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Peggy A. Ertmer Timothy J.

Newby /

Dewey
Reigeluth 1983 Tyler 1978
Lynch1945


Reigeluth1983,p.5


Smith & Ragan1993,p2




(Keller1979)
Richey1986

Warries1990


Snelbecker1983

p8

Johnson1992
2



Bruner 1971
p18


Shuell1991
practice
p2

Schunk1991 5
1
2
3
4
5

7


BednarCnnninghamDuffy & Perry1991Duffy & Jonassen1991
Jonassen1991bWinn1991

Schunk1991
Aristotle384322B.C.
HusleEgeth Deese1980

Schunk1991
Plato427-347B.C.

Plato

1
2
20
50
Schunk1991 20 50

2+4=?6



Winn1990


Schunk1991


Winn,1990

Schunk1991


Skinner
CAI

2
3

4
5

1 2

3
Gropper1987

20 50

Snelbecker1983
10

Bednar 1991


MerrillKowalis & Wilson1981


Bower & Hilgard1981

Jonassen1991b

Shuell1986


Winne1985

Schunk1991

Duffy & Jonassen1991


Schunk1991

Bebnar 1991



ThompsonSimonson & Hargrave1992

Thompson1992

2
3

Reigeluth1983p7
West Farmer &
Wolff1991 1

2
3
Stepich & Newby1988


Jonassen1991b

p10
Piaget Bruner Goodman
Perkins1991
Bendnar 1991

Bednar 1991

Jonassen1991a Plato


Bednar 1991


Jonassen1991a

Brown Collins
Duguid1989)
Clancey1986


Brown 1989






SpiroFeltovichJonassen& Coulson1991

Brown p37



(Brown1989)



Brown
1989
Bednar 1991

Bednar
1991

Jonassen1991a


Jonassen
/

2
3




Duffy
& Jonassen1991)


Cunningham1991,p14

Reigeluth19891
2

Resnick1987

10

Shuell1990




1 2

3
Schon1987

11

Peggy A. Ertmer & Timothy J. Newby (1993). Behaviorism,


Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design
Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4) pp50-72.
http://www.yuwen123.com/Article/200612/24881.html
ErtmerP. A.

NewbyT. J.

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