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INFORMER, October 2013
INFORMER, October 2013
The name “Giuseppe Ruffino” occurs often in the history of the Mafia criminal society. Giuseppe Ruffinos have been associated with Mafia operations on both sides of the Atlantic. A number have received a good deal of press ink and interest from historians. In this issue, organized crime historian Joshua Henze takes a close look at one Giuseppe Ruffino who has been largely neglected (Page 4). Though involved in a high-profile federal case in the early years of the Twentieth Century, this Ruffino has been virtually forgotten. The reason is unclear. Perhaps he was merely overshadowed by the other underworld figures in the United States and Italy who shared his name. Perhaps he was brushed aside because his primary illicit enterprise was offensive, awkward to write about or at odds with the legendary “rules” of Mafioso conduct. This Giuseppe Ruffino procured young Italian women for American houses of prostitution. Also in this issue of Informer: Author Christian Cipollini provides an excerpt from his recently published book Diary of a Motor City Hit Man. (Page 38). Bill Feather dedicates his latest Mafia Membership Chart to the early Sicilian-Italian underworld of southern California (Page 47). Columnist Richard N. Warner discusses various organized crime figures who have “found” religion (Page 51). A recently released biography of Joseph DiCarlo revises the history of the Magaddino Crime Family of western New York (Page 56). Thomas Hunt reviews Diary of a Motor City Hit Man by Christian Cipollini and discusses its relationship to organized crime history (Page 60).
Rhode Island. in the 1920s. was arrested by police in December of 1908 for alleged Black Hand activity in Detroit. and each of the men mentioned above has caught the attention of gangland chroniclers.6 Decades later. one Giuseppe Ruffino.. Jr. Giuseppe Ruffino of Corleone was a lieutenant of Sicilian gangster Luciano Leggio.1 Giuseppe di Ruffino of Providence.2 3 Giuseppe Ruffino. Henze For Mafia researchers. Palermo Chief of Police (Questore) Ermanno Sangiorgi described a Giuseppe Ruffino of Cinisi as “a well-known Mafioso. Michigan. was arrested by Boston police in May of 1904 for breaking and entering and larceny. has virtually escaped the notice of history. a native of Balestrate.4 The name also belonged to associates of New York Mafia boss Giuseppe Masseria5 in the 1910s and Buffalo Mafioso Joseph “the Wolf” DiCarlo. the name “Giuseppe Ruffino” may bring to mind different criminals from different areas of Sicily and the United States: In his detailed. However. October 2013 Among the Giuseppe Ruffinos in Mafia history is one who engaged in early-1900s human trafficking Ruffino and the ‘White Slave’ trade By Joshua R.7 and Palermitano Giuseppe Ruffino was a gambler and a heroin courier for the Carmine Locascio-Rosario Mogavero Organization. Ne- . late Nineteenth Century account on the inner workings of the Sicilian Mafia.8 The history of the Mafia criminal society is brimming with Giuseppe Ruffinos. Sicily.4 INFORMER.
and Chicago.C. is worthy of some attention. San Giuseppe Jato Giuseppe Ruffino was born in the mid-1870s9 in San Giuseppe Jato. Sicily. Sicily. New York.INFORMER.10 His parents were Calogero Ruffino and Maddalena Mannina. glected to date.”15 . Giuseppe Ruffino of San Giuseppe Jato.13 The town “rises on an internal hilly area”14 and is “surrounded by the leafy green vineyards of the Jato Valley.12 Originally known by the name “Leta.” it was an Elymian-Greek settlement dating back to the Sixth Century B. October 2013 5 Giuseppe Ruffino in federal prison.11 San Giuseppe Jato is a small town about eighteen miles southwest of Palermo. he gained sensational headlines as an elusive “Black Hand” leader who evaded law enforcement in Rochester. was captured in Milwaukee. In the summer of 1908. and was ultimately convicted in New York for white slavery.
New York City On July 9. Ruffino arrived in New York aboard the S.”22 The Ruffinos appeared to be landowners or estate stewards23 engaged in the maintenance of vineyards and the making of wine. as an unmarried man in his mid-twenties.29 At the time. Dark brown eyes rested below a unibrow. Giuseppe was an admitted drinker and a smoker. “If there was a town in Sicily where the Mafia was all-powerful was just one of San Giuseppe Jato.”19 had four known siblings. grapes and olives. and a round chin with a dimple. with a “sanguine temperament. Rocco Balsano.”27 Giuseppe Ruffino left San Giuseppe Jato for the U. Former policeman and criminologist Antonino Cutrera noted in 1900 that it had a “higher density” of Mafia activity. located in the Italian mainland Province of Naples. Sempione from Palermo. In a prison letter to one of his brothers. he was most likely seeking his fortune across the Atlantic Ocean. The community was called “San Giuseppe. Giuseppe discussed the estate in Sicily. October 2013 Area farming produces corn.”24 Ruffino learned much about the vintner’s craft as he grew up and became a professional winemaker.25 In another prison letter.6 INFORMER. known to family as “Peppino. that address was home to seventeen-year-old barber Pietro Simonetti.S.28 For the passenger manifest.17 Two decades later. who lived with his moth- .16 There is rich Mafia history in San Giuseppe Jato. and sister Angelina. 1900.”26 Giuseppe Ruffino would grow to five-foot-seven.S. brothers Francesco. Sicilian lawyer and politician stated. a high forehead and a dark complexion.”18 Giuseppe Ruffino. he wrote about the “color to make wine black.20 Alessandro and Ernesto. He also had black hair.” until “Jato” was added to the name in 1864 to differentiate it from San Giuseppe Vesuviano. He possessed a medium build. he stated that he was going to his cousin Pietro Nuccio at 789 Washington Street in New York. a straight nose. Reasons for his departure from Sicily are unclear. saying their parents’ “big property is not good anymore for themselves.21 The Ruffino family name was said to be descended from “ancient Roman consuls. Like many of his countrymen.
concerned citizens formed a “Committee of Fifteen” to investigate and report “the extent of flagrant offences against public morality and common decency. a part of which was utilised in bringing some of the offenders to justice. Without “breaking down the door.”36 In February of 1901.30 Coincident with Ruffino’s arrival. New York police from the Mulberry Street Station raided the address.32 Ruffino’s address was listed as 258 Elizabeth Street and Francesca’s address was 16 Stanton Street.”31 Marriage On November 5. The shop was frequented by Morello and his gang. including two alleged Italian proprietors. 1901. Giuseppe Ruffino married Francesca Nuccio in Manhattan. As a result. Witnesses were Francesca’s mother Giuseppa Manari and relative Sebastiano Nuccio. Both the bride and the groom were twentyfive years old. October 2013 7 er Maria Nuccio and his five-year-old sister Lena Simonetti. as they engaged in counterfeiting. 1900. Six packs of cards and $7.” The Committee’s “corps of investigators collected a mass of information and evidence.INFORMER. Fourteen were arrested.50 were confiscated. both linked to the Mafia organization run by Giuseppe Morello.33 Both of these addresses have interesting histories. It also played a significant role in the brutal 1903 murder of Benedetto Madonia. there were “startling discoveries in regard to the spread of Social Evil” in certain districts in New York City.34 Ruffino’s 258 Elizabeth Street address was a saloon35 and an “alleged gambling house. less than a . In a few years. 16 Stanton Street was to be a butcher shop owned by Giovanni Zarcone and later Vito Laduca.” authorities observed over a dozen males shooting craps in the rear of the building. and in exposing the notorious ‘cadet’ system.39 Upstate New York Ruffino’s wife Francesca died on October 22.37 Giuseppe Ruffino did not stay at 258 Elizabeth Street long enough to see the four-story cellar brick building auctioned38 and become a popular Sicilian marionette theater.
179 St. October 2013 year after their marriage. described as his “partner.40 Rochester was known worldwide for its shoe production41 but habitually suffered from a “smoke nuisance”42 from its more than sixty factories. “Disagreeable at best. Giuseppe and Francesco worked as shoemakers at Reed E. she arrived at the Port of Boston aboard the S. Perugia from San Giuseppe Jato. He stated that he was going to Giuseppe at Eleventh Street in Niagara Falls.S.S.51 Alessandro worked as a clerk.53 Female companionship arrived for Giuseppe in 1906 when he paid for the passage of his thirty -year-old “cousin.14 square miles.48 In 1902.” Santina Casarsa. there was another Giuseppe Ruffino45 living in Rochester. & Co.50 By 1904.” were living at 1 Elliot Place in Rochester. For the next seven years. Listed Main Street in Rochester.. Ruffino left the city and travelled to western New York alone. a farmer. The brothers were listed as day laborers. Canopic. his twenty-five-year-old brother Francesco.” soot and dirt covered residents’ clothes and items.46 This Sicilian was a forty-four-year-old railroad laborer from Vallelunga47 with a large family.52 By the next year.8 INFORMER. Francesco. Following her death. Paul Street. as an embroider- . and brother Alessandro were all living at 53 Hartford Street in Rochester. c.P. both were listed as boarders living under the roof of saloonkeeper Pietro Marino at 155 Hartford Street. arrived in New York City aboard the S. he lived or travelled in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls-Rochester area. In February of 1903.49 Giuseppe was not alone in Rochester for long. At the time of Giuseppe Ruffino’s relocation. 1908. Giuseppe and brother Alessandro. With a habitable area of 16. In February. Giuseppe.
there are now hundreds of them.P. Hayden told the Post Express: This city is becoming fairly speckled with these Italians. Morgan. Attorney Harry A. Black Hand Headquarters At 171 Hartford.59 During this time. she was destined to Giuseppe on Hartford Street in Rochester.S. October 2013 9 er from southern Italy. Giuseppe was naturalized as a citizen in U.56 At the time.INFORMER. with the cooperation of the Italian Protection League.55 In September.” Rochester Police Chief John C. undertook to collect all knives and unlicensed firearms from their fellow countrymen in a successful effort to reduce the number of violent crimes among them. Giuseppe Ruffino applied for and received a U.64 Chief Hayden ordered the previous . He named two Italians to the police force. I should say that there is now but one ward in the whole city that is entirely free from this class of foreigners. in response Italian murders and numerous “cutting and shooting affrays. 1906.S.”58 In June of 1907.54 On April 10. From my personal observations.”62 Giuseppe Ruffino ran a saloon63 historically notorious for criminal activity. Giuseppe and Santina were married in the City of Rochester by W.60 Chief Hayden subsequently “sent his men out on repeated raids of disorderly houses and gambling dens. the city was described by Chicago Assistant U. In parts of the city where two years ago not a foreigner was to be seen. passport in Monroe County court. Giuseppe’s occupation in Rochester changed from a laborer to a local businessman responsible for providing diverse and pleasurable services. District Court in Buffalo. a dozen or two to a house. one as an interpreter and one as a patrolman. Parkin as a “hunting ground of white slave traffickers”57 and by the Rochester Post Express as being “the headquarters of the so-called ‘Black Hand’ Society.S. and these men.”61 By this time. a street described as a “dark and tortuous thoroughfare.
85 . his downfall was selling beer on Sunday.69 Francesco told authorities that his brother had an “interest” in the saloon. She ran it as lodging house and saloon.10 INFORMER. observed Francesco Ruffino administering alcohol in the context of “some twenty-five Italians sitting about tables.77 and bombings78 were said to have originated from there.81 However. October 2013 owner. while brother Francesco was listed as a clerk. After the Ruffinos’ departure. she was arrested and charged with running a disorderly house. 1907.66 Geraci would be arrested in Chicago for Black Hand activity67 and sentenced to Joliet State Prison. Ruffino escaped by diving through a nearby window but was located and arrested on a warrant two days later. “Little Cigar Store” on Andrews Street In 1907.65 to leave the city. Vincenzo Geraci of Montemaggiore. she was banished from the city.73 Criminal activity continued at 171 Hartford Street. “for some time past the police have suspected that all was not as it should be at the Andrews Street cigar store. Ruffino’s saloon was closed down and representatives from a local brewing company came and removed all of the saloon’s stock.84 As part of her sentence. a Rochester patrolman entered Ruffino’s Hartford Street saloon.”80 Ruffino himself was listed as being in the soda water business at this address. he jumped his bail and fled.68 In Giuseppe Ruffino’s case.83 In 1904 and 1906. November 24. Francesco pleaded not guilty and his case was adjourned for a few weeks. it became a criminal front.”82 Madam Ida Niner was the previous owner.76 kidnappings. Sicily.71 At his arraignment on November 27.72 Before his trial. The store was listed under the name “Frank Smitte.74 According to police. The Romanos reportedly “were responsible for all of the Black Hand work…terrorizing hard-working Italians for a couple of years.”75 Criminal acts such as extortion. their saloon was taken over by candy makers Andrea and Salvatore Romano. Giuseppe Ruffino also ran a brothel fronting as an “inoffensive appearing”79 cigar store at 201 Andrews Street. a license to sell alcohol at this address was made out in Giuseppe’s name. On Sunday.” and attempted to arrest him.70 However.
a young Italian entered and was observed talking with Ruffino. “Renots” and Mary were represented in court by attorney and New York State Assemblyman James L.” and twenty-five-year-old Mary “Rundello” (or “Rodelli”) were arrested and taken to the central police station.” Ruffino. Whitley.90 Trip to Italy On Tuesday.89 “protested his arrest” but nevertheless was placed on bail with his two cohorts.” Officers who stormed the rear of the building found “the Italian and a woman in a compromising position. the police entered the place “so suddenly that they procured evidence” that stamped “it as a disorderly house. Captain James Ryan 1907.91 The pair obtained a discharge on a technicality. Ruffino and his associates did not appear in police court and jumped their bail. they observed a man leaving the store.” With this testimony and a public recommendation by Monroe County Coroner Thomas A. A few minutes later. The man subsequently disappeared into a room at the rear of the building. suffering from bronchitis. According to news accounts.87 On Saturday evening. Ruffino. twenty-year-old Charles “Renots. Giuseppe Ruffino and Mary were said to have .INFORMER. November 30. December 17.88 At the station. Shortly before ten o’clock. 1907. Captain James Ryan detailed four Rochester policemen to raid Ruffino’s cigar store.Rochester police moved to obtain search warrants. They approached from two directions.86 police received information from other Italians of “having met different women” at Giuseppe Ruffino’s “little cigar store. October 2013 11 After the October 1907 murder of Alessandro Caruso. Killip that Rochester policemen in Italian neighborhoods “endeavor” to “become acquainted with the people on their beats” and have more “diligence” in Italian cases .
Italy. passport to return to Italy with his wife Santina. he delivered a business proposition.S.96 At the time. Giuseppe and Santina. 1908. even to providing her with a lodging.”94 Giuseppe and Santina likely conducted their ruse at a public venue in Genoa. Italy. Secretary of the National Vigilance Association in London: The chief places of danger were the ports of embarkation or debarkation and the railway stations of the various countries.S. stated that she was going to her “husband” at 44 “Whitkin” (most likely Pitkin) Street in Brooklyn. On May 6.S. On May 21. they boarded the S.S.S. stated that they had lived in the U. a “handsome young Italian woman.93 According to later testimony. the group arrived at New York harbor. October 2013 left the city. from 1900 to 1907 and were U. “to open a saloon and offered them tempting salaries to act as his barmaids. Italy. Giuseppe Ruffino used his U.97 Interestingly. Santina. 110 Liberty Avenue was a building owned by Charles Wolff.95 During their stay in Italy. Here it was that the strange young woman would be spoken to in her own language by apparently a sympathetic lady. Republic in Genoa destined for the U. and Ernesto was their home at 110 Liberty Avenue in New York. Their last permanent residence was Verona. Santina. Giuseppe.” With Santina most likely posing as another innocent Italian girl unacquainted with Ruffino. They met 21-year-old Enrichetta Vaccarini. who would offer her every assistance. Coote. both listed as thirtytwo years of age from Palermo. the couple travelled to Genoa. Enrichetta. in keeping with the pattern established by white slavers. citizens.12 INFORMER.92 Sometime before the spring of 1908. it contained a . and Enrichetta met up with Ernesto. Giuseppe’s seventeen-year-old brother.S. listed as being from Verona. He said he planned to travel to the U. According to William A. which the new arrival in a strange country would be only too ready to accept. The stated final destination for Giuseppe.
and a bookstore. Giuseppe Ruffino and his gang stayed in New York for three to five days. the gang took Enrichetta to Chicago.100 Enrichetta was forced into prostitution.INFORMER. The finery which is provided for the girl for house wear is of . October 2013 13 real estate company. a liquor store. “unlawfully and feloniously” kept.101 Next. to which the keeper holds the key. brother Francesco came down from Rochester to join them. and the ordinary apparel of a woman. and harbored by the Ruffinos.103 The following description is what she most likely experienced during her stay on Twenty-First Street: When once a white slave is sold and landed in a house or a dive she becomes a prisoner…in each of the places is a room having but one door. a duplicating business. maintained. This would have been in Chicago’s notorious South Side Levee red light district.98 White Slave Crusade in Chicago Upon arrival. supported. In here are locked all the street clothes. shoes.99 During this time.102 According to the Tribune. controlled. they placed her in a resort at 204 Twenty-First Street.
104 The Ruffino gang and other white slave traffickers would soon feel heat from very powerful political forces. Attorney Edwin Sims. where he promised her that he would take her back to Italy.and she is never allowed to get out of debt .112 According to Enrichetta’s later testimony. throughout the rest of the summer of 1908. At about four o’clock in the morning. Then they started east. Because she was attractive.105 Section 3 gave federal prosecutors a tool to imprison white slave traffickers up to five years and fine them up to $5.S. federal prosecutors such as Chicago’s “quiet and unobtrusive” U. “plunged into a battle”109 against white slave syndicates that did “regular. would adhere to the Paris Conference.S. which bound America and other European powers to suppress white slave trafficking. He declared that federal authorities would “proceed to make active warfare against [white slave] offenders. 1908.S.S. arrested. October 2013 a nature to make her appearance on the street impossible. as steady and persistent a ‘business’ in the ruination of girls as the great meat packing houses do in the sale of meats.”106 On June 15. they brought her to another location and Francesco subsequently took her away. They spent a few days in Milwaukee.113 probably via the .107 President Theodore Roosevelt announced that the U. for that matter. as well as “keepers and procurers of the white slaves.”108 As a result. She cannot escape while she is in debt to the keeper . is the fact that at once the girl is placed in debt to the keeper for a wardrobe of “fancy” clothes which are charged to her at preposterous prices.”110 The Ruffinos’ must have felt law enforcement “knocking on their door. one afternoon they abruptly transferred her to a strange house and mistreated her with threats. she was worth $800 to $1.”111 Ruffino wasn’t about to get himself or his gang or Enrichetta. In 1907. Congress passed the Immigration Act.at least until all desire to leave the life is dead within her. for three years for “immoral purposes.000 if they brought a woman into the U. Then added to this handicap. U.000 on the white slave market.14 INFORMER.” Sims’ federal agents raided various dives and arrested girl inmates.
Rochester police allegedly “intercepted a letter” from Giuseppe to Francesco in which the former ordered the latter to “cut her [Enrichetta’s] throat and throw her body from the Platt Street Bridge”117 because “she knew too much of their ‘Black Hand’ dealings. Most likely tipped off. For several days after Francesco’s escape. A detail of twelve Rochester detectives surrounded 511 State Street and swooped in. after being mistreated again. Shortly thereafter. Whaley.115 However. stilettos and bomb-making materials. Whaley features of the case. After the matter began to leak out.” But they did not find Francesco. fled to the Rochester Central Police Station.119 511 State Street. In front of reporters.”118 “Grandest Fizzle” in Rochester At the Central Police Station.” Director Whaley tried in vain to cover up the botched raid. he “did everything in his power to suppress the details of the case. Whaley denied absolutely all of the sensational William H. though he admitted . police were said to have found “revolvers. Enrichetta was held in custody on a vagrancy charge.INFORMER.120 The Detective Bureau’s acting director. he conducted surveillance on 511 State Street and “scoured” the city for him.114 Francesco took Enrichetta back to the old Ruffino haven of Rochester on July 10. In the room of the building formerly occupied by Francesco and Enrichetta. he “escaped with little difficulty. Enrichetta told Rochester detectives what happened and advised them that they could find Francesco Ruffino at the building of grocer John Roncone.116 Enrichetta escaped. and appealed for protection. hastily planned a raid to capture Francesco Ruffino. In spite of her disclosure.” This tactical blunder was pronounced by an unnamed police official as “the grandest fizzle that has ever graced the records of the local police department. William H. October 2013 15 Erie Railroad.
” He stated that “he never saw the letter in which the plot is said to have been revealed to the police.” he would have had to walk from his second floor office up the stairs to the third floor witness detention rooms and female holding cells. and entered the police dispatch room.” Police Chief John C.16 INFORMER. Most likely with the assistance of Italian policeman Alexander Elliot. Hayden.”125 Cable to Chicago As a result of Whaley’s law enforcement and public relations fiasco. October 2013 that Ruffino was wanted and got away. he would have summoned the police matron from her apartment. Chief Hayden walked up to the fourth floor. Chief Hayden personally took over the investigation. and a rogues’ gallery for tracking and cross-referencing local and foreign crooks.”121 Director Whaley was overzealous in trying to capture Francesco because of a need to prove himself.127 Chief Hayden interviewed Enrichetta and the Ruffinos’ Rochester “acquaintances” regarding Giuseppe’s whereabouts in Chicago. He passed the doors to the gymnasium.129 Chief Hayden’s operators cabled the Chicago police130 with information that they could find Giuseppe Ruffino and his gang at 2242 Wentworth Avenue131 or 41 Alexander Street. He had recently designed a Bertillon room filled with filing cabinets containing newspaper clippings.000 in an expanded telegraph system and it was now being put to great use.126 There. The Rochester police had recently invested more than $60. a section of the latter address had been open for rent and was described as being “nicely furnished. a former head of the Detective Bureau.132 In March of that year. At the Rochester Central Police Station.128 Next.”133 .122 Whaley had been appointed to the acting director post in June123 but he was not popular with his staff of sleuths. criminal history sheets.” He finally admitted that he had heard of a plot. a bathroom. but he said that “he did not want to make public anything which might not be true. During a subsequent meeting with the detective squad “on the subject of harmony. described as a “large and somewhat ornate building.124 urged the men to “assist [Whaley] in his work.” He denied “the alleged plot to cut the woman’s throat and other sensational incidents.
” Additionally.139 Milwaukee Detective John Normington spotted a couple matching their description walking on the west side of Milwaukee near 311 Fourth Street. and dies and stamps used by the ‘black hand’ in signing threatening letters. His reputed wife may be able to give us information which may result in clearing up some of the ‘black hand’ cases. and sent the information to local Police Chief John Janssen.137 Arrest in Milwaukee Giuseppe Ruffino and Santina arrived in Milwaukee sometime during the middle of the week of July 20. October 2013 17 Around July 15. three pairs of brass knuckles. about twenty bottles filled with various ingredients used in making bombs. they received information from an unknown source that the fugitives were in Milwaukee. I found diplomas issued to Joseph Ruffino from a college in Italy.141 located on West Galena Street between North Ninth and North Tenth Street. several stilettos. They found “two revolvers. so as to scar a person or inflict more serious injury.142 The fact that Giuseppe and Santina were arrested on the west side of Milwaukee and not in the Italian Third Ward area suggests that he was unfamiliar with his surroundings.134 However. The outfit for making bombs is the most perfect that I have ever seen..143 the couple was across the . Chicago Detective Sergeants William Howe and James Quinlan began to their hunt for Ruffino.INFORMER. July 26. Giuseppe had apparently been forewarned and the detectives found both places empty. showing that he had taken a course in chemistry. Detective Howe made a statement to the press: Ruffino is a well educated Italian. We hope to connect the Ruffinos with some of the ‘black hand’ affairs carried out here.136 After the raid.138 On Sunday.. pieces of gas pipe. The brass knuckles have long prongs on them. Wisconsin. they searched two trunks left by Ruffino. He arrested them140 and took them to the Third Precinct.135 In one location. Although parallel to the Red Light River Street District. 1908. They raided the Wentworth and Alexander Street addresses.
Ruffino’s arrest in Milwaukee was immediately picked up by press in the western U. they were well over ten blocks from the refuge of the Sicilian community. well educated and possessing some degree of refinement.151 and along the East Coast. the “King of Little Italy. Ruffino was dubbed as a leader of the Black Hand in the U.” Ruffino also was said to be the son of the mayor of Palermo. Rumors On July 28.S.. a murderer. and a white slave agent. a “dangerous anarchist” who was a “manufacturer of bombs. Milwaukee police officially announced arrest of Giuseppe and Santina. October 2013 Milwaukee River. wanted in many cities in the U. Moreover.146 The Milwaukee police cabled Rochester and Chicago. and in Italy.”145 Milwaukee police told the press that the couple had been in the city for several days and had “not been connected with anything” that would “cause” an arrest.” Their father allegedly assisted in their escape.S.147 Inspector Otto Riemer.”148 He was too late.150 throughout the Midwest.S.152 Sensational headlines and stories were produced.144 from the influence of Vito Guardalabene.154 Indeed. Sicily. and Canada.” He was described as a “college graduate.153 According to press accounts. stated that he “did not disclose the arrest” because “he did not want stories printed which might not be true. second-incommand of the Milwaukee Police Department. Giuseppe and one of his brothers allegedly murdered a wealthy Sicilian in San Giuseppe Jato because “he refused to submit to blackmail.18 INFORMER.149 Canada. Giuseppe Ruffino .
156 However. Chicago Detective Sergeant Howe allegedly found diplomas issued to him by a college in Italy.157 In December of 1907. he was destined to 128 Chase Street in Detroit. in the Province of Turin. in the Piedmont region of northern Italy.INFORMER. northern Italians Giuseppe and Francesco Ruffino travelled from Toronto to Niagara Falls. On August 17. La Gouria (most likely Liguria) in 1903. He had originally arrived in New York aboard the S. 1905. France to New York in November of 1904 and were destined to their brother-in-law in Bracebridge. His Canadian connections are uncertain. They originally sailed from Cherbourg. height. Giuseppe was listed as twenty-nine years old and married while Francesco was listed as twenty-seven years old and unmarried. Canada.159 This Francesco Ruffino was an early pioneer in Italian culinary arts in Toronto. in 1903 aboard the S. the arrival details were probably more Ruffino-related confusion. According to their descriptions. But his Rochester and Chicago business dealings indicate that he was directly associated with the underworld. With $22 in his pocket. thirty-one-year-old peddler Giuseppe Ruffino of Palermo arrived at the Port of Detroit after spending fifteen days in Canada. Around the time of these allegations Paolo Francesco Tesauro and Gennaro Bladier occupied this office. He recently made a trip to Italy and connected with at least one of his family members from Sicily. Ontario. Although Giuseppe Ruffino masqueraded as a northern Italian from Verona and some details of his appearance could have been altered or incorrectly recorded.S.S.158 these Ruffinos’ were from Gravere. Giuseppe Ruffino of Balestrate (and later Detroit) came to the U. and weight contrasted sharply to the Ruffino brothers from San Giuseppe Jato. both men possessed brown hair and blue and brown eyes.161 Analysis of his prison letters to his family indicates that his .S. Liguria. But he was not the son of the mayor of Palermo. Their hair color.160 It also is unclear if the “well-educated” Giuseppe Ruffino was a college graduate. October 2013 19 would prove to be a white slave operator originally from San Giuseppe Jato who previously lived or travelled in New York City and the Niagara Falls-Rochester area.155 It is unclear whether Ruffino was a Black Hand leader or member or even an anarchist.
”169 If the couple was not charged with something. lodged in jail as a vagrant.170 Milwaukee police settled on a vagrancy charge. he was an eager learner.” but a white slavery charge “could be sustained against him.172 It classified such people as Giuseppe and Santina as “idle persons who.”164 He received “References and Their Preparation” from Munn & Co.”173 This statute was an effective tool used by police to detain and investigate career criminals who appeared not to be overtly breaking the law. the police would have to release them. picked up and questioned.167 Vagrancy Charge Law enforcement in Rochester. Giuseppe purchased quite a few books during later incarceration. bookseller at 449-451 Broadway in New York to buy an English-Italian and ItalianEnglish dictionary. Upon his entry to prison. He sent $2.174 . A gangster who comes here is quite likely to be tipped off to the police department. if unable to give a satisfactory account of himself. Appleton Co.10 to D.163 He sent $5 to Munn & Co. Publishers at 361 Broadway in New York to buy the “Scientific American Encyclopedia of Receipts. Bowman stated: We have found the statute to be very effective in keeping hoodlums and gangsters out of Milwaukee. Milwaukee County District Attorney George A.162 Nevertheless.168 Prior communication between Chief Hayden and Chief Janssen indicated that a charge of attempted murder was “improbable. 171 Vagrancy was a “catchall” law dating back to 1878. October 2013 English writing skills were poor. Decades later. it was noted that he was able to read and write (but not how well). not having visible means to maintain themselves…all persons wandering abroad…not giving a good account of themselves.”166 He also received a Spanish textbook.165 and two Italian books on the “subject of wine manufacturers.20 INFORMER. and while waiting trial his past conduct checked up. Chicago and Milwaukee did not know what offense to charge against Giuseppe and Santina.
S.INFORMER.179 Edward J. Henning. Witnesses needed to be obtained. she turned states’ witness during a conference with Chief Inspector Daniel D.175 Giuseppe was transferred to the custody of the U. 1908.181 She was soon en route for Milwaukee under federal protection. 1908.S. Immigration Bureau’s Chicago Field Office. but there were bureaucratic delays as various agencies mobilized.S. Davies of the U. immigration inspector.176 Federal prosecution loomed. Milwaukee and New York Trials On August 10. On that day. August 1. Additionally.S.S. Interviews needed to be conducted. Wells. Santina confessed to being a white slave and agreed to testify against Giuseppe. and U. Enrichetta testified in Milwaukee federal court against Giuseppe Ruffino. Court Commissioner Francis E.S. In the .178 Santina must have been very frightened during this time. Giuseppe’s brother Francesco was still at large. The preliminary hearing was delayed until August 6. Authorities picked up on her vulnerability.182 Enrichetta must have felt many emotions during this trip because the Erie Railroad was the route she previously traveled with the Ruffino gang. Marshal’s Service that same day. The next morning. Reports needed to be written and analyzed. Detective Normington took the couple into Milwaukee police court on the vagrancy charge. he was arraigned in Milwaukee before U. Attorney for the Eastern District of Wisconsin. Bloodgood on an official complaint said to be submitted by a U.S. Marshal Harry A. Statements needed to be collected and affidavits needed to be signed. this was the case of Giuseppe and Santina.180 Two days later at the Rochester Central Police Station. On July 29. Department of Commerce and Labor commenced action against Giuseppe Ruffino on Saturday.177 Federal Charges The U. On August 5. local vagrancy charges against Giuseppe and Santina were dismissed. October 2013 21 Indeed. Immigration Inspector Martin officially interviewed Enrichetta Vaccarini and secured her as a witness. U. They received a week’s adjournment because they claimed that they couldn’t speak English. Most likely under threats of perjury or deportation. A venue needed to be established. 1908. Charges needed to be filed.
As a result. October 2013 afternoon. was indicted at the same time in absen- .22 INFORMER.” At the end of the day.S. 1908.” in violation of Section 3 of Immigration Act of 1907. still not in custody. Santina was put on the stand. Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York on October 14. U. Enrichetta disclosed information to the effect that Santina was an accomplice and actually the wife of Giuseppe Ruffino.185 Giuseppe Ruffino was arraigned in U.183 Both women described how they were victims of Ruffino’s white slave trafficking. Attorney Henning was said to have sworn out a warrant for Enrichetta “similar to that against [Giuseppe] Ruffino. He pleaded not guilty to a two-count indictment of “importation of woman for the purposes of prostitution and other immoral purposes. The money they earned from prostitution was turned over to Giuseppe.S. His brother Francesco.184 During an August 17 recess meeting in the office of Court Commissioner Bloodgood. Commissioner Bloodgood charged Giuseppe Ruffino with engaging in white slave traffic and bound him to a federal grand jury in New York.
stating that . 1912. he suffered from an assortment of very uncomfortable ailments.189 Prison On December 26.196 bilious or excessive secretion.186 On Tuesday. I try that to stay cheerful. and poor eyesight.197 constipation. was deported. later described by U.S. Without those credits. 1911. Giuseppe’s trial officially began on December 14.199 Correspondence Ruffino corresponded with family and associates. Moyer.S.188 Enrichetta Vaccarini. Wise as an “essential” witness to the prosecution. He had a persistent cough.198 for which he received a pair of spectacles.200 From his letters.192 He started his sentence the next day as inmate number 2318.193 Ruffino worked as a construction laborer while in prison.”195 Due to his new job and terrible living conditions. Giuseppe Ruffino was transferred by the U.INFORMER.” He advised Alessandro against buying a farm. With maximum “Good Time” credits. December 22. for prostitution. Marshal’s Service to the custody of the reportedly corrupt190 and abusive191 Atlanta Penitentiary Warden William H. the Ruffino brothers were found guilty of both counts. rhinitis or inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose. his maximum sentence of three and a half years would expire on June 26. “You know me that I am not superstious [sic] but they are few nights I do bad dreams and for that I feel little gloomy. He stated.194 This job was ill-suited to a 142-pound man whose stated occupation was “winemaker. Ruffino gave business advice and expressed depression to his younger brother Alessandro. Two days later.187 This earned Giuseppe a mention in a 1908-09 Italian government report that listed sixteen men as convicted importers of women into the U. October 2013 23 tia. his “short” prison term could expire on September 6. but my hearth [sic] is dark I don’t understand what it is.S. Federal Judge Thomas Chatfield sentenced Giuseppe to three and a half years in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary and administered a fine of $1. Attorney Henry A.
I don’t know anything about…she is not good any more. 108th Street.209 Loftis was a well-known jewelry mail-order company that provided its products on installment plans. Warden Moyer received letters of inquiry from attorneys.” Instead.”206 In another letter he stated. I tell you this hardly you take this letter or send our brother Ernesto or go yourself there up -town [Manhattan] after I wish that you do write me giving her news.” Apparently Alessandro gave “De Nicolais” $5 to fill out an application. “For the other [Francesco] I told you before that I don’t want know not more of him . He wrote to Alessandro. 1677 Pitkin Avenue was listed as the Brooklyn-Brownsville office of lawyer Samuel Seiderman.A. Santina appears to have been working as a feather dealer at 241 E. October 2013 “farmer is not your doing if you don’t want be slave wages anymore. with an average sale of $50.205 Regarding the latter. as he was sitting in federal prison and Francesco was not. that’s all. he told him that his business was in the city and that he should start an ice cream.”207 At the time. He warned him not to give any more money to Domenico “De Nicolais” of 1677 Pitkin Avenue or “nobody. Giuseppe told Ernesto to “tell him [“De Nicolais”] that if he don’t do the applications or give the money back you go for thorough law because that deal mean how swindling. & Co. managers and collection representatives of Loftis Bros. A balance of $19 remained due.24 INFORMER. Santina Ruffino” in New York.204 as was his wife.”201 Around this time. Giuseppe wrote. According to President and General Manager Samuel T. “now are few days that I have not more news from Santina. . Ruffino obtained a watch and chain valued at $46 on a conditional lease. “Santina.202 Giuseppe also expressed anger toward brother Francesco to the point that he did not mention the latter’s name. He had good reason to be angry. “Mrs. soda fountain or fruit business.”203 At one point Giuseppe’s sister Angelina was ill in Sicily.he for me is same thing how dead. he expressed doubts relating to her distance and faithfulness toward him. During his time in Chicago.208 Missing Jewelry While Ruffino was incarcerated.
Giuseppe Ruffino worked in vain to obtain a Presidential pardon. gave it to someone before his arrest. D.211 Ruffino perhaps lost the jewelry.216 Ruffino’s incarceration coincided with the prison terms of New York Mafia leaders Giuseppe Morello. and to 16 Stanton Street in New York. Release Giuseppe Ruffino earned his Good Time bonuses and was discharged from the penitentiary on September 6. fenced it off or had it illegally confiscated during his numerous custody transfers.219 Despite past common connections to Sicily and New Orleans. Warden Moyer replied that Ruffino did not have the watch or chain on him when he was admitted to Atlanta.” Loftis conducted a “real credit test.INFORMER.220 He left Atlanta Peni- . via attorney John C.213 At the time. 1910. October 2013 25 Loftis.. and Ignazio Lupo.C.217 inmate number 2883. Palermitano212 Salvatore Bartolotta wrote a letter to Ruffino. In his response to the inquiries. Morello.210 The financial background check on Ruffino was not as thorough. it is unknown if Ruffino had any contact with them within the federal institution.” in the form of a letter sent out to local merchants in the city who gave them the names of people with whom the customer had done business. Bartolotta was a New Orleans macaroni manufacturer and grocery merchant at 612-14 St. He told him that as his “first friend and adviser. He was transported to his residence in Brooklyn. Pardon Attempt In July of 1910.” he would give him employment if he was paroled. 1911. Foster in Washington. That autumn. and that he had not received any articles “of this kind” since his incarceration. Lupo and a number of their associates had been imprisoned following a counterfeiting conviction in New York City federal court218 on February 21.214 His macaroni business with Bernardo Campagna of Corleone216 eventually went bankrupt. Philip Street. inmate number 2882. the company had “well-developed system” based on a “method which automatically flags every dead-beat a week after his order lands in our mail-order department.
one marriage certificate. U. Quigley. He worked as a laborer and lived at 176 Lewis Street with porter Andrea “Crisafuli. pen points. eight books.”225 He soon became persona non grata. one pencil holder. one pen holder.26 INFORMER. two spools and thread. Circuit Court in New York. October 2013 tentiary with many items: $28.221 The next day.229 Joshua Henze was raised in south central Wisconsin.” one passport.”223 Wise indicated he would take no further action to prosecute Francesco.S.S. . six pairs of socks.S.222 Epilogue On February 5. He inquired about a Joe Ruffino who “served a three year [prison] term from Chicago or Milwaukee. three pencils. Giuseppe Ruffino had moved on from Rochester.228 By the next year. seven copy books. needles.”226 wrote a letter to the Warden Moyer. On November 18. Warden Moyer sent Chief Quigley a photo of Ruffino and the latter retained it. Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York. his $1 white slavery fine was officially paid by check to the clerk of the U. This is his third Informer article. He stated that Francesco Ruffino was never apprehended and was “believed to have fled the jurisdiction. He holds a master’s degree from UW-Madison. He is a manager for an environment services company and a researcher for stakeholders in police reform in Wisconsin. Giuseppe Ruffino relocated back to Rochester. six shirt buttons.224 In 1913. one cuff button.40 in money.”227 A few days later. a man “admired for his humanitarian views. Attorney Wise wrote a letter to the U. 1912. and one calendar. Rochester Police Chief Joseph M. three crayons. one army discharge. one citizenship paper.” He stated that he was “anxious” to get his photo and description “for the purpose of identification. an “imitation diamond.
S. p. 242. S. “Police Keep Up Crusade. GA.S.S. However. 1633.” New York Tribune. Liguria. 1962. 18 Feb. 2 “On a Larceny Charge. Government Printing Office. 1924. Penitentiary. L’atra mafia: Biografia di Bernardo Provenzano (Catanzaro: Rubbettino Editore.S. ukn.com. This description matches Giuseppe Ruffino of San Giuseppe Jato. 1963 -1965). New York City Department of Records and Information Services.’” Detroit Free Press. Prison Record of Giuseppe Ruffino. 6 Dec. See World War I Draft Registration Card for Giuseppe Ruffino. Lippincott Company. 12 Angelo Heilprin and Louis Heilprin. 17 Feb. Lippincott’s New Gazetteer. 22 May 1908. 1. Republic. p. “Connect Prisoners with 12 Burglaries. BadgerLink. Michael F. “Ruffino and Di Carlo on Way to Jail. 55-59. 11 Manifest no. Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation. U. “Crime Bosses of Buffalo/Niagara Falls. provided by NARA Atlanta. p. 22 May 1908. Republic. 58-69.com.S. Passport Application for Giuseppe Ruffino. eds.net. 994. Thomas Hunt. 1. David Critchley. October 2013 27 Special thanks to: Ancestry. p. 2. 2009).S. Sick Call Physician’s Office for Giuseppe Ruffino.” New York Times. 1. Rizzo. 8 Lawrence O’Kane. p. 12 September 1918.INFORMER. Fold3. 27 December 1908-6 September 1911. Internet Archive. 14 May. 14 April 1913. Roll no. No. State of New York. 173. 15 April 1915. 240.. 2008). NARA Atlanta. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Archive. Manifest no. 1906). “11 Seized in Raid on Narcotics Ring. Notes . Monroe County Library System. ukn. Inmate no. 11. 4. 2 Others Sentenced. 16 April 1925. 4 “Police on Trail of ‘Black Hand. Hits and Headquarters (Charleston. Certificate no. S.” Buffalo Express. p. Sempione.B. p. Ancestry Library Edition [Internet]. County of Monroe. 1900. “Gunmen Dine in Downtown Night Care. p. the World War I draft registration birthdate for book dealer Giuseppe Ruffino of 446 Gratiot Avenue is listed as October 11. Interestingly. 2008). (Washington. Inmate no. Ernesto Oliva and Salvo Palazzolo. S. City of New York. He is listed as having a medium height and build. Atlanta. 6th ed. 2 (Philadelphia and London: J. 1639. 1908. Giuseppe Ruffino. Milwaukee County Historical Society. SC: The History Press.” Boston Daily Globe. Very special thanks to Thomas Hunt. Cadogan Guides: Sicily. 5. p.” New York Times. vol.C. The Origin of Organized Crime in America: The New York City Mafia. U. 3 Manifest no. “All Set for Great Pawnshop Robbery. p. Critchley. 5 “Thieves Tear Hole in Pawnshop Wall.S. 9 Ruffino’s passport application states that he was born Oct. 458. Gangsters and Organized Crime in Buffalo: History. other primary documents give his birthdate as around 1875-76. S. p.” New York Times. “Appendix. 2011). 13 Dana Facaros and Michael Pauls. 9 Dec. GA. 11. 112. ukn. HathiTrust Digital Library. 6. 6 “Extra! Di Carlo is Guilty Gets Six Years. Citations: Manifest no. 15. 1st sess. State of New York.com.” in Organized Crime and Illicit Traffic in Narcotics. 1883. OldMilwaukee. 1904. Serial no. 289. p. Il Tenebroso Sodalizio: Il Primo Rapporto di Polizia Sulla Mafia Siciliana (Rome: XL Edizioni.: U. Library of Congress. p. 1924.S. 1908. 9 July 1900. p. 7 Clare Longrigg. and possessing brown eyes and black hair. 458. 2318. 2012). Passport Application for Giuseppe Ruffino.S. 2318. 14 April 1913. vol. 1903. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter -Day Saints. 12 Feb. 24 June 1907. Marriage Certificate of Giuseppe Ruffino and Francesca Nuccio. 5. 11.” The American Mafia: The History of Organized Crime in the United States [Internet]. (London: New Holland Publishers. 16. 9. Committee on Government Operations. 88th Cong. 5 Nov. ?8610. Boss of Bosses: A Journey Into the Heart of the Sicilian Mafia (New York: Thomas Dunne Books.” Detroit Free Press. 10 Aug. United States Congress.” Buffalo Express.. Atlanta. provided by Thomas Hunt. Exhibit no. 1875.” Buffalo Express. Penitentiary. Fultonhistory. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. D. 1. See U. 10 U. 1908. 1 Salvatore Lupo. Inc. 4. 1891-1931 (London: Routledge. 125-126. 13-21. HeritageQuest. Google Books and News Archive. NARA Atlanta. 2001). Greg Plunges at NARA New York City. 36471.
Republic. The early teachings of the young girl are propitious for the consummation of her destruction. provided by NARA Atlanta. index.S. 15 Robert V. 20 Some newspaper accounts refer to Giuseppe’s brother as “Francisco. City of New York (New York: Trow Directory Printing and Bookbinding Co. Borough of Manhattan. Sick Call Physician’s Office for Giuseppe Ruffino. 29 Manifest no. The conditions are all favorable for the accomplishment of the purpose for which the ‘cadet’ began his attentions. Bureau of the Census.S. S. 9 July 1900. Palizzolo Gravina. 183-85. 1875). provided by NARA Atlanta. in 1927 Italian government correspondence with Prefect Cesare Mori. and he soon finds himself in possession of this money maker whose receipts will yield him ordinarily forty or fifty dollars a week. 22 May 1908. Brooklyn. State of New York. and is taught by her parents that that the time has come for her to look forward to marriage. 31 According to the Committee’s report: “The ‘cadet’ is a young man. “Cartogramma Della Sicilia rappresentante la densitá della mafia. a Capomafia fugitive and cousin of fugitive Vincenzo Traina.S. Very often. Mugshot for Giuseppe Ruffino. 32 Ruffino has two listed marriage records on FamilySearch. 1. Prison Letter to Alexander Ruffino. Camuto. Passport Application for Giuseppe Ruffino. 1900.. County of New York. 18 Gioacchino Nania. Sheet 11A.S. Manifest no. p. 2.” Citations: Committee of Fifteen. v-vi. 16 San Giuseppe Jato. brothers Francesco and Salvatore Ruffino were identified as gabelloti and in-laws of Vincenzo Troia. October 2013 14 San Giuseppe Jato. 27 U. 24 Giuseppe Ruffino. She has just reached womanhood. 11. 29 June 1909. wears an abundance of cheap jewelry. See Nania. She is taught that obedience should be unquestioned.’ secures a staff of girls and lives upon their earnings. 92. Sempione. Twelfth Census of the United States: 1900 Population. 23 The Ruffinos’ were possibly gabelloti. p. 22 V.” 21 Sick Call Physician’s Office for Giuseppe Ruffino. provided by NARA Atlanta. La Sicilia in dettaglio [Internet]. Il blasone in Sicilia (Palermo: Visconti & Huber.” in La Mafia e i Mafiosi: Origini E Manifestazioni (Palermo: Alberto Reber. 1900). See New York Marriage for Giuseppe Ruffino and Francesca Nuccio. 1902).org. 30 Nos. 2000). The ‘cadet’ relentlessly uses these weapons which have been placed in his hands. 28 U. 949. the parents themselves are highly flattered by the attentions which are being paid to their daughter by such a prosperous-appearing young man. U. 135. who. Province of Palermo. 19 Giuseppe Ruffino. Department of the Interior. 2010). 25 Prison Record of Giuseppe Ruffino. 26 Giuseppe Ruffino. Prison Letter to ukn.S. S. 40. averaging from eighteen to twenty-five years of age. and that the word of the husband in the household is law. San Giuseppe e la mafia: nascita e sviluppo del fenomeno nell’area dell jato (Italy: Edizioni della Battaglia. Physician’s Examination for Convict Giuseppe Ruffino. and has usually cultivated a limited amount of gentlemanly demeanor…The victim of the ‘cadet’ is usually a young girl of foreign birth who knows little or nothing of the conditions of American life. 27 Sep. Trow’s General Directory of the Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx.” Rochester city directories and passenger manifest refer to him as “Francesco. In the San Giuseppe Jato and San Cipirello areas. Batch M00132 - . Passport Application for Giuseppe Ruffino. 240. 331. Palmento: A Sicilian Wine Odyssey (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 17 Antonino Cutrera. after having served a short apprenticeship as a ‘light-house [police lookout]. Province of Palermo. He dresses better than the ordinary neighborhood boy. or middlemen who managed estates for landowners. 1900). 9 June 1900. 7-9. La Sicilia in dettaglio [Internet]. Prison Letter to ukn. The Social Evil: With Special Reference to Conditions Existing in the City of New York (New York and London: Knickerbocker Press.28 INFORMER. NY. 458.
” “Real Estate at Auction. 2009). p. Ibid.” The Theatre 6 (January 1906): 176. They alleged that the document was not read to them nor was it translated. 1. Rochester and Monroe County: A History and Guide (Rochester: Scrantom’s. 14.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Connecticut.” New York Times. 314-17. 5. ukn. 24 Feb.” New York Times. Rubino and “Buccolo” alleged fraud and deceit. 1899 they co-signed a lease with Gerardo Mariano’s attorney John Mariano. 1937). “The Marionette Shows of Little Italy. The original lease document did not mention an end to the lease and only stated that Rubino and “Buccolo” would pay $50 a month to use the back of the store as a concert hall. Reports of Cases Heard and Determined in the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of the State of New York. 25 Feb. “Senior 100. Ibid. vol. p. William F. 1900. Source film 1503718. 26 September 1897. Sheet 11A. Hun. Murder. 1903 for $75 a month. In court. he wanted them out. History of Rochester and Monroe County.” New York Times. In the end. 7 June 1900. Around the turn of the 20th century. 125. 1. 1901). “Desperate Gang Held in Murder Mystery. For more on Giovanni Zarcone. see Critchley. 1900. 7 Federal Writer’s Project.” By the beginning of July 1901. “1909 Mafia Murder in Danbury. ?8610. City of New York. 1901.” Informer 2.” Brooklyn Standard Union. 5 April 1903. “Police Raid Gamblers in Manhattan Resort. City of New York (New York: Trow Directory Printing & Bookbinding Company. Batch M00132-4. 24 Feb. “Police Raid Gamblers in Manhattan Resort. 10-18.INFORMER. “Raid in Elizabeth Street. p. Nos. 1900. ukn. ukn. 1141. and Mike Dash. Whitley’s Sudden Death. “Benefit for Infirmary.. 105. Peck. Mariano had leased the majority of the rear of his store to Rubino and “Buccolo” to use as “concert hall. 1901. 1908). They produced an affidavit alleging that on March 16. Revenge. Mariano. 125. 14. see New York Marriage for Joseph (Giuseppe) Rubino and Ann Granatelli. 42-43.” Rochester Evening Journal and the Post Express.” New York Times. “Capt. p.B. LXV (Albany: J. no. 3 (July 2009): 5-20. . 1901)..” New York Times. Twelfth Census of the United States: 1900 Population. 12 March 1902. Trow’s General Directory of the Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx. 131. 5 Nov.” New York Sun. Extortion. Citations: “Rubino v. landlord Gerardo Mariano took his 258 Elizabeth Street tenants Giuseppe Rubino and Antonio “Buccolo” (or “Buccola”) to the New York Supreme Court to appeal an injunction order.” New York Times. Source film 1570440 and New York Marriage for Giuseppe Ruffino and Francesca Nuccio. The Court reversed the injunction against Mariano. p. Citation: Marriage Certificate of Giuseppe Ruffino and Francesca Nuccio. see Thomas Hunt. 1901. Citations: “Barrel Murder Plot and Victim Known. and the Birth of the American Mafia (New York: Random House.” “Saloon Smashing Here. ukn. 1900-1901 (Rochester: Press of Union and Advertising Company). Rochester: The Power City. 5 Nov. The marriage record received on a records request states his marriage as Nov.” “Raid in Elizabeth Street. They argued that they had had a different agreement with Mariano. Ibid. p. The document purportedly stated that the premises were to be leased until May 1. New York (New York and Chicago: Pioneer Publishing Company. ukn. Certificate no. In November of 1901. For more on the Morellos and 16 Stanton Street. “Aged Man is Missing. p. October 2013 29 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 4. State of New York.” in Marcus T. 21 April 1903. 29 June 2005. F4. Borough of Manhattan. County of New York. Lyon Company. p. Source film 1570440. Rochester Chamber of Commerce. that prevented him from executing a dispossession warrant. ukn. For more on Rubino. 17 April 1903. 24 Oct. 1900. the court ruled that the affidavit was rubbish. p. The First Family: Terror. State of New York. “Saloon Smashing Here. Batch M00552-9. p. 4 June 1928.
1 Nov. The Black Hand: Terror by Letter in . vol. p. 53 According to the Rochester House Directory for 1905-06.” According to the July Rochester City Directory. “Italian Saloonkeeper Held. 64 “An Attempt to Blow Up Bank. 1907. Bell. Lombardo. 55 City of Rochester Municipal Archives Historic Marriage Records. 1907. 16th Ward. See Rochester House Directory and Family Address Book. 10 July 1908. New York State Census. 58 “Justifiable Killing is Coroner’s Verdict.S. 19051906). County of Monroe. 687. 19 February 1906. 10 April 1906.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Image no. ukn. 1903-1904). 1 Dec. 1900-1907 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. no.” Rochester Post Express. No. p.” Pittsburgh Press. 16 Feb. Western District of New York. 2 June 1900. However. 8-9. 44. 61 Blake McKelvey. the right side lot was listed as “vacant. Serial no. Alessandro was living at 1 Arthur Place with laborer Orazio Polvino. 16th Ward. 50 Manifest no. ukn. “Recruiting Grounds of the White Slave Traffickers.” Rochester History. and Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 1. Rochester Business Directory (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. 16 Dec. 63 “House is Alleged to Be Disorderly. 714. Sheet 20A. 1904. 3 April 1909. Reed & Co. p. p. 1902). 9. 56 U. see The Shoe Factory Art Co -op [Internet]. “Bad Italian Goes to Joliet. 1905). XXV. Passport Application for Giuseppe Ruffino. “Rochester at the Turn of the Century. 48 Nos.. XII. p. 65 “Believe Prisoner Black Hand Chief. 2835. p. “A History of the Police of Rochester. 657. 1904). 4 (October 1963): 13.” Rochester History. For more on the Goat Hill Gang. 59 On his passport application. Passport Application for Giuseppe Ruffino.S.30 INFORMER. ukn. 67 For more on Geraci.S.S. 666. District Court. 22 Nov. p. see Blake McKelvey. VII (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. ukn. 10 April 1909. 49 Pietro Marino’s saloon had been known as a rendezvous for Rochester’s infamous Goat Hill Gang. 1903. 1901. 1 June 1905.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. 54 Manifest no. Perugia. “Fight Started Over Beer and Card Game. 47 U. State of New York. p. 498. and “Charged with Murder of Theresa Keating. Curiously. State of New York. Giuseppe reported that this was his first marriage. 684. 1907. 1904 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. 8.” Rochester Post Express. 3. 774. p. Parkin.S. Citation: Nos. 28 Dec.P. Ruffino stated that he lived in Rochester and Buffalo between 1900 and 1907. Vol.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. 1909. 707. 3. Canopic. “Criminal Calendar Will Be Taken Up. 1905 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. Salvatore “Sicorella” was residing on the left side 1 Elliot Place. 670. 14 June 1904. p. Twelfth Census of the United States: 1900 Population. 20 Aug. 13. No. 21. 51 Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 1. p. 62 “Night of Nights in Little Italy. 57 Harry A. 1906. 12. 901. 1907. U. 205.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. no. 13 Aug. S. p. 12. S.” Rochester Post Express. County of Monroe. 670. 306. 649. Citations: Rochester House Directory and Family Address Book. 52 For more on E. 60 “Chief Hayden Sees a Danger. 15 Aug.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. 1906. City of Rochester. Sheet 19. M1677. 1904). County of Monroe. see Robert M.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 1. 1 (January 1950): 9.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls or the War on the White Slave Trade: The Greatest Crime in the World’s History (Ukn: Ukn. VIII (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. 750.S. 1910). 707. Roll no.’” in Ernest A. p. 6. October 2013 46 Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 1. 6. 1. 66 “Bad Man is Nabbed in Chicago. 684. 1901. p. 500. City of Rochester. no. See U. 26 Sept. 10-16. 7. 1900-1907). Naturalization Record Index for Giuseppe Ruffino. 10 Feb. 1906 for Giuseppe Ruffins and Santa Casarza. 1902 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company.
25 July 1908. 1904. James Lucius (1872-1959).” “Brewery Closes Up Saloon.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. 37. 5. Giuseppe refers to her as Santina. 1908. “Heavy Fine and Banishment. Prison Letter to Alexander Ruffino and Prison Letter to Ukn.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. IX (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. “House is Alleged to Be Disorderly. 10 July 1908. 2009). 49 -53. “Whaley Lets Man Escape. No.” Milwaukee Journal. p. p. Ellisisland. County of Will. 38. 15. ukn. 609. “Heavy Fine and Banishment. p.” Rochester Post Express. Bell. p. Williams Alexander Coote. 37. 1 Nov. 1907). ukn. 21 May 1908. 1042. 18 Dec.” in Ernest A. “House is Alleged to Be Disorderly. p. 11 Aug. 36. 19011906). 4 Dec.org citation states that the group arrived in New York on May 22 from Naples. 17 July 1908. “An Attempt to Blow Up Bank. 11. 11. Republic.INFORMER. “House is Alleged to Be Disorderly. p. 22 April 1910. 1. 21 March 1906. “Tells Story of a White Slave. “The Suppression of the White Slave Traffic. 9.” “Extortion Case is Sent to Grand Jury. S. “Three Italians Suspected of Black Hand Work Caught in Hartford Street House. p. 770. ukn. “Italians Accused of Abducting a Child. “Italian Saloonkeeper Held. “Three Italians Suspected of Black Hand Work Caught in Hartford Street House. 1900-05 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. 4 Dec. 39. 28 Nov. 1900-05). 1129. October 2013 31 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 Chicago (Champaign: University of Illinois Press. nos. 1907-1908). 458. 1908). According to the Milwaukee Journal’s coverage of En- . p.” Rochester Post Express. p. Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls or the War on the White Slave Trade: The Greatest Crime in the World’s History (Ukn: Ukn.” “Witness Saw the Murder.S. p. 16. 7. 1907. p. 3 April 1909.In his prison records. Bureau of the Census. See Manifest nos.” Rochester Directory for the Years Beginning July 1.S. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress [Internet].” “House is Alleged to Be Disorderly. 13.” Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 1. Rochester House Directory and Family Address Book. 1907. 1907 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. 876. 568. Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 1. She is listed as “wife Santa Ruffino” on her passenger manifest. Joliet Township. p.” Chicago Daily Tribune. while the original passenger manifest document states that they arrived May 21 from Genoa. VI-VIII (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. 1907. no. Sheet 9A. Illinois State Penitentiary. U. Thirteenth Census of the United States: 1910 Population. “Reply to Coroner Killip. “Italian Forfeits $100 Bail.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. 11-13. 1907.” Whitley. “Bartender Pleads Not Guilty. p.” Sick Call Physician’s Office for Giuseppe Ruffino. 594. 1907. 882. ukn. 18 Oct. “Women Forfeit Bail. 6. 1908 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Department of Commerce and Labor. p.” Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. See Giuseppe Ruffino. 1910). Citation: “Prisoner Called Black Hand Head. Rochester House Directory and Family Address Book. 28 July 1908. ukn.” “House is Alleged to Be Disorderly.
Rochester Business Directory (Rochester: Drew Allis Company.S. Sims. 9. 1. 28 July 1908. 15.32 INFORMER.” United States v. p. provided by NARA NYC. 97 “In the Real Estate Field. 119 Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 1.” New York Times. D3.C. 1908. 24 June 1908.” Rochester Post Express. 7 June 1908. 28 July 1908. 1908). 28 July 1908. 52.” in Ernest A. 52. Document no. D. 116 “Tells Story of a White Slave. p. District Attorney. 102 “Tells Story of a White Slave. p. ukn. 19 June 1908.” New York Daily Tribune. p. p. p. however. 11-13.” Chicago Daily Tribune.. Francesco Ruffino and Guiseppe [sic] Ruffino. p. 1. 120 “Women Still Held. 14. p. 110 Sims. Document no. p. 1064. 1907 (Washington. City of New York (New York: Trow Directory Printing & Bookbinding Company. 21 May 1908. p. “Traffic in Girls is by Wholesale. 26 June 1908..” New York Times. ukn. Citation: Manifest nos. United States Immigration Laws and Regulations of July 1. 1501. 1908.” Chicago Daily Tribune.” Syracuse Herald.’” Chicago Daily Tribune. The first count of the Ruffinos’ federal indictment. F4. 1900-1901 (Rochester: Press of Union and Advertising Company). 13. 770. p.” 103 “Held as Black Hand Chief. 874. 458. 5. See United States v.” 122 “Whaley Goes After Crooks. Bell. 57. Rochester: The Power City. Republic. 104 Edwin W. p. 29 July 1908.” New York Daily Tribune. 109 “Edwin W. . 48-49. 28 July 1908. Southern District of New York. U. 58-59. 9.: U. 1908).” 118 “Black Hand Catch Here?” Milwaukee Journal. 100 “Tells Story of a White Slave. 121 “Whaley Lets Man Escape. “Appalling Discoveries by Government Agents Show Chicago to Be Greatest White Slave Market in America. p. 9. 1910).S. Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls or the War on the White Slave Trade: The Greatest Crime in the World’s History (Ukn: Ukn. 98 Trow’s General Directory of the Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx. 105 Department of Commerce and Labor.” Chicago Daily Tribune. 7.S. 99 “Tells Story of a White Slave.” “Black Hand Leader Caught. 3. 106 Sims. p. 26 July 1908.” 101 United States v. Sims.” 117 “Whaley Lets Man Escape. “Five More Raids Caused by Sims. 1394 (1908). Bell. 115 “Women Still Held. 11 Aug. 1908.” Milwaukee Journal. states that they imported Enrichetta at the Port of New York on April 7. 7. Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. See “Tells Story of a White Slave. 12 June 1908. 108 “White Slave Trade Proclamation. 113 “Tells Story of a White Slave. 3. 1908). 21 June 1908. 3. 1.” 114 Rochester Chamber of Commerce. S. 1907). 327. October 2013 richetta’s testimony. 107 Ernest A. 1367. 78. “America Adheres to Convention. Francesco Ruffino and Guiseppe [sic] Ruffino. 2 Aug. p. 1910). 111 Ibid.” Chicago Daily Tribune.” Syracuse Herald.” Chicago Daily Tribune. Francesco Ruffino and Giuseppe [sic] Ruffino. p. “Held as Black Hand Chief. “The White Slave Trade of To -day [sic]. 14 July 1908. 1908 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. Government Printing Office. “Sims is Pushing White Slave War. she stated that she arrived in New York on May 22. Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls or the War on the White Slave Trade: The Greatest Crime in the World’s History (Ukn: Ukn. 112 Ibid. Worker Wins Fame in Law and Politics. Circuit Court.
” Maps. 10. p.” in Proceedings of the City Council. 1637. “Tells Story of a White Slave. 28 July 1908.” Ogden Standard. 1921. p. 30 July 1908. “Ruffino Said to Be Murderer.” “Milwaukee to Free Suspects in a White Slavery Case. Milwaukee Police Department. Russell Austin. 16. p. 1 June 1981. 1.” New York Times. “Black Hand Leader Caught. 10 Sept. Street Guide to Old Milwaukee.” “Leaseholds. “Held as Black Hand Chief. “Kitty Williams is Dead at 79. “Black Hand Chief Captured. 1906. 10.” Logansport Daily Reporter.” Peck. “Ruffino Said To Be Murderer. p. October 2013 123 124 125 126 127 33 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 “Captains Hit by Police Shake-up. p. Peck. “Chief Addresses Detectives.” Milwaukee Sentinel. 169. “Little Italy Buries ‘King. p.’ Big Crowds Pay Tribute. Charge Not Known. “Black Hand Catch Here?” Ibid. 1907. 1. ukn. “Whaley Lets Man Escape. 29 July 1908. p. October 22. 9 June 1908.” Milwaukee’s Finest [Internet]. Illinois: Monday. 1908 (Milwaukee: Edw.” in Annual Report of the Chief of Police of the City of Milwaukee for the Year Ending December 31st.” Syracuse Post-Standard. 31.” Hillsboro News-Herald. Chicago.” “Black Hand Catch Here?” Prison record of Giuseppe Ruffino.” New York Times. 2. p. 1909). Traeger. H. “Distribution of the Force.” Rochester Post Express. 8 August 1908. 29 July 1908. 18 August 1908. “Black Hand is Deep in Crime. 29 July 1908. 28 July 1908. 28 July 1908.” 12. “Blake McKelvey. p. “A History of the Police of Rochester. Milwaukee Journal. “Accused of Many Crimes. 14. 1910. p. ukn. 1943. p.” Los Angeles Times. 16. 2.” Rome Daily Sentinel.” Rochester Democrat-Chronicle. 3. 10 June 1908. “To Deport Victims of White Slave Traffic. The Milwaukee Story: The Making of an American City (Milwaukee: The Milwaukee Journal. “Black Hand Leader Taken. “Caught a Black Hand.” Winnipeg Free Press. “Second Italian Policeman. “Red Light Switch. 2. “Whaley Lets Man Escape.” Milwaukee Journal. 28 July 1908. 2.” Oskaloosa Daily Herald.net [Internet] “Leader of Italians is Held by Police. p.” Chicago Tribune.” Bemidji Daily Pioneer. 27 Jan. 28 July 1908. p. 10 Feb. 12 August 1908. 7 August 1908. 29 July 1908. .INFORMER.” Chicago Daily Tribune. 16. p. “Ruffino Said To Be Murderer. 16 May 1907. “Record of Saloon Licenses Under Limitation Ordinance. p. “Black Hand Murderer Caught. 5. “Held for White Slave Traffic. p. 15.” Rochester History.” Prison record of Giuseppe Ruffino.” Rochester Post Express. “Held as Black Hand Chief. “Downtown Milwaukee. 7.” “Black Hand Catch Here?” “Whaley Lets Man Escape. p. no.” Amsterdam Evening Recorder. “Black Hand Leader Caught. 1.” Milwaukee Journal. XXII. 1946). 12 March 1908. 5. “Held as Black Hand Chief. 31 Aug. Nick Maggio had a saloon license for 2242 Wentworth Avenue.” Racine Daily Journal. “Wanted by Police of Many Cities. p. 2.” Rochester Post Express. p. “Italian Policeman Assigned to Work. p. 13 August 1908. Keogh Press.” As of July 1906. 6. p. OldMilwaukee. 164. See City Collector John E. 169. “District Three. vol. p. 1. p. “The Italians of Rochester: A Historical Review. 4 (October 1960): 7. 6. McKelvey.” Oakland Tribune. p.
and Naval Service of the United States. 1875-1935 (Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press. M1480.” Racine Daily Journal. “Held as Black Hand Chief. No. 10 Aug. “Italians Identified in the Milwaukee County Jail: 1896-1940. M1464. Giuseppe Ruffino. 7. 9. New York. Articles Received by Mail for Giuseppe Ruffino. Ibid. 1 (Washington.. 1909 (Chicago: Bureau of Statistics and Municipal Library. “Hold Woman as Witness.” Milwaukee County Historical Society. 1907. Liguria. 31. 18 May 1909. p. “To Testify in Milwaukee.. 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 . Giuseppe Ruffino. 268. 17 August 1905. 5.S. Pub.” Rochester Post Express. The History of Wisconsin. Citation: Wis.” Rochester Post Express. no. U. October 2013 “Leader of the Black Hands.S.S. in Mario A.” Prison record of Giuseppe Ruffino. p.2.S. Department of Commerce and Labor Continued.17-18. p.” “Hold Ruffinos a Week.34 INFORMER. “Official Register.” Joseph Ruffino. Manifest nos. 83. U. John Zucchi. 30 November 1909. 1909). 8 March 1909.” Milwaukee Journal. Nesbit. Manifest no. provided by NARA Atlanta. 1 Aug. 112. p.” Auburn Citizen. 20 Nov. Francis A.” “Milwaukee to Free Suspects in a White Slavery Case.” “Held as Black Hand Chief. 1930. Border Crossings from Canada to United States for Francisco Ruffino. “Black Hand Catch Here?” “Whaley Lets Man Escape. “Gangs Detour Milwaukee’s Vagrancy Law. Government Printing Office. 1907. Penitentiary. 76. 5A. Atlanta. 1. 16. 1985). 5 Oct. p. p. Chicago City Manual. 1908. NY. “Two Alleged ‘Black Hand’ Members Still in Custody. Roll no. 3 Dec. 82.C. P-05-08. p. For more. New York. Of Vagrants § 65-1543 (1878). 7 August 1908. see Robert C. 2318. 1988). Border Crossings from Canada to United States for Giuseppe Ruffino. ukn. Santina is stated as “Anna Callore” here. Italians in Toronto: Development of a National Identity. Ibid. Moyer.” “Black Hand Leader Caught. 1908.” in Official Register: Persons in the Civil. p. 6. 1884-ongoing. Pub.” Washington Post. Department of Commerce and Labor. 31 July 1908. “Black Hand Catch Here?. GA. p. S.” “Two Alleged ‘Black Hand’ Members Still in Custody. 28 July 1908. R. 1909). Scientific American Publishers.” “Sindaci e commissari dal 1861 a oggi. “Woman Gets Hearing and May Be Deported. 29 July 1908. 1903. 5. See “White Slave in Confession Implicates Male Companion. 1904.S. p. 17 ukn 1910. Bureau of the Census. “Hold Ruffinos a Week. “In White Slavery?” Milwaukee Journal. M1478. Ibid.” Comune di Palermo [Internet]. Atlanta.” Milwaukee Sentinel. 7. GA.” Chicago Daily Tribune. 7 Aug. and List of Vessels. 5. 1908. Italian American Collection. provided by NARA Atlanta. 18 Feb. Inmate no. St. p. Roll 67. 6 Aug.S. provided by NARA Atlanta. D. S. Special Letter to Warden William H. 29 July 1908. Roll 114.S. Sheet 25. Paul. Port of Niagara Falls. Wanted on Murder Charge. 3 May 1909. Military. Pub.” “Milwaukee to Free Suspects in a White Slavery Case. U. Carini. p. 7. Letter to Munn & Co. Penitentiary.: U. p. Border Crossings from Canada to United States for Francisco Ruffino. Volume III: Urbanization & Industrialization 1873-1893 (Madison: State Historical Society. vol. Ibid.” Rochester Post Express. 220. Eastman.
p. 2.C.S.” Racine Daily Journal. 1034. U. 23 March 1914. Giuseppe Ruffino. George Upington. Sick Call Physician’s Office for Giuseppe Ruffino. “Rhinitis. no.INFORMER.” 5 Feb.” in A. Upington’s General Directory Borough of Brooklyn 1909 (Brooklyn: Upington’s Directory Office. GA. “How Loftis Built Up an Instalment [sic] Business of 300. Giuseppe Ruffino. 1909 (Washington. Giuseppe Ruffino. Penitentiary. Inmate no. 11 Aug. Nast & Company. 8.S.” “White Slaves Be Deported. IL. Atlanta. Prison Letter to Alexander Ruffino. NARA Atlanta. Atlanta. Letter to U. 4380. from 1907 to 1922. U. 26 December 1908. 29 June 1909. Prison record of Giuseppe Ruffino. GA. “Says Morse Tried Bribe.S. 28 February 1910. United States v. GA. Francesco Ruffino and Guiseppe [sic] Ruffino. U. 3. Penitentiary. 138. Prison record of Giuseppe Ruffino. October 2013 183 184 185 186 187 35 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 “Tells Story of a White Slave.” Milwaukee Journal. Government Printing Office. Moyer. Atlanta. Say Guards. Criminal Docket no. “Hepatic and Biliary Disorders. Moyer.” New York Times. provided by NARA Atlanta. 9. Wayne. South Bend District. 1 Aug.S. Berlet. Giuseppe Ruffino. Warner Parker. For more on Moyer’s prison abuses see Julian Hawthorne. 4380. 1272. City of New York (New York: Trow Directory Printing & Bookbinding Company. Francesco Ruffino. 2318. GA. D.” Brooklyn Standard Union. Articles Received by Mail for Giuseppe Ruffino. 939. Penitentiary. Bureau of the Census. Thirteenth Census of the United States: 1910 Population. Chicago. Prison Letter to ukn. Provided by NARA NYC. Letter to Warden William H. Prison Letter to Alexander Ruffino. 1909-1911. Ibid. Moyer.” Print- . Criminal docket no. Attorney Henry A. “Warden of Atlanta Cruel.” Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [Internet]. Circuit Court. Francesco Ruffino and Guiseppe [sic] Ruffino. Chicago. District Court. “L’obbligo del viaggio continuato. 2 (July 1914): 344. p. provided by NARA Atlanta.: U.000 Accounts.” New York Times. The Subterranean Brotherhood (New York: McBride. “Woman Accomplice. 19 Jan. U. “United States vs. Letter to Warden William H. 1912. 3 Jan. Nolle Prosequi. 22. GA. IL. 1909).327 (1908). 1907. 1. 1914.S. National Mercantile Agency. 15 March 1910. Letter to Warden William H. Eastern District of New York. “Brownsvilleites at Summer Resorts. p. Sheet 4A. Atlanta. 27 October 1908. 1909).S. Department of Commerce and Labor. Citations: “Assails Atlanta Prison. 17 Aug. United States v. Trow’s General Directory of the Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx. 19 April 1910. Prison Letter to Alexander Ruffino. Southern District of New York. Atlanta. 1912. No.S. Giuseppe Ruffino. Attorney Robert E.” Bollettino dell’Emigrazione 13. 1914). See Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. 47. Southern District of New York. Ministero degli Affari Esteri. Citations: United States v.” Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [Internet]. Attorney John T. Atlanta. Federal Judicial Center [Internet]. Giuseppe Ruffino. p. “Civil Actions and Prosecutions. Judge Chatfield is listed as a federal judge. Wise. Warrant of Commitment to U. Annual Report of the Commissioner-General of Immigration for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30. Letters Sent and Received for Giuseppe Ruffino.” New York Times. p. p. Collections and Reports Manager P. 1908. Fulton County. History of the Federal Judiciary. 1909). State of Georgia. Prison Letter to ukn. Dock L .B. 1908. Commissariato dell’Emigrazione. GA. Dennis.
Moyer. Publishers. Eastern District Naturalization Index for Bernardo Campagna. 1907.. Letter to Attorney John T. Nos. GA.S. Italy” destined to Pennsylvania. 119. 19 March 1910. Thomas Hunt. 2 (April 2010): 35. City of New Orleans. near Naples. 1915). 37-41. 2318. in Campania. Certificate no. Letter to Attorney Robert E. New Orleans. New Orleans.S. 25. LA. Giuseppe Morello. Letter to National Mercantile Agency. provided by NARA Atlanta. 1916). 10 Jan. S. 47-48. Penitentiary South Bend District. 20 May 1895. 1911). Nos. 2A. 1902-1921. M-N and K-L. vol. there is a Francesco “Rassu” listed as being from “Bomannero. 1904. 29 Oct. Prison record of Giuseppe Ruffino. and fell in love with the “sweetheart” of a fellow countryman. p. U.. 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 . Dennis. Around May 26. Ancestry.S. “Etheredge v. Penitentiary. 1911). County of Orleans. Francesco was described as “a very undesirable alien” and one of the “fruits” of Detective Lieutenant Joseph Petrosino’s campaign to remove alien criminals from the U. U. 443.S.” 5 Sept. 9. Circuit Court. Ruffino soon found a “retreat” in Thompsonville. Letter to Giuseppe Ruffino. Penitentiary. vol. 106 (Indianapolis: Nordyke & Marmon Company. 16 April 1910.S.” The Federal Reporter. vol. Alphabetical by Surname. 30 Oct. U. State of Georgia. 1376. U.S. Sheets 7A. Atlanta. Ancestry.” The Weekly Northwestern Miller. 2318. Sheet 8A. He admitted to officers that he had served four terms in Italy. At the time. 14 June 1913. Atlanta. 2882 and Ignazio Lupo. 1908. Shields.” in Louisiana Vital Records. Chicago. GA. Citation: Salvatore Bartolotta. no. Clerk. 803361. Thirteenth Census of the United States: 1910 Population. 1911.com [Internet]. On the ships’ passenger manifest. Upon his capture. Atlanta. 92 (New York: New York. Critchley. Inmate Case Files. Bureau of the Census. John A. Department of Commerce and Labor. Paul: West Publishing Co.S. Atlanta Federal Penitentiary. He was subsequently betrayed by this man and was alleged to have assaulted him with a revolver. 1908. See Manifest no. Ancestry. Inmate no. arriving in New York on the S. 6 and 26. 1910.S. Louisiana. 186 (St. Salvatore Bartolotta. Atlanta. U. October 2013 er’s Ink: A Journal for Advertisers. Montebello. GA. GA. 25 Oct. provided by NARA Atlanta. U. 1911. Upon arrival to the U. vol. GA. NY. Warden William H. Inmate no. 7 Sept. 18 April 1910. Thirteenth Census of the United States: 1910 Population. Chief Clerk. 2883. Petition for Naturalization for Bernardo Campagna. 544. This is possibly Bomerano. Moyer. IL.S. He also admitted that he had been in the U. less than 3 years.com [Internet]. 6 Sept. “Mafia boss of bosses despairs in prison. Inmate no. 11. Department of Commerce and Labor. Louisiana. The letter from Bartolotta is unreadable from the photocopy provided by NARA Atlanta. GA. Francesco Ruffino and four other Italians escaped from custody at Ellis Island. p. Letter to Warden William H. Penitentiary.com [Internet]. “Louisiana: Notes. Prison record of Giuseppe Ruffino.S. The men allegedly hired an accomplice to row in a boat to the island and break into their holding cells. United States. He had been arrested by New York police detectives earlier on an adultery charge. 1917. IL. 2 March 1910. Berlet. Letter to Giuseppe Ruffino. Inmate no. State of Louisiana. Marriage Records Index for Salvatore Bartolotta and Giuseppe Schafani. U. Madonna from Naples on December 31. 434-436. provided by NARA Atlanta. County of Fulton. 5th Ward.S. New York. Atlanta. Manifest no. 1911. Connecticut. 17-20. “Payment of Fine of Guiseppe [sic] Ruffino. Atlanta. Bureau of the Census. Francesco was scheduled to be deported from action by an immigration board of inquiry. no.S.. NARA Atlanta [Internet]. Soards’ New Orleans City Directory for 1911 (New Orleans: Soards Directory Co. one for 16 months for counterfeiting.” Informer 3. Receipt for Property in Charge of Chief Clerk for Giuseppe Ruffino.36 INFORMER. Chicago. Ltd.
S. District Court. 11—1911 Rochester Police Blue Book. 8—1908 postcard. U. Pg. Black’s Law Dictionary. Chief of Police Joseph M. “Wants Rival Deported. 25 Nov. 597. 13—The Prodigal Daughter by Clifford Roe. 31 Dec. ukn.” New York Times. 15—1911 Rochester Police Blue Book. 18 Nov. Ellis Island [Internet]. Pg. Quigley. Madonna. 1914). 1907. Chief of Police Joseph M. 1913.S.com [Internet]. 486. Pg. See Bryan A. “Say He Freed Aliens. Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 15. . 1910. 16 June 1908. Southern District of New York. Atlanta. GA. March 5. p. 2006). p. Nolle prosequi. provided by NARA Atlanta. 5—NARA Atlanta. 1913). Garner. Pg.INFORMER. 15 May 1908. Attorney Henry A. Rochester House Directory and Family Address Book. Criminals. p. McKelvey. Pg. July 28. 1.S. Rochester. 959. NARA Atlanta. p. 13. Quigley. “A History of the Police of Rochester. NY. Rochester.” is a legal notice that a lawsuit or prosecution has been abandoned or a docket entry showing that the plaintiff or the prosecution has abandoned the action.S. 26—NARA Atlanta. Ancestry. GA. p. XII (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. Paul: West Publishing Co. ukn. Latin for “not to wish to prosecute. 8 May 1908. Pg.” New York Times. 1913. 22—Milwaukee Sentinel. no. 18—Milwaukee Journal. Pg. 1913-1914). Letter to Penitentiary Superintendent. NY. Correspondence and Case Files of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Citation: U. Record of Arrests for Francesco Ruffino (Cammarato). Letter to Warden William H. “Criminals at Ellis Island. Atlanta. Letter to U. 1908. Rochester Directory for the Year Beginning July 15. p. ukn. Third Pocket Edition (St. 968. Moyer.” New York Times. Photograph credits: Cover— The Prodigal Daughter by Clifford Roe. October 2013 37 224 225 226 227 228 229 25. 1913 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. 1914 (Rochester: Drew Allis Company. Penitentiary. Pg. 28 March 1909. 459..” 13.S. Wise.
38 INFORMER. October 2013 .
INFORMER. well. outlandish courtroom antics became the norm in the summer of 1975. basically just a bunch of other bad guys. various elements combined to create Pandemonium in the courtroom. threats and theatrics than could be seen in any television drama. These two knew Chester Campbell perhaps better than anyone. and he and his team of lawyers did all they could to make the situation worse. became verbally combative in court. Campbell. The supposed “good guys” were under scrutiny for doing some not-so-good things. but in Courtroom Theater. SC: Strategic Media Books. they put on a show worthy of charging admission. formerly known for conducting himself professionally in any situation. Decorum surrendered to more arguments. The chaotic turn of events was not at all helpful to efforts to lock Chester Wheeler Campbell behind bars. physical altercations. particularly Elbert Hatchett and co-counsel Wilfred Rice. and the “bad guys” were being testified against by. His attorneys weren’t any better behaved. 2013). Scandal. and accusations of unsavory behavior were not directed solely toward accused criminals. In Michigan’s sultry summer months. As if the Detroit-area judicial system did not already have more than its share of legal mischief. and its gray areas. October 2013 39 Diary of a Motor City Hit Man: The Chester Wheeler Campbell Story Pandemonium in the Courtroom By Christian Cipollini Editor’s note: Following is an excerpt from Chapter 15 of Diary of a Motor City Hit Man: The Chester Wheeler Campbell Story by Christian Cipollini (Rock Hill. as demon- . The flamboyant pair was well versed in the law. rumor and conspiracy worked their way into legal proceedings.
Trial originally was Prosecutor Richard Thompson to be held in Pontiac. at least not if Campbell’s lawyers had anything to say about it. October 2013 strated during their February appearance before Judge Robert Webster. all white. Webster was all too familiar with Chester Campbell and his team of attorneys. in the early days of June. and the trial was moved to court in Kalamazoo. During the course of testimony. Michigan. The jury of nine women and three men. but the defense team and prosecutor’s office agreed to the area because it was far west of the location where Campbell had been arrested on drug and weapons charges and would limit the possibility of trial by media. And they did have a lot to say. Hatchett knew there would be slim chance of a fair trial in the predominantly white area of Oakland County. Campbell’s arrest made local headlines. where Chester Campbell was being tried on the three counts of carrying a concealed weapon and one count of heroin possession. It was not in held in Oakland County. was not in Campbell’s best interest. was granted the move. so Hatchett requested a different venue. where Campbell’s Orchard Lake arrest took place. Hatchett displayed great confidence.40 INFORMER. not even in Wayne County. approximately 145 miles west of Detroit. saw potential. and the publicity would be damaging. one . With his removal from the gargantuan Tenth Precinct/Pingree Street conspiracy case. exuberance and showmanship in Judge Webster’s courtroom. His legal team. however. Aside from the issue of race. Kalamazoo also was a predominantly white area of the state. Not going to happen. Campbell was spared one ordeal but dealt even more bad cards. The trial was not held in the Motor City.
while on the witness stand. October 2013 41 Chester Wheeler Campbell kept contact information and details of criminal activities in his collection of notebooks. “Let me see that. Walsh was reading a document to jog his memory when Hatchett stormed the stand. He followed his statement by snatching the document back from Rice’s hands. Judge Robert Webster . First. Rice (reportedly once a military boxing champ and black belt in the martial arts).” he demanded. Orchard Lake Police Corporal John Walsh was questioned by Campbell’s attorney Elbert Hatchett. chaotic incident led to another. and then seized the piece of paper from Walsh’s hands. Campbell’s attorneys were at odds with an old foe.INFORMER. He swiftly handed the file over to cocounsel Rice. Oakland County Assistant Prosecutor Richard Thompson. a much larger man than the prosecutor. The bold move caused Thompson to verbally condemn Hatchett’s action.
they would have been in for more of a show.” He was furious over members of the prosecutor’s staff carrying handguns. Because Campbell’s counsel still felt they would not get a fair trial with an all-white jury. Sporting a white fedora. Judge Webster conceded to Hatchett’s request and ejected all but the two deputies from court that day. October 2013 took hold of Thompson by the shoulders and angrily warned. The other six were told not to return to court unless they surrender their weapons. while Campbell and Hatchett looked on.42 INFORMER. He told the judge he could not continue “in this atmosphere of oppression. condemning the juvenile actions of both sides. Thompson. I can’t continue this trial with all those guns behind my back. A total of eight people in the courtroom stood. Chester strolled into the court. goatee. including prosecution staffers. “All those men with guns come up here and put their hands on my co-counsel – not one of them touched Mr. passing a . ties. Judge Webster tried to bring order to the courtroom. He loudly chastised stating. Just after order was restored. Campbell waived his right to trial by jury before the case began. only Judge Webster was hearing the case. If there had been a jury present. relatively uninterrupted.” The Judge went on to call out all those present who were carrying firearms. The trial continued. and toothpick pressed between his lips. black suit. witnesses and depuCampbell is convicted. Hatchett began voicing his disdain over the number of weapons visible in the courtroom. “Don’t you ever snatch something out of my hand that way.” Others quickly separated the two opposing attorneys.
the other two for first-degree murder. steely eyed.” Presiding over the actual trial was a contentious Judge named James Del Rio. His focus was quickly adjusted to the charges he was facing for the 1972 murder of Roy J. commonly known on the streets by the nickname “Watusi Slim. Parsons. but a light sentence down the road was all Campbell could hope for with regard to the Orchard Lake fallout. Loukas.INFORMER. The gun toting Del Rio had a controversial history. The key witness against the trio of assassins was James Lee Newton. Attorneys Hatchett and Rice were dead set on filing appeals. while Chester was being held without bond in Oakland County Jail. they stood defiantly before Judge Webster in the last week of June. October 2013 43 throng of reporters and photographers. 1975. His team of attorneys flanking him. Judge Webster took all the evidence. Also charged in the Parsons murder were Donald Johnson and Charles P. confident. and ready for war. He was not alone this time. but even Campbell’s fiery team of lawyers couldn’t sway the inevitable opinion laid out. which in- . Campbell was shipped back to Detroit to face the murder charge. Authorities in Detroit were anxious to get that trial underway. Webster found Chester Wheeler Campbell guilty on three counts of carrying a concealed weapon and one count of heroJudge James Del Rio in possession. Detroit’s Recorders Court Judge George W. Campbell ordered the three to trial: Chester for first-degree murder and inducement to murder. Back in early March. testimony and crossexaminations into account. Less than two weeks following his appearance in Kalamazoo on weapons and drug charges.
. October 2013 Page from one of Campbell’s notebooks.44 INFORMER.
Parsons had put a bullet in Campbell’s lower extremity. and Campbell sought medical help. a “revenge” hit.not a man easily intimidated.INFORMER. placing a bullet in his own head. On June 10th. Newton further stated that the plot against Parsons stemmed from an earlier time. He has already begun work on a book about Mafia boss Charlie “Lucky” Luciano. which was out of character for the ultra-professional assassin. a career criminal himself. Slim. Parsons fled the scene. Interestingly. this particular murder was. The judge had even been shot at – during a trial in 1972 – by a gun-waving defense attorney. as many divorces. also made it known he feared for his own life if he didn’t do as Campbell had instructed. Slim testified that Chester Campbell paid him $500 for luring Roy Parsons into a waiting vehicle. Then again. one of the passengers – either Loukas or Johnson – fired a gun and killed Parsons instantly. as Newton characterized it. This is his first book. . With that sort of past. The exchange of threats turned violent when Parsons brandished a handgun and blasted Chester in the leg. and he was not sure who fired the deadly shot. right in the middle of the courtroom. October 2013 45 cluded three marriages. It happened to be a day when the Judge wasn’t carrying his handgun under the robes (because he had been under scrutiny for that issue as well). The ultimate reciprocation was delivered to Roy J. Del Rio was accustomed to tough detractors . in 1972. Parsons in December of 1972. Nevertheless. The situation ended when the attorney turned the gun on himself. Christian Cipollini is a writer and designer with a strong interest in crime history. when Campbell and Parsons engaged in a heated argument. and rumors of having never practiced law until his election to the bench. Once Parsons was in the car. not even by the Motor City’s most notorious enforcer. and that gesture was destined to be reciprocated one way or another. Slim made it clear to the court that Chester Wheeler Campbell was not present at the murder scene. he said. a preliminary hearing with Watusi Slim revealed conflicting testimony. he was being overwhelmed by an ongoing investigation into his own judicial practices.
46 INFORMER. October 2013 .
g . operating in San Fernando.  Giuseppe[B] Rosolino[B] Joseph[B] Mob Rel Alcamo. formerly of New Orleans.. N=nephew..J... Italy  Novara... operating in San Bernardino. f . k .Marino[C]-S.. a …formerly of St.. Louis. formerly of Detroit. Death was a homicide. Other family links are possible.. operating in Las Vegas. B=brother...Vito di Capo. U=uncle. operating in Fresno.. I .. deported (Gaspare Matranga in 1954. Death was apparent suicide.. formerly of Toledo. S=son. operating in Oakland.. p .. e .. Simone Scozzari in 1962).. j .. b .Documentation suggests but does not explicitly state membership in this crime family.INFORMER. CO.. Sicily  Birthplace [Immig] 1930-60 Soldier Boss . 1977x 1905 The Bomp Bompensiero Frank USA Underboss Top Rank Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier 1940-50 [b] 1930-50 [a] Era [Notes] 1920-60 1920-30 1930-60 1920-50 J. Notes The Mob Rel column indicates family ties: F=father.. 1931x Death 1958 1971 1975 1954 1972 Birth 1898 1889 1886 1896 1893 1890 Tony Bruno Girolamo Giuseppe Rosolino Antonio Sam Bruno Iron Man Momo Alias Bernardo* Bonventre Ardizzone Bartolotta Bartolotta Surname Aleccia Adamo Biaggio Joseph Joseph Given 1893 1967 S.J.... operating in Encino.. Sicily  Alcamo.... c ... xs .. Sicily  Sons Grimaldi...... l . q .. formerly of Chicago....... October 2013 47 Los Angeles Mafia 1910-40s By Bill Feather This chart includes data on 65 known and suspected members active in the southern California-based Mafia organization in the 1910s through the 1940s. M=related by marriage.. Sicily  Cinisi. Capodecina 1930-70 [c] A. m ... C=cousin... Sic.. later to Cleveland.Cerrito[M]-S. o . x . h . formerly of New York City. Sicily  Cinisi. *.. d .... n .. operating in San Diego. formerly of Pueblo. formerly of Cleveland.
October 2013 DiQuattro John DeQuattro 1901 Dragna Gaetano Tom Allen 1888 . Sicily  Salaparuta. Calabria Palermo. Sicily Rosario[?] Frank[S] USA J.Adamo[C] ?  USA C. Sic. Sicily  USA James[B] Jack[B]  Caneto. Italy  Enna.  Biagio[B] Piana dei Greci. Sicily  Nicholas[B] Cacioppo John 1905 Calcaterra Ignazio 1881 Campagna Antonio 1884 Carpinelli* Carmine 1910 Costa* James 1901 DeMayo* Gaetano Thomas DeMaio 1899 DeSimone Frank 1909 DeSimone Leonardo 1905 DeSimone Rosario The Chief 1873 Dia Liborio Leo 1901 DiGiorgio Vito 1880 DiGiuro* Gaetano Guy 1899 DiMaria Arthur Army 1909 Dippolito Salvatore Charley Dip 1889 DiPuma* Salvatore Sol DePuma 1902 INFORMER. Sicily  Joseph[S] Corleone.48 Surname 1994 1951x 1963 1980 1960 1984 1957 1963 1967 1966 1946 1997 1922x 1983 1972 1961 1971 1959 1977 USA Corleone. Sicily  Salaparuta.Migliore[M] USA Ralph[B]-Cleve. Sicily  Alcamo. Sicily  1930-60 1930-50 [d] 1940-70 [e] 1940-50 1920-40 1930-60 1930-60 1910-40 [f] 1930-70 [c] 1920 [g] 1930-70 1940-70 [h] 1940-60 [i] 1930-50 [j] 1930-50 [i] 1920-50 USA 1930-60 1920-50 Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Boss Underboss Boss Soldier Boss Soldier Soldier Consigliere Soldier Soldier Consigliere 1930-? Soldier Given Alias Birth Death Birthplace [Immig] Mob Rel Era [Notes] Top Rank Bonventre* Giuseppe 1904 Borgia Frank 1886 Castellammare.
Polizzi[M] Frank[S]* Paul[B] Camporeale.Surname 1956 1966 1993 1977 1980? 1933xp USA ? 1984 1977 1962 1966 1974 1974 1977 1979 1975 ? 1949 1958x Alcamo. Sicily  Siculiana. October 2013 Giammona* Peter Pietro 1904 Giardina* Antonio 1904 Governale Angelo Angie Govenale 1879 Gruttadauria Frank Muscatel 1903 Guzzo Salvatore Sam 1912 Impastato Marco 1898 Ingoglia* Andrew 1895 Lasala Vincent James LaSalle 1904 Licata Nicolo 1897 LiMandri* Michael Marco/Mimi 1891 Mangione Anthony 1900 Marchese Nicolo 1896 Matranga Gaspare Joe Vitale 1898 Matranga* Antonio Tony Schino 1873 49 Mirabile Antonio Rizzo 1894 . Sic. Sicily  Castellammare.k] Soldier Soldier Soldier 1940-50 [n. Sicily  USA Carlo[S] Joseph[S] Partanna. Sicily  Giuseppe[?] 1930-70 Palermo. Sicily  ?  1930 1930-? 1940-80 [l] 1940-70 1930-60 1930-? [m] 1930-70 1930-70 [b] S.q] Capodecina Soldier Capodecina Corleone. Sicily  A.  Palermo.LiMandri[M] 1940-60 [k] Soldier Capodecina Capodecina Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Boss 1940-60 [c. Sicily  Alcamo. Sicily  USA Ravanusa.Cordaro[C]-NYC 1930-60 1930-60 1930-40 1930-50 [c] Giardinello. Sicily  Palermo. Sicily  Peter[?] 1930-70 Naples  1940-70 USA M. Sicily  Thomas[B] 1920-50 Boss Given Alias Birth Death Birthplace [Immig] Mob Rel Era [Notes] Top Rank Dragna Ignazio Jack 1891 Fiorello* Frank Rocco 1907 Frattiano Aladena Jimmy the Weasel 1913 Giammona Giuseppe Joe Gee 1901 INFORMER.
Sicily  Anthony[B] 1930-70 [c] Soldier Given Alias Birth Death Birthplace [Immig] Mob Rel Era [Notes] Top Rank Mirabile Paul 1896 Moceri Eugenio Eugene Maceri 1903 Moceri* Calogero Leo Lips 1907 Musitano* Francesco 1883 Niotta* George Giorgio 1889 Pagano* Dominic 1883 Palermo Thomas 1903 Pepitone Victor Peppertone / Vito 1899 Pesce James 1907 Piscopo Salvatore Dago Louie 1893 Pizzo Salvatore 1902 Reina Rudolph 1909 Rizzotta Benjamin Tita 1896 Scozzari Simone Sam Scosse 1900 Stagno Giuseppe 1889 Streva* Salvatore 1885 Trapani* Antonio 1877 INFORMER. Sicily I. October 2013 Tripoli Dominic Mimi 1902 Virruso Santo Angelo Lazzia 1894 . Sicily  Alcamo. Italy  USA Palermo.Matranga[M] USA Arena. Sicily  Naples.Dragna[M] Siracusa. Sicily USA I. Sicily  Corleone. 1930-60 [q] 1920-50 1930-50 1920-40 1930-60 1930-60 Piana dei Greci. Sicily  Palermo. Italy  J. Sicily  F. Sicily  Corleone.Megna[M]-Milw. Sicily  Valguarnera.50 Surname 1990 1963 1976x ? 1955 1952 1983 1974 1989 1977 1987 1978 1990 ? 1952 1973 1968 1978 1976  Bagheria.o] Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Consigliere Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Underboss Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Soldier Leo[?] 1930-60 Soldier Alcamo.Dragna[M] 1930-50 1930-50 [p] ?  1930-? [p] USA Joseph[B]-Detroit 1930-50 [b.Civello[C]-Dallas 1940-80 1930-70 1930-70 1940-70 1930-70 1940-60 1930-60 S.
Eventually he was . Edgar Hoover was on board with Mafia denial until the 1957 Apalachin conference. one believes in God despite the evidence. except for those who live under rocks. have heard of Michael Franzese. This is at least the modern reinterpretation of what Swedish existentialist philosopher Soren Kierkegaard wrote in his 1846 work Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments.not in any positive sense.INFORMER. where he actually wrote of a leap to faith as well as a leap to sin. He is the son of Colombo crime family underboss John “Sonny” Franzese. At any rate. As they say. several leading lights of the academic world asserted that there was no evidence for the Mafia and that it took a leap of faith to believe in it despite the lack of proof for its existence. Even J. Most readers of the Cosa Nostra. Now it could be considered a leap of faith to continue to deny its existence with the reams of evidence we have today. In other words. In this issue we look at the personal side of religion and the Mafia. Part 2 By Richard N. October 2013 51 The Warner Files Religion and the Mafia. but closer to a Kierkegaardian sense that to believe in God requires a leap of faith. a former caporegime. never let the facts get in the way of a good story. and was one of the Mafia’s biggest earners thanks to a scheme to cheat the United States government of gasoline taxes by using dummy corporations. Warner In a previous issue we looked into how certain scholars compared belief in the Mafia to religious belief .
He may be the first made member of the Mafia to leave the society to become a born-again Christian. one of the early examples occurred when Los Angeles mobster Mickey Cohen was said to have been converted following a meeting with evangelist Billy Graham in 1957. left the world of crime to become a Christian. His book is short on specific details such as names and dates. One of Cohen’s associates. Jim Vaus. he published a book called Tell It to the Mafia. examples of genuine faith are comparatively rare. a former Marine captain. The most famous recent example is the late Chuck Colson. found Christ in a 1949 Graham crusade. While in today’s culture there are many examples of prisoners who claim to turn to religion and use that to trim some time off their sentences. and many of the names he did include were changed. when he had . as he awaited sentencing for obstruction. He was found not guilty after it was shown that Donato shot Bocci in self-defense when Bocci came to his Burbank apartment and threatened his life. 1961. The biggest event in Donato’s book occurs in the early 1960s. bookie James Vincent Bocci. An FBI file mentioned that Donato was arrested with Chris Petti and Frank Graber at the Del Mar Race Track in San Diego as part of a scheme to past-post the winners and call them in to the Sica brothers at the expense of other Los Angeles bookmakers. Today he is a Christian evangelist and a motivational speaker. but he retained his faith as he died in 2012. successful attorney and Special Counsel to the President. Vaus was an ex-military who did illegal wiretapping for the LAPD and Cohen. In 1974. It turned out to be another example of media hype. Many skeptics in the media considered it a ploy. who was said to have been the evil genius behind President Nixon. when he shoots a fellow bookmaker named “Angelo. In 1975. on November 17. All that changed in 1972. but before that happened he met the woman who would become his second wife and lead him to Christ.” In real life. he became a born-again Christian. he shot his partner.52 INFORMER. In the 1970s Joe Donato. October 2013 caught and sent to prison. In the world of organized crime. a low-level criminal and alleged associate of Mafiosi in Pennsylvania and Southern California.
He was told to kill his friend Tony for being a snitch. Morelli maintains the site Rocco Morelli Ministries International. After the judge decided the case could go forward Scarfone dropped out. he brought with him the organized crime traditions that were passed down to him from his namesake grandfather and his father. Internally. “It’s a way of life for them. Hugo Morelli.” As of 2013. extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof. In 1986. he was arrested for selling cocaine and trying to bribe the officer who arrested him. Rocky Scarfone.INFORMER. It would take at least a full length ar- . who was involved in a numbers ring previously headed by Pittsburgh Mafia leader Gabriel “Kelly” Mannarino. He claims to be the illegitimate grandson of Joe “the Boss” Masseria and a made member of the Gambino crime family working under Carlo Gambino and then Paul Castellano. Retired NYPD detective Sonny Grosso was among the skeptics. As they say. One convert who generated a lot of attention is Tom Papania. he ministered to prisoners under ministries headed by Chuck Colson and Franklin Graham. you don’t change. The sites also point out inconsistencies in Papania’s stories. born Joseph Baffa. He subsequently founded Joe Donato Ministries. took him to court with the claim that part of Papania’s story was stolen from an earlier autobiography that Scarfone put out. Pennsylvania. After Morelli’s conversion. “Once you are one of those guys you don’t change. Another “near-Mafioso” who came to Christ is Rocco Morelli. which maintains a website saying that the eighty-three-year-old Donato has retired due to age and health. and unfortunately Papania’s claims do not meet that standard. several websites have popped up claiming that he is a fraud. As a result. police department who was working both sides of the law. October 2013 53 a vision of God speaking to him. but talked his boss out of the hit. Before he was sentenced his doctor invited him to a Full Gospel Businessman’s meeting and he made the decision to go in a different direction. Morelli was a constable for the New Kensington. As a corrupt officer. In the early 1980s. stating that he was satisfied that his claim was taken seriously.” he told a reporter in 2005. Morelli said at that time he came close to being made by the Pittsburgh crime family.
INFORMER, October 2013
ticle to examine the truth or falsity of Papania’s claims, but Papania’s ministry, God’s Saving Grace, is still operating. Another aspect of the religion and the Mafia is often neglected: its anticlerical nature. Even that might be an understatement since much of it could be considered downright anti-Christian. Could its origins be found in rebellion against the Roman Catholic Church? That’s something we’ll delve into in the next issue. See you then. A resident of southern California, Richard N. Warner has been studying organized crime for almost thirty years.
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Oct. 10–Jerry Capeci and Tom Robbins, co-authors of Mob Boss:
The Life of Little Al D’Arco, the Man Who Brought Down the Mafia, and Lisa Smith and Nancy Reid, Big Blend Radio. See bigblendradio.com Oct. 17—Thomas Hunt and Michael A Tona, co-authors of DiCarlo: Buffalo’s First Family of Crime (buffalomob.com) and Mel Ayton, author of Justice Denied (melayton.com). Oct. 24–Gerald Posner, author of Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK (posner.com). Oct. 31—Gary Jenkins, director/producer of Gangland Wire: How the Mob Lost Las Vegas (ganglandwire.com). Nov. 7—Roger Stone and Mike Colapietro, co-authors of The Man Who Killed Kennedy: The Case Against LBJ. Nov. 14—Peter Janney, author of Mary’s Mosaic: The CIA Conspiracy to Murder John F. Kennedy. (www.marysmosaic.net). Crime Beat is a weekly hour-long radio program that airs every Thursday, 8 p.m. Eastern, on the Artist First World Radio Network at artistfirst.com/crimebeat. All programs are archived on the site for 24 -7 listening. Crime Beat is hosted by award-winning crime writer and documentary producer Ron Chepesiuk and broadcast journalist and freelance writer Will Hryb. To contact the Crime Beat radio pro-
gram for interviews, e-mail email@example.com.
INFORMER, October 2013
INFORMER, October 2013
Joseph DiCarlo (far right) attends a 1922 birthday celebration for business and political leader Thomas J.B. Dyke (seated far left), a former New York City gangster.
DiCarlo biography revises Buffalo underworld history
Press release: The crime family of western New York was not at all a Magaddino-monolith as it is often portrayed. The Buffalo branch of that organization predated notorious Mafia boss Stefano Magaddino’s arrival in the region by decades, frequently resisted his control and eventually threw off his leadership to briefly restore the older DiCarlo-Pieri underworld dynasty, according to a coauthor of DiCarlo: Buffalo’s First Family of Crime. Michael A. Tona, a lifelong western New York resident who has dedicated more than thirty-five years to the research of the DiCarlo family and the regional underworld, believes DiCarlo’s life story is the key to understanding the history of the western New York Mafia. “Joseph DiCarlo and the Buffalo Mob came into this world at about the same time and left it at about the same time,” says Tona. “Sharing the same father (Buffalo’s earliest known crime boss Giuseppe DiCarlo), we could consider them brothers, influenced by the same people, events and heritage, and occasionally experiencing a degree of sibling rivalry.”
Softcover 9781304265821. 486 pages including photographs. Tona (Lulu Press. former head of the Buffalo Police Department Intelligence Unit. Volume I. young Tona took little of value from those meetings aside from the inspiration to learn all he could about DiCarlo and the roots of Buffalo organized crime. as well as by family friend Joe Giambra. to 1937. a prosecutor in the Organized Crime Section of the Brooklyn District Attorney’s Office. DiCarlo: Buffalo's First Family of Crime is the result of his DiCarlo: Buffalo’s First Family of Crime by Thomas Hunt and Michael A. bibliography. where the Buffalo Crime Family’s elder statesman held court at the table by the phone. Softcover 9781304265814. endnotes and index: ISBNs Hardcover 9781304243799. bibliography. 2013). Nook/ iBooks 9781304259912. Tona became familiar with local gangland history at an early age. 480 pages including photographs.INFORMER. Volume II. Generally tonguetied on those occasions. Kindle (ASIN) B00E8GNXQK . Angelo Tona. Nook/ iBooks 9781304259943. Tona recalls meeting DiCarlo several times in the 1970s at Santasiero’s Restaurant. Kindle (ASIN) B00E8GNVBM. His interest was fanned by stories shared by his uncle. endnotes and index: ISBNs Hardcover 9781304244048. October 2013 57 Raised in a Sicilian-Italian family in the Buffalo area. From 1938.
Florida. . He previously coauthored (with Martha Sheldon) Deep Water: Joseph P. many hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. After spending troubled years as a vassal to Magaddino. while illustrating the parallels between the life of DiCarlo and the history of the criminal organization that was founded by his father. DiCarlo took his underlings out of the region. Macheca and the Birth of the American Mafia and contributed a history of the American Mafia to the Australian-published Mafia: The Necessary Reference to Organized Crime. DiCarlo was rejected as "too young and irresponsible" to inherit control of his father's criminal empire. personal interviews. including the Buffalo Police Department and the Cleveland Police Department. They sought their fortunes in Youngstown. Volume I covers the period through 1937." Son of the region's first known Sicilian underworld boss. Their work is built upon documents from the FBI and other law enforcement agencies. 1. a newcomer to western New York. The coauthors utilize DiCarlo's colorful and violent life story as a window into the history of the powerful Magaddino Crime Family and the American Mafia network. court and prison records. dozens of published works. before returning home for the bloody disintegration of western New York's Mafia organization. DiCarlo. Instead Stefano Magaddino. once known as "the Al Capone of Buffalo" and as western New York's "Public Enemy No. Ohio. DiCarlo chronicles a century of DiCarlo family history and related developments in the American Mafia organized crime network. Hunt is editor and publisher of Informer: The History of American Crime and Law Enforcement. October 2013 decades of research and a five-year collaboration with coauthor Thomas Hunt. and documents and reports from numerous government sources. was selected as boss. family history records from the United States and Italy. Volume II focuses on the period 1938 to 1984 and includes an epilogue describing events as recent as 2012. Hunt and Tona also have worked together on a series of organized crime history articles published in Informer and the On the Spot Journal. The primary subject of the two-volume biography is Joseph J. and Miami Beach.58 INFORMER.
later boss of the Cleveland Mafia. called DiCarlo “one of the best-researched mob biographies I’ve read. The biography has earned early endorsements from true crime authors.INFORMER.buffalomob. October 2013 59 John “Peanuts” Tronolone (left).” Deitche noted that the authors dug “deep into the interlocking web of crime family cooperation across the United States and show how Joe DiCarlo played a pivotal role in elevating the Mafia to the dominant organized crime group in America.” DiCarlo is available in hardcover and trade paperback. and Joseph DiCarlo (right) following a 1937 trial for assault. Gangster City and Bad Seeds in the Big Apple. The Silent Don and Cigar City Mafia. author of Legs Diamond: Gangster. .” as well as “highly readable. Additional information can be obtained through www. Scott Deitche.com. says DiCarlo is “an exciting and highly detailed work on the birth and evolution of organized crime in upstate New York. as well as e-book formats for Kindle and Nook/iBooks devices.” Patrick Downey.” Downey praised the work as “comprehensive and carefully researched. whose published books include Rogue Mobster.
the 1975 near-collision of Campbell's rented Oldsmobile with a Keego Harbor. A search of the Oldsmobile revealed additional ammunition of various calibers. a police radio scanner. police found that he was carrying ammunition and several thousands of dollars in cash. random event. As the prisoner was processed. scrapbooks of newspaper clippings and copies of grand jury transcripts. They also found a number of notebooks. in which Campbell jotted down details of his criminal en- . author Christian Cipollini expertly crafts the intriguing story of Chester Wheeler Campbell's life and criminal career. Campbell was a freelance killer. October 2013 Just One More Thing ‘Diary of a Motor City Hit Man’ By Thomas Hunt In Diary of a Motor City Hit Man. police dug up his arrest record. which later tested positive for heroin.60 INFORMER. who worked for various narcotics outfits in the Midwest and was for a time considered the most-feared man in Detroit. patrol car. The near-accident and brief law enforcement pursuit of Campbell resulted in police custody of the career criminal and his vehicle. a sawed-off shotgun. another loaded handgun and envelopes containing white powder.45 pistol was observed on the car seat and resulted in Campbell's arrest. Police obtained a search warrant for the vehicle's trunk and inside discovered a Winchester rifle. Cipollini uses the event and the sundry items contained within the Oldsmobile not only to expose the career and character of the driver but also to explain much of the underworld history of the city of Detroit and the bloody operation of the narcotics trafficking business. The narrative springs from a detailed description of a single. Michigan. A loaded Colt . When Campbell was searched.
Campbell had a sharp." Denial of a Hit Man. He died while incarcerated in spring 2001. many of the murders remained unsolved. Michigan. Sartre and Jefferson (as well as those prolific philosophers Anonymous and Unknown)." and "Economics of a Hit Man. a virus spread by blood-to-blood contact and often associated with intravenous drug use. Campbell provided many headaches to prosecutors and law enforcement officers. but the quotes (not surprisingly. considering the infrequency of Machiavelli's visits to Detroit) often have little or nothing to do with the substance of the book and actually serve as a slight annoyance. inquisitive mind. The body of the book weighs in at just about two hundred easily-read pages. Cipollini's narrative itself conveys his thorough knowledge of the subject matter and its historic im- .INFORMER. Machiavelli." "Drama of a Hit Man. "Anatomy of a Hit Man. An atypical underworld enforcer. (Some sound-alike chapter titles include.") This reader's only other minor complaint involves the use of quotations on the opening pages of chapters. The quotes are from such varied sources as Dostoyevsky. Attempting to navigate through the book in any but the traditional sequential manner can be frustrating. There are sections that could have benefited from closer editing (I understand that a cleaned-up second edition is in the works). His liver apparently surrendered after a long battle with Hepatitis C. It is nice to know that the author is sufficiently erudite to draw from such sources. October 2013 61 deavors and information on contacts in Detroit and Cleveland. as an index is lacking. but the quality of the writing is generally good. In the end. His acquaintance with the legal system was extensive. but not for the killings listed in his notebook. over the years. the victim of liver failure. and the titles of numerous short chapters are not helpful in calling to mind their contents." Dialogue of a Hit Man. Campbell served prison sentences for weapon and drug possession. including his apparent involvement in a number of unsolved murders." "Diary of a Hit Man. That list included one assistant prosecutor from Oakland County. And. And they found that he was keeping a list of future targets." "Inventory of a Hit Man. Investigators learned a great deal about Campbell's activities and connections through the notebooks.
Cipollini says. The start date coincides with an Apalachin-style conclave of Detroit narcotics figures hosted by ex -police-officer-turned-drug-kingpin Henry Marzette (an individual worthy of his own book). Violence actually appeared to peak two years after this Mafia vs.S. homicide statistics themselves provide little in the way of support for a conflict lasting from 1970 to 1972. Mafia vs. as homicide totals have dropped.62 INFORMER. Cipollini notes that "blood was spilling throughout Detroit" in the war. as events must have been even more confusing in the early 1970s than they are today.were not at their highest in those years. October 2013 portance. Detroit's homicide totals . Detroit's homicide rate has climbed alarmingly. Interestingly. who worked to set up a narcotics smuggling and distribution network free of Mafia influence.often high when compared with other cities . with more than 700 murders counted in 1974 (and Detroit becoming the "Murder Capital" of the U. By his reckoning and that of the authorities of the period. the author mentions the Detroit-area media's lack of coverage for what has been described as an early 1970s "war" between Mafia-oriented and independentminded elements in the regional drug trade.). adding that "conservative estimates" attribute forty to fifty of those homicides to the war over narcotics rackets. I'd be inclined to overlook the lapse in news coverage. (The Detroit mob's withdrawal was oddly timed if it coincided with the death of its primary rival in the city. but it is difficult to pin down. A number of sources refer to this war. Independents About seventy pages into the book. the war lasted from 1970 to 1972. due to the dramatic decrease in the . particularly for those of us interested in American Mafia history. Portions of the book were of particular interest to me. He need not have resorted to this quotation gimmick. and I'll take some time to discuss the related matters here. The "war" is a fascinating subject.) The annual “murder toll” in the city climbed beyond the threehundred mark halfway through 1971. Independents war ended. The conclusion of the war is somewhat vaguely placed around Marzette's very vague date of death but reportedly represents the withdrawal of the Mafia from the Detroit-area drug trade. Even in more recent years.
The departure of the local mob from narcotics rackets may have left behind a vacuum that draws in and consumes other criminal organizations. I do not doubt that the "war" referred to by Cipollini and others occurred. the participants may have changed over the years. that would translate to less than 17% of all homicides. and insofar as it represented the departure of the Detroit Mafia from Diary of a Motor City Hit Man: The the narcotics trade it was hisChester Wheeler Campbell Story torically significant. 200 pages. The effectiveness . Much more recently. urban decay and a general exodus—cannot possibly be confined to any two. membership in the regional Kindle (ASIN) B00F3BN6B6. drug trade was noted as recently as the mid-1980s Pizza Connection case. If the bloody. (The inby Christian Cipollini (Strategic Media Books. Detroit's various plagues. but there seems to be little evidence of lingering Sicilian-Italian organized crime involvement in narcotics specifically within the city limits. unemployment. The "conservative estimates" cited by the author may have been very conservative.INFORMER. 2013). If forty to fifty of the 300 deaths in the first half of 1971 were drug-related. including drugs and violence—along with their long-time partners: poverty.or three-year period. drug-related war indeed started with the Marzette-sponsored sit-down in 1970. October 2013 63 city's population. volvement of Detroit Mafia ISBNs: Softcover 9780985244064.) But it appears to have been statistically inconsequential to the region's criminal history. authorities have estimated that as many as two-thirds of the killings in Detroit have been related to narcotics. but stats provide no clue that the fighting has yet ended.
A former enforcer for narcotics traffickers. Prosecutor Roy Hayes focused on "Genovese" as the surname of the individual who dealt with Jesse James in prison.000 fine. Genovese remained free on bail as he pursued legal appeals until February 1960. "Genovese. Reed answered." Cipollini (and probably Prosecutor Hayes) concluded that Detroit drug dealer Jesse James negotiated a narcotics distribution channel personally with Vito Genovese. Reed provided significant information on the operations of drug dealer Jesse James. when his bail was revoked and his prison sentence began at . Genovese and fourteen co-defendants were convicted on April 3. The men worked together in prison to establish a narcotics pipeline from New York to Detroit. Reed responded that James met "one of the Genoveses" while incarcerated in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas." "What did Mr. When asked about the source of the narcotics. According to Reed. Vito Genovese Another portion of the book is sure to spark some conversation among Mafia history buffs. James say concerning that person?" asked Hayes. he said. but during his questioning of Reed. October 2013 of law enforcement in dismantling growing narcotics operations may be helping to keep that vacuum in place by preventing the establishment of a syndicate powerful enough to establish order in the racket. shared a cell together while he was there. of narcotics conspiracy. James brought heroin and cocaine into the Detroit area from New York City and distributed it to other local dealers.64 INFORMER. 1959. The initial reference to "one of the Genoveses" would generally be understood as an unnamed member of the Genovese Crime Family. "Said that he was in Leavenworth. It relates to the 1974 grand jury testimony of Wiley Reed. In follow up questions. the jailed boss of the New York City-based crime family that bears his . And him and Genovese was. And this is how he got this dope connection. Hayes pressed Reed to identify the individual: "What was that person's name?" Reed responded. He was sentenced to a federal prison term of fifteen years and a $20.
Genovese became convinced that his underling and fellow prisoner Joe Valachi had become an informant for the government. In July 1962. A number of his underworld associates were in the same prison and showed him the respect he was due as the nation's most powerful Mafia boss. Senais how he got this tor Karl Mundt. Geno- .” tions. refusal to review his case. Legal appeals ended with the U." While at Leavenworth. No official reason was in Leavenworth. Genovese ordered that Valachi be killed. During his time in Atlanta. And provided for the move. Genovese's health continued to deteriorate. His incarceration at Atlanta was not entirely uncomfortable. He was transferred from Leavenworth to the United States Medical Center in Springfield. the sixty-seven-year-old Genovese had served five years of his fifteen-year sentence and his earliest parole date was just five years away. demanded in September 1963 that Leavenworth officials "put [Genovese] under surveillance so that he isn't running the New York City rackets from a federal jail. October 2013 65 Atlanta Federal Penitentiary. shared a cell must be prevented from contogether while he trolling crime family affairs was there. And this from within prison walls. 1969. Supreme Court's March 1. Genovese was moved out of Atlanta to the less friendly confines of Leav“Said that he was enworth. On February 14. He did not live to see the early parole date. Missouri. for evaluation early in November of 1966. about one year before Valachi's revelations about the Mafia were revealed to the general public.S. 1965. Genovese complained of worsening health problems and spent time in the prison hospital. At that moment. member of the Subcommittee on Investigadope connection. but it coincided with public anhim and Genovese nouncements that Genovese was. Valachi learned of the order and responded to the threat by killing another inmate who approached him and subsequently telling government agents and federal legislators everything he knew about the Mafia.INFORMER.
Genovese may have become well acquainted with Jesse James. During his years in Leavenworth. But. only the most profound lapse in judgment could have caused Genovese to engage in any extended conversation with a known narcotics dealer or to arrange a drug-smuggling pipeline while under the surveillance of Leavenworth officials. and cooperative work on a narcotics pipeline is a possibility.66 INFORMER. Focused on legal appeals and early parole. . it seems unlikely. October 2013 vese died at the Springfield center. at least to me. Genovese's personal involvement in such deals had resulted in his lengthy prison term.
INFORMER. October 2013 67 .
October 2013 .68 INFORMER.
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