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October 11-13, 2013
Anthony Marwood, conductor and violin
MOZART Symphony No. 1 in E-flat major, K. 16 (1764-65) (1756-1791)
Molto allegro Andante Presto
MOZART Violin Concerto No. 2 in D major, K. 211 (1775)
Allegro moderato Andante Rondo: Allegro
Anthony Marwood, violin INTERMISSION
MOZART Violin Concerto No. 3 in G major, K. 216 (1775)
Allegro Adagio Rondeau: Allegro
Anthony Marwood, violin
MOZART Symphony No. 35 in D major, K. 385, “Haffner” (1782)
Allegro con spirito Andante Menuetto Presto
Anthony Marwood is the Ann and Lee Liberman Guest Artist. The concert of Friday, October 11, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mr. and Mrs. Jack Bodine. The concert of Friday, October 11, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Linda and Paul Lee. The concert of Saturday, October 12, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mrs. Bettie L. Gershman. The concert of Sunday, October 13, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mrs. Laura R. Orthwein. Pre-Concert Conversations are sponsored by Washington University Physicians. These concerts are part of the Wells Fargo Advisors series. Large print program notes are available through the generosity of Dielmann Sotheby’s and are located at the Customer Service table in the foyer.
FROM THE STAGE
Helen Kim, first violins, on playing Mozart: “Mozart writes music that is transparent. You can’t hide behind anything. In a lot of romantic repertoire you can mask certain shortcomings, with lush vibrato or showy pyrotechnics, for example, but in Mozart the primary concerns are purity, clarity, and creativity. “I’m looking forward to Anthony Marwood playing and conducting. Performing this way tends to open up your ears. We get used to a certain dynamic with conductors, but when there’s not somebody with a baton the whole time you have to be very alert aurally to much more subtle cues. It usually results in a more cohesive string sound. There’s more interaction between sections. You’ll see more eyes looking around, the musicians tracking each other.”
Anthony Marwood plays and conducts Mozart with the St. Louis Symphony this weekend.
THE MUSIC OF MOZART
BY PA U L SC H I AVO
1764-65 MOZART Symphony No. 1 in E-flat major, K. 16 St. Louis established as a French trading post 1775 MOZART Violin Concerto No. 2 in D major, K. 211 Violin Concerto No. 3 in G major, K. 216 American Revolutionary War begins with Battle of Lexington and Concord 1782 MOZART Symphony No. 35 in D major, K. 385, “Haffner” Mozart begins writing six string quartets dedicated to Haydn
“I only wish I could instill in every friend of music... the depth of sympathy and profound appreciation of Mozart’s inimitable art that I myself feel and enjoy.”
The author of those words, the composer Franz Joseph Haydn, would be gratified if he could see how high Mozart’s star has ascended in the two centuries and more since he wrote them. Today, millions share his enthusiasm for the work of his great contemporary. Mozart’s music fills concert halls and the air waves throughout the year; festivals honoring his name dot the musical landscape; and the list of recordings of his compositions, which already exceeds that of any other composer, continues to grow. We have even seen a fictional account of the composer’s final years become a successful Hollywood film. Mozart occupies a central place in our musical culture, and his compositions continue to provide some of the most deeply satisfying musical experiences available. Nothing more is needed to explain a concert devoted entirely to his work. WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Symphony No. 1 in E-flat major, K. 16 THE PRODIGY IN LONDON Mozart’s work as a symphonist spanned nearly his entire career. Between his eighth and 32nd years he produced some 40 original compositions in this form. One of Mozart’s late symphonies concludes our concert. His very first begins it. Mozart composed his Symphony in E-flat major, K. 16, in 1764, in London, when he was all of eight years old. He had come to the English capital in the company of his family during the “grand tour” his father had arranged to display his son as a child prodigy. In a memoir written after Mozart’s death, the composer’s sister, Maria Anna (or “Nannerl,” as she was known familiarly), recalled that in August 1764, while the family was staying in London, Leopold Mozart fell seriously
ill. Until their father recovered, Nannerl and Wolfgang were forbidden to touch the keyboard. The younger child therefore composed his first symphony directly onto paper, his sister copying the music as he did so. It is not certain that the work Nannerl referred to is, in fact, K. 16. Some Mozart scholars have hypothesized an even earlier effort. No such music, however, has been discovered, and this E-flat symphony remains Mozart’s earliest known piece in the genre. MOZART’S SYMPHONIC DEBUT Whether or not K. 16 actually represents Mozart’s first symphonic essay, it forecasts his mature style to a remarkable degree. The work’s initial phrase presents a strong unison statement followed at once by a more lyrical one, thus establishing two poles of expression in its very first moments. This would remain a favorite Mozartean device (we find another instance of it at the outset of his “Haffner” Symphony, which we hear later). An even more tangible connection between K. 16 and Mozart’s mature symphonies occurs in the second movement. Here, after the opening phrase, the horns give out a figure whose first four notes form the celebrated “Jupiter motif,” the figure Mozart would develop so brilliantly in the finale of the great Symphony in C major, K. 551, his last symphonic essay. For all this, K. 16 is not merely a precursor of glories to come. Rather, it has charms quite its own, not the least being the abundant energy of its opening movement. The Andante movement’s harmonies are expressive and deftly controlled. And the ensuing Presto shows Mozart already cognizant of the 18th-century “hunting finale” tradition.
Born January 27, 1756, Salzburg Died December 5, 1791, Vienna First Performance Unknown STL Symphony Premiere January 31, 1953, Eleazar De Carvalho conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance March 26, 2000, Marvin Hamlisch conducting Scoring 2 oboes bassoon 2 horns strings Performance Time approximately 13 minutes
WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Violin Concerto No. 2 in D major, K. 211 THE COMPOSER AS VIOLINIST Mozart is remembered as one of the supreme composers of Western music. He was also, as many of his contemporaries testified, a superb pianist. Less well known is that he was a precociously accomplished violinist. We know from several reminiscences that he was playing the instrument by age six. At 15 he became section leader of the court orchestra in his native Salzburg, and he was playing violin concertos by other composers before that. His father, a fine violinist in his own right, once urged his son to devote more practice to the instrument, saying “if you would but apply yourself you would be the finest violinist in Europe.” Mozart ignored this advice, having no interest in a career as a virtuoso performer. But he put his knowledge of the violin to excellent use when composing. Chief among his works for the instrument are the five violin concertos he produced between April and December 1775, at age nineteen. Completed in June of that year, the Violin Concerto in D, K. 211, is the second of these five works. Its tone could hardly be more genial, and it offers no surprises in terms of form. The first movement opens with an orchestral exposition, the customary initial paragraph of a concerto in Mozart’s day. Here the composer sets forth two principal themes. These are of contrasting character, the first being vigorous and in the mockmartial vein we often find in Mozart’s piano concertos. The second, which follows immediately, is a lighter subject, its character almost that of a comic opera. Upon its entrance, the solo instrument takes up each of these subjects in turn and adds several new ideas, mostly involving brilliant passagework. Late in the proceedings Mozart offers the featured violinist an opportunity for a solo cadenza, a courtesy he extends in the succeeding movements as well. A brief orchestral statement, which again serves to introduce the main thematic material, begins the ensuing Andante. After this initial passage, the movement unfolds as a lovely aria for the solo violin. Mozart builds the finale on
First Performance Unknown, but possibly 1775 or 1776 in Salzburg, with the composer conducting and performing as soloist STL Symphony Premiere October 26, 1978, Joseph Suk was soloist, with Walter Susskind conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance April 18, 2010, Gil Shaham was soloist, with David Robertson conducting, at San Francisco’s Davies Hall Scoring solo violin 2 oboes 2 horns strings Performance Time approximately 21 minutes
a recurring principal theme whose minuet-like melody is begun by the violin and completed by the orchestra. Between appearances of this subject, the solo instrument leads the way through episodes devoted to contrasting ideas. WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Violin Concerto No. 3 in G major, K. 216 A MYSTERY SOLVED On October 23, 1777, Mozart wrote to his father, describing an informal concert at the Heiligkreuz Monastery near Augsburg: “During the meal we had some music.... I played my Strassburg Concerto, which went like oil. Everyone praised my beautiful, pure tone.” Mozart, then 21, had made Augsburg one of the first stops on a long journey that would eventually take him to Paris in search of employment. The “Strassburg Concerto” was his Violin Concerto in G major, K. 216. Mozart’s sobriquet for this piece refers to a dance melody associated with the Alsatian city that is its namesake, a melody appearing in its final movement. The “Strassburg” reference, which recurs in a letter written by the composer’s father, long baffled Mozart scholars. But a recently discovered collection of popular songs from the 18th century includes a tune called “The Strassburger” that matches a melody in K. 216, conclusively identifying that work as the “Strassburg Concerto.” PRODIGAL INVENTION As do many compositions Mozart wrote during his adolescence, this concerto conveys a feeling of almost carefree assurance. Ideas seem to flow from the composer’s pen so abundantly that he scarcely has time to develop each one properly. Mozart’s prodigal invention is a conspicuous feature of the opening movement. Having presented a series of attractive melodic ideas in the initial orchestral statement, he permits introduction of further material by the soloist. Remarkably, Mozart manages to mold this surfeit of invention into a coherent and engaging whole. Alfred Einstein, the eminent Mozart scholar, described the concerto’s second movement as “an Adagio that seems to have fallen straight from
First Performance Unknown. Mozart may have performed the work with the Salzburg Court Orchestra, but there is no record of that performance. As noted below, Mozart did play the work on at least one subsequent occasion. STL Symphony Premiere February 13, 1914, Eugène Ysaÿe was soloist, with Max Zach conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance September 25, 2010, Anne Akiko Meyers was soloist, with Louis Langrée conducting Scoring solo violin 2 flutes 2 oboes 2 horns strings Performance Time approximately 24 minutes
heaven.” Its celestial aspect stems from more than just Mozart’s beautiful lines and harmonies. In addition, the music’s timbres have an almost ethereal quality about them, with the orchestral violins muted, the low strings playing pizzicato and flutes replacing the oboes used in the rest of the concerto. The finale features a recurring principal theme in merrily swaying rhythms. It also includes a pair of surprising digressions: a bittersweet little arietta in slower tempo, heard midway through the movement; and the dance-like tune we now know to be the “Strassburg” melody mentioned in Mozart’s letter from Augsburg. In keeping with its unpredictable character, the movement closes not with a grand orchestral flourish but with a disarmingly modest comment from the wind instruments alone. WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Symphony No. 35 in D major, K. 385, “Haffner” FROM SERENADE TO SYMPHONY Mozart’s “Haffner” Symphony takes both its title and its musical substance from an orchestral serenade the composer wrote in the summer of 1782 at the behest of one Sigmund Haffner, head of a prominent family in the composer’s native city of Salzburg. Mozart, who had recently left Salzburg for Vienna and was engaged with other projects, found himself hard-pressed to fulfill this commission. Only by working at a furious pace did he manage—just barely—to complete a six-movement serenade in time for a ceremony celebrating Herr Haffner’s elevation to the ranks of the minor nobility. In December Mozart wrote to his father in Salzburg, requesting the return of his “Haffner” score. He had just scheduled an important concert in the Austrian capital and planned to include this music on the program. His hectic existence during this period of his life must have distracted him, for upon receiving the serenade from his father he wrote: “My new Haffner symphony [serenade] has positively amazed me, for I had forgotten every single note of it. It must surely produce a good effect.”
First Performance March 23, 1783, in Vienna, under the composer’s direction STL Symphony Premiere March 9, 1934, Vladimir Golschmann conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance June 15, 2004, Scott Parkman conducting at Faust Park Scoring 2 flutes 2 oboes 2 clarinets 2 bassoons 2 horns 2 trumpets timpani strings Performance Time approximately 18 minutes
He then set about reshaping the work. By abandoning a march movement and one of two minuets, he trimmed the serenade down to the four-movement form of a symphony, which he then re-scored for a larger orchestra. In this new incarnation the work was heard during a concert Mozart gave on March 23, 1783. APPLAUSE FROM AN EMPEROR The “Haffner” Symphony, as it is now known, pleased Mozart’s audience, which included Austrian Emperor Joseph II. A contemporary magazine reported of the event: “The concert was honored with an exceptionally large crowd and ... received with the loudest applause. Our monarch—who, contrary to his habit, attended the whole of the concert—as well as the entire audience, accorded him [Mozart] such unanimous applause as has never been heard of here.” Mozart builds the symphony’s first movement on just a single theme, but what a striking subject this is. The melodic leaps in the opening measures impart a tremendous sense of energy to the music, which Mozart characteristically balances with a gentle and pliant answer (just as in the opening measures of K. 16). Still, exceptional vigor dominates the movement, imparted through unison runs, dramatic tremolo passagework in the strings, and other animated figuration. There follows a slow movement and then a minuet, each conveying the lighter character of serenade music. Upon dispatching his score to Salzburg for the Haffner celebration, Mozart had instructed his father that the finale should be played “as fast as possible,” by which he probably meant as fast as the Salzburg orchestra could manage it. In any event, this movement provides the symphony with a most spirited conclusion.
Program notes © 2013 by Paul Schiavo
ANN AND LEE LIBERMAN GUEST ARTIST
Anthony Marwood most recently performed with the St. Louis Symphony in February 2011.
British violinist Anthony Marwood is internationally renowned as a charismatic and versatile soloist, director, and creative collaborator, having won worldwide critical acclaim for his formidable technique and exceptional artistry. Marwood was named Instrumentalist of the Year at the 2006 Royal Philharmonic Society Awards. He performs frequently as soloist with orchestras around the world, with conductors such as Valery Gergiev, Sir Andrew Davis, Marin Alsop, David Robertson, and Thomas Adès. Highlights of the 12-13 season included a Musica Viva recital tour of Australia with pianist Aleksandar Madžar, and his debuts as soloist/director on tour with the Amsterdam Sinfonietta and with the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra. In the 13-14 season he looks forward to collaborations with the Scottish Chamber Orchestra, Iceland Symphony, Swedish Chamber Orchestra, Les Violons du Roy in Quebec, Tapiola Sinfonietta, BBC Scottish Symphony, and the London Mozart Players. He also looks forward to return invitations to the Australian Chamber Orchestra, Sydney Symphony, and the New Zealand Symphony. In 2014 Marwood will tour with pianist Marc-André Hamelin and clarinetist Martin Fröst, including performances in San Francisco, Boston, and London. He has made over thirty recordings for the Hyperion label both as soloist and as a member of the Florestan Trio. His most recent releases have been the violin sonatas by Brahms and Schumann for Wigmore Live, and a much-acclaimed recording of Britten’s violin and double concertos with Lawrence Power. Marwood is a keen exponent of contemporary works. Adès’s concerto “Concentric Paths” and Sally Beamish’s 1995 concerto were both written for him, and he also champions concertos by Steven Mackey and Peteris Vasks. He will premiere a new concerto by Samuel Carl Adams in California in 2014. Anthony Marwood plays a 1736 Carlo Bergonzi violin, kindly bought by a syndicate of purchasers, and is co-Artistic Director of the Peasmarsh Chamber Music Festival in Sussex, England.
A BRIEF EXPLANATION
You don’t need to know what “andante” means or what a glockenspiel is to enjoy a St. Louis Symphony concert, but it’s always fun to know stuff. For example, what does the “K” stand for in Mozart’s titles? K: “K” is the abbreviation for Köchel, Austrian music historian Ludwig Köchel, who created the standard thematic catalogue of Mozart’s works, first published in Leipzig in 1862; this catalogue has grown so useful that most Mozart compositions—other than operas—are generally referred to by their “K numbers,” rather than Symphony or Concerto numbers.
LATE TO MOZART:
HELEN KIM, FIRST VIOLINS
“I had late exposure to Mozart. I didn’t discover the concertos, sonatas, and symphonies until college. I thought it was the most wonderful thing. It took me a while to understand how to approach music from that period. There are don’ts and dos in bow technique, vibrato, etc. You need a lot of experience to have that feel natural.”
YOU TAKE IT FROM HERE
If these concerts have inspired you to learn more, here are suggested source materials with which to continue your explorations. Paul Johnson, Mozart: A Life Viking Adult This new and slender biography (176 pages!) is due to be published in November, but looks intriguing both for its brevity and the author, a singular historian known for his bios of Dickens, Churchill, Socrates, and Jesus, as well as The Birth of the Modern Robert W. Gutman, Mozart: A Cultural Biography Mariner Books An excellent account of the composer and his times Maynard Solomon, Mozart: A Life Harper Perennial Solomon pins a lot of Wolfgang Amadeus’s development on a father-son clash; almost a “Daddy Dearest” of Mozart biographies, but utterly engaging and informative Amadeus, dir. Milos Forman DVD and Instant Video If you are willing to totally ignore the concept of “historical accuracy,” this 1984 film is a great romp, especially for F. Murray Abraham’s captivating performance as Antonio Salieri
Read the program notes online at stlsymphony.org/planyourvisit/programnotes Keep up with the backstage life of the St. Louis Symphony, as chronicled by Symphony staffer Eddie Silva, via stlsymphony.org/blog The St. Louis Symphony is on
MOZART VIOLIN CONCERTO NO. 5
NOVEMBER 8-9 Nicholas McGegan, conductor; Stefan Jackiw, violin Following the all-Mozart concerts, this is your opportunity to hear three of the five Mozart violin concertos in one season. The Fifth is performed by the brilliant young virtuoso Stefan Jackiw in his St. Louis Symphony debut. He has “talent that’s off the scale” according to the Washington Post. The ebullient Nic McGegan returns to conduct works by Weber, Rameau, and Haydn. Stefan Jackiw is presented by the Whitaker Foundation. These concerts are presented by the Thomas A. Kooyumjian Family Foundation.
SYMPHONY IN THE CITY – ON STAGE AT POWELL TANGO!
Wednesday, November 6, 2013 Pre-concert tango lessons, Powell Hall foyer, 6pm Concert, 7pm Post-concert wine and dance party, Powell Hall foyer, until 9:15pm An evening of tango music and dance with Cortango, made up of Symphony musicians Cally Banham, Asako Kuboki, and David DeRiso. Joining them on stage will be the exquisite Argentine Tango dance pair of Mauro Peralta and Claudia Cortes. Learn tango moves before the concert, and join the after-concert dance party, with Argentine wine. With featured artists Melissa Brooks, cello; Jennifer Nitchman, flute; and Adam Maness, piano, guitar, and maybe more.
BOX OFFICE HOURS
Monday-Saturday, 10am-6pm; Weekday and Saturday concert evenings through intermission; Sunday concert days 12:30pm through intermission.
You may store your personal belongings in lockers located on the Orchestra and Grand Tier Levels at a cost of 25 cents. Infrared listening headsets are available at Customer Service. Cameras and recording devices are distracting for the performers and audience members. Audio and video recording and photography are strictly prohibited during the concert. Patrons are welcome to take photos before the concert, during intermission, and after the concert. Please turn off all watch alarms, cell phones, pagers, and other electronic devices before the start of the concert. All those arriving after the start of the concert will be seated at the discretion of the House Manager. Age for admission to STL Symphony and Live at Powell Hall concerts vary, however, for most events the recommended age is five or older. All patrons, regardless of age, must have their own tickets and be seated for all concerts. All children must be seated with an adult. Admission to concerts is at the discretion of the House Manager. Outside food and drink are not permitted in Powell Hall. No food or drink is allowed inside the auditorium, except for select concerts.
TO PURCHASE TICKETS
Box Office: 314-534-1700 Toll Free: 1-800-232-1880 Online: stlsymphony.org Fax: 314-286-4111 A service charge is added to all telephone and online orders.
SEASON TICKET EXCHANGE POLICIES
If you can’t use your season tickets, simply exchange them for another Wells Fargo Advisors subscription concert up to one hour prior to your concert date. To exchange your tickets, please call the Box Office at 314-5341700 and be sure to have your tickets with you when calling.
GROUP AND DISCOUNT TICKETS
314-286-4155 or 1-800-232-1880 Any group of 20 is eligible for a discount on tickets for select Orchestral, Holiday, or Live at Powell Hall concerts. Call for pricing. Special discount ticket programs are available for students, seniors, and police and public-safety employees. Visit stlsymphony.org for more information.
Powell Hall is not responsible for the loss or theft of personal property. To inquire about lost items, call 314-286-4166. POWELL HALL RENTALS
Select elegant Powell Hall for your next special occasion. Visit stlsymphony.org/rentals for more information.
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