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Write complete, balanced equations for all case in which a reaction takes place. Your observation that a reaction occurred would be a color change, by the formation of gas, by the formation of precipitate or by an energy (exothermic or endothermic). In case showing no evidence of a reaction, write “No reaction.” Classes of chemical reactions Combination reaction 1. 2. Al(s) + O2(g) Cu(s) + O2(g) Observation
3. Solubility of aluminum oxide 4. Solubility of copper oxide Decomposition reaction 5. (NH4)2CO3(s)
6. what happens to the glowing splint? 7. KIO3(s)+ AgNO3(aq) KI(aq)+ AgNO3(aq) 8. Results when the residue of KIO3 is mixed with AgNO3 solution 9. The formula of the residue present after heating KIO3
11. Test tube number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ca(s) + Mg(s) + H2O(l) H2O(l)
Al(s) + H2O(l) Zn(s) + HCl(l)
Pb(s) + HCl(l) Cu(s) + HCl(l) Al(s) + NaNO3 (aq)
Al(s) + CuCl2 (aq)
3. Test tube number 1. write balanced equestions for those that will occur Ag + CuCl2 Mg + Pb(NO3)2 Hg + H2SO4 Fe + MgCl2 2. write complete. 2. For the list of chemical below.2) KNO3 NaCl AgNO3 Pb(NO3)2 K2SO4 HNO3 . Consider the following reaction. Cu(s) + AgNO3 (aq) Double placement reactions 12.9. 4. 8. 6. 5. NaCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) + NaOH (aq) + BaCl2 (aq) + KNO3 (aq) AgNO3(aq) HCl(aq) HCl(aq) H2SO4(aq) K2CrO4(aq) NaOH(aq) NaOH(aq) Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Fe(NO3)3(aq) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) + Post-Lab Questions 1. 7. Determind whether a reaction wil take place (yes) or no take place (no). balanced equations for all possible reaction that would lead to an insoluble salat (Refer to Table 7.
What observation would indicate that a chemical reaction had occurred? . what would happen to aglowing splint to the presence of the gases that are evolved? Explain your answer. When ammonium carbonate [(NH4)2CO3(s)] decompose.3. 4.
gas bubble or color change. When dissolved in water. Na+. the solution is commonly referred to as ammonium hydroxide. and simple a qualitative analytical technique can used to identify the ions found their makeup. they are chemical. Ammonia. Subsequent experiments in the manual with deal in organic chemical. .Chemical Properties of Consumer Products Background Concern for the environment has placed considerable attention on the identification of chemicals that enter our everyday world. You may not think of these products as chemicals or refer to them by their inorganic names. This experiment will use chemical commonly found around the house. Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) (White precitate) Sodium ions produce a characteristic bright color in a flame. and PO43. giving an aqueous ammonia solution. Na +. Ammonium salt (for example. The test used will bring about same chemical change. HCO3-. Ammonia solutions are basic and change moistened red litmus paper to blue. In quantitative analysis. CO32-. This experiment will focus on the qualitative determination of inorganic chemicals. By examining aqueous solution of chemical. Table salt. Cations are ions carry positive charge. Table salt is commonly used as a flavoring agent. Na+. and chloride anion Cl-. The gas dissolves readily in water. Qualitative spot test often will identify the cation and anion presence. Qualitative analysis is limited to establishing presence or absence iof certain chemical in detectable amount in a sample. Aqueous ammonia solutions are used as cleaning agent because their ability to solubilize grease. a characteristic while precitate of silver chloride forms. each will give a characteristic reactions or test result. NH4+. NaCl. oils. absorbed. Anions are ions that carry negative charge. Ammonia is a gas with a strong irritating color. and waxes. so-called consumer chemical product. Cl-. SO42-. The change will be seen in the form of solid precipitate. 47 and 48). These ions are cations and anions. AgNO 3. table salt release the sodium cation. see Experiments 19. The simple approach to the detection of inorganic chemicals is to use tests that will identity the ions that make up the inorganic sample.Ca2+. the concern is for exact amounts of certain chemical present in a sample experiment in this manual will deal with this roblem (for sample. NH 4Cl) react with strong bases to form ammonia gas. NH3. Chloride ion is detected by silver nitrate. ammonium chloride. Never theless.Cu2+and Al3+ are representative sample. Because each ion has unique properties.are example of this type. 20. Analytical chemistry deal with these concern in the both a quantitative and qualitative sense. Individuals with high blood pressure (hypertension) are devised to restrict salt intake to reduce the amount of sodium ion.
Na3PO4. Alka seltzer) and as leavening agent. However. MgSO4. NaOCl. HCO3-(aq) + H+(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l) The presence of CO2 can be confirmed with barium hydroxide solution. here. usually 5% in concentration. Cl2 were present. Bleach sold commercially is dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite. NaOCl. SO42-. especially in water hard area. combines with the dye to give a blue color. and sulfate anion. CO2(g) + Ba(OH)2(aq) H2O(l) + BaCO3(s) Epsom salt. dissolved calcium and magnesium salts make the water “hard”. KI. it may taken internally as a laxative or purgative. or maybe used externally asa a solution for soaking one’s feet. SO42-. When dissolved in water. I2. Na 3PO4.. carbon dioxide. Sodium phosphate. In acid solution. the iodine dissolves in organic solvent. sodium bicarbonate. chlorine is reduced to chloride anions. contain sodium phosphate. such as potassium iodide. Epsom salt has several uses. which initially form. Some commercial soap preparation. The active agent is the hypochlorite anion. Thus in the presence of iodide salts. In solution. Chlorine is an effective oxidizing agent. Baking soda. iodide anions are oxidized to iodine. The magnesium hydroxide MgOH2. When sodium bicarbonate reacts with acid. In order to increase efficiency their product. sodium hypochlorite. reacts with barium chloride. a white precipitate of barium carbonate results. Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) BaSO4(s) Bleach.NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) NH3(g) + H2O(l) Baking soda. The behavior is specific for magnesium cation. a colorless. The phosphate anion is the active ingredient and keep the calcium and magnesium ions from interfering with the soap’s cleaning action.acts as anatacid in some commercial products (e. and then with organic dye p-nitrobenzene-azoresorcinol. Ba(OH)2. . BaCl2 to form a white precipitate of barium sulfate BaSO4. or detergents. it behaves as if free chlorine. The magnesium cation may be detected by first treating with a strong base. The organic solvent separates from the water and the colors the organic solvent violet. ClCl2 (aq) + 2I-(aq) I2(s) + 2Cl-(aq) The iodine give a reddish brown color to water. ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4 serves asa the source of phosphorus. Epsom salt releases magnesium cations. such as hexane C6H14. because iodine is more soluble in organic solvent.g. Mg 2+. Other products containing phosphate salt are plant fertilizer. Normal water do not work well as a result. as NaOH. phosphate anion combine with molybdate reagent to form bright yellow precipitate. NaHCO 3. The presence of the phosphate anion can detected with ammonium molybdate (NH4)2MoO4. sodium bicarbonate.7H2O. NaHCO 3. helping to “raise” a cake. odorless gas is released. dye Mg 2+ (aq) + OH (aq) Mg(OH)2(s) Blue Complex The sulfate anion. In some communities that use well water for their water supply.
5 mL (about 10 drops) of 6 M NaOH to the test tube.PO43-(aq) Precipitate) + 12 MoO42-(aq) + 3NH4+(aq) + 24H+(aq) (NH4)3PO4(MoO4)12(s) + 12H2O(l) (Yellow Objective 1. Record your observation (6). To examine the chemical properties of some common substance found around the house 2. Procedure Caption Although we are using chemical substances common to our everday life. 2. Does litmus change color? If the litmus paper does not change color. NaHCO3 . Place a few crystals of table salt on the clean spatula tip and heat in the flame of the Bunsen burner. NH3 and ammonium ions. Place a small amount (covering the tip of a small spatula) of table salt in the test tube (100 X 13 mm). Record your observation (4). hold a piece of dry red litmus paper over the mouth of the test tube (be careful not to touch the glass with the paper). NH4+ 1. Analysis of table salt. Add 0. Record your observation (2) Analysis of Household Ammonia. Place 1 mL of household ammonia in a test tube (100 X 13 mm). gently warm the test tube (do not boil solution). Moisten the red litmus paper with distilled water and hold it over the mouth of test tube. Test above with mosist red litmus paper. Add 2 drops of 0. NaCl 1. Take a small spatula and clean the tip holding it in Bunsen burner flame until the yellow color disappear.5 mL (about 10 drops) of6 M NaOH to the test tube. Add 1 mL (approx. 3. Record your observation (3). conduct this experiment as would any other. do not taste anything.1 M AgNO3. Place a small amount (covering the tip of small spatula) of ammonium chloride. 2. Record your observation (5). 20 drops) of distilled water and mix to dissolve. To use spot tests to learn which inorganic cations and anions are found in these products. mix only those substances as directed. NH 4Cl in a test tube (100 X 13 mm). Add. Allow to cool but do not let the tip touch anything. Place a small amount (covering the tip of small splatula) of commercial fertilizer in a test tube (100 X 13 mm). Record your observation (1). Hold a moist piece of red litmus inside the mouth of test tube (be careful not to touch the glass with the paper). Analysis of baking soda. Wear safety glasses.
Place a small amount (covering the tip of small spatula) of a fertilizer. Cork the test tube and shake vigorously. Place a small amount (covering the tip of small spatula) of baking soda in a test tube (100 X 13 mm). solution. We will test the escaping gas for CO2. NaOCl Place a small amount (covering the tip of small spatula) of potassium iodide. with the drop of barium hydroxide on it. Add 6 M HNO 3 drop wise to all three test tube until the solution test acid to litmus paper (blue litmus turns red when treated with acid) mix each solution well and then add 10 drops of the (NH 4)2MoO4 reagent to each test tube. in test tube no. Record your observation (7). 3. Record your observation. Add the acid to the test tube and then carefully lower the wire loop. followed by 10 drops of hexane. 2. Warm the test tube in awater bath maintained at 60-70oC. Label three clean test tube (100 X 13 mm) no. followed by 2 drops of 1 M BaCL2 solution. 2. Now you ready to add the acid to the test tube.1. the loop should be about 5 mm in diameter. Add 5 drops of 6 M H2SO4. dissolve the solid in 1 mL (about 20 drops) of distilled water. Place a small amount (covering the tip of small spatula) of Epsom salt in a test tube (100 X 13 mm). In test no.7H2O. Place a small amount (covering the tip of small spatula) of detergent. Dissolve in 1 mL (about 20 drops) of distilled water.01% p-nitrobenzeneazoresorcinol). dissolve the solid in 1 mL (about 20 drops) of distilled water. Prepare a mixture as in step 1. Analysis of Sodium phosphate. Dip the wire into 5% barium hydroxide. Avoid touching the walls and solution. 1. dissolve the solid in 1 mL (about 20 drops) of distilled water. Compare the three solution and record your observation. Record your observation (10). 1. down into mouth of the test tube. 3. Add 1 mL of bleach to the solution. 2 and no. Add 2 mL of distilled water to the solids in test tube no. Note the color of upper organic layer and record your observation (11). Place a small amount (covering the tip of small spatula) of Epsom salt in a test tube (100 X 13 mm). a drop should cling to the loop. 2. Chemical and equipment . 2 and no. in test tube no. Analysis of Bleach. Add 1 drops of 3 M HNO3. no. Na3PO4. Record what happens to the drop (8). but do not add it yet. place 2 mL of 1 M Na3PO4. Ba(OH) 2. Dissolve the solid in 1 mL (about 20 drops) of distilled water. Add 5 drops of 6 M H2SO4 and tab the test tube to mix. MgSO4. Make a loop in a wire. Then add 5 drops of the “organic dye” solution (0. Place a small amount (covering the tip of small spatula) of baking soda in a test tube (100 X 13 mm). 1. above. Have 5 drops of 6 M H 2SO4 ready to use. KI in a test tube (100 X 13 mm). Analysis of Epsom salt. 3 and mix. Set aside and allow the layer to separate.
red 5. NH3 6. MgSO4. Ammonium molybdate reagent. Commercial baking soda. Table salt. 6 M NaOH 21. blue 4. Hexane. . Are test carried out in this experiment quantitative or qualitative? . NH4 PO4 12. 6 M H2SO4 23. Litmus paper. Explain the difference between quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. KI 19. 3 M HNO3 17. Na3PO4 10. NaCl 13. 0.7H2O 11. Litmus paper. Bunsen burner 2. Commercial ammonia solution.1 M AgNO3 20. Potassium iodide. Ammonium chloride. Copper wire 3. 1 M Na3PO4 22. Commercial bleach.01% p-nitrobenzene-azoresorcinol (“organic dye” solution) 24. 6 M HNO3 18. Epsom salt.1. C6H14 Pre-lab questions 1. Detergent. NaOCl 9. Garden fertilizer. NH4Cl 7. (NH4)2MoO4 14. 0. 1 M BaCl2 15. NaHCO3 8. 5 % Ba(OH)2 16.
Presence of ammonium ions in fertilizer Analysis of baking soda. AgNO3 + NaCl 2. turned reddish-brown and produced a violet-colored layer with benzene. a. Color of wet litmus with ammonia fumes 5. Baking soda 2. KI.2. A white precipitate formed with silver nitrate. Based on the observed result. BaCl2 b. Bleach 3. Complete the table by proving the name and formula of the salt found in each product. Epsom salt 5. A solution treated with potassium iodide. NH3 and ammonium ions. A white precipitate formed with barium chloride. Product 1. Color of dry litmus with ammonia fumes 4. Detergent 4. Below is a list of the material to be analyzed. NaHCO3 . Color of wet litmus with NH4OH + NaOH 6. 3. Table salt Salt cation anion Report sheet Analysis of table salt. AgNO3 c. Color of flame Analysis household ammonia. NaCl 1. what is the most likely ion present in the solution? Write the chemical equation for the reaction of the reagent with the ion. Below some observations that were made when tests were carried out on solution for specific ions. the name and formula of the cation and name and formula of the anion. Fertilizer 6. NH3+ 3.
Presence of magnesium cation 10. CaCO3. How could you tell whether the white crystals you have are sodium chloride (table salt). NaOCl 11. limestone.7. H2SO4 + NaHCO3 8. 12. Presence of sulfate anion Analysis of bleach.7H2O 9. Na3PO4. Color of hexane layer Analysis of Sodium phosphate. A sample of tab water produces a white precipitate with silver nitrate. What ion most likely responsible for this effect? What is the white precipitate? . 3. Eggshell. 2 no. What test would determine the presence of carbonate in these substance? Write chemical equation for reaction. MgSO4. oyster shell. AgNO 3. Presence of CO2 gas Analysis of Epsom salt. NaI? 2. Presence of phosphate no. NaCl or sodium iodide (a poison). 1 no. 3 Post-Lab questions 1. and blackboard chalk contain calcium carbonate.
Why do direction cal for these substance? What is the expected action when everything is mixed ttttttttogether? Together 5. In some communities. Direction in some cake recipes call for use of lemon juice or sour milk along with baking soda.4. How could these salt enter the environment? How could the authorities test for presence of phosphate in the water? . streams and coastal bays. products that contain phosphate are banned from sale because pollution of well water.
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