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# Geograpgy Solved MCQs

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This book contains topic wise
solved multiple choice questions
for interview and competitive
examinations preparations

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Geography Solved MCQs

Saboor Thakur
Page 1

INTERIOR OF THE
EARTH
1. WHAT IS THE APPROXIMATE DISTANCE
FROM THE SURFACE TO THE CENTER OF THE
EARTH?
A. 1,000 MILES
B. 4,000 MILES
C. 10,000 MILES
D. 40,000 MILES
2. WHEN SEISMIC WAVES PASS ACROSS THE
BOUNDARY BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT
MATERIALS, ___________.
A. THE WAVES REFRACT
B. THE WAVES REFLECT
C. THE WAVES CHANGE IN VELOCITY
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

3. WHICH REGION IN THE EARTH IS ABOUT
85%IRON?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
4. WHICH REGION IN THE EARTH MOLTEN?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
5. IN WHICH REGION OF THE EARTH IS
CONDUCTION THE DOMINANT HEAT
TRANSFER MECHANISM?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
6. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE A P-WAVE TO
TRAVEL THROUGH THE EARTH?
A. 1 MINUTE
B. 5 MINUTES
C. 10 MINUTES
D. 20 MINUTES
7. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
FALSE?
A. THE P-WAVE SHADOW ZONE IS
LARGER THAN THE S-WAVE
PATHSTHROUGH THE INTERIOR OF
THE EARTH
C. P WAVES TRAVEL MORE SLOWLY IN
THE OUTER CORE THAN IN THE
LOWER MANTLE
D. LIQUIDS DO NOT TRANSMIT S
WAVES
8. THE SWAVE SHADOW ZONE IS CAUSED BY
THE _________ .
A. THE CRUST-MANTLE BOUNDARY
B. THE OUTER CORE
C. THE LOWER MANTLE
D. THE INNER CORE
9. THE S-WAVE SHADOW ZONE EXTENDS FROM
_____ TO 180 O ANGULAR DISTANCE
FROM THE EARTHQUAKE FOCUS ON ONE
SIDE AND FROM ______ TO 180O ON THE
OTHER.
A. 45 DEGREES
B. 75 DEGREES
C. 105 DEGREES
D. 145 DEGREES
10. THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE MANTLE AND
THE CORE LIES AT A DEPTH OF
APPROXIMATELY ________.
A. 300 KILOMETERS
B. 1000 KILOMETERS
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Geography Solved MCQs

Saboor Thakur
Page 2

C. 3000 KILOMETERS
D. 5000 KILOMETERS
11. CONTINENTAL CRUST CAN BE UP TO
______ KILOMETERSTHICK.
A. 5
B. 35
C. 65
D. 100
12. WHERE DO P WAVES TRAVEL THE FASTEST?
A. UPPER MANTLE
B. LOWER MANTLE
C. OUTER CORE
D. INNER CORE
13. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
A. SEISMIC WAVES SPEED UP AS THEY
DOWNWARD
B. THE MOHO SEPARATES DENSER
ROCKS BELOW FROM LESS DENSE
ROCKSABOVE
C. THE MOHO SEPARATES THE CRUST
FROM THE MANTLE
D. THE MOHO MARKS THE TOP OF A
PARTIALLY MOLTEN LAYER
14. AFTER MELTING OF A CONTINENTAL ICE CAP,
THE SURFACE OF THE CONTINENT WILL TEND
TO __________ .
A. RISE
B. SINK
C. SINK OR RISE DEPENDING ON THE
THICKNESS OF THE ICE CAP
D. REMAIN THE SAME - ICE DOES NOT
WEIGH THAT MUCH
15. IF THE EARTH COOLED ONLY BY
CONDUCTION, HEAT FROM DEPTHS GREATER
THAN ______ KILOMETERS WOULD NOT
YET HAVE REACHED THE SURFACE.
A. 20
B. 100
C. 400
D. 200
16. THE MECHANICAL TRANSFER OF HEAT BY
VIBRATION OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES IS
CALLED __________.
B. CONDUCTION
C. MAGNETISM
D. CONVECTION
17. WHAT DRIVES PLATE TECTONICS?
A. THERMAL CONVECTION
B. THERMAL CONDUCTION
C. SOLAR ENERGY
D. EROSION
18. IN A DEEP MINE, TEMPERATURES INCREASE
AT THE RATE OF ________ .
A. 3 DEGREES C PER KILOMETER
B. 30 DEGREESC PER KILOMETER
C. 300 DEGREESC PER KILOMETER
D. 1 DEGREE C PER KILOMETER
19. WHERE IS THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
GENERATED?
A. IN THE CRUST
B. IN THE MANTLE
C. IN THE OUTER CORE
D. IN THE INNER CORE

20. AT WHAT TEMPERATURE DO MATERIALS
LOOSE THEIR PERMANENT MAGNETISM?
A. 100 DEGREESC
B. 250 DEGREESC
C. 400 DEGREESC
D. 550 DEGREESC
21. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
TRUE?
A. THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC POLES ARE
ALIGNED WITH THE EARTH'S
ROTATION AXIS
B. THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC POLES ARE
INCLINED APPROXIMATELY 11
DEGREES FROM THE EARTH'S
ROTATION AXIS
C. THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC POLES ARE
INCLINED APPROXIMATELY 45
DEGREES FROM THE EARTH'S
ROTATION AXIS
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Saboor Thakur
Page 3

D. THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC POLES ARE
PERPENDICULAR TO THE EARTH'S
ROTATION AXIS
22. THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSES
ITSELF ROUGHLY EVERY ________
A. 50 YEARS
B. 5,000 YEARS
C. 500,000 YEARS
D. 50 MILLION YEARS
23. PERMANENT MAGNETISM ACQUIRED BY
MINERALS IN IGNEOUS ROCKS DURING
CRYSTALLIZATION IS CALLED __________
MAGNETIZATION.
A. DEPOSITIONAL REMNANT
B. PALEOREMNANT MAGNETISM
C. SILICATE
D. THERMOREMANENT MAGNETISM

24. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCK TYPES
WOULD BE MOST LIKELY TO RECORD THE
MAGNETIC FIELD AT THE TIME THE ROCK
FORMED?
A. AN ALLUVIAL CONGLOMERATE
B. A BASALTIC LAVA FLOW
C. AN EVAPORITE DEPOSIT OF HALITE
D. A SCHIST
25. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING LISTS MOST
ACCURATELY DESCRIBES OCEANIC CRUST?
A. BASALTIC - DENSITY OF 3.0 G/CM3

B. GRANITIC - DENSITY OF 3.0 G/CM3
C. QUARTZ ARENITES - DENSITY OF
2.6 G/CM3
D. BASALTIC - DENSITY OF 2.6 G/CC
26.THE MOHO SEPARATES:
A. THE OUTER CORE FROM THE INNER
CORE
B. THE LITHOSPHERE FROM THE
ASTHENOSPHERE
C. THE ASTHENOSPHERE FROM THE
MESOSPHERE
D. THE CRUST FROM THE MANTLE
27. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TERM
ASSOCIATIONSIS FALSE?
A. ASTHENOSPHERE --- PLASTIC
BEHAVIOR
B. LITHOSPHERE --- RIGID SOLID
C. OUTER CORE --- RIGHT SOLID
D. CONTINENTAL CRUST --- RIGID
SOLID
28.TO INDUCE A POSITIVE BOUGUER ANOMALY,
A ROCK UNIT SHOULD HAVE THE FOLLOWING
PROPERTY:
A. TRANSMIT ONLY P WAVES
B. BE DENSER THAN THE
SURROUNDING MATERIALS
C. BE LESS DENSE THAN THE
SURROUNDING MATERIALS
D. BE MAGNETIC
29.THE LITHOSPHERE INCLUDES:
A. CRUST AND UPPERMOST, RIGID
MANTLE
B. OUTER CORE AND INNER CORE
C. ASTHENOSPHERE AND
MESOSPHERE
D. OUTER CORE AND LOWER MANTLE

30. A COOLING MAGNETIC MATERIAL
_________ ITS MAGNETIC CHARACTER AT
ITS CURIE TEMPERATURE:
A. GAINS
B. LOOSES
C. NEITHER OF THESE HAPPENS
31. WHAT REGION OF THE EARTH TAKES UP THE
GREATEST VOLUME?
A. THE CRUST
B. THE OUTER CORE
C. THE INNER CORE
D. THE MANTLE

32. WHICH OF THE
FOLLOWING TERMS DESCRIBESTHE
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF A PART
OF THE EARTH?
A. THE CONTINENTAL CRUST
B. THE OCEANIC CRUST
C. THE LITHOSPHERE
D. THE MANTLE
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Geography Solved MCQs

Saboor Thakur
Page 4

33. THE CONTINENTAL CRUST CONSISTS MAINLY
OF _________.
A. GRANITIC ROCKS
B. BASALTIC ROCKS
C. ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS
D. GABBROIC ROCKS
34. THE OCEANIC CRUST CONSISTS MAINLY OF
_________.
A. GRANITIC ROCKS
B. BASALTIC ROCKS
C. ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS
D. GABBROIC ROCKS

35. THE MANTLE CONSISTS MAINLY OF
_________.
A. GRANITIC ROCKS
B. BASALTIC ROCKS
C. ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS
D. GABBROIC ROCKS
36. THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE EARTH'S
CRUST AND MANTLE WAS FIRST DISCOVERED
BY __________.
A. ANALYZING SEISMIC WAVES
B. DEEP CONTINENTAL DRILLING
C. DETAILED GEOLOGIC MAPPING
D. PALEOMAGNETIC STUDIES
37. HOW FAST DO P-WAVESTRAVEL THROUGH
GRANITE?
A. 4 KILOMETERSPER SECOND
B. 6 KILOMETERSPER SECOND
C. 8 KILOMETERSPER SECOND
D. 10 KILOMETERSPER SECOND

38. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
FALSE?
A. THE CRUST-MANTLE BOUNDARY IS
CALLED THE MOHOROVICIC
DISCONTINUITY
B. THE OCEANIC CRUST CONSISTS OF
BASALT AND GABBRO THE CRUST IS
LESSDENSE THAN THE MANTLE
C. P-WAVES TRAVEL FASTER IN THE
CRUST THAN IN THE MANTLE

39. AN OPHIOLITE MAY NOT INCLUDE A PIECE
OF____________.
A. CONTINENTAL CRUST
B. OCEANIC CRUST
C. UPPER MANTLE
D. THE MOHO
40. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REGIONS
CONSISTS PRIMARILY OF OLIVINE AND
PYROXENE?
A. CONTINENTAL CRUST
B. OCEANIC CRUST
C. UPPER MANTLE
D. THE CORE
41. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
FALSE?
A. THE ASTHENOSPHERE LIESBENEATH
THE LITHOSPHERE
B. THE ASTHENOSPHERE IS STRONGER
THAN THE LITHOSPHERE
C. THE ASTHENOSPHERE RISES CLOSE
TO THE SURFACE BENEATH
MID-OCEAN RIDGES
D. THE ASTHENOSPHERE IS PARTIALLY
MOLTEN

42. THE LITHOSPHERE IS APPROXIMATELY
_________ KILOMETERS THICK
A. 25
B. 100
C. 250
D. 2900

43. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
TRUE
A. THE LITHOSPHERE CONTAINS THE
CRUST
B. THE CRUST CONTAINS THE
LITHOSPHERE
C. THE LITHOSPHERE AND CRUST ARE
DIFFERENT TERMS FOR THE SAME
PART OF THE EARTH
D. THE LITHOSPHERE AND CRUST ARE
TOTALLY SEPARATE PARTS OF THE
EARTH
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Geography Solved MCQs

Saboor Thakur
Page 5

44. THE SHARP INCREASE IN VELOCITY OF S-
WAVES AT 400 AND 670 KILOMETERS
DEPTH IN THE MANTLE ARE PROBABLY
CAUSED BY ___________.
A. CHANGES TO MORE COMPACT
MINERAL STRUCTURES
B. CHANGES IN THE COMPOSITION OF
THE MANTLE
C. CHANGES IN THE TEMPERATURE OF
THE MANTLE
D. CHANGES IN THE PRESSURE OF THE
MANTLE
45. WHAT ELEMENT MAKES UP MOST OF THE
EARTH'S CORE?
A. SILICON
B. OXYGEN
C. IRON
D. NICKEL
46. THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE INNER CORE
AND THE OUTER CORE LIES AT A DEPTH OF
______ KILOMETERS
A. 700
B. 2900
C. 5100
D. 6400
47. HOW THICK A CONTINENTAL ROOT WOULD
BE PRODUCED BY A 3 KILOMETER THICK
CONTINENTAL ICE SHEET?
48. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
BEST DESCRIBES THE NATURE OF THE CORE-
MANTLE BOUNDARY?
A. THE CORE-MANTLE BOUNDARY IS
SMOOTH
B. THE CORE-MANTLE BOUNDARY IS
ROUGH WITH A TOPOGRAPHY OF
C. THE CORE-MANTLE BOUNDARY IS
ROUGH WITH A TOPOGRAPHY OF
D. THE CORE-MANTLE BOUNDARY IS
ROUGH WITH A TOPOGRAPHY OF
49. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
REGARDING THE INNER CORE ISTRUE?
A. P WAVES DO NOT TRAVEL
THROUGH THE INNER CORE
B. PRIMARY S WAVES (THOSE
GENERATED AT THE FOCUS OF AN
EVENT) TRAVEL THROUGH THE
INNER CORE
C. P WAVES TRAVEL THROUGH THE
INNER CORE AT A HIGHER VELOCITY
THAN SWAVES TRAVEL THROUGH
THE INNER CORE
D. THE INNER CORE IS THOUGHT TO BE
A LIQUID
METAMORPHIC
ROCKS
1. IN REGIONAL METAMORPHISM THE SOURCE
OF INCREASED TEMPERATURE AND
PRESSURE IS _________ .
A. A LOCAL INTRUSIVE HEAT SOURCE
B. IMPACT METAMORPHISM
C. THE INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE
WITH INCREASING DEPTH OF
BURIAL
D. DUE TO INCREASED RATE OF
2. A GEOLOGIST SUFFERS FROM A BLACK EYE
AFTER YELLING "GNEISS!!!" TO A
CLASSMATE, WHO HAPPENED TO BE
SUNNING ON A LARGE BOULDER. THE
GEOLOGIST REALLY MEANT TO TELL THE
CLASSMATE THAT THE ROCK THEY WERE
LAYING ON _______________ .
A. WOULD FIZZ WITH THE
APPLICATION OF ACID
B. IS COMMONLY USED IN BILLIARD
TABLE CONSTRUCTION
C. DEMONSTRATESSCHISTOSITY
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Geography Solved MCQs

Saboor Thakur
Page 6

MINERALOGICALLY
BANDED METAMORPHIC
ROCK

3. A COMBINATION OF SHALLOW
EARTHQUAKES, TENSION, AND CONTACT
METAMORPHISM CHARACTERIZES
___________ .
A. TRANSFORM FAULT MARGINS
C. CONTINENT/CONTINENT MARGINS
D. SUBDUCTION TYPE MARGINS
4. IN CONTACT METAMORPHISM THERE IS A
____________ .
A. LOCAL HEAT SOURCE
B. FRICTIONAL HEAT SOURCE
C. REGIONAL HEAT SOURCE
5. WITHIN A 50 MILE TRAVERSE YOU WALK
FROM SHALE INTO A SLATE INTO A
PHYLLITE. YOU ARE WALKING IN THE
DIRECTION OF _________ .
B. DECREASING METAMORPHIC
C. INCREASING DEGREE OF CONTACT
METAMORPHISM
6. MARBLE IS A METAMORPHIC ROCK THAT
FORMS FROM A ___________ PARENT .
A. GRANITE
B. LIMESTONE
C. SANDSTONE
D. SHALE
7. THE PRESSURE AND HEAT THAT DRIVE
METAMORPHISM RESULT FROM WHICH
THREE FORCES?
A. THE INTERNAL HEAT OF THE
EARTH, THE WEIGHT OF OVERLYING
ROCKS, AND HORIZONTAL
PRESSURES DEVELOPED AS ROCKS
BECOME DEFORMED
B. THE WEIGHT OF THE OVERLYING
ROCKS, SOLAR HEATING, AND
NUCLEAR FUSION
C. HORIZONTAL PRESSURES
DEVELOPED AS ROCKS DEFORM,
BONDING, HEAT RELEASED DURING
CRYSTALLIZATION
D. INTERNAL HEAT OF THE EARTH,
NUCLEAR FISSION, HEAT RELEASED
DURING CHEMICAL WEATHERING
8. A GEOTHERMOMETER IS?
A. A DEVICE THAT MEASURES
TEMPERATURE IN DEEP DRILL
HOLES
B. A DEVICE THAT MEASURES
CURRENT ROCK TEMPERATURES AT
THE SURFACE
C. A MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE THAT CAN
REVEAL THE MINIMUM
TEMPERATURE ATTAINED DURING
HEATING
D. THE RANGE OF TEMPERATURES
EXPERIENCED BY A ROCK DURING
ITS GEOLOGIC HISTORY
9. WHICH TYPE OF PRESSURE WILL RESULT IN
THE ALIGNMENT OF METAMORPHIC
MINERALS?
A. CONTACT PRESSURE
B. DIRECTED PRESSURE
C. CONFINING PRESSURE
D. CHEMICAL PRESSURE
10. DURING METAMORPHISM, CHANGES IN THE
BULK COMPOSITION OF A ROCK OCCUR
PRIMARILY AS A RESULT OF __________?
A. INCREASESIN PRESSURE
B. INCREASESIN TEMPERATURE
C. REACTION WITH HYDROTHERMAL
FLUIDS
D. ALL OF THESE

11. WHAT TYPE OF METAMORPHISM IS CAUSED
BY HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE
IMPOSED OVER A LARGE VOLUME OF
CRUST?
A. BURIAL
B. CONTACT
C. REGIONAL
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Saboor Thakur
Page 7

D. CATACLASTIC
12. A ROCK THAT HAS UNDERGONE
CATACLASTIC METAMORPHISM WOULD
MOST LIKELY DISPLAY WHICH OF THE
FOLLOWING?
A. PRESERVED SEDIMENTARY
LAYERING
B. PULVERIZED ROCK FRAGMENTS
C. NEW MINERALS
D. LARGE OLIVINE CRYSTALS
13. WHAT IS THE MOST PROMINENT TEXTURAL
FEATURE OF REGIONAL METAMORPHIC
ROCKS??:
A. FOLIATION
B. BEDDING
C. CATACLASIS
D. RIPPLES
14. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
ABOUT METAMORPHISM OF A SHALE IS
FALSE?
A. WITH INCREASING
METAMORPHISM, THE
CLAY MINERALS
BREAKDOWN TO FORM
MICAS
B. WITH INCREASING
METAMORPHISM, THE
GRAIN SIZE OF THE
MINERALS GETS SMALLER

C. WITH INCREASING
METAMORPHISM,
FOLIATION DEVELOPS
D. WITH INCREASING
METAMORPHISM, THE
AMOUNT OF WATER
DECREASES
15. WHICH MINERAL IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
STRONG FOLIATION IN A SCHIST?
A. QUARTZ
B. CALCITE
C. MICA
D. FOLIATE

16. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING METAMORPHIC
ROCKSCANNOT FORM FROM A SHALE?
A. SCHIST
B. MARBLE
C. HORNFELS
D. SLATE
17. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING METAMORPHIC
ROCKS IS NOT PAIRED WITH ITS TRUE
PARENT ROCK?
A. GREENSTONE-BASALT
B. QUARTZITE - QUARTZARENITE
C. SCHIST SHALE
D. HORNFELSDOLOMITE

18. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING INDEX
MINERALS FORMS AT THE HIGHEST
A. CHLORITE
B. SILLMANITE
C. BIOTITE
D. GARNET

19. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES WILL
CAUSE METAMORPHISM?
A. A CHANGE IN THE CHEMICAL
ENVIRONMENT
B. AN INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE
C. AN INCREASE IN PRESSURE
D. ALL OF THESE
20. WHAT IS THE PRESSURE ON A ROCK AT 15
KILOMETERSDEPTH?
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
PRESSURE

21. ______ IS THE PROCESS WHERE ROCKS
PREVIOUSLY METAMORPHOSED UNDER
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Saboor Thakur
Page 8

CONDITIONS.
A. METASOMATISM
B. CATACLASIS
C. FOLIATION

22. METASOMATISM IS ________.
A. THE CHANGE IN THE BULK
COMPOSITION OF A ROCK
DURING METAMORPHISM

B. METAMORPHISM CAUSED BY
NEARBY INTRUSIONS
C. METAMORPHISM CAUSED BY
TECTONIC MOVEMENTS
ALONG FAULTS THE
PARALLEL
D. ALIGNMENT OF MINERALS IN A
METAMORPHIC ROCK
23. HYDROTHERMAL METAMORPHISM IS VERY
COMMON IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
SETTINGS?
A. AT CONTINENTAL COLLISION ZONES
B. ALONG SHALLOW FAULTS
C. AT MID-OCEAN RIDGES
D. IN MID-CONTINENTAL REGIONS
24. METAMORPHISM OCCURS______.
INTRUSIONS
B. ALONG FAULTS
C. IN SUBDUCTION ZONES
D. IN ALL OF THESE SETTINGS
25. IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
METAMORPHIC ENVIRONMENTS WOULD
YOU EXPECT TO FIND BEDDING AND OTHER
SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES TO BE
PRESERVED.
A. BURIAL METAMORPHISM
B. ALONG FAULTS
C. CONTACT METAMORPHISM
D. REGIONAL METAMORPHISM
26. THE PARALLEL ALIGNMENT OF MICA IN A
METAMORPHIC ROCK IS AN EXAMPLE OF
______.
A. PORPHYROBLASTS
B. BEDDING
C. METASOMATISM
D. FOLIATION
27. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
METAMORPHIC FOLIATION AND
SEDIMENTARY BEDDING?
A. SEDIMENTARY BEDDING IS
REQUIRED IN ORDER FOR A ROCK
TO DEVELOP METAMORPHIC
FOLIATION
B. SEDIMENTARY BEDDING AND
METAMORPHIC FOLIATION ARE
TWO TERMS FOR THE SAME
PHENOMENON
C. SEDIMENTARY BEDDING AND
METAMORPHIC FOLIATION ARE
GENERALLY PARALLEL
D. THERE IS NO REGULAR
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
SEDIMENTARY BEDDING AND
METAMORPHIC FOLIATION
28. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT USED TO
CLASSIFY FOLIATED ROCKS?
A. CRYSTAL SIZE
B. THE TEXTURE OF THE PARENT ROCK

C. THE DEGREE TO WHICH MINERALS
ARE SEGREGATED INTO LIGHTER
AND DARKER BANDS
29. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SETS IS
ARRANGED IN ORDER OF INCREASING
A. SHALE - SLATE PHYLLITE
B. PHYLLITE - GNEISS SCHIST
C. PHYLLITE - SLATE SCHIST
D. SCHIST - SHALE - GNEISS
30. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCKS
REPRESENTS THE HIGHEST METAMORPHIC
A. SLATE
B. SCHIST
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Geography Solved MCQs

Saboor Thakur
Page 9

C. PHYLLITE
D. GNEISS
31. METAMORPHIC ROCKS WITH SEGREGATED
LIGHT AND DARK MINERALS ARE CALLED
_______.
A. SLATE
B. SCHIST
C. PHYLLITE
D. GNEISS
32. DURING METAMORPHISM A QUARTZ
ARENITE WILL CHANGE INTO WHAT TYPE OF
ROCK?
A. SLATE
B. SCHIST
C. QUARTZITE
D. GNEISS
33. A NORMAL GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT IS
APPROXIMATELY _________ .
A. 3000 DEGREES CPER KM
B. 300 DEGREESC PER KM
C. 30 DEGREESC PER KM
D. 3 DEGREES C PER KM
34. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING METAMORPHIC
ROCKS FORMS IN THE FOREARC OF A
SUBDUCTION ZONE?
A. AMPHIBOLITES
B. BLUESCHIST
C. QUARTZITE
D. GNEISS
35. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCKSCAN BE
IGNEOUS ROCK AND A METAMORPHIC
ROCK?
A. GENISS
B. QUARTZITE
C. MIGMATITE
D. SCHIST

36. FOR THE BARROVIAN SEQUENCE GIVEN
ABOVE INTENSITY OF METAMORPHISM:
A. INCREASESFROM LEFT TO RIGHT
B. INCREASESFROM RIGHT TO LEFT
C. CANNOT BE DETERMINED FROM
THE DIAGRAM
37. IN THE FIGURE ABOVE, THE A ISOGRAD IS
A. AMPHIBOLE
B. MUSCOVITE
C. BIOTITE
D. GARNET
38. IN THE FIGURE ABOVE, WHAT MINERAL
WOULD NOT BE PRESENT IN ZONE B?
A. GARNET
B. CHLORITE
C. BIOTITE
D. QUARTZ
39. IN THE FIGURE ABOVE, THE C ISOGRAD IS
A. KYANITE
B. MUSCOVITE
C. STAUROLITE
D. SILLMANIT
40. IN THE FIGURE ABOVE, ZONE D SHOULD
CONTAIN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
MINERALS?
A. AMPHIBOLE
B. SILLMANITE
C. CALCITE
D. KYANITE
41. A ROCK RICH IN GARNET AND PYROXENE
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Geography Solved MCQs

Saboor Thakur
Page 10

THAT FORMS AT EXTREMELY HIGH
PRESSURES AND MODERATE TO HIGH
TEMPERATURES ISCALLED A(N) _________
.
A. AMPHIBOLITES
B. HORNFELS
C. GRANULITE
D. ECLOGITE

42. THE ZEOLITE FACIES OCCURS IN WHICH
PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE REGIME?
A. AREA A
B. AREA B
C. AREA C
D. AREA D
43. THE ECLOGITE FACIES OCCURS IN WHICH
PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE REGIME?
A. AREA A
B. AREA C
C. AREA E
D. AREA G
44. THE GREENSCHIST FACIES OCCURS IN WHICH
PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE REGIME?
A. AREA C
B. AREA D
C. AREA E
D. AREA F
PLUTONIC AND
VOLCANIC IGNEOUS
ROCKS
EACH CHAPTER WILL INCLUDE A FEW QUESTIONS
DESIGNED TO TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF MATERIAL
COVERED IN THE CHAPTER AND IN THE INTERNET-
RECORDED. TRY THE FOLLOWING.
1. THE RATE OF COOLING OF A MAGMA OR
LAVA IS REFLECTED BY THE ________ OF
THE ROCK.
A. MINERALOGY
B. TEXTURE
C. COLOR
D. DENSITY
2. THE TEMPERATURE (AT LEAST A MINIMUM
ESTIMATE) FROM WHICH THE MELT COOLED
IS REFLECTED BY THE _________ OF THE
ROCK.
A. MINERALOGY
B. TEXTURE
C. COLOR
D. DENSITY
3. WHERE WOULD YOU EXPECT TO FIND THE
LARGEST CRYSTALS IN A LAVA FLOW?
A. NEAR THE TOP SURFACE OF THE
FLOW
B. IN THE CENTER OF THE FLOW
C. NEAR THE BOTTOM OF THE FLOW
D. THE CRYSTALS WOULD HAVE THE
SAME GRAIN SIZE THROUGHOUT
THE FLOW
4. ACCORDING TO BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES,
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF
PHASES ARE LIKELY TO BE INCOMPATIBLE?
A. QUARTZAND ALKALI FELDSPAR
B. CA-PLAGIOCLASE AND OLIVINE
C. QUARTZAND OLIVINE
D. NA-PLAGIOCLASE AND AMPHIBOLE
5. THE LAST MINERAL (ASSUMING THAT THE
COMPOSITION IS APPROPRIATE) TO
CRYSTALLIZE FROM A MAGMA IS:
A. PLAGIOCLASE
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B. OLIVINE
C. QUARTZ
D. PYROXENE
6. THE FINE GRAINED (APHANATIC)
EQUIVALENT OF A GRANITE IS A:
A. RHYOLITE
B. GABBRO
C. ANDESITE
D. BASALT

GRAINS ARE ALKALI FELDSPAR AND QUARTZ.
THE LENGTH OF THE FIGURE ISABOUT 2 CM.
7. THE DIAGRAM ABOVE MOST LIKELY
REPRESENTS A ___________
A. EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUSROCK
B. INTRUSIVE IGNEOUSROCK
C. CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCK
D. CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCK
8. THE COARSE GRAINED EQUIVALENT OF A
BASALT IS A:
A. RHYOLITE
B. GABBRO
C. ANDESITE
D. BASALT
9. DESCRIBE THE PLATE TECTONIC SETTINGS
WHERE YOU WOULD EXPECT TO FIND
GRANITIC/RHYOLITIC ROCKS:
A. SUBDUCTION ZONE
B. CONTINENT/CONTINENT COLLISION

D. TRANSFORM BOUNDARY
10. DESCRIBE THE PLATE TECTONIC SETTINGS
WHERE YOU WOULD EXPECT TO FIND
ANDESITES:
A. SUBDUCTION ZONE
B. CONTINENT/CONTINENT COLLISION
D. TRANSFORM BOUNDARY
11. DESCRIBE THE PLATE TECTONIC SETTINGS
WHERE YOU WOULD EXPECT TO FIND
BASALTIC ROCKS:
A. SUBDUCTION ZONE
B. CONTINENT/CONTINENT COLLISION
D. TRANSFORM BOUNDARY
12. WHICH SHOULD OFFER THE LEAST
RESISTANCE TO FLOW - A BASALTIC LAVA,
AN ANDESITIC LIQUID OR A RHYOLITIC
LIQUID?
A. BASALT
B. ANDESITE
C. RHYOLITE
13. WHICH IS MORE LIKELY, A GRANITE DIKE, A
DIORITE DIKE OR A GABBRO DIKE?
A. GRANITE
B. DIORITE
C. GABBRO
14. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MINERALS
MIGHT BE FOUND IN A GRANITE DIKE?
A. AMPHIBOLE
B. MUSCOVITE
C. BIOTITE
D. ALL OF THESE
15. CRATER LAKE, OREGON, IS A LAKE WITHIN
A:
A. SILL
B. CRATER
C. CALDERA
D. VOLCANIC NECK
16. RESIDENTS AT THE BASE OF WHICH ONE OF
THE FOLLOWING WOULD FACE THE
GREATEST DANGER OF A NUEE ARDENTE?
A. SHIELD VOLCANO
B. CINDER CONE
C. GEYSER
D. STRATOVOLCANO
17. THE CONTINENTAL CRUST IS MOST LIKE
_______________.
A. GRANITE
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B. RHYOLITE
C. BASALT
D. GABBRO
18. THE OCEANIC CRUST IS MOST LIKE
_______________.
A. GRANITE
B. RHYOLITE
C. BASALT
D. GABBRO
19. WHAT TYPE OF VOLCANIC ROCK CONTAINS A
LARGE NUMBER OF CAVITIES (BUBBLES)
THAT FORM WHEN GASESESCAPE FROM THE
MOLTEN ROCK?
A. GRANITE
B. OBSIDIAN
C. PUMICE
D. BASALT
20. WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF WATER ON
MELTING (ASSUMING THE ROCK DOES NOT
CONTAIN ANY HYDROUSMINERALS)?
A. WATER RAISES THE MELTING
TEMPERATURE OF ROCK
B. WATER LOWERS THE MELTING
TEMPERATURE OF A ROCK
C. WATER NEITHER RAISES NOR
LOWERS THE MELTING
TEMPERATURE
21. DURING CRYSTALLIZATION OF A MELT
PLAGIOCLASE BECOME RICHER IN
__________ .
A. POTASSIUM
B. SODIUM
C. CALCIUM
D. KRYPTON
22. AT ABOUT WHAT TEMPERATURE DO OLIVINE
AND CA-RICH PLAGIOCLASE CRYSTALLIZE
FROM A MAGMA?
A. 500 DEGREESC
B. 1000 DEGREES C
C. 1500 DEGREES C
D. 2000 DEGREES C
23. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A
CONCORDANT INTRUSIVE ROCK?
A. DIKE
B. SILL
C. STOCK
D. BATHOLITHS
24. WHAT TYPE OF IGNEOUS ROCK WOULD
CONTAIN 10 MM LONG PLAGIOCLASE
CRYSTALS SURROUNDED BY 0.5 MM LONG
CRYSTALS?
A. PORPHYRY
B. OBSIDIAN
C. PHANERITIC
D. APHANITIC
25. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF
INTRUSIVE AND EXTRUSIVE ROCKSHAVE THE
SAME CHEMICAL COMPOSITION?
A. GRANITE AND ANDESITE
B. DIORITE AND BASALT
C. GABBRO AND BASALT
D. GABBRO AND RHYOLITE
26. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING BEST DESCRIBES
A GRANITE?
A. A LIGHT-COLORED, FINE-GRAINED
IGNEOUSROCK RICH IN SILICA
B. A LIGHT-COLORED, FINE-GRAINED
IGNEOUSROCK POOR IN SILICA
C. A LIGHT-COLORED, COARSE-
GRAINED IGNEOUS ROCK RICH IN
SILICA
D. A LIGHT-COLORED, COARSE-
GRAINED IGNEOUS ROCK POOR IN
SILICA
27. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING BEST DESCRIBES
A BASALT?
A. A DARK-COLORED, FINE-GRAINED
IGNEOUSROCK RICH IN SILICA
B. A DARK-COLORED, FINE-GRAINED
IGNEOUSROCK POOR IN SILICA
C. A DARK-COLORED, COARSE-
GRAINED IGNEOUS ROCK RICH IN
SILICA
D. A DARK-COLORED, COARSE-
GRAINED IGNEOUS ROCK POOR IN
SILICA
28. MOST IGNEOUS ROCKS CONTAIN
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___________SIO2 BY WEIGHT.
A. LESSTHAN 40%
B. BETWEEN 40%AND 70%
C. BETWEEN 70%AND 90%
D. GREATER THAN 90%
29. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MINERALS IS
THE MOST ABUNDANT MINERAL IN
ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS?
A. AMPHIBOLE
B. OLIVINE
C. SODIUM PLAGIOCLASE
D. QUARTZ
30. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
A. MAFIC ROCKS ARE RICHER IN SILICA
THAN FELSIC ROCKS
B. MAFIC ROCKS CRYSTALLIZE AT
HIGHER TEMPERATURES THAN
FELSIC ROCKS
C. MAFIC ROCKS ARE MORE VISCOUS
THAN FELSIC ROCKS
D. MAFIC ROCKS TEND TO BE LIGHTER
IN COLOR THAN FELSIC ROCKS.
31. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IGNEOUS ROCKS
CRYSTALLIZESNEAR THE EARTH'SSURFACE?
A. BASALT
B. GABBRO
C. DIORITE
D. GRANITE
32. WHAT IS THE APPROXIMATE SILICA
CONTENT OF A GRANITE?
A. 20%
B. 50%
C. 70%
D. 100%
33. WHICH OF THESE MINERALS ISCOMMONLY
FOUND IN BOTH MAFIC AND FELSIC ROCKS?
A. QUARTZ
B. ALKALI FELDSPAR
C. PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPAR
D. OLIVINE
34. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT AN
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUSROCK?
A. BASALT
B. ANDESITE
C. OBSIDIAN
D. GRANITE
35. FELSIC => INTERMEDIATE => =>MAFIC
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES
INCREASES IN THE DIRECTION OF THE
ARROWS IN THE SENTENCE ABOVE?
A. MELTING TEMPERATURE
B. POTASSIUM CONTENT
C. SILICA CONTENT
D. VISCOSITY
36. WHAT TYPE OF MAGMA FORMS AT MID-
OCEAN RIDGES?
A. BASALT
B. ANDESITE
C. ULTRAMAFIC
D. GRANITE
37. A PORPHYRITIC IGNEOUS ROCK CONTAINS
PHENOCRYSTS OF OLIVINE AND CALCIUM-
RICH PLAGIOCLASE IN AN APHANITIC
GROUNDMASS. THISISA __________?
A. ANDESITE PORPHYRY
B. BASALT PORPHYRY
C. GABBRO PORPHYRY
D. RHYOLITE PORPHYRY
38. A PORPHYRITIC IGNEOUS ROCK CONTAINS
PHENOCRYSTS OF OLIVINE AND CALCIUM-
RICH PLAGIOCLASE IN AN PHANERITIC
GROUNDMASS. THISISA __________?
A. ANDESITE PORPHYRY
B. BASALT PORPHYRY
C. GABBRO PORPHYRY
D. RHYOLITE PORPHYRY
39. WHAT IS THE DOMINANT ROCK TYPE ON
MOST OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS?
A. BASALT
B. ANDESITE
C. ULTRAMAFIC
D. GRANITE
40. WHAT IS THE DOMINANT ROCK TYPE AT THE
MOUNTAINS?
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A. BASALT
B. ANDESITE
C. ULTRAMAFIC
D. GRANITE
41. WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF WATER ON
MELTING?
A. WATER RAISES THE MELTING
TEMPERATURE OF A ROCK
B. WATER LOWERS THE MELTING
TEMPERATURE OF A ROCK
C. WATER DOES NOT CHANGE THE
MELTING TEMPERATURE OF A ROCK
D. THIS DEPENDS ON HOW MUCH
WATER IS PRESENT

42. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SCENARIOS
WOULD LEAD TO MELTING OF ALBITE PLUS
WATER?
A. RAISE THE PRESSURE (P)
B. RAISE THE TEMPERATURE (T)
C. EITHER RAISE THE PRESSURE (P) OR
RAISE THE TEMPERATURE (T)
D. DECREASE EITHER THE
TEMPERATURE (T) OR PRESSURE
(P)
43. DURING CRYSTALLIZATION OF A MAGMA
THE PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPAR __________.
A. IS REPLACED BY QUARTZ
B. IS REPLACED BY PYROXENE
C. BECOMESRICHER IN CALCIUM
D. BECOMESRICHER IN SODIUM
44. WHICH MINERAL IS NOT PART OF THE
DISCONTINUOUS REACTION SERIES?
A. PLAGIOCLASE
B. OLIVINE
C. PYROXENE
D. AMPHIBOLE
45. AT ABOUT WHAT TEMPERATURE DO OLIVINE
AND CALCIUM-RICH PLAGIOCLASE
CRYSTALLIZE FROM A MELT? (ANSWERS ARE
A. 500
B. 1000
C. 1500
D. 2000
46. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MINERALS
CRYSTALLIZES FIRST FROM A BASALTIC
MAGMA?
A. QUARTZ
B. BIOTITE
C. PYROXENE
D. OLIVINE
47. HOW DOES A MAGMA MAKE SPACE FOR
ITSELF IN ORDER TO RISE THROUGH THE
CRUST?
A. BY WEDGING OPEN THE OVERLYING
ROCK
B. BY BREAKING OFF LARGE BLOCKS
THAT SINK INTO THE MAGMA
CHAMBER
C. BY MELTING THE SURROUNDING
ROCKS
D. ALL OF THESE
48. HOW CAN A SILL BE DISTINGUISHED FROM A
LAVA FLOW?
A. A SILL IS GENERALLY COARSER-
GRAINED THAN A LAVA FLOW
B. THE ROCKS ABOVE AND BELOW A
SILL WILL SHOW EVIDENCE OF
HEATING BUT ONLY THE ROCKS
BELOW A LAVA FLOW WILL SHOW
EVIDENCE OF HEATING
C. SILLS GENERALLY DO NOT HAVE
VESICLES; LAVA FLOWS GENERALLY
HAVE VESICLES
D. ALL OF THESE
49. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A
VOLCANIC ARC THAT OVERLIES A
SUBDUCTION ZONE?
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A. ALEUTIAN ISLANDS
B. HAWAIIAN ISLANDS
D. JAPANESE ISLANDS
50. WHAT TYPE OF SILICATE MINERALS ON THE
DISCONTINUOUS SIDE OF THE REACTION
SERIES CRYSTALLIZE AT THE HIGHEST
TEMPERATURES?
A. ISOLATED TETRAHEDRAL
B. SINGLE CHAIN
C. SHEET
D. FRAMEWORK
51. AS A MAGMA CHANGES FROM MAFIC TO
FELSIC, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
ELEMENTSDECREASES?
A. SODIUM
B. POTASSIUM
C. SILICON
D. IRON
52. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
FALSE?
A. MAFIC MAGMAS ARE MORE
VISCOUSTHAN FELSIC MAGMAS
B. MAFIC MAGMAS ARE HOTTER THAN
FELSIC MAGMAS
C. MAFIC MAGMAS CONTAIN MORE
CALCIUM THAN FELSIC MAGMAS
D. MAFIC MAGMAS CONTAIN LESS
SILICON THAN FELSIC MAGMAS
53. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES
DOES NOT DEPEND ON THE CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION OF AN IGNEOUS ROCK?
A. GRAIN SIZE
B. MELTING TEMPERATURE
C. MINERALOGY
D. VISCOSITY
54. COMPARED TO FELSIC MAGMAS, MAFIC
MAGMASARE RELATIVELY ENRICHED IN:
A. CALCIUM
B. IRON
C. MAGNESIUM
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
55. A GLASSY TEXTURE INDICATES:
A. VERY RAPID COOLING
B. SLOW COOLING
C. SLOW FOLLOWED BY RAPID
COOLING
D. NONE OF THE ABOVE
56. PYROCLASTIC ROCKSFORM BY:
A. A LAVA COOLING ON THE SURFACE
OF THE EARTH
B. VIOLENT, EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC
ERUPTION
C. A MAGMA COOLING SLOWING IN
THE SUBSURFACE
D. TWO PHASES OF COOLING, ONE
FAST AND ONE SLOW
57. THE PRESENCE OF PHENOCRYSTS IN AN
IGNEOUSROCKS INDICATE:
A. A LAVA COOLING ON THE SURFACE
OF THE EARTH
B. VIOLENT, EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC
ERUPTION
C. A MAGMA COOLING SLOWING IN
THE SUBSURFACE
D. TWO PHASES OF COOLING, ONE
FAST AND ONE SLOW
58. VESICLES IN AN IGNEOUS ROCK FORM
FROM:
A. ESCAPING GASES
B. PHENOCRYSTS SETTLE TO THE
BOTTOM OF THE MAGMA
CHAMBER
C. FALLING ASH
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
59. THE DISCONTINUOUS BRANCH OF BOWEN'S
REACTION SERIES CONSISTS OF MINERALS
WITH ________ STRUCTURES.
A. ISOLATED TETRAHEDRAL
B. SINGLE CHAINS
C. DOUBLE CHAINS
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
60. BATHOLITHS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH:
A. PLATEAU BASALTS
B. OCEANIC ISLANDS
C. FOLDED MOUNTAINS
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D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

61. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCK TYPES IS
DEPICTED IN THE DIAGRAM ABOVE?
A. BASALT
B. RHYOLITE
C. GABBRO
D. DIORITE

62. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCK TYPES IS
DEPICTED IN THE DIAGRAM ABOVE?
A. FELSIC
B. INTERMEDIATE
C. MAFIC
D. ULTRAMAFIC

63. IN THE BASALT SAMPLE DEPICTED ABOVE,
THE VESICLES (SMALL SPHERICAL CAVITIES)
MOST LIKELY FORMED BY ___________.
A. THE ESCAPE OF GAS BUBBLES
DISSOLVED IN THE LAVE DURING
ERUPTION
B. THE WEATHERING AND EROSION OF
OLIVINE CRYSTALS AFTER THE
ERUPTION
C. AIR BUBBLES ENTRAINED IN THE
FLOW DURING THE ERUPTION
D. VAPORIZATION DURING
UNDERWATER ERUPTION

64. WHAT MINERAL OCCURS IN BOX I OF
BOWEN'SREACTION SERIES(ABOVE)
A. AMPHIBOLE
B. CA-RICH PLAGIOCLASE
C. OLIVINE
D. QUARTZ
65. WHAT MINERAL OCCURS AT POINT II OF
BOWEN'SREACTION SERIES(ABOVE)
A. NA-RICH PLAGIOCLASE
B. CA-RICH PLAGIOCLASE
C. OLIVINE
D. QUARTZ
66. WHAT MINERAL OCCURS IN BOX III OF
BOWEN'SREACTION SERIES(ABOVE)
A. NA-RICH PLAGIOCLASE
B. MUSCOVITE
C. OLIVINE
D. QUARTZ

67. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING VOLCANIC
CHAINS FORMED AT A TECTONIC SETTING
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SIMILAR TO "A"?
A. ALEUTIAN ISLANDS
B. ANDES MOUNTAINS
D. HAWAIIAN ISLANDS
68. WHAT TYPE OF LAVA IS MOST LIKELY TO
ERUPT AT TECTONIC SETTING "B"?
A. ANDESITIC
B. BASALTIC
C. RHYOLITIC
D. NONE OF THE ABOVE
69. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING VOLCANOES
FORMED AT A TECTONIC SETTING SIMILAR
TO "C"?
A. HEKLA, ICELAND
B. MAUNA LOA
C. MOUNT PELEE, MARTINIQUE
D. MOUNT ST. HELENS
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
1. SHALE REFERSTO A ROCK FORMED FROM:
A. SAND SIZED MATERIAL
B. PLANT REMAINS
C. CLAY MINERALS
D. CARBONATE
2. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING IS A
BIOCHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCK?
A. SAND SIZED MATERIAL
B. COAL
C. SHALE
D. CONGLOMERATE
3. A CLASTIC ROCK IS:
A. A ROCK FORMED FROM THE
CEMENTATION OF TRANSPORTED
GRAINS
B. A ROCK FORMED FROM
EVAPORATION OF SEA WATER
C. TRANSFORMED BY HEAT INTO
LIMESTONE
D. TRANSFORMED BY PRESSURE INTO
LIMESTONE
4. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING FEATURES
IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS?
A. BEDDING
B. FOLIATION
C. FOSSILS
D. ALL MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
5. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF
SEDIMENTS ARE MOST ABUNDANT?
A. COARSE CLASTICS
B. FINE CLASTICS
C. CHEMICAL
D. BIOCHEMICAL
6. THE TENDENCY FOR VARIATIONS IN
CURRENT VELOCITY TO SEGREGATE
SEDIMENTS ON THE BASISOF PARTICLE SIZE
IS CALLED _____.
A. LILTHIFICATION
B. COMPACTION
C. METAMORPHISM
D. SORTING
7. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF
CURRENTS CAN TRANSPORT SAND GRAINS?
A. RIVERS
B. WIND
C. OCEAN WAVES
D. ALL OF THESE
8. IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS WOULD YOU
EXPECT THE SAND DEPOSITS TO BE POORLY
SORTED?
A. ALLUVIAL
B. BEACH
C. DESERT
D. GLACIAL

9. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ENVIRONMENTS
IS AN EXAMPLE OF A
SHORELINE/TRANSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT?
A. ALLUVIAL
B. CONTINENTAL SHELF
C. DELTAIC
D. ORGANIC REEF
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10. MOST SHELLSOF MARINE ORGANISMS ARE
COMPOSED OF ________ .
A. SILICA
B. CALCIUM CARBONATE
C. CALCIUM PHOSPHATE
D. CALCIUM SULFATE
11. COARSE CLASTIC MATERIAL CAN BE
TRANSPORTED INTO A DEEP MARINE
ENVIRONMENT BY ______ .
A. RIVERS
B. WIND
C. TURBIDITY CURRENTS
D. ALL OF THESE
12. MARINE SEDIMENTS DEPOSITED IN WATER
DEPTHS GREATER THAN ABOUT 12,000 FEET
USUALLY LACK ________ .
A. CARBONATE SHELLS
B. SILICA-RICH SHELLS
C. FINE GRAINED MATERIAL
TRANSPORTED BY THE WIND
D. ALL OF THESE
13. IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
ENVIRONMENTS WOULD YOU EXPECT TO
FIND OSCILLATION RIPPLES?
A. ALLUVIAL
B. BEACH
C. DEEP-SEA
D. DESERT
14. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES IS
NOT AN IMPORTANT CAUSE OF SUBSIDENCE
DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A
SEDIMENTARY BASIN?
A. COOLING AND CONTRACTION OF
THE CRUST
B. DEPOSITION OF SEDIMENTS
C. EROSION OF SEDIMENTS
D. TECTONIC DOWN FAULTING
15. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING LISTS IS
WRITTEN IN ORDER OF DECREASING
PARTICLE SIZE?
A. SANDSTONE, SILTSTONE,
CONGLOMERATE
B. SANDSTONE, CONGLOMERATE,
SILTSTONE
C. CONGLOMERATE, SANDSTONE,
SILTSTONE
D. SILTSTONE, SANDSTONE,
CONGLOMERATE
16. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A
BRECCIA AND A CONGLOMERATE?
A. BRECCIAS ARE COARSE GRAINED
AND CONGLOMERATES ARE FINE
GRAINED
B. CONGLOMERATES ARE COARSE
GRAINED AND BRECCIAS ARE FINE
GRAINED
C. BRECCIAS HAVE ROUNDED
FRAGMENTS AND CONGLOMERATES
HAVE ANGULAR FRAGMENTS
D. BRECCIAS HAVE ANGULAR
FRAGMENTS AND CONGLOMERATES
HAVE ROUNDED FRAGMENTS
17. A FELDSPAR-RICH SANDSTONE IS CALLED
A(N) ________ .
A. ARKOSE
B. LITHARENITE
C. QUARTZARENITE
D. SHALE
18. A SANDSTONE WITH ABUNDANT ROCK
FRAGMENTS AND CLAY MINERALS IS A(N)
______ .
A. ARKOSE
B. LITHARENITE
C. QUARTZARENITE
D. SHALE
19. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCKS IS
DEPOSITED ONLY BY NON-BIOLOGICAL,
CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION ?
A. HALITE
B. LIMESTONE
C. CHERT ARENITE
D. COAL
20. THE MOST COMMON LITHIFICATION
PROCESS FOR FINE CLASTICSIS_______ .
A. CEMENTATION
B. COMPACTION
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21. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING LISTS IS
WRITTEN IN THE ORDER OF INCREASING
TEMPERATURE ?
A. SEDIMENTATION,
METAMORPHISM, DIAGENESIS
B. DIAGENESIS, SEDIMENTATION,
METAMORPHISM
C. SEDIMENTATION, DIAGENESIS,
METAMORPHISM
D. METAMORPHISM, DIAGENESIS,
SEDIMENTATION
22. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES
DOES NOT OCCUR DURING DIAGENESIS?
A. COMPACTION
B. CEMENTATION
C. LITHIFICATION
D. METAMORPHISM
23. THE TERM "AEOLIAN" REFERS TO
TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION BY:
A. THE WIND
B. STREAMS
C. OCEAN WAVES
D. POCKET GOPHERS
24. WITH TIME, SEDIMENT TRANSPORTED BY
GLACIERS___________.
A. BECOMESROUNDED
B. BECOMESSMALLER
C. BECOMESROUNDED AND SMALLER
D. NONE OF THESE
25. WITH TIME, SEDIMENT TRANSPORTED BY A
FLUVIAL SYSTEM ___________.
A. BECOMESROUNDED
B. BECOMESSMALLER
C. BECOMES ROUNDED AND SMALLER

D. NONE OF THESE

26. WHICH OF THE SAND GRAINS ABOVE HAS
BEEN TRANSPORTED THE FURTHEST?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
27. COAL ISFORMED FROM ______.
A. NATURAL GAS
B. OIL
C. LIMESTONE
D. PRESERVED PLANT MATERIAL
28. IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS WOULD YOU
LEAST EXPECT TO FIND GRAVEL?
A. ACTIVE MARGIN BEACH
B. ALLUVIAL FANS
C. GLACIAL
D. DEEP MARINE
29. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SEDIMENTARY
ENVIRONMENTS IS CHARACTERIZED BY
SAND, GRAVEL AND MUD?
A. ACTIVE MARGIN BEACH
B. ALLUVIAL FANS
C. GLACIAL
D. DEEP MARINE
30. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SEDIMENTARY
ENVIRONMENTS IS DOMINATED BY WAVES
AND TIDAL CURRENTS?
A. GLACIAL
B. ALLUVIAL FANS
C. DELTAIC
D. DEEP MARINE
31. SILICEOUS ENVIRONMENTS, NAMED FOR
THE SILICA-RICH SHELLS DEPOSITED IN
THEM, OCCUR ________.
A. IN AN EVAPORITE ENVIRONMENT
B. IN A SWAMP ENVIRONMENT
C. IN A REEF ENVIRONMENT
D. IN A DEEP-SEA ENVIRONMENT

32. IN THE CROSS SECTION OF A SAND DUNE
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GIVEN ABOVE, THE WIND WASBLOWING?
A. <-------
B. -------->
C. <------->
D. CANNOT DETERMINE DIRECTION
FROM INFORMATION GIVEN.
33. IN THE CROSS SECTION OF A SAND DUNE
GIVEN ABOVE, THE DIAGONAL LAYERS ARE
CALLED_____.
A. CROSSBEDS
C. POINT BARS
D. RIPPLE MARKS.
34. WHAT IS THE MOST ABUNDANT
BIOCHEMICAL PRECIPITATE IN THE OCEANS?
A. HALITE
B. LIMESTONE
C. CHERT
D. COAL
35. RIPPLESOCCUR:
A. ON SAND BENEATH THE WAVES AT
BEACHES
B. ON UNDERWATER SANDBARS IN
STREAMS
C. ON THE SURFACE OF WINDSWEPT
DUNES
D. ALL OF THESE CAN HAVE RIPPLES
36. IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ENVIRONMENTS
WOULD YOU EXPECT TO FIND SYMMETRICAL
RIPPLES?
A. ALLUVIAL
B. BEACH
C. DEEP-SEA
D. DESERT
37. WHAT IS THE APPROXIMATE TEMPERATURE
OF A SEDIMENT THAT IS BURIED TO A DEPTH
OF 3 KM?
A. 0 DEGREES C
B. 100 DEGREESC
C. 300 DEGREESC
D. 1000 DEGREES C
38. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES
OCCURSDURING LITHIFICATION?
A. RECRYSTALLIZATION
B. COMPACTION
C. CEMENTATION
D. ALL MAY OCCUR
39. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ISAN EXAMPLE
OF A PHYSICAL, AS OPPOSED TO A
CHEMICAL, DIAGENETIC PROCESS?
A. RECRYSTALLIZATION
B. COMPACTION
C. CEMENTATION
D. ALL ARE PHYSICAL IN NATURE
40. WHAT IS THE POROSITY OF NEWLY
DEPOSITED MUD?
A. LESSTHAN 5%
B. BETWEEN 5%AND 25%
C. BETWEEN 25%AND 50%
D. 50%
41. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING GROUPS
REPRESENT THE MOST ABUNDANT
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS?
A. LIMESTONESAND DOLOMITES
B. SANDSTONES AND
CONGLOMERATES
C. CHERTS AND EVAPORATES
D. MUDSTONESAND SHALES

42. WHAT TYPE OF SANDSTONE IS DEPICTED IN
THE ILLUSTRATION ABOVE?
A. QUARTZARENITE
B. LITHARENITE
C. ARKOSE
D. THIS IS A GRANITE!!
43. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SANDSTONE
TYPES IS MOST LIKELY TO FORM BY THE
MECHANICAL WEATHERING OF A GRANITE?
A. QUARTZARENITE
B. LITHARENITE
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C. ARKOSE
D. SHALE
44. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SANDSTONE
TYPES IS MOST LIKELY TO FORM BY THE
MECHANICAL AND INTENSE CHEMICAL
WEATHERING OF A GRANITE?
A. QUARTZARENITE
B. LITHARENITE
C. ARKOSE
D. SHALE

PLATE TECTONICS

1.WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MESOZOIC
SUPERCONTINENT THAT CONSISTED OF ALL
OF THE PRESENT CONTINENTS?
A. EURASIA
B. LAURASIA
C. PANGAEA
D. GONDWANALAND
2. WHEN DID THE SUPERCONTINENT PANGAEA
BEGIN TO BREAK APART?
C. ABOUT 200 MILLION YEARS AGO
D. ABOUT 570 MILLION YEARS AGO
3. WHAT TWO SCIENTISTS PROPOSED THE
THEORY OF SEAFLOOR SPREADING IN HE
EARLY 1960S?
A. CHARLES DARWIN AND JAMES
HUTTON
B. HARRY HESS AND ROBERT DIETZ

C. JOHN BUTLER AND ARTHUR SMITE
D. VINE AND D. MATHEWS
4. THE THEORY OF PLATE TECTONICS WAS
WIDELY ACCEPTED BY __________ .
THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY
5. WHAT AGE ARE THE FOSSILS OF THE REPTILE
MESOSAURUS FOUND IN AFRICA AND
SOUTH AMERICA THAT SUGGESTED THAT
THE TWO CONTINENTS WERE ONCE
TOGETHER?
A. EARLY CENOZOIC
B. LATE MESOZOIC
C. EARLY MESOZOIC
D. LATE PALEOZOIC
6. APPROXIMATELY HOW MANY LITHOSPHERIC
PLATES ARE THERE?
7. WHICH PLATE IS BEING SUBDUCTED
BENEATH WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA?
A. THE PACIFIC PLATE
B. THE SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE
C. THE NAZCA PLATE
D. THE SOUTH ATLANTIC PLATE
8. HOW OLD ARE THE OLDEST OCEANIC
CRUSTAL BASALTS?
B. ABOUT 4.0 BILLION YEARS OLD
C. ABOUT 200 MILLION YEARS OLD
D. ABOUT 570 MILLION YEARS OLD
9. NEW OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE FORMS AT
__________ .
A. DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
B. CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
C. TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARIES
D. ALL OF THESE ARE POSSIBLE
10. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A
DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARY?
A. THE GREAT RIFT VALLEY OF EAST
AFRICA
B. THE EAST PACIFIC RISE
C. THE SAN ANDREAS FAULT
D. THE MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE
11. PARTIAL MELTING AND THE PRODUCTION OF
MAGMA TAKESPLACE AT ________ .
A. DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
B. OCEAN-OCEAN CONVERGENT PLATE
BOUNDARIES
C. OCEAN-CONTINENT PLATE
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BOUNDARIES
D. ALL OF THESE
12. AT WHAT TYPE OF PLATE BOUNDARY DO
SHALLOW-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES OCCUR?
A. CONVERGENT
B. DIVERGENT
C. TRANSFORM
D. ALL OF THESE
13. THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS FORMED AT A
_________ .
A. CONVERGENT BOUNDARY
B. DIVERGENT BOUNDARY
C. TRANSFORM BOUNDARY
D. NONE OF THESE
14. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE NOT
ASSOCIATED WITH CONVERGENT PLATE
MARGINS?
A. DEEP-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
B. RIFT VALLEYS
C. ISLAND ARCS
D. DEEP-SEA TRENCHES
15. THE NORTH AMERICAN PLATE ISBOUNDED
BY _________ PLATE BOUNDARIES
A. CONVERGENT
B. DIVERGENT
C. TRANSFORM
D. CONVERGENT, DIVERGENT, AND
TRANSFORM
16. THE EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA
REPRESENTS A _________ .
A. CONVERGENT BOUNDARY
B. DIVERGENT BOUNDARY
C. TRANSFORM BOUNDARY
D. NONE OF THESE
17. WHAT ARE OPHIOLITE SUITES?
A. FRAGMENTS OF OCEANIC
LITHOSPHERE EMPLACED ON A
CONTINENT
B. GROUPS OF SEAFLOOR MAGNETIC
ANOMALIES
C. WEDGE-SHAPED PACKAGES OF
SEDIMENTS THAT FORM AT PASSIVE
MARGINS
D. MICRO-CONTINENTS THAT HAVE
TRAVELED A LONG DISTANCE
18. TRANSFORM FAULTS ___________ .
CENTERS
B. CAN CUT ACROSS CONTINENTS
C. INVOLVE HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT
D. ALL OF THESE
19. STRETCHING STRESSES, BASALTIC LAVAS,
AND SHALLOW EARTHQUAKES ARE
ASSOCIATED WITH ______ .
A. SUBDUCTION ZONES
B. CONTINENT/CONTINENT
CONVERGENCE
D. TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES
20. COMPRESSIVE STRESSES, GRANITIC
MAGMAS, AND INTERMEDIATE DEPTH
EARTHQUAKES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH
__________
A. SUBDUCTION ZONES
B. CONTINENT/CONTINENT
CONVERGENCE
D. TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES
21. SHEARING STRESSES AND SHALLOW
EARTHQUAKES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH:
A. SUBDUCTION ZONES
B. CONTINENT/CONTINENT
CONVERGENCE
D. TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES
22. IF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN IS WIDENING AT A
RATE OF 3 CM PER YEAR HOW FAR (IN
KILOMETERS) WILL IT SPREAD IN A MILLION
YEARS?
A. 300 KILOMETERS
B. 30 KILOMETERS
C. 30 MILES
D. 3 KILOMETERS
23. IN 50 MILLION YEARS?
A. 150 KILOMETERS
B. 1000 KILOMETERS
C. 1500 KILOMETERS
D. 30 KILOMETERS
24. AT CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
WHERE OCEANIC AND CONTINENTAL CRUST
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MEET _________ .
A. NO ASSOCIATED VOLCANISM
OCCURS
B. OCEANIC CRUST ISSUBDUCTED
C. CONTINENTAL CRUST IS
SUBDUCTED
D. OCEANIC CRUST ISCREATED
25. ONE REMARKABLE REALIZATION
ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISCOVERY OF
_____________ .
A. THE CRUST OF THE CONTINENTS IS
MORE DENSE THAN THE CRUST OF
THE OCEAN
B. THE CRUST OF THE OCEANS IS VERY
YOUNG RELATIVE TO THE AGE OF
THE CRUST OF THE CONTINENTS
C. MOUNTAINS ARE MORE DENSE
THAN THEN MANTLE
D. THE ROTATIONAL POLES OF THE
EARTH HAVE MIGRATED.
26. WHICH SEGMENT OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN
OPENED FIRST?
A. NORTHERN
B. SOUTHERN
C. CENTRAL
D. IT ALL OPENED AT THE SAME TIME
27. IF THE PACIFIC PLATE AND THE NORTH
AMERICAN PLATE CONTINUE TO MOVE IN
THE SAME SENSE, LOS ANGELES AND SAN
FRANCISCO WILL EVENTUALLY LIE AT THE
SAME LATITUDE
A. TRUE
B. FALSE
28. I ONCE SAW A BUMPER STICKER THAT SAID
"REUNITE GONDWANALAND". WHICH OF
THE FOLLOWING WOULD NOT BE PART OF
THIS RECONSTRUCTION?
A. ANTACRTICA
B. AUSTRALIA
C. INDIA SOUTH OF THE HIMAYALA
D. NORTH AMERICA
29. LOIHI EXCITES GEOLOGISTS BECAUSE IT
REPRESENTS A:
A. NEW INSTRUMENT FOR DETECTING
VOLCANIC GASSES
B. NEW INSTRUMENT FOR DETECTING
LAVA COMPOSITION
C. SATELLITE THAN CAN MONITOR
WORLDWIDE VOLCANIC ACTIVITY
D. A NEW VOLCANO THAT IS THE
YOUNGEST IN THE HAWAIIAN
ISLAND CHAIN.
30. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A CHAIN
OF VOLCANIC ISLANDS ASSOCIATED WITH
OCEAN-OCEAN CONVERGENCE?
A. THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS
B. THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS
C. THE MARIANA ISLANDS
D. THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
31. VOLCANIC ISLAND ARCS ARE ASSOCIATED
WITH __________ .
A. TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARIES
B. DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
C. OCEAN-OCEAN CONVERGENT PLATE
BOUNDARIES
D. OCEAN-CONTINENT CONVERGENT
PLATE BOUNDARIES
32. MELANGE DEPOSITS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH
______ .
A. DIVERGENT BOUNDARIES
B. SUBDUCTION MARGINS
C. TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES
D. ALL OF THESE
33. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MOUNTAINS
DID NOT FORM AS A RESULT OF COLLISION
BETWEEN TWO CONTINENTS?
A. APPALACHIANS
B. URALS
C. ANDES
D. HIMALAYAS
34. CRUSTAL BLOCKS THAT OCCUR WITHIN
OROGENIC BELTS WHOSE ROCKS AND
STRUCTURES CONTRAST SHARPLY WITH
________ .
A. OPHIOLITES
B. SUTURES
C. MICROPLATES
D. ISLAND ARCS
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35. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING INCREASES
WITH DISTANCE FROM A MID-OCEAN
RIDGE?
A. THE AGE OF OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE
B. THE DEPTH TO THE SEA FLOOR
C. THE THICKNESS OF THE
LITHOSPHERE
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

THE CROSS SECTION ABOVE DEPICTS
MAGNETIZED OCEANIC CRUST AT A
INDICATESNORMAL MAGNETIC BANDS AND
THE "-" SYMBOL INDICATES REVERSED
MAGNETIC BANDS.
36. HOW MANY REVERSALS OF THE EARTH'S
MAGNETIC FIELD ARE DEPICTED IN THE
DIAGRAM?
A. 3
B. 4
C. 6
D. 7
37. HOW FAST ARE C AND D SPREADING APART
FROM EACH OTHER?
A. ABOUT 2 CENTIMETERS PER YEAR
B. ABOUT 5 CENTIMETERS PER YEAR
C. ABOUT 10 CENTIMETERS PER YEAR

YEAR
38. LINES ON THE SEAFLOOR THAT CONNECT
ROCKS OF THE SAME AGE ARE CALLED
_________.
B. ISOTOPES
C. ISOCHRONES
D. ISOSTASY
39. THE EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA
REPRESENTS A ___________.
A. CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARY
B. DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARY
C. A TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARY
D. THE EAST COAST OF NORTH
AMERICA IS NOT A PLATE
BOUNDARY
40. WHAT ARE OPHIOLITE SUITES?
A. FRAGMENTS OF OCEANIC
LITHOSPHERE EMPLACED ON A
CONTINENT
B. GROUPS OF SEAFLOOR MAGNETIC
ANOMALIES
C. WEDGE-SHAPED PACKAGES OF
SEDIMENT THAT FORM AT PASSIVE
MARGINS
D. MICRO-CONTINENTS THAT HAVE
TRAVELED A LONG DISTANCE

THE DIAGRAM ABOVE REPRESENTS AN
OPHIOLITE SUITE
41. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCK TYPES
WOULD YOU LEAST EXPECT TO FIND IN
LAYER 1?
A. CHERT
B. LIMESTONE
C. SANDSTONE
D. SHALE
42. WHAT TYPE OF ROCKS MAKE UP LAYER 2
A. BASALT
B. GABBRO
C. GRANITE
D. ULTRAMAFICS
43. WHAT TYPE OF ROCKS MAKE UP LAYER 3
A. BASALT
B. GABBRO
C. GRANITE
D. ULTRAMAFICS
44. WHERE IS THE MOHO IN THISDIAGRAM?
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A. BETWEEN LAYERS 1 AND 2
B. BETWEEN LAYERS 2 AND 3
C. BETWEEN LAYER 3 AND THE
ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS
D. BENEATH THE ULTRAMAFICS
45. WHICH TWO LAYERS HAVE THE SAME
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION?
A. LAYERS 1 AND 2
B. LAYERS 1 AND
C. LAYERS 2 AND 3
D. LAYER 3 AND THE ULTRAMAFICS
46. HOW WIDE ARE THE CRYSTAL MUSH ZONES
(MAGMA CHAMBERS) BENEATH MID-OCEAN
RIDGES?
A. 1 KILOMETER
B. 10 KILOMETERS
C. 100 KILOMETERS
D. 500 KILOMETERS
47. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS LAID DOWN IN A
SLOWLY SUBSIDING BASIN ALONG A
RECEDING CONTINENTAL MARGIN ARE
CALLED __________.
A. CONTINENTAL SHELF DEPOSITS
B. OPHIOLITE SUITES
C. MELANGE DEPOSITS
D. FLUVIAL DEPOSITS
48. VOLCANIC ISLAND ARCS ARE ASSOCIATED
WITH _________.
A. TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARIES
B. DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
C. OCEAN-OCEAN CONVERGENT PLATE
BOUNDARIES
D. OCEAN-CONTINENT CONVERGENT
PLATE BOUNDARIES

49. WHAT IS THE TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE AT A
CALLED
A. OCEANIC BASIN
B. OCEANIC RIFT
D. OCEANIC TRENCH
50. FEATURE B, CALLED A __________,
CONSISTS OF CHAOTICALLY MIXED AND
DEFORMED ROCKS.
A. FOREARC BASIN
B. MLANGE
C. SUTURE
D. TURBIDITE
51. WHAT TYPE OF METAMORPHISM OCCURS IN
REGION B?
A. HIGH TEMPERATURE, LOW
PRESSURE
B. LOW TEMPERATURE, HIGH
PRESSURE
C. HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH
PRESSURE
D. LOW TEMPERATURE, LOW
PRESSURE
52. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS
COULD BE REPRESENTED BY THIS
DIAGRAM??
A. EAST COAST OF AFRICA
B. EAST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA
C. WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA

D. EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA
CRUSTAL
DEFORMATION

1. THE DIP OF A UNIT REPRESENTS THE
___________ .
A. DIRECTION OF INTERSECTION OF
THE ROCK LAYER AN A HORIZONTAL
SURFACE
B. PART OF THE UNIT WHICH HAS
BEEN ERODED
C. ANGLE AT WHICH THE BED INCLINES
FROM THE HORIZONTAL
D. TILT OF THE ROCK UNIT BEFORE
DEFORMATION
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2. IF YOU ARE FLYING IN AN AIRPLANE AND
YOU LOOK DOWN AT THE LANDSCAPE, YOU
ARE SEEING A ___________ VIEW OF THE
EARTH.
A. MAP
B. CROSS-SECTIONAL
C. LATERAL
D. HORIZONTAL
3. IF LOOK AT A VERTICAL FACE OF A CLIFF OR
A ROADCUT, YOU ARE SEEING A
___________ VIEW OF THE EARTH.
A. MAP
B. CROSS-SECTIONAL
C. LATERAL
D. HORIZONTAL
4. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF
TECTONIC FORCES TENDS TO PUSH TWO
SIDESOF A BODY IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS
SO THAT THEY SLIDE HORIZONTALLY PAST
ONE ANOTHER?
A. TENSIONAL FORCES
B. SHEARING FORCES
C. COMPRESSIVE FORCES
D. NONE OF THESE
5. WHAT TYPE OF FORCES DOMINATE AT
DIVERGENT PLATE MARGINS?
A. TENSIONAL FORCES
B. SHEARING FORCES
C. COMPRESSIVE FORCES
D. NONE OF THESE
6. WHAT TYPE OF FORCES DOMINATE AT
CONVERGENT PLATE MARGINS?
A. TENSIONAL FORCES
B. SHEARING FORCES
C. COMPRESSIVE FORCES
D. NONE OF THESE
7. THE ANGLE AT WHICH A SEDIMENTARY BED
IS INCLINED FROM THE HORIZONTAL IS
CALLED THE _____.
A. ANTICLINE
B. STRIKE
C. SYNCLINE
D. DIP
8. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A
TECTONIC FORCE RESPONSIBLE FOR FOLDING
OR FAULTING ROCKS?
A. COMPRESSIVE FORCE
B. TENSIONAL FORCE
C. SHEAR FORCE
D. ALL OF THESE ARE TECTONIC
FORCES
9. THE TWO SIDESOF A FOLD ARE CALLED ITS
________ .
A. ANTICLINES
B. SYNCLINES
C. LIMBS
D. AXIAL PLANES
10. AT CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES ONE
WOULD EXPECT TO FIND _______.
A. FOLDS
B. FAULTS
C. FOLDS AND FAULTS
D. NEITHER FOLDS OR FAULTS
11. AT DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES ONE
WOULD EXPECT TO FIND _______.
A. FOLDS
B. FAULTS
C. FOLDS AND FAULTS
D. NEITHER FOLDS OR FAULTS
12. AT TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARIES ONE
WOULD EXPECT TO FIND _______.
A. FOLDS
B. FAULTS
C. FOLDS AND FAULTS
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D. NEITHER FOLDS OR FAULTS
13. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
A. DEEP CRUSTAL ROCKS ARE MORE
LIKELY TO DEFORM DUCTILY THAN
SHALLOW CRUSTAL ROCKS
B. HOTTER ROCKS ARE MORE LIKELY
TO DEFORM DUCTILY THAN COOLER
ROCKS
C. MOST SEDIMENTARY ROCKS ARE
MORE DEFORMABLE THAN
IGNEOUSROCKS
D. ROCKS UNDER LOW CONFINING
PRESSURE ARE MORE LIKELY TO
DEFORM DUCTILY THAN ROCKS
UNDER HIGH CONFINING PRESSURE

14. THE BIGGEST DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROCK
DEFORMATION EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED
IN A LABORATORY AND ROCK DEFORMATION
THAT OCCURS NATURALLY IS THAT
_______.
A. THE TEMPERATURES ARE MUCH
LOWER IN LABORATORY
EXPERIMENTSTHAN IN NATURE
B. THE PRESSURES ARE MUCH LOWER
IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS
THAN IN NATURE
C. THE TIME OF DEFORMATION IS
MUCH SHORTER IN LABORATORY
EXPERIMENTSTHAN IN NATURE
D. REAL ROCKS ARE NOT USED IN
LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AS
THEY ARE IN NATURE
15. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTSINDICATE THAT
________.
A. MOST IGNEOUS ROCKS ARE MORE
DEFORMABLE THAN MOST
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
B. MOST IGNEOUS ROCKS ARE LESS
DEFORMABLE THAN MOST
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
C. BASEMENT ROCKS ARE MORE
DUCTILE THAN YOUNG SEDIMENTS
D. YOUNG SEDIMENTS ARE VERY
BRITTLE AND NOT EASILY
DEFORMED
16. AN OVERTURNED FOLD IS CHARACTERIZED
BY ___________ .
A. TWO LIMBS AT RIGHT ANGLES TO
ONE ANOTHER
B. TWO LIMBS DIPPING IN THE SAME
DIRECTION - WITH ONE TILTED
BEYOND VERTICAL
C. TWO LIMBS DIPPING IN OPPOSITE
DIRECTIONS
D. TWO LIMBS NOT PARALLEL TO EACH
OTHER
17. WHAT TYPES OF TECTONIC FORCES CAUSE
FAULTING?
A. COMPRESSIVE FORCES
B. TENSIONAL FORCES
C. SHEARING FORCES
D. ALL OF THESE
18. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ISAN EXAMPLE
OF A FAULT WHERE THE MOTION IS
PRIMARILY HORIZONTAL?
A. A STRIKE SLIP FAULT
B. A RIGHT-LATERAL FAULT
C. A TRANSFORM FAULT
D. ALL OF THESE
19. WHAT TYPES OF FAULTS ARE ASSOCIATED
WITH SHEARING FORCES?
A. NORMAL FAULTS
B. REVERSE FAULTS
C. STRIKE-SLIP
D. ALL OF THESE
20. WHAT TYPE OF FAULT IS CHARACTERIZED BY
THE ROCKS ABOVE THE FAULT PLANE
MOVING DOWNWARD RELATIVE TO THE
ROCKSBELOW THE FAULT PLANE?
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A. NORMAL FAULTS
B. REVERSE FAULTS
C. STRIKE-SLIP
D. ALL OF THESE
21. HOW MANY ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS
DOES IT TAKE TO DESCRIBE THE
ORIENTATION OF FAULT SURFACE?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
22. A SAMPLE OF MARBLE HASDEFORMED AS A
BRITTLE SUBSTANCE DURING A LABORATORY
EXPERIMENT. IF WE WISH OUR NEXT
SAMPLE OF MARBLE TO DEFORM
PLASTICALLY RATHER THAN AS A BRITTLE
SUBSTANCE, WE SHOULD CONDUCT OUR
NEXT EXPERIMENT AT _________.
A. LOWER TEMPERATURES AND
LOWER CONFINING PRESSURES
B. LOWER TEMPERATURES AND
HIGHER CONFINING PRESSURES
C. HIGHER TEMPERATURES AND
LOWER CONFINING PRESSURES
D. HIGHER TEMPERATURES AND
HIGHER CONFINING PRESSURES
23. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS
WOULD FAVOR FOLDING RATHER THAN
FAULTING?
A. LOW TEMPERATURES AND LOW
CONFINING PRESSURES
B. LOW TEMPERATURES AND HIGH
CONFINING PRESSURES
C. HIGH TEMPERATURES AND LOW
CONFINING PRESSURES
D. HIGH TEMPERATURES AND HIGH
CONFINING PRESSURES
24. WHICH FACTOR DOES NOT AFFECT WHETHER
FOLDING IS SEVERE OR GENTLE
A. THE MAGNITUDE OF THE APPLIED
FORCES
B. LENGTH OF TIME THE FORCE WAS
APPLIED
C. AGE OF THE ROCK UNITS
D. THE ABILITY OF THE ROCKS TO
RESIST DEFORMATION
25. DOWNFOLDS OR BASINS OF LAYERED ROCK
ARE CALLED:
A. ANTICLINES
B. FAULTS
C. SYNCLINES
D. UNCONFORMITIES
26. A BROAD CIRCULAR OR OVAL UPWARD
BULGE OF ROCK LAYERS IS CALLED A(N)
_____
A. ANTICLINE
B. SYNCLINE
C. BASIN
D. DOME
27. IF THE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS ON A GEOLOGIC
MAP FORM A ZIGZAG PATTERN, THE
UNDERLYING STRUCTURE PROBABLY
CONSISTSOF _________.
A. HORIZONTAL ANTICLINES AND
SYNCLINES
B. PLUNGING ANTICLINES AND
SYNCLINES
C. DOMESAND BASIN
D. STRIKE SLIP FAULTS

28. THE STRUCTURE SHOWN ABOVE IS A(N)
________.
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A. ANTICLINE
B. SYNCLINE
C. BASIN
D. DOME
29. THE STRUCTURE SHOWN ABOVE IS A(N)
________.
A. HORIZONTAL AND SYMMETRIC
B. HORIZONTAL AND ASYMMETRIC
C. PLUNGING AND SYMMETRIC
D. PLUNGING AND ASYMMETRIC
30. WHAT TYPE OF FAULT IS CHARACTERIZED BY
THE ROCKS ABOVE THE FAULT PLANE
MOVING UPWARD RELATIVE TO THE ROCKS
BELOW THE FAULT PLANE?
A. NORMAL
B. STRIKE SLIP
C. REVERSE
D. ALL OF THESE
31. A FAULT PLANE STRIKES NORTH-SOUTH AND
DIPS STEEPLY TO THE WEST. GEOLOGIC
OBSERVATIONS INDICATE THAT MOST OF
THE FAULT MOVEMENT WAS VERTICAL AND
THAT MESOZOIC ROCKSOCCUR EAST OF THE
FAULT AND PALEOZOIC ROCKSOCCUR WEST
OF THE FAULT. WHAT TYPE OF FAULT IS
THIS?
A. NORMAL
B. A RIGHT LATERAL STRIKE SLIP
C. REVERSE
D. ALL OF THESE
32. WHAT TYPE OF FAULT IS CHARACTERIZED BY
MOVEMENT BOTH ALONG STRIKE AND
ALONG DIP?
A. OBLIQUE-SLIP
B. STRIKE SLIP
C. REVERSE
D. NORMAL
33. AN OBLIQUE-SLIP FAULT SUGGESTS
_______
A. TENSIONAL FORCESONLY
B. COMPRESSIVE FORCESONLY
C. SHEAR FORCES ONLY
D. SHEAR FORCES COMBINED WITH
COMPRESSIVE OR TENSIONAL
FORCES
34. STRIKE-SLIP FAULTS ________.
A. HAVE PRIMARILY HORIZONTAL
MOVEMENT
B. HAVE PRIMARILY VERTICAL
MOVEMENT
C. HAVE NO APPRECIABLE
DISPLACEMENT
D. ARE LOW ANGLE REVERSE FAULTS
35. WHICH TWO MEASUREMENTS DESCRIBE THE
ORIENTATION OF A FAULT PLANE AT A GIVEN
LOCATION?
A. AXIS AND PLANE
B. STRIKE AND DIP
C. LATERAL AND THRUST
D. TREND AND PLUNGE
36. DIP-SLIP FAULTS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH
________ FORCES.
A. SHEARING
B. TENSIONAL
C. COMPRESSIVE
D. TENSIONAL AND COMPRESSIVE
37. WHAT TYPE OF FAULT ISA THRUST FAULT?
A. LOW-ANGLE NORMAL FAULT
B. LOW-ANGLE REVERSE FAULT
C. HIGH-ANGLE REVERSE FAULT
D. LOW-ANGLE STRIKE-SLIP FAULT
38. OVERTHRUSTS ARE CAUSED BY LARGE-SCALE
_______ FORCES.
A. SHEARING
B. TENSIONAL
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C. COMPRESSIVE
D. SHEAR COMBINED WITH TENSIONAL
AND COMPRESSIVE
39. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FEATURES IS
FORMED IN A REGION AFFECTED BY
TENSIONAL TECTONIC FORCES?
A. AN ANTICLINE
B. A THRUST FAULT
C. A STRIKE-SLIP FAULT
D. A RIFT VALLEY
40. THE RED SEA IS AN EXAMPLE OF A(N)
_________.
A. ANTICLINE
B. STRIKE-SLIP FAULT BASIN
C. RIFT VALLEY
D. HORST BLOCK MOUNTAIN
IN THE GEOLOGIC MAP BELOW, UNITS A, B,
AND C ARE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS; UNIT A IS
THE OLDEST AND UNIT C IS THE YOUNGEST.
THE SEDIMENTARY ROCKS ARE CUT BY A
FAULT, INDICATED BY THE DARK LINE, THAT
DIPS 60 DEGREESTO THE NORTHWEST.

41. WHAT TYPE OF STRUCTURE IS SHOWN ON
THE MAP?
A. A FAULTED SYNCLINE
B. A FAULTED ANTICLINE
C. A FOLDED STRIKE-SLIP FAULT
D. THE STRUCTURE CANNOT BE
DETERMINED FROM THE
INFORMATION GIVEN
42. WHICH WAY DO THE SEDIMENTARY LAYERS
DIP - ASSUMING THE STRUCTURE IS NOT
OVERTURNED?
A. TOWARD THE EAST
B. TOWARD THE WEST
C. TOWARD THE CENTER OF THE MAP
D. EAST AND WEST
43. WHAT TYPE OF FAULT IS DEPICTED ON THE
GEOLOGIC MAP?
A. A NORMAL FAULT
B. A REVERSE FAULT
C. A RIGHT-LATERAL FAULT
D. A LEFT-LATERAL FAULT
44. WHY IS UNIT A WIDER NORTH OF THE FAULT
THAN IT IS SOUTH OF THE FAULT?
A. DEEPER LEVELS OF THE STRUCTURE
ARE EXPOSED ON THE NORTH SIDE
OF THE FAULT
B. FAULTING HAS THINNED UNIT A
SOUTH OF THE FAULT.
C. UNIT A HAD A VARIABLE THICKNESS
PRIOR TO FAULTING
D. EROSION HAS REMOVED MOST OF
UNIT A SOUTH OF THE FAULT.
SEA FLOOR
1. IF THERE IS A HOT SPOT IN THE
ASTHENOSPHERE BENEATH YELLOWSTONE,
WYOMING, WHICH WAY WILL THE CENTER
OF ACTIVE VOLCANISM APPEAR TO HAVE
MOVED IN A MILLION YEARS?
A. EAST
B. WEST
C. NORTH
D. SOUTH
2. THE GULF COAST OF TEXAS IS A(N)
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_____________ CONTINENTAL MARGIN.
A. ACTIVE
B. PASSIVE
C. SUBDUCTION
D. DIVERGENT
3. THE WEST COAST OF PERU IS A(N)
_______ CONTINENTAL MARGIN.
A. ACTIVE
B. PASSIVE
C. TRANSFORM
D. DIVERGENT
4. MELANGE DEPOSITS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH
A _______ PLATE MARGIN
A. PASSIVE
B. SHEAR
C. TENSIONAL MARGIN
D. COMPRESSIONAL MARGIN
5. THRUST FAULTS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH A
_______ PLATE MARGIN.
A. PASSIVE
C. CONTINENTAL/OCEAN
CONVERGENT
D. TRANSFORM
6. SILICA RICH SEDIMENTS CHARACTERIZE THE
DEEP SEA FLOOR. THE SILICA COULD HAVE
COME FROM
A. VOLCANIC DEBRIS
B. LIFE FORMS IN THE OCEAN
C. NEITHER OF THESE ISCORRECT
D. THE FIRST TWO ANSWERS ARE
CORRECT
7. TURBIDITY CURRENTS CAN OCCUR AT BOTH
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE CONTINENTAL
MARGINS (TRUE OR FALSE).
A. TRUE
B. FALSE
8. THE PRESENCE OF "MAGNETIC STRIPES"
RECORDED IN THE OCEANIC CRUST REFLECTS
__________ .
A. REVERSALS IN POLARITY OF THE
EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
B. THE RATE OF SEA FLOOR
C. VARIATION IN COMPOSITION OF
THE OCEANIC CRUST
D. ALL OF THESE
9. THE WIDTH OF THE "MAGNETIC STRIPES"
RECORDED IN THE OCEANIC CRUST REFLECTS
_________ .
A. REVERSALS IN POLARITY OF THE
EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD
B. THE RATE OF SEA FLOOR
C. VARIATION IN COMPOSITION OF
THE OCEANIC CRUST
D. ALL OF THESE
10. TRANSFORM FAULTS _____________ .
CENTERS
B. CAN CUT ACROSS CONTINENTAL
CRUST
C. EXHIBIT HORIZONTAL OFFSET
D. ALL OF THESE
11. OPHIOLITES_________________
A. ARE AN ANCIENT PIECE OF SEA
FLOOR
B. ARE EMPLACED IN A
COMPRESSIONAL SETTING
C. ARE PRIMARILY IGNEOUS ROCKS
WITH A THIN SEDIMENTARY
COVERING
D. ALL OF THESE

VOLCANO
1.VOLCANOES ARE GENERALLY FOUND WHERE-
____________ PULL APART OR ARE COMING
TOGETHER
(A) INTRAPLATES
(B) TECTONIC PLATES
(C) EARTHS CRUST
(D) NONE OF THESE
2.. WHICH RIDGE HAS EXAMPLES OF VOLCANOES
CAUSED BY DIVERGENT TECTONIC PLATESPULLING
A PART?
(A) PACIFIC RING OF FIRE
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(B) MID ALTANTIC RIDGE
(C) BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
3. WHICH ONE HAS EXAMPLES OF VOLCANOES
CAUSED BY CONVERGENT TECTONIC PLATE
COMING TOGETHER
(A) MID ATLANTIC RIDGE
(B) PACIFIC RING OF FIRE
(C) BOTH (A) & (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
4. VOLCANOES CAN ALSO FORM WHERE THERE IS
STRETCHING OF THE EARTHS________
(A) SURFACE, CRUST
(B) PLATE, SURFACE
(C) CRUST, CRUST
(D) PLATE, CRUST
5. VOLCANO FORMS BY THE STRETCHING EARTHS
CRUST AND THE CRUST GOES THIS, THIS
PHENOMENON IS CALLED
(A) INTERAPLATE VOLCANISM
(B) NON-HOT INTERPOLATE
(C) HOT SPOT INTRAPLATE
(D) NONE OF THESE
6. VOLCANOES CAN ALSO BE CAUSED BY
___________SO CALLED HOT SPOTS
(A) MANTLE PLUMES
(B) ASH
(C) GASES
(D) NONE OF THESE
7. HOTSPOT VOLCANOES CAN BE FOUND ON THE
ISLAND LIKE:
(A) MALAYSIAN
(B) INDONESIAN
(C) HAWAIIAN
(D) NONE OF THESE

8. HOTSPOT VOLCANO IS ALSO FOUND ELSE WHERE
IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM ESPECIALLY ON:
(A) SUN AND MOONS
(B) ROCKY PLANETS AND MOONS
(C) BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
9. VOLCANOES ARE USUALLY LOCATED ON
(A) DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
(B) CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
(C) HOTSPOTS
(D) ALL OF THEM
10. THE ERUPTED MATERIAL OF VOLCANO CONSISTS
OF:
(A) LAVA TEXTURE
(B) LAVA COMPOSITION
(C) BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
11. DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES AFTER VOLCANIC
ACTIVITY FORM:
(A) VOLCANIC ISLANDS
(B) NEW SEA FLOOR
(C) BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
12. A PLACE WHERE TWO PLATED USUALLY AN
OCEANIC PLATE AND A CONTINENTAL PLATE COLLIDES
IS CALLED:
(A) CONTINENTAL ZONE
(B) VOLCANIC ZONE
(C) SUBDICTION ZONE
(D) NONE OF THESE
13. MAGMA CONTAINS THE CONTENTSOF
(A) SILICA
(B) ALUMINUM
(C) MAGNESIUM
(D) NONE OF THESE
14. VOLCANIC ERUPTED MATERIAL WHEN INSIDE THE
HILL/EARTH/MOUNTAIN IT IS CALLED_____AND
AFTER IS COMING OUT IT IS CALLED_____________
(A) LAVA, MAGMA
(B) MAGMA, LAVA
(C) BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
15. PARTICULARLY TYPE OF VOLCANO ON SOME MAN
OF JUPITER, SATURN, AND NEPTUNE IS KNOWN AS
(A) SHIELDS
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(B) CINDER CONE
(C) CRYOVOLCANO (ICE VOLCANO)
(D) NONE OF THESE

16. THE SMALLER CONES FORMED THROUGH VENTS,
ON THE HANKS OF HAWIIS KILAVEA ARE KNOWN AS.
(A) O
(B) P
(C) PU
(D) ALL OF THEM
17. THE VOLCANOES FORMED BY THE ALTERNATING
LAYERS OF LAVA AND ROCK FRAGMENTSARE CALLED:
(A) CINDER CONES
(B) SPATTER CONES
(C) COMPOSITE VOLCANOES
(D) SHIELDS
18.COMPOSITE VOLCANOES ARE ALSO KNOWN AS:
(A) STRATOVOLCANOES
(B) SHIELDS
(C) COMPOUND VOLCANOES
(D) NONE OF THESE
19. STRATOVOLCANO FORMS IMPRESSIVE, SNOW-
CAPPED PEAK WHICH IS OFTEN EXCEEDING___IN
HEIGHT, ______IN AREA AND ____IN VOLUME:
(A) 2500 M, 1000 SQ, KM, 400KM8
(B) 1900 M, 800 SQ, KM, 200 KM8
(C) 2000 M, 800SQ, KM, 200 KM8
(D) NONE OF THESE
20. COMPOSITE VOLCANOES USUALLY ERUPT IN
EXPLOSIVE WAY AS, WHEN THE VISCUSS MAGMA RISE
TO A SURFACE IT USUALLY CBQS
THE___________SO IN THE RESULT___WILL
INCREASE RESULTING IN AN EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION
(A) PRESSURE, CRATER PIPE
(B) MANTLE PLUME, GAS
(C) CRATER PIPE, PRESSURE
(D) NONE OF THESE
21. STRATOVOLCANOES ARE CONSTRUCTED ALONG
SUBDUCTION ZONESE.G.:
(A) MOUNT RAINIER
(B) MOUNT SHASTA
(C) MOUNT FUGI
(D) MOUNT HOOD
(E) MOUNT MAYON
(F) VESURIUS
(G) ALL OF THEM
22. SHIELD VOLCANOESARE __IN SIZE:
(A) SMALL
(B) MEDIUM
(C) LONG
(D) HUGE

23. TYPESOF VOLCANOESARE:
(A) CINDER CONES
(B) SPATTER CONES
(C) COMPOSITE VOLCANOES
(D) SHIELDS
(E) COMPLEX VOLCANOES
(F) ALL OF THEM
24. SHIELD VOLCANOES ARE BUILT BY MANY LAYERS
OF LAVA WHICH SPILLS OUT OF A CENTRAL VENT OR
GROUP OF VENTS, SO GENTLY FORMED A SLOPING
CONES AND THIS ISCAUSED BY THE FLUID CALLED
(A) RUNNY LAVA
(B) BASALTIC LAVA
(C) GASES
(D) NONE OF THESE
25. EXAMPLE OF SHIELD VOLCANOES IS
(A) KILAVEA
(B) MAUNA LOA
(C) BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
26. CINDER CONES ARE CHIEFLY FORMED BY
(A) EXPLOSION
(B) STROMBOLIAN EUROPTION
(C) CINDERS
(D) NONE OF THESE
27. CINDER CONES ARE BUILT FROM LAVA
FRAGMENTS CALLED
(A) MANTLE PLUMES
(B) ASH
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(C) CINDERS
(D) NONE OF THESE
28. CINDER CONES EXAMPLE IS
(A) MOUNT HOOD
(B) HEKLA ON ICELAND
(C) PARICUFIN IN MAXICO
(D) NONE OF THESE
29. WHEN THE LAVA IS HORN BY EXPANDING GASES
INTO FLUID HOT CLOTS RANGING IN SIZE FROM 1 CM
TO 50 CM ACROSSISCALLED:
(A) SPATTER
(B) CONES
(C) SHIELD
(D) NONE OF THESE
30. OTHER FEATURES OF VOLCANOES ARE
(A) SUBMARINE VOLCANO
(B) SUBGLACIAL VOLCANO
(C) SUPER VOLCANO
(D) ALL OF THEM
31. VOLCANIC MT. ETNA ISLOCATED IN
(A) SICILY
(B) GERMANY
(C) ENGLAND
(D) NONE OF THESE
32. THE MAGMA NOT ABLE TO REACH THE SURFACE
CRYSTALLIZESTO FORM
(A) SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
(B) VOLCANIC ROCKS
(C) PLUTONIC ROCKS
(D) NONE OF THESE
33. AN ACTIVE VOLCANO MAUNA LOA ISLOCATED
IN
(A) HAWAII U.S.A.
(B) BRAZIL
(C) FIGI
(D) NONE OF THESE
34. THE MAGINA NOT ABLE TO REACH THE SURFACE
CRYSTALLIZESTO FORM
(A) VOLCANTIC ROCKS
(B) PLUTONIC ROCKS
(C) BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
35. THE HOT MOLTEN MATERIAL ERUPTED FORM A
VOLCANO ISCALLED:
(A) MAGMA
(B) LAVA
(C) PYRO-CLAST
(D) NONE OF THESE

EARTHQUAKES

1. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING DESCRIBES THE
BUILD UP AND RELEASE OF STRESS DURING
AN EARTHQUAKE?
A. THE MODIFIED MERCALLI SCALE
B. THE ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY
C. THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION
D. THE TRAVEL TIME DIFFERENCE
2. THE AMOUNT OF GROUND DISPLACEMENT
IN A EARTHQUAKE IS CALLED THE
_________ .
A. EPICENTER
B. DIP
C. SLIP
D. FOCUS
3. THE POINT WHERE MOVEMENT OCCURRED
WHICH TRIGGERED THE EARTHQUAKE IS THE
_______ .
A. DIP
B. EPICENTER
C. FOCUS
D. STRIKE
4. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SEQUENCES
CORRECTLY LISTS THE DIFFERENT ARRIVALS
FROM FIRST TO LAST?
A. P WAVES ... SWAVES .... SURFACE
WAVES
B. SURFACE WAVES ... P WAVES .... S
WAVES
C. P WAVES ... SURFACE WAVES ... S
WAVES
D. SWAVES ... P WAVES .... SURFACE
WAVES
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5. HOW DO ROCK PARTICLES MOVE DURING
THE PASSAGE OF A P WAVE THROUGH THE
ROCK?
A. BACK AND FORTH PARALLEL TO THE
DIRECTION OF WAVE TRAVEL
B. BACK AND FORTH PERPENDICULAR
TO THE DIRECTION OF WAVE
TRAVEL
C. IN A ROLLING CIRCULAR MOTION
D. THE PARTICLESDO NOT MOVE
6. DETAILED STUDIES OF WHAT EARTHQUAKE
ALLOWED RESEARCHERS TO DEVELOP THE
ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY?.
A. THE 1906 SAN FRANCISCO
EARTHQUAKE
EARTHQUAKE
C. THE 1755 LISBON, PORTUGAL
EARTHQUAKE
D. THE 1985 MEXICO CITY
EARTHQUAKE
7. HOW MANY SEISMOGRAPH STATIONS ARE
NEEDED TO LOCATE THE EPICENTER OF AN
EARTHQUAKE?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
8. EARTHQUAKES CAN OCCUR WITH
_________ FAULTING.
A. NORMAL
B. REVERSE
C. THRUST
D. ALL OF THESE
9. APPROXIMATELY WHAT PERCENTAGE OF
EARTHQUAKES OCCUR AT PLATE
BOUNDARIES?
A. 25%
B. 50%
C. 75%
D. 90%
10. WHICH TYPE OF FAULTING WOULD BE LEAST
LIKELY TO OCCUR ALONG THE MID-ATLANTIC
RIDGE?
A. NORMAL
B. REVERSE
C. TRANSFORM
D. ALL OF THESE COULD OCCUR
11. HOW OFTEN DO MAGNITUDE 8
EARTHQUAKES OCCUR?
A. ABOUT 5 TO 10 TIMESPER YEAR
C. ABOUT EVERY 5 TO 10 YEARS
D. ABOUT EVERY 50 TO 100 YEARS
12. THE BULK MODULUS MEASURES
______________.
A. THE RESISTANCE TO FLOW OF A
LIQUID
B. THE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN
COLOR
C. THE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN
VOLUME
D. THE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN
SHAPE
13. THE SHEAR MODULUS MEASURES
_____________ .
A. THE RESISTANCE TO FLOW OF A
LIQUID
B. THE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN
SHAPE
C. THE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN
VOLUME OF A LIQUID
D. THE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN
VOLUME OF A SOLID
14. IF ONLY DENSITY INCREASES WITH
INCREASING DEPTH WITHIN THE EARTH, THE
VELOCITY OF A P WAVE SHOULD
___________ .
A. STAY THE SAME
B. INCREASE
C. DECREASE
15. IF A P WAVE WERE TO GO FROM A SOLID TO
A LIQUID - WHAT WOULD HAPPEN TO ITS
VELOCITY?
A. STAY THE SAME
B. INCREASE
C. DECREASE TO 0.0
D. DECREASE
16. IF AN SWAVE WERE TO GO FROM A SOLID
TO A LIQUID - WHAT WOULD HAPPEN TO ITS
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VELOCITY?
A. STAY THE SAME
B. INCREASE
C. DECREASE TO 0.0
D. DECREASE
17. WHICH BOUNDARY MARKS A CHANGE FROM
100%SOLID TO 100%LIQUID?
A. MANTLE ... OUTER CORE
B. LITHOSPHERE ... ASTHENOSPHERE
C. CRUST ... MANTLE
D. NONE OF THESE
18. BODY WAVESCONSIST OF THE:
A. P WAVES ONLY
B. SWAVES ONLY
C. P AND SWAVES
D. SURFACE WAVES
19. WITH INCREASING TRAVEL TIME THE
DIFFERENCE IN ARRIVAL TIMES BETWEEN
THE P AND THE SWAVES _________
A. INCREASES
B. DECREASES
C. STAYS CONSTANT
D. NONE OF THE ABOVE
20. EARTHQUAKE A HAS A RICHTER
MAGNITUDE OF 7 AS COMPARED WITH
EARTHQUAKE B'S 6. THE AMOUNT OF
GROUND MOTION IS ONE MEASURE OF
EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY.
A. A IS 10X MORE INTENSE THAN B

B. A IS 1000 MORE INTENSE THAN B
C. RICHTER MAGNITUDE DOES NOT
MEASURE INTENSITY
D. B IS 0.01XASINTENSE THAN A
21. IN GENERAL, THE MOST DESTRUCTIVE
EARTHQUAKE WAVES ARE THE
__________ .
A. P WAVES
B. SWAVES
C. SURFACE WAVES
D. Q WAVES
22. WHERE IS THE FOCUS WITH RESPECT TO THE
EPICENTER:
A. DIRECTLY BELOW THE EPICENTER
B. DIRECTLY ABOVE THE EPICENTER
C. IN THE P WAVE SHADOW ZONE
D. IN THE SWAVE SHADOW ZONE

23. POINT A, WHERE SLIP INITIATED DURING
THE EARTHQUAKE, IS CALLED THE
________.
A. DIP
B. EPICENTER
C. FOCUS
D. SCARP
24. POINT B IS CALLED THE EARTHQUAKE
________.
A. DIP
B. EPICENTER
C. FOCUS
D. SCARP
25. POINT C IS CALLED THE _________
A. EPICENTER
B. FAULT SCARP
C. SEISMIC WAVE
D. DIP OF THE EARTHQUAKE
26. WHAT TYPE OF FAULTING ISILLUSTRATED IN
THIS DIAGRAM?
A. NORMAL
B. REVERSE
C. THRUST
D. ABNORMAL

27. WHAT CAUSES THE UP-AND-DOWN
WIGGLES ON THE SEISMOGRAM SHOW
ABOVE?
A. VARIATIONS IN AIR PRESSURE
B. GROUND VIBRATIONS
C. TSUNAMI WAVES
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D. ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES
28. WHICH SET OF WAVES ARE PROBABLY THE
SURFACE WAVES?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. THEY ARE ALL SURFACE WAVES
29. WHICH SET OF WAVESARE THE P WAVES?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. THEY ARE ALL P WAVES
30. WHICH SET OF WAVESARE THE SWAVES?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. THEY ARE ALL SWAVES
31. THE DIFFERENCE IN ARRIVAL TIMES
BETWEEN WHICH PAIR OF WAVES CAN BE
USED TO DETERMINE THE DISTANCE TO THE
EPICENTER?
A. A AND C
B. A AND B
C. NONE OF THE ABOVE
32. HOW DO ROCK PARTICLES MOVE DURING
THE PASSAGE OF A P WAVE THROUGH THE
ROCK?
A. BACK AND FORTH PARALLEL TO THE
DIRECTION OF WAVE TRAVEL
B. PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION
OF WAVE TRAVEL
C. IN A ROLLING ELLIPTICAL MOTION
D. IN A ROLLING CIRCULAR MOTION
33. HOW DO ROCK PARTICLES MOVE DURING
THE PASSAGE OF A SWAVE THROUGH THE
ROCK?
A. BACK AND FORTH PARALLEL TO THE
DIRECTION OF WAVE TRAVEL
B. PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION
OF WAVE TRAVEL
C. IN A ROLLING ELLIPTICAL MOTION
D. IN A ROLLING CIRCULAR MOTION
34. WHO DEVELOPED THE PROCEDURE USED TO
MEASURE THE SIZE OF AN EARTHQUAKE?
A. CHARLESRICHTER
B. EDWARD SHERIDAN
C. JAMESHUTTON
D. ART SMITH
35. THE MOMENT MAGNITUDE OF AN
EARTHQUAKE DEPENDS ON ALL OF THE
FOLLOWING EXCEPT __.
A. THE AREA OF THE FAULT BREAK
B. THE RIGIDITY OF THE FAULT
C. THE SLIP ON THE FAULT
D. THE TYPE OF FAULTING
36. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MEASURES AN
EARTHQUAKE'S INTENSITY BASED ON THE
OBSERVED EFFECTS ON PEOPLE AND
STRUCTURES?
A. RICHTER SCALE
B. MODIFIED MERCALLI SCALE
D. THE MOMENT MAGNITUDE SCALE
37. SHALLOW EARTHQUAKES, LESS THAN 20 KM
DEEP, ARE ASSOCIATED WITH _______.
A. CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
B. DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
C. TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARIES
D. ALL OF THESE
38. WHAT TYPE OF FAULTING WOULD BE MOST
LIKELY TO OCCUR ALONG TRANSFORM
FAULTS?
A. NORMAL FAULTING
B. REVERSE FAULTING
C. STRIKE-SLIP FAULTING
D. ALL OF THESE

39. WHAT TYPE OF EARTHQUAKES WOULD
MOST LIKELY OCCUR AT POINT A?
A. SHALLOW-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
CAUSED BY NORMAL FAULTING
B. SHALLOW-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
CAUSED BY STRIKE-SLIP FAULTING
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C. SHALLOW-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
CAUSED BY THRUST FAULTING
D. DEEP-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
CAUSED BY THRUST FAULTING
40. WHAT TYPE OF EARTHQUAKES WOULD
MOST LIKELY OCCUR AT POINT B?
A. SHALLOW-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
CAUSED BY NORMAL FAULTING
B. SHALLOW-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
CAUSED BY STRIKE-SLIP FAULTING

C. SHALLOW-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
CAUSED BY THRUST FAULTING
D. DEEP-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES
CAUSED BY THRUST FAULTING
41. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING DID NOT OCCUR
AT A PLATE BOUNDARY?

B. SAN FRANCISCO, 1906
D. LOMA PRIETA, CALIFORNIA, 1989
42. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CAN BE
TRIGGERED BY AN EARTHQUAKE?
A. TSUNAMI
B. INTENSE GROUND SHAKING
C. A LANDSLIDE
D. ALL OF THESE
43. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CAN TRIGGER A
TSUNAMI?
A. UNDERSEA EARTHQUAKES
B. UNDERSEA LANDSLIDES
C. THE ERUPTION OF AN OCEANIC
VOLCANO
D. ALL OF THESE
44. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WAVES IS THE
SLOWEST?
A. P WAVES
B. SWAVES
C. SURFACE WAVES
D. TSUNAMI
45. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
FALSE?
A. MOST EARTHQUAKES OCCUR AT
PLATE BOUNDARIES
B. THE TIME AND LOCATION OF MOST
MAJOR EARTHQUAKES CAN BE
PREDICTED SEVERAL DAYS IN
C. EARTHQUAKES CAN BE CAUSED BY
NORMAL, REVERSE AND STRIKE-
SLIP FAULTING
D. P WAVES TRAVEL FASTER THAN
BOTH S WAVES AND SURFACE
WAVES
46. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS
MAY INDICATE A FORTHCOMING
DESTRUCTIVE EARTHQUAKE?
A. AN INCREASE IN THE FREQUENCY
OF SMALLER EARTHQUAKES IN THE
REGION
B. RAPID TILTING OF THE GROUND
C. RAPID CHANGES IN WATER LEVELS
IN WELLS
D. ALL OF THESE
47. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
BEST DESCRIBES THE STATE OF EARTHQUAKE
PREDICTION?
A. SCIENTISTS CAN ACCURATELY
PREDICT THE TIME AND LOCATION
OF ALMOST ALL EARTHQUAKES
B. SCIENTISTS CAN ACCURATELY
PREDICT THE TIME AND LOCATION
EARTHQUAKES
C. SCIENTISTS CAN ACCURATELY
PREDICT WHEN AN EARTHQUAKE
WILL OCCUR, BUT NOT WHERE
D. SCIENTISTSCAN CHARACTERIZE THE
SEISMIC RISK OF AN AREA, BUT CAN
NOT YET ACCURATELY PREDICT
MOST EARTHQUAKES
MASS WASTING
EACH CHAPTER WILL INCLUDE A FEW QUESTIONS
DESIGNED TO TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF MATERIAL
COVERED IN THE CHAPTER AND IN THE INTERNET-
RECORDED. TRY THE FOLLOWING.
1. THE MOST IMPORTANT STRESS OPPOSING A
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SLOPE'SSHEAR STRESS IS IMPARTED BY:
A. RUNNING WATER
B. EARTHQUAKES
C. FROST WEDGING
D. GRAVITY

2. WATER CAN ENCOURAGE MASSFLOW BY:
A. REDUCING FRICTION BETWEEN
GRAINS
B. UNDERCUTTING A STEEP SLOPE
C. WEATHERING BEDROCK TO CLAY
MINERALS
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
3. A TALUSCONE IS PRODUCED BY A:
A. ROCK FALL
B. ROCK GLIDES
C. MUD FLOWS
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
4. LOOSE, UNCEMENTED GEOLOGIC MATERIAL
IS SAID TO BE ______.
A. LIQUEFIED
B. CRYSTALLIZED
C. UNCONSOLIDATED
D. CONSOLIDATED
5. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE MOST
IMPORTANT FACTOR IN CAUSING MASS
MOVEMENTS?
A. TEMPERATURE
B. PRESSURE
C. WATER CONTENT
D. BULK COMPOSITION
6. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING DOES NOT
PROMOTE MASS MOVEMENT?
A. STEEP SLOPES
B. FOREST FIRES
C. HEAVY RAINFALL
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE PROMOTE MASS
MOVEMENT
7. THE PROCESS BY WHICH MASSES OF ROCK
AND SOIL MOVE DOWNHILL UNDER THE
INFLUENCE OF GRAVITY ISCALLED ______ .
A. LANDSLIDING
B. MASS WASTING
C. HYDRAULIC ACTION
D. SOLIFLUCTION
8. A HILL CONSISTING OF LOOSE, DRY SAND
THAT SLOPES AT THE ANGLE OF REPOSE AND
HAS NO VEGETATION _______ .
A. IS STABLE UNLESS OVER STEEPENED
BY EXCAVATION
B. MAY FLOW IF IT BECOMES
SATURATED WITH WATER
C. WILL BE MORE STABLE IF
VEGETATION TAKES ROOT ON THE
HILL
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
9. ONE OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAYS TO
STABILIZE A SLOPE IS TO:
A. REMOVE ALL EXCESSVEGETATION
B. INCREASE THE RATE OF
C. CONTROL AND REMOVE WATER
D. NONE OF THE ABOVE
10. THE CHARACTERISTIC SLOPE OF A PILE OF
DRY SAND IS CALLED THE ______ .
A. ANGLE OF REPOSE
B. STRIKE
C. CONSOLIDATION FACTOR
D. DIP
11. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS
AFFECTSTHE MAXIMUM ANGLE AT WHICH A
SLOPE OF LOOSE MATERIAL IS STABLE?
A. THE AMOUNT OF MOISTURE
B. THE SHAPE OF THE PARTICLES
C. THE SIZE OF THE PARTICLES
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
12. DAMP SAND HAS A HIGHER ANGLE OF
REPOSE THAN DRY SAND BECAUSE OF
_____ .
A. CEMENTATION
B. SURFACE TENSION
C. PARTIAL MELTING
D. DISSOLUTION
13. SURFACE TENSION IS GREATEST WHEN
________ .
A. SAND IS DRY
B. SAND IS MOIST, BUT NOT
SATURATED WITH WATER
C. SAND IS SATURATED WITH WATER
D. SAND IS OVER SATURATED WITH
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WATER
14. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CAN TRIGGER A
LANDSLIDE?
A. AN EARTHQUAKE
B. A HEAVY RAINSTORM
C. REMOVAL OF MATERIAL FROM THE
BASE OF A SLOPE
D. ALL OF THESE
15. DURING AN EARTHQUAKE, WATER-
SATURATED SAND CAN BEHAVE LIKE A
LIQUID, A PROCESSCALLED ____ .
A. SLURRIFICATION
B. SOLIFLUCTION
C. UNCONSOLIDATION
D. LIQUEFACTION
16. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
A. MUDFLOWS TEND TO MOVE
SLOWER THAN DEBRIS FLOWS
B. MUDFLOWS ARE MOST COMMON
IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS
C. MUDFLOWS CONTAIN LARGE
AMOUNTSOF WATER
D. MUDFLOWS CAN CARRY LARGE
BOULDERS
17. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MASS
MOVEMENTS IS THE FASTEST?
A. MUDFLOWS
B. DEBRIS AVALANCHE
C. SOIL CREEP
D. EARTHFLOW
18. WHAT IS THE DOMINANT FORCE THAT
CAUSES MASSMOVEMENT?
A. TIDAL FORCES
B. SEISMIC ENERGY RELEASE
C. GRAVITY
D. WIND
19. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES IS
NOT STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY GRAVITY?
A. FLOW OF GLACIAL ICE
B. MOVEMENT OF LANDSLIDES AND
DEBRIS SLIDES
C. MOVEMENT OF WATER IN STREAMS
D. ALL OF THESE ARE STRONGLY
INFLUENCED BY GRAVITY
20. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
FALSE?
A. ROUND DEBRIS FORMS STEEPER
SLOPES THAN ANGULAR DEBRIS
B. LARGE DEBRIS FORMS STEEPER
SLOPES THAN SMALL DEBRIS
C. DRY DEBRIS FORMS STEEPER
SLOPES THAN WATER-SATURATED
DEBRIS
D. MOIST DEBRIS FORMS STEEPER
SLOPES THAN DRY DEBRIS
21. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS IS
LEAST LIKELY TO RESULT IN MASS
MOVEMENT?
A. A STEEP SLOPE
B. A SLOPE WITH LOOSE MATERIAL
SATURATED WITH WATER
C. A SLOPE WITH ABUNDANT
VEGETATION
D. A SLOPE CONSISTING OF
FRACTURED AND DEFORMED ROCK
22. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING HAS THE
STEEPEST ANGLE OF REPOSE?
A. FINE QUARTZSAND
B. COARSE QUARTZSAND
C. ANGULAR QUARTZ PEBBLES
D. ALL OF THESE HAVE THE SAME
ANGLE OF REPOSE
23. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS IS
MOST LIKELY TO UNDERGO MASSWASTING?
A. A DRY MODERATE SLOPE OF
UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL
B. A WET, MODERATE SLOPE OF
UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL
C. A DRY, STEEP SLOPE OF
UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL
D. A WET, STEEP SLOPE OF
UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL
24. AS THE AMOUNT OF WATER IN A PILE OF
QUARTZ INCREASES, THE ANGLE OF REPOSE
WILL _______.
A. INCREASE
B. DECREASE
C. FIRST INCREASE AND THEN
DECREASE
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D. NOT CHANGE
25. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCK TYPES
FORMS THE STEEPEST SLOPES?
A. GRANITE
B. SHALE
C. VOLCANIC ASH BEDS
D. ALL OF THESE ROCK TYPES FORM
STEEP SLOPES
26. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SLOPES IS LEAST
STABLE?
A. A SLOPE WHERE THE SEDIMENTARY
LAYERS DIP PARALLEL TO THE SLOPE

B. A SLOPE WHERE THE SEDIMENTARY
LAYERS ARE HORIZONTAL
C. A SLOPE WHERE THE SEDIMENTARY
LAYERS DIP PERPENDICULAR TO THE
SLOPE
D. ALL OF THESE SLOPES HAVE THE
SAME STABILITY
27. MOST OF THE DAMAGE ASSOCIATED WITH
EARTHQUAKE WASCAUSED BY _______>
A. GROUND SHAKING DURING THE
EARTHQUAKE
B. A VOLCANIC ERUPTION TRIGGERED
BY THE EARTHQUAKE
C. A TSUNAMI (TIDAL WAVE)
TRIGGERED BY THE EARTHQUAKE
D. LANDSLIDES TRIGGERED BY THE
EARTHQUAKE

28. IN THE CROSS SECTION ABOVE OF THE
UPPER PART OF THE GRAND CANYON, UNITS
B AND D ARE MOST LIKELY COMPOSED OF
________.
A. GRANITE
B. LIMESTONE
C. SANDSTONE
D. SHALE
29. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROCESSESWAS
THE MAJOR REASON WHY SO MANY
LANDSLIDES OCCURRED DURING THE 1964
A. MOTION ALONG THE FAULT
OVERSTEEPENED SLOPES
B. WATER-SATURATED SANDY LAYERS
BECAME LIQUIFIED BY THE GROUND
SHAKING
C. THE EARTHQUAKE TILTED THE ROCK
LAYERS DOWNHILL
D. THE EARTHQUAKE CAUSED WATER
TO ACCUMULATE IN THE SOIL
30. HOW DO GEOLOGISTS CLASSIFY MASS
MOVEMENTS?
A. BY THE SPEED OF THE MASS
MOVEMENT
B. BY THE NATURE OF THE MATERIAL
C. BY THE NATURE OF THE MOVEMENT
D. ALL OF THESE

31. HOW WOULD A DEBRIS AVALANCHE BE
CLASSIFIED IN THIS TABLE?
A. BOX C
B. BOX F
C. BOX I
D. BOX L
32. HOW WOULD A MUDFLOW BE CLASSIFIED IN
THIS TABLE?
A. BOX A
B. BOX B
C. BOX G
D. BOX H
33. HOW WOULD A SLUMP BE CLASSIFIED IN
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THIS TABLE?
A. BOX B
B. BOX E
C. BOX H
D. BOX K
34. HOW WOULD CREEP BE CLASSIFIED IN THIS
TABLE?
A. BOX A
B. BOX E
C. BOX G
D. BOX K
35. HOW WOULD A ROCK AVALANCHE BE
CLASSIFIED IN THIS TABLE?
A. BOX B
B. BOX C
C. BOX E
D. BOX F
36. THE ACCUMULATION OF ROCKS AT THE BASE
OF A CLIFF IS CALLED _______.
A. A DUNE
B. SOIL CREEP
C. AN ALLUVIAL FAN
D. TALUS
37. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN
EARTHFLOW AND A DEBRISFLOW?
A. EARTHFLOWS TRAVEL FASTER THAN
A DEBRIS FLOW
B. EARTHFLOWS TRAVEL SLOWER
THAN A DEBRISFLOW
C. EARTHFLOWS CONSIST OF FINER
MATERIAL THAN DEBRIS FLOWS
D. EARTHFLOWSCONSIST OF COARSER
MATERIAL THAN DEBRIS FLOWS
38. HOW FAST ISSOIL CREEP?
A. A1 TO 10 MILLIMETERS PER YEAR

B. 1 TO 10 METERS PER YEAR
C. 1 KILOMETER PER HOUR
D. OVER 10 KILOMETERSPER HOUR
39. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF MASS
MOVEMENT COULD A PERSON NOT
OUTRUN?
A. SLUMP
B. SOIL CREEP
C. DEBRIS FLOW
D. DEBRIS AVALANCHE
40. WHY ARE MUDFLOWS AND DEBRIS
AVALANCHES COMMON ON VOLCANIC
SLOPES?
A. BECAUSE THERE IS ABUNDANT
UNCONSOLIDATED VOLCANIC ASH
B. BECAUSE EARTHQUAKES
ASSOCIATED WITH VOLCANIC
ERUPTIONSCAN TRIGGER MASS
MOVEMENTS
C. VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS TRIGGER
MELTING OF ICE AND SNOW
D. ALL OF THESE
41. A SLOW SLIDE OF UNCONSOLIDATED
MATERIAL THAT TRAVELS AS A UNIT IS
CALLED ______.
A. SLUMP
B. SOIL CREEP
C. DEBRIS FLOW
D. DEBRIS AVALANCHE
42. SOLIFLUCTION MAY OCCUR WHEN
________..
A. THE SURFACE LAYER FREEZES WHILE
THE DEEPER SOIL REMAINS
UNFROZEN
B. THE SURFACE SOIL LAYER THAWS
WHILE THE DEEPER SOIL REMAINS
FROZEN
C. RAPID DOWNHILL MOVEMENT OF
UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL
MOVING AS UNIT
D. RAPID DOWNHILL MOVEMENT OF
UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL
MOVING LIKE A FLUID
43. _______ ONLY OCCURS IN PERMAFROST
REGIONS.
A. SOIL CREEP
B. LIQUEFACTION
C. SOLIFLUCTION
D. LANDSLIDES
44. WHY ARE FEW MASS MOVEMENT
PRESERVED IN THE GEOLOGIC RECORD?
A. MASS MOVEMENTS HAVE ONLY
OCCURRED RECENTLY DUE TO
HUMAN ACTIVITIES
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B. MASS MOVEMENT DEPOSITS ERODE
EASILY
C. MASS MOVEMENTS WERE RARE IN
THE PAST DUE TO LOW RAINFALL
D. MAS MOVEMENT DEPOSITS ARE
DESTROYED BY LARGE ANIMALS
45. MASS MOVEMENTSFREQUENTLY OCCUR AT
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PLATE TECTONIC
SETTINGS?
A. CONVERGENT
B. DIVERGENT
C. TRANSFORM
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
WEATHERING
1. WHICH IS MORE DENSE....WATER OR
STEAM?
A. WATER
B. STEAM
2. WHICH IS MORE DENSE....WATER OR ICE?
A. WATER
B. ICE
3. WHICH IS MORE DENSE....ICE OR VAPOR?
A. VAPOR
B. ICE
4. IF THE PRESSURE INCREASES, WHAT
HAPPENS TO THE MELTING POINT OF ICE?
A. INCREASES
B. DECREASES
C. STAYS THE SAME
5. A THOUGHT QUESTION....WHEN A BODY
OF WATER BEGINS TO FREEZE, THE ICE
"FLOATS" RATHER THAN SINKS. IMAGINE
FOR A MINUTE THAT ICE WAS DENSER THAN
WATER. BODIES OF WATER WOULD FREEZE
FROM THE BOTTOM UP. WHAT INFLUENCE
ON LIFE MIGHT THIS HAVE?
6. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE BOILING POINT OF
WATER ASTHE PRESSURE DECREASES?
A. INCREASES
B. DECREASES
C. STAYS THE SAME
ON TOP OF MT. EVEREST THE PRESSURE IS
CONSIDERABLY LESS THAN 1 ATM. IF I
COULD EVER GET TO THE TOP OF MT.
EVEREST, I WOULD BE VERY DISAPPOINTED
IN THE MORNING BECAUSE THE
TEMPERATURE OF MY BOILING CUP OF
COFFEE WOULD BE CONSIDERABLY LESS
THAN 100 DEGREES C.
7. AT 1 ATMOSPHERE TOTAL PRESSURE WATER
CANNOT BE HEATED ABOVE 100OC. AT
THAT TEMPERATURE WATER IS CONVERTED
TO STEAM (VAPOR). ACCORDING TO THE
DIAGRAM, WATER CAN BE HEATED TO
HIGHER TEMPERATURESBY:
A. INCREASING THE PRESSURE
B. DECREASING THE PRESSURE
C. INCREASING THE TEMPERATURE
8. MECHANICAL WEATHERING PRODUCES
___________.
A. CLAY MINERALS
B. QUARTZ
C. SMALLER PARTICLES
D. CALCIUM CARBONATE
9. WHEN LIQUID WATER FREEZES:
A. IT DOES NOT CHANGE IN VOLUME
B. IT EXPANDS BY 5%IN VOLUME
C. IT EXPANDS BY 9%IN VOLUME
D. IT DECREASES IN VOLUME
10. WHAT IS THE TERM FOR THE GENERAL
PROCESS BY WHICH ROCKS ARE BROKEN
DOWN AT THE EARTH'S SURFACE?
A. DEPOSITION
B. EROSION
C. LITHIFICATION
D. WEATHERING
11. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING AFFECT THE
RATE OF WEATHERING?
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A. THE SOIL TYPE AND EXTENT
B. THE ROCK TYPE
C. THE CLIMATE
D. ALL OF AFFECT WEATHERING RATES

12. SOIL IS COMPOSED OF ____________ .
A. ORGANIC MATTER PRODUCED BY
ORGANISMS
B. FRAGMENTS OF BEDROCK
C. CLAY MINERALS FORMED BY THE
CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF
BEDROCK
D. ALL OF THESE
13. IN WHICH OF HE FOLLOWING CLIMATES WILL
CHEMICAL WEATHERING BE MOST RAPID?
A. HOT AND DRY
B. HOT AND HUMID
C. COLD AND DRY
D. COLD AND HUMID
14. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
A. ROCKS OF DIFFERENT
COMPOSITIONS WEATHER AT
DIFFERENT RATES
B. HEAT AND HEAVY RAINFALL
INCREASE THE RATE OF CHEMICAL
WEATHERING
C. THE PRESENCE OF SOIL SLOWS
DOWN THE WEATHERING OF THE
UNDERLYING BEDROCK
D. THE LONGER A ROCK IS EXPOSED AT
THE SURFACE, THE MORE
WEATHERED IT BECOMES
15. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MINERALS HAS
A LOW SOLUBILITY AND THEREFORE IS LEAST
SUSCEPTIBLE TO CHEMICAL WEATHERING AT
THE EARTH'S SURFACE?
A. CALCITE
B. PLAGIOCLASE
C. QUARTZ
D. OLIVINE
16.THE RATE OF CHEMICAL WEATHERING IS
INCREASED BY ACIDS. THE MOST COMMON
NATURAL ACID ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE IS
________ .
A. NITRIC
B. HYDROCHLORIC
C. CARBONIC
D. SULFURIC
17. CARBON DIOXIDE MAKES UP ABOUT
_______ OF THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE.
A. 0L%
B. 1%
C. 10%
D. 25%
18. CARBONIC ACID, THE PRIMARY AGENT OF
CHEMICAL WEATHERING IS PRODUCED BY
________ .
A. CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVING IN
RAINWATER
B. PLANT ROOTS
C. BACTERIA THAT FEED ON PLANT
AND ANIMAL REMAINS
D. ALL OF THESE
19. WHICH OF THESE IS LEAST LIKELY TO FORM
A CLAY MINERAL DURING WEATHERING?
A. FELDSPAR
B. QUARTZ
C. AMPHIBOLE
D. OLIVINE
20. CAVES ARE MOST LIVELY TO FORM IN WHICH
OF THE FOLLOWING ROCK TYPES?
A. GRANITE
B. LIMESTONE
C. BASALT
D. SANDSTONE
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21. WHICH OF THE PROCESSES IS NOT AN
EXAMPLE OF CHEMICAL WEATHERING?
A. DISSOLUTION OF CALCITE
B. BREAKDOWN OF FELDSPAR TO
FORM CLAY
C. SPLITTING OF A ROCK ALONG A
FRACTURE
D. RUSTING OF A NAIL
22. AS A ROCK BREAKS INTO SMALLER PIECES,
THE SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME RATIO
______ .
A. INCREASES
B. DECREASES
C. STAYS THE SAME
D. CAN INCREASE OR DECREASE
DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE
PIECES
23. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WEATHERING
OF A GRANITE WILL PRODUCE ________ .
A. IONS DISSOLVED IN RAINWATER
AND SOIL WATER
B. MINERAL FRAGMENTS AND
GRANITE FRAGMENTS
C. CLAYSAND IRON OXIDES
D. ALL OF THESE
24. THE DEEP RED COLOR OF SOLIS FOUND IN
GEORGIA AND OTHER WARM, HUMID
REGIONS IN CAUSED BY ______ .
A. REDUCED IRON OXIDES
B. OXIDIZED IRON OXIDES
C. QUARTZ
D. FELDSPAR
25. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS
WOULD INCREASE THE RATE OF
WEATHERING?
A. INCREASING RAINFALL
B. INCREASING TEMPERATURE
C. INCREASING ORGANIC ACTIVITY
D. ALL OF THESE
26. THE MAJOR SOURCE OF ALUMINUM METAL,
_______, IS A CLAY-RICH ORE COMPOSED
OF ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE.
A. HEMATITE
B. BAUXITE
C. KAOLINITE
D. MONTMORILLONITE
27. FE3+REFERSTO ________.
A. IRON METAL
B. FERROUSIRON
C. FERRIC IRON
D. HEMATITE
28. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MINERALS IS
MOST STABLE AT THE EARTH'S SURFACE?
A. HEMATITE
B. MICA
C. OLIVINE
D. FELDSPAR
29. A SUBSTANCE THAT RELEASES HYDROGEN
IONS (H+) TO A SOLUTION ISCALLED A(N)
______.
A. OXIDIZER
B. REDUCER
C. ACID
D. PEDALFER
30. WHAT IS THE TERM GEOLOGISTS USE FOR
THE LAYER OF LOOSE, HETEROGENEOUS
WEATHERED MATERIAL LYING ON TOP OF
THE BEDROCK?
A. HUMUS
B. LATERITE
C. REGOLITH
D. SOIL
31. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FARMING
PRACTICES HELPS TO PREVENT THE EROSION
OF TOPSOIL?
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A. PLOWING A FIELD PERPENDICULAR
TO THE CONTOUR LINES
B. PLOWING A FIELD PARALLEL TO THE
CONTOUR LINES
C. PLOWING A FIELD IN THE
DIRECTION THAT THE WATER
DRAINS
D. NONE OF THESE WILL HELP
PREVENT SOIL EROSION.
32. WHAT IS THE NAME FOR SOILS THAT ARE
RICH IN CALCIUM
A. LATERITES
B. EVAPORATES
C. PEDOCALS
D. PEDALFERS
33. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WEATHERING
OF A GRANITE WILL PRODUCE
__________.
A. IONS DISSOLVED IN RAINWATER
AND SOIL WATER
B. MINERAL FRAGMENTS AND
GRANITE FRAGMENTS
C. CLAY MINERALS AND IRON OXIDES
D. ALL OF THESE
34. IN THE ATMOSPHERE, CARBONIC ACID
FORMS FROM THE REACTION OF CARBON
DIOXIDE AND ______.
A. FOSSIL FUELS
B. NITROGEN
C. OXYGEN
D. WATER
35. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MINERALS
FOUND IN A GRANITE IS NOT ALTERED BY
CHEMICAL WEATHERING?
A. BIOTITE
B. FELDSPAR
C. MAGNETITE
D. QUARTZ
36. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MINERALS
WOULD BE MOST LIKELY TO FORM A CLAY
MINERAL DURING CHEMICAL WEATHERING?
A. IRON OXIDE
B. MICA
C. CALCITE
D. QUARTZ
37. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS
WOULD INCREASE THE CHEMICAL
WEATHERING RATE?
A. INCREASING RAINFALL
B. INCREASING TEMPERATURE
C. INCREASING ORGANIC ACTIVITY
D. ALL OF THESE
38. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS
PROMOTES SLOW CHEMICAL WEATHERING?
A. COLD TEMPERATURES
B. THICK SOILS
C. HIGH RAINFALL
D. FRACTURING
39. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING HUMAN
ACTIVITIES HAS RESULTED IN INCREASED
RATESOF WEATHERING?
A. THE RELEASE OF SULFUR AND
NITROGEN OXIDES THAT CAUSE
ACID RAIN
B. THE PHYSICAL DISINTEGRATION OF
ROCKS DURING CONSTRUCTION
AND MINING
C. BOTH A AND B
D. NEITHER A NOR B
40. ONE EXPECTS TALUS CONES TO BE MOST
ABUNDANT IN AREAS:
A. WHERE ABUNDANT RAINFALL IS
AVAILABLE TO DISSOLVE
LIMESTONE
B. IN TROPICAL AREAS WHERE THICK
SOIL AND ABUNDANT VEGETATION
OCCURS
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C. IN HIGH MOUNTAINS THAT HAVE
MANY DAYS OF SUB-FREEZING
TEMPERATURES
D. NONE OF THE ABOVE
41. EXFOLIATION DOMESFORM FROM:
A. FROST WEDGING
B. PRESSURE RELEASE
C. HYDROLYSIS
D. ROOT WEDGING
42. LATERITE SOLIS:
A. ARE RED IN COLOR
B. ARE FORMED IN TROPICAL
CLIMATES
C. OFTEN CONTAIN HIGH
CONCENTRATIONS OF ALUMINUM
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

RUNNING WATER
1. A DENDRITIC STREAM PATTERN WILL TEND
TO DEVELOP IN __________ .
A. REGIONS UNDERLAIN BY
REGULARLY-SPACED JOINTS OR
FAULTS
B. REGIONS OF FOLDED STRATA
C. ALONG THE FLANKS OF ISOLATED
VOLCANOES
D. REGIONS OF FLAY-LYING
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
2. POINT BARS ARE DEPOSITED
_____________ .
A. ON THE INSIDE OF A MEANDER
BEND
B. ON THE OUTSIDE OF A MEANDER
BEND
C. AT THE BASE OF A WATERFALL
D. BY TURBIDITY CURRENTS
3. AS A RIVER OVERFLOWS ITS BANKS DURING
FLOOD, IT DROPS MUCH OF ITS COARSER-
LANDFORMS CALLED ___________ .
A. DELTAS
B. ALLUVIAL FANS
C. NATURAL LEVEES
D. POINT BARS
4. A RIVER FLOWS INTO A QUIET LAKE AND
BEGINSTO FORM A ____________ .
A. DELTAS
B. ALLUVIAL FANS
C. NATURAL LEVEES
D. POINT BARS
5. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING GENERALLY
DECREASES DOWNSTREAM ALONG THE
LENGTH OF A STREAM?
A. CHANNEL WIDTH
B. CHANNEL DEPTH
D. VELOCITY
6. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
A. AS THE VELOCITY OF A STREAM
INCREASES, LAMINAR FLOW MAY
CHANGE TO TURBULENT FLOW
B. THE VISCOSITY OF MOST FLUIDS
INCREASES AS TEMPERATURE
INCREASES
C. MOST STREAMS AND RIVERS ARE
TURBULENT
D. THE MORE VISCOUS THE FLUID, THE
MORE LIKELY THE FLOW IS
LAMINAR
7. WHAT TYPE OF FLOW CAN TRANSPORT
GRAVEL AND COBBLES?
A. LAMINAR
B. TURBULENT
C. BOTH A AND B
D. NEITHER A NOR B
8. PARTICLES THAT ROLL AND SLIDE ALONG
THE RIVER BOTTOM ARE CALLED
_________ .
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D. NONE OF THE ABOVE
9. WHAT TYPE OF MATERIAL IS MOST LIKELY
TO BE TRANSPORTED AS SUSPENDED LOAD?
A. CLAY
B. SILT
C. SAND
D. DEPENDSON THE "ENERGY" OF THE
STREAM
___________ .
A. ROLLING ALONG ON THE BOTTOM
OF THE STREAM
B. TEMPORARILY OR PERMANENTLY
SUSPENDED IN THE FLOW
C. DEPOSITED ON THE BOTTOM OF
THE STREAM
D. ROLLING ALONG THE BOTTOM AND
SUSPENDED IN THE FLOW
11. THE SPEED AT WHICH SUSPENDED PARTICLES
BECOME PART OF THE BED LOAD OF A
STREAM ISCALLED THE ____________ .
A. DISCHARGE VELOCITY
B. CAPACITY
C. SETTLING VELOCITY
D. COMPETENCE
12. RUNNING WATER ERODES SOLID ROCK BY
_________ .
A. ABRASION
B. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL
WEATHERING
C. UNDERCUTTING ACTION OF
CURRENTS
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
13. AT A BEND IN A RIVER, _________
OCCURS ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE BEND AND
________ OCCURS ON THE INSIDE OF THE
BEND.
A. EROSION ..... DEPOSITION
B. DEPOSITION ...... EROSION
C. EROSION .......EROSION
D. DEPOSITION ..... DEPOSITION
14. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING DOES NOT
DETERMINE WHETHER A STREAM IS
STRAIGHT, BRAIDED, OR MEANDERING?
A. FLOW VOLUME
C. RIVERBANK ERODIBILITY
D. LENGTH OF RIVER
15. THE VOLUME OF WATER FLOWING PAST A
POINT IN A GIVEN TIME IS CALLED THE
__________.
A. COMPTENCE
B. VISCOSITY
C. DISCHARGE
D. CAPACITY
16. WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY OF A 50-YEAR
FLOOD OCCURING NEXT YEAR?
A. 2%
B. 10%
C. 50%
D. CANNOT BE DETERMINED FROM
THE INFORMATION GIVEN
17. THE SHAPE OF THE LONGITUDINAL PROFILE
OF ALL STREAMS IS__________ .
A. A HORIZONTAL LINE
B. A STRAIGHT LINE SLOPING
DOWNSTREAM
C. A CONCAVE UPWARD CURVE
D. A CONCAVE DOWNWARD CURVE
18. IF SEA LEVEL WERE TO RISE, THE SLOPE OF
THE LONGITUDINAL PROFILE OF MANY
RIVERS WOULD _________ .
A. INCREASE
B. DECREASE
C. FIRST INCREASE, THEN DECREASE
D. FIRST DECREASE, THEN INCREASE
19. IF A DAM IS BUILT, SEDIMENT WILL
________ ON THE UPSTREAM SIDE OF THE
DAM AND SEDIMENT WILL ________ ON
THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF THE DAM.
A. ACCUMULATE ... ACCUMULATE
B. ACCUMULATE ... ERODE
C. ERODE ... ACCUMULATE
D. ERODE ... ERODE
20. TERRACES ARE REMNANTS OF FORMER
___________ .
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A. FLOODPLAINS
B. RIVERS
C. FLOODPLAIN DEPOSITS
D. ALLUVIAL FANS
21. WHAT TYPE OF DRAINAGE PATTERN WOULD
YOU EXPECT TO FIND ON A VOLCANO?
A. DENDRITIC
B. RECTANGULAR
22. WHAT TYPE OF DRAINAGE PATTERN WOULD
YOU EXPECT TO FIND WHERE RAPID
WEATHERING ALONG JOINTS IN BEDROCK
CONTROLSTHE COURSE OF STREAMS?
A. DENDRITIC
B. RECTANGULAR
23. A DELTA IS MADE UP OF SEDIMENTS
____________ .
A. DEPOSITED AT THE MOUTH OF A
RIVER
B. DEPOSITED ON THE INSIDE OF A
MEANDER LOOP
C. DEPOSITED AT A MOUNTAIN FRONT
D. DEPOSITED ON THE OUTSIDE OF A
MEANDER LOOP
24. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES IS
THE MOST IMPORTANT EROSIONAL FORCE?
A. STREAMS
B. GLACIERS
C. WIND
D. WAVES
25. ABOUT HOW MUCH DISSOLVED MATERIALS
DO RIVERS TRANSPORT EACH YEAR?
A. 2-4 THOUSAND TONS
B. 2-4 MILLION TONS
C. 2-4 BILLION TONS
D. 2-4 TRILLION TONS
26. SINCE HUMANS BEGAN TO ACTIVELY AFFECT
THEIR ENVIRONMENT, HOW MUCH HAS
SEDIMENT TRANSPORT BY STREAMS
INCREASED?
A. 10%
B. 50%
C. 100%
D. 200%
27. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FLOWS IS MOST
LIKELY TO BE TURBULENT?
A. SLOW FLOW IN A SHALLOW
CHANNEL
B. FAST FLOW IN A SHALLOW
CHANNEL
C. SLOW FLOW IN A DEEP CHANNEL
D. FAST FLOW IN A DEEP CHANNEL
28. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
A. AS THE VELOCITY OF A STREAM
INCREASES, LAMINAT FLOW MAY
CHANGE TO TURBULENT FLOW
B. THE VISCOSITY OF MOST FLUIDS
INCREASES AS THE TEMPERATURE
INCREASES
C. MOST STREAMS AND RIVERS ARE
TURBULENT
D. THE MORE VISCOUS THE FLUID, THE
MORE LIKELY THE FLOW IS
LAMINAR
29. WHAT TYPE OF FLOW CAN TRANSPORT
GRAVEL AND COBBLES?
A. LAMINAR
B. TURBULENT
C. BOTH A AND B
D. NEITHER A NOR B
30. WHAT TYPE OF MATERIAL IS MOST LIKELY
TO BE TRANSPORTED AS SUSPENDED LOAD?
A. CLAY PARTICLES
B. SAND PARTICLES
C. GRAVEL PARTICLES
D. ALL OF THESE ARE EQUALLY LIKELY
TO BE TRANSPORTED AS
31. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
A. FOR THE SAME DISCHARGE,
LAMINAR FLOWS GENERALLY
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CARRY MORE SEDIMENT THAN
TURBULENT FLOWS
B. FASTER CURRENTS CAN CARRY
LARGER PARTICLES THAN SLOWER
CURRENTS
C. SMALLER PARTICLES SETTLE MORE
SLOWLY THAN LARGER PARTICLES

D. THE BASE LEVEL IS THE LOWEST
LEVEL TO WHICH A STREAM CAN
ERODS
32. GRAVEL-SIZED PARTICLES ARE
TRANSPORTED BY RIVERS AS ________.
D. ALL OF THESE
33. THE INTERMITTENT JUMPING MOTION OF
SAND GRAINS ALONG A RIVER BOTTOM IS
CALLED ______.
A. SALTATION
B. RIPPLING
C. SUSPENSION
D. MEANDERING
34. DURING TURBULEN FLOW, SMALLER GRAINS
WILL NOT _________.
A. BE PICKED UP MORE FREQUENTLY
THAN LARGE GRAINS
B. JUMP HIGHER THAN LARGE GRAINS
C. SETTLE MORE QUICKLY THAN LARGE
GRAINS
D. TRAVEL FURTHER THAN LARGE
GRAINS
35. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STREAM
VELOCITIES WILL LEAD TO THE LARGEST
SAND DUNES?
A. LOW
B. MODERATE
C. HIGH
D. VERY HIGH
36. POTHOLESIN RIVER BOTTOM BEDROCK ARE
FORMED BY _____.
A. THE IMPACY OF A LARGE ROCK
MOVED BY A STRONG CURRENT
WHICH MAKES A "CRATER"
B. THE GRINDING ACTION OF A PEBBLE
OR COBBLE IN A SWIRLING EDDY
WATERFALL WHICH WEARS AWAY
THE ROCK
D. NONE OF THE ABOVE

37. OF THE CHOICES SHOW BELPW, THE MOST
COMMON YOUTHFUL CROSS-SECTIONAL
RIVER VALLEY PROFILE IS_____?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
38. OF THE CHOICES SHOW BELOW, THE MOST
COMMON MATURE CROSS-SECTIONAL RIVER
VALLEY PROFILE IS_____?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
39. WHAT IS THE TERM FOR A CURVED
SANDBAR THAT FORMS ON THE INSIDE
CURVE OF A STREAM?
A. MEANDER
B. POINT BAR
C. DUNE
D. OXBOW

40. IN THISFIGURE THE ARROW IS POINTING TO
A(N) _________?
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A. MEANDER
B. POINT BAR
C. NATURAL LEVEE
D. OXBOW LAKE
41. NATURAL LEVEES ARE MADE UP OF
___________.
A. SILT AND CLAY DEPOSITED DURING
A FLOOD
B. SAND AND GRAVEL DEPOSITED
DURING A FLOOD
C. OVERLAPING POINT BARS
D. ISOLATED POINT BARS
42. NATURAL LEVEES ARE BUILT UP BY
_________.
A. BEAVERS
B. HUMANS
C. FLOODS
D. EROSION
43. FOR A GIVEN RIVER, WHICH OF THE
FOLLOWING FLOODS WOULD HAVE THE
LARGEST DISCHARGE?
A. A 5-YEAR
B. A 20-YEAR FLOOD
C. A 100-YEAR
D. ONE CANNOT BE DETERMINED
FROM THE INFORMAITON GIVEN
44. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
REGARDING FLOODSISTRUE?
A. A 50-YEAR FLOOD IS GENERALLY OF
GREATER MAGNITUDE THAN A
100-YEAR FLOOD
B. A 100-YEAR FLOOD HAS A 10%
CHANCE OF OCCURRING IN ANY
ONE YEAR.
C. IF THERE IS A 20%PROBABILITY OF
A FLOOD OF A CERTAIN HEIGHT
OCCURRING IN ANY ONE YEAR IT IS
CALLED A 5-YEAR FLOOD
D. THE RECURRENCE INTERVAL OF A
FLOOD OF A CERTAIN HEIGHT DOES
NOT DEPEND UPON THE WIDTH OF
THE FLOODPLAIN
45. WHAT IS THE PRIMARY REASON SEDIMENT
IS DEPOSITED IN LARGE CONE-SHAPED
DEPOSITSAT MOUNTAIN FRONTS?
A. BECAUSE STREAM VALLEYS WIDEN
ABRUPTLY AT A MOUNTAIN FRONT

B. BECAUSE STREAM VALLEYS
NATTROW ABRUPTLY AT A
MOUNTAIN FRONT
C. BECAUSE STREAT VALLEYS GET
MUCH STEEPTR A A MOUNTAIN
FRONT
D. BECAUSE STREAM VALEYS GET LESS
STEEP AT A MOUNTAIN FRONT
46. RIVER TERRACES ARE COMPOSED OF
________ AND FORM AS A RESULT OF
RAPID _______
A. BEDROCK .... SUBSIDENCE
B. BEDROCK ..... UPLIFT
C. FLOOD PLAIN DEPOSITS .....
SUBSIDENCE
D. FLOOD PLAIN DEPOSITS ..... UPLIFT

47. IF A STREAM BREAKS THROUGH A DIVIDE
AND CAPTURES DRAINAGE FROM THE
COMPETING STREAM IT IS CALLED
A. COMPETITIVE CAPTURE
B. COMPETITIVE EROSION
C. STREAM PIRACY
D. STREAM CAPTURE

48. THIS PATTERN MOST CLOSELY RESEMBLES
________ DRAINAGE
A. DENDRITIC
B. RECTANGULAR
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D. TRELLIS
49. IN THISMAP VIEW, THE STREAM IS FLOWING
_______
A. FROM TOP TO BOTTOM
B. FROM BOTTOM TO TOP
C. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT
D. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT
50. A _________ DRAINAGE PATTERN
DEVELOPS WHERE RAPID WEATHERING
ALONG JOINTS IN BEDROCK CONTROLSTHE
COURSE OF STREAMS
A. DENDRITIC
B. RECTANGULAR
D. TRELLIS
51. HOW FAR CAN LARGE RIVERS, SUCH AS THE
AMAZON, MAINTAIN A CURRENT OUT TO
SEA?
A. METERS
B. TENS OF METERS
C. HUNDREDSOF METERS
D. MANY KILOMETERS
52. A DELTA IS MADE UP OF SEDIMENTS
_________
A. DEPOSITED AT THE MOUTH OF A
RIVER
B. DEPOSITED ON THE INSIDE OF A
MEANDER LOOP
C. DEPOSITED AT A MOUTAIN FRONT
D. DEPOSITED ON THE OUTSIDEOF A
MEANDER LOOP
53. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING BEDS IN A LAKE-
DELTA CONSISTS OF THIN HORIZONTAL
LAYERS OF MUD?
A. TOPSET
B. FORESET
C. BOTTOMSET BEDS
D. ALL OF THESE
54. WHY IS THE MISSIPPI DELTA SO LARGE?
A. BECAUSE THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER
TRANSPORTS A HUGE AMOUNT OF
SEDIMENT
B. BECAUSE THE TIDES IN THE GULF
OF MEXICO ARE NOT VERY STRONG
C. BECAUSE WAVES IN THE GULF OF
MEXICO ARE NOT VERY STRONG
D. ALL OF THESE
55. THE EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA LACKS
DELTAS BECAUSE ________
A. WAVES AND TIDES ARE TOO
STRONG
B. NO RIVERSEMPTY OUT ALONG THE
EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA
C. THE APPLACHIAN MOUNTAINS ARE
TOO EROSION RESISTANT
D. RIVERS OF THE EAST COAST HAVE
CURRENTS THAT ARE TOO WEAK TO
CARRY MUCH SEDIMENT

GROUNDWATER
1. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING RESERVOIRS
CONTAINSTHE MOST WATER?
A. ATMOSPHERE
B. BIOSPHERE
C. GROUNDWATER
D. LAKES AND RIVERS
2. HOW MUCH OF THE EARTH'S WATER IS
STORED IN UNDERGROUND AQUIFERS?
A. LESSTHAN 1%
3. WHAT IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WATER
ENTERS THE SMALL PORE SPACESBETWEEN
PARTICLES IN SOIL OR ROCKS
A. TRANSPIRATION
B. INFLITRATION
C. PRECIPATION
D. SUBLIMATION
4. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING TERMS IS A
MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF WATER
VAPOR IN THE AIR AS A PROPORTION OF THE
MAXIMUM AMOUNT THE AIR COULD HOLD
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AT THE SAME TEMPERATURE?
A. DEW POINT
B. SUBLIMATION POINT
C. EVAPORATION RATE
D. RELATIVE HUMIDITY
5. THE PERCENTAGE OF A ROCK'S TOTAL
VOLUME THAT IS TAKEN UP BY PORE SPACE
IS CALLED THE _______ .
A. PERMEABILITY
B. RECHARGE
C. AQUIFER
D. POROSITY
6. PERMEABILITY IS __________ .
A. THE ABILITY OF A SOLID TO ALLOW
FLUIDS TO PASS THROUGH
B. THE PROCESS BY WHICH PLANTS
RELEASE WATER VAPOR TO THE
ATMOSPHERE
C. THE AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOR IN
THE AIR RELATIVE TO THE
MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF WATER
VAPOR THE AIR CAN HOLD.
D. THE PERCENTAGE OF PORE SPACE
IN THE ROCK
7. THE BEST GROUNDWATER RESERVOIRS HAVE
__________ .?
A. LOW PERMEABILITY AND LOW
POROSITY
B. LOW PERMEABILITY AND HIGH
POROSITY
C. HIGH PERMEABILITY AND LOW
POROSITY
D. HIGH PERMEABILITY AND HIGH
POROSITY
8. THE ABILITY OF AN EARTH MATERIAL TO
TRANSMIT WATER IS A MEASURE OF ITS:
A. POROSITY
B. AQUIFER CHARACTERISTICS
C. CHEMICAL CEMENT
D. PERMEABILITY
9. THE LOWERING EFFECT ON THE WATER
TABLE ABOUT THE BASE OF THE WELL STEM
IS CALLED A(N):
A. AQUICLUDE
B. ARTESIAN SURFACE
C. CONE OF DEPRESSION
D. SPELEOTHEM
10. A LOCAL WATER TABLE POSITIONED ABOVE
THE REGIONAL WATER TABLE IS SAID TO BE:
A. STRANDED
B. PERCHED
C. DISPLACED
D. DEPRESSED
11. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
ABOUT THE WATER TABLE IS FALSE:
A. THE WATER TABLE CHANGES WHEN
DISCHARGE IS NOT BALANCED BY
RECHARGE
B. THE WATER TABLE IS GENERALLY
FLAT
C. THE WATER TABLE IS ABOVE THE
LAND SURFACE IN LAKES
D. THE WATER TABLE IS DEPRESSED
NEAR HIGH VOLUME PUMPING
WELLS
12. THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE SATURATED
ZONE AND THE UNSATURATED ZONE IS
CALLED THE______ .
A. WATER TABLE
B. AQUIFER
C. AQUICLUDE
D. POROSITY
13. THE INFILTRATION OF WATER INTO THE
SUBSURFACE IS THE __________ .
A. INFLUENT
B. EFFLUENT
C. DISCHARGE
D. RECHARGE
14. WHAT IS THE TERM FOR A RELATIVELY
IMPERMEABLE GEOLOGIC UNIT?
A. AN ARTESIAN
B. AN AQUICLUDE
C. AN AQUIFER
D. NONE OF THESE
15. EXCESSIVE PUMPING IN RELATION TO
RECHARGE CAN CAUSE ________ .
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A. THE WATER TABLE TO DECLINE
B. A CONE OF DEPRESSION TO FORM
C. THE WELL TO GO DRY
D. ALL OF THESE
16. THE MOST ABUNDANT, NATURAL ACID IS:
A. NITRIC
B. HYRDOCHLORIC
C. CARBONIC
D. CITRIC
17. MOST GROUNDWATER WITHDRAWN IN THE
UNITED STATESISUSED FOR ________ .
A. INDUSTRY
B. IRRIGATION
C. DRINKING WATER
D. SWIMMING POOLS
18. IN WHAT TYPES OF ROCK DO MOST CAVES
FORM?
A. GRANITE
B. SHALE
C. LIMESTONE
D. SANDSTONE
19. STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES IN CAVES
ARE COMPOSED OF ________ .
A. QUARTZ
B. ALKALI FELDSPAR
C. HALITE
D. CALCITE
20. HARD WATER CONTAINS LARGE AMOUNTS
OF __________ .
B. SODIUM
C. CALCIUM
D. SILICON
21. MOST OF THE WATER COMING OUT OF
CONTINENTAL HOT SPRINGSIS ________ .
A. METEORIC WATER
B. MAGMATIC WATER
C. SEAWATER
D. METAMORPHIC WATER
22. WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH'S LAND
SURFACE, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
EXPRESSIONSIS CORRECT?
A. PRECIPITATION =EVAPORATION
RUNOFF
B. PRECIPITATION = RUNOFF -
EVAPORATION
C. PRECIPITATION =EVAPORATION +
RUNOFF
D. PRECIPITATION =EVAPORATION *
RUNOFF
23. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING FEATURES
IS A SURE SIGN OF KARST?
A. SINKHOLES
B. ARTESIAN WELLS
C. CONES OF DEPRESSION
D. SPELEOTHEMS
24. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
TRUE?
A. COOL AIR CAN HOLD MORE WATER
VAPOR THAN WARM AIR
B. WARM AIR CAN HOLD MORE
WATER THAN COOL AIR
C. COOL AIR AND WARM AIR ALWAYS
HOLD THE SAME AMOUNT OF
WATER VAPOR
D. AIR CANNOT CONTAIN WATER
VAPOR
25. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING FEATURES
IS A SURE SIGN OF KARST?
A. SINKHOLES
B. ARTESIAN WELLS
C. CONES OF DEPRESSION
D. SPELEOTHEMS

26. THE DIAGRAM ABOVE REPRESENTS A CROSS
SECTION THROUGH A COASTAL MOUNTAIN
RANGE. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
STATEMENTS ISCORRECT?
A. REGION A WOULD RECEIVE THE
MOST PRECIPITATION
B. REGION B WOULD RECEIVE THE
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MOST PRECIPITATION
C. REGIONS C WOULD RECEIVE THE
MOST PRECIPITATION
D. REGIONS A, B, AND C WOULD
AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION
27. WHAT FEATURE MIGHT YOU EXPECT TO SEE
DEVELOPED IN REGION C?
A. AN ALLUVIAL FAN
B. A DELTA
C. A SUBMARINE FAN
D. POINT BARS
28. CALIFORNIA IMPORTS MOST OF ITS WATER
SUPPLY. WHAT IS MOST OF THE WATER
USED FOR?
A. AGRICULTURE
B. DOMESTIC IRRIGATION - LAWNS
C. INDUSTRY
D. MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER
29. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REGIONS HAS
THE HIGHEST AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL?
A. NORTHEAST US
B. SOUTHEAST US
C. SOUTHWEST US
D. CENTRAL US
30. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL IN
HOUSTON, TEXAS IS _______?
A. 10-20 INCHES US
B. 20-30 INCHES
C. 30-40 INCHES
D. GREATER THAN 40 INCHES
31. WHAT RIVER CARRIES THE MOST WATER
_______?
A. AMAZON IN SOUTH AMERICA
B. MISSISSIPPI IN US
C. AMAZON IN AFRICA
D. GANGESIN ASIA
32. GROUNDWATER REPRESENTS HOW MUCH
OF THE WORLD'SFRESH WATER SUPPLY?
33. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCKSHASTHE
HIGHEST PERMEABILITY?
A. AN UNFRACTURED SHALE
B. A CEMENTED SANDSTONES
C. AN UNCEMENTED SANDSTONE
D. ALL OF THESE ROCKS HAVE
APPROXIMATELY THE SAME
PERMEABILITY
34. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MATERIALS HAS
THE LOWEST POROSITY?
A. SHALE
B. GRAVEL
C. GRANITE
D. SANDSTONE
35. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE
SATURATED AND THE UNSATURATED ZONES
OF GROUND WATER?
A. THE SATURATED ZONE HAS A
HIGHER POROSITY THAN THE
UNSATURATED ZONE
B. THE SATURATED ZONE HAS A
LOWER POROSITY THAN THE
UNSATURATED ZONE
C. THE PORE SPACES IN THE
SATURATED ZONE ARE COMPLETELY
FULL OF WATER; THE PORE SPACES
IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE ARE
NOT COMPLETELY FULL OF WATER.

D. THE PORE SPACES IN THE
SATURATED ZONE ARE NOT
COMPLETELY FULL OF WATER; THE
PORE SPACES IN THE UNSATURATED
ZONE ARE COMPLETELY FULL OF
WATER
36. THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE SATURATED
ZONE AND THE UNSATURATED ZONE IS
CALLED THE _____.
A. WATER TABLE
B. AQUIFER
C. AQUILUDE
D. POROSITY
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37. IN THE DIAGRAM ABOVE REGION A ISTHE
_______ .
A. DISCHARGE ZONE
B. RECHARGE ZONE
C. SATURATED ZONE
D. UNSATURATED ZONE
38. IN THE DIAGRAM ABOVE REGION B IS THE
_______ .
A. DISCHARGE ZONE
B. RECHARGE ZONE
C. SATURATED ZONE
D. UNSATURATED ZONE
39. INFLUENT STREAMS ARE _______
A. MORE COMMON IN ARID REGIONS

B. MORE COMMON IN HUMID
REGIONS
C. ONLY FOUND IN AREAS OF
PERMAFROST
D. SINKHOLE
40. EXCESSIVE PUMPING IN RELATION TO
RECHARGE CAN CAUSE_______
A. THE WATER TABLE TO DECLINE
B. A CONE OF DEPRESSION
C. THE WELL TO GO DRY
D. ALL OF THESE
41 IN WHAT TYPE OF ROCK DO MOST CAVES
FORM?
A. GRANITE
B. SHALE
C. LIMESTONE
D. SANDSTONE
42. SINKHOLES ARE A POSSIBLE DANGER IN
REGIONS UNDERLAIN BY WHAT TYPE OF BEDROCK?
A. GRANITE
B. SANDSTONE
C. SHALE
D. LIMESTONE
43. WATER THAT IS GOOD ENOUGH TO DRINK IS
CALLED ________.
A. POTABLE WATER
B. GROUNDWATER
C. SURFACE WATER
D. ARTESIAN WATER
44. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CAN
CONTAMINATE AN AQUIFER?
A. LANDFILLS
B. AGRICULTURAL REGIONS
C. GAS STATIONS
D. ALL OF THESE
GLACIERS AND
GLACIATION
1. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING DEPOSITIONAL
FEATURES WOULD YOU LOOK FOR TO ASSESS
GLACIATION?
A. HORNS, ARETES OR COLS
B. HANGING VALLEYS
C. TERMINAL MORAINES
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
2. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING EROSIONAL
FEATURES WOULD YOU LOOK FOR TO ASSESS
GLACIATION?
A. HORNS, ARETES OR COLS
B. HANGING VALLEYS
C. WATERFALLS
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
3. ACTIVE CONTINENTAL GLACIATION MAY
PRODUCE WORLD-WIDE TRANSGRESSIONS
LASTING SEVERAL TENS OF MILLIONS OF
YEARS?
A. YES
B. NO
4. GLACIATION FORMS BY ___________ OF
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SNOW.
A. BURIAL AND METAMORPHISM OF
SNOW
B. MELTING AND REFREEZING
C. EROSION AND DEPOSITION
D. PRECIPITATION AND MELTING
5. VALLEY GLACIERS ARE ALSO KNOWN AS
_________ GLACIERS.
A. LOWLAND
B. UPLAND
C. ALPINE
D. GORGE
6. HIGH LATITUDES ARE COLD BECAUSE
___________ .
A. THERE ARE FEWER HOURS OF
SUNLIGHT THAN AT THE EQUATOR
B. THERE IS MORE SNOW THAN AT
THE EQUATOR
C. THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE SUN'S
RAYS AND THE EARTH'S SURFACE IS
DIFFERENT THAN AT THE EQUATOR

D. THE EARTH'S POLES ARE FURTHER
FROM THE SUN THAN THE EARTH'S
EQUATOR
7. AT THE EQUATOR, AT WHAT ALTITUDE DOES
THE SNOW LINE LIE?
A. LESSTHAN 1000 METERS
8. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING LISTS IS
WRITTEN IN THE ORDER OF INCREASING
METAMORPHISM?
A. SNOW ... GRANULAR ICE ... FIRN ...
GLACIAL ICE
B. SNOW ... FIRN ... GLACIAL ICE ...
GRANULAR ICE
C. SNOW ... FIRN ... GRANULAR ICE ...
GLACIAL ICE
D. SNOW ... GRANULAR ICE ...
GLACIAL ICE ... FIRN
9. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REFERS TO THE
TOTAL AMOUNT OF ICE LOST FROM A
GLACIER EACH YEAR?
A. MELTAGE
B. ACCUMULATION
C. SUBLIMATION
D. ABLATION
10. THE TRANSFORMATION FROM ICE TO
GASEOUS WATER VAPOR IS CALLED
_________ .
A. MELTING
B. SUBLIMATION
C. BOILING
D. CONDENSATION
11. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A FORM
OF ABLATION?
A. MELTING
B. SUBLIMATION
C. CALVING
D. ALL OF THESE ARE PROCESSES
CONTRIBUTING TO ABLATION
12. COLD, DRY GLACIERS MOVE ___________
A. MOSTLY BY PLASTIC FLOW
B. MOSTLY BY BASAL SLIP
C. BY BOTH BASAL SLIP AND PLASTIC
FLOW
D. BY NEITHER BASAL SLIP NOR
PLASTIC FLOW
13. WHAT IS THE NAME FOR AN
AMPHITHEATER-LIKE HOLLOW THAT FORMS
AT THE HEAD OF A GLACIER?
A. KETTLE
B. MORAINE
C. CIRQUE
D. HORN
14. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CAN BE USED TO
DETERMINE THE DIRECTION A CONTINENTAL
GLACIER MOVED?
A. STRIATIONS
B. ROCHES MOUNTONEES
C. DRUMLINS
D. ALL OF THESE
15. IN A CONTINENTAL GLACIER, ICE FLOWS
________ .
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A. FROM THE EDGES TO THE CENTER
B. FROM THE CENTER TO THE EDGES

C. FROM NORTH TO SOUTH
D. FROM SOUTH TO NORTH
16. VARVE DEPOSITS ARE FORMED WHEN
________ IS DEPOSITED IN THE SUMMER
AND _____ IS DEPOSITED IN THE WINTER
A. COARSE SILT ... FINE CLAY
B. GRAVEL ... SAND
C. FINE CLAY ... SAND
D. COARSE SILT ... GRAVEL
17. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING AGENTS OF
EROSION DEPOSITS THE MOST POORLY
SORTED SEDIMENT?
A. WIND
B. ICE
C. STREAMS
D. OCEAN CURRENTS
18. WHEN TWO CIRQUES AT THE HEADS OF
MOUNTAINTOP, THE PRODUCE A SHARP,
JAGGED CREST CALLED A(N) __________ .
A. ARTE
B. FJORD
C. DRUMLIN
D. MORAINE
19. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE NOT
WATER-LAID DEPOSITS ASSOCIATED WITH
GLACIERS?
A. MORAINES
B. KAMES
C. ESKERS
D. VARVES
20. KETTLESARE FORMED BY ___________ .
A. MELTWATER STREAMS RUNNING
THROUGH GLACIAL TUNNELS
B. LARGE BLOCKS OF ICE LEFT BY A
GLACIER IN ITS OUTWASH PLAIN
C. SEASONAL DEPOSITION OF COARSE
AND FINE SEDIMENT
D. MELTING PERMAFROST
21. DURING THE PEAK OF THE LAST ICE AGE, SEA
LEVEL WAS ABOUT ______ LOWER THAN
SEA LEVEL TODAY.
A. 1 METER LOWER
B. 10 METERS LOWER
C. 100 METERS LOWER
D. 1000 METERSLOWER
22. HOW MANY DISTINCT GLACIATIONS
AFFECTED NORTH AMERICA DURING THE
PLEISTOCENE?
A. ONE
B. TWO
C. THREE
D. FOUR
23. THE RECENT ICE AGES OCCURRED DURING
THE ______ EPOCH.
A. PLIOCENE
B. PERMIAN
C. PLEISTOCENE
D. PALEOZOIC
SEDIMENTATION DO NOT AFFECT
_________.
A. WATER DISCHARGE AND SEDIMENT
B. DESERTIFICATION OF SEMI-ARID
LANDS
C. QUANTITY OF SEDIMENT DELIVERED
TO THE OCEANS
D. EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION IN
COASTAL AREAS ON SHALLOW
CONTINENTAL SHELVES
25. LARGE MASSES OF ICE ON LAND THAT SHOW
EVIDENCE OF MOVEMENT ARE CALLED
______.
A. ICE PACKS
B. GLACIERS
C. ICEBERGS
D. ALL OF THESE
26. ICE COVERS WHAT PERCENTAGE OF THE
ANTARCTIC CONTINENT?
A. 50%
B. 75%
C. 90%
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D. 100%
27. A DEPOSIT OF SNOW CONTAINS
APPROXIMATELY 90% AIR. GLACIAL ICE,
WHICH FORMS FROM SNOW, CONTAINS
APPROXIMATELY _______ AIR.
A. 90%
B. 50%
C. 25%
D. LESSTHAN 20%
28. IF ACCUMULATION EXCEEDS ABLATION THEN
_______..
A. THE GLACIAL ICE WILL FLOW
DOWNHILL BUT THE END OF THE
GLACIER WILL MOVE UPHILL
B. THE GLACIAL ICE WILL FLOW
DOWNHILL AND THE END OF THE
GLACIER WILL MOVE DOWNHILL
C. THE GLACIAL ICE WILL FLOW UPHILL
AND THE END OF THE GLACIER WILL
MOVE UPHILL
D. THE GLACIAL ICE WILL FLOW UPHILL
BUT THE END OF THE GLACIER WILL
MOVE DOWNHILL
29. CREVASSES FORM BECAUSE _________.
A. THE GLACIAL SURFACE PARTIALLY
MELTS, LEAVING HOLES AND
CRACKS
B. GLACIAL MELTWATER ERODES
SMALL VALLEYS AS GLACIAL RIVERS
FLOW
C. LOW CONFINING PRESSURE AT THE
SURFACE CAUSES CRACKS AS THE
ICE FLOWS
D. A GLACIAL CALVING PROCESS HAS
NOT BEEN COMPLETED

30. IN THIS CROSS-SECTION OF A GLACIER, THE
ARROWS POINT TO _______..
A. ABLATION SURFACES
B. BLOCKSOF BEDROCK
C. CREVASSES
D. ICE STREAMS

31. IF THE RELATIVE LENGTH OF THE ARROWS
REPRESENTS RELATIVE SPEED OF FLOW, THE
FLOW PATTERN SHOWN HERE IS MOST
LIKELY THAT OF ____________..
A. A VALLEY GLACIER
B. A CONTINENTAL GLACIER
C. EITHER A VALLEY GLACIER OR A
CONTINENTAL GLACIER
D. NEITHER A VALLEY NOR A
CONTINENTAL GLACIER
32. STRIATIONS OR GLACIAL GROVES WOULD
FORM __________ TO THE DIRECTION OF
MOVEMENT SHOWN ABOVE.
A. PERPENDICULAR
B. PARALLEL
C. EITHER PERPENDICULAR OR
PARALLEL
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
33. WHAT IS THE TERM FOR A SUDDEN PERIOD
OF FAST MOVEMENT OF A VALLEY GLACIER?
A. SUBLIMATION
B. SURGE
C. FIRN
D. DRIFT

34. THE CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAGRAM DEPICTSA
__________.
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A. ROCHE-MOUTONEE
B. DRUMLIN
C. KAME
D. ESKER
35. A HANGING VALLEY IS____________.
A. A VALLEY WITH MORE THAN THREE
TRIBUTARIES FEEDING INTO IT.
B. A VALLEY WITH MANY LOOSE
ROCKS IN ITS WALLS READY FOR A
LANDSLIDE
C. A VALLEY WITH ITS FLOOR HIGH
ABOVE THE MAIN VALLEY FLOOR
D. A VALLEY FEEDING INTO MANY
FJORDS
36. ERRATICS ARE ___________.
A. CROSS BEDS WHICH DO NOT
MATCH THE OVERALL OUTWASH
CROSS-BEDDING SCHEME
B. LARGE BOULDERS DEPOSITED
RANDOMLY BY GLACIERS
C. VALLEYS WITH GLACIAL STRIATIONS
THAT OPPOSE THE STRIATIONS IN
D. CONFLICTING DATES OF
GLACIATION OBTAINED BY DATING
ORGANIC MATTER FOUND IN
GLACIAL DEPOSITS
37. WHICH FEATURE FORMS WHERE TWO
LATERAL MORAINESMERGE?
A. END MORAINE
B. MEDIAL MORAINE
C. GROUND MORAINES
D. ESKERS
38. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A GLACIAL
DEPOSIT AND NOT A GLACIAL EROSIONAL
FEATURE?
A. A CIRQUE
B. A MORAINE
C. AN ARTE
D. A HORN
39. LARGE, STREAMLINED HILLS OF TILL AND
BEDROCK THAT FORM IN COME AREAS
SUBJECTED TO CONTINENTAL GLACIATION
ARE CALLED _________.
A. ARTES
B. KAME
C. ESKERS
D. DRUMLINS
40. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WOULD BE BEST
FOR A SAND AND GRAVEL PIT?
A. ARTE
B. KAME
C. VARVE
D. A DRUMLIN
41. THE EARTH IS EXPECTED TO GO BACK INTO A
PERIOD OF GLACIATION OVER THE NEXT
______ YEARS.
A. 100
B. 1,000
C. 10,000
D. 100,000
42. APPROXIMATELY HOW THICK WAS THE ICE
CAP THAT COVERED NORTHERN NORTH
AMERICA DURING THE LAST ICE AGE?
A. 300 METERS
B. 1,000 METERS
C. 3,000 METERS
D. 10,000 METERS
43. THE DEGREE OF ELLIPTICITY OF EARTH'S
ORBIT AROUND THE SUN IS CALLED ______.
A. ELLIPTICALITY
B. ECCENTRICITY
C. OVALITY
D. PRECESSION
44. PRECESSION DESCRIBES________.
A. THE MOVEMENT OF ICE SHEETS
AWAY FROM THE POLES
B. THE MOVEMENT OF GLACIAL ICE
THROUGH WINDING VALLEYS
C. THE WOBBLE OF THE EARTH'S AXIS
OF ROTATION
D. THE CHANGES IN CLIMATE AS THE
EARTH WARMSOR COOLS
45. THE LITTLE ICE AGE OF 1400-1650 AD IS
CHARACTERIZED AS SUCH IN PART
BECAUSE______.
A. THE RED SEA FROZE OVER
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B. THE BALTIC SEA FROZE OVER
C. THE DEAD SEA FROZE OVER
D. THE ATLANTIC OCEAN FROZE OVER

SHORELINES

1. OCEANS COVER APPROXIMATELY
__________ PERCENT OF THE EARTH'S
SURFACE.
A. 30
B. 50
C. 70
D. 90
2. THE HEIGHT OF AN OCEAN WAVE INCREASES
AS _________ .
A. THE WIND SPEED INCREASES
B. THE WIND BLOWS FOR LONGER
TIMES
C. THE DISTANCE OVER WHICH THE
WIND FLOWS OVER THE WATER
INCREASES
D. ALL OF THESE
3. THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO WAVE CRESTS
IS CALLED THE ___________ .
A. WAVELENGTH
B. WAVE HEIGHT
C. THROW
D. PERIOD
4. WAVES CAUSE SMALL PARTICLES FLOATING
ON THE SURFACE TO MOVE IN _________ .
A. HORIZONTAL ELLIPTICAL ORBITS
B. VERTICAL ELLIPTICAL ORBITS
C. HORIZONTAL CIRCULAR ORBITS
D. VERTICAL CIRCULAR ORBIT
5. THE ORBITAL MOTION OF WATER PARTICLES
DUE TO SURFACE WAVES STOPS AT A DEPTH
_________ .
WAVELENGTH
B. EQUAL TO THE WAVELENGTH
C. OF ABOUT ONE-HALF OF THE
WAVELENGTH
WAVELENGTH
6. WAVES RUN UP ONTO THE BEACH FORMING
A _________, AND RUN BACK DOWN AS
________.
A. SWASH ... BACKWASH
B. WAVE ... SWASH
C. FRONT SWASH ... RETROSWASH
D. WAVE ... BACKWASH
7. AS WAVES APPROACH A BEACH, THE ROWS
OF WAVES GRADUALLY BEND TO A
DIRECTION MORE PARALLEL TO THE SHORT.
THIS CHANGE IN DIRECTION IS CALLED
___________ .
A. LONGSHORE DRIFT
B. SWASH
C. TIDAL SURGE
D. WAVE REFRACTION
8. ____________ REFERS TO THE
MOVEMENT OF SAND GRAINS ALONG THE
BEACH.
A. WAVE REFRACTION
B. TURBIDITY CURRENT
C. LONGSHORE DRIFT
D. EBB TIDE
9. HOW MANY HIGH TIDES ARE THERE IN A
DAY?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
10. WHAT CAUSES THE TIDES?
A. WIND
B. SEISMICITY
C. OCEAN CURRENTS
D. GRAVITY
11. A TSUNAMI IS______________ .
A. A TIDAL SURGE CAUSED BY A
STORM
B. A LARGE WAVE CAUSED BY AN
UNDERSEA EVENT
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C. AN EARTHQUAKE WHICH CAUSES A
LARGE WAVE
D. AN UNDERSEA LANDSLIDE
12. THE MUDDY OR SANDY AREAS THAT ARE
EXPOSED DURING LOW TIDE, BUT ARE
FLOODED AT HIGH TIDE ARE CALLED
________ .
A. ESTUARIES
B. TIDAL FLATS
C. SURF ZONES
D. PASSIVE MARGINS
13. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING LANDFORMS
ARE CAUSED BY WAVE EROSION?
A. BARRIER ISLANDS
B. STACKS
C. ESTUARIES
D. SUBMARINE CANYONS
14. A COASTAL BODY OF WATER CONNECTED TO
THE OCEAN AND SUPPLIED WITH FRESH
WATER FROM A RIVER IS A(N) __________
.
A. RIVER
B. ATOLL
C. SPIT
D. ESTUARY
15. DEEP VALLEYS ERODED INTO THE
CONTINENTAL SLOPE AND SHELF ARE CALLED
__________
A. ESTUARIES
B. SUBMARINE CANYONS
C. OCEANIC TRENCHES
D. ABYSSAL VALLEYS
16. WHERE IS THE OCEAN FLOOR DEEPEST?
A. IN RIFT VALLEYS
B. IN THE ABYSSAL PLAIN
C. IN SUBMARINE CANYONS
D. IN OCEANIC TRENCHES
17. AT WHAT PLATE BOUNDARY SETTING IS THE
OCEAN FLOOR DEEPEST?
A. DIVERGENT
B. SUBDUCTION
C. CONTINENT - CONTINENT
COLLISION
D. TRANSFORM
18. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS AN ACTIVE
CONTINENTAL MARGIN?
A. THE EAST COAST OF NORTH
AMERICA
B. THE GULF COAST OF TEXAS
C. THE WEST COAST OF SOUTH
AMERICA
D. THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA
19. WHAT TYPE OF CURRENTS ERODE AND
DEPOSIT FINE-GRAINED SEDIMENTS ON THE
CONTINENTAL SLOPE AND RISE?
A. TIDAL CURRENTS
B. TURBIDITY CURRENTS
C. LONGSHORE CURRENTS
D. RIVER CURRENTS
20. LARGE FAN-SHAPED DEPOSITS OF FINE-
GRAINED SEDIMENTS THAT ACCUMULATE
ON THE CONTINENTAL RISE ARE CALLED
__________ .
A. SUBMARINE FANS
B. ATOLLS
C. ALLUVIAL FANS
D. SPITS
21. MOST VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON THE
SEAFLOOR TAKES PLACE ON ________ .
A. CONTINENTAL SHELVES
B. ABYSSAL PLAINS
C. CONTINENTAL RISES
D. MID-OCEAN RIDGES
22. BLACK SMOKERS ARE ENRICHED IN
___________ .
A. CARBON DIOXIDE AND METALS
B. DISSOLVED HYDROGEN SULFIDE
AND METALS
C. OXYGEN AND METALS
D. NITROGEN AND METALS
23. PELAGIC SEDIMENTS___________ .
A. ARE FINE-GRAINED
B. ARE DEPOSITED FAR FROM
CONTINENTAL MARGINS
C. SETTLE VERY SLOWLY TO THE
SEAFLOOR
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D. ALL OF THESE
24. PELAGIC SEDIMENTS CONSIST OF
___________ .
A. REDDISH-BROWN CLAYS DERIVED
FROM THE CONTINENTS
B. FORAMINIFERAL OOZES
C. SILICA OOZES
D. ALL OF THESE
25. THE SHELLS OF DIATOMS AND RADIOLARIA,
WHICH ACCUMULATE ON THE ABYSSAL
PLAIN, ARE COMPOSED OF ____________
.
A. CALCIUM CARBONATE
B. SODIUM CHLORIDE
C. IRON SULFIDE
D. SILICA
26. RIPPLES IN THE OCEAN GROW TO FULL-SIZED
WAVES WHEN THE WIND REACHES A SPEED
A. 3 METERS
B. 30 METERS
C. 3 KILOMETERS
D. 30 KILOMETERS

27. IN THIS DIAGRAM, THE WAVELENGTH ISTHE
DISTANCE ________.
A. A B
B. A C
C. A D
D. 3A E
28. IN THIS DIAGRAM, THE DISTANCE FTO H IS
CALLED THE ________.
A. CREST HEIGHT
B. TROUGH HEIGHT
C. WAVE HEIGHT
D. TOTAL DISPLACEMENT
29. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING EQUATIONS
CORRECTLY RELATES THE VELOCITY (V) TO
THE WAVELENGTH (L) AND PERIOD (T)?
A. V =L* T
B. V =L/T
C. V =L+T
D. V =L-T
30. WHEN A WAVE GETS CLOSE TO SHORE,
WATER PARTICLES NEAR THE BOTTOM MOVE
IN ______ ORBITS.
A. CIRCULAR
B. ELLIPTICAL
C. IRREGULAR
D. RECTANGULAR
31. THE SURF ZONE LIES IN THE ______ PART
OF THE BEACH.
A. OFFSHORE
B. FORESHORE
C. BACKSHORE
D. ALL OF THESE

32. THE AREA LABELED X IS CALLED THE
__________.
A. FORESHORE
B. SURF ZONE
C. SWASH ZONE
D. BACKSHORE
33. THE AREA LABELED Y IS CALLED THE
__________.
A. FORESHORE
B. SURF ZONE
C. SWASH ZONE
D. BACKSHORE
34. THE AREA LABELED XAND Y ISCALLED THE
__________.
A. FORESHORE
B. SURF ZONE
C. SWASH ZONE
D. BACKSHORE
35. IF SAND INPUT IS GREATER THAN SAND
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OUTPUT IN A BEACH'S SAND BUDGET, THE
BEACH WILL ________.
A. BE LONG, WIDE AND SANDY
B. HAVE LARGE SAND DUNES
C. HAVE A LARGE TIDAL FLAT
D. HAVE HIGH CLIFFS
36. PLANAR ROCKY SURFACES THAT FORM IN
THE SURF ZONE AS A RESULT OF WAVE
EROSION ARE CALLED ________.
A. STACKS
B. BACKSHORES
C. WAVE-CUT TERRACES
D. BARRIER ISLANDS
37. WHAT DO WE CALL LONG OFFSHORE
SANDBARS
A. STACKS
B. ESTUARIES
C. DORKS
D. BARRIER ISLANDS
38. SEA-LEVEL CHANGES BY GEOLOGIC STUDIES
OF _________.
A. STACKS
B. ESTUARIES
C. WAVE-CUT TERRACES
D. BEACHES

THE TOPOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE
ATLANTIC OCEAN FROM NEW ENGLAND TO
THE MID-OCEAN RIDGE
39. THE AREA W ISCALLED THE __________.
A. ABYSSAL PLAIN
B. CONTINENTAL SLOPE
C. SHORELINE
D. CONTINENTAL SHELF
40. THE AREA XIS CALLED THE __________.
A. OCEAN TROUGH
B. CONTINENTAL SLOPE
C. SHORELINE
D. CONTINENTAL RISE
41. THE AREA YISCALLED THE __________.
A. OCEAN TROUGH
B. CONTINENTAL SLOPE
C. SHORELINE
D. CONTINENTAL RISE
42. THE AREA ZIS CALLED THE __________.
A. ABYSSAL PLAIN
B. CONTINENTAL SLOPE
C. SHORELINE
D. CONTINENTAL RISE
43. THE MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE WOULD STAND
__________ THE ABYSSAL PLAIN
A. ABOVE
B. BENEATH
C. AT THE SAME ELEVATION AS
D. COULD BE ALL OF THE ABOVE
44. A SEAMOUNT IS_________
A. A CORAL REEF ABOVE A
SUBMERGED VOLCANO
B. A SMALL RISE IN THE SEAFLOOR
C. AN EXTINCT SUBMERGED VOLCANO

CENTER
45. TURBIDITY CURRENTS ARE MOST LIKELY TO
BE FOUND __________.
A. WHERE RIVERS EMPTY INTO
OCEANS
B. ON THE CONTINENTAL SLOPE
C. ON THE ABYSSAL PLAINS AWAY
FROM THE CONTINENTAL RISE
D. ON THE CONTINENTAL RISE
46. SUPERHEATED WATER APPROXIMATELY
FROM THE HOT SPRINGS ON THE EAST
PACIFIC RISE
A. 4
B. 40
C. 400
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D. 4000
47. A VOLUME OF SEAWATER EQUAL TO THE
VOLUME OF THE OCEANS CYCLES THROUGH
SUBMARINE HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS
ROUGHLY EVERY _________.
A. YEAR
B. 5,000 YEARS
C. 10 MILLION YEARS
D. ONE BILLION YEARS

DESERTS AND WINDS
WIND ARE CALLED __________
PROCESSES.
A. BARCHANS
B. CORIOLIS
C. EOLIAN
D. YARDANG
2. TURBULENCE OF AIR INCREASES IN
PROPORTION TO THE ___________ OF
THE AIR FLOW.
A. VOLUME
B. VELOCITY
C. ACCELERATION
D. DISTANCE
3. DUE TO THE CORIOLIS EFFECT, ANY
CURRENT OF AIR OR WATER IS DEFLECTED
TO THE ____ IN THE NORTHERN
HEMISPHERE AND TO THE _____ IN THE
SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE.
A. EAST ... EAST
B. EAST ... WEST
C. WEST ... EAST
D. WEST ... WEST
4. THE EARTH ROTATES FROM _______ TO
_______ .
A. WEST ... EAST
B. EAST ... WEST
C. NORTH .... SOUTH
D. SOUTH ... NORTH
5. SAND GRAINS SALTATING IN AIR CAN JUMP
HIGHER THAN SAND GRAINS SALTATING IN
WATER BECAUSE ___________ .
A. WATER IS LESS DENSE THAN AIR
B. AIR IS LESS VISCOUS THAN WATER

C. WIND VELOCITY IS FASTER THAN
WATER VELOCITY
D. GRAINS ARE SUSPENDED IN AIR
LONGER THAN THEY ARE IN WATER
6. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS AN
IMPORTANT SOURCE OF DUST?
A. VOLCANIC DUST FROM ERUPTIONS
B. CLAY MINERALS FROM SOILS
C. ORGANIC SOURCES, INCLUDING
CHARCOAL, POLLEN AND BACTERIA
D. ALL OF THESE
7. CROSS BEDS IN A LITHIFIED DUNE DIP TO
THE WEST. DURING DEPOSITION OF THE
SAND, THE PREVAILING WINDS WERE
PROBABLY FROM THE __________ .
A. EAST
B. WEST
C. NORTH
D. SOUTH
8. LARGE DUNE FIELDS, OR SEAS OF SANDS,
ARE CALLED _______ .
A. DRAAS
B. BARCHANS
C. REGS
D. ERGS
9. DESERTS WITH A PEBBLE SURFACE ARE
CALLED _________ .
A. DRAAS
B. BARCHANS
C. REGS
D. ERGS
10. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE NOT
RELATED TO WIND EROSION?
A. LOESS
B. VENTIFACT
C. DEFLATION
D. BLOWOUT
11. THE LOESS DEPOSITED IN THE UPPER
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MISSISSIPPI VALLEY WAS DERIVED
PRIMARILY FROM ________ .
A. VOLCANIC DUST
B. DESERT REGIONS LYING TO THE
WEST
C. GLACIAL DEPOSITS
D. COASTAL SAND DUNES
12. WHY DOES VOLCANIC DUST TEND TO
TRAVEL FURTHER THAN WIND-BLOWN DUST
DERIVED FROM THE CONTINENTS?
A. BECAUSE VOLCANIC DUST IS
ERUPTED HIGH INTO THE
ATMOSPHERE
B. BECAUSE VOLCANIC DUST IS LESS
DENSE THAN DUST DERIVED FROM
THE CONTINENTS
C. BECAUSE VOLCANIC DUST IS
COMPOSED OF QUARTZ WHEREAS
DUST DERIVED FROM THE
CONTINENTS IS COMPOSED OF
FELDSPAR
D. ALL OF THESE
13. THE GREAT BASIN AND MOJAVE DESERTS
OF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA EXIST
PRIMARILY _________ .
A. BECAUSE THEY LIE NEAR THE
EQUATOR
B. BECAUSE THEY LIE THOUSANDSOF
KILOMETERSFROM THE OCEAN
C. BECAUSE THEY LIE IN THE
MOUNTAINS
D. ALL OF THESE
14. MUCH OF A DESERT'S SURFACE CONSISTS OF
SAND, GRAVEL, AND ROCK RUBBLE BECAUSE
_________ .
A. CLAY MINERALS FORM SLOWLY IN A
DESERT ENVIRONMENT
B. WIND BLOWS AWAY CLAY AND SOIL
BEFORE IT CAN ACCUMULATE TO
GREAT THICKNESS
C. VEGETATION IS SPARSE AND
CANNOT PREVENT EROSION OF SOIL
D. ALL OF THESE
15. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WOULD YOU
LEAST EXPECT TO FIND IN A DESERT?
A. PLAYA LAKES
B. ROUNDED, SOIL-COVERED HILLS
C. STEEP RIVER VALLEYS AND GORGES
D. DUNE FIELDS
16. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A WIND
DEPOSIT?
A. PEDIMENT
B. SAND DUNE
C. LOESS
D. ALL OF THESE ARE WIND DEPOSITS
17. A BROAD, GENTLY-SLOPING PLATFORM OF
BEDROCK THAT IS LEFT BEHIND AS A
MOUNTAIN FRONT IS ERODED IS CALLED
A(N) ___________ .
A. PEDIMENT
B. ALLUVIAL FAN
C. MESA
D. ERG
18. WIND SPEEDS OF 117 KILOMETERS PER
HOUR OR MORE CONSTITUTE A _______
A. MODERATE TO STRONG BREEZE
B. MODERATE TO STRONG GALE
C. WHOLE GALE TO STORM
D. HURRICANE
19. IN TEMPERATE ZONES OF THE EARTH
BETWEEN 30O AND 60 O LATITUDE, THE
PREVAILING WINDS COME FROM THE
________.
A. NORTH
B. SOUTH
C. EAST
D. WEST
20. IN THE FIGURE ABOVE, THE LETTERS A
THROUGH D REPRESENT WIND NAMES.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ISFALSE?
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A. A AND B REPRESENT THE
"WESTERLIES"
B. A AND C REPRESENT "TRADE
WINDS"
C. C AND D REPRESENT "TRADE
WINDS"
D. NONE OF THESE STATEMENTS ARE
FALSE
21. RIPPLES ARE GENERALLY ORIENTED
________ TO THE CURRENT DIRECTION
A. PARALLEL
B. 30 DEGREES
C. 45 DEGREES
D. PERPENDICULAR
22. IN A LARGE DUST STORM, APPROXIMATELY
HOW MUCH DUST CAN 1 CUBIC KILOMETER
OF AIR CARRY?
A. 1 TON
B. 10 TONS
C. 100 TONS
D. 1000 TONS
23. FINE-GRAINED DUST PARTICLES FROM THE
ERUPTION OF MR. PINATUBO REMAINED IN
THE ATMOSPHERE FOR HOW LONG?
A. 1 - 2 MONTHS
B. 3 - 4 MONTHS
C. 1 -2 YEARS
D. 3 - 4 YEARS
24. WHITE SANDS NATIONAL MONUMENT
CONTAINS SAND DUNES MADE UP OF
_________?
A. QUARTZ
B. GYPSUM
C. ORGANIC SOURCES INCLUDING
POLLEN AND BACTERIA
D. FELDSPAR
25 WHAT IS THE PRIMARY CAUSE OF FROSTING
ON THE SURFACE OF QUARTZSAND GRAINS?
A. IMPACTS WITH OTHER SAND
GRAINS
B. ABRASION BY AIR CURRENTS
C. SLOW DISSOLUTION BY DUE
D. NONE OF THESE
26. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
FALSE?
A. WIND IS A MORE EFFECTIVE
EROSION AGENT IN WET CLIMATES
B. WIND IS A MORE EFFECTIVE
EROSION AGENT IN DRY CLIMATES

C. WIND IS AN EQUALLY EFFECTIVE
EROSION AGENT IN WET AND DRY
CLIMATES
D. WIND DOES NOT CAUSE EROSION
27. THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE GROUND
SURFACE IS LOWERED BY WIND EROSION IS
CALLED _______.
A. DEFLATION
B. INFLATION
C. ABLATION
D. NONE OF THESE
28. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WILL NOT
ACCELERATE DEFLATION?
A. ESTABLISHED VEGETATION
B. CONSTRUCTION
C. MOTOR VEHICLE TRACKS
D. PLOWING
29. HOW DOES DESERT PAVEMENT FORM?
A. BY INTENSE CHEMICAL
WEATHERING
B. BY STREAM EROSION
C. BY INTENSE MECHANICAL
WEATHERING
D. BY WIND EROSION
30. YARDANGSARE:
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A. SAND DUNESARRANGED IN LONG,
PARALLEL ROWS
B. ERODED BEDROCK WITH LONG,
PARALLEL GROOVES
C. LONG, PARALLEL RIDGES ERODED
BY DUST
D. NONE OF THESE
31. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROMOTE THE
DEVELOPMENT OF SAND DUNES?
A. STRONG WINDS
B. A SUPPLY OF LOOSE SAND
C. DRY CLIMATE
D. ALL OF THESE
32. SAND WILL ACCUMULATE ___________.
A. ON THE LEE SIDE (DOWNWIND)
SIDE OF A BOULDER
B. ON THE WINDWARD SIDE
(UPWIND) OF A BOULDER
C. ON BOTH THE LEE SIDE AND THE
WINDWARD SIDE OF A BOULDER
D. BOULDERS CANNOT CAUSE SAND
TO ACCUMULATE

33. GIVEN THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF THE
SAND DUNE AND ROCK SHOWN HERE, THE
WIND DIRECTION IS PREDOMINANTLY
___________
A. NORTH TO SOUTH TO NORTH
B. EAST TO WEST
C. WEST TO EAST
34. THE STEEPER, DOWNWIND SIDE OF A SAND
DUNE ISCALLED A _________.
A. SAND DRIFT
B. VENTIFACT
C. SLIP FACE
D. STREAMLINE
35. A CROSS BED PRESERVED IN AN EOLIAN
SANDSTONE REPRESENTS _________.
A. THE TOP OF A FORMER SAND DUNE
B. THE BOTTOM OF A FORMER SAND
DUNE
C. THE UPWIND SIDE OF A FORMER
SAND DUNE
D. THE DOWNWIND SIDE OF A
FORMER SAND DUNE

36. THIS SAND DUNE ISA _______ DUNE
A. BARCHANS
B. TRANSVERSE
C. BLOWOUT
D. LINEAR
37. THE WIND DIRECTION WHICH WOULD
CREATE THISDUNE IS__________.
A. NORTH TO SOUTH
B. SOUTH TO NORTH
C. EAST TO WEST
D. WEST TO EAST
38. IN A BARCHAN DUNE, THE POINTS OF THE
CRESCENT POINT ______ AND THE SLIP
FACE IS THE ________ DOWNWIND CURVE
OF THIS DUNE
A. UPWIND .... CONCAVE
B. UPWIND .... CONVEX
C. DOWNWIND .... CONCAVE
D. DOWNWIND ..... CONVEX
39. SAND DUNES BEHIND BEACHES ARE
TYPICALLY_______.
A. BARCHANS
B. TRANSVERSE
C. BARCHANS
D. LINEAR DUNES
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40. DURING EROSION LOESS TENDS TO BREAK
OFF __________.
A. IN HORIZONTAL LAYERS
B. IN VERTICAL SHEETS
C. ALONG IRREGULAR CRACKS
D. SLOWLY, GRAIN BY GRAIN
41. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT RELATED
TO WIND EROSION?
A. LOESS
B. VENTIFACTS
C. DEFLATION
D. BLOWOUTS
42. LONG SAND RIDGES THAT ARE MORE OR
LESS PARALLEL TO THE PREVAILING WIND
ARE CALLED ______.
A. BARCHAN DUNES
B. LINEAR DUNES
C. TRANSVERSE DUNES
D. BLOWOUTS
43. THROUGH GEOLOGIC TIME THE INTERIOR OF
AUSTRALIA HAS CHANGED FROM A MOIST,
HUMID CLIMATE TO A DESERT BECAUSE
A. PLATE COLLISIONS HAVE BUILT
MOUNTAINS NEAR THE COAST LINE
WHICH BLOCK MOISTURE-BEARING
WINDS FROM THE CONTINENT'S
INTERIOR
B. AUSTRALIA HAS MOVED
NORTHWARD INTO AN ARID,
SUBTROPICAL ZONE
C. AUSTRALIA HAS MOVED
SOUTHWARD OUT OF THE PART OF
D. THE CONTINENT HAS GROWN
THROUGH VOLCANIC ACTIVITY
MAKING THE INTERIOR TOO FAR
AWAY FROM MOISTURE-BEARING
WINDS
44. RADAR IMAGING FROM THE SPACE SHUTTLE
ENDEAVOR HAS PROVIDED EVIDENCE THAT
THE SAHARA DESERT __________.
A. HAS ALWAYS BEEN AN ARID
ENVIRONMENT
B. WAS ONCE TROPICAL WITH MANY
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VEGETATION
C. ONCE HAD AN EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
OF RIVER CHANNELS WHICH ARE
NOW DRY
D. HAS SAND DUNES IN EXCESS OF
300 M IN HEIGHT
45. THE TRANSFORMATION OF SEMI-ARID
REGIONS INTO DESERTS IS CALLED
_______.
A. DEFLATION
B. DEFORESTATION
C. DETOXIFICATION
D. DESERTIFICATION
46. WHAT MINERALS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
ORANGE-BROWN COLORS OF WEATHERED
SURFACES IN THE DESERT?
A. QUARTZ
B. ALKALI FELDSPAR
C. IRON OXIDES
D. ALL OF THESE
47. APPROXIMATELY WHAT PERCENTAGE OF
THE WORLD'S DESERTS ARE COVERED WITH
SAND?
A. 5%
B. 20%
C. 50%
D. 100%
48. A WADI IS A ________
A. SHALLOW LAKE
B. PLAYA WITH SALT SEDIMENTS
C. DRY WASH
D. FLOOD DEPOSITS
49. A MESA IS __________
A. FLOOD DEPOSIT IN A SMALL DRY
WASH
B. A FLAT PLATEAU SURROUNDED BY
STEEP CLIFFS
C. MOUNTAIN SHOWING HORIZONTAL
SEDIMENTARY LAYERING
D. A PEDIMENT WITH AN ALLUVIAL
FAN COVER

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ATMOSPHERE
1. ATMOSPHERE IS DIVIDED INTO TWO MAIN
VERTICAL REGIONS ONE IS CALLED HYDROSPHERE
AND LOWER IS_
(A) TROPOSPHERE
(B) MEZOSPHERE
HOMOSPHERE
(D) NONE OF THESE
2. THE TOTAL HEIGHT OF ATMOSPHERE
IS_________--KM.
(A) 60-100
(B) 70-100
80-100
(D) 90-100
3. TOTAL HEIGHT OF ATMOSPHERE IS
__________KM
(A) 30,000
(B) 40,000
50,000
(D) 60,000
4. THE PART OF ATMOSPHERE WHICH CONTAINS
CONSTANT GASSES WITH KNOWN COMPOSITION
CALLED
(A) HOMOSPHERE
(B) THERMOSPHERE
HETROSPHERE
(D) NONE OF THESE
5. NITROGEN IS_____-%IN THE AIR
(A) 58
(B) 68
78
(D) 88

6. OXYGEN IS____%IN THE AIR
(A) 18
(B) 19
20
(D) 21
7. THE PART OF ATMOSPHERE WHICH IS CONSISTED
ON VARIABLE GASSES WITH UNKNOWN
COMPOSITION IS CALLED________-
(A) STRATOSPHERE
(B) HETROSPHERE
HOMOSPHERE
(D) NONE OF THESE
8. _______ ABSORBS ENERGY WHICH IS
TRANSFERRED TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM THE
EARTHS SURFACE AND MAINTAINS TEMPERATURE
FOR LIFE
(A) CO2
(B) O2
N2O
(D) O3
9. WITHOUT_________THERE WOULD BE NO
CLOUDS OR RAINFALL
(A) WATER VAPOUR
(B) CO
CO2
(D) O3
10. A LAYER LOCATED IN STRATOSPHERE WHICH
ABSORBS ULTRAVIOLET RAYS OF SUN
CALLED__________
(A) OZONE LAYER
(B) F-LAYER
D-LAYER
(D) E-LAYER
11. THE GREATEST CONCENTRATION ON OZONE IT
FOUND AT __KM
(A) 10-25
(B) 20-25
30-25
(D) NONE OF THESE
12. THE PAUSE BETWEEN TROPOSPHERE AND
STRATOSPHERE ISCALLED_______
(A) TROPO PAUSE
(B) STRATO PAUSE
MEZZO PAUSE
(D) NONE OF THESE

13. THE PAUSE BETWEEN STRATOSPHERE AND
THERMOSPHERE ISCALLED_________-
(A) THERMOPAUSE
(B) STRATOPAUSE
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
14. CFC IS CONTINUOUSLY DESTROYING THE
___________LAYER
(A) D-LAYER
(B) F-LAYER
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OZONE LAYER
(D) NONE OF THESE
15. A LAYER OF IONS INSIDE THE MESOSPHERE IS
CALLED______-
(A) F-LAYER
(B) D-LAYER
OZONE LAYER
(D) BOTH (A) AND (B)
16. THERE IS CUT OFF SIGNAL WHEN A NASA
ROCKET REACHES IN THE REGION OF_________
(A) D-LAYER
(B) STRATOSPHERE
OZONE LAYER
(D) MESOSPHERE
17. TWO IONIC LAYERS ARE PRESENT IN
(A) TROPOSPHERE
(B) MOSESPHERE
HETROSPHERE
(D) THERMOSPHERE
18. THE LIMIT OF CLOUDSIS UP TO_
(A) STRATOSPHERE
(B) HOMOSPHERE
TRPOSPHERE
(D) NONE OF THESE
19. THE LAPSE RATE IN TROPOSPHERE
(A) 6.5C/1000 M
(B) 7.5C/1000 M
8.5C/1000 M
(D) 9.5C/1000 M
20. TEMPERATURE OF ATMOSPHERE DECREASE
IN________-
(A) STRATOSPHERE
(B) TROPSOPHERE
MESOSPHERE
(D) BOTH (A) AND (B)
21. TEMPERATURE INCREASE IN_________-
(A) STRATOSPHERE
(B) THERMOSPHERE
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
22. _______PROVIDES EARLIEST FLYING
CONDITIONS
(A) MESOSPHERE
(B) STRATOSPHERE
HETROSPHERE
(D) NONE OF THESE
23. MAGNETOSPHERE ISTHE SECOND NAME OF____
(A) HETROSPHERE
(B) MESOSPHERE
THERMOSPHERE
(D) NONE OF THESE
24. THE AVERAGE HEIGHT OF TROPOSPHERE FROM
SURFACE IS____KM
(A) 11
(B) 12
13
(D) 14
25. ABOVE SURFACE BETWEEN 50 AND 80 KM THE
LAYER OF DECREASING TEMPERATURE IS
CALLED_________
(A) STRATOSPHERE
(B) MESOSPHERE
TROPOSHERE
(D) STRATOSPHERE
(E) THERMOSPHERE
(F) NONE OF THESE
CONTINENTS,
OCEANS,
COUNTRIES
1. GRENADA IS SITUATED IN THE
(A) PACIFIC OCEAN
(B) INDIAN OCEAN
CARIBBEAN SEA
(D) MEDITERRANEAN SEA
2. THE NORTH ATLANTIC SEA ROUTE IS REGARDED AS
BECAUSE
(A) IS THE OLDEST SEA ROUTE
(B) IT CONNECTS TWO INDUSTRIALLY DEVELOPED
PARTS OF THE WORLD
TRADE WINDS WILL HELP THE SHIPPING
(D) THERE ARE LOSER NUMBER OF SEA STORMS IN
THIS WATERWAY
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3. THE SOUTH ALPSRANGESARE FOUND IN
(A) NORTH AMERICA
SOUTH AFRICA
(D) AUSTRALIA
4. PAIRS IS SITUATED ON THE BANKSOF THE RIVER
(A) RHINE
(B) SEINE
THAMES
(D) SAINT LAWRENCE
5. WHICH AMONG THE FOLLOWING IS THE BIGGEST
ISLAND IN THE WORLD
(A) BORNEO
(B) MEAGAGASCAR
GREENLAND
(D) SRI LANKA
6. ZURICH ISA CITY IN
(B) SWITZERLAND
U.S.A.
(D) NONE OF THESE
7. FIJI IS A COUNTRY IN THE
(A) SOUTH PACIFIC
(B) EAST PACIFIC
NORTH PACIFIC
(D) WEST PACIFIC
8. THE TROPIC OF CANCER DOESNOT PASSTHROUGH
(A) EGYPT
(B) MEXICO
IRAN
(D) INDIA
9. THE LARGES PRODUCE OF MANGANESE IN THE
WORLD IS
(A) CHINA
(B) INDIA
U.S.S.R
(D) U.S.A
10. THE TOP RANKING COUNTRY IN THE
PRODUCTION OF RUBBER IS
(A) INDIA
(B) BRAZIL
MALAYSIA
(D) SRI LANKA
11. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS TROPICAL
GRASSLAND
(A) PRAIRES
(B) SAVANNA
STEPPES
(D) NONE OF THE ABOVE
12. THE USE OF THE HARPOON ISASSOCIATED WITH
(A) ESKIMOSOF COLD DESERTS
(B) NAGAS OF DENSE FORESTS
KHIRGHIZ OF TEMPERATE GRASSLAND
(D) BUSHMEN OF AFRICA
13. THE LARGEST MICA PRODUCING COUNTRY IN THE
WORLD IS
(A) U.S.A
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(B) INDIA
JAPAN
(D) GERMANY
14. ROME IS THE CAPITAL OF
(A) SWEDEN
(B) ITALY
(D) AUSTRIA
15. THE RIVER NILE ISIN
(A) USA
(B) EGYPT
MONGOLIA
(D) INDIA
16. WHICH PASS CONNECTS MALAKAND WITH
MARDAN
(A) GOMAL
(B) DARGAI
KHYBER
(D) NONE OF THESE
17. MYAMMAR ISTHE NEW NAME OF
(A) THAILAND
(B) MALAYSIA
BURMA
(D) BHUTAN
18. SAIKAN, THE LONGEST RAILWAY TUNNEL, IS
LOCATED IN
(A) EGYPT
(B) SWITZERLAND
JAPAN
(D) NAMIBIA
19. WHICH IS THE LARGES CONTINENT OF THE
WORLD
(A) ASIA
(B) NORTH AMERICA
AUSTRALIA
(D) AFRICA
20. WHICH OF THE COUNTRIES HAVE COMMON
NATIONAL FRONTIERSWITH INDIA
(A) CHINA, BURMA, AND AFGHANISTAN
CHINA, BURMA AND NEPAL
(D) AFGHANISTAN, NEPAL AND BURMA
21. THE KARAKORAM HIGHWAY CONNECTS
(A) PAKISTAN AND CHINA
(B) SRINAGAR AND JAMMU
AKSSI CHIN-SRINAGAR
(D) AKSSCHIN-PAKISTAN
22. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE SMALLEST
COUNTRY
(A) JAPAN
(B) NICARAGUA
SWITZERLAND
(D) BELGIUM
23. PAKISTANS NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS SITUATED
AT
(A) KARACHI
(B) LAHORE
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(D) KAHUTA
24. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PAIRSIS CORRECT?
(A) ROSSIS-SOUTH AMERICA
(B) ALPS-EUROPE
ANDES-AUSTRALIA
(D) ATLAS-AFRICA
25. THE LARGES JUTE PRODUCING COUNTRY IN THE
WORLD IS
(B) BRAZIL
CONGO
(D) INDIA
26. WHERE IS THE TORRID ZONE LOCATED ON THE
EARTHS SURFACE
(A) BETWEEN THE TROPIC OF CANCER AND THE
TROPIC CAPRICORN
(B) BETWEEN THE TROPIC AND THE TROPIC OF
CAPRICORN
BETWEEN THE EQUATOR AND THE TROPIC OF
CAPRICORN
(D) BETWEEN THE EQUATOR AND THE TROPIC
CANCER
27. JAFFINA IS IN THE __________ PART OF SRI
LANKA
(A) NORTHERN
(B) CENTRAL
SOUTHERN
(D) EASTERN
28. DISTANCE ON EARTH ARE MEASURED IN
STATUTE MILES WHEREAS IN THE SEA THEY ARE
MEASURED IN NAUTICAL MILES BECAUSE
(A) THE NAUTICAL MILE IS LONGER THAN THE
STATUTE MILE
(B) OF DIFFERENCE IN LAND AND SEA DISTANCES
THERE ARE NO MILESTONESIN THE SEA
(D) NONE OF THESE
29. THE HORMUZ STRAIT IS SITUATED AT THE
ENTRANCE OF THE
(A) CHINA SEA
(B) RED SEA
MEDITERRANEAN SEA
(D) PERSIAN GULF
30. VASCO DA GAMA, WHO DISCOVERED THE SEA
ROUTE TO INDIA, FIRST REACHED
(A) SURAT
(B) KALICUT
BOMBAY
(D) COCHIN
31. MOUNT EVEREST IS LOCATED IN
(A) NEPAL
(B) CHINA
INDIA
(D) BHUTAN
32. THE LARGEST RESERVE OF FRESH WATER ON THE
EARTHS SURFACE ISIN
(A) RUSSIA
(B) AFRICA
SOUTH AMERICA
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(D) AUSTRALIA
33. PRAIRIES ARE
(A) PLACE OF PRAYER FOR NEGRO
(B) BIRDS OF INDONESIA
TEMPERATE GRASSLANDSOF NORTH AMERICA
(D) HOT WINDSBLOWING IN AMERICA
34. THE NIAGARA FALLS IS IN
(A) NORTH AMERICA
(B) SOUTH AMERICA
AFRICA
(D) EUROPE
35. CHAD IS IN WHICH PART OF AFRICA
(A) CENTRAL
(B) EASTERN
NORTHERN
(D) WESTERN
36. KAMPUCHEA ISTHE NEW NAME OF
(A) THAILAND
(B) VIETNAM
LAGOS
(D) CAMBODIA
37. THE ASWAN DAM IS LOCATED IN
(A) EGYPT
(B) IRAN
LIBYA
(D) PAKISTAN
38. THE CONGO BASIN OF AFRICA EXPERIENCES
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF CLIMATE
(A) EQUATORIAL
(B) MEDITERRANEAN
SUBTROPICAL
(D) TROPICAL
39. INTO WHICH SEA DOES THE VOLGA RIVER FLOW
(A) MEDITERRANEAN SEA
(B) CASPIAN SEA
BLACK SEA
40. WHICH ISTHE LONGEST RIVER IN THE WORLD
(A) AMAZON
(B) MISSISSIPPI
NILE
(D) GANGES
41. THE PANAMA CANAL CONNECTS
(A) THE ARABIAN SEA AND THE RED SEA
(B) THE ATLANTIC AND THE PACIFIC OCEANS
THE BLACK SEA AND THE CASPIAN SEA
(D) THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND THE RED SEA
42. THE WORLDS LARGEST PRODUCER OF LAC IS
(A) JAPAN
INDIA
(D) CHINA
43. ATACAMA IS A
(A) SEA
(B) DESERT
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RIVER
(D) MOUNTAIN
44. THE GREATEST MASS OF ICE ON THE EARTH IS
FOUND IN
(A) SIBERIA
(B) ANTARCTICA
GREENLAND
45. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FRUITS IS NOT
GROWN IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION
(A) GRAPES
(B) ALMONDS
ORANGES
(D) NONE OF THE ABOVE
46. THE COUNTRY HAVING THE LARGEST AREA
UNDER TEA CULTIVATION IS
(A) SRI LANKA
(B) INDIA
BURMA
(D) CHINA
47. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IN NO A CAPITAL
CITY
(A) ULAN BATOR
(B) MECCA
BERLIN
(D) ANKARA
48. THE TERM THE LAND OF MIDNIGHT SUNIS
NORMALLY APPLIED TO
(A) NORWAY
(B) JAPAN
(D) FINLAND
49. ZEBRAS INHABIT THE
(A) HOT DESERTS
(B) TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS
SELA FORESTS
(D) SAVANA LANDS
50. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING COUNTRIESENJOYSA
WARM TO HOT AND DRY SUMMER AND A MILD BUT
MODERATE WINTER
(A) VENEZUELA
(B) U.K.
(C) ITALY
(D) SRI LANKA
51. THE TWO WATER BODIES CONNECTED BY THE
SUEZCANAL ARE
(A) THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND THE BLACK SEA
(B) THE PERSIAN GULF AND THE MEDITERRANEAN
SEA
THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND THE RED SEA
(D) THE ADRIATIC SEA AND THE PERSIAN GULF
52. ORANGES LEMONS AND GRAPES ARE
ABUNDANTLY GROWN IN THE
(A) MEDITERRANEAN REGIONS
(B) COOL TEMPERATE
EQUATORIAL REGIONS
(D) MONSOONAL REGIONS
53. AN IGLOO ISA
(A) DWELLING HOUSE OF AN ESKIMO
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(B) WEAPON USED BY AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES
FISH FOUND IN WAR WATER
(D) BOAT USED BY MALAY FISHERMEN
54. GUERNICA IS
(A) AN ISLAND IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN
(B) THE TITLE OF A PAINTING
AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE
(D) THE NAME OF A BASQUE TOWN IN NORTHERN
SPAIN
55. THE VELD IS THE NAME GIVEN FOR THE GRAZING
GROUNDS OF
(A) SOUTH AFRICA
(B) NEW ZEALAND
AUSTRALIA
(D) SCOTLAND
56. LICHEN IS THE TYPICAL VEGETATION OF THE
_________REGION
(A) TUNDRA
(B) SAVANNA
TAIGA
(D) STEPPE
57. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING EXPLORERS
DISCOVERED A NEW COUNTRY WHILE HE WANTED TO
REACH ANOTHER ONE
(A) BARTHOLOMEU DIAZ
(B) VASCO DA GAME
MAGELLAN
(D) COLUMBUS
58. PASTORAL NOMADISM IS THE TYPICAL
OCCUPATION OF THE PEOPLE OF
(A) NIGERIA
(B) SOUTH EAST AUSTRALIA
NORTHERN SIBERIA
(D) OUTER MONGOLIA
59. WHICH COUNTRY IS KNOWN AS THE SUGAR
BOWL OF THE WORLD
(A) CHINA
(B) CUBA
INDIA
(D) AUSTRALIA
60. THE LARGEST MAN-MAKE CANAL IN THE WORLD
IS THE
(A) PANAMA CANAL
(B) SUEZCANAL
RHINE CANAL
(D) NONE OF THESE
61. WHICH SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRY IS KNOWN AS
THE LAND OF CANALS
(A) BURMA
(B) PAKISTAN
(D) BHUTAN
62.COTOPAXI, THE HIGHEST VOLCANO IN THE
WORLD IS SITUATED IN
(B) RUSSIA
HAWAII
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63. BUDAPEST IS SITUATED ON THE BANK OF THE
RIVER
(A) TIGRIS
(B) ST LAWRENCE
LA PLATA
(D) DANUBE
64. WHICH COUNTRY IS KNOWN AS THE PEARL OF
THE EAST
(A) BHUTAN
SRI LANKA
(D) NEPAL
65. THE LARGEST PRODUCER OF RUBBER IS
(A) THAILAND
(B) INDONESIA
MALAYSIA
(D) NONE OF THE ABOVE
66. NICOSIA ISTHE CAPITAL OR
(A) TUNIS
(B) SOUTH AFRICA
(D) CYPRUS
67. KARACHI IS SITUATED ON THE BANKS OF THE
(A) INDUS
(B) CHENAB
RAVI
(D) JEHLUM
68.THE LARGEST TEA PRODUCER IN THE WORLD IS
(A) RUSSIA
(B) CHINA
INDIA
(D) BURMA
69. THE LARGEST COFFEE-PRODUCING COUNTRY IN
THE WORLD
(A) CHINA
(B) COLUMBIA
BRAZIL
(D) INDIA
70. THE LARGEST SUGARCANE PRODUCING COUNTRY
IN THE WORLD IS
(A) PHILIPPINES
(B) CHINA
INDIA
(D) CUBA
71. THE LARGEST WOOL PRODUCING COUNTRY IN
THE WORLD IS
(A) USA
(B) AUSTRALIA
INDIA
(D) GREENLAND
72. LAPLAND ISA GROUP OF COUNTRIESLOCATED IN
(A) AUSTRALIA
(B) AMERICA
EUROPE
(D) ASIA
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(A) IRAN
(B) IRAQ
BURMA
(D) PHILIPPINES
74. DIEGO GARCIA IS
(A) A CHARACTER IN ONE OF SHAKESPEARES
DRAMAS
(B) A RIVER ISS. AMERICA
AN AERO PLANE JET FIGHTER
(D) A BRITISH ISLAND IN THE INDIA OCEAN
75. WHICH COUNTRY IS CALLED THE LAND OF
MORNING CALM
(A) SWEDEN
(B) NORWAY
NETHERLANDS
(D) KOREA
76. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING COUNTRIES
ASSOCIATED WITH MAGYARS
(A) BELGIUM
(B) HUNGARY
DENMARK
(D) CZECH
77. WHICH ISTHE HIGHEST COUNTRY IN THE WORLD
(A) TIBET
(B) NEPAL
BOLIVIA
(D) FINLAND
78. THE CAPITAL OF GERMANY IS
(A) VIENNA
(B) BERNE
BERLIN
(D) NONE OF THE ABOVE
79. THE CAPITAL OF AUSTRALIA IS
(A) OTTAWA
(B) SYDNEY
CANBERRA
(D) PERTH
80. DAMASCUSISTHE CAPITAL OF
(A) IRAN
(B) LIBYA
ALGERIA
(D) SYRIA
81. THE SECOND LARGEST CONTINENT OF THE
WORLD IS
(A) NORTH AMERICA
(B) ASIA
SOUTH AMERICA
(D) AFRICA
82. WHAT ISTHE CAPITAL OF BELGIUM
(A) BUDAPEST
(B) PRAGUE
BRUSSELS
83. THE CAPITAL OF MALAYSIA IS
(A) SINGAPORE
(B) KUALA LUMPUR
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MANILA
(D) MALA
84. WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF KENYA
(A) SICILY
(B) NAIROBI
LUSAKA
85. ZAIRE ISTHE NEW NAME OF
(A) RHODESIA
(B) CONGO
GOLD COAST
(D) BASUTOLAND
86. THE WORLDS BUSIEST INLAND WATERWAY IS
(A) ST. LAWRENCE
(B) SUEZ
RHINE
(D) DANUBE
87. THE RING OF FIRE IS FOUND ALONG THE
MARGINS OF THE
(A) PACIFIC OCEAN
(B) ATLANTIC OCEAN
INDIAN OCEAN
(D) MEDITERRANEAN SEA
88. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING IS KNOWN AS
(A) MONSOON REGION
(B) EQUATORIAL REGION
SAVANNA
(D) TEMPERATE REGION
89. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING INSKNOWN AS
THE COFFEE PORTOF THE WORLD
(A) SAO PAULO
(B) SANTOS
RIO DE JANEIRO
(D) BUENOS AIRES
90. THE GEOMETRIC FORM OF THE EARTH IS
APPROXIMATED THAT OF
(A) A SPHERE
(B) AN OBLATE SPHEROID
A PROLATE SPHEROID
(D) TETRAHEDRON
91. IF THE EARTHS ROLATION IS REVERSED WHAT
WOULD BE THE PST WHEN IST IS NOON AT
GREENWICH
(A) 06.30
(B) 17.30
05.00
(D) 18.30
92. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE MAIN
CULPRIT IN THE THINNING OF OZONE LAYER IN THE
EARTHS STRATOSPHERE
(A)CARBON DIOXIDE
(B) CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS
NITROGEN OXIDE
(D) METHANE

MAP
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1. THE ACT MAP MAKING IS CALLED______
CARTOGRAPHY
2. _______ MAPS ARE DRAWN TO REGISTER THE
OWNERSHIP OF LANDED PROPERTY
(A) WALL MAPS
(B) CLIMATE
(D) TOPOGRAPHICAL
3. ________ MAPS SHOW BOTH NATURAL AS WELL
AS CULTURAL FEATURES
(A) CHROROGRAPHICAL
(B) CLIMATE MAPS
(D) TOPOGRAPHICAL
4. MAPS WITH MINUTE DETAILS ARE DRAWN
ON_____SCALE
(A) SMALL
(B) LARGE
MEDIUM
(D) NONE OF THESE
5. HEAVENLY BODIESARE SHOWN BY______
(A) ASTRONOMICAL MAP
(B) RELIEF MAP
VEGETATION MAP
(D) NONE OF THESE
6. MOUNTAINS, VALLEYS, PLATEAUS, PLAINS,
DEPRESSION ETC ARE SHOWN BY________
(A) RELIEF MAP
(B) VEGETATION MAP
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
7._______MAP SHOWS NATURAL FLORA
(A) VEGETATION MAP
(B) RELIEF MAP
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
8. ECONOMIC TRADE CENTERS AND THEIR
ASSOCIATED TYPES OF TRADE ARE SHOWN
IN_________
(A) ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL MAP
(B) RELIEF AND VEGETATION MAP
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
9. BOUNDARIES BETWEEN DIFFERENT STATES ARE
SHOWN IN____
(A) POLITICAL MAP
(B) RELIEF MAP
VEGETATION
(D) COMMERCIAL MAP
10. SOIL MAPS ARE VERY USEFUL
IN_________PLANNING
(A) CULTURAL
(B) AGRICULTURAL
SOCIAL
(D) NONE OF THESE
11. IMAGINARY LINE JOINING PLACES OR EQUAL
VALUE IN RESPECT OF SOME DISTRIBUTION IS
CALLED_____
(A) ISOPLETH
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(B) ISOBATHS
ISOBYET
(D) NONE OF THESE
12. ISOPLETH FOR RAINFALL ISCALLED__________
(A) ISOHYET
(B) ISOBATHS
ISOBAR
(D) NONE OF THESE
13. ISOBAR TELL_________
(A) RAINFALL
(B) PRESSURE
DEPTH
(D) NONE OF THESE
14. ISOPLETH FOR DEPTH IS__________
(A) ISOBATHS
(B) ISOHALINE
ISOHYET
(D) NONE OF THESE
15. ISOPLETH FOR SALINITY IS________
(A) ISOHALINE
(B) ISOBATHS
ISOHYET
(D) NONE OF THESE
(A) SUNSHINE
(B) NIGHT
DAR NIGHT
(D) NONE OF THESE
17. CLOUDINESSIS SHOWN BY________
(A) CLOUDINESS
(B) CLEAR SKY
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
18. TOPOGRAPHY OF AN AREA REFERS TO
ITS______
(A) POPULATION
(B) CULTURE
TARRAIN
(D) NONE OF THESE
19.___________ PHOTOS ARE TAKEN WITH THE
CAMERA LENS AS NEARLY PERPENDICULAR TO THE
EARTHS SURFACE AS POSSIBLE
(A) VERTICAL
(B) HORIZONTAL
LONGITUDINAL
(D) NONE OF THESE
20. THE RATE OF FALL OF PRESSURE BETWEEN TWO
POINTSISCALLED __________
21. THE WEATHER MAP DEPICTING THE WEATHER AT
0830 HOURS GIVES THE RAINFALL RECEIVED DURING
PAST________HOURS
(A) 21
(B) 22
23
(D) 24
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22. THE WEATHER MAP DEPICTING THE WEATHER
AT__________HOURS GIVES THE RAINFALL
(A) 1630
(B) 1730
1830
(D) 1930
23. ON_______MAP, NATURAL AND CULTURAL
LECTURES ARE PORTRAYED BY COLOUR-ENHANCED
PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES WITH CERTAIN MAP
SYMBOLS ORTHOPHOTOMAP

HUMAN
GEOGRAPHY
1. BALOCHISTAN IS__________%OF THE AREA OF
PAKISTAN
(A) 41
(B) 42
43
(D) 44
2. POPULATION OF PUNJAB IS_________%OF THE
COUNTRY
(A) 56
(B) 66
76
(D) 86
3. WHEN TEMPERATURE EXCEEDS________C IT IS
THOUGHT TO BE HOT
(A) 17
(B) 27
37
(D) 47
4. AREA OF THE WORLD IS______MILLION SQUARE
KM APROX
(A) 100
(B) 150
200
(D) 250
5. AREA OF RUSSIA IS 17 KM BEING_______-OF
THE WORLD
(A) 1/7
(B) 1/8
1/9
(D)1/10
6. CANADA IS THE________LARGEST COUNTRY OF
THE WORLD
(A) 1ST
(B) 2ND
3RD
(D) 4TH
7. AN AREA WITH LESS THAN________-INCH
ANNUAL RAIN FALL IS CALLED ARID OF DESERT
(A) 10
(B) 11
12
(D) 13
8. _______% OF AGRICULTURE DEPENDS UPON
CANNA IRRIGATION SYSTEM
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(A) 75
(B) 85
95
(D) 99
9. PAKISTAN HAS ___-BEST CANAL IRRIGATION
SYSTEM OF THE WORLD
(A) 3RD
(B) 4TH
5TH
(D) 6TH
10. FOR THE FIRS TIME OIL WAS DISCOVERED
IN___IN_______-
(A) 1759, USA
(B) 1859, VENEZUELA
1559, UK
(D) 1659, SAUDI ARABIA
11. OIL WAS EXPLORED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN
MIDDLE EAST IN
(A) 1920
(B) 1930
1940
(D) 1950
12. HIGHEST POPULATION GROWTH RATE CAN BE
OBSERVED IN________
(A) INDIA
(B) MIDDLE EAST
PAKISTAN
13. HIGHEST BIRTH RATE IS FOUND IN_______
(A) AFRICA
(B) AUSTRALIA
ASIA
(D) MIDDLE EAST
14. ___________ IS TERMED AS LIQUID BLACK
GOLD
(A) MERCURY
(B) IRIDIUM
PLUTONIUM
(D) NONE OF THESE
15. ________ IS 5TH LARGES NATION OF THE
WORLD ACCORDING TO AREA AS WELL
(A) ZIMBABWE
(B) BRAZIL
ARGENTINA
(D) NIGERIA
16. THE USA IS LARGEST_________OF WHEAT IS
THE WORLD
(A) EXPORTER
(B) PRODUCER
CONSUMER
(D) BOTH (A) AND (B)
17. CHINA IS THE LARGEST______OF WHEAT IN THE
WORLD
(A) CONSUMER
(B) EXPORTER
PRODUCER
(D) BOTH (A) AND (B)
18. LATIN AMERICA IS______
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(A) A CONTINENT
(B) COMMUNIST BLOCK
A LINGUISTIC BLOCK
(D) ANTI-USBLOCK
19. POPULATION GROWTH RATE OF RUSSIA
IS_________-%
(A) -0.40
(B) -0.50
-0.60
(D) -0.70
20. WORLD POPULATION GROWTH RATE IS_____---
--%
(A) 1.4
(B) 1.5
1.6
(D) 1.7
21. ______IS THE MOST URBANIZED COUNTRY IS
SOUTH ASIA
(A) PAKISTAN
(B) INDIA
(D) NEPAL
22. DARWINS BOOK ORIGIN OF SPECIES WAS
PUBLISHED IN _________
(A) 1858
(B) 1859
1960
(D) 1961
23. ACCORDING TO MALTHUS THEORY OF
POPULATION, RESOURCES GROW
_______________
(A) GEOMETRICALLY
(B) VERTICALLY
SPEEDILY
(D) LINERALY
24. ACCORDING TO MALTHUS THEORY OF
POPULATION, POPULATION GROW
(A) GEOMETRICALLY
(B) VERTICALLY
HORIZONTLY
(D) LINEARLY
25. DOMESTICATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS IS
KNOWN AS_______-
(A) DOMESTICULTURE
(B) AGRICULTURE
DOMESTICOLOGY
(D) HORTICULTURE
26.AGRICULTURE STARTED____________YEARS
AGO
(A) 10,000-20,000
(B) 20,000-20,000
30,000-20,000
(D) NONE OF THESE
27. ____IS THE MOST PRIMITIVE TYPE OF
AGRICULTURE
(A) SLASH AND BURN
(B) PLATUES
MECHANICAL
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(D) NONE OF THESE
28. AFTER LEAVING THE FOREST MAN SHIFTED
TO________
(A) SEA SHORES
(B) PLATUES
RIVER VALLEYS
(D) NONE OF THESE
29. PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE STARTED PROBABLY
IN_____
(A) MIDDLE EAST
(B) SOUTH EAST ASIA
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
30. ACCORDING TO ECONOMISTS, ONE POWER
DRIVEN MACHINE REPLACE ALMOST____--WORKERS
(A) 40
(B) 50
60
(D) 70
31. ONE HECTOR OF LAND IS EQUAL
TO_________ACRES
(A) 2.27
(B) 2.37
2.47
(D) 2.57
32 _________ ISTHE ONLY COUNTRY OF MIDDLE
EAST WHICH ISAMONG THE TOP 25 PRODUCERSOF
THE WORLD
(A) IRAQ
(B) KUWAIT
IRAN
(D) SAUDI ARABIA
33. _______ BEING THE 5TH LARGEST PRODUCER IN
THE WORLD IS THE ONLY EXPORTED OF WHEAT IN
EUROPE
(A) ENGLAND
(B) FRANCE
NORWAY
(D) NETHERLANDS
34. GREEN REVOLUTION STARTED IN ___________
(A) CHINA
(B) FRANCE
NORWAY
(D) NETHERLANDS
35. GREEN REVOLUTION CAME IN _________
(A) 1940
(B) 1950
1960
(D) 1970
36. FOR THE FIRS TIME, IRRI WAS CULTIVATED IN
________
(A) JAPAN
(B) PHILIPPINES
MEXICO
(D) KOREA
37. ___________ IS THE FIRS PAKISTANI GENETIC
SEED
(A) MEXIPAK
(B) BASMATI
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NAYAB 86
(D) NONE OF THESE
38. GREEN REVOLUTION IS PERTAINING TO ______
(A) PROMOTION OF GREENERY
(B) REVOLUTION BY GREEN FLAGS
BULK PRODUCTION
(D) PRESERVATION OF FORESTS
39. TERMINATOR IS A GENETIC SEED OF ________
(A) COTTON
(B) PALM OIL
RICE
(D) WHEAT
40. IN 1800, JUST 200 YEAR AGO 100 AGRARIAN
PEOPLE COULD HARDLY PRODUCED SURPLUS FOOD
FOR_________ PEOPLE
(A) 8
(B) 9
10
(D) 11
41. NOW ONE AGRARIAN PERSON CAN EASILY
PRODUCE FOOD FOR _________ AGRARIANS
(A) 60-70
(B) 70-80
90-100
(D) 100-200
42. IN 1800 AD ONLY ___________ %OF THE
WORLD POPULATION WAS URBANIZED
(A) 2.5 %
(B) 3.5 %
4.5 %
(D) 6.5 %
43. _________ IS THE MOST REFINED TYPE SO SOIL
(A) CLAY
(B) SILT
SAND
(D) NONE OF THESE
44. CLAY _______ WATER TO PERCULATE AS
COMPARED TO OTHER TYPE OF SOLIS
(A) RESISTS
(B) ALLOWS
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
45. MIXTURE OF CLAY, SILT AND SAND IS KNOW AS
________
(A) BLACK SOIL
(B) LOAM
MIXED SOIL
(D) NONE OF THESE
46. BLACK SOIL IS FORMED DUE TO ________
(A) ERUPTION OF VOLCANOES
(B) DEPOSITION OF RIVERS
MIXING OF SOIL
(D) NONE OF THESE
47. BLACK SOIL IS FORMED DUE TO ________
(A) COTTON
(B) RICE
WHEAT
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(D) SUGARCANE
48. COTTON REQUIRES ______- SOIL AND FROST
FREE CLIMATE FOR CULTIVATION
(A) BLACK
(B) SILT
SAND
(D) NONE OF THESE
49. CULTIVATION OF RICE DEMANDS AT LEAST
________-- INCHES OF RAIN FALL
(A) 25
(B) 35
45
(D) 55
50. THOUGH MALNEUTRITION AND
UNDERNUTRITION IN PAKISTAN, ABNORMAL
INTAKE OF _________ ISCOMMONLY OBSERVED
(A) SUGAR
(B) PROTEIN
MINERALS
(D) VITAMINS
51. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING IRRIGATION
METHOD IS ONE OF THE MAJOR CAUSES OF WATER-
LOGGING IN PAKISTAN
(A) SPRINKLE IRRIGATION
(B) FURROW IRRIGATION
FLOOD IRRIGATION
(D) ALL OF THESE
52. TRUCK FAMING IS_____--
(A) CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLE
(B) FARMING BY TRUCKS
CULTIVATION OF SERIALS
(D) FARMING BY TRACTORS
53. INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE IS COMMONLY FOUND
IN
(A) EUROPE
(B) ASIA
AFRICA
(D) AUSTRALIA
54. WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT A
COMMERCIAL CROP
(A) COTTON
(B) TOBACCO
WHEAT
(D) SUGARCANE
55. EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE IS FOUND IN _______
(B) PAKISTAN, INDIAN, CHINA
U.K., FRANCE, BELGIUM
56. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS GROWN BY
PLANTATION FARMING
(A) MANGO
(B) COFFEE
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
57. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE MARKET FOR
WHEAT
(A) FRANCE
(B) BRAZIL
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ENGLAND
(D) NONE OF THESE
58. 90%OF THE WORLD RICE IS CULTIVATED IN
_______
(A) AUSTRALIA
(B) MONSOON ASIA
TEMPERATE ASIA
(D) MIDDLE EAST
59. RICE ISA STAPLE FOOD IN _______
(A) PAKISTAN
(B) CHINA
(D) INDIA
60. BASPHORUS STRAIT CONNECT BLACK SEA AND
________ SEA
(A) MARMARA
(B)AFEAN
BALTIC
(D) IONIA
61. AN ASTHMUS ISOPPOSITE TO _________--
(A) GULF
(B) PENINSULA
(C) STRAIT
(D) BAY
62. BAY ISOPPOSITE TO ________-
(A) PENINSULA
(B) ISLAND
BAY
(D) GULF
63. FERTILE CRESCENT IS __________--
(A) MESOTAMIA
(B) NILE VALLEY
LOWER INDUSVALLEY
(D) THAILAND
64. ACCORDING T UN AT LEAST __________--
POPULATION SIZE IS COMPULSORY TO BE TERMED AS
URBAN SETTLEMENT
(A) 5000
(B) 10000
15000
(D) 20000
65. ACCORDING TO A STUDY MORE THAN
__________- %OF WORLD POPULATION ISURBAN
(A) 25
(B) 35
45
(D) 55
66. A SETTLEMENT OF LESS THAN ______ PEOPLE IS
TERMED ASHEMLET
(A) 100
(B) 200
300
(D) 400
67. POPULATION SIZE OF MORE THAN 20000 IS
TERMED AS_______
(A) HEMLET
(B) CITY
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RURAL SETTLEMENT
(D) TOWN
68. ________ HAS HIGHER POPULATION GROWTH
RATE THAN ________
(A) VILLAGE, CITY
(B) CITY, VILLAGE
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
69. CIVILIZATION STARTED IN _______ FOR THE
FIRST TIME
(A) INDIA
(C) SRI LANKA
(D) PAKISTAN
70. ________ IS THE FIRST KNOWN CITY OF THE
WORLD
(A) LAHORE
(B) MULTAN
URAK
(D) LONDON
71. BASIC CAUSE OF EXPANSION OF CITIES IS
______
(A) MIGRATION
(B) EDUCATION
POPULATION GROWTH
(D) NONE OF THESE
URBANIZATION
(A) GREEN
(B) INDUSTRIAL
AGRICULTURAL
(D) NONE OF THESE
73. STARTING POINT FOR A CITY IS KNOWN AS
______
(A) SHANTY TOWN
(B) OPTIMUM LEVEL
DOWN TOWN
(D) NONE OF THESE
74.. TEM GHETTO POINTS TOWARDS _________
(A) SHANTY TOWN
(B) SLUMS
(D) ALL OF THESE
75. FIST WAVE OF URBANIZATION STARTED IN
_______
(A) EUROPE
(B) ASIA
AMERICA
(D) AFRICA
76. ACCORDING TO A RECENT STUD, BY DECEMBER
2008 WORLD POPULATION WILL GROW UP TO
_______ BILLION
(A) 3.75
(B) 4.75
5.75
(D) 6.75
77. BY DECEMBER 2008 _________ %OF WORLD
POPULATION WILL BE URBAN
(A) 50
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(B) 60
70
(D) 80
78. BY 2030, 80% OF THE TOTAL URBAN
POPULATION WILL BE IN _______ COUNTRIES
(A) DEVELOPING
(B) DEVELOPED
UNDER DEVELOPED
(D) NONE OF THESE
79. RATE OF URBANIZATION IN _______
COUNTRIES ISHIGHER THAN OTHER WORLD
(A) DEVELOPING
(B) DEVELOPED
UNDER DEVELOPED
(D) NONE OF THESE
80. _________ IS THE MEGA CITY HAVING HIGHEST
GROWTH RATE OF 10 %
(A) PARIS
(B) LAGOS
KARACHI
(D) BOMBAY
81. IN ASIA ________ ISWITH HIGHEST GROWTH
RATE
(A) DHAKA
(B) TOKYO
CALCUTTA
(D) KARACHI
82. AFTER 1947 ________ MILLION PEOPLE
MIGRATED TO PAKISTAN
(A) 8
(B) 9
10
(D) 11
83. AFTER CREATION OF PAKISTAN _____-MILLION
PEOPLE EMIGRATE FORM PAKISTAN TO INDIA
(A) 6
(B) 7
8
(D) 9
84. IN 1947 PAKISTANS TOTAL POPULATION WAS
32 MILLION OUT WHICH _________ % WAS
URBAN
(A) 14
(B) 15
16
(D) 17
85. BEFORE THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN
_________ WASTHE LARGEST CITY
(A) KARACHI
(B) LAHORE
MULTAN
(D) RAWALPINDI
86. IN 1947 POPULATION OF KARACHI WAS
________
(A) 250000
(B) 260000
270000
(D) 280000
87. ACCORDING TO CENSUS OF 1915 POPULATION
OF KARACHI WAS________ MILLION
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(A) 1.06
(B) 1.07
1.08
(D) 1.09
88. POPULATION OF ______ WAS OUT NUMBERED
BY REFUGEES
(A) SUKHER
(B) KARACHI
(D) NONE OF THESE
89. MAIN CAUSE OF URBANIZATION IN PAKISTAN IS
(A) HIGH GROWTH RATE
(B) INDUSTRIALIZAITON
CROSS-BORDER MIGRATION
(D) NONE OF THESE
90. BOSWASH ISA ________
(B) AN ISLAND
SUPER CITY IN USA
(D) RECORD BREAKING MOVIE
91. AGRICULTURE LOCATION THEORY WAS GIVEN BY
__________
(A) VONTHUNEN
(B) FEBVER
CRISTALLER
(D) NONE OF THESE
92. CENTRAL PLACE THEORY WAS GIVEN BY
________
(A) RATZEL
(B) CRISTALLER
VONTHUNEN
(D) NONE OF THESE
93. INDUSTRIAL LOCATION THEORY IS A BRAIN CHILD
OF
(A) TAYLOR
(B) FEBVER
RATZEL
(D) WEBER
94. CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT DETERMINISM WAS
GIVEN BY ________
(A) FREDRICK RETZEL
(B) CHRUCHILL SEMPLE
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
95. POSSIBLISM ISTHEORY OF A FRENCH HISTORIAN
NAMED AS
(A) HUNGTINGTON
(B) HARLEN BAROWS
GRIFITH TAYLOR
(D) NONE OF THESE

SETTLEMENT
1 A PLACE WHERE MANY PEOPLE RESIDE
TOGETHER IS KNOWN AS
(A) SETTLEMENT
(B) CITY
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COUNTRY
(D) NONE OF THESE
2. DWELLINGSARE OF__________ TYPES
(A) 2
(B) 3
4
(D) NONE OF THESE
3. THE HOUSES IN WHICH LAYOUT,
CONSTRUCTION AND APPEARANCE HAVE NOT
BEEN ALTERED ARE TERMED AS
(D) NONE OF THESE
4. THE BUILDINGS IN WHICH NEW MATERIAL HAS
BEEN USED BUT THIS DOES NOT CHANGES ITS
LAYOUT IS TERMED AS
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
5. THE HOUSESIN WHICH MODERN MATERIAL IS
USED AND LAYOUT IS ALSO CHANGED ARE
TERMED AS
(B) MODERN DWELLING
(D) NONE OF THESE
6. THE HOUSE WHICH IS THE PERFECT
PARAMOUNT OF NEW TECHNOLOGY IS
CATEGORIZED AS
(A) MODERN DWELLINGS
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
7. PARTICULAR DWELLING-STRUCTURE TYPE IS
ASSOCIATED WITH
(A) CITIES
(B) PARTICULAR REGIONS
TOWN
(D) NONE OF THESE
8. THE HOUSE BUILT FROM POLIS AND STICKS
ARE TERMED AS
(A) WALTLE
(B) HUT
COTTAGE
(D) NONE OF THESE
9. NORTHERN AUSTRALIAS PEOPLE MAKE THEIR
DWELLING THROUGH
(D) DWELLING
(B) SETTLEMENT
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
10. THE PLACE WHERE INDIVIDUAL LIVES IS
CALLED
(A) DWELLING
(B) SETTLEMENT
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
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11. ORGANIZED CLUSTER OF HOUSED WHICH IS
SMALL IN NUMBER ISTERMED
(A) HELMET
(B) DWELLING
CITY
(D) NONE OF THESE
12. A SETTLEMENT IN WHICH MAJORITY OF THE
PEOPLE ARE INVOLVED IN PRIMARY ACTIVITY IS
CALLED AS
(A) VILLAGE
(B) CITY
HAMLET
(D) NONE OF THESE
13. THE CONCENTRATION OF LARGE CITIES IS
CALLED
(A) MEGALOPOLIS
(B) METROPOLITAN
MEGAPOLITAN
(D) NONE OF THESE
14. THE LARGEST URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS
EXISTS IN____________
(A) LESS DEVELOPED
(B) DEVELOPED WORLD
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
15. THE CONCEPT OF URBANIZATION SPREAD
FROM___________
(A) MESOPOTAMIA
(B) TIGNS-EUPHRATESBASIN
BOTH ( A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE

16. THE OLDEST/EARLIER CITIES OF THE WORLD
IS
(A) EGYPT
(B) URK
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
17. THE PLACES WHICH ATTRACT PEOPLE FROM
A SURROUNDING AREA BECAUSE OF SERVICE
AVAILABILITY ARE CALLED
(A) CLIMATIC ZONE
(B) OUTER ZONE
CENTRAL PLACE
(D) NONE OF THESE
18. URBANIZATION ISVERY LOW IN
(A) SOUTH ASIA
(B) EUROPE
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE

ECONOMIC
ACTIVITIES
1. THERE ARE _____________BASIC
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
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2. THE OLDEST BASIS OF EXISTENCE ALL OVER
THE WORLD WAS
(A) FARMING
(B) FISHING
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
3. THE VERY THING WHICH PERMITTED PEOPLE
TO SETTLE PERMANENTLY IN ONE LOCATION
WITH THE ASSURANCE OF FOOD IS
(A) AGRICULTURE
(B) TOOLS
(C) FISHING
(D) NONE OF THESE
4. THE ORIGIN OF AGRICULTURE IS
FROM_________
(A) CENTRAL CHINA
(B) AMERICA
AUSTRALIA
(D) NONE OF THESE
5. THE ASSOCIATION OF CERTAIN CROPS WITH
PARTICULAR COUNTRIES THEN IT IS
CALLED______-
(A) CASH
(B) PARTICULAR CROP
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
6. THE FARMING IN WHICH FARMERS GROW
ONLY ENOUGH FOOD TO SURVIVE IS
CALLED________
(A) SUBSTANCE FARMING
(B) CULTIVATION
FARM MECHANISM
(D) NONE OF THESE
7. FROM OF AGRICULTURE IN WHICH FARMERS
MOVE FROM PLACE TO PLACE IN SEARCH OF
BETTER LAND IS CALLED_____
(A) SHIFTING CULTIVATION
(B) SUBSISTENCE FARMING
SHIFTING AGRICULTURE
(D) NONE OF THESE
8. SHIFTING CULTIVATION IS FOUND
IN_________
(A) SUB-TROPICAL ZONE
(B) TROPICAL ZONE
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
9. PRIMARY ACTIVITY
(A) STEEL AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
(B) FORESTRY AND FISHING
TEACHERS, DOCTORS
(D) NONE OF THESE
10. SECONDARY ACTIVITY INCLUDES
(A) PRODUCTION
(B) SERVICES
RAW MATERIALS
(D) NONE OF THESE
11. TERTIARY ACTIVITY INCLUDES
(A) AGRICULTURE
(B) PRODUCTION
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SERVICES
(D) NONE OF THESE
12. SECOND AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION CAME
DURING
(A) MIDDLE AGE
(B) MODERN AGE
PRIMITIVE AGE
(D) NONE OF THESE
13. PRIMARY PRODUCERSMAY BE LABELED AS
(A) RED COLLAR WORKERS
(B) WHIT COLLAR WORKERS
PINK COLLAR WORKERS
(D) NONE OF THESE
14. GOLD-COLLARS WORKERS FALL IN
(A) QUINARY ACTIVITY
(B) PRIMARY ACTIVITY
TERTIARY PRODUCTION
(D) NONE OF THESE
15. APPLICATION OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY TO
INCREASE THE YIELD IS DUE
(A) SUBSISTENCE FARMING
(B) GREEN REVOLUTION
MECHANIZATION
(D) NONE OF THESE
16. PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLESAND FRUITS IS
TERMED AS
(A) TRUCK FORMING
(B) VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
17. WHIT-COLLAR WORK FORCE IS CATEGORIZED
AS
(A) TERTIARY PRODUCTION
(B) QUATERNARY SERVICES
SECONDARY PRODUCTION
(D) NONE OF THESE
18. SUBSISTENCE FORMING IS FOUND IN
(A) CENTRAL AFRICA
(B) SOUTH ASIA
BOTH (A) AND (B)
(D) NONE OF THESE
19. EXTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE IS
FOUND IN
(A) MOIST
(B) WARM
LOW LATITUDE
(D) ALL OF THESE
20. IN THE MID-1960S AGRICULTURAL
SCIENTISTSDEVELOPED HIGH YIELDING VARIETIES
OF _________
(A) RICE AND COTTON
(B) COFFEE, RUBBER
RICE AND WHEAT
(e) NONE OF THESE
ENERGY RESOURCES

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1. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A
NONRENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCE?
A. SOLAR
B. METHANE
C. HYDROELECTRIC
D. COAL
2. THE AMOUNT OF OIL THAT MAY BECOME
AVAILABLE FOR USE IS CALLED OIL
________.
A. RESERVES
B. RESERVOIRS
C. RESOURCES
D. TRAPS
3. A COAL DEPOSIT THAT IS NOT ECONOMICAL
TO MINE TODAY WOULD BE CONSIDERED
PART OF OUR __________ .
A. COAL RESERVES
B. COAL RESOURCES
C. COAL RESERVOIRS
D. NONE OF THESE
4. WHAT IS THE LEADING SOURCE OF ENERGY
USED IN THE UNITED STATESTODAY?
A. COAL
B. OIL RESOURCES
C. NATURAL GAS
D. NUCLEAR POWER
5. THE FIRST OIL WELL WAS DRILLED IN THE
UNITED STATESIN ________.
A. 1829
B. 1859
C. 1929
D. 1959

A HISTOGRAM SHOWING PERCENTAGES OF
VARIOUS TYPES OF ENERGY USED IN THE
UNITED STATESIN 1997 IS GIVEN ABOVE.
6. AREA W REPRESENTS
A. COAL
B. SOLAR
C. NUCLEAR
D. OIL
7. AREA XREPRESENTS
A. COAL
B. SOLAR
C. NUCLEAR
D. OIL
8. AREA Y REPRESENTS
A. COAL
B. SOLAR
C. NUCLEAR
D. OIL
9. AREA ZREPRESENTS
A. COAL
B. SOLAR
C. NUCLEAR
D. OIL
10. OIL, COAL AND NATURAL GAS SUPPLY
APPROXIMATELY _______ % OF THE
ENERGY USED IN THE UNITED STATES
A. 10
B. 25
C. 40
D. 90
11. OF ALL OF THE ENERGY PRODUCED IN THE
UNITED STATES, WHAT % IS LOST IN
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DISTRIBUTION AND INEFFICIENT USE?
A. 10
B. 25
C. 40
D. 50
12. CHEMICAL REACTIONS TRIGGERED BY
_______ TRANSFORM ORGANIC MATERIAL
INTO HYDROCARBONS.
A. SOLAR ENERGY
B. HYDROELECTRIC
C. ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
D. DECOMPOSITION
13. ENERGY RESOURCES DERIVED FROM
NATURAL ORGANIC MATERIALS ARE CALLED
________.
A. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY SOURCES
B. FOSSIL FUELS
C. BIOMASS
D. ALL OF THESE
14. A PERMEABLE ROCK THAT CONTAINS
HYDROCARBON FLUIDS AND GASSES IS
CALLED A(N) _________
A. OIL TRAP
B. SOURCE BED
C. OIL RESERVOIR
D. NONE OF THESE
15. ALL OIL TRAPS CONTAIN ___________.
A. AN IMPERMEABLE LAYER
B. AN ANTICLINE
C. A FAULT
D. ALL OF THESE
16. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS LEAST LIKELY
TO CONTAIN AN OIL TRAP?
A. AN ANTICLINE
B. FAULT
C. NATURAL STRATIGRAPHY
D. SYNCLINE

CROSS SECTION OF AN OIL TRAP. X, Y, AND
ZREPRESENT THREE DISTINCT FLUID LAYERS
WITHIN THE PERMEABLE RESERVOIR ROCK.
17. THE OIL TRAP SHOWN HERE IS A(N)
____________
A. AN ANTICLINE
B. FAULT TRAP
C. STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP
D. SALT DOME TRAP
18. LAYER XIS MOST LIKELY TO BE RESERVOIR
ROCK CONTAINING _______ IN THE PORE
SPACE.
A. SYNCRUDE
B. WATER
C. NATURAL GAS
D. OIL
19. LAYER Y IS MOST LIKELY TO BE RESERVOIR
ROCK CONTAINING _______ IN THE PORE
SPACE.
A. SYNCRUDE
B. WATER
C. NATURAL GAS
D. OIL
20. LAYER ZIS MOST LIKELY TO BE RESERVOIR
ROCK CONTAINING _______ IN THE PORE
SPACE.
A. SYNCRUDE
B. WATER
C. NATURAL GAS
D. OIL
21. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ROCK TYPES
WOULD MOST LIKELY BE THE BEST OIL
RESERVOIR?.
A. GRANITE
B. SHALE
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C. SANDSTONE
D. SALT
22. IN AN OIL TRAP FORMED BY AN ANTICLINE,
________ ACCUMLULATES ON TOP, _____
IN THE MIDDLE, AND _________ AT THE
BOTTOM.
A. NATURAL GAS .... OIL ....
GROUNDWATER
B. GROUND WATER .... OIL ....
NATURAL GAS
C. OIL .... GROUNDWATER ....
NATURAL GAS
D. OIL .... NATURAL GAS .... GROUND
WATER
23. TWO-THIRDS OF THE WORLD'S KNOWN OIL
RESERVES ARE LOCATED IN ________.
A. SIBERIA
B. GULF OF MEXICO AND CARIBBEAN
C. THE MIDDLE EAST
D. INDONESIA
24. THE WORLD HAS THE LEAST AMOUNT OF
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FUEL TYPES..
A. OIL
B. COAL
C. URANIUM
D. THERE ARE ROUGHLY EQUAL
AMOUNTSOF EACH OF THESE FUELS
25. AT THE CURRENT RATE OF WORLD USE, THE
REMAINING OIL WILL BE DEPLETED IN
APPROXIMATELY ______ YEARS.
A. 25
B. 100
C. 400
D. 2000
26. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS
TRUE?
A. IN THE US OIL PRODUCTION IS
GREATER THAN OIL CONSUMPTION
B. IN THE US OIL PRODUCTION
EQUALS OIL CONSUMPTION
C. IN THE USOIL PRODUCTION IS LESS
THAN OIL CONSUMPTION
27. MOST OF THE NATURAL GAS USED IN THE
UNITED STATES IS CONSUMED BY
_______.
A. INDUSTRY
B. RESIDENTIAL USE
C. ELECTRICAL UTILITIES
D. TRANSPORTATION
28. BURNING OF WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
FUELS PRODUCES THE LEAST AMOUNT OF
CARBON DIOXIDE PER UNIT OF ENERGY?
A. COAL
B. OIL
C. NATURAL GAS
D. ALL OF THESE PRODUCE THE SAME
AMOUNT OF CARBON DIOXIDE.

29. LAYER XIS _________.
A. ANTHRACITE
B. BITUMINOUS
C. LIGNITE
D. TAR
30. LAYER YIS_________.
A. ANTHRACITE
B. BITUMINOUS
C. LIGNITE
D. TAR
31. LAYER ZIS_________.
A. ANTHRACITE
B. BITUMINOUS
C. LIGNITE
D. TAR
32. IN ADDITION TO INCREASING TEMPERATURE
AND PRESSURE, THE ARROW TO THE LEFT OF
THE DIAGRAM REPRESENTS INCREASING
__________
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A. METAMORPHISM
B. HEAT VALUE
C. CARBON CONTENT
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
33. WHICH COUNTRY CONTAINS ABOUT 50%OF
THE WORLD'SCOAL RESOURCES?
A. UNITED STATES
B. CHINA
D. THE FORMER SOVIET UNION
34. IN THE UNITED STATES, COAL RESOURCES
SHOULD LAST APPROXIMATELY ______
YEARSAT THE CURRENT RATE OF USE.
A. 25
B. 100
C. 400
D. 2000
35. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS IS
ASSOCIATED WITH THE BURNING OF COAL?
A. ACID RAIN
B. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS
C. ASH WITH TOXIC METAL
IMPURITIES
D. ALL OF THESE
36. OIL DERIVED FROM COAL, OIL SHALES OR
TAR SANDSIS CALLED ________.
A. NATURAL GAS
B. BIOMASS
C. SYNCRUDE
D. NONE OF THESE
37. NUCLEAR ENERGY IS DERIVED BY
___________.
A. COMBUSTION OF ATOMS OF U
235
B. FISSION OF ATOMS OF U 235
C. FUSION OF ATOMSOF U 235
D. THE BREAKING OF U 235 BONDS
38. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ENERGY
SOURCES DOES NOT PRODUCE CARBON
DIOXIDE?
A. OIL
B. URANIUM
C. COAL
D. NATURAL GAS
39. ABOUT HOW MANY NUCLEAR POWER
PLANTSARE THERE IN THE US?
A. 10
B. 100
C. 250
D. 500
40. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS
REGARDING THE NUCLEAR ACCIDENT AT
CHERNOBYL IN THE UKRAINE IN 1986 IS
FALSE?
INTO SCANDINAVIA AND WESTERN
EUROPE
B. HUNDREDS OF SQUARE MILES OF
LAND SURROUNDING CHERNOBYL
UNINHABITABLE
C. FOOD SUPPLIES IN MANY
COUNTRIES HAD TO BE PURIFIED IN
ORDER TO BE CONSUMED
D. EXCESSDEATHS FROM CANCER MAY
BE IN THE THOUSANDS OVER THE
NEXT 40 YEARS
41. MOST OF THE URANIUM ORE IN THE UNITED
STATESIS LOCATED IN THE _____
A. APPLACHIAN MOUNTAINS
B. BASIN AND RANGE
D. GREAT LAKE
42. THE PRIMARY BARRIER TO USING SOLAR
ENERGY IN THE UNITED STATES IS THAT
_______
A. SOLAR POWER ISNOT TECHNICALLY
FEASIBLE
B. SOLAR POWER CAUSES MAJOR
POLLUTION PROBLEMS
C. SOLAR POWER IS NOT
ECONOMICALLY COMPETITIVE WITH
OTHER ENERGY SOURCES
D. ALL OF THESE
_______ OF THE ENERGY CONSUMED
ANNUALLY IN THE UNITED STATES.
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A. 4%
B. 12%
C. 30%
D. 65%
44. SOLAR ENERGY STORED IN MATERIAL SUCH
AS WOOD, GRAIN, SUGAR, AND MUNICIPAL
WASTE ISCALLED __________.
A. FOSSIL FUELS
B. BIOMASS
C. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
D. NATURAL GAS
45. WHAT TYPE OF ENERGY IS DERIVED FROM
HEATED GROUNDWATER?
A. SOLAR ENERGY
B. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
C. HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY
D. NUCLEAR ENERGY
46. THE LARGEST GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT
IN THE UNITED STATES IS LOCATED NEAR
WHICH CITY?
A. CHICAGO
B. LOS ANGELES
C. NEW YORK
D. SAN FRANCISCO
47. THE GEYSERS PRODUCE ENOUGH
ELECTRICITY TO MEET WHAT PORTION OF
THE NEEDS OF SAN FRANCISCO?
A. 10%
B. 25%
C. 50%
D. 75%
48. THE WORLD FACES AN ENERGY CRISIS
BECAUSE _________.
A. WORLD DEMAND FOR ENERGY WILL
INCREASE
B. WORLD OIL PRODUCTION WILL
PEAK AND BEGIN TO DECLINE
C. SHORTAGES AND THE RESULTING
ESCALATION OF PRICES CAN SHOCK
THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL
ORDER
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE

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