Copyright © 1 9 6 3 by Alger F. Johns Copyright © 1 9 6 6 by A n d r e w s University Copyright © 1 9 7 2 Revised Edition by A n d r e w s University Press A n d r e w s University Press 213 Information Services Building Berrien Springs.1 7 0 0 Telephone: 2 6 9 . N o part of this book may be used or reproduced in any m a n n e r without written permission from the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.4 7 1 . MI 4 9 1 0 4 . F A X : 269-471-6224 Emai 1: info@andrewsuniversitypress.com Website: www.6 1 3 4 .andrewsuniversitypress. Printed in the United States of America 07 06 05 04 03 13 12 11 10 9 ISBN 0-943872-74-X .com All rights reserved.

To reach this goal the grammar is concentrated on Biblical Aramaic. While there is very little that can be presented in a work of this kind that is really new. his esteemed professor in Semitic studies in general. only touching lightly the vast areas of other Aramaic languages and dialects. only a short resume or explanation is given in this grammar for the sake of brevity.. and frequent comparisons are drawn between the two languages. to Professor Joseph Fitzmyer. The vocabulary is progressively built u p by the use of simple exercises. t o William Foxwell Albright. S. for the two works are quite dilTerent in approach." However. their full value has not been readily accessible to those seminary students who are more facile in the classical languages than in the modern languages. yet as concisely as possible. the author freely acknowledges his indebtedness.his teacher of Biblical Aramaic.PREFACE The purpose of this grammar is to cover adequately. Whenever some grammatical term or usage common to both languages is usually covered thoroughly in a study of Hebrew grammar. the general framework of comparative Semitic studies has been utilized where it could aid in the understanding of Biblical Aramaic. the essential elements of Biblical Aramaic.. the author has been preparing this grammar in the English language to help meet the needs of such students. The recent appearance of a good Aramaic grammar written in the English language has not been a deterrent to the completion of the project. It is almost an invariable rule that seminary students learn Hebrew before they begin a study of Biblical Aramaic. The textual basis of this grammar is Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. This grammar was written on the basis of that assumption. For the last few years. However. yet the methodology of approach can vary greatly in different grammars. the methodology of approach has been simplified to better fulfill the purpose of meeting the needs of the seminary classroom. the student is introduced to actual Biblical passages in the exercises. The goal has been to meet the needs of the typical theological seminary student. however. The basic structure of this grammar is that of the "Baltimore school. In addition. As soon as possible. modified t o some extent by the . and secondly. In this connection. For many years several excellent and comprehensive grammars of Biblical Aramaic written in the German language have been in existence. the eighth edition (based on the third edition). first. in connection with his teaching program.J.

In this connection the author wishes to express his deepest appreciation to his colleagues Dr. The second printing has presented an opportunity for correcting the misprints present in the original work as well as for making a few minor changes to clarify the text. Horn and D r . Special thanks are due to the administration and board of Andrews University for their willingness to underwrite the additional outlay that this second printing entails. A continuing demand at the present level can be met by the second edition for many years to come. although the author suspects the possibility (difficult to prove) that the earliest Masoretes or pre-Masoretic scribes were not quite as careful with the Aramaic portions of the Bible as with the Hebrew portions. November. However. It is an honor to be the first in a series entitled Andrews University Monographs. 1962. Attention is focused on those forms which actually occur in Biblical Aramaic. Siegfried H. December. H o w could the books written partially in Aramaic occupy quite as high a spot in the canon as others written entirely in the " s a c r e d " language.VI vocabulary available at t h a t stage of study. It seemed advisable to issue the second printing in regular book form with cloth covers rather than to use once again an electro-photostatic process for printing and cardboard covers for binding. The examples illustrating the grammar have been chosen with special care to fall within the scope of the student's progressive understanding. 1971 . It is our sincere hope that these improvements will help this grammar to fulfill more adequately its original purpose. Leona G. 1965. Running for their helpful suggestions and painstaking care in reading the proofs. this second edition has given opportunity for numerous minor corrections and a few major ones to be made. The first limited printing of this grammar was exhausted much more quickly than anticipated. Hebrew? December. The demand for the first edition of this grammar was greater than either the author or the Andrews University Publications Committee anticipated and so the supply has been exhausted several years before we expected.

N O U N S A N D ADJECTIVES 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 Gender Number State Adjectival Modification The Construct Chain Uses of •? The Direct Object and n . 5. 5. P H O N O L O G Y O F BIBLICAL A R A M A I C . 3.Vll TABLE O F C O N T E N T S PREFACE TABLE O F C O N T E N T S I N T R O D U C T I O N T O BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. . LESSON I. 3. 6. . . 8. 9. 3. 8. 5. 6. 4. Biblical Occurrences 2. 4. 2. 7. . Vocabulary Exercises . 4. . T h e Name Distribution of Semitic Languages Classification of Aramaic Languages and Dialects The Alphabet The Script The Tone The Vocabulary V vii 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 . 7. 2. 1. . 1. 5 5 6 7 8 8 The Development of Proto-Semitic Consonants Selected Phonetic Rules for Vowels Selected Phonetic Rules for Consonants Vocabulary Exercises LESSON II. . .

4. T H E INFINITIVE. T H E VERBAL S Y S T E M : T H E P E R F E C T 1. Independent Personal Pronouns Uses of the Independent Personal Pronouns Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns Uses of the Pronominal Suffixes Vocabulary Exercises . LESSON IV. 7. 6. Demonstrative Pronouns The Pronoun n Independent Possessive Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Vocabulary Exercises LESSON V. 6. 6. 2. 5. 5. . 19 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 LESSON VI. 5. 3. .Vlll LESSON in. 3. 3. 7. ETC 1. . INDEPENDENT PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND 12 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 SUFFIXES ON NOUNS 1. 2. 2. 7. 2. Conjugation of the Imperfect Uses of the Imperfect The Infinitive The Imperative The Participles Uses of the Active Participle Uses of the Passive Participle 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 . O T H E R P R O N O U N S 1. The Conjugations Development of the Conjugations Stative Forms Conjugation of the Perfect Uses of the Perfect Vocabulary Exercises . 5. . 6. 4. 4. 3. . T H E VERBAL SYSTEM: T H E I M P E R F E C T . 4.

4. . 6. 2. 4. The Passive Conjugations The Reflexive Conjugations The Hithpeel The Hithpaal The Hishtaphal Vocabulary Exercises 37 37 38 38 39 40 40 40 LESSON X. 7. 5. 5. T H E D E R I V E D ACTIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. 11. Principal Parts Regular and Irregular Verbs The Pael The Haphel The Aphel The Shaphel Vocabulary Exercises . 4.IX 8. 2. 6. CLASSES O F N O U N S 1. Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings The Copula Vocabulary Exercises . Pe Laryngeal Verbs 3. 26 26 27 27 LESSON Vll. 8. 10. 9. . . 3. Laryngeal Verbs 2. 3. . Systems of Classification Inflection of the First Nine Classes Nouns of Unique Formation Vocabulary Exercises 28 28 28 29 31 31 LESSON Vlll. . L A R Y N G E A L VERBS 1. 5. Ayin Laryngeal Verbs 41 41 41 42 . . 2. 3. 7. 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 LESSON IX. T H E PASSIVE A N D REFLEXIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1.

Geminate (or Ayin Ayin) Verbs 2. 6. A N D PE A L E P H VERBS 1. 4. . Lamedh Laryngeal Verbs The Ithpeel Conjugation Verbs Doubly Laryngeal Vocabulary Exercises 43 44 45 45 45 LESSON XI. Pe N u n Verbs Verbs Pe N u n and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe N u n and Lamedh Laryngeal Pe Yodh Verbs (Including Pe Waw) The Shaphel and Saphel Conjugations Verbs Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal P e A l e p h Verbs Verbs Pe Aleph and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh Laryngeal Vocabulary Exercises . . 5 6 56 57 57 57 57 58 . The Shaphel and Hishtaphal Conjugations 3. PE Y O D H . 12. 47 47 48 48 48 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 52 LESSON XII. 2. 11. 3. 4. G E M I N A T E VERBS 1. 10. . . 2. 6. The Hithpoel (Ithpoel) Conjugation 59 59 60 60 . . 5. 7. 9. 8. 9. 7. 8. H O L L O W VERBS 1. . 8. . PE N U N . The Hollow Verbs Ayin Waw Verbs The Polel and Hithpolel Conjugations The Hithaphel (Hittaphel) Conjugation Ayin Y o d h Verbs Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Hollow Verbs Lamedh Laryngeal and Hollow Verbs Pe N u n and Hollow Vocabulary Exercises 54 54 54 55 . 10. LESSON XIII. 3. 6. 5. 5. 7.4.


4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Geminate Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Geminate Verbs Pe Nun and Geminate Vocabulary Exercises

60 61 62 62 62

LESSON XIV. L A M E D H H E VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Development of the Lamedh He Formations The Derived Conjugations of the Lamedh He Class Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh He Verbs Pe N u n and Lamedh He Vocabulary Exercises . . . . .

63 63 64 65 66 67 67 68

LESSON VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.





IRREGULAR 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 72 73 73

Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh H e The Haphel Passive Conjugation Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh He Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal Pseudo-Geminate Verbs Other Irregular Verbs Vocabulary Exercises





LESSONXVI. VERBAL SUFFIXES: WITH T H E PERFECT 1. Verbal Suffixes 2. Formation of Suffixes on the Perfect 3. Table of Suffixes on the Perfect 4. The Suffixes on '•n-S 5. Vocabulary 6. Exercises



74 74 74 75 76 76 76


LESSON XVII. VERBAL S U F F I X E S : W I T H T H E I M P E R F E C T , THE INFINITIVE, ETC 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Formation of Suffixes on the Imperfect Table of Suffixes on the Imperfect Table of Suffixes on the Infinitive Table of Suffixes on the Imperative Suffixes on the Participle Vocabulary Exercises 77 77 77 78 79 79 79 79

LESSON XVIII. N O U N TYPES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Definition of Noun Types Recognition of Noun Types Table of N o u n Types Occurring in BA Vocabulary Exercises

80 80 80 81 83 83

LESSON XIX. S I M I L A R N O U N CLASSES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confusion of Similar Noun Classes Nouns Belonging to Class 1 Nouns Belonging to Class 2 Distinguishing Between Similar Noun Classes Similar Noun Classes in the Plural Vocabulary Exercises

84 84 84 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 96





LESSON XX, T H E N U M E R A L S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Cardinal Numerals Uses of the Cardinal Numerals Standard Numerical Formulas The Ordinal Numerals Vocabulary Exercises


I N T R O D U C T I O N T O BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. Biblical Occurrences: In the Old Testament, Biblical Aramaic is found in five passages: Gen. 31:47; Jer. 10:11; Ezra 4:8 to 6:18; Ezra 7:12-26; and Dan. 2:4b to 7:28. 2. The Name: The name of the language " A r a m a i c , " is derived from the Hebrew word J T ' O ' i K (Ezra 4:7 and D a n . 2:4a). It was, of course, originally spoken by various Aramaean tribes for centuries before the time of the oldest inscriptions in "Old A r a m a i c " (which date to about the 10th century B . C . ) . As the Aramaeans moved into Assyria and Babylonia, their language gradually superseded Accadian as the lingua franca of the region, eventually becoming the official language of the Persian Empire. In this period it is spoken of as Reichsaramdisch or "Imperial A r a m a i c . " The Elephantine papyri, for example, are in Reichsaramdisch. Biblical Aramaic (hereafter abbreviated BA) is often also so classified, for the Achaemenid documents of Ezra are in Reichsaramdisch, and the language of the book of Daniel is closely related to it. Grammariansof the previous century called BA " C h a l d e e " or " C h a l d a e a n . " One reason for this is probably that excavations in Babylonia in that century focused attention on the Chaldaean (Neo-Babylonian) empire, and since the setting of the book of Daniel is at the height of that empire, it would be natural to use the name " C h a l d e e " or " C h a l d a e a n " for the non-Hebrew language of the book [cf. Dan. 1:4and 2:26 in the LXX]. However, this designation is no longer used, but only the name " A r a m a i c , " for after all, the language originated with the Aramaeans rather t h a n with the Chaldaeans.

3. I

Distribution of Semitic Languages: 11 Northeast Semitic (A) Accadian (1) Assyrian (2) Babylonian

Northwest Semitic (A) (B) Aramaic Canaanite (I) Ugaritic (2) Phoenician (3) Hebrew, etc.

" Reichsaramdisch.I l l Southwest Semitic (A) Hejaz (B) Nejd (C) Qays (D) Yemen [Of these. The latter two are classified by most authorities under "West A r a m a i c . Later Aramaic is usually classified as follows: I West Aramaic (A) Palestinian Jewish (1) Targumic (2) Jerusalem Talmudic Palestinian Christian Samaritan (Aramaic) Palmyrene Nabataean II East Aramaic (A) N o r t h (1) Syriac (a) East Syriac (Nestorian) (b) West Syriac (Jacobite) [Modern] (c) T o r a n i (d) Fellihi (2) [Some authorities place BA here] (B) South (1) Talmudic (Babylonian Talmud) (B) (Q (D) (E) . Modern Arabic has innumerable spoken dialects. (B) Ethiopic [classical-Ge'ez] (1) Tigre (2) Tigriila (3) Amharic (official) (4) Gurage (5) H a r a r i . etc. Classification of Aramaic Languages and Dialects: Ancient Aramaic includes "Old Aramaic.] IV Southeast Semitic (A) South Arabic (1) Qataban (Qatabanian) (2) Saba' (Sabaean) (3) M a ' i n (Minaean) (4) H a d r a m a u t [Modern] (5) Mahri (6) Soqotri (Soqotrian) (7) Sehauri. (A) prevailed as classical (North) Arabic. based on the writings of M o h a m m e d . it is best not to make an east-west division at this early time. and BA. 4. etc. " However.

but they do include BA as well as BH. just as it had long since been employed as the usual script for ordinary correspondence or other writing. with but minor exceptions. A n alternate system is known as Babylonian vocalization. like that of Biblical Hebrew (hereafter abbreviated BH). The Alphabet: Tiie alphabet of BA. except in those cases where one of the root letters would thus be eliminated. This script was taken over from Aramaic. N o t in BA. The Masoretes employed the same vowels for the BA portions of the OT as for the BH portions. 6. BA has a comparatively small vocabulary. the third person masculine singular of the perfect of the simplest form of the verb will be used for the vocabulary form of verbs. The Script: The script employed for BA is the same as t h a t used for BH. Like Hebrew. There are only a few examples of this. Consequently. 7. As in most grammars of BH. This is carried out in BA as well as B H . The names of the letters are the same as in Hebrew. The Tone: The tone or accent in BA generally follows the rules of accentuation of BH. The commonly used vowel system for the Masoretic text is the Tiberian vocalization. is composed of 22 consonants. Actually. without any vowels. The M T has the same accent markings in the BA portions as in the B H portions. The Vocabulary: It will be recognized at once that with such a limited body of literature. F o r purposes of simplification. and also for all verbs of the derived conjugations. the accent will not usually be marked in the vocabulary. 8. The number in parentheses following . this script is of Aramaic origin. In such cases. BA and BH have the same fundamental rules of pronunciation. the three root letters alone will be given. and already by the beginning of the Christian era was in common use for copying the Scriptures. but in existence for B H are also a few examples of Palestinian vocalization and Yemenite vocalization. BA uses a final form of the following letters SBaJD making them appear as a t the end of words. for the so-called " s q u a r e " letters employed in the Hebrew scriptures were developed from the Old Aramaic and not the Old Hebrew script.(F) (G) (H) [Modern] Ma'lula Bah'a Jubba'din (2) Mandaean (a) M a n d a ' (b) Yada' (c) Gnostic 5.

besides a host of others with but minor differences. etc. council (of judgment) (4) n — interrogative particle — he. (so) V — t o . spirit (4) n ' t ? — t o place.]) ? . remainder (4) nr — day (4. j u d g m e n t .) "n — living. that acn — s h e . [also 10 in pi. > temple (10) 13 — — field (3) — b a t h . s t a n d . they are by no means identical to BH in the plural. Tjnan' niVS/ etc. In a few instances it is impossible to determine with certainty the original form of the absolute state of certain nouns. then. nation (5. a r m y (1) wisdom (7) Dbnn — magician (5) dew (5) p — t h u s . city (10) PI? — horn (1) 3 T — great. than n m p — (grain) offering (7) IV — u n t o . chief (5.) life (5) s t r e n g t h . establish nXB? — rest. alive. and are either identical or virtually identical in their meanings. for. The following vocabulary is a representative (but by no means complete) list of common words which are identical to BH in the singular absolute form. town. about whole. nought inb — therefore [Heb. > a liquid ns — measure (5) r'! . over.] na — w h a t ? that which — king (1) p — from. pi. lay. (for. until rV— e y e ( l ) — ( u p ) o n . out of. However. — stone (1) — not — — these nsN — — cubit (7.a s . against. according t o . endure n^P — village.). nor necessarily so in the construct form. p i . so the vowels in question have been omitted in the vocabularies (e. concerning D » — people.right.the nouns or adjectives represents the noun class (which will be discussed in a subsequent lesson). (pi. by (means of) D''? — house. [also 7 in pi. sign of direct object N"? — n o t .]) DS? — (along) with Dlf — to rise. every . 5) — also S73-JK — four nnx — — lion (10) 3 — — i n . [as a noun] nothing. t h a t 1 — a n d . Those who have learned BH will find many words in BA identical to common BH words.g.10) n n — wind. all. justice. big. make.

d . Thus t . 1X6^ etc. and s when so pronounced become t. z z Arab. 1 T Acc. This development can best be understood by comparing specific consonants in several of the principal Semitic languages. and Ethiopic as follows: PS 6. ? . Aramaic. Hebrew.6 In BA 0 andft?were often used interchangeably. Aram. [Note t h a t a consonant is "velarized" or "glottalizcd" when there is a glottal catch at the same time the consonant is pronounced. d z Eth.g s s 0 0 s s s s s § a" s s s s d 9. d . F o r "zayin t w o " BH has S ^ T a n d BA has S7*it. is from Proto-Semitic to Ugaritic. ^ (or $ ["thorn"] or d). as generally held by grammarians. $ (or S) and §. F o r "shin t w o " BH has ift?» and BA has ^ft?5? F o r "shin t h r e e " BH has pa?"? and BA has IB*"?. while BA has nVri.ir\\ etc. z . . For "shin o n ^ " BH has iriVe*.LESSON I P H O N O L O G Y O F BIBLICAL A R A M A I C 1. Accadian. F o r "zayin o n e " BH has anj while BA has ari'T. z z t h h s ?! S2 ?3 t s s s § t t § t t n ft? n n ft? t § t s § s s ?. and both became s i n Syriac. ^ ( o r $ o r ^ ) .] This development. i J Ug. 6 (or 5).S z Heb. The Development of Proto-Semitic Consonants: Although the consonants of BA and BH developed generally along the same lines from their common Proto-Semitic origin. Arabic. The use of specific examples in comparison of BH and BA cognates may best illustrate these developments. yet in a few of the consonants there occurred important divergencies.

Short /• in a closed. Short « in a closed. heth. and 'ayin. VDJ ^. Short i in a closed. BA aaa^p. accented syllable is either retained or becomes sere (this latter §ere is changed to seghol before a maqqeph). All short vowels become p a t h a h before final resh. unaccented syllable is either retained or becomes qames hatuph. Otherwise it is usually retained. unless a doubled consonant follows. Thus BH has while BA has » 8 [from »»] and for the BH f "^K. heth. etc. aiD. Likewise in b o t h BA and BH n represents Proto-Semitic h and h . F o r "§ade t w o " BH and BA b o t h have »aSK. (BH ni^. short vowels precede the tone or accent. (BH tbilK. and 'ayin at the end of an unaccented. Vpj?. the correct pronunciation is h. Selected Phonetic Rules for Vowels: I n the treatment of vowels BA and BH developed along somewhat divergent lines. etc. although there are also some similarities. etc. and later became ». a reduced vowel is always a hateph (usually a hateph pathah). The first three of the following rules represent especially important differences between BA and BH. Though fallen together. etc.) Short a in closed.) The diphthong aw always becomes 6 in BA. etc. open. -— After the laryngeals he. Otherwise it frequently becomes /. BA B^IN. " S a d e t h r e e " became j? in early Aramaic. BA has b o t h p l . and are not lengthened as they often a r e i n B H : *kataba > a n s . a p . BA T\y^. (BH aaa^. A — Short vowels in a pretonic open syllable become shewa. After a laryngeal. accented final syllables remains short and is not lengthened as it often is in B H : *kataba > 3 P 3 .) The early Hebrew shift of a t o d under the accent or tone does not occur in BA. accented syllable becomes holem in nouns. unaccented syllable becomes seghol before a laryngeal. the pretonic vowel is completely syncopated (becoming silent shewa). etc.F o r " j a d e o n e " BH has pfes while BA has i D p . I n BA as in BH Proto-Semitic ghayin and 'ayin have fallen together and are written ». I J K L M N — — — — — Short « in a closed. 2. unaccented syllable is retained next to a laryngeal. s and S7"1K. Short a in a closed. If two unaccented. A pathah furtive is inserted between a heterogeneous long vowel and final h e t h or 'ayin. B — C D E F — — — — G H — — .

2 3 4 5 — — — — A 1 is often assimilated t o a following consonant (even a laryngeal). Final s quiesces. in a medial open syllable it is retained or becomes In B A t h e gentilic ending is v (rather than •>_ as in BH). 1 — The n S S l U letters become spirants after a vowel. (I 7). Doubled consonants before a shewa are simplified and the shewa is eliminated. with the compensative lengthening of the preceding vowel: H_ > N_ and x _ > «_ [also written rt. Conversely. in a closed secondary-accented syllable it becomes "•_. references to the rules for consonants (I 2). d. In compensation the preceding vowel may be lengthened as follows: a. (I C).medial syllable. (I Q). b. Final doubled consonants are simplified t o single consonants.for N_ and for Initial i becomes •'. However. always before aleph and resh. etc. corresponding t o the preceding vowel. The diphthong % develops as follows: a. Laryngeals and resh are not doubled in BA. c. . often before 'ayin. etc. if the doubled consonant occurs before a full vowel in other forms of the word. This aspirantization is retained even when the vowel which caused it is dropped.. 6 7 — — 8 — In subsequent lessons references to these phonetic rules in Lesson 1 will be abbreviated as follows: references to the rules for vowels. 0 P — — In Tiberian vocalization there was an occasional pausal lengthening of a short vowel. in a closed primary-accented syllable it becomes b. a hateph is inserted. then the doubling is usually retained before the shewa also (by paradigmatic analogy). in a final open syllable it becomes d. the doubling of a consonant is sometimes resolved by a i followed by the consonant in question. Selected Phonetic Rules for — Consonants: Q 3. once in BA before he. c. never before heth (doubling is implicit). (I A).

4) t o return ox. miracle (4) ann — gold (2) generation. .' — t o sit. mankind (4) wood.8) s?1>< — e a r t h (1) nx — sign. remote time (3) ten to kill voice.4. temple (3) »•)! — seed. pi. sound (4) year (8. pi. finger (2. Point out the divergencies in the development of the consonants wherever this has occurred.bull(4) three there shekel (1) 5. Vocabulary: man. claw (2) an. beam (4) digit. Exercises: Write out the corresponding BH cognates of the words found in the vocabulary. dwell priest (3) r|03 — silver (1) — a3B*a — ifai — -ini — 1?? - •Vy — Vijj? — njf— ain — nin — nV^ — nan — tongue. t o e . > descendants (1) a p — good (4) I B p — (finger) nail. language (4) bed (3) prophet (10) river (2) t o give eternity. Also for each word in the vocabulary list the letter or number of the phonetic rule or rules as given above which apply to that word. lifetime (4) xni — grass(1) VD^n — palace.

Masculine nouns have no particular ending.V . that whereas the BH article is prepositive. animals nvn T T " animals of the animals . dual. " F r o m these examples it will be noted t h a t in BA. but feminine nouns generally end in H . the BA definite article is postpositive: e. absolute state construct state emphatic state kings kings of the kings fem. Gender: In BA nouns and adjectives have two genders. "the k i n g " : BH ^iVan. There is actually no formal distinction between nouns and adjectives in BA. lacking a specific feminine ending. 2. animal animal of the animal fem. pi. Number: Three numbers occur in BA: singular. The dual ending is somewhat similar to t h a t of BH. some feminine nouns have masculine form. As in BH. e. masculine and feminine. the qattil and q^til types are generally used for adjectives.LESSON II N O U N S A N D ADJECTIVES 1. Nouns and adjectives are declined as follows: masc. absolute state construct state emphatic state king king of the king masc. and like BH. construct. 3. and emphatic. BA K3"p».g. T " h a n d . The emphatic state always denotes determination in BA.. parts of the body which come in pairs are feminine. State: In BA there are three states of the n o u n : absolute. pi. However. sg. namely.g. It corresponds to the BH noun (in the absolute state) with the definite article. sg. or i. " " e y e . Some grammarians prefer to state the matter in another way. as in BH. being (sometimes contracted to ]•>_)• Occurrences of the dual are rare in BA. are almost entirely confined to natural pairs. and plural. The first two function like their BH counterparts and need little discussion.

the preposition V is used for this purpose: an Vx^ftr"? 'qV? " a great king of Israel" (Ezra 5:11). (see I Q ) end in rather than K»_ in the emphatic state plural. a proper name). (2) when the nomen rectum is made determinate by a pronominal suffix. 5. The state of the nomen rectum indicates the determination or indetermination of the whole construct chain. The original postpositive article tt is sometimes spelled n. but not necessarily in state of determination. Adjectival Modification: I n BA. "king of k i n g s " ] . in which the first noun {nomen regens) is p u t in the construct state and the second (nomen rectum) is found in BA either in the absolute or in the emphatic state. . etc. A construct chain may be more t h a n two nouns (three. There are three constructions in which a construct chain is definite or determinate: (1) when the nomen rectum is in the emphatic state.g. Also. 2:29. t h e first element can only remain indeterminate by employing a circumlocution. the feminine ending n is sometimes spelled K . 6. This is true whether it is used with some form of the verb " t o b e " or whether it occurs without the verb " t o b e . The Construct Chain: This is a combination of nouns peculiar t o Semitic. NsVa r f ? " t h e house of the k i n g " (Ezra 6:4). Thus o'lB"':}^? " t h e king of Persia" (Ezra 4:24). 4:9. sna nrn " t h e animal(s) [collective] of the field" (Dan.10 Note that the feminine plural construct ending n_ corresponds t o the BH ni_ (see I C).). etc. the predicate adjective is always in the absolute state. or even more). upVa '^^9 " t h e king of the k i n g s " (Ezra 7:12) [usually rendered by the English idiom. The determination or indetermination of the last noun (nomen rectum) governs all the nouns of the construct chain. the adjective follows as closely as possible the noun it modifies. and conversely. 2:38. Because the emphatic state is determinate or definite it is used to indicate the vocative: KSVa may be " O k i n g " as well as " t h e k i n g " (e. D a n . " Thus the predicate adjective will agree with the noun it modifies in number and gender. but all except the last must be in the construct state. 4. or (3) when the nomen rectum is a proper name. as in B H . with pronominal suflBx. N o u n s with the gentilic ending i_. as in B H .). It also agrees with the noun in number and gender [actual grammatical gender and not form] and in state of determination. a predicate adjective may occur either before or after the noun it modifies. However. 31. Uses of V: When t h e last element of a genitive construction is determinate in one of the three ways discussed above (emphatic state. no matter how long the construct chain might be. I n BA.

t a t u e . as well as being indicated by the use of the preposition "? (see sec. Exercises: Translate the following: n x p — hundred • angel (3) naVa — queen (7) (pm — copper. sec.psVa (1) Nni-n nnair? xnas X ? T (4) NyiK*? nVx na» (e) "?» siax "jBi nipa (8) pnxa pnin (11) f B'?X (10) xaify ninn xnaa sin nij'? (13) an-] xa^s B>sn (3) Nn?'7a aH s w a n Vsa (5) Vn^ N f i x aaVi itoa S T (7) KjV^Va nNjaiVp^Cs) Kp-Bs"? n:a"? saVa nia (12) .heart (5) night (3) why? for what purpose? > lest 9. grass (1) iron (3) s D V ? . power (3) S ? T — to know by — to be able. image (1) bird (3) holy (4) I P S I — head.t o fall (down) i s p — book (1) ^ 3 » — t o d o . chief (10) D ^ — name (10) 8^18^ — r o o t (1) rinri — under VnB — IT-ip. lord (1) itoa — flesh (2) ")?? — man (1) n r n — beast. 7. 6. Vocabulary: father (10) god. animal (7) T •• a ^ s n — wise (4) T — h a n d .11 It is extremely important t o note that BA uses the preposition *? t o indicate the direct object. 8. purpose. in addition t o retaining the common uses for b (also found in BH) t o express the indirect object.(see III. the ethical dative. bronze (4) V s i . and direction. make atos? — herbs. The student of BA must determine syntactically by the context whether •? is expressing a direct object or an indirect object. used as the sign of the direct object should be mentioned (cf the usage of BH m). above). In this one passage (Daniel 3:12). 3). is attached directly t o the third person masculine plural pronominal suffix p r t . the one occurrence of the particle n. In this connection. prevail sign of the direct object n » 3 — how! a a * ? . > G o d (4) thousand (1) ni? — to build Vsja — owner. The Direct Object and n \ In BA the direct object is often expressed by the noun (or pronoun) alone.

as in BH.) [Qere] he she Person 1 2 3 3 vxmvi pniN p i s . t h e first person plural occurs with the variant ending r i .) they (fem. n^S"! S i n . The form ian occurs only in Ezra and p a n only in Daniel. (A) Uses of the Independent Personal Pronouns: The independent personal pronoun can be used as the subject of a verb or sentence n i s S?T " I know [participle]" (Dan.] t h e t i m e " (idiomatic for "you are trying to gain t i m e " ) . Independent Personal Pronouns: In BA some of the independent personal pronouns occur infrequently. either for nouns or for other personal p r o n o u n s : pn"?S nVs Sin psnVs " y o u r G o d is a G o d of g o d s " (Dan.) they (masc.]ian .) N o t e t h a t there is n o occurrence of t h e second person feminine singular in BA. 2:38). N o t e that one important grammatical case of Kethib-Qere occurs in the second person masculine singular of t h e independent personal pronouns. 2:8) and also pn?S s n v p33T " y o u are buying [part. and conversely. 2:47). or n o t at all. The third person of the independent pronoun can function as a copula.n ^ l S " y o u are the h e a d " ( D a n . (B) . Those which d o occur in BA are as follows: Singular rm nWN Nin S-'H I you (masc. In BA.. '•nnas i a n S j m s " w e are H i s servants" (Ezra 5:11). there are instances where the Masoretic tradition has modified that which was actually " w r i t t e n " (a'ris) in t h e consonantal text so t h a t it was t o be pronounced or " r e a d " (sij?) with a different vocalization.12 LESSON III I N D E P E N D E N T P E R S O N A L P R O N O U N S A N D S U F F I X E S ON N O U N S 1. and the others may occur in variant forms.ian p3S Plural we you (masc. 2. b u t pas is found in both books. T h e first person singular occurs with t h e variant ending s _ .) [Kethib] you (masc.

) nr^n Kinrn pariDTl pnprn plivn my animal your animal (masc. pi.) his day "^nvn nrii"'n Niaipsai" pnav |nar her day our day your day (masc.) their day (fem. pi. but it comes before the noun rather t h a n after: x a b s Kin "//le s t a t u e " or " / / / a / s t a t u e " (Dan. Pronominal Suffixes on Nouns: In BA there is n o occurrence of either feminine singular or feminine plural of t h e second person pronominal suffixes. pi. 3. 2:32). (D) Occasionally the independent personal pronoun is used similarly t o an article in giving determination t o a noun.) their animal (masc.) their day (masc. pi. on singular and plural nouns both. b u t these are included in t h e paradigms for the sake of completeness. even 1" or " a n d as for me.) my days your days [Kethib] (masc.13 The independent personal pronoun can be used t o emphasize a preceding suffix: njx •'lai " a n d I. N o u n s in the Plural Masculine ••ai'' Feminine "•rirn •qnvn my animals your animals (masc. sing. sing.) his animal her animal o u r animal your animal (masc.) your days [Qere] his days her days [Kethib] her days [Qere] ••niai'' n^ai"nni- nnrn nrrn his animals her animals . even m e " (Ezra 7:21). (E) The third person plural is used t o express t h e object of a verb as well as the subject since there is no third person plural in BA for pronominal suffixes attached t o verbs: p a n bisp_ " i t killed t h e m " ( D a n . N o u n s in t h e Singular Masculine 'ar (C) Feminine 'nrn •!]av nar nar my day your day (masc. sing. "iSHDia: T 3 i a n a n ' " H e gave them i n t o t h e power of N e b u c h a d n e z z a r " (Ezra 5:12). pi.) Also occurring are the alternate endings D D .) their animal (fem.sing. There is also n o occurrence of some of the other forms attached t o feminine nouns. 3:22). pi. hence they are omitted in the paradigms below.and Dh_ for p 3 _ and pn_.

W i t h a feminine noun. aa is used rather than aa : " a t that hour (moment)" or " i n t h e same h o u r ( m o m e n t ) " (Dan.) their animals (fem. This usage is frequent in expressions of t i m e : " a t t h a t t i m e " or " a t t h e same t i m e " (Ezra 5 : 3 . for. etc. but other genitive relationships can also be expressed in this way.) their animals (masc.] you [masc. b) relative pronoun: which. 3:6. 5:12). is their use in a demonstrative sense. etc. in Daniel"] ( D a n . The retrospective pronominal suffix is often found in a relative clause introduced by t o indicate case: nistpa nVehT'a '•n bxn&r nVxl? " t o t h e G o d of Israel wAoje abode is at Jerusalem" [lit. Uses of the Pronominal Suffixes: (A) They are most commonly used with nouns t o denote possession. " H i s servants" of t h e G o d of heaven"] (Ezra 5:11). sing. etc.pl. Vocabulary: 5. in order t h a t . c) conjunction: that. a phrase introduced by n which explains i t : ''riinjV is? X » a B > nVx-n " w e are t h e servants of the G o d of heaven" [lit. (C) (E) Closely related t o t h e usages of the suffixes discussed in B and D above. It anticipates.] son [singular only] (3) sons [used in t h e plural] (4) as — p i t .] you [masc. those [ m a s c ] pj^ — arilS — pBSK — 13 — p ^l — they.) their days (fem. D a n .pl. (B) They are attached directly t o prepositions. den (5) "•'I— a) sign of the genitive: of.). 8. as in BH. etc. because.) their days (masc. as it were. (D) The prospective pronominal suffix is common in BA.pl.) Feminine (continued) our animals pDnrn pnnrn ]nnvn your animals (masc.pl. etc. aiK-l fan — they.pl. pi. " w h o in Jerusalem His a b o d e " ] (Ezra 7:15). those [fem. with the meaning " t h a t " or " t h e s a m e " : Vxrina aa " i n that D a n i e l " or " i n the same Daniel" [lit. so t h a t . 4. "in him.14 Kj^ar tdsv fD 'ar ]in''ai'' Masculine (continued) o u r days [Kethib] o u r days [Qere] your days (masc.) The Qere forms of the suffixes on t h e masculine plural nouns are best explained as analogical extensions from those on the singular noun. .).pl. 3:7. that.

sky (4) X\T(^ pn-'ia pjx nan xninx aiVi (i) arnaxKpD-jnaiVBj? (2) Vsnr-V -la xin nwx (3) "niB^i"? Vpn Niqa an^ (4) K31 vmti aV^ 1 3 » niN (5) xaVa 'la pan loniK K »l ^Tjp _'^pjS (6) •Vi^iTa n. Jewish ]3(?a — abode (3) 6.15 ian — they [masc.i m e . xnia^ n x w a i ian pnix (7) (8) a-iaV X33t?^a wn x n a 1 3 1 (9) I-'PVX *f?^ pVpn a"? ari''a'? xa"-?!! a n n xiTsa (10) ana"? 1 3 1 3 T x n v as (11) . impose (a tax) heaven.] p a n — they [masc] ]3T — t o buy an^ — t o give nin^ — Jew. > year (4) (pael) to kill t na"! — o t h r o w . Exercises: Translate the following: women [plural] (10) servant (1) t n v . place.

" . sec. As a simple relative it means " w h o . The Pronoun •''i: Related t o t h e Arabic i ( " t h a t of" or "possessor o f " ) . Because it does n o t denote case. " etc. " "which. There is also one occurrence of t h e alternate fpH for fbVi. this must be expressed either by a subsequent word or by t h e context. " etc. The following demonstrative pronouns are always used adjectivally in BA: Masculine Singular rw that Common Singular P'l that Feminine Singular •q"! that Common Plural r\bvi those In addition t o these demonstrative pronouns in BA. 2 D ) . Demonstrative Pronouns: In BA t h e following demonstrative pronouns may also be used substantivally or adjectivally: Masculine Singular nn this Common Plural nVx (n)"?N pVx these these these Feminine Singular NT this N o t e t h e Kethib-Qere situation in the sole occurrence of bvi. it may be used with a retrospective pronominal suffix: ni?l?a D |?BhT3 n VxniT TibHb " t o t h e G o d of Israel wAoic abode is a t Jerusalem" (Ezra 7:15).16 LESSON IV OTHER PRONOUNS 1. it has a function both in t h e main clause and in t h e subordinate clause. As a compound relative. n^-nbe nniN -"l r]n'?K " y o u r G o d whom you serve [participle]" ( D a n . 4:32 [35])." "whatever. It can be used as a relative pronoun. the independent personal p r o n o u n s may be used as demonstratives (see III. 2. n T ? xnip?-''l xVl " a n d there is none who can stay His p o w e r " ( D a n . 6:17). " "whoever. " " h e w h o ." " t h a t . F o r example. and means " w h o . •'•'I is an uninflected form that has a variety of uses in BA." " w h a t .

" Vocabulary: this [fem. (these) m i 3 j — might T .] t h a t [fem. there is (are) these fVx — these those.that [com.this (is) [ m a s c ] 6. whose exact meaning must be gathered from the context (see the vocabulary. 4. but they may be formed by using the relative pronoun •"T followed by a pronominal suffix attached directly to the preposition "?: X-'n-n"? •'1 Krni3M xnaDn "wisdom and might are His" (Dan. sometimes alone. "house of G o d " ] (Ezra 6:5. " " t h e whole. Independent Possessive Pronouns: In BA there are no separate independent possessive pronouns.D » n n " w i t h one a n o t h e r " (Dan. it often has the force of a subordinate conjunction.] ^1that [masc] 1 ? 1 . Interrogative Pronouns: In BA there are two interrogative pronouns. there are other indefinite pronouns in BA: (A) The idea of " o n e a n o t h e r " is expressed in BA by the repetition of the demonstrative: n n . it means " a l l . In this last function it is usually compounded with ''l-'pi "whoever" or "whosoever.17 It can also be used to express the genitive (see the vocabulary." (3) Before a plural noun. Indefinite Pronouns: Besides the indefinite relative pronouns discussed above. (B) In BA the indefinite pronoun "73 or -Vs [from kull: see I G and I] is most frequently used adjectivally with the following meanings: (1) Before a determinate singular noun. it means "every. 2:43)." (2) Before an indeterminate singular noun. it means " a l l . It is also compounded with the preposition s : " w h e n . Lesson III): nnni ''T xn "?N "n''3 •'isa " t h e vessels of gold and silver of the T e m p l e " [liV.] n n . " " a s soon a s . The interrogative n a is also frequently compounded with various prepositions: n a ? " h o w ! " na"? "for what p u r p o s e ? " " w h y ? " and na-Vx? "wherefore?" " w h y ? " 5. 2:20).). Standing alone." " W h a t e v e r " is less frequently expressed in BA by either na or n alone. but usually as a compound (indefinite) relative pronoun." and •"ina "whatever. " XBppi 3. Lesson III). existence. -JO " w h o ? " and n a " w h a t ? " The interrogative pronoun is sometimes used as a relative. It is often found in compound conjunctions.

worship (God) VV3 •"I a"?N N i a . prevent.1*73 — when. stay 7.x n r n xaVa ani aaV xjaDnn a n (3) ]iaa nVri f x n a a xrisi "733 NNn-NT xVa X3"?a'apn (4) (e) • ^ j V snniai n NB"?? s i a . Exercises: Translate the following: p — n-ja — na-"7» — nVe — who? whoever why ? wherefore ? t o serve.N W N (5) x n a s (7) Nia N»a»"!n an p i 'rxy'r (9) •jx N n n p a axa »3"IH! fIBB^JP ••ri''N (10) .| a i aa fB^Tj? f aVx-nn (i) '•aVi? ufs nsx^pVa aattf-n "7N«3^ xjai?* aVx nV? (2) Niaa*? a n xixai s i . as soon as ]«a — vessel (4) xna — (pael) t o check.

Other conjugations (not o n the above chart) will be discussed in subsequent chapters. the verbal system of BA is basically similar t o that of B H . (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vpp. t h e Imperfect.g. Pual) d o n o t occur in BA. and the Participle(s). or occur only extremely infrequently. t h e Imperative. however. I n spite of these differences.19 LESSON V T H E VERBAL S Y S T E M : T H E P E R F E C T 1. 2. Development of the Conjugations: T h e development of t h e original Proto-Semitic conjugations into their BA forms is generally considered t o have occurred as follows: Peal: [Stative] Pael: •Vpp>Vpp (see I A and •'7Bp> Vpp (see I A and (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > "rpp. Others found in B H (e. B). •'?ppn> 'rppn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vppn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of t h e imperfect to t h e perfect) > "pppg (see I H ) . Active Simple System "Intensive" System Causative System Peal [Stative Pael Haphel Aphel Shaphel Voj? "rppj Vpp. (analogical extension of t h e characteristic vowel of t h e imperfect to t h e perfect) > "7Bp_ (see I H ) . btJjrn "jajptf: VppE* Peil Passive V^'Op.pn In BA most of the conjugations have the Perfect. Haphel: Aphel: *'?pp> "?pp (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > Vsp. the Infinitive. •'?BpN> VpjPX (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > VppjN (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect) > VpplS. Niphal. The Conjugations: In the verbal system of BA are found some conjugations which are either n o t used in BH. Reflexive Hithpeel Hithpaal H o p h a l Vppn Hishtaphal Vppritfri Vppnn Vpp. B). .

t h e r may partially assimilate to a D. " The characteristic vowel of the imperfect of the stative verbs is usually a: Vf^b". " The Hishtaphal furnishes a good example of metathesis and it also occurs normally in t h e Hithpeel and Hithpaal of roots beginning with sibilants. rather t h a n using the earlier bvt or t h e later VDJ? of BH grammarians. " b u t BH a^. This transposition is usually called " m e t a t h e s i s . In BA. tip'." although the usual non-stative u also occurs. " h e will be clothed. these are distinguished from the active forms in t h e simple conjugation. H o p h a l : *VBi?n > Vppn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > bppn (seeIG). However. Stative Forms: I n BA. However. 3. but simply the use of the Peal Passive Participle as a finite verb with personal endings added to it). there occurs in certain of the derived conjugations the transposition of a n with a succeeding sibilant. Conjugation of the Perfect: I n BA most grammarians have found it convenient t o use ana for t h e paradigms. a p p r o a c h . If the sibilant is s . in BA they are restricted to the qatil type in t h e perfect. the so-called "statives" (which are such in form a t least) d o n o t necessarily present uniform correspondence between BA and B H (or other Semitic languages) as t o this characteristic vowel in t h e perfect: BA an^ " t o s i t .'' Hithpeel: •Vopnri > Vppnn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > VBpnn (see I A and B) > Vpjrnn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect) > 'jBpnn (see I H ) .20 •Vpj?^ > "rpj?^ (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > bppv (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect t o the perfect). " anpj " t o draw near. Peil: \>''0p (no original Proto-Semitic conjugation. and t h e i is doubled. H i t h p a a l : *b^p_r\rf > "?B|?nri (shift of accent and loss of final vowel). with no occurrences of the qatul type. If the sibilant is a T . T h e Peal Perfect of the regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows: Shaphel: . This qatil type occurs with either _ or _ in the final syllable (see I H ) : i j p " t o pay homage ( t o ) . as in BH. " h e will pay homage ( t o ) . Complete assimilation of n t o a following initial dental would also be expected in BA. Hishtaphal: bpppnn > Vop^nn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > '?pj?riir'n (metathesis of t and n). as in BH. " t o s i t . " These forms are called "stative" because they usually denote a state or condition. t h o u g h there are no certain occurrences. t h e assimilation is complete. " 4.

The same variant endings may be found in the derived conjugations.) Plural lana nana jinana Xiana they wrote they wrote you wrote we wrote 3 (masc. although you have known all t h i s " (Dan. the king of Babylon" (Ezra 5:12). Pluperfect: "la pBin i s n a w ? n x E p a i narji •'i snV^-n^a-n xjixa aVirnT'a " " T xVa^n " t h e vessels of gold and silver of the house of G o d which Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the Temple which is at Jerusalem" (Ezra 5:14). have not humbled your heart.) 3 (fem. Present: '^3 pirip.) 2 (masc. as in BH.) 3 (fem.) 1 (com. and hence it may be translated by several different English tenses. Examples of the most common uses of the perfect are listed below: (A) (B) (C) Historical perfect: Vaa-Tiba nsnaiai r a ian an^ " H e gave them into the power of Nebuchadnezzar. Uses of the Perfect: In BA.) 2 (masc.21 Singular Active ana nans nana nana he wrote she wrote you wrote I wrote Person 3 (masc. 7:27). pnVx rn'T''7 n S T njx "1 know t h a t the spirit of the holy gods is in y o u " (Dan.) 1 (com. Present perfect: njn-ba Vap'Va -qaaV ^btvT\ xV nsxB^'pa n n s nn?Nl n s T " b u t you. 5. his son.) lanj? nanj? iwanj? Niani? they approached they approached you approached we approached anp Stative he approached na"]i? she approached nanp nanj? you approached I approached The second person masculine singular also has the variant forms nnana and n a n a . O Belshazzar. Future: nsb T^TTi": Kjatp-Va ninn niaVa n sniani wpV^i nniaVai pi'Vy " a n d the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under all the heavens will be given t o t h e people of the saints of the Most H i g h " ( D a n . 5:22). t h e perfect can be used in a variety of relationships to the element of time. 4:6[9]). (D) (E) .

although ana — t o write a n a . because t o draw near. wear wVa — kingship.writing.22 6.since t o go out pDl — (haphel) to take (out) nip — to pay homage t o the Most High (4) before.'p->Va ribpi (6) xabs •?» pN nan (s) N. approach greatness (9) lan — dominion (4) (haphel and aphel) to humble. inscription (4) t B>aV — o be clothed w i t h . document. humiliate 7. Exercises: Translate the following: n^aniat (1) nn-jiaia nVa: (4) s. reign. Vocabulary: T-i^ — then because.air* nVx Kan snVH xifip (10) NBpai Nani Nian^ (3) Nynx'rsnan^ (5) N^N""?? fnVPi? (7) KVyn ]a ppi Nina (9) . kingdom (9) p-«-r? .

and He gives it to whomever He wishes'" (Dan. the imperfect is used ordinarily with a present or future meaning.' Present: au?^ N a s ^ V l ^ V i NB'JN maVaa N'Vv ti'Viy-n "until you know that the Most High is ruler [mighty] in the kingdom of men.) Plural Stative he will approach she will approach you will approach I will approach you will write I will write pana? they will write they will write 3 (masc. in both languages its use is not confined to these meanings only. 2:39). 4:22[25]).) 2 (masc. 3).) 2 (masc.) panpn they will approach they will approach you will approach we will approach aripK.) 3 (fem. E T C .i N . However. sec. panan you will write we will write The first person singular may also have the variant form 2. Some of the most common uses of the imperfect in BA are as follows: (A) (B) F u t u r e : s y . the stative verbs have a more frequently than u as this characteristic vowel (see V.23 LESSON VI T H E VERBAL SYSTEM: T H E I M P E R F E C T . as in BH. Uses of the Imperfect: In BA. However.) 1 (com. . T H E I N F I N I T I V E .) 3 (fem.) 1 (com.b a a tjVtt?n •'•7 "which will rule over the whole e a r t h " (Dan. L Conjugation of the Imperfect: The so-called "characteristic vowel" [the vowel after the second r o o t consonant] of the imperfect is usually u. The Peal Imperfect of the regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows: Singular Active he will write she will write anan anai? Person 3 (masc.

However. Cohortative (volitive ideas): saVs " " T U n"'3-ja |nw "give [it] from the king's treasury" [lit. The endings are short. and usually has •? as t h e sign of the direct object (see II. a!? ari'n. sec. sing. In t h e simple conjugation the infinitive is regularly distinguished by a preformative mem (the infinitives of the derived conjugations will be discussed subsequently).' nvn aa"?1 " a n d let the heart of an animal be given t o h i m " ( D a n . 4:17[20]). 3. "they will perish"]. " However. in these derived conjugations t h e ending n i . in a few instances there are occurrences of a Peal Infinitive in a weak verb without this preformative m e m : siaV " t o b u i l d " (Ezra 5:3.) (C) .) ana (masc. but does follow the feminine in having forms ending in r i . etc. The Imperative: In the simple conjugation the imperative has the same characteristic vowel as t h e imperfect (see above).. (D) Jussive. 1). " t h e house of the treasures of the king"] (Ezra 7:20).) "-ana (fem.pl. However." but occurs either with or without the attached w a w ] : N^DIPV xpa? nipni 1j?ni na"l 'T "which grew (up) and became strong and whose height reached t o the heavens" ( D a n . sec. 6).for t h e infinitive construct. presumably corresponding t o the jussive rather than t o the imperfect.is found on the infinitive construct forms t o which suflSxes are added.(see VIII. and thus BA does not have in this conjugation the distinction between the infinitive absolute and the infinitive construct found in BH. the BA infinitive follows closely its BH counterpart. in which the infinitives have the apparently feminine ending r i . 10:11) [some prefer here the rendering. Optative. However.24 Past: this use usually follows a perfect t o indicate simultaneous action [it has no relationship t o the BH "waw consecutive. the jussive of the third person masculine plural may be indicated in weak verbs by the elision of the final n u n : nax. 4:13[16]).sing. In usage. The Infinitive: In BA only one form of the infinitive is found in the Peal conjugation. Thus t h e Peal Infinitive of the regular (strong) verb is aripa " t o w r i t e . Occasionally this latter form of the infinitive occurring without a suflSx is used in place of t h e usual infinitive construct form ending in n_. 4. In most cases the form of the jussive is identical t o that of the imperfect.). " l e t them perish" (Jer. this distinction is maintained in the derived conjugations. The Peal Imperative forms occurring in BA are as follows (there is no attestation in BA of a feminine plural imperative): ana (masc. This ending is n o t a true feminine ending. The object of the infinitive may come either before or after the infinitive itself.

sing. The negative imperative is expressed by the use of "?s with the jussive (or with the ordinary imperfect if there is n o distinctly jussive form): n3inri"'?K V33 •'a-'Sn'? not destroy the wise men of Babylon" (Dan. as in BH. As a noun or adjective the participle is timeless. or often with the imperfect of n i n ) : X"TfXi "qb V. The participle is commonly used for the following: (A) F u t u r e : (alone.'n Vna " a r e you really a b l e ? " ( D a n . q&til. sing. 2:24). cannot be used with a negative.? nxifl^a ppVa-Vy " t h a t town from days of old has risen up against kings" (Ezra 4:19). The Participles: In BA. or with the perfect of 7\'\T\): NaVsJ n a i ' . They may be declined as any other noun or adjective. Vpj? mn xas Nin -n "whom he wished. this usage can be made emphatic by the addition of •'TpV. which appears with either _ or _ in the final syllable (see I H).sing. (B) Present: aV-nVs r\xm •'T -^Thv. with the context determining the specific point of time. Thus the use of the participle instead of'the imperfect is commonly found in all the Aramaic languages and dialects.) nsns The passive participle of the simple conjugation is the qatil type. "your G o d whom you serve" ( D a n . sing.p T]T Nnn.pl. Uses of the Active Participle: The most common verbal use of the participle in BA is t o express present time. The Peal Active Participle of the regular (strong) verb of BA is declined as follows: (3ri3)3ri3 (masc. pi.) psns ]3n3 (masc.) (fem. (C) .) f?'''^? jTriS (masc. and like its counterpart in BH. "(they) will drive you o u t " ] (Dan. The Peal Passive Participle of the regular (strong) verb of BA is declined as follows: TTO HTriS (masc. pi. as a verb. 5. 6:17). and it even filtered into post-Biblical Hebrew. Past: (alone. killed" (Dan. the active participle is used to express virtually all of the same points of time as the imperfect. 5:19). However.: "^''Trv.fi'A p i "and you will be driven ow/ from m a n k i n d " [lit. 4:29[32]).) (fem.) (fem.25 In BA the imperative has the normal uses found in BH. In BA the active participle of the simple conjugation is an adjective type. the participles are used both verbally and nominally.) (fem.) 6. 2:26). pi.

The object of the active verb is then actually the subject. but the impersonal or indefinite subject " t h e y " is n o t expressed by a separate pronoun (see above... Uses of the Passive Participle: In B A t h e passive participle is frequently used as a predicate adjective (sometimes as an adjective of quality). the participle is plural. saying" (usually both verbs are participles. sec. p a w i l S ? "they answered [peal perfect] and said" (Dan. The passive participle also may be used with the perfect of nin to express the pluperfect: n n Nin-n "which had been built" (Ezra 5:11). "let (them) make (it) known t o you"] (Ezra 7:24). examples A and D ) . 6.tribute"] (Ezra 4:13).. c f an^na ... (B) The active participle: when this type of passive is expressed by an active participle. 6:14[13]). " t o build this house of G o d " ] (Ezra 5:13). 2:12). will be paid" [hithpeel] (Ezra 4:20). (A) The finite verb: the use of a finite verb in the third person masculine plural is the most common method of expressing this type of passive: pinr . A study of the examples will clarify this peculiarity of BA grammar. The Copula: I n BA there are several ways in which the copula may be expressed. " a n d he commanded (them) t o destroy all the wise men of Babylon"] ( D a n . the impersonal subject " t h e y " can be either expressed (as in finite verbs) or implied (as in participles).. waV njT Nri"?N-rT'a "this house of God be built" [lit.. This circumlocution for the passive is much more frequent in BA than in BH. 8. Active Verb Forms With Passive Meanings: In BA a passive may be expressed by a sort of impersonal or indefinite subject with an active verb form. will be paid" [lit. niia "tribute . 2:22).. but with the infinitive it must of necessity be implied: V D V rrjainV *1BN1 Vaa ''a"'ari " a n d he commanded t h a t all the wise men of Babylon be destroyed" [lit. as " t h e y . but not necessarily so): naxi NaVa n?» " t h e king answered and said" ( D a n . nia "tribute . I t is most frequently expressed either by juxtaposition of the subject . "they will give . (C) 9. (E) Its use (is) very common in the expression "answered and s a i d " or "answered.26 (D) Jussive: fSl\r\1? Qbb^ " a n d let it be known to y o u " [lit. Occasionally it may be used t o express the active participle: N"iir is properly translated "dwelling" or "dwells" ( D a n . although a singular subject may occasionally be used. and the verb should be translated as a passive. 7. Usually. " with an active verb form... The infinitive: as mentioned above. the indefinite or impersonal subject is expressed (or implied) in the plural. 6:17[16]).

become strong N(W — (hithpaal) — — — — niO — — IIP — — an' — — — Npa — 11. it is allowed (4) nnip — to loosen.to desire. Also rather common is the use of a third person independent personal pronoun as a copula (see III. Exercises: Vaa wani ' a D n n VepaV l a x xaVa (i) xy'iK-'ja vbf: K'Vs (2) pnaja Nnr-ix nniai nDpn (3) N%i5> "?'na nav nin xas nirjai (4) xaqi n na^'T nniK Na^a laxi nia "?N»?T[ p i x (5) niD"? N a n a sn^a o n na*^ (e) ania ninri ra Ntoai Np'Vi? (7) Njaonn NNriT TipaV sa-'an Vna (8) xVea p a x xa^K-Va (9) Njaf aVx n-a-p saVa pTip? (10) . become great Dl-l — height (4) Pb^ — to rule. t h e Most High (10) njs? — to answer n a V . 2 B). like n a n . command treasure (1) to b e . Vocabulary: to perish (haphel) t o destroy. it may be expressed by using •'n'R (see XVI. In addition t o these methods of expressing the copula. communicate (hithpeel) t o be given. wish. tribute [also nn3a ](7) to reach. 6 B above). officer. exist mountain (4) to drive away (haphel) to make k n o w n . In such a case t h e statement is usually considered more emphatic than the other three methods of expressing the copula (cf sec. slay to say. a t t a i n . happen t o Translate the following: t o rise u p against — superior. highest. > t o dwell to be strong. sec. happen.t o grow ( u p ) . 4). be paid to be able tax. have power over B-'V^ — mighty. or by the use of some form of the verb nin.27 and predicate. come u p o n . 10. sec.

(2) the construct state. N o u n s with a doubled final consonant (which usually appears as a single consonant in the absolute s t a t e . qatal.28 LESSON VII CLASSES O F N O U N S 1. Obviously. Nouns with one changing vowel in the ultima and a single final consonant. (3) the emphatic state. A convenient system for this purpose is a ten-fold classification as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Segholate nouns. in the limited literature of BA all of these forms do not occur in the words chosen as examples. N o u n s ending in r i .and with unchanging vowels. It is t o be noted t h a t these so-called classes are not to be confused with the types of nouns. Nouns with unchanging vowels and a single final consonant. see I 4). qattal. The numbers of the above classes are the numbers found in parentheses after the nouns and adjectives in the vocabularies at the end of each lesson in this grammar. Non-segholate nouns with two changing vowels and a single final consonant. to set up such classes is simply a matter of convenience for the purpose of learning the inflections. state. However. Feminine nouns ending in H.. which indicate the way that nouns are formed from the triconsonantal roots (types such as qatl. but are restored from their occurrences in other words. and (5) with a heavy suffix. Feminine nouns ending in and i_. (10) N o u n s of unique formation. Systems of Classification: Any division of nouns and adjectives into classes is quite arbitrarv. 2.). etc. and pronominal suffix).and with changing vowels. . Feminine nouns ending in ri. because they are governed by the various phonetic laws given in Lesson I in their inflection (for number. Infiection of the First Nine Classes: For the sake of illustration one or more examples of the first nine classes will be shown in both singular and plural as follows: (1) the absolute s t a t e . (4) with a light suffix.

3. sg. sg. only those forms of the word which are actually found . sg. For the sake of clarity. sg. sg. Nouns of Unique Formation: Grouped together in this tenth class are various nouns (and adjectives) which have inflectional peculiarities that prevent them from being classified with t h e more regular classes of n o u n formation.] -ninn n n " t o build"] psprn -nvn pajni-n pann^N -nnn -niaVa 'niaVa N^ia [the Peal Active Participle of nnax max T: • xrinas xnnas snia-) Nnia'ja T : - niaT pannn paniaVa pan3a"7a niaVa niaVi? Nrii?'?? Note the application of the rule that the noanaa letters retain their spirant pronunciation after a vowel even when the vowel which caused it is dropped: pa^rn. This usage of both -'n and . pi. sg. pi.'n is also found in the plurals of this class. pi. heavy suff. pi.29 absolute (1) sg. sg. pi. sg. -ISO ISO construct emphatic xaVa T light suff. sg. isVa pilN T •• N-ini nrii Pis'? nna pa -Vp-a on nn pn aa 'aa nin nia "n J^rn nrn T •• san pn -an paan pa-an pan ai T^ xaa N»aa xnn -aa [plural with suff. paVa-n (see I 1). pi. (7) (8) (9) sg. sg. P?Va i?4 J- npp npp Tia*??? panpp p?9 There also occur the variant forms KVn •'V'Tl and psV'O. pi. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) sgpi. pi.

] •pE*! " w o m e n " (plural) pn-?*! [The singular does not occur in BA. (plural) -iTtl o r " d a y " has the [construct] plural mv besides the regular plural par •nja "colleague" (plural) nnija yinnija Npna "seat. there is a group of words which are regularly feminine in the singular [some do not occur in the singular in BA]. but masculine in the plural. (plural) NPin? n n j ? " t o w n " s r i n i ? .] 13*7 " m y r i a d " (plural) pan [a Kethib-Qere variation] t3^ " n a m e " aaB*. (masculine plural) pa"]ai (feminine plural) lanan xranan [These plurals are formed by reduplication.n u N . presumably it would be *nri3K. (plural) jiD-ria [This is probably an anomalous non-spirantization of the T\. not emphatic] niJ ni? *vri " v i s i o n " Nim -ITn m m .a T a J •N-a? " p r o p h e t " [emphatic state] nx 'ai." The n o u n xna " l o r d " can properly be included in Class 3 in spite of the peculiar appearance of t h e form (with suffix) -Kia [a Kethib-Qere variation].30 in BA will be listed.] • ' V y "highest. gift" (plural) ^ r .] " h o u s e " [the singular is like b'n in Class 1]. (plural) -"ja -niia lin-n *^i "interior. These include •nax " c u b i t " nax " n a t i o n " •nWH " w h e a t " *nia " w i n d o w " nV? " w o r d . m i d s t " xij [construct. (plural) . and thus _ is n o t pronounced as a qames hatuph. [emphatic state] B^K-) " h e a d " [the singular is Class 4 ] .«!a3 [Both occur with Kethib-Qere variations. t h r o n e " a-ipia.n n a x •qrinai? wn^3^? • n x " b r o t h e r " [presumably resembling 3N in the singular]. (plural) pB^Ni afi'^N*! [an apparent Hebraism] an " g r e a t " [the singular is Class 5 ] . (plural) rj-nx n!*iK " l i o n " (plural) x n i n x H^K "fire" [It is difficult to determine as to whether this is a simple feminine or possibly the emphatic state of the masculine tPX of Class 5. (plural) Njaas •nnp " g o v e r n o r " n n s . n a t i o n " [the singular is Class 5]. the Most H i g h " [emphatic state] N-Vs? [a Kethib-Qere variation] DV "people. m a t t e r " and "year. . (plural or collective singular) n n p .] "13 " s o n " ana. (plural) nnai^ Besides these. from a different root. •3N " f a t h e r " -nN -qiaN . (plural) x . The following list is not complete but represents the great majority of BA nouns having irregularities. with the exception of the supposed singular absolute state of t h e noun (this being indicated by an asterisk). (plural) pona naT33 "present.

5) T \ xa*^ — fire. 5) lord (3) n3T33 — present. pi. > fire-offering (10) ia — interior. Vocabulary: letter (8) ni? — window ( 7 .x. affair (7.31 4. 5) colleague (10) seat. gift (10) nns — governor (10) T V myriad. midst (10) nin — breast (6) im — apparition. matter. T • pi. 4) ntsin — 5. pi. pi. great multitude (10) nnjN — nx — brother (10) nax — nation ( 7 .ap xnai naraia xiiaxV xjpin ]nu « l p a ' n n n a» ann-'T n?*x-i xaVs xin (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) x-Vs? xn"?^ nniaia Vaa ma^aa papn? nniiai "rx-in do) . throne (10) word. appearance (10) wheat (7. Exercises: Translate the following: (1) "mnvib nx»3J anp n xnnaxa xriVp na-na xptt^ x-iaV pnVs pan ian "?aaa nin xnan xnaVa xo"ia xapinV pTPX 'nia'-ari •'itrj x»ax nns"? napri XB^ xiia ian. vision.

In these same conjugations there is sometimes a passive participle.- ana: an?N nanax an?n nan?n anana anpnp an?^ nan?^ anpB^a ana^p anaa anaa a-na In any of the second root consonants with an / vowel. but the / may as frequently be retained (see I H ) . which is just like the active. the Pael) anaa. a sere is frequently found.32 L E S S O N VIII T H E D E R I V E D ACTIVE C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. the Haphel Perfect an?n. Because the characteristic vowel in this position in Proto-Semitic is usually an a in the perfect. etc. changing the final vowel t o and adding the ending n-: (e. the Pael Perfect an?.> anaa. the infinitive also occurs with the usual orthographic variation of x_ for n_.g.. The infinitives of all the derived conjugations may be formed by taking the third person masculine singular of the perfect of the desired conjugation. Pass. 2).g. for the sake of convenience they are included in t h e diagram below: Peal Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Act. The characteristic vowel of the second root consonant of the imperfect of derived conjugations in Proto-Semitic is an /. the Pael) ana > an? > nan?. As might be expected. Part an? aria: ana aripa an? Stative Pael an? ariaan? nana anaa ana? Haphel anan an??- Aphel anax Shaphel ana?* an ?B*. the Pael) ana.. except that the final vowel is _ rather than _ : (e. In the derived active conjugations the active participle may be formed from the third person masculine singular of the imperfect by simply changing the yodh to a m e m : (e. Thus the stative nip " t o pay homage ( t o ) " . Principal Parts: Although not all of the following principal parts of the active conjugations occur in BA. Part. the appearance of an / vowel is generally regarded as an analogical extension from the imperfect (see Lesson V. .g.. sec.

A verb which has more than one subject may be either singular or plural (whether it precedes or whether it follows its subjects). and irregular. (7) Ayin W a w (including Ayin Yodh). (2) Ayin Laryngeal (including resh). it may be found either preceding or following either its subject o r its object. The names used for these irregular (weak) verbs in BA are generally the same as those used in BH. the Ayin letter. Regular and Irregular Verbs: In BA. all the so-called "irregular" classes of verbs are basically conjugated according t o the pattern of the regular verbs. (5) Pe Aleph.) 2 (masc. 3. and (10) verbs doubly weak (of all classes). (9) Geminate (or Ayin Ayin). In BA the verb may come in almost any position in the sentence.33 2. sing. (3) Lamedh Laryngeal (including resh). as in BH and other Semitic languages. These irregular verbs will be considered in subsequent lessons. As noted previously. The Pael: the Pael: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in Singular Perfect Imperfect Person 3 (masc.) -an? (fem. except where another phonetic development dominates them t o change the form slightly (see Lesson I).) 1 (com.) Perfect Plural Imperfect para- an? nari? nan? nan? anaana?i anari an ?N lana nan? pnana rianan an ?i wan? The Pael Infinitive is nana. T h e following classification of irregular (weak) verbs may be considered as inclusive: (1) Pe Laryngeal.) nana. (8) the so-called "Lamedh H e " (including Lamedh Aleph. and the Lamedh letter). or weak verbs. the Pe letter. pi. based on the original grammatical paradigm word VsD (the three root consonants of any verb being named in order. context alone determines whether the participle is active or passive]: . or strong verbs. the direct object may (or may not) be introduced by the preposition b.) The Pael Participles are [note that. and Lamedh Y o d h ) .) ian? (masc. All other verbs in BA are classified as regular (or strong) verbs. (const. except for the masculine singular. Lamedh Waw. I n other words. (4) Pe N u n . (6) Pe Yodh (including Pe Waw). (with suffix) nian? The Pael Imperative i s : ana ( m a s c sing. verbs are divided into regular. Actually.) 3 (fem.

) 3 (fem.) n a n a n . passive) (f.) 2 (masc.) lanan (masc. pi.) The Haphel Participles a r e : anana anana nanana (masc. active) ( m a s c sing. passive) (f.— second person masculine plural pVapn Infinitive — x '?Ba [note x for n] Participle—masculine plural (passive) pnsaa 4. sing. sing. active or passive) ]an?a (f.) Perfect lanan Imperfect awnanann ananri Imperfect panam nanan pnanan Nianan panann anpni nanan 3 ^|^^^t In the perfect there are also the variant forms nanan and nanan for the third person feminine singular and first person common singular respectively. The Haphel Imperative i s : anan (masc. sing. One example each of those forms which do occur is listed below for convenience: Perfect—third person masculine singular "jap [and VapJ — third person masculine plural iVaa Imperfect — third person masculine plural pVap. The Haphel Infinitive is n a n a n . sing. active or passive) As was true with the Pael. pi. (const. sg. sg. active) (masc. pi.) 1 (com. the Haphel likewise has only a few actual occurrences in the regular (strong) verbs of BA. active or passive) janana (f. active or passive) pariD!? (m. active or passive) panana (m. pi.) "-anan (fem. The Haphel: in the Haphel: Singular Perfect 3?sn rianan The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows Plural Person 3 (masc.34 ansa anaa nanaa (masc. One example of each of the forms occurring is listed below: . (with suflix) nianan. sing. active or passive) Only a few forms of the Pael paradigm as given above are actually found in any of the regular (strong) verbs of BA. pi.

and the Imperative of the Aphel can be formed uniformly by substituting an aleph for a he.) 1 (com.) 3 (fem. The Aphel: In BA. sing. the paradigm of the Perfect. Thus. active) (masc.35 Perfect—third person masculine singular (with suff. However. The Aphel Imperfect of the regular (strong) verbs is therefore given as follows: Singular Person an?: ari?n anan anax The Aphel Participles a r e : anaio anaa nanaa (masc. the Shaphel. . It is a Participle — masculine singular active: V-Bt^a [with the variant VsiPa].active or passive) panaa (m. pi.P'. Even so. passive) (f sg. and the Aphel is an aleph causative conjugation. The Shaphel: Far more rare in BA than either the Haphel or the Aphel is the shin causative. the Infinitive.) panpn ana? Plural In the regular (strong) verbs of BA.) — second-person masculine singular — third person masculine plural Imperfect Infinitive — third person masculine singular — nVsiPn cbtn nVst^n Itnn VpEJn'' npbpn Imperative — masculine singular 5. N o paradigms need be listed here. for the root VSE? appears elsewhere in the Haphel. active or passive) 3 (masc. the Haphel is a he causative conjugation. active or passive) l?n?9 (f. the example is somewhat doubtful.) 2 (masc. sing. for a universal rule for the formation of the Shaphel is to substitute a shin for the he of t h e Haphel. there is only one example of the Aphel (the Aphel occurs more frequently among the weak verbs). 6. The few occurrences of the Shaphel may be regarded as remnants of a n older conjugation. this is not true for the Imperfect and the Participles. rather than in the Aphel.

deliver (completely) DJ7B — 8.a " ? ^ ? aip. there are no examples of the Shaphel. finish. tie nsa — (divine) service -IB^D — interpretation (1) (pael) t o receive before (haphel) to irritate.(mighty) m a n . warrior if. perceive -dream (1) Exercises: Translate the following: ••D"Tp-p pVap. request. whether t i m e .36 In t h e regular (strong) verbs of BA. be on the point of. oVirn •qnV^ n-a ]nbs}? rj"? f an:ria""'i K?Kai (2) Niann K"? Nnnj?! "qVs s n a j xVpa^ D »p la-fe' i»a (3) aniiai "^"yv^b nnsaV -lax nV-na n V-n-naj p a i ^ i Vaa-q"?!? T . a ian an^ xjair^ aVs^ ao ann ne^Nii ^C!?? '•'HlI ""T '73p""?a (5) DV^ IV^JI x-'p-'Va D/'PI nm Vaa sna (e) NaVa> nynin'? xntt^pi nV-jnii jay • ' T xaVa-ia nsa Vs'jni (7) . advice. make m — angry (haphel) to complete. run great risk . turn (2) in — one nm — to see. report (1) now (pael) t o bind.ri 13121 patai paripr) 7\'^tp^ naVn jni sense. command. 7. (i) D"?Bh-i. Those occurrences in t h e weak classes of verbs will be considered in subsequent lessons. Vocabulary: behold! (pael) to stop nia — (hithpeel) to be built nya — to seek.I 3 J .

) 1 (com.) 2 (masc. Both of the passive conjugations. This would accord with the Hophal Imperfect of BH. have a very limited use in BA.) Peil wna Hophal lanan nanpn na^ipn (H)ria-n3 rianan na-na T .rather than the Haphel in retaining it. . Peil and Hophal. While there is no occurrence of a Hophal Imperfect in BA. It is possible that the few forms so labeled are remnants of such a conjugation which was at home in BA. T Plural Person 3 (masc. It is apparently nothing more nor less than the Peal Passive Participle to which finite endings have been added. Peil and Hophal.) 3 (fem. qatil. it would be expected t o follow the Aphel in dropping the n. pna-na Nja-na pnanan Nianan n?"'n? nanan It is frequently difficult to determine whether a-na is the masculine singular of the Peal Passive Participle or is the third person masculine singular of the Peil Perfect. This participle itself is an adjectival type. The Hophal is considered by some to be a Hebraism in BA. this is not certain. The Peil also occurs in Imperial Aramaic. 77ie Passive Conjugations: In BA there are two passive conjugations.37 LESSON IX T H E PASSIVE A N D R E F L E X I V E C O N J U G A T I O N S 1. For the sake of convenience in syntactic classification it may be assumed that when it is accompanied by a separate subject (either n o u n or pronoun).] The Perfect of the passive conjugations of the regular (strong) verb of BA is as follows: Perfect Singular Peil Hophal aron . and otherwise. However. it is the Peal Passive Participle. [Some have conjectured a Hophal Imperfect of nni in Ezra 6:5. which has been introduced into the verbal system and adapted for use as a passive participle. They occur only in the Perfect and n o t in all of its forms. it is the Peil Perfect.

) Perfect larann Imperfect panan? lanan? apann nanapn . 3. etc. One example each of those forms which are found is listed below (all are in the Perfect): Peil — • Hophal — third person masculine singular. Pael. 2)]: Singular Perfect ariann rariann Plural Imperfect araii: Person 3 (masc. It is important t o note that these "reflexive" conjugations may often have a true passive meaning. This n can be replaced by an K [cf Haphel and Aphel]. —a phenomenon occurring also in other Semitic languages. Hithpaal. for the sake of convenience they are included below: Hithpeel Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Participle a?3na Hithpaal ari??in arisnansnn Hishtaphal aripnfn anariifJn nanawn anariB^ N o t e t h a t in the imperfect the prefixed n is completely elided. and Shaphel. rather than being retained as in the Haphel. The Hithpeel: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in the Hithpeel [note that metathesis of n with a following sibilant regularly occurs in verbs with an initial sibilant (see V. thus occurs the Ithpeel for Hithpeel. there are the reflexive stems in t. Hithpeel. Although n o t all of the following principal parts of the reflexive conjugations occur in BA. as well as their expected reflexive meaning. In each case the n which precedes the n seems t o be an analogical extension of the initial consonant of the causative system. orbf third person feminine singular nV-tJj? second person masculine singular NpVpn [for nV'pri] third person masculine plural inD? [for W M ] third person feminine singular Wj?rn 2. sec. just as in the Aphel. and Hishtaphal. The Reflexive Conjugations: Corresponding t o the Peal.) 3 (fem.38 Only a few forms of either the Peil or the Hophal occur in any of the regular (strong) verbs of BA.

) Perfect lanann nanann pnanann Nianann Imperfect panan? l?naripanann anan? Imperfect anananann anann ananx The Hithpaal Infinitive is nanann. sing. sing.) lanann (masc.) -anann nanann is found for the third person nianann.) (fem. The Hithpaal: in the Hithpaal: Singular Perfect anann nanann nanann nanann The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows Plural Person 3 (masc.) lanann The Hithpeel Participles a r e : anara nanana (masc. pi.) 3 (fem.) nanann.) -anann (fem.) 2 (masc. (withsuffix) nianann. (withsuffix) (fem. (const.) pnanpriri wanann Plural pansnn anani In the perfect the variant form feminine singular.) nanann. (const.39 Singular nansnn napsnn ansrir) ananK 2 (masc. pi. The Hithpeel Imperative is: anann (masc.) The Hlthpee'Infinitive is n a n a M . sing. sing.) 1 (com. only a few of the above forms are actually found in the regular (strong) verbs of BA.) (fem.) Once again. pi. sing. pi.) 1 (com. sing.riP paniPn [note the metathesis] 4.) panana ]anana (masc. One example of each of the forms which do occur is listed below: Perfect Imperfect Infinitive Participle — second person masculine plural pniantn [a Kethib-Qere variation—possibly pniam — or a Hithpaal] — third person feminine singular — nVopnn — masculine plural pVPp. (masc.) . The Hithpaal Imperative is: anann (masc.

) (fem. pass on t o n^tt? — t o send — (peil) t o be finished Vpn — (peil) t o be weighed ipn — (hophal) t o be reestablished wb^ xVi jqara nn. pi. These forms a r e : Participle — masculine singular V a n f e ^ a [note the metathesis] — masculine plural ppjana 5.) (fem. Exercises: Translate the following: xni-n nV-pp is n^piK n t n (i) (3) nan — (hithpeel) to be thrown — great. [adverb] very (4) Vafe — (hithpaal) t o consider paB> — (hithpeel) to be left. Vocabulary: — tree (4) m — decree. 7. like the Shaphel. much. command.) l???ria In the regular (strong) verbs of BA the only forms of the Hithpaal which occur are participles (there are other forms in the weak verbs).-? ]»a i » i n s .) f3?iana (masc.p i paVsj*? pantfn ao q h " ? xniaVai (9) pVDp.p i (2) xnVa nVanft^nV i i a i T n i iB^iann xnai nan V-pni •"nita n-aV asp? xa"?? nb<6 (4) n"?ppnn sVi nipnn •'nia^io-Vsi (5) N-a^ nani Nsnx xiia fr^ xa -an nm (6) (8) x p i ^ nVx " > n n "TIT ian nnni na»a n xas-Va (7) xnii-xia"p xann: xaVs"? lip^i b& x V . The Hishtaphal: The Hishtaphal. many.p n-r mm do) . and n o t at all in the regular (strong) verbs. sing. Rather than giving a reconstructed paradigm for the Hishtaphal. decide — (hithpaal) t o assemble B^a I B — fire (4) *ia» — the opposite bank (1) — (peil) t o be killed — (hithpeel) t o be killed — (hithpaal) t o be killed 6. sing.40 The Hithpaal Participles a r e : arisra nanana (masc.na x » B " > a r j i x a V a . occurs extremely rarely in BA.i . the actual occurrences will be discussed subsequently in connection with the class of weak verbs involved. order. pi. T law (4) — (hithpeel or hithpaal) to agree.

As a group. Obviously a laryngeal can occur in verbs t h a t have more than one weakness (e. Pe N u n and Lamedh Laryngeal. etc. A short / before this first consonant usually becomes a seghol (I F ) . rather than reconstructing hypothetical paradigms for the weak classes of verbs. in place of retaining its shewa].or fn^vn [here the laryngeal adopts t h e vowel of the prefix. Infinitive: t h e mem has _ instead of _ : i s s a . Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Aleph. t h e laryngeals and resh cannot be doubled. The laryngeals and resh prefer a vowels. A n original a is usually retained under this first consonant.) 13S? rinas nna?. Any statement as to the occurrences of verbsin this lesson.or _ : (sing. It is important t o note t h a t this lesson deals primarily with verbs t h a t are weak in one root consonant only.g. (plural) n 3 » Imperfect: t h e prefix retains t h e original _ instead of having _ [but becomes _ when t h e verb is also Lamedh H e ] : (plural) peVn. refers t o verbs with only one weak root consonant (and that a laryngeal). Laryngeal Verbs: In this lesson t h e three classes of laryngeal verbs will be discussed. A short a before this first consonant is usually retained (as in t h e Peal Imperfect). Pe Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong those verbs whose first consonant is r\> or ». 2. rather than being dissimilated t o an / (I E). The variations which d o occur are a result of some phonetic development that dominates them t o change t h e form slightly. In this and subsequent lessons. Such verbs that are doubly weak will be discussed subsequently. and n o t t o verbs which are doubly weak.41 LESSON X L A R Y N G E A L VERBS 1. etc. and there will be a listing of specific examples which actually occur in BA. (A) Peal: the above rules have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect: where the Pe letter of the regular verb has — or _ t h e laryngeal has . consideration will be given to underlying principles and phonetic rules applicable t o each class. they exhibit relatively minor irregularities from t h e pattern of the regular (strong) verb of BA. Usually t h e vocal shewa under this first consonant is composite (I M ) .).

n. Resh is included in this class primarily because it. Haphel (and Aphel): the development of the Haphel from the original Proto-Semitic to BA seems to have been more complicated.[and npyn-] Participle: (sing. the passive participle has _ for _ : (plural) pn-B^n (B) Pael: since the Pe letter of the regular (strong) verb uniformly has _ in the Pael and this is also what the laryngeals prefer. and Imperative: all occurrences happen to be regular (with the exception of a verb with verbal suffixes. Ayin Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong verbs whose second root consonant is N. (D) Passive conjugations: there are no occurrences of Peil or Hophal in verbs strictly Pe Laryngeal [occurrences in verbs doubly weak (Pe Laryngeal plus some other factor) will be discussed subsequently]. cannot be doubled. (C) (E) (F) 3. Perfect: (plural) y p m Imperfect: here the only occurrence is in the Aphel.) i:ivm H i t h p a a l : the same use of _ i s found in the regular verb as in the Pael. V or l . Infinitive. unusual with laryngeals. n. and is quite regular in form: (plural) yapni Participles: the actual occurrences of the participles in Pe Laryngeal verbs are quite regular in both the Haphel and the Aphel.42 Participles: the active participle is regular. cf I E]) > Jpnn (analogical extension of the characteristic vowel of the imperfect to the perfect) > ]pnn (short / before a laryngeal becomes a seghol [see I F ] ) > jDnn (insertion of a hateph [see I N]). having _^ where the regular verb has _ : Imperfect: ( s i n g . note especially that in compensation for the lack of doubling the preceding vowel may be lengthened under certain circumstances (see I 8). like the laryngeals. Besides the general rules for the laryngeals given above. ) n a r n . which will be considered in a later lesson). involving several phonetic rules: it appears to have taken place as follows: * 3 p r i n > ipnn (shift of accent and loss of final vowel) > ]pnn (the so-called " q a t q a t . Hithpeel: this is very similar to the Peal. the Pe Laryngeal verbs have no irregularities in the Pael. rather than the Haphel. . (A) Peal: the above rules for Ayin Laryngeal verbs have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect.q i t q a t " dissimilation [however. consequently t h e P e Laryngeal verbs have no irregularities in the Hithpaal. Imperfect.

only one form actually occurs as given below). Lamedh Laryngeal Verbs: T o this class belong verbs whose last consonant is n. and not a he t h a t is just one of the matres lectionis for t h e long vowel d — all of t h e latter verbs are included in the so-called " L a m e d h H e " class of verbs]. Also.) n*"^ . t h e plural is regular: (sing. indicated by a mappiq. Participle: here is the one instance of t h e vowel before a he being lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling (see I 8 ) : (sing. are formed regularly. (plural) f"T5?oa Haphel. t h e same as in the regular (strong) verb: (sing. and all of these occurrences happen t o be regular. (A) Peal: the above rules for Lamedh Laryngeal verbs have specific applications as follows [some examples are given as illustrations]: Perfect: because t h e regular (strong) verb has a p a t h a h before t h e last consonant. Imperfect: here there is found _ for _ before t h e last consonant.) "qna n ? 1 3 Imperfect: (sing.) nbl^.) (C) (D) Vnarta 4. so t h e preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling: (sing. or » (I J). the feminine active singular and both active plural participles have _ for _ : (plural) f VnS(B) Pael: as might be expected. a shewa before the last consonant is retained. Perfect: all the occurrences are with resh. Participles: the active singular has _ for _ . and this is w h a t t h e laryngeals also prefer. Hithpaal: as in the Pael. singular and plural. and Hithpeel: there are only a few forms of these conjugations which occur in verbs strictly Ayin Laryngeal. Peil. » or i [this a is a he proper.pass. (plural) pnbD: Infinitive: t h e Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in t h e Peal. with the inability of t h e laryngeal t o be doubled. t h e Lamedh Laryngeal class is regular in t h e Peal Perfect. (plural) pnVs the passive participle has t h e pathahi furtive: (sing.) "qiati.) anpn.) n'?B. (plural) pas?»Participles: (sing. a p a t h a h furtive appears after a heterogeneous long vowel (I K). the lack of doubling produces some irregularity (however. remember t h a t short vowels become pathah before final n.43 Participles: the masculine active singular and the passive participles. the Ayin Laryngeal verbs exhibit their greatest irregularities in the Pael (see 1 8). n. n. Besides the general rules above.

) nnai^. in BA there occurs a reflexive conjugation basically identical to (F) 5. Imperative: the same _ is found as in the perfect: (plural) i T i a Participles: because _ is found in the active participle for it becomes identical with the passive participle in form and the context must be used to differentiate between t h e m . (plural) nairni Infinitive: t h e Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in the Haphel.o r _ : (sing.) mtr\T). —second person masculine singular: easy to confuse with the above: nnariE ^a [the final n is n o t aspirantized]. H i t h p a a l : all occurrences of this conjugation in verbs strictly Lamedh Laryngeal are regular. 2). (plural) pnVsa (D) (E) Peil: t h e sole occurrence of this conjugation is quite regular.) i|?aInfinitive: the Lamedh Laryngeal infinitive is regular in the Pael.) nVsM. Perfect: (sing.) n ^ s n n n a ^ n [first person — for this peculiar formation see t h e discussion under the Hithpeel Perfect below]. Perfect: note that metathesis occurs quite regularly in case of an initial sibilant: (sing.) nariB 'n —third person feminine singular: in this class of verbs particularly. the plural participles are regular: (sing. the plural is regular: (sing.n [the latter appears in the form of a true laryngeal segholate]. Participles: the occurrences actually found in BA of the Lamedh Laryngeal class are in t h e Aphel rather than in the H a p h e l .) i B ^ D p n a e ' D (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the same occurrences of _ for _ and _ as found in the Pael are found in t h e Haphel.44 (B) Pael: here the preference of t h e laryngeals and resh for the a-vowel is regularly exhibited. Hithpeel: the same occurrence of _ for _ as found in the Pael is found in the Hithpeel. Perfect: here _ i s found for . and first person common] tend t o be formed somewhat on an analogy with a segholate [cf the Peal Imperfect of the Pe Laryngeal above ]na??ri > pnasn]: thus n i t a n n and nriar«?. the singular has _ for _ in the active participle (see the Pael Participles above). The Ithpeel Conjugation: As was mentioned previously (Lesson IX. (plural) i n a ^ Imperfect: the same _ is found as in the perfect: (sing. sec. second person masculine. . the formations with a n suflRx [third person feminine. (plural) inaiPn Njnatf^n Imperfect: (sing.

turned i n t o . and others are both Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal.45 the Hithpeel. be done (pael) t o interpret (haphel and aphel) t o (cause to) prosper. there is another analogical influence on the Ithpeel which apparently comes from the Hithpeel Imperfect. rather than with a n . as well as the form a n a n x . except it begins with an K in the Perfect. Extending this parallel into the perfect of the Ithpeel. 6.altar (3) • (pael) t o help. give t o eat 8. In either case. 7. The prefixes of the Hithpeel Imperfect all have _ except the x . application of all the above rules for laryngeals or resh involved in each individual verb is all that is needed. pass by jon — (haphel and aphel) t o occupy. make progress (pael) t o offer (pael) t o praise (haphel) t o find (hithpeel) t o be found ra-B^nxVaxB-iK-anj-Vai ( i ) aVifiTa •'•7 oanVN n-a ""r nna-ra-Vs ian anp^ni (2) TinV r-i»09 snVs-n x w a i jinaxn (3) . scatter Vna — (hithpaal) t o be frightened. However. > respect DBD — (pael) t o feed. Verbs Doubly Laryngeal: In BA there occur some verbs with two different laryngeals (or resh). Vocabulary: m a — (pael) t o disperse. possess a^n — t o consider. extended into the reflexives so that there is a form anariX corresponding to the form ansnn. Thus some verbs are both Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal. This appears to be on an analogy with the causatives. making it unnecessary t o list paradigms. aid (hithpeel) t o be m a d e . In the Lamedh Laryngeal verbs there is one occurrence of an Ithpeel: nnfanx corresponding t o nnfann [see above — Hithpeel]. break off »]"?n — t o pass (over). investigate •qna — (pael) t o bless nn — (hithpeel and ithpeel) t o be cut o u t . or consider specific examples. fare well. which has _ (the first person singular is a r i a n x ) . Exercises: Translate the following: nafa nas nir^B nVs anp nas^ natt> ny6 . the form a n a n x is found for the perfect. besides those with a laryngeal and another type of irregularity or weakness (which will be discussed subsequently). be perplexed npa — (pael) to seek. where the Haphel begins with a n and the Aphel with an x .

sri-iJK inpB^ni iip .ai ovp o-i? ""lai (5) aVa-n Niaa -nWi Tia!i "jnana x-ato sa'pa p-rx (e) xniaVa ]pt^i n -ni"??? psVa: piiv s ^aiNi (7) nna.^ xaVs •'n'?i na-ia x-Vs?'?'! (8) p»5?».i " ' ? ? (11) aiaa a-na-pi ana Vaaa nani|?ni (12) .•q'? pnina xai^vi (9) nxjai -"ari "ava pn^sai pia v.-nm"-] (10) aVs n-a"? nayn? Nwa l a s .

) Vp. Perfect: no irregularities are caused by the initial nun in the perfect.(imperfect) > ana (imperative) then p B .JW. sec. Participles: as in the perfect. (D) Peil: the initial nun is not assimilated. . Imperfect: although the characteristic vowel of the imperfect is usually u (with a i n the stative verbs). (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the assimilation or non-assimilation of the nun seems to occur indiscriminately here also. the Pe N u n verbs exhibit a decided preference for an / (see Lesson VI.jriiri. or it may be assimilated. Naturally. Infinitive: the nun may be retained. (plural) pVpn pjrir Infinitive: the sole occurrence happens to be regular: ]n3!p Imperative: the nun is dropped completely: (plural) ips [apparently on an analogy with the imperfect and imperative of the regular verb: if nnp. and with an initial nun there is no irregularity. (A) Peal: the Pe Nun verbs exhibit more irregularities in the Peal than in the derived conjugations [possibly because there are more occurrences in the Peal]. so there are no irregularities. (B) Pael: the sole occurrence happens to be an infinitive. Participles: the nun may be retained. for the nun may also be retained. as innVsn. as in "jsa [an Aphel form]. 1). the nun is initial. especially in the Haphel. or it may be assimilated. no irregularities are caused by a nun that is initial (the first consonant in a word or syllable). the assimilation or non-assimilation of the nun seems to be indiscriminate: (sing. However. PE Y O D H . A N D PE A L E P H VERBS 1. Pe Nun Verbs: Most of the irregularities in this class of verbs occur because a nun at the end of a syllabic is often assimilated to the consonant beginning the following syllable. Perfect and Imperfect: those occurrences in verbs strictly Pe N u n are regular.> ps]. hence there are no irregularities in the Peil.47 LESSON XI PE N U N . even to a laryngeal (I 2). this is not universal.

In this connection it should be remembered that an initial waw becomes a yodh (see I 6). 4. b u t are distinguishable from each other only in the Haphel. Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh Laryngeal: Once again. Verbs Pe Nun and Ayin Laryngeal: All the phonetic rules of both classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs.) nnn [an Aphel form] Imperative: (sing) nns [an Aphel form] Participle: (plural) pnnna [a Haphel form] 3. with t h e initial consonant assimilated t o the second conson a n t (see above): (sing. The two main ones are (1) the possible assimilation of the nun.) ap. Haphel (and Aphel): t h e only verb with this kind of double weakness comes from t h e root nm. Irregularities occur when the yodh (or waw) comes a t the end of a syllable. Hithpaal: in the hithpaal conjugation the Pe letter never comes at the end of a syllable. and becomes part of t h e long vowel (as in B H ) : lami Perfect: quite regular: (sing. then those few occurrences of verbs in this class are amply explained. Pe Yodh Verbs {Including Pe Waw): These are really two distinct classes.48 (E) (F) Hithpeel: there are no occurrences in verbs strictly Pe N u n . hence no irregularities occur in the Pe N u n verbs. Imperfect: (sing. but the laryngeal cannot be doubled as a result of the assimilation.nVa? Imperfect: this is usually conjugated as though the verb belonged to the Pe N u n class. and (2) the impossibility of doubling the laryngeal (I 8). 2. in t h e Haphel (or Aphel) the nun is assimilated. (A) Peal: the only irregularities attested occur in the imperfect and the imperative. with one important exception. If it is noted t h a t a nun may (or may not) be assimilated. when the perfect occurs with the conjunction i. (A) (B) Peal and H o p h a l : the sole attested form in each of these conjugations happens t o be regular. Especially irregular are formations analogous t o the Pe N u n class where the initial consonant is assimilated [only apparently] to the following consonant. t h e yodh is elided as a consonant.) Va^Van [Qere: t h e K e t h i b form "raw and . because the laryngeal is a n. and that all short vowels become pathah before a final laryngeal (see I J). there is no lengthening of the vowel in compensation (see I 8). all the rules of both of these particular classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs.

) a p ^ Infinitive: (with an attached suffix) 'qniartt^ (etc. Perfect: (sing. Perfect: (sing. The Shaphel and Saphel Conjugations: As was noted previously. but no irregularities need have been expected anyway. and joins a preceding long vowel (see I P ) : (sing. which is cognate t o the B H aw. (A) Shaphel: the sole occurrence in the Pe Yodh verbs is more apparent than real. Haphel: here there is a distinction between true Pe Yodh verbs and those originally Pe W a w . and therefore is regular. and becomes in in the Haphel (see I D ) . for the Pe letter does not come a t the end of a syllable [for examples of Pe Yodh. t h e Shaphel (see Lesson V. unless preceded by the conjunction 1 (see above). see the verbs both Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal below]. in one instance. t h e occurrences are n o t common (see Lesson VIII. 2:10) are considered as Peals incorrectly written like Hophals. 6). not ar. All of the occurrences of the Shaphel in BA are closely related t o (if n o t borrowed from) t h e Shaphel of Accadian (common in that language). 1) as well as the Haphel and the Aphel. for it comes from the Accadian sUzubu — usezib.) a r * Imperfect: (sing. (B) (C) Pael: the sole occurrence (infinitive) of a verb strictly Pe Yodh is regular. sec.) anin Va-n Infinitive: nVa-n (D) Peil: this conjugation. t h e yodh is eliminated as a consonant instead.n"??. which has in instead of the regular im- perfect: third person feminine singular: nepin (F) Hithpeel and H i t h p a a l : there are no occurrences in verbs strictly Pe Yodh. there occurs a shin causative conjugation. others consider them t o be genuine examples of an old BA Huphal (Hophal) conjugation] however. the true Pe Yodh verbs become ••n in t h e Haphel (see I P).) Participle: (sing. the Shaphel of ezebu. (E) Hophal: there is only one occurrence.) apBto . (plural) pan. has a shewa under the initial consonant. sec.. 5.) aori Participles: all are regular: (sing. hence it can be listed in BA as a Pe Yodh only for convenience.49 the form V D V ( D a n . like the peal perfect. in the latter t h e yodh reverts t o its original waw.) "jD. However.

(plural) psnr .) an. (plural) pan-n? Participles: (sing.) s?:rin V71N.50 (B) Saphel: t h e one occurrence of a Saphel in BA is undoubtedly from an original Pe Waw conjugation (cf. Imperfect: the outstanding characteristic of the imperfect is its analogy to the Pe N u n class. instead of the usual ^ of the Shaphel.) an-^. Imperfect: (sing. More of the attested irregularities occur because of the laryngeal than because of the yodh (even if there is no Pael attested).) an-n. Participle: (plural) pVaioa 6. possibly reflects an Assyrian rather than a Babylonian pronunciation of the Accadian in this instance.in the Peal and Haphel conjugations. except when found with the conjunction i. for it comes from the Accadian subulu.) an Participle: the only irregularity is that the laryngeal takes a composite shewa: (sing. Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh Laryngeal: Most of the irregularities which occur in both the Pe Yodh class and in the Lamedh Laryngeal class occur in this class of doubly weak verbs. which is here shown by the actual presence of a nun (rather than by doubling the second consonant.—all irregularities that occur are on account of the laryngeal. (C) Hithpeel: the yodh causes no irregularities. and the infinitive does not occur. alternatively. This is true in spite of the fact that this class is limited in BA t o the root v i . (B) Peil: uniformly regular. (plural) ]-an. this nun could be considered as a resolution of that doubled second consonant (see I 3): (sing. (A) Peal: the perfect is quite regular. except when it occurs with the conjunction ^: (sing. T h e use of o. (plural) ian-i Imperative: this is conjugated as though it belonged to the Pe N u n class. (plural) ]-an::na (D) Ithpaal: the sole attested form is irregular because the laryngeal cannot be doubled and the preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the lack of doubling by the » (see I 8 b).nan-.) an-pa nan-iia. if it is maintained that the yodh is assimilated to the second consonant. Verbs Pe Yodh and Ayin Laryngeal: All the rules of both classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs. the Shaphel of {w)abdlu (even though in the Haphel of BA by is treated as a true Pe Yodh). (A) Peal: there are no occurrences in the imperfect or in the infinitive. Perfect: regular. as in verbs Pe Yodh only).an-nn. Perfect: (plural) lB»-nx 7. BH).— the initial consonant is dropped completely: (sing.

""VsN Participles: the active participles are all regular (there is no occurrence of the passive participle). and the vowel of the prefix is lengthened in compensation (see I 5): (sing.n a (C) Hophal: the sole attested form is also analogous t o t h e Pe W a w .) p-n Imperfect: the verb nan is analogous t o a Pe W a w : (sing. Perfect: (sing. and also in those places where having a Lamedh Laryngeal affects t h e vocalization.g. To compensate for this quiescence a t t h e end of a syllable.) VI Participles: (sing. and t h e Reflexive Conjugations: there are no occurrences in BA of these conjugations in the Pe Aleph class.51 Imperative: also analogous t o t h e Pe N u n class: (sing. Otherwise. (plural) I V I N Klbw Imperfect: the aleph quiesces.) p . Imperative: here is exhibited a variety of formations. . and all t h e forms are only irregular in accordance with the normal pattern for a Pe Waw Haphel. X-_ instead of t h e usual sere yodh ">—). Pe Aleph Verbs: In general t h e aleph quiesces whenever it does not have its own vowel. (A) Peal: the shewa under an initial aleph is usually a hateph pathah (see I M ) . However.) nainri. rather than the usual hateph pathah (see the doubly weak verb nax below): (sing. including a hateph seghol under t h e aleph. Peil. (plural) p s T j (passive) v .T [note the p a t h a h furtive] (B) Haphel: t h e occurrences in t h e Haphel show that was an original Pe Waw verb. (plural) n a x : [jussive] Infinitive: see the doubly weak verb naK below.) bo»r\. Perfect: the verb pN is analogous t o a Pe Y o d h : (sing. the preceding vowel is often lengthened (see I 5). the aleph was retained in writing by historical orthography (e.) -bjv.) r T .) nam (D) Pael. (B) Haphel: the Pe Aleph verbs have a formation analogous t o t h e Pe Yodh (and Pe Waw) class in the Haphel. the Pe Aleph class is very similar t o t h e Pe Laryngeal class (which see). 8. (plural) jnanInfinitive: nnain Participle: the sole occurrence is a passive participle: (sing. Perfect: (sing. there is apparently no reason why one verb is formed like a Pe Waw and another like a Pe Y o d h .) V T N . Other t h a n a possible early o r t h o graphic waw-yodh confusion.

) l a s . (plural) p-iax 11. n"iaN [as in the Pe Laryngeal verbs. This class of doubly weak verbs 10. bring. (plural) piaxri Infinitive: the aleph quiesces as usual. n n a x [for a discussion of the apparent segholate ending.) l a N . city (7) — (haphel and aphel) t o deposit — (haphel and aphel) to rescue. Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh Laryngeal: Only one verb is attested in BA. Translate the following: nVsra n-a laim Knrn iVax (i) ]na»n nas^V ap-". I t exhibits the weaknesses of the two classes respectively t o which it belongs. testimony (9) — t o rescue — — — • ^ ^ ^ jax — — — bT bT — (hophal) t o be destroyed to go (to or away) to eat (haphel) t o trust in earth (1) (haphel) t o bring (saphel) t o offer. town. Vocabulary: — (ithpaal) to take counsel together — (haphel) to settle. lay. deliver — witness. r[<m-b^'\ •^•'bv n nai (2) nV nppin nx-Jto naani nnVxa p'n Vs!n (3) .52 9. The Peal of nax is formed as follows: Perfect:the aleph takes the hateph p a t h a h and the laryngeal prefers the a-vowel: (sing. see the discussion of the hithpeel perfect of the Lamedh Laryngeal verbs in Lesson X ] . —first person. Verbs Pe Aleph and Ayin Laryngeal: does n o t happen t o be found in BA. the original _ is retained instead of _ (see the discussion of the peal perfect of the Pe Laryngeal verbs in Lesson X ) ] . cause to dwell — province.. and t h a t in the Peal. (plural) n a s Imperfect: the aleph quiesces: (sing.) l a x —third person feminine. > preserve — heap of stones (1) a?: — to be pleasing — (hophal) t o be added Exercises: annria nm b^ aw 12. but there is also an unusual orthographic variation where the aleph is not written: l a x a and l a a Imperative: the hateph seghol is found here instead of the usual hateph p a t h a h : (sing. the plural is regular: (sing.) i a ^ Participles: the laryngeal of the singular influences the preceding vowel.

10:11) nVx (Genesis 31:47) xnnrjto Tl^ (4) (5) (e) (?) (8) (9) (lo) K»aw ninn-]ai .53 Uniar^V Kn»'?ia •'»''3n Vb wv.nx pDt^ n nnpa ian anini ^Vx xjax Va-n xan xa"?? lax xiara wni xan xnVx n-a"? xninp nin-V xiVm D '?BhTa n s'^a-n? xjixa nnx-^jx nV •la^?1 x»nx?i xjatfa f n x n a y i "jsai arw? xini xynxa nax! nas? x^ x p n x i x-aB^-'T xjnVx oinV pnpxn nna (Jer.

Consequently. the regular perfect endings have been added. This weakness. Thus. and is therefore reduced t o a seghol. the usual reduction of the pretonic vowel to shewa in the prefixes of the imperfect and in the Haphel perfect. This long vowel (qames)in the perfect has the accent.54 LESSON XII H O L L O W VERBS 1. therefore it has been somewhat diflScult to determine which verbs are properly Ayin Waw and which are Ayin Yodh. it is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t in BA b o t h classes have qames in the perfect [which makes it convenient t o consider them together in one lesson. and to this long stem. However. they are most probably to be regarded as long vowels.g. It is probably best to consider the hollow verbs as basically biconsonantal. a term. the §ere in the first person singular does n o t have the accent. and DpJ. (A) Peal: the general rules given above have their application as follows: . B o t h classes also have another c o m m o n characteristic. I n b o t h BH and BA there is some confusion between forms written with waw and those written with yodh. Ayin Waw Verbs: As indicated above. Those verbs in which waw predominates in the imperfect are classed as Ayin Waw verbs and those verbs in which yodh predominates in the imperfect are classed as Ayin Y o d h verbs. Dp. and such verbs do not belong t o the " h o l l o w " verbs. The Ayin Waw verbs are verbs fundamentally biconsonantal with the i as a vowel predominating over the • « in the Peal imperfect. The Hollow Verbs: Ayin Waw verbs and Ayin Yodh verbs are also called " h o l l o w " verbs. verbs with waw as a co/uona/j/ for the Ayin letter d o n o t belong t o this class of verbs. Dip and np^. sec. in BA there is almost invariably the long variety of the stem (Dip and Dp). which is used to designate the " e m p t i n e s s " or "weakness" in the middle consonant of these two classes. is present only when the waw or yodh is a vowel. of course. In some verbs these letters in the middle position are true consonants. even if some forms are not written plene. 2)J. Very possibly this confusion of forms has resulted largely from an earlier orthographic waw-yodh confusion. Whereas in BH there is much fluctuation between the use of short and long varieties of difl'erently vocalized stems (e. borrowed from Arabic. or even to group t h e m together in one class (see Lesson VIII. 2.

55 Perfect: the perfect has the accented qames. becomes x.?] na-'pn.) D ^ n a [Haphel] a n a [Aphel] (D) Peil: see the Peil of the Ayin Yodh class below.Imperative: similar t o the imperfect. except for an apparently anomalous perfect of m"i: (sing. (E) Hophal: the preformative n has the reduced vowel _ . in the plural the x has a hateph pathah in the Kethib. and Hithpolel over Hithpael]. and becomes a hateph seghol: (sing.or _ . 3. (plural) paip. Perfect: the vowel under the preformative n or x is usually a hateph pathah (see I M ) . — one example each [unlike BH which has a preponderance of Polel over Piel.) mpi a w . occurrences of Pael and of Polel (which see below) are equal.) D p D"l n p o . (plural) ]•'a^tp [Kethib] pa'i? [Qere] Pael: with so few attested formations of this class in BA. The Polel and Hithpolel Conjugations: In BA there are only a few forms of these derived conjugations.) D x p . which are so common in BH among the . as in the Peal imperfect.) D'-p'. the prefix has _ or _ . Infinitive: here again appears a triconsonantal formation. the vowel of the preformative is _ : nitn Participles: the vowel of the preformative n is _ . usually the latter: (sing. (plural) l a p Imperfect: the pretonic vowel is reduced to shewa under the prefixes: (sing. in the third person feminine singular the vowel of the n is propretonic. Polal over Pual. being doubled (it is a yodh rather than the waw expected [cf. but the Qere reads i for x [even in the Ayin Waw class]: (sing. [Aphel] D''pri [Aphel] but rjipn [Aphel] and D 'pm [Haphel] Infinitive: this is formed as though the root were truly biconsonantal.) D''p.) -"aip Participles: in the hollow verbs the Peal active participle is a triconsonantal formation. Peal participles above]): na »p (C) Haphel (and Aphel): the pretonic vowel is reduced here. without the prefix: (sing.r! (and D-'pn) na-'px [Aphel-with suffix] napH na"'!?. Perfect: the only occurrences are both third person feminine singular (B) na''pri and napn (F) Hithpeel: see the Hithaphel (Hittaphel) conjugation below. in which the waw or yodh coming between _ and a full vowel. the Aphel. (plural) w p n Imperfect: in the singular the vowel of the preformative n is . without a preformative s has this _ under the a: (sing. the middle letter treated as a consonant.

so the aleph causative conjugation. which in turn is doubled. the o-vowel under the doubled taw is reduced to a shewa.) Dfena 5. the Hithaphel. the Aphel. The Hithaphel (Hittaphel) Conjugation: The so-called "Hithpeel" forms of hollow verbs are really Hithaphel forms. either _ or _ : Imperfect: (sing.) DDilD (B) Hithpolel: this conjugation parallels in meaning and usage either the Hithpeel or the Hithpaal of the regular (strong) verb. one an Ayin Waw verb. However. It must be noted. has a /-reflexive. the yodh of the Aphel seems t o dominate. yn and one an Ayin Yodh verb. Finally. these conjugations are formed in BA by the reduplication of the final root consonant. 1). their meaning is often the same as that of the /-reflexive of the Peal. has a /-reflexive. Just as the shin causative conjugation.) ptfi(B) Ayin Y o d h : conversely. the formations of the two classes are almost identical. and the vowel is Imperfect: (sing. the Shaphel. however. the Hithpeel. and are limited to the hollow verbs. Perfect: the sole occurrence is a perfect: (sing. the Hishtaphal (see Lesson V. As in BH.56 hollow verbs. the preformative x is assimilated by the n.) Dto r i n ^ (and ^aw) r a ^ Imperative: here (and in the imperfect) the true distinction between the two classes is readily apparent: (plural) la''?? . sec. oris. Thus they are often called "Hithpeel" verbs. these formations preserve the o-vowel. Ayin Yodh Verbs: Verbs of this class are far less frequent in BA than Ayin Waw verbs. but there is n o certain occurrence of the imperfect. As was mentioned previously. and the same general rules discussed above apply here. that although the verbs are to be explained as /-reflexive formations of the Aphel.) D ^ n ^ (plural) pafen? Participle: (sing.) riaainnr' 4. In BA there are two roots with a Hithaphel (Hittaphel) conjugation. so the Hithaphel appears as Hittaphel. (A) Polel: this conjugation parallels in meaning and usage the Pael of the regular (strong) verb. Perfect: the same as Ayin W a w : (sing. Participle: the sole occurrence is a participle: (sing. (A) Peal: in the Peal conjugation diflferences between Ayin Yodh and Ayin Waw verbs would be expected in the imperfect as well as the imperative. (A) Ayin Waw: whereas the preservation of the waw as an a-vowel might be expected here (see the Ayin Yodh forms below).

57 Participle: only t h e passive is attested, and possibly it is a third person masculine of t h e Peil perfect: (sing.) Peil: the occurrence of a w-vowel here is difficult t o explain; possibly it is a Hebraism (on an analogy with the Qal passive participle of B H ) ; possibly it is a result of an earlier orthographic waw-yodh confusion, later lost [this form is n o t plene, however], but preserved in oral tradition to Masoretic times. Perfect: (sing.) w^il) [see the Peal participle above] n a ^ [feminine]


6. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Hollow: It is difficult t o determine whether the sole example of this class of verbs is an Aphel from t h e r o o t Bin, or either a Peal or an Aphel from the root D T I . Because of the cognate Arabic t h e author prefers the root yn, and because of the p a t h a h under the prefix (with the variant qames), the author prefers t o consider it an Aphel [cf t h e Aphel form r\''PFi above]. Neither conclusion is by any means conclusive. The form i s : Imperfect: (plural) itjin; 7. Verbs Lamedh Laryngeal and Hollow: Those few hollow verbs which have a laryngeal as the Lamedh letter, do not happen t o have any additional irregularities because of the presence of the laryngeal in t h e attested forms. They all belong t o the Ayin Waw class of hollow verbs, and so can be considered in that section of this lesson and need no further discussion here. 8. Verbs Pe Nun and Hollow: As in the class above, it so happens t h a t the presence of a nun does not add t o the irregularities already present in the two classes of hollow verbs. In fact, since there is no strong consonant in t h e p o sition of the Ayin letter t o which t h e nun (as t h e Pe letter) can assimilate in the imperfect, the nun is retained. T h e only attested form is in t h e Peal, as follows: Imperfect: (sing.) niri 9. Vocabulary: •'P'IBX — a title of officials -DnonDN — a title of officials • . . • . r TT 1 •nsiN — an inhabitant of Uruk •'Vaa - Babylonian S i m — which is; that is Kjrn — judges; . [ t r a d i t . — a proper name] niT — (haphel) t o act presumptuously PT — (hithaphel) t o live ' . . . •. , s (on); subsist (on) _ (^p^ei) t o j o i n t o gether; (repair, lay, officials or inspect)

" " V ? * ? ? *—^

Kai3 — thus Dip — (hophal) to be set up

— t o flee *]10 — t o be fulfilled — (aphel) t o p u t an end to, annihilate —clerk; secretary; scribe (3) — Elamite Dip — (pael) t o set u p , establish Dip — (haphel and aphel) t o set u p , found, appoint, establish 10. Exercises: Ezra 4:8, 9.

— t o rise; be high, be haughty D l l — (aphel) t o raise; heighten D1-I — (polel) to praise; (exalt) D l l — (hithpolel) to rise up (against) D'tr — (hithaphel) t o be p u t ; > be made — an inhabitant of Susa; Susanian and also translate nVx D^N (i)


Translate the following sentences,

xnipa-Vs ptn^ aaai in

xaqii N s p ? \n'7NV raaiii nnnni ppaiinn xps? sia-Vsi (2) rtio'Ts Vs Dferin i s n s i a i i nsp snVa (3) yoba ipni yobia D'pri n"?x rniaj (4) na-pn x y i ^ Vvi rVpai r a n Hrm nim (5) ni xVi Vnann xVi \>«m bppnb avp na»pV sniaVa "Bp-in-Va i»»;nx (e)


LESSON XIII G E M I N A T E VERBS 1. Gemmate (or Ayin Ayin) Verbs: I n this class, where t h e Ayin letter and t h e Lamedh letter (second and third consonants) are alike, there is a combination of forms which can only be adequately explained by assuming that some are fundamentally biconsonantal while others are triconsonantal. In other words, sometimes there is either gemination of the identical consonants or some compensation for it, b u t elsewhere there is none. If t h e expected gemination or doubling of t h e Ayin letter (second consonant) does n o t occur, there is usually doubling of the Pe letter (first consonant), especially in t h e imperfect and other forms with preformatives. Or, where this cannot take place because of a laryngeal or resh, there is either a compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel or t h e resolving of t h e doubling by a n u n (see I 3). Peal: most of the occurrences in t h e Peal are with verbs t h a t have another weakness in addition t o being Geminate (see t h e classes of verbs b o t h Geminate and also laryngeal or Pe N u n below). Perfect: the sole attested form of t h e Peal perfect is plural where gemination could most easily be seen, b u t it does n o t occur; rather, t h e verb is formed like a member of t h e Ayin W a w class, and hence is probably fundamentally biconsonantal: (plural) Imperative: t h e sole attested form here is also plural, and it has gemination, hence is fundamentally triconsonantal: (plural) (B) Pael: t h e Pael is uniformly like t h e regular (strong) verb, (VVg, VVg^, VVaa, etc.) with one exception-the feminine singular participle, which appears as follows: nVVaa (C) Haphel (and Aphel): only one occurrence is attested as being formed regularly, t h e Aphel imperfect of t h e verb W e (which see below); otherwise, in compensation for t h e lack of doubling of t h e identical second and third consonants, t h e first consonant is doubled instead (unless it is a laryngeal; cf. t h e classes of verbs b o t h Geminate and also laryngeal below). Perfect: (sing.) rtpnn [feminine]; (plural) ip^g Imperfect: (sing.) p^n [Aphel], b u t also VV^Ji [a regular Aphel formation] (A)

see Lesson IX). Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Geminate: I n some of t h e conjugations. and both of t h e identical consonants (second and third) are retained. verbs of the Geminate class which also have a laryngeal for t h e Pe letter. and thus. and is formed by a reduplication of the final consonant. Imperfect: in BA the sole occurrence of the Hishtaphal conjugation in any class of verbs is in this class: (plural) pVVsnB^ 3. As a result. the only occurrences are as follows: Perfect: (sing. The sole occurrence of this conjugation in BA happens t o be with preformative x rather than n. by the Hithpoel conjugation (which see below). (A) Shaphel: in BA the Shaphel of t h e Geminate verbs is formed quite regularly. H o p h a l : see below t h e occurrences in the doubly weak verbs which are both Geminate and Pe Laryngeal. as well as its /-reflexive conjugation. I t comes from the root ontl. 3) is t h e Hithpoel. The Shaphel and Hishtaphal Conjugations: T h e Shaphel conjugation has already been considered (see Lesson VIII. sec. The Hithpoel (Ithpoel) Conjugation: Closely related t o the Hithpolel conjugation (see Lesson X I I . Hithpeel: this conjugation does n o t occur in this class of verbs in BA. contain .60 Participles: (sing).) Daintf^ 4. However. as though it were t h e Shaphel of t h e regular (strong) verb. properly speaking. its place is taken. t h e final formations of the Hithpolel and Hithpoel look the same. is an Ithpoel. 5). but the Hithpoel belongs to the Geminate class. The Hithpolel belongs t o the Ayin Waw (Ayin Yodh) class. sec. (plural) •\b'^yii Infinitive: nVV?B> (B) Hishtaphal: t h e Hishtaphal is formed regularly by adding the reflexive preformative hith. Hithpaal: this conjugation of the Geminate class of verbs is regularly formed like the Hithpaal of the regular (strong) verb (cf the Pael above). p^rnp [Haphel] np^ra and nplig [both Aphel] Peil: there is no occurrence of a Peil in the Geminate verbs in BA. In the Geminate class of verbs there occurs another example of the Shaphel conjugation. t h e Hishtaphal (for a discussion of the reflexive conjugations in general and of the Hishtaphal conjugation in particular. a n d so is subject t o the usual rules of metathesis as follows: Perfect: (sing. but t h e proper distinction can be made by referring t o the basic verb r o o t .) aVVai? [with suffix]. there is one important distinction. and Lesson X I . however. which in turn becomes Hishtaphal by metathesis.t o the Shaphel (Hithshaphal). (D) (E) (F) (G) 2.

and besides all this. thus t h e hypothetical Geminate formation snn becomes shn: (sing. Imperfect: in Geminate verbs the Peal imperfect would normally have the doubling of t h e first consonant as does t h e Haphel (see above. sec. In such cases the doubling is either resolved by a nun. that in the Peal. Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Geminate: It may be maintained t h a t the only root of this class which occurs in BA. the laryngeal does n o t double. thus the hypothetical Geminate formation *?»!] becomes bpiTi. Little wonder. 1).) VvnV? [Qere] nV^B [Kethib] Infinitive: ]na Participle: (plural) p V V [Qere] f"?!?¥ [Kethib] (B) Haphel: verbs Geminate only double the Pe letter in t h e Haphel. only t h e infinitive shows any difference from verbs that are simply Geminate without any other weakness. and thus there occurs an additional irregularity. but in this class. or even quadruply weak. is actually triply weak. (plural) iVsn (D) Hithpaal: like the Pael of verbs Geminate only. in this class. its second consonant (ayin) is a laryngeal. and is formed according t o t h e pattern of the regular (strong) verb. so the previous vowel is lengthened in compensation. Perfect: (sing.) y'ln . etc. » » i [§ade three—BH f S l ] . (A) Peal: because there are n o occurrences of the Peal imperfect in this class of doubly weak verbs. the verb is Geminate. the Hithpaal of this class of doubly weak verbs is quite regular. t h e laryngeal is usually t h e initial consonant. (A) Peal: the long o in the sole occurrence is generally considered as a Hebraism. 5. Perfect: (sing. but what would be expected in that class of verbs is what is actually found in this class of doubly weak verbs.) Vrn. then. However. in t h e Peal of this class. its third consonant (ayin) is a laryngeal. or the previous vowel is lengthened in compensation. which is also Pe Laryngeal as well as Geminate. the sole attested form has so many apparent irregularities. Perfect: (sing. t h e doubling is usually (but not always) resolved by a nun (see I 3).61 no additional irregularities because of the presence of the laryngeal. however. the resh is n o t doubled.) Vsin Infinitive: aVwn but also nVyn (C) H o p h a l : the Hophal does not occur in verbs Geminate only. Its first consonant (resh) cannot be doubled. hence. in those conjugations of the Geminate class which require doubling of t h e Pe letter (first consonant).

This Peal form i s : Perfect: (sing.^! p i g (e) KjaB> D V K D ^a pVVantt^ a!^Nj tqann •q-t x n n p (7) . I I . and as such. there is n o additional irregularity other than what normally occurs in verbs Geminate only (which see above).62 (B) Pael: the sole occurrence in the Pael of this class of verbs is a triconsonantal formation.— — 8. Therefore. and also translate Ezra 4:10. Participle: (sing. but rather both Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal. just as though the verb were not Geminate. xanni xep? vam NVne nnn? ipn pixai xaVs Vwn nn ^xVa (i) pan ]naV aVp 'ria Vaa ••a'-an aa VVa xaVa pix (2) K-ia nvr^ WV">N n l (3) (4) nrn VVtpn •'ninhn VVa^ Q V B ^ T V K j i r j a an V» vnni pnn I J T laVa rVx-Va ssnp-^n sVneai (5) n9ini?^Ni xaVa Va-'^a Vsn bv. > t o m a k e a nest difficult.) vvyi 6. Vocabulary: — foundation (5) — (hishtaphal) t o be finished n w 3 — and now — (pael) t o speak VVs — t o go in. enter bbv — (haphel) t o bring in — (hophal) t o be brought in — copy (1) — t o crush — (pael) t o crush — wall (4) D»8^ — (ithpoel) t o be appalled mi — t o cut d o w n nVi — (haphel) — — ]in — — Tp. honorable (4) (shaphel) t o finish Exercises: Translate t h e following sentences. t o take i n t o exile t o crush (haphel and aphel) t o crush t o show mercy (to) (aphel) t o seek shade. Verbs Pe Nun and Geminate: I n BA the sole attested form of this class occurs in the Peal perfect. the n u n is the initial consonant.) n i ? 7.

Therefore. namely those whose final consonant was originally either N. it is possible t o trace the changing course of the various formations of this class of verbs with some degree of probability. With these basic developments in mind. i. also w i t h t h e variant of final n for final x ] > 113 > 113 orthographic . In BA there is no trace remaining of the forms with final i. — rni or n x i a > M a or n x i a [the loss of final vowel] > n'la o r n'la [I 5] > n'la or m:i [I A ] 3 masc. pi. it occurred somewhere along the line of development].—^^33 or x i a > 13 [with t h e loss of intervocalic • > or x . sing. aa. or ''.] 2 masc. These all appear as final So the existing forms are t o be regarded as either final x or final • > formations. t h e n _ ending also has the orthographic variants n x _ and n X .']3 > n^]3 [I A ] 1 sing. — n.63 LESSON XIV L A M E D H H E VERBS L The Development of the Lamedh He Formations: The so-called "Lamedh H e " class of verbs is actually a mixture of three classes of verbs in BA. — n ^ S or rXJS > n i a [loss of intervocalic • > or x ] n i a > [I A . BA usually has the active a-vowel in all forms of the Peal perfect of this class. except in t h e first person singular. sing. which has the stative j-vowel. The greatest variations from the regular formations of the strong verb are exhibited in the Peal conjugation. became t h e long vowel a] > ja [I A ] > n}3 or X13 [the existing n or x being merely a mater lectionis for long d] 3 fem. Perfect: whereas BH has a constant mixing of the active a-vowel and the stative j-vowel in the formations of the Qal perfect of the Lamedh H e class. the two short vowels together. sing. will be disregarded in the outline of development below. 3 masc. it may be well to consider in some detail the probable development of the Lamedh H e verbs in the Peal conjugation [the change from the original non-aspirantized forms of the n O D n n letters to their aspirantized BA forms. —!p }3 or 1X13 > l i a [loss of intervocalic • > or x ] [I D ] > iia [ I ' A ] 1 p l u r a l — x i ^ i a > xi*ga [I P ] > x r i 3 [I A .

Imperative: in all of the Lamedh H e classes of verbs together.— i . is merely a mater lectionis] Peil: On the other hand. it should be noted that the x in the final position here is merely used as a mater lectionis. Infinitive: t h e regular BA formation •'Jaa> Niaa [I P . > -faT [I D ] 3 fem. Nia. sing. . The Derived Conjugations of the Lamedh He Class: In the perfect of the derived conjugations. hence.to yi.|?a^> "^iT [loss of final vowel] > niT [I P . or ''.) -"ig > •'13 > ""IS [ 1 A .pl. with 8 as a mater lectionis]. This is true regardless of whether the original r o o t was N. o r its orthographic variant n. or p x i a . 3 masc.|3ari > ^lan [loss of final vowel] > s i a n [I P] 3 masc. conjugation by conjugation. Active Participles: t h e masculine singular is formed with s . or long. the passive participle is n o t a qatil type (as in a'na). p i . [loss of intervocalic • > or K ] > p i a . (plural) v''3a or w i a > r i 3 [loss of intervocalic • > or s ] > Via > r i a [I A] 2. The derived conjugations will be considered below. there are only two Peal imperatives in the singular.) N?3 n. and these difier as to the use of or K (see below t h e class of verbs b o t h Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He and the class b o t h Pe N u n and Lamedh He). [loss of final vowel] > p n ? [I A] Jussive: the third person masculine plural of the jussive is without the final nun of the imperfect. with s as a mater lectionis] 3 fem. the • > appears as the final consonant.64 Imperfect: in E A the imperfect of the Lamedh He class has quite uniformly the characteristic a-vowel of t h e stative (see Lesson VI. [loss of final vowel] > •pi?. 1) [for the sake of convenience the change from the original prefix ya. all the others are formed with •>: (sing. with emphasis on actual occurrences in the Lamedh H e class of verbs. t h e infinitive also occurs w i t h o u t the mem. but is r a t h e r a qatal type: •'ia> N13 [ I P ] > N13 [I A : here t h e final N.ia. with the orthographic variants ""is and ""la].—. However. — i r i a ' or JINia: > fnT. 1. and is formed as follows: (sing.sing— .> p i a . On the other h a n d . (plural) p i a p n Passive Participles: in the Lamedh H e class of verbs.will be disregarded in the outline of development below.J3. the N appears regularly in the imperfect of the derived conjugations and in the other forms which are based on it. the Peil conjugation of the Lamedh He class of verbs is a qatil type (as in 3''ria). the first forms listed are not to be regarded as true Proto-Semitic]. sec. n'laa.

Perfect: (sing.) 'aa m a . (plural) jiantf*: iariET' Oussive] 3. (plural) iinpn'tn Imperfect: the verb mn substitutes "? for • » wherever the latter occurs in the personal prefixes of t h e imperfect.) niri (and xin) nin (and nirj) n^inn-'irj.) 'Vanri Imperfect: (sing. Perfect: (sing. sec. (plural) rac* Imperfect: (sing.) fQFtfy. Perfect: (sing. and also has _ instead of _ under the first consonant: (sing. Perfect: (sing.) xaipn' Infinitive: matt^n Participle: (sing.) Nltrna Hophal: in BA there is no attestation of the Hophal conjugation in the Lamedh He class of verbs. singular and plural. (plural) pannn Participle: (sing. 2). in one verb there is a most unusual development in the imperfect (which see). Perfect: (sing.) 'aa Participles: (sing. F o r t h e sake of illustration. the Peal will be discussed in full.65 (A) Pael: the endings found in the Peal are also found in the Pael. masculine .a??B. (plural) pVsa (B) Haphel: quite uniformly the same endings are found here as occur in the Pael. (C) (D) Hithpeel: again quite uniformly the same endings are found as in the Pael.) Na"i. (A) Peal: the endings of the Peal of the Lamedh H e verbs are found.) NV?nn. with but few changes in vocalization.) Imperfect: (sing. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs. however. and in addition there is usually a composite shewa under the laryngeal.) 'antPN [Qere] Imperfect: the imperfect also has a final n for the mater lectionis instead of N in one occurrence: (sing. in addition t o the irregularities of t h e Lamedh H e class. (plural) pacr Imperative: the sole occurrence has • > where K might be expected (cf the imperfect).) v^T. with the other conjugations which occur mentioned briefly.) N33na (E) Hithpaal (Ithpaal): once again the same endings are found as in the Pael [note the occurrence of metathesis].o? Niann. any of the irregularities of the Pe Laryngeal class may occur (see Lesson X.

and the other conjugations will be mentioned briefly.) N I ^ V (and nw^) Minn (and n i i l ? ) . Perfect: (sing. Verbs Ayin Laryngeal and Lamedh He: The phonetic rules of both classes involved apply in this class of doubly weak verbs. liprus): (sing. (B) Pael: the regular (strong) verb and the Pe Laryngeal class both use pathah under the Pe letter in the Pael. (plural) pilVl^wV Infinitive: Ntna Imperative: in the masculine singular of the Peal imperative of all Lamedh He verbs. etc. and the class of verbs b o t h Pe N u n and Lamedh He (which see below). the usual endings of the derived conjugations of the Lamedh He verbs..) Kjn As has been noted previously (see Lesson VI. mn is frequently used in BA as an auxiliary verb. with a seghol under the preformative n in the perfect. the use of V is now generally considered t o have been derived from the Accadian (cf Acc.) xsa? Infinitive: S»3B Participles: b o t h active and passive participles are just like those of the Lamedh H e class (and also occur with n for s as a mater lectionis). (A) Peal: practically all of the formations are identical to those of verbs Lamedh H e only. for there are only two occurrences.) n»a. so this class has no additional irregularities in the Pael compared to verbs Lamedh He only. has a formation with x: (sing. 6). with one exception as follows: Participle: the Aphel participle of rrn is completely anomalous (probably an e r r o r ) . it is impossible to tell whether final N or final • » is dominant.) «n.) xna (C) 4. Haphel (and Aphel): all the formations are quite normal. xaa^ W'sa . sec. if the K is considered as a mater lectionis. has the usual •<.) Ktn (and nay). Here also the Peal will be considered for the sake of illustration of these rules.66 and feminine. (plural) i »a Imperfect: (sing. a composite shewa under the laryngealin the imperfect. the form is written as a m o n o c o n s o n a n t a l : (sing. Both the perfect and imperfect of the Peal conjugation are thus used with the participles of other verbs. (plural) pfn Passive Participle: (sing. this classhas a formation with ' . (plural) iin (and iin) Active Participles: (sing. the sole other doubly weak verb of this class with the imperfect attested.

— toll. sec.). Hithpeel (Ithpeel): quite uniformly the same as in the attested formation of verbs Lamedh He only. the only other Peal imperative singular in any Lamedh H e class has the " > (see verbs both Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh He above). with xVa — (hithpeel) t o be (with) ma — (pael) t o appoint — rebellious (4) filled . The sole occurrence of the other root of this class is found in the Hithpeel perfect (third person masculine singular). > treasury.) nnsriN [Ithpeel] (C) 5. The root xiM invariably retains its s in those formations which have ^ or n in other classes of Lamedh H e verbs. tax (4) n. (A) Peal: the two occurrences of xtol in the Peal are as follows: Perfect: (sing. beside. cannot be doubled. t h e previous vowel may or may not be lengthened in accordance with the rules given in I 8 (e.) nxfeino 6. there are only two attested roots. t h e Pael of this class is almost identical to the Pael of verbs Lamedh H e only. Perfect: in this class of verbs occurs the only attested third person feminine singular perfect of any of the classes of Lamedh H e verbs. This is true of both the simple and the derived conjugations. being a laryngeal. with few formations.) xfel Imperative: it is impossible t o tell if this form is normative in the use of x (on analogy with the imperfect).n —• t o live rrn — (aphel) t o let live. it is listed here as follows: (sing.— (ithpeel) t o be distressed — near. because of its paradigmatic importance.) xto (B) Hithpaal: the x is retained in the feminine participle. xna. and is formed just as verbs Lamedh H e only. Vocabulary: DhBX — store-house.g. where all other Lamedh H e classes have the Participle: (sing. [eventually? positively?] — t o come B^xa — b a d (4) nVa — (pael) t o wear o u t iVa .tax (10) ^Vr. Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs. t h e nun is here dropped completely (cf Lesson X I . in other respects. 1): (sing.67 (B) Pael and Hithpaal: in these conjugations the Ayin letter. restore t o life m a . and in compensation.

13. lift u p carry away. ( i ) NniaVa •-B^N"! Naaa mn xas nirj-ni ma n n Nas mn-n.68 ptl — (haphel) t o damage X^—to take.i (2) n n •'ima Vnana niNr-ii^a i i a Vx^n n i x ' nnans (3) naan 'Vann Niqa aa"? p N a (4) NaVa n n 'jna^n Vx faV»V '^n xaVa bvm nax (5) Njaa? nVx"? 'Vsi '•nii^v ""i^ N?*?? nVa (e) . niB^ — (pael) to change. > violate niB* — (haphel) t o alter. Exercises: 4:12. Translate the following sentences and also translate Ezra xVai ypba •'^TpVi nni f i a t xjtfn. > violate niB* — (hithpaal and ithpaal) to be changed p"?p — t o go (come) u p nVs — (pael) t o pray 7.

Verbs Pe Aleph and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs. These unique formations are as follows: third person feminine singular perfect n^n^n (and the variant n^n^n). (A) Haphel (and Aphel): the only occurrences are two forms of the participle of n r . Both verbs follow the normal patterns of their respective classes (see Lesson XI). Verbs Pe Yodh and Lamedh He: In this class of doubly weak verbs are found only two verbs. and may even be omitted entirely.) Knina [Haphel] vrrta [Aphel] w n . This is n o t a H o p h a l . Participles: (sing.) nriN (and uriN). where it is merely a mater lectionis. t h e initial consonant follows the rules of t h e Pe Aleph class. The endings are all in accordance with the corresponding formations of the Lamedh H e class.n 2. (A) Peal: the aleph prefers t h e composite shewa.) "nrn. third person plural perfect r n ' n (and t h e variant rn'n). Perfect: (sing. sec. Perfect: (sing. The Haphel Passive Conjugation: In the class of verbs b o t h Pe Aleph and Lamedh He there occurs something unique in BA.69 L E S S O N XV O T H E R D O U B L Y W E A K A N D I R R E G U L A R VERBS 1. and the endings are all in accordance with t h e corresponding formations of the Lamedh He class. 3. In BA it is common t o find passive participles in the derived active conjugations (see Lesson VIII.n. as in t h e infinitive. and the Haphel (Aphel) is an original Pe Waw. sec. like verbs Pe Aleph only (see Lesson X I . b u t nowhere else are found other passive forms. 8).)nnx [active] ntX [passive] (B) Haphel: this conjugation is formed on an analogy with the Pe Yodh class. unless there was an early orthographic waw-yodh confusion. an obviously passive conjugation of the Haphel. there are only a few verbs in this doubly weak class. (plural) Infinitive: n. 1). The Shaphel is a true Pe Yodh. (plural) ins Infinitive: Nna KTa Imperative: (plural) i n x Participles: (sing. However.

However. Although t h e three verbs involved do n o t have identical second and third consonants. which. in verbs Ayin Laryngeal only. which seem rather t o belong t o " q V n as follows: (imperfect) •qn.) S'S'^ [Kethib] "Sl* [Qere] 4. although seemingly unrelated t o the casual observer. for t h e lamedh apparently disappears or is assimilated. The other three attested forms are quite regular. for t h e sake of completeness. the sole occurrence of the Hophal in this class of doubly weak verbs is here listed. it is somewhat curious that all three have V as either the second or the third consonant. this one is also related to the Accadian (susQ—usesi. 5. T h e three verbs will be considered individually below. but could be classified as a so-called " P s e u d o . and in compensation. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Ayin Laryngeal: There are very few attestations of verbs in this class of doubly weak verbs.G e m i n a t e " class of verbs. Pseudo-Geminate Verbs: In BA there are some verbs exhibiting irregularities.70 (B) Shaphel: like t h e other occurrences of this conjugation in BA (see Lesson X I . The result is t h e same. There are two other forms which have been traditionally attributed t o the hypothetical root '. sec. Perfect: t h e perfect of NS"' has a Kethib-Qere variation: (sing. and Lesson XIII. There is one occurrence of a composite shewa under t h e initial laryngeal in place of a simple shewa. 2). nevertheless can be grouped together under one common characteristic. In BA t h e r o o t •qVn is n o t used in t h e Peal perfect or Peal imperative. 5. In all cases the Ayin letter is resh rather t h a n being a true laryngeal.)in. but instead t h e r o o t VtK is used. there is no attestation of the Hophal conjugation. are analogous t o the corresponding formations of the Geminate class of verbs. and even fewer irregularities (some formations are identical t o their strong verb counterparts). t h e Shaphel of (w)asu). and three occurrences of a pathah before t h e final laryngeal instead of a sere or hireq (see Lesson X ) . for in the Pael and Hithpaal conjugations. Verbs Pe Laryngeal and Lamedh Laryngeal: There are very few verbs in this class of doubly weak verbs. more pronounced t h a n this behavior of the lamedh are their various analogies to the Geminate class. These verbs are n o t Geminate. these verbs might be termed the "Weak Lamedh" class. sec. and (infinitive) -qna. This characteristic is t h a t some of t h e formations of the verbs in question (though n o t all). It would be . However. the previous vowel is lengthened (see Lesson X). it cannot be doubled. In fact. It is the third person feminine singular perfect of a i n : nannn. 6. Therefore.

on the other hand. this seems t o differ from •ijVn in the Peal. Actually. imperative. jna. but formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. In BH these alternate formations are so widespread that most Hebrew grammarians postulate the existence of a root T)"?'. if it is assumed t h a t " q V ? ! is the root. only there it has some formations analogous t o t h e Pe Yodh (Pe Waw) class. and so n o t formed on an analogy with the Geminate class.there is frequently gemination or doubling in the first consonant. pVo. The Peal attestations are perfectly regular. t h e observations in the above paragraph apply. or participle) they would not have been formed on an analogy with the Geminate class. as follows: Perfect: (sing. especially in the imperfect a n d other forms with the preformatives (see Lesson X l l l . (plural) ip"?? Participle: (plural) ipbo On the surface. Presumably. Lesson XIII. pDVnp.) Ttpbo. H a d there occurred formations of rjVn in t h e perfect or participle. but n o t in the Peal. Instead. sec. •qVn is also Pe Laryngeal. Peal infinitive of ]in. 1). it should be noted that these occurrences are uniformly without a preformative. is considered by some authorities as incorrectly so written. exhibits formations analogous t o the Geminate class in the derived conjugations. The second verb. had there occurred forms of "^pn in the Peal without preformatives (perfect. 4). there is no comparable verb both Pe Laryngeal and Geminate in the Aphel conjugation with which to make an analogical comparison. but would have been formed regularly. On the other hand. However.If this emendation is correct. they prefer to revocalize it as a Pael participle. for the imperfect is precisely where the i or ^ would be found in these classes. It should be kept in mind that •qVn exhibits weakness in B H . -qVn is quite regular in the Pael conjugation. N o t e that both forms in question (imperfect and infinitive) have preformatives. as well as in BA. presumably they t o o would have . the participle f pVna. not omitted. and the n cannot be doubled.71 difficult to classify an imperfect of this formation as either an Ayin W a w or an Ayin Yodh verb. Rememberthat in the Geminate class. sec. The one occurrence of -qbri in the Aphel conjugation. the loss of the Ayinletter is explained. but this t o o could be considered to be on an analogy with the Geminate class. This accounts for the forms -qri' and 'sjrip (cf. If not. rather than analogous t o t h e Geminate class as in BA. for this class is also regularly formed in t h e Pael. Turning t o t h e derived conjugations.

Vao. The V is completely elided. or this doubling is resolved by a n u n (see I 3). the "? is assimilated to the previous consonant. Other Irregular Verbs: In addition to the verbs above. On t h e other hand.72 been regular (see above). and the third consonant (the last two being identical in true Geminate verbs). Without any attempt at classification. there are a few other verbs in BA that exhibit other minor irregularities in form or in usage. pVo does have preformatives. can be considered analogous to the Geminate class. it is n o t really wise t o set u p a so-called "class. the entire matter is doubtful. The form of the Poel in question here is as follows: Passive participle: (plural) pVaiOKi Perhaps with so few examples. they may well be called verbs of t h e "Pseudo-Geminate" class.) pon The third verb. it is undoubtedly a Poel. the initial consonant. the Poel conjugation is not to be confused with the Polel conjugation. it is difficult t o determine whether this is an isolated phenomenon. in order. However. and in compensation the initial consonant is doubled. 7. it t o o might have been formed o n an analogy with t h e Geminate class. Stated another way." But with these verbs exhibiting some tendencies to formations analogous with the Geminate class. The formation in question is as follows: rriB^N. The verb nntf has a prosthetic K in the Peal perfect. t h e final consonant being reduplicated. having present. Since the verb is attested only in the third person plural. This is n o t found in other forms of the Peal conjugation. And in BA. as in BH. 5). the Poel is strictly a Geminate class conjugation. sec. . had pbo occurred in the Peal imperfect or infinitive (and thus with a preformative). Although t h e two are identical in form. because its sole occurrence is in the Poel conjugation. and yet n o t being true Geminate verbs. Should the root actually prove to be Vao instead. or would normally occur in all forms of the Peal perfect. the second consonant. The writer prefers t o class this formation in question as a Saphel of t h e Pe Y o d h (Pe Waw) root (see Lesson X I . and invariably its formations are analogous t o the Geminate class. a holem (usually with waw). they are listed below individually. The attested forms are as follows: Haphel perfect: (plural) ipon Haphel infinitive: niroin [13] Hophal perfect: (sing. which is strictly from the " H o l l o w " class of verbs. In the derived conjugations.

and the participles. > reach (pael) t o walk about (aphel) to walk about (hophal) to be laid waste (haphel and aphel) to praise (shaphel) to finish. a parallel verb.a x'S'tih ( i ) nan •^iVnp nini Nnins aia bm-f? nia xaVa (2) Naa-p bm-i ppni x a r p npoinV nax bmib^ (3) pVaioa 'niniOi aVirn-'a NnV^-n'aV nx-a^ nana n^nmi (4) niiaa i^^J??^ T^l?*? ^"^^ "^l^ ^"V^ ^5) Naaxi NS7S nVtna NB^ni -nVnV inaa^i xsoai s a m 'iNa la vnu^N (e) rjn. the imperfect. heat fitting. Vocabulary: T-: T'JN — nns — n?n - ann — to light.] to g o . The complementary use of rjVn and VtX has already been discussed in the preceding section of this lesson. na nVgV xjina an x-iia nini n n nn. > be under obligation of loyalty nVa — salt (1) •?30 . 8. ^aa? oVipn''"? ^na"? 'niinai Vsnftr. and the participles. and ]ni being used in the imperfect and the infinitive.73 In its sole occurrence. becoming (4) revolt (4) (haphel) to bring record (book) (4) to go [tradit. Although the verb V a i occurs in the perfect. and also t r a n s l a t e Ezra 4:14.(poel) t o bring. 15. shame (7) to finish. is also used in the participles.p xas-Va n D»p o'lp 'aa (7) . the imperative.x a y . be finished nna^ — to drink 9. Vns. the Peal perfect of "ijo is found as nip instead of the expected i j p . > preserve "lip — to shut pVo — (haphel) t o take u p pVo — (hophal) to be lifted up n n s — nakedness. The use of a r r and ]n3 is completely complementary with an"' being used in the perfect. Exercises: Translate t h e following sentences. be finished nVp — to eat salt. lay.

They are n o t used in a reflexive sense. The forms of the verbal suffixes are basically the same (except the first person singular) as the pronominal suffixes on nouns. 2 E). Thus.) (following a consonant) Plural 1 (com. Formation of Suffixes on the Perfect: It can be maintained that most of the suffixes were added to forms resembling closely the Proto-Semitic. as follows: Person 1 (com.) T Singular (following a consonant) (following a vowel imperative) and with the 2 (masc. which forms. The one exception to this rule is that the suffix of the third person plural does not appear in BA.74 L E S S O N XVI VERBAL SUFFIXES: WITH THE PERFECT 1. .) T (following a consonant) (following a vowel) (following a consonant) 2 (masc. These may be added either to a finite form or to the infinitive. sec.) These suffixes may be modified slightly when attached to verbs of the Lamedh H e class.) (following a vowel) (following a consonant) (following a vowel) 3 (fem. Verbal Suffixes: In BA pronominal direct objects are usually expressed by suffixes. were modified according to the rules of BA phonology. in t u r n . the independent personal p r o n o u n is used (see Lesson III. 2. Instead.) (following a consonant) T 3 (masc.

Table of Suffixes on the Perfect: The following table is a complete list of attested forms in BA of pronominal suffixes on the perfect.N aphel aVVs^ shaphel ••nW peal -aiaipa haphel 3 (fem. Thus. in BA a greater extent of analogical formation must be postulated than in most of the other Semitic languages.) 2 (masc. (see I L). However.53 peal 1 (com. for it is almost impossible t o consider the attested form nVpp. in considering the entire picture. Obviously. for such conjugations do not have a direct object.) 3 (masc. Hence. suffixes will not be found on the passive or reflexive conjugations. 3. is illustrative of this type of analogical development.) 'nja peal anno peal anfe peal aa-i?a haphel apVtt^a haphel a»''f'. a result of Proto-Semitic qatala plus the Proto-Semitic third person masculine suffix hu. this basic assumption cannot be universally true.) 3 (plural) 'JlVan pael 2 (masc. It must have originated in noun forms and spread t o the verb. plural) xinsiia haphel wn'ria haphel . it is practically impossible t o formulate universal rules to cover the development of the attested forms.) •'iny'Tin haphel 1 (com.) nana peal aaVtf^a haphel an. Form of the Verb Suffix 1 (com. The suffix n-~.) ijyiin haphel r]pVB>n haphel 3 (masc. for example.75 the Proto-Semitic Vpj? plus the suffix •rj > "^Vtsp.

76 4. The Suffixes on 'rfN: Alone, •'n'S indicates existence, and means "there i s " or "there a r e " (see Lesson IV, sec. 6). With the negative it means "there is n o t " or "there are n o t . " However, when it is used with a sufiix, this does n o t hold true. In such a case, it is used as a copula (which, if found at all, is usually expressed by the third person independent p r o n o u n ; cf. Lesson III, sec. 2 B). As a copula, with the suffix usually expresses additional force or emphasis (see Lesson VI, sec. 6 B, and sec. 9). A complete listing of the occurrences in BA of •'n'tt with the various pronominal suffixes is given below as follows: •q;ri''N [Kethib] •!]n"'S [Qere] 'nTri"'N XJin-N [Kethib] Nir'N [Qere] pD'n-'N

5. 1Vocabulary: — — — — Van — — — — arm, force (4) hurry (9) injury; damage (8) (warned); > cautious (4) h u r t ; damage (4) a share in (4) rebellion (1) decree; official document (4) Translate Ezra 4:16-23. — (pael) to separate — word, decree (4) Nip — (peil) to be read; (be shouted) — to grow great — negligence (9) — welfare; [as a salutation] hail (4) — strong, mighty (4) TP?




LESSON XVII VERBAL S U F F I X E S : W I T H T H E I M P E R F E C T , T H E I N F I N I T I V E , E T C . 1. Formation of Suffixes on the Imperfect: In BA most of the attestations of the imperfect with a suffix occur in the so-called " E n e r g i c " form of the imperfect. In the singular the Energic imperfect of BA ends in -inn (the nn is reduced t o n when it is vowelless), and in the plural the Energic imperfect ends in -unn (sometimes written with a long m ). However, two examples are found of suffixes on forms other than the Energic imperfect (in b o t h cases, in the Pael conjugation). These two examples seem t o be attached t o the jussive forms of the imperfect (see Lesson VI, sec. 2). Some grammarians call the Energic imperfect the " L o n g " or " C o m p l e t e " imperfect, which is found only with suffixes. Then the " S h o r t " imperfect is that used in modal expressions. However the latter is usually identical in form with the ordinary imperfect, and is " s h o r t " in only a few forms. 2. Table of Suffixes on the Imperfect: The table below represents a complete listing of attested forms in BA of the pronominal suffixes on the imperfect.

Singular Form of the Verb Plural (all masc.) [the person of the verb is in brackets] [3] [3] [2] 'aVny pael ••asJ"Tin; haphel ""asJ-Tinn haphel


3 (masc.)

3 (fem.)

i (com.)

1 (com.)

'a>nT pael ••ain? pael -aviin; haphel

[2} •'aiSJ-Tinn haphel [2] 2 (masc.) pael •qiar^ shaphel [3] '•ainnn haphel ^iVfja; pael

78 Singular Suffix 3 (masc.) (3 fem.) Form of the Verb Plural (all masc.) 1 (com.) aJVlifiN haphel 3 (masc.) [the person of the verb is in brackets] [."] [3] [3] [3] 3 (fem.) auri; peal Tiivr pael 2 (masc. plural) aiBhTR peal aJjP.'iri aphel aaVna; pael nwVria; pael ana »tt; pael naitt^B^ pael

v^f?«0: peal pDjantJ; shaphel

3. Table of Suffixes on the Infinitive: When the suffixes are a d d c t o the Peal infinitive, the final short vowel is i u .;ed t o a shewa (see T A ) . In the derived conjugations, the suffixes a n ded t o the constru orm of the infinitive, ending in tV\— (see Lesson ^ i, sec. 3). T h e table below lists all of the forms attested in BA. Suffix Infinitive Suffix Inli.

1 (com. singular)

'inW'lin haphel '^S -iin haphel

3 (uusc.) si • ;ular

aiira ; .i a^asa peal

2 (masc. singular)

^frtSfin haphel •qniana haphel "^riViVp shaphel

aa-ifja pe^i ariVsa haphel ariaj??! haphel a n i a n ? shaphel

1 (com. plural)

Kiniajntf shaphel

Exercises: Translate Ezra 4 : 24. 5 : 1 . Suffixes on the Participle: In BA. plural) 1 (com.79 4. [plural] elders (4) VXB^ — t o ask. sg. as in other Semitic languages. stop building (4) squared (stones) (4) VnaKai wall (1) (hithpaal) to prophesy. deliver. The suffixes are added directly to the imperative.1 1 . The suffixes are added to the participle as they are added t o nouns. sg. as follows: Suffix Imperative (2 masc. > require 7ra — (pael) to begin ain — (haphel and aphel) t o give back. Vocabulary: exactly. Table of Suffixes on the Imperative: In BA there are only three occurrences of the imperative with suffixes. the participle can be used as a noun or as a verb. formerly (7) a(P — h o a r y . eagerly a title of officials wall. service (7) n a i p — former t i m e . toil.] W-ISON Voa to cease. administration. [tradit. " b e a m " ? ] n T a » — work."^ [Qere].si6? [Kethib]. . answer f n n n — two [fem.) ••niVan pael 5. 6. singular) Imperative (2 masc. The sole occurrence in BA has a KethibQere variation as follows: 'q. be discontinued. act as a prophet 7. without any helping vowel. "^v.) •'I'pSJn haphel ••linn haphel 3 (masc.

In addition. although many words so considered may actually go back to a common Proto-Semitic source. due recognition must be given to the rich heritage which that language possesses. and Persian proper names of persons and localities found in BA. it is possible to classify nouns according to the modifications (both consonantal and vocalic) which they undergo. With this background in mind. type. especially in recognizing the meanings that some of these types have. Since nouns in the various Semitic languages are generally triconsonantal. F o r the sake of illustration. participles. These cultural loan words occur more frequently in nouns than in verbs. Definition of Noun Types: Although the same word. Recognition of Noun Types: It is essential t h a t the student have some knowledge of the phonology of the language involved in order to recognize n o u n types (see Lesson I). a knowledge of other Semitic cognates of the word under discussion is quite helpful. .80 LESSON XVIII N O U N TYPES 1. adjectives. Borrowings from Accadian and Persian are most frequently connected with governmental or political administration. Borrowings from Greek are certain only in the field of music. it should be noted that this lesson dealing with n o u n types will be confined to those which are Semitic in origin (or at least have had a long history of Semitic usage). There are some advantages in classifying nouns in this maimer. In addition to the various Hebrew. Also it should be noted that no formal distinction will be made in the discussion between nouns. The greater the number of Semitic languages in which such cognates occur. having definite patterns of vocalization of the same basic root. or other noun formations. it may be well to use this designation for this particular feature. Careful distinction should be made between the Aramaic type and the Proto-Semitic type. a few noun types are listed below. although other possible occurrences have been suggested. The latter is the basic type. it abounds in other words from these and other languages. Accadian. 2. the more accurate can be the classification into n o u n types. Borrowings from Hebrew are especially frequent in relation to religion or other Jewish institutions. In considering the noun types of BA. is not employed by all grammarians to describe the distinction in formation of Semitic nouns.

the third column above). Example{s) niB>.81 Aramaic noun Vya -Ipp BT'Ti? Xia (owner) (book) (holy) (building) Aramaic type Vtsj? Vpp V'pp. in the fourth column. t h e basic type is listed without it.) noun is given. One or two BA words are listed as examples of the type in question. Conceivably. then the type is given. Vpp Proto-Semitic type Proto-Semitic noun qatl qitl qattil qatil ba'Iu sipru qaddishu baniyu The few nouns given above are merely random examples. In t h e first column the BA (or Hebrew or Accadian. any of t h e types below could have feminine nouns as well as masculine nouns. In t h e third column is given the basic Proto-Semitic type of the noun in question. where the Ugaritic forms are often identical with the so-called Proto-Semitic forms. Hence Vpp is the Aramaic type of npp. 3. and finally a common or general usage in BA (if any) is listed. Table of Noun Types Occurring in BA: The table below lists the basic Proto-Semitic types (cf.aN Type Biconsonantal Nouns qal qil Common Use{s) nxa . It should also be noted that some of these hypothetical Proto-Semitic forms are very similar to extant Arabic forms. this is the form usually meant by t h e term type. By definition. yet they may be considered rather certain due to their occurrence in Ugaritic. Although these forms are hypothetically reconstructed. but it has a pathah due t o the i (see 1 J). there is a reconstructed Proto-Semitic form of the noun in question. As a matter of fact. In t h e second column t h e basic consonants are used (VtJp from t h e standard paradigm) and the vocalization is that of t h e regular (or normal) Aramaic form of t h a t type. some of the types happen to have no other examples in BA except feminine nouns.etc. A similar procedure could be used for any Semitic language. and does not refer t o types strictly BA unless specifically so indicated. Finally. It actually makes no diflerence whether the feminine sufiix is present or not in BA.

nomen agentis) (the Pael infinitive of the strong verb) (the most common adjective type in BA) Nouns With More Than Three Consonants V a V a ]???1 "IBIDIP qalqal qatalal qataltal [reduplication of a biconsonantal stem] [reduplication of the final consonant of a triconsonantal stem] [reduplication of the final two consonants of a triconsonantal stem] . active participle of the strong verb {not a P-S type.82 Example{s) Type Common Use(s) Biconsonantal Nouns (continued) 30 T qal qil qui Geminate Nouns qall qill qull naxjaj Triconsonantal Nouns •7573 IBD "in? naVs T \ : qatl qitl qutl qatal qatil qital qutul qatal qatil qatul (abstract noun) (passive participle of Lamedh He Class (adjective) [doubtful. very likely a Hebrew loan word] (abstract noun) (adjective.3n3 Tin? ne*?! IBS n3r)? qutal qatal qatil qatol qattal qittul qattal qattil (adjective. passive participle of the strong verb) (feminine abstract noun) qitai trag DVS? T ari3.

sees. see I D ) . trace (2) — fortified place. Mede(s) nnp — to demolish ^ns . roll (7) M e d i a .g. yet inV- nVsa — scroll. 1 and 2. etc. decision (9) pri8^ — sixty Translate Ezra 5:12-17. and the feminine suffixes -ith and -Hth (see Lesson VII. . Nouns Formed With Prefixes nariDN nVron ]3BJa nan?^ inn 'aqtal haqtal miqtal shaqtal (the Aphel infinitive of the strong verb) (the Haphel infinitive of the strong verb) (the Peal infinitive of the strong verb) (the Shaphel infinitive of the strong verb) [a noun formed by adding prefix / t o the verbal root *dawara] Nouns Formed With Suffixes These suffixes include the suffix n u n (pia).breadth (4) will. but nan — to sacrifice nan — sacrifice (of slain animals) (1) — record (4) 5. Vocabulary: — place.. 4. DV. 6:1-3. Db~}n. Exercises: am — (peil) t o be given Chaldaean except. b u t . BA has a few other types involving diphthongs. the BA gentilic ending (""Vaa). In addition t o the above types. the ending holem with waw (iVa). etc. fortress nTa (7) npa — (hithpaal) t o be investigated m ? — yet.83 True quadriliterals include such words as rans. class 9). which will not be discussed here (e.

to the type stem. The emphatic state usually reveals clearly the Proto-Semitic type. 2. the former belongs to Class 1 and the latter to Class 2 (Lesson VII. qatl. i p p and i n i have identical formations in the singular of the absolute state. qitl. The term class. Confusion of Similar Noun Classes: In order to prevent confusion between nouns that have many similar forms. so the singular will be discussed in greater detail below. The absolute (also the construct) form is developed from the stem by the insertion of a secondary (helping) vowel between the two final consonants. F o r example. the former is a q i t l type and the latter a qatal type (Lesson XVIII. for the emphatic singular is formed by adding the BA determinate ending N_. This . For example. Nouns Belonging to Class 1: In this class are grouped all the nouns of the so-called "segholate" formation (the name is derived from the BH noun class. where the presence of the seghol is common). refers to the basic Proto-Semitic stem. 3). on the other hand. it is possible t h a t one noun class in BA may include two or even more types of nouns. However. 2 below). Being monosyllabic in formation. Because nouns having certain similarities in their modifications due to declension are rather arbitrarily grouped together in a class. In such cases the original noun type determines to which noun class the word in question belongs.84 LESSON X I X S I M I L A R N O U N CLASSES 1. is simply one of several groups so designated simply for convenience in learning the declension of BA nouns. The nouns of this class are of the three types. and the form of the same noun in BA may differ considerably from the original. Classes 1 and 2 of nouns (see Lesson Vll) may be rather easily confused. Class 1 of nouns includes all BA nouns belonging to three basic types (see sec. This vowel is usually an e written _. sec. but when a laryngeal or resh is present it becomes _ (see I J). Hence. sec. for they have several forms which are similar or even identical to each other. a clear distinction must be made between noun types (see Lesson XVIIl) and noun classes (see Lesson VII). 2).. The confusion between these two classes of nouns is largely confined to the singular rather than the plural. they are often called the nouns of shortest formation. The designation type. and qutl.

and so it becomes a shewa (see I L). In t h e absolute (also the construct) form. t h e emphatic state of nouns belonging t o Class 1 will indicate the noun type t o which they belong. This means t h a t though the roots of the singular and of the plural . as long as the student keeps in mind t h a t the plural stem of the "segholate" nouns is metaplastic. qutul. etymology is t h e only real solution t o the problem. however. but the pretonic vowel is reduced t o shewa. nni plus N _ > « n r i 3 > N"i?t3 [I L] > xnri? [i M] 4. Even this. qitul. in BA only forms with a in the final syllable occur with certainty. Here.85 secondary vowel attracts the accent t o it. for the latter resemble t h e former in t h e emphatic state as well as in the absolute state. VV? > "7»3 > Vra [I A ] . xVya l a y > nay > nay [I A and M ] . however. xipp 3. The development of these types of noun differs in the singular of the emphatic state. is pretonic. t h e results are quite uncertain. qatil. The plural of these nouns causes no particular difficulty. Even then. snay • i B p > -IDO [I J] > nap [I A ] . qitil. qatul. or an / changed to an a where necessary in the presence of a laryngeal). or n o cognates at all. if there are only a few cognates. F o r this reason. As a matter of fact. sec. qutil. however. xnni is formed exactly like sVya in the emphatic state singular. of nine possible types: qatal. 5. qatil (in BA all occurrences have a due to a final laryngeal or resh). Similar Noun Classes in the Plural: The above discussion has been confined to t h e singular. however. qutal. and qital (see Lesson XVIII. not the first. As was pointed o u t previously. However. A few examples will serve t o show this development. the accented second vowel is retained (either an original a. 3). Nouns Belonging to Class 2: The nouns grouped together in Class 2 are dissyllabic. A single example will suffice to illustrate these two main developments. Distinguishing Between Similar Noun Classes: When a form like -ipp is compared with one like nni it is easy t o see how they can be confused as to noun class. however. does n o t help in distinguishing between nouns of Class 1 and nouns of Class 2. the original types include qatal. F o r example. The student must become acquainted with t h e cognate forms in other Semitic languages in order t o be able t o distinguish correctly between these two classes. and the pretonic syllable is subsequently reduced t o shewa (see 1 A). the second vowel. qital. -in3> ini [I A ] .

refuse-heap. . This is true in B H as well as in B A : e. Consequently. •IBS — lamb (3) IDf — r a m (2) »)pT — t o impale ran — new *1Bn — wine (1) nntf^n — need (7) — w o r d . t h e stem of the plural is dissyllabic.g.g.expense (7) (haphel) t o bring near. ruin(s) (9) riches (2) nimi — incense (4) nw — (hithpeel) t o be pulled out np?? .86 contain t h e same three basic consonants. Vocabulary: 6. but the plural stem is malak. t h e singular stem is malk. sec. > offer p'llT — far (4) t o leave (behind) niVsj — burnt-offering (4) 7. 2). t h e singular stem is sipr. The stem of t h e singular is monosyllabic. order (3) «nB — (hithpeel) t o be impaled (on a stake) — (anointing) oil (1) tjail — layer (of stones or wood) (')iVii ... the stems are different types. the final forms of t h e plural of nouns belonging to Class 1 are indistinguishable from t h e plural of those belonging t o Class 2. Exercises: Translate Ezra 6:4-11. Likewise. but t h e plural stem is sipar. instead of mhar as it really is (see Lesson VII. ]i3*ini which is here treated as though its stem were nahr (on a n analogy with t h e segholates). the similar formation of t h e nouns of these two classes leads t o analogous forms when t h e suflBxes are a d d e d : e.

" A thousand t h o u s a n d " is ppVs fjVs [the M T has the Hebraism—final mem for final nun]. the numerals apparently masculine in form are used with feminine nouns. there is so-called "chiastic concord" in the numerals from three t o ten. as in B H . Uses of the Cardinal Numerals: In BA. The masculine numbers ending in n . Presumably the feminine pnnn also h a d a construct state formed analogously. ssnx ntf 37317 6 7 nnir^ nsaa* [120] p a w i nN!? [etc.000." " a myriad. Conversely." is used for 10. " T e n thousand times ten t h o u s a n d " is pan i3"i.87 LESSON X X THE NUMERALS 1. also have the apparently . The Cardinal Numerals: Although the limited a m o u n t of BA literature leaves many gaps in the attested forms of the numerical systems. The masculine number " t w o " occurs in the construct s t a t e : n n .in the absolute state.n n [etc.] 10 mfes? [12] n t o . 2. Masculine Feminine Common 1 2 3 4 nn p.] The word i 3 . the entire system of cardinal numerals can be reconstructed with some degree of certainty by analogy with those forms which do occur.n nnVn n»a"|S "in nVn T : 20 30 60 [62] 100 200 400 1000 nxa » 3 n « T I I - rn?^ nxa T . That means that the numerals which are apparently feminine in form (with the usual feminine ending n—) are used with masculine nouns.| " a large multitude. The table of numerals below will be confined t o the absolute state of numbers actually occurring in BA.

2:35). 3. I t is debatable whether or n o t other fractions actually occur in BA. T h e n u m b e r " o n e " is used as a noun. 3:19). 7:25). The Ordinal Numerals: I n BA t h e ordinal numbers (except "second") are formed with t h e same ending. either preceding or following t h e nouns they modify. nnn njp'Vn njva-i . •>_." "altogether. I t is used t o stress or emphasize t h e indetermination of a noun (see Lesson II. in such cases being used with the pronominal suffixes: jinriVri " t h e t h r e e of t h e m " ( D a n . It is also used t o express multiplication (see sec. as well as adjectivally: pma in " o n e of t h e m " or " t h e first of t h e m " ( D a n . 6:3[2]). The numbers are usually used with nouns adjectivally. It is used with t h e preposition D t o mean "together. 3). 3:23). " T h o u s a n d " also occurs in the emphatic state: NsVx. Also. sec. t h e n o u n is in t h e plural. The formula used t o express multiplication is as follows: nyat£>"nn "seven times" ( D a n . The formula used for indicating the day of the m o n t h is as follows: H T V nnVri DV " t h e third day of the month x " (Ezra 6:15). The standard formula used t o express t h e age of a person is as follows: prinni pna^ \<X0 1 3 ( 3 ) "(approximately) 62 years o l d " [lit. t h a t is used for gentilic nouns (see Lesson II. " T h o u s a n d " occurs in the construct s t a t e : The construct state of the numbers occurs only infrequently in BA. the numbers can be used with pronouns instead of nouns. Standard Numerical Formulas: The formula for dating events by the reign of a king employs t h e following p a t t e r n : niDVaV pr)"iri ny0 " t h e second year of the reign of x " (Ezra 4:24). 3). sec. 3 below). in t h e latter. Masculine first second third fourth pin -p-'Vn •'S'an Feminine ma-rp. "(as) a son of 62 ye'ars"] (DanV 6:i[5:31]). In t h e former case t h e noun is in the singular." or "completely": nitn? (Dan. The fraction "one-half" is indicated by t h e use of t h e noun SVB [lit. 4. " a division"] (Dan.88 feminine construct ending ri— in the construct state.

— he-goat (4) oatf^ — tribe (1) pa? — (pael) t o cause to dwell m — six — two [ m a s c ] 6. The apparent feminine construct ending ni_ on the number "second" is actually an adverbial ending: mi^in " a g a i n " or "for the second t i m e " (Dan. Vocabulary: T — exile (9) damage joy (7) — number (3) Van — (pael) to hurt. nnn nxpn — sin-offering naan — dedication (7) T : V nsna — prophecy. 2:7). division (of Levites) (8) Translate! Ezra 6:12-18. 5. sying (7) tS — goat (5) > prophe- niVs — division (of priests) (7) T B S — — — npVr"? — month (1) Levite (pael) to overthrow course. as well as the absolute state. Exercises: .89 The ordinal numbers occur in the emphatic state. destroy.

sg. pi.90 PARADIGMS 1. pi. 1 c. anann anann an^n^? panan. pa??. sg. anann anann ananx pappn. sg. pi. pi. ian?p. sg. pi. 3 f. ana. panann an?ni pa^an anai panan anaj papann anam panan anai panpnn anan? Infinitive anai? nana nan?D nanaK nanann nanann . 2 m. anan anan anas pan?. 3 f. 3 m . 3 f. anan anan anas anan. 2 m. 3 m. pi. Peal Pael Haphel Aphel Hithpeel Hithpaal ana nan? nana nana nana !iana nana pnana «??na nana lana nana pnana xiana anan nanpn panan nanan lanan nanan pnanan Nianan anps nanpK nanaN anann nanppn panpnn nappnn lanapn nanpnn anann nappnn nanann nanann lanann nanapn nanpx lanax nanpK pngnas pnanpnn pnananri xjanas xjawnn xjanpnn Imperfect 3 m. 2 m. 1 c. anan. 1 c. sg. sg. anan. pi. l???n? ana. anann anann ananx i V pana. 3 f. sg. The Regular (Strong) Verb: Perfect Person 3 m. 1 c. panpn. 2 m. ian?p. pi. sg. anan anan ana.

pi. f. m. m. sg. ana nana fana nanaa pnaa l?naa ananxj nanan!? r???n? lananp anaa nappa r?naa !?naa anana nanana rananp lanana anana nananip panana lanana )m a^na Passive Participle m. 1 c. etc.91 Imperative Person m. sg. 3 f. f. anaa anana anaa na^na pyna lyna [In t h e derived conjugations t h e feminine singular and b o t h t h e masculine and t h e feminine plural of the passive participle are the same as in t h e active participle. The Hishtaphal imperfect is an^ritt^. m. pi. pi. Peil a'na na'pa na'pa naTi la 'na na'na fina 'na sjyna Hophal anan ngnpn nanan nanan lana ^i nanan pnanari Shaphel ana^ nan?^ n?naB> Hishtaphal anane^ nanar«f?n nanantf^ nana^ lana^ nanaef pnana^ Kianat? nanant^ii ian?nfn nan?ni?^n pnanane^ mm The Shaphel imperfect is a r i a ^ .sg.] Perfect Person 3 m. 2 m. sg. f. 3 f. pi.pl. f. sg. sg. 2 m. sg.pl. 1 c. pi. sg. f. Peal ana '?na lana Pael ana "ana lana Haphel anan 'anan lanan Aphel anaN -anax Hithpeel anann "•anapn lanann Hithpaal anann ••anann lanann lanaK Active Participle [Reflexive Participle in Hithpeel and Hithpaal] m. sg. sg. 3 m. pi. etc. pi. .

sg. andPe Aleph Verbs: See Lesson XL Hollow Verbs: Ayin Waw and Ayin Yodh [for other forms see Lesson XII]. Pe Nun. Peal OR nap. Pe Yodh. Peal Haphel a'pn Polel nan Hithpolel nainpn etc. sg. 3. 4. etc. sg. 2 m. 2 m. sg. 3 m . p i . Laryngeal Verbs: See Lesson X . mp^? riaip. pa'ir pa'pai l»'pa: pa^yn pa'pqn a?™ m\ riaipn •ipi Infinitive °pa Dfea naain n^ai-inn njtnn . 2 m. sg. sg. sg. lav . etc. p i .q . 3 f. etc. «p. 3 m. 3 f.92 2. sg. 1 c. Dipn Dipn • t a'P-Ol D'pnn Q'pnn naiT oainn. pi. n!?P. 3 f. pi. Perfect Person 3 m. 3 f. p i . mp. 1 c. D-^jpn D'fen etc. 2 m. pi. 1 c. pL 1 c.nap pnipj? «3ap pnxj'pn Imperfect 3 m. na'pn na'pn etc. p i . naainnn etc. etc.

3 m. Wip Participles Active m. Hophal "?»n . sg. Peal t3ip pip < Peal Haphel D 'pri Polel nan Hithpolel Danpn etc. sg. etc. 2 m. m. sg. Hithaphel m etc. 2 m. Geminate Verbs: Or Ayin Ayin Verbs [for other forms see Lesson XIII]. 3 f. 1 c.\ Ithpoel Dain(?st etc. Perfect Person 3 m. Haphel Vwri etc. 5. sg. aanna etc. . m. na't? na'pna raT. sg. 1 c. 1 c. f sg. f. Imperfect 3 m. 2 m. sg. 3 f sg. sg. pi. pi. nVy etc. 3 f pi.\ nW etc.sg. etc.na Peal •?» Haphel pnn npnn etc.93 Imperative Person m. VS7K i"?» Ipnn Passive Active n-'pna nana etc. pi. p i . pnnn pnnn etc. iVin . P'pn la -pri etc. sg. f pi. sg. pi.

f-sg. f. pi. >?» nV» pVy pina npjna rpnna Vsina etc. Lamedh Waw.i Peal nn Pael -53 Haphel •"jan n!?an n-ian Hithpeel -lann n!)3ni:» rfnpn n'lapi.! rnnn nriann Hithpaal "Jann n!ia nngn? n'nnn n^ann i^anq n. sg. sg.94 Person 3 m. 1 c. m. pi. pi. 1 c. Active Participle m. pi. Lamedh He Verbs: Original Lamedh Aleph. sg. 3 f. 3 m. Perfect Person 3 m. 1 c. m. pl. pi. Infinitive Peal Haphel Haphel Imperative m. sg. 3 f.i3nn iwrjanji m rria Ua nn jvria Kris n-ja r?a n. sg. p i .sg. 2 m. pi. 2 m. pi. 6. 3 f.33 n'jan nan' iw'ian K?^aD r ^iann w^>n.:i . sg. -Vs. and Lamedh Yodh [for other forms see Lesson XIV]. 2 m. pi.

pa? itiaa ^3?nKl?n Nianri xnnri i<l!?^ wans linn. sg.95 Imperfect Person Peal Pael Haphel Hithpeel Knm xasnn Nisnn KnnK Hithpaal xnn. 3 f pi. f sg. sg. sg. 2 m. saann xnnn xaanx ]iaar. 3 f sg. 3 m. -n -?? iaa -ian -?an iaan Participle Active Peal ]Passive Peal Active Pael Active Haphel Nian!? Person m. sg.3apn mnnn Imperative m. 1 c.pl.sg. 1 c. pi. pi. 2 m. pi. jiiann |ii?nn papn N3?fl3 f<3ani ^nam Infinitive mn TT - n-nn TT . m. 3 m. f. pi. Hithpeel wana misna Hithpaal KHanp ri? m m m ":??na rsana T:»oa n. f. m. sg.33na r3??9 riana . pi. - n.

[or] gone nrx t o light. force xntx promulgated. h/ithpe. command l a x * Iamb nnx pnx another (at) last nix I px they. However. N o proper names of persons or places are here listed. (these) iVx thousand nax* cubit nax nation p x h a p h e l . or h/ithpa. In these formations the characteristic vowel of the perfect (the vowel under the second consonant) is given. The abbreviation hithp. both the Hithpeel and the Ithpeel.96 GLOSSARY In most instances where the singular of the absolute state of a noun is not attested in BA. those [ m a s c ] . slay hophal—to be destroyed stone letter then T l x * threshing floor '^!^^^* counselor x n m x with zeal. a r m . h e a t VTX t o go ( t o or away) nx* brother nrnt?* riddle -inx* after n n x * end ax* ax* nax — — ]M nnJX pnx ]snwnx* yV'X ina-'X* •'ri"'X another satrap tree terrible existence. In a few instances of extreme uncertainty the consonants are left without any vocalization in this glossary.t o trust in l a x t o say. father fruit t o perish haphel—to destroy. except in the case of stative formations of the Peal conjugation. god nVx these iVx behold! fVx these •riVx those. there is (are) •rax t o eat Vx n o t aVx Vx* these G o d . or both the Hithpaal and the Ithpaal respectively. The verbs without a designation as to conjugation are in the Peal (including statives). but gentilic nouns are given. The asterisic indicates that the exact form listed is unattested.. The verbs are given without vocalization. The abbreviations h/aph. eagerly Vnv. it may be restored with certainty. All the other conjugations are designated. indicate that the verbs in question occur in both the Haphel and the Aphel. in some instances there is some degree of uncertainty. is used where it is extremely uncertain as to whether the attested formation is Hithpeel or Hithpaal..

trace nVi?3* npa — hithpaal-to be investigated son field na -la* . mankind y o u [masc. call u p o n enchanter wall. those [fem. prayer Vys owner.[tradit. scatter nnis •"VpS* nns iVng '?n3 — hithpeel —(to be perplexed).97 NiriiN pjN D3K we they. lord plain pael—to seek. oppress. — p3 nrs VP3 ened. r u n great risk •qnS n33ns* npiK iVs ni3 — p3* pl3* 033 n5?3 "•pis* a n i n h a b i t a n t S?ns* e a r t h "•ViN* bottom earth pnS* S^N «]B*N pB^K* nnriB^K B>N* f o u n d a t i o n fire. > fire-offering — p a e l — t o search (eagerly). b e o n t h e p o i n t o f . > heart. also beam nnS3 after Babylonian pael-to hurry pael-to frighten disperse. eagerly prohibition wood. pi.] y o u [masc. be d i s c o n t i n u e d .t o wear out tax to build hithpeel—to be built sons [plural] building to become angry t o seek. sing. > to hurry fright- — hithpaal—to be •"pIBK* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s •"ponsN* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s "•pnonpN* a t i t l e o f o f f i c i a l s DhBN storehouse. fortress nTa* fortified ^ 3 n.] 3 in. master t ] 1 8 * face triN man. length of Uruk becoming > treasury. among p o s i t i v e l y ?] finger discernment place.t o bring (in) furnace place. [eventually ? S?3SN* d i g i t . request.-beam??] revolt 1»3* petition. m i r a c l e nns — pns nns to come h a p h e l . > temple mind ms* nns p a e l . fetter exactly. t o e . stop pael—to stop between. by (means of) E^'SS* b a d trS3 t o be displeasing t o t o trouble.3* •73 n '73 to spend the night house. investigate nx* s i g n . knee duration.] IIDS «l-lSpN "IDS »N (]K b o n d . vg-ps* f o u r pnK* purple n s behold! way lion fitting. be perplexed t o cease.

(so) that gold a i * side. den nniai* might man 13? na?* (mighty) m a n .t o take into exile iVs* exile squared (stones) nas t o finish. that is t o dwell Bhn to tread down m n n * [tradit. table. judgment. lifetime arm »nn* decree. frighten . that. > a liquid measure nan to sacrifice n a n * sacrifice (of slain animals) pan to stick together ni31 ann «inn mn m a t t e r . justice. command. concubine. back pit.1 of. judges t h a t [fem. ? ? t o fear Vnn pael—to make afraid. order.] ram linan* record record (book) pVn t o burn nan t o resemble n n this (is) [masc] Pi?n t o crush h/aph. determination m aphel—to stir u p TS* plaster wheel nVa t o reveal h a p h e l . warrior treasurer nns to cut down interior.t o bless knee D"13 yet. complete W treasure wing ons* bone 0 8 ^ * body ai which is.] bear . etc. 14] n t o judge n in* "T • right.—to crush in generation.] V. break off decree. council (of judgment) judge [tradit.—musical instrument] .—a proper name]. food. nn T law grass «nn* n a n ^ * judge n Kn an this [fem. t h a t [masc] t h a t [com. etc.—to be cut o u t . midst nil pride 131?* treasurer -ITS t o determine (destiny > by astrology) h/ithpe. [see p . but n^a flesh n a * b a t h . perfume.98 rjia •qia — •q-ia* t o kneel t o bless p a e l .

exist to go [tradit. plexion) OT pt pt nap innocence hithp. > reach pael—to walk about aphel—to walk about toll. destroy. music turn for strings. (pi. perceive apparition. majesty particle T>j* b r i g h t n e s s .-to time.—to interpret white make known. damage pael-to damage hithpaal—to be destroyed. h a p p e n . T>VT» pVT «]pT »nT small to wail. > com- ngnn« h i g h r o y a l official nnn* •nn xin mn •qin x'n Vs-'n ^Vn musical instrument naj* m u s i c i a n . agree. alive. damage fantasy (in a dream) hurry gift nan* nnan* companion companion one breast [fem. |T* sort. etc. that t o b e . damage hurt.) — r ntn > cautious presumplive (on). whether either. (for.99 n n Nn ns-Kn interrogative behold! e v e n as member pael-to he. ian •qiian* VJ •"ID they they [masc] [masc] necklace if.] ifinn* nVnann in mrj* rrpn joy new pael—to show. t o see. perish hurt.) life to live hithaphel-to subsist to tremble (on) 'yq* •«n mn . > shriek descendants impale kind nVian Van — hurtful act. mn mn 1 a n d . temple to go. singer or. ap- pt to buy "ViJ]* ( w a r n e d ) . make k n o w n h/aph..that palace. to seed. pearance vision. tax glorify glory. decide (pi. Tit pt snt haphel—to tuously act nirq* T\^n* sight sin-oflfering sin living. then.] she. or injury.. crime.

report (finger)nail.t o seek shade. prevail sea rjp-. wanting h/aph.t o be added t o advise ithpaal—to take counsel together s h a p h e l .t o feed.t o finish. . > be glad a? good nap* executioner. animal a p h e l .to occupy. > to make a nest p a e l . (earthenware) Vp dew a p h e l .t o be singed fasting(ly). bodyguard niB mountain aKc preserve land.t o make known. pass by a share in fury wine wheat dedication to show mercy (to) hithpaal—to implore. communicate a m to give — p e i l .100 n-n nrn en V?? can na?n oVn iVn P"?n ton nwn* nsin* T\-: pn mpn pn non «)sn ann Dfann •qnn aphel —to let live. hungri(ly) pD* (wet) clay. restore t o life beast.t o join together. lay. h o p h a l . give to eat D5?P sense.t o be given. be finished a s . or inspect) strength.t o bring s a p h e l . be paid Jew. lay. (repair. claw npp* nnts to drive away 'Vsnp* a class of officials nip — h a p h e l .t o bring. Jewish nim* or day aD' to be pleasing to be able. > n n * hip aa^n to consider.t o be given — h i t h p e e l . army wise wisdom dream to pass (over). > respec ^TB^n* darkness nB^n t o be in need of nnttfn* need inB^n* need Vafn t o grind o n n t o seal P to be g o o d . make supplication deficient. possess might molded clay hfaphel—to be harsh hophal—to be laid waste magician h i t h p a a l .pael—to make certain n^a:* dry — . advice. > earth heap of stones h a n d . . command. power h / a p h .t o praise nr to know — h a p h e l .

nothing A V * heart A A V * heart B#IAV* garment vflib t o be clothed with. honorable dignity. yet JO^ therefore [Heb.t o proclaim seat.t o clothe (with) |JIV except. h a t ma lina* i t h p e e l . firm. > language as. dwell haphel—to settle.t o be finished naa how! [exclamation] t h u s . sign of t h e accusative k V n o t . with ANV (bread). feast N J N V concubine '<Yi* night NAV why? for what purpose? > lest yf?* tongue.t o assemble n j a * colleague silver 19? now niya and now nsa peil—to be bound ? a nxa ]TSB* naxa ]Na* nVia hundred balance word. according t o . document. scription Vna wall Tn. tie n b * k o r .t o be distressed herald na KOna h a p h e l . true to burn burning. for. a dry measure n^^'O* cap. roll . all. as soon as na here Vna to be able priest nja* window naa* talent whole. beside. (so) F Naia thus t2^a to assemble h i t h p a a l . exceedingly •p t o . every because of VVa shaphel—to finish h i s h t a p h a l .101 well-established. b u t . about nan? lie when. throne i-iji^a Chaldaean in- an' ana t o write ana writing. wear — h a p h e l . extraordinary. cause t o dwell — pael—to bind. > firebrand T p ! * difficult.] •NV* Levite N I V * near. order vessel scroll. reliable. honor month (the upper p a r t of the) thigh sign of the accusative t o sit. > meal.

> banquet nina* gift hithpaal-to prophesy. lamp (stand) nil t o flow nil towards. division (of npVna* Levites) «»a t o reach.t o be plucked out n^a (anointing) oil aaap* bed psto* abode •'i?in?'a* pipe. stay hithpeel—to be impaled (on a stake) course. kingdom VVa pael—to speak who? ' T I P whoever from. tribute understanding nia t o number pael—to appoint nnia (grain) offering nana* pljp number nas?a* work. in the direction of nil* brightness ana h i t h p a a l . t o w n . city ' n a what ? that which nia death ]iTa food Hna t o smite p a e l . come u p o n . affair nVa to eat salt. > be under obligation of loyalty nVa salt king counsel na>a' queen laViS kingship. be willing layer (of stones or wood) t o flee nni nni nini* Trii* iTni "ini mi xai (sheath > body). Mede(s) nj-n!?* province. entering). deed nya* belly (going. tribute nna • i n a * dwelling Media. out of. > on account of light light illumination (of mind) river t o flee .t o check. gift N-ai* prophet nir^nai* candlestick. act as a prophet nsiai* prophecy. matter. bestow. a t t a i n . reign. than since mina nnja tax. prevent.t o offer willingly. [with " s u n " ] > sunset tna lord m a * rebellious TT nna rebellion ana p e i l .102 pael—to overthrow altar tax. flute xriB?a* drinking. happen t o to fill sVa hithpeel-tobefilled(with) angel nV)? word. > prophesying natai present.

pass a w a y . book a garment.t o rise u p a g a i n s t nras?* work. pni* ]n3 nni sanctuary who t o give is g i v e n ) nis? tjis? a p h e l . service the opposite bank u n t o . until t o g o .t o take away still. (one nv nns? "QTtpi* d e c r e e . aid secretary.t o be lifted u p t o keep nimi* i n c e n s e riches panther. ofi"er t o fall ( d o w n ) to go out haphel—to take (out) expense firmness. carry a w a y .t o be pulled o u t p a e l . ruin(s) fire to come to grief haphel-to damage nao niD ]lp» niD n.-to pure rescue. vulture official d o c u m e n t servant. m a k e h i t h p e e l . time. turned servant into. up — h i t h p a a l .-to deposit Vao poel-to to intend to pay homage to governor t o shut bagpipe(?) t o be fulfilled aphel—to put an end to. hardness distinguish t^io p"?D — — nVD be lifted pael—to help. lay.t o shake o f f . bronze to come down h/aph. > year depart h a p h e l .t o p o u r o u t . administration. yet iniquity bird •pm* w o m e n [ p l u r a l ] naitfl* na^l breath ( o f life) eagle. toil.t o be made. > preserve h o p h a l — t o be deposed t o lift u p peil . deliver nas? lift to d o . be done to knock together t o take. leopard h i t h p e e l . [cloak? sers?] h i g h official to demolish pael-to hide troubring. scribe •jjDl* l i b a t i o n nap* npp Vanp* •!]np* nno nno naSJ* nsi Vsi Xpi B^pl Niw hithpaal-to oneself h/aph.iSp1D r\^0 — copper.103 WiVll TU pn — B?m nm — — bvi — nw DDI* naj noi •!|D1 "7D3 pDl — npDl* refuse-heap. annihilate end to go (come) take up up up haphel-to hophal—to clerk.

[tradit. remote time ••aVy* Elamite vbv* rib oy people. nation ay (along) with p'ay* deep nay wool lUS t o answer niy* miserable. be opened breadth . highest. worship (God) (divine) service OS m o u t h o p a part of the h a n d . [palm? back? all below wrist?] stringed instrument V n ? iron C I S peil—to be divided o n p half-shekel.104 chaff TV* goat npW* signet-ring nos? counsel.t o mix — h i t h p a a l . remove pael—to separate copy t o interpret pael—to interpret interpretation •jnp word. branch B^jy fine [a legal term] ' p y * foliage a'Sy sad ip» i thpeel . shame a^y herbs.-halfmina] -D-JB* Persia. advice eye Tiy» wild ass niny* nakedness. > angel (up)on.y r o o t i y * adversary ana p a e l . ancient TV (awake). > watcher. grass nfey ten ptoy ne^S? Tny* p'py twenty peil—to intend ready (to) old. over. Persian(s) t o c o m m u t e .to be plucked o u t ip. ground for acT • cusation burnt-offering • " V y * superior. enter — haphel . against. decree nnB t o open JVB peil—to be open. [coat? trou- sers?] t o divide half division (of priests) t o serve. over pretext. concerning na-Vs? why ? wherefore ? above.t o mingle n n s * governor i n ? potter arpB* a garment. poor ]iy* cloud «]iy» bough. the Most High ••Vy* roof-chamber frba* t h e Most High V?a t o go in.to bring in — hophal—to be brought in oVy eternity.

task summer statute > difl&cult great. establish h / a p h .t o be killed h i t h p a a l . > righteousness neck pael-to per. become Dip t o rise. establish h o p h a l .a i P * first. m a k e angry Pip. (sure) zither insolence. desire pael—to side true (right-doing).t o bring near. make h/aph. DVS pray — anp — — fare well. offer war village.105 Djj? nns US S3S — ns to desire. curse v o i c e . m rage foot Vjn* . nobles. — t o set up. appoint.t o kill h i t h p e e l . wish. (be shouted) hithpeel-to be called t o draw near. endure p a e l — t o set up.t o be set u p t o kill p e i l . sound to buy t o be(come) furious wrath p a e l . read peil-to be read. an nan — to chief (up). — to (cause to) prosprogress s t a t u e . part t o call ( o u t ) . t h i n g . greatness fourth lords. image bird T B S * he-goat J wet h i t h p a a l — t o be wet onmp Vp Vp enduring. wish. chief grow great p a e l — t o make g r e a t . city horn piece truth nip t]Sp «]Sp I'Sp nsp xnp — xns* T np-fS nsis* mVs nVs nes* anp nnp* pp pael-to receive before. s t a n d . found.t o be killed knot. b i g . former tt^xn head. like matter. formerly ^np* Dij*p .t o be killed p a e l . t o w n . heighten myriad. because holy before former t i m e .t o cut off e n d . approach > p a e l — t o offer h a p h e l . joint. an] grandees.t o irritate. [plural o f great multitude Vtjp ian ian "•yan* fia"^an» m h a p h e l .

t o praise tribe flame seven p3ir^ t o leave (behind) h i t h p e e l . spirit o n to rise. > require question.t o trust in smell to t h r o w . inscribe VNE^ nbvm* -)XB# nyo D3i. heighten p o l e l . establish an inhabitant of Susa.#* t o ask. remainder p a e l . place. make. pass on to tr*31£> hithpaal—to be perplexed nbit* concubine 11^ hithpaal—to strive niltf — — t o be like pael —to make like hithpaal —to be made (like) wall — — — !|S?n* •fcai* yiVl VVI — OB") Oftil -^if^* h o a r y .t o praise. be finished nSB? h a p h e l . carefree niVB>* prosperity . testimony ipfc side D " " ! ! ? t o place.to be thrown hithpeel—to be thrown will.106 tr*n haphel—to throng i n . (exalt) h i t h p o l e l . > be made VsiP h i t h p a a l .t o consider unVpB^ insight WiP t o hate 1VV hair — n p'>ni* far flpni compassion(s) h i t h p e e l . (storm in) n * appearance n n wind.t o rise u p (against) height secret hithaphel —to be p u t . much.t o be left. be high. (triangular. m a n y .t o find — hithpeel—to be found VVaa? [see '7'73] t o dwell — l"?^ pael—to cause to dwell negligence n"?(^ ( t o be) at ease. be haughty a p h e l . lay. decision thought flourishing t o crush pael—to crush t o tread down t o write. 4 strings) ^afe t o grow great K^iiD great.t o raise. impose (a tax) peil . [adverb] very n n ^ * witness. requirement rest. [plural] elders KD3t* stringed i n s t r u m e n t . Susanian mP t o spoil sr?* t o rescue N'S 'tJ t o finish.

finish. annihilate ]?aB>» heaven. [as a salutation] hail name Tot h a p h e l . > dwell p a e l . seem good l ^ n B a ^ * dawn third p a r t .107 to send t o rule. mighty Vpn peil—to b e weighed Vpn shekel .t o be appalled s?atf t o hear — h i t h p a a l . > shake ttt* r o o t ytit b a n i s h m e n t . again •. deliver. am t o r e t u r n duration).t o begin hithpaal—to be loosened. humble IBt t o please. > violate — h/ithpa.to alter. magistrate Tp??* s t r o n g . officer.—third in rank] thirty there n a n * wonder second nan nii^in a second time. [lit. beautiful bot h/aph.t o serve Vtpt* sun ift* t o o t h ot pt* nit — — leg t o loosen.t o obey Vhit p a e l . [tradit. sky oat i t h p o e l . bull nin* ninn u n d e r sVn snow ••niVri* t h i r d n V n three Nn"?n nitt* t o be changed. > violate — haphel .t o destroy. answer m n t o be amazed.—to humble.—to be changed rat* year niB^* sleep nvt moment. humiliate Vptf low.—a r o o t ing o u t ] r\t six nnt t o drink fFit sixty nan to break T i n * (encircling. deliver (completely) welfare. (short space of time) DDB> t o judge T B t t > fair. be frightened ox. it is allowed peil—to be finished haphel-to complete. [with a] continually h/aphel—to give back.nDn* police officer. have power over haphel—to make ruler over dominion IbVi?* high official mighty. be different — pael—to change .

become strong pael—to make stringent. enforce *]pri strength r^pri* s t r e n g t h p"iri* two [ m a s c ] VIFi* doorkeeper »nri d o o r .108 pn tjppi — hophal—to be reestablished to be strong. m o u t h . gate prinn two [fem.] .

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