Compiled by Rasadah Mat Ali, Zainon Abu Samah, Nik Musaadah Mustapha, Norhara Hussein

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Natural Resources and Environment

Forest Research Institute Malaysia

2010

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967. The Member States of the Association are Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. The ASEAN Secretariat is based in Jakarta, Indonesia. For inquiries, contact: The ASEAN Secretariat Public Outreach and Civil Society Division 70A Jalan Sisingamangaraja Jakarta 12110 Indonesia Phone : (62 21) 724-3372, 726-2991 Fax : (62 21) 739-8234, 724-3504 E-mail : public.div@asean.org General information on ASEAN appears on-line at the ASEAN Website: www.asean.org Catalogue-in-Publication Data ASEAN Herbal and Medicinal Plants Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat, July 2010 vii, 336p; 29.7cm x 21.0cm 615.321 1. Herbs – Therapeutic Use 2. Herbal – Medical Plants – ASEAN ISBN 978-979-3496-92-4 The text of this publication may be quoted or reprinted with proper acknowledgment. Copyright ASEAN Secretariat © 2010 All rights reserved Photo Credits: ASEAN Member States

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ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

FOREWORD

I am pleased to present the first ASEAN Herbal and Medicinal Plants. This book marks our first attempt to produce a compilation of herbal and medicinal plants that are popular in the ASEAN region. This book is the result of hard work and collaborative efforts of the ASEAN Experts Group on Herbal and Medicinal Plants who has been appointed to undertake the task of compiling the information. The Experts Group was formed in 1997 and comprises representatives from the ASEAN Member States. Despite the delay, I would say that the outcome is worthwhile indeed. The book covers some 90 different medicinal plant species from ASEAN Member States (except Singapore) with information pertaining to their scientific names, vernacular names, plant description, propagation, geographical distribution, chemical constituents, medicinal usage by the ASEAN Member States as well as their illustrative profiles. I am sure that this book would serve as a valuable reference to members of the ASEAN countries who are involved in the research and development of herbal and medicinal plants. With an abundance of untapped natural resources rich in medicinal plants in the region, the work of the ASEAN Experts Group on Herbal and Medicinal Plants is never-ending. Identifying new plant species, exploring their therapeutic potential, validating new methodologies and establishing new standards for many untouched plant species will pose a challenging task. I urge the Experts Group to continue to carry out more collaborative work on other plant species of interest in the ASEAN region. Our biodiversity is a blessing and a heritage for our posterity. We should learn to benefit from it and conserve it with all our ability. I would like to congratulate the members of the ASEAN Experts Group on Herbal and Medicinal Plants for their excellent efforts and the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia for their commitment to making this book possible. Thank you.

Dr. Surin Pitsuwan Secretary-General of ASEAN

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ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF PLANTS
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Abelmoschus moschatus Agathis borneensis Aloe vera Amaranthus spinosus Andrographis paniculata Asplenium nidus Blumea balsamifera Caesalpinia crista Centratherum intermedium Corchorus capsularis Coscinium fenestratum Curcuma longa Donax grandis Etlingera solaris Languas galanga Macaranga gigantea Melastoma malabathricum Orthosiphon aristatus Portulaca oleracea Zingiber aromaticum 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

CAMBODIA
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Aegle marmelos Aquilaria crassna Caesalpinia sappan Cananga latifolia Capparis micracantha Cassia alata Combretum quadrangulare Coscinium usitatum Curcuma zedoaria Dracaena cambodiana Eurycoma longifolia Hopea odorata Hydnocarpus anthelminticus Melastoma sanguineum Melodorum fruticosum 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71

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ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Phyllanthus emblica Plumeria alba Syzygium jambos Terminalia chebula Terminalia triptera

73 75 77 79 81

INDONESIA
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Acorus calamus85 Aloe vera Arcangelisia flava Centella asiatica Curcuma mangga Curcuma zedoaria Justicia gendarusa Morinda citrifolia Orthosiphon aristatus Sauropus androgynus 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 103

LAO PDR
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Aegle marmelos Alstonia scholaris Asparagus cochinchinensis Caesalpinia sappan Calotropis gigantea Cassia alata Codonopsis pilosa Costus speciosus Dioscorea persimilis Eclipta prostrata Elephantopus scaber Eleutherine subaphylla Euodia lepta Morinda citrifolia Passiflora foetida Polygonum multiflorum Rauvolfia serpentina Solanum procumbens Stephania rotunda 107 109 111 113 115 117 119 121 123 125 127 129 131 133 135 137 139 141 143

MALAYSIA
1. 2 3. 4. 5. Ardisia elliptica Chromolaena odorata Curcuma xanthorhiza Cymbopogon citratus Cymbopogon nardus 147 149 152 155 159

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2. 16. 19. 7. 9. 5. Aloe barbadensis Anacardium occidentale Annona reticulata Areca catechu Basella rubra Bixa orellana Caesalpinia pulcherrima Carmona retusa Cassia fistula Ceiba petandra Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Jatropha curcas Mimosa pudica Moringa oleifera Premna odorata Streblus asper Tinospora crispa Vitex negundo 227 229 231 233 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 257 259 261 263 vi . 14. 3. 18. 12. 8. 9. 20. 12. 16. 17. 10. 2. 9. 15. 11. 15. 5. 14. 11. 4. Barleria prionitis Dioscorea esculenta Elettaria cardamomum Gloriosa superba Millettia extensa Nervilia fordii Piper betle Rauvolfia serpentina Vitex negundo Vitis repens 205 207 209 211 213 215 217 219 221 223 PHILIPPINES 1. 4. 13. 3. 10. 8. 7. Elephantopus scaber Eurycoma longifolia Fibraurea tinctoria Gynura procumbens Kaempferia galanga Labisia pothoina Languas galanga Mitragyna speciosa Momordica charantia Ocimum bacilicum Phyllanthus amarus Rafflesia hasseltii Smilax myosotiflora Stemona tuberosa Zingiber officinale 162 164 166 168 171 173 175 177 180 185 190 194 196 198 200 MYANMAR 1.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 6. 10. 8. 13. 17. 7. 18. 6. 6.

7. 5. 9. 4. 10. 13. 4. 10.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS THAILAND 1. 8. Artocarpus lakoocha Boesenbergia rotunda Cassia fistula Cassia tora Clinacanthus nutans Curcuma longa Eurycoma longifolia Hibiscus sabdariffa Impatiens balsamina Solanum violaceum 267 271 274 279 284 286 289 293 296 299 VIET NAM 1. 15. 2. 2. 12. 7. 6. Abrus precatorius Abutilon indicum Acanthopanax gracilistylus Acanthopanax trifoliatus Achyranthes aspera Aconitum fortunei Acorus gramineus Acronychia laurifolia Adenosma glutinosum Alisma plantago-aquatica Aquilaria crassna Artocarpus tonkinensis Illicium verum Litsea cubeba Schefflera octophylla 303 305 307 309 311 313 315 317 318 320 322 324 325 327 329 LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS INDEX 333 335 vii . 3. 3. 8. 14. 5. 9. 6. 11.

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up to 6 cm long. petiole hairy and bears stipules. stigma 5-lobed. 4. Malvaceae Bason-bason. singly from the leaf axil with a pair of stipules at the base. blades deeply lobed to near palmate. calyx joined with 5 teeth. up to 5 cm long. up to about 2 m tall with few branches.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.0 Chemical Constituents Distillation of the seed yields the volatile oil. petals 5. hairy on the outside.0 5. 5-ridged with 5 cells containing many seeds. up to 6 cm long. langamit (Brunei Darussalam) A semi-woody plant. The seed coat contains palmitin which emits a musky scent and is used in perfumery. pubescent. 6.0 2. Capsule. Leaves spirally arranged with stalks. epicalyx with 10 separate sepals. pubescent on both surfaces and with toothed margins. 1 . farnesal. Flower. Young stems pubescent.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. maroon-coloured and is on top of the staminal column which is made up of numerous stamens closely joined together. stalk. bright yellowcoloured with deep maroon-crimson base.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant grows well on both clay and loam soils in full sunlight. No information is available on the contents of the roots. about 6 cm across.0 3.

0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agricultural Research Centre.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Contraindications Not available 9.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.1 7. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. Department of Agriculture. 2000. Kilanas. 8. breathlessness and general chest discomfort. Revised edition. 2 . Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources.2 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available Uses in traditional medicine: The roots are boiled and consumed orally as remedy for asthma.

The chemical contents of the roots are not known. ovoid with 2 unequal lateral wings. Ovulate cones at stem terminal.0 5. Bark lenticellate.0 2. up to 50 m tall and girth. Pollen cones. Matured cones.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Agathis borneensis Warb. It is probably this resin that is responsible for the alleged therapeutic property. entolong (Brunei Darussalam) A big tree. inner bark whitish with white resin. Leaves opposite. seed solitary on the scales in the middle section of the cone. scaly and grey-brown. Crown is normally conical. axillary. glabrous. kayu raja. up to 12 cm x 5 cm.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. sessile. each contains one ovule on the upper axil. Araucariaceae Tolong. 3 .0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant prefers drained clay soil and requires some shade when young.0 3. leathery and have parallel veins and short petioles. 6. cylindrical and each contains 10–12 pollen sacs on their undersurface. erect with many scales. oblongelliptic with blunt tips. up to as large as 5 m. 4. ellipsoidal. 10 cm across.0 Chemical Constituents The trunk of this plant produces resin which is used in the manufacture of spirit varnishes in lacquers and linoleum.

Department of Agriculture.2 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available Uses in traditional medicine: The outer. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam .0 Contraindications Not available 9. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. 8.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Kilanas.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agricultural Research Centre.1 7. Infusion of the young roots is consumed to treat diabetes and high blood pressure. 4 . rough layer of the bark is peeled and the smoothened branch is used to rub onto the affected area to relieve itchy skin condition.Revised. 2000.

Streptococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. Esherichin coli. perennial herb with several short branches forming a dense crown.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The juice has antimicrobial properties against Pseudomonas aeruginose. flowers tubular.) Burmann Liliaceae Lidah buaya (Indonesia.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Aloe vera (L. drooping and yellow-coloured. up to 2.6 cm long. An extract of the leaves is used as a cosmetic base for decreasing wrinkles and smoothing skin.0 5. fleshly with toothed margins. arises from the stem terminal. ulcers.0 Propagation : Seedling Geographical Distribution/Ecology Commonly planted as an ornamental plant all over the world. A polysaccharide obtained from the juice has been used for treating skin wounds. which has the properties of an aperient.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1.0 2. Leaves narrowlanceolate. insect bites and arthritis. Inflorescence an elongated raceme. 7. 6. Malaysia) A rosette. Proteus vulgaris. 5 .0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Chemical Constituents Leaf contains barbaloin. 4. It also has an antifungal activity. up to 40 cm long.0 3.

0 Contraindications Not available 9. Revised edition.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. Department of Agriculture. 6 . The fresh mucilage is also used for poultice wounds and as a skin conditioner. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. 2000. the mucilage of the leaves is applied directly to the affected skin.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The inner fleshy part of the leaves blended in water is used to make hair healthy and shiny. Kilanas.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. For burns or sunburn. 8.

0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Amaranthus spinosus L.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Leaves alternate. It also acts as an expectorant for bronchitis and breathing problems. inflammations and boils.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Tropical region.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The roots contain potash which is the element responsible for their diuretic property. stamens 5. in dense spikes of 8 cm long. Inflorescence from both leafaxils and stem terminals. up to 80 cm tall. 7 . normally to 7 cm x 4 cm with retuse tips. with light green cylindrical stem and several branches. shiny black seeds. Amaranthaceae Bayam berduri (Brunei Darussalam. petioles. size variable.0 3.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. 4. bracts greenish. Fruits capsular with round. up to 7 cm long with two 1 cm long sharp thorns at each base. on rich. friable sandy loam soil. 6. The above-ground parts and the roots contain saponin. glabrous. 7.0 5. The above-ground parts and the roots contain saponin which is used as an emollient for bruises.0 Chemical Constituents The roots contain potash. ovate. Malaysia) A tender upright herb.0 2. The plant thrives in the open. sepals 5 and green.

1992.2 Uses in traditional medicine: lt is traditionally used widely in many countries.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Kilanas. Decoction of the roots boiled with Allium cepa (onion) bulbs and seeds of Nigella sativa (fennel flower.0 Contraindications Not available 9. black cummin) is used to cure urinary problem of excessive salt in the urine (locally termed “kencing masin”). 8 . Part I. Department of Agriculture. 8. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources.

3’-tetramethoxyflavone. 5-hydroxy-2’. up to 6 mm long.3’.7.0 Chemical Constituents Andrographolide.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The whole plant has an antiinfectious property and can promote phagocytosis. upper lip.3’. white with purple stripes. 6. â-sitosterol. andrographinin 7.6-dimethyl ether. Toxic test on 9 . The plant prefers rich loamy soil with some shade. containing 12 seeds. up to 70 cm tall with many branches. simple. Intensive research in Thailand shows that the plant is effective against sore throat. up to 5 cm x 1.8-tetrametoxyflavone.0 2. corolla tube. akar cerita (Malaysia) A small tender herb.0 5.5 cm. up to 2 mm long. 3-lobes.7 cm long. Stems squarish and generally light green.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. sepals 5. white-coloured with 2 lips.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Andrographis paniculata Nees Acanthaceae Daun pahit (Brunei Darussalam). Leaves opposite. 2-lobes. lower lip.8. andrographine. stamens 2. hempedu bumi.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Tropical and subtropical areas. apigenin-4. 4. bracts.0 3. Inflorescences axillary and stem terminal in panicles with upright flowers. up to 4 mm long. elliptic with acuminate tips. 2celled.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. with white hairs. andrographidine. Pods up to 1. 5-hydroxy-7.

et al. Department of Agriculture. Rajagopal. 1–5. Vol. a potential cancer therapeutic agent isolated from Andrographis paniculata. 10 . S. of Exp. et al. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam.2 Uses in traditional medicine: A decoction of the leaves is often taken orally to cure diabetes and to reduce high blood pressure.. A leaf poultice is applied topically to relieve skin irritation and insect bites. 8. Cheung. Chinese Medicinal Herbs of Hong Kong. C.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS mice treated orally with 15 g/kg of the extract (LD 50 of the extract on mice was > 15 g/ kg when treated orally. Anco. 7. 1978. Ther. Hong Kong.98 g/kg when administered intraperitoneally) has shown no detrimental effect. J. 2003. S. Andrographolide.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 3(3):147–158.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. Kilanas. subcutaneously and 14. 1992. Part I.

supports the lamina at an angle of about 20 degrees.0 Geographical Distribution/Ecology Growing on trunk of trees in the shade or open of tropical forest. Three sq. 11 .0 2. Fronds simple.1 7.0 5. 7.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.0 3. linear. selimbar (Brunei Darussalam). 6.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Asplenium nidus L.0 Chemical Constituents The plant contains acetylornthine. Propagation : Spores 4. cm of the leaf lamina is normally sufficient for each preparation. Macerated leaves can also be applied to wounds to stop bleeding. Sori indusiate. Aspleniaceae Lukut. developed along two-third of all veins on the apical half of the lower surface of the frond. up to 95 cm x 20 cm. N-acetylornithine and L(+)-ornithine.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. to be taken once a day.2 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available Uses in traditional medicine: A decoction or warm infusion of the frond is used to relieve pain associated with the appearance of blood in the stool. midrib mostly black in colour. brown-coloured. paku lansuyar (Malaysia) Plant Description A radical fern with a thick mass of rhizomes and roots.

1992.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. 12 .ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. Kilanas.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Part I. Department of Agriculture.

0 2.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. 22 cm x 6 cm. limonene. Brunei Darussalam).0 3. florets yellow. hairy. cineol.1–0. up to 3 m tall. base usually rounded to tapering. sembung. appus white with some brown tips. Leaves alternate. exstipulate.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 13 . telinga kerbau (Malaysia) A subshrub perennial herb. Asteraceae Nath luang (Lao PDR). Inflorescence branched with many reduced leaves. up to 7 mm x 3 mm. capa. bracts narrow and numerous. 4.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Blumea balsamifera DC. flower heads. phenolphloroacetophenone dimethyl ether and alkaloid 7. alcohol.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology From India to Southeast Asia 6.4% camphor and borneol. with hairy stem. petiole sessile or short. lanceolateoblanceolate. Margin serrate.0 5.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1.0 Chemical Constituents Essential oil is about 0. sambung (Philippines.

expectorant. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operative. Vol. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. antispasmodic. 8. I & II. The decoction mixed with allium cepa (onion) and Nigella sativa (fennel flower. Burkill I. H. black cumin) is consumed for aching joints and coughs. Kuala Lumpur. 14 . antigastralgic and antihelmintic.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. Kilanas. The decoction of the leaves is antiarrythmic. 1992. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Part I.2 Uses in traditional medicine: A decoction of the whole plant mixed with other herbs is popularly used in bath after childbirth for general health. Department of Agriculture.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. astringent. 1966.

6.0 2. up to 6 cm x 3 cm and glabrous.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Description: : : : Caesalpinia crista L. Leguminosae Matahiang.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It was introduced from tropical America. ovaries superior and hairy.0 Chemical Constituents Bonducin in seed. bipinnate with sharp thorns on the undersides of the ribs. A native of Madagascar. it is widely distributed in tropical region. petals 5. 17% fat 7. 4. Leaves alternate. yellow with red stripes on the standard. padihiang (Brunei Darussalam) A woody vine with long thorny stems. stamens numerous.0 3.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 15 . leaflets elliptic.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. Fruit pods. thorny with 2–4 smooth and hard seeds. Inflorescence in the form of racemes with many strongly scented flowers. bark and leaves. sepals 5.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. brown-coloured.0 5. up to 10 cm x 5 cm.

mixed with a little cooking oil and rubbed onto the abdomen to treat spleen and liver diseases manifested by uncontrollable shivering symptom.0 Contraindications Not available 9. root or leaves is eaten fresh or pounded. The seeds are used in cosmetic preparation in India. 16 . 2000. 8. Department of Agriculture. Revised edition.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Kernel of the matured seeds.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. Kilanas.

4. Leaves spiral. in 4–6 whorls.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. lamina to 6. slightly woody herb. the herb gives off a strong acrid smell when crushed and a slight irritation may be felt when applied.5– 1. at stem terminal.2 cm long with 5 lobes and pappus of short fine bristles. margins double-serrated.0 2. flower head.5 cm x 3.8 cm across and supported at the base by a whorl of smaller leaves. Inflorescence. about 1.5 cm.0 5.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. broadly elliptic and tapered towards the base of the petiole. 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 17 . However.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Brunei Darussalam 6.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Centratherum intermedium L.0 Chemical Constituents No information on its contents has been cited. with ascending to upright scabrous stems.0 3. Asteraceae Bunga ungu (Brunei Darussalam) A much-branched. about 60–70 cm tall. up to 1. bracts narrow. florets purple-coloured.

The treatment should be carried out twice a day in 2–3 weeks for effectiveness. shingles. 18 . Kilanas. Department of Agriculture.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 2000.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The crushed or pounded leaf is gently applied to the skin and over wounds to treat skin allergy.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. 8. herpes and skin eczema.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Revised edition.

Flowers. corchorin. 2 from each node with 4 yellow.7 m tall. Capsules round. glucoside. lamina lanceolate. up to 10.5 cm x 3 cm. kancing baju (Malaysia) An annual undershrub. cerotic acid. arachidic acid. up to 1.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It thrives on most soils in direct sunlight.0 2. 7 mm long stipules at the node. with 2 fine. flat at the top and split into 5 parts to release the angular seeds. raffinose. behenic acid. petioles.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Corchorus capsularis L. with a few slender branches. linolic acid. b-sitosterol. 4.0 Chemical Constituents Corosin. Stems glabrous. 6. capsularin. stearic acid and strophanthidine.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. corchsularose and glycosides 7. palmitic acid.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 19 . up to 1.0 5.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Tiliaceae Penawar upas (Brunei Darussalam). separated sepals and numerous stamens. ovary superior. alternate.0 3. reddish brown and easily peeled.2 cm long. with serrate margins and base pair of teeth forming fine bristles. oleic acid. Leaves simple. lignoceric acid.

Besides orally consumed.2 Uses in traditional medicine: An infusion of the roots is taken orally to neutralize poison (from upas tree) usually applied to the dart of a blowpipe. it is applied topically onto the wound.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. 8. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. A decoction of the leaves is taken orally to reduce hypertension. 2000. Kilanas. Department of Agriculture. Revised edition.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 20 . as well as agrichemical poisons.

7. each up to 10 cm long and 2 cm in diameter with bright yellow inner bark. underneath hairy along prominent veins. moderate twining liana. up to 10 cm x 11 cm. 4. a drupe.0 3. Menispermaceae Ambok segubang. akar mengkunyit (Malaysia) A perennial. 5–7. to 2 cm in diameter. up to 8 cm long. Leaves alternate. tuberous and attached closely to the base. upper surface glabrous with 5 sunken main veins. petiole. inner sepals oblong and longer. perawan. up to 4 m long and 2 mm in diameter.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 21 . pubescent with swollen base and bent.0 5. outer sepals short. green-coloured.0 Scientific name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Coscinium fenestratum Colebr. blade cordate with broadly acuminated rip. in tomentose panicle of 8 cm long and 4 cm across. Inflorescence.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution It thrives on sandy or clay loam under shade.0 Chemical Constituents Saponins could be present in the roots. Roots.0 2. Stem. 6.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. akar penawar (Brunei Darussalam). Fruit.

Revised edition. This plant is quite well known as an antidote for poisons. The root is sliced. soaked in clean water and the infusion consumed as a follow-up antidote.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre.0 Contraindications Not available 9. but evaluation is required to ascertain this claim. 22 . A patient who is unconscious may be force-fed with a strong infusion of the tubers. The infusion is also traditionally drunk to treat dizziness of the head and dazed sight.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The root is chewed and swallowed in order to alleviate the effect of food and other chemical poisonings. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. 8. the mashed tuber is immediately applied to the wound directly. For blowpipe poisoning.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Kilanas. 2000. Department of Agriculture.

Flowers in March. It also contains cycloisopropenmycren. Inflorescences cylindrical spikes. up to 90 cm tall with 6–8 leaves and their sheaths form the pseudostem.3 cm. tamu kunyit (Indonesia. Zingiberaceae Kunyit biasa. corolla tube whitish. calyx toothed unequally and divided. pentosans. demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. up to 28 cm x 7 cm. ovary inferior. bitter principles. acuminate. up to 13 cm x 5 cm.0 Chemical Constituents The rhizome contains curcumin which gives the yellow-orange colour.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology Commonly cultivated as a spice and usually harvested annually. Shoots erect. P-tocylmethyl carbinol.5 cm thick rhizomes. 6 cm x 2. 23 . essential oil. Malaysia) A clumped herb with ellipsoidal. cellulose. protein. leaf-lamina lancleota. fixed oil.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant description : : : Curcuma longa L. starch and minerals. upper bracts white-coloured and lower bracts light green. 6.0 2.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. Rhizome brownish and scaly outside and bright orange inside. side lobes white-coloured. staminodes 2. 4. bracts elliptic-lancleolate.0 5. up to 5 cm x 2. without setting fruit. 1. divides into 3 petals with dorsal lobe hooded. resin.0 3. It grows well on rich moist sandy loam or alluvial soils. labellum obovate with a yellow band long the centre.7 cm primary tubers and many. 4–7 cm long.

the lower abdomen. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. 24 . with an upward motion.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. probably due to infection of the urinary system. 2000. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. 8. Department of Agriculture.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The rhizome is useful as a remedy to relieve uncontrolled and frequent urination. Revised edition. A small portion of the skin can be chewed and swallowed after each rubbing session. The skin of a rhizome is peeled and is used to rub.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Kilanas.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.0 Contraindications Not available 9.

up to 24 cm long.5 cm long. ovary inferior. Flower white.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant thrives on clay loam and soon forms a thick colony. sepals 3–2. corolla-tube to 2. up to 13 cm x 7. Panicle leaf-opposed.5 cm in diameter at the base. Fruit.0 Chemical Constituents Saponins have been detected in the rhizomes of the plants in Brunei Darussalam. epicalyx 3–5 mm long and translucent. up to 1.0 5. bowl-shaped outline and bearing 3 seeds. The same phytochemicals have been found in plants in Malaysia. bemban (Brunei Darussalam) A sprawling half-herbaceous plant about 2 m tall. leaf-opposed. straight between nodes. Stem.5 cm x 5 mm. up to 12 cm long. 3-lobed with 2 narrow lobes and one broad lobe. laminar ovate with abruptly acuminate tips. enclosing the stem. very smooth and green-coloured. 25 . style hooked and partly covered by the corolla-tube.5 cm. 4. 6.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1.0 3. branches.0 2. with 2 flowers on each branch which also bears a 4 cm long bract. leathery and glabrous. The juice of the stem has been regarded as an antidote for snake bites and blood poisoning in Malaysia.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Donax grandis Ridley Marantaceae Bamban batu. Leaves alternate. sheath.

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 1990. The white flowers are picked fresh and eaten by children. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. 26 . Kilanas. IPT. S.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. 2000. Malaysia. al. Goh. et. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam.H. Revised edition.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agricultural Research Centre. 8.2 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available Uses in traditional medicine: Decoction of the rhizomes is consumed to treat diabetes and high blood pressure. Phytochemical Guide to Malaysia Flora. University of Malaya.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Department of Agriculture..1 7.

up to 20 cm long with overlapping greencoloured scales. consists of layers of leaf-sheaths. waxy. calyx tubular. epicalyx tubular with 2 lobes. lamina.Widely planted in house gardens in Southeast Asia. The seed can also be germinated.) K. outside oblong and larger (8 cm x 3 cm).BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1.0 A rhizomatous. Inflorescence in upright. Geographical Distribution/Ecology The terrestrial plant is occasionally grown in gardens. smaller and narrower toward the centre. 2 cm long petals. up to 2 cm long with 3. 4. Sehura Zingiberaceae Tepus kantan 2. labellum anther 2-lobed.0 Propagation : Normally propagated from rhizome-cuttings. petiole up to 5 mm long. linear. calyx tubular. ovary inferior. bracts many and overlapping. black and embedded in mucilage. pinkish-red.0 5. seeds many. Pseudostem swollen at the base. Phaeomeria solavis (Bl. up to 3 cm long with 2 sepals and red-tipped. glabrous. red-coloured and folds the stamen and the pistil.0 3. M.) R. corolla tube. in 2 rows. thin and papery. clumbed plant growing up to 5–6 cm tall. up to 50 cm long and broad with narrow acuminate tip and rounded base. It flowers regularly. It thrives on clay loam in the open lowland and quickly establishes into a big clump. tightly packed in a sphere 7–8 cm across. anther 2-lobeb. 27 . Leaves. Irregularly-shaped with flattened top and a persistent flower remains. Fruits. alternate. Sm. thin and papery. up to 3 cm long with 2 sepals and spathaceous. torch-shape spike. stalk.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : : Etlingera solaris (Bl.

The juice of the young fruits is dropped into the ears to treat certain ear-aches. 2000. Decoction of the rhizome is used as an antiseptic for external wounds. 28 .0 Contraindications Not available 9.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 6.0 Reports on Medicinal Uses 7. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. With the introduction of the plant.0 Chemical Constituents Not available 7. 8.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Department of Agriculture. Revised edition.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The young inflorescence and sometimes the fruits are used as food flavourings. The flowers are sometimes included in the herbal bath for a mother after childbirth. its traditional medicinal uses are also adopted. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. Kilanas.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.

Indonesia Malaysia). Pinene and eugenol are also present. and thick underground rhizomes. lip. oblong-elliptic. Widely distributed in all over Southeast Asian region. white with red streaks. with 2 deep limbs. each 1.04%.6 cm. up to 1. stipule brownish green with patches of vicious hairs. The decoction is warm and hot-tasting.0 5. up to 2 cm.)Willd. Fruits round. galangal (English) 2. Zingiberaceae Languas.9 cm x 1. corolla tube.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Languas galanga stuntz Alpinia galanga (L. stipule brownish green marking all around. margins ciliated with a thin light green marking all around. The amount of oil in the fresh rhizome was quoted at 0. 29 .0 3.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. up to 10 cm long and divides into 3 petals. lengkuas (Brunei Darussalam. 6.0 Chemical constituents Rhizome contains galangol which on distillation yields cineol. Inflorescences in terminal panicles. the latter responsible for the medicinal properties.4 cm and orange-red when ripe.0 A perennial herb with pseudostem. Leaves alternately arranged in two rows. 4. up to 2. up to 45 cm x 12 cm with short petioles.2 m high.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology Commonly planted in open areas in backyards.

30 . Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. It is a common spice used in many local dishes. Some local herbalists regard the pseudostem as a useful aphrodisiac. vomiting.0 Contraindications Not available 9.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Revised edition.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Department of Agriculture. 8.2 Uses in traditional medicine: A decoction of the rhizomes and base of pseudostem is taken to cure stomach-ache. diarrhea and indigestion. Kilanas. 2000.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.

Fruit. Malaysia and Indonesia. large to about 40 cm across.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. secondary forests and on wastelands. kino glue comes from the sap and alkaloids from the fruit.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Brunei Darussalam. telinga gajah (Brunei Darussalam).0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Macaranga gigantea (Rchb. male flowers with sepals not overlapping. flowers dioecious.A.0 3. merakubong.) M. blade shallowly 3-lobed and without yellow granular gland.0 2. Inflorescences axillary or behind the leaves. 4. Bark smooth and grey. Euphorbiaceae Mangkubong sedaman.0 5. stamens free. Wood soft and white.0 Chemical Constituents The root-bark contains tannin. anthers celled with no spitillode. usually with straight trunk and dome-shaped crown. f. Leaves spiral and peltate. stipules papery and persistant. a leathery capsule with rough skin which splits into 2 parts when mature to release many black seeds. up to about 9 m tall. 6. & Zoll. Often found growing by roadside clearings. female flowers with ovary chambered. a raceme of clustered flowers. bracts minute apetalous with no disc. mahang (Malaysia) A small to medium-sized tree. the leaves and stem contain terpenoids. 31 . styles unbranched.

8. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operative. I & II.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. Vol. H.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The roots of a young tree are boiled and the resultant decoction is consumed to relieve diarrhea. Department of Agriculture. Kilanas 1992. Burkill. I. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam.. Part II. The stem is cut and the fresh latex is carefully applied to sores on lips or mouth cavity.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. 1996.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 32 . Kuala Lumpur.

flowers singly from bract-axil. It thrives on most soils in direct sunlight. up to 1cm long with a narrow beak-like appendage protruding 1 cm above and containing the style. Inflorescences. corolla tube. up to 25 cm x 5.0 3. lower light green. up to 80 cm tall. calyx tubular.8 cm and curved over the anther. ovary inferior. 4.0 5. along roadsides and in orchards. flowers and fruits readily and can be propagated from stem cuttings.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1.0 2. up to 2 cm x 0. 6. upper red. anther. 3-lobed dosal lobe. narrowly elliptic.5 long. labellum dull purplish-yellow with yellow spots.5 cm and glabrous. up to 16 cm long on an equal length of stalk. spathaceous. up to 2. Leaves 16–18. a cylindrical spike from the rhizome.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Melastoma malabathricum L. This plant is widely distributed. Melastomataceae Kuduk-kuduk (Brunei Darussalam).0 Propagation : Stem cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Commonly found growing on wasteland. 3-toothed. up to 3 cm long. faint-yellow and translucent.0 Chemical Constituents Not available 33 . bracts overlapping. Senduduk (Malaysia) A rhizomatous perennial herb with pseudostems. and connected to the side lobes at half length.

Kilanas.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 2000. 34 . Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. 8. The fresh petals are used to rub on dried wounds in order to accelerate healing and to reduce permanent scaring.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The decoction of the twig mixed with 7–10 herbs is used in herbal baths after childbirth to revitalize the body system. Revised edition.0 Contraindications Not available 9.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Department of Agriculture.

1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available : Stem 35 . stamens 4 with styles protruding 6 cm long resembling cat’s whiskers. 5.0 6. No information on the constituents of this plant has been found.0 Propagation Chemical Constituents The herb is sweet and mildly bitter.0 2.5 cm with both surfaces pubescent. 4. upper-lip with 4 limbs. up to 2 cm long. sandy loam soil with some shade. 2-lips. petioles. misai kucing (Brunei Darussalam) A tender herb. broadly elliptic. sepals 5.0 3.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. 7. up to about 1 m tall with squarish ascending stems. up to 7 cm x 3. corolla white-coloured. lower-lip narrow.0 Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant thrives well in moist.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miquel Lamiaceae Janggut kucing. up to 10 cm long. Inflorescence in terminal raceme.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. crenate. Leaves opposite.

Kilanas. 2000.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agricultural Research Centre. Department of Agriculture. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. For children. honey may be added to the decoction.2 Uses in traditional medicine: A decoction of the leaves mixed with Nagella sativa (fennel flower.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 36 . Revised edition. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. 8.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. black cummin) and Allium cepa (onion) is taken orally after meals to control diabetes.

to 2 cm x 1.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Physical description : : : Portulaca oleracea L. Inflorescence at stem terminal.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Commonly found growing on moist fertile soils as weeds in vegetable gardens and along sides of drains.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. 1 mm thick seeds. alkaloid. antraquinone. The leaf has essential oil. Portulaceae Lingiruh (Brunei) An annual and often with fleshy purplish red stems.2 cm and glabrous. 6.up to 7 mm thick and 50 cm long. petals 5. in tight bunch of several flowers.0 Chemical Constituents The whole herb contains cyanophoric constituent. glycosides. ovary half-superior.0 5. Fruits capsular and containing many black. Leaves opposite or in whorls. old stems decumbent. coumarins and flavones and norepinephrine. 7. lamina near spatulate. vitamins. bracts 4 and very thin.0 3. sepals 2 and green. 4.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. cardiac glycosides.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 37 . up to 4 mm long and yellow.0 2. fats.

Revised edition.0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agricultural Research Centre. Kilanas. Department of Agriculture. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources. 38 . Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 2000.0 Contraindications Not available 9. It is often consumed as a vegetable. 8.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The whole herb is boiled and eaten to relieve high blood pressure.

It thrives on sandy loam and alluvial soils in full sunlight and flowers in September. It is likely that Z. red with a green tinge. zingiberene. style protruding and pink-coloured. Leaves opposite.5 cm. 6. essential oils and many volatile oils in their rhizomes. 4.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Fruits with numerous small seeds embedded in purplish pulp. Flowers at stem terminals on short stalks. Widely planted in house gardens in Southeast Asia. 7. up to 2 m tall with squarish and often reddish stems. calyx reddish green. young bark rough with small bristly scales. up to 2. hairy with 5 sepals. aromaticum has similar constituents. old bark dark brown-coloured with netlike markings.0 3.0 Chemical Constituents Other related species contain camphene. maroon-coloured. petals 5.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Zingiber aromaticum Valeton Zingiberaceae Lempuyang (Brunei) A shrub. up to 1. stamens 10.BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1. narrowly elliptic.5 cm x 1.0 5.0 2.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology Often grown in gardens and house compounds.0 cm. up to 9 cm x 2 cm.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 39 . surface scurfy with 3 distinct ribs and 2 less prominent outer ribs.5 cm x 1. bracts 3.

The leaves are warmed over a fire and wrapped around the joints of the limbs to relieve pain due to arthritis. Kilanas.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Department of Agriculture.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Medicinal Plants of Brunei Darussalam. 40 .0 Bibliography Brunei Darussalam Agriculture Research Centre. 2000. Revised edition.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The rhizomes are boiled and the resultant decoction is used as a herbal bath after childbirth. 8. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources.

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1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Recent investigations have shown that the coumarins present may have potential antiulcer properties.CAMBODIA 1. 43 . flavonoids. 10–15 m high. The aromatic flowers are greenish white on the inner side and green on the outer side.0 3. with numerous seeds covered in a gummy layer. including xanthotoxol and alloimperatorin methyl ether. 2–7 cm wide and 4–13 cm long with inflorescence in terminal or axillary raceme. bael fruit tree. The leaves are trifoliolate and alternate. O-methylhafordinol and essential oils. The alkaloids include á-fargarine(=allocryptopine). bengal quince. 4. The taste is mucilaginous and slightly acidic. Rutaceae Phnov.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Aegle marmelos (L. rutin and marmesin. golden apple.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. O-isopentenylhalfordinol. The leaflets are elliptic or lanceolateovate.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant grows wild throughout the forests and domestically around Buddhist monasteries for its fruits in Cambodia.0 5. The orangecoloured fruits are fleshy and globose or ellipsoid with a hard pericarp. 6. Roxb.0 2. 7.0 Chemical Constituent Coumarins.) Correa ex. The flesh is reddish. bel Tree.

unripe and ripe fruit. & Ray.Exp. 1984.. Pp. Australia. P. 2004. N. Indian J . & Datta. digestive and astringent activity. M. Maiti. Infusion of the dried leaves also reputedly possesses hypoglycaemic properties. 1997. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka (Aegle marmelos).) Correa seed. Juice from the crushed leave is reported to relieve bronchitis.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.. Karunanayake. 223–231. dried. Ltd. The ripe fruits possess laxative properties and promote digestion. Infusion of the dried unripe fruit is reputedly used as an antidiarrhoeal.. Sem. M. antidysenteric.N.. 52(3): Pp.K.R. A. 1982. & Sinnadorai. with a dose of 4–8 ml.. R. Medicinal properties include stomachic. 19– 20. 44 . L. The common preparation is a liquid extract. 1080–1083. Welihinda. 8.C.. 35(10): Pp.0 Bibliography Banerji. rood. Biol. S. antifungal and antimicrobial. Sirimanne. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. A new protein source.B. Select Books Pte. Goel. Ethnopharmacol.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Parts used are bark. R. Pharmacognosy of Aegle marmelos (L. G.H. Acta. J. leaves. 11(2): Pp.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Maiti. 97–101. Pharm. Recent investigations have shown that the coumarins present may have potential antiulcer properties. J. Anti-ulcer activity of naturally occurring pyrano-coumarin and isocoumarins and their effect on prostanoid synthesis using human colonic mucosa (Aegle marmelos). E. S. Kham.. Hung. Manickam.

30–40 m tall. Another variety called A.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. Burnt wood also gives off a characteristic fragrance. agar wood (English) Tree. the wood is mixed with other drugs and used against malaria.CAMBODIA 1.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.0 5. 6.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Mostly found in Viet Nam. 4.0 Chemical Constituents Volatile oil. Leaves are alternate and the flowers are scented.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In traditional Cambodian medicine. baimuxinol and baimuxinic acid 7. Lecomte Thymelaeaceae Daem chan kroessnaa.0 2. Lao PDR and Cambodia in primary and secondary forest.0 3. sinensis is used in medicine for its active principles baimuxol and dehydrobaimuxinol. 45 .

S. K. H. Yang.W. 191–198. & Chen. Isolation and characterisation of three 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone derivatives].L. Yao Xue Xue Bao 18(3): Pp. Kawanishi. J. 63 pp. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia.. L. Y. Yang. Yao Xue Xue Bao 21(7): Pp.L. Yang. Y. Ueda.W. 46 .ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8.) Gilg. 1993.L.. Isolation and structure elucidation of two new sesquiterpenes. 1990. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. Australia. Okugawa. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. A. 186–190. 516–620. 1983. & Su.0 Bibliography Kham. 1986. J. 1989.. J. Y.. & Chen. Wang. 678–683. Matsumoto. Isolation and structure of baimuxol and dehydrobaimuxinol].) Gilg. 2004. Effects of agar wood (Aquilaria crassna) extracts on the central nervous system. J. Yao Xue Xue Bao 25(3): Pp..S. V. [Studies on the constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour. R.) Gilg. & Kato. Wang. & Su. Planta Med. Ltd. Isolation and characterisation of 2-(2-enylethyl) chromone derivatives]. Y. baimuxinal]. K. Yang. 32–36. Y.0 Contraindications Not available 9. IV. Select Books Pte.) Gilg. II.S. 59(1):Pp. I. Yao Xue Xue Bao 24(9): Pp. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.. Y.S.L.

7–10 m tall.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Caesalpinia sappan L.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This species is naturally distributed in tropical Asia. Leguminosae Sbaeng. especially in Luangprabang. shikimic acid. at the altitude of at least 800 ft. it is sparsely found at forest edges. Also grown in many mountainous provinces in the northern part of Lao PDR. trunk and branchlets spiny. young flowering branchlets densely covered with ferruginous pubescence. brasillenin hydrocyanic acid.0 2. each with a pointed tip.0 Chemical Constituents Brasillin. saponin. ocimene. sappan wood A small tree. oblong and woody pods. 4. In Cambodia.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. or in secondary forests and around villages. tannin 7.0 3.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 47 . Flowers are yellow. The fruits are flat. Leaves are bipinnate compound.0 5.CAMBODIA 1. 6.

Pp.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 8. Cambodia. Phnom Penh. bruises and diarrhea. because of its red colour. National Center of Traditional Medicine.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Plants Used in Cambodia. It is generally given to women after labour.0 Bibliography Dy Phon Pauline. Phnom Penh. 1999. A decoction of the wood is used in many Asian countries to treat problems related to blood.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The heartwood is used to treat haemostasis. 2000. 48 . Cambodia. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia. 218–219.

denticulate and alternate.) Annonaceae Chhke sreng A branchy shrub.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Cananga latifolia (Finet & Gapnep. used for temporary structures. Uses in traditional medicine: Infusion of the wood is considered a febrifuge.2 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Amoebicidal activity has been investigated from extracts of this plant.1 7. 8–15 m tall. 4. The leaves are ovate.0 3.0 2. Shortlasting wood. 6.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is native to Cambodia and grows near clear and semi-dense forests. The bark forms one of the components of a remedy against dizziness.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.0 5. The bark is grey with white inner portion.CAMBODIA 1. The scrapings from the wood are reputedly smoked to treat 49 . The fragrant flowers are sometimes used to make necklaces.0 Chemical Constituents Polyphenol glycosides 7.

1998.M. latifolia.. M. D.M. Cassady. & Marciano Cabral.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS allergic rhinitis. Amoebicidal activity has been investigated from extracts of C. Nguyen. Pp. 50 .H. 1997. 467– 473. 8. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia.. (Cananga latifolia). Amoebicidal activity of plant extracts from Southeast Asia on Acanthamoeba spp. Sun. Pharmacol. Inhibition of topoisomerase II by liriodenine (Cananga latifolia). 54 (4): Pp. Toney. Biochem. F..J. N. L. H.. Australia. 2004.0 Bibliography Chu. Select Books Pte. D. Ltd.C. Cananga latifolia is one the three main herbs that are used in combination with Zeylamica for the treatment of tuberculosis.M. Parasitol.. & Snapka. Reynolds. Res. Kham. Wood. Miles. 84(9): Pp. J. S. C. 746–752. R.117– 118.0 Contraindications Not available 9...

2 Uses in traditional medicine: Roasted seeds are infused and taken against coughs. 10–20 cm long and 5–7 cm wide. 6. Infusion of the roots is used as a diuretic.0 5. 4. The barriers are oval and 2–3 cm wide with numcrous seeds.0 Chemical Constituents Alkaloids and â-carotene 7.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Capparis micracantha DC.0 3. Young stem or branch is used to cure polyps of the nose caused by smoking or drinking.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This species grows in the open forests of Cambodia. 51 . The berries are edible.CAMBODIA 1.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. The green leaves are lanceolate with an acute apex. Capparaceae Kanchee baaydaac 2–3 m tall bush with thorny ends.0 2. Leaf mixed with other medicinal plant leaves is used for body steam-bath.

National Center of Traditional Medicine. L. Guan. J. Dy Phon Pauline. 2001. R. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. Phnom Penh. Pol. Cambodia. Levels of â-carotene and effects of processing of selected fruits (Capparis micracantha) and vegetables of the arid zone of India. Jankowski. Acta. 56(Pt. 265–276. Plants Used in Cambodia.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the thermostable sweet protein mabinlin II (Capparis micracantha).M. Y.7): Pp. & Wang. 52 . 2000. Acta. 1999. 2004. 2000.C. Crys. 1991. Biol. Phnom Penh. 286 pp. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Ltd. Australia.. 38(2): Pp. T. Z.R. Crystall.J. Plant Food. & Nagar. Hu. Zheng..J. D. Select Books Pte. D. 127–132. 124 pp. W. Long chain polyisoprenoid alcohols in leaves of Capparis species. & Chojnacki. Kham. 918–919. Nutr.. Cambodia.0 Bibliography Chaturvedi. 56(2): Pp. Biochim. Hum.

1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. with an increasing frequency southwards. hydrocyanic acid. ricinoleic acid. Fruits are black pods with two broad wings.CAMBODIA 1.0 2.0 3.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. saponin 7. The flowers are orange. decanal. especially in Champasack province. cinnamaldehyde. 53 .0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Originating in tropical American. Caesalpiniaceae Danghet. ringworm cassia A small shrub.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In traditional Cambodian medicine.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Cassia alata L. commonly used to treat ringworm. 4. In Lao PDR. The leaves are simple pinnate alternate with leaflets oblong or obovate.0 5. The plant is toxic. 6. the crushed leaves are mixed with quicklime and water to treat sores and eczemas. it can be found in all parts of the country. chrysarobini.0 Chemical Constituents Anthraquinone. about 1–2 m tall. it is now widespread in Southeast Asian countries and cultivated near houses for ornamental and for utilitarian purposes in Cambodia.

137–138. Phnom Penh.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Phnom Penh. Cambodia. 2000. Cambodia. 54 . 1999. National Center of Traditional Medicine. Pp.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia.0 Bibliography Dy Phon Pauline. Plants Used in Cambodia.

0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Combretum quadrangulare Kurz Combretaceae Sanke Tree. The leaves. The branchlets are acutely quadrangular or very narrowly quadrialate. combretol.0 2. The fruits are thinly quadrialate with brownish-red seeds. yellowish to white.0 Chemical Constituents Triterpenes.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. tannin. 2–10 m tall. opposite. The flowers are small. daucosterol 7. 3–8 cm wide and 6–15 cm long. are used as cigarette paper. and is common along riversides and banks of paddy fields throughout Cambodia. dried and well spread under mattress or mast.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Recent studies have investigated possible hepatoprotective properties from the triterpenes present.CAMBODIA 1.0 3.0 5.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant grows in deforested regions. 6. obovate. a natural dye for silk. 4. which produces lacquer-gum. The plant may host lacquer insects. The leaves are simple. 55 .

An investigation on the biological activity of Combretum species. Three new triterpenes from the seeds of Combretum quadrangulare and their hepatoprotective activity. T. The bark is part of an ointment used to bandage ulcerations. Pp. K. Rabe..G. (Tokyo) 48(4): Pp. Veterinarians reputedly use it as tonic for oxen and horses. Chem. 64(3): Pp. Tanaka. J. Jager.. Methyl quadrangularates A.H. Tezuka. K. Tran.D and related triterpenes from Combretum quadrangulare. I. 175– 176. Pharm.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 2000. Nat.0 Bibliography Adnyana. The seeds are reputedly used as an anthelmintic for roundworms and threadworms in children. L. A. S.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 2001. J. Y.N.. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. Tran. S. A.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In traditional Cambodian medicine. 2001.Q. 8. S.. J. Ltd. Bull. A. McGaw. & Kadota.K. Banskota. L. Saiki. Sparg. 56 . K... Ethnopharmacol. Y. J.J.496–504. Australia. Kham. 360–363. I. Eloff.H. & Kadota. 75(1): Pp. & van Staden.Q. The leaves are used to relieve muscular pains...45– 50.. the fruits are used to remove ascaris. 2004... Banskota. Recent studies have investigated possible hepatoprotective properties from the triterpenes present.. Tezuka. Prod. Select Books Pte.K.

The leaves are green.0 5. the commercial extraction of berberine from C.0 3. 6. Incision of the trunk of the tree is bright yellow with a very bitter taste.0 Chemical Constituents Alkaloids. it is distributed thoroughly Pursat.0 Report on Medicinal Usage: 7. alternate and hairy underneath. Results showed a dose-dependant relationship against inflammation. 4. In Cambodia. often climbing on rocks or large trees up to 40 m high.CAMBODIA 1.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: This plant reportedly contains analgesic and antipyretic properties. The flowers are bright red and found in clusters. usitanum is well documented. Siem Reap.0 2.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Native to Cambodia. yellow vine (English) Large climbing liana. Coscinium usitanum is also reputedly used as an antihypertensive agent in a dose-dependant manner. making the species rare.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Coscinium usitatum Pierre Menispermaceae Voa romiet thom. The antiinflammatory effect of berberine was confirmed through subcutaneous injection. 57 . Kampot and Koh Kong provinces. mainly berberine 7.

G. Bani. Select Books Pte.. 58 . S. Australia..B.. S. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.0 Contraindications Not available 9.2 Uses in traditional medicine: All parts can be used. The plant is used to stop dysentery by drinking the decoction obtained by boiling with water. Pp. J. S. 1990.0 Bibliography Kham. Singh. 8. 151–155. 180– 181. Singh. L. Ltd. 2004. Ethnopharmacol. & Malhotra. 30(2): Pp. Hypotensive action of Coscinium fenestratum stem extracts.

6. with long sheathing leaves at the bottom. 30–60 cm long and 7–8 cm wide. sati. 1–2 m tall. red spotted along the median vein.0 3. kachura.0 5. albuminoids. camphene and d-á-pinene as the main constituents. longa and are yellow. gum. 4. d-camphor. starch. generally appearing before the leaves. kranchura. sugar. organic acids. A bitter soft resin. round zedoary (English) Herb. The flowers are red or yellowish white. shati. curdioneand sesquiterpens are also present.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. 7. borneol. curcumemone.0 2.0 Chemical Constituents Essential oils with cineol. The rhizomes are larger than C. curcumol. Zingiberaceae Bratiel preah a*kool. curcumin arabins.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is cultivated in Cambodia as a decorative plant.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Rhizome and leaves 59 .CAMBODIA 1. crude fiber.

Med. Pp. Kim. D.M. Morris. antifungal and antiinflammatory activities in plant extracts.H. 218–222. Shiba. Tokunaga. 2004. 10(4): Pp. C. A. nausea and bloating and generally improves digestion. & Sun... Shin. K. C. 61(12): Pp. G. H. Res.... 476–481.K. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia. 1976.K.J. N. Syu.C. Don. Miah.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Dried grind bulb is used to increase human power and cure illness. 47(12): Pp. & Achari. It is boiled as tea or soaked in white wine before drinking or mixed with honey to make into tablets for swallowing... Kham. Phnom Penh. 2001.. Fresh roots dispel leucorrhoeal and gonorrheal discharges. & Muraki. W.R. Cho. 1998. A.. the major antifungal principle of Curcuma zedoaria. M. 41(4):Pp. 8. J. M. Studies have shown anticancer.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The roots are useful for flatulence and dyspepsia. Mol. Latif... Cytotoxicity of curcuminoids and some novel compounds from Curcuma zedoaria. 2000. a zedoary-derived sesquiterpene (Curcuma zedoaria). D. S. & Ryu. Select Books Pte.. Endo.0 Bibliography Dy Phon Pauline. National Center of Traditional Medicine. Hewitt. M.. 67(6): Pp. Cambodia.S. Yoshioka.. genotoxicity and anticlastogenic activities of polysaccharide from Curcuma zedoaria. Curcuma zedoaria is used similarly as ginger to relieve indigestion.W. treatment is given in a decoction together with long pepper. E. liquorice and honey or sugar candy to relieve coughs and bronchitis.. 286 pp. H. Cells.H. A curcuminoide and sesquiterpenes as inhibitors of macrophage TNF-alpha release from Curcuma zedoaria. J.. the juice from the tubers is given to children. H. T.C. Prod. The pounded root is combined with alum and is applied to bruises. Inflamm.J. Jang. Sohn..57–63. Australia.A. 2000. B. Nat. L. T.E. Br. Plants Used in Cambodia. 60 . J. J.. 1531–1534.H. Wada. Kim.H. Cambodia. Fujii. 550–552. Isolation of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate. Gupta.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 39(4): Pp. Antitumor. Shen.Y. Ltd. B. The dry root powdered and mixed with the powdered wood of Caesalpinia sappan makes the red powder called abir. H. In cases of cold and fevers. Y. Hohsho. K. & Yang.. H. J.H.B.. Lee. 1999. Phnom Penh. & Ford. Anti-inflammatory potency of dehydrocurdione.. Hong. Nutr. Medicinal Plants of Cambodi. J.K. 1979. T. Toxicity of shoti (Indian arrowroot: Curcuma zedoaria) for rats and chicks.I. 1998.. 195– 196. Kim. 392–398. Banerjee. which is mixed with water. Planta.C. Loydia. M. cinnamon. Ou. Shibuya. D. For worms.

docosyl acohol. 6.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Found in dense forests.5-tetrachloro-3. 4. octadecyl acetate. mainly on Bokor mountain.6-dimethoxy-benzene.0 Chemical Constituents 1. The leaves are slender spikes radiating from a central axis with an aerial inflorescence. the staples of the mature leaves are used to weave hammocks.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex Gagnep.2. resveratrol. eicosyl acetate. It is cultivated mainly indoors for its leaves grouped in bundles.0 5.0 2.4. The fruits are red and round with one seed.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Stalks 61 .0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. 2–3 m tall. especially in the mountain regions of Cambodia. 4-7-dihydroxy-flavone and saponins 7.0 3. especially on the calciferous rocks in Kampot province. Dracaenaceae A*ree daek Shrub.CAMBODIA 1.

797–813. H. & Murashige. 1996. & Tally. Select Books Pte. Cambodia. D. 404: Pp. Chen. R.D. macerated in alcohol and used as blood purifier for arthritic and joint pains. & Bi. Phnom Penh.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In traditional Cambodian medicine. Tang. 96–101. D... the stalks are cut. Wen. Soc. Iwu.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 421–423. Biological activity of saponins from two Dracaena species. A glance into the history of phamacognosy]. National Center of Traditional Medicine.. The recommended dosage is an infusion of 8– 12 grams of the bark taken up three times daily. 1976.R. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. L.E. Kham. Cambodia. M. 1: Pp. [Dragon’s blood ( Dracaena species ). 2004.. T.M. 448. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia. J. 2000. 286 pp. C. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 22(4): Pp. 1999. L. Miller. [Hemostatic effect of Dracaena cochinensis (Lour. [Constituents of the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extract fractions from Dracaena cochinensis (Lour. Liu. 616–618. 8. 1995.O.C.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 62 .) S. Jackson.) S. & Tang. Dy Phon Pauline. In vitro 12(12): Pp. Exp.]. Luxemb. 640. Nong.0 Bibliography Bruck. Wen. Australia. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 23(10): Pp. Plants Used in Cambodia. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 20(7): Pp. Okunji. Med. Sci. Phnom Penh. Bull.C. Ltd. [Constituents in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extract fractions of Dracaena cochinensis (Lour. M. R. 240–243. 1997. 256. J. 227 pp... 1999. Grand Duche. Adv..415–428.C. N. Biol. Med. Wei. X. Tissue culture propagation of tropical foliage plants (Dracaena cambodiana). H. 1998. Chem]. X.) S. Chen]. Wei.

6. cytotoxic 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Bark.5–6 cm.0 5. 63 . quassianoids.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In Cambodian traditional medicine. ans the roots are used as antidote against drunkenness. leaves up to 100 cm long. 2–5 meters tall unbranched. The roots are used to increase human.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Eurycoma longifolia Jack Simaroubaceae Antung sa. flower bisexual or unisexual. 4. power taken by boiling or soaking in white wine before drinking.CAMBODIA 1. fruits 10–17 mm X 5–12 mm. the barks are used to treat digestive troubles. seed. root 7.0 3.0 2. leaflets lanceolate to obovatelanceolate 5–20 cm X 1. eurycoma (English) A shrub. fruit.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This shrub is common in understorey primary and secondary forests on a wide range of soils and locally abundant throughout tropical Southeast Asia.0 Chemical Constituent Eurycomanol. the fruits are antidysenteric.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.

. Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants (Psychotria reversii. Lasure. A. J. Phnom Penh. D.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Kham. & Vlietinch. A.J. 2000.. 64 .ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. 422 pp. H. Van Poel. B. Cambodia. C. Vanden Berghe. Burch. National Center of Traditional Medicine.. L.0 Bibliography Dy Phon Pauline.. Mower. 1995. 49(1): Pp. Select Books Pte. Davis.F. Cambodia. 286 pp. M. H. Australia.. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia..P.. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. 1999. Berestecky. Phnom Penh. 23–32.T. Plants used in Cambodia. Locher. Ethnopharmacol. 2004.).A.. J. Ltd.

In powdered form.0 Chemical Constituents Tannins and resins 7.0 2.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. rich in tannins. It forms part of a remedy in the treatment of inflamed gums and incontinence.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The bark.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Grows in dense forests and is often cultivated along the avenues in some major provinces in Cambodia. The durable wood is much in demand for the construction of ships and houses. It may also replace areca nut in betel liquid. Bark is used for curing dysentery or held in the mouth to cure toothache. 6.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. 4. 65 .0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Hopea odorata Roxb. Dipterocarpaceae Kokii Tree. It is occasionally found around Buddhist monasteries. due to its large shading properties. is used to treat diarrhea.0 3. 20–35 m tall with small ovate leaves.CAMBODIA 1.0 5. it is a popular styptic. It is used especially to make Cambodian pirogues.

0 Contraindications Not available 9. Pp. 2004.. Phnom Penh. 291– 292.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8.0 Bibliography Dy Phon Pauline. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. Ltd. Plants Used in Cambodia. 2000. Australia. Select Books Pte. 286 pp. 66 . Kham. L.

67 .0 3.0 Report on Medicinal Usage: 7. 4. especially in Kampot province. 6. The edible fruits are globose berries with a thick pericarp covered with brownish hairs. 7–30 m tall.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Native to Cambodia. cyclopentenyl fatty acids and hydnocapric acid 7. resistant and not affected by insects.0 5. The leaves are simple. Flacourtiaceae Krabav plae thum.0 2. The flowers. The oil expressed has been used for illumination and in the manufacture of soap. solitary or short inflorescence. There are approximately 30–40 seeds in a pod. chaulmoogra tree Tree. this tree grows in dense forest on sandy and rocky soils near water.0 Chemical Constituents Cyclopentenylglycine. are reddish purple.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus Pierre ex Laness. The bark is reportedly effective against incontinence and is also used as an antibacterial agent. The wood is yellow-reddish.CAMBODIA 1. dermatitis and tuberculosis.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The seeds yield an oil which is reputedly used in the treatment of leprosy. alternate and oblong.

Cambodia. J. Spener. Int. 154–158. Oommen. Stem and bark are used to treat women after finishing their menstrual flow. bruises and chest complaints. Pp. F.V. Hynocarpus oil as an antileprotic agent in footpad technique.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The oil is used in the treatment of rheumatism.B. 69–70.K. M.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 293– 294. 344–350. 2000. 2000. M. Other.. Chem. H. Lepr. Phnom Penh. 68 .C. 2004. 67(2): Pp. 68(1): Pp.. Effect of oil of hynocarpus on wound healing. sprains. S. Phys. 154–158. 1977. Ltd. & Raju. S.J. Select Books Pte. 1999. A. Oommen. Cambodia. L. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia. Mycobact. India 49(3): Pp. Dy Phon Pauline. J. II..t. Rao.0 Bibliography Desai. Plants Used in Cambodia. Other. Lipids in plant tissue cultures. 8. Lipids 12(4): Pp. 1999. & Bhide. National Center of Traditional Medicine. 1974. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. Kham. Staba.T. 286 pp. The effect of oil of hynocarpus on excision wounds. E. Australia. Unusual fatty acids in lipids of Hydnocarpus anthelminthica.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Lepr. & Mangold. C. Phnom Penh. Mycobact. Int.

1–2 m tall. 69 . Don Melastomaceae Riec dãas Branchy shrub.0 Chemical Constituents Unknown 7.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Melastoma sanguineum Pav. The flowers are dark pink.0 Report on Medicinal Usage: 7.CAMBODIA 1. Another species.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Roots and leaves 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In traditional Cambodian medicine. the roots are given as an infusion in cases of dizziness and vertigo. The leaves are hairy.. 4. oblong and alternate.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows all over the country. malabathricum L.0 5.0 3. ex D. has been used for indigestion and nervous disorder and in hemorrhoids.0 2. 6. It is also a constituent of a remedy for the treatment of hepatic diseases such as jaundice. especially on wastelands. M.

. Ltd. H. Antinematodal activity of some tropical rainforest plants (Melastoma sanguineum) against the pinewood nematode. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. & Kawazu. Y.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. 146–161. S. L. Traditional medicinal plants (Melastoma sanguineum) in Mizoram.. 1999. & Dolui. N. K.K. 2001.K. Select Books Pte. Plants Used in Cambodia. Z. L. H. 2000. Cambodia. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. Baba. Kham. 2004. Cambodia. Phnom Penh. Kanzaki. Australia. Phnom Penh. India. T. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia. 55(3–4): Pp. A. Nakajima. 2000. Nitoda.. Chhangte.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 70 . Naturforsch [C].0 Bibliography Alen.. National Center of Traditional Medicine. 295–299. Fitoterapia 72(2): Pp.. Sharma. 286 pp. Dy Phon Pauline. 342 pp..

0 2. It is taken by boiling or soaking in white wine before drinking.CAMBODIA 1.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. oblong-lanceolate. Annonaceae Rumduel Tree. The flowering season is around March to April. The stem is used to cure mothers after childbirth.0 5. grow in bunches. 6. The fruits are aggregate and edible.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This plant grows wild in dry regions or on top of hills. alternate. especially in Siem Reap province. particularly a cardiac tonic.0 3. The black berries when ripe.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The dried flowers are considered a general tonic.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Melodorum fruticosum Lour. axillary. It is also reputedly used to treat faintness. pale yellow and fragrant. The flowers are solitary. 71 . The leaves are simple. 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.0 Chemical Constituents Essential oils and bioactive heptenes. 4. up to 8 m high. 2–3 cm wide and 7–15 cm long.

L. Phnom Penh. National Center of Traditional Medicine.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. 2004. J. C. Chaichantipyuth. McLaughlin. Prod. Phnom Penh. 344– 345.. Additional bioactive heptenes from Melodorum fruticosum. L. Select Books Pte. Kham. Nat.. Plants Used in Cambodia. C.. Smith. Chang. Cambodia. J..L. 1999. & Patarapanich. Pp.0 Bibliography Dy Phon Pauline. C. D. Cambodia. 500–505. S.J. 72 .. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. Australia. Pummangura. 286 pp. Jung. 54(2): Pp. Ltd. 1991. 2000. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia. J.H.0 Contraindications Not available 9..

phyllemblin. 2–8 meters tall.2 cm long. 6.CAMBODIA 1.25–0. It is found abundantly in Kompong Speu province and the southeastern province of Cambodia on the hillsides. 73 . they have a sweet taste. 4. The inflorescence is in fascicle with staminate clusters at base and pistillate flowers upwards.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.0 2.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The leaves of P. organic acids. alternate. Eaten fresh. chebulagic acid. emblican A and B and querectin. oblong. rich in vitamin C.5 cm wide and 0. emblicol. Indian gooseberry.0 Chemical Constituents Polyphenols including gallic acid. fatty acids.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Phyllanthus emblica L. Euphorbiaceae Kantuat prey.8–1. especially in Mondol Kiri province. The acidic fruits. are eaten either fresh or as a condiment. arachidic acid and behenic acid 7. emblic myrobalan (English) Tree. The bark.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This plant grows in the clear forests of Cambodia. The leaves are simple. emblica have inhibitory activity on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and platelets. cytokinins.0 3.0 5. 0. leaves and fruits give a yellow dye. which supports the antiinflammatory and antipyretic properties of this plant.

L. 2000. 171–176. Relative protection given by extract of Phyllanthus emlica fruit and a equivalent amount of vitamin C against a known clastogen-caesium chloride. Australia. and antiscurvic activities.. Planta Med. 8. A. Ithantola Vormisto. Food.M. J. 865–869. A paste of the fruit is reputedly effective when applied over the irritable bladder in urinary retention problem and to the forehead in cephalgia. H. Chem.0 Contraindications Not available 9.. S. H. Kankaanranta.. & Pakrashi.K. Z. Sharma. Pp.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The fresh fruit is used for inflammatory conditions of the pubic region. Ltd. The fruit is also carminative and stomachic. 74 . lungs and eyes. antidiarrhoeal. A.. Pakrashi. diuretic. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica. 1997. 30(10): Pp. Kham. Toxicol. Asmawi.. S. A. J. & Moilanen. Vuorela. E. G..0 Bibliography Bandyopadhyay.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Ethnopharmacol. Select Books Pte. 2004. 518–524. Summanen. 400– 401. 70(2): Pp.. The fruit possesses expectorant. Ghosh. antipyretic. A. 63(6): Pp. & Talukder. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. 1992. The role of antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits on prevention from indomethecin induced gastric ulcer [short communication].

0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Plumeria alba L. especially around Buddhist monasteries. the root and bark are strong purgatives and used as laxatives.0 5. Apocynaceae Champy saa.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Introduced into Cambodia. Internally. The stem.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Studies conducted have shown potential antiviral properties. champaka.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. kshira.CAMBODIA 1. it is often cultivated as a decorative plant. The plant’s milky bark is applied as a plaster over hard tumours and used to dispel indolent swellings. 4. under the form of fritters. necklaces are sometimes made to decorate coffins.0 3. 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The heart of the wood is used as a vermifuge.0 Chemical Constituents Alkaloids and glycosides 7. white frangipani The white flowers form part of ritual offering to the deities. bark and flower are used to 75 .0 2. They are also edible. 6.

Nat. 540–544. Pp.0 Bibliography Dy Phon Pauline. P. Prod.. Aust. J.D. Cambodia. XVII. Ltd. & Hughes. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. 289– 292. J. 5491: Pp.J. A. Cordell. G.D.. Med. J. A. Plants Used in Cambodia.A. 2004. 1991. 143–154. 8.. Radford. Traditional medicinal plants of Thailand.M. 1986. Ethnopharmacol. Biological active constituents of Plumeria alba. 286 pp. D.O. N. J. Cambodia.A. Australia. M. 2000.H. G.. 413– 414. Phnom Penh. J. 76 . 33(3): Pp. Its resin mixed with coconut oil is used to cure wounds. & Ruangrungsi. Kham. It is boiled before drinking. Gillies. & Duffy. Phnom Penh. Kinghorn.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS cure fever and to stop dysentery. National Center of Traditional Medicine.. Hind. 1991. List of Medicinal Plants in Cambodia. Pezzuto.T. Hamburger. S. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides (Plumeria alba). L. 1999. Evaluation of natural products as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (Plumeria alba).. Select Books Pte. 144(10):Pp.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Tan.

0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. 4. 77 . 7.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This species is cultivated in Cambodia for its edible fruits.) Alston Myrtaceae Chumpuu saa. Phnom Penh.0 2.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Syzygium jambos (L.0 3.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Leaves and bark extracts of S. jambu. It is found most abundantly in Kandal province.0 Chemical Constituents Phenolic glycosides and tannins. 6–15 m tall. rose apple (English) Small branchy tree. 6.CAMBODIA 1. The pulverized leaves are rubbed on the body in cases of smallpox. 7. jambos showed antibacterial activities.0 5.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In Cambodian the juice yielded by macerating the leaves is reputedly antipyretic and antimicrobial.

E. 71(1-2): Pp.). 243–252. J. Pagan. Frame. Delmee. De Jesus. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia.D. Ethnophamacol. Dy Phon Pauline. P. 472 pp. Anselmi. Health. C. 1998. Ortiz.C. Rios Olivares. Select Books Pte. Ethnophamacol. J. S. D. 2000.R. C..0 Bibliography Djipa. F... Melchior. J. M... J. Absence of antihyperglycemic effect of jambolan (Syzygium jambos) in experimental and clinical models. F. 307–313...D. C. Ltd. 2004. J. 17(3): Pp. Alston (Mytraceae). Argenta. Kham. 2000.D.. 78 . & Mendez.. Teixeira. R. L. 71(1–2): Pp. Plants Used in Cambodia.. Plants (Syzygium jambos) from Puerto Rico with anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis. Australia. Phnom Penh. 2000. Rava.343–347. C. & Fuch. R. Antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Syzygium jambos (L. Mallman da Silva. P.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. 286 pp.R.. Almeida. & Quertin L. Sci.. A.A. L. Cambodia.0 Contraindications Not available 9.

ovoid. ß.0 2. 6–10 cm wide and 8–10 cm long. Combretaceae Sraamaa. synergic acid. The fruits are 1–3 cm long. raceme. argunin. The dose of the dried powder of the fruit is 1–6 grams per day. opposite or subopposite. The leaves are simple. is taken daily. 56–112 ml. 15–20 m tall. The infusion. arjunglucoside.sitosterol. chebulic myrobolan Tree with a grayish bark.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. elliptic. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal. 2a-hydroxyursolic acid and 2a-hydroxymicromiric acid. bisexual with yellow flowers. 4.0 Chemical Constituents Triterpenoid glycosides including chebulosides I and II. The bark produces a gum and tannins used to dye fishing nets. terflavins A. The wood is in much demand for cabinetwork and construction. anthraquinones and fixed oils are also present.CAMBODIA 1.0 5. 5-ribbed.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Terminalia chebula Retz. Fruit fleshy. ellagic acid and gallic acid. terchebulin I. Punicalin. C and D. 7. B. 6.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The leaves are used against diarrhea in children. 79 . The bitter black fruits are eaten raw with roasted fish.0 3. tannins chebulic acid.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This plant grows in the dense deciduous forests of Cambodia and is cultivated for its fruits. maslinic acid.

antibacterial. A. Kham. 73(1–2): Pp. deobstruent.G. Select Books Pte. Ltd. 68(1-3): Pp.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 2000. Nepal.299–306. Joshi. 175–183. Ethnopharmacol. J. Pp. S.. Potential of the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as an anticaries agent.G. The green fruits are also used as purgative. Ethnopharmacol.R. 8. A. 1999. They are also reputedly carminative.0 Bibliography Jagtap. [Short communication]. The dry green fruits are infused as tea to increase appetite. 80 . K. Australia. L. expectorant and a remedy for salivation and heartburn. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. J. Indigenous knowledge and uses of medicinal plants (Terminalia chbula) by local communities of the Kali Gandaki Watershed Area. 2004. 485– 486.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The tannin and anthraquinone constituents in the green fruits make the fruits both astringent and cathartic which are often used as laxative. & Karkera. & Joshi.

1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: During 1970. 4. which has a comparable effect to the elixir paregoriqe. 81 .5 cm long and 1. 5–12 cm long and 2–4 cm wide. Angkor Laboratories. minute. with white and black speckles. tetramerous. especially catchintannic acid and phlobaphene 7. produced an elixir of T. bright green.0 2. Bark grayish. 6. Combretaceae Preah phnov A large deciduous tree. 2. one of the manufacturers. up to 10–30 m in height.0 3. Flowers abundant.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.0 5. especially along the coastal provinces of Cambodia.7–1.CAMBODIA 1. Fruit 3 winged.0 Chemical Constituents Tannins.9 cm wide. wing thin. slightly fragrant. white-yellow. triptera phnov. Leaves opposite or subopposite ovate or lanceolate.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Terminalia triptera Stapf. many lenticels and spines.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This plant grows wild in the dense forests.

M. T.C.. & Abeysekera. Seneviratne. L.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. & Pihlaja.A. C. J. M.0 Contraindications Not available 9.K. Kham. Saleem. Thabrew. Select Books Pte.I. Medicinal Plants of Cambodia. Antiradical and antilipoprotective effects of some plants extracts (Terminalia triptera) used by Sri Lankan tradition medical practitioners for cardioprotection. In traditional Cambodian medicine.. 519–523. Haeggstrom. 2004.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The bark is used as astringent and may replace areca nut to chew betel. C. Phytother. 82 . L. Total phenolic concentration and antioxidant potential of extracts of medicinal plants of Pakistan (Terminalia triptera). Z.. 15(6): Pp. A. 56(11– 12): Pp.. 2002.. Vuorela. Hiltunen. 79(2): Pp. 973–978. Res. Ltd.. In combination with other ingredients.169–177. Ahotupa. J. Naturforsch. 8. P.. & Vuorela. 487 pp. [C]. R. Munasinghe. M. 2001. Mwasumbi. P.. H. 2001. Ethnopharmacol. Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial investigation on some species of Terminalia and Combretum (Combretaceae) growing in Tanzania. the bark has reportedly been used as a decoction or infusion to treat dysentery. Australia.0 Bibliography Fyhrquist. K.. it is reputedly an effective remedy for diarrhea. A.

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pale yellowish to pinkish brown outside. It is found in many parts of Indonesia. calamusenone and acorenone. dringo (Javanese-Indonesia). Flowers densely arranged on a spadix. with a cylindrical straight or slightly curved spadix up to 10 cm long. daringo (Sundanese-Indonesia). erect. glossy green. rhizome creeping.0 Propagation : Rhizome (vegetative part) Geographical Distribution/Ecology Sweet flag is probably native to China and India. Leaves erect. Fruits a 2–3 celled berry. up to 3 cm in diameter. Acoraceae Sweet flag. 85 .0 Plant Description A perennial glabrous herb up to 150 cm tall. isoshyobunone.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Acorus calamus L. often reddish toward base and aromatic. jerango (Sumatra-Indonesia) 3. it is considered naturalized. not truly wild. and thermolabile sesquiterpenoids.0 2. (cis-isoasarone). Seeds ellipsoid. Major chemical constituents are phenylpropanes. Papua New Guinea and locally in the Philippines. bisexual. few seeded.INDONESIA 1. geranylacetate. shyobunone. â-farnese.0 5. calamus (English). monoterpenes. 4. sweet root. whitish and sometimes slightly pinkish inside. Malaysia. extensively branched. Inflorescence arises from rhizome. 6. with obliquely acuminate apex. The major volatile components in the oil include â-asarone. distinct midrib and numerous parallel veins.0 Chemical Constituents The rhizome contains pale yellow to pale brown essential oil. epishyobunone. cis-methylisoeugenol. In the Malesian region. reddish. dringo (general). linear ensiform. methyleugenol. and outside Malesia in Indo-China and Thailand.

E. 2003. rheumatism.) dengan metode induksi termal. lumbago and skin diseases and after child birth.P. 1983. 2003. 2003. A. Cabe Puyang Warisan Nenek Moyang.) pada tikus putih. Rakhmawati. Jakarta.A. diuretic and antipyretic. 25–26 March 2003. are used as part of “jamu”. 1985. Adjirni & Tri Wahyuni L. Jakarta. 25–26 March 2003. Efek anti-depresi ekstrak methanol rimpang dringo (Acorus calamus L.) terhadap mencit (Mus muculus) galus Swiss dan uji fitokimianya. Uji efek dan potensi analgetik ekstrak air dringo (Acorus calamus L. 291 pp. PN Balai Pustaka. Also known to be antibacteria. Dharma. 2003. Jakarta.) hasil budidaya basah dan hasil pengeringan pada tikus jantan putih. 1985. Efek anti-diare jus rimpang dringo (Acorus calamus L. J. 86 . E. Yogyakarta. Widowati. analgesic. 129 pp.0 Contraindication Not available 9. Jakarta. Mardisiswoyo. & Diniatik. Jakarta. H. Yayasan Dana Sejahtera dan CD R. 25–26 March 2003. Prosiding Seminar Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia 23.0 Bibliography Darmawan. Y.S. Maryanto & Katno. M..0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Ika. 8.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The rhizomes are usually used externally to treat inflammation.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Nuratmi. Prosiding Seminar Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia 23.. & Rajakmangunsudarso. Aktivitas anti-inflamasi minyak atisir daun dringo (Acorus calamus L. 199 pp. Jakarta. PN Balai Pustaka. 25–26 March 2003. Petunjuk Lengkap Mengenai Tanaman-Tanaman di Indonesia dan Khasiatnya Sebagai Obat-Obatan Tradisionil. Tanaman Obat Tradisional Indonesia. E. antidepressant.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Prosiding Seminar Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia 23. L. Prosiding Seminar Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia 23. B.. Bethesda. Kloppenburg-Versteegh. & Teguh Setiawan. W.

sepals usually connate into a tube. arillate. Thailand.0 Geographical Distribution/Ecology Approximately 330 species of Aloe vera originated from Africa. very thick and fleshy. in two rows of three. Indonesia) Succulent shrubby perennial. it is cultivated widely and commercially in Malaysia. style filiform. sheathing at the base margins. grey or black. 5. simple or branches. surface sometimes spiny. Micropropagation through invitro culture of vegetative meristems as well as invitro regeneration of leaf base explants appears to be possible. entire. Seeds elongate and ovoid. and over 100 species are cultivated.INDONESIA 1. Flowers bisexual. Madagascar and Arabia. sometimes distichous.0 Propagation It can be propagated vegetatively through sucker offsets or cutting. many seeded.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Aloe vera (L. Liliaceae Lidah buaya (Malaysia. stigma small.0 3. 4. Nowadays. the United States. protandrous. or by seed. f. fleshy.) Burm. Leaves arranged spirally in a rosette. containing colourless sap. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. and other regions. Inflorescence a pseudo-lateral. Aloe vera was formerly produced in Barbados. linear to lanceolate or triangular. apices acute to obtuse. All Malaysian Aloe vera have been introduced and are popular garden and pot plants. 87 . long-cylindrical raceme. the Caribbeans. pedicillate. sometimes outer 3 free. longer than stamens. where it had been introduced early in the 16th century.0 2. often with very short stem and fleshy fibrous roots. Indonesia. 3-locular. stamens 6. ovary superior. Australia.

16(2-3):117–151.2 Uses in traditional medicine Aloe juice is used to make the laxative drug known as aloe. The Aloe vera phenomenon: A review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. Indonesia. 88 . Aloe vera gel has gained popularity as a folk remedy worldwide. 1953. the mucigel from polyhedral cells is claimed to have healing properties. Grindlay.M. with special reference to the Cape species. N. 7. S. J. R. T. H. of Ethnopharmacol. Plant Resources of SouthEast Asia No. 8. Economic Botany 7:99–129.J. Aloe L. D. hydroxyaloins and aloinoside. M. N. & Reynolds. Bogor. The aloe drug contains 15-40% aloe-emodin-athrone 10-C-glucosides (hydroxy-anthraquinone derivatives) such as aloin. The drug aloes of commerce. 1992. 12(1): PROSEA. aloes or bitter aloes. O. Bunyapraphatsara. and Lemmens. In De Padua. & Brink. 7.. (Eds).H. Hodge.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Aloe gel has proven effective in the treatment of skin burns by X-ray radiation.0 Chemical Constituents Aloe leaf juice contains a pyrone derivative (aloenine) and resins.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 6.0 Bibliography Aguilar. L. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. free and 8-C-glucosylated-2acetonyl-7-hydroxy-5-methylchromones.0 Contraindication Not available 9.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. 1986. Aloe gel.

columbamine.S homoaromaline and pycnarrhine. Moluccas to the Philippines.1 Uses support by experimental /clinical data: Not available 7.0 2. Menispermaceae Yellow fruited moonseed (English). Fruits are slightly laterally compressed.INDONESIA 1. 4. or in secondary forests. paniculate. male flower subsessile with a sessile globose cluster of 9–12 anthers. Leaves usually ovate. Indo-China. drupe transversely subovoid. Borneo. (+) R. covered with a dense mat of radial fibres. Sulawesi. wood yellow. lateral branches spicate to subspicate. stomach problem and jaundice. in seaside. Flowers unisexual with 3–4 outer sepals and 6 large inner sepals. Thailand.0 5. 6. ki koneng (Sundanese-Indonesia). jatrorrhizine. dehydrocorydalmine.0 Contraindication Not available 89 . stipulate absent. Sumatra. shobakunine. slender. 2–3 cm in diameter. 7. glabrous. 10–50 cm long. palmatine. 8. petals absent. woody. coriaceous palmately 5-veined at the base. female flowers with 3 carples and a number of staminodes. In Sumatra. yellow with a club-shaped stalk. dioecious liana up to 20 m long.0 Propagation : Seed or stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology Yellow fruited moonseed occurs up to 1000 m.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. sirawan (JavaneseIndonesia). akar kuning.2 Uses described in traditional medicine: The stems are used to treat sprue. Inflorescence axillary or cauliflorous. daun bulan (Moluccas-Indonesia) 3. tali kuning (general). endocarp woody. 8-hidroxyberberine.0 Plant Description A large. Seeds contain saponin. Stem up to 5 cm in diameter.0 Chemical Constituents Main stem contains alkaloids such as berberine. exuding yellow sap when cut.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Arcangelisia flava Merr. thalifendine. and for treatment of rheumatism and broken bones. local people use the plant as aphrodisiac. cotyledons much folded. Seeds broadly ellipsoidal with ruminate endosperm. (-) RR limacine. It is widely distributed from China. riverbanks. Petioles swollen at both ends. Java. Peninsular Malaysia.

Inventaris Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia (5). Kloppenburg-Versteegh. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. In: de Padua. PN Balai Pustaka.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 9. A. Bunyapraphatsara and R.H.. Pp. Pustaka Populer Obor. Jakarta. C. N. & Rajakmangunsudarso. J. Mandia. 6–8. 1983.S. Arcangelisia flava (L. Petunjuk Lengkap Mengenai Tanaman-Tanaman di Indonesia dan Khasiatnya Sebagai Obat-Obatan Tradisionil. 29 pp.) Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia: Penggunaan dan Khasiatnya. E. Prosea.0 Bibliography Departemen Kesehatan. Pp. 90 .M. Jakarta. 2001. Mardisiswoyo. H. Hernani. 1985.M.) Plant Resources of Southeast Asia 12(1) Medicinal and Poisonous plants (1). Horsten. Jakarta.J & Aguinaldo. L. 129–132. Cabe Puyang Warisan Nenek Moyang. Ridsdale.. S. Indonesia.F.A. In: Supriadi (ed. Yogyakarta. 1999.H. M.J Lemmens (Eds. 199 pp.S. Bogor.) Merr.E. 1999. Akar kuning. Bethesda. Yayasan Dana Sejahtera dan CD R..

500 m above sea-level. broadening at the base into a leaf-sheath. pegaga (Malaysia). It often regenerates from fragments of stems buried in the soil during hoeing. asiatic pennywort (English) A small perennial herb. 6. stipules absent. fertile soils (preferring sandy loams with much organic matter) up to 2. simple. 4.0 3. asiatica is a pantropical and distributed in Southeast Asia and in some subtropical regions. palmately veined. Pegaga occurs in sunny or slightly shaded.5 m long).0 2. such as asiaticoside. madecasoside. creeping with long stolons (up to 2.INDONESIA 1. 1–7 cm in diameter. Apiaceae Daun kaki kuda.0 Chemical Constituents Triterpenoid compounds. asiatic acid and madecassic acid 91 .0 Geographical Distribution/Ecology Centella comprises approximately 40 species. antanan (Indonesia). which root on the nodes. petiole 1–50 cm long.0 Propagation Can be easily propagated vegetatively by runners. C. subglabrous. Urb. rooting at the nodes.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Centella asiatica L. lamina orbicular-reniform. Found abundantly in South Africa. Leaves in rosettes. glabrous to puberulous. 5. pegagan. regularly crenate or crenate dentate. young parts more or less puberulous. although reproduction by seed is possible.

(Eds): Flora Malesiana. Purified extracts are known to accelerate cicatrizing and skin grafting. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. striae distensae. Astuti & van den Bergh M. Indonesia. 92 . and used to treat atonic wounds and for hypertrophy.H. cellulitis and aphthae. Asiatic pennywort is a relished vegetable in many Southeast Asian countries. Lemmens (Eds). Noordhoff-Kolff N.M. H. P. It has also been known as a medicinal plant with tonic and cooling properties. Centella asiatica. N. surgical lesions. Hargono.G. S. leprosy. PROSEA.0 Contraindications Not available 9. P. (L. phlebitis.G..ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. In van Steenis. Umbelliferae. Djakarta. 12(1): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1.J. slow-healing wounds. In L. 8. D.0 Bibliography Buwalda. Orally..2 Uses described in traditional medicine: Asiatic pennywort has been used for a wide range of complaints.. scleroderma. Indonesia. De Padua. 1999.) Urb. The slightly bitter leaves are eaten raw or cooked. 1949.J. 4. leg ulcers. lupus. the extract is indicated to relieve the symptoms of nervous and lymphatic vessel insufficiency. but the most important use is in skin-related diseases. C.1 Uses support by experimental /clinical data: Not available 7. Bogor. Lestari. Series 1 Vol. The leaf extract is used effectively in the treatment of keloids. Y. Bunyapraphatsara and R. V.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.

0 5. bract green. corolla 3–4 cm long.0 3. narrow spurs. 15–95 cm x 5–23 cm.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Curcuma mangga Valeton & Zijp Zingiberaceae Temu mangga (Indonesia. Malaysia) A herb with branched rhizome. other staminodes longitudinally folded. coma bracts white at base.0 2.1 Uses support by experimental/clinical data: Not available 93 .INDONESIA 1. top white inside lemon-coloured to sulphuryellow with a white outer layer. labellum 15–25 mm x 14–18 mm.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. anther with long. 4. white. white with a yellow median band. yellowish outside. cultivated in Indonesia and Malaysia 6.0 Chemical Constituents Not available 7. white. purple toward the top. Leaf-sheaths 30–65 cm long. inflorescence on a separate shoot. green. blades elliptical-oblong to oblongoblanceolate.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology Southeast Asia.

Curcuma mangga is also edible. N. 1966. & R. H. The starch of the rhizome is recommended by traditional healers to treat abdominal illness. T. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitezorg. Malaysia.0 Bibliography Burkill. 1994. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Lemmens (Eds. 94 .J. Kuala Lumpur.0 Contraindications Not available 9. I. Sara. 1918.H. Indonesia.M. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. 8.). Plant Resources of Southeast Asia 12(1): PROSEA Bogor. 27:57–61. New notes on the Zingiberaceae of Java and Malayan Archipelago.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.2 Uses described in traditional medicine: The rhizomes are used to treat fever and chewed by women to strengthen the womb after childbirth. Valeton.

7.0 Chemical Constituents Rhizome of C. 95 . 6.5 cm long. blades oblong to oblong lanceolate. leaf-sheaths 35–60 cm long. green with a purple band along the midrib.0 2.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology Temu putih is found in various shady. camphene.000 m above sea level. outside grey.0 5. bract green or green with a purple margin. inside pale yellowish to bright yellow. d-camphor. yellowish-white with a darker yellow median band. yellowish-white. borneol. and d-á-pinene.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. It is widely distributed in South Asia. 4. 25–75 cm x 7–20 cm. Southeast Asia to China and Taiwan.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Water extract inhibits the growth of mouse L5178Y leukaemia cells in a dose dependantmanner. Zingiberaceae Temu putih (general).5–4. damp localities on various soils but prefers well-drained sandy soils. corolla 3.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. anthers with long spurs.0 3.INDONESIA 1. up to 1. other stamidones longitudinally folded. zedoaria contains essential oil with cineol. koneng tegal (Sundanese-Indonesia) A herb with branched rhizome. some bracts purple or dark pink.

E. and to be anticancer. Y. Puslitbangtri.H.N. 17. 1993.H. Inventaris Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia (2).. Hutapea. B. S. In: de Padua.M. 199 pp. Petunjuk Lengkap Mengenai Tanaman-Tanaman di Indonesia dan Khasiatnya sebagai Obat-Obatan Tradisionil. 1999. Indo.S. stomachic. Sunardi. Prosiding Seminar Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia 21.A. 96 . Seri Pengembangan Tanaman Perkebunan. In: Supriadi (Ed.S Bethesda. Temuputih (Curcuma zedoaria). Yayasan Dana Sejahtera dan CD R. S. 218–219. M.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Hadad. B.2 Uses in traditional medicines: Uses described in folk medicine are not supported by experimental or clinical data: The plant is believed to repair blood circulation. Bogor. Efek antidiare jus temu putih dan temu mangga pada tikus putih. Tanaman Obat Penggempur Kanker. 1992. 2002. R. Agromedika Pustaka. A. 1983. & Tobo. Makhmud. J. & Hasiyah. Tumbuhan obat famili Zingiberaceae. Wardini. increase appetite. Kardinan.0 Contraindications Not available 9. antiemetic antipyretic and depurative. Indonesia. Prosiding Seminar Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia 21. antidiarrhoeal.A. L.0 Bibliography Darwis. Prosea. Prosiding Seminar Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia 21.. Studi aktivitas anti mikroba minyak atsiri dari rimpang Kaempferia rotunda. 8. Isolasi dan karakterisasi komponen kimia ekstrak rimpang temu putih (Curcuma zedoaria). Kloppenburg-Versteegh. Curcum zedoaria dan Curcuma mangga. & Taryono.act as stimulant.J Lemmens (Eds.) Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia: Penggunaan dan Khasiatnya. Pp. Bunyapraphatsara and R. Jakarta. Yogyakarta..R. March 2002. Jakarta.) Plant Resources of Southeast Asia 12(1) Medicinal and Poisonous plants (1). A. diuretic. carminative. Departemen Kesehatan. D. Bogor. N. Surabaya. Nugrobo. Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. 2002. T. Jakarta. & Noviyanti. Nuratmi. J. F. Surabaya.I. 2001. No. March 2002. Pustaka Populer Obor. Surabaya. 2002. March 2002.) Roscoe. & Prakoso. & Sundari.

0 2.S. 97 . Indo-China. inflorescence a spike.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. 6. Yogyakarta. with up to 1 cm petiole. white with purplish streaks and spots inside. Sri Lanka. 2-(2’amino berzylamino) benzyl alcohol and their respective O-methyl esters. besi-besi (Aceh). It is naturally found in forests.0 3.5–2 cm long. Petunjuk Lengkap Mengenai Tanaman-Tanaman di Indonesia dan Khasiatnya sebagai Obat-Obatan Tradisionil.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.0 Propagation : Seed and cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology Pakistan.f. 5–20 cm x 1– 3. about 4 mm long.0 Bibliography Kloppenburg-Versteegh. rheumatism and pain. about 1. Thailand.INDONESIA 1. 1983. 8. forest borders and on river banks in Java.500 m altitude.Bethesda. 199 pp. the Moluccas and the Philippines. bracts lanceolate. 7.5 cm. also â-sitosterol. kawo (Seram) Shrub up to 150 cm tall. Yayasan Dana Sejahtera dan CD R.0 5.2 Uses in traditional medicines: The leaves are used to treat headache. India. up to 1.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Justicia gendarussa Burm. Jawa. flowers 1.0 Chemical Constituents The leaves contain four simple o-disubstitute aromatic amines: 2-amino benzyl alcohol.3 cm long. glabrous.0 Contraindication Not available 9. leaves linear lanceolate. Peninsular Malaya. J. 4. young twig usually dark purple. Fruit clavate to ellipsoid. Acanthaceae Gandarusa (general).

S. Wirian. L.J Lemmens (Eds. 1999.) Plant Resources of Southeast Asia 12(1) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants (1). In: de Padua. Wijayakusuma.M.. N.. H. S. A. Bandung. 44 pp. Yaputra. B. H.S.. Dalimartha. Tanaman berkhasiat obat di Indonesia. Prosea.H. Bunyapraphatsara and R. Pustaka Kartini.. Justica gendarussa. Fifth edition. T. 98 . Indonesia. & Wibowo. Bogor. 1996.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Sangat-Roemantyo.

Apparently in Indo-China it is eaten with salt. in appearance anything but appetizing. Rubiaceae Mengkudu (Malaysia). into the Marquesas. It is naturalized in the Caribbean region and cultivated in villages throughout Southeast Asia and Malaysia.0 5.citrifolia can be propagated by seed. Geographical Distribution/Ecology Morinda citrifolia is a native of Queensland (Australia). It grows well in well-tilled soil. Mengkudu is commonly found up to altitude of 1. It is common in gardens throughout Indonesia and Malaysia.INDONESIA 1. 6.25–0.0 Chemical Constituents The basis of the morindone dyeing matter. it bears ellipsoid fruits of a greyish transparent white.0 Propagation : Morinda. Hawaii and Easter Islands. cengkudu (Sundanese-Indonesia) Morinda citrifolia grows to 5 m in height. with a smell like decaying cheese. This is the most abundant anthraquinone which is mainly found in the root bark which reaches a concentration of 0.5% in fresh bark in 3–5 years. It is similar to that found in Rubia tinctorum and to synthetic alizarin. It is present through Southeast Asia both wild and cultivated. with a short trunk and a head ovoid in outline. called Turkish red.0 2.0 3. 4.500 m in humid and seasonal climates of the region. and in flavour as of soap and sugar mixed. is the hydrolyzed (red) form of the glycoside morindine. It often occurs wild in coastal zones. The curative properties of the plant parts 99 . It may have been distributed by man and carried westwards into the Indian Ocean by sea currents.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Morinda citrifolia L. reaching the Pacific between 30ºN and 30ºS altitude. pace (Javanese-Indonesia).

Pp. J. C. PROSEA Foundation. the juice is recommended for leucorrhea and sapraemia. the pulp mashed with sugar and drunk. A.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.0 Report on Medical Usage 7.2 Uses in traditional medicines: The overripe fruit is stated to be used as an emmenagogue both in Indonesia. haemorrhage and coughs. 8. and in Indo-China. It is also recommended by the Rumpt for dysuria and the fruit for diabetes. & Shimazu. 1992. Morinda citrifolia L. 14(2/3):213–222. It is also reported that in Java the ripe fruits are taken and their seeds removed. In the Medical Book of Malayan Medicine. Malaysia. and its special use as a traditional drug. I. J. It is though that antibiotically active compounds are present. 100 . Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Indonesia. 3(4):141–144. The fruit is sometimes used internally in various preparations for swollen spleen. beri-beri. liver disease. Bulletin Kebun Raya.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS are ascribed to the presence of medicinally active anthraquinone derivatives. 7. Bogor. as a slightly laxative preparation. Hidayat.0 Contraindications Not available 9. E. The leaves are a rich source of vitamin A. 1985. The geographic origin of plants most commonly used for medicine by Hawaiians.0 Bibliography Abbot. Morinda citrifolia L. The fruit contains rancid smelling capric acid and unpleasant tasting caprilic acid. 94–96 in: Plant Resources of Southeast Asia 3: Dye and Tannin-producing Plants. Groenendijk.

long-protruding from the corolla tube. kumis kucing (general). bilabiate. ovary superior. Flowers pedicellate calyx 2. rugose.0 2. with enlarged.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. ovate or rhombic cuneate at base acute or acuminate at apex.0 3.INDONESIA 1. Fruits splitting into 4 oblong-ovoid nutlets. tubular. slender. 1.5–2 (–4. Africa.5) cm long. grandular punctuate petiole 0. Indonesia to Australia. Indo-China. poorly ramified ascending stem. Thailand. inositol. through Malaysia. serrate glabrous or minutely pubescens. phytosterols (â-sitosterol).0 Chemical Constituents Sinensetin. Lamiaceae Java tea (English). brownish. stamens 4. Leaves decussately opposite.0 5. caffeic acid derivatives (mainly rosmarinic acid and 2. saponins and about 0. club-shaped and shallowly cleft stigma.5 mm long. gland-dotted. It is grown in Southeast Asia. 4. white or pale lilac. In Indonesia it grows at 100–1. up to 2 m tall with quadrangular. 6. corolla 10–20 mm long. flavonol glycosides. style long protruding.3 dicaffeoyltartaric acid). bilabiate.7% essential oil 101 . remuk jung (Javanese-Indonesia) A perennial herb.5–4.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology Java tea is distributed in India. Georgia (Caucasus) and Cuba. kumis kucing (Sundanese-Indonesia).5–2 mm long.200 m.

Dalimartha.J. Yayasan Dana Sejahtera dan CD R.H. B. and gout. Mardisiswoyo. Yaputra. 44 pp.S. Tanaman berkhasiat obat di Indonesia. Wijayakusuma. A. Indonesia. 1985. phosphaturic catarrh of the bladder.J Lemmens (Eds. T. Jakarta. Pustaka Kartini. Bogor. & Wibowo. 1983. Petunjuk lengkap mengenai tanaman-tanaman di Indonesia dan khasiatnya sebagai obat-obatan tradisionil. Isnawati. A. Bandung.) to stimulate the kidney and as a medicine for kidney stones. 1992. A. Widowati. They are used in combination with other plant species (Sonchus and Sericoccalyx spp. Pp. 1985. 1999.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. N. B..0 Reports on Medical Usage 7. M. H. PN Balai Pustaka..Bethesda.) Plant Resources of Southeast Asia. 8.C. Dzulkarnae. 12(1) Medicinal and Poisonous plants (1). Prosea. H. In: de Padua. Kloppenburg-Versteegh. renal calculi. & Rajakmangunsudarso. L.. Jakarta...0 Contraindication Not available 9.M.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. S.0 Bibliography Dharma. Cabe Puyang Warisan Nenek Moyang.S. 102 . Wirian.S. & Thijssen.. Fifth edition. Tanaman Obat Tradisional Indonesia. 199 pp. J. 129 pp. Bunyapraphatsara and R. L. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq.P. 291 pp.2 Uses in traditional medicines: The leaves are used as diuretic and against various kidney complaints and illnesses. Yogyakarta. H. PN Balai Pustaka. 368–371.

mainly cultivated. it contains: water 79. 1–7. 4. glabrous.0 Chemical Constituents Sauropus androgynus is a very nutritious vegetable with a higher protein content than most other leafy vegetables. stigma 3-branched. Fruit a globose to faintly 6-angular capsule. about 1. beneath light green. axillary. In Indonesia and Malaysia. entire. with many small short-period leaves and persistent stipules.6 g.0 5. glaucous. alternate. Branches terete and flaccid.) Merrill Euphorbiaceae Daun katuk (Indonesia). lobe 6–8 mm broad. perennial. afterwards several male ones. 6–20 mm in diameter. monoecious shrub which can reach a height of 3. fat 103 .0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Sauropus androgynus (L.INDONESIA 1. but with more or less intensely red-coloured persistent calyx. but is kept much lower in cultivation. lateral ones at first tetragonous. and in branches. but it is most abundant at low elevation. calyx of the male flower disciform. Per 100 g edible leaf portion. Sauropus androgynus is cultivated from sea-level up to 1300 m altitude. stamens 3. 6. but it occurs in Sri Lanka and India to southern China in Indo-China and throughout Southeast Asia. first producing one or a few female flowers. Leaves buseriate.0 2. above dark green.5 m. Inflorescence dense. but also found wild. red. flowers without corolla.0 Propagation : Seed and stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology The exact origin of Sauropus androgynus is unknown. white or purplish.8 g. oblong to orbicular. connate. each branch bilobed. dehiscing with 3 valves.5 cm in diameter. calyx of the female flower 6-cleft more than halfway down.5 cm x 1–3 cm.0 3. protein 7. cekur manis (Malaysia) An erect. Often with vague greyish spots.

especially in Java.9 g.8 g. M.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 7.) Merriill.15 mg. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. and Fe 3. PROSEA Foundation.23 mg. H.. K. (Eds). 1994. Puerto Rico. Pp. Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies. C. 104 . Edible Leaves of the Tropics. J. P 64 mg. & Van Den Brink. Indonesia. B. R. vitamin A 10000 IU. carbohydrates 6. J. United States. In Indonesia. the young leaves with the flowers or fruits are consumed raw as well as cooked. 1975. vitamin B1 0. Pp. In Siemonsma J. F. M.2 Uses in traditional medicines: Sauropus androgynus is claimed to stimulate breast milk production. Pp. vitamin B2 0. 8: Vegetables. 8. W. Van Den Bergh. Ca 234 mg. and Piluek. & Ruberte.1 mg. Antillian College Press. 3rd English Edition. Souropus androgynus (L. Mayaguez. S. 290–292.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. vitamin C 136 mg.0 Bibliography Martin. Amsterdam. 35–37. Bogor.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. fibre 1. R. Asher and Co.9 g. Ochse. 244–246. The Netherlands. 1980.

.

.

4. maja batu. A. bel (Malaysia). compressed. matum.0 Plant Description Bael tree is a small to moderate-sized tree. 107 . Bengal quince. tum (Thailand). Rutaceae Bael tree. bael. oblong. with a wooly mucous testa. maja gedang. Flowers white.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Aegle marmelos (L. 6. phneau.0 Chemical Constituents The fruit pulp possesses sugars and tannins. Marmolosine. bila. It grows sparsely in dipterocarpous forest in Lao PDR. Leaves alternate. sriphala (Sanskrit). slightly corky. maja. maja pait (Java-Indonesia). 3-foliate. yellowish grey.0 5. pha-nong (Cambodia). maja kalepung. kawista.0 Propagation : Seed (vegetative part) Geographical Distribution/Ecology Globally. bilak. bel. bark darkish grey. sweet scented. twigs having strong axillary thorn. Anthraquinone derivatives are also reported. shell woody. and many lignane glycosides are isolated from the stem bark. kathan ta then. Holy fruit.LAO PDR 1. It is also planted for its fruit for making drink. stone apple (English). Seeds numerous.0 2. bel-fruit tree. marmelos de Bengal (French). mark toom (Lao PDR). The leaf contains contains essential oil having antifungal effect. bilak. The seeds contain bitter oil. trái m1m (Viet Nam) 3. marmelos is distributed in the Indo-Malaysian region. maja lumut. bilvam. sirphal (Hindu). maja ingus. golden apple. mapin. Fruit globose.) Corrêa ex Roxb. embedded in a clear mucilage and a mass of yellow sweet and agreeable aromatic mealy pulp. cloramarmine and aegline are 7-Geranyloxy coumarine derivatives.

Hand Book of Medicinal Plants. New Delhi. Vol. 8. V. Vidal. Fascicule 2. marmelos for completing many traditional remedies. 1956. Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient. Nang Sothy. Research in Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy. J.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 1977. Nguyen Xuan Dung. These de Doctorat en Pharmacie. Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. Tame XLIX. Paris. the tea has a delicious taste and an agreeable odour.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. N. Avec Etude Chimique de Huit Plantes a Huiles Essentielles.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Lao indigenous medicine broadly uses different parts of A. Vu Ngoc Lo.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Bibliography Krup. 1989. 108 . P. 1. Phaculte de Pharmacie de Ha Noi. Meo. Contribution a L’etude des Plantes Medicinales du Kampuchea. Ha Noi. The ripe fruits are raw material for making normal tea.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Nguyen Thanh Do. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao.

glaucous beneath. 6. but usually crowded at the end of branches. pulai (Malaysia) Big evergreen tree about 10–20 m high with whorled branching.LAO PDR 1. September–October.0 3. secondary nerves parallel. Br.5–4. the plant is found in most parts of the country including the city. much fluted. 5–8 verticillate.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Alstonia scholaris (L. 7. echitamine (ditamine) and echitamidine. Flowering period. rounded at the apex. greyish brown.) R.0 2.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 109 .0 Chemical Constituents The bark contains ditaine. Bark thick.5 cm wide. Leaves ablong. echitenine. 8–15 long. Fruiting period. lenticellate. 2. 4.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is widely found in the tropical regions of Asia. Apocynaceae Tinpet (Lao PDR).0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. November– March. In Lao PDR. shining dark green above.0 5.

coughs. Volume 1. Vientiane. Vientiane.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Research Institute of Medicinal Plants. Recipe of Traditional Medicine in Lao PDR. Vidal. The bark is used to treat diabetes. 8. 1999. stomach-ache. malaria and cold. Nanthavanh Bounyapraphat et al.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Ha Noi. 1985. diarrhea and consumed as tonic. Pp.0 Bibliography Bounhong Southavong et. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. National Institute of Materia Medica. 1993. al. the plant in the form of decoction and elixir is used to treat fever. State Council of Science and Technology.2 Uses in traditional medicine In Lao PDR. The leaves are used in treating cold. 243. Ministry of Public Health. diarrhea and dysentery. J. The Medicines in Your Garden. Volume I. 110 . 2542. Premiere Partie Noms Vernaculaires – Noms Scientifique en Usage au Lao PDR. Science and Technology Publishing House. Volume 2. coughs. 1963. Medicinal Plants of Thailand. Vasilalangsy. Chalune et al.

Flowers white. methyl-protogracillin.0 5. 7. thiên môn. 4.0 Propagation : Seed (vegetative part) Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows wild among shrubs.0 Plant Description Perennial scandent shrub with tuberous roots. angular. spirosteroids: asparacochinchinensins A and B. Stems glabrous.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 111 .0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. moeum sam seb (Cambodia). finally white. phark xee xang. arising in the leaf-axils. Branchlets reduced to leaves (cladophyllus). cheon-moon-dong (Korea). phenolic compounds: 3'-methoxy-asparenydiol and 3'-methoxynyasol. it is found in Saravane province.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Asparagus cochinchinensis Merr. tóc tiên leo (Viet Nam) 3. pale green at first. polysaccharide. shiny asparagus (English). 6. spinous. falciform. Seeds black.0 2. spirostanol saponin: asparacochinchinenside A. ya nang xang (Lao PDR). Asparagaceae Cochinchinese asparagus. Berry globose. small. tiên môn dông.0 Chemical Constituents The root contains asparagine.LAO PDR 1. In Lao PDR.

Paris. 8. 112 .). Volume 1. Vidal. Fascicule 2. Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version). National Institute of Materia Medica.0 Contraindications Not available 9.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The roots are used for fever in the form of decoction. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam.0 Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. Ha Noi. Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient. National Institute of Meteria Medica. TAP I VA II 2. Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. Ha Noi. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao. Science and Technology Publishing House. J. Le Van Truyen et al. 1956.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Viet Nam 1999. Meo. Tome XLIX. (Eds.

yellow. leaflets glabrous. yellowish brown. stamens 10. leaves pinate. ocimene). at the altitude of at least 800 ft. corolla 5-lobed. filaments tomentose at lower part.0 5. It has been found in lowland area.0 3. sapan wood. young shoots tomentose. An essential oil (D-a-phellandrene. stem bark prickly. especially in Luang Prabang province.LAO PDR 1. 6. small tree. gallic acid and saponosides are also present in this species.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Caesalpinia sappan L. 4 species have been found in Lao PDR. 4. Pod ovoid. above. bukkum wood. Seeds 3-4. The most important active compounds are brasilin and sappanin. tomentose beneath. Caesalpinia sappan. 113 . Leguminosae Farng daeng (Lao PDR). compressed with hard shell and sharp horn. brasil-wood (English) There are 373 species belonging to the Caesalpinia genus. Inflorescence in terminal raceme.0 Chemical Constituents The lignin of old plants consists of phenolic compounds.0 2.0 Propagation : Not available Geographical Distribution/Ecology Caesalpinia sappan grows in many mountainous provinces in the northern part of Lao PDR. 5–10 m in height.

Kha. XLIX. et al. Volume 1. It is orally administrated for adults at a dose of two tablets per time. H.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The hardwood of C. Science and Technology Publishing House. 151–158. thrice a day. It is also used for ameliorating blood flow and eliminating high blood pressure. and blood stasis caused by trauma. 8.). 1959. B. London. Pp. Paris. The decoction of sappan wood is used in post-partum. flexneri. Taylor & Francis. Pp. Meo. Jeffrey. 1993. the Pharmaceutical Development Center (PDC) Ministry of Health of Lao PDR. This tablet is used for the treatment of acute dysentery and diarrhoea.5 g tablets from the dry extract of sappan wood under the trade name Tanin. Noms Vernaculaires des Plantes Lao. Ta. Fascicule 2.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS SAPPANIN BRASILIN 7. Phytochemical Dictionary. 1999. produced 0. Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient. J. It is used for treating many intestinal-related diseases caused by various bacteria such as Shigella dysenteriae. 542.0 Bibliography Index Kewensis. colic and hemorrhoides with a dose of 8–16 g per day. (Eds. Vidal. Recently. Pp. 114 . 7. S.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Sappan wood is indicated for the treatment of diarrhoea. National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. Viet Nam. type of bacillary dysenteria. Le Van Truyen et al. London. Ha Noi. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli etc. 570. contusions. Kew Garden. It also shows haemeostatic and demulcent properties.0 Reports on medicinal usage 7. sappan possesses antibacterial activities. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam.0 Contraindications Not available 9.

0. dok hack (Lao PDR). sessile with the base clasping the stem. 5 stamens. 6. ovary superior. flowers arranged in umbellate cyme. grows up to 3 m high. b(ng b(ng. It can be propagated by vegetative multiplication. sidaguri widuri (JavaIndonesia). rubber matter and resins. It is also found in other countries in Asia like Cambodia. Chemical Constituents All parts of the plant contain white latex. obovate. Seeds numerous with silky tuft of hair. Leaves opposite. calyx. Aiton) Asclepiadaceae Niujiaogua (China). The latex comprises the esters valerianic and acetic of two alcohols. Sri Lanka.0. lembega. The fruit is a swollen follicle.LAO PDR 1. 5 sepals ovate. Myanmar.0. 4. white. giant milkweed (English). thick. saduri. planting the healthy cuttings at the beginning of rainy season. T. mercure végétal (French). Cardioactive steroidic glycoside 115 . pan thuean. rembega. po thuean (Thailand). faux arbre de soie. Plant Description Calotropis gigantea is a shrubby plant. asclepiade gigantesque. giant Indian milkweed. Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is planted in Lao PDR in front of houses for their leaves and flowers for praying on ceremonial and wedding days and also for medicinal purposes. short and turn back.0.0. Vernacular Names : : : Calotropis gigantea (L. biduri. nam t+ bà (Viet Nam) 3. Scientific Name Family 2. lobe clothed with fine cotton tomentum beneath. Thailand and Viet Nam. Inflorescence in axillary. dok rak.) (W. á and â-calotropeol. Propagation : Stem (vegetative parts) 5. stem woody. kayu (Malaysia). India.0. crown flower. cây lá hen.

Tome XLIX. Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. J. Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. 116 . Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Meo.1. Vidal. Uses in traditional medicine: The leaves and powder of the flower are used for coughs and asthma. TAP I VA II 2.2. Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version). are also reported. 1956. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam.0. Fascicule 2. namely calotropin. 8.0.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS or cardenolides. calactin and usharidin. Contraindications Not available 9. 7. Report on Medicinal Usage 7. The roots contain of triterpenic saponines. Paris. National Institute of Meteria Medica. Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao.0.

rhombiform. 117 . Leguminosae KhyLeck (Lao PDR). sepals 5 unequal. about 1. 4.0 Chemical Constituents Anthraquinones.5 m high or more. widespread in Southeast Asian countries. In Lao PDR. Pod long. alternate 30–40 cm long. Inflorescence in axillary and terminal erect spike 20–30 cm long. flower yellow. big sized. 2.0 5. chrysophanol. anthraquinone I and II were isolated from the root. glabrous on both sides. twigs and petioles usually reddish brown. rectangular or oval 5–13 cm long.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Cassia alata L. thein and emodin. glabrous petals 5 oblong. Leaves paripinnate.LAO PDR 1. bracts caduceus. 3–4 cm wide. petiole slightly winged.2% in the leaf and 1.3% in the fruit. increasing in size from the base. aleo-emodin.0 3. with an increasing frequently southwards. black. especially in Champasack province. strait and minutely pubescent. peduncle stout. slightly compressed with winged margins 8–16 cm. broadly rounded oblique at the base. seed numerous. stipule erect.0 Propagation : Plant cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Cassia alata is one of the typical tropical plants. acute.0 2.5–7 cm wide. gelenggang (Malaysia) Small shrub. 6. persistent. stem stout branches horizontally spreading. leaflets 8–12 pair. The total anthraquinones are 0. it can be found on both mid.and highlands in all parts of the country. Flowering and fruiting period: October–December.

State Council of Science and Technology. alata leaves enhances the vermifuge effect of C. Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Volume I. given orally. tinea imbricata (tokelau) and circinate herpes.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The leaves have diuretic and anti-inflammatory action. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Crush fresh leaves can also be rubbed directly to diseased parts. Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific. Chalune et al. alata leaves with Combretum quadrangulare seeds is applied to treat ascariasis. J. 118 . quadrangulare seeds. oedema. 9. 1985. Bounhong Southavong. The juice of crushed leaves is topically applied to washed and scaled infected parts. Volume I.2 Uses in traditional medicine: A combination of C. hepatalgia and jaundice. Ministry of public Health. Premiere partie noms vernaculaires – noms scientifique en usage Au Lao PDR. Its external application cures ringworm. Research Institute of Medicinal Plants. 1999. Volume 2. Science and Technology Publishing House. Sisouk Vorlasing & Somsanith. 1963. Vientiane. the rate of ascarid excretion attaining 50–60%. diarrhea. Ha Noi. 2542. dehydration and hemorrhoids. Recipe of Traditional Medicine in Lao PDR. The stem bark is used to treat skin diseases. For the therapy of constipation: C. scabies. An ointment made from C. Vidal. Cassia alata is employed to treat constipation. Western Pacific Series No. alata 20 g. Manila. Vasilalangsy. The Medicines in Your Garden. 1993. et al.0 Contraindications Cassia alata is not advisable for pregnant women. 8. 7. 19. WHO Regional Publication. Nanthavanh Bounyapraphat.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Their decoction is given orally per day. National Institute of Materia Medica. Pp.0 Bibliography 1998. Medicinal Plants of Thailand. produces no effects on blood glucose in normoglycaemic rats. Vientiane. alata leaves has been tried for drug safety and fungicide activities. parasitic skin diseases. The purgative action of C. The leaf extract. but lowers blood glucose in rats made hyperglycemic by streptozotocin. Rumex wallichii 20 g and rhubarb 4–6 g. 852.

LAO PDR

1.0. Scientific Name Family 2.0. Vernacular Names 3.0. Plant Description

: : :

Codonopsis pilosa (Franch.) Nannf. Campanulaceae Dangshen (China); man kha kay, mak Kon thuay (Lao PDR); =3ng sâm, =ông =3ng sâm, phong =3ng sâm (Viet Nam)

Codonopsis pilosa is a slender perennial twining herb. Roots tuberous, cylindrical and yield milky juice. Leaves opposite; base cordate; apex acuminate; margins entire or denticulate or wavy. Flowers solitary at the leaf-axil; corolla campanulate, ivory yellow with violet-veined inside. Berry globose, violet, seeds numerous. 4.0. Propagation : Seed

5.0. Geographical Distribution/Ecology Codonopsis pilosa is found in some provinces of the northern part of Lao PDR, especially abundant in Hua Phanh and Xieng Khuang provinces. It grows at the altitude of more than 1,000 m above sea level, preferring to grow in the bedding grass fields in mountainous region. 6.0. Chemical Constituents According to foreign literature, the roots of C. pilosa possess taraxerol, friedelin, nbutylallophanate and some micro-elements including K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mo, Sn, Al and Sr. 7.0. Report on Medicinal Usage 7.1. Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available
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7.2. Uses in traditional medicine: Codonopsis pilosa is used for treating general debility, fatigue, anemia, jaundice, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, etc. 8.0. Contraindications Not available 9.0. Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam. TAP I VA II 2, National Institute of Meteria Medica, Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version). Vidal, J. 1956. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao, Meo, Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR, Tome XLIX, Fascicule 2, Ecole Francaise D’Extreme Orient, Paris.

120

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1.0. Scientific Name Family 2.0. Vernacular Names

: : :

Costus speciosus (Koenig) Sm. Costaceae Pi-ch’iao-chiang (China); cane-reed, crape ginger, elegant costus, malay ginger, spiral flag (English); costus élégant (French); tabar-tabar, setawa, tawa-tawa (Indonesia), dok uong, uong Bon (Lao PDR); setawar, tawar, tawar-tawar, tawaga, stengteng, tenge (Malaysia); ueang chang, ueang mai na, ueang yai, ban dai sawan (Thailand); cát l(i, =8t =7ng, mia dò (Viet Nam)

3.0. Plant Description Costus speciosus is a herbaceous perennial plant, up to 2 m high. Rhizome stout, fleshy, creeping up to 50 cm long. Stem hollow, less-branched. Leaves alternate, have tubular sheaths, oblongovoid, apex acminate, young leaves are spiral. Inflorescence in terminal panicled spike; zygomorphic flowers supported by thick haired bracts, flowers white, large, fragrant. Fruit globose or ovoid capsules. Seeds obovoid or subglobose, black, with a narrow fleshy aril. 4.0. Propagation Costus speciosus can be propagated both by replanting rhizome cuttings and transplanting seedlings. 5.0. Geographical Distribution/Ecology Costus speciosus is widely grown in Lao PDR. It is found also in other tropical countries.

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6.0. Chemical Constituents The rhizome of C. speciosus consists of steroid saponin, dioscin and gracillin, genines diosgenin and tigogenin. â-sitosterol glycoside and curcuminoid, curcumin are also reported. 7.0. Report on Medicinal Usage 7.1. Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.2. Uses in traditional medicine: The juice of the burnt fresh stem is used as an ear drop for healing otitis. The decoction of the rhizome of C. speciosus is used for crushing kidneys and bladder stones. It is used also as a cholagogue, antiamoebic and for antiinflammation. 8.0. Contraindications Not available 9.0. Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam. TAP I VA II 2, National Institute of Meteria Medica, Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version). National Institute of Materia Medica, Ha Noi, Viet Nam 1999. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. Volume 1. Le Van Truyen et al. (Eds.). Science and Technology Publishing House, Ha Noi. Vidal, J. 1956. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao, Meo, Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. Tome XLIX, Fascicule 2, Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient, Paris.

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1.0 2.0 3.0

Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description

: : :

Dioscorea persimilis Prain & Burk. Dioscoreaceae Manh kap (Lao PDR)

Glabrous climber. Tuber single or paired, stout and slightly flat, with a round tip, resembling a gourd, 30–50 cm long or more, descending deep into the soil; stems glabrous, obscurely angular, sometimes purplish usually bearing axillary bulbils (aerial tubers). Leaves alternate or opposite, broadly ovate-cordate, 8–10 cm long, 6–8 m wide, apexacuminate; main nerves 5–7, radiating from the base; petiole 1.5–3.5 cm long. Inflorescence in axillary raceme; flowers small, yellow, unisexual, dioecious; perianth of 6 equal segments; stamen 6, male spike 40 cm long, female reaching 20 cm in length. Flowering period: May–July. Fruiting period: August–October. 4.0 5.0 Propagation : Tuber

Geographical Distibution/Ecology There are about 140 species identified worldwide, scattered mainly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dioscorea persimilis is found in Southeast Asia, South China and India. It is also common in the mountainous regions of Lao PDR and Viet Nam. This plant is regarded as food for the natives. It is hygrophilous and shade-tolerant. It usually climbs over different plants in secondary and limestone mountain forests at an altitude of up to 1,000 m. It grows vigorously in summer, withers in winter or in dry season and grows again in spring. Some varieties of Dioscorea have been cultivated in the northern part of Lao PDR for medicinal purposes.

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6.0

Chemical Constituents In addition to starch as the main component, the tuber contains mucin (a viscous protein), allantion, amino acids (arginine, choline) and maltase. Analysis of the tuber yields 63.25% starch, 0.45% lipids and 6.75% proteins.

7.0

Reports on Medical Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The hormonal activity of D. persimilis was studied in immature albino rats of both sexes. 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: It acts as a tonic and is good for the spleen and stomach, and invigorates the lung and kidney. It is also useful for the treatment of dyspepsia, chronic enteritis, lientery, night sweating, polyuria, spermatorrhoea and metrorrhoea. As a tonic, it is used in the form of a decoction or powder, and given in combination with other plants. It also gives beneficial effects to children’s diseases such as ascariasis, emaciation, anorexia and nausea.

8.0

Contraindications Not available

9.0

Bibliography Bounhong Southavong et al. 1993. The Medicines in Your Garden. Volume I, Research Institute of Medicinal Plants, Ministry of Public Health, Vientiane. National Institute of Materia Medica, 1999. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. Volume 1. Science and Technology Publishing House, Ha Noi. Vasilalangsy, Chalune et al. 1985. Recipe of Traditional Medicine in Lao PDR. State Council of Science and Technology, Vientiane. Vidal, J. 1963. Premiere Partie Noms Vernaculaires – Noms Scientifique en Usage au Lao PDR.

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1.0

Scientific Name Synonyms Family Vernacular Names

: : : :

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. Eclipta alba (L.) Asteraceae Dyer’s weed, dye-wed, false diasy, trailing eclipta, white eclipta, white heads, (English); éclipte droite (French); goman, urangaring (Java-Indonesia); smao khmanh (Cambodia); nha hom keo (Lao PDR); aghing-aghing, ari(ng)-aring, daun dakelin, dawah (Malaysia); bhingarajah, bhingaraj, tekarajah (Sanskrit/ Hindu); ka meng, hom kiao (Thailand); nh8 n(i, c9 m0c, h!n liên th"o (Viet Nam)

2.0

3.0

Plant Description Eclipta alba is slender, erect, prostrate, much branched, with rooted nodes. Leaves opposite, variable sessile linear, or oblong-lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, oppressed hairs on both sides. Inflorescence in axillary or terminal heads; flowers white; pappus 2–5, minute teeth, arches narrowly oblong, ribbed tipped with the pappus teeth.

4.0 5.0

Propagation

:

Seed

Geographical Distribution/Ecology Eclipta alba grows wildly in wet land. It can be found almost everywhere in Lao PDR. It is found also in other Asian and Southeast Asian countries.

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6.0

Chemical Constituents The whole plant contains thiophen, including derivatives of diethienyl acetylenester, thienyl such as á-terthienyl, á-terthienyl-methanol, aldehyd, ecliptal. Organic acid, echinocystic acid, and wedelolactone are also found in the plant.

7.0

Report on Medicinal Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Lao traditional healers use E. alba to complete the following remedy for treating fever with convulsion: (1) fresh plant of Centella asiatica 50 g, (2) E. alba 50 g, (3) the roots of Strobilantes flaccidifolius (hom ban) 20 g and (4) the bark of Oroxylum indicum. All ingredients are thoroughly washed with clean water, adding 1 litre of clear water, grinding and filtering to get the juice.

8.0

Contraindications Not available

9. 0 Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam. TAP I VA II 2, National Institute of Meteria Medica, Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version). National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi, Viet Nam 1999. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. Volume 1. Le Van Truyen et al. (Eds.). Science and Technology Publishing House, Ha Noi. Vidal, J. 1956. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao, Meo, Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. Tome XLIX, Fascicule 2, Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient, Paris.

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LAO PDR

1.0. Scientific Name Family 2.0. Vernacular Names

: : :

Elephantopus scaber L. Asteraceae Didancao (China); prickly-leaved elephant’s foot (English); pied d’éléphant, herbe de jouissance (French); misumi-gusa (Japan); tapak gajah, tapak liman, tapak tana, tapak tangan, tutupbumi (Java-Indonesia); prakrap thom (Cambodia); khi fay nok khum (Lao PDR); berseh hitam, chapa, sebongbong, tapak babi, tapak sulaiman (Malaysia); gojiha, karipadam, satamulika (Sanskrit); do may ru lom, nat pha, ya fay nok khum (Thailand); cây th#i l%a, ch$ thiên, kh# =&a ="m, ti'n h( nam (Viet Nam)

3.0. Plant Description Elephantopus scaber is an erect, stout herb, 0.5–1.1 m high. Leaves radical forming a rosette on the ground 12–15 cm long, 5–6 cm broad, obovate oblong, rounded or subacute, coarsely serrate-dentate, hairy on both sides. Inflorescence in terminal and axillary heads. Flowers numerous clusters of heads surrounded at the base by 3 large stiff broadly ovate-cordate conspicuously nerved leafly bracts, flowers are violet. Fruits are pappus. 4.0. Propagation : Seed (vegetative parts)

5.0. Geographical Distribution/Ecology Elephantopus scaber grows wildly in almost all provinces of Lao PDR. It is found in grass fields, growing alternately with other species of grass in abandoned land, along the roads and at the edges of rice fields. It strongly endures drought. It is found also in other countries of IndoChina, India and Himalaya

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6.0. Chemical Constituents According to some foreign references, the whole plant of E. scaber contains elephantine, elephantopin, deoxyelephantopin, iso-deoxyelephantopine, epifriedelanol, lupeolacetate, dotriacontan-ol. Recently, aurantiamide and crepiside E have been also isolated from the plant. 7.0. Report on Medicinal Usage 7.1. Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.2. Uses in traditional medicine: Elephantopus scaber is traditionally used for treating liver diseases and coughs. 8.0. Contraindications Not available 9.0. Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam. TAP I VA II 2, National Institute of Meteria Medica, Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version). Vidal, J. 1956. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao, Meo, Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. Tome XLIX, Fascicule 2, Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient, Paris.

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ovary obovoid.0 3. It is also planted widely in Lao PDR for medicinal uses. flowers white long-pedicelled. bracts resembling leaves. 4. but seeds have not been observed. the bulbs remain in the ground and re-sprout in the next spring. stamens 3.0 2. about 5 cm long. 2. thin linear. 6. sepals 3. Plants growing in gardens endure shade. the Philippines and other Southeast Asian countries. acute at both ends with numerous parallel nerves.0 Propagation : Bulb Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant originates from America and is now commonly grown in Indonesia. petals 3. 30–40 cm high. Flowers bloom every year. The plants often wither in winter.0 Chemical Constituents The bulbs contain quinoid substances.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Eleutherine subaphylla Gagnep. anthers yellow. trigonous. brownish red. It is adaptable to various climatic conditions except the cold in high mountainous areas. eleutherine. and eleutherol.LAO PDR 1. 129 . isoeleutherine. Bulb oblong-ovoid. Scale thin. Iridaceae Phak boua luad (Lao PDR) Perennial herb. Inflorescence in raceme arising from bulb.0 5. 20 cm long.5–3 cm in diameter. Leaves lanceolate.

Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. S.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Premiere Partie Noms Vernaculaires . Research Institute of Medicinal Plants. Vientiane. 9. gastritis ulcer.0 Bibliography Bounhong Southavong et al. Volume 1. 130 . subaphylla markedly inhibits in vitro growth of various strains of Diplococcus pneumoniae.Noms Scientifique en Usage au Lao PDR.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Extract with 40 alcohol of E. Streptococcus haemolyticus.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. The Medicines in Your Garden. dysenteriae.). 1985. and as a tonic. Ha Noi. especially when combined with Belamcanda chinensis extract. Le Van Truyen et al.0 Contraindications Not available. Vidal. Chalune et al. Viet Nam 1999. mycoides. Recipe of Traditional Medicine in Lao PDR. The extract exerts beneficial effects for mild infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Ministry of Public Health. Science and Technology Publishing House. Bacillus anthracis and B. the plant in the form of decoction and bills is used to treat jaundice. 8. (Eds. 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In Lao PDR. National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. State Council of Science and Technology. 1963. Vasilalangsy. headache. Vientiane. Volume I. 1993. Staphyloccoccus aureus and mildly depresses Shigella flexneri. J.

kok khao may (Lao PDR). Infloresence in terminal or axillary cyme. sam ngam (Thailand).0. less branched. shining. Geographical Distribution/Ecology Euodia lepta grows scarsely in secondary and dipterocarp forests. 131 . Rutaceae San-ya-k’u (China). The leaves contain flavonoid derivatives. 3–5 m in height.(Viet Nam) 3.0. cây d)u d1u. seeds black. khom la van jo. andang. flowers small. Viet Nam. 6. stem bark yellowish white. young twigs covered with smooth hairs. ba g!c t7m gh. folicles one seeded. Leaves alternate. setenggek (Malaysia). Cambodia. tannin and organic acids. chabang tiga. glabrous. Plant Description Euodia lepta is a woody shrub. It is found in many provinces of Lao PDR. 4. pepauh. particularly in the northern part of the country.0. medang ketimang. vôr anhor (Cambodia). It is found also in the southern part of China. three leaflets. Chemical Constituents The roots of E. white. isoplatydesmine and ribalinine. Stem erect. Propagation : Seed 5. in most parts of peninsula Malaysia and India. lepta contain alkaloids: edulinine. Vernacular Names : : : Euodia lepta L. Scientific Name Family 2.0.0. leaflet lanceolate.LAO PDR 1.0. chè =7ng.

Fascicule 2. 8.2. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam.0. Contraindications Not available 9. Paris. 132 . National Institute of Meteria Medica. Tome XLIX.1. TAP I VA II 2.0. 1956. Uses in traditional medicine: Euodia lepta is used in Lao traditional medicine in the treatment of asthma. J. Meo. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient. Uses supported by experimental data: Not available 7. Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version).0. Vidal. Report on Medicinal Usage 7.

133 .LAO PDR 1. drupelets. hardwood contains morindone. 4. The fruit contains a small amount of essential oil. It also grows in many other provinces throughout the countries. The flower contains anthraglycoside and flavonoside. India mulberry (English) Medium to rather big-sized tree. slightly compressed and grooved. quadrangular. Fruit ovoid. but no information about the method of propagation was found. 6.0 Geographical Distribution/Ecology Morinda citrifolia grows abundantly in secondary forest at the altitude of about 700 ft. undulate at margins. Inflorescence in dense ovoid head. shining above and pale below.and flavonoid. Rubiaceae Mark nho ban (Lao PDR). pink when ripe. ice leaf. awltree.0 3. white at the beginning of the flowering period and then yellow.0 Chemical Constituents Phytochemical screening shows that the roots. stem and leaves of M. hag apple.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Morinda citrifolia L. Young twigs. seed numerous. rutine. alizarine derivative (alizarinea-ethylethr). 5. Root bark contains morindine. citrifolia contain anthraquinone derivatives. arabinosy1(1 3)}{b-D-galactopyrannosy1(1 6)}(b-D-galactopyranoside)]. Leaves opposite. 5–10 m high.0 2. physcion-8-O-[{a-L.0 Propagation : Morinda citrifolia is planted by the villagers for its edible fruit and grows sparsely in many localities of Lao PDR. morindone. stipuliferous.

citrifolia show the following biological activities: antitumour.napralert. Phytochemical Dictionary. A decoction of the dried fruits and seeds of M. They are abortifacient and used as cardiotonic and emmenagogue. Le Van Truyen et al. Chicago. The roots are also used for treating lumbago and relieving body pain. 542. citrifolia are used for treatment of arthritis.org). Pp. antimutagenic (Salmonella). sore throat. diabetes and breast cancer. Dried roots and fruits are beneficial in the form of decoction or infusion for hypertension. National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. antinematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). The leaves are used for stomach-ache. but weak versus Bacillus subtilis). chest cold in infants. Jeffrey. Dose: 30 g dry root. The decoction of the roots is used for treatment of coughs.). London. Science and Technology Publishing House. Aqueous leaf or root extracts are consumed for the treatment of acute malaria and cathartic. Volume 2. sore gums. Pp. 7. antitumourpromoting.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The dry fruits of M. H. 1993. 20-30 g dry fruit. Taylor & Francis. 134 . Viet Nam 1999. antibacterial (Staphylococcus. Ha Noi. et al. B.0 Bibliography Index Kewensis. dysentery. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. broken bones and leprosy sores.0 Contraindications Not available 9. The fresh roots are used for ichtheotoxin/sting and external cancerous swelling.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. hypotensive. Kew Garden. pleurisy. citrifolia is used for arthritis. inflammation. The dried bark is used for urinary disorders. University of Illinois at Chicago. (Eds. 102–105. infected wound healing. antiascariasis. NAPRALERT = NAtural PRoduct ALERT A2230B database (www.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Extracts of M. induced abortion. 8.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS MORINDIN 7. London.

solitary at the axil of the leaves.0 5. 6. edible. Flowers bisexual. Fruit ovoid or globose. phack tarm nin thorng (Lao PDR). timun dendang (Malaysia) Perennial climber with tendrils. pericarp crisp and yellow when ripe. Passifloraceae Phack buang. Leaves alternate. phack ho harm. 5-hydroxy indole and harman.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Passiflora foetida L. petiole doubly glandular. corolla white.0 3.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows wild in open places in tropical countries.LAO PDR 1. Stem hollow. 135 . The fruit contains volkenine. coronal violet. two apigenine derivatives: 4-7-dimethoxy flavone and 4-7-Di-O-methyl flavone. linamarine alkanol. and seed contains oil and linoleic acid. cylindrical. kheua nian harng. tendril axilary. 3-5-hydroxy-4-7-Di-O-methy1 flavonone.0 Chemical Constituents The aerial parts of the plant contain indol alkaloid. ovary superior. tetraphylline B (sulphate) alicyclie. seeds numerous. margins wavy with ciliate silky hairs. pale violet in the centre. 4. The leaves contain deidacline aicyclic. flavonols: ermanine and pachypodol.0 2. nerves palmate. stamens 5. trilobed. tryptamine.

sores and cough. Pp. The plant is known to have a tranquilizing effect.03–3. The dry roots are used to stimulate menstruation and for abortion. National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. emmenagogue. Volume 2. 2–3 bowls per time. Phytochemical Dictionary. Viet Nam 1999.napralert. coughs. A mixture of the plant with the young leaves of indian bean (Erythrina variegata). epilepsy. foetida are consumed as vegetable. foetida is used as a natural tranquilizer and for hiccup. 1993. 8.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. headache. Young leaves of P. Pp. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. Ha Noi. Science and Technology Publishing House. 542. Le Van Truyen et al. constipation. foetida and the aerial part of Leonurus heterophyllus is used. giddiness.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS HARMAN APIGENIN 7. and thrice a day. (Eds. University of Illinois at Chicago.).0 g per bowl. P. A decoction of P.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The whole plant is used to treat hypertension. 164-169. Taylor & Francis. London. antispasmodic insomnia.0 Contraindications Not available 9. nucifera.4-DIMETHYL FLAVONE 7. B. It is formulated in the form of 1. NAPRALERT = NAtural PRoduct ALERT A2230B database (www. the embryo of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and young leaves of mulberry tree (Morus alba) is used for treating insomnia. 136 . The fresh fruit is used as food. H.0 Bibliography Jeffrey. a mixture of leaves of N. flu and sores. in relieving constipation.org). Chicago. In the case of insomnia with heart trouble. et al.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.

quinoid: emodin and its derivatives. 4. 137 . juglone (6-acethy1-2-methoxy-7-methylquinone). etc.LAO PDR 1. Pleuropterus multiflorus Polygonaceae Man orn ling (Lao PDR) 2. 6. Nutlet triangular. entirely closed by sepals. triterpenic saponine. simple.0 Propagation : Tuber Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows wild in highland or mountain thickets. rhein and physcion.0 3. Inflorescence in axillary or terminal panicle. flowers numerous. ovate-cordate. branchlets and petioles violet-purple. three winged. hyperoside.0 Chemical Constituents The tuber contains steroid. The entire plant contains resveratrol (3-5-4-trihydroxystilbene) and rhapontin. 2-acethyl emodin. Lao PDR. especially in Huaphanh and Xieng Khouang provinces. Leaves alternate. N-trans-ferulyl-3-methyl. isoquinoline alkaloid. daucosterol. flavonol: quercitrin. greenish white. chyrosphannol. Flowering seasons from July to October. foeniculin. Pleuropterus multiflorum. Stems elongate. emodin-1-6-dimethlether.0 5. emodin-6-methylether.0 Scandent perennial herb with big brownish red tuberous root. dopamine.0 Scientific Name Synonyms Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : : Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. emodine monomethylether. emodin monoethylether. emodin-8-O-â-D-glucoside. small.

B. 138 . et al. The average daily dose is 20–30 g. Dose: 8–16 g daily. A mixture of the plant and Codonopsis javanica extracts has been used as tonic for neuralsthenia.0 Bibliography Jeffrey.napralert.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.org). London. hypogalactia. Pp. lumbago. Chicago. insomnia. etc. Ha Noi. Science and Technology Publishing House. anemia. H. increases vigour and fertility. Taylor & Francis.). Viet Nam 1999. 8.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS RESVERATROL 7. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. The tuber possesses antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities. (Eds. the dry aerial part is used as decoction to treat insomnia. Volume 2.0 Contraindications Not available 9. University of Illinois at Chicago. 202-207.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In China. and is used for treating coronary disease and hyperlipidemia. NAPRALERT = NAtural PRoduct ALERT A2230B database (www. 1993. The extract of P. Le Van Truyen et al. Decoctions of the roots are given to women after childbirth.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Phytochemical Dictionary. Pp. rheumatism. multiflorum also shows hair stimulant properties. 542. National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi.

0. glabrous. sarpagandha. single-seeded. It is a rare plant. rayom (Thailand). occasionally opposite. the total alkaloids range from 1 to 3%. yin-tu lo-fu mu (China). flowers tubular. Vernacular Names : : : Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. purplish-black when ripe.500–2.0. Chemical Constituents The plant. ex Kurz Apocynaceae Bon-ma-ya-zar (Burma).0. kha gnom phoo (Lao PDR). Sumatra. sarap-gandha (Hindu). serpent wood. lanceolate. Drupes ovoid. but is found in some provinces of Lao PDR. she gen mu. snake wood. Stem lanticellate.000 mm and mean temperature ranging from 25º to 30º C.LAO PDR 1. Geographic Distribution Rauvolfia serpentina prefers to grow in tropical or subtropical areas with mean annual rainfall of 1. The plant is indigenous to Indo-China. snake-root. Inflorescence in terminal or axillary umbellate cymes. 6. white to pink cymes. (English). Leaves 3-verticilate. Vientiane capital city. in Veun Kham area. less branched. racine de serpent (French).3–1 m high. Borneo.0. Scientific Name Family 2. ba g!c _n =4 (Viet Nam) 3.0. Indo-Jyaboku (Japan). Plant Description Rauvolfia serpentina is an undershrub. Propagation : Seed (vegetative parts) 5. especially the root bark. especially on the Nam Ngum river banks. Sri Lanka and India. chhotachand. 0. rauwolfia. serpentine. serpentine root. Root much-fluted. attenuate at both sides. chandrika (Sanskrit). contains indol alkaloids. The plant yields milky juice.0. 4. The alkaloids are classsified into four types: 139 .

Le Van Truyen et al. J. a hypotensive active compound. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam. Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Yohimbine-type: including reserpine. the main active compound of the plant. 7. Pp. Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. Fascicule 2.0. 1956. reserpidine. National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. rescinnamine. an antiarrhythmic compound. serpentine.2. aniso rauhimbine. 140 . Sarpagan-type (sarpagine type): including raupine (sarpagine). Uses in traditional medicine: In Lao traditional medicine the root of R. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. serpentina combining with other materia medica is used for relieving headache. Report on Medicinal Usage 7. 8. Science and Technology Publishing House.).1. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao. 4.0. It used also for hypertension. reserpinine. (Eds. Volume 2.0. Contraindications Not available 9.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. Vidal. Meo. 3. Ha Noi. Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient. b-yohimbine and ø-yohimbine). iso-ajmaline. Heteroyohimbine-type: including ajmalicine. serpentinine and raubasine. TAP I VA II 2. Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version). yohimbines (á-yohimbine. Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. Viet Nam 1999. 227–231. 2. Paris. Ajmalane-type (ajmaline type): including ajmaline. National Institute of Meteria Medica. Tome XLIX.

0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is widely distributed in every part of Lao PDR. of 2–8 flowers. stem and branches numerous.0 Chemical Constituents The leaf contains tomatid-5-en-3-b-ol. Fruit globose. short.LAO PDR 1. seed numerous. 141 . pale violet. Leaves simple. S. alternate. yellow.0 5. b-Solanine can be hydrolyzed to yield solanidine and solasodine. Entire plant: glyco-alkaloids (solatunine or (b-solanine) or steroidal saponines. Inflorescence in axillary cyme. thin. margins irregularly lobed. reddish yellow when ripe. glabous.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : : Solanum procumbens Lour. 4. Hainanense Hance Solanaceae Khang khom kheua (Thailand) 2. ovate or oblong in texture. reniform. 6.0 The plant is a straggling shrub. It is also found in many Asian countries.0 3. stout and recurved prickles.

Pp. National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. A handful of the root segments is crushed and then macerated in about 200–300 ml cool drinking water. H. Le Van Truyen et al. (Eds. Jeffrey. 542. 201. It is also used to stop bleeding in cases of hermorrhoids. J.). detoxicant or antidote. Pp. Kew Garden. Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. Paris. 142 . R. Tome XLIX. 8. Volume 2. Meo.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. The treatment will continue for a couple of days by giving patients the decoction of the root. Index Kewensis. The plant has been used for treating snake bites. Taylor & Francis. leaf or whole plant is used for treating some respiratory-related diseases such as coughs and asthma. cough relief. they are also expectorant.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. B. antidiabetic. tonic and diuretic agents. Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient. et al. et al. Pp. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao. N.0 Contraindications Not available 9.0 Bibliography Farnswoth. Prachachon Publishing. Ha Noi. Fascicule 2. Vidal. 1956. Thai Medicinal Plants. 1992. Phytochemical Dictionary. Bangkok. 1993. 225. the macerate is immediately given to the victim.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS SOLASODINE 7. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. London. The fruit is an expectorant. Viet Nam 1999. London.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The root. phlegmatic and stingy wounds. Science and Technology Publishing House.

Viet Nam and Cambodia. petioles long. The plant is found in many localities in Lao PDR. daun nasi-nasi (Malaysia). red when mature. koma pich (Cambodia). moon seed creeper. c[ b(ng b'nh (Viet Nam) 3. glabrous on both sides. Menispermaceae Di bu rong (China). hua tom ngeun. and is found scarcely in deciduous forest. compressed. Inflorescence in axillary umbelllate cyme. thin. pha nang nang (Thailand). peltate. It can be shade-enduring. 2–10 m long. Drupes globose. rotunda is l.tetrahydropalmaine (gindarine or hindarine).0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Stephania rotunda prefers to grow in limestone mountains. female and male on different plants. and also in many countries of Southeast Asia. in the southern part of China.0 2. inserted at one quarter from the base of the lamina. king kang dong (Lao PDR). tuber stout. in lowland forests. Indian tape-vine. Roemerine is also reported. 4. Leaves alternate.0 Chemical Constituents The main active compound of S. 143 . bình vôi. attaining 100 kg. (English). 6. radiately nerved. Flowers orange.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Stephania rotunda Lour.LAO PDR 1.0 Plant Description Stephania rotunda is a perennial evergreen shrub. Seeds hippocrepiform with transverse rips.0 5.

Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. TAP I VA II 2. Contraindications Not available 9. 144 . it is used as a decoction. Noms Vernaculaires des Plants (Lao.1. J.0. National Institute of Meteria Medica. Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient. Kha) en Usage Au Lao PDR. 1956. Report on Medicinal Usage 7.2.0. Vidal. Meo. Fascicule 2. Sciences and Technology (Vietnamese version). 8.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Bibliography Ð\ Huy Bích et al. Cây thu2c và Ð4ng v5t làm thu2c 6 Viet Nam. Stephania tuber is used for serious dysentery (stool with blood).0. Paris. Uses in traditional medicine: In Lao traditional Medicine. Tome XLIX.

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flattened from above.0 3. 2. 6.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. elliptic or obovate obtuse. edible with sweet taste.0 2. Myrsinaceae Mata pelanduk (Malaysia).MALAYSIA 1. green when young turning red when mature. Flowers small in stalked cluster from the leaf axils. Fruits berries rounded. 147 .5–6 cm. sea-shore ardisia (English) A bush or small tree.0 Chemical Constituents Syringic acid. isorhamnetin and quercetin 7. alternate. pink. elliptica showed antisalmonella activity. 5–12. Leaves simple.0 5. leathery pink when young. 4. margins entire.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Syringic acid. isorhamnetin and quercetin obtained from dried fruit extract of A.0 Propagation : Seed Geographic Distribution It grows wild and is widely distributed in lowland to hill forest in Malaysia.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Ardisia elliptica Thunb.5 cm long.

0 Contraindications Not available 9. Ridley. 160 pp. I and II. Research 20(7): Pp. Kuala Lumpur. 1951. 1967. Phadungkit. H. Anti-salmonella cativity of constituents of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. Reeve & Co.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. G. Malayan Nature Society. Kuala Lumpur. 693–696.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The roots are used by women with irregular menses and herbal tonic for body maintenance. Wayside Trees of Malaya. 148 .0 Bibliography Burkill. Henderson. E. Corner.H. Kuala Lumpur. 2006. I. O.R. Press. D. 478 pp. London..H. 1939. A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine. The Flora of the Malay Peninsula. 8.J. Prod. Crown Agents. The Malayan Nature Society. Vol. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. The leaves are used in treatment of earache and mouth ulceration. Nat. 1988. & Luanratana. London. Oxford Univ. M. M. Vol. Gimlette. 1935. Malayan Wild Flowers: Dicotyledons.N. II.

copper. odoratine. 6.4.5 cm long. appressed except the extreme divergent tip. eupatenol. florets about 20–30 or a few more. velutine. corolla slender trumpet form. âsitosterol. anisic acid.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution It grows wild in open and disturbed areas mainly in lowlands all over Southeast Asia. 3–6 cm wide. sakuranetine.4’. magnesium. tamarixetine. receptacle very narrow.MALAYSIA 1.) R.0 5. Seeds achenes glabrous. the styles extending about 4 mm beyond the apex of the involucre. peduncles 1–3 cm long. velvety-pubescent. pokok jerman (Malaysia). Asteraceae Pokok kapal terbang.0 Chemical Constituents (+)-eupaten. 1–1. Rob. acute. baby tea (English) Subshrub with long rambling branches. stems terete. Inflorescence subcorymbose axillary and terminal clusters. King & H. bracteates. 10–12 mm long. 2’. upper ones 8–9 mm long. pale purple to dull offwhite. bracts slender. siam weed. flat.0 3. each margin with 1–5 teeth. pale with green nerves.0 2. involucre of about 4–5 series of bracts. flaccidmembranous. Leaves opposite. 10–12 mm long. pappus of dull white hairs 5 mm long. ovarian portion 4 mm long. 149 . all acute. 4. the lowest ones about 2 mm long. spreading radiately. ã-sitosterol. salvigenine. â-amyrin. á-sitosterol. mikanine. deltoid-ovate.6’-pentahydrocxchalcone. acacetine. florets all alike (disc-florets). lupeol. pubescent.3’. distally ciliate.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Chromolaena odorata (L. christmas bush. epoxylupeol. ceryl-alcohol. or entire in youngest leaves. very coarsely toothed. isosakuranetine. acute. eupaten. blade mostly 5–12 cm long.

two chalcones. 184–185.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS manganese.3'.5'.2'-dihydroxy-4'.1 i. Planta Medica 59(2): Pp. This was particularly evident in medium supplemented with only 0. D. & Fouraste. acacetin (5. whereas compound 8 exhibited moderate toxicity against NCI-H187 cells and week toxicity against human breast cancer (BC) cells with the MIC values of 19. and 8 exhibited weak activity with the MIC values of 606.4'tetrahydroxyflavone) (8) were isolated and identified.8 microM.6'tetramethoxychalcone (5) and 4. 7.0 Bibliography Bamba.0. phosphorus. Clinical studies using this plant extract have shown antimicrobial and anticoagulation effects as well as the promotion of tissue remodelling in the wound healing process.6. The results of the study demonstrated that eupolin extract increased fibroblast and endothelial cell growth..ferulic.. two cell types that play a crucial role in wound healing. 704.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. However. protocatechuic. but there was no significant damage at this dose to the endothelial cells.5% fetal calf serum where the cells were quiescent. Pelissier. isosakuranetin (5. 7. persicogenin (5.2 and 699. the mechanism by which this agent affects cells involved in the wound healing process is unknown. vanillic acids 7.5'. Compound 7 showed moderate cytotoxicity against human small cell lung cancer (NCI-H187) cells with the MIC value of 24. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells.7.7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone) (7) and luteolin (5. p-hydroxybenzoic. I.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 8. Y.4 microM respectively. Toxicity of the extract to fibroblasts was observed at 250 microg/ml in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/0.7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone) (1). were used to investigate some of the effects of eupolin extract in vitro.4'-tetramethoxyflavanone (3) and 4'hydroxy-5.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The leaves are used as wound healing and a local antiseptic agent.2 and 38.6 microM. 1993. Marion. fever and infection and as a haemostatic agent.3'dihydroxy-7.6. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antimycobacterial activity against mycobacterium tuberculosis with the MIC value of 174. 150 . ii.7-trimethoxyflavanone (4)..4'-dimethoxyflavanone) (2). whereas compounds 4.3 microM respectively. C. and two flavones.5% fetal calf serum. 5. Enhanced growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells was found at concentrations of 10 microg/ml and 100 microg/ml of eupolin extract. Bessiere. tannin. Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: From the flowers of C. Essential oil of Eupatorium odoratum. and this could explain in part the beneficial clinical effects that have been observed. M. J. 2'-hydroxy-4.4'.6'-trimethoxychalcone (6). odorata ( Eupatorium odoratum ) four flavanones. p-coumaric.7. ailments including malaria. Cell growth was estimated by a colorimetric assay at different time intervals.

Chuaynugul A. 507–511. 151 . Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Chakraverti. 1973. Penerbit FajarBakti Sdn Bhd.. Timsuksai P. Chakrabarti. Phan TT. Suavansri T. K. an herbal remedy for treating wounds. 27(5): Pp. R J. Indian J. L. 2001.. Cherry GW. Antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of flavonoids from the flowers of Chromolaena odorata. See. 667–671. Pp. Suksamrarn A. S. Terpenoids and related compounds 13epoxylupeol. 1991. 1373–1379. & Talapatra. Constituents and uses of Eupatorium odoratum L. P.. 756–765. Vimuttipong S. Res. Chan. Phytochemistry. Lee. Chem. Pharm. P. 1977. Boongird S. S. Hughes MA. Kuala Lumpur. 15 (9): Pp. Talapatra. 12. P. 101(3): Pp. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 24: Pp. 1995. S T. Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants. 806–807. S Y. 1998. T T. Sam Teng Wah. Enhanced proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells treated with an extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (Eupolin).S. Great Britain: Bunges Science Press.. Phenolic compounds of Chromolaena odorata protect cultured skin cells from oxidative: implication for cutaneous wound healing. 1994. S. K. Arch. Bhar. P. Grayer. Flavonoid constituents of Eupatorium odoratum. Chotipong A. Dutta. D. a new triterpenoid from Eupatorium odoratum. H. & Barua. 2004. B. Trends in Traditional Medicines Research. USM Penang. Wang. A. Muhamad Zakaria. Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites. Phan. J. Glasby.MALAYSIA Bose. S. Mustafa Ali Mohd.

phenolic diarylheptanoid. inside orange or orangered. yellowish with darker yellow median band.5 cm x 1.0 5. leaf sheaths up to 75 cm long. bracts pale green. coma bracts purple. blades elliptical-oblong to oblong-lanceolate. b-tumerone. Zingiberaceae Temu lawak (Malaysia).0 3. essential oil. ar-tumerone. 4. staminodes yellow-white. 25–100 cm x 8– 20 cm. labellum 2–2. inflorescence on a separate shoot. rimpang lawak (Indonesia) A herb with branched rhizome.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is cultivated throughout the tropic. corolla 4–6 cm long. b-curcumene. a-tumerone. outside dark yellow to reddish-brown.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.0 Chemical Constituents b-Atlantone. bisacumol. germacrone. 6. sesquiterpenoid. green with reddish-brown band along the midrib. curcuminoid. xanthorrhizol 152 .0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb.5– 2 cm. 5’-methoxycurcumin.0 2. b-methoxycurcumin. pale red. anther with long spurs. bisacurol.

J. Essential Oil Research 11: 719–723.. gonorrhoea. J. Padua. I. rheumatism. Antibacterial activity of xanthorrhizol from Curcuma xanthorhiza against oral pathogens. 1966. H. Xanthorrhizol.. 8. H. K. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative. R. S. J. Ali N. W. Y. I & II.. & Halijah I. Y..A. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Bogor. Mohd. L. Materia Medika Indonesia Vol. 153 . 7. W. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 326(1): 210–217. Hwang.. K. Institute for Medical Research. Hwang.. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. A.S. Kim. K. Indonesia. carminative and anti-inflammatory for constipation. Shim. Chemical composition of the rhizome oils of four Curcuma species from Malaysia. Ibrahim. 2000. cosmetic. 1999. K. 2004. numb feet. 1979. & Pyun.0 Bibliography Burkill. & Park. & Lemmens.. 12 (1). Used as a poultice for swelling.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. K. J. Choi M. fever. malaria. K. Chung.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Curcuma xanthorhiza showed antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Abrogation of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by xanthorrhizol is related to its effect on the regulation of gene transcription. Kuala Lumpur. N..J.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Used as tonic. Kim. 2004. Chung. Xanthorrhizol has a preventive effect on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and exerts anti-metastatic activity in vivo. III. & Nakatani. 2005. H. O. Jitoe. Herbal Medicine Research Centre.) 1999. H. Hong. Isobe. Hwang. K. Phytochemistry 31(10): 3645–3647. colic. Fitoterapia 71(3): 321–323. Abu Said. K. K.0 Contraindications Not available 9.. S. J. Kim S. A. Bunyapraphatsara.. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 196(3): 346–355. (Eds. A. vermifuge. Y. Hwang. has an anti-metastatic potential in experimental mouse lung metastasis model. Masuda.MALAYSIA 7. Vol.M. O. Ahmad. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. T. K. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia 1: 233–234. J. 1992.. J. mosquito repellent and ingredient in shampoo and perfume. Food and Chemical Toxicology 43(1): 117–122. Hong. Kuala Lumpur. N... S. constipation. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. J.. Antioxidative curcuminoids from rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorhiza. a natural sesquiterpenoid from Curcuma xanthorhiza. A. Xanthorrhizol has a potential to attenuate the high dose cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice... & Park. & Park. stomachache. K. K. R.H. 2002. R.

2007... P.. Maulidiani. Eiamong. Food and Chemical Toxicology 31(3): 213–218. Sirat. P. K. Yasni. Sugano. F. H.. & Jauri.. 1994. Food and Chemical Toxicology 32(3): 273–278. Effects of Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb. Characterization of the components present in the active fractions of health gingers (Curcuma xanthorhiza and Zingiber zerumbet) by HPLC–DAD–ESIMS... 154 . M. Phenolic diarylheptanoids from Curcuma xanthorhiza.. V. Zainal. D. 1994. Nonaka. H. Shaari. Sin. serum apolipoprotein A-I and lipogenic enzymes in rats. Identification of an active principle in essential oils and hexane-soluble fractions of Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb. & Charoenpiboosin. 1993.. Yasni. Aimoto. and curcuminoids on the level of serum and liver lipids. M. Phytochemistry 34(2): 415–419. Piyachaturawat. S. showing triglyceride-lowering action in rats. S. M. K. 2007. 1993.. A. Imaizumi. Ruslay. Suksamrarn A..ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Pandji C. Witte. G. M. J. S. Hong. Israf. Phytochemistry 36(6): 1505–1508. Tetrahedron Letters 48(3): 457– 460. & Sugano.. Abas.... S. Food Chemistry 104(3): 1183– 1191.. M.. M. & Proksch.. J. Sirat. Grimm. & Lajis. K. H. Chemistry of xanthorrhizol: synthesis of several bisabolane sesquiterpenoids from xanthorrhizol.. Z. H. Nakamura. Imaizumi. C. N. & Sidik.. K. Wray. L. Insecticidal constituents from four species of the zingiberaceae. N.

dipentene. sere. blades linear-acuminate up to 90 cm long by 2 cm wide. a-terpineol.0 Chemical Constituents a-Camphorene. rachis-internodes and spikelet pedicels 2. lemon grass (English). Poaceae Serai.MALAYSIA 1. citronellol.0 5. sereh. cymbopogonol. linalylacetate. nerol.0 2. quercetin. a-pinene. ligule 2 mm deep.8-cineole. Ndecylaldehyde. caprylic acid. takrai (Thailand) Perennial. decanal. Culms densely clumped and leafy at the base. isovaleraldehyde. geranic acid. farsenal. sorai (Indonesia).and b-dihydropseudoionone. up to 2 m tall. methylheptenol.0 Propagation : Cutting Geographic Distribution/Ecology It is widely distributed in tropical regions and is cultivated in open and dry areas. rutin. luteolin-C-glycoside. linalol. tricontanol. diacetyl. a. chakai. 1. densely hairy. semiai. glabrous. geraniol. isopulegol. 6. geranial. citral. citronellal. methylheptenone. b-myrcene. caryophyllene.0 3. cerylalcohol. leaf-sheaths terete. luteolin. serai makan (Malaysia). isovaleric acid. Inflorescence a loose nodding panicle. 4. farsenol. neral. citronellic acid. limonene. racemes up to about 2 cm long. sarai. minerals and saponins 155 . cymbopogone. hexacosanol.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. b-sitosterol.5–3 mm long. furfural. geranylacetate.

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.1. rheumatism. arresting vomiting. 75. treating kidney problems and herbal tea.0% who complained of a slight itching and burning sensation. ii.1 i. myrcene (16.0 %).7% treated with placebo were infested.1% respectively.0 Bibliography Adegoke. there were significant differences between those treated with the repellent and those treated with the placebo (15. P < 0.5% of those treated with placebo were infested with lice.A. Both oils showed significant antimalarial activities in the four-day suppressive in vivo test in mice. when 12. gratissimum at the same concentrations were 55. 156 . During four months in 2003 a randomized.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Lemon grass is used as digestion aid. 1996. positive control) had a suppressive activity of 100 %. The effects of these oils on the growth of Plasmodium berghei were investigated. Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The objective of study was to test the efficacy of a slow-release citronella formulation as a repellent against the head louse. beta-phellandrene (21. It is also used as a mild diuretic and tonic. The main constituents of the oil of O. and the time spent on treatment and removal of the nits. irregular bowel movement.4% and 55. B. 81. G. 300 and 500 mg/kg of mouse per day. gastric irritability. The corresponding values for the oil of O. while the oil of C.8 %. A significant difference was also observed at the third examination two months later. combs and products for nit removal. and an additional 1. limonene (11. including pediculicides.5 %). the essential oil of C. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 37: Pp.2 and 77. which would lower expenditure on lice control.4 %) and thymol (11.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.O. citratus produced the highest activity with the respective percentages of suppression of parasitaemia: 62. Storage of maize and cowpea and inhibition of microbial agents of biodeterioration using the powder and essential oil of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus).0 Contraindications Not available 9. sprains and insect repellent. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of C.0.7 and 86.1 %). 81–84. placebo-controlled double-blind clinical study was conducted in four elementary schools. gratissimum were gamma-terpinene (21. emmenagogue.0% of the children treated with the test repellent and 50. citratus contained geranial (32.4% of the children treated with the test repellent and 33. respectively. citratus and Ocimum gratissimum growing in Cameroon were analysed by GC and GC/MS. 7. Use of an effective repellent could significantly lower the incidence of reinfestations. The essential oils are used for flatulence.0001).4% of children who disliked the odour of the formulation.2 %) and beta-pinene (10. fermentations and food flavouring.9 %).2 %). Side effects were observed in 4. & Odesola.8 %).6 %. promoting perspiration. 103 children were treated with the test formulation and 95 with a placebo. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg of mouse. neral (29. 8. At concentrations of 200. A significant difference was observed during the second examination two months later. when 12. Overall.

Mutation Research 496: Pp. J.. & Paumgartten.K. Isr. 294–299. S.. Melo.S.R.E. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of some commercial essential oils. D. A. & Ruberto..A.Q.J. Repellency of citronella for head lice: double-blind randomized trial of efficacy and safety. 135–140. Mishra.X.C. Da Costa. A. P. Bezerra. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 34: Pp. Ribeiro-Pinto.. F. G. A.H. A.F. Vinpress Sdn. Med. Journal of Food Science and Technology 38: Pp.. Santos Filho.J.. Lima. 333– 336. Mycoses 36: Pp. Crown Agents. E. Burkill.. 1991. N.J.G.. 756–759. N. Maytenus ilicifolia and Baccharis genistelloides extracts against the stannous chloride oxidative damage in Escherichia coli. G. L.X. Bhd. L. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus. Deans. Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemon grass tea. J. Mishra.K. M. Goncalves...R.B. 28–34.. & Paulo. 1994. Toxicology Letters 92: Pp. 43–48.T. Fungitoxicity of essential oils against dermatophytes. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Ben-Ishai F.J. 2000. C. Government Printing Office. J. Pp.. Kuala Lumpur. S. F. C. 211–215. 1997. Jaganath.R. & Speit. Kishore.. H. L. & Chansouria. 62–64. De-Oliveira.J.T. I.G.MALAYSIA Baratta.M.. (2001). & Ferreira. 157 . Gilliland. 1997. A. 2004. 39–46.F.F.P.B. R. Induction of liver monooxygenases by b-myrcene. Giesbrecht.N.K. De Oliveira.C.A. Barroso. Dorman. Kauderer. Mycoses 36: Pp. In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from officinal plants against dermatophytes. & Dubey. 1993.O. 1935. Caldeira-de-Araújo. 1971. H. De-Oliveira. A Revised Flora of Malaya: Grasses of Malaya. The Green Pharmacy of Malaysia. Magdassi S. & Wong. Toxicology 124: Pp. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: Pp.. Paumgartten.H. 1993. M. Figueiredo. 235–244.. 6(12): Pp. 2001. Antioxidant activity of tropical lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) extracts in linoleic acid and chicken fat systems. Kahana F. Miller J.F.B. M. M..F. Zentner G.F. Cheah. S. B. Helbin V. C.C. R.B. Evaluation of the mutagenicity of beta-myrcene in mammalian cells in vitro. De F.J.. Da Silva. London. Singapore. Soares. Mumcuoglu KY. Otto. B. F. 1991... Assoc. I. G. 1101–1105.. H. A. & Ng. Sarti. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 13: Pp. S.C.. A.. Souza. 1998..A. O. Evaluation of some essential oils for their toxicity against fungi causing deterioration of stored food commodities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60: Pp. Zamith. 33–38. In vitro inhibition of CYP2B1 monooxygenase by b-myrcene and other monoterpenoid compounds. S..H.. S. Ng. Vol.B. Friger M.. Lorenzetti. & Paumgartten. Ingber A. Ribeiro-Pinto.D. 3. A. Gompertz. & Bernardo-Filho..

& Paumgartten.. R.M. rhodesianus. In vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei..J. Menezes. Murata.P. Planta Med. Speit. T. D. Cambridge & Massachusetts. F. 9–15. 1997. U. V..S. & Ohnishi. H.. The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 42: Pp.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Perry. G. Vinitketkummuen. & Matsushima. H. Zamith. 1994. Y. T. H.. 949–955.F. Arimochi.. U. 158 . 2002. N. Absence of genotoxic activity of beta-myrcene in the in vivo cytogenetic bone-marrow assay. Kinouchi. Puatanachokchai. Dagne E. & Viana. Vidal. Potential of four vegetable oils and ten botanical powders for reducing infestation of cowpeas by Callosobruchus maculatus. 93–98. Effect of myrcene on mociception in mice.. C. Konishi. Denda. H. A. Medicinal Plants in East and Southeast Asia. M. Tchoumbougnang F. & Metzger. R. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 26: Pp. 1980.. Suaeyun. 59–68.. 20–23. 71(1): Pp. Inhibitory effects of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) extract on the early phase of hepatocarcinogenesis after initiation with diethylnitrosamine in male Fischer 344 rats. Kishida.M. U. & Mekonnen Y. R. 877–878. Antimutagenicity of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) to various known mutagens in salmonella mutation assay. N. Kongtawelert. 1990. Journal of Stored Products Research 33: Pp. chinesis and C. L..S. Lartprasertsuke. 1993. A. & Van Emden. Puatanachokchai. R. Inhibitory effects of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) on formation of azoxymethane-induced DNA adducts and aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon. Rao.. J. 2005. P... G. Cancer Letters 183: Pp.N. Carcinogenesis 18: Pp. Mutation Research 341: Pp. Vinitketkummuen. Zollo PH. 71–75. 1997.. Rajapakse. Y. Vinitketkummuen. The MIT Press. & Nakae.

d-3-carene. furfurol. Tufted with fibrous roots from a thickened base. edges and surfaces rough. the tops drooping. nerolidol. methyleugenol. glabrous except near the base. a-phellandrene.0 5. terpinen-4-ol. D-citronellol-N-butyrate.) Rendle Poaceae Serai wangi (Malaysia). ethanol. geraniol. geranylacetate.0 Propagation : Cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is widely distributed in tropical regions including India.0 2. sereh. borneol. geranylformate.5 cm long with reduced leaf at each node and at its axil one or more short branches each bearing a pair of racemes.5 m high. citronellybutyrate. seriwang (Indonesia) Perennial. menthol. terpinolene. ligule up to 5 mm deap. leaf-sheaths glabrous. Inflorescence ultimate branches slender. camphor. 6. methylisoeugenol. p-cymene. methylheptanone. trans-ocimene and tricyclene 159 . D-citronellolacetate. perillaldehyde. linalol. tujylalcohol.MALAYSIA 1. a-terpineol. nerol. cis-ocimene. the lower up to 1 m long by 2 cm wide. b-pinene.0 3. Ceylon and Southeast Asia.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Cymbopogon nardus (L.0 Chemical Constituents Citronellol and citronellal. farnesol. bournonene. phellandral. myrcene. hexanol. sabinene. limonene. citronella grass (English). wangi. linalylacetate. 4. glabrous.5–2. zig-zag internodes about 1. the upper smaller. 1-carvotanacetone. a-pinene. blades. Culms erect up to 2. camphene. geranylbutyrate. elemol.

Pogostemon cablin (patchuli). J. var. Jabatan Kimia.. Roques.0 Bibliography Blacow. nardus (citronella). martini (Roxb..0 Contraindications Not available 9. The Extra Pharmacopoeia. 1973. Pp. G.. A. Analisis dan pencirian minyak bauan dari Cymbopogon nardus dan Cymbopogon winteriansis (minyak serai wangi). Effect of Cymbopogon nardus (L. but the undiluted oils of C.. Bessière. 294–299. Watson essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. Government Printing Office. 1998. Fonvieille.) W. clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. as well as an emmenagogue and a wash after childbirth.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The mosquito-repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. C. Gilliland. J. 0. Studies on the essential oil bearing plants of Bangladesh. sudorific and antiperiodic properties. L. 3.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin..From these initial results. Journal of Essential Oil Research 10: Pp.. M. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 47: Pp. & Dugo. Chowdury. Hasnah. L.H. A Revised Flora of Malaya: Grasses of Malaya.W. Vol. nardus (L.M.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The whole plant is used traditionally for stomach comfort and digestion aid.) N. On a volunteer’s forearm. H. Mondello. Begun. confertiflorus (Steud. C. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. J. martini. Bor and C.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.. London : The Pharmaceutical Press. Burkill..U. J. 7. 2001. 301–306. 50% and undiluted) of citronella. Crown Agents.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. three concentrations (10%. Singapore. 9–17.) Wats. 26th ed.) Rendle var. V. Previti. It is found to have diuretic. De Billerbeck. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula.G. N. Yusuf. 8. none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h.. H. Part IV. & Wade. I.L. R. Composition of the leaf oils of three Cymbopogon species : C. 1935. London. As expected. Bangi. 1980. & Dargent. Tesis Smsn.B. P. 160 . When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration. Fakulti Sains Fizis dan Gunaan. patchouli. the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2–4 h) against all three species of mosquito. flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats.G.

T. B. Press. Ridley. Sarawak : Pelanduk Publication (M) Sdn Bhd. & Metzger.. Glitho.R. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F. A. 1999. Cambridge & Massachusetts.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils. The Flora of the Malay Peninsular. Evaluation of smoke from mosquito coils containing Malaysian plants against Aedes aegypti. 174–182. Phytother Res 19(4): Pp.M. Rongsriyam Y. & Zaridah. N. London.. Apiwathnasorn C. 303–309.. 2000. 1995. S. Development of environmentally-friendly insect repellents from the leaf oils of selected Malaysian plants. Perry. J. J. A. Pp. I.M. 1925.D. & Huignard. The MIT Trongtokit Y.. Raja. Journal of Economic Entomology 95: Pp. & Dorn. G. Ahmad.. The Green Pharmacy of Malaysia. Zaki.. V. I. M. 1980. 161 .. Effect of volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Medicinal Plants in East and Southeast Asia.. Albert.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F. J. Kuala Lumpur. Reeve & Co. & Ahmad.MALAYSIA Ibrahim. Z. S. 237–243. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. Vol. Murtedza.. & Ng. Ignacimuthu. Ltd. Bhd.B.K. & Laily.) Chemical Prospecting in the Malaysian Forest. Fitoterapia 70: Pp. 2005. in Ghazali. L. M. 127–132. S. Journal of Stored Products Research 37: Pp.. Vinpress Sdn. I. 2002. Ketoh. Jantan.M.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation. H.Z. Jaganath. L. 205–212. (Ed. R. Komalamisra N.I. 2001.

0 3. epifriedelinol. 11. pink with a white tube. or broadest near the rounded or bluntly pointed tip. stigmasterol. base forming a rosette close to the ground. Southeast Asia. 6. narrow. Flower heads at the end of white-woolly branches rising from the leaves. pointed. isodeoxy.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.0 2. leaf margins sometimes wavy. several heads in a cluster. oblong.0 5. white.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is distributed in Malaysia. 1– 5 cm wide. Japan and Indo-China. epifriedelanol and lupeol 7. 11. Asteraceae Tutup bumi.13-dihydroelephantopin. very pubescent due to abundance of trichomes throughout the entire plant. triacontanol.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Leaves crowded at stem.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 162 . pointed bracts. stiff herb about 20–40 cm high.0 Chemical Constituents Dotriacontanol. hairy.elephantopin. tapered to the base 4–15 cm long. 13 – dihydrodeoxyelephantopin. surrounded by broad. potassium chloride. 4.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Elephantopus scaber L. leaf-like bracts which are often tinged purplish. deoxyelephantopin. leaf stalk very short. mainland China. tapak sulaiman (Malaysia) An upright. petal protruding nearly 1 cm beyond the inner.

MALAYSIA 7. R. J. N.. 234 pp. A new sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber.D... Kamat. & Haniff. 1939. vomiting. D. Viswanathan.J. Gimlette. Indian Journal of Chemistry 10: Pp. N.Ltd. S.W. Jadhav.H. V. 1979. 92 pp... Pongboonrod. 1173–1175. M. S. Herath W. Perry. K. Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement 6: 494. & Lee.. London. I. B... D. 1999. Taiwan. I.H.2 Uses in traditional medicine: As an antibacterial. Flora of Taiwan 4:853. Phytochemistry 18: Pp. P. Chandler. 272–279. Oxford University Press. Prakash.C. H. M. Govindachari. & Viswanathan. & Hooper.M.W. Parthasarathy... a new pentacyclic triterpenoid associated triterpenoids. 163 . Kuala Lumpur. Friedelin and rhoiptelenyl acetate. 934–935. Indian Journal of Chemistry 7: 308–310. Malaysia Herbal Monograph Vol. 1980.E.R. H.J.F..Co..A. Mahendran. & Wannigama. dropsy and inflammation of the scrotum.. & Fuhrer.Y. 1982. Govindachari. as a tonic for women after childbirth. Phytochemistry 21: Pp.H. 1972. Jennings.F. L. Constituents of Elephantopus scaber (Compositae) Phytochemistry 8(5): Pp. 1969. Sim. Malaysia Monograph Committee. Massachusetts MIT Press. P.T.R. A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine. diuretic and aphrodisiac. Rane.N. & Thomsom. Mohamed. S. L. and to ward away evil spirits. 1930. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia.. DeSilva. 1930.S. a new germacranediolide from Elephantopus scaber Linn. It is useful in the treatment of venereal disease for women. Patankar.. Isodeoxyele-phantopin. M. Gimlettle. Joshi. 1. J. T.C.0 Contraindications Not available 9.0 Bibliography Burkill. H. & Burkill.D.. 711–724.T. Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement 6: 219. G. Kasem Bannakich 222 pp. 8.. Epoch Pub. Republic of China & the National Science. Mai-tet-muang-thai. R. S. 1969.N. fever. 1979. 1978.

b-7-methoxycarboline-1-propionic acid. drupe hard.0 5. Indo-China to Sumatra and Borneo 6. b-carboline-1-propionic acid. in large brownish red panicle.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Eurycoma longifolia Jack Simaroubaceae Tongkat ali. very fine pubescent. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one n-oxide. lower Myanmar. eurycomalactone. Thailand. Leaves compound.0 2. lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate. 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one. ovoid. 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one n-oxide. b-sitosterol. 4. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one. often unbranched with reddish brown petioles. setunjang bumi A medium-sized slender shrub reaching 10 m in height. Inflorescence axillary. campesterol.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. eurycomanol 2-O-b-D-glucoside.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Malaysia. petala bumi. eurycomanol. Flowers are hermaphrodite. yellowish brown when young and brownish red when ripe. 14-15-b-dihydroxyklaineanone. soft.0 Chemical Constituents Aervin. 13-b-18-dihydroeurycomanol.14-15-dihydroxyklaineanone eurycomanone. 1.0 3. penawar pahit. each leaflet is about 5–20 cm long. longilactone 164 .5–6 cm wide. pasak bumi . 13-21-dihydroeurycomanone. stigmasterol. tongkat baginda. petals small. 13-b-21-dihydroxyeurycomanone. very pubescent with very fine. each consists of 30–40 leaflets. even pinnate reaching 1 m in length. much paler on the ventral side. glandular trichomes. bedara pahit.

H. L.. 13â. K. 1986. H. Serdang : Universiti Pertanian Malaysia. & Tanaka. D. 9. I. M. Phytochemistry 21: Pp. 242. Noguchi. L. Gimlette. Part 3: Eurycoma longifolia. & Burkill. 857–2859. J. 6: Pp. quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. 3138– 3141. K. 105–107. Tanaman Perubatan Tradisional. Burkill. W. & Kinghorn A. O.. K.. 165 . J.0 Bibliography Burkill I. D. & Tan. Darise. & Han. D. H. T. A quassinoid glycoside from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Phytochemistry 28: Pp. D. Press. Eurycomanone and eurycomanol. B. & Sankawa. 1930. S. C. Planta Medica. 1990. H. 1000. ulcer. New quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. Tsauri S. 2091–2093.. & Tanaka. C. L. 1991. Lee.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Antimalarial and antihistaminic 7. Phillipson J. 749–752. Chan.6: 329. 39. H. Chan K. 1930. syphilis and bleeding gums.. Volumes I & II: Pp. Malaysia . Cytotoxic and antimalarial constituents of the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. U. Pezzuto J. P. Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement. wounds. Marziah Mohammad. Sam. 0. 34: Pp. Kishi. Pp.. K. S. Gimlette J. Mizutani. Chan. H. Phytochemistry 30: Pp. K. 1987. Oei-Koch A. M. Itokawa. I. & Warhurst D. S. London: Oxford Univ.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. boils. 1991. Kardono L. Planta Medica 52: Pp. Journal of Natural Products 54: 1360–1367.. H. Sterols and saponins. B. & Kraus L.2 Uses described in traditional medicine: The roots are useful for fever. medication after birth.. Sam. S. M. O’Neill M. & Thomson. & Haniff. Takeya. H. Lee.. Morita. Constituents of Eurycoma longifolia. E. H.. Ministry of Agriculture. H. 1982. A Dictionary of the Economic Product of the Malay Peninsula...MALAYSIA 7. 1966. Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement. 1939. 18dihydroeurycomano – a quassinoid from Eurycoma longifolia. 8. 1978. H.. I.0 Contraindications Not available. 1989. P. Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs.... A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine. T. Chemistry Letters 5: Pp.182. Kohda. Angerhoper C. Padmawinata K.

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

1.0 2.0

Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names

: : :

Fibraurea tinctoria Lour. Menispermaceae Kamin kura, kuma kua, manmiet, akar stupai, olor lobai (Thailand); areuj gember (Java), akar badi, akar kunyit, akar penawar, mengkunyit, akar kuning, akar mengkunyit, akar kencing kerbau (Malaysia)

3.0

Plant Description Big liana. Leaves ovate oblong, base rounded, apex acuminate; nerves from base, prominent beneath, deep green coriaceous glabrous, 18 cm long, 10 cm wide; petioles 6.4 cm long. Flowers, male, white in lax panicles from old wood, 5 to 15.2 cm long. Bracts narrow linear cute. Sepals 6, rounded-obovate. Inner petals narrower than outer ones, elliptic. Stamens 6, bluish green. Female flowers green. Carpels 3, obovoid bluish green. Drupe orange colour, elliptic smooth, pulp bitter, 3.8 cm long. Seed oblong, 2.5 cm long, grooved deeply on the lower surface, ends rounded.

4.0 5.0

Propagation

:

Stem cutting

Geographic distribution It is very common in secondary forest in lowland to hill forest throughout Malaysia.

6.0

Chemical constituents Berberrubine, fibleucin, fibraurin, 6-hydroxyfibraurin, palmatrubine, pseudojatrorrhizine, carboxyfibleucin, chasmatine, colombamine, jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, palmatine

166

MALAYSIA

7.0

Report on Medicinal Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinicsl data: Not available 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The stem and roots are used after childbirth, to treat stomach-ache, dysentery, diabetes, headache and eye-ache; smoke from dry wood is inhaled for ulceration of the nose. The yellow colour from the wood is used as colouring agent.

8.0

Contraindications Not available

9.0

Bibliography Bakhari N. A., Wah S. T., Cinnakali K., Fu H.-K. & Razak I. A. 1999. Acta Cryst. C55: Pp. 228–230. Gimlette, G. D. 1939. A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine. Oxford Univ. Press, Kuala Lumpur. Lemmens R.H.M.J. 1991. PROSEA 3. Dye and tannin-producing plants. Fibraurea tinctoria Lour. (Eds. Lemmens & Wulijarni-Soetjipto). Pudoc Wageningen. Pp. 74–75. Ridley, H.N. 1922. The Flora of the Malay Peninsula. Vol 1. Reeve & Co. Ltd, London. Pp. 101–115. Unone. 2000. Dictionary of Natural Products. Chapman & Hall. UK. Van Steenis C. G. G .J. & De Wilde W. J. J. O. 1984-1989. Flora Malesiana. Kluwer Academic Pub. Dordrecht/Boston/London. Vol 10(2): Pp. 207–209.

167

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

1.0 2.0 3.0

Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description

: : :

Gynura procumbens Merr. Asteraceae Sambung nyawa, daun dewa (Malaysia)

Herbaceous, fleshy, purple tinge stem. Leaves fleshy, hairy, oval to elliptic, up to 9 cm long, 3.7 cm wide, and margin with small, widely spaced teeth. Flower heads about 1 to 2.5 cm long, narrow, hanging on long stalks in a branched inflorescence, tubular shaped, orange. Fruits narrow, with 10 ribs and a fine, white, silky pappus. 4.0 5.0 Propagation : Stem cutting

Geographic Distribution It is common in tropical countries and grows well in open places in lowlands to hills.

6.0

Chemical Constituents Gynurone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl 9-octadecenoate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)-1,2-benzenedicarboxylate, dibutyl malonate, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, dctadecanal, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, stigmasterol, â-sitosterol, ethyl pmethoxycinnamate, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, stigmasterol acetate, flavonol quercitin, quercitin 3-O-rhamnosyl(1-6)galactoside, quercitin 3-O-rhamnosy(1-6)glucoside, nonadecane, phytyl valerate, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, adenosine

168

MALAYSIA

7.0

Report on Medicinal Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: i. The crude ethanolic extract of G. procumbens has antiinflammatory action. To relate the activity to particular fractions using a croton oil-induced mouse ear inflammation model, the original ethanolic extract of G. procumbens was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The residues were subjected to antiinflammatory evaluation. While the water extract did not show any antiinflammatory activity, the administration of the original organic extract significantly inhibited the increase in ear thickness in response to croton oil (n = 5). The activity of 0.75 mg/ear original organic extract showed similar antiinflammatory activity (inhibition 65.2%) to that of 6 mg/ear hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate sodium salt (inhibition 64.8%). The organic extract was then fractionated with a series of solvents in order of increasing polarity. Each fraction was dried, dissolved in acetone and monitored using the same bioassay. These experiments showed that the hexane and toluene fractions showed significant inhibitions of 44.6% and 34.8%, respectively. These two fractions had similar activities to 4 mg/ear of hydrocortisone (inhibition 35.0%). The possible chemical constituents in the extracts and fractions were investigated using thin layer chromatography and specific color reagents. These tests showed that steroids might be one class of antiinflammatory compounds in this plant. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of G. procumbens, at single doses of 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg orally, significantly suppressed the elevated serum glucose levels in diabetic rats; 150 mg/kg was found to be the optimum hypoglycaemic dose. The extract, however, did not significantly suppress the elevated serum glucose levels in normal rats, unlike glibenclamide. Metformin, but not glibenclamide, improved glucose tolerance in the diabetic rats. When the optimum dose was given to diabetic rats for seven days, the extract significantly reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in these rats. These results indicate that the leaves of G. procumbens may have biguanide-like activity.

ii.

7.2

Uses in traditional medicine: The plant has antidiabetic and antimalarial properties. The leaves are used as a febrifuge in eruptive fever, to treat kidney problem, rheumatism and colon cancer.

8.0

Contraindications Not available

9.0

Bibliography Akowuah, A. G. 2000. Phytochemical and Hypoglycaemic Studies of Gynura procumbens (Lour.), Merr., Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. Aminah, H. I. 1994. Kajian Fitokimia Daun Sambung Nyawa. Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. Burkill, I. H 1996. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Penisula. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, Kuala Lumpur.

169

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Christophe, W. 2000. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Pelanduk Pubs. Sdn Bhd. Kuala Lumpur. Henderson, M.R. 1951. Malayan Wild Flowers.: Dicotyledons. Malayan Nature Society. Kuala Lumpur. Pp. 478. Iskander MN, Song Y, Coupar IM, Jiratchariyakul W. 2002. Antiinflammatory screening of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 57(3-4): Pp. 233–244. Materia Medica Indonesia. Jilid 4. 1978. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Indonesia. Zhang XF, Tan BK. 2000. Effects of an ethanolic extract of Gynura procumbens on serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Singapore Med. J. 41(1): Pp. 9–13.

170

MALAYSIA

1.0 2.0

Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names

: : :

Kaempferia galanga L. Zingiberaceae Kencur (Indonesia); cekur (Malaysia); dusol (Philippines); pro hom, waan hom, waan teen din (Thailand); dia lien, son nai, tam nai (Viet Nam)

3.0

Plant Description Herbaceous with fleshy rhizomes. Leaves 2 or 3, spreading out close to the ground, usually more or less broadly elliptical in outline and asymmetrical, tip broadly pointed, base rounded, usually covering the earth, 8–10 cm long, 6–7 cm wide with wavy margins; petiole very short, 3–10 mm long. Flowers white with a purple patch on one petal of the corolla. Corolla is about 3 cm long, consists of 3 bracteas which are half as long as the corolla. Rhizomes short and stout, light brown, the rhizome consists of dense small tubers sometimes adhering to one another to form a larger tuber.

4.0 5.0

Propagation

:

Rhizome

Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is cultivated throughout Malaysia and is also found in Indonesia, Southern China and IndoChina.

6.0

Chemical Constituents The rhizome contains chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, car-3-en-5-one, cinnamic acid ethyl ester, p-methoxycinnamic acid, p-methoxycinnamic acid ethyl ester, transp-methoxycinnamic acid ethyl ester, trans-p-methoxycinnamic acid, n-pentadecana, ethyl-pmethoxycinnamate, ethyl cinnamate, carene, camphene, borneol, p-methoxystyrene

171

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

7.0

Reports on Medical Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The rhizomes are carminative. They are useful for skin problems, leucorrhea, sinusitis, sore eyes, tonic, bruises, inflammation, childbirth, coughs, rheumatism, sore throat and fever.

8.0

Contraindications Not available.

9.0

Bibliography Burkill, I. H. & Haniff, M. 1930. Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement 6: 264. Burkill, I. H. 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, Kuala Lumpur. Vol. I & II. Duke, J. A. 1985. C.R.C. Handbook of Medicine Herbs. Florida CRC Press. Gimlette, J. D. & Thomson, H. W. 1939. A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine, Oxford University Press, London. Gimlettle, J. D & Burkill, I. H. 1930. Gardens Bulletin Straits Settlement. 6: 451. Kiuchi, F., Nakamura, N. & Tsuda, Y. 1987. 3-Caren-5-one from Kaempferia galanga. Phytochemistry 26(12): 3350–3351. Kiuchi, F., Nakamura, N., Tsuda, Y., Kondo, K. & Yoshimura, H. 1988. Studies on crude drugs effective on visceral larva migrans. II. Larvicidal principles in Kaempferia galanga. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 36(1): 412–415. Kosuge, T., Yokota, M., Sugiyama, K., Saito, M., Iwata, Y., Nakura, M. & Yamamoto, T. 1985. Studies on anticancer principles in Chinese medicine. II. Cytotoxic principles in Biota orientalis (L.) Endl. and Kaempferia galangal L. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 33(12): 5565–5567. Malaysian Monograph Committee. 1999. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Vol. 1: 41–44. Merh, P. S., Daniel, M. & Sabnis, S. D. 1986. Chemistry and taxonomy of some members of the zingibererales. Current Science 55: 835–839. Noro, T., Miyase, T., Kuroyanagi, M., Ueno, A. & Fukushima, S. 1983. Monoamine oxidase inhibitor from the rhizomes of Kaempferia galangal L. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31(8): 2708–2711.

172

6. in spike like panicle of small clusters. elliptic-lanceolate and acuminate. or often absent.3-diol. the whole leaf is about 5–35 cm long and 2–8 cm wide. sepals.0 Chemical constituents (Z)-5.5 cm diameter.3-diol . 6–30 cm long. (Z)-5(pentadec-10’-enyl) benzene-1.(pentadec-4’-enyl)benzene-1.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Labisia pothoina Lindl.3-diol. Fruit about 0.0 3. pumila Benth. sometimes in the hills. the petals wrapped round and enclosing the stamens. the leaf blade running down to form a broad or narrow wing. petals and stamens 5.0 Small herbaceous under-shrub. L. lighter green on abaxial. finely toothed with numerous veins.MALAYSIA 1. 4. rooting from the stem. pink or white. (Z)-5. 2. usually 4–12. Leaves few.(pentadec-8’-enyl) benzene-1. selusuh fatimah (Malaysia). Myrsinaceae Kacip fatimah. tip pointed and base tapered or rather broad-rounded.0 Propagation : Not available Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is found in Malaysia and Indo-China and is common in dense forests all over the countries in the lowlands. petiole usually 2–8 cm but may reach 12 cm long. Flowers are very small.0 5. pelargonidin 173 . pointing upwards.f. & Hook. dark green on adaxial. bright red or purple.

1980. to quicken delivery.T.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Extract of L. In Trends in Traditional Medicine Research. pumila. Pp. & Byung. H.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 2004. 1939. Penang. Ministry of Agriculture. H. A. Pp. I & II. Oxford Univ. Perry L. Malaysia. 58. M. W. pothoina roots showed antiinflammatory activity and antibacterial activity. London. Pp. . Topical anti-inflammatory activity of L. A Dictionary of the Economic Product of the Malay Peninsula. M. Chang. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia. S.I. D. Ibrahim. H.L. et al. (Eds. (Eds. In Proceedings of the Seminar on Medicinal Plants. M. A. Hasmah. Press. Natural Product Science 2(2): Pp. S. A. J. Medicinal plants used by Bajau community in Sabah. 7.) FRIM. as after-birth medicine. Inhibitory effects of Malaysian medicinal plants on the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding. Y. Dae. Yong. K.0 Reports on Medical Usage 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The plant is used for gynaecological problems. Pp.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 1995. Gimlette J. 174 . Rahman. Fasihuddin. Nur Muna. 2002. R. K. & Rasadah. M. Nik Musaadah. H. 1311. Press. for flatulence.. 8. Kepong. 282.0 Bibliography Burkill I. 1966. Pp. 86–89. Y. H. Chan. Massachusetts. 1996. et al. dysentery.. A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine..). & Thomson H. menstruation problem and venereal diseases.168–170. 20–21 Aug. University Science Malaysia. M. H. 493–504.A.

0 Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is cultivated in rather wet ground in Malaysia. thin and glabrous.0 2.0 3. b-sesquiphellandrene.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Languas galanga Stuntz Zingiberaceae Lengkuas (Malaysia). 1-hydroxychavicol acetate. chavicol acetate. The size of the bract decreases towards the peak of the peduncle. limonene. ligule (tongue shaped). gterpinene. The young stem sprouts out from the base of the old stem. a-pinene. 3. bract lanceolate. a-humulene. p-cymene. curcumene. butanol acetate. carveol I. borneol. citronellol acetate.5 cm wide. a-terpineol. son nai (Viet Nam) Grows from rhizomes. leaf margin is wavy. The number of flowers lower down the stalk is more (3–6) compared with the upper part (1–2). rieng nep. trans-b-farnescene. borneol acetate. 5. upper surface of leaf is dark green and lighter green underneath. p-cymenol. rieng kho. Leaves lanceolate with pointed end. khaa (Thailand). terpinolene. pentadecane.0 6. b-pinene. 175 : Rhizome . petiole short. brown with very fine hairs. nerol acetate.MALAYSIA 1. propanol acetate. eugenol methyl ether. bell shaped. tridecane. santalene. myrcene. trans-p-coumaryl diacetate. Stem non-woody. watery. b-bisabolene. Flower terminal with a large peduncle. greenish white.5– 11.5 cm long. Indonesia and Thailand. di-(p-hydroxy-cis-styryl)-methane. 1-acetoxychavicol acetate. 1–1. carveol II. 1-hydroxycineol acetate. soft. transconiferyl diacetate. 12 cm long. 24–27 cm long. geraniol acetate. caryophyllene oxide.0 Propagation Chemical Constituents 1-acetoxychavicol acetate. camphene. palla (Philippines). Indo-China. a-bergamotene. linalool. p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde. rieng. smooth and green in colour. 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. 1-acetoxyeugenol acetate. a-copaene. chavicol. 2-methyl sabinene. 4. pointed.

R. 1985. M. stomach-ache and diarrhoea. Acetoxychavicol acetate. 7. Burkill. 20–22 October 1987. 93–96. D. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Epidermophyton floccosum and other gram-positive and gramnegative bacteria. Janssen. 1930. Ministry of Agriculture. & Haniff. Oxford University Press. I. Barik. Phytochemistry 24: Pp. Pp. Leungsakul. 1939. A. W. 1327–1332. D. Thailand. 8. 45. J.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Congress Natural Product Coll. 1987. B.0 Bibliography A. Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement 6: Pp. desquamation of soles and hand. ringworm. L. B. 142. Planta Medica 50: Pp. University North Carolina. The Garden Bulletin Singapore 12: Pp. Two phenolic constinuents from Alpinia galanga rhizome. Kuala Lumpur. 1950. 1985. Warisan Perubatan Melayu. insanity and menstrual pain. I & II: Pp. Burkill. 13th Symposium on Sciences and Technology of Thailand. H. N. Holtum. Kundu. & Haniff. puerpera. A.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. M. T. De Pooter. 1966. & Dey. J. Phytochemistry 26: Pp. galangin and galangin3-methyl ether 7. Pp. M. isorhamnetin. M.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS quercetin. Coolsaet. J. Samad Ahmad. A. Gimlette. & Baerheim-Svendsen. quercetin-3-methyl ether. 2126–2127. mentagrophytes. It is useful for fever. kaempferol. C. Antipyogenic bacterial activities of extracts from six species of medicinal plants. A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine.. K. colic.. Janssen. Res. Scheffeer. E. A.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The rhizome is antiseptic. Gimlette. M. It strengthens stomach and intestine. flatulence. B. an antifungal component of Alpinia galangal. Pp. & Schamp. Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement. 176 .. M. & Thomson. H. The essential oil of greater galanga (Alpinia galanga) from Malaysia. Songkhla. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.6: Pp. 1985.. H. J. J. Malaysia. N. 268.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Flavonoids from the rhizome showed antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. London. pityriasis versicolor. J. improves digestion and purifies blood. R. 473. 145–146. Pharm. borborygmus. kaempferide. Omar. July 7–12. 1930.. & Scheffer. S. afterbirth. 1988. 1987. A. headache. C. A. I. 507–511. H. 126. Abstract International.

2. oxyindole alkaloids. caffeic acids.0 Chemical Constituents Ajmalicine. rhynchociline. isocorynantheidine. speciociliatine. 3dehyromitragynine. mitraversine.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology It occurs is lowlands throughout Malaysia and Thailand. mitrajavine. kakuam or thom (Thailand) Large tree about 20 m height. corynantheidine. speciofoline. oblong-ovoid. corynoxines.2 cm. isopaynantheine. 5–15 cm long. mitraphylline. hyperoside. mitraspecine. mitrafoline.0 5. isospeciofoline.5–10 cm wide. Rubiaceae Biak.0 2. apigenin. head 1. specionoxeine. ithang. kratom. 3-epiisorotundifoline. isorotundifoleine. 4. Stipule obovate. ciliaphylline. quercitrin. isomitrafoline. 9-hydroxyryhncophylline-type oxindoles. Fruit head 1. uncarine 177 . kutum (Malaysia). stipulatine. rutin. corynoxeine. base round cordate or narrowed.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Mitragyna speciosa Korth. krathom. kaempferol. ajmaliene. paynantheine. aquamigine. isoquercitrin. isomitraphylline. javaphylline. quercitin. quercitin-3-galactoside7-rhamnoside. 3–5.MALAYSIA 1. Peduncles usually in threes. biak-biak. kaempferol-3-glucoside. mitragynine. apigenin-7-Orhamnoglucoside. mitraciliatine. epicatechin. rhynchophylline.2 cm. speciogynine. ketom. Leaves orbicular or ovate blunt acuminate.5 cm long. axillary. 3-isoajmalicine. isospecionoxeine. rotundifoleine.0 3. speciophylline. 6. apigenin-7-O-glucoside.

1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Mitragyna speciosa possesses mild anti-narcotic activity. W. antidiarrhoea. Pp. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. S. Tissue culture and alkaloid production from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. I & II. G. 1991. 1965. Narcotic Plants. It has acute and long-term effects on food and water intake and body weight in rats. May 13–15 1991. A. Co. while the descending noradrenergic system predominantly contributes to the effect of supraspinal mitragynine on the thermal noxious stimulation and may differ from morphine in mice. Alkaloid extract of the plant indicates an antinociceptive and /or antidepressive actions partly through activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus in rat CNS. Kuala Lumpur. It has a morphine-like action on gastric acid secretion in the CNS (central nervous system). Administration mitragynine in mice contributes descending noradrenergic and serotonergic systems which are involved in the antinociceptive activity of supraspinally on the mechanical noxious stimulation. J. Calvin & Lee. Burkill. et al. Its anti-depressant activity has no effect on the spontaneous motor activity. H. Khozirah. Emboden.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. H. 1979. stimulant. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 17: 753–755 Burkill I.. Alkaloids from Mitragyna speciosa (Korth. Folklore herbal contraceptive and remedies. 178 . 7-hydroxymitragynine isolated from plant demonstrated induced more potent opioid antinociceptive effects and was less constipating than morphine. R. antihelmintic.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Alam Shah. R. fever and expel worms in the stomach and enlarged spleen. Indole-alkaloid mitragynine of the plant inhibits the contraction of the vas deferens produced by electrical transmural stimulation in guinea pig probably through its blockage of neuronal Ca2+ channels. masticatory. M. I. Vol. Hasimah.). 7. The Garden’s Bull.. 228–230 Beckett. In Medicinal Products from Tropical Rain Forests: Proceedings of the Conference. mild narcotic and remedy for opium addiction. Vol.H & Haniff.. 1966. 6. & A. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 7(4): 120–123.) FRIM.. 1986. New York. fumitory. They are also used as analgesic. Straits Settlement. M. Phillipson.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The leaves are used as poultice to treat wound. A. (Eds. Macmillan Pub. Kepong. Shellard. D. Chaudhury. E. 8.0 Bibliography Abdul Karim. 1930. J. S. A Dictionary of the Economic Product of the Malay Peninsula.

Malaysian Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease. J. H. L & Adenan. J. H. 2005. Harbone. Vol. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. H. 1922. K. 1993.MALAYSIA Goh. E. Douglas. J. Horie.. Aimi. & Watanabe. Zarembo. Siri Tumbuhan Beracun in Penawar Racun. N. FRIM.. Matsumoto. S. D. Vol II. & Watanabe. derived from Thai folk medicine. F. Indole alkaloids of a Thai medicinal herb. Razak. S. 2000. Vol. M.. 1988. Ethnopharmacology of kratom and the Mitragyna alkaloids.. Antinociceptive action of mitragynine in mice: evidence for the involvement of supraspinal opioid receptors. & Baxter. Pelanduk Pub.. L. Koyama. 30. T. 1995.. Jansen. Baringstoke. S. H. C. Yamamoto. Sakai. S. L. B. Mitragyna speciosa that has opioid agonistic effect in guinea-pig ileum.. A. on gastric acid secretion through opioid receptor in anesthetized rats... & Jerry. L. J. 179 . Takayama. Takayama. S. H. Ltd.. Ridley. Ponglux. H. Takayama. N.. Reeve & Co. & Murayama. & Soepadmo. H. J. Phytochemical Dictionary. H. Mizowaki. M. & Prast. Matsumoto. Valenta. 2002. C. Suchitra. 2009. S. Planta Medica 71(3): 231–236. T. Kuala Lumpur. Effect of mitragynine. Taylor & Francis. B. London. Kuala Lumpur. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 23: 115–119. E. 1996. Chuah. Penang. S. 2... Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 63: 1407–1415. Life Sciences 59(14): 1149–1155. R. S. N. Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee. W. European Journal of Pharmacology 443(1-3): 185–188. H. Horie. H. Aimi.. K.. The Flora of the Malay Peninsula. Sakai.. Miyashita. K. 1974. Mok. J. Ishikawa. K. N. Metabolites of Mitragynine. PRN Bulletin..... Aimi. Tsuchiya...

the tendril up to 20 cm long. stigmasta-5. momordicosideF-2. Leaves 10–12 cm long. fluoride. alkaloids. it grows wild or is planted in house gardens throughout Southeast Asia. the lobes sinuate-dentate.25-dien-3-betalol. sugars. peduncle with a reniform bracteole.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Native to tropical Africa and Asia. momordicoside-I. palmately 5–7 lobed. fleshy red aril. zeaxanthin. lycopene. 4.Lutein.0 2. corolla 1. momordicin. b-sitosterol-d-glucoside. galacturonic-acid. slightly pubescent. up to 20 cm long. stipulatine. oxalate.5–2 cm long. rubixanthin. mutachrome. Flowers yellow. 6. pipecolic-acid. lanosterol. gaba. momordicoside-G. polypeptide-p. 5-hydroxytryptamine.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Momordica charantia L. citrulline. balsam apple. slender climber with tendril. peria katak (Malaysia) Herbaceous. orange or dark yellow when ripe. a-elaeostearic-acid ascorbigen. coarsely ridged and bumpy-tuberculate.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. charantin. elasterol.25-dien-3-b-ol. cryptoxanthin.0 3. Cucurbitaceae Bitter melon. oxalic-acid. flavochrome. 12–16 mm long. uncarine 180 . Fruit obovoid or oblong-cylindric. momordicoside-F-1.0 5. Seeds black covered with a soft.0 Chemical Constituents 5-a-stigmasta-7. speciophylline.

Staphylococcus.MALAYSIA 7. eruption. hyperglycemia. and to potentiate the effect of insulin. fever. The fruit and fruit juice have demonstrated the same type of antibacterial properties and. Antitumour activity of the entire plant of bitter melon. 181 . iv. catarrh. However. colic. In vitro studies i. Elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats were returned to normal after 10 weeks of treatment. however. boil. dysmenorrhoea. Antiviral activity against numerous viruses. The leaf extracts of bitter melon have demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. chilblain. to promote insulin release. coughs. colitis. in another study.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: In vivo studies i. and HIV viruses. melanoma. hepatitis. to affect the production of sperm negatively. cancer. The fruit and leaf of bitter melon have demonstrated an in vivo antifertility effect in female animals. The seeds. toxicity and even death in laboratory animals have been reported when extracts were injected intravenously. burn. Other studies have shown extracts of the fruit and leaf (ingested orally) to be safe during pregnancy. and used to treat earache. increasing interferon production and natural killer cell activity. dysentery. including liver cancer. another study reported that a hot water extract of the entire plant inhibited the development of mammary tumours in mice. halitosis. Other studies have shown extracts of the fruit and leaf (ingested orally) to be safe during pregnancy. headache. iv. and the root has been documented as a uterine stimulant in animals. The leaf extract increased resistance to viral infections and had an immunostimulant effect in humans and animals. iii. an extract of the entire plant was shown to have antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica. Numerous in vitro studies have also demonstrated the anticancerous and antileukemia activity of bitter melon against numerous cell lines. 7. have demonstrated the ability to induce abortions in rats and mice.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The leaves or whole plant is abortifacient and carminative. diabetes. ii. bilious problems. ii. Bitter melon’s fruit and/or seed have been shown to reduce total cholesterol. and in male animals. gout. ii. The fruit has also shown the ability to enhance cells’ uptake of glucose. Blood sugar-lowering effect of this bitter fruit. The studies have demonstrated the relatively low toxicity of all parts of the bitter melon plant when ingested orally. Various extracts of the leaves have demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli. including Epstein-Barr. In vivo clinical studies i. Pseudomonas. Salmonella. and solid sarcomas. a fruit extract demonstrated activity against the stomach ulcer-causing bacteria Helicobacter pylori. human leukemia. Streptobacillus and Streptococcus. asthma. herpes. iii. iii.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. Water extract blocked the growth of rat prostate carcinoma.

· 9. L. R. S. L.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS itch. K. 182 . therefore. The plant is also used as astringent.. A. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin 25(1): 11–13. S. 1998. urethritis. leprosy. Claflin. psoriasis. Cycling off the use of the plant (every 21–30 days for one week) may be warranted. M. rheumatism. Singh. depurative. and adding probiotics to the diet may be beneficial if this plant is used for longer than 30 days. night-blindness. A.. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 219(3): 923–929.0 Contraindications · · · · Bitter melon traditionally has been used as an abortive and has been documented with weak uterine stimulant activity.. J. Claflin. Edeghate. none have shown activity against fungi or yeast. As such. J. thrush. I. emetic. roundworms. Sharma. D. Plewa. & Hood.. All parts of bitter melon (especially the fruit and seed) have demonstrated in numerous in vivo studies that they lower blood sugar levels.0 Bibliography Ahmad. Rudikoff. T... M. Pallot. 1999. jaundice.. Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis 16(2): 125–138. and wounds. This plant has been documented to reduce fertility in both males and females and should therefore not be used by those undergoing fertility treatment or seeking pregnancy. W. purgative.. tonic. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association 32(4): 106–107. Taylor. splenitis. S. The activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins MAP30 and GAP31 against herpes simplex virus in vitro. J. & Bennor. A. piles. An investigation of some Turkish herbal medicines in Salmonella typhimurium and in the COMET assay in human lymphocytes. refrigerant. N. S. B. H. 1996. S. D. Long-term use of this plant may result in the die-off of friendly bacteria with resulting opportunistic overgrowth of yeast (Candida). 1996. malaria. styptic and vermifuge. A. it is contraindicated during pregnancy. Halder. Inhibition of growth and guanylate cyclase activity of an undifferentiated prostate adenocarcinoma by anextract of the balsam pear (Momordica charantia abbreviata). & Lee-Huang. Bourinbaiar. stomachic. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 40(3): 145–151. E. Effects of Momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. K. 1982. Akhtar. Hassan. 1978. poison. Basaran. soap. it is contraindicated in women who are breast feeding.. therefore. sores. lactogogue. Trial of Momordica charantia Linn (Karela) powder in patients with maturity-onset diabetes. it is contraindicated in persons with hypoglycemia. Ahmed. Although all parts of the plant have demonstrated active antibacterial activity. Effect of Momordica charantia (karolla) extracts on fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels in NIDDM patients. stones. A. Yu. M. J. & Anderson. laxative. 8. Diabetics should check with their physicians before using this plant and use with caution while monitoring their blood sugar levels regularly as the dosage of insulin medications may need adjusting. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of USA 75(2): 989–993. The active chemicals in bitter melon can be transferred through breast milk.

Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31. Yamahara.. Raza. 1990.. T. John. Jilka. Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. I. A. Y. H. Lee-Huang S. Nahrung 41(2): 68–74. M. III.. F. J... momordin Ic. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 289(2): 729–734. S.. K. P. Quisumbing. Huang. Inhibitory mechanisms of oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides on glucose absorption in rats. F. Yoshikawa. Platel. Matsuda. Katha Publishing Co. & Srinivasan. Thiruvananthpuram. Huang. & Kung. L. H.. & Rosalind. P. L.. Gene 161(2): 151–156. L. & Huang.. Murakami. H. Lee-Huang S. S. Demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes.. C. J. H. & Prakash. S. Y. L. H.. Muhammed. Li.MALAYSIA Gimlette. Murakami. S. December 18–21... A.. 1995. 7 August 2005. T. Database file for Bitter melon (Momordica charantia).. D. Kung.1983. 1997. Li.. 1999. S. A. in mice: roles of blood glucose. Huang. N. J. Bourinbaiar. P.. D. C. Anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon. A. Pranava. and central nervous system. H. 1997. H. 1995. J. Alternative medicine goes mainstream for better health care delivery. FEBS Lett. Lee-Huang. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of USA 92(19): 8818–22. M.. N. M. Matsumura. L. Takemoto. C. 1997. Chen. Modulation of xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress in chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fedwith Momordica charantia fruit extract. 272(1-2): 12–18. Huang. Inc. C.. capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. P. I. Huang. F. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: vegetables as potential hypoglycaemic agents. Matsuda. 2000. H.. L. Nara. 1978. Yoshikawa. & Kung.com/bitmelon.. Inhibition of gastric emptying by triterpene saponin. G. L. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Paper presented at the 49th Indian Pharmaceutical Congress. http://www. Press. P.htm.. Matsumura. Yoshikawa. 183 . Shimada. P. Matsuda. Chen. Oxford Univ.. 1939. Huang. 1997. P. M. L. MAP 30: a new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication. A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine. Huang. Structure-related inhibitory activity and action mode of oleanolic acid glycosides on hypoglycemic activity. V. M. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 46(9): 1399–1403. Yamahara.. H. I. Pharmacology Research 33(1): 1–4. Ahmad. Bourinbaiar. 1996. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology 13(4): 371–393.. Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon. P. Chen. E.rain-tree. Kuala Lumpur. M... K. A. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 14(3): 131–139. & Sharma. Rockenbach. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 20(6): 717–719. Huang. K. H. Yamahara. J. Sarkar. H.. H. & Hughes. 1998. H.

& Hughes. D. & Powell. R. Enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity of plant extracts.. J. K.. Jilka. Partial purification and characterization of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor with cytotoxic properties from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon Momordica charantia . Kresie. Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon. Takemoto. 1983. J. Preliminary report on the use of Momordica charantia extract by HIV patients. Takemoto. J.. S. Enzyme 27(3): 179–788. D. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 94(1): 332–339. R. Naturopath. J. A. 1982.. D. D. & Kresie. 3: 65–69.. Guanylate cyclase activity in human leukemic and normal lymphocytes. C. Dunford. D. 1980. Smith. 1982.. Vaughn. Kramer.. V. Jilka. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology 12(4): 355–375. Q. C. C. Rockenbach. J. & Vaughn. C. Med. D. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology 13(5): 397–421 Takemoto.J.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Takemoto. 1992. 184 . Zhang.

barreleiri Roth. menthaefolium Benth. apigenin.5 cm long. O. much branched. a-bergamotene. O.. a-bisabolol. O. cineole.7–20. O. integerrimim Willd. citriodorum Blanco. ocimene.Br. 2–3 cm long. O. hispidum Lamk. aromatic herb or shrublet. O. sweet basil (English). O. 4. caryophyllatum Roxb. O.0 Chemical Constituents Chemical constituents with commercial potential: Anethole. methyl chavicol. essential oil (anethole. margins with tiny teeth or none. petitianum Rich. caryophyllene.. carvone.0 Scientific Name Synonyms : : Family 2. a-amorphene.MALAYSIA 1. Stem and inflorescence often purplish. Lamiaceae Selasih (Malaysia). oval. b-bourbonene. O. up to 1. trans-anethole. benzy alcohol. b-bisabolene.. borneol. p-coumaric acid. Inflorescence 7... pinene. black. Leaves small. terpene hydrate) Other chemicals: Acetic acid... white or purplish. graveolens R. linalol. O. Seeds small. borneol acetate. cis-anethole. 6. eugenol.0 5. ascobic acid. esculetin. 1. benzylacetate. Flowers in whorls spaced. album L.0 Propagation : Seeds Geographical Distribution/Ecology Native to Asia. tulsi (India) A bushy. 185 .. O. pilosum Willd.0 Vernacular Names Plant Description : : Ocimum bacilicum L.2 cm wide. americanum Jacq. esculin. myrcene.3 m height. It is cultivated in house gardens in open and semi-shaded areas.0 3.

a-fenchene. isoeugenolmethylether. terpinen-4-ol. suceinic acid. undecylaldehyde. a-. It inhibits the growth of E. 3-octanone. several medicinal properties have been attributed to this plant. tuberculosis. a. syringic acid-4-b-D-glucoside. sesquithujene. b-ocimene. Trials have shown excellent antimalarial activity of tulsi. Recent pharmacological studies have established the anabolic. chavicolmethylether. a-p-dimethylstyrene. a. 1 -octen3-ol. Its antitubercular activity is one-tenth the potency of streptomycin and one-fourth that of isoniazid. antifungal and antiviral properties. trans-allo-ocimene. the compound was found to inhibit mast cell degranulation and histamine release in the presence of allergen. fenchyl acetate. b-cadinol. estragole. ahumulene. isoeugenol. phenylethyl alcohol.10(15)-cadinen-4-ol. p-methoxycinnamaldehyde. cis-cinnamic acid methylester. cyclosativene. safrole. D-galactose. a. amino acids. D-galacturonic acid. iv. iii. phellandrene. methyleugenol. 2-epi-a-cedrene. When administered to laboratory animals. kaempferol-3O-b-D-rutinoside.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. (Z)-b-farnesene. camphene. a-terpinylacetate. cis-allo-ocimene. 5. Lrhamnose. fatty acids (linoleic acid. quercetin. a-copaene. etc. juvocimene-I. minerals. b-cymene. xi-bulgarene. rosmarinic acid. nerolidiol. nerolidol. palmitic acid. b-sitosterol. B. methylcinnamate. octanol. Antiallergic and immunomodulator effects – Essential oil of tulsi was found to have antiallergic properties.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS a-bulnesene. b-myrcene. humulene. citronellol. camphor. neral. adaptogenic and immunomodulator properties of this plant.and b-thujone. eugenol-methyl ether. vicenin-2. Antimalarial effects – Essential oil of tulsi has been reported to possess 100% larvicidal activity against the Culex mosquitoes. trans-ocimene. b. a. caffeic acid. a. caproic acid. sugars (D-arabinose. methylthymol. trans-sabinene-hydrate. nerol. sanctum extracts in the management of immunological disorders including allergies and asthma. xylose) 7.and b-santalene. tannin.and b-selinene.and g-elemene. D-glucose. Preparations containing tulsi extract significantly shorten the course of illness. trans-cinnamic acidmethylester. These studies reveal the potential role of O. a. niacin. hydroxy benzoic acid-4-b-D-glucoside. menthone. trans-cinnamic acid. g-cadinene. (E)-b-farnesene. caffeic acid-N-butylester. salicylic acid-2-b-D-glucoside. calamene. a. menthol. Antimicrobial effects – Essential oil of tulsi has antibacterial. ursolic acid valerie acid. cardiac depressant. elemol. geranyl acetate. vanillic acid-4-b-D-gIucoside. epibicyclosesquiphellandrene. isoquercitrin. sambulene. fenchone. d-.and g-terpinene. orientin. juvocimene-II. caryophyllene oxide. terpinolene. quercetin-3-O-diglucoside. sabinene. T-cadinol. anthracis. ledene. oleic acid. syringoyl-glucose. cis-limonene. linalyl acetate. xanthomicrol. germacrene D. cinnamic acid-methylester. geranial. thiamin.and g-muurolene. luteolin. linolenic acid. stigmasterol. humulene epoxide. planteose. g-gurjunene. M.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: i. a-farnesene. ii. eriodictyol. furfural. phytosterols. geraniol. clinical symptoms and the biochemical parameters in patients with viral hepatitis and viral encephalitis. 1-epibicyclosesquiphellandrene. smooth muscle relaxant. 186 . b-. kaempferol. coli.and b-cedrene. methylchavicol. isocaryophyllene. chavicol. Its repellant action lasts for about two hours. citral. bcaryophyllene. riboflavin. Pharmacological effects – In traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine.and b-pinene.and d-guaiene. hypoglycemic. D-mannose. cis-3-hexenol.8-cineole. limonene. D-mannuronic acid. stearic acid). antifertility. butyric acid. thymol. farnesol. a.and b-cubebene. mucilage. cisocimene. a. a-terpineol. propionic acid. cis-sabinenehydrate. Its extracts have marked insecticidal activity against mosquitoes. eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside. tricyclene. fenchyl alcohol. b-carotene. oleanolic acid. 1. p-cymene. eugenol.

and for massages of hardened muscle parts. Uses described in folk medicine. A tonic may be prepared by mixing 1 gm of dry leaves with a spoonful of butter and some candy sugar or honey. rheumatic discomfort. cough. Leaves are a diuretic and a stimulant for weak digestion. During the four week trial. bladder and urethra. The plant is said to have carminative. pain in the limbs (neuralgia). cramps. painful joints. fevers and cholera. air quality improvement. The leaf is used in treating high fever and after childbirth. wound treatment. A decoction of the plant is used for coughs and also as mouth wash for relieving toothache. colds. vi. 7.5 g of tulsi leaf powder or a placebo for two-week periods. to relieve stomach-ache and stimulate bowel movement. dislocations. muscle pain. heartburn. placebo-controlled cross-over single blind trial on 40 human volunteers suffering from Type II diabetes was performed. This effect has been attributed to its antiestrogenic effect which may be responsible for arrest of spermatogenesis in males and inhibitory affection implantation of ovum in females. This constituent may prove to be a promising antifertility agent devoid of side effects. its regular use prevents heart attacks. iv. subjects alternately received a daily dose of 2. irrigation therapy. Take twice a day first thing in the morning and before going to bed at night. viii. diaphoretic and stimulant properties. For Heart ailments – As tulsi (basil) has a positive effect over blood pressure and also is a detoxicant. not supported by experimental or clinical data: The juice of the leaves is used to cure ringworm infections. nasal catarrh. flatulence. oral hygiene.MALAYSIA v. Antistress/adaptogenic effects . temporary shortness of breath. v. Antifertility effect – One of the major constituents of the leaves. inflammation. prevention of sexual fatigue in male and female. The results showed 17. bath additives. to possess narcotic effect which helps to ease itchiness in the throat. lumbago. travel fatigue. fatigue. nerve pain. sprains. prevention of frigidity in male and female. supportive treatment for infections of lower urinary tract.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional system of medicine: Basil oil combined with other oil is used in: i. has been reported to possess antifertility activity in rats and mice. and used to treat 187 . vii. foot bath. The juice of the leaves is given in catarrh and bronchitis in children. ursolic acid. ix. bad breath. as well as inflammations of kidneys. ii. bruises. The seed are mucilaginous and cooling. Antidiabetic effect – A randomized. convulsions. as cough remedy and a nasal douche in myosis and irregular menstrual cycles. congestion. contusions.Extracts from the plant have been found to reduce stress. supportive therapy for massages used as warm-up procedures of the muscles before sports activities and particularly exertions in order to prevent muscle sprains and muscle spasms and their consequences.3% decline in postprandial blood glucose on treatment with tulsi as compared with the blood glucose levels during treatment with placebo.6 % reduction in fasting blood glucose and 7. Other effects – The leaves in the form of a paste are used in parasitical diseases of the skin and also applied to the finger and toe nails during fever when the limbs are cold. It is good for headache. maintenance and stimulation of sexual capacity. iii.

J. Kumar. Indian Journal of Medical Research 73: 443–451. D. G. The jelly is used for treating intestinal troubles in children. Anti-stress activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. C. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. H. Kuala Lumpur. Rai. J & Derek.) found in Malaysia. 2002. kidney trouble and diarrhoea.. Modulatory influence of alcoholic extract of Ocimum leaves on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes activities and reduced glutation leveld in mouse. Part 3. W. Randomised placebo – controlled. Great Britain. Betty. Kuala Lumpur. Colombo. Mast cell protective activity of ursolic acid á-triterpene from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum. M.. S. & Ng. Volume 2. Malaysia. Indu. Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute.0 Contraindications Not available 9. I. Britain.P and Singh. 1982.R. P. Prashar.. & Nikam S. Rajasekaran. Brown.T. A. S. Types of basil (Ocimum sp. S. Bapna. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Ocimum basilicum Linn. R. R. P. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. M. Malaysia. N. Chavan. C. London. Malayan Nature Society. & Rao. & Nair. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Therapy and Toxicology 34(9): 406–409. A. Nutrition and Cancer 25(2): 205–217.. 1981. Stanley Thornes Ltd.0 Bibliography Adirukmini et al. Kuala Lumpur. Agarwal. 1966. Pradhan. 1989.. 1996. 1981. single blind trial of holy basil leaf in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. M. B. Banerjee. R. 1996. Powdered Vegetable Drugs: An atlas of Microscopy for use in the Identification and Authentication of some Plant Materials Employed as Medicinal Agents. A. S. Burkil I. B. diarrhoea. & Singh. Sudhakaran. Herbs: The Green Pharmacy of Malaysia. R. Indian Journal of Medical Research 75: 220–222. L. 1974. V. Henderson. 1951. R. Dorling Kindersley Limited. D. 8. 1995. T. In Proceedings of the International Conference on the use of Traditional Medicine & Other Natural Products in Health Care. Malayan Wild Flowers: Dicotyledons. S. 188 . Barghava. A.. and chronic dysentery.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS gonorrhoea. Medicinal Plants Used in Ceylon. K. The National Science Council of Sri Lanka. 2000. The Royal Horticultural Society New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. Journal of Drug Development 2(3): 179–182. Jayaweera.

J. Ratanavila.. H. Ltd.N. 1998. Pp. and in vitro metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens in rats. Basil: A source of essential oil. Advances in New Crops. 1922. W. P. Simon JE.. & Coventry. & Tepsuwan. E. 1998..MALAYSIA Kusamran. A. 189 . Bienvenu. Jones. Quinn I & Murray RG.. R. Briggs. A. A. 1990.The synergistic preservative effect of the essential oil of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Ridley. Vol II. Portland. Austin. Thai and Chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves on hepatic monooxygenases and glutathione s-transferase activities. K. Texas. L.). American Botanical Council.). Wilcock. In: Janick I & Simon JE (Eds. Wan. Effect of neem flowers. M. Food and Chemical Toxicology 36(6): 475–484. 484–489 The Complete German Commission E Monographs. USA. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. The Flora of the Malay Peninsula. London.. D. J. USA. I 1998. Reeve & Co. G. R.. Timber press. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26(3): 209–214. F. Lachowicz.

child pick-a-back (English) Glabrous weedy herb 30 to 40 cm tall. rami buah. 0.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is widely distributed in tropical countries and easily grows at wet and shaded places. Euphorbiaceae Meniran. tricontanol. Fruit globose. smooth. base broad. 4. phyllanthin. 6. nirtetralin. 0. brevifolincarboxylic acid. on underside of leaf rachis. & Thonn. lupa-20(29)-ene-3-b-ol.3'. geraniin 190 . Male flowers solitary or in pair. Female flowers twice as large.5 cm long.0 Chemical Constituents 3. Stipule subulate.0 2. quercetin-heteroside. hypophyllanthin. phyltetralin.5. seed on the leaf.0 3.0 5. quercetin. dukung anak (Malaysia ). 5.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. lupa-20(29)ene-3-b-ol-acetate. nirurin. niranthin. niruriside. triacontanal. 4-methoxysecurinine. methyl salicylate. stone breaker. rutin.7-trihydroxyflavonal-4'-O-a-1(-)-rhamnopyranoside. Seeds pale brown with 6–7 straight longitudinal ribs. petiole minute or none. Leaves distichous oblong or elliptic-obovate subsessile.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. saponins.2 cm wide. quercitrin. very minute. lupeol. niruretin. 4-methoxynorsecuri-nine. lintetralin. cymene.4'-trihydroxyflavonone-7-O-a-1-(-)-rhamnopyranoside. phyllochrysine. quercetol. limonene. astragalin.

They were given a simple tea of P. they isolated and tested P. They also reported a significant increase in urine output as well as sodium and creatine excretion. The hypotensive effects were attributed to a specific phytochemical in P. the Paulista School of Medicine in São Paulo. amarus strongly inhibited the growth and number of stones formed over the control group. The first three studies reported strong and dose-dependent painrelieving effects in mice given extracts of chanca piedra against six different laboratory-induced pain models.MALAYSIA 7. In a 2002 study. amarus in diabetic animals. In a 1999 in vitro clinical study. researchers also reported that blood sugar levels were reduced significantly in human subjects studied. Several of the animals even passed the stones which did form. amarus extract exhibited the ability to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (the building blocks of most kidney stones) which indicates that it might be a useful preventative aid for people with a history of kidney stones. Aldose reductases are substances that act on nerve endings exposed to high blood sugar concentration and can lead to diabetic neuropathy and macular degeneration.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. vii. newly-tested nerve-related pain models. v. researchers seeded the bladders of rats with calcium oxalate crystals and treated them for 42 days with a water extract. The beneficial effects of lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels was also confirmed by another in vivo (rat) study in 1985. Wolfram Wiemann (of Nuremburg. they related this effect to the geraniin plant chemical and reported its ability ii. amarus was observed. amarus obtained in Peru and found it to be 94% successful in eliminating stones within a week or two. In 1990. amarus could help prevent the formation of kidney stones. Indian researchers reported that P. a P. they have published six studies on their findings. In 2003 scientists confirmed in vitro that P. In the mid-1980s the antispasmodic and muscle relaxant properties activity of P. vi. Substances which inhibit these substances can prevent some of the chemical imbalances that occur and thus protect the nerve. Their last two studies (published in 2000) continued to document chanca piedra’s pain-relieving effects against normal pain models in mice. conducted studies with humans and rats with kidney stones. and. The hypotensive effects were first reported in a dog study in 1952. amarus increased bile acid secretion in the gallbladder and significantly lowered blood cholesterol levels in rats. Two other studies with rabbits and rats document the hypoglycemic effect of P. amarus and was performed at a Brazilian university. amarus hypotensive plant chemical geraniin and reported that it was seven times more potent as a pain-reliever than aspirin or acetaminophen. In 1995 Indian researchers gave human subjects with high blood pressure P. iv. amarus leaf powder in capsules and reported a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure. amarus for 1–3 months and it was reported that the tea promoted the elimination of stones. Germany) treated over 100 kidney stone patients with P. Another area of research has focused on the pain-relieving effects of P. iii. Brazil. So far. a significant increase in urine volume and sodium excretion. 191 . Again. In 1996. In 1990.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: i. viii. Nicole Maxwell reported that Dr. amarus called geraniin in a 1988 study. In the above 1995 study. The results indicated that P. In a 2002 in vivo study.

amarus was given to adults with chronic hepatitis. x. · · 192 . It should therefore be considered contraindicated during pregnancy. Phyllanthus amarus has been considered in herbal medicine to be abortive (at high dosages) as well as a menstrual promoter. amarus increased the life-span of mice with liver cancer from thirty-three weeks (control group without treatment) to fifty-two weeks. These effects have been attributed to (at least) two novel plant chemicals in P. sores and swelling. emmenagogue. the use of the plant is probably contraindicated in women seeking pregnancy or taking fertility drugs. It is used externally for cuts. vaginitis and dyspepsia. People with a heart condition and/or taking prescription heart medications should consult their doctor before taking this plant.” One in vitro study and four in vivo studies (with rats and mice) document that extracts of P. levels of liver cancer markers. animal studies do indicate it has uterine relaxant effects. amarus protected rats from liver damage induced by alcohol. diabetes. Researchers in China also reported liver protective actions when P. It is used internally in treatment of jaundice. 8. ulcers. and normalized a “fatty liver. While not studied specifically in humans or animals. It may be contraindicated for some individuals with heart conditions and/or heart medications that may need monitoring and adjusting. bruises. tumours. amarus extract dose-dependently lowered tumour incidence. 7. amarus liver protective and detoxifying actions in children with hepatitis and jaundice. amarus named phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin. jaundice. While this effect has not been documented in humans. Both studies indicate that the plant has a better ability to prevent and slow down the growth of tumours rather than a direct toxic effect or ability to kill cancer cells. ix. flu. blennorrhagia. Phyllanthus amarus has been documented with female antifertility effects in one mouse study (the effect was reversed 45 days after cessation of dosing).0 Contraindications · Phyllanthus amarus has demonstrated hypotensive effects in animals and humans. colic. amarus extract for acute hepatitis had liver function return to normal within five days. antidysenteric. however. levels of carcinogenmetabolizing enzymes. purgative. febrifuge. and should not be relied on for such. amarus effectively protect against liver damage from various chemical liver toxins. and liver injury markers. dysentery. genito-urinary infections. dropsy.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The whole plant is used as an antihepatotoxic. Their results indicated the P. A 2000 study even documented that P. antihypertensive. Indian researchers reported that P.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS to inhibit several neurotransmitter processes that relay and receive pain signals in the brain. The researchers who reported the cholesterol-lowering effects also reported that P. and British researchers reported that children treated with a P. amarus was an effective single drug in the treatment of jaundice in children. This effect has not been substantiated sufficiently to be used as a contraceptive. Two human studies reported P. amarus. stomachic and diuretic. The liver-protecting activity of P. amarus has been established with clinical research with animals and humans. fever. Another research group tried to induce liver cancer in mice that had been pretreated with a water extract of P.

Yoshizaki M. and Ricinus communis Linn.. H. Diabetics should consult their doctor before taking this plant as insulin medications may need monitoring and adjusting. S. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 18(4): 211–214 Duke. A. S. & Ng. Chronic long-term use of any diuretic can cause electrolyte and mineral imbalance. 8 August 2005. 1988. Chronic and acute use of this plant may be contraindicated in various other medical conditions where diuretics are not advised. Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI). L. 1986. Reeve & Co. 193 . H.N.. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary.. Goh. Indu B. Kuala Lumpur. 2000. Shimizu M. J. et al.com/chanca. Chuah. Suzuki S. an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor from “Paparai mi”. 1994.0 Bibliography Agrawal. amarus (for up to three months of chronic use) has not reported any side effects. Malaysian Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. · 9. Kawasaki M. Hayashi T. S. & Agrawal. 357–359. Garg. however. 1978. & Vasque. Ridley. Mok J.htm. Bhd. Consult your doctor if you choose to use this plant chronically for longer than three months concerning possible side effects of long term diuretic use.J. Nishi Y. R. Geraniin. CRC Press Inc. E. human studies witj P. http://rain-tree. S. Screening of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. H. Jakarta. T. Materia Medika Indonesia Jilid II.. 1995. Pelandok Publication Sdn. 1922. Indonesia.hepatectomized and partially hepatectomized rats. L. It is contraindicated for people with hypoglycemia. III. Malaysia. The Flora of the Malay Peninsula. Arisawa M. Shogawa H. London. Chemical and pharmaceutical studies on medicinal plants in Paraguay. Horie S. Vol. Herbs: The Green Pharmacy of Malaysia. Database file on Phyllanthus niruri. L. C. FL. on alcohol-induced liver cell damage in non. S. Kuala Lumpur. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Ltd. Journal of Natural Products 51(2): Pp. Phyllanthus niruri. & Soepadmo. Phyllanthus amarus has been documented in human and animal studies with diuretic effects.MALAYSIA · Phyllanthus amarus has demonstrated hypoglycemic effects in animals and humans. Ueno H. Boca Raton.

epigynous. Java and Kalimantan). The pollen chamber opening by slits or apical pores. but not long lasting.0 Chemical Constituents No report found 194 . The average size of the flower is 30–40 cm across. stamens numerous.0 Propagation : Not available Geographical Distribution/Ecology Found throughout Malaysia. Thailand (southern provinces) and the Philippines.0 5. the ovary inferior or partly so. without stalk arranged round a fleshy column. 6. The flower and fruit are the only parts of the plant outside the tissue of the host plant.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Rafflesia hasseltii Suringar Rafflesiaceae Bunga pakma (Malaysia) Parasitic herb growing on the roots or branches of other plants. It grows only on the roots and stems of two species of vines belonging to the grape family.0 2. Brunei Darussalam. very thick and fleshy. The bud breaking through the bark of the host looks like a large brown cabbage. placenta parietal. petals none. The flower is very large. Indonesia (Sumatra. ovules numerous. Fruit is a berry. carpel 4– 8.0 3. the ovary 1-chambered.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. 4. diepenhostii. Sepals very large. The plant body is almost wholly within the host plant. 4–16. radially symmetrical. Terastigma leucostaphylum and T. the top of which forms the stigma.

0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement. 1930.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Rafflesia in Temenggor. The Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. 1966.0 Bibliography Burkill I. J. 240. Malayan Naturalist. Meijer. 1994. Burkill. Malaysia. I. 6: Pp. H. 195 . M. hasseltii compared. I & II: Pp. & Haniff. Malayan Naturalist 47: Pp. 1894–1895.MALAYSIA 7. 1993. & Wong. Kuala Lumpur. Ministry of Agriculture. W. 26–27. 8. M.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Malay Village Medicine. It is reported to be used as afterbirth medication for (purifies uterus).2 Uses in traditional medicine: The flower is astringent and an aphrodisiac for women. Dawn. Rafflesia cantleyl and R.47: Pp. after menstruation and to expedite delivery. H. 10–12.

6.5 mm wide. Presence of nodes and internodes about 2–15 cm long. branching loosely.2 mm long.0 Propagation : Not available Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is common in lowlands and in the hills forest. staminate perianth yellow-green 3. marginal nerves slightly thickened. slender.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. 1. Inflorescence umbels and axillary together with tendrils. often becoming brownish.0 2. densely veined. connate. DC.5 from top. keranting. 4–5 mm wide. long. pistilate umbels 8–14 flowered.0 3. lobed to 2. ubi besi. inner lobes half as long as outer ones. light green and very smooth.0 Chemical Constituents No report found 196 . itah besi. akar ding (Malaysia) Herbaceous climber.0 5. petiole 7–25 mm long. Occasionally rooting occurs at the nodes and adheres to the ground. outer lobes oblong. Tendrils 6–13 cm. stem slender but very tough and rigid.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Smilax myosotiflora A.5–4. peduncles 1–4 cm long. grass green on adaxial side while paler green on abaxial side of leaf. Base of leaf is broad and gradually cuneated or suddenly accuminated apex. Leaves lanceolate or broadly elliptic. 2–15 cm broad. Smilacaceae Ubi jaga. 8–17 cm long. 4.

0 Contraindications Not available 9. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. I. Pp. 197 . 1930.2 Uses described in traditional medicine: The tuber has an aphrodisiac property and it is used to treat syphilis. I. Malaysia I & II: Pp.0 Bibliography Burkill.1 Uses supported by clinical data: Not available 7. H.0 Reports on Medical Usage 7. Gimlette. 1966. J. D.MALAYSIA 7. 470. 8. The Garden Bulletin Straits Settlement.& Burkill. 2075. Ministry of Agriculture. H.

usually about 10 x 7 cm. jointed in the middle. stemotinine. janggut adam (Malaysia) Herb with upright. long narrow.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. stemonidine. deep purple to pink. 4. dark green. stenine. Leaves alternate. leaf has prominent longitudinal ribs and fine. Taiwan.0 5. Stemonaceae Galak tua. twining slender stems. heart shaped in outline with an abrupt.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The root tubers are used as antiparasitic and antimicrobial towards Streptococcus pneumoniae.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Stemona tuberosa Lour.0 Chemical Constituents Root tuber: Fluoride. Flower arises from leaf axils. leaf stalk about 7 cm long. rib about 7–13. Neisseria meningitidis and Staphylococcus 198 .0 3.0 2. Central China. close cross-veins. stemonine. stemonal. lobes narrowly elliptical in outline. stemonone. tuberostemonine. 6. b-haemolytic Streptococcus. sometimes reaching twice this size. India and Indo-China. narrow pointed end. iso-stemotinine. tuberostemonone 7. individual flower stalk is about 3 cm long.0 Propagation : Root tuber Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is found throughout Peninsular Malaysia to South Thailand.

& Li. Lu. 39: 26. W. J. Thailand. Crystal and molecular structure of tuberostemonone. clinique et pharmacodynamique de la racine de ‘Stemona tuberosa’ (drogue vermifuge sinoannamite). J. 173–177. S. Tsunezuka. H. Pp. The tuber is useful for pulmonary tuberculosis. 38: 2667–2670. Naoki. Journal Crystallogr. Chu. J. K. E. Chu. Xu. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Massachusetts. H... Charles E. Iwashita. & Grumbach. C. 71. 1973. 1932. Japan.. Naya. R. Shoyakugaku Zasshi. 1976. 1982. J. On the fluoride contents in crude drugs. L. Studies on dental caries prevention by traditional Chinese medicines (Part VI). J.. Tuttle Co. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia. Y. M. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Refs. 21: Pp. 1955. S. Hua Hsueh Hsueh Pao 21: Pp. Lloydia. 7. Hattori. D. J. Y. T. Perry. & Gamble. 71–73. Journal of crystallographic and spectroscopic research. H. Etude botanique. 1985. 189–194. W. Lin. Chulalongkorn University. P. R. Spectrosc. Pp. Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. A. Bulletin Science Pharmacology. T. H.. 1999. 1980.. J.. D.. Eastland Press Inc. Tetrahedron. revised edition.0 Bibliography Bensky. 33: 286. T. Mak. Pp.. 1970. K. Chemistry and Pharmacodynamics..2 Uses in traditional medicine: Not available 8. Malaysian Monograph Committee. Sakai. Various preparations of the tubers also showed better than 85% effectiveness in treating pertussis. 43. 397.. 1991. 202–203. Roengsamran. Keys. M. coughs.0 Contraindications Not available 9. H. S. & Young. T. J. 1986.MALAYSIA aureus. & Nakanishi. skin diseases and as a vermifuge. USA. Xu. 26–34. Pp. Faculty of Science. Chinese Herbs: Their Botany. & Namba.. Willaman. T. 199 . Pp. Pp. Studies on some new stemona alkaloids: A diagnostically useful 1H-NMR line-broadening effect. J. 165–169. MIT Press. Master thesis. L. Kobashi. Wang. Lobstein. M. 39: Pp.. R.

Rhizome is light yellow in whorl. 200 . nerol oxide. acetic acid.0 5.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. n-nonane. chavicol.8-diol. 2. Zingiberaceae Halia (Malaysia). Leaf is linear-lanceolate. ethyl acetate. cisgeranic acid. ligule light green in colour. isovaleraldehyde. n-butyraldehyde. 1. diethyl sulfide.6-dimethylocta-3. the dorsal lobe broader 12 mm by 10 mm.0 6. 4-terpineol. soft non-woody stem. corolla tube is 2–2. 2. khing-daen (Thailand). light purple with yellow spots.selinen-4-ol. p-metha-1.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is cultivated in all tropical countries. gung. nonyl aldehyde. trans -geranic acid.5-dien-7-ol. linalool oxide. n-octane. cis. n-octanol.6-dimethylocta-2. Flower in the axil of each bract.0 2. covered with leaf-sheath. 6-methylhept-5-en-2-ol. methyl allyl sulfide. the stem grows from the rhizome and may reach up to 50 cm tall. Chemical Constituents Acetaldehyde. ethyl isopropyl sulfide. p-mentha-2. pmentha-1. octan-2-ol. a-ylangene. the bracts are arranged in whorl. propionaldehyde. p-mentha-1-5-dien-8-ol. methyl acetate. yellowish green.8-terpinen hydrate. about 17 cm long. 1. luya (Philippines) An upright herb. sinh khuong (Viet Nam).0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Zingiber officinale Rosc.8-dien-1-ol. n-nonanol.0 3. smooth on the upper surface and slightly rough on the underneath which is covered with very fine hairs. kinkh. n-heptane. hexanol. dark green.8 cm wide. 2-hydroxy-1.6-diene-1. 4.8-cineol. acetone. (+)-borneol.7-diene-1.5 cm long that is slightly longer than bractea and consists of 3 separated lobes. The other two lobes are 6 mm by 4 mm. aromatic smell and slightly hot in taste.6-diol.8-dien-7-ol. benzaldehyde.

camphene. a-farnesene.MALAYSIA aromadendrene. borneol acetate. farnesal.2. d-car-3-ene. a-terpinene. leucorrhea/puerperal infection. n-propanol. n-nonanone. geranyl acetate. ethyl myristate. 12-gingerol. 10-gingerol. a-zingiberene. 6dehydrogingerdione. zingiberone. 6-gingerol. 6-gingediol diacetate. camphor. 6-dihydrogingerdione. a-cadinene. 8b. shagaol derivatives. 3. 8b. 10-gingediol. methylheptenone. 7-gingerol.7(11)-diene. 8-gingerol. isoborneol. 8-methylgingerol. gingerol methyl ether.16-dial.17-epoxylabd-12-ene-15. It is useful as after-birth medication and for menstrual pain. xanthorrhizol. hexahydrocurcumin. hexanol.0 Contraindications Not available 9. alloaromadendrene. isoeugenol methyl ether. octanal. nerolidol. tonic/sexual debility. guaiol. b-pinene. calamenene. csitronellal. starch.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The rhizome is carminative and stimulant. linalool.0 Bibliography Malaysian Monograph Committee. 6-gingerol. limonene.5-diacetoxy-1. 8gingerol. d-cadinene. g-terpinene. a-curcumene. b-eudesmol. zingerone. trans-trans-a-farnesene. selina-3. 9-gingerol. a-copaene. macorhizomum galanolactone. 10-shagaol. germanium. a-cadinol. sabinene. citronellol. nonan-2-one. citronellyl acetate. gingerenone C. 16-dial. meso-3. car-3-ene. gingerol. undecan-2-one. 10-gingerol. 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one. p-cymen-8-ol. myrtenal. cis-hexan-3-ol. shogaol. 10-methylgingerol. furfural. 17-epoxylabd-trans-12-ene-15. curcumere. 3-phenylbenzaldehyde. terpinolene. pirellen.7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) heptane. rubens galanolactone. geraniol. terpinen-4-ol. 1999. tricyclene. 16-dial 7. 2. colic. glanolactone. 4-gingerol. zingiberol. perillene. b-sesquiphellandrene. b-sesquiphellandrol. 6-gingediol. p-cymen. 201 . myrcene. paradol. trans-b-farnesene. b-selinen. n-undecanone.5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)heptane. b-ionone. cis-sesquisabinene hydrate. Zingiber officinale var. trans-b-sesquiphellandrol. zingiberene. trans-linalool oxide. neoisopulegol.4-trimethylheptane. ß-bisabolol. b-phellandrene. farnesene. g-eudesmol. a-muurolene. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. isogingerenone B. trans-8b. 85–88. caprylic acid. sea-food poisoning. nonan-2-ol. a-terpineol. bornyl acetate. b-himachalene. heptan-2-ol.5-diacetoxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3. methyl nonyl ketone. lauric acid.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. b-elemene. trans-nerolidol. fluoride. 6methylgingerol. g-muurolene. nerol. Pp. patchouli alcohol. trans-8-b-17-epoxylabd-12-ene-15. coughs. a-pinene. a-selinene. neral. gingerenone A. borneol. a-phellandrene. camphene hydrate. nausea and cold stomach. constipation. 8.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. 6-gingerol. capsaicin. 10-gingerol. p-coumaric acid. furanogermenone. juniper camphor. menthol acetate. rosefuran.17-epoxylabd-trans-12-ene-15. trans-octen-2-al. citral. cedorol. cineol. cis-sesquiabinene hydrate. pipecolic acid. Zingiber officinale var. bbisabolene. asparagine. 8-gingediol. pentan-2-ol. farnesol. 6-gingediol methyl ether. geranial. 6-paradol. 8gingerol. gingerenone B. sesquiphellandrene. b-caryophyllene. rheumatism. 16-dial. 12-methylgingerol. zingiberenol. 4-phenylbenzaldehyde. heptan-2-one. undecan-2-ol. 14-gingerol. body-ache. geraniol acetate. hexanal. 9-oxonerolidol. cis-b-sesquiphellandrol. 10-gingerdione. caffeic acid. 6-gingediol diacetate methyl ether. elemol. 16-gingerol. b-thujone. gingerol.

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 202 .

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0 Chemical Constituents Scutellarein – 7 – rhammosyglucoside. The discharge of blood in urine can be cured by giving theit juice or the powder of the whole plant mixed with sugar. boils and abscesses). as hair tonic and antiseptic (cleans. skin diseases. aches. tip acute.0 3. ovateelliptic. usually prickly at the stem branches.0 2. funnel shaped. margin entire or slightly wavy. The decoction of the whole plant 205 .2 Uses in traditional medicine: The leaves are applied for swellings. about 5 ft.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Barleria prionitis L. Flowers bisexual. 6. mid-vein distinct.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. yellow or purple. pentamerous.0 Report on Medical Usage 7.0 5. leaves opposite.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is found in tropical regions. Acanthaceae Leik-Su-Shwe (Myanmar) A much-branched shrub.MYANMAR 1. 4. barlerin and acety-balerin 7.

Yangon. Department of Traditional Medicine. Rastogi. Myanmar Health Research Congress. 1993.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS is given for piles. The dried powder is taken with honey to increase spermatogenesis.N. 3. used externally for swellings and inflammation. Vol. 2000. B. R. State Traditional Medical Council. & Mehrotra. 8. Thidar Swe. 206 . The decoction of the leaf is famous for tuberculosis. et al. New Delhi.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Myanmar Traditional Medicine Manual for Health Basic Training Course (WHO/MMR/TRM/003). Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Ethnobotany of Yangon Division. CDRI Lucknow & Publication and Information Directorate. Myanmar.0 Bibliography Department of Traditional Medicine. melena diuretic action and eodema. 2001. Program & Abstract.P. and is also used as antiseptic. Medicinal Plants of Myanmar.

0 Report on Medical Usage 7.0 2.MYANMAR 1. It is found wild in open areas in Malaysia. dioscorine.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Dioscorea esculenta (Lour. slightly hairy below. Base of the stem produces many white roots. Spiny climber 3–5.0 Chemical Constituents The tuber has the toxic principle. surrounding the tuber.5 m high. woody with numerous sharp.) Burkill Dioscoreaceae Wet-ka (Myanmar).0 3. log. 8–11 nerved. 4. acuminate. 6. glabrous above. whitish spines 1–2 cm arising from the surface. preferring subtemperate areas (Myanmar).0 5. Leaves broadly orbicular (or) cordate. Male flower in spike form and female is minute in raceme. painted. 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 207 .0 Propagation : Tuber Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows in lowland to hilly regions. ubi torak (Malaysia) Annual herb with perennial underground large tuber.

The tuber is applied to ulcers and swellings. 1879. and has antioxidant properties (prolongs longevity of life and youth) and a rich source of vitamin E. India Medicinal Plants. Hyndley. Calcutta. London.2 Uses in traditional medicine: It is used as tonic. 12th edition. J. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. II. The Flora of British India. the leaves are used for intermittent fevers. Vol.0 Bibliography Ashin-nagathein. The Prabasi Press. Shrub and Principal Climbers etc. Reeve and Company. H. List of Trees. K. G. 8. 208 . D. In certain species of Dioscorea.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. L. 1933. Burma. Vol. B. Hooker. D. Forest Department. & Basu. 1987. R. Recorded with Vernacular Names. Kirtikar.

phalar-thein. Leaves oblong-lanceolate.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 209 . bornylacetate. limonene and sabinene. Fruit capsule. 7. volatile oil.0 3. nerolidol. marked with fine vertical striations. 6. phalar-nge (Myanmar). 4. buah pelaga (Malaysia) Perennial herb with a large and fleshy rhizome. subglobose or oblong. The principal constituents of volatile oil are cineol.0 Report on Medicinal Usage: 7.MYANMAR 1. D-borneol.0 5.0 Propagation : Rhizomes Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows wildly in rich moist soil and cultivated in tropical regions.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Elettaria cardamomum Maton Zingiberaceae Hpalar.0 2. the flowering stems spread horizontally near the ground. d-camphor. terpeneol.0 Chemical Constituents The fruit contains fixed oil. linalool.

L. settles digestive discomfort. antimicrobial. helps with flatulence. The fruit is used mostly as spice and flavouring agent. Vol. G.2 Uses in traditional medicine: It is antiseptic. II. The Prabasi Press. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. India Medicinal Plants. List of Trees. D.0 Bibliography Ashin-nagathein. Shrub and Principal Climbers etc. stimulates saliva and is used in tonic. 12th editon. London. Hyndley. K. diuretic.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Calcutta. Recorded with Vernacular Names. 210 . H. 1987. Burma. 1933. astringent. The Flora of British India. Vol. digestive. D. 1879. & Basu. Hooker. aphrodisiac. Forest Department. Kirtikar. R. B. antispasmodic. Reeve and Company. It is used as carminative in traditional practice.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 8. J.

3-demethyl-N-formyl-N-deacetyl-blumicolchicine.0 Report on Medical Usage 7. Leaves sessile. Ovate lanceolate. 4. axillary. Root-stock of arched.0 Chemical Constituents Seed contains high level of colchicines. fleshy-white cylindric tubers. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. 3-demethyl-g-lumicolchicine.0 2. orange.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 211 . 3-demethyl colchicines have been isolated from the plant. changing colours from greenish yellow.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Gloriosa superba L.0 5. solid.0 3. its glucoside. Fruits capsule. scarlet to crimson from blooming to fading. N-formyldeacetylcolchicines and glucosides of 3demethylcolchicine have been isolated from flowers. b-sitosterol. Colchicaceae Si-mee-dauk (Myanmar) Herbaceous.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows widely in tropical regions. 6. stout climbing herb. 7. a long chain fatty acid. colchicines.MYANMAR 1. Flowers large solitary. b and g-lumiccolchicines from fresh tubers and luteolin. Cornigerine. tall.

8. CDRI Lucknow & Publication and Information Directorate. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants.0 Bibliography Rastogi. Dried flowers mixed with other ingredients are used to cure asthma. and used as antiinflammatory agent.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. N. P. 1993. 212 . The powder of dried tubers mixed with roasted salt is also used to treat asthma and arthritis.0 Contraindications Not available 9. tussis and amenorrhoea. New Delhi. B. in arthritis. 1–5. Vol.2 Uses in traditional medicine: It is indicated for asthma. & Mehrotra. R.

6.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Millettia extensa (Benth.0 5. 213 . Pod hard and woody.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The roots and stem are used to treat bone fractures and skin diseases. red. sepals bell-shaped.0 2. long petioled. i. elongated.0 Chemical Constituents Nil 7.0 Report on Medical Usage 7. Stem finely downy. Flowers short-pedicelled. petals densely silky.MYANMAR 1. 4.e itches and scabies. glabrous rachis. Leaves pinnate compound.0 3. tip acute. leaflets 3–5 abovate-oblong.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It occurs naturally in tropical areas. close axillary racemes.) Baker Fabaceae Wun-u A large climbing shrub about 9 m.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.

B. List of Trees. & Basu. Vol II. Hundley. 12th edition. Shrub and Principal. 214 . A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. H. D. K. The Flora of British India. R. G. Kirtikar.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. 1879. The Prabasi Prees.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Reeve and Company. Calcutta. Vol.L. D. Vol.C. London. 1987. G. 1889. J. Government Printing Press. India Medicinal Plants. India. 1933. Watt.0 Bibliography Hooker.

0 Chemical Constituents Not available 7. Inflorescence spike. Capsule rhomboid striate. often in rich soil under shade.0 Propagation : Tuber Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is found in tropical and subtropical regions.0 Report on Medical Usage 7. 4. flower rare. especially in the case of mushroom intoxication. 5–20 mm in diameter. 6. The leaves are used for alleviating coughs and relieving pain. surrounded by the purple-red leaf sheath. Tuber globular. growing mostly in hill regions of evergreen forests. flower white with pinkish-violet spots.0 2. tubular at the lower part.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. petiole long. Leaf ovate-cordate. with several obvious arched parallel veins. about 6–12 cm in length and width.0 5. It 215 .0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Nervilia fordii (Hance) Schltr Orchidaceae Ta-bin-shwe-hti (Myanmar) Perrenial herb with fleshy tuber.0 3.MYANMAR 1.2 Uses in traditional medicine: It is used as depurative. with fibrous roots and 1– 2 blades. It clears away heat and toxic material.

216 . http://herb.damo-qigong. Le Van Truyen et al. scrofula. Viet Nam 1999. Science and Technology Publishing House.24 August 2003. summer-heat syndrome with fever and thirst. sorethroat.0 Contraindications Not available 9.).ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS is used for skin infection of intense heat type. Volume 2. 8. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. (Eds.htm .0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. It moisturizes the lungs to relieve coughs.net/b024. Ha Noi.

sirih (Malaysia. leaves shaped broadly ovate. Leaves alternate. Inflorescence spikes. 4.0 Report on Medical Usage 7. terpinyl acetate and caryophyllene.0 Chemical Constituents Leaf contains aromatic essential volatile oil of sharp burning taste.0 3. lower pale.0 Propagation : Seed and stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology Tropical regions 6. tip acute. aromatic odour containing betel-phenols. base cordate.MYANMAR 1. palmately veined. Piperaceae Kun (Myanmar). Stem long. margin entire. slender. producing small roots at the nodes.0 2. long stalk. thick. Fruit small berries. flowers minute. Indonesia. Brunei Darussalam) A perennial aromatic creeper. starch. coiled at the base. Essential oil: eugenol.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Piper betle L. sugars and tannin. 5–7 nerved. one-seeded.0 5. long petiolate. a-terpineol. upper surface bright green. 7. methyleugenol.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 217 .

Vol. constipation and germ diseases. 1993. loss of appetite. 8. B. Popular Prakashan Private Limited. (WHO/MMR/TRM/003). M. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants.3. They have been used successfully for colds. The decoction of leaves combined with sugar and jaggery is given for diarrhoea. Indian Materia Medica.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The leaves are used for the treatment of low pressure and irregular movements of the heart. CDRI Lucknow & Publication and Information Directorate. loss of voice.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. R. P. They cure throat disorders. Rastogi. & Mehrotra. The decoction of leaves is taken orally for the treatment of fever. coughs and asthma. 1993. K. Mumbai.0 Bibliography Nadkarni. Myanmar Traditional Medicine Manual for Health Basic Training Course. State Traditional Medical Council.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 218 . They are also widely used to treat asthma and inflammation. The fresh leaves are eaten together with jaggery for the treatment of hypertension. N. New Delhi. indigestion.

painful bowel disorders.0 Report on Medical Usage 7. hypochondria. Its powder is combined with other ingredients for treatment of hypertension. tortuous. External colour greyish yellow to brown. Fracture short. irregular. insanity. rough with coarse longitudinal marking. serpentinine 7.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Tropical regions 6. Surface is slightly wrinkled. insomnia.MYANMAR 1. ex Kurz. serpentine.0 5.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Odourless. It is also used as a remedy for snakebites and stings of insects and in dysentery. 219 . 4. fevers.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Apocynaceae Bon-ma-ya-zar (Myanmar) Roots up to 15 cm in length and 2 cm in diameter. stout. high blood pressure. thick.0 Chemical Constituents Alkaloid-ajmaline.0 3. taste very bitter.0 2.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The root is used as anthelmintic and febrifuge. wood pale yellow.

Ministry of Health. C. S. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. Rastogi. Myanmar Health Research Congress Programme & Abstract.pharm.kumamoto-u. 2001. New Dehli. 1993.0 Contraindications Not available 9. State Traditional Medical Council. I. Department of Traditional Medicine. CDRI Lucknow & Publication and Information Directorate.. Glossary of Indian Medicinal plants. Medicinal Plants of Myanmar. 2 & 3. B. & Chopra. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Myanmar Traditional Medicinal Manual for Health Basic Training Course (WHO/MMR/TRM003).ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. N. L.0 Bibliography Chopra. Myanmar. R. & Mehrotra. http://www. 220 . N. P. Nayar. Ethnobotany of Yangon Division.24 August 2003. Vol. 2000. R. The Union of Myanmar.html . 1956. Thidar Swe et al.ac. New Delhi.jp/yakusoen/rauorufia-e.

glabrous above. 6. Roots contain hentriacontance. bluish purple.MYANMAR 1.0 5. long petiolate.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The leaf juice is taken in treatment of swelling of joints.0 Report on Medical Usage 7. 7. Leaves compound opposite. 4. black when ripe. hairy inside.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Vitex negundo L. Inflorescence terminal thyrse. branches quadrangular. â-sitopsterol. Lamiaceae Kyaung-pan-gyi A large shrub or small tree. It cures itches and ailments caused by 221 . lanceolate.0 3. tomentose below.0 Propagation : Stem cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows in warmer place and is found mostly in waste places. Fruits drupe. paucity of menses and ailments connected with childbirth. â-sitopsterol acetate and stigmasterol. weakness of brain.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. leaflets penta-foliate. globose.0 2. Leaves contain essential oil.0 Chemical Constituents Vanillic and p-hyroxybenzoic acids and luteolin isolated from bark. tomentose outside. Flowers bisexual.

L. N. Glossary of Indian Medicinal plants. CDRI Lucknow & Publication and Information Directorate. & Mehrotra. State Traditional Medical Council. N. 1956. 222 . P. The decoction of the leaves is useful for dysentery and gastric ulcer. 2001. & Chopra. 8. Department of Traditional Medicine.0 Contraindications Not available 9. B.. Vol. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. S. (WHO/MMR/TRM/003) Union of Mynmar. Medicinal Plants of Myanmar. R. C. The decoction of the plant is given in the treatment of fever as well as malaria.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS heat.0 Bibliography Rastogi. Ministry of Health. 1993. Chopra. Myanmar Traditional Medicine Manual for Heatlh Basic Training Course. T. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. New Dehli. Nayar. 2 & 3. I. New Delhi.

ulcers and tumours. Stem 6-angled with ridges and furrows. Wight & Arn. simple.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is widely distributed in hill regions.0 Report on Medical Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.0 3.0 Chemical Constituents Glycosides and flavonoids. jaundice and hypertension. small yellowish green flowers are borne on the peduncle. 7. Vitaceae Ta-bin-taing-mya-nan (Myanmar) Tendrillar climber. scandent. It is used mostly for sores. Rhizome glaucous.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The root is used for sores. Leaves alternate.0 5.MYANMAR 1. 6. fusiform to tuberculous. Cymose. 4.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Vitis repens Lam. margin serrulate. Fruits berries.0 2. The whole plant is used for hepatitis. white patch in pale-greencoloured leaf blade. slender. 223 . ulcers and tumours.

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar.Sc. M.0 Contraindications Not available 9. thesis.0 Bibliography San. Pharmacognostical and Antitubercular Studies of Two Species of Vitis. Y.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8. 224 . Department of Traditional Medicine. Yangon University. 1989. A Selection of 60 commonly used species compiled by the Ministry of Health. Taxonomical. S.

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2. tipped with short lobes which are curved outward.) Burm. The thick. 4. sulphur.0 A short-stemmed herb cultivated both as ornamental and medicinal. about 30 cm long. The flower cluster (raceme). iron formic acid and glycoside in leaves (detectable). The yellow flowers without calyx are drooping. 7. fats.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 227 . The capsule (fruit) bears angular seeds.0 5. dilang-halo (Bisakol). Aloe vera (L.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Liliaceae Aloe. sabila-pinya (Tagalog).5 cm long. f. They are 30 to 40 cm long. curacao aloe (English). 6.0 Propagation : Commonly propagated by suckers Geographical Distribution/Ecology Aloe is commonly found in the Philippines as an ornamental. pale green with white spots and smooth except for weak marginal spines. sword-shaped leaves form a rosette immediately above the ground. has a long stalk with distant acute scales. sabila.PHILIPPINES 1.0 3. tube shaped.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Aloe barbadensis Mill. dilang-boaia (Bikol). acibar (Spanish) 2.0 Chemical Constituents Histochemical findings are as follows: tannin in leaves (detectable). calcium oxalate in leaves (abundant).

emmenagogue. V. Vol. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants.0 Bibliography De Padua. 66. V. L. Las Banos. vermifuge.. G. Crushed leaves as poultice for contusions. tonic and remedy for kidney pains. S.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Lugod. also purgative. Juice mixed with water is a remedy for indigestion and peptic ulcers. J. Philippines.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Leaf juice is used for treating burns. No. Laguna. & Pancho. III. University Publication Office.0 Contraindications Not available 9. abrasions and skin irritations. 228 .2. vermifuge. juice of leaves applied to the scalp prevents falling hair. Pp. 1981. C. cathartic. and is said to be good for the complexion. It is usually combined with other antispasmodic drugs. Technical Bulletin Vol. 8.

0 5. Cassuvium reniforme Blanco Anacardiaceae Balubad. Gajus. budding and grafting Geographic Distribution/Ecology The cashew is a native of northeastern Brazil in tropical America. with its receptacle or torus fleshy. Mexico and the West Indies where it was thoroughly naturalized and became abundant. about 5–7 cm long. Mozambique. Kenya. ovate or obovate. the cashew is an important nut crop in India. where it occurs wild in extensive islands. with slightly rounded apex. kasoy. Russia. In the 16th century. Federal Republic of Germany and Japan. The early Spanish missionaries are credited to have introduced cashew into the Philippines from tropical America and India.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Anacardium occidentale L. Tanzania. Brazil. Fruit is a nut. it became well dispersed throughout the tropics in the lowlands of Central and South America. United Kingdom. stem cutting. Madagascar.PHILIPPINES 1. marcotting. the species spread throughout India. Canada. Portuguese traders introduced cashew into India where it was planted along the seashores to bind the soil and check erosion. the Philippines and other tropical countries. kidney-shaped. balugo (Phillipines). Australia. petals yellowish to white sometimes with pink stripes. Sri Lanka. Senegal. Soon. 4. about 2 cm long. Flowers small crowded at the tip of branches. Leaves simple. juicy yellow and pear shaped.0 Propagation : Seed. Nigeria.0 Small tree with gnarled trunk. 10–20 cm long and 7– 12 cm wide. Sri Lanka. Malaysia and other Asian countries. alternate. At present. ash-colored.0 3. The greater bulk of cashew kernel is consumed in the United States. jambu bongkok (Malaysia) 2. inarching. 229 . From its native home.

Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. 1954. 1978. Laguna. sore gums and for dysentery. corns and ulcers.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Decoction of the bark is used to treat diarrhea. blisters. Juice from the pericarp is diuretic and sudorific. syphylitic swellings and ulcerations in the mouth. diabetes. 230 .0 Contraindications Not available. tannin and calcium oxalate 7. 9. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. V. Vol. University Publication Office. Bureau of Printing. I.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. E. S. Tincture of the pericarp is vermifuge. Quisumbing. Oil from the nut is used for warts. Manila. Infusion of the leaves and bark acts as astringent. Philippines. C. J. glycosides. saponin. G. relieves toothache.. The bruised nut is used in abortion.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 6. & Pancho. Lugod.0 Chemical Constituents Alkaloids. Las Banos. 8.0 Bibliography De Padua. L.

0 3.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 231 .PHILIPPINES 1. glabrous. It has been long established in India. Annonaceae Anonas. large. tannin.5 cm long.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Annona reticulata L. 2–2.5 cm long.0 2. fragrant. nona (Malaysia) A tree. 4.0 Chemical Constituents Alkaloids. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate. petioles 1–1. peroxidases and calcium oxalate 7. 2 or 3 together on lateral peduncles. 10 m high or less. acuminate. 6. formic acid. Fruit subglobose or ovoid. 20 cm long or less.0 Propagation : Seed and stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology Anonas is widely distributed after the discovery of the New World and is now found in all tropical and subtropical regions. with pentagonal areolae on the outside. Flowers greenish-yellow.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. fleshy edible.0 5.

0 Bibliography De Padua. Quisumbing. Lugod. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. S.. 1978. University Publication Office.0 Contraindications Not available 9. L. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. Bureau of Printing. Manila. Las Banos. J. Young fruits and bark act as astringent in dysentery and diarrhea. E. & Pancho. II. Vol. Philippines. 8.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Fresh leaves are applied onto the stomach of children suffering from indigestion. C. Laguna. V.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 232 . G. Fresh leaves and fruits are anthelmintic. 1954.

guvacoline and choline occur only in traces. hua.07-0. Areca alba Bory. The leaves are up to 4 m long. bunga. takobtob. 6.1%.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is often cultivated throughout the Philippines. 4. and has been introduced into the New World. having been found once. Arecaceae Areca nut. about 1 cm long or more.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Areca catechu L. spontaneous in primary forests in Palawan.0 Chemical Constituents The first chemical analysis of the seed was performed in 1886 and isolated a liquid volatile alkaloid called arecaine. with numerous leaflets.PHILIPPINES 1. lugos. with the pericarp somewhat fleshy.0 The trunk is erect and solitary. somewhat distichous male flowers which are yellow and about 5 mm long.0 3. luyos. Arecolidine is another alkaloid obtained. 233 . and the mesocarp fibrous.1% and arecoline 0. dapiau. The seed contains 15% of tannin and 14% of fat. smooth. orange or red (when ripe). 60 to 90 cm long. up to 25 m high.0 5. and marked with annular scars. arecaidine. 4 to 6 cm long. betel nut palm. boa. The female flowers are at the base of the branches and in axils. Possibly it is native to the country. vua. It also occurs in the Old World Tropics generally.arecaine 0. pasa. with branched filiform bearing numerous. The fruit is ovoid. The spadixis much branched and compressed. va 2. with the upper ones confluent. Other alkaloids isolated from the seeds are in the following proportions .

and general degeneration of the organism. Large doses of areca nut can cause vomiting and diarrhoea. which is useful for bleeding gums. The juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used externally for lumbago. the amount of tannin in the kernels decreases. and produces mild exhilaration. the husk contains only traces. The tannic and gallic acids in young nuts are responsible for the astringent properties.98–26. as well as in the Indo-Malayan and Polynesian regions. and its pharmacological action resembles that of muscarine. The kernel has gallic acid and gum.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. The powdered nuts have long been known to be antihelmintic in man and animals and are useful in the expulsion of tapeworms from human. sweetens the breath. strengthens the gum. 8. and externally used as an astringent. is generally regarded as a tonic and a general stimulant.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. as well as in combating round worms. however. It has been found to be useful to cure urinary disorders. The burned and powdered nuts make an excellent dentifrice. pounded and the juice extracted) are used as poison. It increases the flow of saliva. oily liquid with a boiling point of 230° C. but its excessive use is certainly harmful. The buyo. The dried nut is a stimulant. It violently stimulates the peristaltic movements of the intestines and produces a marked constriction of the bronchial muscles which can. The nut is regarded as a nervine tonic. Excessive use of buyo causes loss of appetite. Arecoline is a colourless. be overcome by adrenaline or atropine. However. 7. The tincture forms an astringent gargle when diluted with water. It is useful in checking the pyrosis during pregnancy. astringent and taenifuge. The fresh nut is somewhat intoxicating and produces giddiness in some persons. The roots (shredded. and pilocarpine. Arecoline is a highly toxic substance. As the green nuts ripen.2 Uses in the traditional medicine: In the Philippines. and forms crystalline salt with acids.89% of tannin. It is a powerful sialogogue and stimulates the secretion of sweat in the same way as pilocarpine. steeped in water. The most important of all the alkaloids and the one which has anthelmintic property is arecoline (C8H13NO2). The young green shoots act as an abortifacient in early pregnancy. pelletierine. The fruit in decoction is considered an abortifacient and the nut as an emmenagogue. the areca nut is extensively chewed with lime and the leaves of betel piper (Piper betle) which is locally known as ikmo. The young nut is useful in bowel complaints. The tender seeds are said to be purgative and grated ripe ones are vermifuge.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Tannin is located almost entirely in the kernel. It is also reported to possess aphrodisiac properties.0 Contraindications Not available 234 . Analyses of full-grown betel nut (kernel) yielded 12. salivation. It may also be injected to stop water discharges from the vagina.

63. C. Laguna. Pp.0 Bibliography De Padua. V. Lugod. E. Philippines. 11(3). Las Banos. 235 . I. Vol. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Quisumbing. L. G.. 1977. 1954. Technical Bulletin Vol. University Publication Office. Manila Blue Printing. J.PHILIPPINES 9. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. S. & Pancho.

5–12 cm in length stalked. while saponin in leaves is detectable.0 3. Lok’uei 2. Africa and Malaysia.0 Scientific Name Synonyms Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Basella rubra L. 4. dundula. Basellaceae Alugbati. twining.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. Basella alba L. and about 4 mm long.0 5. solitary. Basella cordifolia Lam. and purple when mature. grana. Starch in leaves is detectable and in stems abundant.. 236 .. The stems are green or purplish. tapering to a pointed tip. The leaves are somewhat fleshy. ilaibakir. The fruit is fleshy. It also occurs in tropical Asia. smooth.0 Propagation : Seed and stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is widely cultivated and found at low and midland elevations throughout the Philippines. 6. arogbati. Basella lucida L. The spikes are axillary. and cordate at the base. The flowers are pink. ovoid or nearly spherical. It is certainly not a native of the archipelago but is a prehistoric introduction. 5–6 mm in length. libato.0 The plant is a succulent. herbaceous vine reaching a length of several meters. branched.0 Chemical Constituents Histochemical test analysis indicates that calcium oxalate in leaves is abundant and in stems detectable. malabar nightshade. and 5–29 cm in length. stalkless. ovate or heartshaped.

66. J. I. It is useful in treating gonorrhea and balanitis.0 Bibliography De Padua. S. L. The sap is used to anoint any part of the body affected by acne to reduce irritation. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. and as a poultice to reduce local swelling.PHILIPPINES 7. G.2 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available Uses in traditional medicine: The roots are employed as rubefacient. 1981. The leaves are reduced to a pulp and applied to boils. ulcers and abscesses to hasten suppuration. It is demulcent. A decoction of the leaves is a good laxative for pregnant women and children. 8. diuretic and emollient. Quisumbing. Technical Bulletin Vol. Lugod. thoroughly rubbed and mixed with butter.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. V. Manila Blue Printing. Philippines. C. University Publication Office.0 Contraindications Not available 9. The juice of the leaves together with sugar is useful in catarrhal infections in children. E. & Pancho. 237 . It makes wholesome and is most easily digested and acts as a mild laxative. The fruit is used as rouge for the cheeks and lips and also as a dye. Vol. 5(2). The juice from the leaves.1 7.. The leaves are considered good maturation as cataplasm. is a soothing and cooling application for burns and scalds. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. The mucilaginous liquid obtained from the leaves and tender stalks of this plant is a popular remedy for habitual headaches. Las Banos. 1954. Laguna. Pp.

0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is usually planted around towns throughout the Philippines.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 238 . Bixaceae Achuete.0 2. atsuite. 8–20 cm long. slender.0 5. 4–6 cm in diameter. more or less cordate. base broad.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Flowers white to pinkish. 4–6 m high.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Bixa orellana L.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. dark red seeds. entire. 5–12 cm wide. rather soft spines and containing many small. sotis (Philippines) A tree. apex acuminate. green or reddish purple. asuite. 6.0 3. Leaves ovate. It is a native of tropical America and is now pantropic in cultivation.0 Chemical Composition: Tannin. about 4 cm long. fats and calcium oxalate 7. 4. achiti. covered with long. Capsules ovoid or subglobose. saponin.

S. Decoction of the bark is employed in febrile catarrhs. G. Bureau of Printing. to relieve period pain and stomach-ache.asp . The seed is an efficient remedy for certain skin diseases. J. Dye from this plant mixed with lime is applied externally in treating erysipelas. Las Banos.PHILIPPINES 7. Vol. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Handbook on Philippines Medicinal Plants. E. 1978.com/Bixaorellana. They are said to be an antidote to cassava and Jatropha curcas poisoning.0 Contraindications Not available. When pounded and macerated in water. Philippines. C. V. 239 . 9. Manila. 2.26 August 2003. University Publication Office. Lugod. http://www. the leaves are diuretic. Quisumbing. & Pancho. Laguna.nativehabitat. 1954. leaf infusion is used in treating dysentery.. 8.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Febrifuge.0 Bibliography De Padua. L.

about 4 cm in diameter. Native of Madagascar. 6. Leaves bipinnate. Pods 5–9 cm long. pinnae 4–8 pairs. glucosides and calcium oxalate.0 Chemical Composition: Alkaloids. obtuse. It is popular in other regions of the world. elliptic.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It was introduced from tropical America. petals crisped. Introduced into the Philippines at an early date.0 3. clawed.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 240 . stamens long-exserted. 1. 4.5 cm wide. it is now spontaneous in abandoned areas and vacant lots. slender. leaflets sessile.0 5.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. glabrous sparingly spiny shrub or small tree. 7–11 pairs.5–8 m high. Flowers red yellow or yellow.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. 1. 7. tannin.0 An erect. Racemes terminal lax.) Sw. 1–2 cm long. pedicels long. Poinciana pulcherrima L. saponin. Caesalpiniaceae Bulaklak ng paraiso (Philippines) 2. 6–12 cm long.

It is also used as a tonic. Vol. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. The seeds are an effective abortifacient. Philippines. The fruit is employed against diarrhea and dysentery. 1978. Decoction of the leaves is used to treat liver infections and ulcers of the mouth and throat. Laguna.. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. 241 . L. C. G. Root decoction is used to cure intermittent fever. Lugod.0 Contraindications Not available 9. S. The flower is a popular remedy for erysipelas and for inflammation of the eyes. Quisumbing.PHILIPPINES 7. 8. Manila. 2. & Pancho. Las Banos. V. University Publication Office.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Plant decoction or infusion is used as purgative and emmenagogue. Bureau of Printing.0 Bibliography De Padua. 1954. E. Infusion of the leaves. J. roots or bark is employed for colds and skin diseases and is even said to induce abortion.

alangit. tsaang gubat (Philippines) 2. with buds or short shoots producing clusters of leaves and inflorescences. ovary superior.5–2. Fruits drupaceous globose 5–6 mm in diameter.) Masam. hypocotyl elongated. bisexual. Leaves simple.1–0. with 1–4 seeds not breaking up into pyrenes. Ehretia buxifolia Roxb.0 Scientific Name Synonyms Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Carmona retusa (Vash.0 3. young branches hispid. pedicelled. lobes spreading 2.. Inflorescence in fascicles of 2–6 or in a cyme.5(–4) cm. tube about 2 mm long. Taiwan.5 mm long and anthers oblong. stipules absent. 4. green.5–6 mm long. embedded in thin albumen. Japan.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.5(–1) cm long. alternate obovate to spatulate. The plant is often grown as ornamental. corolla sub-rotate.5 mm long. toothed or crenate towards apex with short rigid hairs. thick gradually narrowing towards base. 1–4(–10) m tall. and further south throughout Malesia to New Guinea and to Solomon Island. Flowers actinomorphic. calyx 3–6 mm long.5–4. (4–) 5 merous. Seedling with epigeal germination. Seeds with straight or slightly curved embryo.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Found from India eastward to southern China.0 A shrub or much-branched small tree. with (–) 5 linear lobes densely hairy inside. Boraginaceae Putputai. cotyledons leafy. widening. Ehretia microphylla Lam.0 5. lateral veins about 5 arching. petiole 0. globose about 1 mm in diameter style deeply bifid 4. red or yellow. 242 . white 6–9 mm in diameter.5–3. stamens (4–) 5 with filaments 2. 1–6(–10) cm x 0.

Infusions of the leaves are taken as febrifuge. biosynthesized from the amino acid ornithine. It is considered as stomachic. antidiarrhea and as remedy for dysentery and coughs. glycocides and tannin. the leaves are taken as a substitute for tea. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Backhuys.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Specifically C.0 Chemical Constituents Boraginaceae commonly contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. 1999. 52. retusa contains alkaloids. 8.2 Uses in traditional medicines: In the Philippines.PHILIPPINES 6. L.S. The isomeric red pigments alkannin and shikonin are best known representatives of such hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. 7. A decoction of the leaves is consumed to cure stomach-ache and coughs. Pp. Leiden. C-geranylated or Cfarnesylated 4-hydrobenzoic acid. The Netherlands. and quinoid or phenolic compounds derived from C-prenylated.0 Contraindications Not available 9.0 Bibliography De Padua. 243 .0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.

18 to 25 mm long.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Golden shower is found from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan. and short-clawed at the base.5 cm thick. it was introduced into the Philippines and is now pantropic in cultivation.). The stamens are all furnished with anthers. slightly compressed. The seeds are numerous. erect. smooth. Tagalog).0 5.) 3. embedded in black. lombayong (Bis. 30 to 60 cm long. ovoid. shining. completely separated by thin. ovate. The calyx is 6 to 8 mm long. lapad-lapad (Tagb. pendulous. Bis. The pod is cylindric.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Cassia fistula L.0 2.). sweet pulp. and average 10 cm in length. A native of tropical Asia. and deciduous. about 2. transverse dissepiments. smooth. kana-pistula (Tagalog). and 3 to 5 cm in length. and are fragrant. lax racemes (30 to 50 cm long). The leaflets are 8 to 16. 244 . bright yellow. and dark brown. the 2 or 3 lower ones being longer. bright yellow. Leguminosae Golden shower. obovate. bitsula (C. shining and yellowish brown. deciduous tree. The petals are veined. pudding pipe tree. Indian laburnum. ibabau (Bis. and 30 to 40 cm long.0 Plant Description This is a moderate-sized. Most often cultivated as an ornamental flowering tree and is sometimes planted for its medicinal properties.). fistula (C. The flowers are borne in long. (English). cana fistula (Spanish).ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. purging cassia. Bis.. small. kanapestula (Ibn. on stalks. 4. smooth. The leaves are pinnate smooth.).

from the fruit pulp. insect bites. 1. the former contained iron in a very marked amount.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. facial paralysis.35.80.45 4. colouring matter. saccharose (53-66 %).2 Uses in traditional medicine: The roots are useful in fever. viscient sugar. As reported. A bitter principle was also present to which the taste of the wood is probably due. mixed with oil. 245 . gum. 1954. The root-bark and root-wood analysis results: Root-bark Water (%) Ash (%) Petroleum ether extract (%) Ether extract (%) Absolute alcohol extract (%) 10. E.00. ringworm.17 17.95%. No alkaloidal principle was detected. The flowers are purgative and are said to have demulcent properties.05 %. gluten. Manila Blue Printing. The juice of the young leaves is used to cure ringworm. The tender leaves are employed in rheumatic fever as a mild purgative. the latter amounting to about 3. In addition. extract of fruit-pulp proved to be good laxative. citric acid.0 Chemical Constituents Pulp analysis: 20 parts of the pulp consist of sugar. and water. The powdered leaves are also laxative. In decoction they are given in stomach affections. 8. retained excretions.32 2. and rheumatism. 1.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.21 2. The leaves are purgative. The pulp of the fruit is employed as a cathartic.20 %.PHILIPPINES 6.0 Contraindications Not available 9. heart diseases. and biliousness. and pectin were present.92 0. oxymethyl-anthraquinone was isolated from the entire fruit. The bark is used as dye material. 0.0 Bibliography Quisumbing. astringent matter. The bark and leaves. resins were present. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines.29 0.62 Root-wood 8. they are a strong purgative. ground into a paste. are applied to ringworm. tonic and laxative. and from the bark of the twigs. are applied to pustules. Externally the leaves. 1.52 0. 12.01 8. 7.56 Manganese was absent from the ash of both the root-bark and the root-wood.

buboi (Tagalog). Tagalog). The branches are in distant whorls. Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. bulak-kahoi. balios. and spread horizontally. and embedded in fine.0 3. bulak-dondol. The capsules are pendulous.). usually bearing scattered. smooth. deciduous tree 15 m or less in height. kapuk (Sulawesi).). They contain numerous black seeds. Bisakol). bulak-kastila (Pampango)..0 5. with 5 to 8 leaflets which are whitish and about 3 cm long. dondol (Iloko). and 5 cm thick. kapas-sanglai (Iloko). about 15 cm in length. kasanglai. oblong. gataoua (If. daldol (Bisakol). bulak (Tagalog. basanglai (Iloko). gapas. boboi (Bikol. kapok (Bisakol.0 Plant Description It is an erect. The leaves are compound. large spines. kulak (Iloko) 2. kapas (Pang. Sulawesi). Bombacaceace White silk cotton tree (English).ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. dogdol (Bisakol). The trunk is cylindric.) Bombax pentandrum L. silky hairs. boi-boi (Bisakol). doldol (Bisakol). It is possibly a native of tropical America and is now pantropic. 246 . which are compressed-globose. Pampango). 4. bulaksina (Tagalog).0 Scientific Name Synonyms Family Vernacular Names : : : : Ceiba pentandra (L. kayo (Bikol.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Kapok is widely distributed in the Philippines.

No. 247 . 8. Technical Bulletin Vol. while 30% is palmitic acid.6%.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. peroxidase in leaves and stems (detectable). 1978. Flower decoction is used for constipation. ascites and anasarca. The root decoction is used for chronic dysentery. 7. solidifying point – 29. water – 11. J. 1954.. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants.0 Chemical Constituents Histochemical test indicates: tannin in leaves and stems (detectable-abundant). refractive index – 51. intestinal catarrh and urethritis.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The bark is employed as vomitive and aphrodisiac. Kapok oil has the following constants: specific gravity at 15º C – 0. Pp. diarrhea. & Pancho. The unripe fruit is regarded as demulcent and astringent.PHILIPPINES 6. III. Quisumbing. The seeds have been reported with the following composition: oil – 24.22%. Las Banos. 2.0 Bibliography De Padua. hoarseness. The leaves are used for coughs. The gum is sometimes given in bowel complaints.90%. L.3%. University Publication Office. Laguna. The tender fruit is used as emollient. carbohydrates – 15. E.20%. which is solid. Philippines. fats in stem (detectable). Manila Blue Printing.3. ash – 5. Vol. saponification value (Mgrms KOH) – 181 – 205%. S.9235%.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Lugod. Medicinal Plants of the Philippine. maumene test – 95%. albuminoids – 18.91%. V. Iodine value – 117. When brewed into decoction it is regarded as febrile catarrh.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. G. calcium oxalate in leaves and stems (detectable-abundant).52%.85%. crude fiber – 23.9%. The oil consists of a mixture of fatty acids about 70% of which is liquid. C. Tender leaves are administered for gonorrhea. 67.

0 Propagation : Cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology Gumamela is found in cultivation for ornamental purposes. 1 to 4 m in height. china rose (English). There are many hybrids of different coloured. hibiscus. and imbricate. very large. protein in leaves and stem (detectable to abundant). gumamela (Tagalog). rounded. and 12 cm in diameter. Bisakol. aratongan (Pampango) 3. Pampango).0 Plant Description The plant is an erect.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.0 2. The flowers are solitary. Malvaceae Shoeflower. peroxidase in leaves and stem (detectable to abundant). with ovate lobes. sulphur in stem (detectable). The leaves are ovate and 7 to 12 cm long. The clyx is green and about 2 cm long. simple flowers in addition to a few doubles.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. It is a native of the Old World and is now pantropic in cultivation. axillary.0 5.0 Chemical Constituents Histochemical findings are as follows: calcium oxalate in leaves and stem (detectable to abundant). about 10 cm long. The staminal tube is slender and longer that the corolla. smooth shrub. or rose-white. 6. orange. fats in leaves and stem (detectable to abundant). Bisakol). kayangan (Iloko. 248 . obovate. but nowhere spontaneous. The petals are red. Bikol. much branched. throughout the Philippines. gumamela (Tagalog. 4. with coarsely toothed margins.

Vol. 8. III. L. The seeds. S. Decoction of dried plant is used for infection of urinary tract. J. C.0 Bibliography De Padua.. Flower buds. are given with much benefit in gonorrhea. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Lugod. 1954.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. E. Quisumbing. are applied as poultice to boils.3. G. Las Banos. The red flowers regulate menstruation. Fresh leaves are crushed and applied as poultice to abscesses and carbuncles. Philippines. Roots. Pp. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. Technical Bulletin Vol. No. Infusion of flowers used as an expectorant in bronchitis. The dark red petals are administered in the form of a mucilaginous infusion in irritable conditions of the genito-urinary tract. V.0 Contraindications Not available 9. & Pancho. 67. Laguna. they are somewhat purgative and are sometimes said to cause abortion. Decoction of flowers is effective for coughs. also a refrigerant drink in fevers. cancerous swellings and mumps.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.PHILIPPINES 7. Manila Blue Printing. 1978. University Publication Office. beaten into a paste. 2. bark. The bark is used as an emmenagogue.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The plant possesses antiinfection and antiinflammation properties. 249 . pounded into a pulp and mixed with water. leaves and flowers in decoction are used as emollient. Decoction of roots is used for sore eyes.

tangan-tangan-tuba (Tagalog). tagumbau-na-purau. The petioles are long. taua-taua (Iloko). The oil consists principally of glycerides of palmitic. and borne on axillary cymes. taba-taba (Tagalog). kasla (Bisakol). Euphorbiaceae Physic nut tree. The leaves are entire.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.0 Plant Description This is a smooth. a small amount of tannin. tagumbau. angular or somewhat three-to five-lobed. resin and a trace of volatile oil.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Jatropha curcas L. It was introduced at an early date in colonial history from Mexico. are rounded and are composed of two or three one-seeded divisions which are 3 to 4 cm long. branched shrub 2 to 5 m in height. Tagalog) 3. The capsules are at first fleshy but later become dry. and oleum ricini majoris. 250 . big-purge nut (English). and is now pantropic in distribution. erect. galumbang (Pampanga). orbicular-ovate and 10 to 18 cm long. reducing sugars or other reducing substances. saponin. kirisol. 4. oleum infernale. oleic. and linolic acids. 6. 7 to 8 mm in diameter.0 2.0 5.0 Chemical Constituents It contains 29 to 40 percent of a yellow fixed oil. known variously as hell oil.0 Propagation : Seed and stem cutting Geographic Distribution/Ecology Tubang-bakod is found throughout the Philippines. tubangbakod. purging nut tree. The bark contains a considerable amount of chlorophyll. the apex is pointed and the base heart-shaped. tauua (Iloko). pinheon oil. The flowers are greenish or greenish white. tuba (Bikol.

PHILIPPINES The bark yields wax which is a mixture of melissyl alcohol and its melissinic acid ester. purging .1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.2 Uses in traditional medicine: A decoction of the leaves is a good antidiarrhetic. Manila Blue Printing. viscid juice flowing from the stem is employed to arrest bleeding or haemorrhage from wounds. 251 . 9. belonging to the same group as ricinoleic and crotonoleic acids. It consists of the glyceride of a characteristic acid. 1954.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. eczema and ringworm. 7. It is a successful local remedy for scabies. like that produced by collodion. A decoction of the roots is also used as a cure for diarrhoea. The fresh. 8. while that of the leaves is employed as a cough remedy and to excite secretion of milk. but is not identical with either. and the sap is a cure for toothache. It is also used as a poultice for sprains and dislocations. The bark of this plant is pounded slightly and placed in the mouth as a cure for snake-bite.0 Bibliography Quisumbing. ulcers.0 Contraindications A dose of 1 to 4 seeds is a mild purgative. an overdose is a drastic purgative – causing vomiting. it is said to promote healing by coagulating the blood and forming an air-tight film when dry.and violent inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. E. cuts and abrasions.

1–2 cm long made up of 3–5 one-seeded joints that at maturity fall away. solitary or 2 or 3 in each axil. The leaflets are narrowly oblong. The flowers are pink and very numerous.0 Geographical Distribution/Ecology Makahiya is abundant throughout the Philippines in open. The pinnate are usually 4. 4. sparingly prickly with numerous deflexed.5cms long. sessile. bristly hairs.0 Scientific Name Synonym Family Vernacular Names : : : : Mimosa pudica L. sparingly bristly. with pointed tip. 4–9 cm long.0 3. half-woody herb. Mimosa asperanta Blanco Leguminosae Bashful mimosa. harupai (Bisakol). waste places at low and medium altitudes in settled areas. numerous. Tagalog). sensitive plant (English). 5. It was introduced from tropical America and is now a pantropic weed. babain (Iloko).0 Propagation Propagation is by seed and produced in dense population once mature pods opened up. The heads are long-peduncled. kiromkirom (Bisakol). humble plant. slightly recurve. inequilateral. 1–1. dilgansusu (Iloko). The leaves are very sensitive. with branched stems up to 1 meter in length. huya-huya (Bisakol). both the pinnae and the leaflets closing when touched. torog-torog (Bikol) 2.. damohia (Tagalog). The pods are flat. tuyag-huyag (Bisakol). digitately arranged at the end of each petiole. nearly 1 cm in diameter. makahia (Pang. 252 .ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.0 Plant Description The species is a diffusedly spreading.

1954. E.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The root is administered as a diuretic. The root decoction is aphrodisiac and for urinary complaints. The leaves are employed as a bath for pains of the hips and kidneys. The leaves and root in powdered form with milk is given in cases of piles and fistula. Manila Blue Printing.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. 7. and is used against dysentery and dismenorrhoea.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. given for dysentery and as bitter tonic. The seeds constitute a good emetic and for sore throat and hoarseness.PHILIPPINES 6. The infusion of the leaves is considered tonic. useful in diseases arising from corrupt blood and bile.0 Chemical Constituents The roots contain tannin 10% and ash 5.5%. 8.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. The entire plant is considered as an adulterant and antiasthmatic. The juice of the leaves is used to impregnate cotton wool for dressing in any form of sinus difficulty. 253 .0 Bibliography Quisumbing. The leaves rubbed into a paste are applied to hydrocel and glandular swellings.

kompompilan. 3–9 leaflets on the ultimate pinnules. pectin substances in leaves and stem (detectable). 3-angled and 9-ribbed. on spreading panicles.. white wood.0 Chemical Constituents Histochemical test indicates the following: tannin in stem (abundant). kamalongan. thin. Guilandina moringa L. malungit. kalamungai. kamalungai. with corky bark and soft. arunggai. kalungai. calcium oxalate in leaves and stem (detectable-abundant).5–2 cm long.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. 6.0 5. Moringaceae Horse-radish tree. and is now pantropic in cultivation. ovate to elliptic and 1–2 cm long.0 Scientific Name Synonyms Family : : : : Moringa oleifera Lam. Moringa nux-ben Perr. Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. 254 . The seeds are 3-angled and winged on the angles. 4. malungai. usually thrice pinnate and 25–50 cm long. The plant conserves water by shedding its leaves during dry season.0 Propagation : Seed and stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is planted throughout the Philippines in settlement areas at low and medium altitudes. malomgai. 8 m or less in height. dool. balungai.0 Plant Description The plant is a small tree. marongoi. sulphur in stem (detectable). The flowers are white and 1. It is drought resistant and grows in practically all kinds of well-drained soils. pendulous. The pod is 15–30 cm long. marungai 2. The leaves are alternate.0 Vernacular Names 3. It was introduced from tropical Asia in the prehistoric period.

with or in lieu of young leaves or young pods.PHILIPPINES The bark contains white crystalline alkaloid (occurring in the spirituous extract). is used as an ointment base and an absorbent in the enfleurage process of extracting volatile oils from flowers. The pods have anthelmintic property and are administered to treat infections of the liver and spleen. 8. A decoction of the bark of the roots is used as a fomentation to relieve spasm. The roots have a taste somewhat like that of horse-radish. 7. dextrin. It also contains a solid acid of high melting point.0 Contraindications Not available 255 . 2 resins (one soluble and the other insoluble in ammonia).1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Ben oil consists largely of the glycerides of oleic. and is said to contain the glycerides of margaric. flowers and the oil from the seeds are of medicinal value. lumbago. The young leaves are used as a galactagogue.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. The astringent property of the gum is due to the presence of moringo-tannic acid. which is stimulant and diuretic. The root yields an essential oil which is very pungent and has offensive odor. oleic and behenic acid. The oil is particularly valuable for ointments since it can be kept for almost any length of time without undergoing oxidation. This substance differs from bassorin and contains some arabin. The gum is also good for intestinal complains. Decoction of the roots is used to cleanse sores and ulcers. The seed contains traces of an acrid and pungent alkaloid ben or behen. internal and deep-seated inflammations. and young pods are eaten as vegetables and contain abundance of calcium and iron. The fresh root is regarded as an acrid. The flowers are useful for catarrh. Decoction or infusion of the root is an effective gargle and can cause abortion. It is said that the roots of the tree. The oil. The bark is used as a rubefacient remedy. also considered antiscorbutic and is given to delirious patients. The gum contains bassorin. rheumatism. The root juice has been used as a dog poison. The juice of the roots mixed with milk is also useful as a decoction to treat hiccough. The roots are rubefacient applied externally in the form of a plaster as a counter-irritant. The gum mixed with sesame oil is recommended for the relief of otalgia. and in India are eaten by Europeans as a substitute for the latter. gout. enzymes myrosin and emulsin. and calculous affections. The bark. pungent remedy. Essential oil from the root is used externally as a rubefacient. mucilage and ash 8%. Eating the leaves is also recommended in the treatment of gonorrhea on account of their diuretic action.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The flowers. They are said to have purgative property. articular pains. 30. etc. palmitic and stearic acids. The roots are regarded as antiscorbutic and when pounded are considered an effective poultice for inflammatory swelling. enlarged spleen or liver.20%. The oil is used externally in treating rheumatism. asthma. known as ben oil. and inorganic acid. tender leaves. if chewed and applied to snake-bite can prevent the poison from spreading. The leaves as a poultice are useful in reducing glandular swelling. The husked seeds yield a fixed oil.

. UP Science Education Center. et. Handbook on Philippines Medicinal Plants. III. al. Manila Blue Printing. Plants of the Philippines. 256 .0 Bibliography 1971. No. De Padua. E. Laguna. L. Pp. Volume 2 Technical Bulletin Vol. 96.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 9. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. 3. 1978.S. 1954. Quisumbing. College. UPLB. 34. Pp.

0 Chemical Constituents Alkaloids and glucosides in leaves and stem 7.0 Vernacular Names Plant Description A shrub of small tree up to 10(–12) m tall. sometimes serrate-denticulate in upper half.PHILIPPINES 1. 3.Lam Lamiaceae Alagao. Taiwan. leaves ovate to ovate rotundate.Lam.J. Beer & H. bark finely flaky fissured.0 Scientific Name Synonyms Family : : : : Premna odorata Blanco Premna curranii H.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.0 5.5) cm.5–1. pubescent all over especially beneath petiolate. sometimes ovate lanceolate (–)6.5 mm long.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 257 .0 Propagation : Stem cutting and seedling Geographic Distribution/Ecology Asia. green turning black. with up to 25(–30) cm in diameter. fruit obovoid.5 mm long. corolla greenish white or pinkish white. Southeast Asia. China. Premna benthamiana Domin. Premna inaequilateralis E.5 – 16(–20) cm x 4– 10(13. mostly entire. flowers with pedicel 0.J. 4. anobran (Philippines) 2.0 3. Japan and Australia 6.

1999. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. 1978.0 Bibliography De Padua. Published by Documentation and Information Section. 258 . Masticated roots are prescribed against cardiac problem. decoction with sugar and little ‘calamansi’ (Citrofortunella microcarpa) juice is consumed to treat coughs. 8. L. Volume 1. A decoction of leaves or flowers is considered to be a febrifuge and is also used to cure abdominal pains and dysentery. Office of the Director of Research. University of the Philippines Los Banos. 52. Backhuys.2 Uses in traditional medicines: The leaves are used as diuretic.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. De Padua et al. Leiden. Pp.S. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1.0 Contraindications Not available 9. The Netherlands. An infusion is considered carminative and useful to treat beri-beri.

usually in pairs. cutting and air layering. lampataki (Tagalog) 2. 4. aludig (Iloko). 4 to 12 cm long. The fruit is ovoid. common in regions with long dry season. base narrowed. Calius lactescens Blanco. 8 to 10 mm long. ampas (Pampango). greenish yellow. short-peduncled. calcium oxalate in leaves and stem (detectable–abundant). green.PHILIPPINES 1. Streblus lactescens Blume Moraceae Kalios (Tagalog). buntatai. 259 .0 Kalios is a rigid and densely branched tree growing from 4 to 15 m in height. the sepals accresent and nearly enclosing the fruit. The seed is ovoid. pale yellow.0 Scientific Name Synonyms Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : : Streblus asper Lour.0 5. from Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.0 Chemical Constituents Histochemical test indicate the following findings: glucosides in stem (detectable). bagtak (Bisakol). kakadli (Tagalog). Geographical Distribution/Ecology Kalios is found in thickets at low and medium altitudes. hydrocellulose in leaves and stem (detectable–abundant). or nearly white. very rough on both sides. sulphur in leaves and stem (abundant).0 3. 6. The leaves are oblong-ovate to subrhomboid. 4 to 7 mm in diameter. 5 to 6 mm long. peroxidase in leaves and stem (detectable). with finely toothed margin.0 Propagation : Kalios is propagated by seed. the pericarp soft and fleshy. The male flowers are in rounded heads. The female flowers are peduncled. It also occurs in India to southern China and Malaysia. the tip blunt or tapering to a point.

Manila Blue Printing.0 Bibliography De Padua. 1981. for fever. Quisumbing. Technical Bulletin Vol. Vol. L.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 6. II . No.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Pp. 67. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. 260 . 8. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. UPLB. internally used for skin diseases called “culebra”. E. Bark is chewed as an antidote in snake poisoning. Laguna. on glandular swellings. dysentery and diarrhea. S.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Bark decoction is used for disinfecting wound.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. The latex is applied to sore heels and chapped hands. juice is astringent and antiseptic. et al.3. 1954. Roots are used in epilepsy and inflammatory swellings and applied to boils. College. II.

0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology India.PHILIPPINES 1. Sumbawa) and the Philippines (Luzon. leaves broadly ovate to orbicular. & Thomson Tinospora rumphii Boerl.. about 2 cm long. Mindanao). 7–14(–25) cm x 6–12(–24) cm. without domatia. Tinospora tuberlata (Lamk) Beumee ex K. 4. Thailand. 6. Singapore. Peninsular Malaysia. older stems very prominently tuberculate and producing very long filiform aerial roots. A commonly backyard plant.0 Chemical Constituents Alkaloid. flowers usually with 3 petals. tannin and glycosides in leaves and stems 261 .0 Scientific Name Synonyms Family : : : : Tinospora crispa (L.0 Vernacular Names Plant Description A woody climber up to 15 m long. patawali. sapponin.000 m altitude. The plant occurs primarily in rain forest and mixed deciduous forest but can be very common in secondary vegetation after logging and in hedges. orange. Heyne Menispermaceae Makabuhay (Philippines). inflorescences appear when plant is leafless.0 5.0 3. Myanmar. Indonesia (Java. Mindoro. Cambodia. Lao PDR. putawali. akar seruntum (Malaysia) 2.) Hook f. up to 1. Viet Nam. fruit ellipsoidal. Southern China (Yunnan).

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Handbook on Philippine Medicinal Plants. Externally applied to cure scabies and to heal wounds. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Sri Lanka and India. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. De Padua.2 Uses in traditional medicines: An infusion of the stem is served as vermifuge and the whole plant is used to treat cholera and diabetes mellitus. 262 . Thailand. Leiden. Published by the Documentation and Information Section. The Netherlands. Office of the Director of Research University of the Philippines Los Banos. The plant is a very commonly used medicinal plant in the Philippines. Backhuys.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.0 Bibliography De Padua et al. 8. 1999. Volume 1.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. 1978.0 Contraindications Not available 9.S. Powdered stems are used to fatten horses and cattle by stimulating their appetite. L.

palmately compound with 3–7(–9) leaflets.0 2. Seedling with epigeal germination. ovary superior usually first to locular and later 4 locular with a single ovule in each cell. inner bark pale yellow to bright orange. rarely reduced to one leaflet without stipules. up to 45 m tall. sometimes large. crown often spreading. first ones simple and with toothed margins. upper lip 2-fid. cotyledons emergent. white to blue or violet or rarely yellowish. Inflorescence terminal or axillary. hypocotyls elongated. lower 3-fid often pubescent outside. leaflet entire dentate or lobed. leaves opposite conduplicate. exserted. thyrses or panicles. pale gray to pale yellowish brown.0 5. cymose. stamens 4 didynamous. commonly in thickets and wastelands. seated on the often enlarged calyx. bark surface rather smooth to shallowly fissured or flaky. leafy. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3.0 3. generally with 4seeded pyrene. Fruit. often deeply fluted. 263 .PHILIPPINES 1.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Vitex negundo L. bole crooked to straight. inserted on the corolla tube. Seeds obovoid or oblong without endosperm. the cymes sessile or pedunculate. usually without buttress but sometimes with distinct buttress. a juicy or dry drupe. style 1 filiform. Lamiaceae Lagundi (Philippines). kyaung-pan-gyi (Thailand) Evergreen or deciduous shrub or small to medium-sized tree. legundi (Malaysia). Flowers bisexual. stigma vivid. 4. 2-lipped.0 Propagation : Stem cuttings and seeds Geographical Distribution/Ecology It grows well in tropical regions. calyx campanulate to tubular. up to 125(–200) cm in diameter. 5-lobed to truncate corolla usually with a short tube. solitary or arranged in racemes.

The leaves are traditionally placed between pages of books and clothes as well as in rice stores to ward off insects. flowers.0 Bibliography De Padua. Backhuys. inflammations and sprains. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. fruits or roots of various Vitex species are used as general tonic. The National Integrated Research Program on Medicinal Plants (NIRPROMP) has established in both animal and human studies the wide margin of safety and efficacy of lagundi as a cough remedy and antiasthma medicine. antihelmintic and in the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders. 1999. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. febrifuge. A poultice of the leaves is applied to relieve rheumatic pains. chresoplenol D. and p-hydroxybenzoic acid.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The bark. L. The Netherlands. In the Philippines the plant is applied in veterinary medicine to treat internal parasite. Phase IIIdouble blind placebo controlled trial has shown bronchodilator effect and anttitussive effect. An infusions of the leaves is used in the treatment of dermatitis and eczema. expectorant and diuretic.0 Chemical Constituents The active constituents are probably the flavonoids casticin.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 264 . 8. 7. 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Lagundi is the only extensively studied cough remedy and antiasthma herbal preparation in the Philippines today. General applications are as anodyne.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 6. Leiden.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. leaves.S. luteolin and isooreintin.

.

.

ovary free. entire. Young shoots covered with a tawny or rusty dense. lodged within the fleshy enlarged perianth parts. perianth tubular. stamen 1 only.0 5. Seeds oblong. haat. consisting of short peduncles. yellow.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. puaghaad (Thailand) The plant is a large-sized tree. blade oblong. 4. consisting of peduncle slightly longer than the male one.0 3. The female inflorescences usually irregularly globular. taa-paeng. surface rough beneath. excerted. the males and females crowded on separate receptacles. petiole 2–4 cm long.or 3-celled. It is cultivated for medicinal uses. unequal. apex acute or acuminate. southeastern and southwestern parts of Thailand. Leaves simple. 1-very rarely 2. 10–30 cm long. alternate. irregularly rounded. bark is brownish grey or dark brown and scaly. velvety puberulous. 15–20 m tall. taa-pae. elliptic or ovate. kaa-yae. rounded. mature leaf margin entire but young leaves serrulate.THAILAND 1. when fully ripe yellow. crown is dense. villous tomentum. hairy or glabrous. about 5–8 cm in diameter. Flowers are monoecious. solitary in the axils of the leaves. Fruit. filament complanate. compound fleshy syncarp. The male inflorescences are irregularly oblong. 5–20 cm wide. mahaat baiyai. edible. the cells with solitary pendulous ovule. base rounded or cordate. Moraceae Ma haat.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Not common in evergreen forests in peninsular.0 2. 267 . perianth 2-3-4 parted.

It is also used for alleviation of toxic symptoms and treatment of urinary stones. The bark is known to be antipyretic. and also in treating insomnia.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The aerial parts showed hypotensive activity when administered intravenously at 50% alcohol extract to dogs at a dose of 50.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. and also in the treatment of menstrual disorders.7-dihydroxyflavone-3-O-a-L. splenomegaly. eye irritation. Bangkok.0 Contraindications Not available 268 . 8. Antituberculosis activity was observed when 95% alcohol extract (1.3.0 Chemical Constituents The whole plant contains 2.4. The bark showed an antiviral activity when an aqueous extract inhibited the growth of potato virus X when grown on Nicotiana tobacum leaves at 1:1 dilution. tannin.3.4. quercetin3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosied.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The root is antipyretic and antihelmintic. and used as carminative and laxative. is responsible for the anthelmintic activity. The stem contains 5-hydroxy-2. oropharyngeal symptom from gastroenteric disease. The plant is also known to contain 2. anthelmintic. found in the stem bark. The 2. 7.34. antituberculosis and analgesic. 2.0 mg/disc) exhibited the antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis.0 mg/disc) was effective against Mycobacterium smegmatis. incontinent urination.The plant is also effective against pig ascaris. dissipate hematoma. It is also known to be antidiarrheal. dyspepsia caused by wind element.5-tetrahydroxystilbene. The plant showed an antibacterial activity where a 95% alcohol extract of dried stemwood (91.7trimethoxyflavone. 7.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 6. fainting.0 mg/kg. lupeol.4.4.rhamnoside. lupeol acetate. The wood is antiflatulent.5-tetrahydroxystilbene. nephropathy. any disorders or diseases which cause cachexia. A formula is being developed at the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences. The pith is used in the treatment of menstrual disorders. clouded mind. Root bark contains 5. galangin-3-Oa-b-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-a-L-rhamnoside.5-tetrahydroxystil-bene. It is used in the treatment of skin rash. It managed to decrease helminth-eggs in faeces of both dogs and humans.5tetrahydroxystilbene. distension of abdomen due to peritonitis or paralytic ileus. any disorders or diseases which cause cachexia. while the bark contains amyrin acetate. b-sitosterol. disorders of flatulence and tendomyopathy. and for increasing appetite. The heartwood (powdered) showed an anthelmintic activity against Taenia saginata. the powdered plant is suspended in lemon juice or water and taken orally.3. febrifuge. tapeworm. In the treatment of right-sided thoraco-abdominal spasm and cholesystopathy and as taenifuge. chronic gastrointestinal ailments of children characterized by marked malnutrition and usually associated with intestinal parasitism and round worm infestation. kaempferol-3-O-b-L-xylopyranoside. cramp. malnutrition syndrome in children due to intestinal parasitism.

R. N. I.stilbene from Artocarpus lakoocha.. 32(6): Pp.. Symposium on Mahidol University Research and Development. Shaipanich. & Kumari. & Tanunkat. P. 1949. & Mofizerd. Subhanka. Choroenlarp. & Chakravarti. Chawan. 1979. 52(2):217– 218. P. Chumsri. Bhakuni. 1976. B. R.. R. Indian Journal Chemistry Ser B. C. Pavaro. S. 1955. 1956. Kapel. B. A. 473–475. Pakistan Journal Science Research 7(2): Pp. sonail. 9: Pp. Report on the anthelmintic activity of puak-haad against tape-worm. A study of a new flavonol in puak-huad. W. T. P. V. Nakhon Pathom. 16. C.. Kumari. 82– 91. Triterpenes of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. Journal Chemistry Society. & Joshi. Banerjee. Product Natural Academy Science India Sect A. M.ASEAN Institute Health Development.THAILAND 9. The antimicrobial activity of some Thai medicinal plants. 269 .. Pakistan. 1982. 91.). M. R.. Journal Science Indian Research 19B: Pp. 1–9. Pavaro. Gupta. 72(2):71–73. Lakkantinaporn. Panyathanya. P.. 1991. Dhar... & Towers. Charoenlarp. A. S. S. 1971. 51–53. & Bunnag. N. 85–88. Indigenous tanning materials of E. 1991.. 161–164. Chemical examination of the root bark of Artocarpus lakoocha. (Pharm. M. J. & Chaturvedi. 3: Pp. pharmacokinetics of the active constituent of puag-haad in man. M. Radomyos. G. 1976.. G. B. Suvithayawat. K. G. R. 49. M. Pp. M. Journal Medical Association Thailand. 1982. S. & Saraswat. & Taworasate.. 37: Pp. Mahidol University. 1989. Ibid.. Chauhan. Bulletin Department of Medical Science 27(1): Pp. D. & Huntrakul. & Wamnutchinda. Manmontri. 1960. Thailand. Nilvises.5 Tetrahydroxy. C.4. C. Chauhan.. Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciencies 9(4): Pp. A new glycoflavanol from the root bark of Artocarpus lakoocha. Toxicity test of Puag Haad (Artocarpus lakoocha).. Khalique. Bulletin Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine 14(1): Pp. D.3. S. 1980. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. S. S. 18: Pp. Mongkolsuk. A new flavanol glycoside from the root bark of Artocarpus lakoocha. B. S. 2231–2233.Sc. Mahati. Part III.0 Bibliography Buathong. Kumari. 2. D.. Salaya. A. R. Chemical Study of the Active Compound from the Wood of Artocarpus lakoocha. & Srimali. N.. 1966. Faculty of Pharmacy. February 25–29. J. S. S. 498. and dahua barks. Leaching of goran. Mahidol University Journal of Phamaceutical Sciences. V. Indian Journal Experimental Biolology. L. Kumar. S. & Reutrakul. T. A. R. Chauhan. M. Pongpan. Chemical constiuents of Artocapus lakoocha. The optimum dose of puag-haad in the treatment of taeniasia. Planta Medica. Alexander. P. S. 1985. J. Dhar.

Tiptssiankarn. Bangkok.5tetrahydroxystilbene). Singh. Thantivatana.Sc. thesis (Pharmacology). 1965. Yodhabandu. S. 1985. L. (Pharm). The antioxidant action of 2. Seminar on Medicinal Plants Development. Inactivation of potato virus x by plant extracts. R.5 Tetrahydroxystilbene and some of its Derivatives. B. M. et al..Sc. Formulation of Some Thai Folkloric Anthelmintic Preparations. Chulalongkorn University. Wisutsonthorn. I. Phytopathology Mediterranean 10(2): Pp.4. 3: Pp. July 17-19. Mahidol University. 270 . C.3. C.. Journal Natural Resource Council Thailand. A. & Aareekul. A Pharmacopoeial Study on “Puag Haad” (2. J. 68–78. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of Artocapus lakoocha Roxb. P. 1960.3. & Ratanachai. 1967. Thailand. 211–212. Sukprasert.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Sambhandharaksa. 1985. 1981.4. T.

inside yellow. lateral staminodes slightly shorter than corolla lobes and mottled purple. It is widely cultivated throughout the country. temu kunci (Malaysia) The plant is a rhizomatous herb. bracts are linear-lanceolate up to 5 cm long. Inflorescence terminal. oblong. apex acute. waan phra aa thit (Thailand). bifid.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographic Distribution/Ecology It is grown in almost all soil types but it grows best in sandy soil. 7-dimethoxy-flavone.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Boesenbergia rotunda (L. 4. 5. essential oil. chee-puu. 4. cardamonin. Fruits are ellipsoid. margin entire. ka aen. 5-hydroxy 7.0 2. lobes about 1. 2-ydroxy-4. subsessile. 6-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone. tip acute.THAILAND 1. tube exceeding the bracts. 4-dihydroxy-6-methoxychalcone. consisting of 3–4 leaves. 2 cm wide. corolla pink. 6–10 cm long.0 5. 271 . 4-dimethoxyflavanone. petioles 12–25 cm long. having roots cylindrical. scented. 5–10 cm wide.) Mansf. poh-so-roh. see-phuu. labellum bag-shaped about 2. chavicinic acid.5 cm long. 6trimethoxychalcone. 6. enclosed by leaf-sheaths bearing 2-ranked bracts each subtending a single flower. outside light brown. 2. Zingiberaceae Kra chaai. ra aen.0 Chemical Constituents Boesenbergin A. Shoot leafy and very short. 6’-dimethoxy-chalcone. The uppermost flower opens first. base cuneate or obtuse. pohsee.5 cm. calyx about 2 cm. 2. fascicled. 2-hydroxy-4. bracteoles are as long as the bracts but narrower.0 3. boesenbergin B.

13(2): Pp. Iamthammachard.. S. 35: Pp. A. 1987.Sc. Puddhasukh.. A Pharmacological Study of the Thai Medicinal Plants Used As Cathartics and Antispasmodics. Thailand. dl-pinocembrin(2. Journal Science Society Thailand. Australia Journal Chemistry. antifungal. Panyayong. & Anantasarn. Constituents of Boesenbergia pandurata (Syn. Bangkok.. S. 21(4): Pp. The First Princess Chulabhorn Science Congress I. S.. Inhibitory Action of Some Thai Herbian (Medicinal Plants) to Fungi. C. & Jongbunprasert. O. W.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Further Studies of Flavonoids of the Black Rhizome of Boesenbergia pandurata. A. Apisariyakul. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science). Amnuoypol. 1982. S. O. (Pharm. 23–36. 5. Thailand. & Niyomka.. 1983. Toxicity test.. 8. 25–27 October 1984. Thailand. 4-pentamethoxyflavone.Sc. 1982. Kaempferia pandurata): Isolation. antipyretic.. Special project for the degree of B. Apisariyakul. mutagenic. Effect of Thai plant extract on the Oriental fruitfly I. Preliminary Study on Antibacterial Action of Thai Medicinal Plants for Respiratory Tract Infection (I). & Tigvatananon.0 Bibliography Achararit. Sinchaisri. M. Chiang Mai University. 1987. 13(1): Pp. D. Pancharoen. V. 119–122. antiinflammatory. et al. Laorpaksa. antispasmodic and insecticidal activities. Hirunsalee. dl-pinostrobin(5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) 4-tetramethoxyflavone 7. 272 . Jaipetch. 3. Faculty of Pharmacy. Thai Journal Pharm Science. P.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. E.). 1987. S. & Ruchatakomut. Pancharoen. Thailand. panduratin B1.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The rhizome has antibacterial. 7. Chiang Mai. V. P. Crystal Structure and Synthesis of (DL) — boesenbergin A. panduratin B2. 1984. Pharmacological Screening of Thai Natural Products. 351–361. T. 1988. 3-dihydroxychrysin) (1).1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Study on the Effects of Some Medicinal Plants in the Family Zingiberaceae on the Growth of Some Bacteria. 10th Symposium on Science and Technology of Thailand. 395–407. Mahidol University. & Tantiwachwuttikul. Areekul. 3. A. (Teaching Biology) thesis. A.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS panduratin A. P. Kanghae.

Pancharoen. Reutrakul. Active Principle in Bosenbergia pandurata. W. 29(1): Pp.. & Paovalo. Tasneeyakul. Thailand. Thailand. Australia Journal Chemistry. P. W. Ultee. 1980. The Ethereal Oil of Gastrochilus panduratum.. 39–51. Bangkok. V. & Itthipanichpong.7-Dimethoxyflavone Isolated from Boesenbergia pandurata Extract in Albino Rats. Pachotilarn. Tankeyoon. Crystal Structure of (+) — E.THAILAND Mahidol. T. 455–459. Suthienkul.. Chula Medical Journal. Suphat. Proceedings Academy Science Amsterdam. pg 77. Journal Science Society Thailand..l [5-hydroxy-7’-methoxy-2-methyl=2-(-4-methylpent-3-enyl)2’H-l-benzopyran-6’—YL]-3-Phenylprop-en-l-one. C. 31: Pp. 301–311. thesis. P. Tuntiwachwuttikul. 36: Pp. Chulatongkorn University. 1928. 40(3): Pp. D. A. C.. Jaipetch. S. 1985. 1984. et al. Abstract 4thAsian Symposium Medicinal Plants Spices. 1957. 1964. 527–530. 62–64. 1988. Food Cosmet Toxicology 120: Pp. P. Diastereomers of [17-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbut-2(4-methylpent3-enyl)-2H-chromen-8-yl] [3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6-phenylcyclohex-3-enyl] methanone (panduratin B) a Constituent of the Red Rhizomes of a Variety of Boesenbergia pandurata. Tuntiwachwuttikul. A. Chiangmai University. P. Taylor. 1982. M. The Essential Oil from Gastrochilus panduratum. P. M.. thesis. Ridl. A. Verslag Academy Wetenschappen Amsterdam. J.Sc.. C. Ridl. A. Ultee. Chemical Constituents of Bosenbergia pandurata. M. Constituents of the Zingiberaceae. 15–19 September 1980. 273 . C. S. & Reutrakul.Sc. V.. 1987. Thamaree. Kelvin. 1262–1264. Mutagenicity screening of popular Thai spices. Ungsurngsie. Kanghae. Thailand. X. C. 14: Pp. Constituents of the Zingiberaceae. Study on Anti-inflammatory Activity of 5. J.. M. Effects on intestinal motility of thirty herbal medicines used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. & Tantiwachwuttikul. C. Pakawatchai.

stalk about 15–35 mm long. Fruit is a straight cylindrical pod. seeds numerous.5–2 cm in diameter. ovary and style are hairy.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.0 5. oval. becomes dark brown when mature. Stipules small and caducous. Trunk short. more distinct on the under-surface. much curled and bear about 5 mm oblong anthers. 10 stamens with thread-like filaments. slightly hairy or quite smooth. upright tree. sweetish pulp. the 3 longest stamens about 3 cm long. turning dark brown and then black with age.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is found in mixed deciduous forests and cultivated for ornamental purpose throughout the country. 274 . about 10–15 m tall. ash-coloured when young. egg-shaped and distinctly veined. rachis about 15–25 cm long.0 3. the 3 remaining stamens are quite short and erect. bears 3–8 pairs of leaflets about 7–12 cm long and 4–8 cm broad. upright and spreading. Leguminosae Khuun (Thailand) Small to medium-sized. slender. 1–3 racemes drooping from the axil. smooth above and covered with fine veins. shining. the 4 smaller ones are quite straight. and branches slender. 4. Flowers racemes about 20–40 cm long.0 2. embedded in a dark-coloured. petiolule about 5–10 mm long. quite smooth and dark green when young. Leaves compound pinnate.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Cassia fistula L. 5 tender green sepals. Bark smooth. yellowish brown. 20–60 cm long and about 1. 5 yellow petals.

kaempferol-3-O-b-D-neohesperidoside. 8. methionine. The flower contains 28-isofucosterol. quercetin. C. Gupta.. rhein glucoside. antifertility. & Tewari. 76:54–65.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. 1982. D. Planta Medica. 7. 40(3):338–340. 1970. chlorophyll B.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The fruit has antiviral. I. procyanidin CF-1. Chemical examination of Cassia fistula pods. The plant is also known to contain alcohol. leucine. protein. (-)-epiafzelchin. & Madan. carbohydrates. sennoside A. A. 1972. d-(+)-malic acid. cellulose. The leaves contain anthraquinones. chitorin. A. inorganic elements kaempferol-3-O-b-Dglucoside. fistulic acid. Babbar. phenylalanine. P. C.. 21(2):150–155. steroids. Proceedings Natural Academy Science. glutamic acid. gibberellin A-3. chlorophyll A. antibacterial and antifungal activities. N. myricetin. aspartic acid. J. carotene. lignoceric acid. hypoglycemic. sucrose. D. formic acid. tannins. P. Rizvi. tannins. P. terpenoids. alcohol. a new coloring matter from the pods of Cassia fistula. India. (+)-catechin. stigmasterol. S. 1982. sennoside B. The pod contains anthraquinones. P. pectins. Evaluation of plants for antiviral activity. antitumour. xylose D. Babbar. waxes. lignins. C. citric acid. n-triacontyl lignocerate. Protective patterns of different interferons: Possible efficacy of chick embryo and plant interferons against microbial infections and malignancies of animals. D. M. protein. Rizvi. kaempferlo-3-glucoside. I. chrysophanic acid. quercetin3-xyloside. 3-neohesperidoside. pigments. hydroxymethylanthraquinone. hemicelluloses. triterpenes. D.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Joshi. 20(8): Pp.. phenolic ester and ethers. R. b-sitosterol. steroids. Ibid. A. phenolic ester and ethers. The seed contains amino acid. Agarwal. 451–454. antiinflammatory.0 Contraindications Not available 9. kaempferol. & Tewari. S. quercetin-3-rutinoside.0 Chemical Constituents The sapwood contains 1-8-dihydroxy-3-methyl anthraquinone.. sennoside. triacontan-1-ol. A. C. 275 . kaempferol-3rhamnosied. vicein(6. tryptophan. carbohydrates.. dihydrokaempferol. Structure of fistulic acid. arginine.0 Bibliography Agarwal. O. rhein. rhein. kaempferol-3-robinobioside-7-rhamnoside.THAILAND 6. Indian Journal of Medical Research (Suppl). Sect. J. Gupta. 8-di-C-glucosylapigenin. J. n-butyric acid.

D. S. P. M. & Pradhan. A.. 10: Pp. Estrogenicity of fruit of Cassia fistula Linn. T. S. Mahidol University Journal Pharmacology Science. O. & Sanghavi. I. P. P. 40: Pp. Chemical composition and in vitro nutrient digestibility of some of the Tree Leaves.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Babber. N. Planta Medica Supplement. The fruit-pulp of Cassia fistula. M. Katiyar. P. & Sawhney. 98–100. Mathur. Science Culture. 119–123. M. Indian Forest 101(11): Pp. M. 55(1): Pp. 15: Pp. R. 1975. C. S. H. & Ray. N. N.. 1984. Itoh. 1968. Studies on Cassia fistula Linn. A. Billore. L. K. S. A. S. N. M. Vergara. 10(4): Pp. 1982. M. N. Dhar. 232-247.. S . Cassia sophera and Cassia fistula. D. 451–454. H. 1980. V. A. Karim. Changes in chlorophyll A. 56–59. P. Bajpai. Comp Physiol. T. Studies on carbohydrates and amino acids of some noncultivated leguminous seeds.. S. Contreras. S. 1976. 194. B.. (Pharm. K. & Guha Sircar. Bhardwaj. L. Nkunya. G. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part I... 1977. B. Marquina. 1988. & Agarwal. W.C.. 4(4): Pp. Antitumor substances from twenty two Cuban plants. Journal Indian Chemistry Society. & Mall. S. Sangwan. & Chulasiri. Part I.. Gritsanapan. M. P. Chutiyasantyanon. Ecology.. L.. Khan. Indian Journal Chemistry Series B. 223–227. Singh. & Temrattansirikul. 674–680. 21: Pp. 1981. 17(5): Pp..). S. N. Chowdhury. 91–97. Gupta. Perez. 1964. S. M. R. Studies on African medicinal plants. Bulletin Medical Ethnobotany Res. & Matsumoto. & Kekoura. 1980.. and its effect on implantation in female albino rats. Ndaalio. Special Project for B.. Sirikul. Khorana. S. Preliminary screening of African medicinal plants. & Niranjan.. Dhawan. K. K. K. & Khan. Anti-fertility screening of fruit of Cassia fistula in female albino rats. 276 ..Sc. 1: Pp. S. Kaji. Preliminary screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.. Journal Indian Botany Society. Bhardwal. Buntaweekul. & Mathur. S. S. H. Sterols from flowers of Cassia siamea. 8–11. 1979. Ghosh. Indian Journal Experimental Biology. A. C. G. 796–797. 277–279. Faculty of Pharmacy. Revision Cubana Farm. 1976. Semen coagulation a potential approach to contraception. B and carotenoid in summer leaves of tree species in a dry deciduous forest. V. 85: Pp. S. Contraception. Mehrotra. O.. 12(4): Pp. & Khanna. C. A Preliminary study of anti-diarrheal plants: I Antibacterial activity. Study of Medicinal Plants Used for Skin Diseases. 601–610. 1968. Thankur. Wevers. M. Part I. 6: Pp. Kamboo. K... Dhar. 281–286. R. A. C. Indian Journal Experimental Biology. L. Setty. Estevez. Mehta. 1979. Mahidol University. Indian Journal Pharmacology 30(1): Pp. B. Polanco. M. Occurrence of interferonlike antiviral and antitumor factor(s) in extract of some indigenous plants. L....

U. C. Patil. C. 10(1): 10–12.. Introduction. Inhibitory effect of bark and leaf decoctions on the activity of pectic enzymes of Alternaria tenuis. H. & Banerji.. WU. Megalla. U. Isolation of Rhein from Pudding Pipetree (Cassia fistula Linn. Mahidol University Journal Pharmacology Science. Thailand. H. Rai. Chiang Mai University. S. 157–166. Madras. L. W. Richter. & Nair. Part I. 5(3):192–193.). 1958. 1066–1070.. Kurup.. D. & Hauenstein. V. C. 1979. 107(48): Pp. T. and 8 other varieties. 119–126. & Chen. M. S. 1972. Rajadurai. 1957. Journal of Science Research on Plants Medicine 1(3): Pp. Pongpan. (Pharm. P. Screening for antimicrobial activity. A detailed study on Pama (Scabies) with Aragwatha Kwatham and Pamari Ointment. P.. Pp. 1980. S. Hsu. P. The Isolation of Steroids in Cassia fistula L. 1967. Antimicrobial agent from higher plants. Screening of some plants for their activity against Vassinia and Fowl-pox viruses. 277 . S. Quantitative Determination of Antraquinones in Cassia spp. T. Arisawa. K. & Awad. 1980. Y. Chiang Mai University. 41(12): Pp. & Suvagondha. and Methodology. Rationale. S. A new dimeric proanthocyanidin from Cassia fistula sapwood. R. Naokata. J... & Gupta. 35: Pp.. E. S. Plengvidhya. K.. 9(4):88–91. 303–308. Thailand. W. 29–31. P. Faculty of Pharmacy. Studies on the constituents of Formosan leguminosae: III. M. 1751–1756. & Deshapande. Pillai. Reauchianchai. Bishay. Pillai. 1977. S.. Bhanu. G. 1972. Mahidol University. & Beal. Pumsaard. M. 1982. Nayudamma. A. Wacharothayangkul. A. K. B. Studies for determining antibiotic substances in some Egyptian plants. A. Prasav. Special project for the degree of B. K. thesis. & Taworasate. Seminar on Vegetable Tannins. and preparations by separate quantitative analysis of anthraquinone glycosides and aglycones. Y. Rev.).THAILAND Menon. I. M. 1967. Cassia fistula L. Ros. G.. A. Leu. P. M. Sacco. Xeddy. Syoyakugaku Zasshi 31(2): Pp. H. thesis. K. V.. P. Researches on Cassia fistula of Somaliland. B. A study of diagnostic constants of leaves of some members in genus Cassia. 1962. Indian Journal Experimental Biology. N.Sc. H. Quryamatity. Benth. Third Series. & Seti. W. Chumsri. Mitscher.Sc. On the flavonoids from Leucaena glauca (I). extracts.. 55–61. L.Sc. 21:626–628. Deut Apoth-Ztg. Bathala. V. R. M. 52: Pp. Chemical quantitative determination of Senna drugs. Journal Pharmacology Association of Siam. Some Recent Studies in the Chemistry of Indigenous Condensed Tannins. M. The antimicrobial activity of some Thai medicinal plants. T. Lloydia. Indian Journal Chemistry Series B.. P.. & Chumsri. Fitoterapia 51: Pp. Nagaes. A. Indian Journal Animal Science.1980. 1982. 172–174.. G. A. S. Agriculture Subtrop Tropical. 1980.

Biol Plant (Prague). Gibberellic acid in the floral parts of Cassia fistula. 1960. A. 85–86. J. 23:397. 1980. 20(1): Pp.. I. 1970. Journal Institute Chemistry (India). Sanyal. N. Ger.. 278 . S. & Dittrich. C. Indian Journal Ecology 4(1):46–54. 5–13. 1940. The chlorophyll content of sun and shade leaves of common trees growing at Varanasi. Vasi.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Sburlati. Dey. K. & Sircar. Phytochemistry. P. The Heteroxides of Senna. Sircar. Schmidt. H. Arch Ital. S. T. 735–736. K. A. (East) Patent. P. R. S. India. 1978. Ganguly. P. R. & Singh. Senna Extracts. & Mehta. K. N.V. 1977. 52(2): Pp. & Kaalintha. Carbohydrate influence on polyphenol accumulation in Cassia and Datura tissues cultured In-vitro.G. Science Farmcology 9: Pp.. Chemical examination of the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn. Subbaiah. P. 143–150. V. Shah. H. R. Singh. 1978..

ki-kia. 2–3 mm long. short. petiole about 1–4 cm long. frequently on lower altitudes. more of less falcate pod. inorganic elements. pedicels 4–10 mm long. 5 sepals. myricyl alcohol. 6. rachis is 2–3 cm long with a subulate. Leguminosae Chumhet thai. lapmuen noi. 1–3 flowered racemes. chumhet lek. 7 stamens. yaa luek luen (Thailand) 3. bracts linearacute. rhomboidal. 4. Leaves paripinnate.0 Plant Description The plant is a herb or undershrub up to 1 m high.THAILAND 1. and 1.0 2. phrom daan. protein.6. emodin. b-sitosterol.5 cm. 2 mm long gland between the 2 lower pairs of leaflets. It is a common weed throughout Thailand.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Cassia tora L. having 20–30 seeds which are glossy.0 Chemical Constituents The whole plant contains D-mannitol. ovate. 5 x 2–4 mm.5–2 cm obovate. 10–15 x 0.5–2 mm. broadly rounded apex and cuneate-rounded base. membranous. with 3 pairs of leaflets. nearly glabrous. filaments 1. unequal. more or less cuducous. no-panaa-noe. 5 petals. chrysophanic acid. chumhet khwaai. Flowers axillary. chumhet naa. The leaves contain chlorophyll. nearly equal.5 mm long. anthers 1. with a short petiolule.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant grows around villages. Fruit is a terete linear. subequal. up to 10x6 mm. yellow.5–2. 5 mm in diameter. ovary densely pubescent having glabrous style and truncate stigma. short-clawed with rounded apex. obobate.8 trihydroxy-3-methyl 279 .0 5. leaflets 2–5 x 1. stipules setaceous. opening by apical pores. 10–15 mm long.

physcion. Dhar. aloe emodin glucoside. Bhatia. The seeds have an antibacterial. 1-methionine. usually associated with intestinal parasitism. The stem is used to treat coughs. chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone. Indian Journal of Medical Research 40(3):361. The leaves have antimalarial. diuretic and expectorant. The leaves and stems have an antihelminthic activity. a smooth muscle stimulation and relaxation. Dhar. 1975.. M.D.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS anthraquinone. polysaccharides. cardiotonic and demulcent. B. Oil from seeds contains linoleic. b-sitosterol. S. Isolation of Chrysophanic Acid-9-anthrone. I.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The whole plant is used to treat skin diseases. Screening of Indian Plants for Biological Activity. It is also used as a laxative. Bhakuni. Isolation of chrysophanic scid-9-anthrone. as a diuretic. chrysophanol diglucoside. Occurrence of phenolic substances in seed coat of Cassia species and their effect on early seedling growth. the major antifungal principle of Cassia tora. D-rhamnose. gum. emodin. palmitic and stearic acids. J. R. D-galactose. inorganic element. B. 250–262. 1-tryptophan. and Vitamin C. obtusin. & Chatterjee. rubrofusarin-6-O-b-Dgentiobioside. physcion diglucoside. Acharya. D. Dhawan. cytotoxic and toxic activities. aurantioobtusin. chlorophyll A. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 7: Pp. diuretic and toxicity activities. carbohydrates. L. chrysophanol triglucoside. M. 7. 1969. T. D-xylose. O.K. rhein. 214. Phagocytic coefficient as a measure for evaluating plant antibiotics. chrysophanic acid. a fungicidal compound from Cassia tora. kidney tonic. D-glucose. 218–220.. N. 7. The seeds are used in the treatment of disorders in urination. rubrofusarin. 2-naphhtho-g-pyrones. Geobios (Jodhpur) (6): Pp. R. chlorophyll B. K. aloe emodin. fever. hypotensive activity. & Clawan. yaws. D-mannose. 280 . acute gastrointestinal ailments in children characterized by marked malnutrition. oligosaccharides. norrubrofusarin. & Rhat. fever. V. The seeds contain alcohols. 1976. Science Cultivation 40(7):316. constipation.. carotene. 8. sitosterols. amino acid. antibacterial and antifungal activities. I. anthraquinones. chrysophanol1-O-g-D-gentiobioside. 1974. D-arabinose. Lloydia 38(3): Pp. asthma. N. toralactone. The plant is also known to contain anthraquinones. Part II. chrysoobtusin. B. & Chatterjee. 1952. antispasmodic activity. and in the treatment of skin diseases and detoxication. oleic. diuretic for neurotonic. skin diseases. K. antihelmintic.0 Bibliography Acharya. T.0 Contraindications Not available 9. M. Broker.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The entire plant is known to have an antiviral activity. protein. B.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. phygocytosis stimulation. & Mehrotra. The leaves are used as a laxative. antifungal. yaws.

C.S. Koo. Kolatat. 1976. B. M. & Li. P. Dhar. J. A. H. W. S. 1978. Curr. & Julkarat. C. Y. 1978. 245. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part 1. Science 45(12): Pp.23. Effect of Cassia tora on kidney blood circulation. A convenient screening method for nematicidal activity. Studies on carbohydrates and amino acids of some noncultivated leguminous seeds. III. Desai. Indian Journal Experimental Biology 6: Pp.. & Murty. a protein-rich feed for livestock. Ibid 4: Pp. Koo. B. K. Syoyakugaku Zasshi 18(1): Pp. Investigation on famine rations: Panevar (Cassia tora) seed. P. Pharmacological Study of Cassia tora. Extraction of hypotensive principles from seeds of Cassia tora. & Bhatt. 1982. Y. 1976. M. Koo. M. J. 1951. & Takahashi. B. S.. T.THAILAND Broker. U. Takido. 281 . 1976. K. On the constituents of the seed of Cassia tora. & Ray.M. Mehrotra. & Takino. Agriculture Biology Chemistry 44: Pp. Thailand. 1964.. N. Julkarat. B. M. S. M. A. Journal of Indian Chemistry Society 58: Pp. Katiyar.. Ito. Siriraj Hospital Gazette 24(10): Pp. Quantiative estimation of fatty acids in Cassia seeds. S. Siriraj Hospital Gazatte 25(3): Pp. 1972. V. 1976. Y. Symposium on Antibacterial Substances From Soil. & Shukla. 1968. S.. 173. & Niranjan. 98. 232– 247. S. S. Y. A possible reflex mechanism of hypotensive action of extract from Cassis tora seeds. Effect of Anthraquinoneglycoside Containing Crude Drugs Upon the Growth of Pathogenic Fungi. G. Joshi. Proceedings of Siriraj Symposium. Kawazu. Wang. 434. H. 77. 28–29. N. L. Ibid 4: Pp. Pp. K. 275–281. S. 1559. Ketsingh.. P.. A. Effects of vegetable drugs on pathogenic fungi. Koshioka. 1980. Ibid 32: Pp. & Tada. R. & Li. K. Kimura. N. Joshi.. K. K. Studies on the evaluation of crude drug. & Nigam. & Li. Note on chrysophanic acid in Cassia tora seeds and its removal by different treatments. Kehar. Ishii. N. C. V.. The involvement of medullary reticular formation in the hypotensive effect from seed of Cassia tora. Ishii. C. Clinical Trial on the Antimalarial Effect of Some Plants. Dhar. 631. Journal of Science Indian Research 9(3): Pp. Dhawan. Hotta. 1950. N. 450–451. K. Plants and Chan. C. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 26:175–177. M. N. 1973. Amino acid composition of wild legumes. 1950. 249. Gujarat Agriculture University Research Journal 4(1):60. 1953. S.K. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 1:383. D. M. Bulletin of Pharmacology Research Institute Japan 2: Pp... M. Chan. & Ota. & Varma. Nishii. 1964. Panevar (Cassia tora) gum as a suspending and emulsifying agent.

P. Emodin from the leaves of Cassia tora Linn. I. S.. The Study on Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Some Medicinal Plants. Chulalongkorn University. V.. T. K.. 1971. A. 1978. 1981. D. P. Y. Journal of Indian Chemistry Society 58: Pp. Influence of industrial pollutants on pigment concentration of some Angiosperm flora. Partial replacement of concentrate mixture by products mixture in the ration of bullocks.L. I. Science 31(7): Pp.Sc. R. Quantitative estimation of anthraquinones in Cassia seeds.. Bulletin Regional Research Laboratory Jammu. T. 57. 177. Tripathi. Osawa. R. D. N. C. VII. Chemistry Pharmacology Bulletin 26(5): Pp. Murty. Ikemoto. Studies on the evaluation of crude drug: 1.. P. Patel. Nath. 157–160. & Rao P. Curr. D. Niranjan.. Nazir. 282 . N. V.. M. M. Chopra. 285–286. V.. & Rao. T. M. 309. Oxytocic principle from the seeds of Cassia tora. 1983. Separation and quantitative estimation of anthraquinones in Cassia seeds on column of Sephadex LH-20. Thakore. India 1: Pp. S. 1962. P.... 1982. C. & Dixit. Ishii. K. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 15: Pp. R. Tripathi. Roy. A. G. International Journal of Crude Drug Research 21(4): Pp. Agricultural Research (India) 2(4): Pp. & Takino.. S. 267. 70. Mutagenicity screening of crude drugs with Bacillus subtilis Rec-assay and Salmonella/Microsome Reversion Assay. C. 1978. P.S. S. & Kada. C. Pandey. Antifungal activity of some seed extracts with special reference to that of Pimpinella diversifolia DC.. A. N. 365. Cassia tora Leaf Meal as a Component in Poultry Rations. 1343. Chemical examination and biological evaluation of proteins isolated from some wild legumes. Phagocytic coefficient as a measure for evaluating plant antibiotics. Indian Journal of Nutrient Diet 9(3): Pp. Tej. & Ramarao. 1084–1087. 1026–1028. B. 1972.. thesis. B. N. F. M. Y. Patel. Mall. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 41(12): Pp. Y. Studies on the evaluation of crude drug. Mutat. V. Studies on the whole plant and the seeds of Cassia tora. 1962. & Pal. Okitsu. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 32(4): Pp. K. 1962. M. Poultry Science 41: Pp. Koshioka. 301. R. C. Indian Journal of Environmental Health 19(4): Pp. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 39(5): Pp. P. Lohakajornpun. Singh. B. S.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Koshioka. 1977. & Katiyar. L. Morimoto. & Patel. 81. Nishimura. Patel. Research 97: Pp. Watanabe. Y. & Takino. Negi. S. XV. Chlorophyll from the leaves of Cassia tora. 1978. 116–117. 1977. Other Sources. P. & Shukla. M. N. Molybdenum and Zinc contents of some common fodders and concentrates. Manjursree. 1962. R.

Watcharothayanggoon. S. 1976. Hariharan. S. 1973. N. M..THAILAND Patel. seeds. The production of anthraquinones in callus cultures of Cassia tora. Faculty of Pharmacy. P. Antibacterial activity of Cassia tora and Cassia obovata. C. (Pharm. & Chang.. 1975. A. toralactone. M. S. Leaf protein extraction from some plants of Northern India. 481. Plengvidhya. Lloydia 38:131. & Patel.. Takahashi.). C. Food Chemistry 21(2): Pp. M. Curr. Journal of Food Science Technology (Mysore) 1(3): Pp. S. H. Shah. 125. Journal of Pharmaceutical Association Siam 10(1): Pp. A new report of possible source of natural herbicide. M. M. Special Project for the Degree of B. K. 1957.D.. Mukerji. P. Indian Journal of Chemistry 12(12): Pp. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 19: Pp. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 31(1): Pp. C. Pharmacology Zentr 107(8): Pp. Rao. Sastry. S. S. 1973. Tabata.N. Hiroka. New Delhi. Structure of a polysaccharide from the seeds of Cassia tora. Identity of tora substance C with rubrofusarin and tora substance B with norrubrofusarin. K. J. Chromatographic characterization of the contents of Cassia tora L. 1980. K. 161–168. C.Sc. Determination of Anthraquinones in Cassia spp. & Mathur. Shibata. 1968. Constituents of the Seeds of Cassia tora. S. W. P. Crystalline chemical components of the seeds of Cassia tora. 1965. I. Journal of Chemistry Society. Partial Acidic Hydrolysis. P. H. S. A. S. P. & Loescher.. Eds. 70–73. & Gupts. A study of diagnostic constants of leaves of some members in genus Cassia. 27-8. Yakugaku Zasshi 93(9):261. Raewthianchai. I. II. 1 1(15): Pp. N. Some Chemical Studies on Chinese Drugs. V. 777–781. a new anthraquinone glycoside from Cassia tora. 283 . M. 1963. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 18: Pp. Y. & Gupts. Rizvi. Yun. Rangaswami.. Raghunathan. 1972. N. Ranqaswani. Some Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Natural Products. Structure of the New Naphtho-a-pyrone derivative. & Chumsri. S. & Takido. W. Structure of a polysaccharide from Cassia tora seeds. S. 222–226. S. I. VII. Plants with liver protective activities(1). Chrysophanol-l b-gentiobioside. 10. V. 571.. 1964. Varshney. Purgative Crude Drugs. S. Korean Journal Pharmacognocy 8: Pp. D. Proceedings of the Indian Academy Science Section A 57(2):88. C. Singh. C.. ChemicalInvestigations on Cassia tora. Samno. 1251–1253. 1957. D. & Shinde. C. M. 1960. Rizvi. Ikenque.T. Varshney. Poethke. Prentice Hall. R. 37–39. 1977. Rizvi. 1980. 1974. Rav NVS. S. A. Phytochemical studies of seeds of Cassia tora and Cassia occidentalis. & Konoshima. & Rangaswami.. Part II. Mahidol University. Science 34 (16): Pp. & Suvagondha.

b-sitosterol. lupeol. 284 . The leaves have apex acute or acuminate. leafy panicle. pubescence on the nerves. Leaves are simple.) Lindau Acanthaceae Phayaa yo. Each flower has calyx densely patently glandular-pubescent. 2. stigmasterol. rounded or truncate often oblique. corolla glandularpubescent. stamens 2.0 3. The leaves contain lupeol.5 cm. about 3. having style filiform.0 2. combined into a large lax. Ovary is compressed. dull red with green base. Phayaa plong kham. solid stalk. b-sitosterol. more or less appressed against the upper lip. inserted in the throat. Phayaa plong thong. 6. 4seeded (B2. narrowly elliptic oblong or lanceolate. about 1 cm long. lower lip (turned upwards) with yellow streaks. f. stigmasterol. basally contracted into a short.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. Phak lin khiat. B38).0 Chemical Constituents Roots contain betulin.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is cultivated and found in deciduous forests. obtuse. shortly bidentate. 2 ovules in each cell.5–1.5–13 cm long. base cuneate. Phak man kai. opposite. 0. often terminating with drooping horizontal branches but themselves erect. petiole 3–15 mm long. cymes 5–8 flowered.0 5. margin exsculptate-dentate or subentire. Pho-so-chaang (Thailand) The plant is a shrub 1–3 m high with pubescent branches. 2-celled. Flowers are in dense cymes at the top of the branches and their branchlets. apically sordidly yellow or greenish yellow.5 cm wide. and flavonoid compound. 4. subsecund. Capsule is oblong.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.

W. 1989. S. The effect of slaed pang porn (Clinacanthus nutans) on Thailand cobra venom (Naja Naja siamensis). Chemical Study of the Antiinflammatory Agents from the Leaves of Phayaa Plong Thong (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau). Mahidol University. R.. Adchariya. Dampawan. K. 1976. Studies on the chemical constituents of Niu Xu Hua (Clinacanthus nutans). M. Faculty of Science. 249– 254. Studies of the Chemical Constituents of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.. The extract accelerated wound healing and lowered the inflammation activity. Faculty of Science. U. P. Faculty of Pharmacy. M. 337–338. Faculty of Science. Workshop “Pharmacist and Development of Medicinal Plants”. J. and Naja Naja siamensis venom. Herpes zoster and Apthous Ulcer with Clinacanthus nutans. & Yu. thesis.0 Bibliography Cherdchu. 1977.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The leaves are effective against snake venom. 1984. thesis. Zhongcaoyao 14 (8): Pp. Thai Journal of Pharmacology Science 2(6): Pp. S. thesis. The absence of antagonism between extracts of Clinacanthus nutans Burm. Li. 285 .340.. Chuakul.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Thongharb. 1986. & Teijasen. thesis. Tanasomwang. & Patanabanangkoon. Clinical Trials on the Treatment of Herpes simplex. J. Kittisiripornlul. 8. Mahidol University. Fresh leaves are pounded with arrack and used as poultice over burns. M. The Antiinflammatory Action and Toxicological Studies of Extract From Clinacanthus nutans.Sc. Patanabanangkoon. 1977. Mahidol University. (Zingiberaceae). 1986. 23–25 May 1989. 1983.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The leaves are antipyretic (E80) and antiinflammatory. Lin.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.Sc. N. 1057.THAILAND 7. P. The Screening of Antiinflammatory Action of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau: A Critical Evaluation of Carrageenan Induced Hind Paw Edema Model.. Poopyruchpong. Mahidol University. M.Sc. 7. It is effective against aphthous ulcers and herpes simplex.Sc. Chotikieat. C. W. S. & Pitiporn. C. H. Journal of Tropical Medicine Public Health 8 (2): Pp.

pouchlike.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. develops from the centre. with 3-lobed limb and white. the corolla tube is more or less funnel-shaped. Zingiberaceae Khamin (Thailand). each locule contains 2 ovules. each with two or more pale yellow flowers except in the upper part. Heavy rain may cause damage to rhizomes. The ovary consists of 3-locules. broad and constricted at the apex is found in the floret.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Curcuma longa L. with overlapping petioles 8–15 cm long or more. kunyit (Malaysia). there is a central yellow band at the labellum.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is cultivated throughout the tropics. rhizome fleshy. seeds are rare.0 3. pale green. the bracts are white and green or pink and without flowers. A fertile stamen with short filament. A cylindrical inflorescence about 10–15 by 5–7 cm appears with the leaves.0 5. It grows well on well-drained loam but clay or sandy soil is unsuitable. light green. Leaves emerge directly from the underground stem.0 2. 30–40 by 8–10 cm. 286 . It grows very well in rather hot climate with high humidity at night. curved bracts. the lateral staminode petaloid is rather long and folded under the dorsal petal. not exerted beyond the bract. bright orange or yellow within and scented. much branched. sometimes with a small crest at the connective. the anther is versatile and usually spurred at the base. the capsules are ellipsoid. having thin ellipse-shaped or elongate lance-shaped blades. the tube-shaped calyx is split on one side to unequal teeth. temu kuning (Indonesia) The plant is a stemless rhizomatous herb. 4.

5-dihydroxybisabola-3. curdione.. glucose. Chavalittumrong.Sc..0 Chemical Constituents Arabinose. essential oil. & Perti. & Chang. 317–327. W. 38(2): Pp. Dixit. Shimizu.0 Contraindications Not available 9. 4-methoxy-5-hydroxy-bisabola-2. Chemistry Pharmaco. cineole. Insecticidal properties of some medicinal and aromatic plants. L-b-curcumens. Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum by spice extracts and alibhatic alcohols. Bulletin Regional Reserach Laboratory Jammu. Tomoda. India. tocopherol. 80: Pp. cymene. Franquelo. Volatile Oil.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Not available 8. Gonda. 7. 10-diene. Thailand. dihydrocurcunim. Preliminary study on the antioxidative components of some spices grown in Taiwan. Chiang Mai University. W. Effect of Potassium and Phosphorus on the Contents of Anti-Microbial Constituents. campesterol.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The rhizome is an antipeptic for ulcer. zingiberene. 97–103. linalool. p-tolylmethycarbinol. mutagenic. camphor. Journal Food Protein 43(3): Pp. 1963. dihydroxycurcumin. Active constituents of curcuma (Temoelavac). Bulletin.0 Bibliography Bainiam. thesis (Pharmacognosy). antispasmodic. & Kanari. and has hypocholesterolemic. Thailand Journal Pharmacological Science. 1983. 7. 287 . desmethoxycurcumin. b-pinene. Characterization of polysaccharides having activity on the reticuloendothelial system from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. zingerene. caryophyllene. antiparasitic. arturmerone. borneol. Total Curcuminoid and Curcuminoid Ratio of Curcuma longa. C. 169–172. L. antiyeast. antifungal. III. 10-dien-9-one. N. It also has effect on the cardiovascular system. cholagogue. & Dechatiwongse. 1990. curcumin. P. S. R. bisdesmethoxycurcumin. M. a-pinene. procurcumadiol. E. antiinflammatory. Indigenous insecticides. T. N. Quality evaluation of turmeric. S. M. fructose. 4-hydroxybisabola-2. H. 524–526. Wochchr. glutamic acid. b-bisabolene. 1: Pp. 10-dien-9-one. M. camphene. isoborneol. Münch Med. 13(3): Pp. 1980. immunological. Chung-kuo Nung Yeh Hua Hsueh Hui Chih 21(1–2): Pp. R. limonene. curone. D-g-phellandrene. b-sesquiphellandrene. 2.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. antibacterial. 1933. terpinene. Choiu. Huhtanen. germacron13-al. curzerenone. insecticidal and insect repellant activities. cycloisoprenemyrcene. eugenol.THAILAND 6. 1985. turmerone. D-sabinene. 195–196. J. N. fatty acids. 1988. atlantone. 482–486.

Studies on the chemical constituents of common turmeric (Curcuma longa). Lebensm-Unters Forsch. Yang. R. 1952. Rupe. C. S.. Essential oil from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. K. 197–198. Indian Journal Pharmacology 4: Pp. S. R. 1986. 15(5): Pp. Chemistry Pharmacology Bulletin 33(4): Pp. Miyase. Poultry Science 9(2): Pp. N. Y. & Amin. K. H. & Rajamaye. 1988. and its preparation by HPLC. 116–118. M. Krishnamoorthy. Mukherjee. The influence of turmeric and curcumin on cholesterol concentration of eggs and tissues. K. Yaoxue Xuebao 21(5): Pp. 288 . Srinivasan. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic separation and spectral characterization of the pigments in turmeric and annatto. Constituents of the rhizome. C.. A. Journal Liquid Chromatography 11(11): Pp. Tanizawa. Keshavar. Current Science (India) 21: Pp. & Plattner. T. Z Food Science 53(6): Pp. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic analysis of curcuminoids and their photooxidative decomposition compounds in Curcuma longa L. & Yang. Pfau. Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung 115(10): Pp. & Rao. Expert Chim. B.. A. Adhikary. 382–385. B. H.. 1971. F. M. Dong. 448–457. Guerere. Sinha. Toxicology. 7–24. S. 1972. Journal Pharmacology 5: Pp. D.. Schnelle Kennzeichnung von Curcuma-Rhizomen mit Dem TASVerfahren. 135. M.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Kelkar. Curcuma longa. Journal Environmental Biology 8(1): Pp. R. T. K. & Rahiman. 1725–1728. 11– 24. B. 311– 312. I. St. 325–327. & Tang. Further studies on the pharmacological properties of curcumin. Y. S. Variation in the content of curcuminoids in Curcuma longa from Nepal during one season Z. Helv Chim Acta 17: Pp. H. & Dasgupta.. M. 1933. P. & Ho. (turmeric). A. Zhao. 153–165. S. Saarbrucken. Clar. l. Cytogenetic effects of curcumin salt on the meiotic chromosomes of Poecilocera picta. & Takino. P. 1934. 1988. Indian essential oils. Karlsen. 2295–2304. 372–389. 1985. Natural antioxidants. M. Separation and determination of curcuminoids in Curcuma longa L. Toennesen. 1823– 1826. Antioxidative components isolated from rhizome of Curcuma longa L . Sikdar. 1953.. & Pandey. III. Khurana. Khalique.. J. 167–169. 1984.. Pakistan) 4(4): 193–197. G. The coloring matter in turmeric. the aromatic principle of turmeric oil. Arichi.. V. Chromatographic study of the curcuminoids in Curcuma longa. 1975. A. M. 1989. Comparison of Curcuma longa from Reunion Island with imported curcuma. H. Journal Indian Institute Science 17A: Pp. R. Mukherjee. R... Volatile plant constituents. M. Studies on curcumin and curcuminoids. M. 1986. Mondon. 79(847): Pp. H. 1967. A. Science Research (Dacca. Srinivasan. X. Rouseff. Annal Falsif. 1987. J. N. Toda. L. II. Part 17. Zhongcaoyao. R. 189(2): Pp. Tumerone.

ian don. bracts are triangular. Calyces are small. up to 700 m above sea level. tu-wu-boh-ming.0 5. and calyx are puberulous and with capitate . staminodes are 0.0 2. tung so. evergreen and mixed deciduous forests as understorey trees. elevated 1 mm above the ovaries. phiak. caduceus.5 by 2-3 mm.5–6 cm.lanceolate to abovate-lanceolate.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant is found in primary and secondary. up to 1 mm long. pedicles. 10–17 by 5–12 mm. but more frequently at lower altitude. It is found all over the country.5–5.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Eurycoma longifolia Jack Simaroubaceae Plaa lai phueak. haae phan chan. krung badaan (Surat Thani). Leaves are imparpinnte. branches of inflorescence.5–20 by 1.lobed stigma.5–2. stamens usually are longer than the calyces.5 mm in female flowers to 2 mm in male flowers. chanaang. consisting of lobes 1 mm long. lanceolate to ovate. slightly oblique at the base: 0. Flowers are reddish.25 mm long. trueng baadaan.grandular hairs. 1.5 mm long consisting of anthers 0. Fruits are ellipsoid or ovoid. up to 7 mm long. tuu-wu-wo-ming. very small.THAILAND 1. up to 1 m long and numerous crowded at the tips of rather thick.or obovate-oblong. kha-hnaang. typically growing on sandy soil. 289 . pedicels are rather thick. Petals are puberulous on both surfaces. Styles are rather long. lai phueak 3. rarely ovate-oblong sometimes slightly acuminate with a bluntish or acute apex. pithy branches leaving large scars. 4. 4. with a peltate 5(6) . leaflets are opposite or subopposite.0 Plant Description Eurycoma longifolia is a small tree up to 10 m high with blackish stem and without stipule. sepals. yik mai thueng. yik bo thong.

laurycolactone B Stem bark Campesterol. 15-hydroxyklaineanone. Antimalarial activity Extracts of the roots of E. stigmasterol acetate.in mice at a dose of 10 g/kg. eurycomanol.68 and 0.52 compared to chloroquin). Toxic symptoms were as follows: always in lying position. eurycomanone. dihydroeurycomalactone. The stem and root extracts of E. 10hydroxycanthin-6-one. eurycomalactone(from the chloroform extract) and eurycomanol (from the same fraction that contained eurycomanone) were 60–70% as active as chloroquin (relative potencies of 0. 290 . longifolia were tested for antimalarial activity against a multidrug resistant Thailand strain (12-1) of Plasmodium falciparum. Toxicity assessment An alcohol extract was administered by gastric incubation or s. to mice. scopoletin. or p.01 g/ml). an 34% ethanol extract given either i. resin. palmitic acid. in vitro. b-sitosterol 7. oil.5–5 mg/ml) and 1-butanol extracts (IC50 0.000 mg/kg p. An ethanol fraction containing eurycomalactone was found to be the most toxic fraction.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Root Parasympathomimetic activity Strong activity was shown when the 50% alcoholic extract was tested in vitro using guinea pig ileums (0. eurycomalactone.5 x 10-7 g/ml. longifolia also showed antimalarial activity against P. longfolia exhibited better inhibition of the growth of P. berghei.6-dimethoxybenzoquinone.c.0 Chemical Constituents Root Campesterol. It was shown in another study that an ethanol fraction of E. The highest activities were shown in the chloroform extract (IC50 0. laurycolactone A. deep breathing and chronic convulsions. 18-dihydroxy-13.18-dihydroeurycomanone. in vitro with an IC50 of 4.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 6. eurycomanol-12-O-â-D-glycopyranoside. longilactone.5–5 mg/ml). The LD50 of the 34% ethanol extract have been reported to be 15–20 mg/kg i. which was more active than chloroquin (relative potency of 1. 2.o. â-sitosterol. eurycomalactone. campesterol acetate.o. produced higher toxicity than a water extract. In another study. and 1. 13. stigmasterol.p. than the chloroform or the hexane fraction. in vitro .500–2. Subsequent fractionation of the chloroform and the 1-butanol extracts yielded eurycomanone from one of the 1-butanol fractions.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.60 respectively).p. Both ethanol fraction and eurycomalactone were less active than chloroquin Antifungal activity An alcohol extract of roots was effective against Microsporum gypseum. falciparum. unidentified saponins Root bark Eurycomalactone Whole plant Eurycomalactone.

Chan. 8. faint breathing. P..o. Since toxicity has been shown at high dose. Phytochemistry 28(10): 2857–2859. M. H.. & Tanaka O. antimalarial and for detoxication. P. Mice showed the following symptoms: sedation. K. 291 . T. Sam. eurycomalactone. 1989. Root bark Antimalarial activity Both the 50% alcohol and water extracts of dried root bark were shown to be active against the growth of P. 1983.6 g/kg. kidneys.. spleen and testis.. Brockelman. B.. W. C.000 mg/disk against the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro study of antimalarial activity of some Thai medicinal plant extracts. Part 3 . 1986. A remark should be made that a 50% alcoholic extract had been used in the experimental study while a water extract was used in traditional Thai recipes for the same activity. 1989. special caution should be emphasized. Antifungal activity of some medicinal plants. & Tanaree. convulsions and death. In conclusion. male mice were given a suspension of dried ethanol extract by gavage. anthelmintic. O’Neill. & Wuthiudomlert.. Phytochemistry 21: 2091–2093. M. Planta Medica 52: 105–107.. But in rats receiving the extract at 0. W. Thailand 10(3):87–89. 1982. falciparum in broth cultures. L. & Han. Lee.5 g/kg p. J. D. L. the extract caused 85% mortality in mice with weight gained in liver. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci. 7. K.0 Bibliography Awiruthnunt. Symposium on Antimalarial from Plants.. A quassinoid glycoside from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. Antipyretic activity testing showed negative results. Philipson. J. D. Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs. Eurycoma longifolia. Somnabhandhu. M. quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia.2 Uses described in traditional medicine: Root Treatment of sore throat and tonsillitis. Eurycomanone and eurycomanol. as antipyretic. The LD50 was 2. diaphoretic. Mizutani. 1989. It was reported that at a dose of 0. Government Pharmaceutical Organization. Nov. Therefore. longifolia. K. studies on the pharmacological actions of E. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhosa. No antibacterial activity of the glucoside. Thanomsapaya. C.. Chan. Bioactive compound: eurycomalactone. expectorant. Bark As antipyretic and antimalarial. A. A subchronic toxicity was carried out in both mice and rats by giving the suspension of the extract every two days for three months. Streptococcus faecalis. S. H. longifolia are still incomplete. antituberculosis.. longifolia. more studies on antipyretic activity should be carried out. from E. & Warhurst. no toxicity was observed. B. was detected at a dose as high as 1.43 g/kg p. Kohda.0 Contraindications Not available 9.35–0. Darise.o.THAILAND In order to study the acute toxicity of E.

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

Dhammaupakorn P, Somnabhandhu A, Ruengransee N. & Suppakun N. 1989. Toxicity of Eurycoma longifolia root extact. Symposium on Antimalarial from Plants, Government Pharmaceutical Organization, Nov. 1989. Gilling, C. 1908. The constituents of Simaruba bark. Res Lab, Pharm Soc, Gt Brit A Pharm J. 80: 510–513. Mokkhasmit, M., Ngarmwathana, W., Sawasdimongkol, K. & Permphiphat, U. 1971. Pharmacological evaluation of Thai medicinal plants.(Continued). J Med Assoc Thailand 54(7): 490–504. Mokkhasmit, M., Sawasdimongkol, K. & Sartravaha, P. 1971. Toxicity study of some Thai medicianl plants. Bull Dep Med Sci Thailand 12(2): 36–65. Morita, H., Kishi, E., Takeya, K., Itokawa, H. & Tanaka, O. 1990. New quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia. Planta Medica 56:551. Oei-Kock, A. & Kraus, L. 1978. Constituents of Eurycoma longifolia. I Sterols and saponins. Planta Medica 34: 339. Oei-Koch, A. & Kraus, L. 1979. Components of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. II. Lipophilic constituents (sterolester, fatty acids). Science Pharm. 47(3): 243–245. Oei-Koch, A. & Kraus, L. 1980. Contents of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.III Bitter principle (Eurycomalactone). Science Pharm 48: 110–117. Suong, N. N., Bhatnagar, S., Polonsky, J., Vuilhorgne, M., Prange, T. & Pascard, C. 1982. Structure of laurycolactone A and B, new C18-quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia and revised structure of eurycomalactone(X-Ray analysis). Tetrahedron Lett. 23: 5159–5162. Suppakun, N., Somanabandhu, A., Theptaranonth, Y. & Pavanon, K. 1982. An antimalarial principle from Eurycoma longifolia jack. NRCT-JSPS Rattanakosin bicentennial joint seminar on chemistry of natural products, Bangkok, Thailand, Aug 2–6,1982 , p 48. Suppakun, N., Satayawiwat, J., Thepthranont, Y. & Somnabhandhu, A. 1989. Antimalarial and toxicity studies of Eurycoma longifolia roots. Conference of Division of Malarial Control, 3rd, Ministry of Public Health, Chiangmai, Oct 18–20 Oct 1989. Temcharoen, P., Glinsukon, T., Suksamrarn, A. & Bunyapraphatsaan .1988. Lack of antibacterial activity of four glucosides, eurycomalactone and hispidulin from Barleria lupulina, Eurycoma longifolia and hisidulin from Barleria lllupulina, Eurycoma longifolia and Milingtonia hortenisis . Thai J Toxicol. 4: 43–46. Thoi, L. V. & Suong, N. N. 1963. Chemical constituents from the bark of Eurycoma longifolia, II. Isolation of ß-sitosterol, campeserol, and 2, 6–dimethoxybenzoquinone. Ann Fac Sci, Univ Saigon 1: 43–51. Thoi, L. V. & Suong, N. N. 1970. Constituents of Eurycoma longifolia. J Drg Chem. 35: 1104. Thoi, L.V., Suong, N. N. & Thu Van, L. T. 1986. Structure of laurycolactone A and B–two C 18 quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia. Tap Chi Huo Hoc 24(2):7–10.

292

THAILAND

1.0 2.0 3.0

Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description

: : :

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Malvaceae Krachiap (Thailand); roselle (English)

The plant is an erect annual herb with reddish, cylindrical stem, nearly or quite glabrous. Leaves are simple, having petiole, blade 3–5 lobed or parted, the lobes serrate or obtusely toothed. Flowers are solitary, axillary, nearly sessile, 5–7 cm in diameter; consisting of epicalyx-segments 8–12, distinct, lanceolate to linear, adnate at base of the calyx; calyx thick, red, and fleshy, cuplike, deeply parted, prominently 10-nerved; petals 5, yellow, twice as long as calyx; stamens numerous, the filaments united into a staminal column; style single, 5-branched near summit; stigma capitate. Fruit is capsule, ovoid, pointed, 1–2 cm long, shorter than calyx, having densely sharp and stiff hairs, dehiscent. 4.0 5.0 Propagation : Seed

Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is native to the Old World tropics. It is extensively cultivated for its succulent, fleshy, edible calyx and the stem yields a fairly strong fibre.

6.0

Chemical Constituents The leaf contain amino acids, anthocyanin, caprylic acid, a-carotene, B-carotene, formic acid, galactose, D-(+)-malic acid, oleic, pelargonic and propionic acids, protein, b-sitosterol, b-sitosterol1-3-b-D-galactoside, stearic acid, steroidal glycoside, sucrose, tetrahydroxysteroid, vitamin A, vitamin C.

293

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The flower contains alkaloid, anthoxanthin, lascorbic acid, aspartic acid, chrysanthemin, citric acid, cyanidin-3(2(G)-glycosyl)-rutinoside, cyanidin-3, 5-diglucoside, cynidin-3-b-D-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside, cyanin, delphinidin, delphindin-3-O-b-D-glucoside, delphinidin-3monoglucoside, delphinidin-3-sambubioside, galactose, galacturonic acid, glycolic acid, gossypetin, gossypetin-3-O-b-D-glucoside, gossypin, gossypitrin, gossytrin, heterosides, hibiscetin, hibiscic acid, hibiscin, hibiscitrin, hibiscus acid, malic acid, malvin, myrtillin oxalic acid, pectin, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, resin, sabdaretin, sabdaretrin, B-sitosterol, tartaric acid, waxes. The fruit contains acetic acid, anthocyanin, L-arabinose, calcium oxalate, caprylic acid, cellulose, citric and formic acids, D-galactose, gossypetin, malic, oleic, oxalic and pelargonic acids, protein, L-rhamnose, B-sitosterol, vitamin C, D-xylose. The seed contains calcium, cellulose, cis-12, 13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid, epoxyoleic acid, gossypol, hibiscetin, hibiscic acid, hibiscin, inorganic elements, isoleucine, leucine, malvalic and myristic acids, oil, oleic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids, pentosans, phenylalanine, potassium, protein, B-sitosterol, sodium, starch, stearic and sterculic acids, threonine, tryptophan, valine. 7.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The calyx showed antibacterial, antifungal, hypotensive, cytotoxic, diuretic, choleretic activities. It also has urinary acidifying, uterine relaxation, and laxative effects. It is known to have effects on urinary uric acid and citrate excretion. 7.2 8.0 Uses in traditional medicine: Not available

Contraindications Not available

9.0

Bibliography Buogo, G. & Picchinenna, D. 1937. Chemical characteristics of roselle hemp. Ann Chim Applicata. 27: Pp. 557–582. Busson, F., Garnier, P. & Deniel, P. 1957. Amino-acid content of the calyces of Hibicus sabdariffa. Journal Agriculture Tropical Etno Botany Applied. 4: Pp. 265–266. Castiiiglioni, A. 1934. Chemical composition of Hibiscus sadariffa L. and its cultivation in Eritrea. Atti Acad Science Torino, Classe Science Fis, Mat Nat. 69:97–105. Copertini, S. 1936. Chemical and technological researches on karkade. Agriculture Colonial e1. 30:182–184. Du, C. T. & Francis, F. J. 1974. Anthocyanins of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). Journal Food Science. 38: Pp. 810. El-Hadidy, Z. A., El-Ghobashy, R. & Haridi, S. M. 1980. Biochemical changes of anthocyanins, protein and amino acids in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) plants. Ain Shams University Faculty Agriculture Res Bulletin. 0(1420): Pp. 1–21.

294

THAILAND

Indovina, R. & Capotummino, G. 1938. Chemical investigation of some products which can be obtained from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Boll Studi informaz Palermo. 15:24. Kerharo, J. 1971. Senegal bisap (Hibiscus sabdariffa) of Guinia sorrel or red sorrel. Plant Medica Phytotherapy. 5(4):277–281. Khafaga, E. P. & Koch, H. 1980. Stage of maturity and quality of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. savdariffa). I. Organic acids. Angew Botany. 54(5-6): Pp. 287–293. La Gaetano, B. & Bruno, E. 1960. Presence of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in Habiscus sabdariffa. Ann Chim (Rome). 50: Pp. 1357–1362. Leupin, K. 1935. Karkade. Pharm Acta Helv. 10: Pp. 138-142. Lorenxini, G. 1937. Vitamin C content of Karkaddde’ (Hibiscus sabdariffa). Arch Ist Biochim Italy. 9: Pp. 123–130. Minuto, N. 1937. Specificity of vitamin C determination; its determination in karkadé. Arch Ist Biochim Italy. 9: Pp. 383–388. Osman Am, Younes Me & Mokhtar, A. 1975. Chemical examination of local plants. VIII. Comparative studies between constituents of different parts of Egyptian Hibiscus sabdariffa. Indian Journal Chemistry 13(2): Pp. 198–199. Osman, A. M., Younes Me, Mokhtar, A. 1975. Sitosterol b-D- galactoside from Hibiscus sabdariffa. XIII. Phytochemisty. 14(3): Pp. 829–830. Pankajamani, K. S. & Seshadri, T.R.1955. Anthoxanthins. VIII. Journal Science India Res (India). 14B: Pp. 93–98. Penteado, M. de V. C., Minazzi, R. S. & Bicudo de Almeida, L. 1986. Carotenoids and provitamin A activity of vegetable leaves consumed in northen Brazil. Revision Farm Bioquim University Sao Paulo. 22(2): Pp. 97–102. Pratt, Ds. 1913. Roselle. Philip Journal Science. (A)7: Pp. 201–205. Sharaf, A. 1962. The pharmacological characteristics of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Planta Medica 10: Pp. 48–52. Shibata, M. & Furukara, M. 1969. Reexamination of the structure of so-called hiviscin. Shokubutsugaku Zasshi. 82(974-975): Pp. 341–347. Tung, C. S. 1966. The determination of L-ascorbic acid in Hibiscus sabdariffa. Chung Kuo Nung Yeh Hua Hsueh Hui Chih 4 (1-2): Pp. 22–24. Tung, J. 1963. The non-nitrogenous organic acids of roselle by paper chromatogrphy. Journal Chinese Agriculture Chemistry Society (Taiwan). 1(1-2): Pp. 1–3.

295

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS

1.0 2.0 3.0

Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description

: : :

Impatiens balsamina L. Balsaminaceae Thian dok (Thailand); kaembong (Malaysia)

The plant is an erect, annual herb up to 60 cm high, pubescent or nearly glabrous. Leaves are alternate, narrowly or broadly lanceolate, 8–10 by 2–3 cm, tapering at the tip and base, consisting of deeply serrate margin; the petiole glandular. Flowers are large, short peduncled, borne in the axils of the leaves along the main stem below the leafy tip, in many colours from white to dark red or spotted, with a long spur curving up. The fruit is a long wooly capsule, opens when ripe, with many seeds. 4.0 5.0 Propagation : Seed

Geographic Distribution/Ecology The plant is distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is widely cultivated and especially grown ornamentally in shaded parts of gardens.

6.0

Chemical constituents The whole plant contains lawsone. The roots contain cyanidin monoglycoside. The stem contains cyanidin monoglycoside. The leaves contain cinnamic acid esters, galactolipids, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-arabinoside, phospholipids, proteins. The flower contains anthocyanins, p-coumaric acid, cyanidin, delphinidin, ferulic acid, flavonols, glucosidase, galactosidase, 3b-D-glucosidase, hydroxycinnamic acid, kaempferol, leucoanthocyanins, myriscetin, pelargonidin, pelargonidin monoglucoside, pelargonidin-3-O-a-L-rhamno-glucosyl-5-O-b-D-rhamnoside, pelargonidin-3-Oa-L-rhamnosyl glucoside, pelargonidin-3-O-b-D-feruloyl glucoside, pelargonidin-3-O-b-D-pcoumaroy 1-5-O-b-D-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-O-b-D-p-coumaroyl glucoside, pelargonidin-3,

296

THAILAND

5-O-b-D-diglucoside, peargonidin-3-O-b-D-glucoside, pelargonidin-5-O-b-D-glucoside, pelargonins, peonidin, pigments, quercetin. The seeds contain lobids, b-sitosterol, and the seed oil contains parinaric acid. 7.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Antifungal and antibacterial activities. 7.2 8.0 Uses in traditional medicine: Not available

Contraindications Not available

9.0

Bibliography Alston, R. E. & Hagen, C. W. 1955. Relation of leuco-anthocyanins to anthocyanin synthesis. Nature 175: Pp. 990. Beth, S. C. 1958. Flavonols of Impatiens balsamina. Arch Biochemistry Biophysiology 76: Pp. 131–138. Boylen, C. W., Hagen, C. W. & Mansell, R. L. 1969. Differentiation of pigmentation of flower. Parts. V. Partial purification and characterization of a flavonoid 3-B-D-glucosidase from petals of Impatiens balsamina. Phytochemistry 8(12): Pp. 2311–2315. Grotzinser, E. W. 1974. Metabolism of lawsone in Impatiens balsamina. Diss Abstract Int B. 35:1542. Hayashi, K., Ade, Y., Noguchi, T. & SuZushino, K. 1953. Anthocyanins. XXII. Analyses by paper chromatography of natural anthocyanins and its application to the investigation of dyes of the red impatiens application to the blood-red peach fruit. Pharmacology Bulletin (Japan): Pp. 130–134. Manseil, R. L. & Kemerer, V. L. 1970. Differentiation of pigmentation in flower parts. VI. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in petals of the (LLHHP’P’), white (llhhpp) and purple (LLhhPrPr) genotypes of Impatiens balsamina. Phytochemistry 9(8): 1751–1755. Miles, C. D. & Hagen, C. W. 1968. The differentiation of pigmentation in flower parts. IV. Flavonoid elaborating enzymes from petals of Impatiens balsamina. Plant Physiology. 43(9): Pp. 1347–1354. Muller Wu & Leistner, E. 1976. 1,4-Naphtoquinone, an intermediate in juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4naphthoquinone) biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 15: Pp. 407. Pepkin, A. G. & Shulman, I. 1914. Coloring matters contained as glucosides in flowers of some Indian plants. Proceedings Chemistry Society 30: Pp. 200–201.

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Pothiyanonth, P., Prasertwityakarn, S. & Suwakool, W. et al. 1989. Formulation of Dermatological Preparations from Extract of Impatierns balsamina Leaves. Eighth Conference of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Sawhney, S., Sawhney, N. & Nanda, K. K. 1976. Gel electrophorertic studies of proteins in photo-induced and vegetative plants of Impatiens balsamina. Plant Cell Physiology. 17(4): 751–755. Sharma, J. N. & Seshadri, T.R. 1955. Survey of anthocyanins from Indian sources. II. Journal Science India Reserach (India) 14B: Pp. 211–214. Tevini, M. 1976. Changes of glyco- and phospholipid contents during leaf senescence. Planta Med. 128(2): Pp. 167–171. Thungsuwan, S., Wiroonphol, S., Yingyong, O., Lipiphant, W., Phothiyanont, P. & Saipha, A. 1985. Report on the Preparation of Dermatological Ointment From Impatiens balsamina Leaves. Faculty of Pharmacy, Chulalongkorn University. Weissenboeck, G., Tevini, M. & Reznik, H. 1971. Occurrence of flavonoids in chloroplasts of Impatiens balsamina. Z Pflanzenphysiol. 64(3) 274.

298

unlobed or shallowly 2 or 3-lobed on each side. flowers wheel-shaped. solanine. bsitosterol. subcoriaceous. alternate of subopposite. red when ripe. up to 1 m high. the blade is ovate. Fruit is globose. tubular.0 2. maak-haengkhong (Thailand) 3. showy. ma khwaeng khom. diosgenin. ma khwaeng. waeng khom. b-sitosterol. 6. recurved prickles. having numerous seeds inside. ma waeng. 299 . about 2 cm in diameter. pseudoglucosidase. stem and branches are covered with stellate hairs and stout. solasodine and the fruits contain carbohydrates. Leaves are simple. sa-kang-khae. style straight longer than the stamen. solanine and solasodine. tomentose. usually crowned at the top of the branch.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Solanum violaceum Ortega Solanaceae Ma waeng ton. having densely stellate hairs on both surfaces and prickly along the nerves. stamens 5. calyx campanulate with lanceolate acute lobes. 5-lobed. glabrous.0 Plant Description The plant is a much-branched shrub. ma khwaeng dam. about 1 cm in diameter.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is widely spread in tropical and subtropical Asia and commonly found along wastelands and roadsides. yellow stamens in the middle. Inflorescences are lateral. 5-parted.0 Chemical Constituents The roots contain solanine. corolla short. a-glucosidase. The leaves contain diosgenin. prickly. filament very short. 4. 3–10 x 2–6 cm. violet. while the stem contains solasodine.THAILAND 1. maltase. subtended by the spreading calyx lobes. densely pubsecent outside.0 5. anther oblong.

Chulolongkorm University. P. thesis. Indian Patent 140: 381. and hypoglycemic activities. i.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. On toxicity assessment. and diuretic. 300 . Thailand. The fruits showed anticonvulsant. The leaves showed an antimicrobial activity.. The seeds have an anticancer activity against sarcoma 180 (ASC) cells. A. K. M. and are used in the treatment of anal haemorrhage. antidiabetes. Amnuoyphol. fever due to abnormality of combination of three of the following origins (Semha.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The plant showed hypotensive. Journal of Pharmacology Association Siam 11(4): Pp. Lohita). antimicrobial. 1949. and mixing the juice with salt. 1988. 1954. Isolation of tomatid-3-bata-ol from the leaves of Solanum trilobatum. 7. The roots have antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities..0 Report on Medicinal Usages: 7. as cholagogue.2 Uses in traditional medicine: It is taken as an anticough by chewing the fruits and taking only the juice. as tonic and antituberculosis. Karunyavanich. M. 490–504. Sawasdimongkol. Tasnawijitwongs. Pitta. Thailand 54(7): Pp. 1976. used in the treatment of anal haemorrhage. W. as expectorant and anticough. 23–36.0 mg/kg. Ngarmwathana. antitumour. 1979.. an LD50 of the 50% ethanol extract of entire plant was 900. in mice. Pharmacological evaluation of Thai medicinal plants. University.0 Bibliography Hong Vareewatana. & Narayanaswami. used in the treatment of coughs. C. V. Purushothaman. 151–158. CNS depressant activities. Kamdao. 1975. Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 13(1): Pp. & Suvagondha.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Mokkhasmit. Wata. Bangkok. dry throat and coughs. expectorant. S.Sc. or by pounding the fruits to obtain the juice. anticonvulsant. 8. Journal of Medical Association. M. Chiangmai. Study on the Alleged Hypoglycemic Activity of Solanum sanitwongsei Craib and Solanum trilobatum L. & Permphiphat. V. Chemical and Biochemical Studies of Antidiabetic Drugs in Some Plants. & Jongbunprasert. Thailand. U. U. Preliminary study on antibacterial action of Thai medicinal plants for respiratory tract infection (I) . K. Little information about its toxicity and no information is available to support its claimed antitussive effect. S.p. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science. Laorpaksa. thesis (Chemistry) Chiangmai. K. Primary investigation for the insulin-like constituent of Mawaeang’s Berries.Sc.

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it can be collected twice or three times a year. 6. corolla glabrous.VIET NAM 1. In the north. increasing slightly in size from the base. standard broad. especially in the coastal areas from Quang Binh to Ninh Thuan provinces. where it grows vigorously in the rainy season from June to October. young twigs slender. polished bright scarlet with black patch. Leaves paripinnate. 4.0 2. alternate. me-abrusgenate and abrusgenic acid. The whole plant contains the triterpenoids: abruslactone A.25 and 10% respectively.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Abrus precatarius occurs at lowland to medium altitude (hill). it is winter deciduous. ovary villous. 3–6 long. base rounded.0 Chemical Constituents The roots and leaves have been reported to contain glycyrrhizin at a percentage of 1. Inflorescence in axillary and terminal peduculate raceme. chi chi Evergreen perennial twine. seeds 3–7. apex apiculate. Phu Quoc and Con Dao islands.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Abrus precatorius L. thinly pubescent. 303 . Fabaceae Cam thao day. It can not tolerate droughts to some extent when growing in poor coastal soil together with other shrubs. thin silky on both sides. stamens 9–10 monodelphous.0 5. leaflets 8–15 pairs. with a sharp deflected beak. oblong-linear. Pod turgid. dark green above. calyx campanulate villous outside. anthers oblong.0 3. unguiculate wings linear. but behaves as an evergreen in the south. opposite. 5–10 cm long. covered with sparse. flowers pink closely clustered. pale glaucous beneath. Owing to good regenerative capacity after being cut.

The daily oral dose is 8–16 g in the form of a decoction. precatorin. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. The seeds also yield carbohydrates (9.91%).). 8. brassicasterol. an alkaloid: 1-abrin. 7.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS The seeds contain a toxalbumin: abrin. squalene and ß-cholanis acid. urease. 304 .0 Contraindications Not available 9. abralin (a glucoside) and fatty oil (6%). Ha Noi. The seeds are also used in veterinary medicine as purgative. N-dimethyl tryptophan methyl ester. the sterols: stigmasterol. The seed coat contains a coloured compound. (Eds. aphrodisiac and to cure nervous troubles in animals.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The whole plant and leaves are employed for the cure of coughs and cold and to counteract intoxication.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. modulate other drugs and relieve jaundice derived from viral hepatitis. Viet Nam 1999. hypaphorine. cycloartenol.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. Science and Technology Publishing House. haemoglutinin. vomitory.0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. trigonelline. abarnin (lanthocyane monoglucoside). Le Van Truyen et al. N. Volume 1.

The plant is hygrophilous and can be slightly shade-enduring. stamens numerous clustered on a column hairy at the base. sheds its leaves in winter or in dry season. carpels usually 20. ß-sitosterol. 305 . co to ep Perennial shrub. The roots contain fatty oil. glabrous. stearic. It is frequently mixed with other shrubs around villages and on hillsides. glaucous beneath. sepals triangular. oleic. cineole. elemene. dull black. stipules filiform. base cordate. caryophyllene. 6. ß-amyrin and an unidentified alkaloid. 4. farnesol and borneol. geranyl acetate. petals cuneiform. linoleic and linolenic acids.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Abutilon indicum (L) Sweet Malvaceae Coi xay.5 m high. jointed near the top. 1–1.0 Chemical Constituents The leaves contain mucilaginous substances. geraniol. stems cylindrical and hairy.VIET NAM 1. with a small acute point. it is deciduous and grows vigorously in summer. eudesmol. Leaves alternate. solitary in the axils of the leaves. In the mountains.0 3. main nerves 5–7. The plant yields essential oil consisting of ßpinene. dark brown.0 2. Flower yellow. long-petioled.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Abutilon indicum occurs wild from lowlands to mountains. grayish. The seed contains the glycerides of palmitic. pedicel long. caryophyllene oxide. villous inside. apex acute. margins toothed. Fruit consists of many capsules separately radiated as a rice-hulling mill. seed reniform. pubescent on both sides.0 5. calyx tomentose outside. capsules hairy.

Volume 1. 8. It is used on its own or in combination with other drugs. The juice extracted from pounded fresh leaves and seed is taken orally on furunculous and snake-bites and the residue is used as poultice. The preparation is taken daily in dose of 5–10 g of dry or 10–40 g of fresh materials. It induces hypothermia in treated animals. A. indicum is used to treat influenza.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.0 Contraindication: Not available 9. coryza. indicum Adenosma cacruleum and Prenma integrifolia L. headache and dysuria. indicum exhibits a pronounced effect on the central nervous system. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam.).1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The alcohol extract of A. Le Van Truyen et al. 7. is used for postpartum jaundice. 306 . Ha Noi. It also exhibits a marked inflammation inhibitory effect in kaolin-induced rat paw oedema. (Eds. Viet Nam 1999.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. A decoction of dried leaves of A.0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. Science and Technology Publishing House.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In Vietnamese traditional medicine.

It often grows in clusters on rocky forest edges.5 cm long. 2–6 cm long. sparsely spiny.0 3.17 – dihydroxykauran – 19 oic acid and saponins. palmifoliate. Acanthopanax gracilistylus is listed in the Red Data Book of Viet Nam for conservation.W. shining dark above. glabrous. heliophilous and hygrophilous shrub. Fruit globose compressed. a few meters high. at an altitude of 1.500–1. the middle large. and is also cultivated in gardens for medicinal purposes. peduncle 2–2.600 m. kauronic acid and 16a. Inflorescence solitary in axillary umbels. flowers greenish to yellow. Leaves alternate or 2–3 clustered. Bark grayish. It is winter deciduous.VIET NAM 1. 6. petiole 2–6 cm long. margins toothed and coarsely hairy. 307 . leaflets 5 obovate or oblong. Smith Araliaceae Ngu gia bi huong Rigid shrub.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology Acanthopanax gracilistylus is an evergreen.0 5. black when ripe. It is adaptable to humid to cool climatic conditions in high mountainous areas. glabrous on both sides.0 2. 1–3 cm wide. 2 seeded.0 Chemical Constituents The root bark contains syringin. 4.

). taken daily in doses of 6–12 g dried bark.0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Volume 1. 8. Le Van Truyen et al. Ha Noi. 308 .0 Contraindications Not available 9.2 Uses in traditional medicine: It is commonly used as tonic to strengthen the tendons. (Eds. It is administered orally in the form of an elixir. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: It is reported to be antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pyocyaneus.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Viet Nam 1999. Science and Technology Publishing House.

filaments filiform.VIET NAM 1. It is a valuable medicinal species in Viet Nam. margins toothed. Petals triangular. The leaf contains 3á-. peduncle 3–4 cm long.0 3. petiole 4–5 cm long.28 oic acid.0 2. 11á-dihydroxy –20 (29). greenish white.trihydroxylup – 20-(29) ene. diffuse 17 m high. 24-nor – 3á. base rounded. 11á-hydroxylup – 20(29) – en 25oic acid. 2–5 mm in diameter. Leaves alternate.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. 309 .28 oic acid. the middle larger.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Merrill Araliaceae Ngu gia bi gai Rigid shrub. and nerves spiny. glabrous on both side. It is hygrophilous and heliophilous. spiny.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Acanthopanax trifoliatus is used as tonic and effective in the treatment of rheumatism. Fruit globose compressed.ene – 28 oic acid and 3á. It is listed in the Red Data Book of Viet Nam for conservation. 11á-dihydroxy – 23 – oxolup –20 (29). 24-nor-3á.ene – 28 oic acid. It is administered in the form of a decoction or elixir. Stems ascending. flowers small. 2-celled. 2–4 cm wide. back and knee pains. leaflets oblong .0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. 11á-dihydroxylup – 20 (29) ene. 6. 2 seeded. Inflorescence in terminal panicle of 3–10 umbels. In addition other components viz-nevadensin. spiny. It is good for children in early stage of walking. shining dark above. 11á-23. Flowering period: September to November. The herbal preparation is taken daily in doses of 6–12 g of dried material. apex acuminate. and often grows in clusters in forest edges or near watersides in limestone mountains areas (500– 1.0 5.oval.500 m). black when ripe.0 Chemical Constituents The root and stem bark contains 3á-. stamens 5. 3–5 palmifoliate. taraxerol and taraxerol acetic ester are also present. ovary inferior. 7. 4. almost 3.0 Propagation : Stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology The plant has only been found in Northern Viet Nam. 5–8 cm long. male impotence and vulvas of women.

310 . Ha Noi.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 8.0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. Volume 1. Le Van Truyen et al. Science and Technology Publishing House. Viet Nam 1999.0 Contraindications Not available 9. (Eds. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam.).

brown.VIET NAM 1.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Achyranthes aspera is used to treat cold. It often grows together with other herbs in gardens and abandoned grounds. 7. Stems and branches quadrangular.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Achyranthes aspera L. They stimulate uterine contractions and exhibit mild oeterogenic action. rheumatoid poly-arthritis.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. co nha lin ngu Herbaceous plant. the aglycone of which is characterized as oleanolic acid. greenishwhite. The leaf juice is effective against dysentery. Achence. about 1 m high. it produces a lot of flowers and fruits.0 Contraindications Not available 311 . It is also used to expel dead foetus and treat chronic malarial. 10-octacosanone. pubescent. Inflorescence in elongate terminal spike. perianth glabrous. oliguria. 10-triacocsanone and 4-tritriacontanone.pentatriacontanone. The daily oral dose is 12–40 g of root. enclosed in the hardened perianth. 8. lumbago. â. osteodynia. 4.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The roots produce antiinflammatory and thymolytic effects in rats. elliptic or obovate. micturition and urodynia. Amaranthaceae Co xuoc. deflected against the pubescent rachis. stamens 5. 20–30 cm long. seeds oblongovoid.0 Chemical Constituents The root contains saponin. The seeds contain hentriacontane. waxy with pubescent on both sides. 7.0 5. Leaves opposite. flowers numerous. 6. striate. rheumatism. kept in the mouth to treat stomatitis. arthritis.0 3. limbs curling-up. lobes subequal. hexatriacontane and triacontane. haematometra. It is effective against impetigo when used externally. swollen at the nodes.0 2. in the form of a decoction. During summer. They have also antibacterial and hypoglycaemic properties. margins entire. menstrual disorders. utricle oblong-cylindrical. fever. It also contains pentatricontane.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology In Viet Nam this plant is widespread up to 1500 m.

312 . Viet Nam 1999. Le Van Truyen et al. Volume 1. Ha Noi.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 9. Science and Technology Publishing House. (Eds.).0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam.

2 Uses in traditional medicine: In modern medicine. the upper 3-palmatipartite. fortunei growing in Viet Nam contain alkaloids. corolla reduced. cylindrical less-branched.12% in the flower.0 3. It is used in the form of tincture.0 Chemical Constituents All parts of A. Follicles. according to IMM specialists. Inflorescence in terminal loose raceme. including mother-tuber and daughter-tuber. perianth of 5 sepals. 4. Ranunculaceae Au tau. 7. sharply denticulate.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology In Viet Nam. The highest aconitine content is obtained at flowering. the lateral somewhat obliquely obovate. blade glabrous or pubescent. For children over 30 months old. It is effective for sore throat. A.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The decoction of prepared daughter-tubers of A. The percentage of aconitine is 0. tuberous. and the dose for 24 hours is 40 drops. glabrous outside and blackish. flowers blue. it is cultivated.28% in the mother root and 0. For adults the dose at a time is 5–10 drops. seed winged.VIET NAM 1. sessile. 7. oblong and divergent. stamens numerous. 8. coarsely crenate. 0.0 2. 6. the upper broad helmet-shaped. The percentage of total alkaloids is highest in rootlets. Stems erect.0 5. shining green above and pale below. However.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Contraindications Not available 313 . fortunei has blood pressure lowering effect. 5. but caution is needed because of its high toxicity. Leaves alternate of two kinds: the lower cordate-rotundate. ovary 3-celled with numerous carpels. the main alkaloid being aconitine. the daily dose ranges 5–10 drops. A. fortunei has been recorded to grow wild in Sa Pa.6–1 m high. o dau Perennial herba. Roots paired.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Aconitum fortunei Hemsl. fortunei is recommended as antitussive analgesic and diaphoretic. conical.

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 9. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam.0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. Viet Nam 1999.). 314 . Science and Technology Publishing House. (Eds. Le Van Truyen et al. Ha Noi. Volume 1.

gramineus yields 0.5 m high. attenuate and slightly curved. sheathed amplexicaul in fascicles. ovate. Seed berry elongated. perianth in 6 lobes. mainly along the streams or climbing on rocks by a fibrous root system. bo hoang Perennial. petals 3. 0. sepals 3.VIET NAM 1.0 Chemical Constituents In Viet Nam.4–0. main nerves parallel. semi-aquatic marsh herb. Seeds are usually dispersed by water and often observed between the rocks along streams.8 cm wide. 4. glabrous on both sides. Leaves linear. camphor.0 Propagation : Rhizome Geographical Distribution/Ecology Acorus gramineus is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of ASEAN including Viet Nam.41% essential oil including myrcene. It is scattered in mountain areas. yellowish green. bright red when ripe. stamens 6.0 5.0 3. small. 5–30 cm long. spadix cylindrical. flowers numerous. bisexual. cis-methyl isoeugenol. â-asarone and shyobunone. 10–50 cm long. upper apex attenuate acute. basal short and narrow. ovary oblong.34–0. the rhizome of A. 5-10 cm long.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Acorus gramineus Soland Acoraceae Thach xuong bo. about 0.0 2. surrounded by a broad and long leaf-like spathe. 6. filaments short. á-asarone. 315 . Inflorescence terminal spadix on a compressed scape. Rhizome aromatic. creeping. The plant has been continuously overexploited.

0 Contraindications Not available 9. Volume 1. pills or powder. It is taken daily in doses of 3–8 g. (Eds.). and counteracts rheumatism and osteodynia. The active trans-4-propenyl veratrol exerts inhibitive effect on the central nervous system. it warms the stomach benefitting the digestion. improves eyesight and hearing. antispasmodic and hypotensive actions. 316 . Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Acorus gramineus is employed as a tonic. relieves pain. in the form of a decoction.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. Acorus gramineus can be combined with other herbal drugs. 7.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The rhizome exhibits sedative.0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. It improves the memory in alcohol amnesia. and aids sleep.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Viet Nam 1999. Ha Noi. 8. Science and Technology Publishing House. Le Van Truyen et al.

Ha Noi.VIET NAM 1. first pubescent.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Acronychia laurifolia Blume Rutaceae Buoi bung. base narrowed. 4-angled. secondary forests around villages. pains of the limbs. 317 . dyspepsia.demanding and fairly shade . apex slightly acute. frequently associated with other shrubs and small trees in the hills.0 3. Drupe globose. bracts and bracteoles in minute scales.0 Contraindications Not available 9.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.enduring when young. petiole 2–3 cm long swelling at both ends. Flowering period: July-September. fleshy. very fragrant. then glabrous. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. ovary tomentose. petals linear-oblong. knees and back. stamens 8 inserted beneath the disk. seed black. spreading. greenish when young. co dong danh Small tree about 4–6 m high or more. abdominal pains. Science and Technology Publishing House. sepals short. 7. (Eds. Le Van Truyen et al. The plant can grow in different sites and tolerates drought to some extent.0 Chemical Constituents The leaves yield an essential oil and the alkaloid acronycine. fever and coughs. Branches zigzag.0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. flower bisexual white.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. pale yellow when ripe. then reddish brown.0 Propagation : Seed and stem cutting Geographical Distribution/Ecology Acronychia laurifolia is light . coriaceous.).0 2. 8. 4. Volume 1. 6. Viet Nam 1999.0 5.2 Uses in traditional medicine: It is used to treat rheumatism. Leaves opposite. Inflorescence in axillary or teminal corymb. shining dark green above.

The essential oil distilled from flower bearing aerial part gives the flowing characteristics: d25.0. The plant is hygrophilous and often occurs in association with other herbs and small shrubs. flavonoids and aromatic acids.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7. 5-toothed. margins serrate. They grow vigorously for about three months and then flower and wither in September or October. Inflorscence in axillary or terminal spiciform raceme about 30 cm long. Seedlings appear in late spring. 4. petiole 0. A. 40–70 cm high or more to 1 m.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Adenosma glutinosum (L.4705. Tuyen Quang. the upper triangular. The oil content in the leaves and flowers is 1. nD20. seeds numerous yellow. Leaves opposite. 7. calyx campanulate. glutinosum normalized the amount of bilirubin in blood and the activities of SGPT and all the clinical symptoms are improved. In the south.2 cm long.8042.8. 1. The drug is used in the form of syrup. After a period of medication. stamens 4. 7. oval-shaped. fevers and oliguria.0 Chemical Constituents The whole plant yields 1% essential oil. divided into two split doses. it is used for treating jaundice in hepatitis. 3lobed. apex obtuse or slightly acuminate. 1–1.0 3. cineole and anethole. glutinosum is employed for curing viral hepatitis.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In traditional medicine. the lower nearly longer. ovoid. in a daily dose of 100 ml. Cao Bang. all patients taken Adenosum medication have typical acute hepatitis signs. pubescent on both sides. 20+4. 2–3 cm wide. Analysis of the 40° alcohol extract of the drug gave.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: In modern medicine.86%. á-pinene. truncate or slightly concave. and Son La. flowers violet-blue.) Druce Scrophulariaceae Nhan tran. it is only scattered at the height of more than 500 m. In a clinical trial. the inner strictly narrow. apiculate. Capsule as long as the calyx. covered with a dense pubescence.5–1. limonene. pubescent. corolla 2-lipped. besides essential oil. 6.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology This plant is concentrated in some northern provinces such as Bac Can.0 2. |á | D. saponins. A. the outer lanceolate. Ha Giang.4 cm long. Stems cylindrical. Che noi Annual herb. 318 . The main composition of the oil is paracymene. broad and elongate.0 5. 4–6 cm long. increase in bilinrubinaemia.

Volume 1. Ha Noi. Le Van Truyen et al. (Eds. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. Viet Nam 1999. 319 .0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. Science and Technology Publishing House.0 Contraindications Not available 9.VIET NAM 8.).

alisol B monocetate. growing in marsh fields or ponds. 4. alisol A monocetate. slightly. The plant is a small marsh or. Achence compressed with persistent calyx. sepals 3.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Alisma plantago-aquatica L.0 5. fleshy and whitish.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. globular. flat. 320 . umbelliform cyme. 40–50 cm high. apex acuminate. base rounded. stamens 6–9. 25. aquatic herb. Flowers on long pseudostems emerging above the water. Inflorescence in terminal. and rhizomes re-sprout in the next spring.0 Chemical Constituents The rhizomes contain starch (23%) and triterpenes including alisol A. ovary many-celled. alisol C. forming a rosette. Leaves wither after fruit-ripening in June or July.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology In Viet Nam. hermaphrodite. nerves 5–7. ma de nuoc Marsh herb.0 2. entire. blade oval-shaped or ovate.0 3. petals 3. Leaves long-petioled and sheathed. 6. epialisol A. alisol C acetate. scape reaching 1 m long. 24-acetylalisol A.acetyl alisol B. flowers white or rosy. 23-acetyl alisol C. Its rhizomes are submerged in the mud. undulate. alisol B. this plant is grows in the north. curved. Rhizome stout. persistent in fruit. Alismataceae Trach ta.

). Ha Noi. It is likewise prescribed as antidiabetic and a galactagogue in hypogalactia. (Eds.aquatica is used as diuretic.0 Reports on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Bibliography National Institute of Materia Medica Ha Noi. plantago . It is beneficial for treating oliguria. urodynia and oedema in nephritis and urinary lithiasis. The drug is also effective against headache. dizziness. 7. A. Le Van Truyen et al. Selected Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam. dry mouth and thirst.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: The plant is reported to be diuretic. Science and Technology Publishing House.2 Uses in traditional medicine: In traditional medicine. 8. hypocholesterolaemic and antiatherosclerosis. 321 . Volume 1. hypotensive and hypoglycaemic. antilipidosis.VIET NAM 7.0 Contraindications Not available 9. dysuria. Viet Nam 1999.

1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 322 .0 2. Furnished with short.0 3. smooth.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1.0 Chemical Constituents The wood of the tree contains 13% oil.0 Propagation : Seed Geographic Distribution/Ecology It is found mostly in Viet Nam. Crown open. lower surface light-coloured. 7. Terpinen-ol 11% and cinnamic acid. and abundantly in primary and secondary forests on typical ferralitic soils with shallow to moderately deep surface layers. obovoid. with a diameter of 40–50 cm. The main components are benzylacetone (26%). Bark grayish brown.0 5. hard when dry. upper surface glossy and green. Lao PDR and Cambodia. oval. 4 x 3 cm in size. 15–20 cm high. 6. easy to peel off. fruit a capsule. inner bark with much water.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lacomte Thymelaeaceae Tram huong. do bau A large evergreen. 4. Metoxybenzylaceton (53%). grayish yellow hairs and persisient calyx. Leaves corracears. Inflorescence yellow.

VIET NAM 7.0 Bibliography Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. 2. Technology & Environment. Agricultural Publishing House. asthma. Medicinal Plants and Pharmaceutical Prescriptions of Viet Nam. 8.0 Contraindication: Not available 9. 323 . chest-ache and stomach-ache. Loi. 1995. 1996. 1996. Science and Technics Publishing House. Ha Noi.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The species is used as antiemetic and diuretic and to treat sedative palpitation. D. Plants. T. Ha Noi. Viet Nam Forest Trees. Red Data Book of Viet Nam. Ministry of Science. Science and Technological Publishing House. Vol.

ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 1. Male inflorescence axillary. Loi. sepals 3. T.0 2. Medicinal Plants and Pharmaceutical Prescriptions of Viet Nam. 20–25 m high and 30 cm in diameter. Leaves big sized. brown-yellow tomentose on the veins beneath 10–12 pairs. upper surface glabrous when mature. Moraceae Chay bac bo (Viet Nam) A small or medium tree.0 Chemical Constituents Bark and root contain tannin. tomentose on the surface. 7. tomentose. Viet Nam Forest Trees. stamen 1. stipules small. rheumatism and arthritis. 4.0 3. Leaves and roots are used for backache. base obtuse. D. obovate.0 Propagation : Seed Geographic Distribution/Ecology It is distributed in the northern part of Viet Nam and Lao PDR. style extruded from 5 small holes.2 Uses in traditional medicine: Root and bark are chewed with betel for maintaining healthy teeth. laxly arranged with peltate bracts. petiole slender.0 5. Female inflorescence obovate.0 Contraindications Not available 9. Bark graybrown. slightly curved. 2 cm long. evident beneath. 20–25 cm long and 9–12 cm wide. Flowers numerous.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7.0 Report on Medical Usage 7. then glabrous. 12–20 mm long and 8–12 mm wide. Agricultural Publishing House. inner bark pink with milky sap. tomentose. peducle slender. ablong. Ha Noi. 10–15 mm long. 324 . Science and Technological Publishing House. apex mucronate. 8. Twigs yellow-brown. 6.0 Bibliography Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. crown wide and open. Chev. lanceolate or ovate. 1996. 1995. 15 mm long and 12 mm wide.. tubular.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Name Plant Description : : : Artocarpus tonkinensis A.

0 Chemical Constituents Essential oils contained in fruits. adas china (Malaysia).0 5. diameter up to 15–36 cm. phellandrene. 6–12 cm long. dark-red at the middle of flower. Illiciaceae Hoi. terete.0 2. pinene. dark-green above. bunga lawang (Indonesia). All parts of the tree have an agreeable aromatic smell. leaves and seeds – anethol (80–90%). crown conical to globose. dok chan. dipentene. carpels 6–8. developed from schist-sandstone with deep. Sepals 6. red inside. poy kak bua. Peticil stout and short. brown. bunga lawang. Stamens 10–20. Seed solitary in each follicle. pink at margin. glossy and glabrous. dehiscent by ventral side. fertile and well-drained soils. 2–5 cm wide.0 Propagation : Seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology Originating from North Viet Nam and South of China. paler beneath. 6–8 m height. leaf blade thick and brittle. Petiole glabrous. limonene.0 Plant Description A small or medium tree. f. Trunk straight. Leaves ovate. Leaves simple.0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names : : : Illicium verum Hook. spreading woody and brown when mature. estradol.VIET NAM 1. star anise (English) 3. Petals 16–20. 4. 325 . Flower big. branchlets green. brown-red or yellow ferralitic soil. 7–10 mm long. poikak bua (Thailand). safrole and terpineol. chinpaetklip. 6. white outside. pinkwhite. the tree can be found on red. Bark grey-brown. usually clustered at branch-tips into pseudoverticils of 3–4 leaves. elliptic. Fruit consists of 6–8 follicles. Dai hoi (Viet Nam). shorter than petals. terpene (10–20%). green at back. looks beautiful. broadelliptic sepal.

Medicinal Plants and Pharmaceutical Prescriptions of Viet Nam. Ha Noi. Plants. D. 8. 326 .0 Contraindications Not available 9.0 Bibliography Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. 1996. 1995. Ha Noi. fish poisoning.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7. Loi. colic and as antiemetic. Star anise has carminative. dyspepsia. Red Data Book of Viet Nam. 2. 1996. Science and Technological Publishing House. Science and Technics Publishing House. stimulant and diuretic properties. T.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. neuritis. Agricultural Publishing House. Technology & Environment.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. stomachic.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The essential oil is used for treating rheumatism. Viet Nam Forest Trees. Ministry of Science. Vol. cough mixtures and pastilles. It is a common flavouring for medicinal teas.

0 5.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7. Stem and branches green or yellowish green when young. soft and thin.0 Scientific name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Litsea cubeba (Loureiro) Pers. Malaysia. Inflorescence of compound. Fruit globose. Leaves simple.4–0. 4.VIET NAM 1. 6.1–0. Cambodia. Veins evident on both surfaces.0 Chemical Constituents Rich in essential oil. oblong-ovate.7 cm in diameter. 2–3 cm wide. black when mature.2 cm). very short (0.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 327 . man tang (Viet Nam). The major components are composed of 70–90% citral. Lauraceae Mang tang.0 Propagation : Stem cutting and seed Geographical Distribution/Ecology It is distributed in Lao PDR. 7. Leaves and bark smell of citronella. Viet Nam.2–0. yellowish green when young. andm is found abundantly in secondary forests. cineol and aldehyde. 8–10 m high and 7–15 cm in diameter. 6–9 cm long.0 3.4% oil respectively. alternate. Twigs glabrous. Axis slender. succulent. China. about 0. methyheptenone. lindos (Malaysia) A small tree. glabrous. The fruits and leaves contain 6–15% and 0. black when dry.0 2.

kahaku. Agricultural Publishing House. dyspepsia. Science and Technological Publishing House. http://research. 8. 328 . coughs and cold. D.2 Uses in traditional medicine: The essential oil is used as a deodorant and for diarrhoea. 1996. flu.0 Biblioraphy: Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. 1995. Ha Noi.24 August 2003. T.html . Medicinal Plants and Pharmaceutical Prescriptions of Viet Nam. Loi.0 Contraindications Not available 9. snake-bite. Viet Nam Forest Trees.jp/botany/Tailand/plant/picture_page/10.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.go.

000 m.0 2. consisting of many umbels. Lateral nerves 69 pairs. Inflorescence broadly paniculate.0 3. wide umbrella crown. Calyx 5. tomentosa outside. aromatic and pedunculate.5 cm long and middle leaflet with petiolules 3. scheffursoside B. it commonly grows in secondary forests below 1. Trunk cylindrical straight. 4–5 mm in diameter. Petiole 25 cm long. scheffoleoside D. with 5–7 seeds. reaching 40 cm in diameter. scheffursoside C. sam nam (Viet Nam) Evergreen medium-sized tree. aromatic. glabrous with many lenticels and horizontal stipule scars. Lateral leaflets with petiolules 1.0 Chemical Constituents Glycosides: scheffoleoside A. Flowers minute white. Stamens 5. scheffoleoside E. yellowish. Lao PDR. style very short. Inner bark 6 mm thick. white.0 Propagation : Seed and stem cutting Geographical Distribution:/Ecology: It is found throughout China. oplopananaxogenin A 329 .0 Scientific Name Family Vernacular Names Plant Description : : : Schefflera octophylla (Loureiro) Harms Araliaceae Chan chim. 6. elliptic or oval 10–15 cm long. up to 10–20 m high.0 5. 3–5 cm wide. In both tropical and subtropical forest areas.5–5 cm long.VIET NAM 1. Indonesia and Viet Nam. 4. ovary inferior 5–8 locular. lobed. Leaflets 6–8. Fruit a globose berry. dang. scheffoleoside D. Petals 5. scheffoleoside E. Bark white-grey.5–2.

Bulletin 37(10):2727–2730. Ha Noi.25 August 2004. 1995.0 Contraindications Not available 9.0 Bibliography Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. Loi. Agricultural Publishing House.bio.1 Uses supported by experimental/clinical data: Not available 7. http://www. 330 .2 Uses in traditional medicine: The roots and leaves are used as tonic.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS 7.htm . Viet Nam Forest Trees. T.ncue. 8. 1996. Medicinal Plants and Pharmaceutical Prescriptions of Viet Nam. 1989. Y.tw/native/plant/p10. & Tanaka. Two new triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Schefflera octophylla. Kitajima.0 Report on Medicinal Usage 7.edu. J. Science and Technological Publishing House. Chemical Pharm. D.

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com bsouthavong@hotmail. Brunei Darussalam Tel: 673-2663346 Fax: 673-2661354 mulyadi_ali@agriculture. Lao PDR Tel: 856-21-315693 Fax: 856-21-312354 laotmrc@laotel. Indonesia Tel: 62-21-5730205. Mulyadi Hj.3. Tentara Pelajar No. Lao PDR Tel: 856-21-315693 Fax: 856-21-315693 ksydara@gmail.gov. Mohd. Chann Sophal Deputy Director Department of Forestry and Wildlife Forest Wildlife Research Institute #40 Preah Norodom Boulevard Phnom Penh.kh 7 Dr. Cambodia Tel: 855-23-219282. Brunei Darussalam Tel: 673-2381678 Fax: 673-2381012 forestrybrunei@hotmail.com 2 Mr.com LAO PDR 333 .LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 1 Mr. Bounhong Southavong Director Traditional Medicine Research Center Ministry of Health Vientianne.com. Nurliani Bermawie Head of Medicinal Plants Programme Indonesian Medicinal and Aromatic Crops Research Institute (IMACRI) Ministry of Agriculture Jl.com 4 Mr. Ali Agriculture Officer Agriculture Department Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources Jalan Menteri Besar. Prof. 62-21-5730222 Fax: 62-21-5700226 yettir@dephut. Kongmany Sydara Deputy Director Traditional Medicine Research Center Ministry of Health Ban Phon Papao Tha Sisattanak District Vientianne. Berakas BB3910 Bandar Seri Begawan. Bogor Indonesia Tel: 62-251-321879. Berakas BB3910 Bandar Seri Begawan.com 8 Assoc.net.cbn.com INDONESIA 5 Dr. Muhd Safwan Bin Abdullah Bibi Forestry Officer Forestry Department Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources Jalan Menteri Besar.bn CAMBODIA 3 Mr. Cambodia Tel/Fax: 855-23-213612 ffpri_fwri@online. Yetti Rusli Senior Advisor to Ministry of Forestry Ministry of Forestry Jakarta. 62-251-342891 Fax: 62-251-327010 nurlianib@yahoo. 855-12-802699 Fax: 855-23-214282 hsuntra@yahoo. Hung Suntra Deputy Head Forest and Wildlife Science Research Institute Forest Administration Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries #40 Preah Norodom Boulevard Phnom Penh.id 6 Dr.

O.my 10 Mr. Zainon Abu Samah Research Officer Medicinal Plants Programme Biotechnology Division Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) 52109 Kepong.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS MALAYSIA 9 Dr. ext-480 Fax: 66-22-579-5412 benjavon@forest. Myo Myat Director Planning & Statistics Department Ministry of Forestry Yankin P. Malaysia Tel: 60-3-62797330 Fax: 60-3-62728905 zainon@frim. Pham Duc Tuan Vice-Director General Department of Forestry Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 2 Ngoc Ha .gov.net THAILAND 13 Ms.net. Rasadah Mat Ali Director Medicinal Plants Programme Biotechnology Division Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) 52109 Kepong.th VIET NAM 14 Dr.vn 334 .my MYANMAR 11 Mr. Celso P. Myanmar Tel: 95-67-405012 Fax: 95-62-405378 trincertcom@mptmail. Benjavon Caruhapattana Chief of Forest Products Chemistry Subdivision Forest Products Research Division Royal Forest Department Bangkok 10900.mm PHILIPPINES 12 Mr. Malaysia Tel: 60-3-62797329 Fax: 60-3-62728905 rasadah@frim. Phillipines Tel: 63-49-5362269 Fax: 63-49-5362269 erdb@laguna.unn.go. Selangor Darul Ehsan.Ha Noi. Yangon. Selangor Darul Ehsan. Viet Nam Tel: 84-4-7332154 Fax: 84-4-8438793 pham-tuan@hn. Thailand Tel: 66-22-561-4292/66-22-561-4293. Diaz Ecosystems Research & Development Bureau Department of Environment & Natural Resources (DENR) College. Laguna.gov.

155 Cymbopogon nardus. 211 Gynura procumbens. 231 Aquilaria crassna. 233 Artocarpus lakoocha. 175 Litsea cubeba. 63. 267 Artocarpus tonkinensis. 15 Caesalpinia pulcherrima. 229 Andrographis paniculata. 227 Alstonia scholaris. Aloe vera. 117 Cassia fistula. 3 Alisma plantago-aquatica. 9 Annona reticulata. 171 Labisia pothoina. 317 Adenosma glutinosum. 240 Caesalpinia sappan. 47. 311 Aconitum fortunei. 115 Cananga latifolia. 250 Justicia gendarusa. 238 Blumea balsamifera. 29. 293 Hopea odorata. 113 Calotropis gigantea. 89 Ardisia elliptica.INDEX INDEX Abelmoschus moschatus. 13 Boesenbergia rotunda. 59. 51 Carmona retusa. 305 Acanthopanax gracilistylus. 313 Acorus calamus. 244. 111 Asplenium nidus. 296 Jatropha curcas. 67 Illicium verum. 61 Eclipta prostrata. 25 Dracaena cambodiana. 45. 87. 320 Aloe barbadensis. 129 Etlingera solaris. 43. 55 Corchorus capsularis. 168 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 85 Acorus gramineus. 21 Coscinium usitatum. 327 335 . 149 Clinacanthus nutans. 53. 207 Dioscorea persimilis. 205 Basella rubra. 19 Coscinium fenestratum. 7 Anacardium occidentale. 121 Curcuma longa. 289 Fibraurea tinctoria. 236 Bixa orellana. 166 Gloriosa superba. 315 Acronychia laurifolia. 279 Ceiba pentandra. 49 Capparis micracantha. 23. 131 Eurycoma longifolia. 125 Elephantopus scaber. 65 Hydnocarpus anthelminticus. 325 Impatiens balsamina. 27 Euodia lepta. 95 Curcuma xanthorhiza. 242 Cassia alata. 318 Aegle marmelos. 307 Acanthopanax trifoliatus. 57 Costus speciosus. 5. 1 Abrus precatorius. 127. 274 Cassia tora. 324 Asparagus cochinchinensis. 107 Agathis borneensis. 209 Eleutherine subaphylla. 119 Combretum quadrangulare. 286 Curcuma mangga. 271 Caesalpinia crista. 97 Kaempferia galanga. 248 Hibiscus sabdariffa. 309 Achyranthes aspera. 123 Donax grandis. 164. 303 Abutilon indicum. 322 Arcangelisia flava. 152 Cymbopogon citratus. 173 Languas galanga. 17 Chromolaena odorata. 284 Codonopsis pilosa. 162 Elettaria cardamomum. 93 Curcuma zedoaria. 246 Centella asiatica. 147 Areca catechu. 109 Amaranthus spinosus. 159 Dioscorea esculenta. 11 Barleria prionitis. 91 Centratherum intermedium.

217 Plumeria alba. 39 Zingiber officinale. 219 Sauropus androgynus. 329 Smilax myosotiflora. 261 Vitex negundo. 223 Zingiber aromaticum. 37 Premna odorata. 133 Moringa oleifera. 200 336 . 213 Mimosa pudica. 101 Passiflora foetida. 81 Tinospora crispa. 215 Ocimum bacilicum. 69 Melodorum fruticosum. 177 Momordica charantia.ASEAN HERBAL AND MEDICINAL PLANTS Macaranga gigantea. 263 Vitis repens. 71 Millettia extensa. 75 Polygonum multiflorum. 31 Melastoma malabathricum. 135 Phyllanthus amarus. 99. 141 Solanum violaceum. 196 Solanum procumbens. 137 Portulaca oleracea. 190 Phyllanthus emblica. 185 Orthosiphon aristatus. 194 Rauvolfia serpentina. 35. 180 Morinda citrifolia. 77 Terminalia chebula. 103 Schefflera octophylla. 221. 33 Melastoma sanguineum. 139. 259 Syzygium jambos. 79 Terminalia triptera. 254 Nervilia fordii. 257 Rafflesia hasseltii. 299 Stemona tuberosa. 73 Piper betle. 198 Stephania rotunda. 252 Mitragyna speciosa. 143 Streblus asper.

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