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Apti 4

Apti 4

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Published by Mrinmoy Roy

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Published by: Mrinmoy Roy on Oct 11, 2013
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PROBATIONARY OFFICER QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE NOTES..............................................................................


http://upscjob.com/ SUBJECT : NUMBERS Numbers-Key Notes Divisibility1. A number is divisible by 2 if it is an even number. 2. A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of the digits is divisible by 3. 3. A number is divisible by 4 if the number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4. 4. A number is divisible by 5 if the units digit is either 5 or 0. 5. A number is divisible by 6 if the number is divisible by both 2 and 3. 6. A number is divisible by 8 if the number formed by the last three digits is divisible by 8. 7. A number is divisible by 9 if the sum of the digits is divisible by 9. 8. A number is divisible by 10 if the units digit is 0. 9. A number is divisible by 11 if the difference of the sum of its digits at odd places and the sum of its digits at even places, is divisible by 11. Important formulas i. ( a + b )( a - b ) = ( a^ 2 – b^2 ) ii. ( a + b ) ^2 = ( a2 + b2 + 2 ab ) iii. ( a - b )^2 = ( a2 + b2 - 2 ab ) iv. ( a + b + c )^ 2 = a2+ b2 + c2 + 2 ( ab + bc + ca ) v. ( a^3 + b^3 ) = ( a + b )( a2 - ab + b2 ) vi. ( a^3 – b^3 ) = ( a - b )( a^2 + ab + b^2) vii. Sum of natural numbers from 1 to n n(n+1)/2 viii. Sum of squares of first n natural numbers is = n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 ix. Sum of cubes of first n natural numbers is A ( n(n+1)/2)^2 x. HCF= (HCF of the numerators)/(LCM of the denominators) xi. LCM= (LCM of the numerators)/HCF of the denominators xii. Product of two numbers = Product of their H.C.F. and L.C.M Note: When a number N is raised to any integral power m, the digit in the unit’s place of the resulting value can be determined without actually evaluating the power. The digits when raised to powers will give values in which the digits in the unit’s place follow a cylindrical pattern. Following is the pattern to calculate the digit in the unit’s place of any derived power. HCF models:If N is a composite number such that N = ap . bq . cr ….. where a, b, c are prime factors of N and p,q,r ….. are positive integers, then (a) The number of factors of N is given by the expression (p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1)… (b) It can be expressed as the product of two factors in 1/2 {(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1)…..} ways (c) If N is a perfect square, it can be expressed (i)as a product of two DIFFERENT factors in 1/2 {(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1)….. -1} ways (ii)as a product of two factors in 1/2 {(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) ….+1} ways (d) Sum of all factors of N = (ap+1 – 1 / a – 1) . (bq+1 – 1 / b – 1) . (cr+1 – 1 / c – 1)….. (e) The number of co-primes of N (< N), Ø(N) = N(1 – 1/a) (1 – 1/b) (1 – 1/c) ….


http://upscjob.com/ (f) Sum of the numbers in (e) = N/2 . Ø(N) (g) It can be expressed as a product of two factors in 2n-1, where ‘n’ is the number of different prime factors of the given number N. Exercise Questions 1. 117 * 117 + 83 * 83 = ? a) 20698 b) 20578 c) 21698 d) 21268 2. (1/4)3 + (3/4)3 + 3(1/4)(3/4)(1/4 + 3/4) =? a) 1/64 b)27/64 c) 49/64 d)1 3. The difference of two numbers is 1365. On dividing the larger number by the smaller, we get 6 as quotient and 15 as reminder. What is the smaller number ? a) 240 b) 270 c) 295 d) 360 5. H.C.F. of two numbers is 16. Which one of the following can never be their L.C.M a) 32 b) 80 c) 64 d) 60 6. What is the remainder when 9 + 92 + 93 + .... + 98 is divided by 6? a) 3 b) 2 c) 0 d)5 7. The sum of the first 100 natural numbers is divisible by a) 2, 4 and 8 b) 2 and 4 c)2 only d)none of these 8. For what value of 'n' will the remainder of 351n and 352n be the same when divided by 7? a) 2 b)3 c)6 d)4 9. Let n be the number of different 5 digit numbers, divisible by 4 with the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, no digit being repeated in the numbers. What is the value of n? a) 144 b) 168 c)192 d)none of these 10. Find the greatest number of five digits, which is exactly divisible by 7, 10, 15, 21 and 28. a) 99840 b) 99900 c)99960 d) 99990Answer Key:1.B; 2.D; 3.B;5.D; 6.C; 7.C; 8.B; 9.C; 10.C


Rs. 550 d. then (a + x / b + x) < a / b (x > 0) (vii) In the ratio a : b. 12:9:7 c. what will be the new ratio? a. Ram. Rs. then a=kb If a is inversely proportional to b. b=d (vi) In the ratio a : b. if a = b. if a < b. If they get profit of Rs. 484 c. Triplicate ratio of a : b is a3: b3 4.A and B together have Rs. 4:3:2 4. If the percentage increase in the number of boys and girls be 20% and 10% respectively. then how much share of profit will Ram get? a. 1210. Duplicate ratio of a : b is a2 : b2 2.q and r are three positive numbers and Q=(p+q+r)/2. 10000 2.The ratio of the two numbers is 4|Page . then find the ratio of p.18000 from the business. p. The ratio of the number of boys and girls in a college is 7 : 8. Rs. If (Q-p):(Qq):( Q-r) = 2:5:7. 460 b. then (a + x / b + x) > a / b (x > 0) (viii) In the ratio a : b. if a > b. Rs. then a=bc/d (i) (a+b)/b = (c+d)/d (ii) (a-b)/b = (c-d)/d (iii) a/c = b/d (iv) b/a = d/c (v) (a+b)/(a-b) = (c+d)/(c-d) If a/b=c/d. how much amount does B have? a. 4:3:7 b.8000 d. then simplest possible value of a=c.6000 c. 664 5. Cannot be determined 3. 8 : 9 b.q and r ? a. Sub-duplicate ratio of a : b is sqrt of(a) : sqrt of (b) 3. Rs. 17 : 18 c. 21 : 22 d.4000 b.com/ Ratio & Propertion Ratio: 1. Rs. Sham and Suresh start business investing in the ratio 1/2 : 1/3: 1/6. Two numbers are respectively 20% and 50% more than a third number. then (a + x / b + x) = a / b (x > 0) Proportion & Variation: If a is directly proportional to b. Rs. If 4/15 of A's amount is equal to 2/5 of B's amount.http://upscjob. Sub-triplicate ratio of a : b is cuberoot of (a) : cuberoot of (b) If a/b = c/d. Rs. then a is directly proportional to b/c => a= kb/c Exercise Questions 1. then a=k/b If a is directly proportional to b and inversely proportional to c.9:7:4 d. The time for which each of them invested their money was in the ratio 8:6:12 respectively.

what is the total amount? a.com/ a. Rs. 204 9. then the first part is: a.d Mail to us contact@upscjob. 4 : 5 d.c. None of these 8. Rs. 14000 b.If the profit on article A is half of its cost price.com (For Any Suggestion. 3. 182 b. If Rs. A sum of money is to be distributed among A. Rs.If the total amount in the bag is 640 Rs. With 16 wagons attached to it the speed of the engine is 40km/hr. Rs. 10.b. The ratio of the cost prices of two articles A and B is 4:5. find the ratio of the profits on the articles A and B? a. 9:11 c. 20 paisa and 10 paisa coins in the ratio 5:3:1.http://upscjob.c. Rs.find the difference in the amounts contributed by 50 paisa and 20 paisa coins. D in the proportion of 5 : 2 : 4 : 3. 15000 c. 1000 more than D. a. 196 d. C.Problems Regarding Jobs) 5|Page .Advice. B. Without any wagons attached to it the speed of the engine is 60km/hr. If C gets Rs. a.Doubt. 9. Rs.380 d. 7. 7:10 b. 3 : 5 c.400 c. Rs. 145 c. The speed of an engine is proportional to the square root of the number of wagons attached to it.b. find the maximum number of wagons that can be attached so that the train moves. 2. proportional to ½:2/3:3/4. 144 b. 10:11 7.a.c. 143 Answer Key: 1.Help. 8. 5.The articles are sold at a profit with their selling prices being in the ratio 5:6. 190 c.c. Rs.d.A bag contains 50 paisa. 6. 4. Rs. 142 d. 5: 9 d. 782 be divided into three parts. 6 : 7 6. 2 : 5 b. None of these 10.d. 20000 d.300 b. Rs.

.8 kgs c)58.. The average age of a group of 12 students is 20years. If the age of the youngest 6|Page . Thursday and Friday was 250. What is the average weight of the remaining 59 students? a) 57 kgs b) 56..87/day and the average wages during the last 7 days was Rs. When a student weighing 45 kgs left a class. x'= (n1x1+n2x2)/ (n1+n2) Alligation: => n1/n2 = (x2-x')/x'-x1 Exercise questions 1. Friday and Saturday was 240. Weighted Average= (n1x1+n2x2+n3x3+. If the temperature on Saturday was 270.92 /day.... The average age of a family of 5 members is 20 years. The average of 5 quantities is 10 and the average of 3 of them is 9. of boys and girls (Quantity factor) x1 and x2 are average heights (Quality factor) Mixtures For mixtures. what was the temperature on Wednesday? a) 240 b)210 c) 270 d) 300 4..n3.x3..5 3. The average wages of a worker during a fortnight comprising 15 consecutive working days was Rs. The average of 5 quantities is 6..x2.n2. then find average height of the class with 18 boys and 12 girls? Here n1 and n2 are no... What is the average of the remaining 2? a) 11 b) 12 c) 11.5 d) 12. What was his wage on the 8th day? a)83 b) 92 c)90 d)97 2. his average wages was Rs.90 per day.. The average of 3 of them is 8. the average age increases by 1 year.nk are the quantity factors Eg: If the average height of boys= 172cms and that of girls=154 cms..x2... If 4 more students join the group.nkxk) / n1+n2+n3+. the average weight of the remaining 59 students increased by 200g..x3....xn)/n where x1. The average temperature on Thursday..http://upscjob.5 b) 4 c) 3 d) 3.. What is the average of the remaining two numbers? a) 6..com/ AVERAGE Average= (x1+x2+x3+.2 kgs d)52.5 7. are quantities. The average age of the new students is a) 24 b)26 c)23 d) 22 5. The average temperature on Wednesday.... Average. During the first 7 days. xk are the quality factors n1.2 kgs 6.nk where x1.

d. 8. 3 parts of which are water and 5 parts syrup.d. Tea worth Rs. How much of the mixture must be drawn off and replaced with water so that the mixture may be half water and half syrup? a) 1/3 b) 1/4 c) 1/5 d) 1/7 Answer Key 1. 2.720 d) Rs.50 d) Rs.a. 153 per kg. 9.5 8.Problems Regarding Jobs) 7|Page .c. 169.5 b) 14 c)15 d) 12.com/ member be 10 years then what was the average age of the family at the time of the birth of the youngest member? a) 13.a.c Mail to us contact@upscjob. a) Rs. the price of the third variety per kg will be: a) Rs.50 b) Rs. 175. 4.c. 126 per kg and Rs. 6. 18 10. The average cost of 7 apples and 8 mangoes is Rs.48.324 9.Advice.Help. 5.1044 b) RS. A vessel is filled with liquid.d. 3. 135 per kg are mixed with a third variety in the ratio 1 : 1 : 2. 10. 7.com (For Any Suggestion.Doubt.b.c. Find the total cost of 24 apples and 24 mangoes.2088 c)Rs.36. 170 c) Rs. If the mixture is worth Rs.http://upscjob. Average cost of 5 apples and 4 mangoes is Rs.

Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/hr and an equal distance at y km/hr. speed ≠(Sum of speed / No. Case I When time remains constant and speed varies : If a man travels at the rate of x km/h for t hours and again at the rate of y km/h for another t hours. the average speed is given by Average speed =2xy/(x+y) km/h. i. Velocity :The speed of a moving body is called as its velocity. then average speed of moving body during its entire journey will be [2xy/(x+y)]km/h A man covers a certain distance at x km/h by car and the same distance at y km/h by bicycle. then for the whole journey. Then. the distance between them increases (or decreases) at the rate of difference of their speeds. sum of their speeds). the average speed during the whole journey is [xy/(x+y)] km/hr Key Note: Caution average speed should not be calculated as average of different speeds. Key notes to solve problems When a moving body covers a certain distance at x km/h and another same distance at the speed of y km/h. km/hr to m/sec conversion: x km/hr =[x*5/18] m/sec 3.e. Relative speed of one body with respect to other body is sum of their speeds. then the ratio of the times taken by them to cover the same distance is 1/a:1/b or b : a 5. When two bodies move in the same direction. m/sec to km/hr conversion: x m/sec =[x* 18/5] km/h 4. b) Bodies moving in opposite direction The distance between two bodies moving towards each other will get reduced at the rate of their relative speed (i. Speed. 8|Page ..com/ TIME SPEED AND DISTANCE Important Formula and Equations 1. Ave. If the time taken by him for the whole journey by t hours. If the direction of motion is also taken into consideration Velocity = (Net displacement of the body)/(Time taken) Relative speed: a) Bodies moving in same direction When two bodies move in the same direction. Time and Distance: Speed = Distance / time Time = distance /speed Distance =speed*time 2. If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a : b. his average speed is given by Average speed= Total distance/ Total time taken = (xt+yt)/(t+t) = (x+y)/2 kmph Case II When the distance covered remains same and the speeds vary : When a man covers a certain distance with a speed of x km/h and another equal distance at the rate of y km/h.. then the difference of their speeds is called the relative speed of one with respect to the other. of different Speed) There are two different cases when average speed is required. then Total distance covered by him is equal to 2txy/(x+y) km. then for the whole journey.e. Increase or decrease in distance between them is the product of their relative speed and time.http://upscjob.

Then. both are moving in the same direction and x= length of the train. u = speed of the first train . take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively. x = length of the train.Help.Doubt.e. If two persons A and B start at the same time in opposite directions from the points and after passing each other they complete the journeys in 'x ' and ' y ' hrs.com/ A boy walks from his house at x km/h and reaches the school ' t1 ' minutes late. where. y = length of the second train . distance between the school and the house = ((xy)/(y-x))* (t1+t2)/60 km If a man walks with (x/y) of his usual speed he takes t hours more to cover a certain distance. x = length of the first train . y = length of the bridge or platform or standing train or tunnel Time taken by faster train to pass the slower train in the same direction= (x+y)/(u-v). u= speed of the train and v= speed of the man. Then the distance between the two stations (i. Then.http://upscjob. Find at what distance from the starting place both the trains will meet and also find the time of their meeting. respectively. between A and B) is x(u+v)/ (v-u) km. v = speed of the second train and u > v Time taken by the trains in passing each other while moving in opposite direction =(x+y)/(u+v) Time taken by the train to cross a man = x/(u-v) where.. Distance= uvt/(v-u) km Time=ut/(v-u) hours The distance between two places A and B is x km. If he walks at y km/h he reaches ' t2 ' minutes earlier. A's speed: B's speed= b: a A train starts from a place at u km/h and another fast train starts from the same place after t hours at v km/h in the same direction. then A's speed: B's speed=speed= ROOT OVER OF y: ROOT OVER OF x If the speed is (a/b) of the original speed. One another train after t hours starts from B to A at v km/h. A train starts from A to B at u km/h. (xt)/(y-x) hours. Mail to us contact@upscjob.Advice. When they meet it is found that the train had traveled x km more than the first. then the time to cover the same distance when he walks with his usual speed. Time taken by the train to across a man running in the opposite direction= x/ (u+v) If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing.com (For Any Suggestion. At what distance from A will both the train meet and also find the time of their meeting Time=(x-ut)/ (u+v) + t hours Distance from A = u(((x-ut)/(u+v))+t) km Two trains starts simultaneously from the stations A and B towards each other at the rates of u and v km/h respectively.Problems Regarding Jobs) 9|Page . then the change in time taken to cover the same distance is given by Change in time = ((b/a)-1)*original time Key notes to solve problems on Trains The time taken by a train in passing a signal post or a telegraph pole or a man standing near a railway line = (Length of the train)/ (speed of the train) The time taken by a train passing a railway bridge or a platform or a tunnel or a train at rest= (x+y)/Speed where.

B two inlet pipes takes 15. time taken by them to complete the work together = Bigger no/Sum of ratios Eg: A can do work in 9 days. In how many days they can complete the work together.. In what time the tank be filled if all of them are operated together? 10 | P a g e .LCM/c) Eg: A.http://upscjob. c)/(LCM/a + LCM/b + LCM/c) Note: For 3 persons the common format is Step1: Find the LCM Step2: Find the individual share of work i. In how many days they will complete the work together? LCM = 90. W1&W2 represents work done. then time taken by A&B to complete the work together = (LCM)/(Sum of ratios) Eg: A can do a piece of work 30 days.e.2) = 90/1 = 90 minutes If there are 3 pipes A.: An inlet pipe can fill the tank in 30 minutes. B and C can do a work in 15. Ratio=9:18=1:2 Time taken to fill the tank = 18/(2 . B are inlet pipes which takes a. Time taken by them to complete the work = LCM of (a. B can do work in 45 days. If there are 2 persons A & B such that A can do work in ‘a’ days and B can do work in ‘b’days. LCM=180 No of days= [180/ (180/15 + 180/20 + 180/45) = [180/ (12+9+4)] = [180/25] = 7. then time taken by A&B to fill the tank. B & C.20.c days respectively.b. = LCM of abc/ (LCM/a + LCM/b . Ratio=9:18=1:2 No of days = 18/(1 + 2) = 6 days If ‘a’ is not a multiple of ‘b’. Eg: A. Such that ‘a’ is a multiple of ‘b’. Such that A can fill tank in ‘a’ minutes and B can empty the tank in ‘b’ minutes .18 minutes to fill the tank and C an oulet pipe takes 45 minutes to empty the tank respectively.e. Bigger no=18. then time taken to fill the tank if both are operated together = Bigger no/Difference of ratios Eg: A can fill tank in 9 minutes. if all of them are operated together.com/ Time & Work (M1D1HI)/ W1 = (M2D2H2)/W2 Where M1 & M2 represents no of labourers. In what time the tank be filled. LCM/b. D1 & D2 represents no of days. b.1) = 18 minutes If ‘a’ is not a multiple of ‘b’. B can empty the tank in 18 minutes. B & C whose time taken a. B an outlet pipe can empty the tank in 45 minutes.45 days respectively. LCM/a. = (LCM)/(Difference of ratios) Eg. LCM/c.2 days Pipes & Cisterns If there are 2 pipes A & B such that A (inlet pipe) & B (outlet pipe). to complete a certain work. if both pipes work simultaneously? Bigger no=18. H1 & H2 represents no of hours. In what time the tank be filled if both pipes work simultaneously? Time taken to fill the tank= LCM = 90 = Ratio= 30:45=2:3 = 90/(3 . follow the question patterns. in which A. B can do work in 18 days. Ratio= 30:45=2:3 No of days= 90/(2 + 3) = 90/5 = 18 If there are 3 persons A.b. Step3: Rest methods depend on the question i. then. In how many days they will complete the work together.minutes respectively to fill the tank and C an outlet pipe which takes c minutes to empty the tank Time taken by them to fill the tank.

10 days and 15 days respectively. A. B and C can do a work in 5 days. What is T? A) 25 B) 60 C) 15 D) None of these 4. How long will the leak at the bottom of the tank take to empty a full tank.90/45) = [90/(6+5-2)] = [90/9] = 10 minutes Note: In case of division of money with respect to share of each person’s work then share of A = bc/ab+bc+ac In case of division of money with respect to share of each person’s work then share of B = ac/ab+bc+ac In case of division of money with respect to share of each person’s work then share of C = ab/ab+bc+ac Same as Share of A:(LCM/a)/ (LCM/a + LCM/b + LCM/c) Share of B:(LCM/b)/ (LCM/a + LCM/b + LCM/c) Share of C:(LCM/c)/ (LCM/a + LCM/b + LCM/c) Eg: A. if he worked alone on the job? A) 0 hours B) 120 hours C) 24 hours D) None of these 5. How long will the son take to do the same job.45 days respectively. If A works alone and completes the job. he will take T + 45 days. Two workers A and B manufactured a batch of identical parts. when pipe A is kept closed? A) (3/2)a hours B) (2/3)a C) (4/3)a D) (3/4)a 3. A man can do a piece of work in 60 hours. What is the share of A? LCM = 180 Share of A = (LCM/a x Total amount)/LCM/a + LCM/b + LCM/c = (180/15)/(180/15 +180/20 + 180/45) = (12/25) * 500 = Rs. he will take T + 5 days. A and B working together can finish a job in T days.http://upscjob. A worked for 2 hours and B worked for 5 hours and they did half the job. Then they worked together for another 3 hours and they had to do (1/20)th of the job.C can do a work in 15. How much time does B take to complete the job.B. if he worked alone? A) 24 hours B) 12 hours C) 15 hours D) 30 hours 2. C did the remaining work (in days) A) 1 B) 3 C) 5 11 | P a g e . Pipe A can fill a tank in 'a' hours. If he takes his son with him and both work together then the work is finished in 40 hours. On account of a leak at the bottom of the tank it takes thrice as long to fill the tank. They get Rs 500 for their work.com/ LCM=90 No of days= [90/(90/15 + 90/18 .20.240 Exercise questions 1. They started together to do the work but after 2 days A and B left. If B works alone and completes the same job.

B.360 B) Rs. Ram starts working on a job and works on it for 12 days and completes 40% of the work. 10.Doubt. who is half as efficient as Krish. Ram.com/ D) 4 6. A and B can do a piece of work in 21 and 24 days respectively. With the help of Z they finished it in 5 days.Help. 2. After how many days did A leave? A) 5 B) 7 C) 8 D) 6 10. They started the work together and after some days A leaves the work and B completes the remaining work in 9 days. A red light flashes 3 times per minute and a green light flashes 5 times in two minutes at regular intervals.http://upscjob.Problems Regarding Jobs) 12 | P a g e . X and Y undertook to do it for Rs. 8.C. how long will they take to complete the work? A) 16 days B) 12 days C) 8 days D) 18 days Answer Key 1. If Ram and Krish worked together. 3.B. how many times do they flash together in each hour? A) 30 B) 24 C) 20 D) 60 9. If both lights start flashing at the same time.A. 4. he employs Ravi and together they work for another 12 days and the work gets completed.B. How much is paid to Z? A) Rs.Advice.D. 6. 9.com (For Any Suggestion.300 7. To help him complete the work.C Mail to us contact@upscjob. X alone can do a piece of work in 15 days and Y alone can do it in 10 days. 7. will take 24 days to complete a work if he worked alone. How much more efficient is Ram than Ravi? A)50% B) 200% C) 60% D)100% 8.240 D) Rs.5.C.120 C) Rs.A.D.720.

To express x% as a fraction. a candidate secures y marks and falls by z marks. If in an examination x% and y% candidates respectively fail in two different subjects while z% candidates fail in both the subjects. then p2% from the remaining and so on. then the total (original) amount is given by: Total amount= B*100*100. 1.. then reduction in consumption. If A is R% less than B.. Population formula: 1)If the population increases by x% during the first year..http://upscjob. then. then the percentage of candidates who pass in both the subjects will be [100-(x+y+z)]% Tips: 1. If after spending p1% first. we mean that many hundredths. If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. Thus. Population n years ago= P/(1+(R/100))n 3. 1.com/ Percentages By a certain percent. not to increase the expenditure is: R/(100+R)*100 4.y% and z% then single equivalent increase in the price will be [x+y+z+{xy+yz+zx}/(100)+xyz/1002]% 4. then B is more than A by R/(100-R)*100 3. If an object's price is increased or decreased by x% and the other factor is decreased by y% then the net effect is given by: Net Effect= [x+y+xy/100]% 2. If A is R% more than B. by y% during the second year. we have. If the price of a commodity increases by R%. If the net effect is nil. written as x%. there is no loss or no gain.. x percent means x hundredths. we have x%=x/100. not to decrease the expenditure is: R/(100-R)*100 Results on population: Let the population of a town be P now and suppose it increases at the rate of R% per annum. B is the balance amount.. If a number is increased by x% and thereafter reduced by x%. then the total number of marks in this examination will be 100*(y+z)/x 6. Thus. If in an examination. If a number is reduced by x% and there after increased by x% then the number will be reduced by x2/100 percent 5. a/b= (a/b)*100%. 1/4= (1/4)*100%= 25%. Population after n years= p (1+(R/100))n 2. Thus. ie. then the number will be reduced by x2/100 percent 4. 20%= 20/100= 1/5 To express a/b as a percent./ (100-p2). then the above formula becomes: y=100x/100+x 3.. then the increase in consumption. in which the minimum pass percentage is x%. If the price of an article is successively increased by x%. then B is less than A by R/ (100+R)*100 2... by z% during the third year. the population after three years will be: P(1+x/100)(1+y/100)(1+z/100) 13 | P a g e .

t. then CP of first article= Rs.r. He mixes them together and sells at z articles for a rupee. there would have a profit of y%. B sells it to C at a profit of r2 % and C sells it to D at a profit of r3 %. selling price S2 Then CP=(100/P1-P2)* difference between selling prices If P1 is rate gain w.r. gains as much percent as the cost price of it.r. selling price S1 and P2 is rate gain w.1]/z(x+y))*100. If P1 is rate gain w. one at a gain of say x%.then =Rs[-50+/-10 square roots of(25+r)] CP of the article If there is loss in place of profit.t. =Rs[-50+/-10 square roots of(25-r)] then CP of the article= If two articles are sold at the same price (i. then there is no loss or no gain percent. then Gain%=((Error)/(True value)-(Error))*100% Key Notes When an article is sold at a profit of x%. then the seller always incurs a loss given by: Loss %= (Common loss ans gain %)2/10 = (x/10)2 If a trader professes to sell his goods at cost price. then in such a type question. then. but uses false weights. (100+x)n/ 200+x+y When m articles are brought for Rs.. according to positive or negative sign.n and n articles are sold for Rs.t.http://upscjob. selling price S2 Then CP= (100/ P1+P2) * difference between selling prices When a man sells two things at the same price each and in this process his loss on first thing is x% and gain on second thing is x%. then. there would be a loss of y%. the selling prices are equal) and the magnitude of percentage of profit x on one article is the same as the magnitude of percentage of loss 14 | P a g e . he get the same selling price of each. If C pays Rs. there is always a loss and Loss= 2*SP/((100/x)2 -1) When a man buys two things on equal price each and in those things one is sold on the profit of x% and another is sold on the loss of x%. selling price S1 and P2 is rate loss w. If it would have been sold for Rs. If it would be sold for Rs. then the cost price of the article CP=(n*100)/(x+y) A man sells an article at a gain of x%.m and m>n. B sells it to C at a loss of r2 % and C sells it to D at a loss of r3 %.t. 100*100*P/(100+r1)(100+r2) When a shopkeeper on selling an article for Rs. (100+y)n/200+x+y CP of second article= Rs.n. A sells an article at a profit of r1 % to B and B again sells it to C at a profit of r2 %.e. P to B. cost price of D= Cost Price of A (1+r1/100)(1+r2/100)(1+r3/100) If A sells an article to B at a loss of r1 %. then CP of the article for A= Rs. Then his gain or loss %=([2xy. cost price of D= Cost Price of A (1-r1/100)(1-r2/100)(1-r3/100) A dealer purchases a certain number of articles at x articles for a rupee and the same number at y articles for a rupee. then CP= (n*100)/(y-x) A person brought two articles for Rs.n. then profit%= ((m2-n2)*100)/n2 If A sells an article to B at a profit of r1 %.r.n more. and the other at a loss of x%. On selling one article at x% profit and other at y% profit.n less.com/ Profit and Loss Important formula and Equations Gain= SP-CP Loss= CP-SP Gain Percentage= (Gain*100)/ CP Loss Percentage= (Loss*100)/ CP Selling Price=((100+Gain %)/100)*CP or ((100-Loss%)/100)*CP Cost Price= (100*SP)/(100+Gain%) or (100*SP)/(100-Loss%) When a person sells two similar items.

If the MP (marked price) of an article above CP is M% and after allowing a discount of d%. l. are percentages of successive discounts on a marked price MP. X *100 / y-x. then M% = d-l * 100% / 100-d.x .{ xy /100}]%.y +{ xy / 100 }]%.(1 – d1/100) (1 – d2/100) (1 – d3/100)…] 3. then it is equivalent to a single discount percentage of x + y – xy/100..p). then the selling price SP = MP (1 – d1/100) (1 – d2/100) (1 – d3/100) 2. then loss percentage = ((n – m)/m) x 100. If a shopkeeper claims to sell the goods at cost price and gives x units less than the actual weight. then there is an overall loss and the percentage of loss is x2/100. If x and y are two successive discount percentages. When there are two successive profits of x% and y% the net gain% is given by: Net gain = [ x + y +{ xy / 100 }]%.. Discount Discount% = Discount / Marked price * 100% An article sold at selling price(SP1) at a loss of x% is to be sold at selling price(SP2) to gain y%. A person sells goods at a loss of x%.10) When there is a gain of x% and a loss of y% the net effect is given by: Net effect = [ x . original price = reduced price * 100 / (100 .y he gains the same amount. In the above case. Had he sold it for Rs.http://upscjob. X more. d3…. If d1. the cost prices are equal) and one is sold at a profit of p1% and the second is sold at a profit of p2%. If m < n. then the effective discount is d% = 100[1. the gain is g%. then SP2 = SP1(100 + y)/ (100-x) If selling an object for Rs. Then CP is given by Rs. When there are two successive losses of x% and y% the net loss% is given by: Net loss = [ . When the price of an article is reduced by p% a man can buy x quantity of the article for Rs. CP is given by CP = (x+y)/2. d2.e. d3…. then profit percentage is ((m – n )/m)x 100.y then reduced price = 1/x ( y * p / 100) per unit. he would have gained y% . then the profit percentage made by the shopkeeper is [x / actual weight – x] x 100. the error percentage = [x / actual weight] x 100 If two articles are bought for the same price (i. X more. If d1.d. 15 | P a g e . are the percentages of successive discounts offered. then the overall percentage of profit is ((p1 + p2 )/2) x 100 If the selling price of m articles is equal to cost price of n articles.y . A person sells goods at a profit of x%.com/ x on the second article. and if there is a loss of l%. where m > n.x a person loses a certain sum and selling for Rs. Then M% = d+g * 100% / 100 . y% would have been gained. d2. Had he sold it for Rs. X * 100/ y+x. Then CP is given by Rs.

com/ SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST 16 | P a g e .http://upscjob.

http://upscjob.com/ 17 | P a g e .

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http://upscjob.com/ PARTNERSHIP 19 | P a g e .

http://upscjob. in two cars. There are 12 yes or no questions.com/ PERMUTATION & COMBINATION nPr = n!/ (n-r)! nCr = n!/r!(n-r)! nCr = nC(n-r) nCr = nPr/r! 0!=1 1!=1 nPn=n! nP1=n nC1=n nCn=1 Exercise questions 1. How many numbers are there between 100 and 1000 such that at least one of their digits is 6? A) 648 B) 258 C) 654 D)252 7. How many ways can 4 prizes be given away to 3 boys. In how many ways can the group be arranged around a circle so that there is exactly one person between the two brothers? A) 2 * 19! B)18! * 18 C) 19! * 18 D)2 * 18! 3. if each of the post boxes can take more than 10 letters? A) 510 B) 105 C) 10P5 20 | P a g e .2! D)6! / 2! 2. How many ways can these be answered? A) 1024 B) 2048 C) 4096 D)144 4. In how many ways can they travel? A) 9 B)26 C)126 D) 3920 6. if each boy is eligible for all the prizes? A) 256 B) 12 C) 81 D) None of these 5. How many ways can 10 letters be posted in 5 post boxes. A team of 8 students goes on an excursion. There are 2 brothers among a group of 20 persons. How many words can be formed by re-arranging the letters of the word ASCENT such that A and T occupy the first and last position respectively? A)5! B)4! C)6! . of which one can seat 5 and the other only 4.

.. In how many ways can the letters of the word EDUCATION be rearranged so that the relative position of the vowels and consonants remain the same as in the word EDUCATION? A) 9!/4 B) 9!/(4!*5!) C) 4!*5! D) None of these 9..6. There are 6 boxes numbered 1. How many number of times will the digit '7' be written when listing the integers from 1 to 1000? A) 271 B) 300 C) 252 D)304 14. if any number of letters can be posted in all of the three post boxes? A) 5C3 B) 5P3 C) 53 D)35 13. How many words of 4 consonants and 3 vowels can be made from 12 consonants and 4 vowels..1 A) n(n-A(n-A!)) 21 | P a g e .. Each box is to be filled up either with a red or a green ball in such a way that at least 1 box contains a green ball and the boxes containing green balls are consecutively numbered.http://upscjob. The total number of ways in which this can be done is A) 5 B) 21 C) 33 D) 60 15.com/ D) 10C5 8.. n*n!. If the letters of the word CHASM are rearranged to form 5 letter words such that none of the word repeat and the results arranged in ascending order as in a dictionary what is the rank of the word CHASM? A) 24 B)31 C) 32 D)30 11. 2. In how many ways can 5 letters be posted in 3 post boxes..... where n! means n factorial or n(nA(n-2)...... if all the letters are different? A) 16C7 * 7! B) 12C4 * 4C3 * 7! C) 12C3 * 4C4 D) 12C4 * 4C3 12. In how many ways can 15 people be seated around two round tables with seating capacities of 7 and 8 people? A) 15!/(8!) B) 7!*8! C) (15C8)*6!*7! D)2*(15C7)*6!*7! 10. What is the value of 1*1! + 2*2! + 3!*3! + ..

C.C.Doubt.B.1!) Answers 1.Advice. 8.Help. 6.D. 10. 15. 14.com (For Any Suggestion.C. 4. 9.http://upscjob.n!) D) (n + A! .Problems Regarding Jobs) 22 | P a g e .C.com/ B) (n+A!)/(n(n-A)) C) (n+A! .B. 12.A. 2.D.B. 7. 3.D.B.D Mail to us contact@upscjob. 11.C. 13.C. 5.

: : : . and without inspecting it. What is the probability that two headed coin was selected? 23 | P a g e . All k times the coin landed up heads.Hn are known (prior probabilities). where P(A) = P(AjH1)P(H1) + ¢ ¢ ¢ + P(AjHn)P(Hn): Assume that out of N coins in a box.So the probability that of picking out two green balls is 2/5.Hn form a partition of the sample space S if (i) They are mutually exclusive (Hi ¢ Hj = .1/13 The probability two outcomes for independent events both occur can be found by multiplying their probabilities. flipped k times. Then P(A) can be calculated using the total probability formula. i=1 Hi=S. given that event A happened. Such “two-headed” coin can be purchased in Spencer stores. So the probability that of tossing two heads in a row is ¼ Example with a jar A jar contains 2 red balls and 4 green balls. that the probabilities of hypotheses H1.p(A)*p(B) Example with coins What is the probability of throwing two heads in a row when tossing a coin? This is the same as asking what the probability that the first coin tossed will be head AND the second coin tossed will be a head. is P(HijA) = P(AjHi)P(Hi) P(A) .5. : : : . Example with a coin.H2. What is the probability it is tails? Since each outcome. once we have taken 1 green ball out of the jar.Hn are usually called hypotheses and from their definition follows that P(H1) +¢ ¢ ¢ + P(Hn) = 1 (= P(S)): Let the event of interest A happens under any of the hypotheses Hi with a known (conditional) probability P(AjHi): Assume.com/ PROBABILITY Probability is a measure of how likely a particular outcome to an event is to happen. Total Probability Formula:P(A) = P(AjH1)P(H1) + ¢ ¢ ¢ + P(AjHn)P(Hn): The probability of A is the weighted average of the conditional probabilities P(AjHi) with weights P(Hi): Bayes Formula: Let the event of interest A happens under any of hypothesesHi with a known (conditional) probability P(AjHi): Assume. i = 1. in addition. is equally likely we can say that the probability of each is 0. Total Probability Formula. the jar contains only 3 green balls ans 2 red balls so Now we can say that. P(A) = P(AjH1)P(H1) + ¢ ¢ ¢ + P(AjHn)P(Hn): Total probability Events H1.. p(coin toss is tails)= 1/2 Basic rule of probability More generally we can say that where there are n equally likely outcomes then the probability of each of these possibilities will be 1/n. Here is where we need to be careful.It ranges from 0 to 1. Then the conditional (posterior) probability of the hypothesis Hi. When a coin is tossed the outcome (or event) can be heads or tails. A probability of 1 means that the outcome will definitely happen. What is the probability that two balls selected at random from the jar are both green? Each ball is equally likely to be selected from the jar so we can work out the probability of the first ball selected being green. 2. : : : . A probability of 0 means that the outcome cannot happen. one has heads at both sides. Assume that a coin is selected at random from the box. So we can say that p(outcome)= (number of ways it can happen)/(total number of possible outcomes) Example with die What is the probability of rolling a 6 when you throw a 6 sided die.Hn are known. heads or tails. : : : . that the probabilities of hypotheses H1. in addition.http://upscjob. And in between 0 and 1 means that the outcome may happen. n. i 6= j) and (ii) Their union is the sample space S. p(A and B).Each number from 1 to 6 is equally likely to be thrown and only one of those outcomes is a 6 so using the general rule we can say that p(throw a six)= 1/6 Example with cards If you pick a card at random from a deck of cards what is the probability that it is an ace? There are 52 cards in a pack and those there are 4 aces so p (an ace)= 4/52 . : : : . The events H1.

42 = 0. A and B.60 = 60% Mail to us contact@upscjob. In the last lesson. 25% of the class passed both tests and 42% of the class passed the first test.Problems Regarding Jobs) 24 | P a g e . The hypotheses areH1-the coin is two headed.Help.Doubt.P(B|A)The formula for the Conditional probability of an event can be derived from Multiplication on Rule 2 as follows. and H2 the coin is fair.25/0. It is easy to see that P(H1) = 1=N and P(H2) = (N ¡ 1)=N. Multiplication Rule 2: When two events. Step2: P(A and B)/P(A) = (P(A). are dependent. The conditional probabilities are P(AkjH1) = 1 for any k.com/ Denote with Ak the event that randomly selected coin lands heads up k times.http://upscjob.P(B|A) start with multiplication rule 2. What percent of those who passed the first test also passed the second test? Solution: P(Second|First) = P(First and Second)/P(First)= = 0.1) Conditional Probability Problem: A math teacher gave her class two tests.P(B|A))/P(A) Divide both sides of the equation by P(A) Step3: P(A and B)/P(A) = P(B|A) Cancel P(A)s on right-hand side of the equation Step4: P(A and B)/P(A) = We have derived the formula for conditional probability Problem: A math teacher gave her class two tests.1)/2kN and P(H1jAk) = 2k/(2k + N. What percent of those who passed the first test also passed the second test: Analysis: This problem describes a conditional probability since it asks us to find the probability that the second test was passed given that the first test was passed. 25% of the class passed both tests and 42% of the class passed the first test.Advice. Step1: P(A and B)=P(A). the probability of both occurring is P(A and B)= P(A). the notation for conditional probability was used in the statement of Multiplication Rule 2. and P(AkjH2) = 1=2k: By total probability formula. P(Ak) = (2k + N.com (For Any Suggestion.

Find speed of stream a) 2km/hr b)4km/hr c)8km/hr d)10km/hr Solution: Speed (Rate) of stream = ½ (u-v) km/hr = ½ (27-11)=8km/hr c) A boat running downstream covers a distance of 16km in 2 hours while for covering the same distance upstream. then the velocity (in kmph) of the current is: a)1/2 b)1 c)1and ½ 25 | P a g e . usually. When the boat moves in the direction of the current is said to be with the stream/ current or downstream. a) 2km/hr b) 4km/hr c) 8km/hr d) 10km/hr Solution: Speed of boat in still water = ½(u+v) km/hr = ½ (12+8)=10km/hr b) A man can row a boat 27km/h with the stream and 11km/h against the stream.’ Then ratio of time taken= b:a Speed of stream=a-b/a+b *Speed in still water Speed in still water =a+b/a-b *Speed of stream Exercise Questions 1. it is said to be against the stream is called upstream. in a particular direction. The speed with which it travels when there is no current is called speed of boat in still water.http://upscjob. it takes 4 hours. keeps flowing at a certain speed. When the boat moves in the direction opposite to that of the current. A boat develops speed because of its engine power. What is the speed of the boat in still water? a)4km/hr b)6km/hr c)8km/hr d) None of these Rate of downstream=(16/2 ) kmph=8kmph Rate of upstream =(16/4) kmph=4kmph Therefore Speed in still water=1/2(8+4) kmph=6kmph Note: If ratio of downstream and upstream speeds of a boat is ‘a:b. A man rows downstream 32 km and 14km upstream. This speed is called the current of the stream. Find his speed in still water. then: * Speed of boat in still water = ½(u+v)km/hr * Speed (Rate) of stream = ½ (u-v)km/hr Examples a) A man can row a boat 12 km/h with the stream and 8km/h against the stream. If he takes 6 hours to cover each distance.com/ BOATS AND STREAMS The water of a stream. Eg:-If the speed of a boat in still water is ‘u’km/hr and the speed of the stream is ‘v’km/hr then: * Speed downstream=(u+v)km/hr * Speed upstream = (u-v)km/hr If the speed downstream is u km/hr and the speed upstream is v km/hr.

a)1km/h b)2km/h c)4km/h d)5km/h Solution: Speed downstream: Speed upstream=20:12=5:3 Speed of current=5-3/5+3*16=4km/h 107 reads. If it can travel 20km downstream in the same time as it can travel 12 km upstream. The speed of the boat in still water (in km/hr)is: a)3 b)5 c)8 d)9 Solution: Speed in still water=1/2(11+5)kmph=8kmph 3. Rate upstream=(14/6)kmph Velocity of current=1/2(32/6-14/6)kmph=3/2kmph=1. Mail to us contact@upscjob. the rate of stream is. a boat goes 11km along the stream and 5km against the stream.5kmph 2.Problems Regarding Jobs) 26 | P a g e .com/ d)2 Solution: Rate downstream=(32/6)kmph. Speed of a boat in still water is 16km/h.com (For Any Suggestion. In one hour.http://upscjob.Doubt.Help.Advice.

we simplify the expression under the Virnaculum. 27 | P a g e . 37 Answer: Option c Explanation: Suppose their paths cross after x minutes.174)2)/(469 x 174) = ? a. 24 d. 30 d. first of all the brackets must be removed. 19 b. |5|= 5 and |-5|= -(-5)=5 III.{} and [].63x => 120x = 40 x=1/3 Number of floors covered by David in (1/3) min. so as to find out the value of a given expression. if a>0 or |a|= -a. before applying the 'BODMAS' rule.. Exercise Questions 1. At the same time. we must use the following operations strictly in the order: (i) of (ii) Division (iii) Multiplication (iv) Addition (v) Subtraction. If they continue travelling at these rates. 'M' for 'multiplication'. If the number of heads be 48 and the number of feet equals 140. their paths cross at (11 +19) i. then the number of hens will be: a.http://upscjob. 3. 'O' for 'of'. 4 c.. 'D' for Division'. Virnaculum (or Bar): When an expression contains Virnaculam. David gets on the elevator at the 11th floor of a building and rides up at the rate of 57 floors per minute.(a .(469 . After removing the brackets. if a<0 Thus. 28 c. 643 Answer: Option b Explanation: Given exp. Thus. in simplifying an expression. 'A' for 'Addition' and 'S' for 'Subtraction'. Here. 26 Explanation: Let the number of hens be x and the number of cows be y. Albert gets on an elevator at the 51st floor of the same building and rides down at the rate of 63 floors per minute. SIMPLIFICATION I. 23 c. Modulus of a Real Number: Modulus of a real number a is defined as a|= a. Eg: (-5)(4)(2)(-1/2)(3/4)=? -5*4*2*-1/2*3/4= 15 II. then at which floor will their paths cross ? a. 'BODMAS' Rule: This rule depicts the correct sequence in which the operations are to be executed. strictly in the order (). = ((a + b)2 . Then.b)2)/ab =4ab/ab = 4 2. A man has some hens and cows.e.((469 + 174)2 . 'B' stands for 'Bracket'.com/ SOME IMPORTANT CHAPTERS FOR SOLVING SIMPLE CALCULATIONS ASKED IN VARIOUS EXAMS. 2 b. 30th floor. 22 b. 11 + 57x = 51 . = (1/3)*57= 19 So. 295 d.

160 b. find the value of ab a.000 c. 4.40 + x * 3. then how many hours does he work for ? a. total hours of work = (160 + 15) = 175.240 d.F. 50. (150000 ..20 = 432 => 3.960 Hence. x and Rs. A man gets Rs. Therefore. 160 c.120 b. be Rs.000 d.000 b. Rs.000 Answer: Option C Explanation: Let savings in N. x + y = 48 . B's share is: a. (i) and 2x + 4y = 140 => x + 2y = 70 .S. A sum of Rs. The required answer = 26. x/4. Rs.C and P.20 per hours for overtime. 90.P.300 Answer: Option C Explanation: Let C's share = Rs. Rs. Rs. Therefore. 195 Answer: Option B Answer: Option B Explanation: Suppose the man works overtime for x hours. B and C such that A gets 2/3 of what B gets and B gets 1/4 of what C gets.(a . Rs. how much has he saved in Public Provident Fund ? a.. 60000 6. the working hours are 8.. 1360 has been divided among A. If he earns Rs.x) respectively. 160 * 2.http://upscjob. 18 Answer: Option A Explanation: 2ab = (a2 + b2) . Then. B's share= Rs. 1.com/ Then. 15 d. x Then. 10 b. (150000 . If he has Rs. 432 in 4 weeks. Rs. Rs. 175 c.. (1/3)x= (1/2)(150000-x) x/3+x/2=75000 5x/6=75000 x=75000*6/5= 90000 Therefore.90000) = Rs. 2.960/4= Rs. If a-b= 3 and a2+b2=29. 30.b)2 28 | P a g e . A's share = Rs... 180 d. Rs.20x = 432 .384 = 48 => x = 15. (ii) Solving (i) and (ii) we get: x = 26. there are 5 working days and for each day.2/3 * x/4= Rs. Savings in Public Provident Fund = Rs. working hours in 4 weeks = (5 * 8 * 4) = 160.50. Now. 60. Hence.40 per hour for regular work and Rs.240 7. 3. y = 22. In a regular week. B's share = Rs. 12 c. x/6 Therefore x/6 + x/4 + x = 1360 17x/12 = 1360 x= 1360*12/17= Rs.000 as total savings. Public Provident Fund.

-29 b. -19 c.com/ = 29 . 29 Answer: Option c Explanation: 45-[28-{37-(15-*)}]= 58 => 45-[28-{37-15+*}]=58 45-[28-37+15-*]=58 => 45[43-37-*]=58 45-[6-*]=58 =>45-6+*=58 39+*=58 => *=58-39 = 19 SUDES AND INTEGERS 29 | P a g e . 8. If 45-[28-{37-(15-*)}]= 58.http://upscjob. 19 d.9 = 20 => ab = 10. then * is equal to: a.

com/ 30 | P a g e .http://upscjob.

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http://upscjob.com/ LOGARITHMS 32 | P a g e .

com/ FRACTIONS 33 | P a g e .http://upscjob.

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