IMF, AfDF, and IDB, delivered to countries having reached the HIPC completion point in
end-2007 net present value.
Data sources
Data on ODA are from the OECD. Data on goods

1.4, 6.8*
1.4

1.4
1.4
6.10*

1.3*, 5.10
1.3*, 5.10
5.11

— No data are available in the World Development Indicators database. * Table shows information on related indicators.

admitted free of tariffs and average tariffs are
from the World Trade Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Conference on Trade
and Development and the International Trade Centre. These data are available at www.mdg-trade.
org. Data on subsidies to agriculture are from
the OECD’s Producer and Consumer Support Estimates, OECD Database 1986–2007. Data on the
HIPC Initiative and MDRI are from the World Bank’s
Economic Policy and Debt Department.

2009 World Development Indicators

27

1.5

Women in development
Female
population

Life
expectancy
at birth

Pregnant
women
receiving
prenatal
care

years

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

28

% of total
2007

Male
2007

Female
2007

..
50.3
49.5
50.7
51.1
53.5
50.2
51.0
51.4
48.8
53.5
51.0
49.6
50.2
51.4
50.3
50.7
51.6
50.0
51.1
51.2
50.0
50.5
51.2
50.3
50.5
48.4
52.1
50.8
50.5
50.4
49.2
49.3
51.9
50.0
51.2
50.5
49.9
49.9
49.9
50.9
50.9
53.9
50.3
51.0
51.3
50.0
49.9
52.8
51.1
49.3
50.5
51.2
49.5
50.6
50.5

..
73
71
41
72
68
79
77
64
63
65
77
56
63
72
50
69
69
51
48
57
50
78
43
49
75
71
79
69
45
54
76
48
72
76
74
76
69
72
69
69
56
67
52
76
78
56
59
67
77
60
77
67
54
45
59

..
80
74
44
79
75
84
83
71
65
76
83
58
68
77
51
76
76
54
51
62
51
83
46
52
82
75
85
77
48
57
81
49
79
80
80
81
75
78
74
75
60
79
54
83
85
57
60
75
82
60
82
74
58
48
63

2009 World Development Indicators

%
2002–07a

..
97
89
80
99
93
..
..
77
51
99
..
84
79
99
..
97
..
85
92
69
82
..
69
39
..
90
..
94
85
86
92
85
100
100
..
..
99
84
70
86
70
..
28
..
..
..
98
94
..
92
..
84
82
78
85

Teenage
mothers

Women in
nonagricultural sector

Unpaid family
workers

Women in
parliaments

% of women
ages 15–19
2002–07a

% of nonagricultural
wage employment
2006

Male
Female
% of male
% of female
employment employment
2002–07a
2002–07a

% of total seats
1990
2008

..
..
..
..
..
5
..
..
6
33
..
..
21
16
..
..
..
..
23
..
8
28
..
..
37
..
..
..
21
24
27
..
..
4
..
..
..
21
..
9
..
14
..
17
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
..
..
32
..
14

..
..
17
..
45
46
49
47
50
..
..
46
..
..
35
42
..
53
..
..
52
..
50
..
..
39
..
48
49
..
..
41
..
44 c
43
46
49
39
42
21
49
..
53
47
51
48
..
..
49
47
..
42
38
..
..
..

..
..
7.1
..
0.7b
..
0.2
2.0
16.8
9.7
..
0.4
..
12.6
3.0
2.2
4.6b
0.7
..
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
0.9
..
0.1b
3.2
..
..
1.3
..
1.1
..
0.2
0.3
2.8
4.4
8.6b
8.8
..
0.0d
7.8
0.6
0.3
..
..
19.0
0.4
..
3.7
21.3
..
..
..

..
..
13.6
..
1.6b
..
0.4
2.9
16.8
60.1
..
2.9
..
34.8
11.0
2.2
8.1b
1.6
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
2.8
..
1.1b
6.1
..
..
2.8
..
3.7
..
1.1
1.0
4.9
11.1
32.6b
9.9
..
0.0 d
12.7
0.4
1.0
..
..
39.0
1.8
..
10.7
24.5
..
..
..

4
29
2
15
6
36
6
12
..
10
..
9
3
9
..
5
5
21
..
..
..
14
13
4
..
..
21
..
5
5
14
11
6
..
34
..
31
8
5
4
12
..
..
..
32
7
13
8
..
..
..
7
7
..
20
..

28
7
8
37
40
8
27
32
11
15
29
35
11
17
12
11
9
22
15
31
16
14
21
11
5
15
21
..
8
8
7
37
9
22
43
16
38
20
25
2
17
22
21
22
42
18
17
9
6
32
11
15
12
19
14
4

Female
population

Life
expectancy
at birth

Pregnant
women
receiving
prenatal
care

years

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

% of total
2007

Male
2007

Female
2007

50.3
52.4
48.2
50.1
49.3
..
50.1
50.5
51.4
50.7
51.2
48.6
52.2
50.2
50.7
50.0
40.1
50.7
50.2
53.9
51.0
52.9
50.0
48.2
53.4
50.1
50.3
50.3
49.2
51.3
49.4
50.4
51.2
52.1
50.1
50.8
51.5
50.5
50.7
50.4
50.5
50.7
50.2
49.3
50.0
50.3
44.1
48.6
49.6
49.3
49.5
49.9
49.6
51.7
51.6
52.1

67
69
63
69
69
..
77
79
79
70
79
71
61
53
65
76
76
64
63
66
70
43
45
72
65
72
58
48
72
52
62
69
73
65
64
69
42
59
52
63
78
78
70
58
46
78
74
65
73
55
70
69
70
71
75
74

74
77
66
73
73
..
82
83
84
75
86
74
72
55
69
82
80
72
66
77
74
42
47
77
77
77
61
48
77
57
66
76
77
72
70
73
42
65
53
64
82
82
76
56
47
83
77
66
78
60
74
74
74
80
82
83

%
2002–07a

92
..
74
93
..
..
..
..
..
91
..
99
100
88
..
..
..
97
..
..
96
90
..
..
..
98
80
92
79
70
..
..
..
98
99
68
85
..
95
44
..
..
90
46
58
..
..
61
..
..
94
91
88
..
..
..

WORLD VIEW

Women in development

1.5

Teenage
mothers

Women in
nonagricultural sector

Unpaid family
workers

Women in
parliaments

% of women
ages 15–19
2002–07a

% of nonagricultural
wage employment
2006

Male
Female
% of male
% of female
employment employment
2002–07a
2002–07a

% of total seats
1990
2008

22
..
16
10
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4
7
23
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20
32
..
..
..
34
34
..
36
..
..
..
6
..
7
41
..
..
19
..
..
..
39
25
..
..
9
..
..
..
26
8
..
..
..

45
48
18
29
..
..
48
49
43
48
42
26
49
..
..
42
..
52
50
53
..
..
..
..
54
40
38
..
38
35
..
38
39
54
53
28
..
..
47
..
47
47
..
..
21
49
..
11
43
..
..
36
42
47
47
41

12.1
0.3
..
7.8
5.4
..
0.4
0.1
1.3
0.5
1.1
..
1.0
..
..
1.2
..
8.8
..
1.5
..
..
..
..
1.1
7.0
32.1
..
2.7
18.4
..
0.9
4.9
1.3
18.4
17.0
..
..
3.2
..
0.2
0.8
12.2
..
..
0.2
..
18.6
2.3
..
10.8b
4.7b
9.0
2.8
0.7
0.0 d

8.3
0.7
..
33.6
32.7
..
0.9
0.4
2.6
2.2
7.3
..
1.3
..
..
12.7
..
19.3
..
1.6
..
..
..
..
2.4
14.9
73.0
..
8.8
10.2
..
4.7
10.0
3.4
31.7
55.3
..
..
5.8
..
1.0
1.5
9.1
..
..
0.3
..
61.9
4.0
..
8.9b
9.9b
18.0
6.0
1.5
0.0 d

10
21
5
12
2
11
8
7
13
5
1
0
..
1
21
2
..
..
6
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
7
10
5
..
..
7
12
..
25
0
16
..
7
6
21
14
15
5
..
36
..
10
8
0
6
6
9
14
8
..

2009 World Development Indicators

23
11
9
12
3
26
13
14
21
13
9
6
16
9
20
14
3
26
25
20
5
25
13
8
23
32
8
13
11
10
22
17
23
22
4
11
35
..
27
33
39
33
19
12
7
36
0
23
17
1
13
29
21
20
28
..

29

1.5

Women in development
Female
population

Life
expectancy
at birth

Pregnant
women
receiving
prenatal
care

years
% of total
2007

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

51.3
53.7
51.8
45.0
50.2
50.5
50.7
49.7
51.5
51.2
50.4
50.8
50.7
50.7
49.6
51.6
50.4
51.3
49.5
50.4
50.3
51.3
49.2
50.5
50.8
49.7
49.6
50.8
50.0
53.9
32.4
51.0
50.8
51.7
50.3
49.8
50.0
49.1
49.4
50.2
50.3
49.6 w
49.8
49.3
48.9
51.2
49.4
48.9
52.1
50.6
49.7
48.4
50.2
50.6
51.1

Male
2007

69
62
45
71
61
71
41
78
71
74
47
49
78
69
57
40
79
79
72
64
51
66
60
57
68
72
69
59
51
63
77
77
75
72
64
71
72
72
61
42
44
67 w
56
67
67
67
65
70
65
70
68
63
50
77
77

Female
2007

76
74
48
75
65
76
44
83
78
82
49
52
84
76
60
39
83
84
76
69
54
75
62
60
72
76
74
68
52
74
81
82
81
80
70
77
76
75
64
42
43
71 w
59
72
71
75
69
74
74
76
72
66
52
82
83

%
2002–07a

94
..
94
..
87
98
81
..
..
..
26
92
..
99
70
85
..
..
84
79
78
98
61
84
96
..
81
99
94
99
..
..
..
..
99
..
91
99
41
93
94
81 w
67
86
84
..
81
90
..
95
76
69
72
..
..

Teenage
mothers

Women in
nonagricultural sector

Unpaid family
workers

Women in
parliaments

% of women
ages 15–19
2002–07a

% of nonagricultural
wage employment
2006

Male
Female
% of male
% of female
employment employment
2002–07a
2002–07a

% of total seats
1990
2008

..
..
4
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3
..
..
32
21

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Limited coverage. c. Data are for 2007. d. Less than 0.5.

30

2009 World Development Indicators

47
51
..
13
..
42
23
50
50
48
..
43
43
45
..
..
50
47
..
..
..
47
..
..
43
..
21
..
..
55
..
50
47
45
..
41
46
17
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
45
..
..
48
..
..
18
..
46
45

6.5
0.1
..
..
..
3.1
14.8
0.4
0.1b
3.1
..
0.3
0.7
4.4b
..
..
0.3
1.7
..
..
9.7
14.0
..
..
0.3
..
5.6
..
10.3b
0.4
..
0.2
0.1
0.9b
..
0.6
18.9
6.6
..
..
10.4
.. w
..
..
..
3.3
..
..
2.4
4.0
..
..
..
0.5
0.8

19.9
0.1
..
..
..
11.9
21.6
1.3
0.1b
7.1
..
0.6
1.6
21.7b
..
..
0.3
3.2
..
..
13.0
29.9
..
..
1.7
..
38.2
..
40.5b
0.3
..
0.5
0.1
3.0 b
..
1.6
47.2
31.5
..
..
13.6
.. w
..
..
..
7.3
..
..
6.3
7.5
..
..
..
2.4
2.1

34
..
17
..
13
..
..
5
..
..
4
3
15
5
..
4
38
14
9
..
..
3
..
5
17
4
1
26
12
..
0
6
7
6
..
10
18
..
4
7
11
13 w
..
13
13
13
13
17
..
12
4
6
..
12
12

9
14
56
0
22
22
13
25
19
13
8
33
36
6
18
11
47
29
12
18
30
12
29
11
27
23
9
16
31
8
23
20
17
12
18
19
26
..
0d
15
15
18 w
18
17
15
19
17
18
15
22
9
20
18
22
25

About the data

WORLD VIEW

Women in development

1.5

Definitions

Despite much progress in recent decades, gender

Women’s wage work is important for economic

• Female population is the percentage of the popu-

inequalities remain pervasive in many dimensions of

growth and the well-being of families. But restricted

lation that is female. • Life expectancy at birth is

life—worldwide. But while disparities exist through-

access to education and vocational training, heavy

the number of years a newborn infant would live if

out the world, they are most prevalent in developing

workloads at home and in nonpaid domestic and

prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth

countries. Gender inequalities in the allocation of

market activities, and labor market discrimination

were to stay the same throughout its life. • Pregnant

such resources as education, health care, nutrition,

often limit women’s participation in paid economic

women receiving prenatal care are the percentage

and political voice matter because of the strong

activities, lower their productivity, and reduce their

of women attended at least once during pregnancy

association with well-being, productivity, and eco-

wages. When women are in salaried employment,

by skilled health personnel for reasons related to

nomic growth. These patterns of inequality begin at

they tend to be concentrated in the nonagricultural

pregnancy. • Teenage mothers are the percentage of

an early age, with boys routinely receiving a larger

sector. However, in many developing countries

women ages 15–19 who already have children or are

share of education and health spending than do girls,

women are a large part of agricultural employment,

currently pregnant. • Women in nonagricultural sec-

for example.

often as unpaid family workers. Among people who

tor are female wage employees in the nonagricultural

Because of biological differences girls are

are unsalaried, women are more likely than men to

sector as a percentage of total nonagricultural wage

expected to experience lower infant and child mor-

be unpaid family workers, while men are more likely

employment. • Unpaid family workers are those who

tality rates and to have a longer life expectancy

than women to be self-employed or employers. There

work without pay in a market-oriented establishment

than boys. This biological advantage may be over-

are several reasons for this.

or activity operated by a related person living in the

shadowed, however, by gender inequalities in nutri-

Few women have access to credit markets, capital,

same household. • Women in parliaments are the

tion and medical interventions and by inadequate

land, training, and education, which may be required

percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or

care during pregnancy and delivery, so that female

to start a business. Cultural norms may prevent

lower chamber held by women.

rates of illness and death sometimes exceed male

women from working on their own or from super-

rates, particularly during early childhood and the

vising other workers. Also, women may face time

reproductive years. In high-income countries women

constraints due to their traditional family respon-

tend to outlive men by four to eight years on aver-

sibilities. Because of biases and misclassification

age, while in low-income countries the difference is

substantial numbers of employed women may be

narrower—about two to three years. The difference

underestimated or reported as unpaid family workers

in child mortality rates (table 2.22) is another good

even when they work in association or equally with

indicator of female social disadvantage because

their husbands in the family enterprise.

nutrition and medical interventions are particularly

Women are vastly underrepresented in decision-

important for the 1–4 age group. Female child mor-

making positions in government, although there is

tality rates that are as high as or higher than male

some evidence of recent improvement. Gender parity

child mortality rates may indicate discrimination

in parliamentary representation is still far from being

against girls.

realized. In 2008 women accounted for 18 percent

Having a child during the teenage years limits

of parliamentarians worldwide, compared with 9 per-

girls’ opportunities for better education, jobs, and

cent in 1987. Without representation at this level, it

income. Pregnancy is more likely to be unintended

is difficult for women to influence policy.

during the teenage years, and births are more likely

For information on other aspects of gender, see

to be premature and are associated with greater

tables 1.2 (Millennium Development Goals: eradicat-

Data sources

risks of complications during delivery and of death.

ing poverty and saving lives), 1.3 (Millennium Devel-

Data on female population and life expectancy are

In many countries maternal mortality (tables 1.3 and

opment Goals: protecting our common environment),

from the World Bank’s population database. Data

2.18) is a leading cause of death among women of

2.3 (Employment by economic activity), 2.4 (Decent

on pregnant women receiving prenatal care are

reproductive age. Most maternal deaths result from

work and productive employment), 2.5 (Unemploy-

from household surveys, including Demographic

preventable causes—hemorrhage, infection, and

ment), 2.6 (Children at work), 2.10 (Assessing vulner-

and Health Surveys by Macro International and

complications from unsafe abortions. Prenatal care

ability and security), 2.13 (Education efficiency), 2.14

Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys by the United

is essential for recognizing, diagnosing, and promptly

(Education completion and outcomes), 2.15 (Educa-

Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and UNICEF’s

treating complications that arise during pregnancy.

tion gaps by income and gender), 2.18 (Reproductive

State of the World’s Children 2009. Data on teen-

In high-income countries most women have access

health), 2.20 (Health risk factors and future chal-

age mothers are from Demographic and Health

to health care during pregnancy, but in developing

lenges), 2.21 (Health gaps by income and gender),

Surveys by Macro International. Data on labor

countries an estimated 200 million women suffer

and 2.22 (Mortality).

force and employment are from the International

pregnancy-related complications, and over half a mil-

Labour Organization’s Key Indicators of the Labour

lion die every year (Glasier and others 2006). This

Market, fi fth edition. Data on women in parlia-

is reflected in the differences in maternal mortality

ments are from the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

ratios between high- and low-income countries.

2009 World Development Indicators

31

1.6

Key indicators for other economies
Population Surface Population
area
density

thousands
2007

American Samoa
Andorra
Antigua and Barbuda
Aruba
Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Barbados
Belize
Bermuda
Bhutan
Brunei Darussalam
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Channel Islands
Comoros
Cyprus
Djibouti
Dominica
Equatorial Guinea
Faeroe Islands
Fiji
French Polynesia
Greenland
Grenada
Guam
Guyana
Iceland
Isle of Man

65
82
85
101
331
753
294
304
64
657
389
530
54
149
628
855
833
73
508
48
834
263
57
106
173
739
311
77

Gross national
income

PPPa
Per capita
$ millions
$
2007
2007

thousand
sq. km
2007

people per
sq. km
2007

$ millions
2007b

Per capita
$
2007b

0.2
0.5
0.4
0.2
13.9
0.7
0.4
23.0
0.1
47.0
5.8
4.0
0.3
0.2
1.9
9.3
23.2
0.8
28.1
1.4
18.3
4.0
410.5
0.3
0.5
215.0
103.0
0.6

325
175
193
561
33
1,060
684
13
1,280
14
74
132
206
785
338
92
36
97
18
35
46
72
0g
311
321
4
3
136

..
..
980
..
..
12,607
..
1,144
..
1,166
10,211
1,287
..
10,241
425
19,617f
908
292
6,527
..
3,125
..
..
414
..
926
17,959
3,517

..c
..
..
..
..
..d
11,650
1,487e 17,680e
..
..
..d
..
..
..d
17,390
19,720
27,210
4,711e 16,140e
..d
6,080e
3,760
1,847e
..
..
..d
1,770
3,275
4,980
26,740 19,540 50,200
2,430
1,557
2,940
..
..
..d
68,640
..
..
680
721
1,150
24,940 f 20,549 24,040
1,090
1,885
2,260
6,930e
4,030
501e
12,860
10,770 21,220
..
..
..d
3,750
3,538
4,240
..
..
..d
..d
..
..
5,480e
3,920
579e
..
..
..d
2,580e
1,250
1,907e
57,750 10,596 34,070
45,810
..
..

About the data

Gross domestic
product

Life
Adult
expectancy literacy
rate
at birth

% growth
2006–07

Per capita
% growth
2006–07

years
2007

..
..
–1.2
..
2.8
7.8
..
1.2
4.6
19.1
0.6
7.0
..
5.9
–1.0
4.4
4.0
3.2
12.5
..
–6.6
..
..
3.0
..
9.1
3.8
7.7

..
..
–2.1
..
1.6
5.6
..
–0.9
4.3
17.5
–1.3
4.6
..
5.7
–3.3
3.3
2.2
2.6
9.9
..
–7.1
..
..
2.9
..
9.2
1.4
6.7

..
..
..
..
73
76
77
76
79
66
77
71
..
79
65
79
55
..
52
79
69
74
..
69
76
67
81
..

Carbon
dioxide
emissions

% ages 15 thousand
and older metric tons
2007
2005

..
..
99
98
..
89
..
..
..
53
95
84
99
..
75
98
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
421
2,308
2,107
19,668
1,315
817
572
414
5,892
286
315
..
88
7,017
374
114
4,335
656
1,641
685
557
234
..
1,491
2,184
..

Definitions

The table shows data for 56 economies with popula-

• Population is based on the de facto definition of

net receipts of primary income (compensation of

tions between 30,000 and 1 million and for smaller

population, which counts all residents regardless

employees and property income) from abroad. Data

economies if they are members of the World Bank.

of legal status or citizenship—except for refugees

are in current U.S. dollars converted using the World

Where data on gross national income (GNI) per capita

not permanently settled in the country of asylum,

Bank Atlas method (see Statistical methods). • GNI

are not available, the estimated range is given. For

who are generally considered part of the popula-

per capita is GNI divided by midyear population.

more information on the calculation of GNI (gross

tion of their country of origin. The values shown are

GNI per capita in U.S. dollars is converted using

national product, or GNP, in the System of National

midyear estimates. See also table 2.1. • Surface

the World Bank Atlas method. • Purchasing power

Accounts 1968) and purchasing power parity (PPP)

area is a country’s total area, including areas under

parity (PPP) GNI is GNI converted to international

conversion factors, see About the data for table

inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has

1.1. Additional data for the economies in the table

• Population density is midyear population divided

the same purchasing power over GNI that a U.S.

are available on the World Development Indicators

by land area in square kilometers. • Gross national

dollar has in the United States. • Gross domestic

CD-ROM or at WDI Online.

income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resi-

product (GDP) is the sum of value added by all

dent producers plus any product taxes (less sub-

resident producers plus any product taxes (less

sidies) not included in the valuation of output plus

subsidies) not included in the valuation of output.

32

2009 World Development Indicators

Population Surface Population
area
density

thousands
2007

Kiribati
Liechtenstein
Luxembourg
Macao, China
Maldives
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mayotte
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Monaco
Montenegro
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
Northern Mariana Islands
Palau
Qatar
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Seychelles
Solomon Islands
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Vincent & Grenadines
Suriname
Tonga
Vanuatu
Virgin Islands (U.S.)

95
35
480
480
305
409
58
186
111
33
599
191
242
84
20
836
181
31
158
85
495
49
168
120
458
102
226
108

thousand
sq. km
2007

0.8
0.2
2.6
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.7
0.0
14.0
0.8
18.6
0.5
0.5
11.0
2.8
0.1
1.0
0.5
28.9
0.3
0.6
0.4
163.3
0.8
12.2
0.4

people per
sq. km
2007

117
220
185
17,026
1,018
1,279
324
497
159
16,769
43
239
13
182
44
76
64
510
165
185
18
188
275
309
3
142
19
310

Gross national
income

Gross domestic
product

1.6

Life
Adult
expectancy literacy
rate
at birth

$ millions
2007b

Per capita
$
2007b

PPPa
Per capita
$ millions
$
2007
2007

% growth
2006–07

Per capita
% growth
2006–07

years
2007

107
..
34,234
..
974
6,825
189
..
253
..
3,154
..
..
..
167
..
489
1,430
138
762
374
488
928
507
2,166
254
417
..

1,120
..d
72,430
..d
3,190
16,680
3,240
..c
2,280
..d
5,270
..d
..d
..d
8,270
..d
2,700
46,770
870
8,960
750
9,990
5,520
4,210
4,730
2,480
1,840
..d

194 e
2,040e
..
..
29,239
61,860
..
..
1,500
4,910
9,192 22,460
..
..
..
..
3,010e
334 e
..
..
7,056 11,780
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4,350e
789e
..
..
258
1,630
1,313e 15,440e
1,710e
845e
668e 13,680e
9,240e
1,552e
7,170e
863e
7,640e
3,498e
3,880e
397e
3,410e
771e
..
..

1.7
..
4.5
27.3
6.6
3.8
3.5
..
–3.2
..
10.7
..
..
..
2.5
6.1
6.1
4.5
6.0
6.3
10.2
3.3
3.2
6.7
5.3
–0.3
5.0
..

0.1
..
2.9
26.6
4.9
3.1
1.2
..
–3.5
..
11.1
..
..
..
1.9
1.8
5.6
3.1
4.1
5.8
7.7
2.5
2.0
6.2
4.7
–0.6
2.6
..

61
..
79
81
68
80
..
..
69
..
75
75
76
..
69
76
72
82
65
73
64
..
74
72
70
73
70
79

WORLD VIEW

Key indicators for other economies

Carbon
dioxide
emissions

% ages 15 thousand
and older metric tons
2007
2005

..
..
..
94
97
92
..
..
..
..
..
96
96
..
..
93
99
..
88
..
..
..
..
..
90
99
78
..

26
..
11,314
2,235
714
2,550
84
..
..
..
..
3,891
2,638
..
114
49,816
150
..
103
579
176
136
370
191
2,374
117
88
..

a. PPP is purchasing power parity, see Definitions. b. Calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. c. Estimated to be upper middle income ($3,706–$11,455). d. Estimated to be high
income ($11,456 or more). e. Based on regression; others are extrapolated from the 2005 International Comparison Program benchmark estimates. f. Excludes Turkish Cypriot side.
g. Less than 0.5.

Growth is calculated from constant price GDP data
in local currency. • GDP per capita is GDP divided
by midyear population. • Life expectancy at birth
is the number of years a newborn infant would live
if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of
its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

Data sources

• Adult literacy rate is the percentage of adults

The indicators here and throughout the book

ages 15 and older who can, with understanding,

are compiled by World Bank staff from primary

read and write a short, simple statement about their

and secondary sources. More information about

everyday life. • Carbon dioxide emissions are those

the indicators and their sources can be found in

stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the

the About the data, Definitions, and Data sources

manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide

entries that accompany each table in subsequent

produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and

sections.

gas fuels and gas fl aring.

2009 World Development Indicators

33

Text figures, tables, and
boxes

Introduction

D

ecent and productive work

Sustainable development is about improving the quality of people’s lives and expanding their
ability to shape their futures. These generally call for higher per capita incomes, but they also
involve equitable education and job opportunities, better health and nutrition, and a more
sustainable natural environment.
The Millennium Development Goals are the world’s time-bound targets to measure and monitor the progress of countries in improving people’s welfare. They address extreme poverty
in its many dimensions—income, hunger, and disease—while promoting education, gender
equality, health, and sanitation. At the midpoint between their adoption in 2000 and the
target date of 2015, the goals related to human development (primary school completion
rate, under-five and maternal mortality) have recorded slower progress than those related to
economic growth and infrastructure development (income poverty, gender parity, access to
clean water and sanitation; figure 2a).
Income from work is the main determinant of living conditions and well-being (World Bank 1995).
Therefore, breaking the cycle of poverty involves creating local wealth and new cycles of opportunity through decent and productive employment. Economic growth is a vehicle for poverty reduction, but economic advances in a variety of countries over the past decade have not helped lift
a majority of people and their families out of poverty because many poor people were deprived
of opportunities to benefit from economic expansion. That is why decent and productive work
has been added as a target, with four specific indicators. Target 1b under Goal 1 is to achieve
full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people. The
indicators cover employment, vulnerable employment, the working poor, and labor productivity.
2a

Different goals—different progress
Distance to goal achieved in 2006
Distance to goal to be on track in 2006
Goal 1a. Deep poverty
Goal 1b. Hunger
Goal 2. Primary education
Goal 3. Gender parity at school
Goal 4. Child mortality
Goal 5. Maternal mortality
Goal 7c. Access to safe water
Goal 7c. Access to sanitation
0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Source: World Bank and IMF 2008a.

2009 World Development Indicators

35

New indicators on decent and
productive work

Employment to population ratios

Measuring the achievement of decent and productive work in
its many facets (box 2b) is challenging. Nevertheless, it is clear
that increased opportunities for decent and productive employment have led to greater earnings for many workers in highincome economies. In contrast, jobs in the formal economy are
often beyond the reach of most people in low-income economies, where many workers still continue to toil long hours in
poor conditions with low remuneration and low productivity.
A set of indicators has been adopted to assess the
achievement of the Millennium Development Goal target
for full and productive employment and decent work for all:
employment to population ratios, the share of vulnerable
employment in total employment, the share of working poor
(earning less than $1.25 a day) in total employment, and
labor productivity growth rates. The four indicators should:
• Provide relevant measures of progress toward the
new target.
• Provide a basis for international comparison.
• Link to country monitoring systems.
• Be based on international standards, recommendations, and best practices.
• Be constructed from well established data sources,
quantifiable and consistent, enabling measurement
over time.

employed as a percentage of the population for the corre-

What is
decent work?

The employment to population ratio—the number of people

2b

The International Labour Organization defines decent work as productive work for women and men in conditions of freedom, equity,
security, and human dignity. Endorsed by the international commu-

sponding age group (ages 15 and older or ages 15–24) and
sex—is a good indicator of the efficiency of an economy in
providing jobs. Although there is no optimal employment to
population ratio, most economies have ratios in the range of
55–75 percent. Ratios above 80 percent could point to an
abundance of low-quality jobs.
The ratios for people ages 15 and older changed little
between 1991 and 2007 (figure 2c), but they hide wide variations across regions (figure 2d). Developed economies have
lower ratios than developing economies because their higher
productivity and incomes require fewer workers to meet the
needs of the entire population.
For developing economies there is no correct, or optimal, ratio. During the development process employment to
population ratios and poverty indicators can both be high
because people must work to survive, which is the case for
some countries in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (figure 2e). When unemployment rates are very high, signifying

Employment to population ratios
have not changed much over time. . .

2c
1991

Employment to population ratio, ages 15 and older (%)
100

2007

75

nity, decent work involves opportunities for productive work and
delivers a fair income, guarantees equal opportunities and equal
treatment for all, provides security in the workplace and protection

50
25

for workers and their families, offers better prospects for personal
development and social integration, and gives people the freedom to

0
Low
income

express their concerns, to organize, and to participate in decisions
that affect their lives.

Lower
Upper
Low and
middle income middle income middle income

High
income

Source: ILO database Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 5th edition.

The Decent Work Agenda strives for equitable economic growth
through a coherent blend of social and economic goals, balanced

. . . But variations are
wide across regions

2d

and integrated at the global, regional, national, sectoral, and local
levels. Its four strategic objectives are mutually supportive:

Employment to population ratio, ages 15 and older (%)
100

1991

2008

• Employment—the principal route out of poverty is productive
work.
• Rights—without them, men and women will not be empowered to

75
50

escape poverty.
• Protection—social protection safeguards against poverty.
• Dialogue—participation of employer and worker organizations are a
key element in shaping government policy for poverty reduction.

25
0
East Asia
& Pacific

Source: Adapted from International Labour Organization (www.ilo.org/decentwork/).
Source: ILO 2008.

36

2009 World Development Indicators

Europe
& Central
Asia

Latin
America &
Caribbean

Middle East
& North
Africa

South
Asia

Sub-Saharan
Africa

High
income

that people are looking for work but not finding it, efforts

and Pacific, where the high employment to population ratio is

are needed to increase the employment to population ratio.

in part explained by the high employment to population ratio

Efforts to boost ratios are also needed when unemployment

for women, and the gender gap in employment to popula-

rates are low as a result of discouragement, indicating that

tion ratios is the lowest of all regions. Gender gaps in these

people may have given up hope of finding a job. On the other

ratios may be the result of women choosing not to work, but

hand, increases in employment to population ratios should

especially in developing countries women are likely to face

be moderate, since sharp spikes could be the result of a

cultural or other constraints to labor market participation. If

decline in productivity.

such constraints become less binding over time, ratios for

Two regions experienced increases in employment to

women will gradually increase.

population ratios over this period: Latin America and the

High ratios among youth, as in some East Asian and

Caribbean and Middle East and North Africa. In both, the

Pacific economies, indicate that more young people are work-

increases were fueled by increases in the labor force partici-

ing rather than attending school and investing in their future

pation of women. But despite this, the employment to popu-

(figure 2g). A reduction in youth employment to population

lation ratio in the Middle East and North Africa remained the

ratios can be a positive trend if related to increased enroll-

lowest in the world.

ments. Ratios generally are negatively correlated to school

Globally, employment to population ratios are lower for

enrollment: the higher the enrollment, the lower the employ-

women than for men, resulting in a large untapped potential

ment (figure 2h). But Nigeria and Sudan have low second-

of female labor (figure 2f). The Middle East and North Africa

ary school enrollments and low youth employment, indicat-

has the largest gender gap, attributable to low participation

ing that young people are neither working nor preparing for

of women in the workforce. The opposite is true in East Asia

future work.

High employment to population ratios in some
countries reflect high numbers of working poor
Employment to population ratio,
ages 15 and older, selected countries (%)
100

2e
1991

2007

Many young people are in the workforce,
at the expense of higher education
Enrollment ratios and
employment to population
ratio, ages 15–24,
by region, 2007 (%)
100

75

75

50

50

25

25

2g

Employment to population ratio, ages 15–24, total (%)
Gross enrollment ratio, secondary
Gross enrollment ratio, tertiary, total

0

0
Burundi

Uganda

Madagascar

Middle East
South
Sub-Saharan
Latin
Europe
& North
Asia
Africa
& Central America &
Africa
Caribbean
Asia
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and ILO database Key Indicators of the
Labour Market, 5th edition.
East Asia
& Pacific

Guinea

Source: ILO database Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 5th edition.

Fewer women than men are
employed all over the world
Employment to population ratio,
ages 15 and older, by sex and region, 2008 (%)
100

2f
Men

Women

For many poor countries, there is a
tradeoff between education and employment

2h

Employment to population ratio, ages 15–24, 2007 (%)
80
Uganda
Cambodia

60

75

Niger

40

50
25

20

0

0

Nigeria

Sudan

Namibia

Latin Middle East
East Asia Europe
& Pacific & Central America & & North
Caribbean Africa
Asia
Source: ILO 2008.

South Sub-Saharan High
Asia
Africa
income

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Gross enrollment ratio, secondary, 2005–07 (% of relevant age group)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and ILO database Key Indicators of the
Labour Market, 5th edition.

2009 World Development Indicators

37

Share of vulnerable employment in
total employment

The share of working poor in total employment

The share of vulnerable employment in total employment
captures the proportion of workers who are less likely to have
access to social security, income protection, and effective
coverage under labor legislation—and are thus more likely to
lack critical elements of decent work. Such elements include
mechanisms for dialogue that could improve their working
conditions or ensure rights at work. The fact that the vulnerable are most likely to lack social protection and safety nets
in times of low economic demand can increase their poverty,
a big concern in the current global economic crisis.
Vulnerable employment accounted for just over half of
world employment in 2007 (50.5 percent), down from 52.6
percent in 2000. It is very high in South Asia and SubSaharan Africa (figure 2i), accounting for three-quarters of
all jobs, and in East Asia and Pacific. The lowest share of
vulnerable employment outside high-income economies is in
Europe and Central Asia. Women are more likely than men
to be vulnerable (figure 2j), and the difference is more than
10 percentage points in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and
the Middle East and North Africa. Shares of women in vulnerable employment are very low in high-income regions.
Although there are large regional
variations in vulnerable employment . . .

2i

Vulnerable employment as a share of
total employment, by region (%)
100

1991

2007

Share of working poor in total employment is
highest in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

2k

Share of working poor in total employment, by region (%)
100

75

75

50

50

25

25

0

1991

2007

0
East Asia
& Pacific

Europe
& Central
Asia

Latin
America &
Caribbean

Middle East
& North
Africa

South
Asia

Sub-Saharan
Africa

High
income

Source: ILO 2008.

East Asia
& Pacific

Europe
& Central
Asia

Latin
America &
Caribbean

Middle East
& North
Africa

South
Asia

Sub-Saharan
Africa

High
income

Source: ILO 2008.

. . . Women are more likely than men
to be in vulnerable employment
Vulnerable employment as a share of
total employment, by sex and region (%)
100

2j
1991 men
2007 men

1991 women
2007 women

Labor productivity has
increased across the world

2l

GDP per person employed, by region ($ thousands)
80

1991

2000

2007

60

75

40

50

20

25

0

0
East Asia
& Pacific

Europe
& Central
Asia

Latin
America &
Caribbean

Middle East
& North
Africa

Source: ILO 2008.

38

Working poor are employed people living in a household in
which each member is estimated to be below the poverty line
($1.25 a day). Measurements of the working poor indicate
the lack of decent work: if a person’s work does not provide
a sufficient income to lift the family out of poverty, this work
does not fulfill the income component of decent work. Unemployment is not an option for the poor, who have no savings
or other sources of income and cannot rely on safety nets.
Measuring decent work remains a challenge.
Harsh labor market conditions in South Asia and SubSaharan Africa are reflected in the share of working poor
in total employment (figure 2k). Almost 60 percent of workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and 40 percent in South Asia are
extremely poor ($1.25 a day). It will take many years in these
regions to make decent work for all a realistic objective.
East Asia and Pacific advanced most toward improving the
incomes of workers, reducing the share of working poor from
36 percent to 13 percent.
The global financial crisis, which has turned into a global
jobs crisis, will likely increase the share of working poor and
the share of vulnerable employment in developing economies. But with 2008 data not yet available for many countries, it is difficult to estimate the impact (box 2m).

2009 World Development Indicators

South
Asia

Sub-Saharan
Africa

High
income

East Asia
& Pacific

Source: ILO 2008.

Europe
& Central
Asia

Latin
America &
Caribbean

Middle East
& North
Africa

South
Asia

Sub-Saharan
Africa

High
income

Labor productivity growth rates

Challenge of measuring decent work

Labor productivity assesses the likelihood that an economy

The multifaceted Decent Work Agenda links full and produc-

provides the opportunity to create and sustain decent em-

tive employment with rights at work, social protection, and a

ployment with fair and equitable remuneration and better

social dialogue. A major challenge lies in refining indicators

working conditions. Higher productivity improves the social

of the qualitative elements of decent work and collecting the

and economic environment, reducing poverty through invest-

data. Future action will include:

ments in human and physical capital, social protection, and

• Compiling definitions for statistical indicators based
on agreed international statistical standards and pro-

technological progress.

viding guidance on interpreting indicators, including

Higher productivity comes from enterprises’ combining of

limitations and possible pitfalls.

capital, labor, and technology. There has been an increase in

• Carrying out developmental work on statistical indica-

labor productivity since 2000 across the world.
Productivity gains have been greatest in high-income

tors in areas highlighted by experts, such as mater-

economies and in Europe and Central Asia (figure 2l). Produc-

nity protection, paid annual leave, sick leave, and

tivity increased slightly in Latin America and the Caribbean,

sustainable enterprises.

and the share of working poor subsequently fell. The fairly

• Generating reliable and reproducible indicators to com-

low and often volatile productivity changes in Sub-Saharan

ply with fundamental principles and rights at work.

Africa may explain the limited decline in workers in vulnerable

The indicators are a start at measuring progress toward

employment there. The number of working poor is unlikely to

decent work, but challenges remain, particularly for develop-

decline without increased productivity.

ing economies, at different stages of statistical development
and with different statistical capacities.

2m

Scenarios for 2008
In response to the financial crisis and dwindling access to funding,
many businesses are reducing operating costs by postponing investments and shedding workers. The economic weight and market size
of the high-income economies, and the global linkages of the financial
sector, mean that the crisis is hitting funding and export markets in
other parts of the world, especially those for commodities.
Since data on working poverty and vulnerable employment are lacking for 2008, global scenarios for 2008 are presented instead (ILO
2009).
Both the share of working poor and workers in vulnerable employment will have increased in 2008, reversing the encouraging trends to
2007. The slight decline in vulnerable employment in recent years raised
hopes that in 2008, for the first time, the share of workers in vulnerable
Two global scenarios for
vulnerable employment in 2008

Figure 1

Percent

employment would fall below 50 percent (figure 1). But a second scenario finds it likely to rise to 52.6 percent. The projections in figure 2
would result in a decrease in the share of extreme working poverty in
total employment from 2007 in the first and second scenarios. However,
in the third scenario, the share would increase 4 percent over the share
from 2007 (figure 2). Given the sharp decline in economic growth for
many economies in 2008, the third scenario may be most likely.
The negative impact in these scenarios is realistic, since people
who lose their wage and salaried employment will most likely end up
out of work altogether or working as own-account workers and unpaid
contributing family workers. And new entrants to labor markets will
have fewer opportunities in wage and salaried jobs, most likely ending
up in vulnerable employment.
Global scenarios for working
poor ($1.25 a day) in 2008

Figure 2

Percent

60

30

2007 (23.0)

2007 (50.5)
27.0

50
49.6

52.6

40

20
20.2

21.2

30
20

10

10
0

Scenario 1
Source: ILO 2009.

Scenario 2

Scenario 1. Based on labor market data to date and IMF November
2008 revised estimates for economic growth.
Scenario 2. Based on a simultaneous increase in vulnerable employment in all economies equal to half the largest increase since 1991 and
IMF November 2008 revised estimates for economic growth.

0

Scenario 1
Source: ILO 2009.

Scenario 2

Scenario 3

Scenario 1. Based on labor market data to date and IMF November
2008 revised estimates for economic growth.
Scenario 2. Based on a 5 percent higher poverty line.
Scenario 3. Based on a 10 percent higher poverty line.

2009 World Development Indicators

39

Tables

2.1

Population dynamics
Population

Average annual
population growth

Population age
composition

Dependency
ratio

%

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

40

1990

millions
2007

2015

..
3.3
25.3
10.5
32.6
3.5
17.1
7.7
7.2
113
10.2
10
5.2
6.7
4.3
1.4
149.5
8.7
8.9
5.7
9.7
12.2
27.8
3
6.1
13.2
1,135.2
5.7
33.2
37.9
2.4
3.1
12.8
4.8
10.6
10.4
5.1
7.3
10.3
55.1
5.1
3.2
1.6
48.0
5.0
56.7
0.9
1.0
5.5
79.4
15.6
10.2
8.9
6.0
1.0
7.1

..
3.2
33.9
16.9
39.5
3.0
21.0
8.3
8.6
158.6
9.7
10.6
9.0
9.5
3.8
1.9
191.6
7.7
14.8
8.5
14.4
18.5
33.0
4.3
10.8
16.6
1,318.3
6.9
44.0
62.4
3.8
4.5
19.3
4.4
11.3
10.3
5.5
9.7
13.3
75.5
6.9
4.8
1.3
79.1
5.3
61.7
1.3
1.7
4.4
82.3
23.5
11.2
13.3
9.4
1.7
9.6

..
3.3
38.0
20.7
42.5
3.0
22.5
8.4
9.1
180.0
9.3
10.7
11.3
10.9
3.7
2.1
209.4
7.2
18.6
11.2
16.6
21.5
35.3
5.0
13.4
17.8
1,375.7
7.4
48.4
78.5
4.5
5.0
22.3
4.4
11.2
10.3
5.5
10.6
14.6
86.2
7.6
6.2
1.3
96.0
5.4
63.3
1.5
2.1
4.2
81.1
27.3
11.2
16.2
11.4
2.2
11.0

2009 World Development Indicators

%
1990–2007 2007–15

..
–0.2
1.7
2.8
1.1
–1.0
1.2
0.4
1.0
2.0
–0.3
0.4
3.3
2.1
–0.8
1.9
1.5
–0.8
3.0
2.4
2.3
2.4
1.0
2.2
3.3
1.4
0.9
1.1
1.7
2.9
2.6
2.2
2.4
–0.4
0.4
0.0a
0.4
1.7
1.5
1.8
1.7
2.5
–0.9
2.9
0.3
0.5
2.2
3.4
–1.3
0.2
2.4
0.6
2.4
2.6
3.0
1.8

..
0.4
1.5
2.5
0.9
0.1
0.8
0.1
0.8
1.6
–0.6
0.1
2.8
1.6
–0.1
1.2
1.1
–0.8
2.9
3.5
1.8
1.9
0.8
1.8
2.7
0.9
0.5
0.9
1.2
2.9
2.1
1.3
1.9
–0.2
–0.1
–0.1
0.1
1.1
1.1
1.7
1.3
3.0
–0.3
2.4
0.2
0.3
1.5
2.5
–0.6
–0.2
1.9
0.0 b
2.4
2.4
3.0
1.7

Ages
0–14
2007

..
25
28
46
26
19
19
15
23
34
15
17
44
37
17
35
27
13
46
44
36
41
17
42
46
24
21
14
29
47
42
27
41
15
18
14
19
33
32
33
33
43
15
44
17
18
35
41
18
14
38
14
43
43
48
37

Ages
15–64
2007

..
66
67
51
64
69
67
68
69
62
71
66
54
58
69
62
66
69
51
53
61
55
70
54
51
68
71
73
65
50
55
67
56
68
70
71
66
61
62
62
61
55
68
53
67
65
61
55
68
66
58
67
53
54
49
59

Ages
65+
2007

..
9
5
2
10
12
13
17
7
4
14
17
3
5
14
3
6
17
3
3
3
4
13
4
3
9
8
12
5
3
3
6
3
17
12
15
16
6
6
5
6
2
17
3
16
16
5
4
14
20
4
19
4
3
3
4

% of working-age
population
Young
Old
2007
2007

..
38
42
90
40
28
28
23
34
55
21
25
82
64
25
56
41
19
90
84
59
74
24
78
91
35
29
20
45
95
76
41
74
22
26
20
28
54
51
52
55
78
22
82
26
28
58
74
26
21
66
21
80
80
97
63

..
14
7
5
16
17
20
25
10
6
20
26
5
8
21
6
10
25
6
5
5
6
19
7
6
13
11
16
8
5
6
9
6
26
17
20
24
9
10
8
9
4
24
6
24
25
8
7
21
30
6
28
8
6
6
7

Crude
death
rate

Crude
birth
rate

per 1,000
people
2007

per 1,000
people
2007

..
6
5
21
8
10
7
9
6
8
14
9
11
8
10
14
6
15
14
16
9
14
7
18
15
5
7
6
6
18
11
4
15
12
8
10
10
6
5
6
6
9
13
13
9
8
12
10
12
10
9
10
6
12
18
9

..
16
21
47
18
13
14
9
18
25
10
11
40
27
9
25
19
10
44
47
26
35
11
36
45
15
12
10
19
50
35
18
35
9
10
11
12
23
21
24
23
39
12
38
11
13
26
35
11
8
30
10
33
40
50
28

Population

Average annual
population growth

Population age
composition

Dependency
ratio

%

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

1990

millions
2007

2015

4.9
10.4
849.5
178.2
54.4
18.5
3.5
4.7
56.7
2.4
123.5
3.2
16.3
23.4
20.1
42.9
2.1
4.4
4.1
2.7
3.0
1.6
2.1
4.4
3.7
1.9
12.0
9.4
18.1
7.7
1.9
1.1
83.2
4.4
2.1
24.2
13.5
40.1
1.4
19.1
15.0
3.4
4.1
7.8
94.5
4.2
1.8
108.0
2.4
4.1
4.2
21.8
61.2
38.1
9.9
3.5

7.1
10.1
1,124.8
225.6
71.0
..
4.4
7.2
59.4
2.7
127.8
5.7
15.5
37.5
23.8
48.5
2.7
5.2
5.9
2.3
4.1
2.0
3.7
6.2
3.4
2.0
19.7
13.9
26.5
12.3
3.1
1.3
105.3
3.8
2.6
30.9
21.4
48.8
2.1
28.1
16.4
4.2
5.6
14.2
148.0
4.7
2.6
162.5
3.3
6.3
6.1
27.9
87.9
38.1
10.6
3.9

8.3
9.8
1,249.6
245.1
78.9
..
4.8
8.1
58.4
2.8
124.5
6.8
16.8
46.1
24.4
49.2
3.2
5.8
6.7
2.2
4.4
2.1
4.7
7.1
3.3
2.0
24.1
17.0
30.0
15.7
3.8
1.3
113.7
3.7
2.8
33.9
24.7
51.9
2.3
32.2
16.5
4.5
6.3
18.5
175.6
4.9
3.0
192.3
3.8
7.3
7.0
30.7
101.0
37.5
10.7
4.1

%
1990–2007 2007–15

2.2
–0.2
1.7
1.4
1.6
..
1.3
2.5
0.3
0.7
0.2
3.5
–0.3
2.8
1.0
0.7
1.3
1.0
2.1
–0.9
1.9
1.3
3.3
2.0
–0.5
0.4
2.9
2.3
2.3
2.8
2.8
1.0
1.4
–0.8
1.3
1.4
2.7
1.1
2.3
2.3
0.5
1.2
1.8
3.5
2.6
0.6
2.0
2.4
1.9
2.5
2.2
1.5
2.1
0.0 b
0.4
0.6

1.9
–0.3
1.3
1.0
1.3
..
1.2
1.6
–0.2
0.5
–0.3
2.1
1.0
2.6
0.3
0.2
2.1
1.2
1.7
–0.5
1.0
0.6
2.8
1.8
–0.5
0.0a
2.5
2.5
1.5
3.0
2.4
0.6
1.0
–0.4
1.0
1.2
1.8
0.8
1.5
1.7
0.1
0.8
1.4
3.3
2.1
0.5
2.0
2.1
1.5
1.8
1.6
1.2
1.7
–0.2
0.1
0.5

Ages
0–14
2007

39
15
32
28
27
..
21
28
14
31
14
36
24
43
23
18
23
30
38
14
28
40
47
30
16
19
43
47
30
48
40
24
30
19
27
29
44
26
37
38
18
21
37
48
44
19
32
36
30
40
35
31
35
15
16
21

Ages
15–64
2007

57
69
63
67
69
..
68
62
66
62
66
61
69
55
68
72
75
65
58
69
65
55
51
66
69
70
54
50
65
49
57
70
64
70
69
65
52
68
59
58
67
67
59
49
53
66
65
60
64
58
60
64
61
71
67
66

Ages
65+
2007

4
16
5
6
4
..
11
10
20
7
21
3
8
3
9
10
2
6
4
17
7
5
2
4
16
11
3
3
5
4
4
7
6
11
4
5
3
6
4
4
15
12
4
3
3
15
3
4
6
2
5
6
4
13
17
13

% of working-age
population
Young
Old
2007
2007

68
22
51
42
39
..
30
45
21
50
21
59
35
78
34
24
31
46
65
20
43
72
93
46
23
27
81
94
47
97
70
34
46
27
39
45
85
39
64
65
27
31
62
98
82
29
50
59
47
69
58
48
59
22
23
32

7
22
8
9
6
..
16
16
30
12
32
5
11
5
13
14
3
9
6
25
11
9
4
6
23
16
6
6
7
7
6
10
10
16
6
8
6
8
6
6
22
19
7
7
6
22
4
7
10
4
8
9
7
19
25
20

PEOPLE

Population dynamics

2.1
Crude
death
rate

Crude
birth
rate

per 1,000
people
2007

per 1,000
people
2007

6
13
8
6
6
..
6
6
10
6
9
4
10
12
10
5
2
7
7
15
7
19
18
4
14
9
10
15
4
15
8
7
5
12
6
6
20
10
12
8
8
7
5
14
17
9
3
7
5
10
6
6
5
10
10
8

2009 World Development Indicators

28
10
24
19
18
..
16
21
9
17
9
29
20
39
13
10
18
23
27
10
18
29
50
23
10
11
36
41
21
48
32
14
19
11
22
21
39
18
26
28
11
15
25
49
40
12
22
27
21
30
25
21
26
10
10
13

41

2.1

Population dynamics
Population

Average annual
population growth

Population age
composition

Dependency
ratio

%

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

1990

millions
2007

2015

23.2
148.3
7.3
16.4
7.9
7.6
4.1
3.0
5.3
2.0
6.7
35.2
38.8
17.1
25.9
0.8
8.6
6.7
12.7
5.3
25.5
54.3
0.7
4.0
1.2
8.2
56.2
3.7
17.8
51.9
1.9
57.2
249.6
3.1
20.5
19.8
66.2
2.0
12.3
8.1
10.5
5,259.1 s
866.5
3,457.9
2,751.9
706.0
4,324.4
1,596.0
436.2
435.1
223.7
1,120.2
513.2
934.7
301.6

21.5
142.1
9.7
24.2
12.4
7.4
5.8
4.6
5.4
2.0
8.7
47.9
44.9
20.0
38.6
1.1
9.1
7.6
19.9
6.7
40.4
63.8
1.1
6.6
1.3
10.2
73.9
5.0
30.9
46.5
4.4
61.0
301.6
3.3
26.9
27.5
85.2
3.7
22.4
11.9
13.4
6,610.3 s
1,295.8
4,258.2
3,434.5
823.7
5,554.0
1,912.4
445.6
560.6
313.2
1,522.0
800.0
1,056.3
324.2

20.5
135.6
12.1
28.3
15.4
7.3
6.9
4.8
5.4
2.0
10.9
49.5
45.7
20.5
45.6
1.2
9.4
7.7
23.5
7.7
48.9
66.6
1.4
8.0
1.4
11.2
81.0
5.5
40.6
43.6
5.3
62.5
324.1
3.4
30.0
31.1
94.1
4.5
28.2
13.8
14.8
7,210.6 s
1,532.9
4,586.3
3,721.4
865.0
6,119.2
2,026.0
447.3
614.2
358.7
1,711.6
961.4
1,091.3
325.5

a. More than –0.05. b. Less than 0.05. c. Includes Kosovo.

42

2009 World Development Indicators

%
1990–2007 2007–15

–0.4
–0.3
1.7
2.3
2.7
–0.2
2.1
2.4
0.1
0.1
1.5
1.8
0.9
0.9
2.3
2.3
0.4
0.7
2.6
1.4
2.7
1.0
2.1
3.0
0.5
1.3
1.6
1.8
3.2
–0.6
5.0
0.4
1.1
0.4
1.6
1.9
1.5
3.7
3.5
2.3
1.4
1.3 w
2.4
1.2
1.3
0.9
1.5
1.1
0.1
1.5
2.0
1.8
2.6
0.7
0.4

–0.6
–0.6
2.8
2.0
2.7
–0.1
2.1
0.5
0.0a
–0.2
2.8
0.4
0.2
0.3
2.1
0.7
0.3
0.2
2.1
1.6
2.4
0.5
3.2
2.5
0.4
1.1
1.2
1.3
3.4
–0.8
2.4
0.3
0.9
0.2
1.4
1.5
1.3
2.5
2.9
1.9
1.3
1.1 w
2.1
0.9
1.0
0.6
1.2
0.7
0.0 b
1.1
1.7
1.5
2.3
0.4
0.1

Ages
0–14
2007

15
15
43
33
42
18 c
43
18
16
14
44
32
15
23
40
39
17
16
36
38
44
21
45
43
21
25
27
30
49
14
20
18
20
23
32
31
28
45
45
46
38
28 w
39
27
27
24
30
23
19
29
32
33
43
18
15

Ages
15–64
2007

70
72
55
65
54
67c
54
73
72
70
53
64
69
70
56
58
66
68
61
58
53
71
53
54
72
69
67
65
48
70
79
66
67
63
64
64
66
52
53
52
58
65 w
57
67
67
67
64
70
69
64
63
62
54
67
67

Ages
65+
2007

15
13
2
3
4
15c
3
9
12
16
3
4
17
7
4
3
18
16
3
4
3
8
3
3
7
6
6
5
2
16
1
16
12
14
5
5
6
3
2
3
4
7w
4
7
6
9
6
7
11
6
4
5
3
15
18

% of working-age
population
Young
Old
2007
2007

22
21
78
50
77
27c
80
25
22
20
83
50
21
33
71
67
26
24
58
65
84
30
85
79
30
36
41
46
101
20
25
27
31
37
49
47
42
88
85
88
66
43 w
69
40
41
36
46
33
28
45
51
53
80
26
23

21
19
4
4
8
22c
6
12
16
23
5
7
25
10
6
6
27
24
5
7
6
12
5
6
9
9
9
7
5
23
1
25
18
22
7
8
8
6
4
6
6
12 w
6
10
10
13
9
10
17
10
7
8
6
22
27

Crude
death
rate

Crude
birth
rate

per 1,000
people
2007

per 1,000
people
2007

12
15
17
4
9
14
22
5
10
9
17
17
9
6
10
21
10
8
3
6
13
8
9
10
8
6
7
8
13
16
1
9
8
9
5
5
5
4
7
19
18
8w
11
7
7
9
8
7
12
6
6
8
15
8
9

10
11
44
25
35
9
46
10
10
10
43
22
11
19
32
29
12
10
27
27
39
15
42
37
15
17
19
22
47
10
16
13
14
15
21
22
19
36
38
39
28
20 w
33
18
19
17
22
14
14
20
24
25
39
12
10

About the data

PEOPLE

Population dynamics

2.1

Definitions

Population estimates are usually based on national

Dependency ratios account for variations in the

• Population is based on the de facto definition of

population censuses, but the frequency and quality

proportions of children, elderly people, and working-

population, which counts all residents regardless of

vary by country. Most countries conduct a complete

age people in the population. Calculations of young

legal status or citizenship—except for refugees not

enumeration no more often than once a decade.

and old-age dependency suggest the dependency

permanently settled in the country of asylum, who

Estimates for the years before and after the census

burden that the working-age population bears in

are generally considered part of the population of

are interpolations or extrapolations based on demo-

relation to children and the elderly. But dependency

their country of origin. The values shown are mid-

graphic models. Errors and undercounting occur

ratios show only the age composition of a popula-

year estimates for 1990 and 2007 and projections

even in high-income countries; in developing coun-

tion, not economic dependency. Some children and

for 2015. • Average annual population growth is

tries errors may be substantial because of limits in

elderly people are part of the labor force, and many

the exponential change for the period indicated. See

the transport, communications, and other resources

working-age people are not.

Statistical methods for more information. • Popula-

required to conduct and analyze a full census.

Vital rates are based on data from birth and death

tion age composition is the percentage of the total

The quality and reliability of official demographic

registration systems, censuses, and sample surveys

population that is in specific age groups. • Depen-

data are also affected by public trust in the govern-

by national statistical offices and other organiza-

dency ratio is the ratio of dependents—people

ment, government commitment to full and accurate

tions, or on demographic analysis. The 2007 esti-

younger than 15 or older than 64—to the working-

enumeration, confidentiality and protection against

mates for many countries are projections based on

age population—those ages 15–64. • Crude death

misuse of census data, and census agencies’ indepen-

extrapolations of levels and trends from earlier years

dence from political influence. Moreover, comparability

or interpolations of population estimates and projec-

of population indicators is limited by differences in the

tions from the United Nations Population Division.

concepts, definitions, collection procedures, and esti-

Data for most high-income countries are provisional

mation methods used by national statistical agencies

estimates based on vital registers.

and other organizations that collect the data.

Vital registers are the preferred source for these

Of the 153 economies in the table and the 56 econo-

data, but in many developing countries systems for

mies in table 1.6, 180 (about 86 percent) conducted a

registering births and deaths are absent or incom-

census during the 2000 census round (1995–2004). A

plete because of defi ciencies in the coverage of

quarter of countries have completed a census for the

events or geographic areas. Many developing coun-

2010 census round (2005–14). All told, 195 countries

tries carry out special household surveys that ask

(93 percent) have conducted a census during 1995–

respondents about recent births and deaths. Esti-

2008. The currentness of a census and the availability

mates derived in this way are subject to sampling

of complementary data from surveys or registration

errors and recall errors.

systems are objective ways to judge demographic

The United Nations Statistics Division monitors

data quality. Some European countries’ registration

the completeness of vital registration systems. The

systems offer complete information on population in

share of countries with at least 90 percent complete

the absence of a census. See Primary data documenta-

vital registration rose from 45 percent in 1988 to

tion for the most recent census or survey year and for

61 percent in 2007. Still, some of the most populous

the completeness of registration.

developing countries—China, India, Indonesia, Bra-

rate and crude birth rate are the number of deaths
and the number of live births occurring during the
year, per 1,000 people, estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth
rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is
equal to the population growth rate in the absence
of migration.

Data sources

Current population estimates for developing coun-

zil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria—lack complete

tries that lack recent census data and pre- and post-

vital registration systems. From 2000 to 2007, on

The World Bank’s population estimates are com-

census estimates for countries with census data are

average 64 percent of births, 62 percent of deaths,

piled and produced by its Human Development

provided by the United Nations Population Division

and 45 percent of infant deaths were registered and

Network and Development Data Group in consulta-

and other agencies. The standard estimation method

reported to the United Nations Statistics Division.

tion with its operational staff and country offices.

requires fertility, mortality, and net migration data,

International migration is the only other factor

Important inputs to the World Bank’s demographic

often collected from sample surveys, which can be

besides birth and death rates that directly deter-

work come from the United Nations Population

small or limited in coverage. Population estimates

mines a country’s population growth. From 1990 to

Division’s World Population Prospects: The 2006

are from demographic modeling and so are suscep-

2005 the number of migrants in high-income coun-

Revision; census reports and other statistical

tible to biases and errors from shortcomings in the

tries rose 40 million. About 190 million people (3

publications from national statistical offi ces;

model and in the data. Population projections use

percent of the world population) live outside their

household surveys conducted by national agen-

the cohort component method.

home country. Estimating migration is difficult. At

cies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for

The growth rate of the total population conceals

any time many people are located outside their home

Disease Control and Prevention; Eurostat, Demo-

age-group differences in growth rates. In many devel-

country as tourists, workers, or refugees or for other

graphic Statistics (various years); Secretariat of

oping countries the once rapidly growing under-15

reasons. Standards for the duration and purpose of

the Pacific Community, Statistics and Demography

population is shrinking. Previously high fertility rates

international moves that qualify as migration vary,

Programme; and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Inter-

and declining mortality rates are now reflected in the

and estimates require information on flows into and

national Database.

larger share of the working-age population.

out of countries that is difficult to collect.

2009 World Development Indicators

43

2.2

Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate

Labor force

% ages 15 and older
Male

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

44

Ages 15 and older
average annual
% growth

Total
millions

Female

Female
% of labor force

1990

2007

1990

2007

1990

2007

1990–2007

1990

2007

..
84
75
90
79
79
76
70
78
89
75
61
88
85
83
78
85
64
90
90
85
79
76
88
84
77
85
80
77
86
84
85
89
75
73
80
75
82
78
74
80
88
72
89
71
65
83
86
83
73
74
67
89
90
87
81

..
71
78
89
76
68
72
68
71
85
66
60
86
83
67
63
82
57
90
90
87
75
73
87
77
72
80
70
79
90
83
79
85
60
69
68
71
73
79
71
79
86
65
91
65
62
80
84
74
66
73
65
85
89
90
83

..
67
23
74
29
66
52
43
66
62
60
36
51
46
69
44
39
57
76
91
77
53
58
69
57
32
73
47
44
60
57
36
42
52
36
61
62
26
33
24
51
55
61
63
59
46
63
70
67
46
73
36
28
80
56
49

..
50
37
75
50
56
57
52
60
57
53
46
59
66
53
48
60
46
77
90
75
52
63
67
71
39
71
53
64
54
56
43
39
45
45
51
61
57
52
24
47
55
54
80
58
50
62
70
55
51
72
43
45
79
54
39

..
1.7
7.0
4.5
12.0
1.8
8.5
3.5
3.4
50.9
5.3
3.9
1.9
2.5
2.5
0.5
59.3
4.2
3.9
2.8
4.3
4.4
14.7
1.3
2.3
5.0
650.6
2.9
13.4
14.6
0.9
1.2
4.6
2.4
4.5
5.7
2.9
2.5
3.5
15.9
2.0
1.2
0.8
19.7
2.6
24.8
0.4
0.4
3.1
39.3
6.4
4.2
2.8
2.8
0.4
2.6

..
1.4
13.9
7.5
18.3
1.5
10.9
4.2
4.3
74.3
4.9
4.7
3.7
4.4
1.9
0.7
97.7
3.4
6.7
4.2
7.5
7.0
18.5
1.9
4.3
7.0
785.7
3.6
22.1
23.5
1.5
2.0
7.1
2.0
5.2
5.2
2.9
4.2
5.9
24.0
2.8
1.9
0.7
37.9
2.7
28.0
0.6
0.8
2.3
41.4
10.5
5.2
4.9
4.5
0.6
3.6

..
–0.9
4.0
2.9
2.5
–1.1
1.5
1.0
1.4
2.2
–0.5
1.0
3.9
3.3
–1.7
2.4
2.9
–1.3
3.2
2.4
3.2
2.7
1.3
2.2
3.6
2.0
1.1
1.4
2.9
2.8
2.8
3.0
2.5
–1.2
0.9
–0.5
0.0a
3.1
3.2
2.4
2.2
2.8
–1.0
3.8
0.2
0.7
2.6
3.5
–1.6
0.3
3.0
1.3
3.2
2.7
2.8
2.0

..
43.4
23.6
46.4
28.4
48.0
41.2
40.8
48.2
39.5
48.9
39.0
38.2
36.1
46.7
37.7
32.1
48.4
47.4
52.5
52.4
40.8
44.1
46.6
41.4
30.6
44.8
36.3
35.9
42.5
41.4
29.2
29.6
43.2
33.2
45.5
46.1
24.0
29.5
24.4
41.2
40.4
50.3
42.4
47.5
43.3
44.0
45.4
48.2
40.9
49.4
36.2
23.7
47.2
40.3
39.4

..
41.9
31.9
46.6
41.1
49.9
44.8
44.7
48.1
39.2
48.8
44.4
40.5
45.0
46.1
43.7
43.3
46.2
46.8
51.4
48.7
41.3
46.6
45.5
48.7
36.0
45.7
45.3
44.2
38.6
41.1
34.5
30.6
44.5
39.2
44.2
46.7
43.8
40.0
25.3
38.8
41.0
49.8
47.3
48.0
46.0
43.8
45.8
46.3
44.8
48.9
40.4
37.1
47.1
38.4
33.4

2009 World Development Indicators

Labor force participation rate

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

2.2

Labor force

% ages 15 and older
Male

PEOPLE

Labor force structure

Ages 15 and older
average annual
% growth

Total
millions

Female

1990

2007

1990

2007

1990

2007

87
66
85
81
81
74
70
62
66
80
77
68
78
90
79
73
81
74
83
77
83
85
85
78
74
73
85
80
81
69
84
82
84
74
65
82
84
88
65
80
70
74
85
87
75
73
81
86
81
75
83
76
83
72
73
61

82
59
82
86
75
..
73
61
61
74
72
72
75
87
78
73
81
75
80
69
77
75
85
78
61
66
88
80
80
65
80
77
80
48
61
80
77
86
59
76
71
75
87
88
71
71
77
85
80
73
84
82
80
61
70
58

37
47
35
50
22
12
36
41
36
66
50
11
62
75
51
47
34
58
80
63
22
68
54
17
59
54
80
76
43
34
58
40
34
61
55
24
86
69
49
48
43
54
39
41
37
57
20
11
37
71
52
48
47
55
50
31

37
44
34
50
32
..
53
50
39
55
48
16
65
74
58
49
43
53
79
54
25
68
55
26
51
42
82
76
45
37
60
42
41
45
58
25
88
69
49
59
57
61
38
39
39
62
26
21
48
71
71
64
50
47
56
38

1.6
4.6
321.9
75.3
15.6
4.4
1.3
1.7
24.0
1.1
63.9
0.7
7.8
9.9
9.6
19.1
0.8
1.8
1.8
1.4
1.0
0.7
0.8
1.2
1.9
0.9
5.5
3.9
7.0
2.0
0.8
0.5
29.9
2.1
0.7
7.7
6.2
20.2
0.4
7.1
6.9
1.7
1.4
2.6
28.4
2.2
0.6
30.1
0.9
1.8
1.7
8.3
23.5
18.1
4.8
1.2

2.6
4.3
447.7
110.5
27.8
..
2.2
2.9
25.3
1.2
65.7
1.6
8.2
17.4
12.4
24.3
1.4
2.3
2.9
1.2
1.5
0.9
1.4
2.3
1.6
0.9
9.5
5.7
11.6
3.2
1.3
0.6
44.4
1.4
1.1
11.2
9.9
27.9
0.7
11.7
8.5
2.3
2.2
4.7
45.3
2.5
1.0
56.2
1.5
2.7
3.1
14.1
36.9
17.3
5.6
1.5

1990–2007

2.6
–0.4
1.9
2.3
3.4
..
2.9
3.2
0.3
0.3
0.2
5.0
0.3
3.3
1.5
1.4
2.9
1.5
2.6
–1.2
2.4
1.5
3.3
3.6
–1.1
–0.1
3.3
2.3
2.9
2.8
3.1
1.4
2.3
–2.2
2.5
2.3
2.8
1.9
2.7
2.9
1.2
1.7
2.8
3.6
2.7
0.8
3.0
3.7
2.9
2.6
3.6
3.1
2.7
–0.2
0.9
1.4

Female
% of labor force
1990

2007

30.0
44.6
27.6
38.4
20.2
13.3
34.3
40.6
37.0
46.6
40.6
12.6
47.0
46.0
40.6
39.3
21.6
46.1
49.6
49.6
22.8
50.9
39.3
15.5
48.1
42.7
48.8
50.7
34.4
34.9
42.0
33.1
30.0
48.6
46.2
23.5
54.7
44.7
45.2
37.9
39.1
43.1
32.1
32.5
34.0
44.7
14.2
10.9
30.9
46.7
38.0
39.1
36.6
45.4
42.8
35.8

31.7
45.2
28.2
36.9
29.2
..
42.5
46.3
40.4
44.0
41.2
16.9
49.3
46.4
44.0
40.8
24.0
42.8
50.5
48.2
25.6
52.4
39.8
23.5
49.5
39.3
48.8
50.1
35.2
38.3
42.9
36.1
35.6
51.3
49.1
24.7
56.1
45.3
46.3
45.2
45.0
45.9
31.0
30.7
35.9
47.1
19.6
18.7
37.1
49.2
45.2
43.9
38.3
45.4
46.3
42.3

2009 World Development Indicators

45

2.2

Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate

Labor force

% ages 15 and older
Male
1990

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

67
76
88
80
90
..
65
79
79
76
89
64
69
79
78
79
72
79
81
84
93
87
81
89
76
76
81
75
92
72
92
75
76
72
85
82
81
67
70
81
80
81 w
84
83
84
78
83
84
76
82
77
85
82
74
69

a. Less than 0.05.

46

2009 World Development Indicators

Female
2007

60
69
79
80
86
60
67
76
69
65
89
60
68
75
72
69
69
75
78
67
90
81
83
87
77
71
71
71
90
65
93
70
72
75
70
81
76
67
66
81
80
78 w
82
79
80
73
79
80
67
80
74
82
80
70
65

1990

55
60
86
15
61
..
66
51
66
60
52
44
34
46
24
66
63
49
18
75
89
76
52
53
39
21
34
63
80
57
25
53
57
43
76
32
74
10
15
59
68
52 w
56
53
55
46
53
69
57
38
21
36
58
49
42

Ages 15 and older
average annual
% growth

Total
millions
2007

46
57
81
19
62
43
65
54
52
52
54
47
47
43
31
62
61
60
21
56
87
66
58
52
55
26
24
59
82
53
40
56
59
53
58
52
69
14
22
60
60
53 w
56
52
53
50
53
67
50
53
26
36
60
52
48

1990

2007

1990–2007

10.8
77.0
3.2
5.1
3.3
..
1.6
1.6
2.9
1.1
2.6
11.6
15.9
7.3
7.3
0.3
4.7
3.6
3.3
2.4
12.5
31.6
0.3
1.5
0.5
2.4
21.0
1.5
8.0
26.0
1.0
29.5
129.3
1.3
9.7
7.0
31.4
0.4
2.5
3.1
4.2
2,352.2 t
342.8
1,565.5
1,270.7
294.8
1,908.3
858.7
206.6
165.1
62.4
421.5
194.1
443.9
135.8

9.7
75.8
4.4
8.7
5.3
3.1
2.2
2.4
2.7
1.0
3.4
17.4
22.0
9.0
11.9
0.5
4.9
4.2
6.4
2.6
19.9
36.6
0.4
2.6
0.7
3.7
24.2
2.2
13.5
23.3
2.7
31.4
156.6
1.6
11.8
12.7
44.4
0.8
5.4
4.6
5.7
3,098.8 t
542.8
2,039.7
1,661.6
378.1
2,582.5
1,081.5
207.2
262.2
106.2
607.9
317.5
516.3
154.3

–0.6
–0.1
2.0
3.2
2.9
..
2.0
2.7
–0.3
–0.3
1.7
2.4
1.9
1.2
2.9
2.7
0.2
1.0
4.0
0.4
2.7
0.9
2.0
3.2
2.4
2.5
0.8
2.4
3.1
–0.6
6.2
0.4
1.1
1.2
1.1
3.5
2.0
4.1
4.6
2.3
1.9
1.6 w
2.7
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.8
1.4
0.0a
2.7
3.1
2.2
2.9
0.9
0.7

Female
% of labor force
1990

2007

46.7
48.5
51.7
11.2
40.1
..
51.6
39.1
47.2
46.3
37.6
41.9
34.4
36.1
23.4
51.1
47.7
39.4
18.3
48.2
50.1
47.3
38.1
38.6
34.9
21.6
29.4
47.3
47.4
49.4
9.8
43.3
44.3
39.8
48.3
27.8
48.4
11.9
17.5
42.6
46.4
39.3 w
40.1
38.6
38.6
38.7
38.9
44.2
46.1
32.1
21.3
28.2
42.3
41.4
39.9

45.0
49.5
52.9
14.9
42.2
42.5
50.3
41.1
44.6
45.9
38.9
45.2
41.5
37.2
30.4
50.1
47.0
45.8
20.8
46.6
49.8
46.8
40.4
38.3
42.6
26.5
26.8
46.9
47.8
49.3
14.5
45.5
45.7
43.5
46.0
38.9
47.9
16.9
24.4
43.2
43.3
40.3 w
40.7
39.5
38.9
42.1
39.7
44.5
45.5
40.8
26.1
29.1
43.5
43.4
43.8

About the data

PEOPLE

Labor force structure

2.2

Definitions

The labor force is the supply of labor available for pro-

further information on source, reference period, or

• Labor force participation rate is the proportion

ducing goods and services in an economy. It includes

definition, consult the original source.

of the population ages 15 and older that is eco-

people who are currently employed and people who

The labor force participation rates in the table are

nomically active: all people who supply labor for the

are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time

from the ILO database, Key Indicators of the Labour

production of goods and services during a specified

job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included,

Market, 5th edition. These harmonized estimates

period. • Total labor force is people ages 15 and

however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and stu-

use strict data selection criteria and enhanced

older who meet the ILO definition of the economi-

dents are often omitted, and some countries do not

methods to ensure comparability across countries

cally active population. It includes both the employed

count members of the armed forces. Labor force size

and over time, including collection and tabulation

and the unemployed. • Average annual percentage

tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers

methodologies and methods applied to such country-

growth of the labor force is calculated using the

enter and leave.

specifi c factors as military service requirements.

exponential endpoint method (see Statistical meth-

Data on the labor force are compiled by the Inter-

Estimates are based mainly on labor force surveys,

ods for more information). • Female labor force as as

national Labour Organization (ILO) from labor force

with other sources (population censuses and nation-

a percentage of the labor force shows the extent to

surveys, censuses, establishment censuses and

ally reported estimates) used only when no survey

which women are active in the labor force.

surveys, and administrative records such as employ-

data are available.

ment exchange registers and unemployment insur-

Participation rates indicate the relative size of

ance schemes. For some countries a combination

the labor supply. Beginning in the 2008 edition of

of these sources is used. Labor force surveys are

World Development Indicators, the indicator covers

the most comprehensive source for internationally

the population ages 15 and older, to include peo-

comparable labor force data. They can cover all

ple who continue working past age 65. In previous

noninstitutionalized civilians, all branches and sec-

editions the indicator was for the population ages

tors of the economy, and all categories of workers,

15–64, so participation rates are not comparable

including people holding multiple jobs. By contrast,

across editions.

labor force data from population censuses are often

The labor force estimates in the table were calcu-

based on a limited number of questions on the eco-

lated by applying labor force participation rates from

nomic characteristics of individuals, with little scope

the ILO database to World Bank population estimates

to probe. The resulting data often differ from labor

to create a series consistent with these population

force survey data and vary considerably by country,

estimates. This procedure sometimes results in

depending on the census scope and coverage. Estab-

labor force estimates that differ slightly from those

lishment censuses and surveys provide data only on

in the ILO’s Yearbook of Labour Statistics and its data-

the employed population, not unemployed workers,

base Key Indicators of the Labour Market.

workers in small establishments, or workers in the

Estimates of women in the labor force and employ-

informal sector (ILO, Key Indicators of the Labour

ment are generally lower than those of men and are

Market 2001–2002).

not comparable internationally, reflecting that demo-

The reference period of a census or survey is

graphic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms

another important source of differences: in some

determine whether women’s activities are regarded

countries data refer to people’s status on the day

as economic. In many countries many women work

of the census or survey or during a specific period

on farms or in other family enterprises without pay,

before the inquiry date, while in others data are

and others work in or near their homes, mixing work

recorded without reference to any period. In devel-

and family activities during the day.

oping countries, where the household is often the
basic unit of production and all members contribute
to output, but some at low intensity or irregularly, the
estimated labor force may be much smaller than the
numbers actually working.
Differing definitions of employment age also affect

Data sources

comparability. For most countries the working age is

Data on labor force participation rates are from

15 and older, but in some countries children younger

the ILO database Key Indicators of the Labour

than 15 work full- or part-time and are included in

Market, 5th edition. Labor force numbers were

the estimates. Similarly, some countries have an

calculated by World Bank staff, applying labor

upper age limit. As a result, calculations may sys-

force participation rates from the ILO database

tematically over- or underestimate actual rates. For

to population estimates.

2009 World Development Indicators

47

2.3

Employment by economic activity
Agriculture

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a 2003–06a

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

48

..
..
..
..
0 b,c
..
6
6
..
54
..
3c
..
3c
..
..
31c
..
..
..
..
53
6c
..
..
24
..
1
2c
..
..
32
..
..
..
9
7
26
10 c
35
48
..
23c
..
11
..
..
..
..
4
66
20 c
..
..
..
..

..
..
23
..
2c
..
5
6c
41
50
..
2c
..
..
..
29
25c
11
..
..
..
..
4c
..
..
17
..
0b
32
..
..
21
..
12d
28
5
4
21
11c
28
30
..
7c
84
7
5
..
..
52
3
..
12c
..
..
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

Industry

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

..
..
..
..
0 b,c
..
4
8
..
85
..
2c
..
1c
..
..
25c
..
..
..
..
68
2c
..
..
6
..
0b
1c
..
..
5
..
..
..
7
3
3
2c
52
15
..
13c
..
6
..
..
..
..
4
59
26c
..
..
..
..

2003–06a

..
..
11
..
1c
..
3
6c
37
59
..
2c
..
..
..
13
16c
7
..
..
..
..
2c
..
..
6
..
0b
8
..
..
5
..
14 d
10
3
2
3
4c
39
3
..
4c
76
3
2
..
..
57
2
..
14 c
..
..
..
..

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a

..
..
..
..
40 c
..
32
47
..
16
..
41c
..
42c
..
..
27c
..
..
..
..
14
31c
..
..
32
..
37
35c
..
..
27
..
..
..
55
37
23
29c
25
23
..
42c
..
38
..
..
..
..
50
10
32c
..
..
..
..

2003–06a

..
..
24
..
33c
..
31
40 c
15
12
..
35c
..
..
..
28
27c
39
..
..
..
..
32c
..
..
29
..
22
21
..
..
26
..
40 d
23
49
34
26
27c
23
25
..
44 c
5
38
35
..
..
14
41
..
30 c
..
..
..
..

Services

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

..
..
..
..
18 c
..
12
20
..
9
..
16c
..
17c
..
..
10 c
..
..
..
..
4
11c
..
..
15
..
27
25c
..
..
25
..
..
..
33
16
21
17c
10
23
..
30 c
..
15
..
..
..
..
24
10
17c
..
..
..
..

2003–06a

..
..
25
..
11c
..
9
13c
9
18
..
11c
..
..
..
17
13c
29
..
..
..
..
11c
..
..
12
..
7
16
..
..
13
..
18d
14
27
12
15
12c
6
22
..
24 c
8
12
12
..
..
4
16
..
10 c
..
..
..
..

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a

..
..
..
..
59c
..
61
46
..
25
..
56c
..
55c
..
..
43c
..
..
..
..
26
64 c
..
..
45
..
63
63c
..
..
41
..
..
..
36
56
52
62c
41
29
..
36c
..
51
..
..
..
..
47
23
48 c
..
..
..
..

2003–06a

..
..
53
..
66c
..
65
55c
44
38
..
62c
..
..
..
43
48 c
50
..
..
..
..
64 c
..
..
54
..
77
48
..
..
52
..
48d
50
46
62
53
62c
49
45
..
49c
10
56
60
..
..
34
56
..
58 c
..
..
..
..

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

..
..
..
..
81c
..
84
72
..
2
..
81c
..
82c
..
..
65c
..
..
..
..
23
87c
..
..
79
..
73
74 c
..
..
69
..
..
..
61
81
76
81c
37
63
..
57c
..
78
..
..
..
..
72
32
56c
..
..
..
..

2003–06a

..
..
64
..
88 c
..
88
81c
54
23
..
86c
..
..
..
71
71c
64
..
..
..
..
88 c
..
..
83
..
93
76
..
..
82
..
67d
76
71
86
82
84 c
55
75
..
72c
16
84
85
..
..
38
82
..
76c
..
..
..
..

Agriculture

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a 2003–06a

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

53c
..
..
54
..
..
19
5
8
36
6
..
..
19 c
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25
..
..
..
23
..
..
15
34
..
..
..
..
..
45
75
5
13
..
..
..
7
..
45
35
..
3c
1c
53c
..
10 c
5

51c
7c
..
41d
23
14
9
3
5
25
4
4
35
..
..
7
..
39
..
15c
..
..
..
..
17c
20
77
..
16
50
..
11
21
41
43
40
..
..
..
..
4
9
41
..
..
5
..
38
22
..
39c
1c
45
18 c
11c
3

Industry

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

6c
..
..
57
..
..
3
2
9
16
7
..
..
20 c
..
18
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15
..
..
..
20
..
..
13
11
..
..
..
..
..
52
91
3
8
..
..
..
3
..
69
3
..
0 b,c
0 b,c
32c
..
13c
0b

2003–06a

13c
3c
..
41d
34
33
1
1
3
9
5
2
32
..
..
9
..
39
..
8c
..
..
..
..
11c
19
79
..
11
30
..
9
5
40
37
61
..
..
..
..
2
5
10
..
..
2
..
67
4
..
20 c
0 b,c
25
17c
13c
0b

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a

18 c
..
..
15
..
..
33
38
37
25
40
..
..
23c
..
40
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
46
..
..
..
31
..
..
36
25
..
..
..
..
..
21
4
33
31
..
..
..
34
..
20
20
..
33c
30 c
17c
..
39c
27

2003–06a

20 c
42c
..
21d
31
20
39
31
39
27
35
23
24
..
..
34
..
23
..
35c
..
..
..
..
37c
34
7
..
35
18
..
34
30
21
19
21
..
..
..
..
30
32
19
..
..
32
..
21
22
..
19c
31c
17
39c
41c
25

PEOPLE

2.3

Employment by economic activity

Services

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

25c
..
..
13
..
..
18
15
22
12
27
..
..
9c
..
28
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31
..
..
..
32
..
..
48
19
..
..
..
..
..
8
1
10
13
..
..
..
10
..
15
11
..
19c
13c
14 c
..
24 c
19

2003–06a

23c
21c
..
15d
28
7
12
11
18
5
18
12
10
..
..
17
..
11
..
16c
..
..
..
..
21c
30
6
..
27
15
..
29
19
12
15
16
..
..
..
..
8
11
17
..
..
8
..
15
9
..
10 c
13c
12
17c
19c
11

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a

29c
..
..
31
..
..
48
57
55
39
54
..
..
58 c
..
46
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
46
..
..
48
41
..
..
..
..
..
34
20
60
56
..
..
..
58
..
35
45
..
64 c
69c
29c
..
51c
67

2003–06a

29c
51c
..
38d
46
66
51
65
56
48
59
73
41
..
..
59
..
38
..
49c
..
..
..
..
46c
46
16
..
49
32
..
55
49
38
38
39
..
..
..
..
62
59
33
..
..
63
..
41
56
..
42c
68 c
39
43c
48 c
72

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

69c
..
..
31
..
..
78
83
70
72
65
..
..
71c
..
54
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
54
..
..
..
48
..
..
39
70
..
..
..
..
..
40
8
82
80
..
..
..
86
..
16
85
..
80 c
87c
55c
..
63c
80

2009 World Development Indicators

2003–06a

63c
76c
..
44 d
37
60
86
88
79
86
77
84
58
..
..
74
..
50
..
75c
..
..
..
..
68 c
51
15
..
62
55
..
62
76
48
48
23
..
..
..
..
86
84
52
..
..
90
..
18
86
..
70 c
86c
64
66c
68 c
89

49

2.3

Employment by economic activity
Agriculture

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a 2003–06a

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

29
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
11c
..
..
..
5c
4c
23
..
78 c
60
..
..
15
..
33
..
91
..
..
3
4
7c
..
17
..
..
44
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21
..
..
..
6
7

31
12
..
5
..
21e
..
0
6c
9
..
13
6c
..
..
..
3c
5c
23
..
..
44
..
..
6
..
22
..
60c
..
..
2
2
7c
..
16c
56
12
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
20
..
..
19
21
..
..
..
4
5

Industry

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

38
..
..
..
..
..
..
0b
..
..
..
..
8c
..
..
..
2c
4c
54
..
90 c
62
..
..
6
..
72
..
91
..
..
1
1
1c
..
2
..
..
83
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
..
..
..
5
7

2003–06a

33
8
..
0b
..
20e
..
0
3c
9
..
7
4c
..
..
..
1c
3c
49
..
..
41
..
..
2
..
52
..
77c
..
..
1
1
2c
..
2c
60
34
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
14
..
..
19
10
..
..
..
3
3

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a

44
..
..
..
..
..
..
36
..
..
..
..
41c
..
..
..
40 c
37c
28
..
7c
18
..
..
34
..
26
..
4
..
..
41
34
36c
..
32
..
..
14
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
38
42

2003–06a

35
38
..
11
..
37e
..
36
50 c
47
..
33
41c
..
..
..
34 c
32c
29
..
..
22
..
..
41
..
28
..
11c
..
..
33
30
29c
..
25c
21
28
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
30
..
..
34
27
..
..
..
34
38

Services

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

30
..
..
..
..
..
..
32
..
..
..
..
16c
..
..
..
12c
15c
8
..
1c
13
..
..
14
..
11
..
6
..
..
16
14
21c
..
16
..
..
2
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
..
..
..
19
21

2003–06a

25
21
..
1
..
20e
..
21
25c
25
..
14
12c
..
..
..
9c
11c
8
..
..
19
..
..
16
..
15
..
5c
..
..
9
10
13c
..
11c
14
8
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
17
..
..
20
15
..
..
..
13
14

Note: Data across sectors may not sum to 100 percent because of workers not classified by sectors.
a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Less than 0.5. c. Limited coverage. d. Data are for 2007. e. Data are for 2008.

50

2009 World Development Indicators

Male
% of male
employment
1990–92a

28
..
..
..
..
..
..
63
..
..
..
..
49c
..
..
..
55c
59c
49
..
15c
22
..
..
51
..
41
..
5
..
..
55
62
57c
..
52
..
..
38
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
49
..
..
..
56
50

2003–06a

34
50
..
85
..
42e
..
63
44 c
43
..
54
52c
..
..
..
63c
63c
48
..
..
34
..
..
52
..
50
..
29c
..
..
65
68
64 c
..
59c
23
59
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
49
..
..
47
52
..
..
..
62
56

Female
% of female
employment
1990–92a

33
..
..
..
..
..
..
68
..
..
..
..
76c
..
..
..
86c
81c
38
..
8c
25
..
..
80
..
17
..
3
..
..
82
85
78 c
..
82
..
..
13
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
71
..
..
..
76
72

2003–06a

42
71
..
99
..
60e
..
79
72c
65
..
79
84 c
..
..
..
90 c
86c
43
..
..
41
..
..
82
..
33
..
18 c
..
..
90
90
86c
..
86c
26
56
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
68
..
..
62
76
..
..
..
84
82

About the data

PEOPLE

Employment by economic activity

2.3

Definitions

The International Labour Organization (ILO) classi-

aggregated into three broad groups: agriculture,

• Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revi-

fies economic activity using the International Stan-

industry, and services. Such broad classification may

sion 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revi-

dard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Economic

obscure fundamental shifts within countries’ indus-

sion 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

Activities, revision 2 (1968) and revision 3 (1990).

trial patterns. A slight majority of countries report

• Industry corresponds to divisions 2–5 (ISIC revi-

Because this classification is based on where work

economic activity according to the ISIC revision 2

sion 2) or tabulation categories C–F (ISIC revision

is performed (industry) rather than type of work per-

instead of revision 3. The use of one classification or

3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil

formed (occupation), all of an enterprise’s employees

the other should not have a significant impact on the

production), manufacturing, construction, and public

are classified under the same industry, regardless

information for the three broad sectors presented

utilities (electricity, gas, and water). • Services corre-

of their trade or occupation. The categories should

in the table.

spond to divisions 6–9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation

sum to 100 percent. Where they do not, the differ-

The distribution of economic wealth in the world

categories G–P (ISIC revision 3) and include whole-

ences are due to workers who cannot be classified

remains strongly correlated with employment by

sale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels;

by economic activity.

economic activity. The wealthier economies are

transport, storage, and communications; financing,

Data on employment are drawn from labor force

those with the largest share of total employment in

insurance, real estate, and business services; and

surveys, household surveys, official estimates, cen-

services, whereas the poorer economies are largely

community, social, and personal services.

suses and administrative records of social insurance

agriculture based.

schemes, and establishment surveys when no other

The distribution of economic activity by gender

information is available. The concept of employment

reveals some clear patterns. Men still make up the

generally refers to people above a certain age who

majority of people employed in all three sectors, but

worked, or who held a job, during a reference period.

the gender gap is biggest in industry. Employment in

Employment data include both full-time and part-time

agriculture is also male-dominated, although not as

workers.

much as industry. Segregating one sex in a narrow

There are many differences in how countries define

range of occupations significantly reduces economic

and measure employment status, particularly mem-

efficiency by reducing labor market flexibility and thus

bers of the armed forces, self-employed workers, and

the economy’s ability to adapt to change. This seg-

unpaid family workers. Where members of the armed

regation is particularly harmful for women, who have

forces are included, they are allocated to the service

a much narrower range of labor market choices and

sector, causing that sector to be somewhat over-

lower levels of pay than men. But it is also detri-

stated relative to the service sector in economies

mental to men when job losses are concentrated

where they are excluded. Where data are obtained

in industries dominated by men and job growth is

from establishment surveys, data cover only employ-

centered in service occupations, where women have

ees; thus self-employed and unpaid family workers

better chances, as has been the recent experience

are excluded. In such cases the employment share

in many countries.

of the agricultural sector is severely underreported.

There are several explanations for the rising impor-

Caution should be also used where the data refer

tance of service jobs for women. Many service jobs—

only to urban areas, which record little or no agricul-

such as nursing and social and clerical work—are

tural work. Moreover, the age group and area covered

considered “feminine” because of a perceived simi-

could differ by country or change over time within a

larity to women’s traditional roles. Women often do

country. For detailed information on breaks in series,

not receive the training needed to take advantage of

consult the original source.

changing employment opportunities. And the greater

Countries also take different approaches to the

availability of part-time work in service industries may

treatment of unemployed people. In most countries

lure more women, although it is unclear whether this

unemployed people with previous job experience are

is a cause or an effect.

classified according to their last job. But in some
countries the unemployed and people seeking their
first job are not classifiable by economic activity.
Because of these differences, the size and distribution of employment by economic activity may not be
fully comparable across countries.
The ILO’s Yearbook of Labour Statistics and its data-

Data sources

base Key Indicators of the Labour Market report data

Data on employment are from the ILO database

by major divisions of the ISIC revision 2 or revision 3.

Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 5th edition.

In the table the reported divisions or categories are

2009 World Development Indicators

51

2.4

Decent work and productive employment
Employment to
population ratio

Gross enrollment
ratio, secondary

Vulnerable
employment

Labor
productivity

Unpaid family workers
and own-account workers
Total

Youth

% ages 15 and older

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

52

% ages 15–24

% of relevant age group

1991

2007

1991

2007

1991

2007a

..
53
39
76
54
39
57
54
57
75
59
46
71
62
52
49
56
46
81
84
78
59
59
72
66
51
76
63
52
67
65
57
62
46
53
58
62
44
52
43
59
65
63
72
59
50
58
72
58
56
69
46
56
82
66
56

..
51
51
76
58
40
62
57
61
68
53
49
72
70
41
46
65
47
81
83
79
59
64
71
69
51
73
59
63
66
64
59
60
47
56
56
63
53
60
42
58
65
57
81
57
51
59
72
56
54
65
50
63
82
66
56

..
39
25
69
43
24
58
61
38
67
40
31
64
48
28
39
54
28
77
73
68
39
57
57
50
34
72
54
37
58
48
48
51
25
39
45
65
28
39
22
42
58
44
65
45
28
37
58
28
58
40
31
52
75
57
37

..
36
34
68
39
26
64
53
39
56
34
27
59
49
16
26
53
26
74
72
75
35
61
57
49
24
56
39
44
61
45
44
45
29
32
29
62
33
39
22
41
53
30
74
44
29
34
54
22
43
40
28
53
73
62
48

..
88
60
11
72
..
83
102
88
20
93
101
10
44
..
48
58
86
7
5
25
26
101
11
7
73
40
80
50
21
46
45
21
..
94
91
109
..
55
71
36
..
104
13
116
98
39
17
95
98
34
94
23
10
6
21

..
..
83
17
84
89
150
102
..
..
95
110
32
82
85
76
105
105
16
15
42
25
..
..
19
91
76
86
85
33
..
87
..
91
93
96
120
79
70
..
64
29
100
30
112
114
..
49
90
102
49
103
56
35
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

Male
% of male employment

Female
% of female employment

GDP per person
employed
% growth

1990

2007

1990

2007

1992

2008

..
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..
32b
..
..
29b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30 b
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
42
33b
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
22b
..
11
9
41
85
..
11
..
..
..
..
30
10
..
..
..
..
12b
..
..
25
..
10
41
..
..
20
..
18b
..
15
..
49
29 b
20
29
..
8
48
..
8
..
..
64
..
..
28
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
50 b
..
..
30 b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26 b
..
..
21
..
..
..
..
..
30
41b
..
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
17b
..
7
9
66
87
..
9
..
..
..
..
24
7
..
..
..
..
9b
..
..
24
..
4
41
..
..
20
..
18b
..
9
..
30
41b
44
44
..
4
56
..
5
..
..
65
..
..
27
..
..
..
..

..
–3.9
–0.1
–10.3
9.6
–39.5
0.4
0.3
–23.7
5.2
–8.7
0.3
–2.1
0.0
0.8
0.8
–8.2
–11.6
–3.0
–1.0
4.7
–5.8
2.1
–9.0
3.0
6.9
11.8
5.7
–0.1
–13.6
–0.4
4.2
–3.1
–11.5
..
–1.1
1.7
6.4
–3.1
1.8
6.9
15.3
–18.5
–11.7
3.8
1.7
–7.5
–0.3
–43.3
3.8
–1.2
–2.0
3.4
–0.9
–2.2
–10.2

..
4.9
0.1
7.8
5.0
11.2
0.6
0.2
9.3
2.3
9.6
0.3
1.6
2.7
4.7
–0.7
3.8
4.6
1.2
0.2
3.8
1.1
–0.6
0.4
–3.5
2.8
8.6
1.8
2.0
5.0
5.9
1.7
0.6
1.6
..
3.6
0.7
4.4
2.8
4.5
1.6
–2.5
2.1
7.7
1.1
0.5
–0.7
2.3
4.1
–0.7
3.8
1.6
1.0
2.2
0.5
0.0

Employment to
population ratio

Gross enrollment
ratio, secondary

Vulnerable
employment

Youth

% ages 15 and older

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

% ages 15–24

% of relevant age group

Male
% of male employment

2.4
Labor
productivity

Unpaid family workers
and own-account workers
Total

PEOPLE

Decent work and productive employment

Female
% of female employment

GDP per person
employed
% growth

1991

2007

1991

2007

1991

2007a

1990

2007

1990

2007

1992

2008

59
50
59
63
46
35
45
46
45
62
63
36
64
72
62
59
62
60
80
59
46
51
66
46
55
38
79
72
60
48
54
56
57
59
51
46
79
75
46
61
53
57
53
60
52
60
53
48
50
70
62
58
59
54
59
38

56
47
55
62
48
..
60
51
46
58
57
39
64
73
65
59
66
59
78
57
46
56
66
49
53
35
83
72
61
46
47
55
58
44
52
46
77
75
42
62
61
65
59
60
51
65
51
51
60
70
73
68
61
49
58
42

49
39
47
46
33
23
38
25
30
39
43
24
46
61
46
36
30
41
74
42
32
43
57
28
35
19
65
49
47
39
43
46
50
38
40
40
66
62
24
54
55
55
41
50
28
49
30
39
34
58
51
45
42
32
53
21

43
21
39
41
35
..
47
27
26
32
41
19
42
59
40
29
32
40
64
35
28
43
57
28
20
14
70
49
44
34
31
37
43
17
35
34
64
54
14
45
65
56
48
51
24
56
29
43
40
55
58
52
40
26
36
29

33
86
42
45
57
44
100
92
83
65
97
82
100
46
..
90
43
100
23
92
62
24
..
..
92
..
17
8
57
8
14
55
53
78
82
36
7
23
45
34
120
90
42
7
24
103
45
25
62
12
31
67
71
87
66
..

61
96
55
66
73
..
112
92
100
87
101
89
92d
50
..
98
91
86
44
99
81
37
..
94
99
84
26
28
69
32
25
88
87
89
92
56
18
..
59
48d
118
120
66
11
32
113
90
33
70
..
66
94
83
100
97
..

48b
8
..
..
..
..
25
..
..
46
15
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31
..
..
13
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15
..
..
..
..
..
..
44
..
17b
30 b
..
..
18b
..

..
8
..
60
40
..
16
9
27
38
10
..
..
..
..
23
..
47
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
24
84
..
23
..
..
18
28
35
..
47
..
..
..
..
..
14
45
..
..
8
..
58
30
..
45
33b
44
21
18
..

50 b
7
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
37
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25
..
..
7
15
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
..
..
19
..
31b
46b
..
..
21b
..

..
6
..
68
56
..
5
5
16
31
12
..
..
..
..
28
..
47
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
20
89
..
21
..
..
15
32
30
..
65
..
..
..
..
..
10
46
..
..
3
..
75
24
..
50
47b
47
18
19
..

–0.4
–3.0
2.4
4.3
2.6
..
2.5
1.3
0.9
0.9
–0.3
8.2
–1.5
–5.2
..
3.9
52.3
–14.3
3.8
–31.7
1.0
5.6
–34.1
–5.5
–20.0
–5.7
–2.8
–10.6
6.2
5.2
–0.9
–2.5
–0.2
–28.6
–12.8
–7.1
–13.1
7.1
3.6
–0.6
–0.3
0.1
–5.5
–10.0
0.2
4.1
1.6
4.6
1.9
11.8
–2.1
–3.6
–3.4
4.1
3.3
..

1.9
2.3
5.4
4.2
1.4
..
0.0
2.3
–0.4
–0.7
0.4
1.7
2.8
–1.1
..
1.9
3.0
5.6
4.3
1.7
6.2
4.8
4.3
4.5
8.3
4.3
3.1
5.0
3.6
1.8
2.7
2.9
0.6
7.6
7.9
4.2
4.3
3.0
0.2
1.7
0.5
–0.4
0.4
2.4
2.4
1.0
2.8
1.8
7.4
4.2
2.2
6.7
3.1
1.3
–0.2
..

2009 World Development Indicators

53

2.4

Decent work and productive employment
Employment to
population ratio

Gross enrollment
ratio, secondary

Vulnerable
employment

Labor
productivity

Unpaid family workers
and own-account workers
Total

Youth

% ages 15 and older
1991

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

57
58
87
51
67
50 c
64
64
56
56
65
40
43
52
46
54
65
68
47
54
88
78
64
65
45
41
53
56
85
59
71
58
61
54
55
52
76
29
38
57
70
63 w
66
64
66
55
64
74
56
55
43
59
64
57
50

2007

50
59
80
51
66
49c
64
62
53
56
66
41
53
55
47
51
61
64
45
55
78
72
67
64
62
42
43
59
83
54
75
59
62
58
58
60
71
32
39
61
67
61 w
65
62
63
56
62
71
54
61
45
56
64
58
52

% ages 15–24
1991

42
34
79
27
59
28 c
39
56
43
38
58
20
36
32
29
34
59
69
38
36
79
70
51
57
33
29
48
34
78
37
43
66
56
43
36
36
75
19
23
40
48
53 w
55
54
56
43
54
67
38
47
28
48
50
47
41

% of relevant age group

2007

24
33
64
25
54
30 c
42
37
30
33
57
14
38
35
24
26
45
63
33
55
70
47
58
52
47
23
31
34
76
34
47
56
52
38
38
38
52
16
22
47
51
45 w
51
43
44
38
45
52
32
46
28
42
49
44
37

a. Provisional data. b. Limited coverage. c. Includes Montenegro. d. Data are for 2008.

54

2009 World Development Indicators

1991

2007a

92
93
9
44
15
..
17
..
..
89
..
69
105
71
21
42
90
99
48
102
5
33
..
20
82
45
48
..
11
94
68
87
92
84
99
53
32
..
..
23
49
51 w
25
51
47
68
45
47
85
51
57
38
21
92
..

86
84
18
94
24
88
32
..
96
95
..
96
119
..
35d
47
103
93
72
84
..
83
53
39
76
85
79
..
18
94
92
98
94
101
102
79
..
92
46
43
40
66 w
38
70
65
91
61
73
88
89
71
49
32
101
..

Male
% of male employment
1990

7b
1
..
..
77
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
20
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
67
..
..
22
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
56
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
..
..

2007

32
6
..
..
..
25
..
12
13b
14
..
2
13
39b
..
..
..
10
..
..
82b
51
..
..
17
..
32
..
..
..
..
..
..
26
..
28
..
34
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
23
..
..
19
31
34
..
..
..
14

Female
% of female employment
1990

11b
1
..
..
91
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
24
..
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
74
..
..
21
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
28
..
..
..
..
..

2007

33
6
..
..
..
20
..
7
5b
13
..
3
10
44b
..
..
..
11
..
..
93b
56
..
..
13
..
50
..
..
..
..
..
..
24
..
33
..
47
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
20
..
..
18
31
52
..
..
..
9

GDP per person
employed
% growth
1992

–13.3
–19.2
13.7
2.0
–1.6
..
–19.5
3.5
–8.0
1.4
..
–6.0
3.7
5.1
4.3
–0.5
3.3
0.3
8.1
–27.4
–2.8
6.8
..
–6.5
–4.8
4.7
4.4
–8.7
0.2
–8.8
–3.3
2.7
2.7
4.4
–11.4
0.7
5.8
..
2.6
–3.9
..
–0.4 w
–0.5
–1.7
3.1
–7.2
–1.6
8.5
–11.9
–1.8
1.2
3.0
–4.0
2.0
2.2

2008

9.4
6.3
5.2
2.7
0.7
..
3.8
–0.9
4.6
3.6
..
2.7
7.1
4.3
5.2
1.3
0.6
1.5
1.5
3.2
4.2
3.3
..
–2.4
2.7
2.1
0.1
7.2
6.1
3.0
4.7
1.0
3.0
9.7
5.7
2.7
4.0
..
–0.2
3.2
..
3.1 w
3.8
6.1
7.7
3.9
5.8
8.6
4.6
3.4
3.2
6.5
3.7
1.9
1.4

About the data

PEOPLE

Decent work and productive employment

2.4

Definitions

Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Dec-

small group of countries. The labor force survey is

• Employment to population ratio is the proportion

laration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Ple-

the most comprehensive source for internationally

of a country’s population that is employed. People

nary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General

comparable employment, but there are still some

ages 15 and older are generally considered the work-

Assembly. One was full and productive employment

limitations for comparing data across countries and

ing-age population. People ages 15–24 are generally

and decent work for all, which is seen as the main

over time even within a country. Information from

considered the youth population. • Gross enrollment

route for people to escape poverty. The four indi-

labor force surveys is not always consistent in what

ratio, secondary, is the ratio of total enrollment in

cators for this target have an economic focus, and

is included in employment. For example, informa-

secondary education, regardless of age, to the popu-

three of them are presented in the table.

tion provided by the Organisation for Economic Co-

lation of the age group that officially corresponds to

The employment to population ratio indicates

operation and Development relates only to civilian

secondary education. • Vulnerable employment is

how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people

employment, which can result in an underestimation

unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a

who want to work. A high ratio means that a large

of “employees” and “workers not classified by sta-

percentage of total employment. • Labor productiv-

propor tion of the population is employed. But a

tus,” especially in countries with large armed forces.

ity is the growth rate of gross domestic product

lower employment to population ratio can be seen

While the categories of unpaid family workers and

(GDP) divided by total employment in the economy.

as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it

self-employed workers, which include own-account

is caused by an increase in their education. This

workers, would not be affected, their relative shares

indicator has a gender bias because women who do

would be. Geographic coverage is another factor that

not consider their work employment or who are not

can limit cross-country comparisons. The employment

perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This

by status data for most Latin American countries cov-

bias has different effects across countries.

ers urban areas only. Similarly, in some countries

Comparability of employment ratios across coun-

in Sub-Saharan Africa, where limited information is

tries is also affected by variations in definitions of

available anyway, the members of producer coopera-

employment and population (see About the data for

tives are usually excluded from the self-employed

table 2.3). The biggest difference results from the

category. For detailed information on definitions and

age range used to define labor force activity. The

coverage, consult the original source.

population base for employment ratios can also vary

Labor productivity is used to assess a country’s

(see table 2.1). Most countries use the resident,

economic ability to create and sustain decent employ-

noninstitutionalized population of working age living

ment opportunities with fair and equitable remunera-

in private households, which excludes members of

tion. Productivity increases obtained through invest-

the armed forces and individuals residing in men-

ment, trade, technological progress, or changes in

tal, penal, or other types of institutions. But some

work organization can increase social protection

countries include members of the armed forces in

and reduce poverty, which in turn reduce vulner-

the population base of their employment ratio while

able employment and working poverty. Productivity

excluding them from employment data (International

increases do not guarantee these improvements,

Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour

but without them—and the economic growth they

Market, 5th edition).

bring—improvements are highly unlikely. For compa-

The proportion of unpaid family workers and own-

rability of individual sectors labor productivity is esti-

account workers in total employment is derived from

mated according to national accounts conventions.

information on status in employment. Each status

However, there are still significant limitations on the

group faces different economic risks, and unpaid

availability of reliable data. Information on consis-

family workers and own-account workers are the

tent series of output in both national currencies and

most vulnerable—and therefore the most likely to

purchasing power parity dollars is not easily avail-

fall into poverty. They are the least likely to have for-

able, especially in developing countries, because the

mal work arrangements, are the least likely to have

definition, coverage, and methodology are not always

social protection and safety nets to guard against

consistent across countries. For example, countries

economic shocks, and often are incapable of gen-

employ different methodologies for estimating the

erating sufficient savings to offset these shocks. A

missing values for the nonmarket service sectors

Data on employment to population ratio, vulner-

high proportion of unpaid family workers in a country

and use different definitions of the informal sector.

able employment, and labor productivity are from

Data sources

indicates weak development, little job growth, and

the International Labour Organization database

often a large rural economy.

Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 5th edition.

Data on employment by status are drawn from
labor force surveys and household surveys, supple-

Data on gross enrollment ratios are from the
UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

mented by offi cial estimates and censuses for a

2009 World Development Indicators

55

2.5

Unemployment
Unemployment

Total
% of total
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

56

..
..
23.0
..
6.7b
..
10.8
3.6
..
..
..
6.7
1.5
5.5b
17.6
..
6.4b
..
..
0.5
..
..
11.2b
..
..
4.4
2.3b
2.0
9.5
..
..
4.1
6.7
..
..
..
9.0
20.7
8.9
9.0
7.9
..
3.7
..
11.6
10.0
..
..
..
6.6
4.7
7.8
..
..
..
12.7

..
..
12.3
..
9.5b
9.6
4.4
4.4
..
4.3
..
7.6
..
..
31.1
17.6
8.9b
8.9
..
..
..
..
6.0 b
..
..
8.9
4.0 b
4.0
10.9
..
..
4.6
..
9.6
1.9
5.3
3.6
17.9
7.9
9.0
6.6
..
4.7
5.4
6.8
8.0
..
..
13.3
8.6
..
8.1
3.1
..
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

Male
% of male
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

..
..
24.2
..
6.4b
..
11.4
3.5
..
..
..
4.8
2.2
5.5b
15.5
..
5.4b
..
..
0.7
..
..
12.0 b
..
..
3.9
..
2.0
6.8
..
..
3.5
..
..
..
..
8.3
12.0
6.0
6.4
8.4
..
3.9
..
13.3
7.9
..
..
..
5.3
3.7
4.9
..
..
..
11.9

..
..
..
..
7.8b
5.7
4.0
3.9
..
3.4
..
6.7
..
..
28.9
15.3
6.8b
8.6
..
..
..
..
6.4b
..
..
..
..
4.5
8.7
..
..
3.3
..
8.3
1.7
4.2
3.2
11.3
5.8
6.0
8.5
..
5.4
2.7
6.4
7.4
..
..
13.9
8.5
..
5.0
2.8
..
..
..

Female
% of female
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

..
..
20.3
..
7.0 b
..
10.0
3.8
..
..
..
9.5
0.6
5.6b
21.6
..
7.9b
..
..
0.3
..
..
10.2b
..
..
5.3
..
1.9
13.0
..
..
5.4
..
..
..
..
9.9
35.2
13.2
17.0
7.2
..
3.5
..
9.6
12.7
..
..
..
8.4
5.5
12.9
..
..
..
13.8

..
..
..
..
11.6b
13.8
4.8
5.0
..
7.0
..
8.7
..
..
34.8
19.9
11.7b
9.3
..
..
..
..
5.6b
..
..
..
..
3.4
13.8
..
..
6.8
..
11.2
2.2
6.7
4.0
28.8
10.8
18.6
3.9
..
3.9
8.2
7.3
8.5
..
..
12.6
8.8
..
12.6
3.7
..
..
..

Long-term
unemployment

Unemployment by
educational attainment

% of total
unemployment
Total
Male
Female
2004–07a 2004–07a 2004–07a

% of total
unemployment
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
2004–07a 2004–07a 2004–07a

..
..
..
..
..
..
15.5b
26.8
..
..
..
50.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.5b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
58.8
..
53.4
18.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.0
40.4
..
..
..
56.6
..
50.3
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
16.5b
26.6
..
..
..
49.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.4b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
54.6
..
51.7
18.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.5
40.6
..
..
..
57.5
..
42.1
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
14.4b
27.1
..
..
..
51.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.3b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
61.8
..
54.7
17.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.5
40.1
..
..
..
55.6
..
54.9
..
..
..
..

..
98.3
59.3
..
37.3b
5.2
48.0
37.9 b
6.3
33.0
10.0
42.1
..
..
..
..
51.6b
41.8
..
..
..
..
27.7b
..
..
17.0
..
40.8
76.6
..
..
65.2
..
20.4
43.0
26.8
35.9
..
74.0
..
..
..
23.1
35.9
35.5
39.9
..
..
5.1
33.1
..
29.3
..
..
..
..

..
..
23.0
..
41.8b
83.0
34.1
52.1b
78.9
24.4
39.0
38.2
..
..
..
..
33.6b
49.7
..
..
..
..
41.1b
..
..
57.9
..
41.4
..
..
..
27.3
..
67.8
52.4
68.8
35.1
..
..
..
..
..
57.8
13.3
45.9
39.6
..
..
52.5
56.3
..
48.4
..
..
..
..

..
1.7
11.4
..
19.7b
11.9
17.9
10.0 b
14.9
15.9
51.0
19.7
..
..
..
..
3.6b
8.6
..
..
..
..
31.2b
..
..
24.8
..
16.6
20.6
..
..
6.4
..
11.8
4.6
4.3
23.0
..
23.6
..
..
..
16.6
3.2
18.6
19.9
..
..
42.3
10.6
..
21.8
..
..
..
..

Unemployment

Total
% of total
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

3.2
9.9
..
2.8
11.1
..
15.2
11.2b
11.5
15.7
2.2
..
..
..
..
2.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
..
..
..
3.1
..
..
16.0 b
..
6.0
19.0
..
5.5
10.4b
14.4
..
..
5.9
..
5.2
14.7
7.7
5.3b
9.4b
8.6
13.3
4.1b
16.9

4.2
7.4
5.0 b
9.1
10.5
..
4.6
7.3b
6.1
9.4
3.9
12.4
8.4
..
..
3.2
1.7
8.3
1.4
6.0
8.1
..
5.6
..
4.3
34.9
2.6
7.8
3.1
8.8
33.0
8.5
3.4
5.1
2.8
10.0
..
..
21.9
..
3.6
3.6b
5.2
..
..
2.5
..
5.3
6.8
..
5.6b
6.7b
6.3
9.6
8.0
10.9

Male
% of male
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

3.3
11.0
..
2.7
9.5
..
15.2
9.2b
8.1
9.5
2.1
..
..
..
..
2.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.7
..
..
13.0 b
..
4.7
20.0
..
4.3
11.0 b
11.3
..
..
6.6
..
3.8
10.8
9.0
6.4b
7.5b
7.9
12.2
3.5b
19.1

3.2
7.1
4.9b
8.1
9.3
..
4.8
6.7b
4.9
5.5
4.0
11.8
7.0
..
..
3.7
..
7.7
1.3
6.3
..
..
6.8
..
4.3
34.5
1.7
5.4
3.2
7.2
25.2
5.3
3.2
6.2
..
10.1
..
..
19.4
..
3.2
3.3b
5.4
..
..
2.5
..
4.5
5.3
..
4.2b
5.6b
6.4
9.0
6.6
12.0

Female
% of female
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

3.0
8.7
..
3.0
24.4
..
15.2
13.9 b
17.3
22.8
2.2
..
..
..
..
2.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.0
..
..
25.3b
..
8.8
19.0
..
7.3
9.6b
19.5
..
..
5.1
..
14.0
22.3
5.9
3.8b
12.5b
9.9
14.7
5.0 b
13.3

6.2
7.7
5.3b
10.8
15.7
..
4.3
7.9b
7.9
14.3
3.7
16.5
9.8
..
..
2.6
..
9.0
1.4
5.4
..
..
4.2
..
4.4
35.5
3.5
10.0
3.4
10.9
..
14.4
3.7
3.9
..
10.0
..
..
25.0
..
4.1
3.9b
4.9
..
..
2.4
..
8.4
9.3
..
7.6b
8.0 b
6.0
10.3
9.6
9.5

PEOPLE

Unemployment

2.5

Long-term
unemployment

Unemployment by
educational attainment

% of total
unemployment
Total
Male
Female
2004–07a 2004–07a 2004–07a

% of total
unemployment
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
2004–07a 2004–07a 2004–07a

..
47.5
..
..
..
..
30.3
..
49.9
..
32.0
..
..
..
..
0.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.7b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41.7
5.7b
..
..
..
8.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
45.9
47.3
..

..
47.3
..
..
..
..
36.0
..
47.3
..
40.3
..
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.0 b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
43.9
6.1b
..
..
..
10.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
45.8
48.2
..

..
47.9
..
..
..
..
21.9
..
52.3
..
19.4
..
..
..
..
0.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.3b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.8
5.4b
..
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
46.0
46.7
..

..
33.1
29.0
44.4
41.8
..
39.8
12.2
46.5
9.7
67.2
..
7.1
..
..
15.2
19.4
13.3
..
24.3
..
..
..
..
14.2
..
67.7
..
13.3
..
..
44.2
50.7
..
35.1
51.1b
..
..
..
..
41.3
30.6
72.8
..
..
25.4
..
14.3
36.0
..
49.9
30.0 b
13.6
16.4
68.1
..

..
58.7
37.7
40.7
34.7
..
37.2
12.8
40.6
4.3
..
..
49.0
..
..
49.7
41.4
77.1
..
59.9
..
..
..
..
70.4
..
..
..
61.6
..
..
48.5
24.5
..
45.8
22.4b
..
..
..
..
39.7
38.8
2.1
..
..
49.2
..
11.4
39.6
..
38.0
31.9b
46.2
73.2
15.4
..

2009 World Development Indicators

..
8.1
33.3
9.6
19.6
..
18.2
72.5
11.3
8.4
32.8
..
43.9
..
..
35.2
9.6
9.6
..
14.6
..
..
..
..
15.4
..
9.3
..
25.1
..
..
6.4
22.9
..
18.5
21.6b
..
..
..
..
17.0
26.9
18.0
..
..
20.6
..
26.0
24.0
..
9.9
37.6b
39.4
10.4
13.2
..

57

2.5

Unemployment
Unemployment

Total
% of total
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

..
5.3
0.3
..
..
..
..
2.7
..
..
..
..
18.1
13.3b
..
..
5.7
2.8
6.8
..
3.6b
1.4
..
..
19.6
..
8.5
..
..
..
..
9.7
7.5b
9.0 b
..
7.7
..
..
..
18.9
..
.. w
..
..
..
6.3
..
2.5
..
6.7
12.8
..
..
7.4
9.5

6.4
6.1
..
5.6
..
13.3c
3.4
4.0
11.0
4.6
..
23.0
8.3
6.0 b
..
..
6.1
3.6
..
..
4.7
1.2
..
..
6.5
14.2
9.9
..
..
6.8
3.1
5.2
4.6b
9.2b
..
7.5
2.1
21.6
..
..
4.2
6.4 w
..
6.4
5.7
8.7
6.4
4.5
7.8
8.8
12.1
5.3
..
5.5
7.5

Male
% of male
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

..
5.4
0.6
..
..
..
..
2.7
..
..
..
..
13.9
10.1b
..
..
6.7
2.3
5.2
..
2.8b
1.3
..
..
17.0
..
8.8
..
..
..
..
11.5
7.9b
6.8b
..
8.2
..
..
..
16.3
..
.. w
..
..
..
5.9
..
..
..
5.4
10.8
..
..
7.0
7.5

7.2
6.4
..
4.2
..
11.7c
4.5
3.7
9.8
3.9
..
20.0
6.4
4.3b
..
..
5.8
2.9
..
..
..
1.3
..
..
4.4
13.1
9.8
..
..
7.0
2.5
5.5
4.7b
6.6b
..
7.1
1.9
22.1
..
..
4.2
.. w
..
..
..
8.0
..
..
8.1
6.9
10.4
5.1
..
5.2
6.6

Female
% of female
labor force
1990–92a 2004–07a

..
5.2
0.2
..
..
..
..
2.6
..
..
..
..
25.8
19.9b
..
..
4.6
3.5
14.0
..
4.3b
1.5
..
..
23.9
..
7.8
..
..
..
..
7.3
7.0 b
11.8b
..
6.8
..
..
..
22.4
..
.. w
..
..
..
7.1
..
..
..
8.4
21.7
..
..
7.9
12.5

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Limited coverage. c. Data are for 2008.

58

2009 World Development Indicators

5.4
5.8
..
13.2
..
15.2c
2.3
4.3
12.5
6.1
..
26.6
10.9
9.0 b
..
..
6.4
4.5
..
..
..
1.1
..
..
9.6
17.3
10.2
..
..
6.6
7.1
4.9
4.5b
12.4b
..
8.1
2.4
19.0
..
..
4.1
.. w
..
..
..
9.6
..
..
7.4
11.5
18.4
6.0
..
5.8
8.6

Long-term
unemployment

Unemployment by
educational attainment

% of total
unemployment
Total
Male
Female
2004–07a 2004–07a 2004–07a

% of total
unemployment
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
2004–07a 2004–07a 2004–07a

..
..
..
..
..
70.5
..
..
70.8
..
..
..
27.6
..
..
..
13.0
40.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
30.4
..
..
..
..
24.7
10.0 b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.6
45.2

..
..
..
..
..
79.3
..
..
72.3
..
..
..
23.9
..
..
..
14.5
37.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.1
..
..
..
..
29.7
10.7b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
27.3
44.4

..
..
..
..
..
82.2
..
..
69.4
..
..
..
30.5
..
..
..
11.4
43.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39.5
..
..
..
..
18.2
9.0 b
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.1
45.5

25.8
13.7
..
12.3
40.2
..
..
31.0
29.2b
25.0
..
36.2
54.8
45.4b
..
..
32.2
28.8
..
66.5
..
40.5
..
..
..
79.1
52.3
..
..
8.5
24.3
37.3
18.7b
59.1
..
..
..
54.3
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
37.8
..
..
23.4
53.4
..
27.8
..
35.3
41.4

66.3
54.2
..
43.9
6.9
..
..
25.6
65.3b
60.4
..
56.3
23.6
22.0 b
..
..
46.0
53.2
..
28.8
..
45.5
..
..
..
..
28.2
..
..
52.2
36.0
47.7
35.5b
27.0
..
..
..
14.2
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
43.6
..
..
53.1
32.2
..
34.5
..
41.3
42.9

6.1
32.1
..
40.0
2.5
..
..
43.2
5.3b
12.5
..
4.5
20.4
32.6b
..
..
17.1
17.9
..
4.6
..
0.1
..
..
..
13.6
12.7
..
..
39.3
21.6
14.3
45.7b
13.8
..
..
..
23.5
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
13.7
..
..
22.3
12.9
..
32.2
..
26.7
14.9

About the data

PEOPLE

Unemployment

2.5

Definitions

Unemployment and total employment are the broad-

generate statistics that are more comparable inter-

• Unemployment is the share of the labor force with-

est indicators of economic activity as reflected by

nationally. But the age group, geographic coverage,

out work but available for and seeking employment.

the labor market. The International Labour Organiza-

and collection methods could differ by country or

Definitions of labor force and unemployment may

tion (ILO) defines the unemployed as members of the

change over time within a country. For detailed infor-

differ by country (see About the data). • Long-term

economically active population who are without work

mation, consult the original source.

unemployment is the number of people with continu-

but available for and seeking work, including people

Women tend to be excluded from the unemploy-

ous periods of unemployment extending for a year or

who have lost their jobs or who have voluntarily left

ment count for various reasons. Women suffer more

longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unem-

work. Some unemployment is unavoidable. At any

from discrimination and from structural, social, and

ployed. • Unemployment by educational attainment

time some workers are temporarily unemployed—

cultural barriers that impede them from seeking

is the unemployed by level of educational attainment

between jobs as employers look for the right workers

work. Also, women are often responsible for the

as a percentage of the total unemployed. The levels

and workers search for better jobs. Such unemploy-

care of children and the elderly and for household

of educational attainment accord with the ISCED97

ment, often called frictional unemployment, results

affairs. They may not be available for work during

of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and

from the normal operation of labor markets.

the short reference period, as they need to make

Cultural Organization.

Changes in unemployment over time may reflect

arrangements before starting work. Furthermore,

changes in the demand for and supply of labor; they

women are considered to be employed when they

may also refl ect changes in reporting practices.

are working part-time or in temporary jobs, despite

Paradoxically, low unemployment rates can disguise

the instability of these jobs or their active search for

substantial poverty in a country, while high unemploy-

more secure employment.

ment rates can occur in countries with a high level of

Long-term unemployment is measured by the

economic development and low rates of poverty. In

length of time that an unemployed person has been

countries without unemployment or welfare benefits

without work and looking for a job. The data in the

people eke out a living in vulnerable employment. In

table are from labor force surveys. The underlying

countries with well developed safety nets workers

assumption is that shorter periods of joblessness

can afford to wait for suitable or desirable jobs. But

are of less concern, especially when the unem-

high and sustained unemployment indicates serious

ployed are covered by unemployment benefi ts or

inefficiencies in resource allocation.

similar forms of support. The length of time that a

The ILO definition of unemployment notwithstand-

person has been unemployed is difficult to measure,

ing, reference periods, the criteria for people consid-

because the ability to recall that time diminishes as

ered to be seeking work, and the treatment of people

the period of joblessness extends. Women’s long-

temporarily laid off or seeking work for the first time

term unemployment is likely to be lower in countries

vary across countries. In many developing countries

where women constitute a large share of the unpaid

it is especially difficult to measure employment and

family workforce.

unemployment in agriculture. The timing of a survey,

Unemployment by level of educational attainment

for example, can maximize the effects of seasonal

provides insights into the relation between the edu-

unemployment in agriculture. And informal sector

cational attainment of workers and unemployment

employment is difficult to quantify where informal

and may be used to draw inferences about changes

activities are not tracked.

in employment demand. Information on educational

Data on unemployment are drawn from labor force

attainment is the best available indicator of skill

sample surveys and general household sample

levels of the labor force. Besides the limitations to

surveys, censuses, and offi cial estimates, which

comparability raised for measuring unemployment,

are generally based on information from different

the different ways of classifying the education level

sources and can be combined in many ways. Admin-

may also cause inconsistency. Education level is

istrative records, such as social insurance statistics

supposed to be classifi ed according to Interna-

and employment office statistics, are not included

tional Standard Classifi cation of Education 1997

in the table because of their limitations in cover-

(ISCED97). For more information on ISCED97, see

age. Labor force surveys generally yield the most

About the data for table 2.11.

comprehensive data because they include groups
not covered in other unemployment statistics, particularly people seeking work for the first time. These

Data sources

surveys generally use a definition of unemployment

Data on unemployment are from the ILO database

that follows the international recommendations more

Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 5th edition.

closely than that used by other sources and therefore

2009 World Development Indicators

59

2.6

Children at work
Survey
year

Children in employment

% of children ages 7–14
in employment

% of children
ages 7–14

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angolab
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroonc
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.c
Congo, Rep
Costa Ricac
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republicc
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

60

2000
2001
2004

2000
2006
2005
2006
2005
2006
2004
2004
2000
2001
2001
2000
2004
2003

2005
2000
2005
2004
2006

2005
2004
2005
2003

2005

2005

2003
2004
1994
2000
2005

Total

Male

Female

Work
only

Study
and work

..
36.6
..
30.1
12.9
..
..
..
9.7
16.2
11.7
..
74.4
22.0
10.6
..
7.0
..
50.0
37.0
52.3
15.9
..
67.0
60.4
4.1
..
..
4.0
39.8
30.1
5.7
45.7
..
..
..
..
5.8
12.0
7.9
12.7
..
..
56.0
..
..
..
43.5
..
..
6.0
..
16.8
48.3
67.5
33.4

..
41.1
..
30.0
15.7
..
..
..
12.0
25.7
12.1
..
72.8
23.9
11.7
..
9.4
..
49.0
38.4
52.4
14.5
..
66.5
64.4
5.1
..
..
6.2
39.9
29.9
8.1
47.7
..
..
..
..
9.0
14.6
11.5
17.1
..
..
64.3
..
..
..
33.9
..
..
6.0
..
23.1
47.2
67.4
37.3

..
31.8
..
30.1
9.8
..
..
..
7.3
6.4
11.2
..
76.1
20.1
9.5
..
4.6
..
51.0
35.7
52.1
17.4
..
67.6
56.2
3.1
..
..
1.8
39.8
30.2
3.5
43.6
..
..
..
..
2.7
9.3
4.3
8.1
..
..
47.1
..
..
..
52.3
..
..
5.9
..
10.5
49.5
67.5
29.6

..
43.1
..
26.6
4.8
..
..
..
4.2
37.8
0.0
..
36.1
8.1
0.1
..
7.2
..
98.1
48.3
16.5
52.5
..
54.9
49.1
3.2
..
..
32.8
35.7
9.9
44.6
46.8
..
..
..
..
6.2
27.0
21.0
19.5
..
..
69.4
..
..
..
32.1
..
..
71.2
..
31.3
98.6
63.7
17.7

..
56.9
..
73.4
95.2
..
..
..
95.8
62.2
100.0
..
63.9
91.9
99.9
..
92.8
..
1.9
51.7
83.5
47.5
..
45.1
50.9
96.8
..
..
67.2
64.3
90.1
55.4
53.2
..
..
..
..
93.8
73.0
79.0
80.5
..
..
30.6
..
..
..
67.9
..
..
28.8
..
68.7
1.4
36.3
82.3

2009 World Development Indicators

Employment by
economic activitya

Status in
employmenta

% of children ages 7–14
in employment

% of children ages 7–14
in employment
SelfUnpaid
employed
Wage
family

Agriculture Manufacturing

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84.4
..
..
60.8
..
97.2
..
76.1
88.2
..
..
..
24.1
..
..
..
..
..
40.3
..
..
..
..
..
18.5
70.0
..
51.0
..
..
94.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
78.8
..
66.1
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.3
..
..
6.6
..
0.4
..
5.0
2.1
..
..
..
6.9
..
..
..
..
..
9.5
..
..
..
..
..
9.8
4.7
..
12.5
..
..
1.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.8
..
9.1
..
..
..

Services

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.1
..
..
30.9
..
2.2
..
18.0
7.1
..
..
..
66.9
..
..
..
..
..
49.0
..
..
..
..
..
57.5
23.7
..
35.4
..
..
3.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.2
..
23.5
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
34.2
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
1.2
..
..
6.8
..
1.3
3.9
1.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.6
..
..
15.8
..
..
..
..
..
23.8
6.0
1.5
..
..
1.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.8
..
3.4
..
..
..

..
1.4
..
6.2
8.1
..
..
..
2.1
17.0
9.2
..
..
4.4
1.6
..
21.5
..
0.4
85.3
4.7
..
..
2.0
1.8
..
..
..
39.1
6.6
4.2
57.7
2.4
..
..
..
..
19.5
15.8
11.4
15.3
..
..
2.4
..
..
..
1.1
..
..
5.5
..
17.8
..
0.9
1.8

..
93.1
..
80.1
56.2
..
..
..
88.9
77.8
78.8
..
..
92.9
92.1
..
58.0
..
98.3
..
90.2
..
..
56.4
77.2
..
..
..
48.3
76.7
84.5
26.6
88.0
..
..
..
..
56.2d
75.5
87.4
78.4
..
..
95.8
..
..
..
87.3
..
..
78.4
..
78.9
..
81.1
79.4

Survey
year

Children in employment

% of children ages 7–14
in employment

% of children
ages 7–14

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexicoe
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambiquec
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panamac
Papua New Guinea
Paraguayc
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

2004
2004–05
2000
2006

2002

2006
2000

2006

2000
2007

2005
2001
2006
2006

2004
2000
2005
1998–99
1996
1999
1999

2005
2006

2003
2005
2000
2001
2001

Total

Male

Female

Work
only

Study
and work

6.8
..
4.2
8.9
..
14.7
..
..
..
1.1
..
..
3.6
37.7
..
..
..
5.2
..
..
..
30.8
37.4
..
..
11.8
25.6
40.3
..
49.5
..
..
8.9
33.5
12.4
13.2
1.8
..
15.4
47.2
..
..
10.1
47.1
..
..
..
..
5.1
..
15.3
24.1
13.3
..
3.6
..

10.4
..
4.2
8.8
..
17.9
..
..
..
1.5
..
..
4.4
40.1
..
..
..
5.8
..
..
..
34.2
37.8
..
..
14.8
26.1
41.3
..
55.0
..
..
12.2
34.1
14.1
13.5
1.9
..
16.2
42.2
..
..
16.2
49.2
..
..
..
..
7.7
..
22.6
25.7
16.3
..
4.6
..

3.2
..
4.2
9.1
..
11.3
..
..
..
0.6
..
..
2.8
35.2
..
..
..
4.6
..
..
..
27.5
37.1
..
..
8.6
25.1
39.4
..
44.1
..
..
5.6
32.8
10.7
12.8
1.7
..
14.7
52.4
..
..
3.9
45.0
..
..
..
..
2.2
..
7.7
22.3
10.0
..
2.6
..

48.6
..
84.9
24.9
..
32.4
..
..
..
17.1
..
..
1.6
14.1
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
..
17.6
45.0
..
..
2.8
85.1
10.5
..
59.5
..
..
34.1
3.8
8.7
93.2
100.0
..
9.5
35.6
..
..
30.8
66.5
..
..
..
..
38.4
..
24.2
4.8
14.8
..
3.6
..

51.4
..
15.2
75.1
..
67.6
..
..
..
82.9
..
..
98.4
85.9
..
..
..
92.1
..
..
..
82.4
55.0
..
..
97.2
14.9
89.5
..
40.5
..
..
65.9
96.2
91.3
6.8
0.0
..
90.5
64.4
..
..
69.2
33.5
..
..
..
..
61.6
..
75.7
95.2
85.2
..
96.4
..

PEOPLE

Children at work

2.6

Employment by
economic activitya

Status in
employmenta

% of children ages 7–14
in employment

% of children ages 7–14
in employment
SelfUnpaid
employed
Wage
family

Agriculture Manufacturing

63.4
..
69.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
94.0
..
..
..
..
..
38.1
..
..
60.6
..
..
91.5
87.0
..
..
70.5
..
..
..
..
..
57.6
..
60.8
72.6
64.3
..
48.5
..

8.3
..
16.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
12.3
..
..
8.3
..
..
0.4
1.4
..
..
9.7
..
..
..
..
..
3.1
..
6.2
2.8
4.1
..
11.2
..

Services

24.7
..
12.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.4
..
..
..
..
..
48.0
..
..
10.1
..
..
8.0
11.1
..
..
19.3
..
..
..
..
..
38.1
..
32.1
24.5
30.6
..
33.3
..

2.7
..
7.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.8
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
..
..
2.1
..
..
0.1
4.2
..
..
1.2
4.8
..
..
..
..
12.4
..
9.3
1.9
4.1
..
..
..

19.9
..
6.8
17.8
..
7.0
..
..
..
35.1
..
..
4.0
..
..
..
..
3.7
..
..
..
3.6
1.7
..
..
3.9
1.5
6.7
..
1.6
..
..
52.0
2.9
3.9
10.0
..
..
4.5
3.3
..
..
13.8
74.5
..
..
..
..
24.9
..
24.8
6.8
22.8
..
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

73.8
..
59.3
75.8d
..
85.3
..
..
..
43.3
..
..
75.0
..
..
..
..
81.9
..
..
..
83.3
79.3
..
..
89.5
91.4
75.5
..
80.4
..
..
44.2
82.0
91.3
81.7
..
..
95.0
92.4
..
..
85.0 f
..
..
..
..
..
50.3f
..
65.8
91.4
73.1
..
..
..

61

2.6

Children at work
Survey
year

Children in employment

% of children ages 7–14
in employment

% of children
ages 7–14

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudang
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RBc
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2000
2000
2005
2005
2005

2006
1999
1999
2000
2000

2006
2005
2001
2005
2006
2000
1999
2005–06
2005

2005
2005
2006
1999
2005
1999

Total

Male

Female

Work
only

Study
and work

1.4
..
33.1
..
18.5
6.9
62.7
..
..
..
43.5
27.7
..
17.0
19.1
11.2
..
..
6.6
8.9
40.4
15.1
..
38.7
3.9
..
4.5
..
38.2
17.3
..
..
..
..
5.1
5.4
21.3
..
13.1
47.9
14.3

1.7
..
36.1
..
24.4
7.2
63.6
..
..
..
45.5
29.0
..
20.4
21.5
11.4
..
..
8.8
8.7
41.5
15.7
..
39.8
5.2
..
5.2
..
39.8
18.0
..
..
..
..
5.3
7.1
21.0
..
12.4
48.9
15.3

1.1
..
30.3
..
12.6
6.6
61.8
..
..
..
41.5
26.4
..
13.4
16.8
10.9
..
..
4.3
9.1
39.2
14.4
..
37.4
2.8
..
3.8
..
36.5
16.6
..
..
..
..
4.9
3.6
21.6
..
14.0
46.8
13.3

20.7
..
27.5
..
61.9
2.1
29.9
..
..
..
53.5
5.1
..
5.4
55.9
14.0
..
..
34.6
9.0
40.0
4.2
..
29.8
12.8
..
66.8
..
7.7
0.1
..
..
..
..
1.0
24.7
11.9
..
64.3
25.9
12.0

79.3
..
72.5
..
38.1
97.9
70.1
..
..
..
46.5
94.9
..
94.6
44.1
86.0
..
..
65.4
91.0
60.0
95.8
..
70.2
87.2
..
33.2
..
92.3
99.9
..
..
..
..
99.0
75.3
88.1
..
35.7
74.1
88.0

Employment by
economic activitya

Status in
employmenta

% of children ages 7–14
in employment

% of children ages 7–14
in employment
SelfUnpaid
employed
Wage
family

Agriculture Manufacturing

97.1
..
..
..
79.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
71.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
78.5
..
..
82.9
..
..
65.4
..
95.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
28.3
..
..
92.0
95.9
..

0.0
..
..
..
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
1.3
..
..
15.9
..
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.0
..
..
1.0
0.6
..

Services

2.3
..
..
..
14.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
21.3
..
..
15.1
..
..
18.7
..
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
61.1
..
..
6.2
3.5
..

4.5
..
..
..
6.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.1
..
2.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.9
..
..
5.0
..
..
3.7
..
1.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
18.9
..
..
4.1
2.6
3.4

..
..
2.9
..
4.4
5.2
1.0
..
..
..
1.6
7.1
..
8.3
7.3
10.4
..
..
21.5
24.2
1.0
13.5
..
1.6
29.8
..
34.9
..
1.5
3.1
..
..
..
..
3.8
25.3
5.9
..
5.4
0.7
28.4

92.9d
..
85.7
..
84.1
89.4
71.1
..
..
..
94.8
85.8
..
88.0
81.3
85.9
..
..
68.8
71.3
98.2d
80.0
..
93.4
64.9
..
61.4
..
97.1
79.3
..
..
..
..
78.6
54.0
91.2
..
86.8
96.5
68.2

a. Shares may not sum to 100 percent because of a residual category not included in the table. b. Covers only Angola-secured territory. c. Covers children ages 10–14. d. Refers to family
workers, regardless of whether they are paid. e. Covers children ages 12–14. f. Refers to unpaid workers, regardless of whether they are family workers. g. Covers northern Sudan only.

62

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

PEOPLE

Children at work

2.6

Definitions

The data in the table refer to children’s work in

working for payment in cash or in kind or is involved in

• Survey year is the year in which the underlying

the sense of “economic activity”—that is, children

unpaid work, whether a child is working for someone

data were collected. • Children in employment are

in employment, which is a broader concept than

who is not a member of the household, whether a

children involved in any economic activity for at least

child labor (see ILO forthcoming for details on this

child is involved in any type of family work (on the

one hour in the reference week of the survey. • Work

distinction).

farm or in a business), and the like. The ages used

only refers to children who are employed and not

In line with the definition of economic activity

in country surveys to define child labor range from 5

attending school. • Study and work refer to chil-

adopted by the 13th International Conference of

to 17 years. The data in the table have been recalcu-

dren attending school in combination with employ-

Labour Statisticians, the threshold for classifying a

lated to present statistics for children ages 7–14.

ment. • Employment by economic activity is the

person as employed is to have been engaged at least

Although efforts are made to harmonize the defi -

distribution of children in employment by the major

one hour in any activity during the reference period

nition of employment and the questions on employ-

industrial categories (ISIC revision 2 or revision 3).

relating to the production of goods and services

ment used in survey questionnaires, significant dif-

• Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revi-

set by the 1993 United Nations System of National

ferences remain in the survey instruments used to

sion 2) or categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and

Accounts. Children seeking work are thus not included

collect data on children in employment and in the

includes agriculture and hunting, forestry and log-

in employment. Economic activity covers all market

sampling design underlying these surveys. Differ-

ging, and fishing. • Manufacturing corresponds to

production and certain types of nonmarket production,

ences exist not only across different household sur-

division 3 (ISIC revision 2) or category D (ISIC revi-

including production of goods for own use. It excludes

veys in the same country, but also across the same

sion 3). • Services correspond to divisions 6–9 (ISIC

unpaid household services (commonly called “house-

type of survey carried out in different countries.

revision 2) or categories G–P (ISIC revision 3) and

hold chores”)—that is, the production of domestic

Because of the differences in the underlying sur-

include wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restau-

and personal services by household members for

vey instruments and dates, estimates of working

rants, transport, financial intermediation, real estate,

consumption within their own household.

children are not fully comparable across countries.

public administration, education, health and social

The data are from household surveys conducted

Caution should be used in drawing conclusions

work, other community services, and private house-

by the International Labor Organization (ILO), the

concerning relative levels of child economic activity

hold activity. • Self-employed workers are people

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World

across countries or regions based on the data.

whose remuneration depends directly on the profits

Bank, and national statistical offi ces. These sur-

The table aggregates the distribution of children

derived from the goods and services they produce,

veys yield a variety of data on education, employ-

in employment by the industrial categories of the

with or without other employees, and include employ-

ment, health, expenditure, and consumption indica-

International Standard Industrial Classification

ers, own-account workers, and members of produc-

tors that relate to children’s work.

(ISIC): agriculture, manufacturing, and services.

ers cooperatives. • Wage workers (also known as

Household survey data generally include informa-

A residual category—which includes mining and

employees) are people who hold explicit (written or

tion on work type—for example, whether a child is

quarrying; electricity, gas, and water; construction;

oral) or implicit employment contracts that provide

extraterritorial organization and other inadequately

basic remuneration that does not depend directly on

defined activities—is not presented. Both ISIC revi-

the revenue of the unit for which they work. • Unpaid

sion 2 and revision 3 are used, depending solely on

family workers are people who work without pay in a

the codification applied by each country in describ-

market-oriented establishment operated by a related

ing the economic activity. The use of two different

person living in the same household.

2.6a

Children work long hours

Average work time among children ages 7–14 who
study and work, 2005 (hours per week)
40

classifications does not affect the definition of the
groups presented in the table.
30

20

Data sources

The table aggregates the distribution of children

Data on children at work are estimates produced

in employment by status in employment. Status in

by the Understanding Children’s Work project

employment is based on the International Classifica-

based on household survey data sets made avail-

tion of Status in Employment (1993), which shows

able by the ILO’s International Programme on the

the distribution of children in employment by three

Elimination of Child Labour under its Statistical

major categories: self-employed workers, wage work-

Monitoring Programme on Child Labour, UNICEF

ers (also known as employees), and unpaid family

under its Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey pro-

workers. A residual category—which includes those

gram, the World Bank under its Living Standards

not classifiable by status—is not presented.

Measurement Study program, and national sta-

10

0
Paraguay

Somalia

Zambia

Children in many countries work long hours,

tistical offices. Information on how the data were

often combining studying with working. In Para-

collected and some indication of their reliability

guay children work more than 30 hours a week,

can be found at www.ilo.org/public/english/

leaving very little time for studying or any other

standards/ipec/simpoc/, www.childinfo.org, and

activities.

www.worldbank.org/lsms. Detailed country statis-

Source: Understanding Children’s Work Project.

tics can be found at www.ucw-project.org.

2009 World Development Indicators

63

2.7

Poverty rates at national poverty lines
Population below national poverty line

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Argentina
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Croatia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Gambia, The
Georgia
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Jamaica
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lesotho
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali

64

Survey
year

Rural
%

Urban
%

National
%

2007
2002
1988
1998
1998–99
1995
2000
2002
1999
1999
2001–02
1998
1997
1998
1998
1994
1996
1995–96
1996
1998
1995
2004–05
2005
1989
2002
2000
1998
1995–96
1995
1993–94
1995
1995–96
1998
2002
1998–99
1989
1994
2002
1987
1998–99
1993
1993–94
1996
1995
1997
2001
1994
2003
1997–98
2002
1994/95
2002
1997
1990–91
1989
1998

45.0
29.6
16.6
..
50.8
..
52.3
..
33.0
80.1
19.9
51.4
..
61.1
64.6
..
59.6
48.6
..
4.6
79.0
75.7
49.2
35.8
..
45.3
69.0
23.3
64.8
..
14.7
47.0
61.0
55.4
49.6
71.9
..
..
..
71.2
..
37.3
19.8
37.0
27.0
..
47.0
57.5
41.0
11.6
68.9
25.3
76.0
..
..
75.9

27.0
19.5
7.3
28.8
58.3
..
35.1
..
23.3
51.4
13.8
14.7
..
22.4
66.5
..
41.4
..
..
..
48.0
61.5
..
26.2
..
18.2
30.0
22.5
38.9
..
6.8
33.3
48.0
48.5
19.4
33.7
..
52.6
..
28.6
..
32.4
13.6
18.7
19.7
..
29.0
35.7
26.9
..
36.7
..
63.2
..
..
30.1

42.0
25.4
12.2
..
55.1
68.1
48.9
30.5
29.0
62.0
19.5
22.0
36.0
54.6
68.0
47.0
53.3
43.4
19.9
4.6
60.0
71.3
42.3
31.7
11.2
27.7
46.0
22.9
50.6
53.0
8.9
45.5
57.6
52.1
39.5
57.9
40.0
65.7
65.0
52.5
14.5
36.0
17.6
27.5
21.3
17.6
40.0
49.9
38.6
7.5
66.6
21.4
73.3
54.0
15.5
63.8

2009 World Development Indicators

Survey
year

2005
1995
2002
2001
2001
2005
2004
2003
2002
2002–03
2001
2003
2004
2001
1998
2004
1999

2004
2004
2004
2001
1999–20 00
2002

1999–2000
2003
2003
2005–06
2000

1995
2004
1997
1999–2000
2005
2000
2002
2002
1997
2005
2002–03
2004
2002/03
2003
1999
1997–98

Poverty gap at national poverty line

Rural
%

Urban
%

National
%

..
24.2
30.3
..
48.7
42.0
43.8
..
46.0
82.2
..
41.0
..
52.4
..
38.0
49.9
..
..
..
79.0
..
..
28.3
..
55.7
..
..
49.8
..
..
45.0
63.0
52.7
39.2
74.5
..
..
66.0
70.4
..
30.2
..
25.1
18.7
..
53.0
50.8
..
12.7
60.5
22.3
76.7
66.5
..
..

..
11.2
14.7
53.0
51.9
55.0
28.4
..
29.0
53.9
..
17.5
..
19.2
..
18.0
22.1
..
..
..
55.0
..
..
20.8
..
34.7
..
..
28.5
..
..
37.0
57.0
56.2
10.8
27.1
..
..
..
29.5
..
24.7
..
12.8
12.9
..
49.0
29.8
..
..
41.5
..
52.1
54.9
..
..

..
18.5
22.6
..
50.9
49.6
40.0
17.4
39.0
64.6
..
21.5
12.8
46.4
..
35.0
40.2
..
17.0
2.8
64.0
..
..
23.9
11.1
42.2
45.2
16.7
37.2
..
..
44.2
61.3
54.5
28.5
56.2
..
..
..
50.7
17.3
28.6
16.0
18.7
14.2
15.4
52.0
43.1
33.0
5.9
56.3
21.7
71.3
65.3
..
..

Survey
year

2005
1995
2002
2001
2001
2005
2003
2002
2001–02
2002–03
2001
2003
2004
1995–96
1998
1999
2004–05
2004
2004
2001
1999–2000
2002
1995
1999–2000
2003
2005–06
2000
2000
2004
1997
1999–2000
2004
2002
2002
2005
2002–03
2004
2003
1999

Rural
%

Urban
%

National
%

..
5.3
4.5
..
..
..
9.8
..
14.0
43.4
4.9
28.4
..
17.6
..
7.8
..
26.3
..
..
44.0
34.9
..
10.8
..
24.0
..
..
24.2
..
6.6
12.0
..
..
13.5
..
..
..
..
34.5
4.1
5.6
..
..
4.7
4.5
..
12.0
..
..
..
6.5
36.1
..
..
..

..
2.3
1.8
28.5
..
..
6.5
..
8.0
23.8
2.8
17.8
..
5.1
..
1.2
..
..
..
..
26.0
26.2
..
7.0
..
12.9
..
..
11.1
..
1.8
10.0
..
..
3.1
..
..
17.5
..
9.1
..
6.9
..
..
2.9
2.0
..
7.0
..
..
..
..
21.4
..
..
..

..
4.0
3.2
..
15.1
15.5
9.0
..
12.0
31.2
4.6
19.6
4.2
15.3
..
6.7
..
27.5
5.7
..
34.0
32.2
..
8.6
..
16.8
18.0
3.0
16.5
..
3.1
12.0
25.9
..
9.6
22.6
..
25.7
..
22.3
..
..
2.9
..
3.3
3.1
..
10.0
8.0
1.2
..
6.7
32.8
..
..
..

Population below national poverty line

Survey
year

Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Nepal
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguaya
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovak Republic
Sri Lanka
Swaziland
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe

1996
1992
2002
2001
1998
1990–91
1996–97
1995–96
1998
1989–93
1985
1993
1997
1996
1990
2001
1994
1996
1995
1998
1993
1992
1989
2004
1995–96
2000–01
1999
1991
1994
2001
1987–89
1992
1990
1994
1999–2000
2000
1994
2000–01
1989
1998
1998
1998
1990–91

Rural
%

Urban
%

National
%

65.5
..
34.8
64.1
32.6
18.0
71.3
43.3
68.5
66.0
49.5
33.4
64.9
41.3
28.5
77.1
45.4
..
..
..
..
40.4
..
..
27.0
75.0
..
40.8
..
..
..
20.0
13.1
..
37.4
34.9
..
33.6
..
45.5
45.0
83.1
35.8

30.1
..
11.4
58.0
39.4
7.6
62.0
21.6
30.5
52.0
31.7
17.2
15.3
16.1
19.7
42.0
18.6
..
..
..
..
23.7
..
..
15.0
49.0
..
31.2
..
..
..
24.0
3.5
..
9.6
..
20.2
27.8
..
9.2
30.8
56.0
3.4

50.0
10.6
20.3
62.4
35.6
13.1
69.4
41.8
47.9
63.0
43.0
28.6
37.3
37.5
20.5
54.3
32.1
14.6
25.4
31.4
51.2
33.4
82.8
16.8
25.0
69.2
74.9
38.6
9.8
39.7
32.3
21.0
7.4
28.3
33.8
31.5
..
31.5
31.3
37.4
41.8
72.9
25.8

Survey
year

2000
2004
2002
2002
1998–99
2002–03
2003–04
2001
1992–93
1998–99

2004
1997
2001
2002
2002
1999–2000
2003–04
2002
2003
2000–01
1998

1995
2002
2002–03
2003
1998
2003
1997–99
2002
2004
1995–96

PEOPLE

Poverty rates at national poverty lines

2.7

Poverty gap at national poverty line

Rural
%

Urban
%

National
%

61.2
..
27.9
67.2
43.4
27.2
55.3
34.6
64.3
..
36.4
35.9
..
..
..
72.1
36.9
..
..
..
65.7
..
79.0
..
7.9
..
..
38.7
..
..
..
..
13.9
34.5
41.7
28.4
..
29.8
..
35.6
..
78.0
48.0

25.4
..
11.3
42.6
30.3
12.0
51.5
9.6
28.7
..
30.4
24.2
..
..
..
42.9
11.9
..
..
..
14.3
..
56.4
..
24.7
..
..
29.5
..
..
..
..
3.6
22.0
12.2
..
24.7
22.6
..
6.6
..
53.0
7.9

46.3
..
17.6
48.5
36.1
19.0
54.1
30.9
45.8
..
34.1
32.6
..
..
..
53.1
25.1
14.8
28.9
19.6
60.3
..
70.2
..
22.7
..
44.4
35.7
13.6
..
..
..
7.6
27.0
37.7
19.5
..
27.2
52.0
28.9
..
68.0
34.9

Survey
year

2002
2002
2002
1998–99
2002–03
2003–04
2001

1998–99
1997
1996
1990
2004
1997
2002
2002
1992
2003–04
2004
2002
2000–01
2003
1998
2001
1987–89
1992
1990
2002
2002–03
1998
1997–99
2002
1998
2004

Rural
%

Urban
%

National
%

..
..
12.2
..
13.2
6.7
20.9
8.5
25.9
..
..
7.9
32.1
13.8
10.5
28.3
10.0
..
..
..
..
16.4
34.0
..
5.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.2
3.3
..
12.6
..
..
..
..
8.7
14.7
44.0
..

..
..
2.8
..
9.2
2.5
19.7
2.2
8.7
..
..
5.0
3.9
4.3
5.6
12.4
2.6
..
..
..
..
3.1
..
..
1.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.4
0.9
..
3.0
..
8.6
..
..
1.3
8.2
22.0
..

..
..
6.3
16.5
11.0
4.4
20.5
7.5
17.0
..
..
7.0
16.4
12.4
6.0
18.0
6.4
..
7.6
5.1
..
13.9
29.0
5.5
5.1
32.9
12.7
..
3.0
11.9
10.0
7.3
1.7
0.3
11.3
..
..
..
24.0
6.9
13.2
36.0
..

a. Covers Asunción metropolitan area only.

2009 World Development Indicators

65

2.7

Poverty rates at national poverty lines

About the data

Definitions

The World Bank periodically prepares poverty

Data quality

• Survey year is the year in which the underlying data

assessments of countries in which it has an active

Poverty assessments are based on surveys fielded to

were collected. • Rural population below national

program, in close collaboration with national institu-

collect, among other things, information on income

poverty line is the percentage of the rural population

tions, other development agencies, and civil society

or consumption from a sample of households. To be

living below the national rural poverty line. • Urban

groups, including poor people’s organizations. Pov-

useful for poverty estimates, surveys must be nation-

population below national poverty line is the per-

erty assessments report the extent and causes of

ally representative and include sufficient information

centage of the urban population living below the

poverty and propose strategies to reduce it. Since

to compute a comprehensive estimate of total house-

national urban poverty line. • National population

1992 the World Bank has conducted about 200 pov-

hold consumption or income (including consumption

below national poverty line is the percentage of the

erty assessments, which are the main source of the

or income from own production), from which it is pos-

country’s population living below the national poverty

poverty estimates presented in the table. Countries

sible to construct a correctly weighted distribution

line. National estimates are based on population-

report similar assessments as part of their Poverty

of consumption or income per person. There remain

weighted subgroup estimates from household sur-

Reduction Strategies.

many potential problems with household survey data,

veys. • Poverty gap at national poverty line is the

The poverty assessments are the best available

including selective nonresponse and differences in

mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the

source of information on poverty estimates using

the menu of consumption items presented and the

nonpoor as having zero shortfall) as a percentage of

national poverty lines. They often include separate

length of the period over which respondents must

the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of

assessments of urban and rural poverty. Data are

recall their expenditures. These issues are dis-

poverty as well as its incidence.

derived from nationally representative household

cussed in About the data for table 2.8.

surveys conducted by national statistical offices or
by private agencies under the supervision of govern-

National poverty lines

ment or international agencies and obtained from

National poverty lines are used to make estimates

government statistical offices and World Bank Group

of poverty consistent with the country’s specific eco-

country departments.

nomic and social circumstances and are not intended

Some poverty assessments analyze the current

for international comparisons of poverty rates. The

poverty status of a country using the latest available

setting of national poverty lines reflects local percep-

household survey data, while others use survey data

tions of the level of consumption or income needed

for several years to analyze poverty trends. Thus,

not to be poor. The perceived boundary between

poverty estimates for more than one year might be

poor and not poor rises with the average income of

derived from a single poverty assessment. A poverty

a country and so does not provide a uniform measure

assessment might not use all available household

for comparing poverty rates across countries. Never-

surveys, or survey data might become available at

theless, national poverty estimates are clearly the

a later date even though data were collected before

appropriate measure for setting national policies for

the poverty assessment date. Thus poverty assess-

poverty reduction and for monitoring their results.

ments may not fully represent all household survey

Almost all the national poverty lines use a food
bundle based on prevailing diets that attains pre-

data.
Over the last 20 years there has been considerable

determined nutritional requirements for good health

expansion in the number of countries that field sur-

and normal activity levels, plus an allowance for non-

veys and in the frequency of the surveys. The quality

food spending. The rise in poverty lines with average

of their data has improved greatly as well.

income is driven more by the gradient in the non-

Data sources

food component of the poverty lines than in the food

The poverty measures are prepared by the World

Data availability

component, although there is still an appreciable

Bank’s Development Research Group, based on

The number of data sets within two years of any given

share attributable to the gradient in food poverty

data from World Bank’s country poverty assess-

year rose dramatically, from 13 between 1978 and

lines. While nutritional requirements tend to be fairly

ments and country Poverty Reduction Strategies.

1982 to 158 between 2001 and 2006. Data cover-

similar even across countries at different levels of

Summaries of poverty assessments are available

age is improving in all regions, but the Middle East

economic development, richer countries tend to use

at www.worldbank.org/povertynet, by selecting

and North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa continue to

a more expensive food bundle—more meat and veg-

“Poverty assessments” from the left side bar.

lag. The database, maintained by a team in the World

etables, less starchy staples, and more processed

Poverty assessment documents are available at

Bank’s Development Research Group, is updated

foods generally—for attaining the same nutritional

www-wds.worldbank.org, under “By topic,” “Pov-

annually as new survey data become available, and

needs.

erty reduction,” “Poverty assessment.” Further

a major reassessment of progress against poverty is

discussion of how national poverty lines vary

made about every three years. A complete overview

across countries can be found in Ravallion, Chen,

of data availability by year and country is available at

and Sangraula’s “Dollar a Day Revisited” (2008).

http://iresearch.worldbank.org/povcalnet/.

66

2009 World Development Indicators

International poverty
line in local currency

Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Croatia
Czech Republic
Côte d’Ivoire
Djibouti
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea-Bissau
Guinea
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Jamaica
Jordan
Kazakhstan

$1.25
a day

$2
a day

2005

2005

75.51
48.42b
88.13
1.69
245.24
2,170.94
31.87
949.53
343.99
23.08
3.21
1.09
4.23
1.96
0.92
303.02
558.79
2,019.12
368.12
97.72
384.33
409.46
484.20
5.11g
1,489.68
368.01
395.29
469.46
348.70 b
5.58
19.00
407.26
134.76
25.50 b
0.63
2.53
6.02b
11.04
3.44
554.69
12.93
0.98
5,594.78
5.68b
355.34
1,849.46
131.47b
24.21b
12.08b
171.90
19.50i
3,393.53
54.20 b
0.62
81.21

PEOPLE

Poverty rates at international poverty lines

2.8

International poverty line

Survey
year

120.82
2002a
77.48b
1988a
141.01
2.71
2002c,d
392.38
2002a
3,473.51
2001a
50.99
2000a
1,519.25
2002a
550.38
36.93
5.14
2002d
1.74
2001a
6.77
1985–86a
3.14
2005d
1.47
2001a
484.83
1998a
894.07
1998a
3,230.60
1993–94a,f
588.99
1996a
156.35
614.93
1993a
655.14
774.72
2003d
8.17g
2002a
2,383.48
2003d
588.82
632.46
751.14
557.92b
2003d
8.92
2001a
30.39
1993d
651.62
1998a
215.61
1996a
40.79b
2003d
1.00
2005d
4.04 1999–2000a
9.62b
2003d
17.66
2002a
5.50 1999–2000a
887.50
20.69
1998a
1.57
2002a
8,951.64
1998–99a
9.08b
2002d
568.55
1993–94a
2,959.13
1994a
210.35b
1993d
38.73b
19.32b
2005d
275.03
2002a
31.20i
1993–94a
5,429.65
1998a
86.72b
2002a
0.99
2002–03a
129.93
2002a

Population
below
$1.25
a day
%

<2
6.6
..
9.9
15.0
6.3
57.8e
<2
..
..
22.8
<2
35.6
7.8
2.6
70.0
86.4
48.6
51.5
..
82.8
..
<2
28.4h
15.4
..
..
..
5.6
<2
<2
24.1
4.8
6.1
9.8
<2
14.3
<2
55.6
..
66.7
15.1
39.1
16.9
52.1
36.8
5.8
..
22.2
<2
49.4h
<2
<2
<2
5.2

Poverty
gap at
$1.25
a day
%

<0.5
1.8
..
2.9
3.1
1.1
17.3e
<0.5
..
..
12.4
<0.5
13.8
1.6
<0.5
30.2
47.3
13.8
18.9
..
57.0
..
<0.5
8.7h
6.1
..
..
..
2.4
<0.5
<0.5
6.7
1.6
1.5
3.2
<0.5
6.7
<0.5
16.2
..
34.7
4.7
14.4
6.5
20.6
11.5
2.6
..
10.2
<0.5
14.4h
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
0.9

Population
below
$2 a day
%

8.7
23.8
..
19.7
46.7
27.1
85.4 e
<2
..
..
34.2
<2
54.7
18.3
7.8
87.6
95.4
77.8
74.4
..
90.7
..
5.3
51.1h
26.3
..
..
..
11.5
<2
<2
49.1
15.1
16.3
20.4
19.3
25.3
2.5
86.4
..
82.0
34.2
63.3
29.8
75.7
63.8
15.0
..
34.8
<2
81.7h
8.3
8.7
11.0
21.5

Poverty
gap at
$2 a day
%

1.4
6.6
..
7.4
13.6
6.8
38.7e
<0.5
..
..
18.5
<0.5
25.8
5.9
2.2
49.1
64.1
33.3
36.0
..
68.4
..
1.3
20.6h
10.9
..
..
..
4.7
<0.5
<0.5
18.1
4.5
5.1
7.6
3.5
11.6
0.6
37.9
..
50.0
12.2
28.5
12.9
37.4
26.4
5.4
..
16.7
<0.5
35.3h
1.8
1.6
2.1
5.4

Survey
year

Population
below
$1.25
a day
%

Poverty
gap at
$1.25
a day
%

Population
below
$2 a day
%

Poverty
gap at
$2 a day
%

2005a
1995a
2000a
2005c,d
2003a
2005a
2005a
2005a
2003a
2003a
2005a
2004a
1993–94a
2007d
2003a
2003a
2006a
2004a
2001a
2001a
2003a
2002–03a
2006d
2005a
2006d
2004a
2005–06a
2005a
2005d
2005a
1996d
2002a
2002a
2005d
2007d
2004–05a
2005d
2004a
2005a
2005a
2003–04a
2005a
2006a
2006d
2002–03a
2002–03a
1998d
2001d
2006d
2004a
2004–05a
2005a
2004a
2006a
2003a

<2
6.8
54.3
4.5
10.6
<2
49.6e
<2
47.3
26.2
19.6
<2
31.2
5.2
<2
56.5
81.3
40.2
32.8
20.6
62.4
61.9
<2
15.9h
16.0
46.1
59.2
54.1
2.4
<2
<2
23.3
18.8
5.0
4.7
<2
11.0
<2
39.0
4.8
34.3
13.4
30.0
11.7
48.8
70.1
7.7
54.9
18.2
<2
41.6h
<2
<2
<2
3.1

<0.5
1.4
29.9
1.0
1.9
<0.5
13.1e
<0.5
15.7
7.0
9.7
<0.5
11.0
1.3
<0.5
20.3
36.4
11.3
10.2
5.9
28.3
25.6
<0.5
4.0h
5.7
20.8
25.3
22.8
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
6.8
5.3
0.9
1.2
<0.5
4.8
<0.5
9.6
0.9
12.1
4.4
10.5
3.5
16.5
32.2
3.9
28.2
8.2
<0.5
10.8h
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5

7.8
23.6
70.2
11.3
43.4
<2
81.3e
<2
75.3
49.5
30.3
<2
49.4
12.7
<2
81.2
93.4
68.2
57.7
40.2
81.9
83.3
2.4
36.3h
27.9
65.0
79.5
74.4
8.6
<2
<2
46.8
41.2
15.1
12.8
18.4
20.5
<2
77.5
19.6
56.7
30.4
53.6
24.3
77.9
87.2
16.8
72.1
29.7
<2
75.6h
8.0
5.8
3.5
17.2

1.4
6.4
42.3
3.6
11.3
<0.5
33.8e
<0.5
33.5
18.8
15.5
<0.5
22.3
4.1
0.9
39.2
56.0
28.0
23.6
14.9
45.3
43.9
0.39
12.2h
11.9
34.2
42.4
38.8
2.3
<0.5
<0.5
17.6
14.6
4.3
4.0
3.5
8.9
<0.5
28.8
5.0
24.9
10.9
22.3
8.9
34.8
50.2
6.9
41.8
14.2
<0.5
30.4h
1.8
0.9
0.6
3.9

2009 World Development Indicators

67

2.8

Poverty rates at international poverty lines
International poverty
line in local currency

Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lesotho
Liberia
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
South Africa
Sri Lanka
St. Lucia
Suriname
Swaziland
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB

68

$1.25
a day

$2
a day

2005

2005

40.85
65.37
16.25
26.00
4,677.02
7,483.24
0.43
0.69
4.28
6.85
0.64
1.02
2.08
3.32
29.47
47.16
945.48
1,512.76
71.15
113.84
2.64
4.23
362.10
579.36
157.08
251.33
9.56
15.30
6.03
9.65
653.12
1,044.99
6.89
11.02
14,532.12 23,251.39
6.33
10.13
33.08
52.93
14.59b
9.12b
334.16
534.66
98.23
157.17
25.89
41.42
1.22b
0.76b
3.37b
2.11b
2,659.74
4,255.59
2.07
3.31
30.22
48.36
2.69
4.31
2.15
3.44
16.74
26.78
295.93
473.49
372.81
596.49
1,745.26
2,792.42
23.53
37.66
198.25
317.20
5.71
9.14
50.05
80.08
3.80 b
2.37b
3.67b
2.29b
4.66
7.45
1.16
1.85
603.06
964.90
21.83
34.93
0.98b
0.61b
352.82
564.51
9.23b
5.77b
0.87
1.39
1.25
2.00
9,537.69b
5,961.06b
930.77
1,489.24
2.14
3.42
19.14
30.62
752.14b
470.09b
1,563.90
2,502.24

2009 World Development Indicators

International poverty line

Survey
year

1997a
2002a
1997–98
2002a
1995a
2002a
2002a
2001a
1997–98d
1997d
2001a
1995–96a
2004a
2002a
2002a
2000a
1996–97a
1995–96a
2001d
1994a
1996–97a
2001–02a
2004d
2005d
2005d
2003a
2002a
2002a
2002a
1984–85a
2001a
1989–90a
1992d
2002a
1995a
1995–96a

1994–95a
2003a
1991–92a
2002a

1988d
1995a
2002a
1993d
2002a
2002a
2005c,d
2002a
2003d

Population
below
$1.25
a day
%

19.6
34.0
49.3e
<2
47.6
..
<2
<2
76.3
83.1
<2
61.2
23.4
2.8
17.1
15.5
6.3
81.3
..
68.4
19.4
78.2
68.5
35.9
9.2
..
9.3
8.2
22.0
<2
2.9
<2
63.3
44.2
62.8
<2
<2
21.4
16.3
..
..
78.6
36.3
72.6
<2
..
..
<2
6.5
2.0
63.5
57.4
<2
<2
42.3
18.4

Poverty
gap at
$1.25
a day
%

4.6
8.8
14.9e
<0.5
26.7
..
<0.5
<0.5
41.4
46.0
<0.5
25.8
7.1
1.4
4.0
3.6
0.9
42.0
..
26.7
6.7
38.6
32.1
7.9
2.7
..
3.4
2.0
5.5
<0.5
0.8
<0.5
19.7
14.3
44.8
<0.5
<0.5
5.2
3.0
..
..
47.7
10.3
29.7
<0.5
..
..
<0.5
1.3
<0.5
25.8
22.7
<0.5
<0.5
12.4
8.8

Population
below
$2 a day
%

42.7
66.6
79.9e
<2
61.1
..
<2
3.1
88.7
93.5
6.8
82.0
48.3
7.0
40.3
38.8
24.3
92.9
..
88.1
37.5
91.5
86.4
73.9
18.0
..
18.4
19.4
43.8
<2
13.0
3.7
88.4
71.3
75.0
<2
<2
39.9
46.7
..
..
89.3
68.8
91.3
15.1
..
..
8.6
20.4
9.6
85.7
79.8
3.4
4.5
75.6
31.7

Poverty
gap at
$2 a day
%

14.7
24.9
34.4 e
0.6
37.3
..
<0.5
0.7
57.2
62.3
1.3
43.6
17.8
2.6
13.2
12.3
6.3
59.4
..
46.8
14.4
56.5
49.7
26.4
6.8
..
7.3
6.3
16.0
<0.5
3.2
0.6
41.8
31.2
54.0
<0.5
<0.5
15.0
13.7
..
..
61.6
26.7
50.1
2.8
..
..
1.9
5.8
2.3
44.8
40.6
0.7
0.7
30.6
14.6

Survey
year

2005–06a
2004a
2002–03a
2004a
2002–03a
2007a
2004a
2003a
2005a
2004–05a,j
2004–05d
2006a
2000a
2006a
2004a
2005a
2007a
2002–03a
1993d
2003–04a
2005d
2005a
2003–04a
2004–05a
2006d
1996a
2007d
2006d
2006a
2005a
2005a
2005a
2000a
2005a
2002–03a
1996d
2004a
2000a
2002a
1995d
1999d
2000–01a
2004a
2000–01a
2004a
2001a
2006a
1992d
2000a
2005a
1998a
2005a
2005a
2006d
2003a
2006d

Population
below
$1.25
a day
%

19.7
21.8
44.0e
<2
43.4
83.7
<2
<2
67.8
73.9
<2
51.4
21.2
<2
8.1
22.4
2.5
74.7
49.1
55.1
15.8
65.9
64.4
22.6
9.5
35.8
6.5
7.9
22.6
<2
<2
<2
76.6
33.5
53.4
<2
<2
26.2
14.0
20.9
15.5
62.9
21.5
88.5
<2
52.9
38.7
4.2
2.6
2.7
24.8
51.5
<2
<2
46.3
3.5

Poverty
gap at
$1.25
a day
%

Population
below
$2 a day
%

Poverty
gap at
$2 a day
%

6.1
4.4
12.1e
<0.5
20.8
40.8
<0.5
<0.5
26.5
32.3
<0.5
18.8
5.7
<0.5
1.7
6.2
0.5
35.4
24.6
19.7
5.2
28.1
29.6
4.4
3.1
12.3
2.7
1.9
5.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
38.2
10.8
20.3
<0.5
<0.5
8.2
2.6
7.2
5.9
29.4
5.1
46.8
<0.5
19.1
11.4
1.1
<0.5
0.9
7.0
19.1
<0.5
<0.5
15.0
1.2

39.9
51.9
76.8e
<2
62.2
94.8
<2
3.2
89.6
90.4
7.8
77.1
44.1
4.8
28.9
49.0
14.0
90.0
62.2
77.6
31.8
85.6
83.9
60.3
17.8
57.4
14.2
18.5
45.0
<2
3.4
<2
90.3
60.3
76.1
<2
<2
42.9
39.7
40.6
27.2
81.0
50.8
96.6
11.5
77.5
69.3
13.5
12.8
9.0
49.6
75.6
<2
4.2
76.7
10.2

15.1
16.8
31.0e
<0.5
33.0
59.5
<0.5
0.7
46.9
51.8
1.4
36.5
15.9
1.0
7.9
17.2
3.1
53.5
36.5
37.8
12.3
46.6
46.9
18.7
7.1
25.5
5.5
6.0
16.3
<0.5
0.9
<0.5
55.7
24.6
37.5
<0.5
<0.5
18.3
11.8
15.5
11.7
45.8
16.8
64.4
2.0
37.0
27.9
3.9
3.0
2.6
18.4
36.4
<0.5
0.6
33.2
3.2

International poverty
line in local currency

Vietnam
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia

$1.25
a day

$2
a day

2005

2005

7,399.87
113.83
3,537.91

11,839.79
182.12
5,660.65

PEOPLE

2.8

Poverty rates at international poverty lines
International poverty line

Survey
year

2004a
1998a
2002–03a

Population
below
$1.25
a day
%

Poverty
gap at
$1.25
a day
%

Population
below
$2 a day
%

Poverty
gap at
$2 a day
%

24.2
12.9
64.6

5.1
3.0
27.1

52.5
36.3
85.1

17.9
11.1
45.8

Survey
year

Population
below
$1.25
a day
%

Poverty
gap at
$1.25
a day
%

Population
below
$2 a day
%

Poverty
gap at
$2 a day
%

2006a
2005a
2004–05a

21.5
17.5
64.3

4.6
4.2
32.8

48.4
46.6
81.5

16.2
14.8
48.3

a. Expenditure based. b. PPP imputed using regression. c. Covers urban area only. d. Income based. e. Adjusted by spatial consumer price index information. f. Due to security concerns,
the survey covered only 56 percent of rural villages and 65 percent of the rural population. g. PPP conversion factor based on urban prices. h. Weighted average of urban and rural
estimates. i. Weighted average of urban and rural poverty lines. j. Due to change in survey design, the most recent survey is not strictly comparable with the previous one.

Regional poverty estimates and progress toward

84 percent to 16 percent, leaving 620 million fewer

$1.25 a day poverty line than had been expected

the Millennium Development Goals

people in poverty.

before the crisis.

Global poverty measured at the $1.25 a day poverty

Over the same period the poverty rate in South

Most of the people who have escaped extreme

line has been decreasing since the 1980s. The share

Asia fell from 59 percent to 40 percent (table 2.8c).

poverty remain very poor by the standards of mid-

of population living on less than $1.25 a day fell

In contrast, the poverty rate fell only slightly in Sub-

dle-income economies. The median poverty line for

10 percentage points, to 42 percent, in 1990 and

Saharan Africa—from less than 54 percent in 1981

developing countries in 2005 was $2.00 a day. The

then fell nearly 17 percentage points between 1990

to more than 58 percent in 1999 then down to

poverty rate for all developing countries measured

and 2005. The number of people living in extreme

51 percent in 2005. But the number of people living

at this line fell from nearly 70 percent in 1981 to

poverty fell from 1.9 billion in 1981 to 1.8 billion

below the poverty line has nearly doubled.

47 percent in 2005, but the number of people liv-

in 1990 to about 1.4 billion in 2005 (figure 2.8a).

Only East Asia and Pacific is consistently on track

ing on less than $2.00 a day has remained nearly

This substantial reduction in extreme poverty over

to meet the Millennium Development Goal target of

constant at 2.5 billion. The largest decrease, both

the past quarter century, however, disguises large

reducing 1990 poverty rates by half by 2015. A slight

in number and proportion, occurred in East Asia

regional differences.

acceleration over historical growth rates could lift

and Pacifi c, led by China. Elsewhere, the number of

The greatest reduction in poverty occurred in East

Latin America and the Caribbean and South Asia

people living on less than $2.00 a day increased,

Asia and Pacific, where the poverty rate declined

to the target. However, the recent slowdown in the

and the number of people living between $1.25

from 78 percent in 1981 to 17 percent in 2005 and

global economy may leave these regions and many

and $2.00 a day nearly doubled, to 1.18 billion.

the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day

countries short of the target. Preliminary estimates

In 2009 the global growth deceleration will likely

dropped more than 750 million (figure 2.8b). Much

for 2009 suggest that lower economic growth rates

leave 53 million more people below the $2 a day

of this decline was in China, where poverty fell from

will likely leave 46 million more people below the

poverty line.

While the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day has
fallen, the number living on $1.25–$2.00 a day has increased 2.8a

80

2.5
People living on less than
$1.25 a day, other developing regions

People living on more than
$1.25 and less than $2.00
a day, all developing regions

South Asia

People living on less than
$1.25 a day, East Asia & Pacific
20

0.5

Sub-Saharan Africa

60

40

1.5
1.0

2.8b

Share of population living on less than $1.25 a day, by region (%)

People living in poverty (billions)
3.0

2.0

Poverty rates
have begun to fall

Middle East & North Africa

People living on less than
$1.25 a day, South Asia
People living on less than
$1.25 a day, Sub-Saharan Africa

0
1981

1984

1987

Source: PovcalNet, World Bank.

1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

East Asia
& Pacific

Europe & Central Asia

Latin America & Caribbean

0
1981

1984

1987

1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

Source: PovcalNet, World Bank.

2009 World Development Indicators

69

2.8

Poverty rates at international poverty lines

Regional poverty estimates
Region

2.8c
1981

1984

1987

1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

People living on less than 2005 PPP $1.25 a day (millions)
East Asia & Pacific
China
Europe & Central Asia

1,072

947

822

873

845

622

635

507

316

835

720

586

683

633

443

447

363

208

7

6

5

9

20

21

24

21

17
45

Latin America & Caribbean

47

59

56

49

46

53

55

56

Middle East & North Africa

14

12

12

10

10

10

11

10

11

548

548

569

579

559

594

589

616

596

South Asia
India
Sub-Saharan Africa
Total

420

416

428

435

444

442

447

460

456

211

241

256

295

317

355

382

390

388

1,898

1,812

1,721

1,816

1,797

1,657

1,696

1,600

1,373

Share of people living on less than 2005 PPP $1.25 a day (%)
East Asia & Pacific

77.7

65.5

54.2

54.7

50.8

36.0

35.5

27.6

16.8

84.0

69.4

54.0

60.2

53.7

36.4

35.6

28.4

15.9

1.8

1.4

1.1

2.1

4.4

4.8

5.3

4.8

3.8

Latin America & Caribbean

12.9

15.3

13.7

11.3

10.1

10.9

10.9

10.7

8.2

Middle East & North Africa

7.9

6.1

5.7

4.3

4.1

4.1

4.2

3.6

3.6

59.4

55.6

54.2

51.7

46.9

47.1

44.1

43.8

40.3

China
Europe & Central Asia

South Asia

59.8

55.5

53.6

51.3

49.4

46.6

44.8

43.9

41.6

Sub-Saharan Africa

India

53.4

55.8

54.5

57.6

56.9

58.8

58.4

55.0

50.9

Total

52.2

47.0

42.1

42.0

39.5

34.7

33.9

30.7

25.3

People living on less than 2005 PPP $2.00 a day (millions)
East Asia & Pacific

1,278

1,280

1,238

1,273

1,262

1,108

1,105

954

728

972

963

907

961

926

792

770

655

473

35

28

25

31

47

55

66

55

41

Latin America & Caribbean

89

109

102

95

95

106

110

113

94

Middle East & North Africa

46

43

47

44

48

52

51

50

51

799

836

881

926

950

1,008

1,030

1,083

1,091

609

635

669

702

735

757

783

813

827

291

325

348

390

423

471

508

535

555

2,538

2,622

2,642

2,760

2,825

2,800

2,870

2,791

2,560

China
Europe & Central Asia

South Asia
India
Sub-Saharan Africa
Total

Share of people living on less than 2005 PPP $2.00 a day (%)
East Asia & Pacific

92.6

88.5

81.5

79.8

75.8

64.1

61.8

51.9

38.6

97.8

92.9

83.7

84.6

78.6

65.0

61.4

51.1

36.3

8.7

6.8

5.9

7.1

10.8

12.4

14.9

12.5

9.2

Latin America & Caribbean

24.6

28.1

24.9

21.9

20.7

22.0

21.8

21.5

17.1

Middle East & North Africa

26.7

23.0

22.7

19.7

19.8

20.2

18.9

17.6

16.9

South Asia

86.5

84.8

83.9

82.7

79.7

79.8

77.2

77.0

73.9

86.6

84.8

83.8

82.6

81.7

79.8

78.4

77.5

75.6

Sub-Saharan Africa

73.8

75.5

74.0

76.0

75.9

77.9

77.6

75.6

72.9

Total

69.9

68.1

64.7

63.8

62.0

58.6

57.4

53.6

47.3

China
Europe & Central Asia

India

Source: World Bank PovcalNet.

70

2009 World Development Indicators

PEOPLE

Poverty rates at international poverty lines

2.8

About the data
The World Bank produced its first global poverty esti-

The statistics reported here are based on con-

PPP exchange rates are used to estimate global

mates for developing countries for World Development

sumption data or, when unavailable, on income

poverty, because they take into account the local

Report 1990: Poverty using household survey data for

surveys. Analysis of some 20 countries for which

prices of goods and services not traded internation-

22 countries (Ravallion, Datt, and van de Walle 1991).

income and consumption expenditure data were

ally. But PPP rates were designed for comparing

Since then there has been considerable expansion in

both available from the same surveys found income

aggregates from national accounts, not for mak-

the number of countries that field household income

to yield a higher mean than consumption but also

ing international poverty comparisons. As a result,

and expenditure surveys. The World Bank’s poverty

higher inequality. When poverty measures based on

there is no certainty that an international poverty line

monitoring database now includes more than 600

consumption and income were compared, the two

measures the same degree of need or deprivation

surveys representing 115 developing countries. More

effects roughly cancelled each other out: there was

across countries. So called poverty PPPs, designed

than 1.2 million randomly sampled households were

no significant statistical difference.

to compare the consumption of the poorest people

interviewed in these surveys, representing 96 percent of the population of developing countries.

in the world, might provide a better basis for comInternational poverty lines

parison of poverty across countries. Work on these

International comparisons of poverty estimates entail

measures is ongoing.

Data availability

both conceptual and practical problems. Countries

The number of data sets within two years of any given

have different definitions of poverty, and consistent

year rose dramatically, from 13 between 1978 and

comparisons across countries can be difficult. Local

1982 to 158 between 2001 and 2006. Data cover-

poverty lines tend to have higher purchasing power in

age is improving in all regions, but the Middle East

rich countries, where more generous standards are

and North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa continue to

used, than in poor countries.

Definitions
• International poverty line in local currency is the
international poverty lines of $1.25 and $2.00 a day
in 2005 prices, converted to local currency using
the PPP conversion factors estimated by the International Comparison Program. • Survey year is the year

lag. The database, maintained by a team in the World

Poverty measures based on an international pov-

Bank’s Development Research Group, is updated

erty line attempt to hold the real value of the poverty

annually as new survey data become available, and

line constant across countries, as is done when mak-

a day are the percentages of the population living

a major reassessment of progress against poverty is

ing comparisons over time. Since World Development

on less than $1.25 a day and $2.00 a day at 2005

made about every three years. A complete overview

Report 1990 the World Bank has aimed to apply a

international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP

of data availability by year and country is available at

common standard in measuring extreme poverty,

exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries

http://iresearch.worldbank.org/povcalnet/.

anchored to what poverty means in the world’s poor-

cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in

est countries. The welfare of people living in different

earlier editions. • Poverty gap is the mean shortfall

Data quality

countries can be measured on a common scale by

from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having

Besides the frequency and timeliness of survey data,

adjusting for differences in the purchasing power of

zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the pov-

other data quality issues arise in measuring house-

currencies. The commonly used $1 a day standard,

hold living standards. The surveys ask detailed ques-

measured in 1985 international prices and adjusted

tions on sources of income and how it was spent,

to local currency using purchasing power parities

which must be carefully recorded by trained person-

(PPPs), was chosen for World Development Report

nel. Income is generally more difficult to measure

1990 because it was typical of the poverty lines in

accurately, and consumption comes closer to the

low-income countries at the time.

in which the underlying data were collected. • Population below $1.25 a day and population below $2

erty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty
as well as its incidence.

Data sources

notion of living standards. And income can vary over

Early editions of World Development Indicators

time even if living standards do not. But consumption

used PPPs from the Penn World Tables to convert

The poverty measures are prepared by the World

data are not always available: the latest estimates

values in local currency to equivalent purchasing

Bank’s Development Research Group. The interna-

reported here use consumption for about two-thirds

power measured in U.S dollars. Later editions used

tional poverty lines are based on nationally repre-

of countries.

1993 consumption PPP estimates produced by the

sentative primary household surveys conducted by

However, even similar surveys may not be strictly

World Bank. International poverty lines were recently

national statistical offices or by private agencies

comparable because of differences in timing or in the

revised using the new data on PPPs compiled in

under the supervision of government or interna-

quality and training of enumerators. Comparisons

the 2005 round of the International Comparison

tional agencies and obtained from government

of countries at different levels of development also

Program, along with data from an expanded set of

statistical offices and World Bank Group country

pose a potential problem because of differences

household income and expenditure surveys. The new

departments. The World Bank Group has prepared

in the relative importance of the consumption of

extreme poverty line is set at $1.25 a day in 2005

an annual review of its poverty work since 1993.

nonmarket goods. The local market value of all con-

PPP terms, which represents the mean of the poverty

For details on data sources and methods used in

sumption in kind (including own production, particu-

lines found in the poorest 15 countries ranked by per

deriving the World Bank’s latest estimates, and fur-

larly important in underdeveloped rural economies)

capita consumption. The new poverty line maintains

ther discussion of the results, see Shaohua Chen

should be included in total consumption expenditure,

the same standard for extreme poverty—the poverty

and Martin Ravallion’s “The Developing World Is

but may not be. Most survey data now include valu-

line typical of the poorest countries in the world—but

Poorer Than We Thought, but No Less Successful

ations for consumption or income from own produc-

updates it using the latest information on the cost of

in the Fight against Poverty?” (2008).

tion, but valuation methods vary.

living in developing countries.

2009 World Development Indicators

71

2.9

Distribution of income or consumption
Survey
year

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentinac
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

72

2005b
1995b
2000 b
2005d
2003b
1994 d
2000 d
2005b
2005b
2005b
2000 d
2003b
2005b
2004b
1993–95b
2007d
2003b
2003b
2006b
2007b
2001b
2000 d
2003b
2002–03b
2006d
2005d
1996d
2006d
2005–06b
2005b
2005d
2002b
2005b
1996d
1997d
2005d
2007d
2004–05b
2005d
2004b
2005b
2000 d
1995d
2005b
2003b
2005b
2000 d
2006b
2000 d
2006d
2003b
2002b
2001d

2009 World Development Indicators

Gini
index

..
33.0
35.3
58.6
50.0
33.8
35.2
29.1
16.8
31.0
27.9
33.0
38.6
58.2
35.8
61.0
55.0
29.2
39.6
33.3
40.7
44.6
32.6
43.6
39.8
52.0
41.5
43.4
58.5
44.4
47.3
47.2
48.4
29.0
..
25.8
24.7
50.0
54.4
32.1
49.7
..
36.0
29.8
26.9
32.7
41.5
47.3
40.8
28.3
42.8
34.3
53.7
43.3
35.5
59.5

Percentage share of
income or consumptiona

Lowest 10%

Lowest 20%

Second 20%

Third 20%

Fourth 20%

Highest 20%

Highest 10%

..
3.2
2.8
0.6
1.2
3.7
2.0
3.3
6.1
4.3
3.6
3.4
2.9
0.5
2.8
1.3
1.1
3.5
3.0
4.1
3.0
2.4
2.6
2.1
2.6
1.6
2.4
2.0
0.8
2.3
2.1
1.5
2.0
3.6
..
4.3
2.6
1.5
1.2
3.9
1.0
..
2.7
4.1
4.0
2.8
2.5
2.0
1.9
3.2
1.9
2.5
1.3
2.4
2.9
0.9

..
7.8
6.9
2.0
3.4
8.6
5.9
8.6
13.3
9.4
8.8
8.5
6.9
1.8
6.9
3.1
3.0
8.7
7.0
9.0
7.1
5.6
7.2
5.2
6.3
4.1
5.7
5.3
2.3
5.5
5.0
4.2
5.0
8.7
..
10.2
8.3
4.0
3.4
9.0
3.3
..
6.8
9.3
9.6
7.2
6.1
4.8
5.4
8.5
5.2
6.7
3.4
5.8
7.2
2.5

..
12.2
11.5
5.7
7.8
12.3
12.0
13.3
16.2
12.6
13.6
13.0
10.9
5.9
11.5
5.8
6.9
13.5
10.6
11.9
10.6
9.3
12.7
9.4
10.4
7.7
9.8
9.4
6.0
9.2
8.4
8.6
8.7
13.3
..
14.3
14.7
8.0
7.2
12.6
8.1
..
11.6
13.2
14.1
12.6
10.1
8.6
10.4
13.7
9.8
11.9
7.2
9.6
11.6
5.9

..
16.6
16.3
10.8
13.3
15.7
17.2
17.4
18.7
16.1
17.8
16.3
15.1
11.4
16.2
9.6
11.8
17.4
14.7
15.4
14.0
13.7
17.2
14.3
15.0
12.2
14.7
13.9
11.0
13.8
13.0
13.9
12.9
17.5
..
17.5
18.2
12.9
11.8
16.1
13.6
..
16.2
16.8
17.5
17.2
14.6
13.2
15.4
17.8
14.8
16.8
12.0
14.1
16.0
10.5

..
22.6
22.8
19.7
21.6
20.7
23.6
22.9
21.7
21.1
23.1
20.8
21.2
20.2
22.6
16.4
19.6
22.3
20.6
21.0
19.6
20.5
23.0
21.7
21.8
19.3
22.0
20.7
19.1
20.9
20.5
21.7
19.3
22.8
..
21.7
22.9
20.6
19.2
20.9
21.6
..
22.5
21.4
22.1
22.8
21.2
20.6
22.4
23.1
21.9
23.0
19.5
20.8
22.1
18.1

..
40.9
42.4
61.9
53.9
42.8
41.3
37.8
30.2
40.8
36.7
41.4
45.9
60.7
42.8
65.0
58.7
38.1
47.1
42.8
48.8
50.9
39.9
49.4
46.6
56.8
47.8
50.7
61.6
50.6
53.1
51.8
54.1
37.7
..
36.2
35.8
54.5
58.5
41.5
53.4
..
43.0
39.4
36.7
40.2
47.9
52.8
46.4
36.9
48.3
41.5
57.8
49.7
43.0
63.0

..
25.9
26.9
44.7
37.3
28.9
25.4
23.0
17.5
26.6
22.0
28.1
31.0
44.1
27.4
51.2
43.0
23.8
32.4
28.0
34.2
35.5
24.8
33.0
30.8
41.7
31.4
34.9
45.9
34.7
37.1
35.5
39.6
23.1
..
22.7
21.3
38.7
43.3
27.6
37.0
..
27.7
25.6
22.6
25.1
32.7
36.9
30.6
22.1
32.5
26.0
42.4
34.4
28.0
47.8

Survey
year

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

2006d
2004b
2004–05b
2005b
2005b
2000 d
2001d
2000 d
2004b
1993d
2006b
2003b
2005b
1998d
2004b
2002–03b
2004b
2003b
2007b
2004b
2003b
2005b
2004–05b
2004 d
2006b
2000 b
2006b
2004b
2005b
2007b
2002–03b
1993d
2003–04b
1999d
1997d
2005d
2005b
2003–04b
2000 d
2004–05b
2006d
1996b
2007d
2006d
2006b
2005b
1997d

Gini
index

55.3
30.0
36.8
39.4
38.3
..
34.3
39.2
36.0
45.5
24.9
37.7
33.9
47.7
..
31.6
..
32.9
32.6
35.7
..
52.5
52.6
..
35.8
39.0
47.2
39.0
37.9
39.0
39.0
..
48.1
35.6
33.0
40.9
47.1
..
74.3
47.3
30.9
36.2
52.3
43.9
42.9
25.8
..
31.2
54.9
50.9
53.2
49.6
44.0
34.9
38.5
..

PEOPLE

Distribution of income or consumption

2.9

Percentage share of
income or consumptiona

Lowest 10%

Lowest 20%

Second 20%

Third 20%

Fourth 20%

Highest 20%

Highest 10%

0.7
3.5
3.6
3.0
2.6
..
2.9
2.1
2.3
2.1
4.8
3.0
3.1
1.8
..
2.9
..
3.6
3.7
2.7
..
1.0
2.4
..
2.7
2.4
2.6
2.9
2.6
2.7
2.5
..
1.8
3.0
2.9
2.7
2.1
..
0.6
2.7
2.5
2.2
1.4
2.3
2.0
3.9
..
3.9
0.8
1.9
1.1
1.5
2.4
3.0
2.0
..

2.5
8.6
8.1
7.1
6.4
..
7.4
5.7
6.5
5.2
10.6
7.2
7.4
4.7
..
7.9
..
8.1
8.5
6.8
..
3.0
6.4
..
6.8
6.1
6.2
7.0
6.4
6.5
6.2
..
4.6
7.3
7.2
6.5
5.4
..
1.5
6.1
7.6
6.4
3.8
5.9
5.1
9.6
..
9.1
2.5
4.5
3.4
3.9
5.6
7.3
5.8
..

6.7
13.1
11.3
10.7
10.9
..
12.3
10.5
12.0
9.0
14.2
11.1
11.9
8.8
..
13.6
..
12.0
12.3
11.6
..
7.2
11.4
..
11.5
10.6
9.6
10.8
10.8
10.7
10.5
..
8.6
11.6
12.2
10.5
9.2
..
2.8
8.9
13.2
11.4
7.7
9.8
9.7
14.0
..
12.8
6.6
7.7
7.6
8.0
9.1
11.7
11.0
..

12.1
17.1
14.9
14.4
15.6
..
16.3
15.9
16.8
13.8
17.6
15.2
16.6
13.3
..
18.0
..
16.2
16.2
16.3
..
12.5
15.7
..
16.3
15.6
13.1
14.9
15.8
15.2
15.4
..
13.2
16.0
17.1
14.5
13.1
..
5.5
12.5
17.2
15.8
12.3
13.9
14.7
17.2
..
16.3
12.1
12.1
12.2
13.2
13.7
16.2
15.5
..

20.4
22.5
20.4
20.5
22.2
..
21.9
23.0
22.8
20.9
22.0
21.1
23.0
20.3
..
23.1
..
22.3
21.6
22.6
..
21.0
21.6
..
22.7
22.5
17.7
20.9
22.8
21.6
22.3
..
20.3
22.0
23.4
20.6
19.0
..
12.0
18.4
23.3
22.6
19.4
20.1
21.9
22.0
..
21.3
20.8
19.3
19.4
21.0
21.2
22.4
21.9
..

58.4
38.7
45.3
47.3
45.0
..
42.0
44.9
42.0
51.2
35.7
45.4
41.3
53.0
..
37.5
..
41.4
41.4
42.7
..
56.4
45.0
..
42.8
45.2
53.5
46.4
44.4
46.0
45.7
..
53.3
43.1
40.2
47.9
53.3
..
78.3
54.2
38.7
43.8
56.9
50.3
48.6
37.2
..
40.5
58.0
56.4
57.4
54.0
50.4
42.4
45.9
..

42.2
24.1
31.1
32.3
29.6
..
27.2
28.8
26.8
35.6
21.7
30.7
25.9
37.8
..
22.5
..
25.9
27.0
27.4
..
39.4
30.1
..
27.4
29.5
41.5
31.7
28.5
30.5
29.6
..
37.9
28.2
24.8
33.2
39.2
..
65.0
40.4
22.9
27.8
41.8
35.7
32.4
23.4
..
26.5
41.4
40.9
42.3
37.9
33.9
27.2
29.8
..

2009 World Development Indicators

73

2.9

Distribution of income or consumption
Survey
year

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbiae
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2005b
2005b
2000 b
2005b
2003b
2003b
1998d
1996d
2004b
2000 b
2000 d
2002b
2001b
2000 d
2000 d
2004b
2000–01b
2004b
2001b
2006b
1992d
2000 b
2005b
1998b
2005b
2005b
1999d
2000d
2006d
2003b
2006d
2006b
2005b
2004–05b
1995b

Gini
index

31.5
37.5
46.7
..
39.2
30.0
42.5
42.5
25.8
31.2
..
57.8
34.7
41.1
..
50.7
25.0
33.7
..
33.6
34.6
42.5
39.5
34.4
40.3
40.8
43.2
40.8
42.6
28.2
..
36.0
40.8
46.2
36.7
43.4
37.8
..
37.7
50.7
50.1

Percentage share of
income or consumptiona

Lowest 10%

Lowest 20%

Second 20%

Third 20%

Fourth 20%

Highest 20%

Highest 10%

3.3
2.6
2.3
..
2.5
3.4
2.6
1.9
3.1
3.4
..
1.3
2.6
2.9
..
1.8
3.6
2.9
..
3.2
3.1
2.6
2.9
3.3
2.1
2.4
1.9
2.5
2.6
3.8
..
2.1
1.9
1.7
2.9
1.7
3.1
..
2.9
1.3
1.8

8.2
6.4
5.4
..
6.2
8.3
6.1
5.0
8.8
8.2
..
3.1
7.0
6.8
..
4.5
9.1
7.6
..
7.7
7.3
6.1
6.7
7.6
5.5
5.9
5.2
6.0
6.1
9.0
..
6.1
5.4
4.5
7.1
4.9
7.1
..
7.2
3.6
4.6

12.8
11.0
9.0
..
10.6
13.0
9.7
9.4
14.9
12.8
..
5.6
12.1
10.4
..
8.0
14.0
12.2
..
12.0
11.8
9.8
10.4
11.7
10.3
10.2
9.8
10.2
9.8
13.4
..
11.4
10.7
8.7
11.5
9.6
10.8
..
11.3
7.8
8.1

16.8
15.9
13.2
..
15.3
17.3
14.0
14.6
18.6
17.0
..
9.9
16.4
14.4
..
12.3
17.6
16.3
..
16.4
16.3
14.2
14.8
16.1
15.5
14.9
14.6
14.9
14.1
17.6
..
16.0
15.7
14.0
15.7
14.8
15.2
..
15.3
12.8
12.2

22.3
22.7
19.6
..
22.0
23.0
20.9
22.0
22.9
22.6
..
18.8
22.5
20.5
..
19.4
22.7
22.6
..
22.4
22.3
21.0
21.3
22.2
22.7
21.8
21.6
21.7
20.7
22.9
..
22.5
22.4
21.8
21.5
22.1
21.6
..
21.0
20.6
19.3

39.9
44.1
52.8
..
45.9
38.4
49.3
49.0
34.8
39.4
..
62.7
42.0
48.0
..
55.9
36.6
41.3
..
41.4
42.3
49.0
46.8
42.4
45.9
47.2
48.8
47.2
49.3
37.2
..
44.0
45.8
51.1
44.2
48.6
45.4
..
45.3
55.2
55.7

25.3
28.4
38.2
..
30.1
23.4
33.6
32.8
20.8
24.6
..
44.9
26.6
33.3
..
40.8
22.2
25.9
..
26.4
27.0
33.7
31.3
27.1
29.9
31.6
33.2
31.8
34.1
22.5
..
28.5
29.9
34.8
29.5
32.7
29.8
..
30.8
38.9
40.3

a. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding. b. Refers to expenditure shares by percentiles of population, ranked by per capita expenditure. c. Urban
data. d. Refers to income shares by percentiles of population, ranked by per capita income. e. Includes Montenegro.

74

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

PEOPLE

Distribution of income or consumption

2.9

Definitions

Inequality in the distribution of income is reflected

but achieving strict comparability is still impossible

• Survey year is the year in which the underlying

in the percentage shares of income or consumption

(see About the data for tables 2.7 and 2.8).

data were collected. • Gini index measures the

accruing to portions of the population ranked by

Two sources of noncomparability should be noted

extent to which the distribution of income (or con-

income or consumption levels. The portions ranked

in particular. First, the surveys can differ in many

sumption expenditure) among individuals or house-

lowest by personal income receive the smallest

respects, including whether they use income or con-

holds within an economy deviates from a perfectly

shares of total income. The Gini index provides a con-

sumption expenditure as the living standard indi-

equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumula-

venient summary measure of the degree of inequal-

cator. The distribution of income is typically more

tive percentages of total income received against the

ity. Data on the distribution of income or consump-

unequal than the distribution of consumption. In

cumulative number of recipients, starting with the

tion come from nationally representative household

addition, the definitions of income used differ more

poorest individual. The Gini index measures the area

surveys. Where the original data from the house-

often among surveys. Consumption is usually a

between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line

hold survey were available, they have been used to

much better welfare indicator, particularly in devel-

of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of

directly calculate the income or consumption shares

oping countries. Second, households differ in size

the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index

by quintile. Otherwise, shares have been estimated

(number of members) and in the extent of income

of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of

from the best available grouped data.

sharing among members. And individuals differ in

100 implies perfect inequality. • Percentage share

The distribution data have been adjusted for

age and consumption needs. Differences among

of income or consumption is the share of total

household size, providing a more consistent mea-

countries in these respects may bias comparisons

income or consumption that accrues to subgroups of

sure of per capita income or consumption. No adjust-

of distribution.

population indicated by deciles or quintiles.

ment has been made for spatial differences in cost

World Bank staff have made an effort to ensure

of living within countries, because the data needed

that the data are as comparable as possible. Wher-

for such calculations are generally unavailable. For

ever possible, consumption has been used rather

further details on the estimation method for low- and

than income. Income distribution and Gini indexes for

middle-income economies, see Ravallion and Chen

high-income economies are calculated directly from

(1996).

the Luxembourg Income Study database, using an

Because the underlying household surveys differ
in method and type of data collected, the distribu-

estimation method consistent with that applied for
developing countries.

tion data are not strictly comparable across countries. These problems are diminishing as survey
methods improve and become more standardized,
The Gini coefficient and ratio of income or consumption
of the richest quintile to the poorest quintiles are closely correlated

2.9a

Gini coefficient (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Ratio of income or consumption of richest quintile to poorest quintile

Data sources

There are many ways to measure income or consumption inequality. The Gini coefficient shows inequal-

Data on distribution are compiled by the World

ity over the entire population; the ratio of income or consumption of the richest quintile to the poorest

Bank’s Development Research Group using pri-

quintiles shows differences only at the tails of the population distribution. Both measures are closely

mary household survey data obtained from govern-

correlated and provide similar information. At low levels of inequality the Gini coefficient is a more sensi-

ment statistical agencies and World Bank country

tive measure, but above a Gini value of 45–55 percent the inequality ratio rises faster.

departments. Data for high-income economies are

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

from the Luxembourg Income Study database.

2009 World Development Indicators

75

2.10

Assessing vulnerability and security
Youth
unemployment

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

76

Female-headed
households

Male
% of male
labor force
ages 15–24

Female
% of female
labor force
ages 15–24

% of
total

2003–05a

2003–05a

2004–07a

..
..
43
..
22b
..
11b
11
..
7
..
21
..
..
..
..
14b
23
..
..
..
..
14b
..
..
15
..
14
12
..
..
11
..
21c
..
19
6
..
12b
..
13
..
16
4
21
21b
..
..
27
16
..
18
..
..
..
..

..
..
46
..
28b
..
11b
10
..
6
..
19
..
..
..
..
23b
21
..
..
..
..
11b
..
..
21
..
8
19
..
..
22
..
28 c
..
19
10
..
21b
..
9
..
15
11
19
25b
..
..
31
14
..
35
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
36
..
..
25
10
54
..
23
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24
24
..
..
20
..
..
..
19
21
23
..
..
..
46
..
..
35
..
12
..
..
..
23
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17
..
44

2009 World Development Indicators

Pension
contributors

Year

2004
2002
2004
2002
2005
2005
2007
2004
1992
2005
1996
2002
2004
2004
1994
1993
1993
1993
2005
2004
1990
2003
2005
2006
1992
2004
1997
2007
2007
2007
2000
2004
2004
2005
2004
2005
2005
1995
2003
2004
2005
2004
2005
2005
1993
2004

Public expenditure
on pensions

% of labor
force

% of
workingage
population

..
48.9
36.7
..
35.0
64.4
92.6
96.4
36.8
2.8
97.0
94.2
4.8
10.1
36.0
..
52.6
64.0
3.1
3.3
..
13.7
90.5
1.5
1.1
58.0
20.5
..
24.5
..
5.8
55.3
9.3
75.2
..
84.5
94.4
31.0
27.0
55.5
29.8
..
95.2
..
88.7
89.9
15.0
3.8
29.9
88.2
9.1
85.2
24.0
1.5
1.9
..

..
33.0
22.1
..
25.9
48.3
69.6
68.7
30.2
2.1
94.0
61.6
..
7.8
27.0
..
39.1
63.0
3.0
3.0
..
11.5
71.4
1.3
1.0
35.2
17.2
..
18.8
..
5.6
37.6
9.1
51.0
..
67.3
86.9
20.7
20.8
27.7
19.7
..
68.6
..
67.2
61.4
14.0
2.9
22.7
65.5
7.1
58.5
18.0
1.8
1.5
..

Year

2005
2005
2002
2007
2004
2004
2005
2000
2001
2002
2003
2006
2000
2004
2004
2005
1992
1991
2001
2004
2004
1997
2001
1996
2006
2004
2006
1997
2007
1992
2005
2005
2000
2002
2004
2006
2001
2003
2007
2005
2005

2004
2005
2002
2005
2005
2005

% of
GDP

0.5
5.4
3.2
..
8.0
3.4
4.9
14.7
3.3
0.5
12.1
11.0
1.5
4.5
8.8
..
12.6
8.9
0.3
0.2
..
0.8
4.8
0.8
0.1
2.9
2.7
..
2.7
..
0.9
2.4
0.3
11.3
12.6
9.4
8.5
0.8
2.5
4.1
1.9
0.3
6.0
0.3
8.0
14.0
..
..
3.0
12.6
1.3
12.0
1.0
..
2.1
..

Year

2000
2007

2006
2002

2004

2006

2005
2005

2007

2003

Average
pension
% of
average
wage

..
..
..
..
43.8
20.3
..
..
24.3
..
41.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
42.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
53.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32.4
..
40.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.4
..
..
..
..
..
13.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Youth
unemployment

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Female-headed
households

Pension
contributors

Male
% of male
labor force
ages 15–24

Female
% of female
labor force
ages 15–24

% of
total

2003–05a

2003–05a

2004–07a

Year

5b
20
10 b
25
20
..
9
17
22
22
10 b
..
13
..
..
12
..
14
..
12
..
..
..
..
16
63
7
..
..
..
..
21
6
19
20
16
..
..
..
..
10
9b
11
..
..
13
..
11
19
..
12b
21b
15
37
14
25b

11b
19
11b
34
32
..
7
19
27
36
7b
..
16
..
..
9
..
18
..
14
..
..
..
..
15
62
7
..
..
..
..
34
7
18
21
14
..
..
..
..
10
10 b
16
..
..
12
..
15
30
..
21b
21b
19
39
19
21b

26
..
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
41
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25
..
..
..
37
31
..
..
8
22
25
..
12
..
..
..
34
17
17
..
..
..
23
..
..
..
19
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
22
..
..
..
..

2006
2007
2004
2002
2001
2005
1992
2005
2004
2005
2004
2004
2005
2005
2006
2003
2003
2005
2004
2004
2000
1993
2000
1990
1995
2000
2002
2000
2002
2003
1995

2003
2005
2005
2006
2005
2005
2004
1998
2004
2003
2007
2005
2005

2.10

Public expenditure
on pensions

% of labor
force

% of
workingage
population

16.1
93.0
9.0
15.5
35.1
..
88.0
82.0
92.4
17.4
95.3
32.2
33.8
8.0
..
78.0
..
42.2
..
92.4
33.1
5.7
..
65.5
79.7
63.8
5.4
..
65.0
2.5
5.0
51.4
34.5
60.6
61.4
22.4
2.0
..
..
2.1
90.3
..
17.9
1.3
1.7
90.8
..
6.4
51.6
..
11.6
16.3
20.8
84.9
91.4
..

12.4
62.6
5.7
11.3
20.0
..
63.9
63.0
58.4
12.6
75.0
18.6
26.4
6.7
..
55.0
..
28.9
..
66.5
19.9
3.6
..
38.1
56.0
38.9
4.8
..
..
2.0
4.0
33.6
22.7
43.1
49.1
12.8
2.1
..
..
1.4
70.4
..
11.5
1.2
1.2
75.7
..
4.0
40.7
..
9.1
12.3
15.5
54.5
71.9
..

Year

1994
2005
2007
2000
2003
1996
2005
1996
2005
2001
2004
2003
2005
1990
2006
2002
2003

2001
2003
2006
1990
1999
1991
1992
1999
2005
2003
2002
2003
1996

2003
2005
2005
1996
2006
1991
2003
1993
1996
2001
2000
1993
2005
2004

% of
GDP

0.6
11.1
2.0
..
1.1
..
3.4
5.9
14.7
..
9.5
2.2
4.9
1.1
..
2.0
3.5
4.8
..
7.5
2.1
..
..
2.1
6.8
8.5
0.2
..
6.5
0.4
0.2
4.4
0.9
8.0
5.8
1.9
0.0
..
..
0.3
8.4
7.2
2.5
0.7
0.1
8.4
..
0.9
4.3
..
1.2
2.6
1.0
14.1
10.4
..

Year

2005

2003

2003
2005

2005
2006

2003

2007

2009 World Development Indicators

Average
pension
% of
average
wage

..
39.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.9
..
..
..
..
27.5
..
33.1
..
..
..
..
30.9
55.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
47.1
..
..

77

PEOPLE

Assessing vulnerability and security

2.10

Assessing vulnerability and security
Youth
unemployment

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

Female-headed
households

Pension
contributors

Male
% of male
labor force
ages 15–24

Female
% of female
labor force
ages 15–24

% of
total

2003–05a

2003–05a

2004–07a

Year

..
..
34
..
23
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19
48
..
..
..
..
25
30
..
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
..
..
18
..
..
..
..
..
38

2007

21
..
..
..
..
..
..
4
31
11
..
56
17
20 b
..
..
23
9
..
..
..
5
..
..
..
31
19
..
..
15
..
13
12b
25
..
24
4
39
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
21
..
..
..
14
..
11
..
14
18

18
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
29
12
..
65
24
37b
..
..
22
9
..
..
..
5
..
..
..
29
19
..
..
14
..
10
10 b
35
..
35
5
45
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
21
..
12
..
13
21

2004
2003
2003
2004
2000
2003
1995

2005
2004
1995
2005
2005
2004
1996
2005
1997
2004
2004
2007
2004
2007
2005
2005
2004
2004
2005
2000
2005
2000
1995

% of labor
force

% of
workingage
population

53.4
..
4.8
..
5.3
46.0 d
4.6
70.0
78.5
86.0
..
..
91.0
35.6
12.1
..
91.0
100.0
17.4
..
2.0
27.2
..
15.9
55.6
45.3
55.0
..
10.7
68.2
..
92.7
92.5
55.0
..
31.8
13.2
18.8
10.0
5.9
12.0

36.3
..
4.1
..
3.9
32.2d
3.6
..
55.3
68.7
..
..
63.2
22.2
12.0
..
72.3
79.1
11.4
..
2.0
21.8
..
15.0
..
25.4
30.5
..
9.3
47.4
..
71.4
72.5
44.3
..
23.8
10.8
7.8
5.5
4.9
10.0

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Limited coverage. c. Data are for 2007. d. Includes Montenegro.

78

2009 World Development Indicators

Public expenditure
on pensions

Year

2003
2004
1998
2003
2003
1996
2005
2003

2005
2002

2005
2005
2004
1996

1997
1996
2003
2003
1996
2003
2005
2005
2003
2007
2005
2001
1998
2001
1999
2006
2002

% of
GDP

6.9
5.8
..
0.2
1.3
12.4 d
..
1.4
6.5
10.1
..
..
10.4
2.0
..
..
11.4
9.2
1.3
3.0
..
..
..
0.6
0.6
4.3
3.2
2.3
0.3
15.4
..
7.6
7.3
10.0
6.5
2.7
1.6
0.8
0.9
0.2
2.3

Year

2005
2003

Average
pension
% of
average
wage

41.5
29.2
..
..
..
..

2005
2005

2006

2000
2003

2007

2007

2006
2005

..
..
44.7
44.3
..
..
58.6
..
..
..
..
40.0
..
25.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
61.3
..
..
48.3
..
..
29.2
..
40.0
..
..
..
..
..
..

About the data

2.10

Definitions

As traditionally measured, poverty is a static con-

residency, or income status. In contribution-related

• Youth unemployment is the share of the labor force

cept, and vulnerability a dynamic one. Vulnerabil-

schemes, however, eligibility is usually restricted

ages 15–24 without work but available for and seek-

ity reflects a household’s resilience in the face of

to individuals who have contributed for a minimum

ing employment. • Female-headed households are

shocks and the likelihood that a shock will lead to a

number of years. Definitional issues—relating to the

the percentage of households with a female head.

decline in well-being. Thus, it depends primarily on

labor force, for example—may arise in comparing

• Pension contributors are the share of the labor

the household’s assets and insurance mechanisms.

coverage by contribution-related schemes over time

force or working-age population (here defined as

Because poor people have fewer assets and less

and across countries (for country-specific informa-

ages 15 and older) covered by a pension scheme.

diversified sources of income than do the better-off,

tion, see Hinz and Pallares-Miralles forthcoming).

• Public expenditure on pensions is all government

fluctuations in income affect them more.

The share of the labor force covered by a pension

expenditures on cash transfers to the elderly, the

Enhancing security for poor people means reduc-

scheme may be overstated in countries that do not

disabled, and survivors and the administrative costs

ing their vulnerability to such risks as ill health, pro-

try to count informal sector workers as part of the

of these programs. • Average pension is the aver-

viding them the means to manage risk themselves,

labor force.

age pension payment of all pensioners of the main

and strengthening market or public institutions for

Public interventions and institutions can provide

managing risk. Tools include microfinance programs,

services directly to poor people, although whether

public provision of education and basic health care,

these interventions and institutions work well for the

and old age assistance (see tables 2.11 and 2.16).

poor is debated. State action is often ineffective,

Poor households face many risks, and vulnerability

in part because governments can influence only a

is thus multidimensional. The indicators in the table

few of the many sources of well-being and in part

focus on individual risks—youth unemployment,

because of difficulties in delivering goods and ser-

female-headed households, income insecurity in

vices. The effectiveness of public provision is further

old age—and the extent to which publicly provided

constrained by the fiscal resources at governments’

services may be capable of mitigating some of these

disposal and the fact that state institutions may not

risks. Poor people face labor market risks, often hav-

be responsive to the needs of poor people.

ing to take up precarious, low-quality jobs and to

The data on public pension spending cover the

increase their household’s labor market participa-

pension programs of the social insurance schemes

tion by sending their children to work (see tables

for which contributions had previously been made.

2.4 and 2.6). Income security is a prime concern

In many cases noncontributory pensions or social

for the elderly.

assistance targeted to the elderly and disabled are

Youth unemployment is an important policy issue

also included. A country’s pattern of spending is cor-

for many economies. Experiencing unemployment

related with its demographic structure—spending

may permanently impair a young person’s produc-

increases as the population ages.

pension schemes divided by the average wage of all
formal sector workers.

tive potential and future employment opportunities.
The table presents unemployment among youth ages
15–24, but the lower age limit for young people in
a country could be determined by the minimum
age for leaving school, so age groups could differ across countries. Also, since this age group is
likely to include school leavers, the level of youth
unemployment varies considerably over the year as a
result of different school opening and closing dates.
The youth unemployment rate shares similar limitations on comparability as the general unemployment
rate. For further information, see About the data for
table 2.5 and the original source.

Data sources
Data on youth unemployment are from the ILO

The definition of female-headed household differs

database Key Indicators of the Labour Market,

greatly across countries, making cross-country com-

5th edition. Data on female-headed household are

parison difficult. In some cases it is assumed that a

from Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro

woman cannot be the head of any household with an

International. Data on pension contributors and

adult male, because of sex-biased stereotype. Cau-

pension spending are from Richard Paul Hinz and

tion should be used in interpreting the data.

Montserrat Pallares-Miralles’ International Pat-

Pension scheme coverage may be broad or even uni-

terns of Pension Provision II (forthcoming).

versal where eligibility is determined by citizenship,

2009 World Development Indicators

79

PEOPLE

Assessing vulnerability and security

2.11

Education inputs
Public expenditure
per student

Primary
1991

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

80

..
..
26.5
..
..
..
..
18.2
..
..
30.1
15.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13.4
..
..
..
11.9
8.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.8
..
..
21.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.1
21.7
11.8
..
13.2
..
..
..
7.5
..
..
..
9.1

2009 World Development Indicators

2007a

..
..
..
3.7
12.0
..
17.3
23.5
..
..
14.4
20.2
13.4
..
..
16.1
15.4
24.5
36.0
19.9
..
7.6
..
7.5
7.1
11.1
..
12.5
15.6
..
3.0
..
..
..
51.1
12.6
25.1
10.3
..
..
9.0
9.6
19.4
12.5
18.0
17.4
..
..
..
16.3
18.4
14.1
10.5
..
..
..

% of GDP per capita
Secondary
1999
2007a

..
..
..
..
..
..
15.4
29.9
15.4
13.4
..
23.7
26.3
11.7
..
..
9.5
18.8
..
..
11.5
16.8
..
..
28.3
14.8
11.5
17.7
16.9
..
..
23.2
55.5
..
41.4
21.7
38.1
..
9.7
..
7.9
38.5
27.9
..
25.8
28.5
..
..
..
20.5
..
13.5
4.3
..
..
..

..
..
..
36.9
19.6
..
15.4
26.3
..
..
27.0
33.4
..
..
..
41.2
13.2
23.4
23.3
77.5
..
41.6
..
..
29.2
12.4
..
16.5
12.6
..
..
..
..
..
60.1
22.9
35.0
4.7
..
..
10.5
9.6
23.0
8.9
32.3
27.0
..
..
..
21.5
29.1
18.2
6.0
..
..
..

Public expenditure
on education

Tertiary
1999

..
..
..
..
17.7
..
27.2
51.6
..
50.1
..
38.3
170.4
44.1
..
..
57.1
17.9
..
1,078.2
43.7
64.4
47.1
..
..
19.4
90.1
..
39.6
..
379.5
55.0
216.6
41.5
86.6
33.7
65.9
..
..
..
9.4
444.1
32.6
..
40.3
29.7
..
..
..
..
..
22.8
..
..
..
..

2007a

..
..
..
78.3
..
..
23.1
50.0
..
46.2
18.3
35.1
165.4
..
..
449.6
35.1
24.8
236.5
363.1
8.5
126.3
..
305.2
348.2
11.8
..
47.3
52.7
..
..
..
..
..
43.5
27.2
55.3
..
..
..
15.5
..
18.3
785.5
34.4
33.3
..
..
..
..
213.4
21.5
19.3
192.9
..
..

% of GDP
2007a

..
..
..
2.6
..
2.7
4.8
5.4
2.6
2.6
5.2
6.0
3.9
..
..
8.1
4.5
4.5
4.5
5.1
1.6
3.9
4.9
1.4
1.9
3.2
..
3.5
4.9
..
1.8
4.9
..
4.6
13.3
4.3
8.3
2.4
..
3.8
3.0
2.4
4.9
5.5
6.3
5.7
..
..
2.7
4.5
5.4
3.5
3.1
1.7
..
..

Primary
Trained
school
teachers
in primary pupil-teacher
ratio
education

% of total
government
expenditure

% of total

pupils per
teacher

2007a

2007a

2007a

..
..
..
..
..
15.0
..
10.9
12.6
15.8
9.3
12.1
18.0
..
..
21.0
14.5
..
15.4
17.7
12.4
17.0
..
..
10.1
16.0
..
23.2
12.6
..
8.1
20.6
..
9.3
20.6
9.5
15.5
11.0
..
12.6
13.1
..
14.6
23.3
12.5
10.6
..
..
7.8
9.7
..
9.2
..
..
..
..

..
..
99.2
..
..
77.5
..
..
..
..
99.8
..
71.8
..
..
86.9
..
..
87.7
87.4
98.4
36.3
..
..
26.8
..
..
94.6
..
96.0
86.6
89.5
100.0
..
100.0
..
..
88.3
71.6
..
93.3
87.1
..
..
..
..
..
76.3
..
..
56.3
..
..
98.8
..
..

..
..
24
41
17
19
..
12
13
..
16
11
44
..
..
24
21
16
48
52
51
44
..
102b
60
26
18
17
28
38
58
19
41
17
10
16
..
24
23
27
40
48
11
..
16
19
..
41
..
14
35
11
30
45
..
..

Public expenditure
per student

Primary
1991

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

..
..
..
..
..
..
11.5
..
14.9
9.9
..
..
..
..
..
11.8
35.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.2
10.1
..
..
10.1
4.8
..
..
15.4
..
..
..
..
12.1
17.2
..
..
..
32.7
10.5
..
11.3
..
..
..
..
..
16.3
..

2007a

..
25.7
8.9
..
15.4
..
14.7
20.7
23.1
14.6
22.2
15.4
..
22.4
..
18.8
9.2
..
9.1
..
8.3
25.0
6.0
..
15.9
..
9.5
..
..
21.3
9.6
10.3
15.1
33.6
14.9
14.6
15.1
..
21.4
15.3b
17.7
17.8
9.8
28.7
..
18.9
15.1
..
12.4
..
..
7.0
8.6
23.7
23.2
..

% of GDP per capita
Secondary
1999
2007a

..
19.1
24.7
..
9.9
..
16.8
22.4
27.7
23.6
20.9
15.8
..
15.2
..
15.7
..
..
4.3
23.7
..
71.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
22.6
53.0
35.3
15.3
14.2
..
..
44.5
..
6.8
36.2
13.1
21.1
24.3
..
60.9
..
26.8
21.9
..
19.1
..
18.4
10.7
10.8
16.5
27.5
..

..
23.1
16.7
..
22.3
..
21.8
20.5
26.9
21.5
22.4
19.0
..
22.1
..
23.4
14.1
..
4.7
..
8.8
49.8
..
..
20.2
..
12.7
..
..
31.7
24.2
17.4
15.6
40.7
14.8
39.3
86.9
..
22.0
11.3b
24.2
20.6
4.5
46.1
..
28.8
12.7
..
15.1
..
..
9.0
9.1
22.2
34.7
..

Public expenditure
on education

Tertiary
1999

..
34.2
90.8
..
34.8
..
28.5
31.7
27.6
79.0
15.1
..
..
209.4
..
8.4
..
27.7
66.5
27.9
14.2
1,295.1
..
23.9
34.2
..
182.1
..
84.3
227.7
77.8
40.4
47.8
..
..
94.8
..
27.5
156.9
141.6
42.8
41.6
..
..
..
45.8
..
..
33.6
..
58.9
20.9
15.1
21.1
28.1
..

2007a

..
23.8
57.8
..
27.7
..
24.8
23.1
22.3
..
19.2
..
8.0
..
..
9.3
79.8
22.3
25.2
..
14.8
1,141.5
..
..
18.2
..
145.2
..
..
..
39.2
29.8
40.0
41.4
..
73.9
..
..
141.3
..
39.9
26.4
..
371.4
..
49.2
14.0
..
..
..
..
10.5
11.5
21.4
27.1
..

% of GDP
2007a

..
5.5
3.2
3.5
5.5
..
4.8
6.3
4.4
5.3
3.5
..
2.9
7.1
..
4.4
3.6
5.6
3.2
..
2.7
13.3
..
..
5.0
..
3.4
..
..
4.6
2.9
3.9
5.5
8.3
5.1
5.5
5.2
..
..
3.8b
5.2
6.2
..
3.4
..
7.0
4.0
2.9
..
..
..
2.5
2.5
5.5
5.4
..

PEOPLE

Education inputs

2.11
Primary
Trained
school
teachers
in primary pupil-teacher
ratio
education

% of total
government
expenditure

% of total

pupils per
teacher

2007a

2007a

2007a

..
10.9
..
17.5
19.5
..
13.9
..
9.2
8.8
9.5
..
..
17.9
..
15.3
12.9
..
15.8
..
9.6
29.8
..
..
14.7
..
16.4
..
..
16.8
10.1
12.7
..
19.8
..
26.1
21.0
..
..
..
11.5
15.5
..
17.6
..
16.7
31.1
11.2
..
..
..
15.4
15.2
..
11.3
..

..
..
..
..
70.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100.0
62.4
89.7
..
12.2
66.1
40.2b
..
..
..
55.2
..
..
100.0
100.0
100.0
..
..
98.7
100.0
63.2
99.0
94.8
61.4b
..
..
73.6
98.2
51.2
..
100.0
84.6
90.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

28
10
..
20
19
..
17
13
11
28
19
..
17b
40
..
27
10
24
30
12
14
40
24b
..
14
19
49
..
17
52
43
22
28
16
32
27
65
29
30
38b
..
16
33
40
40
..
14
39
25
36
..
22
35
11
11
..

81

2.11

Education inputs
Public expenditure
per student

Primary

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

1991

2007a

..
..
..
..
18.9
..
..
..
..
17.4
..
20.2
11.3
..
..
6.7
45.8
36.1
..
..
..
11.6
..
..
..
..
10.7
..
..
..
..
15.0
..
7.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.7
.. m
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
15.8
14.9

10.7
..
10.2
18.5
17.9
..
..
9.3b
14.8
25.1
..
15.6
19.1
..
..
15.4
25.7
24.5
20.3
9.4b
..
..
27.6
9.8
..
20.9
..
..
..
15.8
4.4
18.9
22.2
8.8
..
9.1
..
..
..
2.3
..
15.3 m
..
..
..
14.5
..
..
..
12.0
..
..
11.8
18.9
18.0

a. Provisional data. b. Data are for 2008.

82

2009 World Development Indicators

% of GDP per capita
Secondary
1999
2007a

16.0
..
30.2
..
..
..
..
..
18.3
26.0
..
20.0
24.4
..
..
26.1
26.6
27.7
21.7
6.5
..
15.5
..
31.1
12.3
27.1
14.3
..
..
11.2
11.5
24.3
22.5
11.3
..
..
..
..
..
19.4
19.6
.. m
..
..
..
18.1
..
8.1
..
13.1
..
13.4
..
22.4
24.4

16.0
..
35.1
18.4
32.9
..
..
14.1b
15.2
32.0
..
16.7
23.4
..
..
43.7
33.5
28.3
..
14.4b
..
..
..
20.0
..
24.2
..
..
..
24.3
6.2
20.3
24.6
10.8
..
8.1
..
..
..
8.1
..
.. m
..
..
..
19.7
..
..
..
13.2
..
..
..
23.1
26.3

Public expenditure
on education

Tertiary
1999

2007a

32.6
..
699.4
..
..
..
..
..
32.6
28.3
..
60.7
19.6
..
..
388.4
52.7
54.5
..
27.4
..
35.1
..
..
149.3
89.4
45.5
..
..
36.5
41.5
26.2
27.0
19.1
..
..
..
..
..
164.3
196.1
.. m
..
..
..
38.6
..
37.8
..
37.1
..
90.8
..
32.6
29.1

23.7
12.6
372.8
..
225.2
..
..
..
24.2
22.7
..
44.3
22.8
..
..
343.6
41.5
56.2
..
11.8
..
28.0
..
162.5
..
55.9
..
..
..
25.5
..
32.3
25.4
18.8
..
24.4
..
..
..
..
..
.. m
..
..
..
24.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25.4
26.0

% of GDP
2007a

3.5
3.1
4.9
..
4.8
4.2b
3.8
2.9b
3.9
5.8
..
5.4
4.2
..
..
7.6
7.1
5.8
..
3.7b
..
4.3
..
3.7
..
7.2
..
..
..
5.4
1.4
5.5
5.7
2.9
..
3.7
..
..
..
1.5
..
4.5 m
..
4.5
3.2
4.5
..
..
4.1
3.5
..
..
4.1
5.1
5.2

Primary
Trained
school
teachers
in primary pupil-teacher
ratio
education

% of total
government
expenditure

% of total

pupils per
teacher

2007a

2007a

2007a

..
..
98.1
91.5
100.0
..
49.4
96.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
58.7
90.8
..
..
..
87.4
99.4b
..
..
14.6
..
..
..
..
84.8
99.8
100.0
..
..
..
100.0
84.0
95.6
100.0
..
..
..

17
17
69
11
34
13
44
20
17
15
..
30
14
23
37
33
10
13
..
22
53b
18
31
39
17
19
..
..
49
16
17
18
14
20
18
19
21
30
..
49
38
25 w
41
24
26
20
28
20
18
23
24
..
45
15
14

..
..
19.0
..
26.3
9.4b
..
15.3b
..
12.7
..
17.4
11.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
19.3b
..
25.0
..
15.8b
..
20.8
..
..
..
20.2
28.3
12.5
13.7
11.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14.2 m
..
14.2
..
13.0
..
..
13.1
13.1
..
..
..
12.5
11.2

About the data

PEOPLE

Education inputs

2.11

Definitions

Data on education are compiled by the United

private spending adds to the complexity of collecting

• Public expenditure per student is public current

Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organi-

accurate data on public spending.

and capital spending on education divided by the

zation (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics from official

The share of trained teachers in primary educa-

number of students by level as a percentage of gross

responses to surveys and from reports provided by

tion measures the quality of the teaching staff. It

domestic product (GDP) per capita. • Public expen-

education authorities in each country. The data are

does not take account of competencies acquired by

diture on education is current and capital public

used for monitoring, policymaking, and resource

teachers through their professional experience or

expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP

allocation. However, coverage and data collection

self-instruction or of such factors as work experi-

and as a percentage of total government expendi-

methods vary across countries and over time within

ence, teaching methods and materials, or classroom

ture. • Trained teachers in primary education are

countries, so comparisons should be made with

conditions, which may affect the quality of teaching.

the percentage of primary school teachers who have

caution.

Since the training teachers receive varies greatly

received the minimum organized teacher training

(pre-service or in-service), care should be taken in

(pre-service or in-service) required for teaching in

making comparisons across countries.

their country. • Primary school pupil-teacher ratio

For most countries the data on education spending
in the table refer to public spending—government
spending on public education plus subsidies for pri-

The primary school pupil-teacher ratio refl ects

is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school

vate education—and generally exclude foreign aid for

the average number of pupils per teacher. It differs

divided by the number of primary school teachers

education. They may also exclude spending by reli-

from the average class size because of the differ-

(regardless of their teaching assignment).

gious schools, which play a significant role in many

ent practices countries employ, such as part-time

developing countries. Data for some countries and

teachers, school shifts, and multigrade classes. The

some years refer to ministry of education spending

comparability of pupil-teacher ratios across coun-

only and exclude education expenditures by other

tries is affected by the definition of teachers and by

ministries and local authorities.

differences in class size by grade and in the number

Many developing countries seek to supplement

of hours taught, as well as the different practices

public funds for education, some with tuition fees

mentioned above. Moreover, the underlying enroll-

to recover part of the cost of providing education

ment levels are subject to a variety of reporting errors

services or to encourage development of private

(for further discussion of enrollment data, see About

schools. Fees raise diffi cult questions of equity,

the data for table 2.12). While the pupil-teacher ratio

efficiency, access, and taxation, however, and some

is often used to compare the quality of schooling

governments have used scholarships, vouchers, and

across countries, it is often weakly related to the

other public finance methods to counter criticism.

value added of schooling systems.

For greater detail, consult the country- and indicatorspecific notes in the original source.

In 1998 UNESCO introduced the new International
Standard Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED

The share of public expenditure devoted to edu-

1997). Consistent historical time series with reclas-

cation allows an assessment of the priority a gov-

sification of the pre–ISCED 1997 series were pro-

ernment assigns to education relative to other

duced for a selection of indicators in 2008. The full

public investments, as well as a government’s

set of the historical series is forthcoming.

commitment to investing in human capital develop-

In 2006 the UNESCO Institute for Statistics also

ment. It also reflects the development status of a

changed its convention for citing the reference year

country’s education system relative to that of oth-

of education data and indicators to the calendar year

ers. However, returns on investment to education,

in which the academic or financial year ends. Data

especially primary and lower secondary education,

that used to be listed for 2006, for example, are

cannot be understood simply by comparing current

now listed for 2007. This change was implemented

education indicators with national income. It takes

to present the most recent data available and to

a long time before currently enrolled children can

align the data reporting with that of other interna-

productively contribute to the national economy

tional organizations (in particular the Organisation

(Hanushek 2002).

for Economic Co-operation and Development and

Data on education finance are generally of poor
quality. This is partly because ministries of education,

Eurostat).
Data sources

from which the UNESCO Institute for Statistics col-

Data on education inputs are from the UNESCO

lects data, may not be the best source for education

Institute for Statistics, which compiles inter-

finance data. Other agencies, particularly ministries

national data on education in cooperation with

of finance, need to be consulted, but coordination is

national commissions and national statistical

not easy. It is also difficult to track actual spending

services.

from the central government to local institutions. And

2009 World Development Indicators

83

2.12

Participation in education
Gross enrollment
ratio

Preprimary

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

84

% of relevant age group
Primary
Secondary

Net enrollment
ratio

Adjusted net
enrollment
ratio, primary

% of primary-schoolage children
Male
Female

% of relevant age group
Primary
Secondary

Tertiary

Children out of
school

thousand
primary-schoolage children
Male
Female

2007a

2007a

2007a

2007a

1991

2007a

1991

2007a

2007a

2007a

2007a

2007a

..
..
30
61
66
37
104
90
..
..
103
121
6
50
10
15
69
82
3
2
13
21
68
..
1
55
39
66
41
3
10
61
3
50
111
114
95
32
100
17
49
14
93
3
62
116
..
22
57
106
60
69
29
10
..
..

..
..
110
199
112
110
105
102
..
..
97
102
96
109
98
107
137
100
65
114
119
110
98
80 b
74
104
111
98
116
85
106
110
72
99
102
100
99
107
118
105
118
55
99
91
98
110
..
86
99
103
98
102
113
91
..
..

..
..
83
17
84
89
150
102
..
..
95
110
32
82
85
76
105
105
16
15
42
25
..
..
19
91
76
86
85
33
..
87
..
91
93
96
120
79
70
..
64
29
100
30
112
114
..
49
90
102
49
103
56
35
..
..

..
..
24
3
64
34
73
50
..
7
69
63
5
..
..
5
25
46
3
2
5
7
..
1
1
47
22
34
32
4
..
25
8
44
109
50
80
..
..
35
22
..
65
3
93
56
..
..
37
..
6
95
18
5
..
..

..
96
89
50
94
..
99
88
89
76
85
96
41
..
79
88
84
..
27
53
72
69
98
52
34
89
98
92
68
54
82
87
45
70
94
87
98
..
98
86
..
15
..
22
98
100
94
46
97
84
54
95
64
27
38
21

..
..
95
..
99
85
96
97
..
..
91
97
80
95
..
84
94
92
52
81
89
..
..
61b
..
..
..
91
87
..
54
..
..
90
98
93
96
82
97
96
92
41
94
71
97
99
..
76
94
98
72
99
95
74
..
..

..
..
53
..
..
..
80
..
..
..
..
86
..
..
..
39
..
..
..
..
..
..
89
..
..
55
..
..
34
..
..
38
..
..
73
..
87
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
93
..
..
..
..
..
..
83
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
78
86
87
..
..
..
87
87
..
71
..
56
79
88
12
..
31
..
..
..
..
..
..
79
67
..
..
64
..
87
86
..
89
61
59
..
54
25
91
24
96
99
..
36
82
..
45
92
38
28
..
..

..
..
97
..
100
92
96
97
..
..
91
97
90
96
..
83
94
94
58
82
..
..
..
71b
..
..
..
97
91
..
56
..
..
98
99
91
95
84
..
100
93
45
97
75
97
99
..
74
96
98
73
100
98
80
..
..

..
..
95
..
98
95
97
98
..
..
89
98
75
97
..
86
97
94
48
80
..
..
..
51b
..
..
..
93
91
..
52
..
..
100
99
94
97
86
..
95
94
40
97
69
97
99
..
78
93
99
71
100
95
70
..
..

..
..
61
..
5
5
36
6
..
..
18
9
71
30
..
27
383
8
514
116
..
..
..
103b
..
..
..
7
219
..
129
..
..
2
4
22
10
104
..
10
32
167
1
1,667
6
18
..
33
7
28
477
1
17
146
..
..

..
..
88
..
31
2
27
3
..
..
21
8
173
22
..
22
214
9
608
128
..
..
..
174b
..
..
..
16
194
..
142
..
..
0c
6
15
7
90
..
222
27
181
1
2,054
5
9
..
27
11
19
490
1
53
216
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

Gross enrollment
ratio

Preprimary

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

% of relevant age group
Primary
Secondary

Net enrollment
ratio

Adjusted net
enrollment
ratio, primary

% of primary-schoolage children
Male
Female

% of relevant age group
Primary
Secondary

Tertiary

PEOPLE

Participation in education

2.12
Children out of
school

thousand
primary-schoolage children
Male
Female

2007a

2007a

2007a

2007a

1991

2007a

1991

2007a

2007a

2007a

2007a

2007a

36
86
40
37
54
..
..
91
104
92
86
32
39b
49
..
101
77
16
13
89
66
18
125b
9
69
33
8
..
63
3
2
99
106
70
54
60
..
..
32
57b
90
92
52
2
15
90
31
52
70
..
34
68
45
57
79
..

117
97
112
114
121
..
104
110
103
95
100
97
109b
106
..
105
98
95
118
95
95
114
83b
110
95
98
141
116
100
83
103
101
113
94
100
107
111
..
109
124b
107
102
116
53
97
98
80
84
113
55
111
116
110
98
115
..

61
96
55
66
73
..
112
92
100
87
101
89
92b
50
..
98
91
86
44
99
81
37
..
94
99
84
26
28
69
32
25
88
87
89
92
56
18
..
59
48b
118
120
66
11
32
113
90
33
70
..
66
94
83
100
97
..

..
69
12
17
31
..
59
58
67
..
57
39
47b
..
..
93
18
43
9
74
52
4
..
..
76
30
3
0c
29
4
4
14b
26
41
48
11
1
..
6
..
60
80
..
1
10
78
25
5
45
..
26
35
28
66
55
..

88
87
..
96
92
94
90
..
100
96
100
95
88
..
..
100
49
92
62
94
66
72
..
..
..
..
64
49
93
25
36
91
98
86
90
56
42
99
86
63
95
98
70
24
55
100
69
33
92
66
94
88
96
96
98
..

96
88
89
95
94
..
95
97
99
90
100
90
90 b
75
..
98
88
84
86
90
83
72
31b
..
89
92
98
87
100
63
80
95
98
88
89
89
70
..
87
80 b
98
99
90
45
63
98
73
66
98
..
94
96
91
96
98
..

21
..
..
39
..
..
80
..
..
64
97
..
..
..
..
86
..
..
..
..
..
15
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
..
45
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
84
85
..
6
..
88
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..

..
90
..
60
77
..
87
89
94
78
99
82
86b
43
..
96
77
81
35
..
73
24
..
..
92
81
17
24
69
..
16
73
70
81
81
..
3
..
49
..
88
..
43
9
..
96
79
32
64
..
57
72
60
94
82
..

96
94
96
99
..
..
94
96
100
91
..
93
99b
76
..
..
95
93
88
90
84
71
32b
..
92
97
99
84
..
70
79
95
100
90
96
92
72
..
84
82b
99
99
91
52
69
98
74
73
99
..
95
..
91
96
99
..

98
95
92
96
..
..
95
98
99
91
..
95
100 b
77
..
..
93
92
84
94
83
74
30 b
..
92
97
100
91
..
56
83
96
99
90
99
87
67
..
89
78b
98
100
92
39
60
98
76
57
99
..
95
..
93
97
99
..

21
12
2,529
142
..
..
13
13
5
16
..
31
6b
708
..
..
5
16
44
4
38
54
221b
..
7
2
17
198
..
312
51
3
12
8
5
157
578
..
30
338b
7
1
38
574
3,608
5
46
2,705
2
..
23
..
553
55
2
..

12
11
4,613
544
..
..
10
9
12
15
..
22
2b
662
..
..
7
16
59
3
38
47
226b
..
6
1
3
117
..
452
38
2
61
9
1
237
671
..
21
376b
14
1
34
689
4,582
4
41
4,116
3
..
19
..
400
44
3
..

2009 World Development Indicators

85

2.12

Participation in education
Gross enrollment
ratio

Preprimary
2007a

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

72
83
..
11
9
59
5
..
93
81
..
43
121
..
27b
17
95
99
10
9b
35b
94
10
4
85
..
13
..
3
94
85
72
61
79
27
62
..
30
1
..
..
41 w
22
44
39
68
37
42
52
65
33
36
14
78
106

% of relevant age group
Primary
Secondary
2007a

105
96
147
98
84
97
147
..
100
100
..
103
105
108
72b
106
96
97
126
100 b
112b
106
91
97
95
108
94
..
117
100
107
105
98
115
95
106
..
80
87
119
101
105 w
94
111
111
111
106
110
97
118
105
108
94
101
..

a. Provisional data. b. Data are for 2008. c. Less than 0.5.

86

2009 World Development Indicators

2007a

86
84
18
94
24
88
32
..
96
95
..
96
119
..
35b
47
103
93
72
84
..
83
53
39
76
85
79
..
18
94
92
98
94
101
102
79
..
92
46
43
40
66 w
38
70
65
91
61
73
88
89
71
49
32
101
..

Net enrollment
ratio

52
70
3
30
6
..
..
..
45
83
..
15
67
..
..
4
79
46
..
20 b
1
50
..
5
11
31
35
..
..
76
23
59
82
46
10
52
..
46
9
..
..
25 w
6
24
19
42
19
21
53
31
25
10
5
67
..

% of primary-schoolage children
Male
Female

% of relevant age group
Primary
Secondary

Tertiary
2007a

Adjusted net
enrollment
ratio, primary

1991

81
98
67
59
45
..
43
..
..
96
..
90
100
84
..
75
100
84
91
77
51
88
..
64
89
93
89
..
51
81
99
98
97
91
78
91
90
..
..
78
84
81 w
56
87
85
90
79
96
89
86
83
69
53
95
..

2007a

93
..
94
85
72
95
..
..
92
95
..
86
100
..
..
78
95
89
..
98b
98
94
63
77
85
96
91
..
..
89
91
98
92
100
91
92
..
73
75
94
88
86 w
73
91
90
94
85
93
91
94
90
85
70
95
..

1991

..
..
8
31
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
45
..
..
..
30
85
80
43
..
..
..
..
15
..
..
42
..
..
..
60
80
84
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2007a

73
..
..
73
20
..
23
..
..
90
..
72
94
..
..
32
99
82
66
81
..
76
..
..
65
..
69
..
16
84
79
92
88
..
92
68
..
89
37
41
37
58 w
34
62
..
76
54
..
81
70
67
..
25
90
..

2007a

95
..
92
85
73
95
..
..
92
97
..
91
100
..
..
78
95
93
..
99
99
..
64
84
89
97
93
..
..
90
99
99
92
98
95
94
..
77
85
95
88
90
77
95
94
96
89
94
94
95
93
92
73
96
..

2007a

96
..
95
84
73
95
..
..
92
97
..
92
99
..
..
79
95
94
..
96
97
..
62
74
90
98
89
..
..
90
98
100
94
97
92
94
..
78
65
96
89
87 w
70
93
92
96
86
94
92
96
90
87
68
96
..

Children out of
school

thousand
primary-schoolage children
Male
Female
2007a

2007a

21
..
56
245
254
8
..
..
10
2
..
332
1
..
..
23
17
18
..
2
50
..
35
83
8
18
291
..
..
85
2
16
1,004
4
60
105
..
56
275
60
149

19
..
38
252
253
7
..
..
9
1
..
274
6
..
..
22
17
17
..
15
93
..
36
139
7
9
439
..
..
82
3
0c
723
4
86
90
..
52
632
48
132

About the data

PEOPLE

Participation in education

2.12

Definitions

School enrollment data are reported to the United

enrolled in each grade because of repetition rather

• Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enroll-

Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organi-

than a successful education system. The net enroll-

ment, regardless of age, to the population of the age

zation (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics by national

ment ratio excludes overage and underage students

group that officially corresponds to the level of educa-

education authorities and statistical offices. Enroll-

to capture more accurately the system’s coverage

tion shown. • Preprimary education refers to the ini-

ment ratios help monitor whether a country is on

and internal efficiency but does not account for chil-

tial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily

track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal

dren who fall outside the official school age because

to introduce very young children to a school-type envi-

of universal primary education by 2015 (a net pri-

of late or early entry rather than grade repetition.

ronment. • Primary education provides children with

mary enrollment ratio of 100 percent), and whether

Differences between gross and net enrollment

basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along

an education system has the capacity to meet the

ratios show the incidence of overage and underage

with an elementary understanding of such subjects

needs of universal primary education, as indicated

enrollments.

as history, geography, natural science, social sci-

Adjusted net primary enrollment (called total net

ence, art, and music. • Secondary education com-

Enrollment ratios, while a useful measure of par-

primary enrollment in the 2008 edition), recently

pletes the provision of basic education that began

ticipation in education, have limitations. They are

added as a Millennium Development Goal indica-

at the primary level and aims at laying the founda-

based on annual school surveys, which are typically

tor, captures primary-school-age children who have

tions for lifelong learning and human development

conducted at the beginning of the school year and do

progressed to secondary education, which the tradi-

by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction

not reflect actual attendance or dropout rates during

tional net enrollment ratio excludes.

using more specialized teachers. • Tertiary educa-

in part by gross enrollment ratios.

the year. And school administrators may exaggerate

The data on children out of school (primary-school-

tion refers to a wide range of post-secondary educa-

enrollments, especially if there is a financial incen-

age children not enrolled in primary or secondary

tion institutions, including technical and vocational

tive to do so.

education) are compiled by the UNESCO Institute for

education, colleges, and universities, whether or not

Also, as international indicators, the gross and net

Statistics using administrative data. Children out of

leading to an advanced research qualification, that

primary enrollment ratios have an inherent weak-

school include dropouts, children never enrolled, and

normally require as a minimum condition of admis-

ness: the length of primary education differs across

children of primary age enrolled in preprimary educa-

sion the successful completion of education at the

countries, although the International Standard Clas-

tion. Large numbers of children out of school create

secondary level. • Net enrollment ratio is the ratio

sification of Education tries to minimize the differ-

pressure to enroll children and provide classrooms,

of total enrollment of children of official school age

ence. A relatively short duration for primary educa-

teachers, and educational materials, a task made

based on the International Standard Classification of

tion tends to increase the ratio; a relatively long one

difficult in many countries by limited education bud-

Education 1997 to the population of the age group

to decrease it (in part because more older children

gets. However, getting children into school is a high

that officially corresponds to the level of education

drop out).

priority for countries and crucial for achieving the

shown. • Adjusted net enrollment ratio, primary,

Millennium Development Goal of universal primary

is the ratio of total enrollment of children of official

education.

school age for primary education who are enrolled in

Overage or underage enrollments are frequent, particularly when parents prefer children to start school
at other than the official age. Age at enrollment may

In 2006 the UNESCO Institute for Statistics

primary or secondary education to the total primary-

be inaccurately estimated or misstated, especially

changed its convention for citing the reference

school-age population. • Children out of school

in communities where registration of births is not

year. For more information, see About the data for

are the number of primary-school-age children not

strictly enforced.

table 2.11.

enrolled in primary or secondary school.

Other problems of cross-country comparison stem
from errors in school-age population estimates. Agesex structures drawn from censuses or vital registrations, the primary data sources on school-age population, commonly underenumerate (especially young
children) to circumvent laws or regulations. Errors
are also introduced when parents round children’s
ages. While census data are often adjusted for age
bias, adjustments are rarely made for inadequate
vital registration systems. Compounding these problems, pre- and postcensus estimates of school-age
children are model interpolations or projections that
may miss important demographic events (see discussion of demographic data in About the data for
table 2.1).
Gross enrollment ratios indicate the capacity of
each level of the education system, but a high ratio

Data sources
Data on gross and net enrollment ratios and out
of school children are from the UNESCO Institute
for Statistics.

may reflect a substantial number of overage children

2009 World Development Indicators

87

2.13

Education efficiency
Gross intake rate
in grade 1

Cohort
survival rate

Repeaters in
primary school

Transition to
secondary school

% of grade 1 students
Reaching
grade 5

% of relevant
age group
Male
Female

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

88

Male

Reaching last grade of
primary education
Female

Male

Female

2007a

2007a

1991

2006a

1991

2006a

2006a

2006a

..
..
102
..
109
130
106
102
94
..
103
98
122
122
..
124
..
100
86
144
141
118
..
99c
109
100
88
88
123
114
89
101
76
97
98
109
97
123
141
105
111
44
96
144
97
..
..
88
109
104
105
100
124
97
..
..

..
..
100
..
108
133
105
100
92
..
101
99
108
122
..
120
..
100
76
137
132
103
..
73c
79
99
87
83
121
99
86
102
64
97
98
108
98
116
139
102
107
38
95
128
96
..
..
95
103
103
110
99
122
90
..
..

..
..
95
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
..
90
54
..
..
81
..
..
71
65
..
..
95
24
56
94
58
..
..
58
56
83
75
..
..
..
94
..
..
..
..
..
..
16
100
69
..
..
..
..
81
100
..
64
..
..

..
..
95
..
88
..
..
..
..
..
..
96
72
..
..
80
..
..
79
65
61
..
..
53
34
99
..
99
85
..
..
86
83
..
97
100
100
66
80
96
72
59
97
64
99
..
..
..
86
..
..
97
69
87
..
..

..
..
94
..
..
..
99
..
..
..
..
92
56
..
..
87
..
..
68
58
..
..
98
22
41
91
78
..
..
50
65
85
70
..
..
..
94
..
..
..
..
..
..
23
100
95
..
..
..
..
79
100
..
48
..
..

..
..
97
..
91
..
..
..
..
..
..
97
71
..
..
85
..
..
82
68
64
..
..
45
32
99
..
100
92
..
..
89
73
..
97
100
100
71
83
97
76
61
97
65
100
..
..
..
90
..
..
100
67
79
..
..

..
..
89
..
85
98
..
..
98
..
99
93
67
..
..
71
..
95
71
56
53
..
..
43
27
..
..
99
85
..
..
82
83
99
97
100
92
58
79
94
67
59
96
57
99
..
..
..
83
98
..
97
63
82
..
..

..
..
95
..
89
97
..
..
100
..
100
94
63
..
..
78
..
95
74
61
56
..
..
35
23
..
..
100
92
..
..
86
66
100
97
100
92
65
82
96
71
61
97
59
100
..
..
..
89
99
..
100
62
72
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

% of
enrollment
Male
Female
2007a

2007a

..
..
14
..
8
0b
..
..
..
..
0b
3
8
1
..
..
..
3
12
32
13
20
..
28
22
3
0b
1
4
16
21
9
22
0b
1
1
0
7
2
4
8
15
3
7
1
..
..
6
0b
1
6
1
13
9
..
..

..
..
8
..
5
0b
..
..
..
..
0b
3
8
1
..
..
..
2
12
32
10
20
..
28
24
2
0b
1
3
16
21
6
21
0b
0b
1
0
4
1
2
5
14
1
5
0b
..
..
6
0b
1
6
1
11
10
..
..

%
Male

Female

2006a

2006a

..
..
78
..
92
99
..
..
99
..
100
..
72
..
..
97
..
96
47
37
81
35
..
44
56
96
..
100
99
..
58
100
49
100
98
99
100
93
81
..
91
78
96
90
98
..
..
95
98
100
..
100
94
69
..
..

..
..
84
..
94
100
..
..
100
..
100
..
70
..
..
98
..
96
44
24
78
37
..
51
42
98
..
100
100
..
58
97
48
100
98
99
100
98
77
..
92
76
99
87
99
..
..
93
100
99
..
99
90
59
..
..

Gross intake rate
in grade 1

Cohort
survival rate

Repeaters in
primary school

PEOPLE

Education efficiency

2.13
Transition to
secondary school

% of grade 1 students
Reaching
grade 5

% of relevant
age group
Male
Female

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Male

Reaching last grade of
primary education
Female

Male

Female

2007a

2007a

1991

2006a

1991

2006a

2006a

2006a

136
97
133
123
109
..
97
95
105
94
99
89
117c
112
..
106
97
97
135
95
89
105
100 c
..
98
99
171
137
98
92
115
100
112
96
124
116
166
136
102
125c
103
105
173
72
106
100
77
125
115
..
113
109
131
97
108
..

131
96
126
119
106
..
99
98
104
92
99
90
117c
108
..
109
94
97
126
95
87
99
100 c
..
94
99
168
147
98
79
120
102
110
96
126
112
156
135
103
127c
101
104
163
58
90
100
78
100
113
..
110
110
121
98
109
..

..
..
..
34
91
..
99
..
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
99
..
..
..
..
..
58
..
..
..
..
22
71
97
71
76
97
35
..
..
75
36
..
60
51
..
..
11
61
..
99
97
..
..
70
73
..
..
..
..
..

64
..
66
83
..
..
97
100
99
..
..
97
..
81
..
99
100
..
62
..
97
68
..
..
..
..
42
44
99
83
63
99
94
..
86
85
68
68
84
60 d
99
..
50
74
..
100
98
68
90
..
86
90
70
..
..
..

..
..
..
78
89
..
100
..
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
..
73
..
..
..
..
21
57
97
67
75
98
71
..
..
76
32
..
65
51
..
..
37
65
..
100
96
..
..
68
75
..
..
..
..
..

69
..
65
86
..
..
100
99
100
..
..
96
..
85
..
99
99
..
61
..
100
80
..
..
..
..
43
43
100
79
65
99
95
..
83
83
60
72
90
64 d
100
..
57
69
..
100
99
72
90
..
90
89
78
..
..
..

58
97
66
78
..
..
..
100
99
..
..
96
99d
..
..
99
100
96
62
98
94
53
..
..
97
98
42
37
..
75
54
98
91
96
86
79
48
68
73
60 d
..
..
46
72
..
99
97
68
88
..
82
86
66
..
..
..

64
98
65
81
..
..
..
99
100
..
..
95
100 d
..
..
99
99
97
61
98
99
71
..
..
97
99
43
35
..
70
55
98
93
96
83
76
41
72
80
64 d
..
..
55
67
..
100
98
72
89
..
86
84
75
..
..
..

% of
enrollment
Male
Female
2007a

8
2
3
4
3
..
1
2
0b
3
..
1
0 b,c
6
..
0b
1
0b
18
4
11
24
7c
..
1
0b
20
21
..
17
3
4
5
0b
1
14
6
1
19
17c
..
..
11
5
3
0
1
2
7
..
6
9
3
1
..
..

2007a

6
2
3
3
1
..
1
1
0b
2
..
1
0 b,c
6
..
0b
1
0b
16
2
8
18
6c
..
0b
0b
18
20
..
17
3
3
3
0b
0b
10
6
0b
14
17c
..
..
8
5
3
0
2
2
4
..
4
8
2
0b
..
..

%
Male

Female

2006a

2006a

68
99
86
88
89
..
..
73
100
100
..
97
100 d
..
..
99
100
99
79
97
85
68
..
..
98
100
61
76
100
52
57
65
95
99
95
80
56
75
75
81d
..
..
..
42
..
99
97
69
100
..
89
97
100
..
..
..

74
99
82
89
77
..
..
72
99
97
..
96
100 d
..
..
99
100
99
76
97
90
68
..
..
99
99
60
71
99
47
47
77
93
99
97
79
61
70
80
81d
..
..
..
37
..
100
97
75
98
..
89
94
98
..
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

89

2.13

Education efficiency
Gross intake rate
in grade 1

Cohort
survival rate

Repeaters in
primary school

Transition to
secondary school

% of grade 1 students
Reaching
grade 5

% of relevant
age group
Male
Female

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

Male

Female

Male

Female

2007a

2007a

1991

2006a

1991

2006a

2006a

2006a

97
101
209
98
98
..
188
..
102
95
..
117
104
112
90 c
111
96
88
123
106
116c
71
113
97
96
97
95
..
145
101
108
..
105
100
95
106
..
80
122
126
..
114 w
118
114
114
111
115
99
99
122
108
131
115
103
104

97
100
205
99
103
..
172
..
101
96
..
109
104
112
80 c
103
95
92
119
102
114 c
83
111
90
92
100
92
..
147
100
106
..
102
101
92
104
..
79
102
129
..
108 w
108
110
110
107
109
97
97
117
105
122
105
102
103

..
..
61
82
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
92
90
74
100
..
97
..
81
..
..
52
..
94
98
..
..
..
80
..
..
96
..
..
..
..
..
..
72
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
55
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
65
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
93
72
81
..
..
..
..
85
..
..
58
90
96
89
..
49
..
100
..
96
92
..
96
..
..
67
94
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
67
..
..
..

..
..
59
84
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
93
99
80
100
..
95
..
82
..
..
42
..
77
97
..
..
..
80
..
..
98
..
..
..
..
..
..
81
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
78
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
65
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
94
69
87
..
..
..
..
89
..
..
50
92
97
90
..
49
..
100
..
98
95
..
100
..
..
65
84
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66
..
..
..

93
..
..
..
54
..
..
..
97
..
..
..
100
93
64
66
..
..
95
100
81
..
..
49
80
94
95
..
26
97
100
..
..
91
99
95
..
99
61
83
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
67
..
..
98

94
..
..
..
53
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
100
94
60
75
..
..
96
97
85
..
..
39
87
95
93
..
25
99
100
..
..
94
99
100
..
99
57
67
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
66
..
..
99

a. Provisional data. b. Less than 0.5. c. Data are for 2008. d. Data are for 2007.

90

Reaching last grade of
primary education

2009 World Development Indicators

% of
enrollment
Male
Female
2007a

3
1
15
3
11
..
10
..
3
1
..
8
3
1
3
19
..
2
8
0b
4
12
15
23
6
7
3
..
13
0b
2
0
0
8
0b
6
..
1
5
7
..
4w
8
3
3
..
4
2
1
..
7
4
9
..
2

2007a

2
1
15
3
10
..
10
..
2
0b
..
8
2
1
3
15
..
1
6
0b
4
6
14
24
4
5
3
..
13
0b
2
0
0
6
0b
4
..
1
4
6
..
3w
8
3
3
..
4
1
1
..
4
4
9
..
1

%
Male

Female

2006a

2006a

98
..
..
..
52
..
..
..
98
..
..
87
..
96
90d
88
..
99
95
100 c
64 d
85
..
56
94
86
93
..
42
100
98
..
..
76
100
98
..
97
83
54
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
86
83
..
..
..

98
..
..
..
48
..
..
..
98
..
..
89
..
97
98d
89
..
100
96
97c
52d
89
..
49
92
90
90
..
43
100
99
..
..
87
100
98
..
98
82
64
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
83
81
..
..
..

About the data

PEOPLE

Education efficiency

2.13

Definitions

The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cul-

and measuring students’ learning progress against

• Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of

tural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics

those standards through standardized assessments,

new entrants in the first grade of primary education

estimates indicators of students’ progress through

actions that many countries do not systematically

regardless of age as a percentage of the population

school. These indicators measure an education sys-

undertake.

of the official primary school entrance age. • Cohort

tem’s success in reaching all students, efficiently

Data on repeaters are often used to indicate an

survival rate is the percentage of children enrolled

moving students from one grade to the next, and

education system’s internal efficiency. Repeaters not

in the first grade of primary school who eventually

imparting a particular level of education.

only increase the cost of education for the family

reach grade 5 or the last grade of primary educa-

The gross intake rate indicates the level of access

and the school system, but also use limited school

tion. The estimate is based on the reconstructed

to primary education and the education system’s

resources. Country policies on repetition and promo-

cohort method (see About the data). • Repeaters in

capacity to provide access to primary education.

tion differ; in some cases the number of repeaters is

primary school are the number of students enrolled

Low gross intake rates in grade 1 reflect the fact

controlled because of limited capacity. Care should

in the same grade as in the previous year as a per-

that many children do not enter primary school even

be taken in interpreting this indicator.

centage of all students enrolled in primary school.

though school attendance, at least through the pri-

The transition rate from primary to secondary

• Transition to secondary school is the number of

mary level, is mandatory in all countries. Because

school conveys the degree of access or transition

new entrants to the first grade of secondary school

the gross intake rate includes all new entrants

between the two levels. As completing primary edu-

in a given year as a percentage of the number of

regardless of age, it can exceed 100 percent. Once

cation is a prerequisite for participating in lower

students enrolled in the final grade of primary school

enrolled, students drop out for a variety of reasons,

secondary school, growing numbers of primary

in the previous year.

including low quality schooling, lack of relevant cur-

completers will inevitably create pressure for more

riculum (real or perceived by parents or students),

available places at the secondary level. A low transi-

repetition, discouragement over poor performance,

tion rate can signal such problems as an inadequate

and direct and indirect schooling costs. Students’

examination and promotion system or insufficient

progress to higher grades may also be limited by the

secondary school capacity. The quality of data on

availability of teachers, classrooms, and materials.

the transition rate is affected when new entrants and

The cohort survival rate is the estimated proportion

repeaters are not correctly distinguished in the first

of an entering cohort of grade 1 students that even-

grade of secondary school. Students who interrupt

tually reaches grade 5 or the last grade of primary

their studies after completing primary school could

education. It measures an education system’s hold-

also affect data quality.

ing power and internal efficiency. Rates approaching

In 2006 the UNESCO Institute for Statistics

100 percent indicate high retention and low dropout

changed its convention for citing the reference

levels. Cohort survival rates are typically estimated

year. For more information, see About the data for

from data on enrollment and repetition by grade for

table 2.11.

two consecutive years. This procedure, called the
reconstructed cohort method, makes three simplifying assumptions: dropouts never return to school;
promotion, repetition, and dropout rates remain constant over the period in which the cohort is enrolled
in school; and the same rates apply to all pupils
enrolled in a grade, regardless of whether they previously repeated a grade (Fredricksen 1993). Crosscountry comparisons should thus be made with caution, because other flows—caused by new entrants,
reentrants, grade skipping, migration, or transfers
during the school year—are not considered.
Research suggests that five to six years of schooling, which is how long primary education lasts in
most countries, is a critical threshold for achieving sustainable basic literacy and numeracy skills.
But the indicator only indirectly reflects the quality
of schooling, and a high rate does not guarantee

Data sources

these learning outcomes. Measuring actual learn-

Data on education efficiency are from the UNESCO

ing outcomes requires setting curriculum standards

Institute for Statistics.

2009 World Development Indicators

91

2.14

Education completion and outcomes
Primary completion
rate

% of relevant age group
Total

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

92

Male

1991

2007a

1991

2007a

..
..
80
35
..
..
..
..
..
..
94
79
21
71
..
89
90
90
20
46
..
53
..
27
18
..
105
102
70
46
54
79
43
..
99
..
98
62
..
..
61
..
..
..
97
104
..
..
..
..
61
..
..
17
..
27

..
96
95
..
97
98
..
103
..
72
92
87
64
101
..
95
106
98
33
39
85
55
..
24
31
95
..
102
107
51
72
91
45
96
93
94
101
89
106
98
91
46
100
46
97
..
..
72
92
97
71
103
77
64
..
..

..
..
86
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
76
28
78
..
82
..
88
24
49
..
57
..
35
29
..
..
..
67
58
59
77
55
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
60
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
..
..
69
..
..
25
..
29

..
97
94
..
95
96
..
103
..
70
93
86
76
102
..
91
..
98
37
42
85
61
..
30
41
96
..
104
105
61
75
90
53
97
93
95
101
87
105
101
89
52
102
51
97
..
..
70
..
97
73
104
80
73
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

Female
1991
2007a

..
..
73
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
82
13
64
..
97
..
92
15
43
..
49
..
18
7
..
..
..
73
34
49
81
32
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
62
..
..
..
97
..
..
..
..
..
54
..
..
9
..
26

..
96
96
..
99
100
..
102
..
74
92
88
52
100
..
98
..
98
29
36
85
50
..
19
21
95
..
99
109
41
70
93
36
95
93
93
102
91
107
96
93
41
98
41
97
..
..
73
..
98
68
103
74
55
..
..

Youth literacy
rate

Adult literacy
rate

% ages 15–24

% ages 15 and older

Male
1990
2005–07b

Female
1990
2005–07b

..
..
86
..
98
100
..
..
..
52
100
..
55
96
..
86
..
..
27
59
..
..
..
63
..
98
97
..
89
..
..
..
60
100
..
..
..
..
97
71
85
..
100
39
..
..
94
..
..
..
..
99
82
..
..
..

..
..
62
..
99
100
..
..
..
38
100
..
27
92
..
92
..
..
14
48
..
..
..
35
..
99
91
..
92
..
..
..
38
100
..
..
..
..
96
54
85
..
100
28
..
..
92
..
..
..
..
99
71
..
..
..

..
99
94
..
99
100
..
..
100
71
100
..
63
100
..
93
97
98
47
..
90
..
..
..
53
99
99
..
97
..
..
98
..
100
100
..
..
95
95
88
93
..
100
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
80
99
88
..
..
..

..
99
91
..
99
100
..
..
100
73
100
..
41
99
..
95
99
97
33
..
83
..
..
..
35
99
99
..
98
..
..
98
..
100
100
..
..
97
96
82
94
..
100
..
..
..
96
..
..
..
76
99
83
..
..
..

Male
2005–07b

Female
2005–07b

..
99
84
..
98
100
..
..
100
59
100
..
53
96
..
83
90
99
37
..
86
..
..
..
43
97
96
..
92
..
..
96
..
99
100
..
..
89
87
75
85
..
100
..
..
..
90
..
..
..
72
98
79
..
..
..

..
99
66
..
98
99
..
..
99
48
100
..
28
86
..
83
90
98
22
..
68
..
..
..
21
96
90
..
93
..
..
96
..
98
100
..
..
90
82
58
80
..
100
..
..
..
82
..
..
..
58
96
68
..
..
..

Primary completion
rate

% of relevant age group
Total

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Male

1991

2007a

1991

2007a

Female
1991
2007a

64
87
64
91
91
..
..
..
104
90
101
101
..
..
..
98
..
..
45
..
..
59
..
..
89
..
33
29
91
13
34
107
88
..
..
48
26
..
..
51
..
100
42
18
..
100
74
..
..
46
68
..
88
96
95
..

88
96
86
99
105
..
96
101
100
82
..
99
104 d
93
..
101
98
95
77
92
82
78
55d
..
93
97
62
55
98
49
59
94
104
93
110
83
46
..
77
78d
..
..
73
40
72
96
88
62
99
..
95
101
94
97
104
..

67
93
75
..
97
..
..
..
104
86
101
101
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
..
..
42
..
..
..
..
33
36
91
15
41
107
..
..
..
57
32
..
..
..
..
101
..
22
..
100
78
..
..
51
68
..
..
..
94
..

85
96
88
99
98
..
91
100
100
81
..
100
104 d
94
..
106
98
95
81
93
80
65
60 d
..
92
96
62
55
98
59
59
92
104
93
108
87
53
..
73
79d
..
..
70
47
80
95
88
70
98
..
94
101
90
..
102
..

61
95
52
..
85
..
..
..
104
94
102
101
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
..
..
76
..
..
..
..
34
21
91
10
27
107
..
..
..
39
21
..
..
..
..
99
..
13
..
100
70
..
..
42
69
..
..
..
95
..

90
96
83
99
113
..
101
101
99
84
..
98
105d
92
..
95
98
94
72
91
83
92
50 d
..
93
98
61
56
98
40
60
95
104
93
113
79
39
..
81
78d
..
..
77
32
65
97
88
53
99
..
96
101
97
..
107
..

PEOPLE

Education completion and outcomes

2.14

Youth literacy
rate

Adult literacy
rate

% ages 15–24

% ages 15 and older

Male
1990
2005–07b

Female
1990
2005–07b

..
99
74c
97
92
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
..
..
56
99
100
99
..
70
96
..
..
91
96
100
..
71
..
..
86
68
..
..
..
..
81
..
..
..
95
..
96
97
96
100
99
92

..
99
49c
95
81
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
..
..
47
91
100
99
..
49
95
..
..
92
95
100
..
46
..
..
90
33
..
..
..
..
62
..
..
..
95
..
95
94
97
100
99
94

93
98
87
97
97
..
..
..
100
91
..
99
100
..
..
..
98
100
89
100
98
..
68
100
100
99
..
84
98
47
70
95
98
100
94
84
58
..
91
85
..
..
85
52
89
..
99
79
97
63
99
98
94
100
100
..

95
99
77
96
96
..
..
..
100
98
..
99
100
..
..
..
99
100
79
100
99
..
76
98
100
99
..
82
98
31
62
97
98
100
97
67
47
..
94
73
..
..
89
23
85
..
98
58
96
65
99
97
95
99
100
..

Male
2005–07b

Female
2005–07b

84
99
77
95
87
..
..
..
99
81
..
95
100
..
..
..
95
100
82
100
93
..
60
94
100
99
..
79
94
35
63
90
94
100
97
69
57
..
89
70
..
..
78
43
80
..
89
68
94
62
96
95
93
100
97
..

83
99
54
89
77
..
..
..
99
91
..
87
99
..
..
..
93
99
63
100
86
..
51
78
100
95
..
65
90
18
48
85
91
99
98
43
33
..
87
44
..
..
78
15
64
..
77
40
93
53
93
85
94
99
93
..

2009 World Development Indicators

93

2.14

Education completion and outcomes
Primary completion
rate

% of relevant age group
Total

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

Male

1991

2007a

1991

2007a

Female
1991
2007a

100
..
35
55
43
..
..
..
..
..
..
76
103
102
42
60
96
53
89
..
62
..
..
35
101
74
90
..
..
94
103
..
..
94
..
81
..
..
..
..
97
79 w
..
84
83
90
78
101
93
84
78
62
51
..
101

101
..
35
93
49
..
81
..
93
..
..
92
99
106
50
67
..
88
114
95
112d
101
69
57
88
120
96
..
54
101
105
..
95
99
97
98
..
83
60
88
..
86 w
65
93
91
101
85
98
98
100
90
80
60
97
..

100
..
40
60
52
..
..
..
..
..
..
71
104
103
47
57
96
53
94
..
62
..
..
48
98
79
93
..
..
..
104
..
..
91
..
76
..
..
..
..
99
86 w
..
90
90
90
85
105
93
84
84
75
57
..
100

101
..
36
96
51
..
92
..
94
..
..
92
99
106
54
64
..
88
116
..
115d
99
69
67
86
122
101
..
57
101
103
..
94
98
99
96
..
83
74
94
..
88 w
70
94
93
101
87
98
99
100
93
83
65
97
..

100
..
31
51
33
..
..
..
..
..
..
80
103
102
37
63
96
54
84
..
63
..
..
22
104
70
86
..
..
..
103
..
..
96
..
86
..
..
..
..
96
75 w
..
79
76
90
73
97
92
85
72
52
47
..
100

101
..
35
91
47
..
70
..
92
..
..
92
99
107
46
69
..
89
113
..
109d
104
69
48
90
117
91
..
51
101
106
..
96
100
96
100
..
83
46
83
..
84 w
60
92
90
101
83
98
96
101
88
77
55
97
..

Youth literacy
rate

Adult literacy
rate

% ages 15–24

% ages 15 and older

Male
1990
2005–07b

Female
1990
2005–07b

99
100
..
94
49
99e
..
99
..
100
..
..
100
..
..
83
..
..
..
100
86
..
..
..
99
..
97
..
77
..
..
..
..
..
..
95
94
..
83
67
97
88 w
70
90
89
96
97
99
93
86
85
71
71
100
..

99
100
..
81
28
98e
..
99
..
100
..
..
100
..
..
84
..
..
..
100
78
..
..
..
99
..
88
..
63
..
..
..
..
..
..
96
93
..
35
66
94
79 w
56
81
78
96
92
98
94
76
69
48
59
99
..

97
100
..
98
58
..
64
100
..
100
..
95
100
97
..
..
..
..
95
100
79
98
..
..
100
97
99
100
88
100
94
..
..
98
..
98
..
99
93
82
94
91 w
79
94
93
98
90
98
99
97
93
84
77
100
..

98
100
..
96
45
..
44
100
..
100
..
96
100
98
..
..
..
..
92
100
76
98
..
..
100
94
94
100
84
100
97
..
..
99
..
99
..
99
67
68
88
87 w
69
91
89
98
85
98
99
97
86
74
67
100
..

Male
2005–07b

98
100
..
89
52
..
50
97
..
100
..
89
99
93
..
..
..
..
90
100
79
96
..
..
99
86
96
100
82
100
89
..
..
97
..
95
..
97
77
81
94
88 w
72
90
88
95
86
96
99
92
82
74
71
99
..

a. Provisional data. b. Data are for the most recent year available. c. Includes the Indian-held part of Jammu and Kashmir. d. Data are for 2008. e. Includes Montenegro.

94

2009 World Development Indicators

Female
2005–07b

97
99
..
79
33
..
27
92
..
100
..
87
97
89
..
..
..
..
76
100
66
93
..
..
98
69
81
99
66
100
91
..
..
98
..
95
..
90
40
61
88
79 w
55
80
77
93
75
90
90
90
65
52
54
99
..

About the data

PEOPLE

Education completion and outcomes

2.14

Definitions

Many governments publish statistics that indi-

Institute for Statistics has established literacy as

• Primary completion rate is the percentage of stu-

cate how their education systems are working and

an outcome indicator based on an internationally

dents completing the last year of primary school. It is

developing—statistics on enrollment and such effi -

agreed definition.

calculated by taking the total number of students in

ciency indicators as repetition rates, pupil-teacher

The literacy rate is the percentage of people who

the last grade of primary school, minus the number of

ratios, and cohort progression. The World Bank and

can, with understanding, both read and write a

repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number

the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cul-

short, simple statement about their everyday life. In

of children of official completing age. • Youth literacy

tural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics

practice, literacy is difficult to measure. To estimate

rate is the percentage of people ages 15–24 that

jointly developed the primary completion rate indica-

literacy using such a definition requires census or

can, with understanding, both read and write a short,

tor. Increasingly used as a core indicator of an educa-

survey measurements under controlled conditions.

simple statement about their everyday life. • Adult

tion system’s performance, it reflects an education

Many countries estimate the number of literate

literacy rate is the literacy rate among people ages

system’s coverage and the educational attainment

people from self-reported data. Some use educa-

15 and older.

of students. The indicator is a key measure of edu-

tional attainment data as a proxy but apply different

cation outcome at the primary level and of progress

lengths of school attendance or levels of completion.

toward the Millennium Development Goals and the

Because definitions and methodologies of data col-

Education for All initiative. However, because curri-

lection differ across countries, data should be used

cula and standards for school completion vary across

cautiously.

countries, a high primary completion rate does not
necessarily mean high levels of student learning.

The reported literacy data are compiled by the
UNESCO Institute for Statistics based on national

The primary completion rate reflects the primary

censuses and household surveys during 1985–2007.

cycle as defined by the International Standard Clas-

For countries that have not reported national esti-

sification of Education, ranging from three or four

mates, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics derived

years of primary education (in a very small number

the modeled estimates. For detailed information on

of countries) to five or six years (in most countries)

sources, definitions, and methodology, consult the

and seven (in a small number of countries).

original source.

The table shows the proxy primary completion rate,

Literacy statistics for most countries cover the pop-

calculated by subtracting the number of repeaters

ulation ages 15 and older, but some include younger

in the last grade of primary school from the total

ages or are confined to age ranges that tend to inflate

number of students in that grade and dividing by the

literacy rates. The literacy data in the narrower age

total number of children of official graduation age.

range of 15–24 better captures the ability of partici-

Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who

pants in the formal education system and reflects

drop out during the final year of primary school. Thus

recent progress in education. The youth literacy rate

proxy rates should be taken as an upper estimate of

reported in the table measures the accumulated out-

the actual primary completion rate.

comes of primary education over the previous 10

There are many reasons why the primary comple-

years or so by indicating the proportion of people who

tion rate can exceed 100 percent. The numerator

have passed through the primary education system

may include late entrants and overage children who

and acquired basic literacy and numeracy skills.

have repeated one or more grades of primary school
as well as children who entered school early, while
the denominator is the number of children of official
completing age. Other data limitations contribute to
completion rates exceeding 100 percent, such as
the use of population estimates of varying reliability,
the conduct of school and population surveys at different times of year, and other discrepancies in the
numbers used in the calculation.
Basic student outcomes include achievements in
reading and mathematics judged against established
standards. In many countries national assessments
are enabling the ministry of education to monitor
progress in these outcomes. Internationally comparable assessments are not yet available, except for

Data sources
Data on primary completion rates and literacy rates are from the UNESCO Institute for
Statistics.

a few, mostly industrialized, countries. The UNESCO

2009 World Development Indicators

95

2.15

Education gaps by income and gender
Survey
year

Armenia
Bangladesh
Benin
Bolivia
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Colombia
Comoros
Côte d’Ivoire
Dominican Republic
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
India
Indonesia
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Rwanda
Tanzania
Uganda
Uzbekistan
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2000
2004
2001
2003
2003
2000
2004
1994–95
2004
2005
1996
1994
2002
2003
1995
2000
2000
2003
1995
1999
2000
1999
2002–03
2002
1999
2003
1997
1997
2002
2001
2003–04
2003
1992
2001
2001
1998
2003
1990–91
1990
2000
2003
2000
1999
2000–01
1996
2002
2001–02
1994

Gross intake
rate in grade 1

Gross primary
participation rate

Average years
of schooling

Primary
completion rate

Children
out of school

% of relevant
age group
Poorest
Richest
quintile
quintile

% of relevant
age group
Poorest
Richest
quintile
quintile

Ages 15–24
Poorest
Richest
quintile
quintile

% of relevant
age group
Richest
quintile
Male

% of children
ages 6–11
Poorest
Richest
quintile
quintile

105
193
74
98
24
146
115
103
3
157
84
26
170
87
55
87
..
90
114
13
141
99
85
..
..
128
..
84
180
45
109
104
..
240
127
11
77
68
137
114
131
216
95
145
..
121
83
138

a. Less than 0.5.

96

2009 World Development Indicators

93
156
112
95
97
187
100
118
14
85
119
39
103
120
117
257
..
90
124
39
200
72
92
..
..
123
..
87
226
89
85
134
..
249
108
69
106
173
106
94
102
197
231
127
..
105
119
114

177
107
51
92
20
78
94
57
15
126
56
41
149
96
42
61
155
71
62
10
94
87
103
101
125
104
133
59
103
36
98
79
138
116
79
15
67
45
103
112
103
100
63
106
102
139
74
104

181
120
115
98
98
134
122
130
98
99
147
103
156
103
154
186
140
108
122
38
152
122
104
99
130
118
138
134
126
101
116
150
116
160
104
77
111
127
114
109
102
126
119
120
114
127
112
109

9
3
1
6
1
2
3
2
0a
6
2
2
6
6
1
1
5
4
2
1
3
3
7
10
10
5
10
2
4
1
2
2
5
3
3
1
4
2
5
6
6
3
4
4
10
5
4
7

11
8
6
11
6
7
9
6
5
11
6
6
11
11
7
5
8
9
9
5
8
10
11
12
11
9
10
7
8
5
9
5
8
7
10
4
10
8
10
11
11
6
7
8
10
10
9
10

Poorest
quintile

96
26
7
48
8
4
12
0a
1
50
4
6
38
58
3
4
12
15
9
3
1
31
75
93
98
14
86
1
10
3
17
2
15
18
14
8
16
11
29
41
46
7
27
7
84
58
16
36

98
70
45
90
52
45
69
18
36
90
29
41
87
87
65
44
60
66
76
27
40
87
97
98
100
57
88
47
52
37
78
17
65
59
88
46
70
55
77
93
88
28
55
43
87
97
79
80

96
47
23
75
24
18
36
8
15
70
12
25
57
77
21
15
35
38
41
18
13
64
86
97
98
30
85
13
32
16
47
8
25
37
47
22
39
32
49
72
67
14
34
19
84
84
38
51

Female

98
58
15
75
20
17
37
6
8
77
12
17
69
71
24
12
40
41
40
9
18
55
89
97
99
36
87
16
14
11
46
7
34
28
59
13
37
22
54
72
79
14
34
21
86
84
43
57

14
25
66
24
87
50
42
65
91
8
72
70
14
24
84
87
8
57
58
95
64
35
19
11
24
24
21
60
29
75
26
59
22
33
46
90
56
72
21
9
17
43
74
28
29
8
61
22

13
10
21
5
32
12
4
21
36
1
26
23
4
5
10
42
3
20
8
77
21
2
6
9
18
4
18
6
9
29
2
13
9
6
5
44
5
13
10
1
2
23
27
6
23
2
18
8

About the data

PEOPLE

Education gaps by income and gender

2.15

Definitions

The data in the table describe basic information on

collected was assigned a weight generated through

• Survey year is the year in which the underlying data

school participation and educational attainment by

principal-component analysis. The resulting scores

were collected. • Gross intake rate in grade 1 is

individuals in different socioeconomic groups within

were standardized to a standard normal distribution

the number of students in the first grade of primary

countries. The data are from Demographic and

with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.

education regardless of age as a percentage of the

Health Surveys conducted by Macro International

The standardized scores were then used to create

population of the official primary school entrance

with the support of the U.S. Agency for International

break-points defining wealth quintiles, expressed as

age. These data may differ from those in table 2.13.

Development. These large-scale household sample

quintiles of individuals in the population.

• Gross primary participation rate is the ratio of

surveys, conducted periodically in developing coun-

The selection of the asset index for defining socio-

total students attending primary school regardless

tries, collect information on a large number of health,

economic status was based on pragmatic rather than

of age to the population of the age group that offi -

nutrition, and population measures as well as on

conceptual considerations: Demographic and Health

cially corresponds to primary education. • Average

respondents’ social, demographic, and economic

Surveys do not collect income or consumption data

years of schooling are the years of formal school-

characteristics using a standard set of question-

but do have detailed information on households’ own-

ing received, on average, by youths and adults ages

naires. The data presented here draw on responses

ership of consumer goods and access to a variety

15–24. • Primary completion rate is the percentage

to individual and household questionnaires.

of goods and services. Like income or consumption,

of children of the official primary school completing

Typically, Demographic and Health Surveys collect

the asset index defines disparities primarily in eco-

age to the official primary school completing age plus

basic information on educational attainment and

nomic terms. It therefore excludes other possibilities

four who have completed the last year of primary

enrollment levels from every household member

of disparities among groups, such as those based

school or higher. These data differ from those in

ages 5 or 6 and older as background characteris-

on gender, education, ethnic background, or other

table 2.14 because the definition and methodology

tics. As the surveys are intended for the collection of

facets of social exclusion. To that extent the index

are different. • Children out of school are the per-

demographic and health information, the education

provides only a partial view of the multidimensional

centage of children ages 6–11 who are not in school.

section of the survey is not as robust and detailed

concepts of poverty, inequality, and inequity.

These data differ from those in table 2.12 because

as the health section; however, it still provides useful

Creating one index that includes all asset indica-

micro-level information on education that cannot be

tors limits the types of analysis that can be per-

explained by aggregate national-level data.

formed. In particular, the use of a unified index does

Socioeconomic status as displayed in the table

not permit a disaggregated analysis to examine

is based on a household’s assets, including owner-

which asset indicators have a more or less important

ship of consumer items, features of the household’s

association with education status. In addition, some

dwelling, and other characteristics related to wealth.

asset indicators may reflect household wealth better

Each household asset on which information was

in some countries than in others—or reflect differ-

the definition and methodology are different.

ent degrees of wealth in different countries. Taking
There is a large gap in educational
attainment across gender and
urban-rural lines
2.15a

such information into account and creating countryspecific asset indexes with country-specific choices
of asset indicators might produce a more effective

Highest level of education, Liberia, 2007 (%)
75
Urban men
Rural men
Urban women
Rural women

and accurate index for each country. The asset index
used in the table does not have this flexibility.
The analysis was carried out for 48 countries. The
table shows the estimates for the poorest and richest quintiles only; the full set of estimates for 32 indi-

50

cators is available in the country reports (see Data
sources). The data in the table differ from data for
similar indicators in preceding tables either because
25

the indicator refers to a period a few years preceding
the survey date or because the indicator definition
or methodology is different. Findings should be used

0

with caution because of measurement error inherent
No education

Primary

Secondary or higher

in the use of survey data.

Data sources

Rural women are the most disadvantaged in

Data on education gaps by income and gender are

Liberia, with more than 55 percent having no

from an analysis of Demographic and Health Sur-

education and only 10 percent having second-

veys by Macro International and the World Bank.

ary or higher education.

Country reports are available at www.worldbank.

Source: Demographic and Health Surveys.

org/education/edstats/.

2009 World Development Indicators

97

2.16

Health systems
Health
expenditure

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

98

Year last
national
health
account
completed
Per capita
$
PPP$

Total
% of GDP

Public
% of total

Out of pocket
% of private

2006

2006

2006

2006

2006

9.2
6.5
4.2
2.6
10.1
4.7
8.7
10.2
4.1
3.2
6.4
9.9
4.7
6.4
9.5
7.1
7.5
7.2
6.3
8.7
5.9
4.6
10.0
4.0
4.9
5.3
4.6
..
7.3
6.8
2.1
7.7
3.8
8.2
7.7
6.9
10.8
5.6
5.3
6.3
6.6
3.6
5.2
3.9
8.2
11.0
4.5
5.0
8.4
10.6
5.1
9.5
5.8
5.8
5.8
8.4

32.4
37.3
81.1
86.8
45.5
41.2
67.7
75.9
26.1
31.8
74.9
72.5
50.2
62.8
55.2
76.5
47.9
56.7
56.9
8.6
26.0
21.2
70.4
38.3
53.9
52.7
40.7
..
85.4
18.7
71.7
68.4
23.6
76.8e
91.6
88.0
85.9
37.0
43.6
41.4
61.8
45.9
73.3
59.3
76.0
79.7
73.0
56.8
21.5
76.9
34.2
62.0
28.7
14.1
26.3
67.6

78.5
94.9
94.6
100.0
43.8
87.6
56.4
65.8
86.4
88.3
68.8
79.0
94.9
81.0
100.0
27.5
63.8
97.1
91.5
57.4
84.7
94.8
49.0
95.0
96.2
54.8
83.1
..
43.9
48.9
100.0
86.7
87.8
92.2
93.3
95.5
90.1
64.3
85.6
94.9
88.9
100.0
93.3
80.6
77.6
33.2
100.0
71.2
91.9
57.1
77.8
94.8
92.5
99.5
55.8
89.6

..
187
148
71
551
98
3,302
3,974
102
12
243
3,726
26
79
296
379
427
297
27
10
30
45
3,917
14
29
473
94
..
217
10
44
402
35
996e
362
953
5,447
206
166
92
181
8
632
7
3,232
3,937
351
15
147
3,718
33
2,280
157
20
12
42

..
1,332
..
187
2,723
763
4,152
5,424
1,031
119
1,997
4,821
154
699
1,102
1,054
1,460
1,709
161
92
437
202
4,651
56
379
1,290
1,124
..
989
47
188
..
..
2,101
..
3,270
5,165
..
928
1,174
..
..
2,043
77
3,607
5,189
1,338
142
1,063
5,210
214
3,745
..
105
69
..

2009 World Development Indicators

2003
2001
1997
2007
2005
2004
2005
2006
2003
2007
2006
2003
2005
2006
2005

1995
2007

2006
2006
2003

2003

2006
2006
2002
2005
2002
2007
2006
2005
2006
2006
2004
2007
2006
2002
2007

2006

Health workers

Year
of last
health
surveya

Hospital
beds

Outpatient
visits

per 1,000 people
Nurses and
Physicians
midwives

per 1,000
people

per capita

2002–07b

2002–07b

2000–07b

..
3.0
1.7
0.8
..
4.4
4.0
7.6
8.0
0.3
11.3
5.3
0.5
1.1
3.0
2.4
2.4
6.4
0.9
0.7
0.1
1.5
3.4
1.2
0.4
2.3
2.2
..
1.0
0.8
1.6
1.3
0.4
5.3
4.9
8.2
3.8
1.0
1.7
2.1
0.7
1.2
5.7
0.2
6.8
7.3
2.0
0.8
3.3
8.3
0.9
4.8
0.7
0.3
0.7
1.3

..
1.5
..
..
..
2.8
6.2
6.7
4.6
..
13.2
7.0
..
..
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.4
..
15.0
4.1
..
..
..
..
..
6.9
..
4.3
6.9
..
..
2.2
7.0
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
1.2
1.1
0.1
..
3.7
2.5
3.7
3.6
0.3
4.8
4.2
0.0 c
..
1.4
0.4
..
3.7
0.1
0.0 c
..
0.2
1.9
0.1
0.0 c
1.1
1.5
..
1.4d
0.1
0.2
..
0.1
2.7
5.9
3.6
3.6
..
..
2.4
1.5
0.1
3.3
0.0 c
3.3
3.4
0.3
0.1
4.7
3.4
0.2
5.0
..
0.1
0.1
..

2002–07b

..
4.1
2.2
1.4
..
4.9
..
6.6
8.4
0.3
12.5
14.2
0.8
..
4.7
2.7
..
4.6
0.5
0.2
..
1.6
10.1
0.4
0.3
0.6
1.0
..
0.6
0.5
1.0
..
0.6
5.5
7.4
8.9
10.1
..
..
3.4
0.8
0.6
7.0
0.2
8.9
8.0
5.0
1.3
4.0
8.0
0.9
3.6
..
0.5
0.7
..

2003
2005
2006
2001
2005

2006
2006
2005
2006
2003
2006
2000
1996
2003
2000
2005
2006
2006
2004
2006
2005
2007
2005
1993
2006
2006
1993
2007
2004
2005
2002/03
2002
2005

2000
2005/06
2005
2006
2002
2005
2006
2005

Health
expenditure

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Year last
national
health
account
completed
Per capita
$
PPP$

Total
% of GDP

Public
% of total

Out of pocket
% of private

2006

2006

2006

2006

6.4
8.3
3.6
2.5
6.8
3.5f
7.5
8.0
9.0
4.7
8.1
9.7g
3.6
4.6
3.5
6.4
2.2
6.4
4.0
6.6
8.8
6.8
4.8
2.4
6.2
8.0
3.2
12.9
4.3
5.8
2.2
3.9
6.6
9.4
5.7
5.3
5.0
2.2
8.7
5.1
9.4
9.3
9.6
5.9
3.8
8.7
2.3
2.0
7.3
3.2
7.6
4.4
3.8
6.2
10.2
..

47.8
70.9
25.0
50.5
50.7
78.1f
78.3
56.0
77.2
53.1
81.3
43.3g
64.3
47.8
85.6
55.7
78.2
43.0
18.6
59.2
44.3
58.9
25.8
66.3
70.0
70.6
62.8
69.0
44.6
49.6
69.5
51.1
44.2
46.9
73.7
26.2
70.8
13.1
43.5
30.5
80.0
77.8
48.2
54.7
29.7
83.6
82.3
16.4
68.8
82.0
38.3
58.3
32.9
70.0
70.5
..

87.1
77.6
91.4
70.4
94.8
100.0 f
57.2
75.3
88.5
63.7
80.8
75.9
98.4
80.0
100.0
81.0
91.6
94.1
76.1
97.2
76.1
68.9
65.7
100.0
98.3
100.0
52.5
28.4
73.2
99.5
100.0
80.6
93.9
97.7
44.0
77.3
40.6
99.4
5.7
85.2
29.3
74.6
98.1
96.5
90.4
95.2
57.7
97.9
80.6
41.5
87.7
77.5
83.5
85.4
77.3
..

99
929
29
39
215
..
3,871
1,675
2,813
180
2,759
238g
190
29
..
1,168
803
35
24
582
494
51
7
219
547
249
9
21
259
31
19
230
527
90
70
113
16
5
281
17
3,872
2,421
92
16
33
6,267
332
16
380
29
117
149
52
555
1,864
..

2006

..
2,761
426
213
3,057
..
4,270
3,028
3,190
..
4,693
988g
1,608
205
..
3,341
1,614
524
401
2,320
1,694
403
46
..
2,046
1,522
60
114
1,518
152
128
998
1,208
862
984
288
75
..
957
215
5,520
3,370
..
78
184
5,952
906
187
..
..
777
587
314
2,031
3,014
..

2005
2006
2001
2004
2001

2006
2006
2001
2007
2002
2007
2006
2005
2005

2006
2003
2006
2006
2004
2004
2006
2003
2001
1997
2001
2000
2003
2007
2006
2004
2004
2002
2005
1998
2003
2000
2005
2005
2007
2006
2006

Health workers

Year
of last
health
surveya

2.16
Hospital
beds

Outpatient
visits

per 1,000 people
Nurses and
Physicians
midwives

per 1,000
people

per capita

2002–07b

2002–07b

2000–07b

1.0
7.1
0.9
0.6
1.7
..
5.6
6.0
3.9
2.0
14.0
1.9
8.1
1.4
13.2
8.6
1.9
4.9
1.2
7.5
3.4
1.3
..
3.7
8.1
4.6
0.3
1.1
1.8
0.3
0.4
3.0
1.6
5.2
6.1
0.9
0.8
0.6
3.3
0.2
4.8
6.2
1.0
0.3
0.5
4.0
2.0
1.0
2.2
..
1.3
1.2
1.1
5.2
3.5
..

..
12.9
..
..
..
..
..
7.1
6.1
..
14.4
..
6.6
..
..
..
..
3.6
..
5.5
..
..
..
..
6.6
6.0
0.5
..
..
..
..
..
2.5
6.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.4
4.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.1
3.9
..

..
3.0
0.6
0.1
0.9
..
2.9
3.7
3.7
0.9
2.1
2.4
3.9
0.1
3.3
1.6
1.8
2.4
0.4
3.1
2.4
0.1
0.0 c
1.3
4.0
2.6
0.3
0.0 c
0.7
0.1
0.1
1.1
1.5
2.7
2.6
0.5
0.0 c
0.4
0.3
0.2
3.7
2.2
0.4
0.0 c
0.3
3.8
1.7
0.8
..
..
1.1
..
1.2
2.0
3.4
..

2002–07b

..
9.2
1.3
0.8
1.6
..
19.5
6.2
7.2
1.7
9.5
3.2
7.6
1.2
4.1
1.9
3.7
5.8
1.0
5.6
1.3
0.6
0.3
4.8
7.7
4.3
0.3
0.6
1.8
0.6
0.6
3.7
..
6.2
3.5
0.8
0.3
1.0
3.1
0.5
14.6
8.9
1.1
0.2
1.7
16.2
3.7
0.5
..
..
1.8
..
6.1
5.2
4.6
..

2005
2005/06
2002/03
2000
2006

2005
2007
2006
2004
2000
1996
2005/06
2006
2000
2004
2007
2000
2005
2003/04
2006
2006
2000/01
1995
2005
2005
2003/04
2003
2000
2006/07
2006

2001
2006
2007
1995
2006/07
2003
1996
2004
2004
2003

1995/96

2009 World Development Indicators

99

PEOPLE

Health systems

2.16

Health systems
Health
expenditure

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, R.B.
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

Total
% of GDP

Public
% of total

Out of pocket
% of private

2006

2006

2006

4.5
5.3
10.9
3.3
5.8
8.2
4.0
3.3
7.1
8.4
..
8.0
8.4
4.2
3.8
6.3
9.2
10.8
3.9
5.0
6.4
3.5
17.7
6.0
4.4
5.1
4.8
3.8
7.0
6.9
2.5
8.2
15.3
8.2
4.7
4.9
6.6
..
4.5
6.2
9.3
9.8 w
4.3
5.4
4.5
6.3
5.3
4.3
5.5
6.9
5.7
3.5
5.7
11.2
9.9

76.9
63.2
42.5
77.0
56.9
69.7
36.4
33.1
70.6
72.2
..
37.7
71.2
47.5
36.8
65.8
81.7
59.1
47.8
23.8e
57.8
64.5
86.0
21.2
56.5
44.2
72.5
66.5
25.4
55.4
70.4
87.3
45.8
43.5
50.2
49.5
32.3
..
46.0
60.7
48.7
60.0 w
36.8
50.1
44.1
54.7
49.5
42.1
66.2
50.0
51.3
25.8
41.6
61.6
76.9

96.8
81.5
38.6
13.4
77.0
87.9
56.4
93.8
79.8
42.5
..
17.5
74.7
86.7
100.0
41.4
87.9
75.3
100.0
96.6
54.3
76.6
37.2
84.2
88.0
81.7
84.2
100.0
51.0
88.8
69.4
91.7
23.5
31.1
97.1
88.6
90.2
..
95.2
67.2
50.3
43.5 w
84.6
77.6
85.0
70.7
78.0
82.1
85.6
72.2
90.5
91.4
46.8
36.5
60.0

Year last
national
health
account
completed
Per capita
$
PPP$
2006

256
367
33
492
44
336
12
1,017
735
1,607
..
425
2,328
62
37
155
3,973
5,660
66
25e
23
113
52
21
600
156
352
146
24
160
1,018
3,332
6,719
476
30
332
46
..
40
58
38
722 w
23
140
75
412
114
83
304
374
133
26
53
4,033
3,268

2006

1,244
2,217
270
1,386
199
1,717
88
3,037
2,788
3,230
..
1,100
3,935
677
167
1,420
4,588
5,446
482
455
324
825
..
67
..
624
866
..
165
1,327
..
4,259
6,719
1,616
..
..
658
..
367
244
..
1,466 w
205
945
794
1,581
789
939
1,631
1,355
1,364
368
224
4,969
4,460

2006
2007
2006
2005
2005

2006
2006
1998
2006
2006

2006
2007

2006
2006
2002
2000
2005
2005
2001
2004
2000
2007
2006

2006
2003
2006
2001

Health workers

Year
of last
health
surveya

Hospital
beds

Outpatient
visits

per 1,000 people
Nurses and
Physicians
midwives

per 1,000
people

per capita

2002–07b

2002–07b

2002–07b

2000–07b

1.9
4.3
0.1
1.4
0.1
2.0
0.0 c
1.5
3.1
2.4
..
0.8
3.3
0.6
0.3
0.2
3.3
4.0
0.5
2.0
0.0 c
..
0.1
0.0 c
..
1.3
1.6
2.5
0.1
3.1
1.7
2.2
2.3
3.7
2.7
..
0.6
..
0.3
0.1
0.2
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
1.5
3.2
..
..
0.6
..
2.6
3.5

4.2
8.5
0.4
3.0
0.3
4.3
0.5
4.4
6.6
8.0
..
4.1
7.6
1.7
0.9
6.3
10.9
..
1.4
5.0
0.4
..
2.2
0.4
1.8
2.9
2.9
4.7
0.7
8.5
3.5
..
..
0.9
10.9
..
0.8
..
0.7
2.0
0.7
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
1.0
6.7
..
..
1.3
..
..
..

6.5
9.7
1.6
2.2
0.1
4.1
0.4
3.2
6.8
4.8
..
2.8
3.4
3.1
0.7
2.1
..
5.5
1.5
5.4 d
1.1
2.2
..
0.9
2.7
1.8
2.7
4.3
1.1
8.7
1.9
3.9
3.1
2.9
4.7
0.9
2.7
..
0.7
2.0
3.0
2.6 w
..
2.3
1.8
5.0
1.7
2.2
7.1
..
..
0.9
..
6.1
5.7

5.6
9.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.5
6.6
..
..
9.5
..
..
..
2.8
..
..
8.3d
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.6
3.7
..
10.8
..
4.9
9.0
..
8.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.5
..
..
..
..
8.6
6.8

1999
1996
2005
2007
2005
2005-06
2005
2005

2006
1998
1987
2006
2000

2006
2005
2006
2005/06
2006
2006
2006
2003
2006
2006
2007

monthly
2006
2000
2006
2006
2006
2005
2005/06

a. Survey name can be found in Primary data documentation. b. Data are for the most recent year available. c. Less than 0.05. d. Data are for 2008. e. Data are for 2007. f. Excludes
northern Iraq. g. Includes contributions from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees.

100

2009 World Development Indicators

2.16

About the data

Health systems—the combined arrangements of

expenditures. In general, low-income economies

international agencies and nongovernmental organi-

institutions and actions whose primary purpose is to

have a higher share of private health expenditure

zations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance

promote, restore, or maintain health (WHO 2000)—

than do middle- and high-income countries. High

funds. • Out-of-pocket health expenditure, part of

are increasingly being recognized as key to combating

out-of-pocket expenditures may discourage people

private health expenditure, is direct household out-

disease and improving the health status of popula-

from accessing preventive or curative care and can

lays, including gratuities and in-kind payments, for

tions. The World Bank’s 2007 “Healthy Development:

impoverish households that cannot afford needed

health practitioners and pharmaceutical suppliers,

Strategy for Health, Nutrition, and Population

care. Health financing data are collected through

therapeutic appliances, and other goods and ser-

Results” emphasizes the need to strengthen health

national health accounts, which systematically,

vices whose primary intent is to restore or enhance

systems, which are weak in many countries, in order

comprehensively, and consistently monitoring health

health. • Health expenditure per capita is total

to increase the effectiveness of programs aimed at

system resource flows. To establish a national health

health expenditure divided by population in U.S.

reducing specific diseases and further reduce mor-

account, countries must define the boundaries of the

dollars and in international dollars converted using

bidity and mortality (World Bank 2007c). To evaluate

health system and classify health expenditure infor-

2005 purchasing power parity (PPP) rates for health

health systems, the World Health Organization (WHO)

mation along several dimensions, including sources

expenditure. • Year last national health account

has recommended that key components—such as

of financing, providers of health services, functional

completed is the latest year for which the health

financing, service delivery, workforce, information,

use of health expenditures, and benefi ciaries of

expenditure data are available using the national

and governance—be monitored using several key

expenditures. The accounting system can then pro-

health account approach. • Physicians include gen-

indicators (WHO 2008a). The data in the table are

vide an accurate picture of resource envelopes and

eralist and specialist medical practitioners.• Nurses

a subset of these indicators. Monitoring health sys-

financial flows and allow analysis of the equity and

and midwives include professional nurses and

tems allows the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity

efficiency of financing to inform policy.

midwives, auxiliary nurses and midwives, enrolled

of different health system models to be compared.

Many low-income countries use Demographic and

nurses and midwives, and other personnel, such as

Health system data also help identify weaknesses

Health Surveys or Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

dental nurses and primary care nurses. • Year of

and strengths and areas that need investment, such

funded by donors to obtain health system data. Data

last health survey is the latest year the national sur-

as additional health facilities, better health informa-

on health worker (physicians, nurses, and midwives)

vey that collects health information was conducted.

tion systems, or better trained human resources.

density shows the availability of medical personnel.

• Hospital beds are inpatient beds for both acute

Health expenditure data are broken down into

The WHO estimates that at least 2.5 physicians,

and chronic care available in public, private, general,

public and private expenditures, with private expen-

nurses, and midwives per 1,000 people are needed

and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.

diture further broken down into out-of-pocket expen-

to provide adequate coverage with primary care inter-

• Outpatient visits per capita are the number of

diture (direct payments by households to providers),

ventions associated with achieving the Millennium

visits to health care facilities per capita, including

which make up the largest proportion of private

Development Goals (WHO 2006). The WHO compiles

repeat visits.

data from household and labor force surveys, cenThere is a wide gap in health
expenditure per capita between
high-income economies and
developing economies

suses, and administrative records. Data comparability is limited by differences in definitions and train-

2.16a

ing of medical personnel varies. In addition, human
resources tend to be concentrated in urban areas, so

Health expenditure per capita ($)
5,000

2002

2006

4,000

3,000

2,000

Data sources

that average densities do not provide a full picture of

Data on health expenditures and year last national

health personnel available to the entire population.

health account completed are mostly from the

Availability and use of health services, shown by

WHO’s National Health Account database (www.

hospital beds per 1,000 people and outpatient visits

who.int/nha/en), supplemented by country data.

per capita, reflect both demand and supply side fac-

Data on health expenditure per capita in current

tors. In the absence of a consistent definition these

dollars are from WHO’s National Health Account

are crude indicators of the extent of physical, finan-

database. Data on health expenditure per capita

cial, and other barriers to health care.

in PPP dollars are World Bank staff estimates
based on the WHO’s National Health Account

1,000

Definitions

0

database and the 2005 round of the International

• Total health expenditure is the sum of public and

Comparison Program. Data on physicians, nurses

private health expenditure. It covers the provision of

and midwives, hospital beds, and outpatient vis-

Health expenditure per capita by high-income

health services (preventive and curative), family plan-

its are from the WHO, OECD, and TransMONEE,

economies is 300 times more than that by

ning and nutrition activities, and emergency aid for

supplemented by country data. Information on

developing economies, and the gap has been

health but excludes provision of water and sanitation.

health survey is from various sources including

increasing.

• Public health expenditure is recurrent and capital

Macro International and the United Nations Chil-

Source: World Health Organization.

spending from central and local governments, exter-

dren’s Fund.

High income

Middle income

Low income

nal borrowing and grants (including donations from

2009 World Development Indicators

101

PEOPLE

Health systems

2.17

Disease prevention coverage and quality
Access to
an improved
water source

Access to
improved
sanitation
facilities

% of
population
1990
2006

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

102

..
..
94
39
94
..
100
100
68
78
100
..
63
72
97
93
83
99
34
70
19
49
100
58
..
91
67
..
89
43
..
..
67
99
..
100
100
84
73
94
69
43
100
13
100
..
..
..
76
100
56
96
79
45
..
52

..
97
85
51
96
98
100
100
78
80
100
..
65
86
99
96
91
99
72
71
65
70
100
66
48
95
88
..
93
46
71
98
81
99
91
100
100
95
95
98
84
60
100
42
100
100
87
86
99
100
80
100
96
70
57
58

% of
population
1990
2006

..
..
88
26
81
..
100
100
..
26
..
..
12
33
..
38
71
99
5
44
8
39
100
11
5
84
48
..
68
15
..
94
20
99
98
100
100
68
71
50
73
3
95
4
100
..
..
..
94
100
6
97
70
13
..
29

2009 World Development Indicators

..
97
94
50
91
91
100
100
80
36
93
..
30
43
95
47
77
99
13
41
28
51
100
31
9
94
65
..
78
31
20
96
24
99
98
99
100
79
84
66
86
5
95
11
100
..
36
52
93
100
10
98
84
19
33
19

Child
immunization
rate

% of
children ages
12–23 monthsb
Measles DTP3
2007
2007

..
97
92
88
99
92
94
79
97
88
99
92
61
81
96
90
99
96
94
75
79
74
94
62
23
91
94
..
95
79
67
90
67
96
99
97
89
96
99
97
98
95
96
65
98
87
55
85
97
94
95
88
93
71
76
58

..
98
95
83
96
88
92
85
95
90
95
99
67
81
95
97
98
95
99
74
82
82
94
54
20
94
93
..
93
87
80
89
76
96
93
99
75
79
99
98
96
97
95
73
99
98
38
90
98
97
94
88
82
75
63
53

Children
with acute
respiratory
infection
taken to
health
provider

Children with
diarrhea who
received oral
rehydration
and continuous
feeding

Children
sleeping
under
treated
bednetsa

Children
with fever
receiving
antimalarial
drugs

Tuberculosis
treatment
success
rate

DOTS
detection
rate

% of children
under age 5
with ARI
2002–07c

% of children
under age 5
with diarrhea
2002–07c

% of
children
under age 5
2002–07c

% of children
under age 5
with fever
2002–07c

% of new
registered
cases
2006

% of new
estimated
cases
2007

..
45
53
..
..
36
..
..
33
30
90
..
36
52
91
..
..
..
39
38
48
35
..
32
12
..
..
..
62
42
48
..
35
..
..
..
..
67
..
63
62
44
..
19
..
..
..
69
74
..
34
..
64
42
57
31

..
50
24
..
..
59
..
..
45
49
54
..
42
54
53
..
..
..
42
23
50
22
..
47
27
..
..
..
39
..
39
..
45
..
..
..
..
42
..
27
..
54
..
15
..
..
..
38
37
..
29
..
22
38
25
43

..
..
..
17.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20.1
..
..
..
..
..
9.6
8.3
4.2
13.1
..
15.1
0.6
..
..
..
..
5.8
6.1
..
3.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.2
..
33.1
..
..
..
49.0
..
..
21.8
..
..
1.4
39.0
..

..
..
..
29.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
54.0
..
..
..
..
..
48.0
30.0
0.2
57.8
..
57.0
44.0
..
..
..
..
29.8
48.0
..
36.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.6
..
9.5
..
..
..
62.6
..
..
60.8
..
..
43.5
45.7
5.1

84
93
91
18
63
69
85
71
60
92
70
73
87
83
97
72
72
80
73
83
93
74
57
65
54
85
94
78
71
86
53
88
73
30
90
69
77
78
74
87
91
90
68
84
..
..
46
58
75
71
76
..
47
75
69
82

64
54
98
102
76
51
49
41
46
66
40
58
86
71
81
57
69
81
18
27
61
91
62
71
18
105
80
60
81
61
56
120
42
46
109
67
69
66
46
72
65
35
76
28
0
0
66
64
113
54
36
0
40
53
68
49

Access to
an improved
water source

% of
population
1990
2006

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

72
96
71
72
92
83
..
100
..
92
100
97
96
41
..
..
..
..
..
99
100
..
57
71
..
..
39
41
98
33
37
100
88
..
64
75
36
57
57
72
100
97
70
41
50
100
81
86
..
39
52
75
83
..
96
..

84
100
89
80
..
..
..
100
..
93
100
98
96
57
100
..
..
89
60
99
100
78
64
..
..
100
47
76
99
60
60
100
95
90
72
83
42
80
93
89
100
..
79
42
47
100
..
90
92
40
77
84
93
..
99
..

Access to
improved
sanitation
facilities

% of
population
1990
2006

45
100
14
51
83
..
..
..
..
83
100
..
97
39
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
40
97
..
..
8
46
..
35
20
94
56
..
..
52
20
23
26
9
100
..
42
3
26
..
85
33
..
44
60
55
58
..
92
..

66
100
28
52
..
..
..
..
..
83
100
85
97
42
..
..
..
93
48
78
..
36
32
97
..
89
12
60
94
45
24
94
81
79
50
72
31
82
35
27
100
..
48
7
30
..
..
58
74
45
70
72
78
..
99
..

Child
immunization
rate

% of
children ages
12–23 monthsb
Measles DTP3
2007
2007

89
99
67
80
97
..
87
97
87
76
98
95
99
80
99
92
99
99
40
97
53
85
95
98
97
96
81
83
90
68
67
98
96
96
98
95
77
81
69
81
96
79
99
47
62
92
97
80
89
58
80
99
92
98
95
..

86
99
62
75
99
..
92
96
96
85
98
98
93
81
92
91
99
94
50
98
74
83
88
98
95
95
82
87
96
68
75
97
98
92
95
95
72
86
86
82
96
88
87
39
54
93
99
83
88
60
66
80
87
99
97
..

2.17

Children
with acute
respiratory
infection
taken to
health
provider

Children with
diarrhea who
received oral
rehydration
and continuous
feeding

Children
sleeping
under
treated
bednetsa

Children
with fever
receiving
antimalarial
drugs

Tuberculosis
treatment
success
rate

DOTS
detection
rate

% of children
under age 5
with ARI
2002–07c

% of children
under age 5
with diarrhea
2002–07c

% of
children
under age 5
2002–07c

% of children
under age 5
with fever
2002–07c

% of new
registered
cases
2006

% of new
estimated
cases
2007

56
..
69
61
..
..
..
..
..
75
..
75
71
49
93
..
..
62
..
..
..
59
70
..
..
93
48
52
..
38
45
..
..
60
63
38
55
66
72
43
..
..
..
47
33
..
..
69
..
..
..
67
55
..
..
..

49
..
33
56
..
..
..
..
..
39
..
44
48
33
..
..
..
22
..
..
..
53
..
..
..
45
47
27
..
38
..
..
..
48
47
46
47
65
..
37
..
..
..
34
28
..
..
37
..
..
..
71
76
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
24.7
..
27.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.5
..
..
..
..
7.4
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.5
..
8.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26.5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
58.5
..
..
..
34.2
24.9
..
31.7
20.7
..
..
..
..
..
14.9
..
9.8
0.1
..
..
..
33.0
33.9
..
..
3.3
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
..

86
46
86
91
83
84
..
74
67
41
53
71
72
85
86
81
78
82
92
73
90
66
76
77
74
87
78
78
48
76
41
92
80
62
88
87
83
84
76
88
84
70
89
77
76
93
86
88
79
73
83
78
88
75
87
80

2009 World Development Indicators

87
51
68
91
68
37
0
61
0
83
77
81
69
72
64
14
90
60
78
89
62
16
69
162
90
74
69
41
80
23
39
69
99
67
76
93
49
116
84
66
11
60
97
53
23
33
125
67
98
15
58
93
75
66
87
77

103

PEOPLE

Disease prevention coverage and quality

2.17

Disease prevention coverage and quality
Access to
an improved
water source

Access to
improved
sanitation
facilities

% of
population
1990
2006

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

76
94
65
94
67
..
..
100
100
..
..
81
100
67
64
..
100
100
83
..
49
95
..
49
88
82
85
..
43
..
100
100
99
100
90
89
52
..
..
50
78
76 w
58
75
72
88
72
68
90
84
89
73
49
99
..

88
97
65
96
77
99e
53
100
100
..
29
93
100
82
70
60
100
100
89
67
55
98
62
59
94
94
97
..
64
97
100
100
99
100
88
..
92
89
66
58
81
86 w
68
89
88
95
84
87
95
91
89
87
58
100
100

% of
population
1990
2006

72
87
29
91
26
..
..
100
100
..
..
55
100
71
33
..
100
100
81
..
35
78
..
13
93
74
85
..
29
96
97
..
100
100
93
83
29
..
28
42
44
51 w
26
48
41
77
44
48
88
68
67
18
26
100
..

72
87
23
99
28
92e
11
100
100
..
23
59
100
86
35
50
100
100
92
92
33
96
41
12
92
85
88
..
33
93
97
..
100
100
96
..
65
80
46
52
46
60 w
39
60
55
83
55
66
89
78
77
33
31
100
..

Child
immunization
rate

% of
children ages
12–23 monthsb
Measles DTP3
2007
2007

97
99
99
96
84
95
67
95
99
96
34
83
97
98
79
91
96
86
98
85
90
96
63
80
91
98
96
99
68
98
92
86
93
96
99
55
83
..
74
85
66
82 w
76
84
82
94
81
90
97
93
90
72
73
93
91

97
98
97
96
94
94
64
96
99
97
39
97
96
98
84
95
99
93
99
86
83
98
70
88
88
98
96
98
64
98
92
92
96
94
96
71
92
..
87
80
62
82 w
77
82
79
96
80
89
96
92
92
69
73
95
96

Children
with acute
respiratory
infection
taken to
health
provider

Children with
diarrhea who
received oral
rehydration
and continuous
feeding

Children
sleeping
under
treated
bednetsa

Children
with fever
receiving
antimalarial
drugs

Tuberculosis
treatment
success
rate

DOTS
detection
rate

% of children
under age 5
with ARI
2002–07c

% of children
under age 5
with diarrhea
2002–07c

% of
children
under age 5
2002–07c

% of children
under age 5
with fever
2002–07c

% of new
registered
cases
2006

% of new
estimated
cases
2007

..
..
28d
..
47
93
48
..
..
..
13
..
..
58
..
73
..
..
77
64
59
84
24
23
74
..
41
83
73
..
..
..
..
..
68
..
83
..
47
68
25

..
..
24
..
43
31
31
..
..
..
7
..
..
..
56
22
..
..
34
22
53
46
..
22
32
..
..
25
39
..
..
..
..
..
28
..
65
..
48
48
47

..
..
13.0
..
16.4
..
5.3
..
..
..
11.4
..
..
2.9
27.6
0.6
..
..
..
1.3
16.0
..
8.3
38.4
..
..
..
..
9.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5.1
..
..
22.8
2.9
.. w
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
12.3
..
..

..
..
12.3
..
22.0
..
51.9
..
..
..
7.9
..
..
0.3
54.2
0.6
..
..
..
1.2
58.2
..
47.4
47.7
..
..
..
..
61.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.6
..
..
57.9
4.7
.. w
26.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7.3
34.9
..
..

83
58
86
69
76
84
87
84
81
92
89
74
..
87
82
43
63
..
86
84
85
77
79
67
..
91
91
84
70
59
79
..
64
87
81
82
92
94
83
85
60
85 w
84
85
87
72
85
91
70
76
86
87
76
68
..

85
49
25
39
48
80
37
96
44
77
64
78
0
85
31
55
0
0
80
30
51
72
61
15
..
78
76
84
51
55
18
0
87
95
45
68
82
5
46
58
27
63 w
51
72
72
72
64
77
56
72
72
67
47
37
17

a. For malaria prevention only. b. Refers to children who were immunized before age 12 months or in some cases at any time before the survey (12–23 months). c. Data are for the most
recent year available. d. Data are for 2008. e. Includes Kosovo.

104

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

2.17

Definitions

People’s health is influenced by the environment

rehydration salts at home. However, recommenda-

• Access to an improved water source refers to peo-

in which they live. Lack of clean water and basic

tions for the use of oral rehydration therapy have

ple with reasonable access to water from an improved

sanitation is the main reason diseases transmitted

changed over time based on scientific progress, so

source, such as piped water into a dwelling, public tap,

by feces are so common in developing countries.

it is difficult to accurately compare use rates across

tubewell, protected dug well, and rainwater collection.

Access to drinking water from an improved source

countries. Until the current recommended method

Reasonable access is the availability of at least 20

and access to improved sanitation do not ensure

for home management of diarrhea is adopted and

liters a person a day from a source within 1 kilometer

safety or adequacy, as these characteristics are

applied in all countries, the data should be used

of the dwelling. • Access to improved sanitation facil-

not tested at the time of the surveys. But improved

with caution. Also, the prevalence of diarrhea may

ities refers to people with at least adequate access

drinking water technologies and improved sanitation

vary by season. Since country surveys are adminis-

to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively pre-

facilities are more likely than those characterized

tered at different times, data comparability is further

vent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta.

as unimproved to provide safe drinking water and to

affected.

Improved facilities range from protected pit latrines

prevent contact with human excreta. The data are

Malaria is endemic to the poorest countries in the

to flush toilets. • Child immunization rate refers to

derived by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP)

world, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of

children ages 12–23 months who, before 12 months

of the World Health Organization (WHO) and United

Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Insecticide-treated

or at any time before the survey, had received one

Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) based on national

bednets, properly used and maintained, are one of

dose of measles vaccine and three doses of diphthe-

censuses and nationally representative household

the most important malaria-preventive strategies to

ria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus (DTP3)

surveys. The coverage rates for water and sanita-

limit human-mosquito contact. Studies have empha-

vaccine. • Children with acute respiratory infection

tion are based on information from service users

sized that mortality rates could be reduced by about

taken to health provider are children under age 5 with

on the facilities their households actually use rather

25–30 percent if every child under age 5 in malaria-

acute respiratory infection in the two weeks before

than on information from service providers, which

risk areas such as Africa slept under a treated bed-

the survey who were taken to an appropriate health

may include nonfunctioning systems. While the esti-

net every night.

provider. • Children with diarrhea who received oral

mates are based on use, the JMP reports use as

Prompt and effective treatment of malaria is a criti-

rehydration and continuous feeding are children

access, because access is the term used in the Mil-

cal element of malaria control. It is vital that suffer-

under age 5 with diarrhea in the two weeks before the

lennium Development Goal target for drinking water

ers, especially children under age 5, start treatment

survey who received either oral rehydration therapy or

and sanitation.

within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, to pre-

increased fluids, with continuous feeding. • Children

vent progression—often rapid—to severe malaria

sleeping under treated bednets are children under

and death.

age 5 who slept under an insecticide-treated bed-

Governments in developing countries usually
finance immunization against measles and diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus (DTP)

Data on the success rate of tuberculosis treatment

net to prevent malaria the night before the survey.

as part of the basic public health package. In many

are provided for countries that have implemented

• Children with fever receiving antimalarial drugs are

developing countries lack of precise information on

DOTS, the internationally recommended tubercu-

children under age 5 who were ill with fever in the two

the size of the cohort of one-year-old children makes

losis control strategy. The treatment success rate

weeks before the survey and received any appropri-

immunization coverage diffi cult to estimate from

for tuberculosis provides a useful indicator of the

ate (locally defined) antimalarial drugs. • Tuberculosis

program statistics. The data shown here are based

quality of health services. A low rate or no success

treatment success rate refers to new registered infec-

on an assessment of national immunization cover-

suggests that infectious patients may not be receiv-

tious tuberculosis cases that were cured or completed

age rates by the WHO and UNICEF. The assessment

ing adequate treatment. An essential complement

a full course of treatment. • DOTS detection rate

considered both administrative data from service

to the tuberculosis treatment success rate is the

refers to estimated new infectious tuberculosis cases

providers and household survey data on children’s

DOTS detection rate, which indicates whether there

detected by DOTS, the internationally recommended

immunization histories. Based on the data available,

is adequate coverage by the recommended case

tuberculosis detection and treatment strategy.

consideration of potential biases, and contributions

detection and treatment strategy. A country with a

of local experts, the most likely true level of immuni-

high treatment success rate may still face big chal-

zation coverage was determined for each year.

lenges if its DOTS detection rate remains low.

Acute respiratory infection continues to be a lead-

For indicators that are from household surveys, the

ing cause of death among young children, killing

year in the table refers to the survey year. For more

about 2 million children under age 5 in developing

information, consult the original sources.

countries each year. Data are drawn mostly from
household health surveys in which mothers report
on number of episodes and treatment for acute respiratory infection.
Since 1990 diarrhea-related deaths among children have declined tremendously. Most diarrhearelated deaths are due to dehydration, and many of

Data sources
Data on access to water and sanitation are from
the WHO and UNICEF’s Progress on Drinking Water
and Sanitation (2008). Data on immunization are
from WHO and UNICEF estimates (www.who.int/
immunization_monitoring). Data on children with
acute respiratory infection, with diarrhea, sleeping
under treated bednets, and receiving antimalarial
drugs are from UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children 2009, Childinfo, and Demographic and Health
Surveys by Macro International. Data on tuberculosis are from the WHO’s Global Tuberculosis Control
Report 2009.

these deaths can be prevented with the use of oral

2009 World Development Indicators

105

PEOPLE

Disease prevention coverage and quality

2.18

Reproductive health
Total fertility Adolescent
rate
fertility rate

births per
woman
1990
2007

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

106

..
2.9
4.6
7.1
3.0
2.5
1.9
1.5
2.7
4.3
1.9
1.6
6.7
4.9
1.7
4.6
2.8
1.8
7.3
6.8
5.7
5.9
1.8
5.6
6.7
2.6
2.1
1.3
3.0
6.7
5.3
3.1
6.5
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.7
3.3
3.6
4.3
3.7
6.2
2.0
6.8
1.8
1.8
4.7
6.0
2.1
1.5
5.7
1.4
5.6
6.6
7.1
5.4

..
1.8
2.4
5.8
2.3
1.7
1.9
1.4
2.0
2.8
1.3
1.8
5.4
3.5
1.2
2.9
2.2
1.4
6.0
6.8
3.2
4.3
1.6
4.6
6.2
1.9
1.7
1.0
2.5
6.3
4.5
2.1
4.5
1.4
1.5
1.4
1.9
2.4
2.6
2.9
2.7
5.0
1.6
5.3
1.8
2.0
3.1
4.7
1.4
1.4
3.8
1.4
4.2
5.4
7.1
3.8

2009 World Development Indicators

Unmet
Contraceptive
need for
prevalence rate
contraception

births per
1,000 women
ages 15–19
2007

% of married
women ages
15–49
2002–07a

..
16
7
138
57
30
14
12
29
124
22
7
120
78
20
52
89
40
126
55
42
118
14
115
164
60
8
5
76
222
115
71
107
14
47
11
6
108
83
39
81
72
21
94
9
7
82
104
30
9
55
9
107
149
188
46

..
..
..
..
..
13
..
..
23
11
..
..
30
23
23
..
..
..
29
..
25
20
..
..
21
..
..
..
6
24
16
..
29
..
8
..
..
11
..
10
..
27
..
34
..
..
..
..
..
..
34
..
..
21
..
38

% of married
women ages
15–49
2002–07a

..
60
61
..
..
53
..
..
51
56
73
..
17
58
36
..
..
..
17
9
40
29
..
19
3
58
85
..
78
..
21
96
13
..
77
..
..
73
73
59
67
8
..
15
..
..
..
..
47
..
17
..
43
9
10
32

Newborns
protected
against
tetanus

Pregnant
women
receiving
prenatal
care

Births attended
by skilled
health staff

Maternal
mortality
ratio

per 100,000 live births
% of births
2007

%
2002–07a

..
87
70
81
..
..
..
..
..
91
..
94
93
71
85
78
93
65
80
78
87
81
82
54
60
..
..
..
78
81
90
..
76
97
..
..
..
85
67
85
87
80
..
85
..
..
67
90
87
..
88
69
80
95
92
43

..
97
89
80
99
93
..
..
77
51
99
..
84
79
99
..
97
..
85
92
69
82
..
69
39
..
90
..
94
85
86
92
85
100
100
..
..
99
84
70
86
70
..
28
..
..
..
98
94
..
92
..
84
82
78
85

National
estimates
% of total
a
1990
2002–07 1990–2007a

..
..
77
..
96
..
100
..
..
..
..
..
..
43
97
77
72
..
..
..
..
58
..
..
..
..
50
..
82
..
..
98
..
100
..
..
..
93
..
37
52
..
..
..
..
..
..
44
..
..
40
..
..
31
..
23

..
100
95
47
99
98
100
..
89
18
100
..
74
67
100
..
97
99
54
34
44
63
100
53
14
100
98
100
96
74
83
99
57
100
100
100
..
98
75
74
92
28
100
6
100
..
..
57
98
100
50
..
41
38
39
26

20
117
..
48
16
..
..
29
322
12
..
397
229
9
326
53
7
484
615
472
669
..
543
1,099
20
41
..
75
1,289
781
36
543
10
21
8
10
159
107
84
71
998
7
673
6
10
519
730
23
8
..
1
133
980
405
630

Modeled
estimates
2005

..
92
180
1,400
77
76
4
4
82
570
18
8
840
290
3
380
110
11
700
1,100
540
1,000
7
980
1,500
16
45
..
130
1,100
740
30
810
7
45
4
3
150
210
130
170
450
25
720
7
8
520
690
66
4
560
3
290
910
1,100
670

Total fertility Adolescent
rate
fertility rate

births per
woman
1990
2007

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

5.1
1.8
4.0
3.1
4.8
5.9
2.1
2.8
1.3
2.9
1.5
5.4
2.7
5.8
2.4
1.6
3.5
3.7
6.1
2.0
3.1
4.9
6.9
4.7
2.0
2.0
6.2
6.9
3.7
7.4
5.8
2.3
3.4
2.3
4.0
4.0
6.2
3.4
5.7
5.1
1.6
2.2
4.7
7.9
6.7
1.9
6.5
6.1
3.0
4.8
4.5
3.9
4.3
2.0
1.4
2.2

3.3
1.3
2.7
2.2
2.0
..
1.9
2.9
1.3
2.4
1.3
3.6
2.4
5.0
1.9
1.3
2.2
2.7
3.2
1.4
2.2
3.4
5.2
2.7
1.4
1.4
4.8
5.6
2.6
6.5
4.4
1.7
2.1
1.7
1.9
2.4
5.1
2.1
3.6
3.0
1.7
2.2
2.8
7.0
5.3
1.9
3.0
3.9
2.6
3.8
3.1
2.5
3.2
1.3
1.3
1.8

Unmet
Contraceptive
need for
prevalence rate
contraception

births per
1,000 women
ages 15–19
2007

% of married
women ages
15–49
2002–07a

93
19
62
40
20
..
16
14
6
78
3
25
31
104
1
4
13
31
72
14
25
73
219
3
18
21
133
135
13
179
85
41
65
32
45
19
149
16
59
115
5
22
113
196
126
8
10
36
83
51
72
60
47
13
13
47

17
..
13
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
25
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
31
36
..
..
34
24
28
..
31
..
..
..
7
14
10
18
..
..
25
..
..
..
16
17
..
..
25
..
..
..
8
17
..
..
..

% of married
women ages
15–49
2002–07a

65
..
56
61
79
..
..
..
..
69
..
57
51
39
..
..
..
48
38
..
58
37
11
..
..
14
27
42
..
8
..
76
71
68
66
63
17
34
55
48
..
..
72
11
13
..
..
30
..
..
73
71
51
..
..
..

Newborns
protected
against
tetanus

Pregnant
women
receiving
prenatal
care

Births attended
by skilled
health staff

2.18
Maternal
mortality
ratio

per 100,000 live births
% of births
2007

%
2002–07a

94
..
86
83
83
..
..
..
52
54
86
87
..
74
91
..
83
82
47
..
72
76
89
..
..
..
72
86
89
89
60
86
87
..
87
85
82
91
82
83
..
..
94
72
53
..
95
81
..
60
81
82
65
..
..
..

92
..
74
93
..
..
..
..
..
91
..
99
100
88
..
..
..
97
..
..
96
90
..
..
..
98
80
92
79
70
..
..
..
98
99
68
85
..
95
44
..
..
90
46
58
..
..
61
..
..
94
91
88
..
..
..

National
estimates
% of total
a
1990
2002–07 1990–2007a

45
..
..
32
..
54
..
..
..
79
100
87
..
50
..
98
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
57
55
..
..
40
91
..
..
..
31
..
..
68
7
..
..
..
15
33
100
..
19
..
..
66
80
..
..
98
..

67
100
47
72
97
..
100
..
99
97
100
99
100
42
97
100
100
98
..
100
98
55
46
..
100
98
51
54
98
45
..
99
93
100
99
63
48
68
81
19
100
..
74
33
35
..
98
39
91
42
77
71
60
100
..
100

108
8
301
307
25
294
6
5
7
95
8
41
70
414
105
20
5
104
405
9
..
762
..
77
13
21
469
807
28
464
747
22
62
16
90
227
408
316
271
281
7
15
87
648
..
6
13
533
66
..
121
185
162
3
8
..

2009 World Development Indicators

Modeled
estimates
2005

280
6
450
420
140
..
1
4
3
170
6
62
140
560
370
14
4
150
660
10
150
960
1,200
97
11
10
510
1,100
62
970
820
15
60
22
46
240
520
380
210
830
6
9
170
1,800
1,100
7
64
320
130
470
150
240
230
8
11
18

107

PEOPLE

Reproductive health

2.18

Reproductive health
Total fertility Adolescent
rate
fertility rate

births per
woman
1990
2007

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

1.8
1.9
7.4
5.9
6.5
1.8
6.5
1.9
2.1
1.5
6.8
3.5
1.3
2.5
5.9
5.6
2.1
1.6
5.4
5.1
6.1
2.1
5.5
6.4
2.4
3.5
3.0
4.2
7.1
1.8
4.3
1.8
2.1
2.5
4.1
3.4
3.6
6.3
8.0
6.4
5.1
3.2 w
5.6
3.0
3.1
2.7
3.5
2.4
2.3
3.2
4.8
4.2
6.3
1.8
1.5

1.3
1.4
5.9
3.2
5.1
1.4
6.5
1.3
1.3
1.4
6.0
2.7
1.4
1.9
4.2
3.6
1.9
1.5
3.1
3.3
5.2
1.9
6.5
4.8
1.6
2.0
2.2
2.5
6.7
1.2
2.3
1.9
2.1
2.0
2.4
2.6
2.1
4.6
5.5
5.2
3.7
2.5 w
4.2
2.2
2.3
2.0
2.7
1.9
1.7
2.4
2.8
2.9
5.1
1.8
1.5

Unmet
Contraceptive
need for
prevalence rate
contraception

births per
1,000 women
ages 15–19
2007

32
28
40
28
87
24
160
5
20
7
66
61
9
25
57
33
4
4
35
28
121
42
54
89
35
7
37
16
152
28
18
24
42
61
34
90
17
79
71
125
59
52 w
95
42
39
56
56
17
29
77
30
67
118
22
8

a. Data are for most recent year available. b. Includes Montenegro.

108

2009 World Development Indicators

% of married
women ages
15–49
2002–07a

..
..
38
..
32
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
24
..
..
..
..
22
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
41
..
..
..
..
..
8
..
5
..
..
27
13
.. w
21
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14
24
..
..

% of married
women ages
15–49
2002–07a

70
..
17
..
12
41
5
..
..
..
15
60
..
68
8
51
..
..
58
38
26
77
20
17
43
..
71
48
24
67
..
84
..
..
65
..
76
50
28
34
60
60 w
33
68
69
..
60
78
..
..
62
53
23
..
..

Newborns
protected
against
tetanus

Pregnant
women
receiving
prenatal
care

Births attended
by skilled
health staff

Maternal
mortality
ratio

per 100,000 live births
% of births
2007

..
..
82
56
86
..
94
4
73
74
68
72
72
91
72
86
86
93
92
88
88
89
59
82
..
96
69
..
85
..
..
..
..
..
87
51
86
..
52
89
78
.. w
78
..
..
..
81
..
..
83
78
85
75
..
..

%
2002–07a

94
..
94
..
87
98
81
..
..
..
26
92
..
99
70
85
..
..
84
80
78
98
61
84
96
..
81
99
94
99
..
..
..
..
99
..
91
99
41
93
94
81 w
67
86
84
..
81
90
..
95
76
69
72
..
..

National
estimates
% of total
a
1990
2002–07 1990–2007a

..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
69
..
..
..
..
..
53
..
..
31
..
69
..
..
38
..
..
..
99
..
..
..
..
..
16
51
70
50 w
..
49
45
..
46
48
..
72
48
32
..
..
..

98
100
39
96
52
99
43
100
100
100
33
92
..
99
49
69
..
100
93
83
43
97
18
62
98
..
83
100
42
99
100
..
99
99
100
95
88
99
36
43
69
65 w
42
74
69
95
62
87
95
89
80
41
45
99
..

15
24
750
10
401
13
1,800
6
4
17
1,044
166
6
43
..
589
5
5
65
97
578
12
..
478
45
69
29
14
435
17
3
7
8
35
28
61
162
..
365
729
555

Modeled
estimates
2005

24
28
1,300
18
980
14b
2,100
14
6
6
1,400
400
4
58
450
390
3
5
130
170
950
110
380
510
45
100
44
130
550
18
37
8
11
20
24
57
150
..
430
830
880
400 w
780
260
300
97
440
150
44
130
200
500
900
10
5

About the data

2.18

Definitions

Reproductive health is a state of physical and men-

indicator has changed, these data cannot be com-

• Total fertility rate is the number of children that

tal well-being in relation to the reproductive system

pared with those in editions before 2008.

would be born to a woman if she were to live to the

and its functions and processes. Means of achieving

Good prenatal and postnatal care improve mater-

end of her childbearing years and bear children in

reproductive health include education and services

nal health and reduce maternal and infant mortality.

accordance with current age-specific fertility rates.

during pregnancy and childbirth, safe and effec-

But data may not reflect such improvements because

• Adolescent fertility rate is the number of births per

tive contraception, and prevention and treatment

health information systems are often weak, mater-

1,000 women ages 15–19. • Unmet need for contra-

of sexually transmitted diseases. Complications of

nal deaths are underreported, and rates of maternal

ception is the percentage of fertile, married women

pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of

mortality are difficult to measure.

of reproductive age who do not want to become preg-

death and disability among women of reproductive

The share of births attended by skilled health staff

nant and are not using contraception. • Contracep-

is an indicator of a health system’s ability to provide

tive prevalence rate is the percentage of women

Total and adolescent fertility rates are based on

adequate care for pregnant women. Maternal mor-

married or in-union ages 15–49 who are practicing,

data on registered live births from vital registration

tality ratios are generally of unknown reliability, as

or whose sexual partners are practicing, any form

systems or, in the absence of such systems, from

are many other cause-specific mortality indicators.

of contraception. • Newborns protected against

censuses or sample surveys. The estimated rates

Household surveys such as Demographic and Health

tetanus are the percentage of births by women of

are generally considered reliable measures of fertility

Surveys attempt to measure maternal mortality by

child-bearing age who are immunized against teta-

in the recent past. Where no empirical information

asking respondents about survivorship of sisters.

nus. • Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are

on age- specific fertility rates is available, a model is

The main disadvantage of this method is that the

the percentage of women attended at least once

used to estimate the share of births to adolescents.

estimates of maternal mortality that it produces

during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for

For countries without vital registration systems fertil-

pertain to 12 years or so before the survey, making

reasons related to pregnancy. • Births attended by

ity rates are generally based on extrapolations from

them unsuitable for monitoring recent changes or

skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries

trends observed in censuses or surveys from earlier

observing the impact of interventions. In addition,

attended by personnel trained to give the necessary

years.

measurement of maternal mortality is subject to

care to women during pregnancy, labor, and post-

More couples in developing countries want to limit

many types of errors. Even in high-income countries

partum; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to

or postpone childbearing but are not using effec-

with vital registration systems, misclassification of

care for newborns. • Maternal mortality ratio is the

tive contraception. These couples have an unmet

maternal deaths has been found to lead to serious

number of women who die from pregnancy-related

need for contraception. Common reasons are lack

underestimation.

causes during pregnancy and childbirth per 100,000

age in developing countries.

of knowledge about contraceptive methods and

The national estimates of maternal mortality

concerns about possible side effects. This indica-

ratios in the table are based on national surveys,

tor excludes women not exposed to the risk of unin-

vital registration records, and surveillance data or

tended pregnancy because of menopause, infertility,

are derived from community and hospital records.

or postpartum anovulation.

live births.

Data sources

The modeled estimates are based on an exercise by

Data on fertility rates are compiled and estimated

Contraceptive prevalence reflects all methods—

the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations

by the World Bank’s Development Data Group.

ineffective traditional methods as well as highly

Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Population

Inputs come from the United Nations Population

effective modern methods. Contraceptive prevalence

Fund (UNFPA), and World Bank. For countries with

Division’s World Population Prospects: The 2006

rates are obtained mainly from household surveys,

complete vital registration systems with good attribu-

Revision, census reports and other statistical

including Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple

tion of cause of death, the data are used as reported.

publications from national statistical offi ces,

Indicator Cluster Surveys, and contraceptive preva-

For countries with national data either from complete

and household surveys such as Demographic

lence surveys (see Primary data documentation for

vital registration systems with uncertain or poor attri-

and Health Surveys. Data on women with unmet

the most recent survey year). Unmarried women are

bution of cause of death or from household surveys

need for contraception and contraceptive preva-

often excluded from such surveys, which may bias

reported maternal mortality was adjusted, usually by

lence rates are from household surveys, including

the estimates.

a factor of underenumeration and misclassification.

Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro Inter-

An important cause of infant mortality in some

For countries with no empirical national data (about

national and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys by

developing countries, neonatal tetanus can be pre-

35 percent of countries), maternal mortality was esti-

UNICEF. Data on tetanus vaccinations, pregnant

vented through immunization of the mother during

mated with a regression model using socioeconomic

women receiving prenatal care, births attended

pregnancy. As in last year’s edition, the data on

information, including fertility, birth attendants, and

by skilled health staff, and national estimates of

tetanus in the table are estimated by the “protec-

GDP. Neither set of ratios can be assumed to provide

maternal mortality ratios are from UNICEF’s State

tion at birth” model, which tracks the immunization

an exact estimate of maternal mortality for any of the

of the World’s Children 2009 and Childinfo and

status of women of child-bearing age. The estimates

countries in the table.

Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro Inter-

account for the number of vaccine doses received

For the indicators that are from household surveys,

national. Modeled estimates for maternal mortal-

and the time since the mother’s last immunization.

the year in the table refers to the survey year. For

ity ratios are from WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the

A currently immune woman’s child is considered

more information, consult the original sources.

World Bank’s Maternal Mortality in 2005 (2007).

protected. Because the methodology behind this

2009 World Development Indicators

109

PEOPLE

Reproductive health

2.19

Nutrition
Prevalence of
undernourishment

Prevalence of child
Prevalence
Lowmalnutrition
of overweight birthweight
children
babies

Exclusive
breastfeeding

Consumption Vitamin A
of iodized supplemensalt
tation

Prevalence
of anemia

%
% of population
1990–92
2003–05

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

110

..
<5
<5
66
<5
46
<5
<5
27
36
<5
<5
28
24
<5
20
10
<5
14
44
38
34
<5
47
59
7
15c
..
15
29
40
<5
15
<5
5
<5
<5
27
24
<5
9
67
<5
71
<5
<5
5
20
47
<5
34
<5
14
19
20
63

..
<5
<5
46
<5
21
<5
<5
12
27
<5
<5
19
22
<5
26
6
<5
10
63
26
23
<5
43
39
<5
9c
..
10
76
22
<5
14
<5
<5
<5
<5
21
15
<5
10
68
<5
46
<5
<5
<5
30
13
<5
9
<5
16
17
32
58

2009 World Development Indicators

% of children under age 5
Underweight Stunting
2000–07a 2000–07a

..
17.0
10.2
27.5
2.3
4.2
..
..
14.0
39.2
1.3
..
21.5
5.9
1.6
10.7
2.2
1.6
35.2
38.9
28.4
15.1
..
21.8
33.9
0.6
6.8
..
5.1
33.6
11.8
..
16.7
..
..
2.1
..
4.2
6.2
5.4
6.1
34.5
..
34.6
..
..
8.8
15.8
..
..
18.8
..
17.7
22.5
21.9
18.9

..
39.2
21.6
50.8
8.2
18.2
..
..
24.1
47.8
4.5
..
39.1
32.5
11.8
29.1
7.1
8.8
43.1
63.1
43.7
35.4
..
44.6
44.8
2.1
21.8
..
16.2
44.4
31.2
..
40.1
..
..
2.6
..
11.7
29.0
23.8
24.6
43.7
..
50.7
..
..
26.3
27.6
..
..
35.6
..
54.3
39.3
36.1
29.7

% of children
under age 5
2000–07a

..
30.0
15.4
5.3
9.9
11.7
..
..
6.2
0.9
9.7
..
3.0
9.2
25.6
10.4
7.3
13.6
5.4
1.4
1.7
8.7
..
10.8
4.4
9.8
9.2
..
4.2
6.5
8.5
..
9.0
..
..
4.4
..
8.6
5.1
14.1
5.8
1.6
..
5.1
..
..
5.6
2.7
..
..
4.5
..
5.6
5.1
5.1
3.9

% of births
2002–07a

% of children
under 6 months
2002–07a

% of
households
2002–07a

..
7
6
..
7
8
..
..
..
22
4
..
15
7
5
..
8
..
16
11
14
11
..
13
22
6
2
..
6
..
13
7
17
5
5
..
..
11
..
14
7
14
..
20
..
..
..
20
5
..
9
..
12
12
24
25

..
40
7
..
..
33
..
..
12
37
9
..
43
54
18
..
..
..
7
45
60
21
..
23
2
85
51
..
47
36
19
..
4
..
26
..
..
8
40
38
24
52
..
49
..
..
..
41
11
..
54
..
51
27
16
41

..
60
61
..
..
97
..
..
54
84
55
..
55
90
62
..
..
100
34
98
73
49
..
62
56
..
94
..
..
..
82
..
84
..
88
..
..
19
..
78
62
68
..
20
..
..
..
7
87
..
32
..
40
51
1
3

% of children
Children
Pregnant
6–59 months under age 5
women
a
2007
2000–05
2000–05a

..
..
..
36
..
..
..
..
95b
95
..
..
73
39
..
..
..
..
95
83
76
95
..
78
54
..
..
..
..
79
95
..
63
..
..
..
..
..
..
87b
20
51
..
88
..
..
90
93
..
..
95
..
33
95
66
42

..
31
43
..
18
24
8
11
32
47
27
9
82
52
27
..
55
27
92
56
63
68
8
..
71
24
20
..
28
71
66
..
69
23
27
18
9
35
38
30
18
70
23
75
11
8
44
..
41
8
76
12
38
79
75
65

..
34
43
57
25
12
12
15
38
47
26
13
73
37
35
21
29
30
68
47
66
51
12
..
60
28
29
..
31
67
55
..
55
28
39
22
12
40
38
45
..
55
23
63
15
11
46
..
42
12
65
19
22
63
58
63

Prevalence of
undernourishment

Prevalence of child
Prevalence
Lowmalnutrition
of overweight birthweight
children
babies

Exclusive
breastfeeding

2.19

Consumption Vitamin A
of iodized supplemensalt
tation

Prevalence
of anemia

%
% of population
1990–92
2003–05

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

19
<5
24
19
<5
..
<5
<5
<5
11
<5
<5
<5
33
21
<5
20
17
27
<5
<5
15
30
<5
<5
<5
32
45
<5
14
10
7
<5
<5
30
5
59
44
29
21
<5
<5
52
38
15
<5
..
22
18
..
16
28
21
<5
<5
..

12
<5
21
17
<5
..
<5
<5
<5
5
<5
<5
<5
32
32
<5
<5
<5
19
<5
<5
15
40
<5
<5
<5
37
29
<5
11
8
6
<5
<5
29
<5
38
19
19
15
<5
<5
22
29
9
<5
..
23
17
..
11
15
16
<5
<5
..

% of children under age 5
Underweight Stunting
2000–07a 2000–07a

8.6
..
43.5
24.4
..
..
..
..
..
3.1
..
3.6
4.9
16.5
17.8
..
..
2.7
36.4
..
..
16.6
20.4
..
..
1.8
36.8
18.4
..
27.9
30.4
..
3.4
3.2
5.3
9.9
21.2
29.6
17.5
38.8
..
..
7.8
39.9
27.2
..
..
31.3
..
..
..
5.2
20.7
..
..
..

29.9
..
47.9
28.6
..
..
..
..
..
4.5
..
12.0
17.5
35.8
44.7
..
..
18.1
48.2
..
..
45.2
39.4
..
..
11.5
52.8
52.5
..
38.5
39.5
..
15.5
11.3
27.5
23.1
47.0
40.6
29.6
49.3
..
..
25.2
54.8
43.0
..
..
41.5
..
..
..
31.3
33.8
..
..
..

% of children
under age 5
2000–07a

5.8
..
1.9
5.1
..
..
..
..
..
7.5
..
4.7
14.8
5.8
0.9
..
..
10.7
2.7
..
..
6.8
4.2
..
..
16.2
6.2
10.2
..
4.7
3.8
..
7.6
9.1
14.2
13.3
6.3
2.4
4.6
0.6
..
..
7.1
3.5
6.2
..
..
4.8
..
..
..
11.8
2.4
..
..
..

% of births
2002–07a

% of children
under 6 months
2002–07a

% of
households
2002–07a

10
..
28
9
..
..
..
..
..
12
..
12
6
10
7
..
..
5
..
..
..
13
..
..
..
6
17
14
9
19
..
14
8
6
6
15
15
..
..
21
..
..
..
27
14
..
9
..
10
..
9
10
20
..
..
..

30
..
46
40
23
..
..
..
..
15
..
22
17
13
65
..
..
32
..
..
..
36
29
..
..
16
67
57
..
38
..
21
..
46
57
31
30
15
24
53
..
..
..
9
17
..
..
37
..
..
22
63
34
..
..
..

..
..
51
73
99
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
92
..
40
..
..
76
..
..
92
91
..
..
..
94
75
50
..
79
..
..
91
60
83
21
54
60
..
..
..
..
97
46
97
..
..
17
..
..
94
91
45
..
..
..

% of children
Children
Pregnant
6–59 months under age 5
women
a
2007
2000–05
2000–05a

40
..
33
87
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
22
95
..
..
95
83
..
..
85
85
..
..
..
95
90
..
95
95
..
68
..
95
..
48
94
68
95
..
..
95
95
74
..
..
95
4
7
..
..
83
..
..
..

30
19
74
44
35
..
10
12
11
..
11
28
..
..
..
..
32
..
48
27
..
49
..
34
24
..
68
73
32
83
68
..
..
41
21
32
75
63
41
..
9
11
17
81
..
6
..
51
..
60
30
50
36
23
13
..

2009 World Development Indicators

..
21
50
44
..
..
15
17
15
..
15
39
26
..
..
23
31
34
56
25
32
25
..
34
24
32
50
47
38
73
53
..
..
36
37
37
52
50
31
..
13
18
33
66
..
9
43
39
..
55
39
43
44
25
17
..

111

PEOPLE

Nutrition

2.19

Nutrition
Prevalence of
undernourishment

Prevalence of child
Prevalence
Lowmalnutrition
of overweight birthweight
children
babies

Exclusive
breastfeeding

Consumption Vitamin A
of iodized supplemensalt
tation

Prevalence
of anemia

%
% of population
1990–92
2003–05

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

<5
<5
45
<5
28
<5d
45
..
<5
<5
..
<5
<5
27
31
12
<5
<5
<5
34
28
29
18
45
11
<5
<5
9
19
<5
<5
<5
<5
5
5
10
28
..
30
40
40
17 w
31
16
19
6
19
18
7
12
7
25
31
5
5

<5
<5
40
<5
26
<5d
47
..
<5
<5
..
<5
<5
21
21
18
<5
<5
<5
34
35
17
22
37
10
<5
<5
6
15
<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
14
12
14
15
32
45
40
14 w
27
13
14
6
16
11
6
9
7
22
29
5
5

% of children under age 5
Underweight Stunting
2000–07a 2000–07a

3.5
..
18.0
..
14.5
1.8
28.3
3.3
..
..
32.8
..
..
22.8
38.4
9.1
..
..
..
14.9
16.7
7.0
40.6
..
4.4
..
3.5
..
19.0
4.1
..
..
1.3
6.0
4.4
..
20.2
..
..
23.3
14.0
23.2 w
28.0
22.0
24.8
..
24.1
12.8
..
4.4
..
41.1
26.6
..
..

12.8
..
51.7
..
20.1
8.1
46.9
4.4
..
..
42.1
..
..
18.4
47.6
36.6
..
..
..
33.1
44.4
15.7
55.7
..
5.3
..
15.6
..
44.8
22.9
..
..
3.9
13.9
19.6
..
35.8
..
..
52.5
35.8
34.7 w
43.8
31.8
34.9
..
36.0
25.8
..
15.8
..
47.3
44.3
..
..

% of children
under age 5
2000–07a

8.3
..
6.7
..
2.4
19.3
5.9
2.6
..
..
4.7
..
..
1.0
5.2
14.9
..
..
..
6.7
4.9
8.0
5.7
..
4.9
..
9.1
..
4.9
26.5
..
..
8.0
9.4
12.8
..
2.5
..
..
5.9
9.1
5.7 w
4.8
6.1
5.8
..
5.7
7.1
..
7.4
..
2.2
5.8
..
..

% of births
2002–07a

8
6
6
..
19
5
24
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
9
10
10
9
12
12
19
..
..
4
14
4
..
..
8
8
5
9
7
7
..
12
11
14 w
15
15
16
8
15
6
6
9
12
27
14
..
..

% of children
under 6 months
2002–07a

16
..
88
..
34
15
8
..
..
..
9
7
..
..
34
32
..
..
29
25
41
5
31
28
13
..
21
11
60
6
..
..
..
54
26
..
17
27
12
61
22
38 w
33
41
43
..
38
43
..
..
26
44
31
..
..

% of
households
2002–07a

74
35
88
..
41
..
45
..
..
..
1
..
..
94
11
80
..
..
79
46
43
47
58
25
28
..
64
87
96
18
..
..
..
..
53
..
93
86
30
77
91
69 w
61
71
71
72
69
86
50
85
68
51
62
..
..

% of children
Children
Pregnant
6–59 months under age 5
women
a
2007
2000–05
2000–05a

..
..
89
..
94
..
95
..
..
..
89
33
..
64
90
59
..
..
..
92
93
..
57
95
..
..
..
..
64
..
..
..
..
..
84
..
95b
..
47b
95
83
.. w
82
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
50
77
..
..

40
27
..
33
70
..
83
19
23
14
..
..
13
30
85
47
9
6
41
38
72
..
32
52
30
..
33
36
64
22
28
..
3
19
38
33
34
..
68
53
..
.. w
..
..
..
38
..
20
29
..
..
74
..
..
10

30
21
..
32
58
..
60
24
25
19
..
22
18
29
58
24
13
..
39
45
58
..
23
50
30
..
40
30
41
27
28
15
6
27
..
40
32
..
58
..
..
.. w
..
..
..
29
..
29
30
..
..
50
..
13
14

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Country’s vitamin A supplementation programs do not target children all the way up to 59 months of age. c. Includes Hong Kong, China;
Macao, China; and Taiwan, China. d. Includes Montenegro.

112

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

2.19

Definitions

Data on undernourishment are from the Food and

Low birthweight, which is associated with maternal

• Prevalence of undernourishment is the percentage

Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations

malnutrition, raises the risk of infant mortality and

of the population whose dietary energy consump-

and measure food deprivation based on average food

stunts growth in infancy and childhood. There is also

tion is continuously below a minimum requirement

available for human consumption per person, the

emerging evidence that low-birthweight babies are

for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light

level of inequality in access to food, and the mini-

more prone to noncommunicable diseases such as

physical activity with an acceptable minimum weight

mum calories required for an average person.

diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Estimates of

for height. • Prevalence of child malnutrition is the

From a policy and program standpoint, however,

low-birthweight infants are drawn mostly from hos-

percentage of children under age 5 whose weight for

this measure has its limits. First, food insecurity

pital records and household surveys. Many births

age (underweight) or height for age (stunting) is more

exists even where food availability is not a problem

in developing countries take place at home and are

than two standard deviations below the median for

because of inadequate access of poor households

seldom recorded. A hospital birth may indicate higher

the international reference population ages 0–59

to food. Second, food insecurity is an individual

income and therefore better nutrition, or it could indi-

months. Height is measured by recumbent length

or household phenomenon, and the average food

cate a higher risk birth, possibly skewing the data on

for children up to two years old and by stature while

available to each person, even corrected for possible

birthweights downward. The data should therefore be

standing for older children. Data are for the WHO child

effects of low income, is not a good predictor of food

used with caution.

growth standards released in 2006. • Prevalence of

insecurity among the population. And third, nutrition

Improved breastfeeding can save an estimated 1.3

over weight children is the percentage of children

security is determined not only by food security but

million children a year. Breast milk alone contains

under age 5 whose weight for height is more than

also by the quality of care of mothers and children

all the nutrients, antibodies, hormones, and antioxi-

two standard deviations above the median for the

and the quality of the household’s health environ-

dants an infant needs to thrive. It protects babies

international reference population of the correspond-

ment (Smith and Haddad 2000).

from diarrhea and acute respiratory infections, stimu-

ing age as established by the WHO child growth stan-

Estimates of child malnutrition, based on weight for

lates their immune systems and response to vaccina-

dards released in 2006. • Low-birthweight babies

age (underweight) and height for age (stunting), are

tion, and may confer cognitive benefits. The data on

are the percentage of newborns weighing less than

from national survey data. The proportion of under-

breastfeeding are derived from national surveys.

2.5 kilograms within the first hours of life, before sig-

weight children is the most common malnutrition

Iodine defi ciency is the single most important

nificant postnatal weight loss has occurred. • Exclu-

indicator. Being even mildly underweight increases

cause of preventable mental retardation, and it

sive breastfeeding is the percentage of children less

the risk of death and inhibits cognitive development

contributes significantly to the risk of stillbirth and

than six months old who were fed breast milk alone

in children. And it perpetuates the problem across

miscarriage. Widely used and inexpensive, iodized

(no other liquids) in the past 24 hours. • Consump-

generations, as malnourished women are more

salt is the best source of iodine, and a global cam-

tion of iodized salt is the percentage of households

likely to have low-birthweight babies. Height for age

paign to iodize edible salt is significantly reducing the

that use edible salt fortified with iodine. • Vitamin A

reflects linear growth achieved pre- and postnatally;

risks (www.childinfo.org). The data on iodized salt are

supplementation is the percentage of children ages

a deficit indicates long-term, cumulative effects of

derived from household surveys.

6–59 months old who received at least one dose of

inadequate health, diet, or care. Stunting is often

Vitamin A is essential for immune system function-

vitamin A in the previous six months, as reported by

used as a proxy for multifaceted deprivation and as

ing. Vitamin A deficiency, a leading cause of blind-

mothers. • Prevalence of anemia, children under

an indicator of long-term changes in malnutrition.

ness, also causes a 23 percent greater risk of dying

age 5, is the percentage of children under age 5

Estimates of overweight children are also from

from a range of childhood ailments such as measles,

whose hemoglobin level is less than 110 grams per

national survey data. Overweight children have

malaria, and diarrhea. Giving vitamin A to new breast-

liter at sea level. • Prevalence of anemia, pregnant

become a growing concern in developing countries.

feeding mothers helps protect their children during

women, is the percentage of pregnant women whose

Research shows an association between childhood

the first months of life. Food fortification with vitamin

hemoglobin level is less than 110 grams per liter

obesity and a high prevalence of diabetes, respiratory

A is being introduced in many developing countries.

at sea level.

disease, high blood pressure, and psychosocial and

Data on anemia are compiled by the WHO based

orthopedic disorders (de Onis and Blössner 2000).

mainly on nationally representative surveys between

New international growth reference standards for

1993 and 2005, which measured hemoglobin in the

infants and young children were released in 2006 by

blood. WHO’s hemoglobin thresholds were then used

Data on undernourishment are from ww.fao.org/

the World Health Organization (WHO) to monitor chil-

to determine anemia status based on age, sex, and

faostat/foodsecurity/index_en.htm. Data on

dren’s nutritional status. They are also key in moni-

physiological status. Children under age 5 and preg-

malnutrition and overweight children are from

toring health targets for the Millennium Development

nant women have the highest risk for anemia. Data

the WHO’s Global Database on Child Growth and

Goals. Differences in growth to age 5 are influenced

should be used with caution because surveys dif-

Malnutrition (www.who.int/nutgrowthdb). Data on

more by nutrition, feeding practices, environment,

fer in quality, coverage, age group interviewed, and

low-birthweight babies, breastfeeding, iodized salt

and healthcare than by genetics or ethnicity. The

treatment of missing values across countries and

consumption, and vitamin A supplementation are

previously reported data were based on the U.S.

over time.

from the United Nations Children’s Fund’s State of

Data sources

National Center for Health Statistics–WHO growth

For indicators from household surveys, the year in

the World’s Children 2009 and Childinfo. Data on

reference. Because of the change in standards, the

the table refers to the survey year. For more informa-

anemia are from the WHO’s Worldwide Prevalence

data in this edition should not be compared with data

tion, consult the original sources.

of Anemia 1993–2005 (2008).

in editions prior to 2008.

2009 World Development Indicators

113

PEOPLE

Nutrition

2.20

Health risk factors and future challenges
Prevalence
of smoking

% of adults
Male
2008

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

114

..
41
27
..
34
55
28
46
..
43
64
30
..
34
49
..
20
48
14
16
38
10
19
..
13
42
60
22
27
11
10
26
12
39
36
37
36
16
24
25
22
16
50
7
32
37
..
17
57
37
7
64
25
..
..
..

Female
2008

..
4
0b
..
24
4
22
40
1
1
21
24
..
26
35
..
13
28
1
11
6
1
18
..
1
31
4
4
11
1
0b
7
1
29
26
25
31
11
6
1
3
1
28
1
24
27
..
1
6
26
1
40
4
9
..
4

2009 World Development Indicators

Incidence of Prevalence
tuberculosis of diabetes

Prevalence of HIV

Total
% of population
ages 15–49

Female
% of total
population
with HIV

per
100,000
people

% of
population
ages 20–79

2007

2007

1990

2007

..
17
57
287
31
72
6
12
77
223
61
12
91
155
51
731
48
39
226
367
495
192
5
345
299
12
98
62
35
392
403
11
420
40
6
9
8
69
101
21
40
95
38
378
6
14
406
258
84
6
203
18
63
287
220
306

..
4.5
8.4
3.3
5.6
7.7
5.0
7.9
7.3
5.3
7.6
5.2
4.4
5.8
7.0
5.2
6.2
7.6
3.7
1.7
5.0
3.7
7.4
4.4
3.6
5.6
4.1
8.2
5.0
3.0
5.0
9.3
4.6
7.1
9.3
7.6
5.5
8.7
5.7
11.0
9.0
2.3
7.6
2.3
5.9
5.9
4.9
4.1
7.4
7.9
4.2
5.9
8.6
4.1
3.8
9.0

..
..
..
0.3
0.2
..
0.1
<0.1
..
..
..
0.1
0.1
0.1
..
4.7
0.4
..
1.9
1.7
0.7
0.8
0.2
1.8
0.7
<0.1
..
..
0.1
..
5.1
0.1
2.2
..
..
..
0.1
0.6
0.1
..
0.1
0.1
..
0.7
..
0.1
0.9
..
..
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.2
1.2

..
..
..
..
..
..
0.1
25.0
28.6
2.1
60.9
61.1
0.5
25.0
26.7
0.1
<27.8 <41.7
0.2
<7.1
6.7
0.2
27.3
29.6
0.2
..
16.7
..
..
16.7
0.2
27.5
30.0
0.2
26.2
27.3
1.2
63.3
62.7
0.2
24.6
27.8
<0.1
..
..
23.9
59.3
60.7
0.6
34.4
33.8
..
..
..
1.6
45.4
50.8
2.0
59.2
58.9
0.8
25.8
28.6
5.1
61.2
60.0
0.4
26.5
27.4
6.3
66.7
65.0
3.5
60.7
61.1
0.3
26.0
28.1
25.5c
29.0 c
0.1c
..
..
..
0.6
26.9
29.4
..
..
..
3.5
58.4
58.9
0.4
27.5
28.1
3.9
58.2
59.5
<0.1
..
..
0.1 <43.5
29.0
.. <38.5 <33.3
0.2
..
22.9
1.1
54.0
50.8
0.3
25.8
28.4
..
26.8
28.9
0.8
25.7
28.5
1.3
60.0
60.0
1.3 <28.6
24.2
2.1
59.5
59.6
0.1 <50.0 <41.7
0.4
25.0
27.1
5.9
58.3
58.7
0.9
59.0
60.0
0.1
20.0
37.0
0.1
27.3
28.8
1.9
58.3
60.0
0.2
26.5
27.3
0.8
97.9
98.1
1.6
59.6
59.3
1.8
59.2
58.0
2.2
45.7
52.7

2001

2007

Condom use

Youth
% of population
ages 15–24

% of population
ages 15–24

Male
2007

Female
2007

Male
2000–07a

Female
2000–07a

..
..
0.1
0.2
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
..
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
..
5.1
1.0
..
0.5
0.4
0.8
1.2
0.4
1.1
2.0
0.3
0.1c
..
0.7
..
0.8
0.4
0.8
..
0.1
<0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
..
0.9
0.3
1.6
0.5
0.1
0.4
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.2
..
0.4
0.4
0.6

..
..
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.1
..
0.1
0.1
0.9
0.1
..
15.3
0.6
..
0.9
1.3
0.3
4.3
0.2
5.5
2.8
0.2
0.1c
..
0.3
..
2.3
0.2
2.4
..
0.1
..
0.1
0.6
0.2
..
0.5
0.9
0.7
1.5
<0.1
0.2
3.9
0.6
0.1
0.1
1.3
0.1
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.4

..
..
..
..
..
32
..
..
25
..
..
..
39
29
..
..
..
..
54
..
31
52
..
..
18
..
..
..
..
..
36
..
..
..
..
..
..
58
..
..
..
..
..
18
..
..
..
..
..
..
45
..
..
35
..
28

..
..
..
..
..
7
..
..
1
..
..
..
10
10
..
..
..
..
17
..
3
24
..
..
7
..
..
..
23
..
16
..
..
..
..
..
..
19
..
..
..
2
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
19
..
..
10
..
20

Prevalence
of smoking

% of adults
Male
2008

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

..
46
28
62
24
..
27
31
33
19
44
62
43
24
59
53
34
47
61
54
29
48
..
32
45
40
..
19
51
14
16
36
37
46
46
26
20
44
36
29
38
30
..
41
9
34
24
30
52
46
33
43
39
44
41
..

Female
2008

3
34
1
4
2
..
26
18
19
8
14
10
10
1
..
6
2
2
14
24
7
34
..
2
21
32
..
2
3
1
1
1
12
6
7
0b
2
12
9
26
30
28
5
11
0b
30
0b
3
20
28
14
23
9
27
31
..

Incidence of Prevalence
tuberculosis of diabetes

Prevalence of HIV

Total
% of population
ages 15–49

Female
% of total
population
with HIV

2.20
Condom use

Youth
% of population
ages 15–24

% of population
ages 15–24

per
100,000
people

% of
population
ages 20–79

2007

2007

1990

2007

2001

2007

Male
2007

Female
2007

Male
2000–07a

Female
2000–07a

59
17
168
228
22
..
13
8
7
7
21
7
129
353
344
90
24
121
151
53
19
637
277
17
68
29
251
346
103
319
318
22
20
141
205
92
431
171
767
173
8
7
49
174
311
6
13
181
47
250
58
126
290
25
30
4

9.1
7.6
6.7
2.3
7.8
..
5.1
6.9
5.8
10.3
4.9
9.8
5.6
3.3
5.2
7.8
14.4
5.1
3.1
7.6
7.7
3.8
4.6
4.4
7.6
7.1
3.0
2.1
10.7
4.1
4.6
11.1
10.6
7.6
1.9
8.1
3.7
3.2
4.2
4.2
5.2
6.4
10.1
3.7
4.5
3.6
13.1
9.6
9.7
2.9
4.8
6.0
7.6
7.6
5.7
10.7

1.3
..
0.1
..
..
..
..
<0.1
0.4
0.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
<0.1
0.8
0.4
..
..
..
..
2.1
0.1
0.2
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
..
..
..
1.4
0.4
1.2
<0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
0.1
0.7
<0.1
..
..
0.4
..
<0.1
0.1
..
..
0.2
..

0.7
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
..
0.2
0.1
0.4
1.6
..
..
0.1
..
..
<0.1
..
0.1
0.2
0.8
0.1
23.2
1.7
..
0.1
<0.1
0.1
11.9
0.5
1.5
0.8
1.7
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.1
12.5
0.7
15.3
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.8
3.1
0.1
..
0.1
1.0
1.5
0.6
0.5
..
0.1
0.5
..

25.7
<35.7
38.5
10.8
26.7
..
26.1
60.0
25.7
26.4
22.2
..
<29.4
..
..
26.5
..
<50
<45.5
<23.8
<45.5
58.3
59.1
..
<35.7
..
23.8
56.4
23.3
60.5
25.8
<27.8
27.1
<50.0
..
27.5
59.4
33.4
60.7
21.8
25.6
<16.7
25.6
29.3
60.0
<41.7
..
26.0
26.9
34.7
26.4
26.8
<50
26.0
26.6
..

28.5
<30.3
38.3
20.0
28.2
..
27.3
59.2
27.3
29.2
24.0
..
27.5
..
..
27.7
..
26.2
24.1
27.0
<33.3
57.7
59.4
..
<45.5
..
26.2
58.3
26.6
60.2
27.9
29.2
28.5
29.5
<20.0
28.1
57.9
41.7
61.1
25.0
27.2
<35.7
28.0
30.4
58.3
<33.3
..
28.7
28.9
39.6
29.0
28.4
26.8
28.9
27.6
..

0.7
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.2
..
0.2
<0.1
0.4
1.7
..
..
0.2
..
..
<0.1
..
0.2
0.2
0.9
0.1
5.9
0.4
..
0.1
..
0.2
2.4
0.6
0.4
0.9
1.8
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.1
2.9
0.7
3.4
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.9
0.8
0.1
..
0.1
1.1
0.6
0.7
0.5
..
0.1
0.5
..

0.4
<0.1
0.3
0.1
0.1
..
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.9
..
..
0.1
..
..
<0.1
..
0.1
0.1
0.5
0.1
14.9
1.3
..
0.1
..
0.1
8.4
0.3
1.1
0.5
1.0
0.2
0.2
..
0.1
8.5
0.6
10.3
0.3
0.1
..
0.1
0.5
2.3
0.1
..
0.1
0.6
0.7
0.3
0.3
..
0.1
0.3
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
44
19
..
..
..
8
32
..
29
..
..
..
55
..
..
27
..
65
24
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
13
..
..
..

7
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26
9
..
..
..
2
9
..
4
..
..
..
22
..
..
12
..
42
8
..
..
7
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
9
3
..
..
..

2009 World Development Indicators

115

PEOPLE

Health risk factors and future challenges

2.20

Health risk factors and future challenges
Prevalence
of smoking

% of adults
Male
2008

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

41
70
..
25
14
44 d
32
26
42
32
..
25
36
25
24
13
20
31
43
..
21
37
26
..
32
47
52
27
18
64
26
37
26
37
24
33
43
41
77
18
21
40 w
29
44
44
41
41
57
56
29
31
30
15
34
37

Female
2008

25
27
8
3
1
44 d
4
5
20
21
..
8
31
0b
2
3
25
22
..
..
2
3
1
..
6
1
19
1
2
23
2
35
22
28
1
27
2
3
29
2
2
8w
4
6
3
18
6
4
21
15
3
2
2
22
27

Incidence of Prevalence
tuberculosis of diabetes

Prevalence of HIV

Total
% of population
ages 15–49

per
100,000
people

% of
population
ages 20–79

2007

2007

1990

2007

7.6
7.6
1.5
16.7
4.6
7.1d
4.3
10.1
7.6
7.6
2.8
4.4
5.7
8.4
4.0
4.0
5.2
7.9
10.6
4.9
2.9
6.9
1.7
4.1
11.5
5.2
7.8
5.2
2.0
7.6
19.5
2.9
7.8
5.6
5.1
5.4
2.9
8.4
2.9
3.8
4.0
5.8 w
4.7
5.9
5.5
7.4
5.6
4.2
7.3
7.1
8.6
6.9
3.6
6.8
6.4

..
..
9.2
..
0.1
<0.1
0.2
..
..
..
<0.1
0.8
0.4
..
0.8
0.9
0.1
0.4
..
..
4.8
1.0
..
0.7
0.2
..
..
..
13.7
..
..
<0.1
0.5
0.1
..
..
0.1
..
..
8.9
14.2
0.3 w
1.5
0.1
0.1
..
0.4
0.1
..
0.3
..
0.1
2.1
0.3
0.2

0.1
1.1
2.8
..
1.0
0.1
1.7
0.2
<0.1
<0.1
0.5
18.1
0.5
..
1.4
26.1
0.1
0.6
..
0.3
6.2
1.4
..
3.3
1.5
0.1
..
<0.1
5.4
1.6
..
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.1
..
0.5
..
..
15.2
15.3
0.8 w
2.1
0.6
0.3
1.7
0.9
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.1
0.3
5.0
0.3
0.3

115
110
397
46
272
32
574
27
17
13
249
948
30
60
243
1,198
6
6
24
231
297
142
322
429
11
26
30
68
330
102
16
15
4
22
113
34
171
20
76
506
782
139 w
269
129
134
108
162
136
84
50
41
174
369
16
13

Female
% of total
population
with HIV
2001

50.7
50.0
22.1
25.5
60.6
60.0
..
..
60.9
59.4
25.5
28.1
59.4
58.8
<34.5
29.3
..
..
..
..
26.5
27.9
58.7
59.3
20.8
20.0
<33.3
37.8
56.0
58.6
60.7
58.8
43.4
46.8
33.2
36.8
..
..
<20.8
21.0
61.7
58.5
36.9
41.7
..
..
61.0
57.5
57.5
59.2
<45.5
27.8
..
..
..
..
58.9
59.3
35.7
44.2
..
..
..
..
18.0
20.9
25.4
28.0
<35.7
28.8
..
..
24.7
27.1
..
..
..
..
54.7
57.1
58.8
56.7
30.8 w 32.9 w
37.5
40.6
30.8
32.6
30.7
32.7
31.1
32.2
32.1
34.2
25.4
28.5
28.6
30.5
32.1
32.8
28.0
28.6
32.9
34.6
57.0
56.9
23.3
24.9
25.8
26.9

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Less than 0.5. c. Includes Hong Kong, China. d. Includes Montenegro.

116

2009 World Development Indicators

2007

Condom use

Youth
% of population
ages 15–24
Male
2007

0.2
1.3
0.5
..
0.3
0.1
0.4
0.2
..
..
0.6
4.0
0.6
<0.1
0.3
5.8
0.1
0.4
..
0.4
0.5
1.2
..
0.8
0.3
0.1
..
..
1.3
1.5
..
..
0.7
0.6
0.1
..
0.6
..
..
3.6
2.9
0.5 w
0.7
0.4
0.3
1.0
0.5
0.2
0.8
0.7
..
0.3
1.1
0.5
0.3

Female
2007

0.2
0.6
1.4
..
0.8
0.1
1.3
0.1
..
..
0.3
12.7
0.2
..
1.0
22.6
0.1
0.5
..
0.1
0.9
1.2
..
2.4
1.0
<0.1
..
..
3.9
1.5
..
..
0.3
0.3
0.1
..
0.3
..
..
11.3
7.7
0.7 w
1.6
0.5
0.3
1.4
0.8
0.2
0.5
0.4
..
0.3
3.3
0.2
0.2

% of population
ages 15–24
Male
2000–07a

Female
2000–07a

..
..
19
..
48
..
..
..
..
..
..
57
..
..
..
66
..
..
..
..
36
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
18
..
16
..
..
36
52

..
..
5
..
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
46
..
..
..
44
..
..
..
..
13
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
15
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
8
..
..
19
9

About the data

2.20

Definitions

The limited availability of data on health status is a

occur in young adults, with young women especially

• Prevalence of smoking is the percentage of men

major constraint in assessing the health situation in

vulnerable.

and women who smoke cigarettes. The age range var-

developing countries. Surveillance data are lacking

The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

ies, but in most countries is 18 and older or 15 and

for many major public health concerns. Estimates

(UNAIDS) and the WHO estimate HIV prevalence from

older. • Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated

of prevalence and incidence are available for some

sentinel surveillance, population-based surveys, and

number of new tuberculosis cases (pulmonary, smear

diseases but are often unreliable and incomplete.

special studies. The estimates in the table are more

positive, extrapulmonary). • Prevalence of diabetes

National health authorities differ widely in capacity

reliable than previous estimates because of expanded

refers to the percentage of people ages 20–79 who

and willingness to collect or report information. To

sentinel surveillance and improved data quality. Find-

have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. • Prevalence of HIV

compensate for this and improve reliability and inter-

ings from population-based HIV surveys, which are

is the percentage of people who are infected with

national comparability, the World Health Organization

geographically more representative than sentinel sur-

HIV. Total and youth rates are percentages of the

(WHO) prepares estimates in accordance with epide-

veillance and include both men and women, influenced

relevant age group. Female rate is as a percentage

miological models and statistical standards.

a downward adjustment to prevalence rates based on

of the total population with HIV. • Condom use is the

Smoking is the most common form of tobacco use

sentinel surveillance. And assumptions about the aver-

percentage of the population ages 15–24 who used a

and the prevalence of smoking is therefore a good

age time people living with HIV survive without antiret-

condom at last intercourse in the last 12 months.

measure of the tobacco epidemic (Corrao and others

roviral treatment were improved in the most recent

2000). Tobacco use causes heart and other vascular

model. Thus, estimates in this edition should not be

diseases and cancers of the lung and other organs.

compared with estimates in previous editions.

Given the long delay between starting to smoke and

Estimates from recent Demographic and Health

the onset of disease, the health impact of smoking

Surveys that have collected data on HIV/AIDS dif-

in developing countries will increase rapidly only in

fer somewhat from those of UNAIDS and the WHO,

the next few decades. Because the data present a

which are based on surveillance systems that focus

one-time estimate, with no information on intensity

on pregnant women who attend sentinel antenatal

or duration of smoking, and because the definition of

clinics. Caution should be used in comparing the

adult varies, the data should be used with caution.

two sets of estimates. Demographic and Health Sur-

Tuberculosis is one of the main causes of adult

veys are household surveys that use a representative

deaths from a single infectious agent in developing

sample from the whole population, whereas surveil-

countries. In developed countries tuberculosis has

lance data from antenatal clinics are limited to preg-

reemerged largely as a result of cases among immi-

nant women. Household surveys also frequently pro-

grants. The estimates of tuberculosis incidence in

vide better coverage of rural populations. However,

the table are based on an approach in which reported

respondents who refuse to participate or are absent

cases are adjusted using the ratio of case notifi -

from the household add considerable uncertainty to

cations to the estimated share of cases detected

survey-based HIV estimates, because the possible

by panels of 80 epidemiologists convened by the

association of absence or refusal with higher HIV

WHO.

prevalence is unknown. UNAIDS and the WHO esti-

Diabetes, an important cause of ill health and a

mate HIV prevalence for the adult population (ages

risk factor for other diseases in developed countries,

15–49) by assuming that prevalence among pregnant

is spreading rapidly in developing countries. Highest

women is a good approximation of prevalence among

among the elderly, prevalence rates are rising among

men and women. However, this assumption might not

younger and productive populations in developing

apply to all countries or over time. Other potential

countries. Economic development has led to the

biases are associated with the use of antenatal clinic

spread of Western lifestyles and diet to develop-

data, such as differences among women who attend

ing countries, resulting in a substantial increase in

antenatal clinics and those who do not.

Data sources
Data on smoking are from Omar Shafey, Michael

diabetes. Without effective prevention and control

Data on condom use are from household surveys

Eriksen, Hana Ross, and Judith Mackay’s Tobacco

programs, diabetes will likely continue to increase.

and refer to condom use at last intercourse. How-

Atlas, 3rd edition (2009). Data on tuberculosis are

Data are estimated based on sample surveys.

ever, condoms are not as effective at preventing the

from the WHO’s Global Tuberculosis Control Report

Adult HIV prevalence rates reflect the rate of HIV

transmission of HIV unless used consistently. Some

2009. Data on diabetes are from the International

infection in each country’s population. Low national

surveys have asked directly about consistent use,

Diabetes Federation’s Diabetes Atlas, 3rd edition.

prevalence rates can be misleading, however. They

but the question is subject to recall and other biases.

Data on prevalence of HIV are from UNAIDS and

often disguise epidemics that are initially concen-

Caution should be used in interpreting the data.

the WHO’s 2008 Report on the Global AIDS Epi-

trated in certain localities or population groups and

For indicators from household surveys, the year in

threaten to spill over into the wider population. In

the table refers to the survey year. For more informa-

many developing countries most new infections

tion, consult the original sources.

demic. Data on condom use are from Demographic
and Health Surveys by Macro International.

2009 World Development Indicators

117

PEOPLE

Health risk factors and future challenges

2.21

Health gaps by income and gender
Survey
year

Prevalence of
child malnutrition

Child
immunization rate

Moderate underweight
% of children under age 5

% of children
ages 12–23 monthsa

New reference

Armenia
Bangladesh
Benin
Bolivia
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Colombia
Comores
Côte d’Ivoire
Dominican Republic
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
India
Indonesia
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Rwanda
Senegal
South Africa
Tanzania
Togo
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Uzbekistan
Vietnam
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2000
2004
2001
2003
1996
2003
2000
2004
1994–95
2004
2005
1996
1994
2002
2000
1995
2000
2000
2003
1998–99
1999
2000
1998–99
2002–03
1997
1999
2003
1997
1997
2000
2001
2000–01
2003–04
2003
2000
2001
2001
1998
2003
1990–91
1990
2000
2003
2000
1997
1998
2004
1998
1998
2000
2000–01
1996
2002
1997
2001–02
1999

Old reference

Measles

Poorest
quintile

Richest
quintile

Poorest
quintile

Richest
quintile

Poorest
quintile

3
36
18
7
7
19
27
..
20
24
7
15
17
7
4
..
25
10
17
21
17
14
28
..
..
3
17
6
24
18
20
18
11
16
17
34
9
27
20
28
3
9
..
15
..
..
14
17
..
..
16
11
..
..
18
10

2
19
6
1
2
13
23
..
11
16
2
12
7
1
2
..
22
4
6
9
9
4
16
..
..
5
6
5
18
9
10
11
2
5
6
20
2
18
9
14
1
1
..
8
..
..
8
8
..
..
7
8
..
..
12
5

3
41
21
10
10
26
35
..
25
27
11
22
21
9
5
..
32
14
22
26
22
18
33
..
..
5
22
10
29
24
26
23
13
21
22
40
13
30
24
33
5
13
..
19
..
..
20
23
..
..
21
15
..
36
24
16

1
24
9
1
3
16
28
..
15
19
3
14
10
1
2
..
29
7
10
10
13
6
21
..
..
6
7
7
24
12
13
15
3
7
9
26
2
26
10
19
1
1
..
12
..
..
11
10
..
..
10
10
..
24
17
6

68
60
57
62
78
48
44
57
31
8
70
51
31
83
95
37
18
34
74
80
33
43
28
59
90
74
54
82
32
80
40
42
83
61
76
61
76
23
16
28
48
81
70
84
..
74
65
35
64
91
49
96
64
16
81
80

Infant
mortality rate

DTP3

Richest
quintile

74b
91
83
74
90
71
82
86
80
38
91
86
79
94
99
92
52
71
88
91
73
63
81
85
93
76b
88
81
79
90
77
86
98
96
86
83
94
66
71
75
69
92
89
89
..
85
91
63
89
80
65
93
98
73
88
86

Poorest
quintile

89
71
63
64
66
45
39
55
27
5
73
58
26
46
94
30
14
18
64
74
30
31
36
42
98
90
56
82
32
79
28
18
89
52
76
62
77
9
7
24
40
76
64
80
..
64
34
29
45
97
35
89
53
14
74
81

per 1,000 live births

Richest
quintile

84b
91
89
85
82
73
75
86
76
42
91
92
74
66
93
89
43
49
87
76
69
58
85
72
93
82b
73
87
81
93
71
61
98
96
83
85
83
68
61
64
69
93
92
89
..
85
36
68
81
86
55
82
94
71
89
86

2009 World Development Indicators

per 1,000

Poorest
quintile

Richest
quintile

Poorest
quintile

Richest
quintile

52
90
112
87
83
97
110
101
132
109
32
87
117
50
76
74
93
57
61
58
119
100
97
61
35
68
96
83
119
132
137
61
62
143
36
86
50
131
133
89
43
64
42
139
85
62
88
84
68
89
106
54
39
109
115
59

27
65
50
32
29
78
50
52
54
101
14
65
63
20
30
68
95
36
58
39
70
97
38
17
23
42
62
46
58
86
90
62
24
71
23
53
16
86
52
63
16
14
19
88
45
17
64
66
30
58
60
46
14
60
57
44

61
121
198
119
99
206
155
189
193
176
39
129
190
66
98
152
159
93
128
78
230
164
141
77
42
82
149
96
195
231
248
98
78
196
55
130
64
282
257
125
57
93
66
246
181
87
137
168
85
106
192
70
53
163
192
100

30
71
93
37
33
144
64
88
98
187
16
87b
97
22
34
104
147
55
88
39
133
109
46
22
25
45
91
49
101
149
148
79
26
108
31
68
19
184
79
74
20
18
21
154
70
22
93
97
33
70
106
50
16
73
92
62

a. Refers to children who were immunized at any time before the survey. b. The data contain large sampling errors because of the small number of cases.

118

Under-five
mortality rate

Survey
year

Armenia
Bangladesh
Benin
Bolivia
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Colombia
Comores
Côte d’Ivoire
Dominican Republic
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
India
Indonesia
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Rwanda
Senegal
South Africa
Tanzania
Togo
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Uzbekistan
Vietnam
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2000
2004
2001
2003
1996
2003
2000
2004
1994–95
2004
2005
1996
1994
2002
2000
1995
2000
2000
2003
1998–99
1999
2000
1998–99
2002–03
1997
1999
2003
1997
1997
2000
2001
2000–01
2003–04
2003
2000
2001
2001
1998
2003
1990–91
1990
2000
2003
2000
1997
1998
2004
1998
1998
2000
2000–01
1996
2002
1997
2001–02
1999

Prevalence of child
malnutrition

Child
immunization rate

Old reference
Moderate underweight
% of children
under age 5

% of children
ages 12–23 monthsa
Measles

Infant
mortality rate

DTP3

2.21
Under-five
mortality rate

per 1,000 live births

per 1,000

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

2
34
19
6
6
25
32
14
21
23
6
19
19
5
4
26
32
10
17
21
17
14
28
..
4
4
18
11
27
20
24
22
9
18
19
35
9
29
19
27
3
6
..
19
..
..
18
19
7
11
18
15
..
33
21
12

3
35
17
6
5
23
33
15
19
23
6
17
16
5
3
27
31
9
17
18
19
13
30
..
5
4
14
8
27
19
21
22
8
17
18
36
7
30
20
27
4
6
..
19
..
..
18
18
7
10
17
13
..
30
21
11

71
76
69
65
87
54
57
65
52
23
83
63
54
89
97
52
28
55
82
82
52
54
52
73
90
79
73
84
47
83
49
61
88
77
79
73
87
36
34
55
56
84
78
86
..
84
80
45
79
87
56
91
84
45
83
77

79
76
67
63
87
58
54
66
53
23
82
64
52
88
97
50
26
55
83
87
52
54
50
71
90
78
72
85
45
83
48
63
92
76
82
69
86
34
38
46
61
85
81
88
..
81
80
40
78
88
57
92
82
40
86
81

90
81
74
70
82
57
50
65
49
20
84
68
49
54
94
49
22
40
81
73
46
43
56
58
96
89
71
83
48
84
41
39
95
73
78
74
84
25
19
45
50
85
78
85
..
74
37
43
60
93
45
87
72
41
78
80

89
81
71
73
80
57
47
68
46
21
81
69
45
61
94
49
19
33
77
74
47
43
54
59
96
88
74
81
49
85
38
41
95
71
81
70
81
25
24
40
57
84
80
87
..
78
33
41
57
92
48
90
73
39
82
82

46
80
98
71
52
95
103
88
109
122
26
93
99
38
55
82
124
74
70
50
112
97
75
46
34
62
84
72
109
117
136
74
51
127
45
79
39
141
116
102
39
46
35
123
74
49
83
89
51
83
93
50
25
98
95
63

42
64
92
64
44
89
82
74
94
108
18
75
83
31
55
69
101
49
59
48
101
83
71
40
23
47
67
60
90
108
116
59
37
120
34
75
32
131
102
86
33
40
25
112
65
35
82
71
46
60
85
37
25
80
93
56

51
102
162
94
60
195
133
154
165
207
30
122
163
46
69
163
197
103
111
64
202
143
98
58
38
72
122
81
176
207
250
110
59
181
67
105
48
299
222
122
49
64
48
215
144
66
135
156
61
101
164
65
34
128
176
95

45
91
163
91
53
192
110
141
152
198
21
103
137
40
70
141
178
80
108
65
188
132
105
51
30
53
103
70
152
199
226
94
48
176
54
112
41
306
212
119
45
57
34
198
134
48
130
132
58
76
149
46
31
114
160
85

a. Refers to children who were immunized at any timebefore the survey.

2009 World Development Indicators

119

PEOPLE

Health gaps by income and gender

2.21

Health gaps by income and gender
Survey
year

Pregnant women
receiving
prenatal care

Contraceptive
prevalence
rate

%

modern methods
% of married women
ages 15–49

Poorest
quintile

Armenia
Bangladesh
Benin
Bolivia
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Colombia
Comoros
Côte d’Ivoire
Dominican Republic
Egypt, Arab Rep.
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
India
Indonesia
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Rwanda
Senegal
South Africa
Tanzania
Togo
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Uzbekistan
Vietnam
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2000
2004
2001
2003
1996
2003
2000
2004
1994–95
2004
2005
1996
1994
2002
2000
1995
2000
2000
2003
1998–99
1999
2000
1998–99
2002–03
1997
1999
2003
1997
1997
2000
2001
2000–01
2003–04
2003
2000
2001
2001
1998
2003
1990–91
1990
2000
2003
2000
1997
1998
2004
1998
1998
2000
2000–01
1996
2002
1997
2001–02
1999

85
25
73
62
72
56
22
65
39
9
84
67
62
97
31
34
15
85
83
37
58
65
44
78
93
97
75
96
67
89
42
33
40
67
81
30
69
24
37
8
73
41
72
90
67
96
91
69
38
98
88
93
68
17
89
94

Richest
quintile

97
81
100
98
98
96
80
97
91
77
99
95
98
99
84
90
60
98
98
97
97
91
93
99
97
91
94
99
96
98
92
89
93
98
96
80
97
85
96
72
98
74
97
95
97
94
97
97
96
97
98
96
100
68
99
97

Births attended by
skilled health staffa

Total fertility
rate

Exclusive
breastfeeding

% of total

births per woman

% of children
under 4 months

Poorest
quintile

Richest
quintile

Poorest
quintile

16
45
4
23
56
2
13
2
1
0
60
7
1
59
43
0c
3
6
9
5
1
17
29
49
28
49
12
44
2
20
4
0c
51
14
29
24
50
1
4
1
21
37
24
2
1
34
11
3
24
51
11
46
58
1
11
41

29
50
15
49
77
27
25
27
9
7
72
19
13
70
61
19
23
18
26
60
9
24
55
58
47
55
44
54
24
40
18
17
57
37
64
55
71
18
21
23
46
58
35
15
24
70
36
13
48
50
41
52
52
24
53
67

93
3
50
27
72
19
15
29
14
1
72
26
17
94
31
5
1
67
21
9
12
4
16
40
91
99
17
96
30
43
22
15
29
25
55
4
78
4
13
5
41
13
25
17
20
68
31
25
53
97
20
92
58
7
20
57

Richest
quintile

100
39
99
98
99
84
81
95
82
51
99
85
84
100
94
74
25
97
90
92
82
70
84
94
99
99
75
100
89
83
89
93
95
89
97
45
99
63
85
55
98
88
92
60
86
98
87
91
98
98
77
100
100
50
91
94

Poorest
quintile

2.5
4.1
7.2
6.7
4.8
6.6
4.7
6.5
5.1
5.1
4.1
6.4
6.4
4.5
4.0
8.0
6.3
6.3
6.4
7.6
5.8
6.8
3.4
3.0
5.2
3.4
7.6
4.6
8.1
7.1
7.3
5.4
3.3
6.3
6.0
5.3
5.6
8.4
6.5
5.1
7.9
5.5
5.9
6.0
7.4
4.8
7.3
7.3
3.9
3.4
8.5
4.4
2.2
7.3
7.3
4.9

Richest
quintile

1.6
2.2
3.5
2.0
1.7
3.6
2.2
3.2
4.9
6.0
1.4
3.0
3.7
2.1
2.9
3.7
3.6
3.0
2.8
2.9
4.0
2.7
1.8
2.2
3.1
1.2
3.1
2.0
3.4
4.8
5.3
3.5
1.9
3.8
2.7
2.3
2.1
5.7
4.2
4.0
2.7
1.6
2.0
5.4
3.6
1.9
3.3
2.9
1.7
2.1
4.1
2.2
1.4
4.7
3.6
2.6

a. Based on births in the fi ve years before the survey. b. The data contain large sampling errors because of the small number of cases. c. Less than 0.5.

120

2009 World Development Indicators

Poorest
quintile

Richest
quintile

..
62
50
79
33
17
14
33
9
1
60
3b
0
18
72
64
63
6
62b
62
9
40
64
58
14
..
22
18b
57
53
38
28
53
47
100 b
76
53
1
15
36
7
88
60
89
13
15
58
7
10
11
73
..
18
20
39
36

..
31
42b
31
60 b
28
18
30 b
4
2
64
..
5
6
57
73
46
5b
..
..
8
15b
37
35
14b
..
17
..
65
72
18
30
36
27
85b
67
15b
3
34
9
0
59
20
79
19
11b
55
34
4b
28b
59
..
..
13
70 b
46b

About the data

2.21

Definitions

The data in the table describe the health status and

specific asset indexes with country-specific choices

• Survey year is the year in which the underlying

use of health services by individuals in different

of asset indicators might produce a more effective

data were collected. • Prevalence of child malnutri-

socioeconomic groups and by sex within countries.

and accurate index for each country. The asset index

tion is the percentage of children under age 5 whose

The data are from Demographic and Health Surveys

used in the table does not have this flexibility.

weight for age is two to three standard deviations

conducted by Macro International with the support

The analysis was carried out for 56 countries,

below the median reference standard for their age.

of the U.S. Agency for International Development.

with the results issued in country reports. The table

The table presents malnutrition data using both the

These large-scale household sample surveys, con-

shows the estimates for the poorest and richest quin-

old reference standards and the new international

ducted periodically in developing countries, collect

tiles and by sex only; the full set of estimates for up

child growth standards released in 2006 by the

information on many health, nutrition, and popula-

to 117 indicators is available in the country reports

World Health Organization. For more information

tion measures as well as on respondents’ social,

(see Data sources).

about the change in standards, see About the data

demographic, and economic characteristics using a

Demographic and Health Surveys try to collect

for table 2.19. • Child immunization rate is the per-

standard set of questionnaires. The data presented

internationally comparable data, but the age group

centage of children ages 12–23 months at the time

here draw on responses to individual and household

of the reference population could differ across coun-

of the survey who, at any time before the survey,

questionnaires.

tries. Caution should be used when comparing the

had received measles vaccine and three doses of

Socioeconomic status as displayed in the table is

data. The estimates in the table are based on survey

diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough)

based on a household’s assets, including ownership

data, which refer to a period preceding the survey

vaccine (DTP3). • Infant mortality rate is the num-

of consumer items, features of the household’s dwell-

date, or use a definition or methodology different

ber of infants dying before reaching one year of age,

ing, and other characteristics related to wealth. Each

from the estimates in tables 2.17–2.19 and 2.22.

per 1,000 live births. • Under-five mortality rate is

household asset on which information was collected

Thus the estimates may differ from those in the other

the probability that a newborn baby will die before

was assigned a weight generated through principal-

tables, and caution should be used in interpreting

reaching age 5, per 1,000, if subject to current age-

component analysis. The resulting scores were stan-

the data.

specific mortality rates. • Pregnant women receiv-

dardized in relation to a standard normal distribution

ing prenatal care are the percentage of women with

with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.

one or more births during the five years preceding the

The standardized scores were then used to create

survey who were attended by skilled health personnel

break-points defining wealth quintiles, expressed as

at least once during pregnancy for reasons related

quintiles of individuals in the population rather than

to pregnancy. • Contraceptive prevalence rate is

quintiles of individuals at risk with respect to any

the percentage of women married or in-union ages

one health indicator.

15–49 who are practicing, or whose sexual partners

The choice of the asset index for defining socio-

are practicing, any modern method of contracep-

economic status was based on pragmatic rather than

tion. • Births attended by skilled health staff are

conceptual considerations: Demographic and Health

the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel

Surveys do not collect income or consumption data

trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and

but do have detailed information on households’ own-

advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the

ership of consumer goods and access to a variety

postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their

of goods and services. Like income or consumption,

own; and to care for newborns. Skilled health staff

the asset index defines disparities primarily in eco-

include doctors, nurses, and trained midwives, but

nomic terms. It therefore excludes other possibilities

exclude trained or untrained traditional birth atten-

of disparities among groups, such as those based

dants. • Total fertility rate is the number of children

on gender, education, ethnic background, or other

that would be born to a woman if she were to live to

facets of social exclusion. To that extent the index

the end of her childbearing years and bear children

provides only a partial view of the multidimensional

in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates.

concepts of poverty, inequality, and inequity.

• Exclusive breastfeeding refers to the percentage

Creating one index that includes all asset indicators
limits the types of analysis that can be performed.

of children ages 0–3 months who received only
breast milk in the 24 hours preceding the survey.

In particular, the use of a unified index does not permit a disaggregated analysis to examine which asset

Data sources

indicators are more closely associated with health

Data on health gaps by income and gender are from

status or use of health services. In addition, some

Davidson R. Gwatkin and others’ Socio- Economic

asset indicators may reflect household wealth better

Differences in Health, Nutrition, and Population

in some countries than in others—or reflect differ-

(2007). Country reports are available at www.

ent degrees of wealth in different countries. Taking

worldbank.org/povertyandhealth/countrydata.

such information into account and creating country-

2009 World Development Indicators

121

PEOPLE

Health gaps by income and gender

2.22
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

122

Mortality
Life expectancy
at birth

Infant mortality
rate

Under-five
mortality rate

Child mortality
rate

Adult mortality
rate

Survival to
age 65

years

per 1,000 live births
1990
2007

per 1,000
1990
2007

per 1,000
Male
Female
2000–07a,b 2000–07a,b

per 1,000
Male
Female
2005–07a 2005–07a

% of cohort
Male
Female
2007
2007

1990

2007

..
72
67
40
72
68
77
76
66
55
71
76
53
59
72
63
67
72
50
46
55
55
77
50
51
74
68
77
68
46
57
76
53
72
75
71
75
68
69
62
66
49
69
48
75
77
61
51
70
75
57
77
63
47
42
55

..
76
72
43
75
72
81
80
67
64
70
80
57
66
75
51
72
73
52
49
60
50
81
45
51
78
73
82
73
46
55
79
48
76
78
77
78
72
75
71
72
58
73
53
79
81
57
59
71
80
60
80
70
56
46
61

2009 World Development Indicators

..
37
54
150
25
48
8
8
78
105
20
8
111
89
18
45
49
15
112
113
87
85
7
113
120
18
36
..
28
127
67
16
104
11
11
11
8
53
43
68
47
88
12
122
6
7
60
104
41
7
76
9
60
137
142
105

..
13
33
116
15
22
5
4
34
47
12
4
78
48
13
33
20
10
104
108
70
87
5
113
124
8
19
..
17
108
79
10
89
5
5
3
4
31
20
30
21
46
4
75
3
4
60
82
27
4
73
4
29
93
118
57

..
46
69
258
29
56
10
10
98
151
24
10
184
125
22
57
58
19
206
189
119
139
8
171
201
21
45
..
35
200
104
18
151
13
13
13
9
66
57
93
60
147
18
204
7
9
92
153
47
9
120
11
82
231
240
152

..
15
37
158
16
24
6
4
39
61
13
5
123
57
14
40
22
12
191
180
91
148
6
172
209
9
22
..
20
161
125
11
127
6
7
4
4
38
22
36
24
70
6
119
4
4
91
109
30
4
115
4
39
150
198
76

..
3
..
..
..
8
..
..
9
24
..
..
64
20
..
..
..
..
110
..
20
73
..
74
96
..
..
..
4
70
49
..
..
..
..
..
..
6
5
10
..
55
..
56
..
..
32
46
5
..
51
..
..
89
110
33

..
1
..
..
..
3
..
..
5
29
..
..
65
26
..
..
..
..
113
..
20
72
..
82
101
..
..
..
3
64
43
..
..
..
..
..
..
4
5
10
..
50
..
56
..
..
33
39
4
..
35
..
..
86
88
36

..
106
121
479
166
195
84
111
216
231
330
111
279
235
145
567
229
221
283
404
346
414
94
559
355
129
151
77
202
435
391
114
420
156
117
148
116
219
169
155
207
418
283
361
133
123
379
219
213
107
285
91
236
272
447
306

..
51
102
434
79
87
48
55
102
198
115
61
235
176
76
567
120
92
183
370
243
420
57
533
308
64
90
33
95
400
367
61
403
61
72
66
69
131
90
91
125
319
92
325
57
57
383
181
81
56
281
41
130
235
401
237

..
81
78
30
74
68
88
84
62
62
52
84
53
63
76
32
67
70
47
40
50
41
86
28
43
80
75
87
71
36
45
82
38
76
82
78
83
68
75
73
70
42
59
45
83
84
49
58
67
84
57
85
67
52
35
55

..
90
81
36
87
83
93
93
77
67
82
92
59
71
86
36
80
86
58
45
61
43
92
34
49
89
83
94
83
40
50
89
43
89
88
90
89
79
85
83
80
54
85
50
92
93
51
63
84
92
59
93
79
59
41
63

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

2.22

Life expectancy
at birth

Infant mortality
rate

Under-five
mortality rate

Child mortality
rate

Adult mortality
rate

Survival to
age 65

years

per 1,000 live births
1990
2007

per 1,000
1990
2007

per 1,000
Male
Female
2000–07a,b 2000–07a,b

per 1,000
Male
Female
2005–07a 2005–07a

% of cohort
Male
Female
2007
2007

1990

2007

66
69
60
62
65
62
75
77
77
72
79
67
68
59
70
71
75
68
55
69
69
59
43
68
71
71
51
49
70
48
58
69
71
67
61
64
44
59
62
54
77
75
64
47
47
77
70
60
72
55
68
66
66
71
74
75

70
73
65
71
71
..
79
81
81
73
83
73
66
54
67
79
78
68
64
71
72
43
46
74
71
74
59
48
74
54
64
72
75
69
67
71
42
62
53
64
80
80
73
57
47
80
76
65
76
57
72
71
72
75
78
78

45
15
80
60
54
42
8
10
8
28
5
33
51
64
42
8
13
62
120
14
32
81
138
35
10
33
103
124
16
148
81
20
42
30
71
69
135
91
57
99
7
8
52
143
120
7
25
102
27
69
34
58
43
19
11
..

20
6
54
25
29
..
4
4
3
26
3
21
28
80
42
4
9
34
56
7
26
68
93
17
7
15
70
71
10
117
75
13
29
16
35
32
115
74
47
43
4
5
28
83
97
3
11
73
18
50
24
17
23
6
3
..

58
17
117
91
72
53
9
12
9
33
6
40
60
97
55
9
15
74
163
17
37
102
205
41
16
38
168
209
22
250
130
24
52
37
98
89
201
130
87
142
9
11
68
304
230
9
32
132
34
94
41
78
62
17
15
..

24
7
72
31
33
..
4
5
4
31
4
24
32
121
55
5
11
38
70
9
29
84
133
18
8
17
112
111
11
196
119
15
35
18
43
34
168
103
68
55
5
6
35
176
189
4
12
90
23
65
29
20
28
7
4
..

8
..
9
13
..
..
..
..
..
5
..
3
5
42
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
22
57
..
..
2
45
52
..
117
50
..
..
7
11
9
61
..
24
21
..
..
10
138
57
..
..
14
..
..
..
11
14
..
..
..

9
..
12
11
..
..
..
..
..
6
..
2
4
39
..
..
..
4
..
..
..
19
51
..
..
1
45
54
..
114
48
..
..
4
10
11
64
..
19
18
..
..
9
135
57
..
..
22
..
..
..
8
9
..
..
..

238
256
257
168
152
..
88
80
84
220
90
164
361
417
179
109
86
279
233
311
153
723
460
148
346
135
287
526
152
255
172
207
142
294
262
148
625
298
518
230
81
92
209
166
434
86
99
174
139
422
174
200
158
209
128
134

139
107
164
118
101
..
56
38
44
139
44
113
144
396
127
45
52
131
190
114
101
720
425
92
116
80
227
519
87
178
106
106
79
138
171
98
613
190
512
206
59
59
120
180
416
53
73
142
74
306
128
123
104
80
53
53

66
67
60
72
73
..
85
87
86
70
87
73
50
43
66
82
85
57
62
64
74
19
33
75
63
77
55
34
75
49
64
68
78
59
59
74
24
54
37
62
86
87
70
60
37
87
82
66
78
41
72
70
73
72
83
80

2009 World Development Indicators

78
86
69
80
81
..
91
93
93
79
94
81
77
48
75
92
90
75
68
86
82
22
38
84
86
85
62
37
85
59
74
82
86
77
71
82
27
67
41
66
91
91
80
58
39
92
87
69
87
55
79
80
82
89
91
91

123

PEOPLE

Mortality

2.22

Mortality
Life expectancy
at birth

Infant mortality
rate

Under-five
mortality rate

Child mortality
rate

Adult mortality
rate

Survival to
age 65

years

per 1,000 live births
1990
2007

per 1,000
1990
2007

per 1,000
Male
Female
2000–07a,b 2000–07a,b

per 1,000
Male
Female
2005–07a 2005–07a

% of cohort
Male
Female
2007
2007

1990

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & Carib.
Middle East & N. Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
Euro area

70
69
32
68
57
71
39
74
71
73
42
62
77
70
53
58
78
77
68
63
51
67
47
58
70
70
66
63
50
70
73
76
75
73
69
71
66
69
54
48
61
65 w
54
65
64
69
63
67
69
68
64
59
50
76
76

2007

73
68
46
73
63
73
43
80
74
78
48
50
81
72
59
40
81
82
74
67
52
71
61
58
70
74
72
63
51
68
79
79
78
76
67
74
74
73
63
42
43
69 w
57
70
69
71
67
72
70
73
70
64
51
79
80

27
23
117
35
72
..
169
7
12
8
121
49
8
26
79
70
6
7
30
91
96
26
138
89
30
41
67
81
106
22
13
8
9
21
61
27
40
33
90
99
62
63 w
103
55
58
39
69
42
41
44
58
87
108
10
8

13
13
109
20
59
7
155
2
7
3
88
46
4
17
69
66
3
4
15
57
73
6
77
65
31
18
21
45
82
20
7
5
7
12
36
17
13
24
55
103
59
47 w
80
35
38
21
51
22
21
22
32
59
89
6
4

32
27
195
44
149
..
290
8
15
11
203
64
9
32
125
96
7
9
37
117
157
31
184
150
34
52
82
99
175
25
15
10
11
25
74
32
56
38
127
163
95
93 w
164
75
81
47
101
56
49
55
77
125
183
12
10

15
15
181
25
114
8
262
3
8
4
142
59
4
21
109
91
3
5
17
67
116
7
97
100
35
21
23
50
130
24
8
6
8
14
41
19
15
27
73
170
90
68 w
126
45
50
24
74
27
23
26
38
78
146
7
4

..
..
90
3
69
4
134
..
..
..
53
13
..
..
38
32
..
..
5
18
56
..
..
55
..
..
9
19
75
4
..
..
..
..
11
..
5
3
10
89
21

..
..
87
4
69
3
124
..
..
..
54
9
..
..
30
30
..
..
3
13
52
..
..
43
..
..
9
17
62
1
..
..
..
..
7
..
4
3
11
74
21

201
429
456
140
171
157c
405
81
196
149
385
623
106
233
305
772
78
78
124
211
433
264
266
278
240
124
152
298
429
385
74
96
141
142
240
179
137
129
254
620
687
219 w
306
201
197
225
224
163
303
196
164
248
417
117
112

85
158
408
90
102
83c
345
46
76
57
335
598
44
99
265
760
48
46
84
139
401
159
232
236
190
72
85
142
416
142
49
60
82
67
136
94
91
92
205
619
719
155 w
269
127
125
138
159
102
125
107
112
169
390
63
54

69
43
34
76
63
74 c
33
86
71
80
39
27
85
67
53
15
88
87
78
63
41
64
57
54
66
78
73
53
41
51
86
85
81
77
61
73
78
78
59
25
22
68 w
53
68
68
64
65
74
58
71
72
60
41
83
84

85
77
40
84
73
85c
40
92
88
91
44
33
94
83
59
18
93
93
85
73
46
77
62
61
73
86
84
72
44
80
91
91
88
88
74
84
84
84
66
27
22
76 w
58
78
77
80
74
81
81
82
80
69
45
91
92

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Refers to a survey year. Values were estimated directly from surveys and cover the 5 or 10 years preceding the survey. c. Includes Kosovo.

124

2009 World Development Indicators

About the data

2.22

Definitions

Mortality rates for different age groups (infants, chil-

their reference dates and then extrapolate the trend

• Life expectancy at birth is the number of years a

dren, and adults) and overall mortality indicators (life

to the present. (For further discussion of childhood

newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mor-

expectancy at birth or survival to a given age) are

mortality estimates, see UNICEF, WHO, World Bank,

tality at the time of its birth were to stay the same

important indicators of health status in a country.

and United Nations Population Division 2007; for a

throughout its life. • Infant mortality rate is the num-

Because data on the incidence and prevalence of

graphic presentation and detailed background data,

ber of infants dying before reaching one year of age,

diseases are frequently unavailable, mortality rates

see www.childmortality.org/).

per 1,000 live births in a given year. • Under-five mor-

are often used to identify vulnerable populations.

Infant and child mortality rates are higher for boys

tality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn

And they are among the indicators most frequently

than for girls in countries in which parental gender

baby will die before reaching age 5, if subject to current

used to compare socioeconomic development across

preferences are insignificant. Child mortality cap-

age-specific mortality rates. • Child mortality rate is

countries.

tures the effect of gender discrimination better than

the probability per 1,000 of dying between ages 1 and

The main sources of mortality data are vital reg-

infant mortality does, as malnutrition and medical

5—that is, the probability of a 1-year-old dying before

istration systems and direct or indirect estimates

interventions are more important in this age group.

reaching age 5—if subject to current age-specific mor-

based on sample surveys or censuses. A “complete”

Where female child mortality is higher, as in some

tality rates. • Adult mortality rate is the probability per

vital registration system—covering at least 90 per-

countries in South Asia, girls probably have unequal

1,000 of dying between the ages of 15 and 60—that

cent of vital events in the population—is the best

access to resources. Child mortality rates in the

is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reach-

source of age-specific mortality data. Where reliable

table are not compatible with infant mortality and

ing age 60—if subject to current age-specific mortality

age-specific mortality data are available, life expec-

under-fi ve mortality rates because of differences

rates between those ages. • Survival to age 65 refers

tancy at birth is directly estimated from the life table

in methodology and reference year. Child mortality

to the percentage of a hypothetical cohort of newborn

constructed from age- specific mortality data.

data were estimated directly from surveys and cover

infants that would survive to age 65, if subject to cur-

But complete vital registration systems are fairly

the 10 years preceding the survey. In addition to

rent age-specific mortality rates.

uncommon in developing countries. Thus estimates

estimates from Demographic Health Surveys, new

must be obtained from sample surveys or derived

estimates derived from Multiple Indicator Cluster

by applying indirect estimation techniques to reg-

Surveys (MICS) 3 have been added to the table; they

Data on infant and under-five mortality rates are

istration, census, or survey data (see Primary data

cover the 5 years preceding the survey.

the estimates by the Inter-agency Group for Child

Data sources

documentation). Survey data are subject to recall

Rates for adult mortality and survival to age 65

Mortality Estimation (which comprises the World

error, and surveys estimating infant deaths require

come from life tables. Adult mortality rates increased

Health Organization, UNICEF, United Nations Popu-

large samples because households in which a birth

notably in a dozen countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

lation Division, World Bank, Harvard University,

or an infant death has occurred during a given year

between 1995–2000 and 2000–05 and in several

U.S. Census Bureau, Economic Commission for

cannot ordinarily be pre-selected for sampling. Indi-

countries in Europe and Central Asia during the first

Latin America and the Caribbean, Measure DHS,

rect estimates rely on model life tables that may be

half of the 1990s. In Sub-Saharan Africa the increase

and other universities and research institutes)

inappropriate for the population concerned. Because

stems from AIDS-related mortality and affects both

and are based mainly on household surveys, cen-

life expectancy at birth is estimated using infant mor-

sexes, though women are more affected. In Europe

suses, and vital registration data, supplemented

tality data and model life tables for many develop-

and Central Asia the causes are more diverse (high

by the World Bank’s estimates based on house-

ing countries, similar reliability issues arise for this

prevalence of smoking, high-fat diet, excessive alco-

hold surveys and vital registration and sample reg-

indicator. Extrapolations based on outdated surveys

hol use, stressful conditions related to the economic

istration data. Data on child mortality rates are

may not be reliable for monitoring changes in health

transition) and affect men more.

from Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro

The percentage of a hypothetical cohort surviv-

International (Measure DHS) and Multiple Indica-

Estimates of infant and under-five mortality tend

ing to age 65 reflects both child and adult mortality

tor Cluster Surveys by UNICEF. Other estimates

to vary by source and method for a given time and

rates. Like life expectancy, it is a synthetic mea-

are compiled and produced by the World Bank’s

place. Years for available estimates also vary by

sure based on current age-specific mortality rates.

Human Development Network and Development

country, making comparison across countries and

It shows that even in countries where mortality is

Data Group in consultation with its operational

over time diffi cult. To make infant and under-fi ve

high, a certain share of the current birth cohort will

staff and country offices. Important inputs to the

mortality estimates comparable and to ensure con-

live well beyond the life expectancy at birth, while in

World Bank’s demographic work come from the

sistency across estimates by different agencies,

low-mortality countries close to 90 percent will reach

United Nations Population Division’s World Popula-

the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and

at least age 65.

tion Prospects: The 2006 Revision, census reports

status or for comparative analytical work.

PEOPLE

Mortality

the World Bank (now working together with other

and other statistical publications from national

organizations as the Inter-agency Group for Child

statistical offices and Eurostat, Demographic and

Mortality Estimation) developed and adopted a

Health Surveys by Macro International, and the

statistical method that uses all available informa-

Human Mortality Database by the University of

tion to reconcile differences. The method uses the

California, Berkeley, and the Max Planck Institute

weighted least squares method to fit a regression

for Demographic Research (www.mortality.org).

line to the relationship between mortality rates and

2009 World Development Indicators

125
Text figures, tables,
and boxes

Introduction

E

nergy and a changing climate

The world economy needs ever-increasing amounts of energy to sustain economic growth,
raise living standards, and reduce poverty. But today’s trends in energy use are not sustainable. As the world’s population grows and economies become more industrialized, nonrenewable energy sources will become scarcer and more costly. And carbon dioxide emissions from
the use of fossil fuels will continue to build in the atmosphere, accelerating global warming.
Energy-related carbon dioxide now accounts for 61–65 percent of global greenhouse gas
emissions (IEA 2008a; IPCC 2007a; WRI 2005). Global warming will have particularly pernicious effects for developing economies, with their high exposure and low adaptive capacity.
Where energy comes from, how we produce it, and how much we use will profoundly affect
development in the 21st century.
This introduction focuses on recent trends in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions—and
projections through 2030. There is now a consensus that action is needed to curb the growth
in human-made greenhouse-gas emissions (IPCC 2007b; IEA 2008a). A new post-2012 policy
regime on global climate change—to be agreed in Copenhagen in late 2009—aims to set a
quantified global goal for stabilizing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and to establish
robust policy mechanisms that ensure the goal is achieved.
Without government initiatives on energy or climate change, global temperatures may rise
as much as 6°C by the end of the century. This outcome of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change Trend Scenario can be compared with a 3°C rise under a Policy Scenario
in which greenhouse gasses are stabilized at 550 parts per million (ppm) of carbon dioxide
equivalent and a 2°C rise under a Policy Scenario in which concentrations are stabilized at
450 ppm. The consequences of the Trend Scenario go well beyond what the international
community regards as acceptable.
The global financial and economic crisis, while reducing the demand for energy in the short
run, may also slow efforts at energy saving by lowering the price of oil and other fossil energy
sources. And by discouraging investments in fossil fuel substitutes and more energy- efficient
production processes, the crisis may leave the world on a higher carbon dioxide emission
path. The world’s largest economy and biggest contributor to carbon dioxide emissions has
new leadership that could make climate change a top priority and commit resources to finding alternative sources of cleaner energy.

2009 World Development Indicators

127

Energy use: unsustainable trend,
unacceptable future

particularly oil, make projections of energy demand diffi -

In 2006 global energy use from all sources reached 11.5 bil-

cult. The International Energy Agency forecasts that energy

lion metric tons of oil equivalent—twice as high as its 1971

demand in 2030 will be 45 percent higher than energy use

level (figure 3a). High-income economies, with just 15 per-

in 2006, for an average annual growth of 1.6 percent, or just

cent of world population, use almost half of global energy (fig-

a little slower than the 1.9 percent from 1980 to 2006 (IEA

ure 3b). Energy use grew by 2.4 percent a year in low-income

2008a, b). More than 80 percent of the energy used in 2006

economies, 2.0 percent in middle-income economies, and

was from nonrenewable fuels—carbon dioxide–emitting oil,

1.6 percent in high-income economies over 1990–2006. It

coal, and gas. In the absence of new policies this share is

rose 4.4 percent a year in China and 3.5 percent in India. The

projected to remain above 80 percent in 2030, with demand

United States, Russian Federation, Germany, Japan, China,

for coal—cheaper and more abundant—growing faster than

and India are the top energy consumers, accounting for 55

that for oil and gas (figure 3e and table 3f).

percent of global energy use (figure 3c and table 3.7). On

Growing 2 percent a year on average, world demand for

average, high-income economies use more than 11 times the

coal is projected to be 60 percent higher in 2030 than in

energy per capita of low-income economies, with huge dif-

2006. Most of the increase in demand comes from the power

ferences across countries and within countries and regions

generation sector. China and India together account for 85

(figure 3d).

percent of this increase. Oil demand grows far more slowly

The accelerating trend in energy use and the potential

than demand for other fossil fuels, mainly because of high

consequences have been matters of concern for the interna-

final prices. Yet, oil remains the dominant fuel in the primary

tional community. The recent global financial crisis, economic

mix, even with the drop in its share from 34 percent in 2006

downturn, and significant fluctuations in the price of energy,

to 30 percent in 2030.

Energy use has
doubled since 1971

3a

Energy use (billions of metric tons of oil equivalent)
12

The top six energy consumers
use 55 percent of global energy

3c

Energy use per capita
(thousands of kilograms of oil equivalent)
8

9

Other high income

6

United States

1971

1990

2006

6
4

China
India

3

2
Russian Federation
Rest of the world

0
1971

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

High-income economies use
almost half of all global energy

Low income 5%
India 5%

China
16%

United
States

Russian
Federation

Germany

Japan

China

India

Source: Table 3.7.

3b

Energy use, 2006

0

2006

High-income economies use more than 11 times
the energy that low-income economies do
Energy use per capita, by income group
(thousands of kilograms of oil equivalent)

1971

3d
1990

2006

6

Other
high income
29%

4

2
Other
middle income
29%

Source: Table 3.7.

128

2009 World Development Indicators

United
States
20%

0

Low
income

Source: Table 3.7.

Lower
Upper
middle income middle income

High
income

World

Uncertain supply
It is not going to be easy to meet the expected growth in

fields, which are typically smaller, more complex, and more

energy demand, particularly for oil, despite seemingly large

costly to develop.

available reserves (table 3g). Based on a field by field analy-

Despite the improved environment for emerging, climate-

sis of production trends, the cost of investment, opportu-

friendly, renewable energy sources and technologies, many

nities for expanding capacity, and possible constraints and

barriers remain. The costs of some technologies are high

risks—both above and below ground—the International

at their early stages, when economies of scale cannot be

Energy Agency has drawn attention to the possibility of an

realized. Research and development were limited until the

oil-supply crunch by the middle of the 2010s, if upstream

recent oil price rise. Concerns are growing about the impact

investments fall short of requirements. A growing number of

on food supplies with more use of crops for energy. And there

oil companies and analysts have suggested that oil produc-

is skepticism about the net contribution of biofuels to lower

tion may peak within the next two decades, a result of ris-

greenhouse gas emissions (FAO 2008).

ing costs, political and geological factors, and limits on the

In many countries climate change has risen to the top of

investment that can be mobilized (IEA 2008a). The rate of

the political agenda—the result of a growing body of evidence

decline in production from existing fields—especially large,

on global warming and ever more startling predictions of the

mature fields that have been the mainstay of global output

ecological consequences (IPCC 2007b). The commitment of

for several decades—has been faster than anticipated (fig-

the new U.S. administration to containing the impact of global

ure 3h). How output from these fields evolves—with or with-

climate change and the changing attitudes toward wind and

out the deployment of enhanced recovery techniques—will

solar energy offer promise of reducing the carbon footprint of

have major implications for the required investment in new

energy use.

Nonrenewable fuels are projected to account for 80 percent
of energy use in 2030—about the same as in 2006
3e
Energy demand, by source
(thousands of megatons of oil equivalent)

2006

2030

6

4

2

0
Coal

Oil

Gas

Nuclear

Hydro

Biomass
and waste

Other
renewables

Source: Table 3.7.

3f

1980

2006

2030

Annual growth,
2006–30 (%)

7,224

11,730

17,014

1.6

Coal

24.8

26.0

28.8

2.0

Oil

43.0

34.3

30.0

1.0

Gas

17.1

20.5

21.6

1.8

Nuclear

2.6

6.2

5.3

0.9

Hydropower

2.0

2.2

2.4

1.9

10.4

10.1

9.8

1.4

0.2

0.6

2.1

7.2

Total (million metric
tons oil equivalent)
Share (% of total)

Biomass and waste
Other renewables
Source: IEA 2008a.

Country

3g

Oil reserves
(billions of barrels)

Share of world
total (%)

264.3
178.9
132.5
115.0
101.5
97.8
79.7
60.0
262.8
1,292.5

20.4
13.8
10.3
8.9
7.9
7.6
6.2
4.6
20.3

Saudi Arabia
Canada
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
United Arab Emirates
Venezuela, RB
Russian Federation
Rest of the world
Total

Source: Deutch, Lauvergeon, and Prawiraatmadja 2007.

Fossil fuels will remain the main
sources of energy through 2030

Fuel

Known global oil reserves and countries
with highest endowments in 2006

Production declines from
existing oil fields have been rapid

3h
OPEC
Non-OPEC

Production-weighted average post-peak observed decline,
by type of producer and year of first production (%)
0

–4
–8
–12
–16

Pre-1970s

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000–07

Source: IEA 2008a.

2009 World Development Indicators

129

Energy and climate change
Economic activity, energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions
move together (figure 3i). The world is already experiencing
the impact of rising average global temperature on physical
and biological systems, and the situation is worsening. The
13 warmest years since 1880 have occurred in the last 16
years (IPCC 2007a; Rosenzweig and others 2008). There is a
risk of reaching unpredictable tipping points, such as a rise in
Arctic temperatures precipitating a massive release of methane from permafrost zones. Thawing permafrost could also
threaten oil and gas extraction infrastructure and pipeline
stability.

Current carbon dioxide levels
In the 1980s global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions
(up 1.7 percent annually) rose more slowly than primary energy demand (up 1.9 percent annually), mainly because the
shares of natural gas, nuclear power, and renewables in the
power mix expanded. But this decarbonization of energy
reversed at the beginning of the 21st century as the share
of nuclear energy fell while that of coal rose. In the Trend
Scenario recarbonization of the energy sector is projected
to continue until after 2020, when changing supply patterns
Economic activity, energy use, and
greenhouse gas emissions move together

3i

again cause emissions growth to fall below the rate of growth
of primary energy use (figure 3j). But as the world becomes
wealthier, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions continue
to rise in absolute terms.
World carbon dioxide emissions per capita fell until around
2000, but have since risen rapidly. In the absence of new
policies, this upward trend is projected to continue through
2030. Government policies, including those to address climate change, air pollution, and energy security, have slowed
the growth in emissions in some countries. But in most,
emissions are still rising fast. In 2005 per capita emissions
were greatest in the United States, followed by the Russian
Federation, Japan, and Germany (table 3.8 and figure 3k).
China’s per capita emissions were 4.3 tons—close to the
global average and about one-third of the level of high-income
economies (figure 3l)—while India’s were 1.3 tons.
Carbon dioxide emissions are attributed to the country
or region consuming the fossil fuel. Yet the consumption
benefits from the goods and services produced using the
fossil fuel are often realized in a country other than that in
which the emissions arise. This concerns some emerging
market economies, which tend to be more export-oriented,
The top six carbon
dioxide emitters in 2005

3k

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons)
25

Index (1971 = 100)
350
Real GDP

300

1971

1990

2005

20
15

250
Energy use
Fossil fuel
energy consumption

200

10
5

150

Carbon dioxide emissions

100
1971

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Source: World Development Indicators data files.

Russian
Federation

Japan

Germany

China

India

Source: Table 3.8.

Decarbonization of energy reversed
at the beginning of the 21st century
Average annual growth in world primary energy
demand and energy-related carbon dioxide
emissions in the Trend Scenario (%)
3

United
States

2006

3j
Energy demand
Energy-related
carbon dioxide emissions

High-income economies are by far
the greatest emitters of carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide emissions, by income group (metric tons)
15

3l
1971

1990

2005

12
9

2

6
1

3
0

0

1980–90

1990–2000

2000–10

Source: IEA 2008a.

130

2009 World Development Indicators

2010–20

2020–30

Low
income
Source: Table 3.8.

Lower
Upper
middle income middle income

High
income

World

with energy-intensive manufactured exports. A detailed inputoutput analysis in China tracked the distribution of fuels,
raw materials, and intermediate goods to and from industries throughout the economy. Taking carbon intensities and
trade data into account, it estimated the energy-related carbon dioxide emissions embedded in domestic production for
export at 34 percent of its 2004 emissions (IEA 2007). With
China’s production facilities expanding rapidly, the figures for
later years could be higher (box 3m).

Trend and Policy Scenarios
Annual greenhouse gas emissions are projected to grow
from 44 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2005 to
60 gigatons in 2030, a 35 percent increase. The share of
energy- related carbon dioxide emissions in total emissions is
forecast to increase from 61 percent in 2005 to 68 percent
in 2030 (IEA 2008a). With emissions of greenhouse gases
building in the atmosphere faster than natural processes can
remove them, concentrations rise. The Trend Scenario puts
us on a path to doubling aggregate concentrations by the end
of the century, increasing global average temperatures up to
6°C (IPCC 2007a; IEA 2008a).
Carbon dioxide emissions
embedded in international trade

3m

Energy and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are embedded
in imports as well as exports, and some goods and services are
more emissions-intensive than others. There are ways of calculating
the emissions embedded in international trade, none of them fully
accurate because of the lack of complete, reliable, and up-to-date
data. A detailed input-output analysis for China reveals the complexity, involving calculating carbon intensity all along the production
chain and across the economy, including outsourcing (IEA 2007;
Houser and others 2008).
At the global level the percentage of exports in GDP can be used
as a simple proxy for the share of energy-related carbon dioxide
emissions embedded in domestic production for export. The countries for which up-to-date trade data are available represent 83
percent of total world energy-related carbon dioxide emissions (IEA
2008a). The International Energy Agency estimate of the share of
emissions embedded in exports in 2006 ranges from 15 percent
for North America to 48 percent for the Middle East. The difference reflects variations in the amount and type of exports and the
carbon intensity of energy use. The shares for China (44 percent)
and Asian countries other than China and India (41 percent) are
next highest. Of the 23 gigatons of energy-related carbon dioxide
emissions in the International Energy Agency sample, one-third
were embedded in production for export. China alone accounted
for 2.3 gigatons (31 percent) of this, and Europe and the Russian
Federation combined for another 1.7 gigatons (23 percent). Africa
and Latin America each accounted for just 2 percent of embedded
emissions (IEA 2008a).

In the Trend Scenario rising global use of fossil energy
continues to drive up energy-related carbon dioxide emissions over at least the next two decades. Emissions grew by
2.5 gigatons from 1990 to 2000, when their growth accelerated, and increased a further 4.5 gigatons to 28 gigatons by
2006. They are projected to increase a further 45 percent by
2030, approaching 41 gigatons in the Trend Scenario. This
acceleration in carbon dioxide emissions calls for urgent stabilization measures.
There is not yet an international consensus on longterm stabilization targets. Most discussions center on stabilization levels between 450 ppm and 550 ppm of carbon
dioxide equivalent and their consequences (table 3n and figure 3o; IPCC 2007). The required reduction in energy-related
emissions varies with level of international participation by
economies sorted by income groups. In both the 450 ppm
and 550 ppm Policy Scenarios, even after allowing for international emissions trading and active engagement by non–
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) countries, International Energy Agency projections
show that OECD countries would have to substantially reduce
emissions domestically (IEA 2008a).
Impact of Policy Scenarios: carbon dioxide concentration,
temperature increase, emissions, and energy demand
Global emissions by
2030 (gigatons)
Carbon dioxide
concentration
(parts per
million)

Temperature
increase

Energyrelated
carbon
dioxide

Total
greenhouse
gases

3n

Global energy
demand (metric
tons oil equivalent)
2020

2030

550

3ºC

33

48

14,360

15,480

450

2ºC

26a

36

14,280

14,360

a. Emissions peak in 2020 at 32.5 gigatons and then decline to 25.7 gigatons
in 2030.
Source: IPCC 2007b; IEA 2008a.

Reductions in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions
by region in the 550 and 450 parts per million Policy
Scenarios relative to the Trend Scenario

3o

Carbon dioxide emissions (gigatons)
45
Trend Scenario

40
35

550 Policy Scenario

30
450 Policy Scenario

25
20
2006

2009

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

Source: IEA 2008a.

2009 World Development Indicators

131

Need for cleaner, more efficient energy
Adequate energy supplies are required for economies to
grow and poverty to be reduced, but the current reliance on
fossil fuels is not sustainable. Transitioning to new energy
sources poses a significant challenge to all economies. Humanity’s future on this planet may depend on finding ways to
supply the world’s growing energy needs without irreparably
harming the environment. This could be achieved through
new energy technologies, greater energy efficiency, and alternative renewable sources that provide a low-carbon path
to growth.
For the low-carbon growth needed to stabilize carbon
dioxide emissions, technological innovations are crucial.
Because much of today’s energy-using capital stock will be
replaced only gradually, it will take time before most of the
impact of recent and future technological developments that
improve energy efficiency are felt. Rates of capital-stock turnover differ greatly by industry and sector. Most of today’s
cars, trucks, heating and cooling systems, and industrial
boilers will be replaced by 2030. But most buildings, roads,
railways, and airports and many power stations and refineries will still be in use unless governments encourage or force
early retirement. Despite the slow turnover, refurbishment in
some cases could significantly improve energy efficiency at
an acceptable net economic cost.
On the supply side technological advances can improve
the technical and economic efficiency of producing and supplying energy. In some cases they are expected to reduce
unit costs and to lead to new and cleaner ways of producing
and delivering energy services. Some major new supply-side
technologies that are approaching commercialization are
expected to become available to some degree before 2030
(IEA 2008a).
• Carbon capture and storage. This technology mitigates emissions of carbon dioxide from power plants

Energy efficiency
has been improving

3p
1990

2005 PPP$ per kilogram of oil equivalent

2006

8

and other industrial facilities, but it has not yet been
deployed on a significant scale (IEA 2008a). The basic
technology already exists to capture carbon dioxide
gas and transport and store it permanently in geological formations. Four large-scale carbon capture and
storage projects are operating around the world, each
separating around 1 megaton of carbon dioxide per
year from produced natural gas: Sleipner and Snohvit
in Norway, Weyburn in Canada (with the carbon dioxide sourced in the United States), and In Salah in
Algeria. Yet there are technical, economic, and legal
barriers to more widespread deployment, particularly
high energy intensity and the cost.
• Second-generation biofuels. New biofuel technologies
—notably hydrolysis and gasification of woody lignocellulosic feedstock to produce ethanol—are expected
to reach commercialization by around 2020. Although
the technology already exists, experts believe that
more research is needed to improve process efficiencies. There is virtually no commercial production of
ethanol yet from cellulosic biomass, but several OECD
countries are researching it. A recent Food and Agriculture Organization report is skeptical about the net
contribution of biofuels to reduction of greenhouse
gasses and blames biofuels production for last year’s
large food price increases (FAO 2008).
• Coal-to-liquids. The conversion of coal to oil products
through gasification and synthesis—much like gas to
liquid production—has been done commercially for
many decades. Yet global production remains limited
because it has been uneconomical, mainly because
of the large amounts of energy and water used in the
process, the high cost of building plants, and the volatility of oil and coal prices.

Electricity generated from renewables
is projected to more than double by 2030
Hydropower
Solar

Electricity generated
(terrawatt hours)

3q

Wind
Geothermal

Biomass and waste
Tide and wave

1,200
6
900
4
600
2
300
0

Low
income

Lower
middle
income

Upper
middle
income

Source: Table 3.8.

132

2009 World Development Indicators

High
income

Euro
area

World

0
2006–15
Source: IEA 2008a.

2015–30

Energy efficiency
In recent years there has been an encouraging trend in producing more from each unit of energy (figure 3p), a powerful
and cost-effective way to get on the path to a sustainable
energy future. Greater energy efficiency can reduce the need
for investing in energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase
competitiveness, and improve consumer welfare. And by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, it can be
good for the environment. The International Energy Agency
estimates that implementing a host of 25 policy recommendations for promoting energy efficiency could reduce annual
carbon dioxide emissions 8.2 gigatons by 2030—equivalent
to one-fifth of global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions
in the Trend Scenario (IEA 2008b). The recommendations
cover policies and technologies for buildings, appliances,
transport, and industry as well as end-use applications such
as lighting.

Renewable energy
The share of renewables in global primary energy demand,
excluding traditional biomass, is projected to climb from
7 percent in 2006 to 10 percent by 2030 in the Trend Scenario (IEA 2008a). This assumes that costs come down as
renewable technologies mature, that higher fossil fuel prices
make renewables more competitive, and that policy support
is strong. The renewables industry could eliminate its reliance on subsidies and bring emerging technologies into the
mainstream.
• World renewables-based electricity generation—
mostly hydro and wind power—is projected to more
than double by 2030 (figure 3q).
• Many countries have already begun exploiting wind to
generate electricity (figure 3r). Global wind power is
projected to increase 11-fold, becoming the second
largest source renewable after hydropower by 2030.
Top 10 users of wind
to generate electricity

3r

The cost of power generation from renewables is expected to
fall. Greater deployment spurs technological progress and increases economies of scale, lowering investment costs. The
costs of the more mature technologies, including geothermal
and onshore wind, are assumed to fall least. Renewables account for just under half of the total projected investment in
electricity generation. The cost of stabilizing carbon dioxide
is significant, but there are also significant savings (box 3s).
And the cost of inaction would be far higher.
Cost and savings under
the Policy Scenarios

Denmark
United States
Portugal
Germany
United Kingdom
India
Italy
Spain
France
China

3s

The 550 parts per million (ppm) Policy Scenario requires spending $4.1 trillion more on energy efficiency and power plants and
reducing consumption of fossil fuels by 22 gigatons of oil equivalent
over 2010–30 through more efficient energy use. The International
Energy Agency estimates that the net undiscounted savings in the
550 ppm Policy Scenario, compared with the Trend Scenario, amount
to more than $4 trillion.
The 450 ppm Policy Scenario requires additional investment of $3.6
trillion in power plants and $5.7 trillion in energy efficiency over 2010–
30 relative to the Trend Scenario. This additional investment is much
higher in 2021–30 than in 2010–20 (see figure). In the 450 ppm Policy
Scenario substantially higher investment is needed in power plants.
Also, investment in energy efficiency rises considerably, particularly
beyond 2020. During that period improving energy efficiency in buildings will require the highest investment. In the 450 ppm Policy Scenario
the additional investment in power plants and demand-side efficiency
corresponds to 0.55 percent of cumulative world GDP over 2010–30,
compared with 0.24 percent in the 550 ppm Policy Scenario.
Change in power plant and energy efficiency investments
in the Policy Scenarios relative to the Trend Scenario
2007 $ trillions
5

Share of wind in total power generation, 2006 (%)

450 ppm Scenario (additional to 550)

550 ppm Scenario

4
3
2
1
0
0

Source: IEA 2008a.

• Biomass, geothermal, and solar thermal met around
6 percent of global heating demand in 2006, a
share projected to rise to 7 percent by 2030. Where
resources are abundant and conventional energy
sources expensive, renewables-based heating can be
cost competitive with conventional heating systems.
• The share of biofuels in road transport fuels worldwide is projected to rise from 1.5 percent in 2006
to 5 percent in 2030, spurred by subsidies and high
oil prices. Most of the growth comes from the United
States, European Union, China, and Brazil.

3

6

9

12

15

2010–20
2020–30
Power plants

2010–20
2020–30
Energy efficiency

Source: IEA 2008a.

2009 World Development Indicators

133

Tables

3.1

Rural population and land use
Rural population

% of total
1990
2007

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Hong Kong, China
Colombia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Congo, Rep.
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Czech Republic
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, Arab Rep.
El Salvador
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

134

..
64
48
63
13
33
15
34
46
80
34
4
66
44
61
58
25
34
86
94
87
59
23
63
79
17
73
1
32
72
46
49
60
46
27
25
15
45
45
57
51
84
29
87
39
26
31
62
45
27
64
41
59
72
72
72

..
54
35
44
8
36
11
33
48
73
27
3
59
35
53
41
15
29
81
90
79
44
20
62
74
12
58
0
26
67
39
37
52
43
24
27
14
32
35
57
40
80
31
83
37
23
15
44
47
26
51
39
52
66
70
55

2009 World Development Indicators

Land area

Land use

average
annual
% growth
1990–2007

thousand
sq. km
2007

Forest area
1990
2005

..
–1.2
–0.1
0.7
–1.6
–0.4
–0.2
0.2
1.3
1.5
–1.7
–1.4
2.7
0.7
–1.6
–0.1
–1.6
–1.6
2.6
2.1
1.8
0.7
0.0
2.0
2.9
–0.7
–0.5
..
0.5
2.5
1.7
0.5
1.5
–0.8
–0.2
0.4
–0.3
–0.3
0.1
1.9
0.3
2.2
–0.6
2.7
0.1
–0.2
–1.9
1.4
–1.0
0.1
1.1
0.3
1.6
2.1
2.9
0.2

652.1
27.4
2,381.7
1,246.7
2,736.7
28.2
7,682.3
82.5
82.7
130.2
207.5
30.2
110.6
1,084.4
51.2
566.7
8,459.4
108.6
273.6
25.7
176.5
465.4
9,093.5
623.0
1,259.2
748.8
9,327.5
1.0
1,109.5
2,267.1
341.5
51.1
318.0
55.9
109.8
77.3
42.4
48.4
276.8
995.5
20.7
101.0
42.4
1,000.0
304.6
550.1
257.7
10.0
69.5
348.8
227.5
128.9
108.4
245.7
28.1
27.6

2.0
28.8
0.8
48.9
12.9
12.0
21.9
45.8
11.2
6.8
36.0
23.2b
30.0
57.9
43.1
24.2
61.5
30.1
26.1
11.3
73.3
52.7
34.1
37.2
10.4
20.4
16.8
..
55.4
62.0
66.5
50.2
32.1
37.9
18.7
34.1
10.5
28.4
49.9
0.0
18.1
15.9
51.4
14.7
72.9
26.4
85.1
44.2
39.7
30.8
32.7
25.6
43.8
30.1
78.8
4.2

% of land area

1.3
29.0
1.0
47.4
12.1
10.0
21.3
46.8
11.3
6.7
38.0
22.1
21.3
54.2
42.7
21.1
56.5
33.4
24.8
5.9
59.2
45.6
34.1
36.5
9.5
21.5
21.2
..
54.7
58.9
65.8
46.8
32.7
38.2
24.7
34.3
11.8
28.4
39.2
0.1
14.4
15.4
53.9
13.0
73.9
28.3
84.5
47.1
39.7
31.8
24.2
29.1
36.3
27.4
73.7
3.8

Permanent cropland
1990
2005

0.2
4.6
0.2
0.4
0.4
2.7
0.0
1.0
3.7
2.3
0.9
0.5b
0.9
0.1
2.9
0.0
0.8
2.7
0.2
14.0
0.6
2.6
0.7
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.8
..
1.5
0.5
0.1
4.9
11.0
2.0
7.4
3.1
0.2
9.3
4.8
0.4
12.5
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.0
2.2
0.6
0.5
4.8
1.3
6.6
8.3
4.5
2.0
4.2
11.6

0.2
4.5
0.4
0.2
0.4
2.1
0.0
0.8
2.7
3.5
0.6
0.8
2.4
0.2
1.9
0.0
0.9
1.9
0.2
14.2
0.9
2.6
0.7
0.1
0.0
0.5
1.4
..
1.5
0.5
0.1
6.5
11.3
2.1
6.1
3.1
0.2
10.3
4.4
0.5
12.1
0.0
0.3
0.8
0.0
2.1
0.7
0.5
3.8
0.6
9.7
8.8
5.6
2.7
8.9
11.6

Arable land
1990
2005

12.1
21.1
3.0
2.3
9.6
17.7
6.2
17.3
20.5
70.2
29.3
23.9b
14.6
1.9
16.6
0.7
6.0
34.9
12.9
36.2
20.9
12.8
5.0
3.1
2.6
3.7
13.3
..
3.0
2.9
1.4
5.1
7.6
21.7
27.6
41.1
60.4
18.6
5.8
2.3
26.5
4.9
26.3
10.0
7.4
32.7
1.1
18.2
11.4
34.3
11.9
22.5
12.0
3.0
10.7
28.3

12.1
21.1
3.1
2.6
10.4
17.6
6.4
16.8
22.3
61.1
26.3
27.9
24.9
2.8
19.5
0.7
7.0
29.2
17.7
37.8
21.0
12.8
5.0
3.1
3.3
2.6
15.4
..
1.8
3.0
1.4
4.4
11.0
19.8
33.4
39.4
52.7
16.9
4.9
3.0
31.9
6.3
13.9
13.1
7.3
33.6
1.3
35.0
11.5
34.1
18.4
20.4
13.3
4.9
10.7
28.3

Arable land
hectares per
100 people
1990–92 2003–05

..
18.7
24.5
21.2
75.2
16.1a
248.9
17.3
22.6a
5.7
58.4 a
8.2
33.0
34.9
27.0a
21.5
33.1
43.4
35.9
14.2
28.4
36.7
147.4
49.1
40.7
12.7
11.1
..
6.2
12.9
15.0
5.6
18.2
32.9a
32.8
30.1
42.6
9.2
12.0
4.2
10.4
14.6
52.1a
15.1
42.2
31.1
27.0
21.3
17.1a
14.3
19.7
24.9
12.2
12.1
21.2
8.9

..
18.4
23.1
21.1
74.0
16.4
240.6
17.0
22.2
5.3
56.2
8.1
33.0
33.9
26.9
20.8
32.0
42.0
35.9
13.0
27.0
34.2
142.7
46.8
40.1
12.2
11.0
..
5.1
11.8
14.0
5.3
18.8
27.6
32.7
29.9
41.8
8.8
10.1
4.1
10.0
14.0
40.9
16.7
42.5
30.5
25.6
21.9
17.8
14.4
19.0
24.1
11.6
13.2
19.4
8.5

Rural population

% of total
1990
2007

Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Rep.
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep.
Kuwait
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Lithuania
Macedonia, FYR
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

60
34
75
69
44
30
43
10
33
51
37
28
44
82
42
26
2
62
85
31
17
86
55
24
32
42
76
88
50
77
60
56
29
53
43
52
79
75
72
91
31
15
48
85
65
28
34
69
46
85
51
31
51
39
52
28

53
33
71
50
32
..
39
8
32
47
34
22
42
79
38
19
2
64
70
32
13
75
41
23
33
34
71
82
31
68
59
58
23
58
43
44
64
68
64
83
19
14
44
84
52
23
28
64
28
87
40
29
36
39
41
2

average
annual
% growth
1990–2007

1.4
–0.4
1.3
–0.6
–0.3
..
0.7
1.7
0.0
0.2
–0.3
2.0
–0.5
2.5
0.4
–1.2
0.2
1.1
1.0
–0.7
0.4
0.5
1.6
1.6
–0.4
–1.0
2.4
1.8
–0.7
2.1
2.7
1.2
0.1
–0.4
1.3
0.5
1.4
0.6
1.5
1.7
–2.5
0.5
1.2
3.4
1.4
–0.7
1.0
1.9
–1.1
2.7
0.8
1.0
0.0
0.0
–1.0
–15.1

Land area

ENVIRONMENT

Rural population and land use

3.1

Land use

% of land area
thousand
sq. km
2007

Forest area
1990
2005

111.9
89.6
2,973.2
1,811.6
1,628.6
437.4
68.9
21.6
294.1
10.8
364.5
88.2
2,699.7
569.1
120.4
98.7
17.8
191.8
230.8
62.3
10.2
30.4
96.3
1,759.5
62.7
25.4
581.5
94.1
328.6
1,220.2
1,030.7
2.0
1,944.0
32.9
1,566.5
446.3
786.4
657.6
823.3
143.0
33.9
267.7
121.4
1,266.7
910.8
304.3
309.5
770.9
74.4
452.9
397.3
1,280.0
298.2
306.3
91.5
8.9

66.0
20.0
21.5
64.3
6.8
1.8
6.4
7.1
28.5
31.9
68.4
0.9
1.3
6.5
68.1
64.5
0.2
4.4
75.0
45.1
11.8
0.2
42.1
0.1
31.3
35.6
23.5
41.4
68.1
11.5
0.4
19.2
35.5
9.7
7.3
9.6
25.4
59.6
10.6
33.7
10.2
28.8
53.9
1.5
18.9
30.0
0.0
3.3
58.8
69.6
53.3
54.8
35.5
29.2
33.9
45.5

41.5
22.1
22.8
48.8
6.8
1.9
9.7
7.9
33.9
31.3
68.2
0.9
1.2
6.2
51.4
63.5
0.3
4.5
69.9
47.2
13.3
0.3
32.7
0.1
33.5
35.6
22.1
36.2
63.6
10.3
0.3
18.2
33.0
10.0
6.5
9.8
24.5
49.0
9.3
25.4
10.8
31.0
42.7
1.0
12.2
30.8
0.0
2.5
57.7
65.0
46.5
53.7
24.0
30.0
41.3
46.0

Permanent cropland
1990
2005

3.2
2.6
2.2
6.5
0.8
0.7
0.0
4.1
10.1
9.2
1.3
0.8
0.1
0.8
1.5
1.6
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.4
11.9
0.1
2.2
0.2
0.7
2.2
1.0
1.2
16.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
1.0
14.2
0.0
1.6
0.3
0.8
0.0
0.5
0.9
5.1
1.6
0.0
2.8
..
0.1
0.6
2.1
1.3
0.2
0.3
14.8
1.1
8.5
5.6

3.2
2.3
3.4
7.5
1.0
0.6
0.0
3.5
8.6
10.2
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.8
1.7
2.0
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.2
13.9
0.1
2.3
0.2
0.6
1.8
1.0
1.5
17.6
0.0
0.0
3.0
1.3
9.1
0.0
2.1
0.3
1.4
0.0
0.9
1.0
7.1
1.9
0.0
3.3
..
0.1
1.0
2.0
1.4
0.2
0.5
16.8
1.2
7.1
4.7

Arable land
1990
2005

13.1
56.2
54.8
11.2
9.3
12.1
15.1
15.9
30.6
11.0
13.1
2.0
13.0
8.8
19.0
19.8
0.2
6.9
3.5
27.2
17.9
10.4
4.2
1.0
46.0
23.8
4.7
19.3
5.2
1.7
0.4
49.3
12.5
52.8
0.9
19.5
4.4
14.5
0.8
16.0
25.9
9.9
10.7
8.7
32.4
2.8
0.1
26.6
6.7
0.4
5.3
2.7
18.4
47.3
25.6
7.3

9.5
51.3
53.7
12.7
10.2
13.1
17.6
14.6
26.3
16.1
12.0
2.1
8.3
9.2
23.3
16.4
0.8
6.7
4.3
17.5
18.2
10.9
4.0
1.0
30.4
22.3
5.1
27.6
5.5
3.9
0.5
49.3
12.9
56.2
0.7
19.0
5.6
15.3
1.0
16.5
26.8
5.6
15.9
11.4
35.1
2.8
0.2
27.6
7.4
0.5
10.6
2.9
19.1
39.6
13.8
8.0

Arable land
hectares per
100 people
1990–92 2003–05

16.9
45.2
15.5
10.3
24.0
22.0
29.7
5.3
14.7
6.7
3.5
3.9
148.7a
15.7
11.4
3.6
0.6
27.2a
17.0
41.0a
4.7
17.3
12.0
33.3
58.8a
27.9a
17.6
18.4
7.6
45.3
18.5
8.3
25.4
45.1a
49.1
29.7
21.6
21.4
42.7
9.4
5.7
38.5
37.1
125.7
22.6
19.6
1.6
15.2
18.1
3.8
61.2
14.2
7.3
35.3
15.4
1.7

2009 World Development Indicators

15.9
45.5
14.8
10.6
24.0
..
29.5
4.8
13.6
6.6
3.4
3.6
149.3
15.1
11.7
3.4
0.6
25.9
17.8
44.1
4.7
16.8
11.4
30.6
49.0
27.9
16.3
19.8
7.1
42.6
17.1
8.1
24.6
47.1
46.7
28.4
21.8
21.1
40.9
8.9
5.6
36.7
35.7
113.1
22.6
19.0
2.2
14.1
17.3
3.9
70.2
13.7
6.9
32.6
13.3
1.8

135

3.1

Rural population and land use
Rural population

% of total
1990
2007

Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela, RB
Vietnam
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep.
Zambia
Zimbabwe
World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low & middle income
East Asia & Pacific
Europe & C