 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١١

 

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

??‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

W EF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬K?E
 F‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K?EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،١٩١٨‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
١٩٢٧‫א‬KK  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Kelvinator 
 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫ א‬J
K‫א‬،، J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬،‫א‬ J
KKKK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J
 KKKK‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫ א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬(p-h) ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬(COP)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬p-h‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (p-h)‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٪١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٤

-٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K solids ‫א‬ -

Kliquids‫א‬ Kgases‫א‬‫ א‬-

(liquids)‫א‬‫א‬incompressible   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬relatively incompressible‫א‬

 W‫א‬

pV = mRT 


 
 W

p = {Pa}‫א‬

V={ m3}‫א‬

T= {K}‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

m ={ kg}‫א‬

 R={J/kg K}‫א‬

-٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

melting‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬

‫א‬

boiling‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬

‫א‬

condensation‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

freezing‫א‬

‫א‬–‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١–١F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬





T (°C )

100°C






(v g − v f )

vg

vf

v(m3 / kg )

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١–١F
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(latent heat) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

thermometer
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 

101.325 kPa

100°C

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢–١F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬ ƒ
‫א‬
 ،

superheating

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ


  107°C ‫א‬‫א‬ 107°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K 100°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ subcooling ‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 95°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K 100°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 5°C

-٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Ep-h diagramF

T-s‫א‬‫א‬p-h‫א‬
  (T-s diagrams )‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K


 ‫א‬‫א‬KE + F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬–

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   (latent heat of vaporization) ‫א‬
 K‫א‬
p

‫א‬



H



‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣–١F
-٦-

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W p − h 
W ( p = c) ‫א‬ J ١

K (bar ) ‫א‬‫א‬ (log p) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W (h = c) ‫א‬ J ٢

 K (kJ / kg ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺜﺒﻭﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺜﺎﻟﺒﻲ‬


 ‫א‬

p

‫א‬

‫א‬

h

p-h‫א‬‫א‬WE٤–١F

-٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W (kJ / kgK ) 

( s = c) ‫א‬

J ٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬ (diagonally) ‫א‬

S =c

 


‫א‬

 



 

‫א‬

p

‫א‬
(s = c)‫א‬WE٥–١F

-٨-

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W (T = c) ‫א‬‫א‬

J ٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K °C ‫א‬‫א‬
T=c

p
T=c

c
T=

50°C

20

‫א‬

50

T=c

50

20°C

0
20

0°C

0

‫ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺜﺒﻭﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٦–١F

-٩-

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W (v = c) ‫א‬‫א‬

J ٥


 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K l / kg  m 3 / kg 

‫א‬

p

‫ﻲ‬

‫ﺨﻁﻭ‬
‫ﻁ‬
‫ﺜ‬
‫ﺒ‬
‫ﻭ‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻟ‬
‫ﺤ‬
‫ﺠ‬
‫ﻡﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻭﻋ‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٧–١F

-١٠-

v=c

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W dryness

fraction (x ) ‫א‬

J ٦

K
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬K‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  K dryness

fraction (x ) ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬ = ‫א‬

x=

mv
m


 W

x W‫א‬


mv W‫א‬

 m W‫א‬

 E 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 F

 x = 1   ‫א‬‫א‬ x = 0 ‫א‬

،‫א‬ 10% ‫א‬ x = 0.10 


 ‫א‬ 
  x = 0.90   ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 90% 

‫ﻁﻭ‬
‫ﺨ‬
‫ﻁﻤ‬
‫ل ﺍﻟ‬
‫ﻌ ﺎﻤ‬
‫ﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺠﻔ‬

x =1

0

‫א‬‫א‬

x=


 ‫א‬

p

‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٨–١F
-١١-

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬(R134a) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R134a‫א‬p-hWE٩–١F

 K‫א‬Ep-hF‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 WEF‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

 K °C ‫א‬

  bar ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

ƒ

 v′ ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

l / kg E v ′′ ‫א‬

‫א‬ h′ ‫א‬F‫א‬

ƒ

kJ / kg E h′′ 

kJ / kg  L = h ′′ − h ′  (L) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

-١٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

p{bar}
1.020
1.067
1.116

v ′(l / kg}
0.726
0.728
0.730

T {°C}
-26
-25
-24

v ′′(l / kg}
188.56
180.67
173.18

 ‫א‬
h ′{kJ / kg}
166.35
167.59
168.84

h ′′{kJ / kg}
381.71
382.34
382.97

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
L{kJ / kg}
215.37
214.75
214.13

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢–١F
 

‫א‬‫א‬ (s ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬

W١

F  20°C ‫א‬E x = 0 F  (R11) 

 WK 0 °C ‫א‬E‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K
 50°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K
K 0 °C ‫א‬E‫א‬F

 W‫א‬

W T = 20°C ‫א‬‫א‬ (R11) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K

 p1 = 0.889 bar
h2 = 217.26 kJ / kg 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
  (1) ‫א‬‫א‬
  K
WE١٠–١F (2) ‫א‬ 0 °C ‫א‬

-١٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

p

R 11

‫א‬

50
20

50°C

1′

50

0

20°C

1

20

0°C

0

2′

2

‫א‬

h

 E١F p − h WE١٠–١F


 W

p1 = 0.400 bar ‫א‬

 x = h − h′

 W‫א‬‫א‬ (x) ‫א‬

x

h′′ − h′
hx = 217.26 kJ / kg 


x=

h ′′ = 390.63 kJ / kg
h ′ = 200.00 kJ / kg

 W
 W

217.26 − 200.00
= 0.09 
390.63 − 200.00



 (x = 0.10)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

p1 = 2.379 bar

50°C ‫א‬‫א‬

K 

 h1 = 244.61 kJ / kg 
-١٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

  x = 0.25 ‫א‬ (x) ‫א‬‫א‬
 W (x) ‫א‬

x=

244.61 − 200.00
= 0.23
390.63 − 200.00

 W٢

 ( x = 1)  − 20°C ‫א‬ (R717) ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K100°C ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬


p

p − h ‫א‬

R 717

‫א‬

s=

c

100°C

2
− 20°C

1

‫א‬

h

 E٢F p − h ‫א‬WE١١–١F

 K‫א‬ (2) ‫א‬‫א‬ (1) ‫א‬‫א‬E١١–١F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

v 2 = 0.178 m 3 / kg

p 2 = 10 bar

-١٥-

h2 = 1680 kJ / kg 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W٣

،K s = 1.75kJ / kgK   h = 450kJ / kg  (R12) ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E x = 0 F‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ p1 ، v1 ، T1

K 

KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ T2 ، h2  K
W‫א‬

 s = 1.95 kJ / kgK 
   h = 450 kJ / kg ‫א‬  (1) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬، (1) ‫א‬‫א‬

p1 = 8 bar  v1 = 0.028 m 3 / kg  T1 = 80°C

 W، x = 0 ‫א‬،‫א‬ K

h2 = 230 kJ / kg  T2 = 32°C

-١٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

g
g

K‫א‬

W‫א‬

g

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬EF

g

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

g

  ⇔  ⇔ 
KEsaturation temperature‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

g

KE x F‫א‬

‫א‬(x-0) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

g

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(x=1)‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

g

‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ep-hF  ‫א‬‫א‬

g

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

-١٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ p − h ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١


Temperature

Pr essure

v

h

s

‫א‬

°C

bar

m 3 / kg

kJ / kg

kJ / kgK

R11

60

1.85
450

R 22
R 717
R502

0.12
30

1.90

0 .5

4

R134a

400

2 .5

 
W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  E٢


Temperature Pressure

‫א‬

°C

R 22

50

R 22
R 717
R 717

v′

l / kg

bar

v ′′

h′

h ′′

l / kg

kJ / kg

kJ / kg

2.455

− 20
17.346

R134a
R134a

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
 K R502 ، R717 ، R 22 ، R12 ، R11 ، R134a ‫א‬

 x = 1  x = 0 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ ( L) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 (s = c) ‫א‬
 
  s = 1.76 kJ / kgK   T = 0°C  ( R134a)  ‫א‬ E٤
K‫א‬ v ‫א‬‫א‬، h ‫א‬ 10bar 

‫א‬، T = −40°C ‫א‬ x = 0.2  ( R717)   E٥
WK 7 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬ v ‫א‬‫א‬، h ‫ א‬K
K‫א‬ v ‫א‬‫א‬، h ‫א‬، T ‫א‬‫א‬ K
W‫א‬، R22 ‫א‬ p − h ‫א‬ E٦
F   20 °C  ‫א‬ x = 0   K
W p − h ‫א‬‫א‬K − 20 °C ‫א‬E h = c ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ( x = 1)  − 20 °C ‫א‬‫א‬ K
W p − h ‫א‬‫א‬K 40 °C  ‫א‬ ( S = c) ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

-١٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

Vapor Compression Cycle
EsinkF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

K  ‫א‬KEsourceF ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 .(refrigerantsF

-٢٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



Condenser
3

2





Compressor

Expansion
valve

1
4



Evaporator

 ‫א‬(flow diagram)‫א‬WE١٢–١F

 W‫א‬

:(compressor) ‫ א‬K
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KKKKK‫א‬‫א‬

-٢١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 
: (Condenser)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬KE Tcond

> Tenv 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬F

 KEF‫א‬
W(expansion valve)‫א‬‫א‬ K

 ‫א‬WE١٣–١F
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E throttling
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 (Evaporator)‫ א‬K

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬
-٢٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Simple Vapor Compression Cycle (VCC) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬Rankine Cycle.‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Process 1-2: Isentropic Compression (S=c)‫א‬ 1 → 2 ‫א‬

‫א‬ (x=1)‫א‬ ‫א‬
(1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 KE2‫א‬F‫א‬
 W(2)(1)‫א‬

Wc = m& ( h2 − h1 ) 

 W

Wc = {kW } ‫א‬

 h1 = {kJ / kg} (1)‫א‬‫א‬
  h2 = {kJ / kg} (2)‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2 → 3 ‫א‬
 region (@ P=c )

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(3)(2)‫א‬‫א‬
Process 2-3 Heat Rejection to hot

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K ‫א‬(3)‫א‬‫א‬

 W(Qc)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qc = m& (h2 − h3 )
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Qc = {kW }

 h3 = {kJ / kg} E3F‫א‬‫א‬
 h2 = {kJ / kg} (2)‫א‬‫א‬
-٢٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

E‫א‬
 F‫א‬‫א‬ 3 → 4 ‫א‬
 h=c)
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
Process 3-4 Throttling Process (@

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3 → 4 ‫א‬K(4)

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،
 W‫א‬
 h4 = h3
Process 3-4 Heat addition at cold E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 4 → 1 ‫א‬
 region (@ P=c)
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 4 → 1 ‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬F
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE1‫א‬F
 WE‫א‬F

 Qe = m& ( h1 − h4 )
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qe = {kW }

 h1 = {kJ / kg} (1)‫א‬‫א‬
  h4 = {kJ / kg} E٤F‫א‬‫א‬

-٢٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

p

p=c

3

2
c

pc

S=

‫א‬

h=c
p=c

pe

1

4
RE
h3 = h4 ‫א‬

wc
h1

h2

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬(state diagram)‫א‬WE١٤–١F

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

st

1 Law Analysis

Key Relation

Wc = m& ( h2 − h1 )

h4 = h3

Component

 ‫א‬

Process

S 2 = S1

compressor‫א‬

1-2

p3 = p 2

 Condenser‫א‬

2-3

h4 = h3

 expansion valve‫א‬

3-4

 evaporator‫א‬

4-1

 

Qc = m& (h2 − h3 )
Qe = m& ( h1 − h4 )

 ‫א‬

p4 = p1

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣–١F

-٢٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

x

‫א‬



1

1



_

2



0

3

‫א‬‫א‬

0 ≤ x ≤1

4

‫א‬‫א‬WE٤–١F

 Performance of VCC ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Refrigeration effect (RE)‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
(1)(4)
 ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 RE = h2 − h1
 Input Work (Wc)‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Wc = m& ∆h 
 W( WcF‫א‬‫א‬
 Wc = m& ( h2 − h1 ) 
 Evaporator load (Qe)‫א‬
(kW) ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E‫א‬F(cooling load) ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
-٢٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

(24 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،288000 BTUE‫א‬F‫؛‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬12000 BTU/h‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬hours)
 (Ton of Refrigeration, T.R.)
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(QeF‫א‬
 Qe = m& ( h2 − h4 ) 
 (COP ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Coefficient of Performance, COP) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

COP =

Qe RE h1 − h4
=
=
Wc wc
h2 − h1



  (m& ) ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (m& ) ‫א‬

m& =

Qe
RE

 
 W

‫א‬

Qe =

RE = ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ (V& )  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، E m& =

Qe
RE

F‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬ (v1 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 V& = m& v1
F η v (reciprocating)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE‫א‬F‫א‬ (V&s ) ‫א‬‫א‬E85%65%

V& m& v1
V&s =
=

ηv

-٢٧-

ηv

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 
 − 20°C  ‫א‬‫א‬،  R134a 

١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 30°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬، 1kg / s ‫א‬‫א‬K ( x = 1)  

(qc ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(COP) ‫א‬‫א‬

( wc )

‫א‬ K١

( RE ) ‫א‬‫א‬

p

p=c

3

2
c

pc

S=

‫א‬

h=c

pe

p=c

1

4
RE

h3 = h4 ‫א‬

 WE١٥–١F

h1 = 385.48 kJ / kg
h2 = 417 kJ / kg

-٢٨-

wc
h1

h2

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬

wc = h2 − h1 = 417 − 385.48 = 31.52 kJ / kg

 W (qc ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
qc = h2 − h3 = 417.00 − 241.63 = 175.37kJ / kg
 W (RE ) ‫א‬‫א‬
RE = h1 − h4 = h1 − h3 = 385.48 − 241.63 = 143.85kJ / kg 

 W (COP ) ‫א‬‫א‬

 COP =

RE 143.85 kJ / kg
=
= 4.56 
31.52 kJ / kg
wc

 ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K. 25 TR   R134a 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 1.00MPa  0.25MPa

 hp  kW 

 K80%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
p

p=c

3

2
c

pc

S=

‫א‬

h=c

pe

p=c

1

4
RE
h3 = h4 ‫א‬

 E١٦–١F
-٢٩-

wc
h1

h2

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

P4 = P1 = 0.25 MPa,

P2 = P3 = 1.00 MPa

W 1,2 & 3 ‫א‬‫א‬ P − h 
h3 = h4 = 256 kJ / kg
h2 = 426 kJ / kg
h1 = 396 kJ / kg 
 RE = h1 − h4 = 396 − 256 = 140 kJ / kg 
W ( RE ) ‫א‬

m& =

Qe 25 × 3.5
=
= 0.625 kg / s W (m& ) ‫א‬
RE
140

Wc = m& (h2 − h1 ) = 0.625(426 − 396)
= 18.75 kW
18.75
=
0.746

 W (Wc ) ‫א‬

= 25.13 hp

η v = 80 % = 0.80 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Ep-h‫א‬F v1 = 80 L / kg = 0.080 m 3 / kg (1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

V&s =

mv1

ηv

=

0.625 × 0.080
= 0.0625 m 3 / s ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬∴
0.80

‫א‬‫א‬(hermetic)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫(؛‬irreversible) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬(12)

 (isentropic efficiency)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٣٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

p

p=c

3

2′

2
c


 ‫א‬

pc

S=

h=c
p=c

pe

1

4
RE

wc

h3 = h4 ‫א‬

h1

h

h2′

h2

 E١٧–١F
 

 WE η s F‫א‬‫א‬

ηs =

h2 − h1
<1
h2′ − h1


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

p

2′

pc

2

pe


 ‫א‬

c

1′

S=

4′

p=c

pe

1

4

‫א‬

4′

1

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨–١F
-٣١-

2′

p=c

4′ 4

‫א‬

h

2

3′
h=c

pe ′

h=c

‫א‬

pc ′

p=c

3

c

p=c

3

S=

pc

p

h

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ( pe′ ) ‫א‬ ( pe ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨–١F‫א‬
 (RE ) 
 ‫א‬
  ( pc′ ) ‫א‬ ( pc ) ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


  (COP) ‫א‬‫א‬ (Wc ) ‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (m& ) ‫א‬

 (Tc ) ‫א‬ (Te ) ‫א‬E١٩–١F‫א‬

C

o

o

C

oC

T

0
=4
c

40

‫א‬‫א‬

C

=
Tc

o

30

T

0
=3
c

=
Tc

COP

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (COP) ‫א‬‫א‬

Te

Te

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٩–١F

 (Wc ) 
 ‫א‬  (Tc ) 
 ‫א‬ (Te ) ‫א‬‫א‬

 K (COP) ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

R11‫א‬ 50 °C 

COP
J

wc
kJ / kg

RE
kJ / kg

°C

5.35
4.05
2.63

28.23
36.37
51.65

151.16
146.02
135.74

10
0
-20

E٥–١F
-٣٢-

TE

E١F

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ E٢F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

R11‫א‬ 50 °C 

COP
J

wc
kJ / kg

RE
kJ / kg

2.63
3.48
4.58

51.65
 41.65
 33.65

135.74
145.03
154.16

TC
°C
50
40
30

E٦–١F

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  E7‫א‬1‫א‬F 5K  ‫א‬‫א‬
 E5‫א‬3‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

2

3

Condenser



Compressor

‫א‬
Heat
exchanger


Expansion
valve
4



1

Evaporator


-٣٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W
‫א‬‫א‬KR11 32°C ,  − 15°C ‫א‬

 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ، 7 K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K kW ‫א‬

p

5

6

3

2

1

4

O

 WE٢١–١F

 W‫א‬

 WE1234‫א‬F -

  Te = −15°C  R11‫א‬


h2 = 417 kJ / kg (2)‫א‬ p − h ‫א‬

h3 = h4 = 228 kJ / kg 

h1 = 382.92 kJ / kg 

(T3 = 32°C ) (3)‫א‬ p − h ‫א‬

RE = h1 − h4 ‫א‬‫א‬

= 382.92 − 228 = 154.92 kJ / kg 
-٣٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 wc = h2 − h1 kg‫א‬

= 417 − 382.92 = 34.08 kJ / kg 
RE 154.92
=
= 4.55 ‫א‬‫א‬
COP =
34.08
wc

 E1256‫א‬F 7 K ‫א‬

T5 = 32 − 7 = 25°C ‫א‬‫א‬
 W 6  5 ‫א‬ p − h 

h5 = h6 = 222 kJ / kg 

 RE ′ = h1 − h6 ‫א‬‫א‬

= 382.92 − 222 = 160.92 kJ / kg 
RE ′ 160.92
COP ′ =
=
= 4.72 ‫א‬‫א‬
wc
34.08
Q
 m& = e = 1 ‫א‬
RE ′ 160.92

= 6.2 × 10 −3 kg / kg = 6.2 g / kg 

 ‫א‬‫א‬ (COP′ f COP) ‫א‬‫א‬ ( RE′ f RE ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 W

  R 22 ‫א‬‫א‬
1kg / s  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ 11.88bar  2.455bar
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬ 7 K ‫א‬‫ א‬-

 W‫א‬

-٣٥-

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

p

 ‫א‬‫א‬

3

2

8

1

4

7

O

 WE٢٢–١F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 11.88 bar  2.455 bar 
 ‫א‬

 K R 22 ‫א‬ 30°C ,  − 20°C 
 W‫א‬‫א‬J

  Te = −20°C  R 22 ‫א‬‫א‬




h2 = 437.0 kJ / kg (2)‫א‬ p − h ‫א‬

h3 = h4 = 236.70 kJ / kg 

h1 = 397.07 kJ / kg 

  Tc = 30°C  R 22 ‫א‬‫א‬

RE = h1 − h4 ‫א‬‫א‬

= 397.07 − 236.70 = 160.37 kJ / kg 

wc = h2 − h1 kg‫א‬

= 437.0 − 397.07 = 39.93 kJ / kg 
RE 160.37
COP =
=
= 4.016 ‫א‬‫א‬
wc
39.93

 W 7 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٣٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬ T 7

= −13°C ‫א‬‫א‬ (7) ‫א‬ T7 = −20 + 7 = −13°C 

‫א‬ ( 7 ) ‫א‬‫א‬ (8) ‫א‬ 2.455 bar
 K p − h  11.88 bar

 W‫א‬ (7 − 8) ‫א‬

h 7 = 400 kJ / kg  h8 = 443 kJ / kg 

  RE ′ = h7 − h4 ‫א‬‫א‬

= 400.0 − 236.7 = 163.3 kJ / kg 

wc =h 8 − h7 kg‫א‬

= 443 − 400 = 43kJ / kg 
RE ′ 163.3
=
= 3.798 ‫א‬‫א‬
COP′ =
43
wc′

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ( RE ′ f RE )  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ( COP ′ < COP )

-٣٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

p

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

10
5

6

3

2

1

4

7

8
9

O

 ‫א‬WE٢٣–١F
‫א‬(78910-11-56)‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(1234)‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،(89)‫א‬، (68) ‫א‬،(11-5)‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K(10-11)‫א‬

K
 n (polytropic)  (9-10)‫א‬‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ (10 − 20 kPa) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K1K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٣٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

(x=1) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-

K(x=0) ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 E‫א‬F‫א‬G

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G
 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

-٣٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

K 50°C 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ −10°C  ‫א‬‫א‬K  ( R 22)  J ١

‫א‬‫א‬KE
  F‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

  K (COP) ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 5.3 × 103 kJ / min ‫א‬.(R134a)‫א‬-7°C٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 32°C ‫א‬‫א‬
 K (COP) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

K 30°C  24°C ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ E c p

water

= 4.18 kJ / kgK F‫א‬

،R22 − 20°C ‫א‬ ٣
7 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 40°C 70 kW‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 50°C ,  − 20°C ‫א‬(R717) ٤

‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

K ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K kW ‫א‬

F − 4°C ‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٥

‫א‬‫א‬KR12‫א‬،E
 F 45°C ،E
-٤٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1 m 3 / hr ‫א‬‫א‬K 37°C  24.5°C 
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 11.669

 ‫א‬‫א‬

bar، 2.2634 bar (R717)‫א‬٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 kg/s

 K‫א‬‫א‬(i)

‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  10 K  ‫א‬‫א‬J

(ii)

 K‫א‬

‫א‬K 40 °C  − 10 °C R12 ٧
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

60 °C 
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 kg/s‫א‬

21.5 bar

 5 bar R22‫א‬‫א‬٨

 85 °C 
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬K‫א‬[
2 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ٠ [ 2 T.R ] 

‫א‬K 30 °C  5 °C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 0.80

kg/s

‫א‬٩

‫א‬‫א‬ 14.7 bar ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،12 K‫א‬

-٤١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E c p

= 1.005

kJ
kg K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

-٤٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Refrigerants‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ،
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 KNon-poisonous -

.Non-explosive

-

KNon-corrosive‫א‬ KNon-flammable  K‫א‬ K‫א‬ -

KEF‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬–– ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  kg ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K 30°C  −15°C ‫א‬
 W‫א‬

-٤٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

KE‫א‬–‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬WGroup I‫א‬‫ א‬R-502، R-22، R-12W

R-R-40 (Methyl chloride)، WGroup II‫א‬‫א‬

-

R-170 
  ،‫א‬‫א‬  WGroup II  ‫א‬‫א‬

-

764 (Sulfur dioxide)

R-290 (Propane)(Ethane)

 W‫א‬

WPrimary Refrigerants‫א‬‫א‬ K١

PRIMARY

‫א‬‫א‬

R-502 R-12،R-12‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬REFRIGERANTS
 :Secondary Refrigerants‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬(methyalcohol) ‫א‬،‫א‬،(brines)‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

Identifying Primary Refrigerants ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬(R)‫א‬‫א‬

K(ASHRAE)‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE‫א‬F‫א‬
،‫א‬EChlorofluorocarbons CFCs F‫א‬
KR114

‫ و‬R12 ، R11WKEF‫א‬‫א‬

EHydrochlorofluorocarbons or HCFCs)
 ‫א‬
. R-22 or R-123WK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 Hydrofluorocarbons or HFCs 

. R-134aW،‫א‬

 KW

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Flurocarbons :‫א‬

 ١J ‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ١H‫א‬‫א‬Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬R22, …., R11‫א‬
 ١Z١HZ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١J ‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ١J ‫א‬‫א‬Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W١
 Dichlorofluromethane 12١٢
 ١Z١HZ‫א‬‫א‬

 Z١J ١Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢Z‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

F
F

C

Cl

Cl


CCl 2 F2 

R12

 ٢Z‫א‬‫א‬∴

R12‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W٢
 Monochlorofuromethane R22 ٢٢

 ١Z١HZ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١Z١J ٢Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢Z‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

F
F

C

Cl

H


R22

CHClF2 

 ١Z‫א‬‫א‬∴

R12‫א‬‫א‬

 W٣
 Trichloromonofluromethane R11 ١١
 ١Z١HZ‫א‬‫א‬

 Z١J ١Z‫א‬‫א‬
 ١Z‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

Cl
F

C

Cl

Cl

R11

 ٣Z‫א‬‫א‬∴

CCl3 F

١١‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

(‫ )א‬HFC

 W

  (CF3CH 2 F ) Tetrafluroethane‫א‬
 ١Z١J ٢Z١J ‫א‬‫א‬Z ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣Z١H٢Z١H‫א‬‫א‬Z ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٤Z‫א‬‫א‬Z ‫א‬‫א‬


F

-

‫א‬

-

R134a (CF3CH 2 F ) ‫א‬

-

F

H

C

C

F

H

F

R134a


 Inorganic Refrigerants ‫א‬‫א‬
 R(700+mwt)700H‫א‬

 WE١F

NH 3 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ١٧Z٣H١٤‫א‬‫א‬

R 717 

‫א‬

 WE٢F
 ٤٤Z١٦×٢H١٢Z

CO 2 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

R 744 ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 WE٣F

H 2 O ‫א‬

 ١٨Z٢H١٦Z‫א‬‫א‬

R 718 ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬E١–١FK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

R11

(CCl 3 F )

Trichloromonofluoromethane

 R12


(CCl 2 F2 )

Dichlorodifluoromethane

(CClF3 )

Monochlorotrifluoromethane

R13
R134a
R22
R40
R502

 R717

(CF3CH 2 F )


 Tetrafluroethane

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Orange

White

Pale Blue

Purple‫א‬

Green

(CHClF2 )

Monochlorodifluoromethane

(CH 3 Cl )

Monochlorotrifluoromethane

(48.8%R22+ 51.2%R115)

-

Orchid

Ammonia

Silver

( NH 3 )

‫א‬‫א‬WE٧–١F

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

-٤٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Thermodynamic Properties ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Temperature & Pressure‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(boiling point)‫א‬
 ‫א‬

(°C ) ‫א‬

R11
R12
R13
R134a
R22
R40
R502
R717

23.7
-29.4
-81.4
-26.1
-40.8
-11.8
-46.0
-33.0

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨–١F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

R13‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 K
 J Cascade systems‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬(v)‫א‬‫א‬،(p)‫א‬(T) ‫א‬‫א‬R134a
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (h)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

T {°C}

p{bar}

v ′(l / kg}

v ′′(l / kg}

h ′{kJ / kg}

h ′′{kJ / kg}

L{kJ / kg}

-26
-25
-24

1.020
1.067
1.116

0.726
0.728
0.730

188.56
180.67
173.18

166.35
167.59
168.84

381.71
382.34
382.97

215.37
214.75
214.13

R134a

 ‫א‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪول وﺳﻴﻂ اﻟﺘﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬WE٩–١F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٤٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

Specific volume (v)‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬J 
   −15°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬

R11
R12
R13
R40
R134a
R22
R502
R717

(x=1)

(l / kg ) ‫א‬‫א‬

766.73
91.45
279.3
120.15
77.70
50.02
507.9

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠–١F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
R11
R12
R134a
R22
R40
R502
R717

 ◊‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ∗‫א‬‫א‬

(kJ / kg )
195.30
159.55
208.29
217.00
‫ـ‬
156.61
1311.3

(kJ / kg )
156.73
117.16
146.96
162.47
349.058
104.39
1104.68

‫א‬
(kg / min/ kW )
0.383
0.512
0.408
0.369
0.172
0.575
0.054

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١١–١F
  30°C  −15°C ‫א‬‫∗א‬

  − 15°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬◊

-٥٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Physical Properties ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W

Oil Miscibility‫א‬‫א‬

J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

R11



R12

 

R13

 

R40



R134a

R22


 

R717

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٢–١F

-٥١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 WOdor‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
R11

slightly ethereal 

R12

slightly ethereal

R22

slightly ethereal

R502

slightly ethereal

R717

pungent

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣–١F

 W(safety)‫א‬

E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

R11

 

R12

 

R13

 

R40

 

R134a

 

 R22

 

R502

 

R717

 

‫א‬WE١٤–١F

-٥٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

R11

 

 R12

 

R40

 

R134a

 

 R22

 

R502

 

R717

 

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥–١F

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬ K١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W(ppm)

(ppm)
15

(ppm)‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

5

R134a

100

30

R22

50

15

R502

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦–١F
-٥٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


 ‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
R13B1
2
5
10
 21
40

R502
40
69
115
180
278

R500
48
81
129
200
293

‫א‬‫א‬
R22
120
195
308
472
690

°C
-40
-20
0
20
40

R12
1.7
3.8
8.3
17
32

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧–١F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 40MPa

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 80MPa  ‫א‬‫א‬ 180MPa 
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ -٥٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Relief valve) K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬(Check valve ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬–٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٣

 –E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١
‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣

‫א‬
  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ K
 K‫א‬‫א‬

How to Choose a Leak Detector?

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ECFCs ‫א‬F‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬
-٥٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ -

K‫א‬Wsystem size‫א‬ -

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ KKKKKK‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬-

KW،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ -

-٥٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
CCl3 F Trichloromonofluromethane R11 ١١‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

23.7°C 

-

K -

K -

K‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

KHalide torchEF‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬  (CCl 2 F2 ) Dichlorodifluoromethane R12‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬ K − 29.4°C  -

K‫א‬، K  -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ − 68°C ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬

Halide torchEF‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬ (R134a)- (CF3CH 2 F ) Tetrafluroethane‫א‬
K R12 ‫א‬ HFC  -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬، K − 26.1°C  -

-٥٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

K (ODP = 0) ‫א‬ KR12‫א‬‫א‬ -

K 25°C ‫א‬‫א‬ -

light blue‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ -

K(molecular sieve)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬(silicone gel)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬(florescent dyes)  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬KKK‫א‬
(CHClF2 ) Monochlorodifluoromethane

(R22) E٢٢F‫א‬
− 40.8°C 

-

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٢ -

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ − 9°C ‫א‬‫א‬ Halide torchEF‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W١٢‫א‬٢٢‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬60% ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  R22‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٢

KR12‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬60%

KR12‫א‬‫א‬R22‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -


 R12‫א‬E‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬R22‫א‬ K‫א‬R22

-٥٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬ − 40°C  − 29°C ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬R12R22‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬R12‫א‬
 ‫א‬  K

 

R502  {CHClF2 + C 2 ClF5 }( R 22 + R115) E٥٠٢F‫א‬

KR11551.2% + R2248.8% -

K K‫א‬ -

KE − 51°C  − 18°C F‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬ − 46°C  -

KR22R12‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (condensing R12‫א‬R22‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬pressure)

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

٢٢ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K(R22)
K‫א‬(orchid)‫א‬ -

 R717( NH 3 FE‫א‬F‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬  K -

K‫א‬ -

-٥٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬
 kg‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ − 33°C  -

K ‫א‬‫א‬R22R12E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

SO2 ( R 764) ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K -

١٩٢٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٩٣٠

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (CH 3Cl − R 40) ‫א‬‫ א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ −10°C  -

K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ( H 2 SO3 )  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ( H 2 SO 4)


 (CO2 − R744) ‫א‬
K -

K -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ -٦٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬ (−56.6°C ) 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ − 78.7°C  KEF‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ،
 ‫א‬ K

CH 3 Cl − R 40 ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ − 23.7°C  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E F ‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬


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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 R134a,R22

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

R134a,R22,R502

 R134a

gryogenic‫א‬

R13,R502

‫א‬‫א‬

 R22,R500

J ‫א‬‫א‬

R134a,R22

J ‫א‬‫א‬

R11,R134a.R22

J ‫א‬‫א‬

R11,R134a

‫א‬‫א‬

R22,CO2(SOLID)

‫א‬‫א‬

N2

‫א‬‫א‬

R11

‫א‬

CO2,N2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

R11

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨–١F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

R11

Centrifugal
Centrifugal

R12

Reciprocating‫א‬
Rotary‫א‬

R22

200-2000TR–

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

Reciprocating‫א‬
Centrifugal

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R500

Reciprocating‫א‬

R502

Reciprocating‫א‬

R503

Reciprocating‫א‬

R13

Reciprocating‫א‬

R113

Centrifugal

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
50 Hz‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

−90°C –‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

−90°C –‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٩–١F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
0°C ‫א‬‫א‬

-

‫א‬‫א‬

-

50 °C



 ‫א‬



‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬


pc
)
pe

(r =

3

(kJ / m )

‫א‬


( p c , bar )

‫א‬


(COP )

‫א‬‫א‬

R11

CCl 3 F

443

5.9

2.4

5.53

R21

CHFCl 2

636

5.68

4.0

4.64

R22

CHCl 2 F

3671

3.88

19.3

5.14

R114

C 2 Cl 2 F7

784

5.06

4.5

4.61

R717

NH 3

42.75

4.96

20.6

5.53

‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٠–١F

Secondary Refrigerants

‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬(methyalcohol) ‫א‬،‫א‬،(brines)‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٦٤-

K‫א‬‫א‬

-

K (c p = 4.18kJ / kg ) ‫א‬‫א‬

-

K‫א‬

-

K 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬(CFCs)‫א‬
 UV − β radiation ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W UV − β radiation 

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

K‫א‬

-

K‫א‬

-

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

٢٠J ١٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٤–١F
C+Cl2+F2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫ א‬E٢

KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ E٣
K Cl2O ‫א‬ (O3 ) ‫ א‬E٤

K Cl2O ‫א‬‫א‬ E٥

-٦٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

K Cl2 + O2 ‫א‬ E٦
‫א‬ 3Cl2 + O3 = 3Cl2O 

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
((ODP)

 K‫א‬

ozone depletion potential)‫א‬
 ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬ 

 W
R=22‫א‬ODP=0.5

(Global

R=11‫א‬ODP=1 -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ Wwarming Potential, GWP)
 GWP= 1 for CO2
GWP=0.05 for CFCs

Montreal Protocol ‫א‬‫א‬

(CFCs)‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W

1986-2000‫א‬R12,R11‫א‬‫ א‬-

W‫א‬‫א‬(CFCs)‫א‬‫א‬  KR222015-2030 K‫א‬‫א‬ -

K2005‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

KR134a‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬ -

-٦٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

Alternative Refrigerants‫א‬‫א‬

(HCFCs)(HFCs)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 
 

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

R12

R134a

R22

R 407c
( R 32 + R125 + R134a )

‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬

R12

  ‫א‬‫א‬

R22

R 410a
( R 32 + R125)

R 413 A
( R 218 + R134a + R 600 A)
R 417 a

( R134a + R600a )

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١–١F
(greenhouse

effect)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 WHCs‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫؛‬

Ammonia ( NH 3 ) R717‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KGWP=0ODP=0‫א‬K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) − R 744 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬GWPODP=0‫א‬
‫א‬(low

energy

efficiency)‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Tcritical = 31.3 °C )

 Air (R729)‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Water (H2O) – R718‫א‬


  (T > 0 °C ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(specific

vapor volume)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K(Lithium Bromide)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Brines‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Calcium chloride(CaCl2)

‫א‬ -

 −17°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Sodium Chloride(NaCl)‫א‬

-

 − 21°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Antifreeze solutions)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Glycerine‫א‬J

Alcohol‫א‬J

Propylene Glycol ‫א‬J

-٦٩-

Ethylene Glycol

‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

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 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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W‫א‬

-

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(CFC's)‫א‬

(HCFC's)‫א‬

(HFC's)‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬700‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،ASHRAE


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XYZ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K

Y

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬Z‫א‬،R


 X‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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K(EPA)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٧٠-

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١
W E٢

R12  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬R22  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
K‫א‬

KR12‫א‬‫א‬R22 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

‫א‬‫א‬ R11‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

KR12

KR12‫א‬‫א‬R22‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E
K(CFCs)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٣
KR-22‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٥
 R-502, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-717

 R744 , R40, R502, R134a, R123

 R12 , R11, R22, R134a

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٦
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٧
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٨
R717, R11, R502, R134a, R718

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٩
R11
E
 R-12 E


R-717
E

R502
E

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٧١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬E١١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R11
E
 R-12 E


R-717
E

R-502
E

Brine Solution ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٢
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١٤

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E١٦

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٧

-٧٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬،p-h

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬


 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

 K‫א‬ K١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(p-h)

 W

 K‫א‬ K٢

 K‫א‬‫ א‬K١

R11‫א‬، 50 °C  0 °C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬p-h‫א‬‫א‬K36.5 kW‫א‬
 W

 K‫א‬ K٢

 K‫ א‬K١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

 K‫א‬ K٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫ ؛‬40 °C  − 20 °C R134a

‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬ 70 °C ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬

 ‫א‬ J ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K

-٧٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R718،R744،R134a،R11،R22

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R717،R134a،R11،R22

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

p

 

‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬
‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

O

 

  ( x) ‫א‬K١
 K (m) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  (mv ) ‫א‬ = ‫א‬

x=

mv
m

-٧٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

(COP ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢

 K ( wc ) ‫א‬ ( RE ) ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ (Qe ) ‫א‬ (COP) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K (Wc ) ‫א‬

RE Qe
=
wc Wc

p

COP =

5

3

6

2

1

4

O


 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

RE

RE‫א‬‫א‬

Wc

Wc‫א‬

-٧٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

p

p=c

3

2
c

pc

S=

‫א‬

h=c
p=c

pe

1

4
RE

wc

h3 = h4 ‫א‬

h1

h2

h


، 50 °C  0 °C ‫א‬R11‫א‬(p-h) 
 WE41F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

h1 = 391 kJ / kg

h2 = 423 kJ / kg

h3 = h4 = 245 kJ / kg

RE = h1 − h4

= 391 − 245 = 146 kJ / kg



 

m& =

(RE)‫א‬‫א‬K١

(m& ) ‫א‬K٢

Qe

RE
36.5
=
146

= 0.25 kg / s

 K (Wc ) ‫א‬K٣

Wc = m& (h2 − h1 )
= 0.25 × (423 − 391)



= 8 Kw


 (COP)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٤

-٧٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

COP =

Qe
Wc

36.5
=
8

= 4.56



 ،‫א‬(p-h)


h1 = 385.5 kJ / kg

h2 = 422 kJ / kg

h2′ = 429 kJ / kg

h3 = h4 = 256 kJ / kg

RE = h1 − h4
= 385.5 − 256

= 129.5 kJ / kg




m& =

(RE)‫א‬‫א‬

(m& ) ‫א‬

Qe

RE
1
=
129.5

= 0.0077 kg / s / kW

Wc = m& (h2′ − h1 )
= 0.0077 × (429 − 385.5)



(Wc ) kW‫א‬‫א‬

= 0.336 kW / kW



p

2′

c

2
S=

h=c

pe

p=c

3


 ‫א‬

pc

p=c

1

4
RE
h3 = h4 ‫א‬

wc
h1

h2

h2′

h


-٧٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 (COP) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
COP =

Qe
Wc

1
=
0.336

COP =

= 2.98

h1 − h4
h2′ − h1

385.5 − 256 129.5
=
=
429 − 385.5 43.5



η isent =

= 2.98

h2 − h1

(η isent ) ‫א‬‫א‬

h2′ − h1

422 − 385.5
=
× 100
429 − 385.5

 ‫أو‬

= 84%


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J
 J

 J
 ‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  -

‫א‬ -


 kg‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ − 33°C  -٧٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

K‫א‬‫א‬R22R12‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬

CHClF2

R22

CClF2

R11

CF 3CH 2 F

R134a

CO2

R744

H 2O

R718


‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 

R22

 

R11

 ‫א‬

R134a

 

R717


 ‫א‬(CFCs)‫א‬J 

-٧٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

،٢٠J ١٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١
 C+Cl2+F2

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 KE O3 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 K Cl2O ‫א‬ (O3 ) ‫א‬E٤
K Cl2O ‫א‬‫א‬E٥
K Cl2 + O2 ‫א‬E٦
  3Cl2 + O3 = 3Cl2O 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KKKKK‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

-٨٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1500 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Air

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Conditioning)

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Stuart Cramer‫א‬1906

‫א‬‫א‬1911K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Carrier

‫א‬(Psychrometric Chart )‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E
 F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(1924)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EF،(steady

state)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K

‫א‬‫א‬

K

-٨١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٪١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٤

-٨٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Psychrometry‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ،

 K‫א‬

Psychrometry ‫א‬

K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Atmospheric air ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K
Dry air‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،E F78%K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬1%،21%،
Moist air‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


Properties of Humid Air‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

pV = mRT

-٨٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W

Daltons Law‫א‬‫א‬



p = pa + pv

 W

p = ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
p a = ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

p v = ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Specific Humidity ω )

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬1 kg‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 ω=

mv
ma

 W

 mv = kg‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 m a = kg‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


p vVv
‫א‬
R v Tv
pV
m a = a a ‫א‬‫א‬
R a Ta
m
pV
RT
ω = v = v v × a a ‫א‬‫א‬
m a R v Tv p a V a
mv =

 ‫א‬
 Vmixture = Va = Vv 
 Tmixture = Ta = Tv 

ω=

m v p v Ra
=
×
m a Rv p a

‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬EpF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

p = p a + p v 

-٨٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

p a = p − p v 

Ra
R
18
=
× = 0.622 W
Rv 28.9 R

 W‫א‬‫א‬

ω=

mv
pv
= 0.622
ma
p − pv

 KE p v F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ p v  ‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 Relative Humidity(RH)‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

10 g / m3

20 g / m3

22°C ‫ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ‬

22°C ‫ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ‬

RH=50%

RH=100%

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١–٢F

K 22°C ‫א‬10 g / m 3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 20 g / m 3 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 RH =

10
= 0.50 = 50%
20

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٨٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

25.6 g / m3

10 g / m3

27°C ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬

27°C ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬

RH=39%

RH=100%

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢–٢F
 25.6 g / m 3  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  27°C 

‫א‬ 10 g / m 3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 20 g / m 3 
 W‫א‬
 RH =

10
= 0.39 = 39%
25.6

 W‫א‬
 RH =

mv
mg

‫ ؛‬pv ‫א‬ p g T‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

0 ≤ RH ≤ 1  RH =

pv
pg

 h = ha + ωh fg = c p T + ωh fg ‫א‬‫א‬

 Dry Bulb Temperature (db)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٨٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Wet Bulb Temperature (wb)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (adiabatic saturation temperature)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬(wb)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(db)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬(sling psychrometer)

 ‫א‬WE٣–٢F

-٨٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
 W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(db)‫א‬

‫ﺧﻄﻮط ﺛﺒﻮت درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫زﻳﺎدة درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤–٢F
(wb)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺤ‬
‫ﺮ‬
‫ا‬
‫رة‬

‫زﻳ‬
‫ﺎدة‬
‫د‬
‫رﺟ‬

‫ﻃﺒﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺮ‬
‫ارة‬
‫ﺤﺮ‬
‫ﺔ اﻟ‬

‫رﺟ‬
‫تد‬

‫ﺛﺒﻮ‬

-

‫ﻮط‬
‫ﺧﻄ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥–٢F


-٨٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 
 (RH)‫א‬‫א‬

0%
10
%
50

%
20

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٦–٢F
E ω F‫א‬‫ א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ kg / kg ‫א‬‫א‬

 g / kg ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬kg‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
ω

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٧–٢F

-٨٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 (v) ‫א‬‫ א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ m 3 / kg 
90
0.

ec
Sp

c
ifi

e
m
lu
o
v
5
8
0.

0
0.8

0.75

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٨–٢F
( h)

‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬

120
90

60
120

20

90

20

60

 K‫א‬WE٩–٢F
-٩٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

Dew point‫א‬ -

‫ﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨ‬
‫ﺩ‬
‫ﻯ‬

‫ﺤﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺭ‬
‫ﺓﺩ‬
‫ﺭﺠ‬

‫ﺯﻴ‬
‫ﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺍﺘ‬
‫ﺠﺎﻩ‬

 ‫א‬WE١٠–٢F
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬


 

 ‫א‬

‫א‬







 

‫א‬


‫א‬
‫א‬


 ‫א‬ 
‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١١–٢F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٩١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W٢
K dp ‫א‬ RH ‫א‬‫א‬K 24°C( wb )  32°C( db ) ‫א‬

50%

24°C
20.4°C

A

32°C

WE١٢–٢F

 K‫א‬‫א‬ 32°C  K 32°C ‫א‬‫ א‬-

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 24°C ‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬EAF‫א‬ -

E RH = 50% F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬،‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬E dp F
 ‫א‬ E dp = 20.4 0 C F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W٣

 KE wb F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ RH = 60%  23°C( db ) ‫א‬

 W‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 23 °C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K RH = 60% ‫א‬‫א‬

wb = 18 °C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٩٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W٤
‫א‬E ω F‫א‬‫א‬K v = 0.89 m

3

kg

 35 °C( db ) ‫א‬ 
 KE h F

 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 35 °C  K v = 0.89 m

3

kg



K  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ K ‫א‬0.0130.012‫א‬

 v = 0.89 m

3

kg

 35 °C( db ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2O ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0.012‫א‬‫א‬
 ω = 0.0122 kgH
kgair


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WF
E‫א‬‫א‬2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K h = 67kJ / kg ‫א‬‫א‬

-٩٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K RH = 50 %  22 °C( db ) ‫א‬
 K dp  h ، v ، ω ، wb

 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 22 °C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K RH = 50% ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 db

 wb

 RH

 ω

 v

 %

0

C

22

0

C

15.6

50

kgH 2O
kgair

0.0084

m3

kg
0.847

‫א‬

‫א‬

 h

 dp

kJ / kg
43.5

0

C

11.4

WE١–٢F

-٩٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

Psychrometric Processes‫א‬‫א‬
 Sensible Heating or Cooling ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E F‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ω
B

A

‫א‬‫א‬

B



A

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

db

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣–٢F

A

+


ω

B

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٤–٢F

-٩٥-

B

db

‫א‬
‫א‬

A




 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ←

 h
 ↓

 v
 ↓

 ω
 ←

 RH
 ↑

 wb
 ↓

 db
 ↓

 ←

 ↑

 ↑

 ←

 ↓

 ↑

 ↑

dp

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢–٢F

  = ↓ = ↑،‫א‬ = ←W
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Q = m& ( h2 − h1 )

Q = m& c p ∆T



 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

  m& = E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ = F‫א‬‫א‬

c p = 1.006 kJ / kgK 

 E cpa

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

= 1.0 kJ / kgK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

 ∆T = {K } ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1.5 m 3 / s ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K 20°C ‫א‬ 21°C( db ), 15°C( wb )

 85°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

( cp

water

= 4.18 kJ / kgK ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 75°C

 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

h A = 41.5kJ / kg  h B = 61.5kJ / kg 

v A = 0.844m 3 / kg

-٩٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

  m& a =

V&
1 .5
=
= 1.78kg / s  (m& a ) ‫א‬‫א‬
v A 0.844

ω

+

A

B

B

A



∆T = 20°C

21oC

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

15 oC

db

 WE١٥–٢F
 

 (Qcc ) ‫א‬‫א‬

 Qcc = m& (h B − h A ) = 1.78(61.5 − 41.5) = 35.6kW 
 Qcc = m& a c p ∆T 

= 1.78 × 1.0 × 20 = 35.6 kw 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ (m& w ) ‫א‬

(35.6 kW)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 m& w c p

water∆

 m& w =
 m& w =

cp

∆Tw = 35.6 
35.6
× ∆Tw



water ×

35.6
= 0.85kg / s 
4.18 × 10

-٩٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Evaporative Cooling ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬

(adiabatic processF‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫ـ‬

ω

B

A

B
A





‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

C

db

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦–٢F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬

 dp
 ↑

 h
 ←

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 v
 ↓

 ω
 ↑

RH

 ↑

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 wb
 ↓

 db
 ↓


‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣–٢F

،C‫א‬A‫א‬100%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
saturation efficiency (η s ) ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬KB‫א‬‫א‬

-٩٨-

K90%80%‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


=

w A − wB
w A − wC

ηs =

T A − TB
T A − TC


 W٧
3

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬310C(wb)450C(db)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 15 m 
s

 W‫א‬،90%‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ -

ηs =

wB − w A
wC − w A



 wA= 0.0226 kg ‫א‬
kg

WC=0.028

kg
kg



wB 

wB − 0.0226

0.0289 − 0.0226
kg
= 0.02827
kg

0 .9 =

B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


T A − TB

T A − TC
45 − TB

0.90 =
45 − 32.5

ηs =

0

 TB=33.75 C



B

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٩٩-

Steam injection‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

ω
A

B

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

B

A

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Steam supply

db




 ‫א‬WE١٧–٢F

  ،،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE١٧٢‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

 W٨

 150kg  1kg  RH = 50%  210 C (db) ‫א‬ 100 0 C 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



kg
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
kg
1
kg
∆w =
= 0.0067
‫א‬‫א‬
150
kg
w1 = 0.0079

w2 = w1 + ∆w ‫א‬‫א‬

= 0.0079 + 0.0067 = 0.0146

kg
kg



،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qair = ma c p ∆Ta ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٠٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

= 1.006(t − 21) 


= 0.0067 × 1.972(100 − t ) 

Qv = mv c pv ∆t v ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

0.2°C ‫א‬ t = 22.2°C  Q v  Q air 

 Cooling &dehumidification ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬
ω
A

B




B

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

A
ADP

db

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨–٢F

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬KC‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬– ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬(ADP)‫א‬‫א‬،C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 AC ‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٠١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬(contact factor)‫א‬AC‫א‬AB‫א‬،‫א‬

η ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

η=

AB

AC

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬16

η=

T A − TB
T A − TC


 W٩

0

C
 ‫א‬32 0C(db), 22 0C(wb)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K5 0C‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬ 1kg ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬

22

ω

2

5

16




‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١٩–٢F

‫א‬
 ‫א‬

1

ADP

32

db

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(1)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

db1= 32 0C, wb1=22 0C , RH1=40%, w1 =0.0123 kg/kg ,
,v1=0.882 m3/kg
dp1=17.2 0C
h1=63.7 hJ/kg

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(2)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 J Db2= 16 0C, wb2=13.2 0C , RH2=73%, w2 =0.0083 kg/kg ,
h2=37 hJ/kg
,v2=0.83 m3/kg
dp2=11.2 0C

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٠٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

T1 − T2
32 − 16
=
T1 − T ADP
32 − 5
16
η=
= 0.59(59%)
27

η=


(m& w ) ‫א‬

m& w = m& a ( w1 − w 2 )

m& w = 1(0.0123 − 0.0083) × 3600
 =14.4 kg/hr =14.4 L/hr/kg

-

(Qcc)‫א‬

-

Qcc = m& a (h1 − h2 ) 
= (63.7-37) = 26.7 kW /kg

 Adiabatic Mixing ‫א‬‫א‬
 

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (AHU)K‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(

 K‫א‬

m2)(m1)‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬

(3)‫א‬‫א‬(m3)‫א‬

-١٠٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

ω
1

m1

1

3

‫א‬‫א‬

m3

m2

2

3
2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

db

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٠–٢F
W‫א‬

-

m1 + m2 = m3 

 m1 w1

‫א‬
+ m2 w2 = m3 w3 

W‫א‬

m1 h1 + m2 h2 = m3 h3 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

m1 w3 − w2
=
m2
w1 − w3


m1 h3 − h2
=
m2 h1 − h3




،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (1) – (2) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(3)‫א‬

K(m2)(m1)‫א‬‫א‬

 W(3)‫א‬

T3 =

m1T1 + m2T2
m1 + m2
-١٠٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


m1h1 + m2 h2
m1 + m2
m w + m2 w2
w3 = 1 1
m1 + m2
h3 =

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

 K‫א‬

 W١٠

 ‫א‬
  ‫א‬ 60 °C (db),32 °C ( wb)  ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬2

kg،3 kg‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 5°C (db) ,0.5 °C ( wb)

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 32°C ( wb)  60 °C (db) _(1)‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 0.5°C ( wb)  5°C (db) _(2)‫א‬

(3)

‫א‬3:2(2)(1)‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 T3 (db) = 38.5°C  w3 = 0.0118 kg kg  h3 = 69 kJ kg

 ‫א‬(3)‫א‬W

T3 =

 ‫א‬ T3 =

m1T1 + m2T2
m1 + m2

3 × 60 + 2 × 5
= 38°C 
3+ 2

 W١١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2m 3 s −1  − 1°C (db),100% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1m 3 s −1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 22°C ,50% RH 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬_
  − 1°C (db),100% RH _(1)‫א‬
 v1 = 0.774 m 3 kg 

  22°C ,50% RH _(2)‫א‬
 v2 = 0.847 m 3 kg 
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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

1
= 1.291kg s  (m& 1 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
0.774
2
m& 2 =
= 2.361 kg s  ( m& 2 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
0.847
m& 3 = m& 1 + m& 2 = 1.291 + 2.361 = 3.652 kg s E m& 3 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 m& 1 =

 W(3)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(3) ‫א‬ T3 =

m& 1T1 + m& 2T2 1.291× (−1) + 2.361× 22
=
= 13.87°C
m& 1 + m& 2
3.652

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ( RH ) 3 = 65%  w3 = 0.0066 kg kg 
 h3 = 30.5 kJ kg  v3 = 0.822 m 3 kg 
 Supply Air Conditions‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFE‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬room total cooling load (RTCL)‫א‬‫א‬
 Sensible heat(Qs) ‫א‬١

‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qs = m& a × c p × ∆T 

 W

m& a = {kg / s} ‫א‬‫א‬

c p = {kJ / kgK } ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

∆T = {°C} ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Latent heat(Ql) ‫א‬٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Ql = m& a × h fg × ∆w = m& a × ∆h 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W

h fg = {kJ / kg} ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

∆w = {kg / kg} ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

∆h = {kJ / kg} ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W١٢
‫א‬‫א‬K Ql = 6.4kW  Qs = 16kW 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qs = m& a × c p × ∆t ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


Qs
16
TR − TS =
=
= 10.6°C ∴
m& a × c p 1.5 × 1.006

TR − TS = 10.6°C 

TS = 25 − 10.6 = 14.4°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Ql = m& a × h fg × ∆w W‫א‬
 ∆ω = w R − w S =
  h fg

Ql

m& a × h fg

= 2500 kJ kg ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ∆ω = w R − w S =

Ql
6.4
=
= 0.0017 kg kg
m& a × h fg 1.5 × 2500

 W‫א‬‫א‬ w R = 0.012 kg kg 
  ωS = ωR − ∆ω = 0.0102 − 0.0017 = 0.0085 kg kg 
(S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 1.5kg / s  25°C (db),50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٠٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


(S)‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

( db) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(m& )

S1
S2
S3

1.5

S4

 kg kg

 °C

kg s

(ω ) ‫א‬‫א‬

14.4

0.0085

2.5

18.6

0.0092

3.0

19.7

0.0093

3.5

20.5

0.0095

 WE٤–٢F

ω

S4

 ‫א‬‫א‬

S3

S1

R

S2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

db

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١–٢F

 S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 , R ‫א‬ (S)‫א‬‫א‬
 Sensible heat factor (SHF) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Room Sensible Heat Ratio line (RSHR)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Sensible heat factor (SHF)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Wsensible heat factor (SHF)‫א‬

-١٠٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 SHF =

Qs
Qs
=
Qt Qs + Ql

KS‫א‬‫א‬ER‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬(SHF)‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W١٣
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K 8KW 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 9°c ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R @ 24°C (db),50% RH –R‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 Ql = 2kW  Qs = 8kW J 

 Qt = Qs + Ql = 8 + 2 = 10kW 
 SHF =

Qs 8
=
= 0.80 ∴
Qt 10

‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬R‫א‬‫א‬S‫א‬ 9°C J 

15°C (db) R 9°C R‫א‬‫א‬

 KSHF=0.80‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬ -

R‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،SHF‫א‬‫ א‬S 15°C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬

 (15°C (db),13°C ) KS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ Basic Air Conditioning Cycle ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬L ‫א‬،‫א‬ K
 ‫א‬
-١٠٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

open air conditioning ‫א‬K‫א‬KKK‫א‬‫א‬

 KEcycle)

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 

R

S
R

O

M

 

J

 WE٢٢–٢F


ω

M
ADP

S

R

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

O

db

‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴ ﺔ ﺗﻜﻴﻴ ﻒ ه ﻮاء ﻧﻤﻮذﺟﻴ ﺔ‬

 WE٢٣–٢F
-١١٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬R‫א‬M‫א‬
75%‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬M‫א‬KO
M E
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬25%E  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 KR‫א‬‫א‬25%

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬M

M‫א‬ 36°C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬ 24°C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬(db)
mO TO + m R TR
mO + m R
0.25 × 36 + 0.75 × 24
TM =
= 27°C (db)
0.25 + 0.75

 W

TM =

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬η = 100%   ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬FADP‫א‬‫א‬
(SHF)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 S‫א‬K
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K(ADP)M‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

-١١١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 
 21%78%‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬1 kg‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(db)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

(wb)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

(RH)‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

E ω )‫א‬‫א‬
(v )

‫א‬‫ƒ א‬

( h)

ƒ

‫א‬ ƒ

Dew point‫א‬

ƒ

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬

-١١٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫♦ א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(SHF)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ♦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

-١١٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 db

 wb

 ω

 v

 RH
 %

0

C

22

0

C

16

 20

kgH 2O
kgair

m 3 / kg

‫א‬

‫א‬

 h

 dp

kJ / k

0.010

0

C

45
11

21

0.0134
0.0084

20
80

15

30

0.88
50

90
50

0.86
0.015

25


‫א‬‫א‬K 10 °C  ‫א‬ 30°C (db), w = 0.0102kg / kg ‫א‬J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  = (↓) ، = (↑) ، = (←) W‫א‬

 ‫א‬

db

wb

RH

w

v

h

dp


 15°C (db)   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 16kg / s EF‫א‬J ٣
‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬K15°C ‫א‬ 0.005kg

200kg / hr

H 2O / kg

EF
 ‫א‬٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

20°C (db),50% RH

 45 °C( db ) , 30 °C ( wb ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1.5 m 3 / s J ٥



 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEF‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J ٢



-١١٤-

 ‫א‬١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 30 ° C ( db

), w = 0 . 0102 kg / kg

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ 1.5m 3 / s J ٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 5 °C   ‫א‬‫א‬K 10 °C ( db ) ‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 30°C (db), 24°C ( wb) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬L٣F 720 m 3 / min J ٧

 K15°C (db),90% RH  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KL/ hr‫א‬‫א‬

 37°C (db)  12°C (db),20% RH ‫א‬J ٨
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K RH = 90%

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ 38°C (db)  45°C (db),25°C (wb) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 0.5m 3 / s J ٩

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ، 90% 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 0.2kg / s  35°C (db),30°C (wb) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2kg / s  ١٠
 KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬. 10 °C , 100 RH 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

15kg / s

 40°C (db),25°C (wb) ‫א‬‫א‬

10kg / s

J ١١

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 20°C (db),50% RH

 K‫א‬III‫א‬‫א‬II‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬I
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 4°C (db),50% RH 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬. 24°C (db),50% RH  ١٢

40 %‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K60 %E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 0.8kg / s EAHUF ‫א‬–١٣
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 24°C (db), 50% ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2.4kg / s  40°C (db), 28°C ( wb)
-١١٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬K ADP = 8°C ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬η = 80% ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.5kg / s ،‫א‬١٤
K 20°C (db), 50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 4.5kg / s  − 4°C (db), 80% RH F
‫א‬‫א‬K19°C (db)  35°C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

K 20°C (db), 100% RH  32°C (db), 28°C ( wb) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.0m 3 / s  ١٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(R)‫א‬‫א‬(S)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٦
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ∆T = 9 K

 SHF = 80% ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬i

 5°C (db), 50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ii

1.5

kW

‫א‬‫א‬14

kW‫א‬ 21°C (db), 50% RH J

١٧

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K12°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K6 kW‫א‬‫א‬54 kW‫א‬‫א‬J ١٨
K10°C  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬. 25°C (db), 50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬
 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

-١١٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

2850 L/s 32°C (db),23°C ( wb) ‫א‬540 L/s،‫א‬١٩
‫א‬K90 % RH‫א‬‫א‬. 24°C (db),50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬
 WK70 %‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ii‫א‬‫א‬I

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ivK‫א‬iii

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬J ٢٠
 W‫א‬‫א‬K 5kg / s ‫א‬‫א‬0.70

 24°C (db), 50% RH

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 40°C (db),10% RH

‫א‬‫א‬

0.008 kg / kg ( dry air )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

. 60% RH

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1/3

‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬E

 ‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬J ٢١
 W‫א‬‫א‬ 5kg / s ‫א‬‫א‬0.90‫א‬

  24°C (db),50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  4°C (db),0°C ( wb) ‫א‬‫א‬
  34°C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1 : 3E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 950 L/s 
  ٢٢
‫א‬‫א‬K 27°C (db),45% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 35°C (db),25°C ( wb) ‫א‬

 WK90 %‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬0.8‫א‬
 ‫א‬ii ‫א‬I
 KL/hr ‫א‬iii

‫א‬‫א‬. 24°C (db),50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬5.5

kW‫א‬٢٣

K1/3‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 35°C (db),27°C ( wb)  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬10°C   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W‫א‬K15°C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬I

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ii
 K‫א‬iv

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬iii

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

THERMAL LOADS
 Human Thermal Comfort‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
KPerspiration slows downK
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W Fanger ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬

 Q& = ±Q& skin ± Q& respiration 
 = (±Q& C ± Q& R ± Q& E ) skin + (Q& C ± Q& E ) respiration 
‫א‬ (Q& skin ) ‫א‬‫א‬(-) (+)‫א‬
‫א‬  (Q& E ) ‫א‬ (Q& R ) ‫א‬ (Q& C ) ‫א‬ (Q& respiration )


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
metabolic heat

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 generation

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WK‫א‬‫א‬

(dry bulb temperature)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

(mean radiant temperature)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١١٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

(relative humidity)‫א‬

(air velocity)‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

(clothes insulation)‫א‬‫א‬

(level of activity)‫א‬

 (db) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 30 − 36′′ ‫א‬E‫א‬F
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Effective Temperature‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E100% F
 K15-25 fpm‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬68 0F(20 0C)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

%

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 °F
78
76
75
74
73
72
71
70

 °C
 25.6
24.4
23.9
23.3
22.8
 22.2
21.7
 21.1

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥–٢F

-١٢٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬71 0F (22 0C) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
%
25
30
40
50
60
70

 ‫א‬‫א‬
0

F
80
79
78
77
75
74

0

C
26.7
26.1
25.6
25.0
23.9
23.3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦–٢F
E F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬comfort zone‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

t

60

%

RH

%
30

[ 21.2°C]

RH

Humidity Ratio

we

re
rtu
e
p
em
t
lb
bu

[ 26.7°C]

dry bulb temperature

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٤–٢F
-١٢١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ 30 ft / min (ASHRAE)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬ 30 ft / min 
 WMean

radiant temperature‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 (relative humidity)‫א‬
 EF‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(clothes

insulation)‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،EF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
 (level of activity)‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬115 W‫א‬87 W
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K 440 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬K1000 ppm
 ‫א‬،‫א‬

(Indoor Air Quality, IAQ)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٢٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Thermal Load Calculation‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
  K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 W External loads 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

i

Wall loads‫א‬‫א‬

Solar gains OR Sun Loads‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-ii
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬Infiltration

Load‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-iii

 KVentilation Load.‫א‬

 WInternal Loads ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬ -

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ و‬Sensible

Loads (Qs )

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٢٣-

Latent Loads

(Ql ) 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Qw ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
K Qrad ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 Qi ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

  Qv ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 Qm ‫א‬J
W‫א‬ QT ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
QT = Qrad + Qi ± Qw ± Qv ± Qm

 E F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ QT

> 0 

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ QT

< 0 

 Design Conditions ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬97.5%‫א‬

 W Outdoor Design Conditions‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 dry-bulb temperature (db) 43°C
wet-bulb temperature (wb) 26°C

a
b-

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

-١٢٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

dry-bulb temperature ( db) 3°C
0°C bwet-bulb temperature ( wb)

a-


hr
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Jan.
db
wb
15.38 12.44
14.44 12.06
13.72 11.83
13.17 11.61
13.00 11.50
13.33 11.67
14.22 12.00
15.83 12.67
18.17 13.50
20.83 14.50
23.83 15.56
26.67 16.56
28.83 17.28
30.22 17.72
30.78 17.89
30.22 17.72
29.00 17.33
27.06 16.67
24.72 15.89
22.44 15.11
20.44 14.39
18.67 13.72
17.28 13.22
16.22 12.78

Feb.
db
wb
17.00 14.22
16.11 13.89
15.39 13.61
14.83 13.39
14.67 13.33
15.00 13.44
15.89 13.78
17.50 14.39
19.83 15.22
22.50 16.17
25.50 17.17
28.33 18.06
30.50 18.72
31.89 19.17
32.44 19.33
31.89 19.17
30.76 18.78
28.72 18.17
26.39 17.44
24.11 16.67
22.11 16.00
20.33 15.39
18.94 14.94
17.89 14.50

Mar.
db
wb
20.33 17.28
19.44 17.00
18.72 16.72
18.17 16.56
18.00 16.50
18.33 16.61
19.22 16.89
20.83 17.44
23.17 18.17
25.83 19.00
28.83 19.49
31.67 20.72
33.83 21.33
35.22 21.72
35.78 21.89
35.22 21.72
34.00 21.39
32.06 20.83
29.72 20.22
27.44 19.50
25.44 18.89
23.67 18.33
22.28 17.89
21.22 17.56

Apr.
db
wb
22.89 18.61
22.00 18.33
21.28 18.11
20.72 17.89
20.56 17.89
20.89 17.94
21.78 18.28
23.39 18.78
25.72 19.44
28.39 20.28
31.39 21.11
34.22 21.89
36.39 22.50
37.78 22.83
38.33 23.00
37.78 22.83
36.11 22.56
34.61 22.00
32.28 21.39
30.00 20.72
28.00 20.17
26.22 19.61
24.83 19.22
23.78 18.89

May
db
wb
25.67 20.56
24.78 20.06
24.06 19.83
23.50 19.67
23.33 19.61
23.67 19.72
24.56 20.00
26.17 20.44
28.50 21.11
31.17 21.89
34.17 22.67
37.00 23.39
39.17 23.94
40.56 24.33
41.11 24.44
40.56 24.33
38.89 24.00
37.39 23.50
35.06 22.89
32.78 22.28
30.78 21.78
29.00 21.28
27.61 20.89
26.56 20.56

Jun.
db
wb
27.33 21.61
26.44 21.38
25.72 21.17
25.17 21.00
25.00 20.94
25.33 21.06
26.22 21.28
27.83 21.78
30.17 22.39
32.83 23.11
35.83 23.83
38.67 24.56
40.83 25.11
42.22 25.44
42.78 25.56
42.22 25.44
41.00 25.17
39.06 24.67
36.72 24.11
34.44 23.50
32.44 23.00
30.67 22.50
29.28 22.17
28.22 21.83

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧–٢F
RIYADH COOLING DESIGN TEMPERATURE PROFILE

-١٢٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


hr
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

July
db
27.09
27.00
26.28
25.72
25.56
25.89
26.78
28.39
30.72
33.39
36.39
39.22
41.39
42.78
43.33
42.78
41.56
39.61
37.28
35.00
33.00
31.22
29.83
28.78

wb
21.61
21.39
21.17
21.00
20.94
21.05
21.28
21.78
22.79
23.11
23.89
24.56
25.11
25.44
25.56
25.44
25.17
24.67
24.11
23.50
23.00
22.56
22.17
21.83

August
db
wb
27.89 21.61
27.00 21.39
26.28 21.17
25.72 21.00
25.56 20.44
25.89 21.05
26.78 21.28
28.39 21.78
30.72 22.39
33.39 23.11
36.39 23.89
39.22 24.56
41.39 25.11
42.78 25.44
43.33 25.66
42.78 25.44
41.56 25.17
39.61 24.67
37.28 24.11
35.00 23.50
33.00 23.00
31.22 22.56
29.83 22.17
28.78 21.83

Sept.
db
wb
26.44 20.56
25.56 20.33
24.83 20.11
24.28 19.94
24.11 19.89
24.44 20.00
25.33 20.24
26.94 20.72
29.28 21.39
31.94 22.11
34.94 22.89
37.78 23.67
39.94 24.17
41.33 24.56
41.89 24.67
41.33 24.56
40.11 24.22
38.17 23.72
35.83 23.17
33.56 22.56
31.56 22.00
29.78 21.50
28.39 21.11
27.33 20.83

Oct.
db
24.00
23.11
22.39
21.83
21.67
22.00
22.89
24.50
26.83
29.05
32.50
35.33
37.50
38.89
39.44
38.89
39.67
35.72
33.39
31.11
29.11
27.33
25.94
24.89

wb
19.00
18.72
18.50
18.33
18.28
18.39
18.67
19.17
19.83
20.61
21.50
22.22
22.83
23.22
23.33
23.22
22.89
22.33
21.72
21.11
20.50
20.00
19.61
19.28

Nov.
db
wb
19.78 16.89
18.89 16.56
18.17 16.33
17.61 16.17
17.44 16.11
17.78 16.22
18.67 16.50
20.28 17.06
22.61 17.78
25.28 18.67
28.27 19.56
31.11 20.39
33.28 21.00
34.67 21.39
35.22 21.56
34.67 21.39
33.44 21.06
31.50 20.50
29.17 19.83
26.89 19.17
24.89 18.50
23.11 17.94
21.72 17.50
20.67 17.17

Dec.
db
wb
16.44 13.78
15.56 13.44
14.83 13.17
14.82 13.00
14.11 12.94
14.44 13.06
15.33 13.38
16.94 14.00
19.28 14.83
21.94 15.78
24.94 16.78
27.78 17.72
29.94 18.39
31.33 18.83
31.89 19.00
31.33 18.83
30.11 18.44
28.17 17.83
25.83 17.11
23.56 16.33
21.56 15.61
19.78 15.00
18.39 14.50
17.33 14.11

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨–٢F
RIYADH COOLING DESIGN TEMPERATURE PROFILE

:Indoor

Design Conditions‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  

a : 23.5°C → 25.5°C

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬J

b : 40 RH → 60 RH

 

a : 21.5°C → 23.5°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

b : 20 RH → 30 RH

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬٧ ٢،٦ ٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٢٦-

(Comfort Zones) ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

Cooling Load Calculations ‫א‬
 WInitial Design Consideration‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬

 Building Characteristics ‫א‬
E F‫א‬‫א‬

building configuration‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Escheduling‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Space Heat Gains & Space Cooling Load‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(time interval)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 Space Cooling Load ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 (Qw ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(air-air

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬(steady

state)

‫א‬(unsteady state)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،temperature)
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(thermal  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 mass)
(decrement factor, f)‫א‬(time lag ,Φ)
 ‫א‬‫א‬

-١٢٧-

K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬(air-to-air temperature)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(

Qw = ΣU × A × To − Ti

)

 

Ti = {°C} ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

To = {°C} ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  A = {m 2 } ‫א‬KKK‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  U = {W

m 2 K } ‫א‬KKKK‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ (U )  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ (ho ) ‫א‬‫א‬ (hi )  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬E٨٢F‫א‬
h{W / m 2 K }

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

10

 

 ‫א‬

6

 

 ‫א‬

8

 E‫א‬F

 ‫א‬‫א‬

34

 ‫א‬

6.7 m/s‫א‬

23

 ‫א‬

3.4 m/s‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩–٢F

 ‫א‬‫א‬ (U ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

x
1
1 1
=
+ +∑
U ho hi
k

 W

x = {m} ‫א‬

  k = {W / mK} ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 {W / mK } ‫א‬k‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E٩ ٢F‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٢٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

k = {W / mK }
0.72

(common brick)

1.30

(Face brick)‫א‬

1.72

(Concrete)

1.10

(Tiles)

1.80

(Stone)

0.72

(Cement plaster)

0.80

(Gypsum plaster)

0.16

(Hard wood)

0.12

(Soft wood)

1.72

(Sand)

0.036

(Cork)

0.036

(Glass wool)

0.040

(Polystyrene)

0.023

(Polyurethane)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠–٢F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 (insulants)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

-١٢٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W١
‫א‬‫א‬ U ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ h0 = 20 W / m2 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K hi = 10 W / m2 K
(5 mm)

(400 mm)

(50 mm)

(5 mm)

‫ﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﺠﺒﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻁﻭﺏ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬

‫ﺼﻭﻑ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﺠﺒﺴﻴﺔ‬


 WE٢٥–٢F

x x1 x 2 x3 x 4
=
+
+
+
W‫א‬
k k1 k 2 k 3 k 4
x2 = 400 mm = 0.400 m  x1

= x 4 = 5 mm = 0.005 m 

  x3 = 50mm = 0.050m 
  k1 = k4 = 0.80 W / mK E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
  k2 = 0.72 W / mK 

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

  k3 = 0.036 W / mK E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ∑ x = 0 . 005 + 0 . 400 + 0 . 050 + 0 . 005 = 1 . 957 
0 . 800

k

0 . 72


=

0 . 036
0 . 800
x
1
1 1
=
+ +∑
U ho hi
k



1
1
+ + 1.957 = 2.107 
20 10

∴U =

1
= 0.475 W / m 2 K
2.107



Sol-air Temperture‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٣٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 (Two ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Tw = To + (αI ) / h0 
o

 ∆Ts = Tw − To 
o

 W



(
) ‫א‬‫א‬
= [W / m K ]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

I = W / m2

ho

2

α = ‫א‬‫א‬

∆Ts = {K } ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ∆Ts = Tw − To = (αI ) / h0 
o

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ‬

T

W
O

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻁﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ‬

T
O

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬

T
WR

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‬
T
R

‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻘﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٦–٢F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K (TW

O

f TO ) TO ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ TW
O

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

Qsun = Σ(UA∆Ts ) 
-١٣١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W

A = {m 2 } ‫א‬‫א‬
U = {W m 2 K } ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
α

‫א‬

0.70 – 0.55



0.5 –0.4



0.5 –0.3



o.9 –0.8

‫א‬

0.65



0.9



 ‫א‬WE١١–٢F
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Qw = AU (Two − Ti ) 
 W

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (I ) ‫א‬‫א‬

-١٣٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬
‫א‬

 HOR.

 ‫א‬
 W

 ‫א‬
S

 ‫א‬
E

 ‫א‬
N

‫א‬

645.6

610.10

727.3

610.10

82.6

 

760.1

680.9

622.9

691.3

92.10

 ‫א‬

846.1

719.7

424.3

7222.7

104.0

 

881.8

708.1

258.5

708.4

114.7

 

884.3

679.7

158.3

685.10

131.1

 

875.1

655.4

139.0

664.2

166.1

 

868.2

660.4

100.1

662.0

131.1

 

860.9

682.9

249.4

674.3

119.8

824.4

698.6

448.9

823.7

107.8

 

749.3

663.6

609.1

646.3

95.8



646.3

587.9

720.7

592.7

83.9

 

596.5

756.6

756.6

570.9

77.6

 



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٢–٢F
(W m 2 ) ‫א‬

-١٣٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬
 HOR.
 W
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
111.0
339.2
532.8
672.1
747.1
752.5
687.6
557.0
370.4
145.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
24.3
55.5
77.6
92.7
103.4
2150.0
448.6
629.6
709.3
556.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

‫א‬
S

 ‫א‬
E

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
267.0
529.0
688.8
791.9
845.2
849.0
802.9
707.1
556.7
317.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
489.9
707.4
649.4
479.2
251.3
104.7
94.6
80.4
59.3
29.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

‫א‬
N
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
24.3
55.5
77.6
92.7
100.9
101.5
94.6
80.4
59.3
29.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

 ‫א‬
Hour
0000
0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

(W m 2 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣–٢F

-١٣٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬
 HOR.
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.9
199.6
431.6
636.9
809.2
928.4
989.9
988.9
926.2
805.5
635.2
426.2
193.6
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

 W

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
50.4
86.1
112.5
132.4
146.0
159.2
218.3
494.3
666.1
767.9
759.4
555.2
6.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

‫א‬
S
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
50.4
89.8
120.4
149.1
211.8
244.9
244.3
210.6
147.2
119.8
88.9
49.2
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

 ‫א‬
E
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
12.3
564.0
761.6
766.4
662.7
489.6
276.5
158.9
145.6
132.1
122.2
85.4
49.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

‫א‬
N
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.3
197.0
216.3
181.6
143.8
154.8
160.5
160.5
154.8
143.4
182.8
216.6
194.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

 ‫א‬
Hour
0000
0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

(W m 2 ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬WE١٤–٢F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE١٣ ٢‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KK‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ 

-١٣٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
.(air-air temperature)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W٢

 2m × 1.5m ‫א‬ 6 m × 4 m × 3 m 

 W (Qw ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1.5m × 1.2m ‫א‬

40°C (db),30°C ( wb) ‫א‬‫א‬J

 24°C (db),50% RH

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

27°C (db)

48°C (db)

‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 W (U ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2.4 W m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

2.0 W m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

0.6 W m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

5 .6 W m 2 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
∆T

A

U

W

°C

m2

W m2 K

1981.4

16

51.6

2.4

96.0

16

3.0

2.0

 ‫א‬

483.8

16

5.4

5.6

 ‫א‬

1382.4

24

24

2.4

 ‫א‬

43.2

03

24

0.6

 ‫א‬

3986.8

 ‫א‬

Qw

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٢WE١٥–٢F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qw = 3986.8 W = 3.987 kW


-١٣٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 (Qrad ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



‫א‬
‫א‬


‫א‬

‫א‬


‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬





‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫ א‬‫א א‬
‫א‬



‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬


 ‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٧–٢F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Qrad = A × I × (SC )
 W
Qrad = [kW ] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


(

I = W / m2

) ‫א‬‫א‬

SC = [None ] ‫א‬

-١٣٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬



W‫א‬

0.64

0.83



0.57

0.69



0.33

0.40

W‫א‬

0.57

0.88



0.34

0.40

 ‫א‬WE١٦–٢F
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

 KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٣٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬

 

 


‫ א‬ 
 

‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٨–٢F

 W (Qv ) ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(building

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(infiltration)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ quality)
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬20%K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٣٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

3600 ÷E‫א‬‫א‬×‫א‬FZ {m3 / s} ‫א‬WW‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
0.25‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K
 ‫א‬،‫א‬،

‫א‬K(

0.50K

Crack method)‫א‬ (V& )  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  (∆p) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(A)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

A=‫א‬‫א‬

V& = AC∆p n 

‫א‬‫א‬

C=

∆p =‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
n= 0.4 p n f 1.0 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E١٦ ٢FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

L/s/m

 ‫א‬

0.36

 EF

1.00

 EF

0.72

 

1.70

 K

1.44

 K

0.50

 ‫א‬–

‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧–٢F

 K‫א‬3.35 m/s‫א‬‫א‬W
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٤٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 



‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

(L/s)‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

565

85

13

330

165

45

(2.73m × 0.92m) 

236

35

5

(2.00m × 0.76m) 

330

64

9

(2.13m × 0.92m) 

660

85

38

(2.13m × 1.84m) 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٨–٢F

 ‫א‬3.35 m/s‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Qvs =

Qvs ‫א‬١

V&
c p (Ti − To ) 
v o air

 W

[

]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
= [m / kg ]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

V& = m 3 / s

vo

3

c p air = [1.006 kJ / kgK ] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ii

Qv =
l

(

)

(Q )J ٢
vl

V
ω − ω o × h fg
vo i

 ωo = [kg water / kg air ] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

 ωi = [kg water / kg air ] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٤١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

h fg = [2254 kJ / kg ] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Qv ) ‫א‬‫א‬
Qv = Qvs + Qvl =

V
∆h 
vo

∆h = [kJ / kg ] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

‫א‬(N)‫א‬L ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ (Qv ) ‫א‬‫א‬

 V

Qv =

N × V × ∆h
3600 × vo


 W

[ ]‫א‬‫א‬

= m3

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(ACH)‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

(ACH)‫א‬‫א‬١

 ‫א‬×‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

:(ACH)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨

-١٤٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

(ACH)‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

6-10

 –

3-4

 

4-6

 

4-6

 

5-10

 

6

 

6

 

20

––

(ACH)‫א‬‫א‬WE١٩–٢F

 ‫א‬٢

 ‫א‬×‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬E١٩٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٤٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

(L/s)‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬



5


5


2.5


3.5


12


12.0


14.0

‫א‬
7.5


7.5


3.5


2.5


‫א‬WE٢٠–٢F

9.5

7

7.5
7.0
3.5
5.0
14
14.0
24.0
12.5
10.0
6.0
5.0

،‫א‬‫א‬ 24°C (db), 50% RH  8 m × 6

 W٣

m × 3m  ‫א‬‫א‬

ACH=5،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

40°C ( db ),26°C ( wb ) ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 


hO

‫ﺣﻤﻞ س‬
‫ﺴﻮ‬
‫ﻣﺤ‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

hN

26

hR

O
R

N

24

40

 WE٢٩–٢F
-١٤٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


hR = 48.5 kJ / kg

hO = 75.0kJ / kg


V × ACH
V& =
3600

hN = 65.0kJ / g

v0 = 0.908 m3 / kg

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬∴

(8 × 6 × 3) × 5
V& =
3600

 V& = 0.2 m / s
= 0.22 kg / s ‫א‬‫א‬
3

m& =

V&
0.2
=
v0 0.908

 Qv = m& (hN − hR ) ‫א‬‫א‬
s

Qv s = 0.22 (65 − 48.5) = 3.63 kW

Qvl = 0.22 (75 − 65) = 2.2 kW 


 Qvl = m& (h0 − h N ) ‫א‬‫א‬

Qv = Qvs + Qvl

‫א‬

Qv = 3.63 + 2.2 = 5.83 kW


 

Qv = m& (ho − hR ) ‫א‬

Qv = 0.22 (75.0 − 48.5) = 5.83 kW

 (QL ) ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


Q L = N × P × F × (DF ) 

 W

N = ‫א‬

P = [W ] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F = (‫א‬F‫א‬
=1.25 -1.30 for florescent lamps
= 1.0 for bulb lamps

‫א‬

DF =

-١٤٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬25-

30%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(W / m 2 ) ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 60

 

45

 

40

 –‫א‬

20

 ––

17

 

15

 –

‫א‬WE٢١–٢F

-١٤٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W٤
20100 W 50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K40 W

 W‫א‬
 Qlight = ( N1 P1 ) bulb + (1.25 N 2 P2 ) flourescent 
  = 50 × 100 + 1.25 × 20 × 40 
  = 5000 + 1000 = 6000 W = 6 kW 
 W٥

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬K‫א‬ 50 m 2 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 K100 W‫א‬J

 K40 W‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 40 W / m 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

(I)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 I = 50 × 40 = 2000 W 
 W(N1)‫א‬‫א‬،100 W‫א‬‫א‬
 N1 =

2000
= 20 
100

2000W ‫א‬

(N2)‫א‬‫א‬، 40 W‫א‬‫א‬

 N2 =

2000
= 50 
40

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Qlight = (1.25 N 2 P2 ) flourescent 

= 1.25 × 50 × 40 = 2500 W 

-١٤٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Heat of Occupants ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (37 0 C )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬metabolic

rate‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 

‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 

97

31

66

117

45

72

J J 



132

59

73

J J 

 ‫א‬

 132

59

73

 

146

73

73

 

 

162

81

81

 

 

220

139

81

 

 ‫א‬

220

139

81

 

 

292

204

88

 

425

255

170

 

 ‫א‬

425

255

170

 

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

(w)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٢–٢F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Q p = n × q p × (D.F .)
s

s

-١٤٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Q p = n × q p × (D.F .)
L

L

 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 n =

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬( Diversity Factor ) ‫א‬
K DF.=

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  q ps =  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 q pL =   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦
100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(DF=1)‫א‬K‫א‬

 W‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

q = 229 W  q l = 139 W

Q p = 100 × 81 = 8100 W
s

 q

s

= 81 W

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Q pl = 100 × 139 = 13900 W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Q p = 100 × 220 = 22000 W = 22.0 kW ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Q p = Q p + Q p ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
s

l

 Q p = 8100 + 13900 = 22000 W = 22.0 kW

-١٤٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

0.85 – 0.70

0.90 – 0.70



0.50 – 0.30

0.60 - 0.40



1.00 – 0.90

0.80–0.90



0.90 – 0.80

0.85–o.95



‫א‬WE٢٣–٢F
 Heat of Equipment‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬ (QE ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

QE = ∑ (1 − η )E 

 W

E =‫א‬‫א‬

 η =‫א‬
0.5

 ٧

kW2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.70%

 W‫א‬

 QE = ∑ (1 − η )E 
 = 2 × (1 − 0.7) × 0.5 = 0.30 kW 

 (Qm ) ‫א‬ 
L ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬،

 K‫א‬،‫א‬

-١٥٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W٨
‫א‬ 26°C (db),50%RH  4.5m × 3.0m × 3.0m ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 43 °C ( db ), 26 °C ( wb ) ‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬ 1.6 W / m K 1.6 W / m K ،1.6 W / m K ،1.35 W / m K ، 6.42 W / m K ‫א‬‫א‬
2

2

2

2

2

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 8°C E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K3 m2‫א‬‫א‬4 m2‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K10 L/s‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 355 W / m2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K12°C

‫א‬72 W‫א‬ 360 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬45 W
4.5 m

3m

N

‫ﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬

‫ﺒﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬

 WE٣٠–٢F

 W‫א‬

Qw = 1438.86W = 1.439kW E٣٢٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qrad = A × I × (SC ) ‫א‬‫א‬


SC = 0.83 ‫א‬‫א‬

Qrad = A × I × (SC )

= 4 × 355 × 0.83 = 1178.6 W 

Qsun = (UA∆Ts ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬∴

 Qsun = Σ(UA∆Ts ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٥١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

= 1.35 × 6.5 × 12 = 105.3 W

=


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Qsol = 1178.6 + 105.3 = 1283.9 W = 1.284 kW 
 QL = N × P × F ‫א‬
 = 4 × 60 × 1.25 = 300W = 0.300kW 
 Q p = n × q p × (D.F .) ‫א‬‫א‬
s

s

= 3 × 72 × 1 = 216 W 

 Q p = n × q p × (D.F .) ‫א‬‫א‬
L

L

= 3 × 45 × 1 = 135 W 

= 216 + 135 = 351W = 0.351kW

 Q p = Q ps + Q pl ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

h0 = 81 kJ / kg  v o = 0.916 m3 / kg ‫א‬‫א‬

  h

i

= 58 kJ / kg ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  V& = 3 × 10 = 30 L / s = 0.030 m3 / s ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
&

  m& = V

vo

=

0.030
= 0.033 kg / s ‫א‬‫א‬
0.916

 Qv = m& (ho − hi ) ‫א‬

= 0.033(81 − 58) = 0.759 kW

= 1.439 + 1.284 + 0.300 + 0.351 + 0.759 = 4.133 kW

 Q R = Qw + Qsol


+ Ql + Q p + Qv  (Q R ) ‫א‬‫א‬

-١٥٢-



 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


Qw{W }

Qw = ∑ UA(To − Ti ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(To − Ti )

A(m 2 )

U {W / m 2 K }

109.35

9

9.0

1.35

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

109.35

9

9.0

1.35

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

149.175

17

6.5

1.35

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

164.025

9

13.5

1.35

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

436.56

17

4.0

6.42

 ‫א‬‫א‬

81.6

17

3.0

1.6

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

194.4

9

13.50

1.6

 ‫א‬

194.4

9

13.50

1.6

 ‫א‬

1438.86

 WE٢٤–٢F

-١٥٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 Heating Load Calculation ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬KK‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE ho F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

15 o C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬J
 (adiabatic conditions )
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(SHF)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

SHF =

Qs
QT

=

Qs
Qs + Ql


 W


Qs = {W } ‫א‬‫א‬

Ql = {W } ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
QT = {W } ‫א‬‫א‬
-١٥٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
W‫א‬ ƒ

W‫א‬ ƒ
W‫א‬ ƒ
‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ

 W٩

‫א‬K 24°C (db),50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬3 4.25m‫א‬24m‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 2m × 2.5m

 U = 0.7 W / m K ‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
2

U = 0.5 W / m 2 K ‫א‬

ƒ

U = 3.2 W / m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

U = 1.6 W / m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬

ƒ

 100‫א‬J
‫א‬45 W‫א‬72 W‫א‬‫א‬J

 

 5 L/s‫א‬J

10 W/m2‫א‬J

،‫א‬‫א‬، 10°C (db),6°C (db)   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٥٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

N

24

28

18

 WE٣١–٢F

 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

=

 Qw = ∑ UA(To − Ti ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٢٤٢‫א‬F (Qw ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


Qw = −10713.5 W = −10.714 kW 
QL = 10 × 28 × 18 ‫א‬


 Q p = n × q p × (D.F .) ‫א‬‫א‬
= 5040W = 5.040kW

s

s


× (D.F .) ‫א‬‫א‬

= 100 × 72 × 1 = 7200W = 7.200 kW

 Qp = n × q p
L

L

-١٥٦-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

= 100 × 45 × 1 = 4500 W = 4.500 kW


+ Q pl ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

= 7200 + 4500 = 11700 W = 11.700 kW

(To − Ti )

 Q p = Q ps

Qw {W }



A(m 2 )

U {W / m 2 K }

-749.7

-14

76.5

0.7

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-749.7

-14

76.5

0.7

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-957.95

-14

8.5

0.7

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-83.3

-14

102

0.7

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-4569.6

-14

102

3.2

-33.6

-14

15

1.6

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-3528

-14

504

0.5

 ‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-10713.5

٩WE٢٥–٢F
 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
%
50

hO

hN

RH

hR
R
6
O
10

N
24

 ٩WE٣٢–٢F

-١٥٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

hR = 48.5 kJ / kg  v o = 0.807 m3 / kg ‫א‬‫א‬

  hO = 20.5 kJ / kg  hN

= 34.5 kJ / kg ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 V& = 5 × 100 = 0500 L / s = 0.500m 3 / s ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

V& 0.500
=
= 0.62kg / s ‫א‬‫א‬
v o 0.807
= m& (hO − h N ) ‫א‬‫א‬

  m& =
  Qv s

  = 0.62(20.5 − 34.5) = −8.680kW 
  Qv l = m& (h N − h R ) ‫א‬‫א‬
  = 0.62(34.5 − 48.5) = −8.680 kW 
 Qv = m& (hO − hR ) 

= 0.62(20.5 − 48.5) = −17.36 kW

= −8.680 + −8.680 = −17.36 kW 

 Q v = Qv s


+ Qvl 

  (Q R T ) ‫א‬‫א‬
(kW)

(kW)

Q Rl

Q Rs

-10.714

(Qw ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

5.040

(Q L ) ‫א‬

4.500

7.200

(Q p ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-8.680

-8.680

(Qv ) ‫א‬

-4.180

-7.154

(Q R T ) ‫א‬‫א‬

٩WE٢٦–٢F

 Q RT = Q Rs + Q Rl ‫א‬‫א‬
= -7.154 -4.180=-11.334 kW

  SHF =

QRS
− 7.154
=
= 0.63 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
QRT
− 11.334

-١٥٨-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬J

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬L‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
double-glazing‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٥٩-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٢
 1m × 2m  U

= 0.57W / m 2 K ‫א‬ 4m × 3m –٣

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1.5m × 0.75m   U = 1.6W / m K 
 ‫א‬
2

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KU

= 3.2W / m 2 K ‫א‬

 K ∆T = 16 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬KACH=2‫א‬‫א‬ 8m × 6m × 3m –٤
 K‫א‬

‫א‬K 60 W / m 2 ‫א‬، 8m × 6m  J ٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬40 W
 

‫א‬3

m‫א‬8 m10 m ‫א‬٦

24 oC ‫א‬‫א‬K1.5 m2‫א‬3 m2

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K24 oC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

40 oC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

27 oC‫א‬‫א‬

7 oC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
3 oC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W( U )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

2.4 W/ m2 K‫א‬‫א‬

0.6W/ m2 K‫א‬

2.0W/ m2 K‫א‬

‫א‬

5.6W/ m2 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 300 W/m2‫א‬‫א‬

200 W/m2‫א‬‫א‬
-١٦٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
10
‫ﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬

‫ﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬

o

Room @ 24 C

N

8

o

Room @ 24 C

‫ﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬

‫ﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
 24°C (db),50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 35°C (db),26°C ( wb) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 30‫א‬J 

400 W‫א‬J

3 m‫א‬‫א‬J

W21.2m × 3m 

6‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.5m × 1.2m ‫א‬‫א‬1.5m × 3m

‫א‬‫א‬ 30°C (db)  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 24°C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

U = 1.6 W / m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

U = 2.5 W / m 2 K E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١٦١-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

U = 1.5 W / m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬

U = 3.2 W / m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬
U = 1.8 W / m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬



.‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ 10°C (db),6°C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬
12 m

‫ ﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬2

‫ ﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬4

18 m

‫ﺒﺎﺏ‬

N

‫ﺒﺎﺏ‬

-١٦٢-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬E×F‫א‬E3F
 EF20 %80 %‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬ 12 °C (db),10°C ( wb)  35°C (db), 30% RH ‫א‬E
 EF

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 12 °C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 12 °C ,10°C ‫א‬E
 EF 10°C ‫א‬

 EF‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬ (AHU)‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬40%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬60% K80%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬40 kW
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

25°C (db), 50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

10 °C (db), 6 °C ( wb) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

35 °C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬(i)

 ‫א‬ (ii)

 ‫א‬(iii)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٦٣-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 3 m × 2 m 
 2، 6 m × 5 m × 3 m 
‫א‬‫א‬10‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F1.5 m × 2 m ‫א‬
16‫א‬K132 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 25°C (db), 50% RH ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KACH=2‫א‬‫א‬K50 W
 K 26 °C (db) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K10 °C (db), 6 °C ( wb) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
1.6 W m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1.8 W m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

3.2 W m 2 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬

6





5

26 0C (db), 50% RH

250C (db) , 50% RH

N



-١٦٤-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬E×F‫א‬E3F

 E×F20 %80 %‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 E×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 E3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬ 12 °C (db),10°C ( wb)  35°C (db), 30% RH ‫א‬E

 E 3F

 KE×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 E3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

10°C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 12 °C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 12 °C ,10°C ‫א‬E

 E×F

 E3F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 E×F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 E3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
TM =

m& O TO + m& R TR
m& O + m& R

0.4 × 10 + 0.6 × 25
0 .4 + 0 .6
= 16 °C
=

16 °C M‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬RO‫א‬M‫א‬

 35 °C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FS‫א‬R‫א‬0.8SHF
 E‫א‬‫א‬

-١٦٥-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

R

N

S

M
O
10

25

16

35


   MN ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ NS ‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 :‫א‬‫א‬

hs = 58.5 kJ / kg

hN = 39.5 kJ / kg

w N = 0.0092 kg / kg

wM = 0.0065 kg / kg


m& =
=

(m& ) ‫א‬‫א‬

Qs
c p × ∆T

40
= 4 kg / s
1 × 10

Qhc = m& ∆h = m& (hS − hN )

(Qhc ) ‫א‬

= 4 × (58.5 − 39.5)
= 76 kW



-١٦٦-

(m& w ) ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

m& w = 3600m& ( wN − wM )

= 3600 × 4 × (0.0092 − 0.0065) 

= 38.88 L / hr

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

6





5

26 0C (db), 50% RH

250C (db) , 50% RH

N




-١٦٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qw = ∑ AU∆T


 Qw

 Qw

 W

 W

W‫א‬

∆T = To − Ti 

 ∆T
 °C

 U
W / m2 K

 A
 m2

 ‫א‬L‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

-360

-15

1.6

15

 ‫א‬

19.2

01

12

 ‫א‬

 1.6

-288

-15

12

 ‫א‬

 1.6

 -288

 -15

 1.6

12

 ‫א‬

-916.8


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 -288

 -15

 3.2

 6

 -288

 -15

 3.2

6

-576

-81

-1573.8


 -15


1.8

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

3

Qw = 1573.8W ≈ 1.574 kW

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Qp = N × q p

(Q p ) ‫א‬

= 10 × 132
= 1320 W

=1.320 kW

(QL ) ‫א‬

QL = N × F × P
= 16 × 1.25 × 50
= 1000 W = 1.000 kW


-١٦٨-

(Qv ) ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

V = 6× 5× 3
= 90 m 3

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

v0 = 0.806 m 3 / kg E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

hR = 50.5 kJ / kg

hO = 20 kJ / kg ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

m& =

(m& ) ‫א‬‫א‬

V
3600vO

90

3600 × 0.806
= 0.031 kg / s
=


Qv = m& (hO − hR )

 ‫א‬

= 0.031(20 − 50.5) 
= −0.9455 kW

 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

-١٦٩-

 ‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

-١٧١-

 ‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

-١٧٢-

 ‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

ω

S4

 ‫א‬‫א‬

S3

S1

R

S2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

db

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE21–2F

-١٧٣-

 ‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

-١٧٤-

 ‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

-١٧٥-

 ‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

-١٧٦-

 ‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

-١٧٧-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 REFERENCES
 ‫א‬

E
 J  ‫א‬‫א‬F١٩٨٧،  K

E J  ‫א‬‫א‬F١٩٨٧،K

E

‫א‬F١٩٨٣،K

E    ‫א‬F١٩٨٣،K

 ‫א‬،‫א‬J ‫א‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬J ‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬J ‫א‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬J ‫א‬

١٩٨٥،‫א‬‫א‬KK ،KK

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

 K‫א‬،‫א‬
V. Paul Lang,1987 "Principles of Air Conditioning", 4th
Edition , Delmar.
Roy J.Dossat,1997"Principles of Refrigeration",4th
Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey,
Columbus, Ohio
T.D. Eastop & A.McConkey, 1996 "Applied
Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologist" 5th
Edition, Longman.
Edward G. Pita, 1998 "Air Conditioning Principles And
Systems" 3rd. Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
Columbus, Ohio.
Edward G. Pita, 1981 "Air Conditioning Principles And
Systems: An Energy Approach" 3rd. Edition, John Willey
& Sons, Inc.
W. P Jones, 1997 "Air Conditioning Applications And
Design" 2nd Edition, John Willey & Sons, Inc. New
York-Toronto.
Whitman. Johnson & Tomczyk, 2000 "Refrigeration And
Air Conditioning Technology" 4th Edition, Delmar.
Althouse. Turnquist. Bracciano, 1996 "Modern
-١٧٨-


.١٠

.١١

.١٢
.١٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

Refrigeration And Air Conditioning" The GoodheartWillcox Company, Inc.
Faye & Parker, 1994 "Heating, Ventilating And Air
Conditioning" Analysis & Design. 4th Edition, , John
Willey & Sons, Inc.
Shan. K. Wang, 1994 "Handbook Of Air Conditioning
And Refrigeration" McGraw-Hill.
William C. Whitman, William M. Johnson,
1988"Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology ,
Concepts, Procedures and Troubleshooting Techniques",
Revised Edition, Delmar.

-١٧٩-

.١٤

.١٥
.١٦

 

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 


Mass flow rate

 ‫א‬

kg / s

m&

kg

m

 ‫א‬

Condensed water

kg / s

m& w

‫א‬L‫א‬

Air mass flow rateِ

kg / s

m& a

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Total pressure

Pa

p

 ‫א‬

Pressure difference

Pa

∆p

 ‫א‬

Air pressure

Pa

pa

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Vapor pressure

Pa

pv

 ‫א‬

Evaporator pressure

Pa

pe

 ‫א‬

Condenser pressure

Pa

pc

 ‫א‬

Universal gas constant

J Kmole − kg

R

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Specific Gas constant

J kgK

R

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Specific heat

J kgK

cp

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Compression work

W

Wc

 ‫א‬

Evaporator load

W

Qe

 ‫א‬

W

Qcc

 ‫א‬

W

Qhc

 ‫א‬

W

Qc

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W

Qs

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W

Ql

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J kg

RE

-

COP

 ‫א‬‫א‬

m3

Va

 ‫א‬‫א‬

m3

Vv

mass

Cooling coil capacity
Heating coil capacity
Condenser heat
transfer
Sensible heat load
latent heat load
Refrigeration effect
Coefficient of
performance
Air vlome
Vapor volume

-١٨٠-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

Air temperature

K

Ta

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Vapor temperature

K

Tv

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Dry bulb temperature

°C

Tdb

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Wet bulb temperture

°C

Twb

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Relative humidity

%

RH

 ‫א‬‫א‬

Specific humidity

kg kg

ω

 ‫א‬‫א‬

W

Qt

 ‫א‬‫א‬

TR

TR

 ‫א‬

W

Qc

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

W

Qr

 ‫א‬

W

Qp

 ‫א‬

W

Ql

 ‫א‬

W

Qv

 ‫א‬

W

Qe

 ‫א‬

W

Qm

 

-

SHF

W m2 K

U

Total load
Ton of Refrigeration
Wall gains
(conductive heat
gains)
Radiation load
Heat gains from
people
Heat gains from lghts
Ventilation load
Heat gains from
equipment
Miscellaneous loads
Specific heat factor
Overall heat transfer
coefficient

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Room or space
temperature

°C

TR

Internal temperature

°C

Ti

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Outside temperature
Supply air
temperature
Temperature
difference
Radiation intensity

°C

To

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

°C

TS

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

°C

∆T

 ‫א‬‫א‬

W m2

I
-١٨١-

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

-

α

 ‫א‬

W m2 K

hi

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W m2 K

ho

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

kJ kg

h

 ‫א‬

-

SC

 ‫א‬

W

Qvs

 ‫א‬‫א‬

W

Qvl

 ‫א‬‫א‬

m 3 kg

vo

kJ kg

h fg

m3

V

 ‫א‬

m 3 s −1

Q

 ‫א‬‫א‬

-

n, N

Lamps factor

-

F

 ‫א‬

Diversity factor

-

DF

 ‫א‬

efficiency

-

η

Saturation efficiency

-

ηs

 ‫א‬

Contact factor

-

η

 ‫א‬‫א‬

hr −1

ACH

J / kgK

S, s

Cooling load

W

CL

Dryness factor

-

x

 ‫א‬

Horsepower

hp

hp

 ‫א‬

Absorptivity factor
Internal heat transfer
coefficient
External heat transfer
coefficient
Enthalpy
Shading coefficient
Ventilation load sensible
Ventilation load latent
Specific volume@
outside conditions
Latent heat of
vaporization
volume
Discharge (volume
flow rate)
number

Air change per hour
Entropy

-١٨٢-

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
١
١

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

١٧

 

١٨

 

٢٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

٢١

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٦

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٨

 

٣٩

 ‫א‬

٤٠

 

٤٣

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

٤٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٦٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٦٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٦٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٦٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٦٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٧٠

 ‫א‬

٧١

 

٧٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٨١

 EF‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

٨١
٨٣
٩٥

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

  ١١١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

١٢٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

١٢٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٢٥

 ‫א‬

١٢٨

 ‫א‬

١٥٥

 ‫א‬

١٦٠

 ‫א‬

١٦١

 

١٧١

 ‫א‬

١٧٨

 ‫א‬‫א‬

١٨١

 












 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
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