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Theatre

Theatre

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A HISTORY OF THEATRE

PART I
Ancient Theatre - Roots Introduction
When the first human being dropped out of a tree or woke up in Eden, looked around and saw another human being, at that moment theatre was born. The urge to communicate to others, to share an experience and to stimulate a reaction in others, all these basic urges lie at the heart of theatre. Humans tried to bring order and gain empowerment over their lives and their environment in the face of a seemingly chaotic universe filled with awesome powers. By taking on the appearance of other beings and forces, by moving their movements and sounding their sounds, the human could understand another being by becoming one. This process of becoming another being gave them a sense of power and a belief that they understood the being they became. Gradually groups of people banded together into tribes. Tribes coalesced into peoples. Slowly, and with great difficulty, they came to understand agriculture and husbandry. They discovered the possibilities of shaping and manipulating wood, rock and metals. They come to know fire and how it could change mud into pottery and sand into glass. Finally, they discovered the secrets of a heat so great that lumps of metallic rock could be transformed into metals. With metal, heat, and a great deal of effort, all sorts of useful and beautiful things could be made, swords, ploughshares and statues. With this knowledge and these skills, peoples became nations and began to build cities and establish what we now call civilizations. As civilizations come into being it became necessary for the rulers and priests to communicate to their people. Kings need to share their dreams of conquest and desires for prosperity and order with their subjects. Priests need to stimulate their flocks to obedience and worship the awesome power of their gods. Theatre provides the obvious means to accomplish these goals. It is only with the rise of a small, aggressive, independent minded people, known as the Greeks, that theatre is taken out of the hands of priests and kings and given to the people. For the first time in human history, theatre is given a place of its own and a function to serve the whole society. Four great playwrights use that place and fill that function so well that their works continue to work their magic through succeeding civilizations down to the present day.

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The theatre might have been lost in the mists of time and distance were it not for one other passionate people, the Romans. After the decline in prosperity and influence of Greece, the Macedonion General Alexander plants theaters and Greek plays from India to Spain. The breakup of Alexander's empire leaves Rome to pick up the pieces. Rome carries Greek ideas and Greek theatre from Africa to England and from Spain to Germany. The Romans plant theatre so widely and so deeply in the territory they conquer, that it is able to survive the long Dark Ages of social disintegration and economic dissolution. In the Middle Ages, the theatre remerges under the protection of the Church, gradually moving out on its own. Finally, theatre will rise again in all its many forms with the rise of humanism. It will again escape the hands of kings and priests and belong to the people. CHAPTER ONE..................................Before the Ionians [sample chapter - ChapOne] CHAPTER TWO..................................The Greeks Theatre Is Born In Athens - Chapter Two CHAPTER THREE................................The Hellenistic World Through Alexander, Theatre Spreads Throughout The Known World - chap3 CHAPTER FOUR.................................The Romans From Greek Imitations Through Technical Innovation - chap4 CHAPTER FIVE.................................After The Fall The Dark Ages and Why They Aren't So Dark chap5 CHAPTER SIX..................................Into The Middle Ages chap6

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CHAPTER ONE
Before the Ionians
Introduction
When the first truly human trait appeared, the need and the urge to communicate something beyond pointing to an object, we learned to show and tell. Human communication grew on the development of symbols, something that conveys more meaning than just a sign. With a growing repertoire of symbols, visual and spoken, we moved down the path of being human.

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Long before the first appearance of the human activity we call theatre, there was the development of theatrical elements. These elements seem to be central to the human experience. The primary theatrical element is difficult to describe, but it involves the awareness of a power beyond the visible world and the invoking, embodying and manipulating of that power. For convenience we can call this element "magic." The other elements are easy to understand. Everyone, regardless of the society they grow up in, plays at being someone else, seeks out and wears costumes, loves masks and disguises, practices and does special gestures, movements and dance. Everyone enjoys activities that make use of these elements, especially when they are done with a group. As human history emerged from the mists of pre-recorded history and into recorded time we find any number of places where theatrical elements are coming together and becoming more sophisticated and organized. While there are undoubtedly many occasions when these come together among the common people, at their celebrations and festivals, written records deal only with those that involve rulers and priests. The most extensive records we know of at this time come to us from Egypt. While these ancient civilizations left extensive records, written and drawn in great detail, other Mediterranean societies were developing, flourishing and changing. These other societies left very little in the way of written records, but their characteristics, gods, heroes and myths came down to the Greeks who would develop the theatre we know. The Tap Root: Play PLAY IS MORE THAN " SHOW AND TELL" As a number of people have said, play is older than culture and whatever else theatre may be, it is certainly a play activity. Play brings order out of chaos. There is nothing ordinary or "real" about play. It is a voluntary and conscious stepping outside chaotic and uncertain real life into a very special world of order with rules all its own. Although play doesn't put food on the table or a roof over your head it does seem to be a human necessity. In some way play makes real life meaningful. Through play a society expresses and affirms its identity, values, ideals and ways of doing things because all play means something. In this way play contributes to the well-being of the society or the group. It establishes and reaffirms the identity of the society. In this way it is essential and more important to the group than food, shelter or survival. Play can only be understood as a totality with its own rules, its own time and space. Every kind of play has its own playing field and a definite beginning and end to the play activity. Inside the activity there is a very special and absolute order which creates a limited perfection. To be able to play, the players must play by the rules and this creates tension. In play the courage, tenacity, resources, and, above all, the player's sense of fairness are tested to the limits. After the game is over those who have been players are a community. This sense of community, based on the feelings of shared experience, being apart together in an exceptional situation, binds the group together. It makes the magic of the experience last long after the play activity is over. Permanent social groupings are dependent on such play activities to keep alive the specialness of the group and the meanings central to it.

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Playing isn't just "pretend" but an exciting, absorbing, rapturous and intense involvement in something meaningful and satisfying. Players believe in their play. That is the basic law of play. It requires unquestioning belief. In playing, the laws and customs of everyday life don't count. The players are different than they are in real life, and they do things differently. The differentness of the player is obvious in "dressing up," masks and disguises. A disguised or masked individual plays another part. They become another being. Often this being is more terrible or more beautiful, and more powerful, than any human could be. The player uses their imagination, makes an image and identifies with that image. Something invisible takes form. Playing involves actions. The meaning of the play can be found in the acting out of the intentions and interactions of the players within the rules of the game. The actions make a complete and meaningful pattern. When the pattern is complete, the activity is over. Magic A human being experiences the real world as a chaotic and confusing place. There are powerful forces at work every where. Sun, wind, storm, tides, volcanoes, earthquakes, all the forces of nature happen without visible cause. Plants, animals and human beings are born, grow and die, without visible cause. Edible plants, animals to hunt, appear and disappear with no discernible cause. In order to survive, humans had to learn about cause and effect where that was possible. They also had to come up with some way of dealing with all the forces which seemed to have no visible cause. One way of dealing with these mysterious forces was through play. Wherever these forces came from, they were not "here" in this real world, but, through play, they could be imagined, made into an image and brought into the play world. If you wanted a herd of antelope to come near enough to be hunted you could disguise yourself as an antelope, move like an antelope, become an antelope. By becoming an antelope the player could come to understand the forces that moved the antelope and work to bring that quarry near. In becoming another being, the player had to temporarily give up their own identity, their own personhood which existed outside the play, and permit themselves to be taken over. The player is "seized," by the force or the spirit of the being they had to become. Other players believe that the force has appeared among them. They witness the force acting upon themselves and upon other beings. They have witnessed power and they have made magic together. In this way the playing has served the group and the society. They will carry their knowledge and confidence into the real world and the real hunt. More Than Hunting Most of what we know about early societies is about hunting and gathering food. Not only do we have cave paintings and hunting tools from thousands of years ago, we also have a few societies in New Guinea, South America and Australia where we can see people who are still engaged in these activities. We can also see the play activities, the rites and rituals, which these societies perform in relation to acquiring food. There are other human concerns of these early people and their behavior in relation to these is more difficult to understand. Fertility of the plants, the animals and humans is one of the major concerns. We know that there are any number of rites and rituals relating to fertility. The number of studies done and books written on this subject fill whole libraries.

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We can visit the Hopi or Zuni Indians in Arizona and witness the Kachina dances, but our society is so different from theirs that we can understand very little of the real meaning in these performances. We cannot witness these, we can only see them. To truly be a witness requires that we also be a player, and that we know the rules and understand the real meaning of what we see and hear. Rites and rituals relating to human fertility are even farther from our understanding. Today we know too much about the technical details of cause and effect to understand the point of view of people thousands of years ago. We have found thousands of "fertility" statues and dolls which were made at different times and in different places all over the world. We know nothing of what they meant or how they related to the societies that produced them. It is generally agreed that they have some relation to what is generally called the "Mother" religion, but we know nothing of the rites and rituals which these numerous societies performed. Being human ourselves, we can imagine they were concerned with invoking forces and powers to ensure that the women of that society gave birth to many healthy babies and that the health and well being of all the members of the society was promoted and protected. Other rites and rituals dealt with the mystery of death. We find this much easier to understand because we still have our own rites and rituals concerning death. The Hero One of the interesting aspects of early rituals dealing with death leads down through thousands of years and into recorded history. It also directly affects the development of theatre. This aspect concerns the notion of what we have come to call the hero. There have been any number of books and articles written on the subject of the hero. This, alone, tells us the subject is regarded as important. There are, however, a few things that can be said as a starting point. A hero is defined by the society in which it occurs. The gender of a hero is determined by the characteristics the society wants to embody. It is only later that we begin to use the term "heroine" to identify a female hero and often "heroine" is used simply to identify the female with whom the hero is involved. Consequently, it will be less confusing if the term hero is understood to apply to a female, a male, a god or any other creature who embodies the characteristics which a particular society regards as important and central to their value system. The characteristics which define a hero come from two sources. First, the hero is the central figure in the action. As we noted earlier, the player who becomes the dominant force, or embodies the particular power which is central to the play action, is the key to understanding the meaning of the action. No doubt, in prehistory, the member of society who played this hero role was the high priest or shaman. Naturally the spiritual leader of a society was more likely to be in closer touch with the invisible world than someone else. Later, when society was more highly organized, the ruler (King, Pharaoh, whatever the title) would be the hero of those activities which concerned governing, ruling, and even military matters. The second source of the hero is related to the death rituals referred to above. When the individual who died was considered by the society to have been a particularly admirable person; someone who had lived a life that exemplified the best traits of the society; or, someone who had done deeds that greatly benefited the society; that person would be remembered as a hero. That individual would become the central character in play activities in

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which that person's deeds were reproduced. This would provide an understanding of why and how those deeds were important. Sometimes that person would be the central figure in activities that dealt with new challenges that faced the society. In these the character of the hero would provide insights into how society might deal with such challenges. Quite distinct from these two sources of the hero was the development of the comic hero. This figure appeared in other rituals concerning social manners, mores and common matters of the community. There were two kinds of comic hero. The most popular one was the "bad guy" who got his just deserts. This kind would embody the society's view of those characteristics which were unpopular and unacceptable behavior. These heroes would engage in actions rejected by the society and would meet with terrible and funny consequences. The other comic hero was the typical citizen who encountered the typical range of misfortune and disaster and made the typical mistakes in everything they did. This comic hero always managed to bounce back from every catastrophe and, usually by good luck rather than skill, come out on top at the end. We know almost nothing of the historical development of the comic heroes and their actions. When we reach historical times and recorded events, they appear fully developed in many cultures. We will meet they later under the name of farces in Ancient Greece and Etrusca. What is most relevant about heroes, comic and serious, is how they embody the primary concerns of the society in which they appear. When these concerns are shared by other societies in other times and places, these heroes will be used again. The TIMELINE for pre-history: ca. 9,000 BCE the earliest evidence of the city of Catal Huyuk ca. 6,250 to 5,000 BCE the city of Catal Huyuk flourishes 8,350 - 7,350 BCE the city of Jericho flourishes 7,000 BCE early copper 6,000 BCE first known pottery and woolen textiles 5,000 BCE to 4,000 BCE sophisticated copper work [traditional date of creation for Creationists falls in here] 4,000 BCE Bronze casting and first use of plough 3,500 BCE Megalith tombs in British Isles, Brittany, Iberian peninsula invention of wheel, plough and sail (Near East) 3100 BCE pictograph writing 3000 BCE development of major cities in Near East Historical Times The Rise of The Highly Organized Societies Cities And Dynastic Rulers

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The emergence of the first civilizations marks a new phase of world history. They arose almost simultaneously in four different areas of the world, apparently unconnected with each other. Two of these areas, the Indus valley on the Indian subcontinent and the Yellow River in China, are not directly relevant here since they had no known connection with, or influence on, the development of theatre in the west. The other two, in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valleys and the valley of the Nile, are relevant. These cradles of civilization and the many societies that grew up in and around them directly affected the rise of theatre and the society that gave it birth. The characteristic feature of these civilizations was the city. Interestingly enough, the earliest cities we know anything about (Jericho in Palestine and Catal Huyuk on the Anatolian plain of Turkey) are not located in either of these cradles of civilization. These two cities are relics of civilizations we know very little about and are useful here only as reference points in time which reveal human society in command of metal working, highly organized, with wide spread commerce and a social organization capable of building extensive cities. It is only after the development of writing that we are able to discover details about Egypt and the Middle East, as well as other societies that rose and fell throughout these centers and around the Mediterranean. The city became an increasingly dominant social form of organizing people. A city meant a complex division of labor, a literate priesthood to keep track of things, monumental public buildings, political and religious hierarchies, a divine kingship and some sort of an empire to supply the needs of the city. There are two important thing we know about these societies: first, none of them developed theatre; second, as time passed all of them developed the full range of theatrical elements needed for the birth of theatre. Knowing something about the societies in which theatre does not develop enables us to better understand what theatre is and how it relates to those other societies in which it does appear. The most obvious characteristic of these civilizations, that seems to preclude the development of theatre, is religion. If the ruler is descended from the gods and only the priesthood is literate then these two segments of the society have a monopoly on direct access to the supernatural powers and to communication with them. In order to maintain their power and authority they will tend to be ruthless and their gods will demand strict obedience and great sacrifice from the rest of the population. The municipal buildings will be primarily temples and residences of the king and the priesthood. These highly structured societies use rituals to demonstrate and confirm the power of the king and priests to the population. They develop elaborate costumes, use masks and make-up, carry symbols of authority ("props"), appear in, and in front of, spectacular architecture and decorations (scenery), engage in complex rites and rituals (plots) involving significant actions that reveal the awesomeness of their power. Memphite Sacred Drama ca. 3100 BCE Memphite Drama (Coronation Festival Play) We can learn something of what these religious and political rituals were like from some "dramatic" texts, especially the Egyptian writings, including the so-called " Memphite Creation Play."*

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The text contains a "presenter"'s narrative and a libretto, or sequence of dialog, of a sacred drama. The drama opens with a fight, combat or "contest", between two Egyptian gods, Horus and Set, followed by Horus' accession to the Kingship of the Upper and Lower Egypt, which is followed by the death and resurrection of another god, Osiris. The drama is followed in the text by a hymn to the prime god of the city Memphis, Ptah. This text was apparently used at the annual festival on the first day of spring. The festival celebrated the seasonal cycle of death and rebirth (death in winter and rebirth in spring). It put special emphasis on the death and resurrection of Osiris and on the coronation of the king as the symbol of the regenerated community. The king was identified with the god Horus and was descended from him. At another Egyptian city, Edfu, the festival drama was known as the "New Year of Horus". Both dramas featured combat between two teams. The combat between Horus and Set is the typical ritual combat between all of the opposites: the old year and the new, summer and winter, life and death, rain and drought, etc. The death and rebirth of Osiris reinstates the king for another year. The plot or pattern of action is typical of many sacred dramas and can be useful here as a plot outline to compare with later real plays. ACT ONE: COMBAT There is a fight between Horus and Set. The Holy Family of the Nine Great Gods persuades Geb, the god of the earth, to stop the fight. Geb makes Set king of Upper Egypt and Horus king of Lower Egypt. ACT TWO: UNIFICATION AND CORONATION Geb resents Set and makes his own son, Horus, king of both, uniting the two Egypts. The king is coronated as the embodiment of Horus and "sole inheritor" of the united land. ACT THREE: DEATH AND REBIRTH Set attacks Osiris and he lies in the reeds, by the water's edge, on the point of death. His wife, Isis, son Horus and Nephthys rescue him and bring him back to life. ACT FOUR: THE KING IS INSTALLED IN A NEWLY CONSTRUCTED PALACE This involves a procession to the new palace and the installation of the king. ACT FIVE: THE DISSENSIONS IN THE LAND ARE RESOLVED AND ORDER IS ESTABLISHED Set is reconciled with Horus. All strife ceases. Continued prosperity is established. Everybody apparently shakes hands and makes up. the last line is "...wipe away the tear from every face..."* ACT SIX: PROCESSION INTO THE CITY The text of this is lost but it seems to praise the city and confirm the rule of the king over the city. EPILOG: A HYMN TO PTAH A hymn of praise to the patron god of the city of Memphis. It emphasizes the connections between the gods and between the gods and the king. It praises the city as being the special care of Ptah. Societies progress and ca. 2500 BCE there is evidence of early copper culture in the Mediterranean islands. At the same time (about six hundred years after the Memphis play) there is another similar theatrical activity, the Abydos Passion Play. This play is obviously

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performed for a very long time, because ca. 1868 BCE, we hear about an actor, I-Kher-nefret, who plays the leading role in Abydos. Wrapup By this point in time we have all the theatrical elements needed to create real theatre. The plot which centers on conflict and ends with a resolution of all major conflicts, dialog, characters, thought, scenery, props, masks or make-up and architecture for a public assembly. We also have well organized societies with large populations, good prosperity and large buildings. The only thing missing is a desire on the part of the society for theatrical activities apart from their political and religious dramas. This is a situation which will reccur much later, in Medieval times. The Mediterranean World That The Ionions Came Into The Mediterranean world was a busy place with all sorts of folks coming and going. People (ethnic and linguistic groups) were constantly moving into the built up parts, settled in unoccupied places, fighting each other, conquering or being conquered, taking captives for slaves or being enslaved and generally keeping the whole eastern end of the Mediterranean humming. Meanwhile there were adventurous merchant types who sailed all over the Sea, and probably ventured out into the Atlantic, buying goods in one place and selling them in others. A recent shipwreck found off the coast of Turkey dates from around 4000 BCE and was filled with goods imported from around the coast from Egypt to Greece. Changing copper into bronze by adding a little tin had greatly improved the metals market by 3000 BCE. and a small multinational area blossomed in and around the Mediterranean sea. Trade came from as far away as India. One of the societies central to this vigorous trade was the Minoans.

The Minoans Beginning about 3000 BCE In the eastern end of the Mediterranean a civilization began to develop centered on the island of Crete. It's only recently that we've found out enough about these people, the Minoans, to learn something of their place in the development of the later cultures of Greece. The mountainous island of Crete lies at the southern edge of the Aegean Islands, a chain of islands linking Greece with the Turkish mainland. South of Crete there is nothing but sea until you reach the African coast. At this point in time, when most sailing vessels hugged the coast, Crete was fairly remote from Egypt, the nearest civilized power. Neolithic ancestors of the Minoans arrived by sea and became a great seafaring people with Crete as the center of their empire. Their civilization was rich and powerful. Even Egypt

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regarded them as visiting foreigners (rather than vassal states) to the Egyptian court. This is at a time when Egypt has a tendency to conquer any prosperous civilization it could reach. The Minoans developed their own form of writing, were renowned all over the Mediterranean for their craftsmanship in pottery, all kinds of metal work, carpentry, weaving and all varieties of manufactured goods. They exported perfume, olive oil and grain. They were famous as a center of worship of the Mother goddess and for their athletic bull dancing. The symbol of the bull, the strange athletic activity of bull-leaping and the myth of the monster bull in the palace maze, all may owe something to the prevalence of earthquakes in the area. One of the most prominent archeologists on Crete, Sir Arthur Evans, describes the sound of an earthquake he experienced there as being like the muffled roar of an angry bull*. Of the more than ninety cities on Crete, the capital, Knossos was the most beautiful and extensive. Even the plumbing was exceptional. A number of aspects of the Minoan culture would be transmitted down to the Greeks. The Minoan version of the Mother goddess seems to have migrated to Greece Two familiar myths of the Greeks tell of this civilization. The first concerns the king of the Greek gods, Zeus, who was supposedly born on Crete's Mount Ida and had his tomb there on Mount Juktas. Zeus, in the shape of a bull, pursued the beautiful girl, Europa, and carried her on his back to Crete. There he seduced her and she gave birth to three sons, one of whom, Minos, became the king of Crete. The second legend concerns the Greek hero Theseus. Athens sent seven youths and seven maidens as tribute to King Minos every nine years. These were given to the monster, part bull, part man, which King Minos kept in the labyrinth of his palace. One year Theseus chose to go as one of the youths. Ariadne, daughter of Minos, fell in love with Theseus and gave him a ball of thread to unravel as he went into the labyrinth. He killed the monster and fled with the girl. Later plays of the classical Greek period include stories of Theseus and his later wife, Phaedra. These myths and many of the splendid products of the Minoan culture made their way to Greece by way of another obscure group of people, the Mycenaeans.

The Mycenaeans
Mycenae 1600-1100 BCE Direct Predecessors And Source Of Heroes And Plots
Outside Athens there is evidence of an early fortified town that dates back to at least 2000 BCE. Other Mycenaean towns are even older. Between 2000 and 1700 BCE the mainland of Greece was invaded by waves of the first Greek-speaking peoples. They came, apparently, from Anatolia and conquered Troy at the same time, settling there about 1950 BCE. These immigrants came under the influence of the Minoans of Crete. Mycenae reveals a fascinating mixture of the civilized and the barbaric in its culture. Their architecture was far from sophisticated. Some of their metalwork seems to come from the Caucasus or the northern steppes. The horse-drawn chariots come from western Asia and there are remains of trade goods, such as amber beads, from the Baltic. The more sophisticated goods found in their graves came from Crete, especially gold and bronze jewelry, weapons and armor.

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The pantheon of gods. a strong oral tradition. and the Scandanavian. particularly the Irish. Thera was some miles due north of Crete and was the religious center of the worship of the Mother goddess. their history and escapades is much too involved and lengthy to go into here.pdffactory. as did many other cultures. There are records from Crete under the Mycenaean rule that tell a great deal about the economy and commerce of these people. their king. These Bards would recite or sing passages at special events and for the entertainment of the king and the people. women engaged in weaving and supplies brought in for the manufacture of perfumed oil. shield and armor have been found in places and dated to times that match exactly the stories. The faithfulness of the bards is uncanny. Zeus. is fantastically accurate. demigods and the humans they interacted with. The Minoan civilization limped along for another few hundred years but mainly in the hands of new immigrants and invaders. Somewhere between 1500 and 1450 BCE there was a cataclysmic volcanic eruption and accompanying earthquakes which almost completely obliterated the island of Thera sending clouds of volcanic ash into the atmosphere to circle the globe for years. Oral tradition rested in a special class who were trained from early youth to memorize very long passages of history. Everything we know about the people and events of the Mycenaean period come from later writings in classical Greece. We know a great deal about the work and tradition of the Bard from other cultures: the Celts. 1450 BCE marks the end of Minoan civilization. and the multitude of other gods. This left a power vacuum in the Aegean sea and the Mycenaeans rapidly moved in to fill it. as it leads to the theatre works of the Greeks. It was. Most of the buildings on Crete were destroyed by this event although the main palace at Knossos survived to be burned at a later date. especially the Norse. We do know that there were two massive natural disasters that completely changed the cultures of Minoa and Mycaena. The Mycenaean seem to have brought their own gods with them. but. directly affected the Minoans. The accuracy of these accounts. The Mycenaean society resembled the despotic kingdoms of the Near East much more than it did the later Greek city-states. and earliest. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Much later the Greeks would attribute this kind of event to Poseiden the "earth-shaker". five hundred to a thousand years after the people lived and events transpired. The first.We have no written record of Mycenae but they had. these stories which led men to search in the right places. The Mycenaeans seem to have been in a close trading relationship with Crete and apparently worshiped the Cretan Mother goddess. legends and tales of heroes. in fact.com . What we know about this culture comes from archeological study and the later Greek writings when the main body of their oral traditions were written down. Rooms. It is a marvelous story all its own. The glory that was Crete at the height of its powers was gone as * ca. There are lists of the king's possessions. dig. and recover all of the archeological material we know of today. It is from this society that we first hear of the gods of Mount Olympus. we need to know that the story begins here. furniture.

However it began. It is very unclear what happened to wipe out this culture that had taken over the rich trade of the Minoans and enlarged it. as it was.primeval state of confusion and shapelessness GE or GAEA . on the northwestern coast of Turkey. it had grown fat and led a confederacy to rival the Mycenaeans. In the Aegean the weather took a turn for the impossible. mother of numerous offspring First Generation of Gods: URANUS. on the crossroads of trade from the north and trade from the east.they produced a large number of offspring . the Oresteia. If so. There are a number of legends about this family.mother earth. the Trojan War Others dealt with Kings and events from an earlier period. And. the Trojan War debilitated the victors as well as destroying Troy At roughly the same time a strange bunch known simply as the Sea Peoples invaded the Syrian coast and cut off much of the Mycenaean trade with Asia. There was extensive trade between them. There is a suspiciously similar story from an earlier date in Canaanite literature. receives all in death. Theseus. OCEANUS (a river encircling earth) RHEA (agriculture) CRONUS (cyclical agricultural time) IAPETUS (volcanoes) PROMETHEUS fore-thinker ATLAS strength Here. Suddenly. mentioned above in relation to the Minos Bull monster. The leader of the Greek host.pdffactory. around 1200 BCE there was a drop in world temperature and the weather pattern changed over Europe. who emerged from Chaos. these were exceptionally strong and personified natural forces. heaven. a really rugged group of barbarians know as the Dorians. it was probably a useful pretext to launch a war of plunder on a city renowned for its gold. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The major players of the Trojan war who ruled the various parts of Mycenae provide a number of plots and characters. the royal houses and the mighty and tragic events that make up the body of Greek legend and form the basis for almost all the great Greek tragedies. There are several factors we do know about which must have contributed to their decline. wife of the Mycenaean Menelaeus (brother of Agamemnon) may or may not have actually occurred. become king of Athens on the death of his father Aegeus. First was the Trojan War which definitely seems to have taken place. The abduction of Helen. she ruled earth . Many of these are to be found in the stories about the greatest Mycenaean event. Troy. rules with her. nourishes all life.com . son of Gaea. although we are not quite sure when. shows up as the starting point of the great Aeschylean trilogy. Agamemnon. The Atlantic storm track. too. This no doubt led to an even greater economic depression.the most important were the TITANS. also Greek speaking. had moved in to fill the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Hittite kingdom. Oedipus and his relatives come to us from this period. but it had sufficient rain and good growing weather for millennia to provide for a rising population. which had previously brought satisfactory rainfall to Eastern Greece.Greek Mythology of Gods and original creation . if this wasn't enough. we find all the great heroes. for example. The stony.CHAOS . Placed. began overrunning Greece from the north around 1150 BCE The natural event which may have precipitated these migrations was a change in the weather. mountainous land of Greece had never been an agricultural bread basket. he ruled heaven.

Greek Mythology of Gods . along with all of the Aegean. the Aegean and Asia Minor returns to normal rainfall.1100 BCE Final destruction of Mycenae and the appearance of early city-states ruled by kings accompanies the Dorian move down through Greece into the Peloponnese At the end of the Bronze Age a bunch of barbarous peoples overrun the Mycenaean and Hittite civilizations. He lived on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor. Whatever the case. they include a lot about the influence of the gods. They concern the doings of the culture's heroes from early times. who start migrations into Asia Minor between 1100 and 1000 BCE Somehow the history and the oral tradition of the Mycenaeans survive through the bards. The drought would last for almost a hundred years and the Mycenaeans disappeared without a trace.the Second Generation The Titan children of Uranus rebel and depose him from power and begin to run things themselves headed by CRONUS and RHEA who produce more children: PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. probably in Smyrna or Chios.com . He was said to be blind. Homer composes the world's two greatest epics about the Trojan War. Epics are long narrative poems written in a dignified style about really important and majestic themes. the Ionians. recognizable as ancient Greek.moved north and began to inundate the Hungarian plain. Briefly. It may be that there were a number of writers. Of course. Western literature begins with Homer. let's recap the timeline of current events: ca. The Mediterranean storm track bumped up against the mountain spine of Greece and dropped all its moisture on the western slopes. After all. The works are obviously Ionian and infinitely superior in literary value to anything else that survives from the whole period. the Iliad and the Odyssey. Misty because no one is really sure that there was such a person. and both the Dorians and the Ionians really take it to heart as their own. to Ionia. the weather in eastern Greece.pdffactory. The main area of Myceanae went into a severe drought. Migrations increase and we finally see the appearance of the really bright wing of the Greek speaking people. Macedonia and Turkey. sometime around 800 and 700 BCE. The Mycenaean refugees escaped over seas. 900 BCE Dorian Greek migrations to Aegean islands and Asia Minor Homer All of which leads to a rather misty character called Homer.1100 . The Phonecians spread throughout Mediterranean. or there really may have been such a man.800 BCE DARK AGE Finally. Usually they deal with that part of the legendary past that the people want to remember and want as a model for society now. c. it is in Greek.1200 BCE there is a big change in the weather invasions of "Sea Peoples" into Mediterranean disruption of tin trade and a switch from bronze to IRON beginning of Jewish Religion collapse of Hittite Empire Mycenean civilization collapses c.c. The art of writing has been lost among the Greeks and when writing reemerges it is a diffrent form. The entire Aegean plunges into a Dark Age. 1100 to 1000 BCE The Ionian Greeks migrate south and west. The people who will be known as the Etruscans arrive in Italy.

prophecy. smith of gods ARES offensive war APHRODITE love beauty." after Mount Olympus where they supposedly dwell. The allies of Troy in this war were Pandarus. a sort of United Nations force from all over Greece. Poseidon the sea. Odysseus King of Ithaca (more about him later as the hero of the Odyssey). Idomeneus. Greek Mythology of Gods the Third Generation Another rebellion led by Zeus results in a battle between Titans and Gods.) The victors divide up the universe. Zeus and his generation win and reorganize running the universe. They weren't too happy working together. The result is that Cronus is banished along with all but three of the Titans. The ACHAEANS (Greeks) . Priam's son-in-law Aeneas. The Twelve Olympians ZEUS king of gods HERA patron of marriage HESTIA domestic life DEMETER grain. APPOLO sun. his wife Hecuba.This group was more complicated since it was made up of leaders and heroes from a number of places. Zeus gets the sky.The Trojan War As usual the trouble begins with the gods. archery. Achilles friends Antilochus and Patroclus. music. These were the main players on the Trojan side. defensive war. It is necessary to be familiar with who the characters are. These are: Atlas who is assigned to hold up the heavens. horses HEPHAESTUS fire. Of the twelve leaders. and what has happened to start the war and for the past ten years. The other prominent leaders were Menelaus. medicine ARTEMIS hunting. his cousin. TROY (Ilium) . Each goddess offered him bribes. childbirth The Iliad This epic deals with events personalities and gods on the Greek side involved in forty-seven days in the tenth year of the Trojan War. He was regarded as the best general. Zeus made Paris of Troy the judge.pdffactory. their infant son Astyanax. a priestess of Apollo and a prophetess. agriculture POSEIDON sea. accompanied by his friends and relations. then there were the contingent from other Greek societies Diomedes. between intelligence and brute strength. messenger of gods. Oceanus who has been neutral Prometheus who sided with Zeus (and who approves intelligence and opposes force and brings fire to mankind. fertility ATHENA wisdom. Ajax (a terrific fighter but short on brains) from Salamis. from Thessaly. from Crete. who the gods are. This newest group is called the "Olympian gods. Not wanting to play favorites. They each have particular spheres of power. Priam's daughter Cassandra. wild animals. Achilles (the one with the vulnerable heel) the greatest hero. son of the King of Pylos. their sons Paris and Hector. son of the King of Argos. but reluctantly agreed to let Agamemnon (King of Mycenae) lead the coalition. but since the Greek period is based on the doings of many of these episodes we will take a quick look at the major players. Hades the underworld. sky and storms). Briefly . In the "Judgement of Paris" the golden apple award PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. King of Sparta and husband of the abducted Helen (the one blamed for the whole thing).Ruled by King Priam. god of thieves. HERMES cunning.HESTIA (fire of the hearth) HADES (underworld) DEMETER (grain and agriculture) POSEIDON (sea and horses) HERA (patron of marriage) ZEUS (intelligence. At a wedding party there is a beauty contest for the most beautiful of three goddesses. and all take an interest in earth. and finally. his brother. Nestor. etc.com . moon. Sarpedon and Glaucus from Lycia. All that is a bit much to cover here. his wife Andromache.

The gods on the side of the Greeks were: Athena and Hera (because they lost the beauty contest). And he was about to have some terrific troubles. so she puts him in women's clothes. daughter of Agamemnon. Odysseus faithful wife Penelope is having trouble with a hundred suitors who want her and the kingdom. Achilles's mother doesn't want to send her boy to war because she knew he was going to die there. The girl had to be returned but Agamemnon took Achilles' girl as a replacement. The Odyssey Homer doesn't tell the rest of the story of the Trojan War. now the other. Then the gods began to fight too. the battle began and all the heroes did their best for home and glory. Apollo. When Menelaus gets home and finds his wife missing the call goes out for a war party. comes up with the idea of the wooden horse. The soothsayer Calchas figured out that the only way to fix the wind was to sacrifice Iphigenia. Artemis (sided with her brother). It was either kill her or his reputation and ambition to conquer Troy. open the gates and the city is doomed. Odysseus doesn't want to leave his wife and son to fight for a cheating woman. Not everyone answers the draft call right away. As a father he wasn't too happy about this. Agamemnon had made off with a priest's daughter and that made Apollo mad. They swore they would fight for the man who became her husband if he had any problems because of his marriage. Hera and Athene. Briefly it goes like this: Achilles dies by a poison arrow shot into his heel. In fact. back at the palace in Ithaca. But both heroes are tracked down and join the war party. Meanwhile. This made Achilles mad and he stayed in his tent and sulked. After the sack of the city the booty is divided and the survivors sail home. Ambition won out she had been sacrificed. There followed a series of meddling and interference by the gods. Hephaestus. There were spectacular fights between heroes from both sides and one by one they die. Zeus (sometimes.com .goes to Aphrodite. The wind changed and they were off to Troy. But the wind kept blowing the wrong way. The bribe he took was the promise that he should have the most beautiful woman in the world. The Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector. He began to help the Trojans and spread disease among the Greeks. now one way. the clever one. Ares (always sided with her). The epic of the Odyssey covers forty-one days in the tenth year of Odysseus' wanderings as he tries to sail home. Very little of the material from this epic turns up in Greek plays. so we will leave the story here. what with each side praying for help the other gods began to take sides. Now everyone knew that Helen (currently married to Menelaus). This does not sit well with the other two contestants. Thetis (Achilles' mother and a sea nymph) The gods pulling for Troy were: Aphrodite (on the side of Paris). Odysseus. all the men who had tried to win her had taken a great oath. That night the warriors hiding inside sneak out. Everybody met on the coast at Aulis where a thousand ships waited to carry the host of Greek warriors over the sea. Aphrodite takes Paris to visit the happy couple. The husband goes off on a trip to Crete and Paris hops a ship with the fair Helen and sails home to Troy. By now the war had reached Olympus. This went on for nine years and nobody gained an inch. but as Commander in Chief he didn't see much choice. was the most beautiful woman around. Left as a gift. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Poseidon (because they were sea people).pdffactory. The ships landed. because he was caught between Hera and Thetis). the Trojans take it into the city. Ajax goes crazy and commits suicide and Paris is killed.

musicians. market days and who knows what.The Last Pieces ENTERTAINERS Homer gives us a marvelous look at a full range of entertainers as he proceeds through his epics. There are a number of references to the Megaran farces and mimes and to the masks and other peculiarities that were common in a burlesque form of drama found in Megara. In Homer the action is most important and the hero is the one who does an action.the major character representing the whole society but with a definite character and point of view CONTEST (agon) between representatives of the two parties or principles which begins with a quarrel. He shows us acrobats. The Megaran farces were made fun of later as really dull and obvious. Character is everything and the action or plot takes second place. It seemed to be found all over. but it obviously existed. There seem to be performers of all kinds and all skills in the society he knows. As we move through the years between Homer's writings and the rise of Athens as a center of Greek culture we spend the time ca. being performed for celebrations. singers and story tellers. part farce. dancers. was what is best described as "vulgar comedy". especially the IMPOSTER. The characters are societies stock buffoons. Keep in mind that comedy here is slap stick.com . This seems to be part mime. This shows us a pool of trained and talented people who will be available for theatre when it occurs. PATTERN OF ANCIENT COMIC PLAY: PROLOGUE which gives the exposition telling what you need to know ENTRANCE OF CHORUS (Parodos) . Later comedies will make great use PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It could best be compared to the clown acts at the circus. There are very few solid facts about this activity. may include a trial and ends in the complete defeat of the bad guy.usually lots of dancing and singing EXODUS . they seem to be professional performers. part burlesque. goes on to a fight. 600 BCE with increasing kinds of entertainment.everybody leaves We also know that somewhere in the background. slip on a banana peel type stuff. Comedy is the opposite. They do this for their livelihood. in other words all over the Greek peninsula. More importantly.pdffactory. 800 BCE through ca.binds the community to the winner A BIG CELEBRATION (Komos) . pie-in-the face. the Peloponnese and in Magna Graecia.(Parabasis) a break dividing the first part from last part in which the players talk to the audience (like a stand-up comedian) SACRIFICE AND FEAST .even the audience shares the feast A FESTIVAL PROCESSION AND MARRIAGE .

chopped up. Homo Ludens (Boston: The Beacon Press. New York. (New York. Doubleday. buried. The fertility theme of death and resurrection emphasizes the renewal of the Spirit of Life. burned and otherwise disposed of to get rid of the evil. The Dorian Megaran may have been better suited to local yokels in the kind of humor it used. American Heritage. Gaster. American Heritage. legends and heroes. The discussion of the Memphite Creation Play is drawn from Theodore H.pdffactory. Drawn in part from The Horizon Book of Lost Worlds. Thespis. good times and life are brought in to take their place. page 261. Drawn in part from The Horizon Book of Lost Worlds. masks and scenery. the old king and the new. performers with all the entertainment skills. The contest is a battle between two opposites. the pattern of great municipal architecture for the assembly of the people. 1961). Narrative by Leonard Cottrell. Here. all these are beaten. hung. NOTES: The description of the characteristics of play are drawn from: Johan Huizinga. wealth. good and evil. summer and winter. The basic action is part of Fertility Rituals but it puts the emphasis on society rather than on the king or leader. the only thing lacking is a society that wants and needs theatre. again. who will appear as big burly strong men disguised as women because they are afraid of getting hurt. 1955). there are performers. anti-social behavior. Afterword All the pieces are available now: the source of great plots in all the magnificent myths. For this reason the chorus is as active a character as the other characters. death. next Chapter Two or return to PART I Introduction PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. but it will feed into the mainstream later and blend with comedy from many parts of Greece to give rise to the comedy of the Golden Age of Greece. 1962. New York. The life of the society goes on while individual human lives come and go. Lost Worlds. It is not a witness but a participant. even lowly comedy hiding in the background.such "heroes" as Herakles (Hercules) and Achilles. the music and dance to embellish the work. the spectacular elements of costume. this time of a sort of street theatre in the whole of Greece. disease. Famine.com . Narrative by Leonard Cottrell. Health. That is the next great movement of human history. 1962. Now that the elements are here.

especially in Athens. into the islands of Crete* and Rhodes* and the southern part of the Asia Minor* coast. and the drought comes. The Aeolians* migrate to east Asia Minor. and finally. the development of laws and constitutions.back Theatre History home Home CHAPTER TWO The Greeks Theatre Is Born In Athens Introduction We begin with a continuation of the migrations of various people. It has no navigable rivers. There it finds a happy home. Later they continue south. When the 100 years drought of 1200 BCE hits the eastern side of the mountains and the aggressive Dorians* start migrating down the western side of Greece. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The fifth century (the 400's BCE) opens with the first Persian* invasion of Greece and the appearance of the first tragic writer who's work survives to the present. a lot of the Ionians* pack up and move out. this Ionian* culture spreads back to those who had remained on the mainland. They take to the sea over a period of years and spread out over the eastern islands of the Aegean and the coast of Asia Minor (now Turkey). and spread south into the Peloponnese*. There are just too many people for the dwindling food supply. There are mountains. The sixth century (the 500's BCE) sees the blossoming of arts all over the Greek world and. in an area we now call Ionia*. This marks the beginning of the Classical period which includes the work of all the famous Greek playwrights whose whork is extant. the world's first democracy. A Society Forms *The mainland of Greece has never been a particularly good agricultural land. where the rains still fall. There the Ionians* begin to develop the culture which will later come to be the glory of Greece. in Athens. The Dorians* keep to the westerns side of the Greek mountains where there is rainfall. Once the weather improves and their society develops. the founding of a theatre festival. The whole place is the opposite of the fertile Nile and Tigris and Euphrates river valleys where the weather is basically dependable and irrigation of crops is easy. lots of rock and a rocky sea coast all the way around. The Classical Greek period ends with the Peloponnesian War* in which the dominant city-states challenge each other for supreme leadership of Greece and her colonies and the whole Greek society begins to fall apart. By 1100 they have gone looking for a better life.pdffactory. water is available primarily from springs and good crop land for grain is slim to none. stony ground. When the Dorians move into Greece. a large number of Greeks leave the mainland.com . The Ionians* move east to Ionia* where they settle on the islands and the Aegean coast of Asia Minor (now Turkey).

the Greeks begin to establish better relations with each other 800 BCE in Italy height of Etruscan* power [see next chapter] c. enough geometry to measure land and build Very interested in finding out pyramids everything possible about the real world. These intrepid merchants turn their boats into floating supermarkets. reservoirs * The Ionians* have a new view of the world which rejects the mumbo-jumbo of the gods being responsible for everything in the world. islands of Crete* and Rhodes*. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IONIAN* BABYLONIAN* AND EGYPTIAN* small towns scattered over islands large cities and coast Theocratic No theocratic tradition. walled towns they grow olive trees and grape vines. As they pick up all that foreign knowledge they make more practical use of it than the people they got it from. Astronomy serves them as an aid to navigation and they use the north star for an accurate navigational fix. they settle down to make the best of a bad bargain. write. but these people are a hardy. in which only the priests are permitted to Had rejected kings and royal read.pdffactory. enough astronomy to meet immediate They went in for a sort of practical needs (like helping the priests republican city-state system where make magic predictions) a small number of wealthy men ruled by mutual consent. So. They find islands and coastlines with narrow strips of land. demigods. happened quite recently. supernatural a simple mythical explanation of Creation beings. study and descendents long ago and had a practice mathematics and astronomy free wheeling social structure little need for scientific or technological where anyone could better experiments: themselves if they could only find a way. and Halicarnassus* on coast of Asia Minor* c. living besides farming.c. astronomy.800-c. all not related to leaders which.800 . Rather than gods. backed by mountains that block the way inland. pioneering lot. hard-headed and practical. loosely (king descended from god and possessed of organized with a wide range of magical powers) gods. the Ionians look for mechanisms to explain natural phenomena.ARCHAIC PERIOD by 900 BCE DORIANS* centered in Sparta*. abundant crops to feed a large city Undependable physical environment population.500 . and biology. They turn merchants and take to the sea for a living. with poor land. etc. geometry. The Ionians* immediately discover two great empires in their neighborhood. In small. they felt. mathematics to measure the volume of water mathematics. peddling their olive oil and wine for other trade goods. They begin to travel all over their eastern part of the Mediterranean trading and selling as they go. not very interested in Creation Dependable physical environment with which happened long ago. little water and a Rigid social structure based on the need to need to find other ways to make a build and maintain vast irrigation systems.com . The Ionians' view of things couldn't have been more different. This idea comes from PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.700 BCE Homer* [possibly in Ionia] composes the Iliad* and Odyssey* * Things aren't much better in Ionia. the Babylonian and the Egyptian. Corinth* and Argos* spread through southern Peloponnese*.

The most prominent are the Delian* and the Olympian* .Age of colonization by city-states DORIANS*: Sparta* and Corinth*. as well as even earlier civilizations.] A good legal system is the only way a society can bring order out of chaos. The older theocracies of Egypt and Babylonia. In their settlements. so they discuss it. They do not see the world as something mystical or magical and understood only by priests. as far north as the Russian steppes. hot and cold. Gradually all this knowledge and commerce is shared with the Ionians* in Greece and their city-states began to flourish there. They put their observations and deductions about nature together with the notion of a world filled with opposites. To have successful commerce you have to be able to count on things people agree to. understand and make practical use of. south to Nubia* and west to the Atlantic. expand and develop it and use it as a basic instrument for measuring everything. all centered on the rest of the Greek islands. This combination produces a society that will provide the dominant intellectual structure in Western civilization. Corinth* and Argos* PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. coast of France and Spain. 750 to 550 . As the Ionians* develop their ideas they also extend their trading and expand it all over the Mediterranean. and have some legal remedy if you don't get what you thought you're due. They view the world as something you could observe. argue about it. [One of the most famous and influential earlier legal codes is that of Hammurabi* of Babylonia* (around 1700s BCE). The Ionians aren't about to let anyone tell them what their laws should be. So. Their main occupation as traders may have helped them realize the importance of compromise. established their laws from the top down. etc. political decisions are made by the group. There are also: the Isthmian* and the Pythian*. Ionia from Smyrna* south to Halicarnassus*. Thales* of Miletus*. They notice that nature is made up of opposites. and end up with a legal system that embodies all their compromises. Their geometry and astronomy enable them to produce the first maps to aid them in their voyages. they argue these views out publicly to arrive at community decisions.Attica. they start building a legal system. *Panhellenic(all Greeks) games begin to be referred to.pdffactory. IONIANS* .the first great natural philosopher. So. They find the members of this group often have opposite points of view. LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD 776 BCE is the traditional date of first Olympic game. They take geometry. One of the most useful and important things the Ionians do is to develop their own laws and legal codes. greatest on Sicily* and southern Italy DORIANS* centered in Sparta*. Athens* and cities of Asia Minor with colonies from Black Sea to Africa. wet and dry. This realistic view of nature combines with their ideas about political and economic structures. They begin an intense and ongoing study of nature that will continue for hundreds of years. From about 750 to 550 they found colonies from the Black Sea to Sicily* and trade in everything from silk to salt.com . and they use this notion of everything having an opposite in many ways. Euboea.

So if we want to understand the birth of theatre we need to understand the Greek notion of contest. The Greek notion of amicable competition is the way in which individuals are able to prove their societal worth. To them every kind of a contest is equally important.Thessaly* and Boeotia* ARCADIANS* .] The greatest of the early contests is the Olympic games.center of the Peloponnese*.NORTH-WEST GREEKS . that is. These buildings are thought of as serving the whole society. but in a different way than we do. the island of Lesbos*. (and later theatres) are places of assembly for everyone.com . There these quadrennial (every fourth year) games are held in his honor. contest is agon*. without interruption. Their entire social structure is related to their gods but not dominated by them. festivals (and later the performances) are not regarded as recreation. The Olympic games* will continue.north west Greece including Delphi* and Olympia* on the north west Peloponnese AEOLIANS* . The events which take place in these buildings. The Greeks love to spend their public money on building. [In Greek. into the fourth century A. The concept goes far back in the Greek heritage. Instead. they have many gods and almost everything has a god concerned and connected with it. necessary and central to who they are. These events are essentially public education. Before that it is told in song and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The stadiums. they are exercises full of ethical and religious meaning. and they participate as a community in a cultural experience. a city on the river Alpheus in the far wester part of the Peloponneus. They take their gods very seriously. It is the chief site of the cult of Zeus*. Everyone has a part to play in all these contests. One of the easiest ways to begin to understand this is to look at how important contests are to them. the games. but the two that stand out are the Spartans* (primarily Dorians* who live in the Peloponnese*) and the Athenians* (Ionians* who have Athens* as their headquarters). Our word "athletics" comes from the Greek word athlos which means "contest".pdffactory.D. Education of the whole public and not just the privileged few. they have a lot in common besides their language and their center in Greece. The concept behind the Greek notion of contest involves training. This "religion" is very difficult for us to understand. gymnasiums. We call them "pantheistic". after two thousand years (or more) of monotheistic (one god) experience. No matter how diverse the Greeks. They each have distinctive social characteristics. held at Olympia*. The Greek Notion Of Contest We think of theatre as something quite different from a boxing match or a pentathlon. We find it well developed in Homer's* account of contests in the Iliad*. The Greeks don't. coast of Asia Minor north of Ionia* On the Greek mainland and around the Aegean* Sea there are five basic Greek dialects that identify the five different Greek speaking peoples who settled the area. One of the primary things is their religion and how they relate to it. testing and perfecting the mind and the body as one unified whole.

Hesiod* writes the Theogony (story of the creation and gods) Meanwhile Things Progress By 700 BCE the entire peninsula of Attica is organized under Athens*s as a city-state. and Easter in Rome. they send heralds out to every town and through the countryside to announce it. before we go deeper into this. founder of Ionian school of natural philosophy 621 BCE . When the time of the Olympics* approaches. meaning harsh or severe laws). which includes all of Attica*. Soon. Slightly smaller but still important festival sports complexes are almost as busy in two other locations. near Cape Sunion*. Athenian citizens regularly receive dividends from the mine. In the southern tip of Attica. in honor of Apollo* on his sacred island). These festivals and their games are vitally important to the Greeks.600 BCE . These centers of worship and culture could be thought of as shrines of sports pilgrimage as well as other forms of worship. all Greeks regard physical training as a very important part of the education of all the people. in myth and legend. One of the oldest is on the island of Delos* (the Delian* games. Souvenirs. but. worked by slaves. Draco's Code* (from which we get the term "Draconian".c. The other Greek cities think pretty much as Athens does. c. about the hero Heracles* (the Romans will call him Hercules* ) who is thought to be the founder of sports and the first "athlete".story.700 BCE .546 BCE Thales* of Miltetus.coinage introduced The economic situation continues to improve. Wimbledon. the Super Bowl. The Athenian citystate. 753 BCE . flows from Mount Laurion into the Athenian economy. Consequently. streams of silver.636 . It is Mardi Gras. prospers from the fabulous silver mines at Laurium*.com . centered in Cornith* and held in honor of Poseidon*). the World Series. a quadrennial event at Delphi in honor of Apollo*) are the most extensive and elaborate.Draco's* code of law in Athens c. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Visitors from all over Greece and the Greek Mediterranean come as performers or spectators to worship and witness spectacles and parades. we need several other societal elements that are still developing. local goods and foreign products are hawked all over the area around the sacred precincts. theatre will be a vital part of these festival contests. By about 600 BCE the Greeks have invented gold and silver coinage and introduce it throughout their mercantile range. The second is the Isthmian* games (a biennial event. They are finally into coming up with legal codes (not just a few laws) and the first code of laws in Athens is in 621 BCE. Sparta* puts a different emphasis on the contest because they are a militaristic bunch who don't think the mind is too important. that the mind is as important as the body.Rome* founded c. The public buildings at Olympia* and at Delphi* (for the Pythian* games. all wrapped up together. and enjoy the fairground atmosphere.pdffactory. If any of the city-states are fighting each other (as they usually are) a general truce is proclaimed so that every eligible man can compete and attend and people can travel to attend.

doctors.The period that establishes the character of Athens includes the worship of the Eleusinian Mysteries at great temple at Eleusis. These places will be on the major touring circuit when we get theatre rolling. there is. a Phonecian prince who founded Thebes*.) a metropolis. After this his divinity is acknowledged everywhere. the Red Sea. the gift od wine) to all the ancient world. make up the Hellenic world. The cult of Dionysus* reportedly comes to the Greeks from the east. strong opposition. The whole story of his parentage seems to be tacked on after the fact to legitimize his important place in Greek worship. While there are a number of strong Greek city-states (particularly Corinth* . poets and playwrights come. They are a very well-kept secret and so we know very little about them. This opposition is followed by divinely inspired madness and the destruction of his enemies.By the end of the seventh century the Greek colonies are booming. supposedly. He is said to have traveled through India. musicians. we are only concerned here with the Ionian* Athenians*. and some kind of revelation which probably included a dramatization. The mysteries are famous through the Greek (and later Graeco-Roman) world. warehouses and factories. The Mystery Religions Eleusinian Mysteries* . and will come. from these colonies.* in particular. Semele*. Corinth. Orphic Religion*. When he arrives. Persephone*. Many philosophers. becomes a major "mother city" (meaning that she has colonies. They are the ones who create theatre and who set the cultural pattern for Western Civilization. Magna Graecia* (the Greek colonies in Italy* and Sicily*) is among the most prosperous. SIXTH CENTURY . After this stay she went forth to spread the knowledge of agriculture over the world. the daughter of Cadmus*. It involved a combination of poetry and ritual. Corinth* has a unique geographical position on the Greek isthmus and is famous for its shipbuilding and shipping. They involve exclusively women.are supposedly established by Demeter* in a small Attic town (Eleusis*) on the west coast where she had stayed during her search for her kidnaped daughter. Lydia. Sparta* and Thebes* from among the almost fifteen hundred self-governing states) which. a small town near Athens and countryside festivals in honor of Dionysus. There is already a stable currency and soon there are banks.com . retailers. together. wholesalers.pdffactory. He is reluctantly accepted by the Olympian gods and he is permitted to join them on Mount Olympus. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. across Thrace and into Greece. everywhere in Greece.concerned the poet-musician Orpheus* and became attached to the Dionysus* cult.These are established in relation to the worship of Dionysus and are widespread. It dealt with the death and resurrection theme. the land of the Amazons. Dionysian Mysteries* .is known for bringing the cult of the vine (and therefore. This acceptance includes a myth in which he is the son of Zeus and a mortal. THE GOD DIONYSUS* . Slowly but surely a working capitalistic system develops. It may have exerted some influence on the rise of theatre. They certainly involved long training. The raw materials stream back to Greece and make it possible for more and more people in Greece to turn from farming to manufacturing.

The Athenian Polis The term polis* refers to the city-state and its people.com .Solon*. assumptions and mostly intelligent guess work. 594 . the opposition against him. are those which relate to his place as patron of the theatre. A class struggle began that would turn into a social revolution. the leader of the satyrs and foster father of Dionysus*. He is shown as a fat. Silenus* a horse demon of the Ionian woodlands. snub-nosed. The legal system concerned mainly of feudal landlord laws designed to protect the land owners. Only citizens are allowed to vote and hold public office. Public affairs are regarded as the business of all the citizens. The rest are slaves. At this time Athens* is ruled by five archons* who are elected annually by lot from among the citizens. where we are shown Dionysus*' return to the city of his mother. but suppositions. big-bellied drunkard riding a donkey Satyrs* demons of the woodlands with horses' tails. Unfortunately some of them are not facts. tenants and small shop owners against the oppression of these big land barons. possessed by the spirit of the god. There is no vocational schooling and trades are learned through apprenticeship. In the sixth century the distinctive Athenian character becomes established. in a divine state of ecstasy and madness don't even know what they have done. educated by private schooling. A citizen is an allround man. The best source of Dionysus*' story is Euripides*' play The Bacchae*. Maenads* (literally "madwomen") female followers of Dionysus. which interest us here. self-governing community begins to take off. and a pine cone on top.The vital facts about this strange god. The women. This idea of a selfregulating. Men are prohibited from even watching this and peeping Toms are torn apart.pdffactory. The wealthy can afford additional training in the private schools. A "citizen" is any property owner who does not work for someone else and is born a Greek of the city-state. Athenian lawgiver. The Greek ideal of the virtues of community life and dedication to the service of the polis don't bring them any benefits. makes constitutional and economic reforms 527 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. loose and flowing hair. tutors and a grammar school until the age of fourteen. women and children. a community that acts together to govern itself. His main symbol is: Thyrsus* a staff wound with vine leaves. DIONYSUS* is associated with a number of attendants and symbols. foreigners. and those who work for a living. inspired by music of tambourine and flute. legs. There is a basic belief that every citizen should play some direct part in the governing of the state. They always danced with great abandon. ivy. In Attica there is a rising protest from poor farmers. The real criteria for being a citizen is being free from the need to work so that they can devote themselves totally to the welfare of the community. old. Manners are to be learned at home. wore ivy wreaths and carried the thyrsus*. The senior archon is head of this citizen state. This is based on a belief in the rule of law. Citizens make up perhaps one percent of the total population. and the way in which the women of the town are inspired to run to the hilltops for worship and revel.

He does not. He turned Athens into the spiritual center of the Attic* communes. drinking. 560s to CULTURAL GROWTH IN ATHENS . we do know that Solon* has seen the actor Thespis* on his travels because he writes about the experience.The oldest kind of festival. rural towns all over Greece in December. however. feasting and games. Later the prize winning plays from the City's earlier years are put on here and new playwrights try out their work before submitting it to the City of Dionysia*. At any rate. He adds one element. It is in connection with these Dionysian* festivals that the first public contest for a tragic play is set up in Athens. Originally this was an agricultural fertility festival with great displays of a phallus image. He establishes the first religious Panathenaic games* and brings the annual festivals of Dionysus* to Athens. More sweeping changes would be left for a later leader. When play contests are introduced in the sixth century the plays are mainly comedies.com . There aren't enough craftsmen in Athens to do this so Solon offered full citizenship to foreign craftsmen if they would immigrate. * 546 BCE Persian conquest of Greek Asia Minor This sudden influx of talent and local interest in both Dionysus and theatre may have had a boost from events to the east. In 546 BCE the Persians* move in on the Ionian settlements in Asia Minor* and conquer Lydia which includes all the cultural centers of Ionia*. the Council of Four Hundred. c.Thespis Dionysian* FestivalsThe Rural Dionysia* . The very name "Solon" would come to mean "lawgiver". This provid some equal representation for each of the four tribes of free Ionian* citizens. do much to change the political institutions.At this time. a man named Solon* is elected archon and given extraordinary powers to revise the legal code. and organized by. This is held in. Thespis* apparently has a terrific reputation and he is the one Pisistratus* chooses to launch the drama contest in Athens.pdffactory.534 BCE the first contest in tragedy with traveling players .Athenian society under tyrants Pisistratus* 530s brings annual festival to Dionysus from Eleuthrae (a town northwest) into Athens [NOTE: Eleutheria are "festivals of freedom" Eleutherios means "the deliverer"] 566 institutes religious Panathenaic* (all Athenian) festival of games The Birth Of Theatre The birth of the theatre is finally here with the arrival on the scene in 560 BCE of the tyrant (a self-appointed despot who claimed to rule in the people's interest) Pisistratus* who launched the cultural revolution. He also comes up with a scheme to develop manufacturing. But the foundations of democracy are being laid. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He passed a series of laws which reduced the power of the landlords and set up a system in which the poor can get protection from the rich. in 594 BCE. It's likely that a number of the artists and artisans take up the promise of full citizenship offered earlier by Solon* and move into Athens* and Attica. This is a real milestone in economic growth.

The contest is similar in all respects to the City of Dionysia* except that it's a more local affair since it occurrs during that part of the year when travel by sea is chancy so there aren't many out-of-towners around. THE AUDIENCE . The State pays for the chorus and actors. Later there are prizes for the best comedy and. then a very small charge is made.Originally the competition is only for the playwright of a tragedy. This is really too much and the quality of the production suffer. THE FESTIVAL ITSELF . Actors* A note here on ACTORS*: It should be obvious. designs his own set. In the beginning the playwright writes his own music. trains the chorus and acts in his own play. CONTESTS . After the death of Aeschylus* they change the rules and anyone can do a revival of his plays. The first day features a big parade.Everyone is expected to come to the show. games and merry-making.After the plays are chosen a "choregus*" (a wealthy backer) is assigned by lot to each poet.WHEN .The festival lasts five or six days (we don't know which). The City of Dionysia* . Very soon trained acting specialists take over training the chorus and doing the acting. Athens is normally full of visitors from all over the Mediterranean. There are three actors and a chorus provided for each tragedy. Comedy is added to this festival early in the fifth century. The choregus* pays for everything else. These are performances by the dithyrambic choruses.The Lenae* . WHAT . after the middle of the century. handles the directing. very solemn and then sports. For the week of the festival all trade is suspended.The summer before a festival the magistrate in charge of the festivals choose three plays from all those that have been submitted. There are prizes for the poets and for the choruses. government offices closed and even the law courts shut down. There is a small jury who decide the winners of each contest category. HOW PRODUCED .Early on. Each day one tragic playwright's trilogy and satyr play are done in the morning. at this time. If the plays are successful at this festival they are usually done in other productions in the local theatres around Greece and the colonies. for the best actor.com . it is unlikely he is the only one doing it. Consequently. the actors are also assigned in the same way. Later in the day a comic playwright's comedy is performed. It's originally all comedy. The prizes are symbolic and the honor of being in a contest and winning a prize are regarded as very important. works out his own dances. It occurrs after the winter storms are over when ships can begin sailing regularly. if Thespis* is running around acting. and still later there is a special theatre fund to pay for anyone who can't afford the fee. and five actors and a chorus for each comedy. only tragedies and satyr plays are done and they all have to be original plays that have never before been performed at this festival. The audiences at this festival are cosmopolitan. Originally the seats are free. Prisoners are released from jail to attend. When they institute prizes for actors.A winter festival in January-February.It's a spring festival in March-April.pdffactory. These will be entered in the competition. which means PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. HOW CHOSEN . Three days are devoted to the plays. One or two days are devoted to the poetry contests. He is always regarded as the "first" actor.

old men through mature and young men to a variety of women. something on the order of a superdome crowd. One other point about actors in Greece: as soon as the festival started. The Theatre Building We know very little. The audience sai sall over the sloping hillside of the Acropolis looking down on the seventy-eight foot diameter orchestra* (the playing area). Purple wll be for kings and queens. there will soon be wooden seats put up for the audience as time goes by. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Like everyone else. The masks no doubt come down into the theatre from various religious celebrations where they are widely used. statues. Made of cork or linen or wood. Remember these costumes are designed to be seen by a very large bunch of people. The leading characters also wear massive headdresses (onkos*) that tower over the mask* they wear. dark colors for grief or mourning. Sometimes the chiton* will be padded and they often have sleeves which the ones worn by the men in the audience did not (they thought sleeves are degenerate and effeminate). directly. From this point on there will be more of these "actors" and. However.he's the first one we have a record of. There is no scenic background or stage house at this time. and they are frequently used as diplomatic envoys between Greek states that are fighting each other. The chorus does not wear these. it seems logical to say that there are now professional actors. about the first theatre building* used in this historic festival. In the center of the orchestra is the small altar to the god (thymele*). but could be belted up and bloused to be shorter). * Costumes When it comes to costumes we know a good deal more from vase paintings. Both men and women wore these basic garments. These ran the range from gods. They travel widely. They also provided a variety of expressions to express the major emotions of the particular character. The height varies with the importance of the character.com . the himation* (a long cloak worn over the right shoulder which covered the chiton). Each mask* told the audience a great deal about the character (and enabled one actor to play several different roles. providing he didn't have to be on stage with himself). these masks could easily have provided a slight megaphone to help the actor get his voice across to the crowd. since we know that they are paid. descriptions and other visual evidence. these "actors" are associated with the religious end of it too. although the material. It is just southeast of the Acropolis*.pdffactory. What he did took vocal and physical training. doing their acting thing all over the Mediterranean. Behind the orchestra the audience can see a temple of Dionysus*. The actual costumes worn are the basic Greek garments that everybody wore: the chiton* (a loose flowing garment that covered the body from neck to ankles. and the clamus* (a short cloak worn over the left shoulder). There may have been as many as thirty kinds of tragic masks eventually. color. The major characters wear special boots to make them taller (cothurnus*) and more god-like. These are in gorgeous colors and highly decorated according to the symbolic values needed for a particular character. That means that they are sort of above any political squabbles. the Greeks remodeled and built over earlier structures. cut and decoration would differ between the sexes. But we have a pretty good idea what it is like. so they have diplomatic immunity. that sort of thing.

The Assembly meets four times a month. The historian Thucydides* is exiled. Sophrosyne* (prudence.Democracy replaces the rule of tyrant Cleisthenes' democratic constitution. moderation. All office holders. right against wrong. The Assembly itself has twenty to thirty thousand members and becomes the legislature. the gods relations to people. of whatever kind. Election to public offices is by a sort of lottery system. Even the ten generals are elected each year from the entire citizenry. wages are made available so that poorer people can also serve. With democracy comes the explosion in theatre. Membership in the Council. heard the agenda (set up by the council) and started in arguing. No important question is overlooked. fate and destiny against a character's best efforts. He extends citizenship to a bunch of men who have been excluded before. After a while any citizen will be eligible for public office and they are all expected. he fails to hold a city. to serve. but there are usually two to three thousand assembled. are now responsible to the Assembly. outdoors on the slope across from the Acropolis. Fortunately not everyone comes regularly. A man might find himself picked to be a juror. There is a water clock to limit each speaker but it's always a rowdy shouting match. This doesn't necessarily provide for the best public defense. If the assembly is the seat of political argument and the games are the home of physical contests. There is a ban on re-election until others have a chance. At dawn they kill a pig (to sacrifice to Zeus). There is less attention paid to the economic class they come from. a magistrate. Somewhere around 508-7 BCE he redoes the whole political system and the first full fledged democracy is born. In the theatre all ideas are presented and contested for approval or dismissal. which now just draws up agendas. He throws out the old power groups and divides the Athenians into ten tribes. a tax collector or a member of the council. A lot more people get first hand experience in government. In the early stages office holders needed to be independently wealthy so that they could have the leisure time to devote to public affairs. when. because this job changes (by lot) every day and the council meets three hundred days every year. but by the time of Pericles. virtues against vices. It is easy to see why they come to respect a really skilled speaker and study to improve their speaking abilities. at some time. Most major offices have to be rotated. the theatre is the glue that holds the whole society together. It grows and flourishes. is representative of the ten tribes with no economic requirement. Between this time and the time of Pericles* (in 443) the system blossoms.Back To Politics By the end of the sixth century Cleisthenes* is running Athens. 508 BCE. The arguments are put in the form of a contest (an agon*).pdffactory. Aeschylus* Starts The Classical Period PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The old Council loses the power to run things and the Assembly gets that job. self-control) against hubris* (overweening pride and ambition). This doubles the size of the electorate. If he is on the council he can also find himself presiding. and an individual's relation to themselves. offered some prayers.com . people's relation to each other. It is now just a high executive committee that reports to the Assembly. as a general in the war with Sparta.

470 BCE) the setting (like the theatre space) is in open. We can see the changes in the theatre structure through the settings for the plays. His last victory is with The Orestia* in 458 BCE. After his brother dies at Marathon* Aeschylus enters the next year's competition for the best elegy on the fallen heroes. He continues to enter. c. The Persian* invasions at this time are just such an exception. The Persians* have been threatening and overrunning Greek colonies in Asia Minor* for fifty years. Persians*. c. losing to Sophocles* in 468 BCE. These challenges to the fledgling democracy are severe and economically costly.pdffactory. deserted countryside with no buildings. The scene building is primarily a dressing room but the playwrights must have kept pushing for more. Meanwhile Aeschylus* has become a playwright (and an actor as well). Aeschylus makes clever use of the fact that the first play begins at sunrise and other playwrights follow his lead. 490 BCE. After 465 BCE a scenic wall is put up and we find all the playwrights making inventive use of the new possibilities. Lighting is. Darius I* (528-486 BCE) starts the ball rolling. MORE ON THE CHANGING THEATRE BUILDING The theatre building is changing during Aeschylus' time. In 477 BCE The Confederacy of Delos* is founded by the Athenians to cope with all aggression. Now they are knocking on the doors of Greece. By 479 BCE the Persians* are on the run and the Greeks have retaken the first parts of their Asia Minor* colonies. There are often references to the dawning of the day at the very beginning of the first play of a trilogy. Since there are almost constant wars of one kind and another going on there is no real reason to cover them here. He loses that one but wins the following year (484 BCE) in the dramatic contest. For the next twelve years he seems to be traveling all over the Greek colonies and sometimes fighting. of course. By 472 BCE he is back in Athens winning a first prize. 472 BCE. However. The wooden seats which have been arranged to follow the curve of the orchestra collapsed in 499 BCE and stone seating in the auditorium is built. but winning the following year. He fights at Salamis and probably other battles in the Persian wars. This time the Persians* intend to snuff out the annoying Greeks on their home turf. Prometheus Bound*. In Aeschylus'* early plays. c. The assembly has to face the need for Athenians to give up their dividends from the silver mine at Laurium* to pay for the ships needed at Salamis*. (Suppliants*.The fifth century opens with clouds of war on the horizon. By that time (480 BCE) the Persians are led by Xerxes* (486-465 BCE). They do their civic duty and it's worth it. No doubt Aeschylus makes use of the drop of some seven feet at the back of the orchestra to great effect in the ending of Prometheus* when the titan sinks into the abyss. He runs over to Sicily and produces a revival of his play The Persians* . The Persian armies comes around by land through Thrace and Macedonia and by sea across the Aegean. daylight and the sun. The next big fight is a naval battle at Salamis*.com . The exceptions are those conflicts which seriously affected the society and the theatre. Aeschylus* (525-455 BCE) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and in which Aeschylus* also taks part. The battles and the victories at Marathon* (490 BCE in which Aeschylus* takes part) and at Thermopylae* (480 BCE) will ring down through history. From this point on the Confederacy develops into an Empire. in which the Greeks are led by Themistocles*.

Noted for his heroic and grand characters. He died in an accident when an eagle dropped a tortoise on his head. While there he wrote more tragedy and is highly honored. Our problem. We need to remember that at this stage Greek heroes are ideas. chained to a rock. His trilogies all dealt with a connected theme. but very simple in dramatic structure.First to become famous throughout the Greek world Innovator: added second actor (and may have added the third). is to see through the language and the stories to the essential contests and the heroes that engaged in those conflicts. as it is in the Suppliants*.470 BCE The Oresteia*. But we need to remember that the chorus is a vital character even after it ceases to be the hero. scenery and costume. but what is at stake is always clear to the audience. only full trilogy Agamemnon* The Libation Bearers* Eumenides* 458 BCE Heroes Of The Greeks The Greeks have a very strong sense of the attributes that made up what a person should be.First playwright who's work survives . elaborated the use of dance. Heroes are always shown in conflict with all the forces that made it so difficult to be what they should be. one of the things that happens is that the chorus no longer functions as a major character. The plot concerned the actions of the protagonist and the forces opposing these actions are handled by the antagonist. what went to make up the character of a hero. The hero Prometheus and his antagonist Zeus* both are kinds of hubris. A hero* is the embodiment of the society's ideals. a model for good or an example of the bad. purifying primitive aspects of religion.Reputed to have written 90 plays . Aeschylus* is buried by the citizens of Gela in a civic monument. In this sense the hero is a way of running some ideas about leadership qualities up the flag pole to see who salutes them. The conflicts are cast in the form of old myths and legends. His tomb became an object of public veneration. or whatever the group of people affected by the action are. In the extant play we have (keeping in mind that it is probably the middle play in a trilogy on the theme) shows Prometheus* suffering. not real people.pdffactory. reduced the importance of the chorus . later. Zeus keeps torturing him in a vain effort to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. PERSONAL LIFE: Of noble birth. and becomes instead. a hero. he fought in the Battle of Marathon* and. The most obvious idea that shows up as a hero is hubris*. When it is said that the chorus became less important. Later Aristotle will talk about the hero as someone "better" than we are. It is said he has been told by an oracle that "A heavenly missile shall slay thee"*. The Greeks started with two actors and so the earliest plays deal with only two characters on stage talking in any one scene. They called the first character the protagonist* and the second one the antagonist* because the play is seen as a contest or agon*. plays with ethical content. in the battle of Salamis*. The Seven Against Thebes* 468 BCE The Suppliants* 463 BCE Prometheus* c. removed in time and space. The character of the hero is important as a focal point for the concerns of the polis.com . witnesses to the action in the character of the citizens. he retired to Gela* on the southwest coast of Sicily. He is also supposed to have served in the Battle of Plataea* After his defeat by Sophocles. or slaves.EXTANT PLAYS: 472 BCE Aeschylus wins a first prize . because he won't tell Zeus what he wants to know. a contemporary of the poet Pindar*. In the earliest plays the hero can be the chorus.The Persians* 472 BCE 458 BCE Aeschylus last victory. 484 BCE Aeschylus* wins contest .Regarded as author of the most lofty and vigorous style.

His family is well-to-do. He is handsome. there isn't any compromise available.find out the secret he needs to know. everything is changing for the better. the trilogy Orestia *. He is responsible for introducing the cult of Asclepius* (a Greek demigod of healing) to Athens. He is supposed to have introduced the third actor (although other writers claim Aeschylus* did this). witty and popular. With military success.com . He is required. sculpture. to avenge Agamemnon* 's murder by killing her. a little smug and definitely self-centered. The Furies (Eumenidies*) are the embodiment of revenge for the spilling of a mother's blood. what do you do with a matter that does not allow for compromise? Either you tell or you don't. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. athletic. All his life he is known for his charm and his piety. Sophocles* And The Changing Theatre Sophocles* (born 500-494. Known for his tragic world view. Art. As we move into what will be known as the Age of Pericles*. He marrys twice and has three sons. Athens is becoming confident. In the last play we see Athena* setting up the jury system to replace personal revenge. He is a friend and acquaintance of all the great figures of his time. The sad remains that will survive to be rediscovered two thousand years later will touch off an artistic renaissance in Europe. SOPHOCLES* EXTANT PLAYS: Philoctetes* 409 BCE Ajax* 442 BCE Oedipus the King (Rex)* 420s BCE Antigone* 441 BCE Trachiniae* c. His first play (Triptolemus*) is staged about 468 BCE and won first prize. The political ideas show up in the problem set by the crime of Orestes*. The city of Athens goes on a building boom. The Greek society can't afford to have this primitive force around. died 406-5 BCE) PERSONAL LIFE . Oedipus at Colonus* 401 BCE Ichneutae* has also been recovered] By the time we get to Sophocles* we are entering the Golden Age of Greece.413 BCE [a large part of a satyr play. In the last play the Furies are bargained with.413 BCE Electra* c. He is supposed to have introduced scene painting (but again others claim Aeschylus* did this). After his death he will be honored with a hero cult of his own. sense of irony and made each play of a trilogy an organic unit.pdffactory. under the obligation a son owes his father. most sublime architecture in the western world is built. economic prosperity and a growing empire. Because of the success of Antigone he is elected strategos (one of the ten Athenian officials elected every year to serve as military commanders). Another range of ideas show up in Aeschylus* last play. His father is apparently the owner of a prosperous manufacturing business. music are reaching their height. From the Parthenon* (447-438 BCE) to the Erechtheum* (421-406 BCE) the greatest. tamed and given a new job in the new society. His musical and literary talents are evident in his youth. The important question being contested is what ideals are worth suffering for. The new society can take it to court. He played the lead in his early plays but he has a weak voice and soon retired from acting. Here there are religious and political ideas at play. Since the whole Greek system is based on arguing differences out to arrive at workable compromises. 130 plays are attributed to him. His first victory (468 BCE) comes while the war with Persia is still going on but peace is finally settled in 448 BCE. He won first or second prize 24 times. He increased the chorus from twelve to fifteen members. The left over remnants of the "mother religion" show up in the character of the chorus in the end of the middle play and the last play.

486 BCE. Eventually they will become sculptured gates. These are cranes that can lower and raise gods. with this period. with inventing scene painting. Between the wings there may have been a low stage and behind that a proscenium* with columns. 130 plays are attributed to him. Vitruvius*. He is supposed to have introduced scene painting (but again others claim Aeschylus* did this).com . sense of irony and made each play of a trilogy an organic unit.The Actor Finally. the actor is coming into his (and it is only for men) own. He played the lead in his early plays but he has a weak voice and soon retired from acting. So many plays of the period make use of these doors that they are probably a permanent architectural feature of the front of the scene house. There is also a rolling platform (ekkuklema*) that can carry furniture or dead bodies out of the scene house and onto the stage. They are both given credit for a number of innovations. He won first or second prize 24 times. but Aristotle claims Sophocles* did it. There is a long front wall and projecting wings (paraskenia* ) extending well beyond the diameter of the orchestra. The upper story has "machines" (mechane*) on it. These are used by the audience and by the chorus. Where the extending wings nearly meet the lines of seats in the auditorium it creates two passageways (parados*). He increased the chorus from twelve to fifteen members. Scenery becomes a regular part of the show with painted panels on prisim-like three-sided periaktoi* that can be turned to change the scene. It must have happened in that part of their careers that overlapped (probably around the 450s BCE). By 425 BCE the scene house receives a stone foundation which shows it has grown higher and wider. is built and rebuilt in an ever grander manner. In 499 BCE the contest* for tragic actors is instituted and they begin to get some of the glory that had gone only to the playwright. rescued the city of Thebes. a hero cult of his own. (killed the monster Sphinx*. chariots and what not from the upper regions down onto the stage area. Known for his tragic world view.contest for comedy instituted Architecture And Scenery *The theatre. Aeschylus* is credited by the later Roman author. of course. They ring down though the ages. it becomes a profession. Oedipus* and Antigone* are almost household words even today.pdffactory. His first play (Triptolemus*) is staged about 468 BCE and won first prize. He is supposed to have introduced the third actor (although other writers claim Aeschylus* did this). As a man who has done all the right things. c. If there is one thing Sophocles* is noted for it is the humanity of his characters. It is likely that the front wall has three doors for entrances and exits. While Sophocles* is most closely associated with Pericles* and the Golden Age of Greece we can see in the changing Greek characters in his plays the real-life tragedies that are beginning to befall Athens. The Heroes* Change Too Making use of all this scenery tends to take the plays out of the abstract austerity of Aeschylus* and into a more human environment. As the playwrights gradually quit acting in their own plays and the demand for more trained actors increase. married the widowed queen Jocasta and ruled wisely while raising PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The theme of "blindness" leaps out from the Oedipus* story and is the key to the hero's character.

Is he that much better as a playwright? Certainly his contemporaries didn't think so. is asking questions like "should Antigone be allowed to practice a basic religious act. uneasiness and fear that his contemporary audiences felt in a world where all their values and beliefs are slipping away. We have more of Euripides*' plays than we have of Aeschylus* and Sophocles* combined. Protagoras* and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . And certainly powerful emotions is what Euripides is best at. At the same time Socrates* is developing his search for the truth by asking questions. even if it is a religious act?". The conflicts in the play mirror the very real conflicts in Greece. Euripides* -born 480 (or 485-4) dies 406 BCE Euripides* is the last of the three great tragic writers. His plays have survived because they will be copied and transported to every corner of the world touched by Greek culture. The Peloponnesian War* is going on in fits and starts and the silver mine at Laurium* is petering out. so it can't be the quantity. He is twice married and the father of three sons. His characters are fascinating psychological studies. PERSONAL LIFE: He is born at Salamis about the time of the Battle of Salamis* to respectable parents who own property on the island of Salamis. He is at least an acquaintance. They see and speak as the polis* in weighing the truth of what they witness. Prodicus*. too. These are trying times for Greek society and we see the reflection in the plays. They are performed and read and saved when other manuscripts vanish in turbulent times. The wars with Sparta* are under way and a lot of stupid mistakes have been made by Athens*. perhaps a disciple of the philosophers Anaxagoras*. "Should a mere slip of a girl be permitted to violate a state edict. comes into direct conflict with Creon* who is trying to keep a statesman-like grip on things in his city. the hero Antigone*. In 442 BCE when he is winning his first victory Sophocles* is getting Antigone* ready for the next festival. He gets down to the nitty gritty in people's souls. Here is a conflict of heroic proportions that must have struck a sympathetic chord in every member of the audience. The Athenian democracy is tottering and it is no wonder that Euripides* is gloomy. That can be a powerful emotional chord.two sons and two daughters) he is blind to the cause of the terrible plague which has descended on his city and his part in it. in so doing. She is determined to observe the religious rites of burial for her dead brother and. The story comes from legend but the dilemma is contemporary. The theatre. Somehow he touched the core of the malaise. Euripides* And The Crumbling State When Euripides* makes his debut in 455 BCE Aeschylus* dies in Sicily*. Nor is it unlikely that the atrocities committed by Athenians on sacred ground at religious sites have nothing to do with the play about Oedipus' daughter. His choruses are truly "witnesses". even if it threatens the peace and stability of the state?" or from Creon's point of view. It is unlikely to be a sheer coincidence that at the time Oedipus Rex* is appearing at the festival a terrible plague is sweeping Athens. His own society may not have wanted to give him prizes but later times and people did. Why? He is said to have written the same number as Aeschylus* and only two thirds as many as Sophocles*.pdffactory. Today we regard him as the "realist" among the Greeks.

415 BCE Medea* . . . no protector. the truth of legends. Heracles*. 455 BCE The Changing Hero* When Euripides* is in full flower there is skepticism in the Greek air. . . . . . . The Sophist* movement (in philosophy) influences him deeply. . Her virtues of loyalty and strength are discounted by Jason as so much trash. . .405 BCE Iphigenia at Aulis* 406 BCE Cyclops* (a satyr play)c. 424 BCE Iphigenia In Taurica* 414 BCE Bacchae* . 438 BCE Ion* . Not only that. Euripides* is the debunker of his day. He also needs to explain things before the main action starts and his prologues* are distinctive. He is the most controversial of the ancient playwrights. he shows women out of control in many of his plays. Many of his heroes are studies in madness and in extremities: Electra*. She has no country. . As a hero. the value of the gods.413 BCE Orestes* . He writes approximately 90 plays. . . His plays are regarded as the most modern of the Greeks. He spends his last year and a half in Macedonia* (at the court of the king) where he dies. no resources beyond her own cunning and determination. His work reveals a preoccupation with internal corruption and destruction of his characters' souls rather than in outward action.425 BCE Phoenician Women* . . 421 BCE Mad Hercules*.c. . . . .contest for tragic actors instituted 422 BCE Euripides* first victory. The heroic. but he expects to get total custody and take their two sons away with him. the Trojan women*. Medea* is not simply a woman scorned. . 411 BCE Helen* . . 408 BCE Hecuba*. His choruses dwindle in importance to mere observers. . . Andromache*. Perhaps the most familiar character is Medea*. his work is not as popular as the two giants who preceded him. . . Modern critics have found him the most psychological of the Greeks in his treatment of his characters. Her revenge is cruel and massive. the sorceress who helps Jason steal the Golden Fleece by killing her own brother. 428 BCE Alcestis* . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.421 BCE Andromache* . . There is a good deal of criticism concerning his views on women. . . He is a socratic playwright. He made his debut in 455 BCE His first victory is 442 BCE. Hecuba*. 455 BCE Euripides* first festival and the year Aeschylus* dies 449 BCE. . and then finds out he intends to dump her for a princess who can help his career. Idealism is on the way out and expediency is the order of the day. . She flees with him. 431 BCE Electra* . . . . He makes full use of the machinery of the theatre and comes to be known as the playwright who depends on the "deus ex machina*".com . . . 415 BCE Children of Hercules* 427 BCE Rhesus* (doubtful). . An occasional irrelevant chant is the best they add to the play. is replaced by the common place. . . . .[dates approximate] Hippolytus* . Peloponnesian* war begins EURIPIDES* EXTANT PLAYS . but. . questioning the wisdom of the past. The Craftsman Of Theatrical Means The elaborate theatre spectacle now available serves Euripides* well and he sends on kings in rags and a king's daughter in common clothes. . . in the grand sense.Socrates* . . . . . Madness is a rather mild term for this lady's passions. . . In later periods his work is much more popular that theirs. gives him two sons. During Greek times. . 412 BCE Suppliants* . . she is the embodiment of all those who suffer the injustices of the world. . . Apparently he wants to remove restrictions on women.pdffactory. .422 BCE Trojan Women* .

Which leads us to the last great Greek dramatic writer. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. produced after the author's death. dressed up in masks and costumes. All this time comedy* has been developing from dozens of comic traditions.pdffactory. Other theatrical means are evident in his plays. It starts with a comus*. frogs. It will be another hundred and ten. The Bacchae*. we care about that. dressing up as women to spy on the revels. flying away in a magical chariot drawn by dragons.because the "god from the machine" ends many of his plays. The appalling ending when the mother comes in with head of her son on a pike. crack jokes with the audience. sing. Things like sex and religion and politics are always good for a laugh. dear to our hearts. this time of comedy. For a man who is reported to have little use for gods it is hard to understand what Euripides is up to with this last play. or so. etc. and generally make whoophee. (thinking it a wild animal she has killed) is only surpassed in horror by her slow realization of what has really happened. is having his first victory. years before comic actors* can compete for the prizes. a sensational play of religious frenzy. it's not likely to show up in our comedies. If something isn't important. When our last tragic writer. The same social period sees a man who takes a very different view of disaster. It is interesting that we began this look at Greek tragic writers with Aeschylus*. They dance. It is true that the god seems surprisingly human and casually parades throughout the play disguised as a human. includes a scene of the god making the buildings shake. The theme of helplessness and the loss of meaning about responsibility appeals to an audience caught in the clutches of forces beyond their ability to understand or deal with. who are willing to stoop to any lengths. whose early play Prometheus* dealt with a god as the hero. add some satire on current events. Take personal dignity. Medea* exits in just such a machine. A bunch of performers.He Who Laughs Last. If we don't care about it we won't find a joke about it very funny. The comic plays have been part of the contest in the big festival* for forty-one years. As the rural festivals grow they tack on the farces and mimes. birds. Think about it. It is really big in the colonies. little Aristophanes* is three years old. This is a ritual that can best be described as a Greek version of a cross between a Mickey Mouse parade and "Hee Haw" with dirty songs (remember it is a fertility ritual). and we end Greek tragedy with the Bacchae*. Keep in mind that it is only the really important things that make up the ideas in good comedy. that's why we laugh when a guy who's trying so hard to be dignified slips on a banana peel. and gradually evolve what we know as Old Comedy*. It has become a lot more than the humble popular farce we examined at the end of the last chapter.com . as all kinds of animals: horses (a particular favorite of Dionysus). There is an interesting emphasis on the helplessness of the people who get caught up in the "divine madness". There is also the craven and insatiable curiosity of the men. Aristophanes* . Laughs Best We will spend a little longer here and catch up on comedy. central to our society. for example. When comedy began its association with Dionysus there wan't much shape to the thing. Euripides*. which also features a god as a major character. Perhaps this is a key to the playwright's intentions. He may be telling us that you never know who you are talking to. which is the whole point of the thing.

This time the idea is bring back a great tragic poet from among host of the dead.The best writers seem to come from Italy and Sicily*. Aristophanes* writes approximately 40 plays. Anyway. The jokes are there but the dances and songs are missing. He is noted for his biting satire. Apparently he disliked handling the production details of his productions and often has them produced by his friends. a short. It's rather like trying to read a written copy of "Saturday Night Live". It's obvious that the quality of the writing and the logic of the way the pieces are put together keep improving because we still enjoy Aristophanes* and we can see what he is up to. Try to visualize the show. there are a number of copies floating around and a number of productions mounted in other cities and other colonies. A comedy always starts off with a "happy idea".DATES The Acharnians* 425 BCE Lysistrata* 411 BCE The Birds* 414 BCE Peace* 421 BCE The Clouds* 423 BCE Plutus* 388 BCE Ecclesiazusae* 392 BCE Thesmophoriazusuae* 411 BCE The Frogs* 405 BCE The Wasps* 422 BCE The Knights* 424 BCE Take The Frogs* for instance Aristophanes must have been one of the best comic writers because we have eleven of his plays still with us. as we mentioned with Euripides* . you can't even follow the jokes. They fit a lot of what is going on now. or Euripides* (he just died the year before)? The real contest PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. dies c. we don't have any other examples of Old Comedy. other than the plays of Aristophanes*. who are into farce in a big way and have just passed their height as a power in Italy. or what is happening in the country when the show aired. 385 BCE PERSONAL LIFE: He is born into a wealthy family and starts his career at the early age of eighteen.com . ready and able to engage in the slapstick burlesque that would put Roger Rabbit. Aristophanes* . In this case the contest is supposedly going to be about literary merit.born c. A distorted caricature. That means. Very little is known of his life beyond the name of three of his sons. He is the only writer of Old Comedy whose plays are extant. It is not a form that is easy to turn into a written script. and if you don't know the people that are being referred to. A comedy always centers on a contest (an agon*). The chorus are got up as Frogs and the five main actors with tights on their legs. waist length cloak. Take his play. well ahead of Aeschylus* and Sophocles*. The Frogs*. His last two plays are produced by his son. His first production is 427 BCE EXTANT PLAYS . Who is the greatest tragic poet? Is it Aeschylus* or Sophocles*. so it's likely they picked up a few things from the Etruscans. In contemporary productions it is easy to rewrite most of his references to people and events. and a funny character mask. the Simpsons. most of these are written during the Peloponnesian* War. He must have been a member of aristocratic society since he appears in Plato*'s Symposium on friendly terms with Socrates* and Agathon*. a prominent (obviously fake) phallus. This is surprising when you consider how badly these two people are treated in his last two plays. or Bugs Bunny to shame.DATES EXTANT PLAYS . their torsos padded to the shape of a barrel. He runs Euripides* a close second in the text survival game. 445 BCE.

of course). all the best poets are dead. How do you get to Hades? That's easy. They are pretty rough on visitors at the gate to Hades. Finally the guards can't tell who's the god and who's the slave so they whip them both and Dionysus* gets hurt anyway. off Dionysus* goes. to ask the big man for advice. but he is too cheap to pay for his slave. general fun and games with topical remarks to the audience. as seen in the tragic works of these guys. is most needed in Athens* in 405 BCE? Remember the Peloponnesian war*? Well. and theatre is his personal domain. [You may notice that gods have no special powers to avoid discomfort. sexy dancing. Only this is a comedy and Dionysus is an effeminate god and a scaredy-cat. We have burlesque. and when music starts playing. Herakles* once made it and got back OK. the boatman who runs the ferry across the river. The hero in this case is the god of the festival. Now we get one of those strange parts in the middle (this is the Second Parados*). the people aren't following. songs and dances ( first Parados*. After all. After all this totally unhelpful help. and the only place to look for dead poets is in Hades*. So. Dionysus*. Finally the Frogs tell Dionysus* how to get in to the palace of Hades. slapstick. Songs. They change back and forth every time Herakles* is either welcomed or threatened. with his slave. of course. Which set of values. there are more fun and games. by their different routes. He makes his slave deck out as Herakles* with his club and lion skin. entrance of the chorus) from the Frogs (who live in the river. and. There are a series of gags where Dionysus* disguises himself as his slave to avoid getting hurt. The leaders aren't leading. More fun and games with the grouchy Charon*. so that one has to walk the long way around. After all. it's about over and Athens will surrender to Sparta* next year. Dionysus* hides in the audience to avoid harsh treatment. Now. There are lots of jokes from Herakles* about how the easiest way to get to the land of the dead is suicide in various forms.pdffactory. When they both get to Hades. the Arnold Schwarzenegger of his day. the slaves have revolted in the silver mines and the silver and money are running out anyway. You have to pay him and Dionysus* does. The old ideals that made the country great have failed and there don't seem to be any easy solutions. this quest is supposed to be for the best tragic poet. It's about as bad as it can get. (Episode*) When Dionysus* knocks on the door the doorkeeper takes him for Herakles* and sends for guards to arrest him (he left owing money). who do you send on a dangerous mission to the Underworld (Hades) to get the word that will save humanity? Herakles*. as the audience knows. the god decides to disguise himself as the big guy. Trade has been cut to the bone and the food supply from the colonies isn't getting through.com . A contest about values is just the thing. * The Frogs* starts off with a hero setting off on his quest (Prologue). as we get to the river Styx* (that circles Hades). It must have been a lot like Moscow in 1991. They are almost indistinguishable from people by this time.is over values. The lion-skin and club (Herakles*' symbols of who he is) look pretty silly on the mincing Dionysus*. hymns.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

Nagler.. The most useful work on the Greek theatre building is Allardyce Nicoll. The Day The Universe Changed. Dionysus* still can't decide and he asks for advice on how to save the city. and another Episode*. the contest.pdffactory. It's written six years earlier than The Frogs*. Brace and Co. All these embedded in hilarious songs. pages 14-16. NOTES: Based on: James Burke. American Heritage Publishing Co. New York. Boston. This is far and away the funniest play for contemporary audiences. They each try to see which is the weightier playwright by putting lines from their plays on a giant scale. Harcourt. One of the most popular Aristophanic comedies in current theatre is Lysistrata*. 1985. Eventually the cast gets to the agon*. 1965. "The Way We Are". Afterword All of which brings us to the end of the Classical Greek period and into a time of confusion and change. Brown and Company.. More fun and games and the scales keep coming down for Aeschylus* (obviously the ancient values are the ones the playwright is pushing). 1946.. 5. and the real social. dances and spouting off to the audience. reconciliation and a triumphal Exodos*. the contest which is proposed. Finally Aeschylus* is picked to come back and save tragedy (and hopefully going back to the first playwright's vigorous ideals will save the Athenians). 3rd ed. The Development of the Theatre. The same pattern shows up in all Aristophanes' plays. The happy idea. political and religious satire and comment underneath. next chap3 or return to PART I Introduction PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. when there is still some chance of ending the war. New York. and the Athenians in particular. op cit. theatre as well as society is slipping rapidly down hill.com . until they stop this war business. Everybody is invited to a farewell dinner and we get peace.Now there is another strange part in the middle (this time the Parabasis*) where the chorus attacks the politicians and praises the people and pokes fun at various local celebrities who are there in the audience. Drawn in part from The Horizon Book of Ancient Greece. Euripides* and Aeschylus* are the contestants. Little. For the Greeks. The women of all sides in the war get together and decide the only way to stop the fighting is for them to deny the men any sexual relations whatsoever. p.

That means they will have to do exactly as they're told. dominates the Mediterranean and is gradually taken up by the Romans. they have to have a new form of government. The Spartans figure these guys will take over running Attica (the Athenian-led Greek alliance). teachers. Soon the Romans will inherit. The terms of surrender include dissolving the Athenian* empire. A number of developments have been going on to the west of Greece. And. With the death of this great conquorer. one acts as commander-in-chief of the army. The In Between Times The surrender of Athens* to Sparta* in 404 BCE marks the end of the first real democracy. cultural guidelines and technological and scientific practices. The Spartans* insist that Athens adopt their system (an Oligarchy*) with five supreme magistrates running things (including the secret police). a council of twenty-eight elders to back them up and an assembly to provide a rubber stamp approval. losing her navy. just before it fell apart. For the first two hundred years of the rise of Rome these Romans are busy looking to Athens and Greece for literature. Attica* is to become an "ally" of Sparta. To the east of Greece the Persians have built up an enormous stretch of territory that runs from the eastern edge of the Mediterranean clear over to India. in wartime. tearing down the city walls and amnesty for all those anti-democratic citizens who fled the city during the war (the ones who are regarded as traitors). by default and conquest. This is followed rapidly by the Hellenistic age in which Greek culture. not only the Greek world but also Greek theatre and culture. There are two hereditary kings who fill in for ceremonial duties and. but new playwrights are not making enough of a mark to have their works saved for posterity. [It sounds a good bit like the Russian Communist Party governmental apparatus. At this point it is necessary to take a step back and look at the larger Mediterranean world. Theatre Spreads Throughout The Known World Introduction We are now going into the brief Late Classical period which ends with Alexander the Great conquering the known world and spreading Greek culture and Greek theatre from India to Spain. We are now looking at a politically and socially changing world where theatre activities are spreading all over. no longer centered in Athens. his conquests will be divided among his generals and another society will rise to prominence in Italy. This is part of the territory Alexander* will conquer.com . experts. over on the Italian penninsula.pdffactory.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.back Theatre History home Home CHAPTER THREE The Hellenistic World Through Alexander*.

The Macedonians* (a rough. Despite this title for the craft guild. looking for somebody to blame for the mess they are in. is beginning to teach and develop the Socratic methods that will shape the western world's thinking. with the decline of tragedy. but don't get very far with it.pdffactory. though. in societal change. you just let the condemned commit suicide). Thebes* . going nowhere. The city-states of Greece keep switching sides. They hold a witch-hunt. They form the first ever theatrical union (it is called a guild) the "Craftsmen of Dionysus*". but it will later on. But some democrats in exile work up a coup. Tragedy seems to be written by literary hacks who. Corinth*.The new governing body. took over. The tyrants are turned out within a year and the old constitution restored. just down the coast. known as the Thirty Tyrants*. and building city walls to prevent that sort of thing happening again. (according to Aristotle*) throw their emphasis on rhetoric instead of civic affairs. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.revival of older tragedies Society Marches On There is plenty going on around the Mediterranean. This doesn't matter now. but philosophy and thinking in general are taking off like a sky rocket. Now it is the democrats turn. The only exciting thing in the eastern end of the Mediterranean is the intellectual life of Athens*.com . The jury (of 501 citizens) finds him guilty and he drinks the hemlock (a favorite execution method of the Greeks. With the troubled times the actors band together to protect their interests. The theatre is finally separated entirely from the cult and becomes completely secularized. He has always been critical of everything and everybody so he makes a perfect fall guy. They happily execute a whole bunch of democratic leaders and set out to run the place. Keep in mind that things are also beginning to shape up further west. all try to lead but no one wants to follow. There are growing restrictions on freedom and this is the downfall of Old Comedy which could only survive in a real democracy. The most exciting thing in theatre is that. Young Plato* (427-347 BCE). Athens* and Sparta*. the Cult of Dionysus* is becoming less popular and others arise to compete. no doubt having seen how successful the Greek theatres are. Over in Sicily* the Greek city-state of Syracuse* is putting together a nice little empire over most of of the island of Sicily* and the toe of the boot of Italy (the Magna Graeca area). Theatre may be reduced to revivals of the great dead playwrights. Most of the people responsible are already dead so they settle for poor old Socrates* (probably the greatest philosopher ever). They can't quite get all of Sicily because the Carthaginians* have moved into the western end and can't be budged. we are now into a period of nothing much going on that will really count. who had studied with Socrates*. but don't move yet. the actors* become more important. Theatrically Speaking Theatrically speaking. around central Italy*. 386 BCE. The Etruscan* actors are staging the first theatrical performances in Rome (the southern edge of their territory and a market town for dealing with the Greeks across the southern border). The Romans* are rebuilding Rome* after the Gallic invasion (387 BCE) from the north. The Persians* pick up a few scraps from the late war. barbaric people to the north) are beginning to stir.

Back on the home front this philosophy business is really taking off. However. Alexander And Logical Thinking Which brings us to Alexander* (356-323 BCE). philosophy is the study of. Phillip II*. He comes back with Aristotle*. picking up everything there is to learn. The Persians* hire on ten thousand of these Greek mercenaries. After the war the best of these look for further military employment elsewhere and they get it. That covers a lot of territory. Now this is a stroke of genius because Aristotle* had just come up with this new way of thinking things through. This is great for Greek military reputation but useless to the Greek states. His father. the military has become a caste of hired help. Persuading the Greeks is another matter. one of that rough Macedonian* lot to the north of Greece. Since the Peloponnesian war*. and added two wings of calvary to sweep in from each side.pdffactory. too. everything. It works like a charm and he starts south through some of the Greek city states. when he (Alexander. After Plato* dies in 347 BCE. Aristotle* leaves town for Asia Minor and the island of Lesbos*. He spends about twenty years in Plato*'s school. People came from all over to study with him and learn from him. the really competent citizens give up in disgust and stay home. Phillip* is not too good on this persuasion business. Phillip* has to have a really good army of his own and a very persuasive way with the Greeks. So Phillip goes looking for a really good tutor for his boy. the wisest man in Greece.At home in Athens*.com . The world famous Greek patriotism and pride in their state is pretty much gone. A young student named Aristotle* (384322 BCE) shows up and really takes to this philosophy stuff. who are none too keen on foreign wars. he's planned for this. In order to do this. called logic. when there was such a great need for soldiers that the state have been forced to hire men who fought for money. While it's true that the democracy has been reinstated it isn't working according to plan. Phillip* has trained his son to fight and ride and. He has picked up the best of the Greek idea of close-ranked spearmen. He (Phillip) had noticed that the Greeks just couldn't get along with each other and the Persians kept trying to take more territory every time an opportunity arose. really. added longer spears. Plato* is writing down everything he learned from Socrates* and launching out with his own views. battle-hardened warrior with an eye to taking things over. The point is to enable the poorer citizens the time away from their work to attend. So Phillip decides he'll get the Greeks together under his leadership and go knock the socks off the Persians. lots of swordsmen in armor. As time goes by. it gradually became a curse. bitter march home. There is a big stink when the Persians murder their hired Greek generals and the common Greek soldiers have a long. It's simple. You take two things that you do know and that leads you to an PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. but nobody had ever worked it out clearly before. the general level of government is down. The result is that the dilligent workers stay away and the unfit and disinterested show up just for the money. Phillip figures that the boy needs to become versed in the ways of the Greeks. the son) is thirteen. It really goes back to Thales * and that geometry business the Ionians had picked up and tinkered with. The army end of it Phillip* can handle. After all. well. filled in behind with archers to shoot over their heads. The introduction of payment for citizens to attend the assembly is a good idea. was a crafty. The Greek soldier of fortune is being trained in the school of hard knocks.

Greek theatre.answer to a third thing you don't know. east beyond the Indus river in India. The Thebans* led this revolt so he massacres them. including theatre. Alexander (age 16) goes off to war beside his father to learn his trade of being a king. at the age of twenty. Unfortunately for us.pdffactory. Or. it doesn't take long to bring all the states to heel. who thinks this will be the end of democracy. and C equals B. If A equals B. of course. Alexander also learns to love the works of Homer*. with himself at the head. Two years later Phillip* and Alexander* have defeated the various Greek states including Athens* and the time has come for the persuading business. He changes the western world forever and starts parts of the eastern world on new and different paths. Phillip* lets Alexander* do the persuading. some will not. Aristotle* has opened his own school (335 BCE) and begins to write on everything. Then he has to make a flying trip north to take care of a bunch of barbarians on the Danube* who are making inroads on Macedonia*. After he settles that matter he has to rush over and take care of the Illyrians* in Albania. recognize Phillip* as the general of all Greece in a war against Persia. So Aristotle* teaches Alexander* to think logically. Meanwhile. and he does. of theatre as a reflection of society. and that Greek speciality. He now is a seasoned commander-inchief and acknowledged leader of Greece and all lands up to the Danube. After some interesting palace intrigue. back in Athens. Since he has the world's best professional army to tackle the job with. Phillip* puts together a Greek federation. but nobody takes them seriously. of logic. north over the Khyber Pass into Afganistan. After all that terrific Greek education. A peace settlement is simple. Alexander will spread Greek culture and with it. This so appalls the rest of the Greeks that his troubles are over. led by Demosthenes. The seeds that are the notions of democracy.com . all these are scattered in the soils of other lands and other cultures. He will send back specimens of plants and rocks to Aristotle* from all of his later travels. The death of Phillip* throws the federation of Greeks into dissension and the whole thing almost comes apart. He is ready for his excellent Asian adventure. Everybody (except Sparta*) thinks this is a great idea. of a world that can be understood and turned to the use of people rather than mystically known through priests and gods. in more practical terms. After three years with Aristotle*. then A equals C. under Phillip*. Everybody is happy and the army marches off to free the Greek colonies from Persian* oppression. All in all. his writings on theatre are only PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Alexander* becomes a renaissance Greek hero (despite being Macedonian). Some will grow. The invasion of Persia* is postponed while the (now) General Alexander* lays down the law in Greece. There is one Athenian* faction. then the sun is hot. of course. Phillip* dies at the hands of one of Alexander's bodyguards and Alexander* is now king of this Greek-Macedonian coallition. All the states get to keep their own governments. the Greeks revolt again and he comes back to teach them a lesson they won't forget. geography. Why We Bother With Alexander* In April 334 BCE when Alexander* marches his armies out of Greece the creative spark started by the Ionians* takes a giant leap forward. Alexander also learns a great deal about the natural world. south to the Arabian and Red Seas and west into Egypt*. While he is off doing this. if something hot melts ice and the sun melts ice.

This makes it more real than real life because it imitates the universal.pdffactory.. rhythm and harmony 2. art is an imitation of an imitation. Theatre uses language. SIX ELEMENTS OF TRAGEDY in the order of their importance: PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. We need to keep Plato's notion in mind because other society's will take it up later (they'll call it Neo-Platonism*). [Many people will differ with Aristotle.their purpose or function. Poetry is an act of creation.the media they employ. This kind of activity is his speciality (he does it for biology.the objects they imitate . But what he does write on theatre will become the bible and the basis for theatre criticism down to the present day.. for example).) differ from each other in: 1. Having said all this. Aristotle* proceeds with his main aim which is to identify the essential characteristics (those characteristics which make it what it is and not something else) of the thing (tragedy). The function of the poet is to imitate universal aspects of life that have been impressed on his mind by observing life. Poetry is a mode of imitation (mimesis*). also narration and speeches of characters. in the mind of god.) Now this "imitation" business doesn't mean that it is "fake". but everyone will take what he said into account. So the Poetics* is a document describing the essential characteristics of theatre in general and tragedy in particular. Plato*. whose faults are ridiculous..lecture notes. acting out the action. It includes a value system which tells the criteria needed to distinguish really good tragedy from less good tragedy.. 4. All arts (poetry. He tells us something of tragedy but little of comedy. but rather that there are real models out there for what is done in art.. What is ridiculous is ugly and involves faults or acts that do not cause pain to anyone. Aristotle pays lip service to the "imitation" idea in theatre and calls what is done in all the arts "imitation". music.] He has been asked by his students to come up with something that fits his view of the world which is different from his teacher. Tragedy imitates humans who are better than we are or the same as we are.the manner of imitation. Theatre imitates human beings in action Comedy imitates humans who are less than we are.com . Plato's view of the world regards everything in the world we live in as an "imitation*" of an ideal that exists somewhere on another plane.. It imitates mental impressions and is an idealization not a direct copy of life. etc. Aristotle's* Poetics* IMITATION Theatre is a form of poetry.. (For Plato*. Theatre provides pleasure of play..Theatre uses human being in action. 3. learning. beauty and harmony. art.

everything relating to the language and form of the the words to be spoken and sung. or vice versa. is true to life.diction .character . scenery. (not there in simple plot) 3. episode. must be complex (not simple) 2. love to hate.fits the functions of that character.pdffactory. must pass from happiness to misery 2. downfall of character must not be caused by baseness PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.plot* (action) must have a beginning. UNITY OF ACTION* .the ideas.reversal (peripety*) a change that occurs when the opposite of what was intended turns out. exodos IDEAL TRAGIC PLOT 1. movement. must arouse pity and fear IDEAL TRAGIC CHARACTER 1.organically unified in which all parts are necessary and in perfect order with one central theme. so we can grasp the whole.discovery (anagnorisis*) a change from ignorance to knowledge. (not there in simple plot) 2. values and attitudes expressed through the characters and the actions. 3.includes everything visual.includes the word choice. The best kind also arouses pity and fear*.1. stasimon. masks PARTS OF THE PLOT 1.suffering (caused by something character has done) DIVISIONS OF PLOT . 4. should be better than we are. middle and end. sentence structure.spectacle .com . costume. 6.Prologue.includes the sound of the spoken language as well as the songs and accompanying music to be played.music . is true to type. 5. must not be too good 3. the natural limit provides a change in the hero's fortunes with proper causation. all acts and words are probable and necessary.thought . 2. Parados. dance. is consistent and unified throughout the play. not too short or too long.

slaves and courtesans.400-338 BCE While these military. The Grouch* (Dyskolos*). which goes to show you that his plays traveled widely. We also see. by the visual evidence. must be a leader and of a famous house (represent his society) Menander*. most of them are foreigners. mothers. bold adventurer. Both the characters and the plot are more realistic.(he wrote over 100 plays) The Greek New Comedy flourishes during the fourth and third centuries BCE. daughters. the performance and writing of theatre falls on comedy. 342-291 BCE) whose only surviving works are a play. phisophical and social things are going on. Gone are the grand old days when everyone was concerned with noble ideas and civic affairs. sons. The plays beging to throw their emphasis in the situation. and a number of fragments. courtesan. twins. boor. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. professional writers) and over 600 titles. [The play isn't discovered until the 1950's. They are all found in Egypt. 339 BCE. miser. These guys write somewhere around 1400 plays.] Menander*'s subjects are the politics of the family. foundling. so we will wait (a couple centuries) until these turn up to look at the new domestic hero and the characteristic plot. The plays always have a happy ending after five acts of difficulties. Now it's all merchants. That means it is a look at the private affairs of the leisure-class Greeks. while parts of three other plays turned up earlier in this century. The major stock characters are: the parasite. although the characters are stock types. again. mainly lovers. The chorus and the Parabasis part dwindle away. loyal slave.pdffactory. which involves pleasures of food. MENANDER* . The only extant works are two plays by Aristophanes* that really belong to this transitional period. This theatrical change reflects the change in Athenian* life. sex and courtesans. The Old Comedy seems to have come to an end with Aristophanes*and the fall of Athenian democracy of that time.4. downfall must be due to some character flaw or error in judgement 5. Almost everything we know about Menander* comes to us from the Romans* who so enjoyed his plays that they imitated at least 9 of them in Latin. We know about seventy writers. The characters are fathers. The actions of the plays are becoming domestic and the way the characters go about things must be getting more realistic. All that fun and games about insulting people in the audience and making strong political statements gets drastically reduced.finds the revival of older comedies a going concern* 329-312 BCE. The one playwright we know something about is Menander* of Athens (ca.the contest for comic actors is instituted New Comedy This genre is essentially a comedy of manners. that the appearance of the comic characters gradually becomes more human and less like cartoons. There apparently is something known as Middle Comedy* that comes in between the Old and the New Comedy. Apparently there are at least 40 authors (the leading ones are foreign. but we know next to nothing about it.com . The New Comedy* And Hellenistic* Theatre Middle Comedy . knavish slave.

getting rid of afear of the gods and death by developing knowledge of nature and science (atomic theory). striving for self-sufficiency. Eratothenes* (who measured the size of the earth to within fifty miles of its true diameter) and a number of others engaged in things like cataloguing and mapping stars. Here Ptolemy* carries out Aristotle's ideas of the systematic organization of knowledge. Archimedes*. and trying to develop reason. The three doors are standard architectural features. belief that the highest good is pleasure (which is mental calm). The scene house gets more so. wealth and power. complete supression of emotions . The two big ideas are becoming the mainstays of the Hellenistic philosophy. philosophers and the dramatists. trying to free oneself from caring about external circumstances and material things. and bigger. with plenty of room for decoration and scenery. The Egyptian one under General Ptolemy* will last until the death of Cleopatra*. There are a number of these theatres still in good enough shape to put on shows in them and they still show these basic features. boasting the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The medical school is equally famous.money and the middle class. politics. We need a momentary digression here to look at one of the many cities Alexander* founded and named for himself. He sets up a museum (meaning a place that was in the service of the Muses) which becomes the first university in the world. While this is bad for the theatre as an art. enduring pain and suffering with resignation. The gods have been argued out of existence (at least in affairs of the state) and business is the only business of the day. This doesn't matter very much because the new plays don't use the orchestra. There is definitely a raised stage. It included a college of learned men engaging in research. The new and rebuilt theatre buildings are not that much different from the old ones. All over Greece and the Greek colonies they are building new theatres and remodeling old ones. recording and some teaching. anyway. virtue and inner peace.pdffactory. One or two are used for regular theatre presentations now. and Epicureanism*. accepting whatever happens. They are terrific in mathematical and geographic work (considering Alexander's* considerable travels. This will become the cultural center of the universe for scholars. This means there are lots of copies of the great writers' works scattered in these libraries from Spain* to India and especially in Alexandria* (332 BCE) in Egypt*. The Hellenistic Period (323-30 BCE) Moving To Rome* By Way Of Alexandria* When Alexander* dies in 323 BCE his empire is split up among his generals. Some of the big men on campus include: Euclid*. These will continue on into the Roman world as dominant ideas. two to three stories. the Alexandria* in Egypt. The seats stop at a half-circle (instead of extending slightly past) which makes the orchestra a semicicrle. Epicureanism* is into: mental calm and tranquility. Stoicism*. it's not surprising). it is terrific for theatre as a business. Stoicism* [actually this is sort of like Buddhism] is into: believing everything is predestined. physical pleasures shloud be enjoyed in moderation and one should avoid marriage.com . They are also building libraries and stuffing them full of the writing of the historians. with room on each end for another entrance (making five entrances in all). and this is where the action is.

Rome* is beginning to be where the action is. The library* works as a university press. but there are a couple of mileposts that will help us understand this new power rising in Italy. the Romans* are busy getting rid of the Etruscans* (they finish this job by 295 BCE). Callimachus*. It is always extend the trade. So this Latin tribe starts out with a small patch of land just southwest of Rome*. and Horus*. the cow-moon goddess).* Rome While all this is going on in the Greek-dominated Hellenistic world. The library* attracts a terrific crowd of students.com . the Serapeum*.greatest anatomist and developing the science of drugs. they're a bunch of businessmen. They've gone to school with the Etruscans* and with the Greeks (remember they sent some senators to study Solon's* laws?). entrepreneurs and administrators of conglomerates. In the Eastern end. especially in southern Italy* and Sicily*. For the first time in the world's history a standard of professional knowledge is set up. Ptolemy* sets up a religious center. the sacred bull). Isis* (who is equal to Hathor*. The men of this society seem to require deities with an outlook at least as big as Alexander's* empire.pdffactory. Somewhere around 509 BCE they get rid of the king business and start a republic This is something like the Spartans have (there was a rumor that the Romans were really Spartans but that sounds fishy). The idea of immortality becomes a growing and increasingly important one that reaches far beyond Egypt. In the 200's BCE Buddhist missionaries come from India and there is a colony of Indian traders in the city. especially the Sun god Mithras* of the Persians*. This pretty much tells us who these people are. Anyway. [This will have a real impact on the much later rise of Christianity]. Keep in mind that a "book" is really a long roll of sheepskin. It literally means "outside the door" but as the tribe grows into a nation it comes to mean both "market place" and "Meeting place". This really makes finding a particular spot in a manuscript a lot easier. One of the scholars. ruled by a king. The forum* is pretty much the center of their world. * Ptolemy* also creates the great library*. But first they have to get some peace and some organization. Plutarch* and Livy* wrote all about the rise of Rome. It doesn't have much power at this stage but it gets to pick the next ruler when the old one dies. Alexandria* becomes a factory of religious ideas. Since we have good records from the Romans* we know tons of things about how they got started and kept on going. devoted to a trinity of gods. The Carthaginians* are getting to be the big power in the western Mediterranean. We don't need to go into too much here. Keep in mind that there is Greek theatre all over. Nothing much is going on in Greece* where the states keep fighting each other. consolidate the markets and keep the peace so business can boom. It combines a state library and a state publishing industry. The arrangement and cataloging of the accumulation is systematically worked out. With this outlook in mind. they have a council of elders (senatus) made up of the nobility (patricians*) picked by the king. Many copyists worked making duplicates of all the popular and useful works. It has the largest Jewish population in the world. Almost every other god is identified in one way or another with one of these three aspects of the one god. putting out copies of the scholars' works and selling books. develops a system for breaking up the long works into "books" or volumes that can be put on separate rolls. There is a tribal PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. These gods include Serapis* (that is Osiris* plus Apis*. The library* is encyclopedic and every unknown book brought to Egypt* is copied for the collection.

ITALIAN TIMELINE FROM 1000 BCE PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. as barbarians. These traits will make a world of difference in the development of theatre. there's no stopping the Roman citizens. Now there is a popular army. But. The Etruscan* Connection So far it has been easy to follow the development of theatre because we were dealing with one culture.assembly of all citizens (patricians and plebeians* or common people) who gets to witness. one tribune leads to another. and then beating up on the Greeks* (275 BCE) in Magna Graecia* (you remember. it takes a while to get the system up and running. The Romans are surrounded by a raft of uncivilized tribes. and make the kind of society they do. that southern part of Italy and most of Sicily*) and finally busting up the Carthaginians*. what with fighting the Gauls. We will have to spend much more time on things that don't seem to relate to theatre at all. The other two main cultures (Etruscan and Roman.) each had strong traits quite different from the Greeks. theatre is just entertainment. When we leave the Romans. The very idea of "barbarians" is a new one because the Greeks dealt mainly with other civilized states. one tribe would become the Romans]. the Ionian Greeks.pdffactory. Back then. all the western theatre.com . So we have to shift gears here and try to understand why the Romans are as they are. we will leave civilization and organized society behind for a very long time. that will follow. on some things. and consequently. form the basis for all western societies. They give a little more power to the people and let them elect a tribune* (now here's a word that's confusing because it refers both to a military commander and. longest running empire in the west. as in this case. Now we begin to encounter the differences that cultures make as we move to Rome*. most of them barbarians. a citizen assembly and a senate and a growing body of laws. once there's the smell of liberty and freedom in the air. They preside over the rise of Christianity and the biggest. By the end of the Macedonian Wars* (214-148 BCE) they'are pretty much ready to start becoming a world power. One of the key differences seems to be that Romans are eternal warriors. Well. As a result they regard almost everbody. For them. but they change it. The Greeks are important for what they did. the Romans for how they did it. Most of their energies are devoted to extending and defending their borders. How They Got To Be Romans From Greek Imitations Through Technical Innovation This cultural difference between the Greeks and the Romans brings up a real problem. the Greeks. and the uncivilized Latin tribes [from among these. At this transition time we need to take a step back in time and examine how things developed in the Italian area. The Greeks we know about. The main peoples were the Etruscans. to someone whose job it is to protect the plebes* against the powers that be). its values and its structure. About 471 BCE things take a turn for the one-step-better in running things. Just keep in mind that the society they build. and fighting the barbarians. except the Greeks. almost beyond recognition. And. and even vote. Italy was a hodge podge of cultures.

These Tuscany* tribes came to be known as the Etruscans*. there were only scattered bronze age cultures on the Italian peninsula.ca. both because we know very little about these people who established a vibrant civilization over much of Italy. digging tunnels through hills. The Romans are appalled at the equality Etruscan women enjoyed. The part of Italy they dominated came to be called Etruia*. Meanwhile. 750-600 BCE height of Etruscan power The Etruscans* We need to examine with the mysterious Etruscans* first because they seem to have contributed the most to the Roman character. Mysterious they are. The Romans will ditch the king business but adopt this divination business. 1000 BCE semi-barbarian tribes in Italy [ King David rules in Judea ] ca. They seem to have many characteristics of Asia Minor* peoples and may have migrated from Anatolia* across the northern edge of the Adriatic. Many of their talents and characteristics will be adopted by the later Romans. The Etruscans* owed much of their civilization to the Greek influence they encountered on their southern borders. spreading north and south of this cultural center. between the Mycenae bunch and the dawn of classical Greece. Everything they did depended on omens and signs read by their priest-kings. diverting rivers and becoming expert miners and metal producers. There is an old and dubious story that they were the survivors of the fall of Troy. The Phoenicians* were pushed westward out of Asia Minor and established a great colony at Carthage* on the North African coast and in Spain* and waves of iron using Indo-European Latin tribes invaded Italy from the north. 800-750 BCE Etruscans become an organized presence in Italy ca. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. lock. The Etruscans* were great city planners and architects. The Romans really latch on to this architectural and engineering business and will become known as a society of builders. The last invading tribe settled in the Alban hills around what would become Rome*. They gradually pushed the local Latin tribes further back into the hills and forests. war-like and determined.com . sexual freedom. stock and barrel. but they will adopt the rest of the blood and sex attitudes. a new non-Latin tribe was emerging as a dominant force in the area of Tuscany*.pdffactory. They were engineers. Before they established a going society in northern Italy. and because what we do know about them is fragmentary and strange. They had terrific gladiator battles for every occasion (especially their funeral games). The Etruscans were really crazy about blood and sex. They came up with the arch and a grid layout for their cities. draining swamps. Another quite different range of characteristics will be picked up by the Romans. It was a time of ferment all over the Mediterranean. The Etruscans were especially crazy about the works of Homer*. They were hard. luxurious living and loose moral codes. They had a body of laws and a passion for divination. on the western coast of Italy. Waves of invaders poured down into southern Europe. This was back in the dark age of Greece.

especially apples). They foster gaiety and good living and are invoked especially when the family sits together at a meal. his word is law and through him the gods work. Many of these minor gods and spirits left a rich legacy in their names: Genius* . Robigus* (brought blight to crops).Greek mythology is found throughout their art and may have influenced their religion as well. who hovered endlessly and had to be propitiated. (We might note that the Greeks did none of this. Other aspects of their religion differed from the Greeks. the Latin tribe had their own gods of the woodland.pdffactory. Pales* (guarded shepherds). There were rites for everything and these had to be accurately done in every detail. In founding a new city the Etruscans* followed specific religious rites. The mundus shaft was covered with a great stone ("the stone of souls") which was raised on special days. The notion of the "center" of town was enormously significant for the Etruscans. storms. that of the household and that of the state.) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and budding time. There are really two different forms of worship among the Romans. They survive down into the middle ages and may be found even today in Italian villages. He is guardian of the family. Pomona* (orchards. Silvanus* (timber lots and boundary stones). There were many ghosts of the dead (remnants of the beliefs of the Etruscans) Manes*. for depositing the first fruits and on the three days the dead were allowed to mingle with the living. They were extremely rigid in their religious views. the navel of the universe. They did.com . believe in the importance of the idea of the omphalion. He has the power of life and death. Their god Turms*. Both make use of the lessons from the Etruscans concerning omens. harvest. Faunus* (woodlands). was identical with the Greek Hermes who conducted the souls of the dead to the underworld. all of these they carried with them throughout their long history. beginning with a shaft in the center (this was supposed to lead directly to the underworld) called mundus (as were the heavens). Many magic spells and incantations survive into republican times. clear skies. Stone representations of the omphalion can be found all over and were regarded as sacred by many cultures. making the ritual offerings to the lares* (spirits of the land) and penates* (spirits of stored food). If anything went wrong the whole thing had to be done over from the beginning. OLD ROMAN GODS Before they became Romans. hearth. auspicious signs and rituals. however. for example. The names of these gods might change but they always remained at the heart of Roman religion. The Romans would adopt this rigidity in doing rituals correctly. the guardian spirits of the home. The high priest of the household is the paterfamilias (father of the family). (a spirit which protects an individual all through life).

350 BCE warfare against neighbors c. like the Greeks. It is a natural place for a town and they lay it out in their usual methodical fashion over the well known seven hills. thrifty.The city is planned in a circle with two main thoroughfares which intersect at the mundus shaft. and found their Roman Republic. 753 BCE founding of Rome* 616 to 510 BCE Rome ruled by Etruscan Tarquins* The Romans Finally Become Romans After two hundred years of learning the ways of civilization under the Etruscans*. D. we found in early Greece*. cautious and simple in their tastes. 451 BCE Twelve Tables. first written code of Roman Law THE ROMAN CHARACTER . For two hundred years the Etruscans*. dance. The Etruscan variations will be adopted by Rome. The Romans love the temple idea and build them everywhere and for every possible purpose. For years the Etruscans* have met and traded with the Greeks at the banks of the Tiber river which marks the southern boundary of Etruia. On the mainland of Italy Etruia* expands and builds cities at Bologna. Each segment of the heavens has its own meaning and diviners search the heavens carefully for omens. hard- PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.500-c. The ideal is much like the Spartan*. Having picked up a good deal from the Greeks on how to organize a successful society. They took to Greek theatre in a big way and did a lot of their own variations of farces. Changes In Power In Italy* In 753 BCE the Etruscans* are busy founding the town of Rome*.] The circular view and its divisions reflects their view of the universe.C. The word temple comes from the Etruscans and originally meant that part of the heavens in which omens are found. He is stoic.494 BCE tribunate established c. mimes. This division is then subdivided into many wedges of the circle. but unlike the Greeks they are ruled by priest-kings. dividing the city into quarters. [This city plan can be seen in Washington. etc. the Romans finally get the hang of it and begin to put their unique talents for organization and administration to work.pdffactory. and the same range of theatrical farces. 509 BCE Romans throw out Tarquins and found the Roman Republic c. The Etruscans* govern the Latin tribes and the town of Rome* where they rule from 616 BCE to 510 BCE as the dynasty of Tarquins. Greeks* and Carthaginians* rival each other in commerce and piracy throughout the Mediterranean. These Romans are hard and unyeilding. a loose confederation of city-states. Rimini and Ravenna and Spina on the Adriatic*.com . The Etruscans* were crazy about music. They are. in 509 BCE they throw out the last of the Etruscan* Kings along with the whole notion of kingship. the Roman citizen-soldier.Roman society depends upon the Roman character for its meaning and stability.

His former place as god of war is remembered in a small temple in the Forum where the temple gates were thrown open in times of war and closed in peace. The paterfamilias view of society enables the Romans to look on conquered lands as a Roman family. but not in religion. These are tended only by maidens called vestal virgins* who offer special prayers in honor of that hearth.com . DIANA* . too. There is no real moral code involved.The chief god of these early days is JANUS. continuity of the family and its welfare. First to fall are their neighbors. The real Roman religion is military conquest. This citizen-soldier is also the paterfamilias* (father of the family) and has the power of life and death over his wife and children. These are the old virtues. the axe and the bundle of sticks [fasces*] which symbolize the leader's absolute authority. VESTA* . Vesta.pdffactory. which is kept burning continually. grow up to be Roman citizens. the thunderer. she is the symbol of communal life. That about sums up the Roman religion.headed. With these skills and equipment they begin their conquest of their part of the world. Gradually she becomes the goddess of fertility. At various times he is the sun. remembered with veneration but seldom followed by later generations. They accumulate gods indiscriminately and take care to honor them all. self-disciplined with a flint-like character. The attributes of the Greek Artemis* will also become hers. She evolves from a woodland spirit. Romans are trained to a sense of duty (pietas and gravitas.Early on she is connected with Janus. the sky. Morality turns up in the notion of paterfamilias and in philosophical views (like the Stoic and Epicurean which the Romans take to eagerly). remains unchanged through the course of Roman history. demanding absolute loyalty and obedience. In Rome a round temple shaped like the ancient hut houses the sacred flame of the state. The Vestal virgins are sacrosanct and have a mysterious power as long as they remain virgins. They also take over the Etruscan emblems. He is present in every household and even after he has been replaced as chief god he is always invoked before all others at the beginning of any enterprise. Ritual offerings are made in each household and each tribe has its own public hearth. The Roman religion (from religare meaning to bind) is a contract between men and divinities to gain favor. THE MILITARY . The sacred flame PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.As goddess of the hearth flame. Their conquered subjects are treated as children who might.In matters military the Romans pick up the best of the Greek models and all of the military skills and equipment developed by the Etruscans. MAJOR OLD ROMAN GODS JANUS* . She will remain a power unchanged throughout the ages of Rome. Her power is over the cycles of the moon and women. even when they have forgotten their names. if properly managed and taught. protectress of the woods and huntsmen. RELIGION . but always he is the god of beginnings and of doorways.The Romans sometimes address their prayers to an unknown deity "whether god or goddess".) a conscious acceptance of burdens.

Rome is destroyed and occupied 316 BCE subjection of Latin tribes around Rome 250 BCE Eturia absorbed by Rome THE REPUBLIC . It is a significant experience the Romans never forget. By 250 BCE Eturia is part of the Roman political system and they now are ready to pick up the pieces of Alexander's disintegrating empire. it adds celebrations called festivals for every religious occasion: funerals. scenic entertainments are introduced in 364 BCE to disarm the wrath of the gods when a two year long pestilence is raging. The fierce Gauls will threaten the Romans off and on until Rome finally falls. Somewhere around 367 BCE the clash between the plebs (the common citizens) and the aristocracy (rich land owners) is resolved and a new law requires one of the consuls be chosen from the plebs. the nature of the Roman Republic will change in the period of recovery. It also provides a model for many later societies looking for alternatives to Kings and Princes. Eventually there are so many holidays that it interfers with the normal affairs of business and government. The essential elements of a working democracy are finally hammered out by the middle of the first century BCE. It centers on two consular magistrates. They beat the Romans soundly. Meanwhile expansion was taking place. into Italy in the 390's. it has some of the standards the western world will look to for models for over a thousand years. ENTERTAINMENT APPEARS According to Livy* (in his history). Almost all entertainments are performed in the guise of an effort to entertain the gods. victories and gods' special days. As the Roman society progresses. As the Romans grow in territory they also became experienced in their system of governing PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. sack Rome and leave it a smoking ruin.While the Roman Republic is less democratic than the society the Ionians had put together. 396 BCE conquest of Veii against Etruscans 390 BCE invasion of Italy by Gauls. More Changes In Power In Italy* The Roman conquest of Veii in 396 BCE marks the beginning of the decline of Etruscan* power in Italy. After a time nearly every day is devoted to a local feast to some god and festivals and games are provided for the more prominent ones. a senate. It delays the development of Roman society and because of this experience.pdffactory. Gaulish invaders force the Romans to develop their military tactics and skills and harden their views of military control. A temple to Concord is built at the northwest corner of the Forum as a perpetual reminder of the new relationship between the aristocracy and the people. and a popular assembly. From beginning to end. The Romans (along with the rest of the Italians) have a big set back when the barbarian Gauls swept down out of the north. the Republic manages to survive for about three hundred years and remains a glowing memory in the minds of the Romans through the fall of Rome.com . This break-through leads to a series of laws limiting the privileges of the aristocracy.continues to burn long after Christian times and is extinguished only in 382 CE.

they feel the need of more cultural polish. Consider how familiar it is: the notion that the society is an obedient family led by stern but caring paternal leaders. The site where the image is buried is now a sacred spot. they will. and that society has a divine mission to spread its rule to other lands. Every western society from Roman times on will see itself as a true Roman state embracing every territory in its paternal rule of law and conferring the benefits of culture and rule. The policy is very successful. of course. All this may seem very esoteric and obscure but the overall pattern will become the model for western societies down into our own century. After the defeat of Carthage. If he dies in battle there are no further ceremonies and he will be remembered with gratitude. All of which brings us back to the progress of theatre from Greece to Rome by way of Alexandria.conquered lands. plays and practice. Gold and treasure from the Samnites pave the way for further conquest. a religious leader in communion with the gods. Its empire stretches along north Africa through the Pillars of Hercules (straits of Gibraltar) and Spain. and. They take the Greek theatre. by the end of the Macedonian Wars* (214-148 BCE) Rome is pretty much ready to start becoming a world power. Carthage dominates the western Mediterranean from the African coast. In order to take on this leadership role. The Romans believe they are serving a divine purpose and regard war as a religious vocation. Afterword By the time we are concerned with Rome and the Romans. Each conqured territory becomes a Roman colony with a Roman garrison to keep the peace and see that Roman laws are obeyed. he will hurl himself into battle. providing the state with wealth and goods from the conquered lands. He is never again permitted to participate in religious ceremonies and becomes a nonperson.com . Spain and all foreign trading posts fall to Rome. rThe Greek colonies in southern Italy were next but they prove more difficult. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. They are next on the list for Roman conquest and the Punic wars (against Carthage) begin (264-241 BCE and 218201 BCE). The literature. and the Mediterranean becomes a Roman lake. Many people begin to enjoy some of the rights of Roman citizenship. For this. Settlements are made whereby a few people have some independence and others are incorporated into the Roman system. So it is that the Romans subdue the Samnites across eastern and southern Italy. produce them. organizers and administrators. a willing sacrifice. If he survives. The devotion then becomes a shaman. an image of him is buried seven feet deep and a guilt offering is made. the theatre. As we noted earlier. bringing peace and order. The general in command will sometimes offer himself as a devotion. those mysterious Etruscans* have vanished into the hills and rocks of Italy. in their turn. adaptors. The Romans are great imitators. will conquer. most of all. DIVINE MISSIONARIES The gods fight on the side of the Romans. With prayers and magical rites to induce the gods to visit the enemy with fear and death. are gradually rebuilt in the Roman mold and spread abroad as the Roman Empire grows. myths.pdffactory. possessed of superhuman powers. Sardinia and Sicily. turn to Greece and all things Greek. imitate them and spread theatre over all the territory they.

wll be found in libraries and book collections throughout the empire. The number of slaves increases with each PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Its' importance in the generation and transmission of ideas can't be overstated. a forum for cultural ideas. and the living tradition of hardy performers. scenery and all visual elements. The conquests are bringing in uncounted wealth and the increase in the trade business booms. out in the provinces. numerous theater buildings. These will provide the foundations for cultural enrichment and the rise of a Renaissance theatre a thousand years later. These all add Roman elements. the Romans turn their theatre into entertainment on a grand scale. as we can see in the plays of Plautus*. They completely miss the Greek idea of theatre as a contest. will ensure that the glory of Greek theatre and its Roman imitations survive. The ones in Rome are mostly devoted to terrifically extravagant shows that are supposed to entertain the masses. G. All this theatrical activity leads to a wide range of technical innovation in architecture. The theatrical heritage they get from the Greeks continues to be performed in Latin. all these. At the height of the Roman Empire there are many theatre buildings. Instead. especially the Nazis and Mussolini's "Fascist" regime. regular plays are widely done. But. Roman cultural attitudes are revealed in their ideas of theatre. imitations and adaptations of Greek comedy and tragedy. through Roman translations. together with those of Horace. Latin documents.pdffactory. whose writings. Wells' The Outline of History for calling my attention to the importance and influence of Ptolemy and his work in establishing the cultural center of the western world in Alexandria. The old aristocracy of three hundred senators tightens their hold on the government so that it becomes an oligarchy.com . next chap4 or return to PART I Introduction back Theatre History home Home CHAPTER FOUR The Romans From Greek Imitations Through Technical Innovation Introduction As Rome changes from a republic into an empire.NOTE: I am indebted to H. The Roman Fasces would be picked up by later civilizations. Roman Culture Blossoms During the Punic Wars several significant things are happening in Rome. Terence* and Seneca*. but it doesn't do much for theatre literature. run by the exclusive senate club.

Adaptations of Greek plays appear. The Roman view of theatre is totally different from the Greek originators. Small landowners are forced off their land and flock to the city. The paved road. The Aqua Appia which carries water is improved. With all this wealth. put up for festivals and then dismantled. which had been begun in 312 BCE is extended and other roads built. all to the accompaniment of trumpet blasts. The vestal flame is rededicated. Throughout the year every month brings festivals. There have been chariot races and gladiator battles and festivals. the new year opens in March with days of ceremonies. Greek philosophy and Hellenistic culture attract rich youth who go to Athens to study. There is a great clanging as the sacred shields were removed from the temple of Mars. but now the number and length increases. the Appian Way.c.pdffactory. Greek artists. traders and slave-tutors pours into Rome bringing dazzling vistas of a superior culture and new horizons of the mind.275 . For example. The twelve Salii dance in processions through the city. New temples are constructed to include the statues brought from looted Greek Syracuse. ROMAN LEADERS DURING ERA OF SENATE SUPREMACY c. stopping at all the temples and shrines and feasting every night. Thousands of books from captured libraries. processions and celebrations. This is a typical event. a building boom takes off.265-217 237-183 234-149 185-129 163-133 153-121 LEADER Gaius Flaminius Cato the Elder Tiberius Gracchus Gaius Gracchus EVENTS Punic Wars with Carthage Dalmatia is Romanized Province of Asia goes to Rome social reforms and African wars Scipio Africanus Major Macedonian wars and Asian foothold Scipio Africanus Minor Third Punic war Carthage destroyed PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.conquest and the rich estates grow with all this free labor. Greek ideas are imported along with treasure.110 BCE DATES BCE c. some solemn. The city sees no need for permanent playhouses. increased trade and traffic and the rising importance of Rome.com . teachers. But they are all played in temporary playing spaces. all the cheap slave labor. some merry. swelling the restless mob. Greek influence from the conquered colonies in Italy and Sicily is evident all over Rome. The rising population demands more entertainment and amusement. Romans take to playwriting and production as the number and variety of festivals swells.

The Greeks had introduced theatre into their religious festivals as part of a whole range of contests. votives. These performances begin in 173 BCE In April there are celebrations for Tellus. LUDI. the first staging of plays is about 200 BCE. These contests were religious in that they were designed to reveal the best in human endeavor. requiring unrestrained merrymaking.pdffactory. with a very different sense of the religious. but the major ones do. These begin in 212 BCE and include plays almost from the beginning. bringer of fruitfulness.HOW ROMAN THEATRE DIFFERS FROM GREEK As the Romans begin to write and produce plays on a regular basis the differences between the two cultures become strikingly obvious. Theatre is strictly a commercial entertainment for the populace. Saturnalia comes in December . Plays are presented beginning in 240 BCE. mother of Earth. In Rome plays are written by slaves and emancipated slaves to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Ludi Megalenes* . and for Ceres. These are started in 204 BCE and plays are staged ten years later. thereby celebrating human relationship with the gods. Ludi Plebei. victories. Ceres (bringer of fruitfulness).The Festival of Flowers which originates later and only includes mimes. Jupiter (broaching the first wine) and at the end comes The Floria* . Liberalia in honor of the ancient god Liber. and of course. Not all Ludi include theatre as a regular part of their festivities.THE FESTIVALS IN ROME There are Ludi for every occasion: funerals.The Games of Apollo are held in July under the direction of the city official. Beginning in 214 BCE there are four days of performances.The Games of the Great Mother (Cybele) are held in April under the direction of patrician officials. The state religion has no desire or need for a contest and there is no attempt to provide playwrights or actors with prizes. The year begins in March. are held in September and run by patrician officials.in honor of Jupiter. The Romans. March. Ludi Romani .the Plebeian Games are held in November under the direction of plebeian officials. in honor of various gods. In Greece the great plays had been written by prominent citizens to explore ideas of consequence to the society. introduce theatre into their festivals to provide entertainment for the Roman mobs. dedications. April also includes festivals for Tellus (mother of earth). Ludi Apollinares. Introduced in 220 BCE.com .

The producer buys plays or writee them himself with the intention of making a profit from them. which he then supplements with his own funds. The producer is usually a free man with a company of slave (and occasionally free) actors (infames. employed as ambassadors and revered as members of a religious guild. In Rome each festival is run by a magistrate who gets a government grant. she takes over the functions of the Greek Athena. Actors. they are not even citizens. Many of the Greek gods are simply appropriated into the Roman pantheon and given Roman names. or be accompanied by musicians.produce an income and build a productive career. An actor who is highly skilled might be able to buy his freedom and become a producer himself. remote from the lives of the ordinary person. technicians and managers are artifices scaenici (scenic artists). from theatrical companies run by a dominus gregis. 126-62 BCE). Roman actors are usually slaves and have no standing in a society in which. MINERVA* . dance and pantomime. that is.Originally Uni. such a social rise is rare. They might also be musicians. Greek actors were honored by the state. (hardly the climate for controversial subject matter. regarded as the greatest Roman comic actor. Eventually there is a theatrical guild for theatre people. GREAT OLD ROMAN GODS AND THE GREEK CONNECTION These gods hold the destiny of the state. by and large. he becomes the god of war Ares*. Their origins are often minor. The guild never has the stature or social standing of its Greek counterpart.Originally Menerva. However. The magistrate is out to further his own political ambitions and theatrical producers are careful not to offend any member of a politically influential family. Rather. he is honored by Sulla with the gold ring of the equestrian rank.Originally the god of ripening grain. The profession is definitely upwardly mobile. ready made. They may have been reproduced at other events or recreated in the colonies but the individual way in which a production was put together seems to have been the same. able to excel in rhetorical and oratorical skills. MARS* . or theatrical producer. associated with the goddess Minerva who is in charge of skills. it is similar to other skilled craft guilds. Actors are skilled entertainers. but the basic fee is never enough for the elaborate show the magistrates have in mind. The guild is vaguely religious. deprived of certain political rights) who have a repertoire of plays ready.) Roman theatre is partially subsidized in this fashion by the state. Festivals hire their plays. A friend of Cicero. she comes to Rome with Jupiter and becomes Hera*. They are spectacular and powerful. at least in aspirations. The best known of these is Quintus Roscius* (c.com . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The producer might also act in his own productions and the names which come down to us tend to be those of actor-managers.pdffactory. writers. JUNO* . The Greek productions were paid for by the state and produced for the special event.

the archetypal image of the paterfamilias ruling over the family of Romans. near the end of the First Punic War. supreme legislator of their destinies. BACCHUS* .He doesn't even change his name. He can be found in various forms: Jupiter Lapis . remote. he takes over from Poseidon*. GREATEST ROMAN GOD JUPITER* . Dionysus*. Roman Theatre Begins It is here. The others serve as mere adornments for his throne and derive their power from his. but he remains only a name. MERCURY* .as a stone or meteorite Jupiter Pluvius . concerned with law and morality. CERES* .APOLLO* . protector of the state and people.From the Greek Hermes*. She is served by Greek women speaking Greek. and maintainer of peace. in charge of fecundity and presiding over the destiny of Rome.The ancient Roman goddess of agriculture takes on all the attributes of the Greek Demeter*. It is he who presides over tribal loyalties and oaths. The earliest theatrical writer we know anything of is Livius Adronicus*. He translates Greek comedy and tragedy for production in the festivals PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.thunder He gradually takes on characteristics of the Etruscan Tinia* (sky god) and the Greek Zeus*. NEPTUNE* . the only god of the Romans. thunder and rain.Originally a god of fresh water. justice and truth.hurling lightning Jupiter Tonans . He is rigid.bringer of rain Jupiter Fulminator . VENUS* . He is.pdffactory. She is often called "greater" than Jupiter because she creates all things.Brought back by veterans of eastern campaigns. Finally he becomes Jupiter Optimus Maximus* the best and greatest of all gods. he has his own peculiar nature that is essentially Roman. that we find the first Roman theatre productions. Although he is made up of attributes from many gods.Originally he was the god of oak forests. Her powers are the generative force of the universe.Originally a goddess of flowers she takes Aphrodite's* functions and becomes far greater. He forms the center of the state religion and the pontiffs of his temple on the Capitoline have their colleges and there they guard the divine law. in one sense.com .

The costumes in the works of both Plautus and Terence* are short garments loosely based on Greek clothes for those comedies remained set in Greece (fabula palliata). but by the the first century BCE they take over and begin to be written down. and here we find a theatre artist in full bloom. complete with scenery. parasites (the clever man who lives off others) wear grey. it is apparently adapted from the New Comedy of Menander. we know he is also an actor. This problem of developing a literary style for emerging languages will become even more important in later periods and languages. director. young men wear purple. greatly loved by the populace. * The fabula Atellana is ther local name for the Atellan farce and mime. We know of several other playwrights of this period who turn the tragedies of Euripides* into Latin productions. although it is difficult to be sure whether those used in comedy are the same as those which will soon come to be used in the farces. however. deceptions and hilarious confusions. Plays are written to be sold. they become part of the theatre companies' repertoire. The productions are professionally mounted. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He is the first playwright whose plays we have copies of and. Instead. It is with Roman comedy that we come to familiar ground. Those for the stereotyped characters are highly exaggerated. but simply knowing that these are being done doesn't tell us very much about the plays themselves. Totally unlike the Old Greek comedy. black shows youth. like Livius Andronicus*. These are minor forms early on. These masks and the characters they represent are worth more than a passing note. if successful. They are made in one piece. By the end of the Second Punic War. we find domestic comedy concerned with sons who chafe at the tyranny of the paterfamilias. red is reserved for slaves (no doubt from the Gauls and Celts). The colors of the costumes tell the nature of the characters: old men wear white. The masks* are another informative visual element.pdffactory. on any television sitcom. Gone is any any concern with the well being of the state and its citizens. Farce will continue to be the most popular form of theatre for the next thousand (or more) years. It is quite a challenge to turn a highly developed literary form in one language into a successful version in a different language. and courtesans (hired female companions) wear yellow. Later authors change the setting of the plays to Rome (fabula togata) and base their costumes on the Roman dress. costumes and masks. Playwrighting becomes so prevalent that a College of Playwrights is founded [see below]. and manager of a successful theatre troupe. We can find direct counterparts today.but none of his work survives. The Latin language is just beginning to establish literary standards and guidelines.com . The color of the hair reveals information too: white tells of old age. The characters are prehistoric comic types and in Rome they take on the basic forms in which they will appear down to the present day. and. sexual romps. These tragedies are produced with a short farce provided as an intermission piece and often as an afterword or epilogue. but the emphasis is purely Roman. covering the whole head. we have Plautus*. There are typical masks for the standard characters. including hair. The comedies of Menander* are also widely translated and produced. usually of linen. Masks for female characters and young men tend to be more natural.

Despite his wealthy acquaintances he remaines poor and shares a house with another poet Caecilius. In 207 BCE the College of Playwrights* is founded mainly in honor of Andronicus. We have only numerous fragments and 30 titles of his works.(glutton) Artful woman .Maccus Female Slave -saucy maid Bucco Old Hag Cook . He writes both comedies and tragedies. adapting from the Greek comedy by combining two or more plays. He comes from southern Italy and is brought to Rome by Cato the Elder. After he is freed he teaches school and translates Homer into Latin. He is regarded as the first to write national Roman tragedy as contrasted with adaptations of the Greek subjects.c. These are put on as part of the games celebrating the end of the First Punic War. Ennius. Naevius. It is not until later.The Mother-in-law Miles Glorious and Cicirrus The Wife Pendant (Learned Man) .Young hero Parasite -(flatterer) Testy Old Man .Carissa The scenery used on these temporary stages is less well known. with other types of entertainment.pdffactory. that scenic design makes real progress. The plays all take place in the street of a city. He is best known for an epic poem The Annals PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It is also possible that he starts the practice of "contamination".Dossennus The Heroine (Immorata) Comic Slaves . Quintus 239-169 BCE Roman poet and playwright. This street location will last as a comic setting into the Renaissance. director and producer. Gnaeus c. He will be called the "Father of Latin Poetry". In 240 BCE he produces the first Latin adaptations of a Greek comedy and a Greek tragedy. He is regarded as the founder of Roman literary drama. actor. His chief claim to fame is an epic The Punic War. Roman Writers c. We have extensive fragments of his work.110 BCE During The Era Of Senate Supremacy Livius Adronicus. There are usually three doorways up stage leading to three different houses or two houses and a street.? to 201 BCE His dramatic career runs from 235 BCE until his death. A Temple of Minerva is built to house the meetings of the poets. He becomes a dramatist.Pappus Braggart Warrior . This grows into the College of Poets*.275 BCE . 284-204 BCE He is a Greek slave from Tarentum. Only fragments of his work survive and even the titles are somewhat dubious. Some times there are five doorways with the extreme right and left leading to other streets. Lucius* c.com .

205 BCE THE HAUNTED HOUSE (Mostellaria) early 2nd century BCE TWO SISTERS NAMED BACCHIS(Bacchides) THE POT OF GOLD(Aulularia) c. debauchery. often in Athens. and. died 168 BCE. are distinctly Roman in outlook. 194 BCE Pseudolus 191 BCE AMPHITRYON c.125 BCE . puns and topical allusions. lots of love-making.205. mainly Menander. The setting is vague and the characters. His work is entirely adapted from the Greek New Comedy. trickery. with forty known play titles and three hundred fragments surviving.c. he makes a living from his plays. We know very little about him other than he is an actor. Probably this living comes from the income of his troupe of actors (grex).historian PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He is credited with at least 20 tragedies. PLAUTUS PLAYS: THE CAPTIVES (Captivi) late 3rd century BCE THE TWIN MENAECHMI (Menaechmi) late 3rd century BCE THE BRAGGART WARRIOR (Miles Gloriosus) c. We don't know how many plays Plautus* wrote and produced but over 130 are attributed to him. although usually with Greek names.pdffactory. 204 BCE THE SAVAGE SLAVE (Truculentus) Stichus 200 BCE THE LOT-DRAWERS (Casina) Rudens [DUBIOUS: Mercator. Polybius . producer and dramatist. 250-184 BCE) is born in Umbria. although most of them suffer from some missing lines and puzzling constructions. He is ranked with or above Plautus* and Terence*. apparently based on the works of Euripides. revelry. Think of the Marx brothers and you will have a good grip on Plautus. 186 BCE Cistellaria c. songs. The plays have complicated plots. He bases his comedies on the Greek New Comedy of the fourth and third centuries BCE His work reveals the transformation of Latin literature by the Greeks Plautus*' plays are set in some Greek city. strongly marked characters.239(-19) BCE. Titus Maccius Plautus (c.com . two comedies and two dramas on Roman subjects. Twenty-one plays survive. His influence (together with that of Terence*) extends down through modern times either by direct imitation of particular plays or adaptations of his dramatic techniques. Asinaria] Caecilius Statius born c.c. Writer of Roman comedy.and translations from Greek.

This makee it a Roman favorite. The mimes use much the same buffoon characters as the comedy and farce but they are improvised. The extant plays of TERENCE* are: THE EUNUCH (Eunuchus) 161 BCE THE WOMAN OF ANDROS (Andria) 166 BCE PHORMIO 161 BCE THE SELF-TORMENTOR THE BROTHERS (Adelphi) 160 BCE (Heauton Timorumenos) 163 BCE THE MOTHER-IN-LAW (Hecyra) 160 BCE Lucilius* . Still a republic in name. A nephew of Ennius and fried of Accius.102 BCE .satirist Ten years before Plautus* dies. drainage canals and paved roads spread out in networks linking major communities throughout Italy.185-159 BCE known as TERENCE is born in Carthage and taken to Rome as the slave of a senator where he is later freed. The political climate is changing as well. in aristocrats homes and in the street. By 173 BCE.com . MIME Mimesare a well known Greek form. aqueducts.He is regarded by Cicero as the greatest tragic writer. on stage. Mime companies play anywhere and everywhere. and he will become noted for producing unusual versions of myths. His plays are based on the Greek works of Menander* and Apollodorus*.Pacuvius.220 . He will be regarded as the master of Latin comedy. Revolution is side-stepped only by the murder of opposing PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. By the time he has his first play produced we are in a new era of entertainment. Rome And The Civil Wars ca. Rome turns its military attention to the Eastern end of the Mediterranean. Publius Terentius Afer ca. We first hear of them in 212 BCE in Rome. in amphitheaters and circuses. They include women. Plays are becoming more literary and another theatrical form is becoming popular. 110 BCE . Terence* is born. use no masks and have elements of indecency. 400 fragments of his work survive. the government rests in the hands of fewer and fewer senators.180 BCE . he is probably a member of the literary circle which includes Terence*. but when they appear in Rome they seem quite different.pdffactory. Rome increases its manufacturing and raw materials pours in from all over the growing empire.130 BCE . Marcus . Public works expand and great stone bridges. In the next century Decimus Laberius will put the mime into a literary form.27 BCE After the wars with Carthage are over. These are short comic pieces used as tragedy intermission and afterpiece replacements for farces. But Rome has yet to build a single permanent theatre. mimes are the mainstay of the festival Floria. especially as regards literary style.

As usual. THE TRIUMPHANT PARADE AS ENTERTAINMENT Scipio's* relatives have a series of military victories over Syria and other eastern powers.155-86 138-78 86 82 c.pdffactory. thousands of pounds of silver and gold and captive slaves without number. on the other hand. a "triumph" is held. dictatorship of Sulla PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. bringing great wealth home to Rome. plowed under and salt is sown in the soil. not a single book survives. Scipio grants a number of countries in Greece complete independence for their help in defeating the Macedonians. after a significant victory. advocating the 'old virtues' and taxing the rich. he feels the only good foreigner is a dead foreigner (or a slave) and that "decadent" Greek culture is ruining basic Roman values. The Roman view has become one of total despotism and rule with an iron hand. Cato*.* It is the most dazzling triumph seen in Rome (up to this time). Obviously Cato becomes a hero to the poor. over a thousand ivory tusks. There is a bitter power struggle over a period of years and when the dust finally clears. Opposition concerns opposing view points on morals and philosophy as well as questions of power.110 BCE .leaders. Their libraries are sacked and scattered. Cato is furious. becomes a puritanical power.com . leader in Rome. sobriety and courage. THE STRUGGLES FOR POWER Cato* bides his time and then gets the Senate to demand an accounting of all this captured wealth. The city is razed. One of the by products of Cato's success is the final destruction of the city Carthage which had dared to resume a trading empire.115-53 73-71 106-48 67-62 Pompey* Pompey subjugates Syria LEADER Marius Sulla Sulla Sulla Crassus* slave revolt led by Spartacus EVENTS barbarian Cimbri and Teutones repulsed in north social war in Italy. decency. It looks as though Greek culture will be blended into the Roman world in peace and harmony. This is a huge procession and parade. takes Athens. "Virtue" has become bloodthirsty and destructive. There is little left of Roman virtus. Scipio* Africanus. a great admirer of Greek culture and learning. The power struggle between Scipio and Cato reveals some significant insights into the social forces at work. Cato has won and the cultural views of Scipio* go down in defeat along with his power and influence. the Rose Bowl Parade and Macy's all in one.27 BCE DATES BCE c. is cultured. It includes hundreds of captured standards. ROMAN LEADERS DURING THE CIVIL WARS c. a lot like Mardi Gras. For example.

Again it is successful military leaders who leads Rome down the path to dictatorship.60 58-51 53 49 100-44 48 48-45 44 c. slaughtering countless numbers. Africa and Spain assassinated second triumvirate formed Battle of Philippi. He expects more than the current leader of Rome. A reign of terror grips Rome under Sulla's dictatorship. successful general named Caesar*. Corruption flourishs and Rome is a city for sale. The Senate treats reformers as they had the city of Carthage. After more power struggles have taken place (including the aborted Cataline* conspiracy) the bickering is resolved by a clever. defeated founds principate and takes the name "Augustus" Various Roman patricians attempt land reform to break up the vast holdings of the rich and provide land for small farmers and discharged or retired soldiers. a Thracian gladiator.com . total annihilation. first triumvirate formed conquers Gaul and seven legions lost crosses Rubicon made dictator defeats Pompey campaigns in Egypt. to form a triple alliance and the First Triumvirate is established. Caesar) Caesar Crassus Caesar Julius Caesar Caesar Caesar Caesar Mark Anthony (Anthony. Pompey. Further power battles follow. Crassus*. Brutus dies battle of Actium. The foreign slaves bring social unrest in the clash of cultures and in 73 BCE Spartacus*. along with himself. ROMAN WRITERS AND THEIR WORKS DURING THE CIVIL WARS PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. As usual. This time it is a follower of Sulla named Pompey*. The attempts usually end with hired mobs attacking the reformers in the streets and leaving them beaten to death.pdffactory. The end comes only when Sulla abruptly retires to his estates in 79 BCE leaving a power vacuum. The expansion of the empire and influx of slaves brings other problems as well. Marius* is a farmer's son who despised the Senate.82-30 43 42 63-CE14 31 27 (Crassus. He manages to bring the two contenders together. the military leader who accomplishes the job will rise to political prominence. Asia Minor. It takes the defeat of several Roman armies ranging over central and southern Italy to bring the uprising to an end. leads a slave revolt of over ninety thousand desperate men. Anthony and Cleopatra. The two conflicting parties turn Rome into a private battle ground. Lepidus) Octavian (Agustus) Augustus Octavian Octavian. Sulla* is a patrician in favor of all senatorial privileges. leading finally to the collapse of the republic. is willing to give and civil war threatens again.

110 BCE . discussions of character portrayal. He will be reputed to have raised the farce to the level of literature. His works are lost. 84 BCE . Varro.c.writes mimes. for example). His works are colloquial. Originally a slave. clever and saucy.c. These slaves are parceled out among the leaders of the conquerors. He also writes two Roman history ']plays and a poetics and a work on dramaturgy.poet Ovid* 43 BCE .55 BCE .43 BCE . Sallust* c.poet. His works on Plautus* establish the authenticity of the twenty-one plays we have and identify nineteen others which are lost.27 BCE Accius.pdffactory. He is a contemporary of Cicero and member of the equestrian class. Marcus Terentius* 116-27 BCE Roman scholar and poet. and usually is. We have more than forty titles and numerous fragments of those based on Greek models.CE 17 poet Caesar* . stock characters and six books of "Pseudo-tragedies" (apparently to teach Cynic philosophy in play form).15 BCE . he is educated in Rome and begins his career about 140 BCE.86 BCE .history of his conquests A NOTE ON SLAVES AND SLAVERY: So far the term "slave" has been used in its ancient historical meaning (as encountered in the bible.historian History of Rome Propertius* c.34 BCE . Decimus Laberius* d.c.54 BCE .historian Catullus* c. Lucius* (writes around 89 BCE) Only fragments survive. Pomponius.100 BCE . statesman.CE 17 .com . earlier Roman writers. definitions of genres.poet Aeneid Livy* 59 BCE .44 BCE . of which only fragments and titles survive. Anyone captured in armed conflict can. He also writes Roman comedy.philosopher. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.50 BCE . The term "slave" needs to be understood as it relates to these societies. 43 BCE . Cicero* 106 .CE 17 . Lucretius* 98 .poet Vergil* 70 BCE . turned into a slave.84 BCE Writer of tragedies and reputed to be one of the foremost playwrights. Lucius* 170-c. He writes extensively on drama and influences later scholars. orator. These include works on Roman theatrical history.

Rome tends to take the first option. and is a favorite primarily of the upper classes. Tragedy becomes more and more a literary endeavor and new ones are no longer written for production. Socially Roman women are far freer than their Greek counterparts and are often heard from in politics and business. The skilled. The dancer wore masks which were changed on stage to portray each new character. The new literary form of satire* becomes more popular. most captured slaves are claimed as booty of the state. musicians and playwrights. and other hard labor.pdffactory. The Theatre Building PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. to create a labor class within the society. a real crisis developes. Every urban society requires the labor of a large under class to supply the raw material for manufacturing and consumption. it sounds similar to modern interpretative dance. Cicero* stands out as the ultimate orator of the period and his prose becomes the model for over a thousand years. The stories can be serious or comic (more often serious) and are mainly drawn from tragedies and mythology. Until the empire reachs its ultimate size there is no shortage of captured combatants to be enslaved. Rome now is a city of a million teeming people. When the normal supply of captured peoples begins to dry up. These are usually freed after a short time or earn enough to enable them to buy their freedom. again for recitation only.com . Aristocratic Roman tastes becomes increasingly literary and the most distinctive Roman art of oratory becomes the favorite mode of Roman self-expression. At this point it becomes necessary either to undertake raids into other lands for the sole purpose of acquiring slaves. They represent additional wealth for the owners and the state. but later barbarian invasions short-circuts the problem before it is solved by the Romans. Essentially it is a dramatic performance involving dancing and acting stories. The story is sung by a chorus. Most go to work the land (farmers). power the ships. A Latin-speaking school of rhetoric is started in 95 BCE to help the aspiring statesmen learn argument as well as style of delivery through gesture and diction. or. PANTOMIME There is increasing use of a kind of theatrical performance called pantomime* which has been around since the third century BCE It hasn't been very popular before. Culture Flourishes Amid The Turmoil Despite the power struggles and bloodshed the city flourishes. These make up the bulk of Spartacus' rebellion. It is only later that a distinct shortage begins to occur. Greek cultural influence prospers and Epicurian philosophy is the rage.In Rome. 84 BCE) tragedy is written to be declaimed at private parties and only older works are still performed. The rich land-owning senators get first choice and the rest are sold (cheap when there are a lot of them. Literature really takes off as the darling of the aristocrats. work in the mines. For us. This category includes the actors. but now it is beginning to be seen more often. trained. It dates from 22 BCE as a significant theatrical form. It is usually done with only one dancer although sometimes with several. After Accius* (d. talented and literate captives are used according to their capacities and talents. dear when there are only a few).

In some buildings water-cooled air is circulated through the house. But theatre seems to have been a different matter. The stage house (scaena) is the same height as the rear wall of the auditorium. with seating between 15. In 13 BCE the theatre of Balbus* and in 11 BCE the theatre of Marcellus* are built. The Roman Empire Begins It's a little strange to suddenly refer to the "empire" since it has been sneaking in for some time. can see and appreciate the shows. This also changes the entrance-way used by Greek choruses (Parados) into a covered passage (vomitorium) which is used by the audience as well as performers. The stage (pulpitum) itself is about five feet higher than the orchestra floor. that raise objections from the reactionary members of the senate. apparently so that the goddess. constructed on level ground. Sound engineering provides that the stage house acts as an acoustical shell and various large vessels are included in the back of the auditorium to resonate with a range of sounds and amplify them. The audience is also protected from the sun and rain by awnings. already scattered through much of this territory. providing air-conditioning to combat the hot Italian weather. in 55 BCE. but later (after 100 CE) other means are devised. The building is a complete architectural whole which reduces the orchestra to a semi-circle. Roman architects design a building which can be. Perhaps it is the immorality of the mimes. The size of these theatres vary. made up of Caesar*. As time goes by at least 125 permanent theatres are built throughout the empire from Asia Minor through North Africa into Europe. Each is a general. the time of the First Triumvirate. The "temple" is discretely housed above the auditorium (cavea). For the first time a curtain is provided to divide the stage from the house.000. a leader of Roman legions in the three major divisions of the Roman empire. The dedication in 52 BCE launched a variety of shows. However. Venus Vicrix*. Rather than trying to find a suitable hillside. between five and seven doors. newly part of the First Triumvirate.com . Whatever the reason. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and usually is. and including a small obligatory temple shrine to some god. the construction of a permanent theatre is permitted only by designating it a "temple". They have no problem in funding huge amphitheaters and the Circus Maximus for chariot racing and gladiator battles. Originally these curtains are lowered into a slot in the orchestra floor. It is thanks to Pompey*.As part of the building boom the first permanent theatre in Rome is finally built. now Iraq) a power struggle begins between the two remaining leaders. It is difficult for us to understand the reluctance of the Romans to commit themselves to this construction. The architecture of the Roman theatres differs significantly from the Greek and Hellenistic models. familiar from stage. at stage level. Crassus* and Pompey*.pdffactory. film. that construction takes place. one is finally started in Rome. The stage has a decorated front (really the back wall) which includes. We know a great deal about the Roman theatre building thanks to the survival of Vitruvius*' work on Roman architecture (De Architectura 15 BCE).000 and 8. Greek theatres. we are now into that time. story and poetry. TV. which regularly appear as part of the tragedy productions. These stages varies between 20 and 40 feet deep and 100 to more than 300 feet wide. The enterprise is sufficiently successful to encourage the construction of two other theatres in the city. It is 60 BCE. When Crassus dies in a terrible Roman defeat in Parthia (over in Persia by the Euphrates. are remodeled. The wings which enclose the ends of the stage also has doors. allowing for elaborate scenes to be revealed. The first Roman theatre is built in Pompeii in 75 BCE and now. Care is taken to protect the players and the stage is roofed.

the conspirators. Out in the boondocks of Asia Minor. the empire is here. Cassius and Brutus. He seizes the treasury in Rome and Pompey* runs off to his own power base in Spain and North Africa. he returns for more honors and triumphs. Octavius* and Marc Anthony* dividing the empire between them. Caesar* puts Cleopatra on the throne (and dallies there long enough to father a child). Well aware of the problems of changing leadership. Statues of him are put up. So much for the republic. Sardinia and Corsica. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. land for veterans. The political conflict comes to a head when Julius Caesar* brings his legions south from Gaul and crosses the Rubicon. Eventually Octavius* and Marc Anthony* rout and kill him.pdffactory. They plan to assassinate the rich land owners in order to come up with the cash to fill the empty treasury. Pompey* (the younger) seems to think he should have a piece of the pie and takes Sicily. Octavius* his heir. This time he is named dictator for life and given the rights of a king. He finds Egypt a political mess.com . Julius Caesar* throws himself into government in a big way. he names his grand nephew. defeats Pompey*'s troops and Pompey* himself is killed by the Egyptians. which provides the food supply. So here we are at the Ides of March 44 BCE and the assassination gang led by Cassius* and Brutus* do the deed on the senate steps. so now he is a god. die. Taking time to zip off and put down another revolt. Caesar's* pet general. There are land reforms. Two years after he dies. Despite the impression given in fictionalized accounts. and with them the republican cause. He tries to ramrod a revolt against Octavius* in Sicily but his army betrays him and he gets mandatory retirement.For the first time there are major bloody battles involving one set of Roman Legions fighting another. reforms in commerce and complete reform of the calendar (we still use it today. Octavius* has his name changed to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus*. The ultimate victor. It doesn't. The Republican Revolt This move toward kingship really alarms the liberal. Marc Anthony* rallies Rome and with Octavius* (Caesar's heir) they set up against the conspirators. The Brief Course of Julius Caesar This brings us to Caesar's* famous sojourn in Egypt. with slight modifications). He returns home in 45 BCE to Rome and receives a series of triumphs. republican-minded bloc and sixty brave souls get together to arrange the usual Roman solution: assassination. Poor Lepidus* has been forced into playing second fiddle in the triumvirate. just won't do. Julius Caesar* is deified. Negotiating who gets the power comes first. moves on to put down revolts in Syria and North Africa. (the river marking the division between Cisalpine Gaul and Italy). who figure this will please Caesar. the pursuit of the assassins does not take first place. Only Romans can kill other Romans. Just so no one will forget the relationship. Now Egypt is the granary for Rome and unrest in area. coins with his image are struck and generally speaking he's king of the mountain. This is a real power play since nobody is supposed to bring their troops home to Rome. he is made dictator for a ten year term. Caesar* follows. The second triumvirate is set up in 43 BCE with Lepidus*. Things are by no means settled in the leadership scramble.

second. Augustus' wife. good government.the only extant complete treatise on dramatic criticism and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Octavius* declares war on him and at Actium* (31 BCE) Anthony* and the Egyptian navy are defeated. including theatre buildings. Livy*'s History of Rome and the biographies of Plutarch* offer much of the information we have. but no new theatre literature. Let's consider society first. the entertainment side of theatre takes off and there are scenic developments galore. Epodes. satirists. The power struggle is over and Octavius* rates a three-day triumph in Rome. Cicero*. the society changes with peace and good government.Ars Poetica Quintus Horatius* Flaccus is born in 65 BCE and dies 8 BCE A Roman lyric and satiric poet and author of Odes. of course. Ars Poetica* . concerning the theatre of Roman times. Satires. In particular. The old paterfamilias* control of women is long gone and women are much more seen and heard from in politics and business. statesman as well as author. You will notice that everybody is still pretending that the power comes from the senate. including a catalog of comic and tragic masks. In the second century of the Roman Peace we find two other theatrically useful writers. Social Changes Begin Under Augustus Augustus institutes a series of reform legislation to restore republican virtues and improve morals. Horace* writes his work on dramatic theory and criticism. spread over the whole empire. Horace . It is a time of peace. historians. They will keep up this charade throughout the course of the empire. The Glory of Roman Literature Poets. In 27 BCE he is given the title of Augustus* (worshipful) and the post of tribune for life. These do not repress the extravagant tastes and behavior of the wealthy senators. Viturvius' work on architecture. The most renowned works of Roman writers are clustered in this early part of the Pax Romana*. Roman culture. Even later.pdffactory. We will look at the last important theatrical writer a little later in his proper context.com . It begins with Octavius* and immediately he starts reforms while setting an example in his own life of a return to republican austerity. The pair flee to Egypt and commit suicide. activities and literature. Epistles and. great Latin literature. It is Cleopatra*. tells in great detail how the theatres are built. The Golden Age Of Roman Culture Finally we come to the Golden Age of Rome. the beginning of the Pax Romana which will last almost two hundred years. opens the era. Basically there are three areas of activity which are of interest to us in this period: first. epigrammatists and biographers flourish under the sway of peace and order. especially. is credited with much of his stable progress in good government. as we have mentioned. followed fast by Vergil* with his Aeneid and Ovid*'s poetry. Julius Pollux writes on the physical aspects of the Greek theatre.Since his uncle has been made a god. Livia. orators. This work will influence playwrights for the next seventeen centuries. but they do set a tone for public attitudes and governmental treatment of citizens and slaves alike. third. Octavius* is declared "son of a god" (divi filius) in 36 BCE Marc Anthony* gets sidetracked in the Egyptian portion of the empire.

character and dialog great "decorum" must be used in what is shown and what is said The specific details of what constitutes "decorum" includes: Actions that would not seem credible when shown on stage. There should be no fourth speaking part in any scene. Posts are filled by competent people who must pass tests for their abilities. and from Asia Minor to Spain. The deus ex machina. whose works might eclipse that of Horace. is considered. and to achieve new uses for the dome. except when clearly logical. For the first time merit. public (as well as private) latrines. police and fire brigades. Public apartment blocks where the ill-paid working class live (insula) fill the byways of the city. the vault. Specifically a writer should look to Greek models. as they erect extensive PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. There are miles of aqueducts bringing fresh water. the piece should promote "pleasure and profit" by joining the instructive and the agreeable. or solution of the action by the intervention of a god should be avoided.] Generally speaking there is little in this work beyond the purely formal dictates for writers. and strict traffic laws. a formidable bureaucracy is established to run the increasingly complex business of the empire. It is preferable to take the plot from traditional stories. such as killings and transformations. The city is rebuilt and we can see the emergence of an efficient. sewer systems. the pattern established in Rome will be exported from England to North Africa. Varro and Lucilius. The main emphasis is put on: a play must have five acts the chorus must function as a character the work must have "proportion" the author must use "good sense" in choice of subject. Society Back in the arena of societal affairs. City planning becomes a reality and as the Romans build throughout the empire. if they had survived.theory.com . rather than political connections. Beyond these formal attributes it is significant that Horace (unlike the Greeks) insists that dramatic poems should be tender and affecting and tragedy should not attempt to provide an amusing or captivating show. The discovery of concrete enables the Romans to expand their use of the Etruscan arch. central heating and water-cooled air conditioning. Unbelievable or impossible things should be avoided. The invention of new stories is regarded as unlikely to succeed. except a minor functionary. [There are two other authors. healthy and socially productive urban environment that will not be equaled (or even approached) for another two thousand years.pdffactory. should occur off stage and be reported.

Holiday Inns and cruise ships. a steam room. reading rooms and debating halls. a tepid bath and a cold one. The public bath is much more than a sign and symbol of Roman affluence. This is the person assigned to be head of the state religion. temples by the dozens. Swimming pools. every thirty miles. and generally enjoy the good life. A masterpiece of engineering. and promenades for quiet relaxation and leisurely discussion. There are gardens. but Augustus's son-in-law Agrippa builds the first of the free baths and soon there are hundreds all over the empire. from the Rhone river to Armenia. For the intellectual there are art galleries. Here they mingle and share the good life. An ancient Roman would recognize the descendents of these baths in our large hotels. courtyards. It gives a sense of democracy to free men and citizens of all degrees. harbors. The empire's postriders can move twice that fast. There you can get a rubdown with oil. wrestling rooms. Baths are monuments to the notion that many forms of leisure can be put together under a single roof. Under the Republic there is a special PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. gambling rooms and even lodging for the overnight guest. Their speed and efficiency will not be matched until the advent of railroads. Later in the empire some of the baths will occupy as much as thirty-three acres. Resting rooms. A feeling of belonging to the same great Roman community (communitas) holds the empire together. gymnasiums and massage rooms beckon to the active visitor. There are posthouses every ten miles and lodging. museums. a hot bath. Religion There has always been a position in Roman government called Pontifex maximus*. from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to the Tigris and the Euphrates. as well as shops and restaurants cater to the rich and poor alike. These fascinating places have been around for a long time as the primary place in which to spend leisure time. libraries. All these. Even remote towns and villages on the borders of the empire will have their baths. Julius Caesar* once traveled eight hundred miles in eight days over these roads. Architects and engineers have come into their own. lecture halls (even theatrical literature recited). amphitheaters.public buildings: forums. cut a political or economic deal. the baths. with food and entertainment.pdffactory. Many of the roads and bridges are still in use today. They have not been accessible to everyone. are available. Roman Roads In the next two centuries a major Roman highway system will run from the edge of Scotland to the Red Sea. But the bathing part is only the beginning. They become the center of Roman social life.com . They house. Communication and commerce flourish by means of the road system and the harbors. of course. these roads are constantly maintained. The Public Baths The public building most typical of Roman society may well be the public baths. bridges and ever increasing roads. In some there are a cluster of rooms set discretely apart for prostitutes.

4 BCE 14-47 c. There they examine the augurs* (the guys who look for and interpret signs they find in various places). These pontiffs* establish all the rituals that the Romans are so fond of.pdffactory. When he builds a new temple to his favorite. superintends all the public religious ceremonies and draws up the calendar of festivities. There is a college of pontiffs who preserves the sacred books. empire extended to Danube. The first college has guardianship of the divine law and the calendar.29 37-41 41-54 54-68 69-79 Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Caligula Claudius Nero Vespasian Jerusalem captured by Titus 79 destruction of Pompeii 43 conquest of Britain fire in Rome 70 79-81 81-96 96-98 98-117 pushes imperial boundaries to Persian 117 Gulf and Caspian Sea largest extent of Empire Hadrian abandons east of Euphrates codification of laws revolt in Judaea Antoninus 117-138 131 131-35 138-161 161-180 Tiberius crucifixion of Christ Augustus EVENTS Golden Age in Arts. This religious post has been of little interest for us up to now but as we move into the Christian era it will have interesting complications. In 12 BCE Augustus* becomes Pontifex maximus*. PAX ROMANA birth of Christ PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . have their priestly colleges and pronounce their verdicts. Roman Leaders During The Empire c.27 BCE . The temple on the Capitoline* (one of the hills) is the focus of the State religion.residence for the holder of this office. The second deals with the reading of omens. The number of pontiffs and of augurs vary from period to period and the number of colleges increase as time goes by. on the Palatine (another of the hills) he moves all the sacred books to a vault there. Apollo. The priests have a good deal of power in the state. The Pontifex has a collection of pontiffs* (priests) under his control.CE 180 REIGNS CE LEADER 27BCE-14 c.

the sea fight. at sword point and with hot irons. In 56 BCE. to the newer forms involving showy battles. of course. Sea Battles Chariot races. Participants are costumed and even the weapons are selected for visual effect as well as their more deadly attributes. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. through increasingly popular mimes. celebrating the completion of a water conduit. Mock hunts are dramatized for human versus animal battles and for the reverse.pdffactory.com . Keep in mind that these sea battles include ships. animals hunting down people. Participants are selected for their visual appeal as well as their fighting skill. The range of theatrical events run the gamut from short. Amphitheaters are occasionally flooded for such events but the biggest show take place on a lake. For that event a special lake was dug and over six thousand oarsmen and marines were involved. Julius Caesar* gave the first one on record. tragedies. there are nineteen thousand participants. increasingly elaborate pantomimes. There are elaborate costumes for the participants. The popularity of theatrical battles increase as the occurrence of real battles decrease. Costumes and Props Gladiator battles and animal fights become more theatrical. gladiatorial battles and animal fights are being challenged by the most spectacular battle entertainment. Dwarfs and women are included along with diverse ethnic types. As the empire progresses these shows become more elaborate and condemned criminals and slaves are actively killed as part of the battle. but the spectacle doesn't stop there. many costumed guards and managers can be seen driving the fighters on.Pius Marcus Aurelius 165 plague depopulates Rome 166 beginning of defensive wars It's Variety Time In The Theatre In 17 BCE magnificent secular games are held to celebrate the first ten years of Augustus*' rule. simple farces. to spill their blood for entertainment. The celebration runs for three days and three nights. In 46 BCE.

Elaborate displays are the order of the day and each show must outdo the one before. Marcus Fabius from CE 63 he taught oratory in Rome. Bread and Circuses The time of "bread and circuses"* is here.c. Despite attempts at moral reform the mimes are becoming more obscene. "Circuses" includes all forms of entertainment offered in theatres and amphitheaters as well as the Circus Maximus (designed primarily for chariot races).philosopher and dramatist Petronius* c. slaves and criminals die for decoration. Shows in these public buildings often run continuously all day. CE113 . for example) and thousands of objects (props) to fill and decorate the stage.CE 104 .We are now moving from dates BCE to CE and for convenience all dates that are CE will be written without that designation.Pantomimes as well as other forms of entertainment make use of people as scenery. Seneca* c.satirist Pliny the Younger* c. whole education of a Roman and methods used in best schools.c. the management will often throw bread. The "bread" part comes with competition among theatre producers. CE20 .com . from Spain.CE 180 Roman Writers And Their Works During The Early Empire Pomponius.historian Juvenal* c.c. In order to keep the crowds in one particular building. Plays boast a multitude of animals (six hundred mules in a train.biographer Tacitus* c. Lucian. [NOTE.CE 65 . cakes and other edible goodies to the crowd between the shows (we will call it intermission). CE118 .satarist Martial* c. he was in disgrace under Tiberius but prominent under Caligula and Claudius. Author of 12 books on principles of rhetoric.epigrammatist Plutarch* CE46 . CE55 .] The Roman Peace 27 BCE .c. CE62 .satirist Quintilian*. including all varieties of sexual acts as part of the public entertainment. CE60 . CE40 .CE66 . Secundus* (wrote in first century CE) a few fragments survive. Entertainment of the crowd is regarded as the right of the Roman populace. (2nd century) of Samosata (in Syria) .CE 120 . Regarded as the most important Roman writer of Tragedy in his day. Only dates referring back to BCE will have a designation. CE140 .writer and administrator PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. ensuring that the audience will not wander down the street to another show.pdffactory.4 BCE . Coated with gold or used as human torches.

Most of what he writes are philosophical treatises about Stoic* morality. The theory goes that Seneca writes these to try to teach Nero how to behave. he orders Seneca to commit suicide. Theatre has become an entertainment mill and anyone with pretensions to creating literature has to take into account the market they are writing for.com . By the time he begins writing tragedies it is no longer the fashion to write these for performance. Nero* may be just another in a long line of moral degenerates but Seneca* has strong Stoic* ethics and a talent for communicating.180 CE emperor and author of Meditations Vitruvius* (dates and full name uncertain) Author of the extant work On Architecture which includes much information on Roman theatre building. Scenery Vitruvius* tells of a variety of ways in which the stage is decorated for different theatrical events. The old three-sided Greek periaktoi* are elaborately painted and rotate to show a change in place. makes his public debut. One of the few good things associated with Nero* is his tutor and pet writer Seneca* . complete with windows and balconies (for comedies). As part of Nero*'s purge of a conspiracy against him. Having said at the outset of this period that there is no new theatre literature. Nine of his tragedies survive to become the primary models for Renaissance writers. Mimes and satyric pieces require trees. Socrates*). Even though it makes a terrific image. Machinery for elaborate displays improve and cranes. The front of the upstage area (scaenae frons*) is elaborately decorated to define the kind of building involved in the plays. Seneca* needs a little more explanation. Nero* does not fiddle while Rome burns. The Silver Age of Latin Literature The Last Playwright . Consequently his works are intended to be recited at dinner parties and in the intellectual halls of the public baths. wagons. mountains and all sorts of rustic locations. As a good Roman Stoic.After Augustus* dies there are some real ups and downs in the government business. Seneca* writes for the intellectual and political elite.Marcus Aurelius* 121 CE . who has a passion for performing. Tiberius* doesn't do too badly (although he is in power during the crucifixion of Christ*. the first ruler to declare himself a god (remember that Augustus* was only the son of a god). These may be royal palaces (for tragedies) or private homes. rather than as a practicing playwright. it doesn't work. His plays are often considered as instructive of the Stoic values.pdffactory. caverns. So it is strictly as a writer. that Seneca* closes out the range of classic theatre. Claudius* manages to get the ship of state back on an even keel (despite a terrible stammer) but Nero* starts rocking it again. If he does. singing in Naples. But in 64 Rome does burn and the new Christian* sect makes a good scapegoat. In the same year Nero*. which doesn't have much impact at that time) but Caligula* is a real crazy. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. curtains and even pyrotechnic effects are employed. Stoic Philosophy in Seneca Later generations will not be aware of the nonperformance nature of Seneca's plays. he does (not unlike the earlier Greek. He isn't even in town when it happens.

The Greek concern with examining relations between gods and man. The Stoic lesson which is clear in these plays concerns the terrible effects of yielding to a particular passion (lust. repulsive. for example. ambition. His political life is as prominent as his literary career. Furens. Verbal brilliance and theatrical power enable his work to becomw a model of tragedy for the Renaissance.c. PLAYS: Agamemnon. Additional Stoic* teachings can be found: the notion that a King is not the master but the servant of his people. His choruses are obviously not designed for singing and dancing. After much grief with Nero he retires to his estates but Nero sends word that he should end his life and so he does. just speaking. The elegant. on the other hand.com . Without rhetoric the descriptions of butchery and ghoulishness would be sickening. treatises and scientific discussions. Seneca becomes fascinated by Stoic philosophy and sticks to it throughout his life." Seneca*s treatment of Medea* is not concerned with injustices imposed on women or foreigners. watch me. Remember that rhetoric business that the Romans are so crazy about? Well. He assumes his audience knows the Greek originals and will have them in mind when they hear his version. The Phoenician Women. in true Stoic fashion. life should be lived according to nature. elaborate. Later. line-for-line exchanges of dialogue in Seneca's plays. what opera is to music. This means that he doesn't bother explaining the situation at the opening of a play. Rhetoric makes the monstrous inhumanity of the characters bearable. He writes extensively in a variety of forms. dialogues. Lucius Annaeus . Hercules on Oeta. or man and man are of no interest to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In the Phaedra* story. he sets up an emotional atmosphere. Medea. or even funny. finally. gemlike paradoxes and sentiments can be seen in the back and forth. He needs it because he lives through one of the stickiest times in the Roman Empire. He is called to be the tutor of Nero* and is probably responsible for the "new Golden Age" of Nero's early rule. Oedipus. Seneca* is the all-time master of rhetoric.pdffactory. Instead. health and attachment to the family are. the doctrine of how unimportant things like wealth.author of the only extant Roman tragedies. The Stoic* goal (interestingly similar to Buddhism) is to banish passions and achieve apatheia (a release from emotion or excitement). The Trojan Women Central to each of his plays is a grand and consuming passion. Aristotle* said that tragedy should show men like us or greater than we are. Seneca*. vengeance). gives us a woman who comes from a long line of passionate women. Seneca* models his plays mainly on those of Euripides. His father was a rhetorician. Phaedra. letters. Instead. Seneca has no interest in doing that. Seneca*'s characters are only demonstrations of the potentialities of human passion. Hercules. "if you want to see real passion. the original Greek model has the nurse goad Phaedra on to extremes. the English Renaissance and French Neoclassic playwrights will really take to this passion stuff. Thyestes.CE 65 . and it is in the area of speaking that Seneca* really shines. She seems to say to us. Rhetoric is to speaking. His plays are rich with rhetoric and sensationalism and illustrate Stoicism. he shows us the terrific voltage of which humanity is capable. It concerns only Medea's passion for revenge against Jason*.Seneca Seneca. and. 4 BCE . His works also include philosophical prose.

His other accomplishment of note is his revision and codification of Roman law. He.Seneca*. Roman citizenship is awarded for a variety of services to Rome and the full protection of Roman law is being extended to more and more people. one currency. Rome becomes a melting pot. The number of freed men begin to outnumber the free born. What is of real interest to us is that Trajan* restricts the monies spent on gladiator shows and revives the theatre. spreading their assimilated knowledge and ways of doing things from Scotland to the Sahara. and those who rise economically form a special group. * The End of an Era Under the Roman peace* the Romans become civilizers of Europe and Britain. They will become more powerful as time passes. There are minor uprisings. all transform diverse cultures and heritages into a sprawling Roman society. The Romans learn from the Greeks and other eastern cultures. is a Stoic. This extreme of character passion will prove fascinating and useful for later generations of playwrights. One language.* for example. This helps spread knowledge of different cultures from one place to another. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The army is recruited from all over the empire.* All over the empire large numbers of non-Latin peoples are becoming Romans. The Spread Of Roman Culture Rulers continue to rule with greater or lesser success but the efficient bureaucracy enables the empire to run fairly smoothly. Vesuvius erupts in 79 burying the city of Pompeii* and two other towns. The only exception to this general rotation is the Praetorian* Guard who are stationed in Rome. All over the empire provincial laws are operative so long as they don't conflict with Roman law. They have little civilizing effect on their acquisitions in the east where older civilizations are simply incorporated into the empire. the lack of a common faith and a common purpose makes the population restless and there is an influx and spread of oriental religions. we can learn much of his civilization from his Meditations*. Soldiers rise by merit and veterans serve as reservists. to put down one of the perennial revolts. the empire begins to decline and all the different provinces will have to build on what they have learned. Alexandria. The Jews create an annoyance and in 70 the Romans sack and raze Jerusalem. A philosopher and writer.com . After one more ruler of little concern we end this period with Marcus Aurelius* a leader of considerable accomplishment. one culture emanating from Rome. one third of Rome's population are slaves. is the second greatest city in the empire. Many of the Roman Legion headquarters had temples of Mithra*. By the end of the century there are Greaco-Roman merchants in China*. By 100. By 180 BCE.pdffactory. providing later generations with enormous archeological finds. By the end of Marcus Aurelius*' reign. like Seneca*. from Portugal to the borders of Persia. one giant trading network. The empire grows to its largest extent under Trajan*. His successor is Hadrian* who builds the famous wall across the narrowest part of England to hold back the barbarian celts and picts to the north. One of Hadrian's less appealing acts is his devastation of Judea. By and large the only fighting is on the frontiers. There are occasional disruptions of nature. Soldiers serve in all the different provinces and are rotated with some regularity. But.

* The Military Empire CE 180 . empire c. The reign of Septimus Servius * (193-211) wipes out the Praetorian Guard* (the former power to make and break rulers) and power moves to the mass army. CE 160 . Gallienus*.pdffactory. Philip*.284 REIGNS CE 180-192 193-211 211-218 218-222 222-235 235-270 270-275 276-282 LEADER Commodus Septimius Severus Caracalla Elagabalus Alexander Severus Maximinus. c.250-305 general persecution of Christians pacification of Gaul In 212 citizenship granted to all free inhabitants of empire EVENTS ROMAN WRITERS IN AGE OF MILITARY EMPERORS AND BARBARIAN INVASIONS 180 . is a time of adventurers and usurpers.there is a great movement of Northern European (Goths) and Asiatic peoples toward the borders of the empire. from the death of Marcus Aurelius* in 180 to the next intelligent leader in 284.Christian apologist PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . trade stagnates and a police state is established. Gordian Decius*. robber bands roam the countryside. Franks and Persians overrun frontiers and there is a vast increase in the power of the military which leads to total militarization of the state. Civil war breaks out from time to time.284 The slow and painful decline of the Roman empire need not be covered here in much detail but there are a few personages and events that may contribute to a better understanding of how society and theatre will change and survive. German and Samaritan barbarians break through along the Danube and sweep into Italy around the head of the Adriatic Sea. ROMAN LEADERS DURING THE MILITARY EMPIRE Beginning of Barbarian Invasions CE 180 . These hundred years. 230 .c. Claudius II* Aurelian Probus III.250-265 plague rages throughout Valerian*. He imposes ruinous taxes to support the military and starts serious inflation. Goths.284 CE Tertullian* c. Gallus*.

a 10 book Greek dictionary. He may have been influenced by Mithraism. Spreading techniques of water conservation and building miles of irrigation systems. Culture. It isn't until Saul* of Tarsus.c. Ten years after the Crucifixion there are Christians in Rome. a group called Nazarenes* (followers of Christ) begin to spread their doctrine in Judea and Syria. Strange Gods And Cults From Afar These are exotic and complex religions which can not be assimilated into the Roman pantheon. or of Serapis Serapis* . The Christians Begin To Emerge It is time to take a look at that growing group of members of Roman society who come under the heading of Christians.son of Osiris.Bull Persia . With things going from bad to worse on the european continent. the more they flourish.sun god .Buddhism . They are kept apart and efforts are often made to ban them. They pave the way for Christianity. Theatre benefits from all the learning going around when Julius Pollux (writing between 180-190) puts together a terrific Greek encyclopedia. but the more they are attacked.god of light India . 340 . Alexandria* benefit from having the Mediterranean between them and the mess back in Europe. Osiris* sun god who is torn apart and revived by Isis Horus* . Egypt . they bring civilization as well as agriculture to the desert. promises life after death.Julius Pollux* writes c.com . He provides much of the information we have today on the physical aspects of the Greek theatre.which seems very similar to the Stoic* philosohic view.Christian historian Golden Age of Africa Since the time of Cleopatra. After the Crucifixion. They tend to address matters of life and death in terms of the individual and not the state. Africa and its primary city. recently in the heart of London. takes up the doctrine and becomes Paul*. It is called Onomastikon Eusebius of Caesarea* CE 260 . but he builds a theological system of belief and develops a PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. an encyclopedia containing a chapter on physical aspects of Greek theatre including a catalog of comic and tragic masks.pdffactory. a Roman citizen who speaks Greek. Christianity will become colored by a number of Roman religious practices.contributes Isis* who promises immortality and celebrates the individual. The great library* and schools attract scholars from all over the empire.contributes Mithra* .a favorite cult of Romans. CE 180-190.* the Romans have been improving the granary of Egypt.] Mazda* . trade and agriculture flourish. [Mithraic* temples have been found in all regions of the Roman empire.

He is a hereditary priest of Baal* and since. During these centuries there seem to be a lot of exchanges of ideas. By the time of Philip* (an interesting guy. With all these additions and variations. The Alamanni (eastern Germans). the identification of Mary* with Isis and her elevation to quasi-divine. Spain and England for ten PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. things go from bad to worse. establish a strong state. he is also Pontifex maximus* (head of the state religion. who have also been gaining strength. an arab chieftain with a Christian wife). There are no settled creeds and wide local variations [some of which survive to this day]. especially into Christianity from the popular and wide spread Mithraic* Cult and the cult of Serapis-Isis-Horus*. When he dies (under the reign of Nero*). Meanwhile back in Rome.pdffactory. especially "washed in the blood" from its mysteries in which the Mithraist actually bathed in the blood of a sacrificial bull to be "born again". he leaves an active belief that strikes at the political essentials of the imperial system. extravagant and debauched than any Roman ruler. Things now begin to go from worse to just plain awful.creed. Decius* organizes the first official persecution of Christians* which just happens to coincide with a really bad outbreak of the plague. Elagabalus* is more excessive. The civil wars continue. He is followed by a ruler who makes Nero and Caligula look like good citizens. The governor of the province of Gaul sets up his own empire (284) and rules Gaul. The Persians. the history of Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries is largely a record of disputing views on the nature of Christianity. he can impose this really non-Roman religion on the state. From here on out. This clever device makes them liable to taxes. as ruler. The plague rages for fifteen years throughout the empire (250-265) but the persecution of Christians continues through 305. Vandals (a Germanic tribe) and Franks (Germanic freemen) all break through the Roman borders along the Rhine.com . over the Pyrenees into Spain and head for North Africa. He is a persuasive and articulate advocate for his views. They proceed to move across Gaul. The Goths. make inroads on the borders further south. The practical methods of popular religions of this time provide head-shaving for priests and characteristic garments of the Egyptian priests. the emperors continue to make whoopee. Excesses of Rome The tax problem leads Caracalla* (211-218) to grant Roman citizenship to all free persons in the empire. the "blood" imagery. The Alexandrine cult of Serapis-Isis-Horus* contributes even more to the still fluid Christian belief: the personality of Horus* (at once the son of the god Serapis. and identical with him). despite the fact that almost constant civil wars are going on. Local loyalties grow stronger as the central government grows weaker. Mithraic worship contributes the notion of Sun-day as the day of worship (rather than the Jewish Sabbath). He throws a huge celebration in 248 to celebrate the 1000 years* since the traditional founding date of Rome. It is a time of rapid turnover of emperors. The first two centuries of Christianity are very obscure. remember?). In the east the Goths (Russian types) sail across the Black Sea and attack the Roman outposts on the southern shore. who have moved south from Sweden into the Russian plains. public entertainment is at its height. The frontiers of the empire begin to cave in. We will return to the Christians as their activities seen relevant to the progress of society and of the theatre. Provincial leaders come from the provinces as do their armies.

the Persians attempt to use Zorasterism* to consolidate their realm.pdffactory. Persia. adds two deputy co-emperors and successors (called Caesars) to handle the military. Syria. it rapidly becomes an international religion from the Atlantic to China. when he dies in 306. gives Maximian equal power. but. Constantius Chlorus* (father of Constantine* the Great) does not. Egypt and Asia Minor. but manages to retake Gaul. the succession in the West is up for grabs. Galerius* does name him Caesar in the West. He is a take-charge type and begins drastic reforms immediately by firmly dividing the unmanageable empire into East and West. His successor Galerius* continues the persecutions in the East. The Late Period To The Fall Of The Empire The last segment of the Roman empire is punctuated by a few brilliant leaders and a significant reorganization of society. Both religions have some competition from the new Manicheism*. Religious persecution continues because Christian* conversions are spreading the practice of refusing state religious rites. Having tidied things up he retires. Combining Zoroastrian and Christian elements. in light of the military pressure. founded by Mani*. Other break-aways include Syria. and. a Mesopotanian prophet. He attacks the Christians in what is now known as the "Great Persecution" and issues a rapid series of edicts to root out the offending religion. Taking a cue from the Romans. Unfortunately. His successor. That's not legal. It begins with Diocletian* coming to the helm in 284. all meetings of Christians are forbidden and they are deprived of all rights. There are further revolts on the frontiers but Claudius II* stems the Goths in Serbia.* The Empire Becomes Permanently Divided PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In an effort to stop this imperial slide into chaos. his son Gallienus* takes control of the whole empire again. Aurelian* begins withdrawal of Roman legions along the Rhine. He leaves the last ruler a brief period of peace. However there are two other guys fighting for the top job. Diocletian* reorganizes everything. After he is captured by Persians.years. Eventually there are six augusti claiming the title. In the West. He also continues Christian* persecutions. * The End of the Beginning of the End The last part of this period shows some signs of bringing a little order out of chaos. Zorasterism and Manicheism The Persian empire has been getting stronger and better organized as the Roman one is crumbling. He appoints a co-emperor (Maximian*) in the west and moves his Eastern capital to Nicomedia. All copies of Christian scriptures and churches are destroyed. most of Asia Minor and Egypt. he proceeds to die of the plague. The legions in the West proclaim young Constantine* emperor. ends the persecutions and puts out an edict of toleration. He puts down revolts and defeats the Persians. Finally the group thins out and it's time to try something. His hope is that Rome can use Christianity to consolidate the empire. and this threatens Roman law and order.com . Valerian* divides the rule of the empire and puts his son in control of the western portion.

masters can't abuse slaves. down the coast of Greece. But Constantine* figures he needs the best help available to win the throne. goes along with this Christian tolerance for a while but then resumes persecuting them. tries to buy him off. Licinius*. This is the beginning of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. move south and west. not religion and does not impose any religion on the empire. branding on the face is abolished. He's especially fond of Apollo* and Mithra*. He does. By this time the Cult of Mithras* is the religion of choice of soldiers. He is tolerant of all and encourages pagan festivals. He plays umpire when there are disputes because he believes the emperor has both the right and the duty to lay down laws. At the same time Constantine* sets up the papacy's claim to temporal power by giving the rights and duties of magistrates to all the Christian bishops in the empire. Alaric* dies. Constantine* is incredibly active in his efforts to establish and maintain peace and order. Fortunately for Italy. But he is insistent that religious conduct and rituals. One of the more significant edicts of Constantine* binds people to their work. neither of which is up to coping. prisoners in jails are not to be harshly treated. In 324 he calls the first ecumenical council of the Christian church and instructs the bickering Christian groups to get their act together.When Theodosius* dies in 395 the Empire is again divided between two emperors. and his victory is now coupled with Christianity in the eyes of the West. The Eastern ruler. buys him off and they make a truce. He issues a number of edicts providing: slaves have the right to attain freedom. He claims to have seen a vision in the form of a cross in the sky and heard a command that he go into battle under that sign. slave families must be kept together. Arcadius*. peasants are protected when they fall into debt. Christianity does permit him to claim to be "ordained by God to oversee whatever is external to the Church".com .*. emperor in the west. sacks it and sweeps it clean. Constantine* can't claim divinity. Honorius*. the Eastern emperor. Administration Imperial control over the lives of the people is tightened through taxation. under Alaric* (the all powerful). The barbarian horde of Huns. even laws of religion. As a nominal Christian. Social Laws Constantine* seems to be exceptionally humane.* Constantine* And The Empire Is Reunited In 312 he makes his move. Unfortunately one of the Roman legions breaks the truce in 410 and Alaric* moves into Rome. through Athens* and down the Peloponneus. which is a mildly successful solution. He sets a stamp on many areas of society that will last for millennia. crucifixion and gladiatorial displays are condemned. but he can surround himself with a divine aura. children are not to be abandoned. be conducted with clear lines of command and be clearly defined.pdffactory. In 400 Alaric* attacks Rome. children are not to be abused. into Thessaly. Religion The interesting thing is that Constantine* is interested in power. of whatever religion. This notion sets a precedent that will cause terrific power struggles between future popes and emperors down through the ages. This means that almost no worker or peasant can work at something different than his father did. Constantine* throws him out and reunites the empire in 324. he wins.

tries to establish a pagan church. Theatre Is Still With Us - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He makes heresy a crime (which settles the Trinity business) and paganism becomes a crime. Hungary and southern Russia) press against their Roman borders. Almost every aspect of doctrine.pdffactory.com . He helps to stamp a distinctly authoritative character on Catholic Christianity. The new capital drains the old one of soldiers. The crossroads of commerce between Asia and the West is apparently in an old Greek fishing port of Byzantium.serfdom which will come to replace slavery as a way of ensuring cheap labor with total control by the land owner. surrounded by all the high ecclesiastical officials. There is apparently enough pagan support around to enable him to make a brave try. known later as the Apostate. The city is largely populated by Romans. are bones of contentions among the various factions and sects that made up the far flung Christian churches. but soon it takes on all the culture of the Greeks as well. The Roman leadership drifts on through more emperors until we get to Theodosius* (379) when the Church really gets militant. the language and laws are Roman. belief. It is obvious that the real leverage of power is over there in the East and not in Rome. The Christian Conflict The doctrine of the Trinity is formulated. creed. This confusion and arguing will continue to be the primary feature of Christianity for years. So much for social mobility. These are punctuated by occasional relevant rulers. The Visigoths in Transylvania (they are Teutonic and Christian) push on their border. Age of Major Barbarian Invasions Begins Around 375 the barbarians start moving again from the east and set up a domino effect. The United Roman Empire Has Problems After Constantine's* death in 337 there are a series of ineffectual emperors who manage to hold things together. The remarkable religious tolerance of Greece and Rome is gone forever. The besieged Goths (Rumania. New Rome is formally founded with all the pagan ceremonies attributed to Romulus*'s founding of the original Rome*. Despite the original name of New Rome. Huns move west from central Asia and push against all the tribes in their path and by 378 they are marching against the Imperial army. In 330. but non-Christian religions are having a harder time bucking the growing authority wielded by the church. but not all the various Christian groups agree on it. nobility and craftsmen. From here on out we have the church militant. Changing Center of Power One of the most significant acts Constantine undertakes is the establishment of a new capital. the capital immediately becomes Constantinople*. As we move into the fifth century the building of new synagogues is forbidden and Jews and Samaritans are expelled from public service. not to mention all the rites and rituals. There is Christian vandalism of the temples of Jews and Samaritans (which have been protected by Roman law until now). Julian* (361).

carries on despite the persecution. Vandals move into Spain 410 sack of Rome by Visigoths* under Alaric 378 Visigoths kill Valens at battle of Andrianople EVENTS PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The church is vehemently anti-theatre. She is an actress.pdffactory. in various forms. apparently in mime. Christians really resent being made fun of and try to kill the messenger. Roman Leaders During The Late Period Imperial Divisions and Fall of Western Empire CE 284 . 306-337 Constantine* 312 defeats Maximian 313 edict of Milan* proclaims toleration of Christianity 324 Constantine becomes sole ruler of reunited empire 325 Council of Nicaea* 330 founding of new Rome (Constantinople) REIGNS 337-350 337-361 361-363 363-364 364-378 364-378 375-383 375-392 379-395 (in WEST) 4074-9 395-423 425-455 429 452 455 Honorius* Valentinian III* Vandals* overrun Africa Attila's Huns* turn away from Rome on intercession of Pope Leo I Vandals sack Rome LEADER Constans* Constantius II* Julian* Jovian* Valentinian* Valens* Gratian* Valentinian II* Theodosius empire redivided at death of Theodosius Franks* invade Gaul. In 293 Diocletian establishes a tetarchy with two augusti and two caesars (one East and one West).476 284-305 Diocletian* In 286 he divides empire and makes Maximian* ruler in the West (he'll rule there 286-305).com . Theatre.The theatrically interesting thing about Theodosius* is his wife Theodora*. an attitude which seems to stem from the early days of Christianity when theatre was used to make fun of the new sect.

God's city (Jerusalem*) is the church. Suffering will pass and only the soul is real. the other is Satan's. we will never be able to make sense of western civilization's Dark and Middle Ages. His story claims that ever since that unfortunate incident in the Garden of Eden. Augustine's* reaction to impending doom is rather like that of the turtle. definitely including that Satanic practice called theatre). Pull in your head and tough it out. The new Platonists (Neoplatonists) find Plato's* ideas really soothing for people persecuted by the state and liable to suffering. and comes up with a complete set of rules for living and a systematic structure for Christian society. complex system of civilization as they know it. Real knowledge could only be found in the pure. St Augustine Reaction One: There is a fascinating fellow in Carthage* named Aurelius Augustinus* (354430) (later to be St. There are two men in the rich and prosperous city of Carthage* who have very different reactions to the imminent demise of the world as they know it. is about to come to a sudden and really dark end. In his major works. The important thing about these reactions is the mind set they will give to the western world for the next thousand years. St. The real world was only a series of shadows on the screen of your mind.com . If we don't understand their ideas. The City of God* and Confessions*. A practicing Manichaean* (see above). He goes back to the rich city of Carthage and rapidly rises to become bishop in 395. Jerome* has translated the Scriptures into Latin in 405 and his version becomes the accepted one in the West. That can easily be fixed by having the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. he has a spiritual crisis and turns Christian in 387. They figure that all the mess of daily life is only a shadow of the truth. Paul*'s. carousing and enjoying the theatre. mixes them up with the Scriptures. What makes this particular fellow so fascinating is the influence he has on the next thousand years or so. he champions orthodoxy against his former belief and other heresies. Plato was very picky about distinguishing appearance from reality and opinion from knowledge. Plato*. His influence throughout the Christian world is second only to St. He is apparently a terrific speaker and an indefatigable writer. over in Africa. He writes it all out in The City of God*. The soul will one day return to the ideal world from which it came. In this case the turtle shell in question is a current craze in Christian thinking derived from that old pagan. there have been two 'cities' in human society. Under Augustine* and Jerome* ecclesiastical Latin takes shape. He leads a riotous youth. This really appeals to the Christians. That means that the state is Satan's city (Babylon*. hear about the sack of Rome in 410 they realize that the whole huge. For him the real world around him was only a shadow of reality and only the product of opinion.pdffactory.455-476 476 (Puppet Emperors) Romulus Augustulus last of the Emperors in the West is deposed Two Reactions To Disaster When the Carthaginians. Augustine*). The current disaster of the fall of Rome can be blamed on the Church's being the servant of a pagan secular authority. one is God's. unadulterated ideas you had in your mind of all the things you observed. So Augustine* takes these Neoplatonist* ideas.

Buddha* comes to mind. Martianus* can see the ranks of other barbarians pushing in on the diminishing empire in the West. Fragmentation is already under way and the future seems to lie in tiny states and cities that will have to make do on their own.com . but the Christians have plenty of Jewish examples to follow. Compared with Augustine* there is very little we know about Martianus* . so take to the monasteries! The world (according to Augustine*) isn't worth the study. The bishop of Alexandria takes monasticism to Rome in 340. 315). it seems to be the perfect kind of place to implement St. Augustine*'s City ideas. grammar. The Eastern Church is doing much the same thing in the East under St. establishes the first Christian monastery (c. Martianus* sets to work and produces a Readers Digest version of the imperial school curriculum. is due to man's free will. Which brings us to the monastic orders and monasticism*. The first section includes the primary subjects of rhetoric. He divides the work into into two sections. the instruction earlier Imperial Rome used to win over barbarian tribes with oratory. Basil*. in nine volumes. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. God as the source of all reality means that moral evil (a turning away from eternal things. Usually monasticism includes religious vows and following some fixed organized rule of living. If anything Roman can survive it will be in a very different kind of world. So salvation depends on the primacy of faith. the Church as the mystical body of Christ and letting God control human will.000 Pachomian* monks. St. Augustine's* ideas would have had less effect if there hadn't already been a system in place with which to implement them. St. It is not until about 500 that the first permanent working adaptation of monastic* rule gets going in Rome under a better known guy. Benedict*. He figures that these Romans will need some condensed Roman knowledge to help then survive. teach them Latin and put together the legislation necessary to hold everything together. He can see the good public life of the Empire going down for good. He is a Carthaginian proconsul who sees the Vandals taking the Spanish peninsula in 409 and getting a treaty with Rome to make it legal in 411. You can escape the ugly realities of the Vandals. The beginnings of the Christian monastic* movement appears in Egypt in the third century but it doesn't really get organized until the fourth century when an obscure guy. His reaction is pragmatic. He introduces the concept of a "religious order" which means that there are extremely specific rules for every detail of the monk's life.No one is sure when he was born or died but Martianus Capella* flourishss between 400 and 439 in the same affluent Carthage in Africa.) or sin. Belief is more important than earthly knowledge. Roman rule in Africa is crumbling. and argument. who are crossing from Gibraltar to wipe out Carthage. leaving the sinking ship of state for a life of contemplation can only be for the best. Pachomius*. This order spreads rapidly through Egypt and Abyssinia and by 410 (where we are at the moment) there are at least 7.state obey the moral authority of the Church. MonasticismThe idea of withdrawing from the world to contemplate spiritual things has been around everywhere. So. Martianus CapellaReaction Two . What with monasticism* having started in Africa and being well under way by this time (410). The watch word for the coming Dark Ages is: understanding comes only through belief.pdffactory.

The second section includes the more advanced subjects that were needed as the Empire grew, practical subjects for the daily organization of more sophisticated life. These include music, geometry, arithmetic and astronomy. Taken together these subjects are known as the seven liberal arts*, and Martianus* nine books include an encyclopedic anthology of everything relating to them. For the next six centuries Martianus Capella's* Satyricon: De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologie will be the standard reference for education.

The Empire Falls In The West
One interesting occurence is taking place in a rather out-of-the-way spot up north. Around 432, an escaped slave-turned-Christian, who will come to be known as St. Patrick*, converts the Irish. These hardy Celts already have a pretty good democratic society up and running. The Irish escape the barbarian invasions and are able to keep a very productive society going throughout the coming Dark Ages, exporting trained and educated monks to Europe along with trade goods. They will contribute rather extensively to opening monasteries across northern Europe. * Meanwhile, back on the coast of North Africa, we know that Martianus* is through flourishing by 439 because that is the year when the Vandals take Carthage and the West is completely overrun by barbarians. The Saxons take Britain, the Visigoths establish their own kingdom in Gaul, and, as the Vandals push on into North Africa, the Sueves move into Spain. The Franks surge into Gaul and tussle with the Visigoths. Piracy is rampant in the Mediterranean. Over in the East they are hanging tough and switching the imperial administration into Greek.

Attila* the Hun - And The Fall Of The West
Attila* leads that barbaric bunch known as the Huns in devastating northern Italy (in 452) but his troops are suffering from disease. When Pope Leo bargains with him, Attila* spares Rome. The Huns are not the only ones knocking at the gates of Rome. In 455 the Vandals are camped outside the gates and the Pope again buys them off. The Pope and Rome have run out of buying power and, when there's nothing left to buy them off with, the third group, the Suevians*, finally sack Rome in 472. Odoacer* leads the Huns in sacking Rome one last time in 476. Rome ends as it began with a man named Romulus. In the end it is Romulus Augustulus* who is deposed from the throne of the last Roman emperor in the West. This date (of 476) is the traditional end of the Roman Empire in the West, but the sacking and pillaging goes on.

Afterword
The Eastern Empire will continue to exist, increasingly eastern, for over nine hundred years. It comes to be called the Byzantine* Empire from its center in the city of Byzamtium, sometimes called Constantinople. We will refer to it whenever it seems appropriate. Since it becomes increasingly isolated from the west, it also becomes increasingly irrelevant to the continuation of western civilization. That being the case, we will be looking primarily at the west. In the West, things are very messy. Some places escape the rampaging barbarians and continue on in the Roman villa tradition for many years. Cut off from other surviving nooks and crannies, these areas gradually sink into decay and disarray. Entertainers are stranded all

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over the now-defunct Empire. No doubt they make do as best they can, gradually becoming traveling entertainers. As can be seen from the map of theatre sites, these entertainers are widely scattered indeed.

Notes: The "triumph" can be seen in Hollywood's versions of Cleopatra movies. This notion of a "thousand year" rule of a country will haunt western civilization, culminating in the Nazi' notion of a "Thousand Year Reich". This section is drawn from James Burke's The Day The Universe Changed, both the book and the television series. Burke has brilliantly and succinctly pointed out one of the most significant turning points in western civilization. It would be a disservice to his ideas to merely quote him. I have tried to be faithful to the flow of his ideas while casting them in the middle of our particular historical pursuit.

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CHAPTER FIVE
After The Fall
The Dark Ages and Why They Aren't So Dark Introduction - The West Goes Downhill The usual historical division of periods select the fall of Rome in 476 as the date of choice to begin the Dark Ages. The period between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance is usually divided into the Dark Ages or Low Middle Ages, followed by the Middle, and High Middle Ages. This view is essentially Euro-centric and includes a considerable amount of attention to that vestigial appendage, the Byzantine Empire. This is not really useful for our purposes. We are concerned with following the cultural developments of that theatre which was born in Ionian Greece. Consequently we will take a slightly different path with different divisions. In the fifth century, the world weather pattern takes a turn for the worse. It gets colder. Not only does this push the Huns out of their now drought-stricken plains of northern Asia into collision with their neighbors who push into their neighbor, and so on into collision with the

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Roman Empire, but crops in northern Europe just don't grow like they used to. So the barbarians keep moving south into the Roman heartland. From Classical Light Into The Dark Ages The Fifth Century Roman society, and the viable theatre it supported, begins to crumble under the barbarian incursions that begin in the third century. It is a long and painful death of the Roman Empire which finally succumbs in the fall of Rome. Theatres, and productions in them, survive in various centers throughout the empire until they are overwhelmed (at different times in different places) by migrating tribes and plundered by other raiding tribes. The craft, if not the art, of theatrical performance survives in small groups and individuals to gradually reemerge when and where societal conditions are suitable. The knowledge as recorded in books survives through quite different channels and surfaces in a different manner, ultimately to be reunited with the practitioners in the Renaissance. During this entire period (from the fall of Roman society into the 1400's) theatre practice survives in the hands of roving performers. They are known by a variety of terms according to the language and time in which they appear. Unfortunately they are known to us almost entirely through church records prohibiting them from doing whatever theatrical performance activity they are doing at the time. In a disorganized and embattled society they have no legal identity. They are denounced as "infamous" by the church and as being "masterless" by local governments. They pursue a precarious existence continually attacked by the church, but obviously welcomed as entertainers by those with the wherewithal to pay them. Some of the names they are known by are troubadours, jonglers, bards, minstrels, scops (in the Germanic territories), the singers and reciters of stories and tales; others are called mimes, historines, ludis and these practictioners enact bits and pieces of folk tales and stock character plots. Whatever the name by which they are called, they are also acrobats, jugglers, animal trainers, dancers and musicians, with as wide a range of skills as each can master. They no doubt show up in local celebrations as well, in Morris Dances, Sword Dances and May celebrations. Think of them as continuing throughout the centuries, always pursued and denounced by the church. A note on allegories and morality plays: Somewhere around 400 an orator named Prudentius* writes a work in praise of Christianity called Psychomachia* . This little opus deals with the struggle of virtues and vices for the soul of man. Somehow this particular Christian lesson plan survives and becomes a favorite source for morality* plays. It includes characters such as Hypocrisy, Heresy and the Prince of this world, as well as the scenic piece of the Wheel of Fortune* The later Romance of the Rose* includes allegorical characters. Also, the population (after their experience with the plague) is increasingly concerned with death. We see this in the visual arts as well as in the theatre. In drama it is epitomized as the "Dance of Death." Meanwhile the church (just as we saw in ancient Egypt) makes more and more use of theatrical elements in their effort to communicate with their flocks. Since those flocks are illiterate and increasingly understand nothing even of spoken Latin, the importance of graphic

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rituals grows. Eventually a socially and religiously acceptable theatre will grow under the sponsorship of the church. By the time of the fall of Rome, organized society ceases to exist in Europe. As this comes to be the case, we will turn to North Africa and the Middle East where theatre texts and other vital classical documents survive and are preserved. Proceeding chronologically, we will return to Europe as, and when, cultural activity reemerges. Where earlier it was possible to maintain something of a narrative flow, you will notice that we now move in fits and starts.* The End of the Western Empire in Italy Odoacer* leads the Huns in sacking Rome one last time in 476. He does not, however, sack, plunder and run. This time he, and his barbarian horde, stay, and start trying to become more like those people they just conquered. Odoacer* calls himself the King of Italy and moves his capital from the now rather dilapidated Rome, to Ravenna. When Odoacer* dies, the "kingdom" has very little to hold it together and Italy begins to split apart into principalities. A quit different barbarian, an Ostergoth, Theodoric* (500 ff.), becomes ruler of Rome. His main claim to fame is a scholar he appoints as consul in Ravenna*. This scholar, Boethius*, translates Aristotle* into Latin and writes The Consolation of Philosophy*. This is an extensive work of commentaries and original treaties on logic, arithmetic, music and theology. It becomes another useful addition to knowledge for the monastery libraries. The disintegration of Italy continues and it will not be reunited until the nineteenth century. Many of the Italian localities simply pull in their locals and survive as small city-states. Such places, like Bologna, will save some of the Roman sense of civilization for a later time. So much for the Italian part of the West. The western world, organized, civilized, educated and, having learned extensive skills under Roman tutelage, disappears under the weight of continuing barbarian invasions. The magnificent network of roads, urban centers and efficient management of resources and trade erodes. The primeval forests, so laboriously cleared for cultivation, gradually, but irrevocably return. The West sinks into confusion and disarray with a population that is made up primarily of illiterate, unskilled tribes moving into the neighborhoods. Literacy and knowledge retreat into monasteries. The Augustinian world-view that the real world of disaster and suffering exists only so that we may contemplate the values of the hereafter prevails. The West becomes culturally comatose and subsistence survival is the rule of the day. In a few places, such as Ireland, civilization and commerce avoids the barbarian devastation, but in most of the West, darkness falls. The fabulous Roman roads fall victim to the encroaching woods since no one wants (or dares try) to go from one place to another. Tiny clusters of huts are the only breaks to be found in the great stretches of forests, wild beasts and wilder men spreading over Europe. In the disintegration of the Empire we need to consider what happens to the Roman* legacy in the West. There are several threads to follow which will lead us into the emerging Middle Ages*. Language - The first thread is the Latin language. Latin continues to be spoken by all the scattered and stranded Roman citizens. It provides the foundation for all the Romance* languages. Under the Franks in Gaul it begins to become French. In Italy, under the Lombards and Goths it evolves into Italian and Italian dialects. In Spain and Portugal, under the

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influence of the Vandals and Sueves, it becomes Spanish and Portuguese. In Britain, under the Angles and Saxons, Latin is almost wiped out. The Teutonic tribes and the Huns are little influenced by Latin in the changing areas they control. For all the diverse and shifting populations of the West, Latin is the language of diplomacy, commerce, and, of course, learning and the Church. Every so often a serious attempt is made to preserve and transmit it. By the end of the sixth century the gospels have been translated into nine languages. In most of these languages it is the first written literature. Law - The second thread is the Roman Law. Owing a great deal to Greek ideas, much of the western scheme of equality, justice and fair dealing depends on Roman law. It provides a sense of a world brought together by unbreakable bonds of rights and obligations. Throughout the Church, Roman jurisprudence becomes the basis of Church canon law. And, through the Church, the law and its applications spread everywhere the Church is to be found. The Church - The third thread is the main one through which the Roman legacy is passed in the West. The Church preserves and adapts Roman organization, gradually acquiring many of the qualities of the old imperial order so condemned by St. Augustine*. Roman organization gives shape to Church institutions and Roman political imagination gives strength to the idea of a Church universal. Even the Roman obsession with Divine Missionaries becomes a Church obsession. The doctrine that all spiritual power is vested in the Pope and that earthly power should receive sanction of the spiritual, in effect turns the Pope into a Caesar, a Pontifex maximus* (the Roman head of the state religion, remember?). Why Europe Isn't Very Interesting In The Sixth Century The long night of the "Dark Ages" descends on Europe. The Sixth through the Eighth centuries is a time of endings and forgettings. The numerical population of Europe falls to half what it has been. The few vestiges of social order remaining are in scattered locations in Italy, France and Spain. The Franks seal the Visigoths in Spain, where they try to bring some order out of the chaos. 481 - 511 In France, Clovis* (later to be known as "Louis") becomes king of half the Franks and extends his kingdom. He is followed by a number of Merovingian kings (when Colvis* dies his kingdom is divided among his four sons) who attempt to maintain some kind of order. Their efforts are largely futile, but they do begin a system which will gradually evolve into something that will come to be called feudalism*. Feudalism is essentially a system of obligations. The king needs help to keep order and fighting men to defend (and enlarge) his kingdom. But everybody is busy trying to make ends meet and put food on the table so there are no available people to serve in specialized areas such as an army. A system of temporary service evolves, where those in authority can call on those under them for armed assistance from time to time. In order to make this work, the king creates "Counts", who, in turn, create "knights." In return for service, the king rewards each Count with land and plunder and the Count does the same for his knights. All of them depend on the people who are bound to the land. These guys will soon be known as serfs, or villeins. The land they have to deal

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with is really falling into disrepair. The manorial system usually associated with feudalism won't rally get going for another three hundred years. The roads are disappearing in the encroaching forests and the only things moving regularly are lions, bears, wolves and wild boar. Communication is only through the church, by means of the brave monks who travel on foot, occasionally actually arriving at their destination. Literacy vanishes outside the church. As we move into the sixth century there are two centuries of intermittent plagues. The only bright spots are in agriculture and the church. In agriculture there are two discoveries. The moldboard plough (which can deal with European soil in a way the Mediterranean scratch plough never could) and the switch from oxen to horse power help clear the forests and increase production by fifty percent. The introduction of legumes (peas, beans, that stuff) improves nutrition considerably. Gradual improvement of horse power includes the development of the horse collar and horseshoes. The church benefits by being the only going concern in sight. All literacy, records, organization, skills and usable property is concentrated in the church. Particularly, through the increasing number and industry of the Orders of monks and nuns, the survival skills of productive labor and knowledge is spread, ever so slowly. The Roman Empire In The East Hangs On Obviously there are a number of emperors in the East that we are skipping over. We do, however, need to take a quick look at a fellow named Justinian*. From 527 to 565 he tries his best to retake parts of the West and bolster up the Empire. He is aided by his wife (reputed to be of equal or even greater ability). His wife, the Empress Theodora*, has been an actress so we know that the theatre can't be all that dead. Justinian* is best known as a major law giver and codifier of laws. His works become known as the Justinian Code*, and are made up of twelve tables, or books. These laws will be used throughout western civilization as the basis for all legal systems. He also manages to recapture some of the western Empire, including part of Italy. But Justinian's* reign is punctuated by a number of natural catastrophes. There are frequent earthquakes in Rome, Italy, and the east, as well as a great epidemic of bubonic plague at the end of his reign (565). 529 Justinian* closes the thousand year old school of philosophy in Athens as an action against paganism. As a result many of these teachers leave, going to Persia and Syria where they will pass their knowledge, and books. on into the later Arab culture. The eastern Empire is really a continuation of Alexander's rather than Rome's. Its intellectual center is Alexandria. In both the East and the West, the power and wealth of the church increases. Finally, the Bishops control the administration and church property as well as all the monasteries*. The Eastern Empire will continue to exist, increasingly eastern, for over nine hundred years. It comes to be called the Byzantine* Empire from its center in the city of Byzantium, sometimes called Constantinople. We will refer to it whenever it seems appropriate. Since it becomes increasingly isolated from the West, it also becomes increasingly irrelevant to the continuation of western civilization. When that is the case, we will be looking primarily at the West.

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Social governance the Caesar/Brutus Divergence The memories of the Roman Republic as the embodiment of a golden age of frugality, honesty, simplicity and courage (the Brutus point of view) will haunt the psyche of the West to emerge in the American and French Revolutions. Meanwhile, the (Caesar's view) notion of imperial order, especially of world empire, will pervade the imagination of western leaders. From here on, western history will be driven by the aspirations of a whole series of men who aspire to the role of Caesar or emperor. 529 St. Benedict founds the Monastery of Monte Cassion and the Benedictine Order. The primary importance of this particular Christian organization to theatre is that (perhaps because of Benedict's Roman culture and education) it will be the the one to foster and develop theatrical works (even if it is primarily for religious purposes). The Benedictine* Order makes self-sufficent communities based on the view that to work is to pray. Such simple problems as the need to know the "canonical hours", when to pray and perform rituals, lead to the development of clocks. 533 - Last known reference to Western Roman theatre (in Ravenna and Rome) in reign of Athalaric. 550 In the mid 500's St. Columban* works on France and Switzerland. 563 St. Columba* begins the conversion of Scotland and England. 587 With the rise of Christian* power there is increasing persecution of the Jews, especially in Spain* where the Visigoths accept Christianity. 603 Justinian's* Body of Civil Laws, along with the Key to the Laws (Digest) is lost in 603 and nobody knows how to manage things now. Freedom is meaningless in a world of anarchy. Where And How Islam Begins The Seventh Century The Arabian* peninsula, extending southeast into the Indian Ocean, occupies a pivotal trading position, bounded by the Red Sea on the West and the Persian Gulf on the east. Despite its historical position as the major trade connection between the western empires and the riches of India*, China* and the mysterious East, it has never truly been a part of any empire. The Semitic desert tribes rule themselves, and occasionally, their neighbors. They pay only minor lip service to the changing powers to their north who provide protection for the vital trade routes. Culturally, these people are familiar with the whole range of Greek and Roman ideas and texts, as well as many Persian and Eastern works. At the height of the Roman Empire,* a small strip of the western shore on the Red Sea was under Roman control with individual trading cities ruling themselves throughout the rest of the area. However, the religions of their neighbors also filter into the desert and settle in the trading towns and cities. The trading city of Mecca* is a place of pilgrimage and sanctuary where the

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protection of hospitality prevails. Dominated by the old religion of the desert tribes, it houses the Kaaba*, a square temple of black stones with an ancient meteorite as a cornerstone. The meteorite is regarded as a god who protects all the other tribal gods of Arabia. Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians, too, have many followers here and throughout Arabia*. Medina*, to the northeast, tends more toward the Jewish faith and has a number of Jewish settlements nearby. Mecca* Mecca*, this prosperous and influential trading center, serves as home to an Arabian version of a literary Olympics, with recitations of poetry. Tribal Sheiks under a "King of the Poets," judge and award prizes for poetry. The arts of music, architecture, art and poetry play a big role in Arabic culture. Unfortunately for us, theatre does not. The Judaic prohibition against making graven images is taken up by the Arabic peoples, and realistic imitation of nature and of persons is forbidden. Recitation and talking are the primary diversions. Endless religious discussion ensues during the fairs which flourish as pilgrims and trading caravans come and go. c. 570 Mohammed* is born into this culture and lives an undistinguished life for forty years. Then, having been exposed to years of religious discussion, Mohammed* begins to talk to a few friends and relations about his own views of the reality and unity of one god. In the tradition of his people he writes a few verses (revealed to him by an angel) asserting the unity of god, providing some generalizations about righteousness, a future hell for the negligent and evil, and, paradise for the believer in the One God. c. 580 For some ten years Mohammed* continues to speak and write, claiming to be a new prophet crowning and completing the work of earlier Jewish prophets from Abraham through Jesus*. His followers exist as a small [c. 619] cult, gradually gathering strength and numbers. Eventually, the local leaders are beginning to be upset by this new movement. Mecca* depends on a polytheistic cult for its wide reputation as a site for annual pilgrimage. Attempts are made to suppress Mohammed*'s open preaching and many of his followers flee, taking refuge in Christian Abyssinia. Medina* When things begin to look pretty bleak in Mecca*, Medina* invites Mohammed* to move there and rule. After two years planning and sending followers to prepare the way, he escapes a murder plot and flees to 622 Medina* (this flight is known as the Hegira*), September 20, 622, and begins his time of power. His early reign is very Bedouin with lots of raids on caravans. This leads to larger battles with the Meccans and hostilities continue for some years. Finally a truce is concluded which extends the rule of the Prophet to Mecca*. Part of the bargain is that the faithful will turn to Mecca* to pray instead of to Jerusalem. More important to the leaders in Mecca is that the new faith will maintain that city as the center of religious pilgrimage. Islam* Spreads Like Wildfire Through The Seventh Century

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Mohammed* begins to give up on the notion that Jews and Christians worship the same god he does. Allah* becomes his special god and is tethered to the meteoric stone of the Kaaba*. The faith he propounds is exceptionally democratic and attractive. He preaches a great sermon after his last pilgrimage from Medina* to Mecca* establishing a tradition of fair dealing and generosity, creating a society (Islam*) more free from the widespread cruelty and social oppression than any preceding one. All Muslims are brothers and equals. Priests and sacrifices are forbidden. Islamic doctrines avoid any of the elements that cause disagreements and abuses for the Christians. 632 By the time of Mohammed*'s death in 632 his power has spread over all Arabia*. Peoples are welded together with the cement of religion and Islam* is pitted against a corrupt Christianity and the decaying tradition of the Zoroastrian Magi. A close friend and supporter, Abu Bekr*, succeeds Mohammed* as "Caliph" (Kalipha = successor) of the Islamic people, setting himself the task of organizing the subjugation of the whole world to Allah*. Arabia* is now the center of will and faith, while almost all the rest of the world is in turmoil and disarray. 634 The military campaigns now begin. Bekr* dies in 634 and Omar* (634-644) becomes Caliph, leading the major conquests. Islam* sweeps out of Arabia* into Persia*, Syria* and parts of the Byzantine Empire. Everywhere Christians, Jews and Arabs join the invaders. From the outset, the Bedouin aristocrats of Mecca* dominate the new empire. The family of the Omayyads* provide the Caliphs for almost a century. Two attitudes prevail in the rise of Islam. On one hand the movement brings the broadest, freshest and cleanest political idea yet to sweep the world. It offers better terms than any so far to the mass of mankind. On the other hand, as with previous movements, the austerity of the leaders slips into the desire for wealth and conspicuous consumption. Great palaces and gorgeous clothes emerge as the mark of the conquerors A new theme of aristocratic greediness emerges. Claims of the right to rule come from Mohammed's relatives and a series of struggles begin between Medina* families and Meccan* aristocrats. Leadership of Islam* slips into squalid disputes of bickering heirs and widows. The quarrel continues today between the Shiites* (maintaining the hereditary right of Mohammed*'s nephew, and son-in-law, Ali, to be Caliph as an article of faith) and the Sunnites* (who deny this particular addition to the Muslim creed). Unfortunately Mohammed* is ignorant of history and the political experiences of Greece and Rome. Consequently, he leaves his followers no scheme for a stable government to embody and concentrate the will of the faithful. There is no effective form or body of laws to express the spirit of democracy that prevades Islamic teaching. Islam remains autocratic, regressing from the customary, more democratic, laws of the desert. For 125 years Islam* spreads from the Indus valley in the east to the Atlantic and Spain in the West, from the borders of China in the north through Upper Egypt in the south. The conquests flow in the reverse of the earlier Vandals, until finally it is stopped in France. We will pick these conquerors up as they establish cultural centers. 646 - Down in that center of learning, Alexandria*, they are losing the library. The Christians, mistaking it for a pagan temple, burn it. Then the barbarians burn it. Finally, the Arab armies

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take Alexandria in 646 and finish burning it. With this last blow, the lamp of western culture is truly out. Back in Europe, Briefly. A few random things are going on, an abbey built here, a cathedral there. 680 Over in Spain, the locals crown a fellow names Erwig who, being an aggressive, newly converted Christian, calls for an extermination of the Jews 681 In England, Gloucester Abbey is founded. 685 Winchester Cathedral* is founded. 692 Among the Moslems, the Omayyads* become the leading family in the power leadership business. 694 That persecution of Jews in Spain leads to a Jewish revolt which is crushed by the Visigoths. c.700 Easter eggs become the thing among Christians as the pagan symbols blend with Christianity. 715 Up in Germany, St. Boniface* is spending his time vigorously converting everybody in sight for the next forty years. Islam* Enters Europe As We Enter The Eighth Century 710 The Arabs begin reconnaissance for an invasion of Spain*. Led by Jubal-Tarik* (from whom we get the name Gibralter) the invasion gets a real local boost from all the Christians, Jews and disaffected 711 Visigoths who hate the way things are going at home. The Arabs cross the strait from Africa and begin to take Spain away from the Visigoths. Rolling up Cordoba, Toledo, Medina, Zaragoza, and all of southern Spain (which they call Al-Andalus, the land of the vandals, or 712 Andalusia*), they sweep over the Pyrenees and threaten central France. 732 They are finally thrown back at Tours by a rising Frankish mayor called Charles Martel* (Better known as "The Hammer".) Despite continuing battles with the Christian barbarians in northern Spain, the Arabs settle in to turn their part of Spain into an economic and cultural paradise. 749 Back home in Islam there is a power change. The center of power moves north to Damascus* and then to Bagdad*. The Omayyads* are out and the Abbasids* (taking up the Shiite* cause) are in. The main relevance of this for our purposes is that the Islamic empire splits and the Omayyads* control Spain, the Mediterranean and North Africa, setting up their

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Spain. Religion is not suppressed but half of every big cathedral is made into a mosque. The Jews who have fled to Africa to escape persecution return to this enlightened climate. people are no longer bound to their craft or land (except the serfs. a standardized writing script (Carolingian minuscule). Minimal education comes to be offered free and the main cathedral schools become centers of intellectual activity in Paris. When the Arabs take Samarakand. Independent Moslem* states rise. The books and knowledge the Arabs have picked up from the Nestorian monks at Edessa (in Persia) include Greek and Persian medical texts. somewhere around the eighth century. Charlemagne* And The Brief Revival Of The Empire In The West After a time. but all infidels (non-Moslems) have to pay taxes. All the Christian laws afflicting the Jews are abolished. The schools are to teach literacy. Which takes us to the false dawn of what looks like a break in the Dark Ages.* they get a Chinese papermaking factory. Lyon and Reims. entirely autonomous. But the Jews in the invading Moslem troops remain in Narbonne and southern France. No Moslem. of course) and the temporal power of the Christian church is destroyed. From his capital in Aachen. Musa* and his son Abdul Aziz* set up a working society with effective and humane rules.pdffactory. and grandson. The clergy are a mess. Chartres. where they are safeguarded for four hundred years by treaties with Charles Martel's son. The only literacy to be found is in the Church. He establishes schools in every monastery* and cathedral in France. The Spanish Omayyads* make another trip over the Pyrenees and are again turned back. Paper begins to be made all over the Arab world. During this lull there is a brief cultural recovery. An organizer and leader in the old Roman tradition. Gradually. gambling. led by a remarkable man. particularly in the monasteries*. wenching. small communities link into a loose manor-type system. Charlemagne* orders his scribes to copy all the ancient PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and Capella's* seven liberal arts. From this time on these liberal arts will be taught all over Europe. Charlemagne*. Pepin*. Arab culture is really taking off in Arabia* and will soon spread to Spain*. of course. Charlemagne* (742-814) comes to the throne of Frankland in 772 and leaps into action. there is a brief break in the barbarian invasions. Their primary interest is establishing a flow of revenue so taxes are lightened. he begins to whip things into shape.com . Charlemagne's* first step is to standardize religious practice because he needs administrators who are properly trained. who is really a remnant of the old Roman Empire. brings us to Charlemagne. Which. This political infighting doesn't affect trade 751 and cultural diffusion. A medical school and hospital opens in Bagdad* and the Arab 765 reputation for fine medicine begins. With most of Spain* under Moslem control. boozing.own empire capital in Cordoba. with illiterate serfs serving an equally illiterate lord. engaging in trade and fighting.

For some unknown reason. They sack their first 793 monastery at Lindisfarne off the English coast of Northumbria. turn to promoting social and cultural works. Norway and Sweden as productive farmers and expert fishermen. Viking* pin-point raids are starting on the coast of Europe. The French call them Normans.manuscripts they can find. He is also a big-time military leader. part an inheritance from the Romans. They finally come up with a working system of administration. Related to the Angles. We know them from the annals of literate people they invade. Pushing south and east they establish the first Russian kingdom. they run their course. Ireland. bringing large sections of Europe under his control. as plunderers. and part Persian. philosophy. they descend on England. Islam* is creating a world cultural center in Bagdad* under Haroun-Al-Raschid* 786 to . Like earlier barbarian hordes they appear in two different ways. They are called Danes in 789 English records. they settle Iceland. Arts. in order to preserve them from disappearing down the tube. overpopulation or the increased seaworthiness of their ships) they suddenly turn to i viking (raiders striking through vik. the Scandinavians and Danes have settled the peninsulas of Denmark. They are not literate and have no written language. and the Mediterranean. Further off. Europe. at the moment. When 800 Charlemagne* is crowned Holy Roman Emperor marking the false dawn of new learning and culture. eventually providing a personal guard for the Byzantine emperor. as traders and settlers. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . the Caliph better known to us from The Arabian Nights. literature. Simultaneously Back in the East As Europe is beginning to suffer the scourge of the Vikings*. but like many other tribes they have a strong bardic* oral tradition. and. As trade and conquest pour wealth into the hands of the powerful monied class. leaving cultural as well as population changes in their wake. In their distinctive long ships.pdffactory. In Bagdad and 809 its empire. fight Constantinople. The Vikings* . Christians. The Vikings* are coming. as well as from later archeological evidence. another barbarian group has been developing their own individualistic culture. bays or inlets). trade and wealth prosper and flourish. For two and a half centuries. rich in spoken sagas*. put colonies on Greenland and take a few trips to America. is another movement that occurs at the same time as Charlemagne. Saxon and Jutes who have invaded England. What is even more relevant here. unaffected by either the Romans or the central European invasions. In 800 Charlemagne* is crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III* and this lays the foundations for the Holy Roman Empire. (the colder weather. they. like the Romans before them. Then they subside into settled societies and disappear into local cultures.Scourge From The North As We Enter The Ninth Century Up in northeastern Europe. The Vikings* first recorded appearance on the European scene is 787 or when they raid the southern coast of England. pagans and Jews are widely employed in government service and enjoy the freedom to practice their own religious ways.

It works like this: The lord would live in a "manor" and act as protector. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Arabic replaces Greek as the language of speech and writing and the intellectual life of the Arabic speaking world spreads over the old Hellenic world. Some might include a number of villages. All are constructed entirely of fragments from all the empires Islam has over run. Louis the Pious* his heir. 809 With the death of Haroun-Al-Raschid* the Islamic empire centered in Bagdad falls into civil war and confusion where it will remain for two hundred years (until the Turks take over leadership). Charlemagne* is anointed Holy Roman Emperor* of the West in Rome. Iceland and Greenland. just like the old Roman ones. 814 Charlemagne* dies (see above) and Louis*. very shortly thereafter.pdffactory. The crime of being a "masterless" man can result in death or slavery. governor and judge to his serfs (villeins who live in a village. 800 In Ireland the famous and beautiful Book of Kells* has been finished but the Vikings are about to descend on the relatively peaceful and very productive Irish culture. Manoralism. through the river networks and along the coastal rims of the Mediterranean and the North Sea.] They practically invent Algebra. In addition to the Hellenistic medicine and mathematics. especially through the diligent efforts of the Irish. * In this Arabian* Islamic Empire. He becomes the defacto minister of culture and influences every part of Spanish cultural life. 813 In Europe Charlemagne* crowns his son. The "lord" is essential to the system and every man has to "belong" to some lord. derived from the Roman villa. 822 The cultural splendor of Islam blossoms in Spain.) The manor is essentially a self-sufficient estate. The Baltic area. Schools and charities blossom. He introduces new styles and variations of musical instruments.com . is left to face the Viking attacks which will begin to threaten his empire. Being "masterless" is the charge regularly brought against traveling players. mostly by water. who knows when. The Holy Islamic War degenerates into a systematic accumulation of plunder. the concept of the zero and the decimal point. Educational systems develop as does all literature. they have close contact with the Sanskrit literature and physical science of India. In Cordoba* a musician named Ziryab* sets up a music school patterned after the old conservatories in Bagdad*. As the Vikings sail the northern seas the lands they encounter are more suitable for crops than they are now. romantic fiction and the short story. Christianity is spreading. There is an enormous revival of human pursuit of science. Music schools sprout up in Medina (Spain). This system of binding people together will persist for hundreds of years. are all much more likely places for farming and settlement. Some trade returns. History flourishes as well as biography. the economic and social system associated with feudalism* is really spread by Charlemagne. [The Indians claim they provided these last two.poetry and building flourish. Vikings Move On As Does Islamic Culture The world weather has shifted from the earlier cold pattern and it has gotten warmer. they come up with Arabic numerals (a big step up from Roman numerals if you want to do any useful math). Sometime.

In Scotland a guy named Kenneth* defeats the Picts* and becomes the sole king. a guy called Halfdan gets the best of the other nobles and founds a monarchy.] 850 In Spain. Most influential of all Ziryab* develops the trading Jews in an enterprise to bring arts and cultural resources from all over the world into Spain. plunder. [You may notice that some places are beginning to get a country together under a king. 851 Vikings (called Danes in Britain) maraud up the Thames (England) and attack Canterbury*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. pillage and burn. Under Rurik* (later 860 known as the first Russian grand prince). Meanwhile the Vikings in Denmark unite Jutland and the Danish Isles under Gorm the Elder*. Viking raids begin on France. they land on the Baltic coast of Russia (called "Rus") enlarging their hold and setting up trading centers. They rage through northern 840 Ireland and establish their rule from Dublin*. 846 The Arabs sack Rome. Viking raids begin on Rouen* and proceed to Paris*.com .] 845 Vikings destroy Hamburg and penetrate into Germany. Rome. Germany 841 and the low countries (now the Netherlands and Belgium). brings in astrologers from India to teach chess. 839 Viking raids are increasing and the first great viking chief leads a big group to plunder and rule in Ireland. the first king of Denmark. Their travels take them to India. establishes a school for women to teach cosmetology and fashion. pillaging and sacking Seville*. China.pdffactory. Some of them stay. 842 Turkish mercenaries are converted to Islam and join Arab armies. In Norway. 844 Vikings raid Spain. organizes a glass factory to produce tableware. Egypt. 859 Another bunch of Vikings* go east into Russia*. Eventually Turks will take over the eastern Islamic empire from the Arabs. damage the Vatican and destroy the Venetian fleet. [You may also notice that these centuries are largely a time of sack. Gaul. notably Kiev*. Byzantium. 840 The empire left to Louis the Pious* by Charlemagne* is split among Louis' three sons at his death. Christians are so well treated that there is a backlash Christian movement to renew the old martyr status and some Christians try hard to get the Moslems to make martyrs of them. Muscovy and the eastern European Jewish kingdom of Khazaria*.develops food and food serving.

They have a stronghold in which they train rigorously when they aren't out fighting. at about this time. Book of the Roads. In the geography text. But enormous strides in acquiring international culture are being made through a little known and unlikely means. an order of Viking knights. a system of military groups develops. the traveling Jewish trader. This change in trade enables Venice to develop trade monopolies and many of the Jews retire from trade to the Spanish islands of Minorca and Majorca where they teach navigation. sacking Paris. rather than just going off on the occasional raiding party.pdffactory. In the region of the Crimea the Jewish kingdom of Khazaria* dominates. Aix-la-Chapelle and Worms. 874 A different group of Vikings. barring the way of the Vikings advance from the north and Islamic armies from the south. China becomes xenophobic (fear of foreigners) and the mongolian Tartars ring China. make a profession of fighting. 903 The Arabs begin writing geography books based on the travels of the trading Jews and the Arabs: Book of Lands. Cologne.com . This makes them eminently suited for foreign trade since they are admitted everywhere. They are invited to rule. much like monks.861 Vikings ravage central Europe. They also live under a severe set of rules. These are Vikings who. 865 These Russian Vikings push down the Dnieper* to the Black Sea* attacking Constantinople*. under Ingol and Leif take a group to Iceland and start a settlement. The pagan nations of this region held a great debate on the relative values of current religions and the Jews won. The later rise of European chivalry* and that of the religious military orders owe much to the standards of the Jomsvikings*. 871 Alfred the Great* comes to the English throne. One of the groups grows into the famous Jomsvikings*. there is a chapter entitled "The Routes of the Jewish Merchants Called Radanites. Theatre Reappears In Bits And Pieces As We Move Onward Into The Tenth Century The old empire of Charlemagne* crumbles under Viking attacks. Khazaria* occupies the lower reaches of the Volga and northern Caucacus. The multilingual Jews are not carriers of either Christian or Moslem creed and are literate in at least one other language. Rurik* founds the city of Novgorod*. The Wonders of India." (from the Persian rah'dan meaning "he who knows the way") which describes the incredible range of territory these Jews regularly traveled. Tolouse. 878 Alfred* recaptures London from the "Danes" (English Vikings) and works out a treaty with them establishing boundaries for each side. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 862 Back in Russia. The Book of the Roads. Unfortunately. The Vikings in England (Danes) occupy Northumbria and East Anglia and 866 they establish a kingdom in York 869 The Arabs take the island of Malta. blocking trade. 880's Among the European Vikings.

Angels: He is not here. Rollo. Obviously they are beginning to become pretty wealthy too. king of the West Franks. Aesthetically irrigation makes possible the formal gardens of the Alhambra. spices. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Ecbasis Captivi* has as its subject matter stories from Aesop's Fables*. 912 The Russian Vikings under Oleg* have a confederacy of towns and provinces ruled by Viking princes and. Go and announce that he is risen from the tomb. 925 At this time we find the earliest extant reference to the trope*.We are beginning to hear about secular entertainment at Christmas revels. The Arabs bring a whole new range of plants to grow in Spain. and basic grains like rice. The tenth century is also the time when Flanders (up there in the Low Countries) becomes the center of cloth production for Europe. O Heavenly Beings.* 10th century Liturgical Drama (performed by and for the clergy) is widely done in Benedictine monasteries.pdffactory. European leaders begin to come to Spain to study. especially in France (Limoges and Fleury). the crucified. an all island parliament. offers to give them a grant of land if they become Christians. 900's . bananas and figs). learn French. appear on the lower Seine. for the time being.com . c. The irrigation systems (started by the Romans) from Syria and Arabia* turn Andalusia's dry plains into an agricultural bonanza.) 930 The Viking settlement on Iceland has at least twenty thousand people and a democratic government. There are fun things like a popular ventriloquist farce of late antiquity. an Easter church recitation of dialog between the Angels and the three Marys at Christ's tomb: Angels: Whom seek ye in the tomb. *911 . with its capital in Cordoba. nuts. 932 Spain. They do and he does. Gall). and will figure greatly in much later fighting and conquering. Germany (Richenau) and Spain (Ripoll.This may seem a bit obscure. he is risen as he foretold. O Christians? The three Marys: Jesus of Nazareth. Fruits (like oranges. Comedia Bile* that features a bunch of talking fish. but it will blossom later with the navigation skills to discover America. flourish across Islamic Spain. have the eastern Slavs under control. is the jewel in the crown of Islam.A secular play. lemons. 911 The Vikings in France (known as Normans) under their leader.) They settle in. and their territory comes to be called Normandy (the land of the Normans. Switzerland (St. Charles the Simple*. the Althing*. This one survives into the fifteenth century as one of the star acts of the mimes*.

and can be freed).com . acquiring laws and a semblance of social order. and are farmers and craftsmen). in a way. All six of her plays survive. starting a trend that improves the place and standing of women in Christian society. We will be talking about her later. They have lively dialog and owe something to native farce. They deal with miracles and non-present characters which makes them. Duke Otto* (later known as Otto I the Great) is elected king. Saxony is important because Hroswitha* (also known as Rroswitha) is born there a year earlier. beating his eastern neighbors. It is often questioned whether or not the plays were written to be acted. 955 Otto I* defeats the Magyars and Slavs Theatre Appears Momentarily We have finally arrived at a moment of theatrical history. There are few noblemen. Hroswitha* takes the view that the content should also instruct. Since the church has need of examples of good writing style to teach literacy. Abraham*. often well-off). early versions of the later Miracle* and Morality* plays. in this case a guy named Gerbert (later to become Pope). production increases. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 936 The tenth century is the time of the rise of the Saxons (a Germanic tribe centered in Germany). probably due in part to the effectiveness of Otto I* as a ruler. Bohemians and Magyars. Resident barbarian tribes are beginning to develop into social units.Saxony Rises As A Force In Europe The tenth century is a time of gradual change. The subjects are Christian history and morality. Her plays are designed to teach Christian values while providing good literate style. He proves to be a terrific warrior. a Benedictine abbess of Gandershiem in Saxony.) 951 Otto I* (that Saxon) marries the daughter of the king of Burgundy (she's also the widow of the king of Italy) thereby becoming king of the Franks and Lombards. himself. serfs (bound to the land. The warm climate continues. Slowly but surely the view of woman as Eve. The cult of Mary begins to be very popular. 959 Hroswitha. a large class of thanes (landed gentry. and slaves ( usually prisoners of war and condemned men unable to pay their fines.pdffactory. the Slavs. is softened by the view of women as similar to the Virgin Mary. 950 England is beginning to shape up as something of an organized society under AngloSaxon law. goes to study in Spain. There is even some evidence that at least one of them was performed for a visiting Abbot. technology inches forward and and the weather stays warmer. can be bought and sold with the land. the cause of sin. The Vikings are a trial in certain localities. writes six original prose Latin comedies in imitation of Terence*. Callimachus*. and Sapientia. They are also quite funny. too. Gallicanus*. but other geographic areas get on with the business of making life just a little better than awful. These are: Paphnutius*. 940 One of those European leaders mentioned earlier. Evidence supplied by the plays themselves tends to support the view that they were. Dulcitius*. mother of God and deserving of respect and veneration. Trade improves. and perhaps. churls (ordinary free men who can own and sell land. for a visit of Otto I*.

Otto II*) sort of putting things together in central Europe. 966 The last great era of Moslem Spain starts under Hakam II* in Cordoba. there is the highest level of culture and education in Moslem Spain. of course. Anglo-Saxon literature is just beginning (Beowulf).pdffactory. Belgium. but from up in England we have an extant church playlet complete with stage directions for performance. about to change again. the time of Otto I*. Liturgical (playlets used in connection with the liturgy in the Mass and other services) drama can often be found throughout Europe in Benedictine monasteries. Beowulf. go forward to chap6 or return to PART I Introduction back Theatre History PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. c.Sometime in here the first Anglo-Saxon literary work. The library and education are the finest available. There is a "Holy Roman Empire" (under the German. 962 Otto I* gets himself crowned and anointed Holy Roman Emperor* in the West. 990 Mechanical productivity is on the rise in Europe with hemp mills in southern France. We have seen the rise of literary comedy with Hroswitha*'s imitations of the comedy style of Terence. 987 In France the last of the Carolingian (descendents of Charles Martel) kings dies and a guy called Hugh Capet* becomes king. is composed. founding the Capetian line.com . In the Islamic part of the world. Things are. 967 Otto II* is crowned emperor in Rome. 969-975 Apparently the English pick up on Hroswitha's ideas. and mills of all kind spreading. The Curch is beginning to do dramatizations (the Trope*) of the Mystery (Passion of Christ) business as a rather regular thing around Easter. Bishop of Winchester. There is a population explosion in Europe. This sort of this will become big in the Lowlands (Netherlands. rallys the Irish to subdue the Vikings. 999 Brian Boru*. Twenty-seven advanced public schools supply tuition free education and the University of Cordoba draw scholars from all over. and the first references to the production of religious plays are showing up. visitors to Byzantium tell of seeing performances. or perhaps these ideas are just popular. In the next century the introduction of the new loom increases cloth production. places like that). 10th century. Afterword With all the economic and social progress going on. A survival in the Eastern Empire is a passion play of ten scenes (although this one could have been imported from Europe). *985 Those Icelandic Vikings keep moving west as Eric the Red* goes to Greenland. in Ireland. It appears in the Monastic Agreement compiled by Ethelwold. this is a good point on which to end the chapter.

tumble and do acrobatics. * In the courts of ruling houses there are other forms of entertainments known as Mummings* and Disguisings*. these usually include a clown. will trickle very slowly into the West.pdffactory. does some really weird things.Most of the professional entertainers are called minstrels* since almost all of them can sing. These minstrels* are popular among nobles and clergy throughout Europe. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The play is taken from house to house. the five hundred years (give or take) that make up the Middle and High Middle Ages. play instruments. have many ups and downs. The darkness of the Dark Ages is disappearing in the light of economic. Disguisings* are done for all occasions. (Some of these persist down to the present day. often. and Morris dances (where their blackened faces and bells may have come from the Moors). a fool. act. George. It is also yeilding to the light of classical knowledge. social and physical reconstruction in the West. Europe in the Dark Ages has produced none of these. The Mummer's Plays* are done in dumb show. particularly Spain. So far. These are mainly court entertainments which comes from the local celebrations like sword dances. a doctor comes in. (Sounds a lot like the ancient Egyptian death and resurrection plays and probably owes a great deal to all the pagan winter celebrations. That is now beginning to change. and the French ballet de cour*.) In the Christmas plays Father Christmas is the presenter. a hobby horse. This knowledge from Arabic sources.com . [see the Introduction and Chapter One] we need a society that is. We also need a society that is reasonably stable and economically well off. By the end of the Middle Ages the trickle will turn into a flood and that will trigger the Renaissance. They are given at Christmas and their plots revolve around the apparent death of someone. and the dead person is brought back to life. Other Disguisings* are performed during the carnival season prior to Lent. masks and disguises. Meanwhile. preserved and enhanced by the Islamic culture as it spread over the old Alexandrian Empire. dance of the buffoons. dance and. Especially in Britain. Europe Moves On Into The Eleventh Century 1000's on .home Home CHAPTER SIX Into The Middle Ages Introduction We begin a new chapter here because things are about to take another abrupt change.) These Disguisings* will lead to the Renaissance court Masques* and Italian intermezzi*. at least partly. a man dressed as Maid Marion and sometimes a dragon and St. democratic to produce classic theatre. If you remember our original premise.

Cordoba falls and. There is an anti-Jewish uprising in Granada.By this time the School of Salerno. a really useless early type of cannon. Bologna is now the center of legal learning in Europe. who is married to ex-viking William of Normandy's* sister.The Italians are finally beginning to apply their learning to the problem of law and a Bolognese jurist Gratian* produces a lawyers textbook.com . There are revolts in leadership. 1014 . the library is destroyed. the Magi and the manager scene. Fortunately much of the contents are saved and dispersed. Lief Erikson*. 1066 . 1028 . Soon these show up all over. has introduced Arabian medicine into southern Italy. the knowledge spreads throughout Europe. Gunpowder won't be widely used until later. The beginning of what will come to be an all out persecution. of course) is crowned Holy Roman Emperor*. as well as all Andalusia.The first recorded reference to the use of gunpowder.The consecration of Westminster Abbey* in England. 1013 . Italy.The Vikings help King Ethelred* retake London. 1053 . but hardly anybody knows about it. but times are changing. More useful to education.By now. in a dispute over who inherits the English throne. 1016 . This throws the current English language into disrepute and it will take a few centuries for the new English language to rise from a blend of Norman French and native Anglo-Saxon. pulling down London Bridge (remembered in the children's song) in the process. Because of Otto* and the Empire. 1065 .At Nevers. makes his first voyage to America. the Annunciation.) 1040 . near Naples. and Cordoba. crosses the English Channel and takes England. As time goes by scenes are added to include Herod. Their Christian neighbors regard this as a golden opportunity and immediately start attacking.Canute* conquers Norway (he now rules Denmark. England and Norway. *1060 . The Viking. every cathedral in Europe has a school. the massacre of the innocents and the flight into Egypt.1000 .Things begin to fall apart in Moslem Spain. especially to Toledo*. the Visitation.The famous Battle of Hastings* is fought when William the Conqueror*. as usual.England is now ruled by a part-viking named Canute*. This will lead to a real can of worms about English succession and a big change in the fortunes of England.pdffactory. They use it in the bombard*. a Nativity Play is performed. descends into chaos. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In France there are 11th century tropes for Christmas festivals. 1010 . 1044 . At Limoges these include episodes about the shepherds. the Byzantine* Empire is importing Arabian paper and paper is being made in Moslem Spain.Henry IV (German. 1050 .

) They take Jerusalem* away from the resident Arabs. evil Moslem hordes. this is intellectual heaven.Very slowly there is the development of craft guilds.) known to his friends as Rodrigo Diaz de Vibar*. but they work for wages. But the winners write the legends.com . its ruler wants to get out. than their Christian opponents. 11th & 12th centuries . 1076 . Local accounts show him to be a raping.) When towns becomes self-governing (instead of being bound to a feudal lord) the guilds have the power. At the top they are governed by council of masters (owners and supervisors) of the particular trade. intrigue and. Calicia and Castile. as seems to be the case in the famous fall of Toledo. El Cid* is billed as the perfect knight.) The Arabs are considerably more civilized. and a general myth grows up around Rodrigo. They elect the mayor and town council from among themselves.The rising social organization in Europe gets some help from the rediscovery of the Digest*.The wild and aggressive Turkish tribes the Arabs had been employing as slaves and mercenaries have replaced their masters and are now running things in Egypt (known as the Seljuk Turks from their homeland. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. battling the dissolute. Scholars stream in to study the terrific Arabic texts. The Christians will carry a resentful jealousy of Arab culture for centuries.1071 . to the local ruler deciding life is safer somewhere else. they can't even understand half of it. These guilds are hierarchically organized (a power pyramid). These are developed as protective organizations against the oppression of local feudal lords and to help merchants make connections in other towns when they travel for trade. poems. and make use of the large population of multi-lingual Jewish scholars to translate the books into something they can read. This is especially true in Spain where Alphonzo VI reunites the three northern Christian kingdoms of Leon. They are much more aggressively puritanically Moslem than their former masters and start to make things very difficult for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land* . the library is not burned and survives intact. and often more chivalrous. but to bargaining. encouraged by the Pope who needs a really catchy public relations image to sell his push for the Reconguest of Moslem territories.) Low boys on the totem pole are the apprentices (they usually apprentice for seven years for no pay. This unification makes it possible for him to move against the Moslems to his south. The Eleventh Century Moslems Decline And The Crusades Begin By the middle of this century the Moslems are beginning to be pushed back from the European territories they have conquered. (that condensed version of Justinian's laws) apparently in Ravenna. but they get room and board. 1085 Toledo falls (that is. (The code of chivalry isn't really up and running yet. as well as the history books.pdffactory. Unfortunately this is all Christian negative advertising. pillaging barbarian just like everybody else. This is a definite advantage to the west because. The main workers in the trade are journeymen (skilled enough to work on their own. and does) to El Cid* and Alphonso VI (who has a lot of connections in town since he spends a number of years here as an exile from his own territories). Compared with what they have at home. for once. not to armed might. They also begin to push into what remains of the Byzantine Empire*. Many legends. The cultural and intellectual riches flabbergast western tourists. His armies are led by the fabled El Cid* (from the Arabic Sidi meaning Lord. The majority of the defended cities in Spain fall.

That jealousy.pdffactory. and biggest bunch. The fourth. By this time they're beginning to refer to these Turks as Saracens*. comes in two parts. The smaller part is from Flanders (that place where they make all the cloth) under Count Robert II*. they pillage and burn their way through the Christian countries as they march to Constantinople.com . There's a French one from Lorraine under Godfrey de Bouillon* who starts first. 1097 . Normans and Bretons (northern France) under William the Conquerors. He takes the title of "Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre. His order comes to be called Cistercians* The whole point is to set up abbeys 'far from the haunts of men' on marginal land. fighting types just dying to make war on somebody. think of the plunder! 1096 So all the bishops and priests everywhere start preaching the Crusade. It isn't those fighting type knights that he attracts. He's followed closely to Constantinople by a bunch of Normans from southern Italy and Sicily under Bohemond of Taranto*.) 1098 Meanwhile. a French monk. but the most effective is a dirty. With considerable ups and downs they fight their way through Nicea.and Raymond goes off in a huff to Syria to seek a kingdom of his own.Meanwhile. So the time seems just right for a religious crusade to free the Holy Land* from those uppity infidels. Robert Molesme*. As usual. the People's Crusade* moves out of Cologne on the road to Constantinople. 1096 . For such a difficult task they need more help and employ "lay" brothers who are permitted to sell their surplus. really gnaws at the Europeans. back in Europe. leaves his own religious order (Benedictine) to set up a new one in a poor. what with all that productivity and social organization.'s* son Duke Robert of Normandy*. 1099 Back at the Crusades . marshy area of Burgundian forest called Citeaux. Godfrey dies of typhoid fever and his brother Baldwin takes over. Immediately behind them comes the bunch from Provence in southern France under Count Raymond IV of Toulouse*. Fortunately for the surviving local Christians. the remaining forces take Jerusalem*. Antioch (Godfrey's younger brother Baldwin decides to take off on his own and takes Armenia. Instead it's mostly the common people who flock by the thousands. The larger part is made up of English. homely little runt who comes to be known as Peter the Hermit*. Under a soldier of fortune called Walter the Penniless*. back in Europe. there is a surplus of the aggressive. (mentioned earlier) about the terrific cultural edge the Arabs have over the Christian West. the real fighting types put together four great divisions of knightly armies. Another big step forward toward a productive economy.Three years after they start." The two Roberts pack up their loot to go home 1100 . The Byzantine Empire* doesn't recognize the authority of Rome and it's being threatened by those nasty Turks who took Jerusalem* [see 1071].The First Crusade 1095 Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade*. becoming king of Jerusalem*. There's considerable jockeying over which of the leaders gets to rule there. Besides. the entire People's Crusade* is wiped out by the Turks just south of Constantinople.The combined force of around thirty-five thousand horse and foot soldiers march off to meet the Turks. anybody. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The relevance of this particular event is that it spreads the latest and best agricultural practices among the local populations. where he stays for a while as the prince of Edessa. Remember that "Reconquest" idea of the Pope's? Well. and finally Godfrey* gets the nod.

" It combines some aspects of the story of Christ's death with a lot of classical stuff. 1100 The most famous example of Romanesque* architecture. 1104 Champagne Fairs begin. An Englishman from Bath named Adelard* goes to learn about astronomy and picks up a lot more. the others May and autumn ones. Some will hold summer and winter fairs.com . Towns. and those mills. They get black robes with an eight point white cross. that kind of stuff.As The Twelfth Century Begins Economic And Intellectual Profits 11th or 12th century (although it could have been the fourth) theatre was apparently still a going concern in the East. set up regular fair times. about five of them. too. Dancers show up in plays that include Salome* and a tumbler is vital for productions of Le Tonbeur Notre Dame*. I will the Passion tell which saved the world. They rapidly become as wealthy as many European kings. This also leads to progress in finance. improved productivity with that Cistercians* agriculture. John who are more widely known as the Hospitallers*. The Templars get a reputation as really fierce fighters.640 lines. They begin to found a bunch of military "Orders. This order specializes in providing a hospital and hostel for pilgrims. The architectural style is based on the use of the Roman (really the Etruscan) arch. and probably pretty good for the entertainers. He goes home with a translation of Euclid's* geometry and a good understanding of the new method PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. At the start they all have strict rules that have a lot in common with the Jomsvikings* [remember them?]. These are the guys with the white surcoat and big red cross. France. What with all that loot from the Crusade. letters of credit. 1101-1128 Now that Jerusalem* is finally in Christian hands. 1100's and 1200's . The ancient puppet and marionette plays are always popular. It gives us a good example of how the Eastern Empire of Byzantium is trying to combine the classical with Christian. like Satan. the crossing points of trade routes start having regular fairs. is completed. 1120 The earliest record of a Miracle Play* at Dunstable in England. Plays which appear to have been performed in the Byzantine Empire include: Christus Paschon -* it begins: "Now in the manner of Euripides. the cathedral at Cluny. The various orders are given huge gifts of land and money from kings and barons." The first is The Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. Paraphrases of Euripides' tragedies shows up in a third of the 2. Then there is the Order of the Knights of St. Judas and executioners. 1120's Meanwhile back in Spain that intellectual revolution is getting started. who get the so-called Temple of Solomon as their headquarters and they get to wear the same outfit as the first group. Great for trade. but power and wealth corrupt and they soon get a reputation for arrogance. the knights who did it start to get religious.We find many other entertainers appearing in plays. Professional actors begin to be used to play those roles in plays (about Christ's Passion) that the townspeople don't want to play. in the region of Champagne. The next order is the Templars*.

Some stay in Toledo to work for Raymond the Archbishop.Jeu d'Adam* (The Play of Adam) is the oldest extant play in French. starting with Salerno. so it's obviously time for another crusade. a Breton philosopher and the guy who has the memorable affair with Heloise*. lose most of their men. one of the first troubadours whose name is known. Lots of others take off for Spain from all over Europe. this business of rational thought and natural science. The play contains three main parts 1. 1070). and give the whole thing up an go home.CAIN AND ABEL PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. also picks up all that wonderful learning from Spain. His system of nature and the logic of argument comes complete with Arabic commentaries to make the whole thing easier to understand. Later known as The Mystery of Adam* it is written by Arnoul Grebau*. But even more of a bombshell is the philosophy. It is definitely a different approach from the authoritarian Augustinian view. and is now using the new logic in his teaching in Paris. The range of sciences becoming available is mind boggling. dies. [That won't fly.] 1148 The French and German forces marching to Damascus* bog down arguing over who will get what loot. to have been produced outside a cathedral for a larger public.of thought which he writes out. Bernard) preaches the Second Crusade*. This time it is supposed to be a penance for sins and not an opportunity for plunder. Denis outside Paris.pdffactory. Here we finally get a surviving text of a religious play that appears.com . it takes four days to perform outdoors. Universities begin to be founded around Europe. 1130's *Peter Abelard*. slaughtering the Christian inhabitants. 1127 Guillaume de Poitou* (b. The Second Crusade Theatre Is Showing Up In The Church 1146 The Turks have taken back Edessa. Big impact on his European colleagues. c. 1144 The beginnings of Gothic* architecture show up with the church of St.ADAM AND EVE 2. This play deals with the mystery of the passion of Christ and covers events from Adam through Pentecost. from the stage directions. especially the works of our friend Aristotle. With over 35. Bernard of Clairvaux* (later known as St. 1150 . This will become very dangerous for his health when the Church realizes what a can of worms this new learning can be. For the next sixty years Gothic cathedrals will rise all over Europe. This new system provides the intellectuals with a really usable tool for arriving at a truth. It'll make things pretty dangerous later when these new views come up against the old Augustian head-in-the-sand thinking of the church.000 lines. He sets up a bunch of translators to cope with all the manuscripts flowing in from the "Reconquest" in Spain. This involves the pointed arch so widely used by the Arabs.

(as we move outdoors. Production techniques in Medieval religious drama . but still being performed by clergy. an educational institution free from rule of the church. no more than 200 lines) seem to have been performed in the monasteries and inside the cathedrals for Easter. mainly the Three Kings* and the Prophets Play*.3. some not for ten years.) and. He lays the foundations for English Common Law. who hire the teachers and set the rules. the lawyer. Scenery: There is little attempt made to be elaborate in setting the scene until the plays pass in to hands of laymen.) There are also a number of plays dealing with the Christmas season.) Props: as the plays expand to subjects beyond the Trope they begin to include the objects needed as symbols (the dove) and for practical identification of the characters (gifts from the Three Kings. Gradually the number. The University of Bologna is the world's first really non-religious university. like wings for angels. gradually pick up additions. commercial city. Admission is not usually charged although some places have special seats for hire. They are various enlargements on the Trope*. and occasionally with choir boys. furniture and other objects. characters begin to have more elaborate costumes for such roles as the Wise Men (Three Kings. length and variety of subject matter increase.) All plays use music. Only three deal with the crucifixion: two are in the Carmina Burana ( a collection of plays and poems from a monastery in Germany) and one from this same date from Italy (about 320 lines long. It is run by the students. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Soon.* The Arts faculty become controversial because they are most strongly influenced by all that new knowledge coming out of Spain. 1152 Frederick I Barbarossa* becomes king (in Germany). Henry (see below) marries Eleanor of Aquitaine* 1154 Henry II* (the one who married Eleanor) comes to the English throne and the Plantagenent line begins. 1158 Frederick I Barbarossa* issues a decree founding a protestant (that means non-religious at this point in time) university in Bologna*. Almost all of the other religious dramas (we know of something over 400. when lives of Saints are enacted.) Costumes: which start out as church vestments. free from papal interference. The longest and most complex is the Antichrist which is so full of diverse and elaborate scenes that it was probably a bardic performance piece and was not dramatized at all. all very short. The University of Bologna immediately develops a reputation for legal instruction and starts the fastest growing of medieval professions. It is under the protection of the emperor. and situated in a republican. Other biblical events are dramatized.com . Most Passion plays are not given every year (some every second year.PROPHET'S PLAY (foretelling coming of Christ) The dialog is in French but the stage directions and songs are in Latin.pdffactory. In part 3 the dialog has the scriptural part in Latin followed by paraphrasing that dialog in French. This city has a tradition as a Roman municipality and escaps the grip of feudalism that plagues the rest of Europe. It has been republican for centuries and has a healthy independence of thought. It will attract students from all over.

1167 Frederick I Barbarossa* is crowned Holy Roman Emperor*. Yemen and part of Iraq. The point of all this is that these Mamluks will take over the kingdom later and give the Europeans a lot of trouble.pdffactory. takes all the cash he can lay his hands on. They are Sunni* and consequently have lots of problems with the Shiite* remnants of the Fatimids.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1189 Richard I* (the Lionheart) comes to the English throne. We also hear of the first European references to a needle that points north. Henry II's* Archbishop of Canterbury. Oxford 1170 Thomas a Becket*. These Turkish slave-warriors are called Mamluks* (meaning "something that is possessed". c. He does a pretty good job. there's a lot of interest in Jerusalem* and the millennia. and heads off for the Crusade leaving his brother John* in charge at home. He reorganizes France and it begins to be the dominant power. 1163 Notre Dame* is built.Plays are being performed in England that deal with the lives of Saints (religious chivalric knights. Well. Taking the fortress cities. When the news of the fall of Jerusalem* reaches Europe everybody starts getting ready to move again.) They are captured. This really gets Henry* into hot water with the Pope and the church. They will extend their rule to Syria. write.com . he 1187 finally captures Jerusalem. 1180 Philip II* comes to the throne of France. taught to read. [This is the time of all that "Robin Hood" stuff.* He turns out to be a lot more chivalrous than his opponents. and somewhere over in Germany there is a terrific play called The Antichrist (performed in Latin by clerics. mainly from the Turkish Kipchak tribe (Crimea and southern Russian steppes.) These men are prized as terrific fighters with horse and short bow. The Third Crusade The One We All Remember 1183 The Moslems have this new leader. He tricks the Christians into breaking the truce which provides him with a good excuse to push the Christians out of Palestine.) 1171 In Egypt the Kurdish Ayyubids* depose the ruling Fatimid rulers and start their own dynasty under Saladin*. Saladin replaces his African troops with Turks. is murdered by four of Henry's Norman knights. one by one.1160 .What with all that crusading and the end of the century looming on the horizon.1170 . In England. There is also a really extreme bunch called the Assassins* who run around terrorizing everybody. University is founded. In order to keep things running smoothly they (the new rulers) make use of slavewarriors. As the Christian knights come into more and more contact with Saladin.* the European notion of Chivalry develops. They are converted to Islam. there's a lot about that in Revelations*. and speak Arabic and can rise to be army commanders. Nobody in Europe needs to be told that it is time for the Third Crusade*. as Sultan of Egypt and Syria. It will take a while to develop this into a workable compass and improve navigation.) The first part is all about that local celebrity Barbarossa* and the second part deals with the Antichrist and fighting him. Saladin*.

Like other military orders. Their headquarters is in Palestine at Acre. against the pagan Livs. January 1. 1192 The stalemate ends in a five year truce and Saladin* still in firm possession of Jerusalem*. in northeastern Europe (Latvia. All the knights at the jousting think this Holy War business is just the thing. Greece. Germany and Palestine from the Emperor and privileges from the Pope. of course. On his way home Richard* is taken hostage by Duke Leopold of Austria* and held for ransom for two years. in this case. 1198 Pope Innocent III* becomes the new Pope and speaks of the need for a Holy War. It is an opportunity for comedy and farce and no doubt makes use of earlier pagan practices. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1194 The Scandinavian mythology collection Elder Edda* appears. to the familiar tales of Robin Hood.com . John Lackland* becomes king of England. It includes activities similar to the Feast of Fools. The Festival is presided over by a "bishop fool" who has ecclesiastical authority during the festival.The Feast of Fools (the Feast of the Circumcision. (who seem to share that Roman military "Divine Missionary" attitude. wealth and prestige. to the choir boys.At Regensburg on the Danube there is a performance of a Prophet Play*. Meanwhile. Philip* leading the rest of the French. 1190's .pdffactory. 1197 A Cistercian* abbot named Berthold* is invested as Bishop of Livonia (Latvia). actually. leaving Richard* in charge of the whole shooting match. up in his part of Eastern Europe. so they join up and the word spreads. They have the patronage of the Holy Roman Emperor (who is also German) and the Pope. or 6. they grow rapidly in power. The Teutonic Knights*. So much for that Crusade. Sometimes plays are staged as part of the festivities and they also are comic. They get land in Italy. The clergy use the occasion to ridicule their superiors and the routine of church life. or 13) is one of the feast days given over to some of the lesser clergy. The Feast of the Boy Bishop . 1191 The crusaders take back Acre* and Philip* goes home sick. Richard* leading the English (and knights from all his French possessions). It's now a contest between Richard* and Saladin* and neither one wins.) the Livonian Bishop. and Frederick (who drowns on the way and his army disappears) leading the German forces.1190 Everybody starts off for the Third Crusade*. The Pope's representatives are preaching a Holy War. When he is unable to convert the pagan population he goes back to Germany and recruits a crusader army.(the Feast of the Holy Innocents. etc. That busy fair district of Champagne is holding a jousting tourney when the Holy War is preached as part of the event. December 28) is another festival given over. Albert of Buxtehude. That doesn't work too well because the crusaders come just for the summer and go home in the winter. gets a papal OK to have a crusade of his own. at least their dominant motive is redemption through battle) are founded by the German Crusaders to the Holy Land. Leading. 1194 . 1199 On the death of Richard*. in this case to the subdeacons.

he claims.The 30. becoming famous for their wool. instead of south by sea. The Low Countries industrialize (in a modest way) and the Friesians* are noted for their wool. a Jean Bodel* (crusader.The church reaches the peak of its power. 1202 So the Fourth Crusade* starts by sacking a Christian city to line the pockets of the merchants of Venice.There is now a Confrerie de Jongleurs. Each monastic house is a medieval factory. and persuades them to capture the port of Zara on the Adriatic coast of Dalmatia. He even offers to foot the bill. They figure its easier to get there by sea than to take that terrible land trip through Constantinople. c. he persuades the Crusaders to go east by land. Paris has a religion-centered University where a student takes six years of Arts and four years of theology. an Anglo-Norman play More Crusades And A Small Renaissance As We Go Into The Thirteenth Century The Thirteenth Century is marked by the appearance of new towns and cities based on commerce. they actually hire professional actors for the big parts. Inside the church the dramatizations are done by the clergy as part of the mass.* ( a brotherhoof of composing and performing minstrels) and one of their members. This. and Miracle Plays as well as the great Mystery and Last Judgement Plays all are really concerned with this dying business and they all draw heavily on the contrast between redemption and damnation. He wants to punish Constantinople for refusing a trade agreement. When they lease land it comes with strict instructions and rules on how best to farm it. Finally. They are Europe's best land managers. will be acceptable as security for the needed money. laymen begin to be entrusted with acting roles.pdffactory. 1201-2 Off to the Crusades .late 1100's .000 or so would-be crusaders assemble in Venice with plans to attack the Saracens by way of Egypt. Legend.) This change is accompanied by another transition. 1200 . This seems like a terrific PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.We find La Seinte Resurrection.In all European countries it's a time of gradual transition in the writing of religious drama.000 pieces of silver) to provide ocean-going transportation and the Crusaders can't meet the price. Plays in the venacular (the local language) gradually replace those in liturgical Latin (which the clergy use and none of the locals can understand. as the competition increases to do a better job. In 1200 . As the plays begin to move out of the church on to the porch and finally into the open square. Parable. this does not make the Pope happy. As you might suspect. The Doge further suggests that the Crusaders should capture Constantinople and unite the Byzantine* Empire with the rest of Christendom. town official and author) writes the St. The Doge really has a hidden agenda. By the start of the century there are thirty Cistercian* [remember? that really productive order?] houses all over Europe. So. 1200-1350 .com . Nicholas Play* full of crusader battles and tavern scenes. They open warehouses and finance offices in major sea ports. The Doge (leader of the Venetians) wants a ton of money (85.

1204 The Greeks (who are the military power in Constantinople) start open war with the invading Crusaders. they can move like lightning. the Crusaders get Emperor Alexius IV* (nephew of the former deposed emperor) put on the throne. What more could you want? Meanwhile that beleaguered Bishop Albert in Livonia (Latvia) gets papal approval to establish a military order to be based there. a united church and the best plunder around." These guys are recruited from just about anybody and they get a lousy reputation. 1210 Remember all that Aristotelian stuff pouring out of Spain? Well. A significant side-light is that the Italians take home some terrific cultural treasures and their contact with the East helps push the revival in classical learning and art. loot and burn the city.000) with his own elite corps of 10. with a little fighting and a lot of conniving. He creates order out of chaos and establishes a new pyramid of power based on a full time corp of nomadic hunters who earn promotion by merit. He signs an agreement to finance the crusade. This often puts a crimp in their fighting.000 and 10. 1203 Off to Constantinople where. the Mamluks*. the whole Byzantine intrigue falls apart. The Mongols are an interesting bunch who elect their leader democratically. They have the military advantage of using stirrups (which are just now showing up in the west) which enables them to stand up and shoot their bows while riding at full gallop. outside Cairo. a tough little Mongol named Temujin* (soon to be known as Genghis Khan* has united the Mongolian tribes and is in control of central and eastern Mongolia. Back in Latvia. They are known for their dubious morals. Bahr alNil. the greedy conquerors split up into bitter. Genghis is a whiz at administration and a good lawmaker. The new knowledge is becoming dangerous to the authority of the church. 1203 Off to the East. and the teaching of Aristotle* is banned in Paris. quarreling factions. [This bogus "empire" will hang on about 57 years and then collapse. starting with parts of China. because they have to drop everything and go home to vote whenever the current "great khan" dies off.pdffactory. the Saracens get stronger. Down in Egypt those equally terrific Turkish slave-warriors. called Bahris* because they are garrisoned on an island in the Nile. but they are terrific fighters. 1. splitting the plunder between the Venetians and the Frankish Crusaders. It is officially called: "Brothers of Christ's Militia. But then. the Sword Brothers* take all of Livonia and start looking north for something more to conquer. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He divides them into military style units (100. the trouble with the Church starts. have risen to be the elite guard. Only the greedy merchants win.] The Crusaders never crusade.000." Soon they come to be known as "The Sword Brothers*. They set up a puppet Frankish emperor of what they call the Latin Empire*.idea to church and greedy nobles alike. The Crusaders sack. Since the Mongols are nomadic and not encumbered by material possessions.com . We'll hear more from him later. 1206 The Mongols under Genghis Khan* begin their conquests.

drives north through the Georgians. They force him to set his seal on the Magna Carta* at Runnymede*. 1223 Genghis Khan* is entrenched in the Ukraine and Crimea. His remains are supposed to have the power to slay Moslems (which is handy in Spain) and cure disease. Frederick II* is creating a trained civil service and down in Naples. a University free of monastic and clerical control. 1215 In England. He is traveling with 200. Thousands of young boys march to the French port of Marseilles where they expect the waters to part so they can walk to the Holy Land. King John* is badgered by his powerful barons to share some of his power. Persia. There are three exciting places to go to do the shrines. plus get cured of any dire diseases you might have. is that they go on a pilgrimage. He is a spectacular ruler. The waters don't and most of the children are sold by merchants into slavery. look at the relics. too. It figures prominently in the medieval tour guides (yes. full of practical advice and directions. The third place is way out on the western edge of Spain. 1212 The Children's Crusade*. Meanwhile in Germany. He pushes to the Caspian Sea. too. this place has been really popular all through the twelfth century.000 siege engines from China. At the moment it mainly empowers the barons and cuts into the rights of the king. 1224 So are the Teutonic Knights* and the King of Hungary has to expel them by force. and his court PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. is raised by a revivalist type French boy. It is the spot that claims to have the tomb of Saint James the Apostle (Santiago in the Spanish. the Kipchak Turks of the Volga steppes. and the Bulgars of the upper Volga.pdffactory. and very expensive. 1218 The Fifth Crusade* is another abortive attempt to get to Jerusalem through Egypt. Anyhow. He is interested in culture too. In three years he kills millions. offer them (the Teutonic Knights) a province and whatever they can conquer. They (the Poles).000 men and 10. 1217 Back in Asia Genghis Khan* is subduing Khwarizm a Turkish dominated empire including Turkestan. but that's fairly far.com .One of the other fun things people do. Meanwhile Genghis Khan* is conquering the rest of Persia.) 1211 Those Teutonic Knights* get involved in eastern Europe when the King of Hungary invites them up there to help defend against some central Asian Cumans. a place called Compostela. but that's a long trip and often somebody is doing a massacre there. Frederick II* grandson of Frederick I Barbarossa* is crowned Holy Roman Emperor*.a system of degrees and their requirements is up and running in Paris.) Apparently he is supposed to have traveled there from Jerusalem to preach the Gospel. The best place is Jerusalem. 1219 On the university front . bringing in German farmers to colonize the territory. But that's OK because a Polish Duke asks them to come up there and tame the Prussians. Next best is Rome. there really are some. creating a rigid framework of law and administration. ever since that Crusade business got possession of Jerusalem. and pick up a few religious souvenirs. most of Afghanistan and part of northern India. a real embarrassment to the church. They come and set up an independent state. laying the ground work for a future democratic society. The Mongol atrocities are legendary.

1241 The Mongols* devastate Moravia.) under his control.What with all these crusades there's lots of interest in this crusading business back home. southern China. plus a corridor to the sea and all prisoners freed. Armenia and Azerbaijan. He isn't too interested in fighting and instead wangles a treaty getting the surrender of several cities. 1236 . Frederick II* puts together the Constitutions of Melfi. 1240 The Pope gets pretty excited about things up in Russia what with the pagans.pdffactory. including lots of knights and minstrels doing their things. 1229 A new great khan is elected and the Mongols under Ogedei resume conquests of Korea. the first comprehensive legal code seen in Europe since Justinian. there is also disease. 1235 . Silesia and turn south into Hungary. but they are eventually absorbed into the Teutonic Knights*. But the Mongols* are busy destroying Kiev and defeating the Polish. It's a ten year treaty and nobody likes it. 1227 Genghis Khan* dies and all the Mongol leaders go home to vote on a new leader. 1237 The Mongols* continue invading Christian Russia. Frederick II of Germany. overwhelming Rostov. They sweep through the Bulgars in middle Volga and Cumens in the southern steppes. He gets the Pope to make them do it in return for his agreeing to lead another Crusade. In Germany there is a Magdeburg Pentecost Play called The Roundtable. He wants to bring the "Lombard League. Moscow and Vladimir. 1225 A story of courtly love appears in the well-known Roman de la Rose (The Romance of the Rose) by Guillaume de Lorris*. the Christians.000 men. At this time. so there is a brief respite and a break in their headlong advancement towards Europe. 1238 The truce in Palestine ends and everybody fights everybody else for years.com . He calls for a crusade against the Russians of Novgorod*. Frederick II* stands at the peak of the feudal pyramid.There is an example of another kind of entertainment. and now the Mongols. northern Iraq. They don't want to. The Baltic Crusade* is under way but they get sidetracked by fighting the Mongols*. The Teutonic Knights* have managed to take over all of Prussia and beyond." (a collection of independent Italian cities. the Royal entry* and Street Pageant. 1228 The Sixth Crusade* is led by the Holy Roman Emperor*. This is a lousy PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. rivaling the Pope for top place. northeast Persia. 1230 Among the plunder brought home by the Crusaders. national victories and for visiting royalty. including Jerusalem*. Cotton is manufactured in Spain. 1236 The Mongols* turn to eastern Europe with 150. By this date we find plays being added to these events. royal weddings.is the birthplace of Italian as a literary language. These are given by municipalities in honor of coronations. leprosy is introduced into Europe. The Sword Brothers* have added more territory to their original Latvian holdings.

then a stalemate. Oxford* is founded. 1250 There is a lot of fighting. 1244 *The Khwarizmian Turks (The Egyptian Turks keep taking new pagan Turks for their army and they fight with all the zeal of new converts. these particular ones are from a different and more ferocious tribe) sweep into Jerusalem* and leave it in ruins. Individual artists start putting their name to their works. who keeps a journal. King of France (later to be known as St. John of Joinville*. this one under Louis IX*.* are taken prisoner. Everybody gets sick. including Louis.) It takes seven years to put the rebellion down. they get decimated. 1255 The church finally gives in and permits all Aristotelian work into the curriculum of universities.) [There is a terrific account of this Crusade by one of the French participants.] The University College. The avowed purpose is to identify and punish heresy. Louis*. This encourages the Prussians and they rebel against their crusader lords (those Teutonic Knights*.pdffactory. Frederick II* dies and the imperial crown passes to the Hapsburgs*. 1242 When the Baltic Crusade gets going against Novgorod* the crusaders loose. The Christians lose Jerusalem* for good. 1254 Louis* returns to France. Production increases and literary. musical and artistic activities thrive.German drama begins to be visible with the Easter Play of Muri*. 1252 The Inquisition (which has been around for a while) begins to use instruments of torture. The Small Renaissance Part of the Century Craft Guilds* become stronger and more widespread. then the usual diseases of a military camp. but Louis* stays. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.idea. This is the beginning of thirty years of war. This puts another big dent in the remains of the Islamic Empire. The news spreads back to France and another Crusade is planned.com . 1249 The Seventh Crusade*. The entire army. 1245 This is the first recorded European exploration of Asia. Much ransom is paid and most of the Crusaders sail for home. He spends four years trying to build up what remains of the Christian territorial holdings. 1250 . 1250's During this decade the Mongols* destroy Bagdad* and kill the Caliph of Islam. but fortunately the Mongols have to quit (Ogedei dies) and go home for another election. Meanwhile a grandson of Genghis Khan establishes the Golden Horde* of Mongol* warriors on the lower Volga. This institution will really get up and running later. 1258 Mongols* take Bagdad and overthrow the caliphate. under Louis arrives in Egypt (the idea is to attack the Saracens at their home in Cairo*.

as well as plays about St. All this philosophy business is helping lay the ground work for breaking the church's intellectual monopoly. Catherine and St. c. a Confraternita* produces a splendidly staged sacra rapprasentatione* (sacred representation) at Treviso. a play with music. The Mongols* are about to attack Egypt when their current Khan dies and most of them troop home for the election giving the Arabs a breathing space.In Italy. So now. he will be known as Harlequin. Paul. 1264 . 1261 . the Mongolian hordes are settling in and contributing to the gene pool of a whole bunch of different places. and in Samarkand the Mongol* Chagatai rule the central Asian steppes as the Chagtai Khanate*. Miracle of Theophile*. He will be putting out more writings for another ten years. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.In Rome there are organizations of Actor's fraternities* called the Lord's Minstrels*. loud bells. All these plays center around miracles and later there will be a category of Miracle Plays*.) These characters have been used by the populace when they have celebrations in which an army of damned souls. or souls of the dead. They wear animal masks (particularly asses ears). 1262 .The House of Commons is established in England. Later yet. Augustine* and Aristotle*) into a double standard and splits philosophy off from theology. go screaming in a wild chase all over town. In Persia the Mongol* Ilkhans rule. most of Russia is ruled by the Mongol* Batu. etc. 1264 Thomas Aquinas* writes Summa Contra Gentiles (in philosophy and theology) reconciling the dual modes of thought (St." *One of the things that is interesting about it is his use of characters that seem to owe their origins to pagan demon cults (although they also would be right at home in an Etruscan* farce. giving some measure of power to the commoner people. In plays.That prolific author Adam de la Halle* comes up with an interesting work called Jeu de la Feuille* which may be the earliest secular work we have. 1259 In Egypt the Mamluks* finally seize the throne of Egypt 1260 and when the Mongols* threaten the eastern borders (with their depleted forces) the Mamluks* rout them. 1261 More saint plays appear in France. This ruins the Mongol reputation for invincibility and stops their western movement. Roger Bacon* (philosopher) writes De Computo Naturali. by Rutebeuf* .pdffactory.com . the first French "operette. these demons and devils show up in many forms but the chief one is the character of the chief devil called Herlequin. Back home the Mongols* have elected Kublai Khan* as their leader. The Mongol* Empire begins to fall into separate pieces while the main group takes over all of China*. who will grow into the stock Commedia dell'Arte* character of Arlecchino*. in Sari on the Volga the Golden Horde* controls the Kipchak Khanate.

.com . they need a lot of mansions for their plays. the tableau swings into action and the play begins. They start using Wagons* in the Corpus Christi* productions when they want to bring the show to the audience. 1274 In China Kublai Khan* tries to conquer Japan and fails. 1276 In Spain. There are two areas involved in the stage delineation of the performance space: First . loci. 1275 Marco Polo* stays on in the service of Kublai Khan* in China for 17 years and writes A Description of the World. for the auto sacremental*. With his death. a merchant from Italy ( relative of the earlier Polos). 1270 Louis* dies on an expedition to Africa to bring Christianity to Tunis.this is a neutral open space adjoining the mansion with as much room as the actors need for their action. the King of Castile and Leon. instead of the audience to the show. or domi . It is a part of the new interest in the life of this world (going along with the new cult of the Eucharist. now that cities are getting bigger. THEATRICAL PERFORMANCE SPACE IN CHURCH DRAMA The dramatic interludes in the liturgy move out of the church and onto the porch where they begin to be public plays. Niccolo and Matteo Polo. These wagons (or carts) show up now in Spain. These are soon put on wagons (called carro*). More about these later as they become more sophisticated and widespread. seales. The thing carries a tableau (a bunch of people in a pose) and when it's set down. with all the booty paraded along the streets in elaborate wagons? Well. This wagon business is popular in England as well.the mansions*.the platea* or place .these are small structures establishing the location of the scenes Second . Alfonso the Wise*.pdffactory. 1272 In England Edward I* becomes king. This will remain the done thing in Spain for centuries.sets up a school to translate Arab texts into Latin. or stops moving.1264 The Feast of Corpus Christi* is inaugurated. the elevation of the Host and the dogma of transubstantiation. where a platform (called a roca) is carried around by a bunch of men. journeys to China. 1266 Over in China* Kublai Khan* receives two Venetian merchants. There are as many mansions as needed for the dramatization and the actors move into and out of the platea when they want to establish a new locale. the heart goes out of the crusading business and the Age of Great Crusades is over. He also updates star tables and produces Alfonsine tables which will PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1271 Marco Polo*. 1264 .Remember those Roman triumphs.) This will provide one of the biggest theatrical opportunities in the coming centuries.

provide the astronomical standards for the next three hundred years. spectacles (reading glasses) become available. It's called the Chambers of Rhetoric*. 1283 . 1276 .] In the late 1200's we find the earliest example of a type of drama peculiar to the Low Countries. 1298 Louis* is canonized as St. [We will find these teutonic views reappearing at regular intervals. 1283 The Teutonic Knights* finish subjugating Prussia. Louis*. the rule is no Jews. 1298 . music and drama. Albertus Magnus*. 1280 Technological advances appear. is that belief can come only through understanding. c. the colonization of Prussia begins by German colonists from northern Germany.Adam de la Halle comes up with another secular play. These are usually allegorical or historical and are done in pantomime* including tableaux vivants* (living tableaus. It deals with peasants and supernatural events. The first one we know of is the Flemish The Boy and the Blind Man*. a German philosopher and scientist dies. The viewpoint of the church is that understanding can come only through belief. 1291 More technological advances.pdffactory. From here on out it is their territory and they are based there. the spinning wheel. appears. These start spreading in the 1300's as societies concerned with poetry. He is later associated with alchemy and magic. a leap forward in optics. The Play of Robin and Marion*. The Teutonic knights abandon their old stronghold of Holyband and move their activities to the Baltic where they exterminate the heathen Slavs and replace them with god-fearing German farmers. They have their own fleet in the Baltic. 1297 The Teutonic Knights* are battling the Rigans and those guys ask help from the Lithuanians. and a paper mill in Italy. 1284 This is the time of the "Pied Piper of Hamelin.The earliest known secular play The Play of The Greenwood* by Adam de la Halle*.) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This stuff is vital for calendars and navigation.Plays are given as part of the victory pageant celebrating Edward I*'s victory over the Scots. c. Obviously the church is going to have problems with this new view. The new view. 1277 Roger Bacon* imprisoned for heresy. culminating in the wars of the 20th century." 1290 Now that the Teutonic Knights* have things under control. The Knights carry on a large and lucrative trade. They specialize in allegorical drama. (and Bacon's view). they are very firm about Christian rule for Christian subjects. Also. this time it is a terrific advance for scholars.com .

The Pope* does. plague will follow famine until. Weather Gets Colder and the Arts Take Off 1300 Population is high and there is a temporary end to the European slave trade. The Viking outposts in Greenland freeze to death and will not be resettled. Philip* does. By the middle of the century. There is wide spread famine and progressively colder weather. 1303 The Pope is again called to judge the Teutonic Knights* and again he claims they are guilty. In northern England these are the craft guilds. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. They are by and large made up of laymen with some clergy.Those terrific tournaments the knights used to have to keep them sharp for the crusades are becoming more and more pure entertainment. and many Templars* are condemned and burned. c.com .The Pope* is taken over by the French and moves to Avignon. by the end of the century. to authorize the arrest and trial of all the Templars* throughout Europe. a global cooling sets in. The Little Ice Age Begins The Fourteenth Century And We Come To The Down Part Of The Late Middle Ages Starting with a period of uncertain weather. 1305 The Italian painter. They start having dramatic elements including elaborate processions and dramatic interludes in the evenings. 1305. Professional musical entertainers called Jongleurs appear in France. He declares the Teutonic Knights* guilty of barbarous acts (this will remain typical of these guys and their descendants). the Pope.Religious guilds and confraternities appear around Europe. 1300 . the Pope judges the dispute. Philip IV* arrests all the Templars* in his realm and tries them for heresy. 1308 Philip IV* also persuades his chum. paints frescoes in Padua. cannons come to be in wide use during this century.pdffactory.1299 In that argument between the Teutonic Knights* and the Rigans. 1307 Dante* composes his Divine Commedia. the population of Europe will be only half what it was at the start. When they produce the religious plays the church must still OK the scripts. If the plague and the weather aren't enough. Rains and unseasonable frosts bring on a decline in harvests and then total crop failures. Giotto*. Philip IV* of France is real chummy with Pope Clement V* Philip* wants to abolish all those powerful military orders and start up one of his own. 1300 .

beyond Philip's* reach. What with the end of the Crusades to the Holy Land. 1314 The historic defeat of the English by the Scots at Bannockburn* where William Wallace and Robert Bruce gain fame. Other celebrations when plays are done include Easter. More importantly other groups (besides the clergy) are given roles in the celebrations (nobles. The Black Death* Comes To Europe 1347 A ship from the Black Sea docks in Messina (Italy) carrying the plague from the East. Its theme (the redemptive power of communion) is one that can draw plots from all biblical events.From this date on there are Corpus Christi festivals* in England.Down in Milan. and special occasions such as gratitude for deliverance from plague. The date is the Thursday following Trinity Sunday. what a plague it is! Within twenty-four hours of infection and the first tell-tale black pustule. 1336 . varying from May 23 to June 24. 1315 A silk industry starts up in Lyon by Italian immigrants. merchants and craftsmen. 1313 The problem of producing copies of documents leads to metal type casting (for printing) which first shows up in the East (probably Korea. 1332 The bubonic plague* starts showing up in India. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. adventurous nobles flock to the Baltic Crusade*. And. The Corpus Christi Festival* is established in an effort to make the church more relevant to the ordinary man and his life. 1311 . the military religious orders are really in trouble. the victim is dead. 1311 Official sanction is finally given to the Corpus Christi Festival* and it's soon celebrated almost everywhere.The first clear record of plays done for the French Street Pageant celebration honoring Edward II*'s visit.com . etc. Italy. They expand their territory in the Baltic (Pomerelia and Danzig) and carry on a running fight with Poland and Lithuania. 1337 The Hundred Years' War* between England and France begins. Eventually a cosmic drama (which covers events from the creation to the destruction of the world) comes to be acted as the main part of the festival.pdffactory. Whitsuntide (seven weeks after Easter.) feast days of the patron saint of a particular city. and all that trouble with Philip* in Europe. Dominican monks are using that wagon stage business for their Magi Play*. Now that there is very little crusading going on.1309 The Teutonic Knights* get the message and move their headquarters from Venice to Marrienburg castle in Prussia*. and in France the Grand Marshal of the Templars is burned at the stake for heresy.) Not all plays are associated with this festival.) 1313 .

He will become an even more popular character in story and plays. They go on a gigantic spending binge. For years after the plague. They employ their own troupes of performers. The plague changes everything. and has largely run its course on the continent. It seems like the end of the world.The plague* is carried by fleas on the black rat and comes in two forms: pneumonic (striking the lungs and always fatal) and the more familiar bubonic.com . The old system of being tied to your father's job is definitely out. as much as sixty percent of the land falls out of cultivation. 1348 The Italian writer Boccaccio* (who sensibly retreats to an isolated place while the plague is around) comes out with his Decameeon*. Half the workforce is gone and labor is desperately needed. When the troupe belongs to a king or a great lord they are permitted to go on tour (when they're not needed at home.Despite the plague. 1350 The plague reaches Stockholm. Til Eulenspiegel*. It begins its European journey in Italy and surges north leaving towns depopulated with no one left to bury the dead. having inherited everything the dead no longer need. (from which some recover) causing large black pustules which leads to the name Black Death*. The survivors find themselves incredibly wealthy. without a productive base.pdffactory.) They get special letters that identify them as servants of the king (or whatever) which enables them to be legal anywhere (that "masterless PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In the countryside. Fields go to waste. a new image of the "dance of death" prevades art as a haunting memory of that time. They bring the religious orders under state control After the plague wealthy merchants like to behave like the nobility. Workers have the upper hand and they try to make the best deal they can. one-half of the European population perishes. Many places it isn't safe to travel at all. a brilliant effort to deal with life among the dying. First there is a terrific sense of joy for those who are still alive. travelers' inns close down. the price of everything goes up. In Florence the city begins to tax church property and stop it from increasing. Serfs are no longer bound to the land and farm-workers can set their own terms. Radical reformers spring up and have to be coped with. a popular figure in Germany. The status of the remaining labor pool is totally changed. Industrial productivity is at a premium and a real push for more technology gets under way. Many more die of hunger and the violence caused by social disruption. But. a two-day Passion Play* is performed in the free city of Frankfur am Main in Germany. stock animals die of hunger and disease as their owners succumb to the plague. *1350 . The German plays are full of robust sensuality and sturdy piety. There is an extant copy of the director's scroll with all the stage directions. like Germany. Somewhere around seventy-five million people die of the plague. and more likely. This kind of document really helps us figure out what these plays looked like. Authority breaks down and political uprisings crop up all over. In some places. It takes three centuries for the population to regain the level it had before the plague struck. at least one-third. dies. All in all. and being out is dangerous.

He will come to be known throughout Europe as the scourge of all central and western Asia. better known as Tamerlane*.8 in] plays (42 plays) In addition to the Cycle plays there are at least ten other British dramas in English and three in Cornish which survive.com . His name is Timur the Lame. The craft Guilds finance their own productions and every craft takes part. except in central Asia and Russia. The Second Shepherd's Play. an uprising leads to the end of Mongol* rule and the beginning of the Ming* dynasty. learned dramatic productions. 1351 In Italy Petrarch* writes his autobiography. Epistle To Posterity. Other Mongol* empires also fall apart. The Chalk Circle* is written by Li Hsing Tao. Out in central Asia.In Germany.man" business is now a thing of the past. The ship builders do Noah. 1361 The Black Death reappears in England. 1368 Out in China. Since they are a prosperous and powerful minority they arouse a lot of envy and jealousy. 1369 Chaucer* writes his first book. 1371 In Spain Jews are required to wear a yellow patch over their hearts identifying them. the famous Chinese play. 1370 The steel crossbow comes into general use as a weapon of war. a Mongol* soldier seizes power in Samarkand and gains authority over both the Changatai and the Golden Horde*. 1375 .pdffactory. by 1375 In the British Isles there are at least 125 different towns which produce plays. In China. Anti-Semitic hysteria frequently breaks out in parts of Spain.Earliest reference to that most popular of English cycle plays*. There are four locations from which we have extant Cycle texts: Chester (24 plays) York (48 plays) Wakefield (32 plays) also called Towneley plays Ludas Coventriae or N[LN Length:0. there are Abelespele*. Tough on all those knights. but you still have to prove that you are not a "vagabond"). the Magi. Although only twelve are known as producing the Corpus Christi cosmic dramas. 1350 . since it will pierce armor. the goldsmiths. for the intellectuals. the drapers do the Prophets [it's what you might call the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

There are rival Popes and nobody knows who the right one is. 1390 Those heretical. Poland and Lithuania make a dynastic union and develop a good force to bring against the knights. which do) but end with the resurrection of Christ. 1396 A great crusading Christian army is decimated by the Turks at Nicopolis on the Black Sea and the flower of western aristocracy is slaughtered. The Pope won't give any (he wants to get rid of the competition in the East. A lot more plays survive in France than anywhere else.The first record of court entertainment Disguisings* with elaborate scenery and effects occurs when Charles V* of France entertains Emperor Charles IV*. The Byzantine Emperor sends an academic Manuel Chrysoloras* to the west for help. 1382 An early protestant. There is terrific rivalry among the guilds to come up with the best show and the biggest effects. *1377 . especially to a theologian named Jan Hus*. 1386 Up in northern Europe the downfall of the Teutonic Knights* begins.) made up of many short plays.) Most of the group goes home but Chrysoloras* gets an offer of the Chair in Greek at Florence University and so he stays.pdffactory. The wagons seem to be about ten feet by twenty feet in size. 1391 A series of massacres of Jews rage through the largest cities in Spain. Most of the Cycle plays don't cover the whole Bible (like the British. John Wyclif* tries to reform the English church but his doctrines are condemned and he is expelled from Oxford. by 1390's most prosperous cities in Europe have lengthy religious cycles (in their local language.The church is in disarray with two popes. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . 1378 . If any craft gives a bad show it's fined. The Pope is captive of the French. so each one often added stuff on their own. Russia and points west. protestant writings by Wyclif reach Bohemia (in Czechoslovakia) where they make exciting and stimulating reading. The texts are always being revised and adapted to accommodate the new performers. Each play is staged on its own wagon but there is an empty platea * wagon that pulls up to the one with the set on it so that the actors have room to act their show.earliest commercial advertising productions]. These plays range from very short to cycles requiring more than twenty-five days to perform.We hear from that heretical John Wyclif* and he refers to a play entitled Play of the Lord's Prayer* being performed in Yorkshire. France. one in Rome and another in 1417 Avignon. Georgia. 1380 Timur* (the current Mongol) begins a long series of successful campaigns into Persia. 1378. 1387 Canterbury Tales by Chaucer* appears on the scene. The wagons apparently move through the town (with the actors in tableaus until it stops) to different points in the city where they play in sequence until each location has seen all the plays.

and alchemists are busy looking for the philosopher's stone and the secret of turning everything into gold. Jan Hus* of Bohemia. India. the lion is king of the beasts as the eagle is king of birds. This group will go on doing this until 1548. at least in Italy. There is lots of talk about "the music of the spheres". ending in devastation and a flood of refugees to the west (which is where we get the term for anarchic and unconventional: "Bohemians". God is at the top and stones are at the bottom. The world is still medieval and the "Great Chain of Being" determines everyone's and everything's place in the universe. These are also being performed in Lincoln and Beverley. that is. His followers will spark a revolution. Earth is at the center of the universe and the heavenly bodies revolve around it. just aching to be spent on something. those spiritual pardons you can buy for any sin. 1399 . lectures on theology at Prage. There is also an overwhelming preoccupation with death and judgement.) In fact. Everything is made of the four elements (earth. but an equally overwhelming distrust of the church (especially all that selling of indulgences. But. The de Medici* start lending money on an international scale. Richard II* is deposed and Henry IV* of Lancaster gets the throne.In York (England) there is a guild of the Lord's Prayer* performing Paternoster plays every year. 1399 In England. The Florentines begin to get a thirst for classical culture. Theatre Blossoms In The Fifteenth Century What with that classical knowledge trickling in from Spain and from Byzantium there is a real itch to find out more about it. Magic is popular. Everyone knows their place. This goes back to Pythagoras* and the Italians are reading him for the first time. without giving up the religious PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. 1398 Another precursor of the protestant movement. so things are moving toward secular theatre. The Theatre is moving on like a snowball going down hill.) Timur* conquers Delhi. 4. They love him. The plays survive and are extant. Theatre reflects all this interest in being human and not just religious.) With that shortage of labor left over from the population loss there is a strong drive for technology. air) and everything else comes in fours (seasons. bigger every moment. with the terrible Black Death behind them. people are crazy about numbers (which have magical properties) like 3. 6.com . 12. there is a lot of surplus wealth laying around burning a hole in their (the Italians) pockets.The French Confrerie de la Passion* begins performing religious plays in Paris. the mystical heavenly sounds of Aristotle's* universe. winds. Western music is beginning just about now and uses the Pythagorean scale. 1398 . ages of man. 7.1397 Chrysoloras* opens his Greek classes in Florence and we have the beginning of a revival of Greek literature in Italy. fire. most of all for something that can do automatic copying and help bring down the high price of copying all those lovely new books coming over the Pyrenees. The fourteenth century marks the end of feudalism* and the rise of a new Europe. directions. witches are consulted for medical treatment. And. Humanism* is in the air and it will soon settle in Italy. even in categories there is a hierarchy. water.

A more realistic style of presentation and of costume (except for things like devils. *1400's . In fact the religious festival stuff is getting grander (and longer) by the minute. Plays are also performed in a semi-circle like the Roman theatres.pdffactory. The clergy are kind enough to also pass along to the guilds and corporations who take over the financing. in terms of theatre history. their great accumulation of scenery. Another difference between the English and the rest of Europe. In the Fifteenth century the Church is weakened by all that problem with the Pope (having too many of them at once and not knowing which is the legitimate one) and the revival of classical knowledge that threatens church authority. a boisterous Shrovetide comedy.Remember those military religious orders? Well now they're a lot of theatrical religious orders for the express purpose of producing religious drama.com . One of the most important groups.) We still have two of these plays. The round is used particularly in Cornwall. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.We find a Tirolean version of a secular May play. is their tendency to end the play cycle with minstrels piping a dance in which the spectators are invited to participate. props and costumes that they have collected and used over the last two hundred years. (The Church is not the only one who knows something any more. with all that interest in classical know-how. much more spectacular. of course) begins to be the thing.theatre just yet. too. It is now up and running. There are multiple settings in the Cornish Plays* (done in Cornwall. There is the rise of farcical and grotesque elements as well as topical references and lots of criticism of current affairs cropping up in the plays. The guilds and corporations have to have the last word in how the money will be spent and who will be in the cast. but the most famous is The Castle of Perseverance *. 1400 . Adam and Eve and God. so all the plays are of equal length. 1400 . but this system gives them the needed link with the church for producing theatre. is the Confrerie de la Passion* (Passion fraternity) in Paris*.In England they are using two kinds of spaces for production. They also do the cycles* differently than the rest of Europe. The playing rounds are 126 and 143 feet in diameter. Just like the military they are mainly laymen. Both the performance spaces used for production (at St. angels. Instead of using the Corpus Christi* stations.The ecclesiastical drama flourishes in Italy.) Everything Takes Off In All Directions At Once The clergy have pretty well given up control of the increasingly secular drama to religious guilds and flagellants (those weird people who like to run around whipping themselves for all the sins that caused the great plague). This gives the producing organizations a good stock of visual elements to build on. the English do mystery cycles with each text in short one-act form. The European ones all end with music of Te Deum*. Just in Penwith and at Perranzabuloe) and the play still exist. 1400's . the pageant wagons* and in the round.

He publishes all about it in his "Rules of Perspective. 1400 .The oldest extant Morality Play* called The Pride of Life* shows up. 1405 Timur* dies. After a successful dome-building job they collaborate on. This spreads through the schools.1400's . turns out his statues of "David" and "St. A happy by-product is the association of an educated merchant named Toscanelli* with a practical architect. 1403 Suleiman I* takes over as head of as much of the Eastern Islamic Empire as Timur* has left him. and the passionate interest in Roman ruins (to figure out how they did what they did with architecture). The Florentines really go for this classical civic glorification of the community-conscious individual. 1402 . Now they want to. they come back from their trip with a copy of the absolute best in ancient map making information. 1411 .We begin to get Italian efforts to revive interest in Roman drama. 1400 That Greek teacher from Byzantium. Boy! will this ever be a boon to the Renaissance theatre! But more of that later.In France the Confrerie de la Passion* gets the monopoly for doing shows in Paris. lying around in broken pieces all over. that they soon would be able to walk back to their glorious past. a copy of Ptolemy's* Geographica.com . The earliest known literature in the Cornish language shows up here. and those theatrical people in the law courts. More important in the near future. Manuel Chrysoloras*. but not always. The first steps toward Humanism are being taken. and puts it to practical use with the first-ever perspective painting. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. things are beginning to happen.pdffactory. as a military order. they are finished. Brunelleschi* gets interested in this perspective* stuff Toscanelli* told him about. John. c. Their home of Marrienburg remains intact as does most of their territory. 1408 The Italian sculptor." 1410 The final end comes to the Teutonic Knights* when they are annihilated by the Polish and Lithuanian army. They come back impressed and started to look for their own classical Roman past. Brunelleschi*. Petrarch* had said it decades before.The Confrerie de la Passion* moves its operations indoors (in case you wondered if everybody did their thing out in the weather.) They are now housed in the Hospital de la Trinite*. the answer is mostly. Donatello*." 1413 In England Henry IV* dies and Henry V* comes to the throne. That suits them to a tee. But. universities. really excites the Florentines and a group of influential businessmen take a package tour to Constantinople. 1412 What with all scientific mathematical and optical knowledge coming in from Spain. 1401 Timur* conquers Damascus* and Bagdad* 1402 Timur* defeats the Turkish Caliph at Ankara and takes him prisoner.

PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the westernmost spot in Europe. and a lot of finding a new way to get to the East and those Spice Islands. A question is posed and the various chambers compose and produce answers in the form of allegorical drama. is also a doctor and a cartographer) to put together all the information he can on maps.com . churches in Florence. Pedro. Cape St. 1426 . Joan of Arc*.Secular: In Germany they are doing crude.) 1419 Remember those Jews who retired to an island to study navigation? Well. Jan Hus* is burned at the stake for heresy. 1425 Henry*'s (the Portuguese) brother. goes off to Florence (the map center of the universe). Vincent.The English morality* play reaches its zenith in The Castle of Preseverance*. 415 Henry V* defeats the French at Agincourt*. There is a prize for the best. students of Paris College de Navarre make a morality play out of a sermon. 1428 That strange little French peasant girl. and in front of.) 1425 .A note about that Brunelleschi* architect. They are performed both outdoors and indoors. This way of doing shows in the round doesn't seem to have caught on over on the continent.pdffactory. besides being a merchant and student of mathematics. He wants to do a little Christianizing in Africa." Then there are the Sotternieen*. leads the French army against the English. They come up with a special kind of stage that looks a lot like it could lead to the later Elizabethan stage. and get Toscanelli* (who. put on by "fool's companies. 1429 Joan of Arc* raises the siege at Orleans and makes possible the crowning of Charles VII* at Rheims. robust (that usually means sexy) plays called Klucht*. The King of Portugal starts trying to find an alternate route to the Spice Islands (Way off in the East. In England Henry VI* is crowned. 1413 . He also works out the technical apparatus for performances in. We know more about this play than almost any other thanks to an exhaustive investigation by Richard Southern (reported in his book The Medieval Theatre in the Round (1957). This becomes the major dramatic expression of the Low Countries. He is responsible for convincing the Florentines to regard their religious theatre as works of art.In Navarre. which are lighthearted afterpeices (that means between courses of dinner. Prince Henry* (later known as the "navigator") of Portugal is using their work and sets up a school of navigation at Sagres.) 1413 . 1426 Holland becomes the center of European music. So Toscanelli* does. including all that great stuff they learned from Ptolemy about making a grid so you can tell where things are (as opposed to the medieval way of just making a cute decorative picture.The Low Countries begin having competitions among the Chambers of Rhetoric*. or after dinner. off the Malay peninsula.

1432 . Meanwhile in England the language is changing from Middle English towards Modern English. merchants and craftsmen.The social farce is developing in the efforts of jurists.1430 .fs 1435 A Swedish Parliament meets for the first time. 1439 The Pope calls a big meeting to see what the west can do to help Byzantium* where the terrible Turks are on the doorstep. Now.000 lines long with a cast of sixty.com . like the one welcoming young Henry VI* to the city of London is a case in point (in the Renaissance these will be called Trionfi.pdffactory. The allegories deal with the responsibilities of governing and the qualities needed in a king. The composition and production of farces is especially evident in the law-clerks associations (Basoches*) with performances called Basoches* du Palais. they start up the slave trade again. Italy.The Pageant Wagons* are widely used for other events besides plays. It is entitled Le Concilede Bale*. since the spice trade would go down the tube if the Turks take Constantinople* . 1431 Joan of Arc* is found guilty of heresy and burned at the stake at Rouen. scribes. 1431 . they do a show honoring John the Baptist* with 22 settings on moveable scaffolds. 1439 . 1433 Symbols are important and this is the year the double-eagle is adopted as the emblem of the Holy Roman Emperors*. It is 8.At the court of Philip the Good of Burgundy.) This one is allegorical and performed at six key places in the city as the procession moves through London. The civil pageants.Some of the morality* plays become really elaborate. 1439 . It looks like everybody is getting into the theatrical business. Georges Chastellian* writes a play with allegorical figures as the active protagonists. The well known Wheel of Fortune* is part of the elaborate scenery. wandering scholars. Good Advice) performed at Rennes.1515 . It has all those lovely precious metals and blacks. Democracy is looking up. 1434 Those Portuguese explorers are working their way down the African coast and Joao Diaz rounds Cape Bojador. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. students. especially that merchant Toscanelli*.Down in Florence. what with the labor shortage back home. A case in point is Bien advise mal advise* (Bad advice.The free Hansa city of Lubeck has "Lubeck clubs" which organizs performances of little comedies and then performs them on wagons. civic organizations. The great cast iron gun ("Mad Marjorie") is introduced.1441 Portuguese navigators (thanks in part to all that map help they're getting from Toscanelli*) exploring the west coast of Africa find the African Gold Coast. Florence is willing to foot the bill. 1430 Joan of Arc* is captured by the Burgundians and handed over to the church inquisition for trial. In this little gem the "well-advised" get carried up to heaven by angels. 1442 .

For example: the Conrega dei Rozzi* group in Sienna (Italy) is so successful with its Peasant Plays* that they are invited to play in Rome and at the Vatican.Germany is busy doing all kinds of different plays.cover the period in which Albrecht Durer* did his incredible woodcuts in Nuremberg.All over the Low Countries. it is still frequently done and always popular. 1453 The Hundred Years War* ends with the English giving up territory. The sottie* is closely connected with Paris groups like the Enfants sans souci* and similar groups throughout France. 1445 Those Portuguese explorers are still working their way down the African coast and Diniz Diaz discovers Cape Verde. Both the farce and the sottie* have heroes that are commoners and courtiers in fool's dress. 1453-1455 Gutenberg* and his financier. Despite its late date. They have also got a craftsmen's acting association up and running (Gesetten ronde Spele*. 1450 .Burlesques* and peasant plays* are becoming popular throughout Europe. He also worked on illustrations of the spectacular Triumph of Maximillian* I (along with a lot of other artists). In the Tirolean south the location of these Schenbartlauf* is set in King Arthur's court.The nice thing about farce is that it makes no technical demands and can be done anywhere. his works illustrate the medieval characters and subject matter just as it would be seen in the plays. 1486 through 1528 .com . Although he is later than this period. 1485 . Marieken vaon Nieumeghen* is the title of this anonymous gem.) 1452 Metal plates are used for printing. It shows us a great deal about the elaborateness of all varieties of wagons used all over Europe for Pageants. Afterword PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Germany.1510 . But. it really belongs in the Middle Ages.The apprentices of Nuremberg's guilds organize the Schenbartlauf*. 1450 Florence under the Medici* becomes the center of humanism and Renaissance. They come up with the first known play-within-a-play about a female Faust-type who gets into a bargain with the devil but is forgiven in the end. especially in Flanders. Processions and Festivals as well as Triumphs*. Shrovetide comedies and other merriments. 1450 or so . These theatrical events put on by various boy's groups remain a popular entertainment for another hundred years.We have no idea who wrote the best known morality play Everyman *. Johannes Fust* print the first 42 line Bible at Mainz* and keeps on printing books like crazy.pdffactory. they're using those wagons too (called Wagon spel*). *1495 or 1509 . Constantinople* falls to the Turks and we end the Middle Ages. Illustrations of the entire triumph is published in 1512. They do use costumes and masks. 1449 on .

As we begin this period there are several things that need to be taken into account.Actually. the printing press up and running and all set to handle all those new theatre books that are streaming in from Constantinople*. In Medieval times theatre was taken up by the church as a way of communicating Christian ideals to the whole community.The Trunk 1450s to 1830 Introduction This period deals with the development of the popular and commercial theatre.com . At this time the current ruler of Bohemia (later this is western Czechoslovakia) is Holy Roman Emperor Sisigmund I. In Greece it was a forum in which the best ideas and characteristics of the community were put forth. as is the playwright and the designer. go forward to PartTwo or return to PART I Introduction back Theatre History home Home PART II The Renaissance Through Romanticism . The other important thing dominating the beginning of this period is the recent invention of the printing press. nor particularly Holy. The professional actor is here. The Renaissance is coming fast and furious and the world is about to change beyond recognition. as social development usually does. the Holy Roman Empire in the East. The Rennaisance is possible because of the ability to put into print all that PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. with religious theatre on the wane and secular theatre on the rise. But with the rise of Humanism * already off to a good start in Florence. Meanwhile.pdffactory. which is neither Roman. he is having a terrible time leading a cursading army to fight the Protestant Hussite rebellion in his home territory. In Rome it was changed into entertainment and offered as one of the ways of celebrating events of special significance to the community. of course. there is the Holy Roamn Empire in the West. the last remaining vestige of the old Christian Orthodox Byzantine Empire. The Ottoman Empire (inheritor of the eastern part of the earlier Islamic Empire) is beating at the doors of Europe. this is a good place to end one period and prepare to start another. Ever since we started western theatre in Greece it has enjoyed the support of the government and of religious bodies because it is recognized as a vital community activity. It begins in the intellectual revolution of humanism and ends as the societal industrial revolution begins. The relationship theatre has with society undergoes a complete change in this period. the Medieval world lingers on in many places and many aspects. At the moment. The Renaissance (rebirth) begins with the arrival in Europe of scholars (and their books) fleeing from the Ottoman Turks when they take Constantinople.

The French neoclassic stuff gets stale and the Germans finally get a little peace and stability. France finally gets into the swing of things and puts the icing on the Renaissance cake with their French neoclassic period. Private patronage of theatre (which has been with us since Roman times) becomes much more important as the transition begins to public. At the same time England splits with the Catholic church and goes its own way theatrically. high comedy rules the day.com . Spain picks up the Italian theatrical ideas first. Romanticism takes off in Germany and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The market place determines what will and what won't be put on the stage.pdffactory. From its start in Italy the Renaissance spreads throughout Europe where we will pick up all the other points of view. people begin to get the romantic idea. classical comedy and tragedy explode into a bewildering array of theatrical forms. which the French will then develop into ballet. The humble farce. We move into the time of national interests and characteristic national styles. The spread of newly rediscovered knowledge stimulates all of western society. The first point of view is Italian. The Medieval disquisings are transmuted in the royal courts into the court Masque. All sorts of theatre buildings start popping up all over. Now Europe is breaking up into nationalistic states which want to get out from under any control by the Catholic church in Rome. Commercial entertainment and artistic merit come to be the criteria for successful theatrical production. For this reason we will be covering the same time frame several times from different points of view. theatre really takes off. but very different things. Times and society keep changing. The Golden Age of Theatre is here. Playwrights and actors take center stage and everything gets published on those new printing presses. market oriented theatre. with the dominance of the affluent merchant class is Italy. Slowly professional companies emerge to fill the gap in patronage as the Church withdraws and theatre moves into a production pattern we can recognize today. Between the paying customers and the wealthy patrons. The English cut off Charles I's head and the English theatre goes to school with the French.classical literature becoming available to Europe as the Arabic tide recedes. Once the Spanish finish pushing the Moslems out of Spain they launch Columbus on his explorations. theatrical professionals have the opportunity to get back to work and move the amateurs off the stage. Gradually the church abandons theatre entirely and. are happening in different countries at much the same time. The Italians try to recreate classical tragedy performance and create opera instead. the availability of classical knowledge is by and large complete. This part of theatre history is difficult to follow because important. With the fall of Constantinople in 1543. and the last frantic flight of scholars and their books to the West. Central Europe and France are much slower in developing their theatre because of all that religious Protestant stuff that leads to wars and social unrest. What with all that commerce happening with the Far East and nationalism being the in thing all over. When the exiled English go home from Paris to the Restoration. Architects and designers have a field day. Very soon there is all that new wealth coming in from the Americas.

....... revolutionize the theatre...... and social turmoil. But.....spreads like crazy.....The Spanish Renaissance 1550-1587 .pdffactory............. Spain and England is designated a Golden Age........ scientific......Romanticism 1770-1830 Chapter 12 next Chap7 back PART I Introduction first Theatre History or PART III Introduction home Home CHAPTER SEVEN The Italian Renaissance 1450s to 1550s The First Stop In The Golden Age of Theatre Introduction Not since the Golden Age of Greek theatre has so much universally admired theatre occurred............ CHAPTER SEVEN............ For this reason the theatre of the European Renaissance of Italy.... Much of the theatrical activity happens simultaneously in these PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. religious..The First Stop In The Golden Age of Theatre Chap7 CHAPTER EIGHT....... technological................The Italian Renaissance 1450s to 1550s .... of course..... just as it's blossoming... philosophical.... political...................Continues The Golden Age of Theatre Chap8 CHAPTER NINE... the Industrial Revolution gets under way and society takes a revolutionary turn.The English Renaissance 1588-1629 ...................French Neoclassic and English Restoration 1630-1680 The French Theatre Finally Gets Up and Running Chap10 CHAPTER ELEVEN...........Continues The Golden Age of Theatre Chap9 CHAPTER TEN......... We end this period in intellectual.. All this revolution will...............com .....Theatre in the Age of Reason 1680-1770 CHAP11 CHAPTER TWELVE..........

Theatre professionals are to be found mainly in productions by the wealthy and the Church.k. First of all. The wealthy nobility and merchants employ theatre as the Romans did. The next stop will be in Spain. mainly the lawyers.pdffactory. proliferation and the concurrent experimentation which reveals classical Greek and Roman knowledge and heritage to Europe. prosperity and order in several independant cities. continuous warfare. etc. We begin in Italy with the translation. Crusades against the Moslem forces in Palestine and plague and disease.) is finally sorting itself out into reasonably stable kingdoms of one kind or another. It's capital. This theatrical pattern and theatrical content is about to change Humanism comes to Italy Keeping in mind that classical knowledge has been trickling into Europe through Spain for hundreds of years and has been available (at least the scientific stuff) in Spanish Universities all this time. The third major area of theatrical production is found in the professions. towns and churches fund and support these religious plays. The third stop will take us to England. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Why Italy? First. Here we find the low countries' Chambers of Rhetoric* and the various French and German society plays.three ethnic and linguistic locations. Through all of this the Italian peninsula has managed to keep more continuity of learning. Constantinople.a. There is a separate Arabic Islamic rule centered in Spain (and extending through Morocco and Algeria in Eastern North Africa. Italy is the primary heir of what once had been the Roman Empire in the West. ruled by Turks (who wrested power from their Arab masters quite a while ago). At this point in time (the 1450s) there is a strong Islamic Empire. Despite this simultaneity they are very different from each other.com . When Constantinople falls to the Turks in 1453 Italy is the wealthiest and best educated part of Europe. Now the capital and last bastion of the ancient Empire is finally over run. after a thousand years of false starts. The Western Empire. to display their wealth and magnanimity as they celebrate weddings.) which is swiftly crumbling under the Christian attack of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. When the Renaissance begins there are three main areas of theatrical production. In order to clarify the differences while maintaining the interdependence of theatrical development we will emphasize each country in turn. we need a brief explanation of why the humanistic revolution gets started in Italy. [This is why we don't start in Spain. over run by barbarians back in the 400s. The Church dominates theatre with enormous Mystery Cycle productions at the Corpus Christi festival in late May (or early June). Italy is the home of the Pope and the whole system of the Vatican which manages Catholic business everywhere. Miracle and Morality plays are also popular and the craft guilds. They are otherwise occupied at the moment. These productions are full of spectacle and music. is frequently besieged. It has a number of things going for it. to illuminate the peculiarly Spanish contribution to western theatre. victories. Bysantine Empire) for the last six hundred years. occupying a large territory centered in Damascus and reaching north up into the Balkans and west across North Africa toward Libya.] The Turks have been slowly but surely devouring the Eastern Roman Empire (a.

that secular University business has been going great guns all over Italy educating lawyers in double entry bookkeeping. That is. as the first port of call in the trade routes from the East. also it has a bigger fleet and closer trade ties to the east. is the large Republic of Venice. With the Turks now cutting that trade route there will be a gradual downward trend in that income. This particular republic is considerably more democratic than any of the others. The de'Medicis* are very big on being patrons of art and theatre. Northwest. this was the home of the Etruscans who taught the first Romans everything they knew. and. Third. on the northern end of the Adriatic Sea. Naples. Second. They pretty much control the Republic of Genoa (on the Gulf of Genoa) and the island of Corsica. So. The peninsula is run by five major powers: Venice. insurance business. they start up all kinds of academies that specialize in Roman and Greek classical knowledge. Starting in the south there is the Kingdom of Naples which is currently under the control of Spanish overlords. Rome which is where all the action. They also are busy looking into everything classical in an effort to help the rich merchants make their towns look as spectacular as ancient Rome. Naples includes the islands of Sardinia and Sicily as well as all the peninsula south of Rome. banking. supplying a number of Popes.pdffactory.Consequentially they are rich beyond anybody else.com . some of which are more independent than others. It also includes. is the Duchy of Milan. Italy. but Spanish connections in Naples and the Italian invention of international banking will keep financial futures looking rosy for quite a while. Ferrara. These merchant princes will also run much of the Catholic church. North of the Papal States is that part of Italy known as Tuscany [If you remember. takes the lion's share of all the monies made on trade.] This whole upper part of the peninsula is dominated by the Republic of Florence [including the Republic of Siena. Milan. how to handle all the money. Also they have big time educational standards. traffic and money is. Why not elsewhere in Europe? If you recall the Middle Ages you will be aware that the French and English are busy fighting the tail end of the Hundred Years War which will be followed by the English civil War of the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. holding companies not to mention diplomatic and government posts. running over the Lombard plains to the Alps. They are also typical of the Italian merchants who become more powerful than kings in other countries. of course. Just north of Naples are the Papal States which include a lot of various small political pieces. Stretching west where the peninsula spreads into the European continent. Duchy of Modena and even Urbino which owes the Papal State. they are trying to bring culture into their corner of the world and they have the wherewithal to do it. law. Florence and the Papal States. Geography and Political units Fourth and last is the rather unique political makeup of Italy.] Florence will be the most interesting cultural spot especially (since Cosimo became the leading power broker in the 1430's) when it is ruled by the de'Medici* family.

technical innovation and design. and the popular street theatre for the masses. The Religious theatre we are already familiar with and it will be easy to follow it as it blooms its last and subsides into a minor place in society. critical works and scenic and architectural works (especially the architectural works of Virtuvius* and the descriptive theatrical encyclopedia of Pollux. Aeschylus*. The Spanish are still fighting the last of the Moslem Moors and. as well as works on rhetoric. the new knowledge will change theatrical production into a form we recognize today. They use the Roman critic Horace* as a guide to understanding Aristotle. the comedies of Plautus* and Terence* and the tragedies of Seneca*. It is here (where the money and knowledge is) that the theatrical principles of classic Greek and Roman theatre are reborn a thousand years after the barbarian hordes destroyed the cultural centers of the Roman Empire. which will delight and influence acting and comedy writing throughout Europe.] This movement regards man (the human) as the measure of all things. Since Italians regard themselves as descendents of Romans. The Germans are fighting the Russians and Slavs and the whole eastern edge of Europe is fighting Turks and Mongols. The Italians are far more interested in the classical Roman writings. the humanist academic for the courts and intellectuals. architecture and theatrical production. Euripides* and Aristophanes* as well as the Greek dramatic criticism of Aristotle* which will be interpreted and misinterpreted to the present day. these various other Europeans are too busy at the moment to do the experimentation and development of classical knowledge the Italians will do. The Academic theatre is the glory of the early Renaissance. instead of taking the Medieval religious view that God is the only thing worth considering. Consequently. The primary theatrical contribution of the Italian connection lies in their examination. In the areas of theatrical architecture.pdffactory. along with the Portuguese. These texts include plays. The best architects and painters will design the scenery and theatre architecture. scenery. including the theatre. experimentation and dissemination of theatrical texts.* The secondary theatrical contribution is the Italian Commedia Dell'Arte. The rulers (especially the Florentine Medici* family) promote. Sophocles*. The rest of Europe will pick it up second hand from Italy. Simultaneously the new knowledge and attitudes acquired from all those classical books is starting a movement called Humanism* [from the Latin studius humanitatis meaning the "studies of mankind". they try to make their Italy as grand as their ideas of Rome in its heyday.* an improvisational street comedy decended from Roman comedy. The Humanists are fascinated with everything classical. Classic Models Among all those classical books flooding into Itlay are copies of the plays of the Greeks. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Humanism* and the Theatre Medieval theatre continues in fits and starts wherever the Catholic Church has the upper hand. are trying to find another way to get to all that rich eastern trade on which the Italians have a monopoly.Roses. encourage and fund all this theatrical stuff for two hundred years.com . So we have three theatrical directions going at once: the medieval religious.

This comedy."* There are also short plays for specific occasions.pdffactory.Views of how plays should be written and produced are patterned on humanistic understanding of the classics. 1414 Vitruvius*' comprehensive work on Roman architecture. tragical-historical. add this to Medieval court disguisings and musical entertainments and create Masques* which will develop (later in France) into ballet. Several dramatic efforts had been made in imitation of the classic theatrical forms in the fourteenth century. c. It is Eccerinus* by Albertino Mussato*. The Theatrical Renaissance Starts How and Where In order to understand the rise of Humanism* and its impact on the theatre we have to go back briefly and take notice of the earlier isolated moments leading up to this period. and create Commedia Dell'Arte*.* They also take classic information on theatrical dance. As we move into the fifteenth century more classical works show up. .. In the popular street theatre the continuum of professional actors blend Greek and Roman comic characters.. history. 1390 A tragedy appears on a classical subject. adapted through the Middle Ages to the local culture's Italian comics. by Pier Paolo Vegerio*. written in Latin is a satire on student life. 1390 The first humanist comedy appears.com . Written in Senecan form. The results provide a bewildering variety of plays.tragedy. They assume that the entire Greek text was sung. written in Latin. c. The Italians put this idea into practice with a reconstruction of Oedipus Rex* sung and lavisly accompanied by dance. historical-pastoral. written in Latin. c.] It will take PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.. pastoral-comical. the Italians misinterpret the production of tragedy. its subject matter is drawn from Christian doctrine. The literary products of this rebirth do not closely resemble the originals and are welded on to the theatrical fruits of the medieval world.* Mummers' Plays* In addition to the various forms of plays. comedy. by Antoino Laschi* . The Commedia acting and comic scenarios will provide one of the most popular and influential theatrical performance forms for the next two hundred years. as Polonius lists in Hamlet*: ". Some of these are: a sottie* an interlude* Mummings. Paulus*. tragical-comical-historical-pastoral. Achilles*.1315 The earliest humanist tragedy appears. De Architectura* is rediscovered [especially important for us is Book X which deals with the theatre. thereby inventing opera.. pastoral.

Della Pittura* by Leon Battista Alberti*. like survival. 1450-60 . 1425 .In Florence. Masaccio* (1401-1428).com . with all os its lavish illustrations. The sculptor. more urgent things. Albans and (for the second time) becomes the "Protector. This is useful because now we can look at the art and begin to have some idea how the plays looked in production. It's a terrifically handy little guide to how to draw in perspective. Printing in the West began in 1453 and took into 1455 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. providing amazement and delight for the crowd. In 1452 and again in 1460 we begin to see really gross realism in the passion plays.pdffactory. a real rake and terrific poet named Francois Villon* is coming out with his Le Petit Testament*. The Renaissance Officially Begins 1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks and we mark the beginning of the Renaissance as the last of the Roman Empire in the East crumbles and the scholars and their books flee to Italy.* will finish his Gates of Paradise at the Florence baptistery in two years (he began it in 1425. 1465 The printing press is introduced into Italy and all those books from Constantinople as well as from Spain begin to be printed. Florence becomes the center of humanism* and the Renaissance. 1429 . comes out. 1450 Under the rule of the Medici*. and we can begin to see a close relation between art (painting and sculpture) and dramatizations in the subject choice. This perspective business will revolutionize theatrical scenery when they put it together with all that architectural stuff from Vitruvius. under the patronage of Cosimo de Medici*." 1456 In other parts of Europe the population is preoccupied with other.) The rise of humanism* is a slow process and there are still many examples of medieval theatre all over Europe. in the scene depicting the punishment of Judas. perspective is finally systematized by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi* (1377-1446) and a painter. Ghiberti. For example. A few Italians will study it and develop theatre designs. Over in France. it does not become widely available. 1435 .The first treatise on perspective. 1429 Cosimo de Medici* takes over the leadership of the family and becomes the first eminent Florentine patron of the arts and a key figure in reviving the study of the ancient world.We find in Germany the Hesse Christmas Play*. real sheep guts are purchased and at the point at which Judas is disemboweled the pouch holding them on the actor is slit open and the guts spill out.a while to get this one printed. Consequently. 1455 In England there will be a delay in the arrival of the Renaissance because the "War of the Roses"* begins when the Duke of York (Richard)* defeats the royal forces at St.Twelve of Plautus*' lost plays are rediscovered. how figures are grouped and the costumes and props. Those aggressive Turks are still pressing against eastern Europe as they overrun Athens.

on the other hand. later. on a stage 180 feet long. Aragon has a pretty good parliamentary tradition and the merchant class is the most influential. Now the Pope is getting a set of Greek letters. you will realize that printing a large number of different texts will take some time. Johannes Fust* to print the first 42 line Bible at Mainz*. The Italian pastoral deals with love. 1473 . they are staging the Mystere de l'Incarnation. All those letters are for the Latin alphabet. 1471 . Juana La Beltraneja) who has the support of Alphonso V* of Portugal (who is an uncle of Juana and wants to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. There is a fairly sticky war of succession waged against her by a relative (a niece. punctuated with battles against the Moors (Spanish for the Moslems in Spain) in Granada*.com . At Rouen.The first printing of the works of Terence* helps get classic Roman comedy out into Europe. keep in mind that this is not what you would call a well-organized country. is hardly more than a very loose affiliation of petty kingdoms run by the local nobles. The social farce originates from jurists.In France the Medieval theatre is still the main theatrical form. In Spanish Castile* King Henry* dies and Isabella* becomes Queen of Castile. This printing business gives a big boost to the process of getting all these different languages straightened out. The pastoral may have been patterned on the Greek Satyr play.) 1467 Pope Paul II establishes the first printing press in Rome to print works in Greek. Most of the next thirty years will be filled with endless civil wars.) The English won't be up to writing this sophisticated a comedy for another sixty years (see below. 1474 .In France the social farce Maistre Pierre Pathelin* marks the beginning of French comedy. The First printing press is set up at the Sorbonne in Paris. students. scribes. and. [remember that each letter has to be cast in metal to make up the supply of letters the printer uses when setting his type. scholars.pdffactory.* 1474 In England the first book in English is printed by William Caxton*. merchants and craftsmen. Castile. 1470 The Portuguese navigators are busy discovering the Gold Coast of West Africa. but it is not recognizable as such. When we talk about Spain. But things will change soon and they will make a big splash in history. She is third in line for the throne of Castile and he is second in line to that of Aragon. 1469 Over in Spain. Ferdinand* (currently King of Sicily) and Isabella* get married. 1471-1518 Between these dates all the known Greek and Roman plays are published. civic associations. money. This will mean gold. slaves.] In Venice the Aldus Manutius press begins putting out a group of works refered to as the Aldine classics.The first pastoral* play is done in Italy.for the German Gutenberg* and his financier. Considering that it took two years to put out the first book. In addition the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon have hated each other for centuries. wandering scholars. especially from the law clerks association (Basoches*. 1465 .

This is the typical kind of bickering. After the parade these garments are hung up in the parish church with the name of the individual who wore them attached until they crumble to dust. battling and making alliances which fills Europe during the Renaissance. They gradually get Ferdinand elected Grand Master of each of them as the posts become vacant.England has a flourishing religious theatre.] Isabella and Ferdinand develop a clever way of dealing with these guys. This system puts them outside the reach of most of the laws of the kingdom. The last play of the English Marco Morals* (the big three of the morality plays) Mankind* appears. 1479 Bringing order to Spain That messy Castilian war comes to an end and Queen Isabella* is firmly in control. 1475 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This interesting Catholic institution develops as an instrument of the Spanish government and reports to the Crown (who also appoints its officers. 1476 . Later Inquisitions* in Italy and central Europe will be far worse in terms of abuse of the system. This puts a real crimp in any possibility for rebellion. at Tarascon. Calatrava* and Alcantara*. Even when the garments have turned to dust.pdffactory. With a small cast of 5-7 players.In France. Those who are convicted are paraded in an "auto-da-fe"* (an act of faith) wearing smocklike penitential garments. They get hold of the last one in 1499 and start moving most of the Orders' revenues into the royal treasury. Each order has a Grand Master. and. Not only are these very rich and powerful. The same year Ferdinand* accedes to the throne of Aragon.com . Membership in the Orders become essentially a matter of honors to be bestowed by the crown. The nobles lose a lot of money. it seems to be the property of a band of strolling players who perform it for profit.marry her. castles and influence but laws get better. The worst part of the Inquisition* is the procedure of anonymous accusation. they take several days to perform the morality play L'homme Juste et L'homme Mondain*.) If all this seems very confusing. 1478 The Pope grants Ferdinand* and Isabella* permission to introduce an Inquisition* into Castile. officers and knights who all enjoy all the privileges of the clergy as well as the aristocracy. to complicate the matter further. They both set to work trying to curb the powers of their respective nobles and quit all this civil warring. it is. Spanish Military Orders* The hard part is how to deal with those influential (and wealthy) orders that have grown up (in imitation of the religious monastic orders of knighthood) to fight in the "Reconquest of Spain" (remember the Spanish have been doing this since the twelfth century. Portugal used to be part of Spain but isn't at the moment.) Officially its aim is to uncover relapsed Christians (forcibly converted Jews and Moslems who are reverting to their original religion) but actually it starts out as an instrument of racial persecution. (more evidence required) and people who accuse for personal gain are prosecuted. sometimes new ones are put up so nobody can forget the shame. they also have their own authority system. Those who are "reconciled" to the true faith wear yellow ones with diagonal crosses while those who are remanded to the secular arm to be executed wear black decorated with paintings of demons and hell-fire. [note: understanding this strange Spanish system is critical to following the plots of later Spanish plays about them.) There are three of these orders in Castile: Santiago*. After a while there are some safeguards.

who will become a German magician and the prototype of the Faust* legend. From this date on the apprentices (Schembartlauf*) of Nuremberg guilds are organized. 1480 Every now and then a real person appears on the scene who will be taken up and used by writers. a sort of early police force loyal only to the town. but by 1500 the system brings reasonable order out of the medieval chaos and Spain begins to shape up as a Renaissance power. Isabella* creates a national one.com . they put together a work called Speil von frau Jutten*. Unlike other countries the Crown also has control over the Spanish Church with authority to appoint all ecclesiastical positions and make church reforms in Spain. This will contribute to the problems the church has with secular productions for church events. These are bands of vigilantes financed by many of the Castilian towns to keep order and protect the interest of the town.Redemption is the big theme.Another threat to civil order comes from the "Brotherhoods" (hermandades). run by the Crown. This makes it possible for the Spanish Catholic Church to avoid those problems that give rise to the Reformation in central Europe and make life difficult for the Italian papacy. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. These guys are recruited from each village and town by quota. It takes about twenty years. Isabella* and Ferdinand* open attack on the Moorish kingdom of Granada* 1483 Up in England Richard III* claims the throne when young Edward V and his brother mysteriously disappear. Drawing on legends of "Pope Joan" who was a terrific sinner but got redeemed as she died. Columbus* (Genoese map maker and would-be explorer) tries to interest the Portuguese in a voyage west to get to the East. playwrights and painters later on. stories and paintings. The Portuguese. When the aristocracy objects to this the King and Queen also raise a permanent national army to keep everybody (including the aristocracy) peaceful and orderly. are busy working their way around Africa to go east and turn him down. 1479 . He tries the Spanish next. 1480 . It seems very much like a highway patrol or national police force. They are interested but can't afford it at the moment as they are fighting the Moors. the Holy Brotherhood* (Santa Hermandad). One such individual is born this year. who currently have the monopoly on maritime exploration. a native of Worms who works in Nuremberg. Hans Folz*. (This is one of those events and set of characters that will show up in plays. is known as the producer and author of a bunch of comic Shrovetide plays called Fastnachsspiele*. especially in German countries.] These attack the political and moral decline of knights. [Remember that Shrovetide includes the Monday and Tuesday immediately before Ash Wednesday which makes it a big carnival and festival time before Lent. We are in for three hundred years of active witch hunting.pdffactory. 1482 In Spain. to dispense justice impartially. Soon play production will split up and comedy will become entirely secular. You will notice that the comic dramatizations performed for religious holidays become increasingly political.In Germany.) 1484 Pope Innocent VIII* issues a Bull (that's what they call a letter communicating what the Pope orders) against witchcraft and sorcery. Georg Faust*.

They give the first performance of an ancient play. Mummings* tend to make more use of dance and characters from their folk festival origins.** Italian Theatrical Renaissance Gets Going 1485 . from the Mummers' Play*. the Earl of Oxford's Men*. the Mummers' Plays*. 1491 . They give him two ships and he finances a third. People come from all over Europe to study with Laetus* so they can take all this production stuff back home. As the Masque* develops. in England largely pantomimic Mummings* and Disguisings* are very popular with Henry VII* (he reigns 1485-1509. This surrender marks the end of centuries of Islamic rule.In England we finally find a professionsl English acting troupe. On August 3 he sails away in the Nina. they don't have). they need the original theatre (whcich. In England the Master of the Chapel Royal* choirboys is often responsible for these entertainments. the Roman Academy*. 1486 . Under the Inquisitor-General.Meanwhile. The first tragedy by Seneca* is staged in Rome by the humanists and the first comedy by Plautus* is done in Ferrara by the Duke. In April the King and Queen finally give Columbus* the OK for his trip west.) Disguisings* are amateur productions. the Jews and Moslems have three months to either leave or be baptized." 1492 In Spain in January.1485 Up in England Henry Tudor* defeats and kills Richard III*.pdffactory. of course. the last Moslems in Spain (in Granada*) give up. but they are still done in Latin. On October 12 Christopher Columbus* makes landfall on San Salvador PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This is patronage and provides the troupe with legal status and protection so they aren't imprisoned as "masterless men. usually in honor of some royal guest. Under the leadership of a guy named Pomponius Laetus* (1424-1498) they get busy trying to figure out how to reconstruct the important points of a Roman Theatre by using the architectural information from Vitruvius* as a how-to guide. using masks and costumes. These may be produced by trained groups rather than done by court participants.In Ferrara they've got one of those academies for reviving classical learning. This doesn't mean the troupe performs just for him. in part. The result is that he comes to the throne as Henry VII* (he'll rule into 1509) and starts the Tudor* dynasty (which will continue through Elizabeth I. Pinta and the Santa Maria. Even more influential is the printing of Vitruvius'* Ten Books on Architecture* which will provide graphic architectural information for the shape of the Renaissance stage. In order to do this sort of production. Torquemada*. Disguisings* gradually merge into that form and disappear as a separate entertainment.com . put on by the royal household and its resident nobility. The event is followed by a crusade against the large Jewish minority in Spain. The Spanish Catholics are really a zealous bunch. 1485 . The form of Disguisings* comes.In France the Miracle of Pentecost is the subject of Jean Michel's* Mystere de la Resurrection*.Italian rulers begin to finance the production of Roman (or imitation Roman) plays as part of their efforts to bring culture to Italy. 1492 .

Charles VIII*. Fulgens and Lucrece*. Albrecht Durer* (1471-1528). He will produce a phenomenal amount of visual material over his lifetime. Meanwhile the Portuguese expedition under Vasca Da Gama* finds a sea route (around the southern tip of Africa) to India and arrives there. at noble's residences. They are ideal for a professional traveling troupe because these plays have a small cast. This one is often still performed. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Since the Spanish held Naples when the French invaded. 1493 What with all this zealous exploration by the Spanish and the Portuguese they get Pope Alexander VI* to issue a Bull dividing the New World between Spain and Portugal.(or perhaps 1509) we get the English Everyman*. It's a Goods Lottery. most usually. 1493 Maximilian I* (-1519) becomes the Holy Roman Emperor*. At Tours* they are doing L'homme Pecheur* (Man the Sinner. That terrific illustrator and producer of woodcuts. 1495 The French King. We'll see more later. usually no more than eight characters. In April Columbus* returns to the Spanish court with six aboriginal "Indians" and various examples of gold.in the Bahamas. to find a new route to Asia. The Age of Discovery is now up and running. 1497 The English Cabot expedition reaches the coast of North America. He Takes Naples.) 1494 ." It may be new to the Europeans.) A syphilis epidemic sweeps from Naples all over Europe. Sforza* is into encouraging art and classical studies. it seems that it is spread into Europe by these invading French soldiers. just like the other Italian leaders. out into the North Atlantic. 1495 . the most enduring and popular of all morality plays.In England the oldest extant English interlude appears. the "new world. Henry VII* sends John Cabot* and his son Sebastian* west. It is widely reported that syphilis is brought back from the New World by the Spanish soldiers. opens his own studio in Nuremberg and travels to Italy.France is very busy with more morality plays. pearls and exotic flora and fauna. but it's all the aboriginal inhabitants know of the world. Apparently the idea catches on. silver and probably syphilis (at least this disease begins to ravage Europe as men return from the Americas. colleges. Henry Medwall* writes a satire.pdffactory. The Spanish take European diseases. law student's Inns of Court and.) 1494 Interesting side observation: the first known lottery is held in Germany. invades Italy and Florence. Da Vinci* is busy painting "The Last Supper" (-1498. 1497 . sheep and horses to the new world and bring back gold. All this warfare in Italy doesn't seem to slow the artists. 1496 England tries to get into the exploration of the New World. These interludes are performed in a neutral space before a facade at schools. Christianity. One of his first acts is to give Lodovico Sforza* the Duchy of Milan.com .

He burns all Arabic volumes he can lay his hands on. A General note on the Portuguese and the new world The Portuguese made a deal with the Spanish (approved by the Spanish pope) to divide the new world between them on a line of longitude which turns out to give them Brazil which the Portuguese sailors discover in 1500. ********************* A General note on the Spanish and the new world The Spanish gradually land on. enslave. 1519 he lands on the eastern coast of Mexico. Anyway the Aztecs* have a lot of civil wars of their own and a good bit of gold and silver. In 1504 Cortez takes Cuba. in the face of any opposition. 1500 The first commercial colleges are founded in Venice. the Incas* (in 1531.com . spread diseases (especially small-pox) and. This can be seen in the Spanish ruling PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.1499 Amerigo Vespucci* sails to South America. They hit pay dirt in Mexico where the Aztecs* suspect the Spanish may be their god (Quetzalcoatl*) returning to claim his nation. establish settlements.pdffactory. The Swiss are busy establishing their independence. There isn't much gold there so they import a red dyewood (called brazil) which gives the colony its name. ********************* A Note on Social Stability Through Intermarriage With the beginning of the Renaissance the rulers and leaders of various countries find that marrying their children to the heirs of other countries is a productive substitute for going to war. baptize. with the help of the Portuguese (who have been busy looting Africa) the Spanish start importing African slaves to work sugar cane plantations. In their settlements the Spanish use the natives as forced labor but these have a tendency to die off so. by 1549. His later descriptive writings will lead Europe to call the Americas by his name. Hispanolo and then Panama. The Venetian fleet is defeated by the Turks. kill off the local inhabitants on the islands.) The Incas* have tons of gold and the Spanish are well on their way to becoming the richest and most powerful nation in Europe. claim. After a while the Spanish begin to realize they have not reached the east and turn their attention to exploiting the new world. This marks the end of Arabic scholarship in Spain and makes a lot of knowledge disappear. One of the results of the Spanish Inquisition* and the zeal of Archbishop Cisneros* is another book burning he leads in the magnificent libraries of Granada. By 1526 Pizarro has crossed the isthmus of Panama to find the Pacific and sails south along the Pacific coast to discover the other major American power. The Spanish minor gentry (hidalgos) flock to this new trade of being conquistadors (conquerors).

) 2. who will be the next Holy Roman Emperor. etc.house example where the offspring produced will rule (at different times) Spain.] . Charles V*. [You might remember that in 959 Hroswitha*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and performing these plays. The subjects are Christian history and morality. a Benedictine abbess of Gandershiem in Saxony.The influence of rising interest in Greece and Rome shows up in Henry Medwall*'s morality play Nature*. philosophical and educational.Daughter Maria (see #1) marries King Emanuel I of Portugal when he is widowed. some specific "society" concerned with poetry. Archduke of Austria son of the Holy Roman Emperor* Maximilian I*. which is mainly informative. France.Daughter Juana marries Philip the Handsome. 1500 .Daughter Isabella marries King Emanuel I of Portugal (she dies in 1491 and he marries Maria (see #4). 1501 That French army in Italy is still on the move and they enter Rome. music.Catherine of Aragon* marries the English Prince of Wales.com . They have a son. eventually. England and the Holy Roman Empire* The alliances brought about through descendants of Ferdinand and Isabella: 1. Portugal. It seems likely that they were actually performed. who dies in 1502.* 4. She then marries Henry VIII* and.Son John marries Margaret of Austria daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor* Maximilian I*." 1501 . Arthur.) has a organization. drama.A number of the Mystery Cycles leave prompt books which are invaluable in providing information about the productions. By this time almost every town in the Low Countries (Netherlands. 3. writes six original prose Latin comedies in imitation of Terence*. One such comes from this date for the production at Mons*. produces the future Mary I*. 5. Queen of England.Europe rediscovers Hroswitha*'s plays. Michelangelo* is busy sculpting "David.pdffactory.

at Poitiers. good for trade. in which he advocates cultivated diction for the actors. He also writes a number of sotties and a useful document on the duties of a director.In Paris the morality play Condamnation de Banquet*. The primary evil under attack is gluttony and Banquet is sentenced to be hung by Diet. who also speaks the prologue and other parts like that. attacking a range of evils arising from good living. musical entertainment and. play performances (very short plays). the play deals with mental and physical hygiene. This one is financed by the city council and the trade unions. 1508 .com .pdffactory. the town council and the participants (guilds and merchants). 1502 In Castile (the part of Spain belonging to Isabella*) the Moors* (those North African Arab Moslems who ruled Spain for the last 700 years) are required to be baptized or leave Spain (just like the Jews.) 1503 The Spanish take Naples back from the French. The production is run by a producer. a religious Cycle play is staged by Jean Bouchet* . sometimes.. The morality plays are not restricted to any one class as can be seen in the play Les Enfants de Maintenant* (the "now-children") which deals with the sons of a baker. who will become a famous doctor and Astrologer. 1505 In Spain Ferdinand* rules Castile jointly with his daughter (who is insane and married to Philip of Austria. 1566). Margaret. known through the ages for his predictions. too. The production expenses are shared by the Confrerie* (the producing group). Another interesting personality is born.In France. Venice sends an embassy to the Sultan of Turkey proposing the construction of a Suez Canal. This was written for a student's performance. This won't get off the ground for quite a while.) 1507 . which he regards as a Hapsburg* monarchy. He is so good that he will still be in demand in 1532. the local public prosecutor.) She will. He is even better known to us as an excellent producer of Mystery plays." In Scotland there is a step toward the eventual union with England as James IV* marries the Tudor daughter of Henry VII*. meneur de jeu*. produce an heir. The fighting doesn't bother Da Vinci* who is busy painting "The Mona Lisa. all done for the populous of the city. These are very popular combination of a triumphal parade. the Frenchman Nostradamus* (d. however. Michelangelo* (1475-1564) goes to Rome to work for the Pope (Julius II. by Nicolas de la Chesnaye* appears in print (and no doubt in production. Maximilian I* begins reform of the Holy Roman Empire.A Royal entry* of Katherine of Aragon into London is produced. No doubt an early advertising effort assisted by the Chamber of Commerce.) Full of spirit and profanity. The show is directed PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1504 Isabella* of Castile dies and her daughter Juana is heir to Castile.

They become defunct as the theatre changes.) 1508 Pope Julius II* confirms that the Holy Roman Empire* automatically goes to a German King. There are normally eight of these players. like being tried for heresy. Catherine of Aragon* (his brother's widow. but they are the forerunners of later acting companies in England. They are busy persecuting Jews in Germany (between the Catholic Inquisitions* and the sorcery and witchcraft stuff. and all) moves around the earth. Sometimes the director is so good that he gets a contract for a number of years (like a winning football coach.) Religious leaders really don't like this.The use of the Italian venacular in drama begins at the court of Ferrara with the production of The Casket* (La Cassaria) by Lodovico Ariosto* (1474-1533). An earthquake destroys Constantinople. Since they're fighting the French. 1509 Henry VII* dies and Henry VIII* (he reigns 1509-1547) comes to the throne of England. They are also free to tour for their own profit. perform and adapt both this play and his 1509 play. Henry VIII* joins the effort. under Henry VII. We should note here that in England. Michelangelo* starts painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (he finishes in 1512. This comedy deals with Renaissance city life and is based on a Roman plot. planets. I suppositi*. They import labor to till the sugar cane plantations in the New World. Working now for the Pope. this becomes widely popular. The Spanish and English will translate. done by Raphael.by a magister ludens* or maitre de jeu*(master of play).) 1508 . enough to perform interludes.) 1511 Pope Julius II* gets Venice and Aragon to join in a Holy League* to drive the French out of Italy. stars. it goes against their belief that everything (sun.* there is a group of actors called the Royal Interluders* who are on the King's payroll to participate in court revels. This sort of astronomical view often leads proponents into big trouble.) This is the time when the black African slave trade starts with the Spanish. 1510 The Spanish are exploring the American coast as far north as Charleston. Brief Consideration of the Range of Plays PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1512 Copernicus* comes right out and says that the earth and other planets go around the sun (instead of everything going around the earth as the Church and the ancients believe.pdffactory. but since the Turks own that now nobody in Europe cares much.com . He's a great fan of entertainment of all kinds and will start to move the English into the theatrical Renaissance. The production uses that terrific perspective drawing (that the Italians began developing back in 1435) in the scenery. Henry VIII* marries his first wife.* Ariosto's* patrons (the d'Este* family) build a temporary theatre in the classical style influenced by Virtuvius* that will be in use until 1533.

the sacred plays (rappresentazioni sacre*) which include any kind of dramatization suitable for religious instruction (mystery.k. 1512 .folk. a work still read and its advice still followed today.) 1513 . and most influential writers of this form. etc. England and France.and the Latin plays the Humanists were writing in imitation of the ancient Romans. greedy priest. The Portuguese reach China. Commedia dell'Arte* refers to the popular improvised street comedy performed by professionals. Ponce de Leon* discovers Florida. he is equally well-known. this one is based on Plautus*' Menacchmi*. While he is best known for his epic poem (Orlando Furioso *. rustic or peasant plays. Pierre Gringoire*. The Prince* (1513). best.) [note: these are still being done in France and Germany and will continue to be really big in Spain for another two hundred years] 2. He writes the Play of the Prince of Fools and of the Mother of Fools* to be performed on Shrove Tuesday [remember? that festival time before Lent?. based on the models of the Romans but dealing with current city life. gullible husband. Both of these kinds of plays were based on: 1. and. In 1513-20 he is writing the most enduringly popular comedy of the Italian Renaissance. morality. La Mandragola* (a. however. he is best known for his political advice to rulers. Balboa* makes his way across the Isthmus of Panama to see the Pacific Ocean from a peak in Darien (the current name for Panama).The term masque* is first used to denote a kind of poetic drama. All work comes to a stand still (sounds like the Roman PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Florence.In Paris a writer. In theatrical circles. We should take a moment here to straighten out all these terms the Italians use to identify their plays: The commedia erudita* refers to the "learned comedy" the academies are promoting. gorgeous wife and ardent lover.] Niccolo Di Bernardo Machiavelli* (1469-1527) . miracle. Primarily a statesman and philosopher working for the Medici*. 1513 All that exploration is going full speed ahead.a.com . published 1532) his plays influence Spain. The director or the producer usually takes the role of the praecursor* who announces and comments on the plays. is a member of a political cabaret. The Makdrake Root*). Lodovico Ariosto* (1474-1533) is the first. Sixteenth century Passion Play* performances are played in front of the churches and in market squares. This play is considered a masterpiece of the commedia erudita*. all guided and aided by the clever "parasite" (a guy who makes his living off other people. He is exiled from his service on suspicion of conspiracy and turns to writing comedies. especially the debates (contrasti* . La Calandria* by Bernardo Dovizida Bibbiena* appears.1512 .pdffactory.Another Italian comedy. It is a terrific and funny critical look at Florentine society with a scheming. Italy.these could be domestic brawls or legal or religious quarrels and disputations) and the May plays (maggi*) 3.

In England John Skelton* writes Magnificence*. is written in blank verse and based on Greek models instead of Roman. rebellious. France.pdffactory. the gossip. It's the fashion for these commedia actors to take.The first Italian tragedy. The author is Vigil Raber*. 1516 . He promptly grants a monopoly of Negro slave trade to Florentine merchants. as a stage name. This is Archduke Charles of Burgundy and the Netherlands. This time they conquer eastern Anatolia and Kurdistan. by Giangiorgio Trissino*. 1515 .)* Birth Of The Commedia Dell'Arte* Amateur commedia groups are working in cities all over Italy and rapidly becoming professional. a Hapsburg born in Flemish Ghent. instead of leaving it up to the Pope. His character is a shrewd. Beolco becomes known as Il Ruzzante*. talkative young peasant who speaks in the dialect of Padua. 1515 The Turks are still beating at their neighbors. now Charles I* of Spain and later to become Charles V* as Holy Roman Emperor*. now the Italian Province of Bolzano) is done in the Parish church and takes seven days. Peace is declared between all those parties fighting in Italy (England. Spain. Coffee shows up for the first time. 1517 Exports from the New World begin to show up in Europe.Festivals) and people come in from the surrounding villages where the event has been announced by a herald. Sofonisba*. Ferrara and Padua during Carnival time. This will bring a lot of problems to Spain because he will devote most of his attention to affairs in the Holy Roman Empire using Spanish wealth to do so. the Pope and the Holy Roman Empire*. the name of the character they play. a writer. The various commedia characters will develop with distinctive regional dialects and characteristics. who can't speak Spanish. This gives rise to a big controversy as to which is a better model.com . Beolco's plays are fully written out but this will change as time goes by and later commedia pieces will be in the form of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. France gets the right to appoint its own ecclesiastics. stage and costume designer and director. 1516 In Spain Ferdinand II* dies and the throne goes to his grandson.) the morality* play becomes Europe's dominant form of religious drama. Charles I (see above) shows up in Spain for the first time since inheriting the throne. 1514 . One of the earliest actors and playwrights is Angelo Beolco* (1502-42) who plays in Venice.The Bozen Passion Play* (in the south Tirol. especially in England and France. When religious drama starts to be suppressed (at different times and in different places between 1400 and 1550.

He combined Purgatory and penance (doing something to show you were sorry for sinning) by issuing indulgences that would assure that the deceased could transfer from Purgatory to Heaven. Ever since the Black Death* (that big bout of bubonic plague that eliminated about half of the European population back in the 1350s) the lower classes have been getting uppity. The indulgence will provide the purchaser with absolution for any sin they might have committed. The real hallmark of the commedia is the use of mime. This strikes sparks and leads to a local revolution which gets Hus* excommunicated in 1410 by his superiors and in 1411 by the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Wyclif had done a lot of writing and some of his ideas reach Bohemia (down there in Germany) and ring a bell with a theologian named Jan Hus* who starts preaching reform in Prague. now you could get a transfer for all your departed friends. contributions.) Burla* is the term used to refer to the commedia comic interlude or practical joke that usually involves some horseplay. Lazzo* (plural lazzi)* is usually a slight piece of commedia comic mime or pantomime embellishment by the comic servants. The Winds Of Reformation* Begin In Germany In much of the Catholic church.*)] Beolco is probably the most famous of the early commedia actor-manager-performers. In the late 1400's Pope Sixtus IV* came to grips with that concept of Purgatory* which had developed in the Middle Ages. Celibacy becomes rare and making money seems more important than tending their flocks.scenarios*. lust and vulgarity. pantomime and comic bits [the burla* (plural is burle)* and lazzo* (plural is lazzi. indulgences. Providing. It often develops into an independent "turn*" practically identical to the "acts" of current circus clown groups. an outline of the action. The terms burlesque* and burletta* come from burle*. cults of Saints. Gradually a whole cluster of practices developed in which God presumably rewarded the number of prayers. As early as 1300 the pope had developed a neat way of making money by granting a certificate of absolution (indulgences) which anyone could buy. This meant that not only could you buy your own way into Heaven. They want more say so in how things are run and they take a dim view of all this immorality and greed in the church (which runs most of their lives that their rulers don't cover. Strangely enough this bothered some of the Christian faithful.com . He writes a number of plays. of course.pdffactory. As it grows in importance and popularity the distinction between lazzi* and burle* is often blurred and the term lazzi* comes to be used (incorrectly) for both. some of which are still popular today (see below. relics.) If you remember back in the 1370's there were two different popes simultaneously and that heretical John Wyclif* (he'd been trying to reform the English church and ends up getting expelled from his teaching job at Oxford when the London church synod condemns his doctrines) starts people thinking about church reform. They will include a number of set speeches which each actor-character has ready to insert in any play at an appropriate moment. clerics from parish priests through bishops and even the popes have been drifting into more and more greed. relatives and loved ones. Pretty handy item. pilgrimages. you had enough money. of course. It grows into extensive individual mime characteristic of particular actors and servant characters. and.

Cortez* brings Arabian horses from Spain to the North American continent. Frederick* of Saxony (one of the largest states in the Holy Roman Empire*) backs him. In October 1517 this lecturer. comes out with his 95 theses laying out the reforms needed in the church. Lodovico Ariosto* arranges regular performances at the court theatre. Unfortunately all this religious reform is tangled up with political turmoil and poor Hus* gets burned at the stake for heresy in 1416. 1518 Back in Germany Luther* is supposed to be disciplined as a dangerous heretic but his local ruler.000 African slaves to the Spanish American colonies. It will also totally change the structure and role of theatre. Italians and Ottoman Turks. Now many of these have a lot of autonomy but the Holy Roman Emperor* rules all his territory as the Pope's temporal counterpart. The same fate awaits one of his followers. Luther's part of Europe is a mess of 65 imperial cities. Political struggles are coming into the reform debate. This will destroy the unity of the Catholic Church and lead to a total shake-up of the political map of Europe. Thanks to the availability of the printing press. These reform ideas don't go away. a patchwork of principalities. Pretty tricky political situation.com . 1520 There are a lot of things going on this year - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Jerome* in 1416.In Sienna (remember it's under control of Florence) the Commedia dell'Arte* group known as the Congrega dei Rozzi* is headed by Niccolo Campani* (known under his acting name as "Strascino*") who appears in one of his own plays before Pope Leo X.* He is crowned at the traditional location. any grievance against the Church and the Pope is also against the Emperor. Aix-la-Chapelle. The Reformation* starts in a very influential part of the world. A Dominican preacher named Johann Tetzel* has been licensed by the pope to sell indulgences (these provide remission of punishment even for sins committed in the future) in Germany. So. 1518 . The first printing of Aeschylus* comes out. 1519 Charles I* of Spain (as grandson of Emperor Maximilian I*) becomes Holy Roman Emperor* as Charles V.pdffactory. duchies and other territories within the Holy Roman Empire*. In this year they appear in Lo Strascino* at an Orsini wedding. 1519 Luther is involved in a big public debate and admits he supports the ideas of Jan Hus*. In the spring of 1517 a lecturer of biblical studies at the University of Wittenberg hears him and really gets mad. It will get worse. 1518 A guy called Lorens de Gominot (remember that Florentine monopoly granted by Spain ?) gets a license to import 4. they just percolate around Europe for a century and then erupt in some really big movements. Boy will this make a difference for Spain. It will also keep him busy fighting French. the whole thing gets spread all over Germany and throughout Europe. All of which brings us to the big event that starts the ball rolling all over Europe. At the Court of Ferrara.pope. Martin Luther*.

getting a really bad name for themselves at times. This Protestant movement (named for their views on the validity of baptism) emphasizes social and political aspects of religious reform. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This leads to bankruptcy and Spanish Charles (V.com .] This is also the beginning of the Anabaptist* movement in Germany under a guy named Thomas Munzer* (1489-1525). Some of the Hapsburg* brood marry into the ruling houses of Hungary and Austria. through the straits that will bear his name. all with their own laws and customs (not to mention religious controversy) and these are not willing to pay taxes to support the endless wars. into the Pacific Ocean. The Holy Roman Empire* is full of diverse units.pdffactory. He heads west. [You might observe that the Germans seem to like book burning. More imports from the Americas reach Europe . complete with woodcut illustrations for those who can't read.Luther* starts publishing his ideas in a big way (24 books and pamphlets in German) and calls for a general council to look into papal abuses and develop reform of the clergy.this time it's chocolate.* Holy Roman Emperor*) mortgages the Spanish gold from the Americas for years to come. Luther really understands the value of the print media and he and his followers have a mass propaganda going. Magellan* (a terrific Portuguese navigator. this will show up under Hitler 400 years later. Luther* retaliates with a book burning of his own at Wittenberg where he burns the excommunication Bull and some theology works. now working for the Spanish) gets around the southern tip of South America. Questions the basis of papal authority Believes in going back to the Bible rather than going by religious historical development Calls for a priesthood of all believers" Get rid of "indulgences" and pilgrimages Let the clergy marry End religious holidays and Saint's Days Go back to the Bible for who can perform which sacraments Celebrate Mass in the venacular (local common language) and let people take wine and bread (at the moment only the priest can do this) The Pope starts excommunication proceedings against Luther* and orders his books burnt (most people don't). He lays out what will become the basis of Protestantism (the name comes from the movement of protest against the Catholic Church).

pictures and thepriest's robes (just regular clothes for preachers now. making the first circumnavigation of the globe.) This Bible business is a no-no because the only authorized Bible is the Latin Vulgate (written by St. read and teach only what is in the Bible. 1522 Back in Germany.] He claims the end of the world is PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and. led by that Anabaptist* guy named Thomas Munzer*. 1524 The French are finally thrown out of Italy.(the Italians are busy doing just the opposite) No liturgical business except two priests and they can sing.] Meanwhile the Turks are moving up the Danube to Belgrade. As mentioned earlier. 1521 Magellan* gets to the Philippines where he is killed. Jerome in the fourth century. [Sounds a lot like our current televangelists. insists on being literal aboutthe second commandment. and has original subject matter while making use of the form of Roman comedy. 1521 A Franciscan preacher. One of his ships. His stuff includes: Priest elected by the congregation Priests can also practice trades Stiff penalties for immoral conduct (this will blossom in the "Puritan" (keep religion pure) movement Get rid of adornment in houses of worship . Meanwhile the Turks are taking the Isle of Rhodes. publishes pamphlets further developing Luther*'s views. Luther* has to go into hiding where he writes and translates the Bible into German (incidentally making the Saxon dialect standard for the German language. claims to interpret the Bible according to the "inner light" which comes directly from God to his chosen people." Back inGermany some follow suit and throw out statues.) Luther's* New Testament is published this year. He gets rid of all "graven images. on home to Spain.com . a preacher in Zurich (Huldrych Zwingli) takes these reformsa step further. Johann Eberlin. In the largely autonomous confederation of states that make upSwitzerland. under Sebastiano del Cano.pdffactory. it is called The Mandrake* (Mandragola*). like the Moslems.The most delightful (and still popular) comedy in Italian is published by that irrepressible political writer.)[This "down with images" business will put a real crimp in theatre. continues to sail west.1520 . The English court gets to eat their first American turkey. In Germany the popular religious reform movements are starting. A group calling themselves the "Heavenly Prophets". Niccolo Machiavelli*.

com . Clizia*. over the next four years.000. Charles V* gets married to Isabella of Portugal. (You may remember that we call the Verrazano Narrows. The Medieval world is rapidly becoming transformed into the Renaissance. musketry.coming and that change will come from revolution by the common people. Peter's cathedral.) Over in the East a descendant of Tamerlane* and Genghis Khan* named Babur* is starting a Mongol incursion into India where Muslim dynasties of Afgan and Turkish peoples are in control. 1528 Finland adopts Lutherism*. The Mongoloan. Giovanni Da Verrazano*. People promptly begin to revolt in the southern Black Forest. Grand Master Albert of the Teutonic Knights turns his domain into the secular Duchy of Brandenburg with himself as the Duke. You may notice that relations between the Church and the "Holy" Roman Emperor aren't very charitable. 1526 Trading in the East keeps developing and the Portuguese are in New Guniea. after this guy. Charles V* becomes the master of Italy using that new high tech weapon. 1525 . 1527 . 1525 More than two-thirds of the imperial cities in Germany adopt Lutherism*. between Staten Island and Brooklyn. Meanwhile. They invade Rome and the Vatican. Charles V* gives Augsburg merchants the right to colonize Venezuela. In the exploration business a Florentine navigator. Up in Prussia.In England Henry VIII* builds a House of Revels* (inside a palace) to stage court entertainments like those Italian ones. Machiavelli* comes out with a more neoclassical comedy. killing about 4.) They take the Hungarian capital of Buda and cross the Danube into Pest. explores the coast of North America from Cape Fear (North Carolina) northwards and discovers New York and Narragansett bays and the Hudson River. Michelangelo* is commissioned to design a dome for the new one. 1527 Sweden adopts Lutherism* Charles V*'s (Holy Roman Emperor*) Spanish and German mercenaries' pay hasn't come.Back in Italy. He defeats the Swiss as well as the French.pdffactory. Only the northwestern Rajputana is still Hindu. The Pope is imprisoned and they demolish the old St. Babur. to conquer all of Hindustan only to be chased out again. This will spread in fits and starts.* enters Delhi and continues. The Ottoman Turks under Suleiman I* (the Magnificent) are marching over Hungary with a disciplined well armed band of janissaries* (from yeni ceri = new force. based on Plautus*' Casina*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. There are severe outbreaks of plague in England. sacking and pillaging as usual.

* (No doubt to help keep the Turks away from Europe. issues an edict that requires traditional Catholic worship be restored. The meaning of the Holy Roman Empire is changing from the holy to the secular. They are called the "Protesting Estates" and the term "Protestant*" is now applied to anyone leaving the Roman Church. The Reformation* begins in Scotland. 1529 When the current Holy Roman Emperor*. He will become well-known and may rulers will try to hire him to beat up on their enemies. Over night the political situation in central Europe has changed. six princes and 14 cities issues a protest against it. These plays are still produced today and are available in several languages.com . Pope Clement VII crowns Charles V* Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy (which he just conquered. especially in the professional companies of the Commedia dell'Arte*. An active pirate named Barbarossa* seizes part of Algiers and Tunis and ravages the coasts of Italy and Spain. 1530 Despite the fact that he has already been crowned. John on Malta under his Genoese Admiral. The Portuguese are busy colonizing Brazil.Henry VIII* wants to get a divorce from Catherine of Aragon.pdffactory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) Meanwhile Suleiman I* hires that busy pirate named Khayrad-din who becomes known in the west as Barbarossa* (Redbeard.) This will be the last imperial investiture by a Pope. Andrea Doria. at Bologna.) 1531 Erasmus* publishes the first complete edition of Aristotle*. 1529 .) Henry VIII* wants his divorce so much that he breaks with the Roman Church and declares himself head of the English Church (which will come to be called the Anglican Church. Charles V*. Charles V* reestablishes the Knights of St. 1528 .The commedia plays La Moschetta* (The Coqutte*) and Il Reduce* (currently available as Ruzzante Returns From the Wars*) by Angelo Beolco* appear. The Lutheran powers in Europe form a Schmalkaldic League for mutual protection against attack on the grounds of religion. This will lead to a lot of trouble with the Pope.We finally hear about women acting on Italian stages.) 1531 Great waves of superstition follow the appearance of the "Great Comet" (which we will call Haley's Comet. The Ottoman Turks advance as far as Vienna and Charles V* has to compromise on this religion business with the Germans to get their military help against the Turkish invasion. The Turks are also marching south against the Shiites* in Baghdad and taking Armenia and Azerbaijan together with territories from Mesopatamia to the Persian Gulf.

Francois Rabelais*.* sails to North America.. Apostle's Creed and the Lord's Prayer at meals. He takes the easy way out and breaks away from Rome. He is known for his broad. 1534 In England. the younger. Thomas More* won't take it and is beheaded. 1533 The English playwright John Heywood* (c. creating the Anglican church and taking possession of all that lovely Catholic church real estate.) Fathers are urged to instill the habit of reciting the Ten Commandments. 1340-1400. His views are really Roman in their view of the father as ruler of the family (paterfamilias. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Henry VIII* finally divorces (actually this divorce had been started several years earlier but it isn't legally tidy until May) Catherine of Aragon* and marries (again. The best example of this trend is Luther* who regards the family as central to Christian life and composes catechisms for homes and schools to teach a firm foundation in the faith. that does no harm. the political possibilities of religious reform aren't lost on Henry VIII* who wants another annulment from the church and isn't getting it. The rulers don't like this popular government stuff and quite a lot of fighting is in the future of this part of Europe. Johan*. racy humor and grotesque invention.) The Reformation* begins in France.. God created her body that she should be with a man and bear and raise children. 1497.If women grow weary or even die while bearing children. With the catholic nunneries closed there are no celibate religious vocations left for women. At the moment he is doing Henry VIII*.1532 Chaucer*'s works are published (remember that he lived and wrote c. on rising and on going to bed. In Europe the religious reform movement is shifting its emphasis from the need for everybody to read the Bible (which leads to everyone having their own interpretation of it) to more discipline and indoctrination in the particular leader's views. This will lead to endless "Wars of Religion" and keep France from advancing on the social and cultural fronts.c. providing a terrific character for much later plays. A ribald Frenchman. Let them bear children to death.com . he does this secretly in January but it is validated in May) Anne Boleyn*. "A woman does not have complete mastery over herself. Luther*'s attitude toward women is pretty tough: it is the duty of all women to marry and bear children. 1580) comes out with the landmark farce Johan. Jacques Cartier. In September Elizabeth* is born. painting everybody who is anybody. Westphalia) sets up a "communist state" of Anabaptists*. Divorce becomes harder to obtain.pdffactory. landing in Labrador. John Leiden* (in Munster. The French explorer. Henry VIII* institutes the Act of Succession and requires everyone to take an oath recognizing him as head of the Church in England." This narrows the choices available to women in Lutheran* states. In the art business we find Hans Holbein*. 1533 By January of this year Anne Boleyn* is pregnant with Henry VIII*'s child and the matter of a wedding and producing a legal heir becomes pressing. that's what they're here for. 1535 By this time there is so much Spanish activity in the new world that the crown appoints a viceroy to Mexico. This results in his excommunication by the Pope. publishes the first book of his Pantagruel*.

Clever devices for stage effects appear. in addition to the two female offspring. In Florence they are filling a crystal sphere with water and lighting it from behind with candles to represent the sun. 1539 .The wide spread struggle between Protestant and Catholic is reflected in the theatre. and Henry VIII* gets a third wife. dealing with the struggle against the Antichrist (covering more than a thousand years) and ending with a glorification of Luther as the target of antichristian forces. The Ottoman Turks now control the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean and operate in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean against the Portuguese. is thrown out of Switzerland and settles in Strasbourg. Francois Rabelais* comes out with his second racy book. Henry VIII* will take his time finding another wife now that he has a male to inherit. In England John Bale* (1495-1563) (actually he is Bishop of a place in Ireland) writes a morality history play. Sebastiano Serlio*. A troupe of Commedia Dell'Arte* visits France. King John*.000 Christian slaves. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. (376 religious houses are dissolved) getting very wealthy in the process. An Italian architect. capturing Tunis and freeing 20.The Roman Church makes a rule that there can be no production of church plays without prior sanction by church officials.Charles V* is very busy fighting the Moslems. This pretty well ends any religious drama. published six volumes but we will look at him a little later when he writes something about theatre. Michelangelo* is busy in Rome painting "The Last Judgement" on the wall of the Sistine Chapel. 1537 Jane Seymour* gives birth to a male heir. He begins to dismantle the vast range of monastic and ecclesiastical property. The most forceful spokesman denouncing Catholicism is Thomas Naogeorus* who writes Pammachius*. 1538 One of the more influential Reformation figures. Barbarossa* takes most of Venice's islands and fortresses in the Aegean. (the future Edward VI*) and dies as a result. 1536 Denmark adopts Lutherism* and the Reformation spreads to Norway. In England Anne Boleyn* is executed for treason. in which John battles the evil forces of the Pope.com . Austria. This one is a noticeable step forward toward the development of the chronicle play*. Catherine of Aragon dies (presumably of natural causes). 1538 . Jane Seymour*.pdffactory. We hear India rubber mentioned for the first time. Gargantua* and Part Two of Pantagruel*. A guy called Aristotle de San Gallo* (1481-1551) comes up with this and a number of other clever adaptations of devices described by Vitruvius* and Pollux*. John Calvin*.

already know it is there. Trouble is on the way.] Geneva becomes known as the Protestant Rome and wields a more uncompromising authority than the papacy. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. A historian named Olaus Magnus* comes out with a map of the world showing some of those new discoveries and more realistic distances. pastors (responsible for correct doctrine). She is a little too free with her favors and looses her head. Evangelists spread out over Europe winning huge bunches of converts to this strict discipline of Calvinism*. elders and deacons (to enforce the doctrine. no sex and no hope for another heir. This is to be a group of militant priests dedicated to propagating the Catholic faith through education and missionary work. Over in North America the Spanish are discovering the Grand Canyon (the Navaho and Zuni Indians are discovering the Spanish and their sheep and horses. As different rulers are recruited. All the confiscated gold and artifacts fattens the King's purse. [They don't take kindly to theatre either.The Low Countries (Netherlands. Church officials are empowered to inspect all households for backsliders. Catherine Howard*. That public lottery business shows up in France. This turns out to be another mistake. He sets up a societal system that channels all the energies of its subjects into the service of God. It includes destruction of religious shrines. 1540 Henry VIII* has his marriage with Anne annulled and looks around for somebody sexier. etc. whole populations become Protestant. The result is that dramatists become more secular and religious drama disappears. Pope Paul III* founds the Society of Jesus*.) Every aspect of civil life is under their control. Actually.) We hear about the first Christmas tree at Strasbourg cathedral. The Irish are still objecting to this. On this date they require all plays be regulated by the church officials. He is now off and running in the house and palace building business. these guys will be of some help to the theatre since Catholics like to use it for instructing people.com .1539 . of course.) are Protestant but Catholic Spain now has control of them and tries to control the Chambers of Rhetoric*. Hernando de Soto* (or maybe his first name is Fernando) is discovering Florida (the Seminoles. Henry VIII* also takes his fourth wife. This is not a productive marriage. 1539 In England we have the final Act of Parliament dismantling Catholic religious sites. They abolish taverns and ban dancing and singing. Anne of Cleves*. He is the most dynamic and influential leader of the Reformation*. Over in Switzerland that even more puritanical reformer named John Calvin* (a French preacher) has his doctrines preached in Geneva and their influence spreads like wildfire to France and other countries.) 1540 In Italy the native comedy has become well established. they are discovering the Spanish. In order to respond to all this. Meanwhile he declares himself King of Ireland and Head of the Irish Church. He starts looking for number six. 1541 Henry VIII* takes his fifth wife. The system is administered by a hierarchy of teachers.

this time to Peru. 1541-42 . 1506-1552 and in 1622 he will become a Saint. But already the market place is affecting playwrighting and he turns to writing serious plays with happy endings because that's what audiences like. He continues with two others in this vein. the periaktoi* (a three sided thing that pivots on a central pole to show three different scenes) as described in those classical books. Nothing happens on this idea.That clever scenic effects man. Catherine Parr*.In Europe the Reformation is marching on. The Jesuits* aren't far behind. on the Senecan revenge stuff). Philip* to Maria of Portugal. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The French invite Barbarossa* to Marseilles to help them in joint operations against the Duke of Savoy. There is also. Meanwhile. and Catholicism. Charles is busy celebrating the marriage of his son. converting as he goes. who helps found the Jesuit order and comes to be called the "Apostle of the Indies") to Goa (India) as a missionary. Antonio da Mota*. The opposition is working hard and Loyola* (1491-1556). Oklahoma and eastern Kansas. solves the problem of quickly shifting scenes by using the Greek device. The King of Portugal sends Francis Xavier* (c. In the East the Portuguese land in Japan bringing firearms with them. shows up in Japan. A Spanish navigator (Blascoda Garay) gives Charles V* a design for a steamboat. San Gallo*. He will work his way around India. 1542 The time of the conquistadors is over and Spain appoints another viceroy. horses. in Bourges.com . Barbarossa* sacks the Duke's town of Nice. sheep. Orbecche*. Texas. who planned the Order. 1543 . 1543 Henry VIII* takes his sixth (and last) wife. Spain and the costal towns of Tuscany (Italy). a forty-day cycle of Apostle Plays. Naples as well as the island of Sicily on his way home to Istanbul.pdffactory. (The local inhabitants are discovering European diseases. In the spring he hits Barcelona. Over in America Coronado* is exploring New Mexico. de Soto* is discovering the Mississippi River. John Knox*.) 1541 An Italian called Giambattista Giraldi Cinthio* (1504-1574) comes up with a revenge tragedy (based. Calvin* comes back to Geneva and in Scotland a follower. Mary* becomes the Queen of Scots at age six days. is made the first Superior (or General) of the Society of Jesus*. leads a Calvinist* Reformation. In the East the first European. not only tending the ailing King but educating the three royal heirs in the range of Renaissance literature and knowledge.In Paris they are doing cycles of the Apostle and Old Testament plays. of course. Later (in 1622) he will be canonized as Saint Ignatius of Loyola*. and arrive in Japan in seven years. The first Protestants are burned by the Spanish Inquisition*. Dido* and Cleopatra*. She is a really good caretaker.

because they are the ones in charge of court entertainment. He is influenced especially by Baldassare Peruzzi* (1481-1537) because he studies with him at Rome. tragic and satyric scenes the way he figures Vitruvius* described them. Keep in mind that all this "architecture" business is still very temporary and is designed to be set up in a big hall in a palace or out in the Duke's (or prince. Actually he put together ideas from a lot of other artists who were working on this perspective business. 1545 .1544 The Spanish discover silver mines in Peru. of course. the settings. The rest of the audience seating makes up a semi-circle facing the stage and rises in tiers. leaving only a pretty narrow front part where the players can move on the level. The satyric scene will become the standard for the pastoral scenery. in order to get the perspective scene. The first big step is the work of a guy named Serlio. The first permanent appointment as Master is a Sir Thomas Cawarden*. the musicians' pit and the basic systems of moving scenery and of lighting an indoor performance. That.com . This office is under the office of the Lord Chamberlain and is to regulate. will also regulate theatre throughout England. which helps spread all this Italian set design to France. Serlio* describes how to light the stage with lamps and candles. The auditorium. Later these balconies (which become audience boxes and balconies) will dominate the theatre audience. This is a real gem (still available today) because it is the first published Renaissance work on theatre practice and the illustrations are widely copied and reprinted in other works on architecture. Vitruvius* had put a colonnade behind the audience to improve the acoustics. He shows perspective illustrations of comic. But. We will look at various advances as they occur. The Italians turn this idea into balconies. tested and put together. Later the English will really take to this colored PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the back part of the stage is raked upward (from which we get the references for actors to cross up stage). All these come to us out of the merchant princes' desire for spectacle and the academies' study and experimentation and are done by architects.Henry VIII* is so taken with entertainment and organization that he creates an Office of Revels* to organize entertainments in that Revels building (see 1527) and other places. More money to send home.The second part of Sebastiano Serlio* (1475-1554)'s Architettura* is published. Dutch. It is opposite the center of the stage on a raised platform.pdffactory. Serlio's illustrations will also be reprinted in future editions of Vitruvius*. finance and produce plays and other entertainments for the court. the curtain and proscenium. is where the guy who pays the bills sits to see the show. and Peruzzi is a big time designer of these perspective sets. the stage. He also introduces colored light where a reflective basin goes behind the light and glass globes of colored water goes in front. Theatrical Scenery Takes Off The perspective theatre of Italy is the origin of our contemporary theatre production. Spanish and English. Latin. or whatever) park. 1545 . German. tinting the light in a variety of colors. the Master of Revels* and his Master Clerk*. through its main positions. The office. This dictates some particular things: Everything (especially the point of view of the perspective) is designed around the Royal Seat. There is a flat open space for the orchestra and a raised stage. Between 1500 and 1650 all the pieces are developed. Serlio has been sending his books to Francis I* and this leads to an invitation to work at Fontainebleau*. Over the next 75 years this book will be translated and published in French.

They have to several pressing problems to address. since he is only ten. Edward VI* comes to the throne (with a Lord Protector to run things.light business. This tragedy is reputed to be the best of its time. Die Meistersinger von Nurenberg*.) That peculiar French doctor.pdffactory. [He will even show up as the hero of a Wagnerian* opera in 1868. The Protestant civil unrest will spread to France. 1546 . The members raise the money and share the profits it brings in. active and prolific theatre person and we will hear a good deal more about his various accomplishments as time goes by. 1545 The Roman Catholic church calls the Council of Trent*. the minute we get a printing press we also get censorship. They have to put together a cooperative society to produce it. 1547 Remember that Lutheran* league? Well. 1547 . All other mansions are in the order of their use ending with Hell at the south or the extreme right. Orazio*.In Germany Hans Sachs* (1494-1576) is also writing a tragedy. 1546 . Lisabetta* . There is a great need to restore 1563 order and authority to the ministry. especially with the mushrooming output of all these printing presses. is writing his first predictions. He has been doing mediocre comedies which may have contributed to some of the plays of Ben Jonson and Moliere. Otherwise. especially at Valenciennes*. have their mansions arranged so that God is at the north or the extreme left. At this point in time all these theatres are temporary and go up and down for festive occasions.com . He trains his actors and directs his own shows. They want to reassert control over all expressions of church doctrine. emerging as the first well known actor-author-manager in Germany. In order to accomplish their aims they reinstitute the Inquisition* and produce a list of works the church wants to suppress (Index Expurgatoris*).In Italy Pietro Aretino* (1492-1556) writes his only tragedy. mostly for moral betterment since he is one of the first writers to become a follower of Martin Luther*. Spain now has a Council of the Indies to rule all that territory in the Americas. the Holy Roman Emperor*) defeats them and they rebuild their military strength by making an alliance with France's Henry II*. He is an interesting. In England Henry VIII* dies and his only son. not much is going on there. They reserve to the Church of Rome the sole right to interpret the Bible. They have been trying to reform things since 1480 when the Spanish had founded their Inquisition* (to root out heresy) and in Italy in 1534 when the Pope (Paul III*) began new policies to combat the Reformation. As an author he is best known for his Carnival Plays (fastnachtsspeil) where his homespun humor and folksy daily life depictions shine.At Valenciennes* they are doing the Mystere de la Passion* which takes twenty-five days. Wouldn't you know. 1546 Ivan IV* is crowned Czar of Russia in Moscow. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Nostradamus* (1503-1566). * These platform stages. The French declare that the French language (rather than Latin) is now the official language of the French authorities.] He has been writing since about 1518. and. Charles* (V. They meet to try to deal with all this Protestant uproar and humanist tendency.

This makes it really difficult for that group with the Paris monopoly on producing plays (remember the Confrerie de la Passion* that started work in 1402?). when. Ivan IV* calls the first ever national assembly in Russia. The scenic effects are getting more spectacular every day and the conducteurs de secret* are in charge. 9 million down to 1. a vital step to later French theatre. These are usually dwarfs and cripples. the Hotel de Bourgogne*. 1547 By this time the production of religious plays in Italy is pretty much down to zero. 1550 . 1549 At this time Court Jesters* begin to appear in Europe. 1548 Mary* Queen of Scots (now aged 6) gets engaged to the French Dauphin (that means he's next in line for the throne) and goes to France. In Spain religious plays continue to be produced since the Inquisition* has control over theology and the how. 2. In the art field. called transformations. along with master mechanics and seventeen assistants just to run the Hell mansion. There is lots more money there. The local population of Mexico drops from c.Also at this time everybody is reading Italian plays in France and England. too. They've just built and opened a new theatre.com . what with clouds carrying angels down and bringing saints up. Other effects. (or secrets) make people appear and disappear.pdffactory. Some of them get so big that. Spain is at the peak of her political and economic power and will stay that way until the end of the century. where and what of religious play production. It has a Hell's mouth* that opens and closes. 25 million to c. tongues of flame lighting up Hell and trap doors in use all over. The brotherhood is not about to give up this valuable property. rain falling. water turns into wine and loaves and fishes magically appear. they have to have two.5 million while in Peru it plummets from c. and the production of religious plays is prohibited in Paris.These special effects are helped out by all that stuff Serlio* wrote and the Italians had been developing for court productions which is now reprinted in Vitruvius* book on architecture. The Inquisition* put a real damper on religious theatre things.3 million. There are terrific mechanical effects. Lot's wife turns into a pillar of salt.000 Europeans in the Americas where European diseases decimate the locals. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.SECRETS* . It's not very fancy and we will be talking more about it when we get to the French. Moses' staff sprouts leaves and branches. The influence of both the plays and performances will show up as theatre develops around Europe. In Mexico the silver mines are being mined by the Spanish. Titian* is painting and Benvenuto Cellini* is busy sculpting. 1548 They get the message in France. The Commedia dell'Arte* is really popular with the general public in Italy and will soon begin touring all over Europe. 1550 By this time there are at least 100. so they just rent it out to secular professional groups. the first theatre building constructed since the Romans. as at Mons*.

combine with Spain's close political relation to Italy (they own Naples. The geographical position of Spain as a peninsula. ii. they were ready to embrace the newly rediscovered humanistic knowledge of Greece and Rome. we'll talk more about this later. and the intense Catholic nature of the Spanish culture.pdffactory. the rising tide of Protestanism does not upset the relatively stable. In England we see a five-act English comedy. Danish and German) moves forward into the Renaissance at their own pace and in their own way. The exciting theatrical discoveries and experimentations in Italy are rapidly spread throughout the European culture and specialists in architecture and design come to the Italian innovators to study. Ralph Roister Doister* by Nicholas Udall* (c. chronologically. English.In Italy it is the beginning of early Baroque*. merchantile dominated cities and political entities of the Italian peninsula. Each major European culture (Spanish. 1505-56.com . it was financially and politically ready to explore and build on the theatrical heritage being uncovered. but always looking to Italy as the leader in theatrical research and design. Act II. Not only was Italy intellectually ready. for example) to provide the second stop on the Renaissance tour. 393-396 next Chap8 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER EIGHT The Spanish Renaissance 1550-1587 Continues The Golden Age of Theatre PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Since the center of the Catholic Church is in Italy.) ********************* Afterword Italy has been the first stop in touring the Renaissance because. French.

we will refer to them as autos) is the Spanish term for their religious play. No doubt the international position of Spain at this time influenced the spread of their writers' reputations. Spain. Cervantes*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. [Note: they are eventually prohibited by royal edict in 1765. influencing everybody interested in theatre.their disregard for the Italianate slavish imitation of Roman play forms and Roman criterion for playwrighting. alone.) By the 16th century it reaches its full glory in the works of the major playwrights Lope de Vega* and Calderon* {see below. The form of the auto* includes its use of elaborate allegory. By the last half of the fifteenth century there are records of paid performers engaged for the celebrations for the event.) The content of autos is a dramatic restatement of the tenets of the Catholic faith. The earliest known auto in Spanish comes from about 1200 (Auto de los reyes magos. Other than this temporal similarity there are distinct differences. Calderon*. will continue the practice for another two hundred years.pdffactory.] In terms of plays and playwrights. the Spanish Golden Age occurs simultaneously with the English. In Spain it is performed for many religious holidays but it forms the centerpiece of the Corpus Christi* festival. religious theatre is forbidden as a relic of Catholicism. especially the preoccupations and ideals of the Counter-Reformation. the last two of whom are major playwrights.) The date usually falls in June because it is celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday which is the Sunday after Pentecost which is fifty days after Passover which is the Hebrew festival celebrating the night the destroyer "passed over" the houses of the faithful as it destroyed the first born of Egypt. [The Corpus Christi feast (Latin for Body of Christ) was instituted in 1264 to honor the "Real Presence" of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist (the "giving of thanks" at a meal and especially the Last Supper.Introduction It is useful at this time to take a look at the Spanish theatre. Another distinct difference between the Spanish theatre and the English is that in Spain (as in Italy) women appear on the stage in professional companies from the very beginning. Spanish theatre is unique in the Renaissance in that they continue religious theatre as the main theatrical form. The auto sacramental* (plural is autos sacramentales. The Italians are up and running.com . Europe and England are still too busy with political and religious matters to make any real theatrical strides. Lope de Vega*. The Spanish are well into the riches of the New World and eager to imitate the Italians in cultural things. It is a short piece performed originally on a scaffold before the church. There are three internationally famous Spanish writers of this period. Significant hallmarks of Spanish theatre which they share with the English are: 1. In those areas which are becoming Protestant. Later they are performed on flat moveable wagons (carros*) where scenery can be put up and fancy effects installed. The Spanish Inquisition's control over theology makes it possible to continue religious plays while other Catholic areas give up trying to police the content of religious theatre and simply forbid its production.] The Corpus Christi* festival was introduced into Spain in 1314.

With the discovery of the New World and all that lovely new money coming in. Court productions and popular theatre boom. 1465-1541) Celestina* (La comedia de Calisto y Melibea).com .c.An influential Spanish playwright.Gil Vicente* (c. is the Court poet for the next 34 years. We have 44 of his works extant. 1536). The windows of the houses surrounding the yard are used as boxes for more distinguished viewers. plus.2. He is inventive. 1492 . has also been visible in parts of Spain since the thirteenth century as has some form of acting as a profession.Earliest surviving edition of Fernando de Rojas'*s (c. 1539). 1502 . developing these forms from several earlier types and excelling in the morality play and romantic comedy. In Spain this existing space is found in the corrales*. Consequently the Spanish theatrical companies are constantly traveling from place to place. It will be translated into English in 1631 (as The Spanish Bawd*). Bartolome de Torres Naharro* (c. His last 12 years are devoted to really extravagant secular allegorical fantasies full of uninhibited satire and lyricism. of course. theatre is centered in London and the companies only travel when they are barred from performance in town (usually due to the plague.pdffactory. He is the second of the three men credited with founding the Spanish Renaissance theatre. He is one of the three men credited with founding the Spanish Renaissance theatre.Juan del Encina* (1469-c. allegorical spectacles and romantic plays. 1513 . during the big Corpus Christi* festival. actor and director of entertainments. musician.) Background for Spanish Theatre Secular theatre. Playwright will borrow plots. It may be that the strong Roman presence in Spain helped maintain performance activities through the Dark Ages when the rest of Europe was repeatedly assaulted by successions of barbarian invasions. is working for the Duke of Alba as a playwright. scenes. In England. He writes in a number of dramatic forms. Secular performances are forbidden on Church holidays (the number of these will increase over the next hundred years) but can be held two or three days a week. as well as religious.] One of the major differences between Spanish and English performance spaces is that in Spain there are a number of major cities. He writes novelesque plays dealing with the conflicts of love and honor. This work is immensely popular with at least 60 reprints in the sixteenth century alone. farces. He is regarded as the third (and last) of the three founders of the Spanish Renaissance theatre. At any rate it becomes a going concern as the Spanish forces eliminate the Moors. eclogues. 1465-c. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1524) is writing in Rome where he did most of his plays. Spanish playwright. The rest are in both languages. 1499 . 17 in Portuguese and 11 in Spanish. He has studied in Italy and brings the Italian style of writing pastoral dialogues to his Spanish pieces. In the beginning there is no roof. These are basically the yards of houses where the stage is in the rear and the bulk of the audience stands in the courtyard. This is an unperformed 16 act dialogue novel which he will rewrite in 1502 with 21 acts and a new Miles Gloriosus* character. 1485 . moralities. a Portuguese playwright.their use of existing space for presenting plays. characters and speeches from it as well as writing sequels to it. [In England they will use inn yards very similar to the corrales.

He comes up with an indigenous kind of play. This is the usual thing for Renaissance playwrights. 1554 In England Mary I* puts Elizabeth* in the tower and marries Philip* of Spain. Gammer Gurton's Needle* is produced at Christ's College.pdffactory. 1553 . However. The English really don't like this. son of Charles V* (Holy Roman Emperor*). You may remember that she is the daughter of the Spanish Catherine of Aragon* and strongly Catholic in Anglican England. Cambridge. 1505-65) is a professional actor-manager and author. Things get so messy under her rule that we know her better as Bloody Mary*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . Lope de Rueda* (c. which is a short comic interlude. by Etinne Jodelle* (1532-73). His plays are performed by his own company as he tours all over Spain playing in inns and courtyards for the public and in palaces and the great houses of the nobility. Cleopatre Captive*.We find the first really important Spanish theatrical figure who puts it all together.] As an actor his characterizations of comic fools and rascals are so well regarded that they encourage an Italian Commedia dell'Arte* troupe to come to Spain. Then Mary I* comes to the throne. this is only a momentary lull. 1555 The Peace of Augsburg* (ending that fight between Charles and the Protestants) gives all German governments the right to choose Lutheran* or Catholic and all their subjects have to agree or move elsewhere.Back in France they are coming up with the first classical (this means it is modeled on Seneca*) tragedy. Meanwhile. His company includes women and is usually made up of thirteen or fourteen people in addition to the actor-authormanager. In other parts of Europe religious arguments are motivating civil wars and these are moving into international conflicts. His best known one is called The Olives*. The French found a colony in the Americas on the Bay of Rio de Janerio. She wants to reverse the religious changes in England.1552 . Like everybody else he also writes plays based on Italian originals. making fun of the manners of his day. They are not sure who the author is (a Mr. events go on 1552 In Eastern Europe Russia's Ivan IV* is busy conquering Kazan and Astrakan. [He and Shakespeare* used the same two original Italian plays. contracting with Valladolid (the capital of Spain at the moment) to be the pageant master for the Farce Festival. the paso*.Over in Germany Hans Sachs* continues his busy career writing Tristan und Isolde*. S) but assume it is William Stevenson* who's a fellow there. Spanish theatre is often regarded as beginning with his career. 1552 . It is really very dreary but it's a beginning for the French. The college playwrights in England are beginning to get into the theatre business and the second full-length English comedy. Eventually the problem will crop up again and become the Thirty Years War*. Tobacco begins to move from the Americas to Spain. 1553 Things are not too stable in England as Edward VI* dies and Lady Jane Grey* is Queen for nine days. idiomatic prose. He writes mainly in natural.

Big trade in slaves between Africa and Mexico.) Unfortunately for them. Those Jesuits* are getting into the theatre business with a Jesuit play. In Russia Ivan IV* takes Astrakhan and opens the Volga trade route to the Caspian Sea. It is the first work dealing with acting* and a real landmark. 1556 Charles V* (Holy Roman Emperor*) retires to a Spanish monastery in Yuste and gives the Holy Roman Empire* to his brother Ferdinand I*. 1557 . but soon they will work up to a building of their own. Hans Sachs* (1494 . bright for most things and darkening when tragedy strikes.com . In the area of art Michelangelo* is sculpting the Pieta*.) 1555 . going in search of the legendary southern continent "Terra australis incognits" (as you can tell nobody's stumbled on Australia yet. At the beginning they use temporary stages. 1558 Finally. naturally) in theatrical design. one of their traders. abdicates his rights to his domains in the Netherlands. They will lay some useful foundations for the eventual German and Austrian theatre.The most famous German playwright. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. With a company of amateur actors he presents plays twice a week between twelfth night and Lent. acting.Back in Italy the Olympic Academy of Vicenza* is founded to study Greek drama. John Hawkins*' ships. sick of endless struggle. In England a printing monopoly is granted to the Stationer's company of London. They will keep on doing this trade stuff wherever they get a toehold. In India the Mongols return to Delhi and gradually take northern India (Bengal. In Mantua the second big name (Italian. This work deals with playwrighting. He is a shoemaker and a master singer who turned out 198 dramatic works. lighting. including The Wandering Scholar* and the Exorcist*. Elizabeth I* comes to the English throne and we enter the Elizabethan* period. Italy and Spain in favor of his son. 1557 State bankruptcy in Spain and France and a really bad influenza epidemic all over Europe. Philip II*. Leone di Somi* (15271592) is in charge of theatrical entertainment. They also send out trading ventures to Africa and the Orient. In England we have the first English play to be censored. costume and staging. Euripus*.with the death of Mary I*. Sack-Full of Newes*.pdffactory. are captured. In about 1556 he writes a marvelous treatise on production and staging called Four Dialogues Concerning Theatrical Performance*. This year he becomes the leader of the Nuremberg Mastersingers*.Charles V* (Holy Roman Emperor*).1576) rewrites the may play into a Shrovetide Schwank*. He is interested in setting the mood of scenes by how much light is used. The English establish the Muscovy Company to trade with Ivan IV* in Russia. by Lewis Brecht* in Vienna.

1559 .com .In the art world Brueghel* (Pieter the Elder. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) It is still a temporary thing. 1558 . 1560 By the 1560's only Italy. She is becoming more and more a political pawn. He will become an Earl later (1564) and then they will be under the name by which they are best known. now those in the Baltic States do the same thing. Tulips from the Near East arrive in Europe for the first time. having seen how much trouble religious controversy caused in England. and requires all able-bodied men not specifically permitted to engage in other trades to work the land. The forerunners of hand grenades are made for the first time. The Earl of Leicester's Men*. Remember that at this time England is an agrarian society with special emphasis on wool and textiles. Mary* Queen of Scots.pdffactory. In England Elizabeth I* is busy governing. Because of the English laws requiring actors to be under patronage. He will also father three generations of painters. In England there is the beginning of Puritanism* which will make things increasingly difficult for the theatre. The Church of Scotland (Presbyterian*) is founded and the reform parliament abolishes papal authority and forbids the celebration of mass.In England one the earliest organized continuing company of actors is founded. tries to go home. an Act of Uniformity setting out approved forms of worship (trying to balance the Catholics and the Puritans) with a new English prayer book and making church attendance compulsory. Mary* Queen of Scots. 1520-1569) is busy painting. they are organized as the players of Lord Robert Dudley. She puts out an Act of Supremacy making her the head of the Church. The first Calvinist* refugees from Flanders settle in England. Madrid becomes the capital of Spain. This affects traveling players who are "masterless" men. calls herself Queen of England.The modern innovation of the proscenium arch* shows up for the first time in a drawing made around this date by Bartolomeo Neroni* (c. 1561 Remember those Teutonic knights who became secularized in Prussia? Well. In France Francis II* dies and his widow. Things will go from bad to worse for her. Spain and Portugal are not affected by the rising tide of the Reformation* which is going hand in hand with rising nationalism and interest in local heritage. c. 1560 . ends hostilities with France and Scotland. but nobody much cares. 1500-1571. 1559 Francis II* ascends the throne of France and his wife.Elizabeth I*. forbids production of religious plays. She reforms the currency.

They use twenty-three triumphal chariots and 197 pageant wagons.In England the first surviving English historical tragedy Gorboduc* is written by a couple of students of the Inner Temple (Thomas Norton* 1532-84 and Thomas Sackville* 1536-1608. In his own time Lope* is referred to as the lion of Madrid.Born this year in Madrid. In the Low Countries the Chambers of Rhetoric* reach the peak of lavishness of their productions at a contest in Antwerp* lasting a month. This is the first work (written in Latin) to attempt to standardize literary form and content. His dialogue is in ingenious. In his own day he is clearly the most prominent playwright in Europe. and reflective of this culture. There is a posthumous publication of an influential critical work called Poetics* (just like everybody elses) by Julius Caesar Scaliger* (c. Sweden and Denmark. 1484-1558). The first great violin maker. Today he is not widely known except for his work The Sheep Well* which is often performed. The New Art of Writing Plays in This Age*.pdffactory. His critical work. the "Phenix of Spain" and men came from many other countries to see him and his work. There is plague in Paris. He will continue working to the age of seventy-three. however. Lope de Vega* 1562 .) By the time he returns he is becoming known as a dramatist and poet. Ivan IV* of Russia tries to take over Livonia and ends up at war with Poland. Taking time off from the theatre he also will go on the Expedition to the Azores (1583. is of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He claims to have written 1500 plays and between 400-500 are extant. nobles and peasants with their behavior governed by the four "humours". After traveling to Valencia. claiming to have written a four act play at the age of twelve.) CONTENT: Lope's* works involve the traditional content of the world of the Spanish catholic with its view of society as involving the king. carrying off and marrying the daughter of a former offical of Madrid he will join the Armada (see below. The first War of Religion* starts in France with the massacre of 1200 Huguenots in Vassy.1561 . Lithuania.) The play is performed before Elizabeth I* on New Year's Day. When he leaves the University he goes to work for a theatre manager in Madrid. they do not have the universality that Shakespeare*'s will reveal. He becomes a page for the Bishop of Carthagena and attends the University at Alcala de Henares. Because his writings are embedded in. Elizabeth I* is seriously ill with small pox. 1562 An interesting year. lyrical verse regarded as superb. the Thomist* systematic conceptions of Catholic moral theology and the highly stylized Spanish code of honour. is doing his thing in Italy. As usual it misinterprets Aristotle. He is a precocious child. At this event there are nine societies involved in the competition. In the New World the French try to colonize Florida and the slave business is picking up as John Hawkins* begins slave trade between Guinea and the West Indies. Lope de Vega* (1562-1635) is undoubtedly the most prolific playwright of all times. over and above the money allotted by the societies. It takes fifteen days to perform the plays and cost the city a bundle. It also influences generations of European playwrights.com . Gasparo Bertolotti*. Despite their cultural limitations some of his works are still popular today. He is referred to as the consolidator of the commercial theatre in Spain.

) In Italy we find the first mention of a public theatre building in Venice. It speaks for the majority of the playwrights and the public of this time.000 dead in England. He PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.In England two important playwrights are born: Christopher Marlowe* and William Shakespeare*. Social Problems 1563 The first War of Religion* ends but many more will follow. There is the beginning of a general outbreak of plague in Europe with over 20. The first printing press finally comes to Russia. the Confradia de la Sagrada Passion*. 1566 Mary* Queen of Scots gives birth to a son. which helps explain why we don't hear much about French theatre during this time. In India Babur*. Mary* Queen of Scots marries Henry (Lord Darnley) and rapidly becomes pregnant. rich. 1565 John Hawkins* not only takes slaves to the New World. the future James VI* of Scotland and. The Catholic Counter Reformation is busy in Bavaria. what with those trade routes to the East closed by the Turks and Spain. grants a charitable organization.s grandson. middle class. The term "Puritan*" is first used in England. Nostradamus dies and in the Netherlands there are Calvinist* riots. he also makes enormous cultural improvements. the privilege of coming up with a place to put on all comedias given in the city. James I of England. Things are getting economically less than glorious in Italy. More of these will show up but they don't have the innovative influence of the buildings the Academies will build.) 1565 . We might take a moment here to look at the work of this leader of the Ottoman Turks who brought the Ottoman Empire* to its height. Akbar* opens a house of worship where all faiths can argue and discuss (including the Portugese Jesuits. now the capital of Spain.Madrid.pdffactory. They come up with three squares (or corrales.great importance. he brings sweet potatoes and tobacco to England. Not only does he vastly enlarge the territory he started with. 1564 The Counter Reformation spreads to Poland. 1564 . Suleiman I* dies. He advocates writing to please the audience rather than following any classical guidelines. eventually.com . They are losing out on the "first in trade" race. They try to make up for it with an all out effort in the arts and learning business. Portugal and England doing all that New World business and tootling around Africa to the East. Venice is big on public theatre because it is not run by nobles and a monarch and has a strong.

medical and theological colleges. She abdicates in favor of her infant son.Those clever constructions for changing scenes. Suleiman I* develops and spreads a system of laws in civil and criminal codes with a uniform system of justice throughout the Empire. The Duke of Alba is sent in as military governor and begins a reign of terror.pdffactory.builds up the capital of Istanbul* with everything from enlarged aqueducts (for new fountains and baths) to a great complex of hospitals.000 die. courtyards and town squares. hostels. It includes 21 pageant wagons and 392 mythological figures in gorgeous costumes. 1569 . 1567 In the Netherlands nationalist and Protestant fervor combine in revolt against Catholic Spain. In Florence they have one of those elaborate processions (descended from the Roman triumph*) called trionfi*. are used in Florence.The first public theatre presentation takes place in Madrid. There are a lot of drawings of this one that still survive. 1569 In Lisbon (Portugal) there is an epidemic of carbuncular fever and 40. This one is called A Masque of the Genealogy of the Gods and is designed by Giorgio Vasari* (1511-1574). 1568 Mary* Queen of Scots flees Scotland to England. He is called the law giver. Writing thrives in history.com . In the New World Francis Drake* is sailing with John Hawkins* and the South American Indians are being decimated by typhoid fever. by Geroge Gascoigne* is presented before the English Court. 1566 . He has planned a canal to join the Volga and the Danube in order to check the Russian expansion under Ivan the Terrible* and to improve connections with the Uzbek Turks in central Asia and enable the Turkish fleet to reach the Caspian Sea and threaten Persia from the north. biography and poetry. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The political pawn is now going from bad to worse. schools. In northern England there is a rebellion (this happens frequently) but down in London they are having a public lottery. Titian* is still painting. This is not a good idea. geography. Lord Darnley dies and she is kidnapped by the Earl of Bothwell*. periaktoi*. In France the Protestants (Calvinists who will are called Huguenots) are fighting with the Catholics. Mary* Queen of Scots' husband. His play is taken from that popular 1509 play. People watch these processions from balconies. I suppositi*. This will continue for a long while. by Ariosto*. In Russia there are disastrous weather and harvests this year and next. public soup kitchens and gardens. 1568 . The Supposes*. Under his there is a blossoming of Ottoman architecture and decorative arts.The earliest English prose comedy. palace galleries.

The Russians finally prevent the Turks from building that canal and reach a peace between the Ottoman Empire* and Russia.A Flemish geographer. The Spanish take the Phillipines which finally gives them a foothold in the East. 1570 -By this date the English cycle plays are dead. Anne of Austria. 1571 The Turkish fleet is defeated by the Austrians in the Gulf of Patrus at Lepanto (Cervantes* fought at this battle and mentions it in his Don Quixote de la Mancha*. At this time England is having trade troubles because of the wars in Europe (especially the Spanish blockade at Antwerp) and the Spanish interference with English merchant vessels between the North Sea and the Straits of Gibraltar. This makes the English mad and they (especially Francis Drake*) set out to plunder Spanish ships in the Caribbean. The Dutch War of Independence (from the Hapsburgs*) begins. Russia now has severe plague. The kind of projection he uses for this map bears his name ever since. Titian* is still painting. The English Parliament demands the execution of Mary* Queen of Scots.com . 1572 The infamous St. Peasants who survive flee to the eastern frontier. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. comes out with his Cosmographia* and a map of the world for navigational use.000) of the Huguenots in France helps bring to an end the year-long fourth French War of Religion* and amnesty for the Huguenots. 1570 There is a lot of dynastic marrying going on making Hapsburg* alliances. Gerhardus Mercator*. This work. Only 70 people return for those ships of John Hawkins* that were captured by the Spanish. the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor*. they kill 2. is best known for establishing the notion of the "three Unities" and will influence playwrighting for centuries. while crude and inaccurate in its interpretation of Aristotle *. Lodovico Castelvetro* (1505-71) comes out with his demand (in his Poetica d'Aristotle*) that Aristotelian* principles be introduced into contemporary drama.) England has been losing money by selling their wool to the Low Countries (who are currently in considerable civil turmoil) where it is turned into finished cloth so they enact an Act of Parliament forbidding the export of wool from England. hoping to do their own cloth making. He needs all the friends and relatives he can get to protect his Empire because the aggressive Turks are busy sacking Nicosia and Cyprus and declaring war on Venice. Bartholomew's Day's Massacre* (August 24. Both women are daughters of Maximillian II*. and Philip II* of Spain (widower of Bloody Mary*) marries his fourth wife. Charles XI* of France marries Elizabeth. Because of this the English merchants start seriously looking west to the Americas.pdffactory.

Gradually the English system developed the hereditary nobility (where the title descends in the family line) into five levels of "peers": duke. There are two relevant parts. the upper house of the English parliament. There is also an awning for the rest of the patio. These are the "peers" who make up the hereditary House of Lords. One of the two most admired and imitated pastoral plays (we'll get the other one in a minute). the term peer dates from the Magna Carta when people were guaranteed the right to be tried by a jury of their "peers". (which is in London) has been used. called. The peerage is somewhat different in every country but only the English really affects the theatre. earl. They are free to seek employment wherever it's legal. in part. and baron. appropriately enough the Theatre*. The theatre is built at the insistence of a company of Italian players who use this playing space.The Spanish build a theatre in the Corral de la Pacheca* with a roof covering the stage and sides of the patio. as a storage place for costumes and properties for Court entertainments. This year the master of the choir boys at Windsor adapts part of the building as a theatre for the boys productions.Finally the first theatre to be built in England opens. marquess. 1576 If you remember the Spanish king. Philip II*.1572 . James Burbage* built it and the Leicester's Men* (later to be called Oxford's Men*) are playing there. just that they are organized under his patronage. it impresses all Europe. First. 1572 . 1574 . Ben Jonson* (1572-1637). The second is an out growth of the feudal system in which "peer" came to mean the tenant-in-chief who held his land directly from the crown. James Burbage* (c." (This didn't mean that the peer pays them. viscount. 1530-97) gets a licence to open a theatre in London but it will take him two years to get it built. There is State bankruptcy in Spain despite the fact that Spain gets one-fifth of all the Americas' silver and gold. All that rebellion among the Dutch leads the Spanish to sack Antwerp. This doesn't help its reputation as the most important international port. 1577 In England the Holinshed Chronicles* (a neat history that will help Shakespeare do his history plays) is published. Blackfriars*. One of those old monasteries appropriated by the crown. that is people of their own social station. 1573 Remember that Pastoral* play business? Well it peaks in popularity about now when an Italian named Toquato Tasso* comes out with Amita*.In England another famous playwright. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the Corral de Don Juan*.com . Let's take a moment here to clear up this English Peerage business.This year the matter of actors' patrons is further stiffened by requiring that the patron must be no lower in degree then a baron. is born. 1576 . 1575 There is an active theatre space in Spanish Seville.pdffactory. This means that any company of actors in England must be under the patronage of a "peer. inherited the Netherlands as well as Spain.

too. They dominate the Persian Gulf and the west coast of India (through Portugal) as well as the Americas and the Holy Roman Empire.Another corral is built in Seville. In the world of art El Greco* and Rubens* are painting. They will retain much of their colonial empire into the mess with Napoleon in the early nineteenth century.) This won't do her any good.A second theatre. 1579 . The French are occupied with the 7th War of Religion*. This year we have a guy called Stephen Gosson* writing The School of Abuse* 1580 Spain and Portugal become linked again (Philip II* inherits Portugal) and we see the first empire on which the sun never sets. The Ottoman Turks* have established diplomatic relations and granted commercial privileges to England because they both hate Spain. Spain invades Portugal.In France they are busy with the 6th War of Religion*. Francis Drake* leaves England on a voyage to South America and on into the Pacific and around the world. the number of professional actors also rises. 1579 Francis Drake* gets into the Pacific and up the west coast to claim New Albion (in California) for England.) 1577 . Meanwhile the Turks* are expanding in Georgia (Russia). There are people in England who are busy opposing theatres.Spain gets another permanent theatre this year. opens outside London. As the Protestant movement spreads we will hear more from them. dies before it's completion and Vincenzo Scamozzi* (1552-1616) finishes it up. this makes the Pope excommunicate Elizabeth I* and that gives Philip II* of Spain a good excuse to start plotting to replace her with Mary* Queen of Scots (remember she is descended from the sister of Elizabeth's father. the Teatro Olimpico*. There is an earthquake in London and Francis Drake* returns to England and a knighthood from his trip around the world.In Italy the Olympic Academy of Vicenza* starts building an influential theatre building. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Andrea Palladio* (1518-1580). It will be more useful for that new opera form than for the theatre. in the exploration business. It is the oldest surviving Renaissance theatre. Down in Italy a woman is born who will show up in theatrical tragedy later as a tragic heroine. With the increasing number of theatres in cities around Spain.pdffactory. It looks like a reconstruction of a Roman theatre except it is inside. Beatrice Cenci* (1577-99. These permanent theatre are additions to the use of the corrales. The Curtain*. a third. and later. Meanwhile the English subdue some rebellious Catholics in the north. Yemen and Morocco. 1578 .com . The architect. who designed it. And. 1580 . the Corral de la Cruz*.

We find some people making the change retroactively and others leaving old dates as they were. India and the Persian Gulf.) The Turks* are beating the Persians and still fighting Austria but their technological progress is declining and the Europeans are forging ahead. 1582 The English are eager to get an overseas empire too and they send expeditions to Mesopatamia.) The Gregorian calendar* is adopted by all the Christian nations except England and Russia.C. Christian and Moslem. (That means that the year 2000 will have its extra leap year day. this calendar reform really messes up the process of keeping records. The Russian Orthodox Church breaks from the Greek and no longer recognizes the authority of the Greek Patriarch. the Corral del Principe*. keep in mind that the dates you will find in various sources differ for a number of reasons.Spain gets still another permanent theatre this year. we have the differences brought about by the calendar changes. the French court is fascinated with this dance business.3000. So. In the Ottoman Empire* inflation is rife. 1581 . Third. 1583 The English set up a colony in New Foundland (Canada. These affect works dated in the last ten days of the year. We have tried to provide those dates that are generally agreed upon. These may now be dated as occurring in the following year. there are cases of inaccurate record keeping. In India Akbar* announces a new faith (Divine Faith) which is a synthesis of Hindu. busy studying and experimenting. First. Second. Keep these problem in mind when you find date discrepancies. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) 1581 In Italy there is an exceptional man of science. there are the obvious differences between when a play is written.com . but it doesn't fly. However. 1582 . Galileo Galilei (1564-1642).pdffactory. The Ballet Comique de la Reyne* is performed at court and somebody named Coroso* writes a treatise on dance technique.) has resulted in a noticeable difference between what the calendar says and the solar year. To fix this the Pope Gregory XIII* orders a calendar reform which cuts ten days out of the present year (October 5 becomes October 15) and provides that there will be no leap year day added to years divisible by 100 except those divisible by 400.In England we have what will later be known as the last performance of a miracle play (in Coventry*. The error in this calendar won't really bother us until we have accumulated a full day by the year 3. In England Geroge Peele* writes a pastoral play and Shakespeare* gets married to Anne Hathaway. typographical errors and mistakes. when it is performed first and when it is published for the first time. Il Ballerino*. England won't adopt it until 1752 and Russia holds out until 1918. 1582 Calendar Reform The Julian* calendar (put in effect by Julius Caesar* in 46 B.Despite those religious wars.

1584 . better known as just Cervantes*.000 and 18.In Spain this is the year when Lope de Vega* (1562-1635) begins to write for the stage. De Vega made a big splash in everthing he did and he did just about everything. gets sent around the country to pick a company for her majesty. providing us with a vivid picture of the theatrical world of his time. especially Leicester's Men*. finds Virginia and annexes it for England. The members are drawn from a number of currently successful troupes.there is an interior state of anarchy. 1584 Russian colonists defeat the Tartar tribes and take over much of Siberia. comedias.000) and that this number includes 483 comedias*. In this he writes at some length about periaktoi* and how you can make them with from two to six sides. The full-length plays. Of these plays only eight comedias and eight extremes survive. and entremeses*. Boris Godunov* (c. Fortunately he also wrote at length about the plays. Fyodor gives most of his powers to his brotherin-law.This year Miguel de Cervantes* Saavedra (1547-1616).com . The rest are autos*. corruption is widespread and able leaders have disappeared. He will participate as a military man in the upcoming Spanish Armada *.Capa y espada*. Perhaps this last profession clashes most with his best known quality of being constantly involved in love affairs. Lyly writes exclusively for court tastes and his plays are performed by Boy's Companies* (we'll go into this a little later. a pastoral. The Englishman. He claims he wrote an unbelievable number of plays (between 15. 1554-1606) puts on his Campaspe*. Ivan IV*. We talked about the content of his plays in the introduction and we will look at his best known play later when it appears but this is a good time to consider the man. He is far and away the most popular Spanish writer for the stage. Sir Walter Raleigh* (he spelled it Ralegh). in 1614. participate in a number of businesses and.In England the Queen's Company* (Queen Elizabeth's Men) of players is formed in London when the Master of Revels*.) 1585 . work as secretary to a nobleman.At the Blackfriars* theatre in London John Lyly* (c. which may be an understatement. or the cape and sword. dies and his son. Another prompt book is available from the Mystery Cycle production at Lucerne*. dealing with men of minor nobility - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Edmund Tilney*. He is probably the best known Spanish writer today. come in two major kinds: 1. We will find Boris turning up as the subject of Russian theatre and opera. 16045 Part I) than for his thirty plays. 1583 . The Two Roles of Perspective Practice*. begins writing plays. become a priest.pdffactory. more for his novels (especially Don Quixote de la Mancha*. He is usually described as flamboyant. productions and playwrights of his time in Spain. better known as Ivan the Terrible. nor is he an actor. France. Unlike most of the Spanish playwrights he is not primarily a company manager. 1551-1605). 1584 . In Italy Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola* (1507-1573) comes out with another one of those useful publications.

2. Philip II* of Spain decides to work on invading England. Tirso de Molina* (c. He also dramatizes parts of Don Quixote* by Cervantes*. This year also brings official licensing of women on the stage in Spain.a government worker born in Mexico who writes about thirty plays. Edward Allyen* (1566-1626) becomes head of the Lord Chamberlain's Men* who are currently touring with the Lord Admiral's Men*. These will gradually grow into short farces (by 1650. These full-length plays are introduced with a prologue (loa*) and between the acts the entremeses* (interludes*) are performed. Las Mocedades del Cid* or The Youthful Adventures of the Cid which will provide the basis for the great French playwright.a friar who writes about 400 plays (we have about 80 now) before the Council of Castile makes him give it up (in 1625. 1587 Mary* Queen of Scots is finally executed. Corneille*'s play. at Vincenza. saints. These interludes are short sketches.legendary plays referred to as teatro. He does more with characterization and moral sentiment than his contemporaries. 1584-1648) . We no longer hear much about them but the best known are: Guillen de Castro y Bellvis* (1569-1631) . usually topical and may indlude songs.com . Other Current Spanish Playwrights Lope de Vega* is not writing in isolation and many of his comtemporaries are very well known at this time. 1581-1639) .) He is best known now for El Burlador de Sevilla* (The Trickster of Seville) which provides the first theatrical work of the Don Juan* story. What with all those problems in Antwerp. Juan Ruiz de Alarcon* (c.pdffactory. mythological or noble characters doing things in far away places and times. 1586 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) The prologues varied from simple monologues (like the English versions) to short dramatic sketches.This year marks the beginning of Kabuki* theatre in Japan but nobody in Europe knows it. He is a lot picker about the quality of his plays which deal mostly with court life in Madrid. 1585 In this conflict between Spain and the Netherlands Elizabeth I* takes the Netherlands under her protection. the Teatro Olimpico* finally opens with a production of Oedipus Rex* designed by Angelo Ingegneri*.a friend of de Vega and best known for his play. they loose their international importance to the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam. William Shakespeare* (1564-1616) leaves his home in Stratford* headed for London theatre. In England the famous actor. In Italy. Le Cid*. ruido (noise) or cuepro (corpse) acording to the primary subject matter concerning rulers. There is enough information preserved about this production to recreate it today.

com . What with greater maneuverability and bigger guns. Scotland and Ireland. A boost in national pride and economy is also a boost for the English theatre. 1588 The Spanish Armada* . The Spanish try to sail around the British Isles through the North Sea. running into storms and wrecking on the various coasts of Norway. They limp home having lost 63 ships to England's none. The Spanish have had enough of English interference and opposition what with that support of the rebel Dutch. the English drive them into a spot where they can send fire ships among them. but the English theatre really begins to take off.This is the turning point for relations between England and Spain. Spanish prestige and power are damaged beyond repair and Spain never recovers. For this reason we will move to England. Keep in mind that the last great Spanish Renaissance playwright hasn't even bee born yet (Pedro Calderon* de la Barca (1600-81). better known as Calderon*. The English send a colonizing group to Virginia (remember Jamestown?) but it vanishes so they look to Ireland for room to colonize. This leads to a chase in which all of the Spanish ships are damaged. opposing the Counter Reformation and generally being a thorn in their side.) After several setbacks the Spanish Armada* gets under way in July with some 131 big ships and many small ones.There are Portuguese missionaries throughout Japan. The Spanish decide to invade England with an army from the Netherlands and the Spanish fleet from Cadiz (which Francis Drake* made a terrific dent in the year before. ******************************* Afterword With the defeat of the Spanish Armada.pdffactory.) next Chap9 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER NINE The English Renaissance 1588-1629 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The remaining Spanish theatre will appear chronologically as it happens. From Plymouth the English spot the Spanish coming through the English Channel and the 80 ships of the English fleet sail out to meet them. The Spanish theatre continues to blossom. From here on out the English are upwardly mobile in the international power game.* the English firmly take their place in the Renaissance. excursions and colonial aspirations in the New World.

Windsor. been moving in this direction all along. Since they were always expected to entertain the court and did not need to be commercially successful. not all choir boys were also actors. and.] Background for English Theatre FOLK DRAMA The general background lies in centuries of folk drama which include the May Game (Robin of the Wood. The actual participants in these Boy's Companies were drawn from the schools and choirs.Continues The Golden Age of Theatre Introduction With the defeat of the Spanish Armada England is ready to move fully into the Renaissance. English theatre has more diverse roots. This catastrophe does not occur for a while yet. where "knots" means a bunch of flowers). When England began producing Miracle* plays the boys were given more acting activities. but now we will now try to bring English theatre into focus. and St. They have. Morris Dances (sexy encounters). George's Chapel*.).pdffactory. As the Elizabethan* period progresses patrons take on companies of boys and the number expands beyond those associated with the great cathedral schools. George and the Dragon which was played as late as 1863). the religious drama and various European theatrical efforts.com . Chapel Royal*. Sword Dances (which embodied the conflict of winter and spring). etc. In addition to the classical literary heritage of Greece and Rome. but it certainly affects the records available for this period. Their success is due to various Masters who expanded the activities of their groups. These Boy's Companies* grew out of song and grammar schools attached to various cathedrals. Paul's*. Another background is the civil pageantry found all over but especially in London.) BOY'S COMPANIES* Entertainment for the court and the upper classes has been provided for centuries by the companies of choirboys of the major churches: St. [There is a certain problem in establishing accurate dates and references since there will be frequent recurrences of the plague (the Bubonic plague. The worst plague year (1665) is followed by the fire (1666). these companies had an edge over the rising professional adult companies. Song Dances (Here We Come Gathering Knots. These roots are supplemented by the Renaissance learning evident in the early amateur playwrights of the universities and Inns of Court (lawyers and law students. the English also have a strong theatrical heritage from their folk drama. that is. While the Spanish theatre comes out of the coherent world of the Spanish catholic. of the type that caused the medieval "Black Death") and an extensive fire which burns much of London and most of the theatrical records. of course. ADULT COMPANIES The professional companies of adult actors are under the patronage of peers and are known by their titles (as in the Lord Chamberlain's Men) so it becomes very confusing when the actual PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Mummers (which include historical-mythical enactments such as St.

impersonators and story-tellers. 1591. They did a little bit of everything.com . five men in particular influence the great dramatists who will follow. especially The Troublesome Reign of King John* (c. prolific and fluent. Soon the rewards available to University writers from the theatre tempt more authors to try their luck at playwriting. Robert Greene* (c. 1589). 1591) and Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay* (c. As early as 1482 at least two peers* have recorded troupes (Richard. Both as an author of how to do it (Euphues*) and by the example of his plays he pushes balance and clarity in the use of dialogue. Thomas Lodge* (1567-1601) is mainly a collaborator on plays except for his own The Wounds of Civil War* (c. The Taming of A Shrew* (c. having professional acting companies doesn't do much good without really good plays. these University writers are: John Lyly* (c. he is versatile. a dramatist. George Peele* (1558-1596) is also a versatile and prolific playwright and collaborator in at least seventeen plays and numerous entertainments. strongly affecting Shakespeare. INTERLUDERS As the Medieval period blends into the Renaissance the main adult professional acting groups are performing Interludes*. SCHOLAR DRAMATISTS When the Italian research and publications reach the attention of the English academics they start coming out with new kinds of plays. Here we are mainly concerned with those major companies whose actors and playwrights dominate this period. Best known for George s Greene* (c. These actors are descendants of the minstrels of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. With the rise of the printing press their employment as story-tellers began to decline and the impersonator. He helps write (with Greene and Lodge) early versions of plays that will later be developed by Shakespeare. for example) by law students.) This business of having a patron is necessary because there are a bunch of legal problems in being a "masterless" man. he wrote (or co-wrote) about fourteen plays ranging from comedy to pomp. More popular are the Chronicle Plays* that come throughout the second half of the sixteenth century. 1589). Duke of Gloucester and the Earl of Essex. However. which brings us to the next component. 1560-92). 1588) based on Roman sources and pointing out English parallels. or actor. Orlando Furioso* (c. they were singers and instrumentalists. King Leir* (c. 1588). As we mentioned in passing the comedies Ralph Roister Doister* by Nicholas Udall* and Gammer Gurton's Needle* were written and performed in schools in the 1550's. These were followed by attempts at tragedy (Gorboduc*. novelist and pamphleteer. 1553-1606) authors seven plays and a number of semi-dramatic court entertainments during the height of Elizabeth's* reign.pdffactory. but that wasn't very popular.) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and The True Tragedy of Richard III* (c.people who hold the titles change. jugglers and conjurers. part becomes more relevant. acrobats. carnage and hell-fire revivalism. These guys had become a powerful trade union keeping free-lancers out. 1590). 1590). It is out of this talent pool that the early acting companies are formed. Coming out of Cambridge and Oxford. poet.

Another location in town.pdffactory. the English are more democratic. and sensitive to the right-wing moral objections of the Protestants. Christopher Marlowe* (1564-93) is a man of outspoken opinions and an avowed atheist. PERFORMANCE SPACES Prior to the construction of the first theatre building (the Theatre* in 1576. the Cross Keys* and the Bel Savage*. at least in the sense that the sovereign does not have complete control. it is used for performances in the seventeenth century. The Master of Revels* soon (in 1581) comes to be the official Censor of Plays. This grows to include storage and maintenance of costumes and properties as well as employment and supplies for the production of specific entertainment events. the Master of Revels* has been in charge of all pageantry and entertainment for the ruler. the Red Bull*. The civic authorities in London are basically conservative. Detailed accounts are kept and these records provide a wealth of information about theatre in England. Educated at Cambridge. As we get to the practitioners (Ben Jonson* and Inigo Jones*) who make it into an art. Unlike the Italian and Spanish forms of government. the Bell Yard*. granting part of his authority to the Barons of England.) plays were performed in public inn-yards and private halls. During his short career he launches English tragedy. Marlowe* may have seen military service in the Netherlands." Whether this is also an inn is unclear. [The Boar's Head* may also have been an inn or it may have been a playhouse in Whitechapel outside the city. they are intolerant of play-acting and other entertainments and unlikely to PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. we will discuss it at greater length. with music.com . Ever since King John* was forced to sign the Magna Carta*. This means that all scripts must be submitted to him (for a fee) for his approval before the play can be performed anywhere in England.] Obviously these temporary quarters are inadequate for regular use but they have the advantage of being in the city. MASQUES* By the time we reach the reign of Elizabeth I* the court fun and games of Mumming and Disguising have become the Masque*. may have been a government spy and died in a tavern brawl. The city of London has its own very strong power base in historical precedent and in the merchantile power of the major port and trade center of the island. The main emphasis is upon the scenic effects and costumes. it is often accompanied by an ante-masque* (or anti-masque) done by professionals. Inns in London which frequently have their yards converted for performing plays include the Red Lion*. certainly traveled abroad. The nobility and especially the city of London have extensive powers. the Bull*. Essentially produced for a particular occasion and performed by amateurs. becomes known as a "drama house. there have been various power centers.Thomas Nashe* (1567-1601) is mainly a battling journalist but collaborates with Marlowe* on two of his four plays as well as writing poems. dance and recitation. The censorship powers are part of the Crown's response to Puritan* objections and an effort to protect actors as well. MASTER OF REVELS* Since Henry VIII* established a permanent office in 1545. satires and pamphlets.

The best known playhouse. With wider use of the printing press historical writings proliferate and become available to dramatists." The final step in English theatre buildings is seen in the various attempts to provide a playhouse with a roof. Salisbury Court* (1629) houses both boys and adult companies and the Cockpit* (or Phoenix*) (1616) which is adapted as a playhouse. two (the Rose* in 1588 and the Swan* in 1596) go up on the south bank of the Thames. The Masters of Boy's Companies* are the first to achieve an indoor theatre by leasing two floors at Blackfriars* (another one-time monastary) and turning the upper floor into a "Private House" for performances.) Plays in this category often have trouble with the censor since they lend themselves to political bias and activism. characters and language. Next comes a private theatre at Whitefriars* (1608) used by boy's companies. some too far out to be successful. These playhouses are. These. is constructed from the timbers of Theatre* in 1599. Others follow. like the Spanish corrales. wrecked and restored (hence the Phoenix* name) seems to be used exclusively by adult companies. confiscated by Henry VIII* when he broke with the Catholic Church. Historical proper picks up on known historical figures and events. even though." which are beyond the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor of London. comprise the playhouses that will provide the main locations for the Golden Age of English theatre. outside the gates. The Chronicle Play* . 1550) as well as European historical events (such as Tamburlaine*. and his sons inherit the first professional indoor theatre in England. London still has the feudal city walls and gates at this time. the plays of the Spanish and particularly the English Renaissance show a wider range. Two of the major sources for English plots. they are within the City walls. are crown lands and beyond the jurisdiction of the City of London. This is hardly necessary since the whole area of Blackfriars is a "liberty" within the city and the Lord Mayor has no authority there.pdffactory. These include plays like Gorboduc*.involves historical (or pseudo-historical) events. Sources Of English Playwrighting While Greek and Latin plays were set in either comedy or tragedy forms which dictated plot. Plays in this category fall into four broad groups: Historical-legendary deals with English doings before accurate histories were being written.com . In the same year land is leased for the Fortune*. The former church lands. is on land that had been a Benedictine priory north of Bishops-gate entrance into the city. geographically. characters and form come from The Chronicle Play* and the The Broadsheet Drama*. (to us) the Globe*. then dies.) Outside the city gates is an area referred to as the "Liberties. It remains in use by various companies (and with some oppression from the city) as a "private" theatre until the general closing of theatres in 1642. These include a number of early plays dealing with rulers of England that will provide raw material for Shakespeare* (such as King Johan* by Bishop Bale. Later the Hope* (1614) goes up the year after the Globe is accidently burned. c.approve the construction of playhouses inside the city's walls (yes. then. James Burbage* acquires a lease for another part of Blackfriars*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. without roofs for the audience in the "pit. The Misfortunes of Arthur* and The History of King Leir and His Three Daughters* (c. The following year (1577) a second playhouse (the Curtain*) opens close by the first. The location of the Theatre*. 1590).

The Broadsheet Drama* . any agreeable emotion that does not obviously come direct from God is evil. 1606) and A Warning for Fair Women* (c. The plays make use of famous scandals and crimes and usually are murder plays. We can see this in the early publications of Shakespeare*'s plays in the Quarto* form (this refers to the size of the page used. These tend to come slightly later than the historical proper plays and allow the dramatist to explore a particular character rather than centering on a range of events.com . tales of magicians and other folk characters. 1591). These show up after the use of broadsheets printed and distributed to spread local news. In many ways these plays are suprisingly similar to their soap opera descendents current today.) By and large a play is not regarded as literature and the last thing a company wants is to have one of their plays printed because then it would be available for the use of other producers. Puritans object to governmental expenditures (which they fund in the taxes they pay) for the "charms of Satan. This is the case for Shakespeare* and other successful playwrights of this period. A Yorkshire Tragedy* (c. This puts the theatre PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. George.pdffactory. At This Point In English Theatre PURITANISM AND THE THEATRE The theatre had been under growing attack from the more militant elements of the religious Reformation who come to be known as Puritans. Playwrights sell their plays to performing companies which then "own" the production rights as long as they can hang on to them.Biographical plays also come under special scrutiny from the censor if they deal with people of political significance. Popular legendary goes back to early folk drama (such as the mummers and their St. The actor who can fix up an old play is in big demand when he is on salary or a share owner of the company. The best examples of the type are the anonymous Arden of Feversham* (c. and in eighths for an octavo.) Cooperative Playwrighting At this point in history we need to be reminded that there is no such thing as copyright and plagiarism is the done thing.) This category includes Robin Hood dramas. Play-doctoring usually pays more than simply writing a play and selling it to a company. (Unlike the Spanish playwrights who can make a good living writing a lot and selling the results to religious as well as secular production groups.) For example the First Quarto of Hamlet* is two thousand lines long while the Second Quarto is nearly four thousand. The problem is further complicated by the matter of money. The City (of London) and the Privy Council finds it useful to let the theatre take the heat. a lot of pirating goes on and garbled versions of plays that are performed do get into print. Everybody who writes plays (as well as other forms of writing) makes use of anything and everything available. The main controversy is between the religious elements that object to what they perceive as the temptations of the Devil (all the arts) and the Court's desire for entertainment and international status as patron of the arts. 1599. They usually have only one copy of the plays (the prompt copy in the hands of the book-keeper) with a few scrolls for the players.tends to be tragic dramas of domestic and popular events. in fourths for a quarto." For the Puritans. With a popular play (such as this) the company may publish the work themselves after pirated editions have already appeared. they take a sheet of paper and fold it in two for a folio. However.

especially in units of five (iambic pentameter). events go on EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION BY THE ENGLISH Ever since the Eastern trade routes were cut by the Turks all European powers have been scrambling for ways to reach those spices and other goodies in China. Tamburlaine* the Great. This is not. The style will come to be known as the Elizabethan tragedy of blood. Both these Iberian countries [that peninsula sticking out of Europe into the Atlantic is called the Iberian peninsula] have the state finance their explorers and colonists. which are met.com . The Portuguese are busy with their way around Africa. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Meanwhile. Kyd* is the dominant theatrical influence for the great playwrights currently rising in the theatre. It is a stunning success and the first great part for that up and coming actor. It is a knock-out success and is revived off and on for over fifty years. Part I (Part II will show up in a year or so) by Christopher Marlowe.in the position of being a tool of the Devil. Hardly anything is known about Kyd* and. We'll hear a good deal more about him later. ghosts and passionate blank verse. The other event of importance to the English stage is that Inigo Jones* (1573-1652) starts studying to be an architect. Once the Spanish Armada is defeated the English will embark on exploration and colonization with a zeal and determination unmatched by their competitors. only one other is positively known to be his (Pompey the Great also known as Cornelia*. blood. from time to time.) Next we find the first great play of the English Renaissance. 1587 .] Marlowe* is twentythree and out to sweep "trumpery" from the tragic stage. When a playwright emerges who gives voice to this use of language a surge of great playwrighting follows. This particular moment when a language develops a dramatic voice of its own seems to occur in every country at some definite time in its development.pdffactory. His major weapon is the mighty iambic line [the poetic unaccented. although he may have written a number of other plays. As the currently most democratic country in the world. There is little doubt that Shakespeare* (as well as all other English tragic playwrights) is influenced by productions of Marlowe*'s plays. by "defenses" and "apologies" from main-stream playwrights. We will see this in other countries. 1594.] This play reveals the English poetic drama in an integrated form with the full assimilation of the Senecan metrical form into what has come to be called the "mighty line. the English way.The first company of English players abroad shows up touring in Germany. accented "foot" which best suits the English language. Japan and India." This production has the advantage of being produced by the Admiral's Men* with Edward Allyen* in the title role. From 1577 on there are increasing verbal attacks in print and even on the stage. the English prefer private enterprise (where they can keep the profits) to government finance (where the people still have to pay the costs but state keeps the profits) for such activities. * [Note: the most recent revival of this play was in 1976. Back in England we find The Spanish Tragedy* by Thomas Kyd* (c. This play starts the theatrical ball rolling. Edward Allyen*. full of revenge. Political Puritanism continues to work against the theatre until it finally succeeds in the Civil War. followed closely by the Spanish finding their way around South America. 1588-94). however.

Giulio Parigi* (1570-1635). The third force is more private. These plantations.) This particular spectacular is in celebration of a marriage and runs for a solid month including an elaborate water procession (naumachia*) on the Arno River. (He does this job for almost sixty years. but encouraged by the government.) The first force is the need for a passage to those Eastern markets. 1589 . 1589 Galileo* is now a professor of mathematics at Pisa. at Sabbionetta*. Remember that England is now officially Anglican. A lot of English criticism appears about now.* the talented architect and supervisor of entertainments. Inigo Jones*. England is home to a rising tide of Puritans* who want to purify the Anglican Church rituals and accouterments. will become richly productive sources of various raw materials needed back home. The first Bourbon* king of France. Faustus*. the guy who finished the Teatro Olimpico. This distresses the remaining Catholics. The Jew of Malta*. comes to the throne. Then there is the spread and proliferation of various Protestant sects. (The French will also find this a viable thing to do). how to do all this stuff. This indoor show has a ship with twenty sailors and a guy in the crow's nest singing songs while the dolphins dance below. Bernardo Buontalenti* (1536-1608) is doing his finest work. lots of comedies and intermezzi.In Florence under the de'Medici. will teach the Englishman. the English (and the French) are looking for a Northwest Passage around or through that still undefined North American land. it is hoped. Since those Iberians have the current monopoly on the African and South American routes.com . One of the indoor spectacles imitates the ones on real water and has such things as a mythological figure moving through the fake waves on a shell with dolphins and Tritons. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Later Buontalenti's pupil. 1588-1590 . (the exact dates of when they were written is a little fuzzy) The Tragical History of Dr. Despite all that religious warfare in France we hear about some French provincial troupes touring. We will go into this religious stuff a little later in more detail. These plays also continue to be produced until the theatres are closed in 1642. The second force at work is the belief that Britain is overcrowded and needs "plantations" or colonies in which to put the surplus poor population. Henry IV*. In Italy. and Edward II*.pdffactory. Vincenzo Scamozzi* (1552-1616) builds a small theatre that will set the style for the main developmental line of buildings for play production.Christopher Marlowe* comes out with more stunning successes. This concerns the religious diversity spreading throughout Britain and causing social and political unrest. The State Church would much rather send these religious dissenters off somewhere than deal with them at home.Three forces will drive this activity (two of them powered by the desire for lots of money.

This changes the name of the theatrical troupe. Will Kemp* the comedian. Most of the best actors (Allyen*.pdffactory. and leads. In the first two or three years of the '90's it's likely that Shakespeare* is acting with them. We might take a moment here to get an overview of theatre at this point in time. There are several important major theatre companies and a number of minor ones. Kasmir) and makes the Hindu Kush (that huge mountain range) the frontier between his Indian empire and territory of the other Mongols.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the tragic actor) and Shakespeare* put together a new company with Lord Hunsdon as their patron. The Italian Commedia dell'Arte* company.] Consequently following the career of a particular actor or playwright is a little like playing leap-frog. [Remember in 1583 we had the Queen's Company* (Queen Elizabeth's Men) formed in London with members drawn from a number of currently successful troupes. is blooming and Puritans* (who are strictly anti-art) object. by Giambattista Guarini*. There is population overcrowding and the gulf between rich and poor widens.This was the most famous troupe in the 1580's with playwright Christopher Marlowe* and the exceptional actor Edward Allyen*.In Italy we get to that second really popular Pastoral* play. on the other hand. eventually. In India Akbar* takes more territory (Sind.this is a year of disastrous harvests. Remember that they have to have the patronage of a peer and are usually known by that patron's title. 1590 . THE LORD CHAMBERLAIN'S MEN* . or he may be given another title or be referred to by his position with the government. In Ireland resistance has been growing in reaction to English colonization there and this year the Irish revolt under Hugh O'Neil*. [There had been earlier troupes under this name but those had been under the patronage of other men who held the post. art. There are three companies worth remembering at this time: THE LORD ADMIRAL'S MEN* . All this increases the number and kind of laws enacted to fund workhouses. the Earl of Tyrone. cope with paupers and vagrants. Baluchistan. begins activities. As we move into the 1590's this company is still the most popular because of superstar actor Allyen*. In Portugal theatres are closed frequently. Kandahar. This is a new troupe and the most famous one using this name. The Faithful Shepherd*.When the plague interrupts the London season in 1592 they tour and in 1593 a number of the peers (including the Admiral) die and troupes break up and reorganize under other patronage.1590 In England . but we will try to make it as clear as possible. Since he holds the governmental post of Lord Chamberlain they are called the Lord Chamberlain's Men*. First are the names they go by. to plans to establish colonies in the New World. I Accesi*.1590'S In England the Golden Age of Theatre is up and running. Richard Burbage*. especially Leicester's Men. Adult Companies . Food prices keep rising and the ranks of the poor are swelled by the unemployed. Two things are confusing for us about the companies.com . Of course the guy holding the title may die and somebody else inherits. [Remember back in 1576 we mentioned the Leicester's Men* later to be called Oxford's Men*?] The second confusing aspect is that the major playwrights and actors move from one company to another.

costumes and wherewithal for a particular production. in building the Fortune*.] George Chapman* (c. In 1599 the Theatre will be torn down and the timbers used to build the Globe*. Many are the only surviving copies of plays that had never been printed. As we will see.THE EARL OF OXFORD'S MEN* . in the winter. OTHER RELEVANT PLAYWRIGHTS OF THIS PERIOD [NOTE. He will own not only the current Rose*.some 60 manuscripts of plays of this period eventually come into the hands of a collector named John Warburton* (1682-1759). Ford and Massinger. Each shareholder receives a share of the profit the company makes. They're also well paid by the crown for these court performances. This provides the initial financial base for the company. called Henslowe*'s "diary. In the end only three survived. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. but in 1599 the Fortune*. Expenses include the usual range of scenery. rental of a theatre (if the company does not own their own). Betsy Baker*.com . hiring of salaried actors to supplement the company as needed and purchase of scripts if these are not written by a member of the company. private theatres or the inns inside the city. He writes tragedy and comedy but is best known for his translations of Homer* that will influence the Romantic poet Keats*. Henslowe* is even better known for the information he left us about English theatre.Another important company seems to have formed in 1589 under the fourth Earl of Worcester (there had been a company of the Earl of Worcester's Men* since 1555 but this is a new troupe. 1560-1634) playwright for the Admiral's Men* beginning 1596. Normally the company has shares which are bought by members of the company. Unfortunately Warburton* was careless with them and his servant. the Hope*. James Burbage* (who's son is the actor Richard Burbage*) is one of the most prominent owners. The other owner of importance is Philip Henslowe* (?-1616) who is not an actor but a real impresario. Sometimes the comedians tour on their own with solo acts. When the plague or religious or political controversy forces theatres to close. He apparently kept his actors and playwrights in his debt in order to keep them working in his theatres. Performances of the leading companies are regularly requested for the court and performed there. The theatres these companies play in have been discussed earlier but at this time we might take note of who owns what. HOW COMPANIES ARE STRUCTURED Companies work under patronage but that merely provides the legal umbrella for their professional activities.) They will merge with the Earl of Oxford's Men* (there was a troupe under this name as early as 1492 but they mostly toured the country) in 1602. made use of them to light her stove and line the bottom of pies." give us good insights into the theatrical world of this time. If you remember. there are times when a particular company will get into political hot water for putting on a play that seems too much like a political jab at current affairs. His account and memoranda books. the companies go on tour with those members who wish to do so. and later in 1614. The surviving plays are the work of Dekker. This is not good and leads to instability in his company.pdffactory. He built the Theatre* in 1576 and bought Blackfriars*. He is at his best in a joint venture with Allyen* (who married his stepdaughter in 1592). Normally the companies play in the public theatres surrounding London and. One of the most valuable assets a company has is the range of scripts they own.

1605) is a good example. a play filled with incest.Thomas Dekker* (c. III*. He writes at least 36 plays.His career is documented beginning with this date so it may be useful to take a moment to outline his life and work. A Trick to Catch the Old One* (c.1575-1625) is known for his revenge tragedies.com . 1592 Henry VI Part I*. John Ford* (1586-1639) will begin his career in around 1612 and be best remembered for 'Tis Pity She's a Whore* (1627). He is best known for two bloody revenge tragedies. During his life 16 are printed (in quarto form). The White Devil* (1612) and The Duchess of Malfi* (1611614). The Knight of the Burning Pestle* in 1607 and a tragedy. John Webster* (c.1576-1634 writes exclusively for the Children of St. After his death. Two Gentlemen of Verona*. William Shakespeare* -(1564-1616) 1591 . counting collaborations. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He works some with Fletcher* and his A New Way to Pay Old Debts* (1625) is one of the best of his plays to survive Betsy's depredations. He joins Dekker* in the Battle of the Poets* attacking Ben Jonson*'s writings in a satire. Beaumont* and Fletcher* will be best remembered for their comedy. Philip Massinger* (1583-1639) doesn't appear in theatre until 1619. The Comedy of Errors*.) Thomas Middleton* (c. This year (or the following one) we hear of him as a well established actor and dramatist. Fletcher also collaborates with Shakespeare*. A prolific writer of about 220 plays. blinding. Thomas Heywood* (c. apparently pirated and without his permission. Satyromastix*. 1593 Richard III*. Generally speaking they seem to go like this: 1591 Henry VI Parts II. He will later move to Queen Anne's Men*. 1610. The Maid's Tragedy* (c. burning and other assorted forms of mayhem dear to the hearts of the playgoing public. blood. Paul's* and the Queens Revels*. John Fletcher* (1579-1625) joins Francis Beaumont* (1584-1616) in 1606 to form a writing team that is prodigious and enduring. Cyril Tourneur* (c.pdffactory. his acting company (now called the King's Men*) puts out all 36 in folio form.1580-1627) writes comedies which are as good as his contemporaries. Because of the lack of information from the published versions the exact dates of the first performance of each play are uncertain. in 1601. Love's Labour's Lost*. in 1623. 1575-1635?) by 1602 he is writing for Worcester's Men* and later collaborating with almost everybody. 1573-1641 is an actor and playwright for the Admiral's Men* in 1599. 1572-1632) is known especially for the comedy The Shoemaker's Holiday* 1599 and his collaborations in The Honest Whore* (1604-5) and Witch of Edmonton* in 1621. John Marston* (c.

1595 Romeo and Juliet*. 1 and 2*. 1599 Henry V*. 1602 Troilus and Cressida*. Othello*. 1592 . Shakespeare* is doing Henry VI Part I*. 1592-93 The plague is pretty bad in London (15. 1607 Antony and Cleopatra*. 1610 A Winter's Tale*. The Merchant of Venice*. 1600 Twelfth Night*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Taming of the Shrew*. 1598 Much Ado About Nothing*. 1593 . 1604 Measure For Measure*. 1605 King Lear*.com .1594 Titus Adronicus*.000 dead) and the theatres close so the players go off to tour the countryside.) By this time the English theatre is no longer dominated by the Universities. 1601 Hamlet*. The Comedy of Errors*. Shakespeare* is doing Richard III*. Timon of Athens*.The influence of Hroswitha* shows up in a movement that produces many morality plays. 1608 Pericles*. A Midsummer Night's Dream*.Christopher Marlowe* dies in a brawl in a tavern (possibly killed because of his secret service activities. Henry VIII* (both of these with Fletcher). Julius Caesar*. The Merry Wives of Windsor *. 1613 Two Noble Kinsmen*. 1597 Henry IV. 1609 Cymbeline*. Christian Terence.pdffactory. or Sacred Comedies*. 1611 The Tempest*. 1596 King John*. The title of a collection of such plays by Cornelius Schonaeus*published this year shows the trend. As You Like It*. Coriolanus*. 1606 Macbeth*. Two Gentlemen of Verona*. All's Well That End's Well*. Richard II*.

1597 Sir Francis Bacon* (1561-1626) publishes his first work.1594 .Sir Philip Sidney*'s critical work on theatre. One of the great philosophers of all time. [An effort of the previous year by Nashe* is regarded as one of the finest pieces of scurrilous abuse in the English language. They land on the English coast of Cornwall and burn Penzance and Mousehole. mutinous. The Merchant of Venice*. publish and hold governmental offices. is published posthumously. Another of those classical academies.com . It causes a terrific scandal (referred to as lewd. Henry IV*. 1594 The Vatican is giving people a hard time over that theory of the universe worked out by Copernicus*. the Camerata of Florence* is concerned with Greek music and how it relates to Greek drama. 1597 . seditious and slanderous. They try to create something similar to the ancient Greek tragedies and come up with Dafne* (text by Ottavio Rinuccini* and music by Jacopo Peri*) which turns out to be the beginning of opera. A Midsummer Night's Dream*. He will continue to write. Richard II*. They recite or chant the words to musical accompaniment. declares war on Spain.In Italy they are inventing opera*.pdffactory. Shakespeare* is doing Romeo and Juliet*. 1595 The French king. he will do best under the Stuarts. 1530-97) buys another part of that old ex-monastery where the boys troupe played (between 1576-84) and rebuilds it as the second Blackfriars theatre* to use in the winter. Shakespeare* is doing King John*. Later it will become the most popular dramatic form in Italy after the Commedia dell'Arte*. The Merry Wives of Windsor*. 1 and 2*. 1595 . This type stuff is only done in the academies and in the courts for the next forty years. 1597 . He doesn't get permission to open it. England finally bows to progress and abandons the bow as a weapon of war.) The Lord Mayor of London closes the playhouses and three of the company PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Spanish are still trying to do something massive to England. The Taming of the Shrew*. They perform at the Swan* and in July come out with a play called The Isle of Dogs*. It won't be used by adult companies until 1603. An Apologia for Poetry*. Civil and Moral. 1596 . Essays.James Burbage* (c. Francis Drake* sails to the Spanish Main (in the Americas) and up the Orinoco River in South America.Shakespeare* is doing Henry IV. Shakespeare* is doing Titus Adronicus*. The Dutch begin to colonize the East Indies.] The Isle of Dogs* is a satiric comedy written by Nashe and Ben Jonson* among others.In London a new company made up of some men from other major companies is formed under the Lord of Pembroke. This hasn't survived but apparently it's the last effort in a running battle among dramatists (since 1592) getting nastier as it progresses.

This unfortunate scandal puts a real crimp in all the other companies who are not involved. 1610 The Alchemist* excellent comedy 1611 Catiline His Conspiracy* an unsuccessful tragedy PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Claiming benefit of clergy (a plea writers used successfully all the time) he gets off with a clean slate and a branded thumb.com .Now is the time to consider the other major playwright of this period Ben Jonson*. but audiences want to be seen so this doesn't happen for quite a while. Pembroke's company disintegrates and Henslowe picks up the best players for his own company. He also pushes for darkening the auditorium. Angelo Ingegneri* who did the first show in the Teatro Olimpico.including Jonson* are sent to prison for a couple of weeks (this happens to Ben Jonson* several times) but Nashe* escapes. 1598 . Discourse on Representational Poetry and the Manner of Staging Plays*.(1572-1637) 1598 . The success of this play enables Jonson to become a free-lance playwright rather than stay on as a shareholder with one particular company. In El Paso (now Texas) they produce a comedia. et al in Satyromastix*. Although he may have acted earlier (by all reports his acting was poor) we hear this year of his first significant playwrighting effort Every Man in His Humour* which is given by the Chamberlain's Men* with whom he is currently associated. Dekker* . Shakespeare* is doing Much Ado About Nothing*.That Italian designer. the same fall he gets into a fight in which a man dies and he goes to prison again. Ben Jonson* . All the players who can go on tour do so until the theatres are permitted to open again in October. the Lord Admiral's Men*. 1601 The Poetaster* written in response to the writings of Marston*.pdffactory. at the Rose*. He is big on the importance of lighting and pushes the idea of a front light batten with reflectors to light the actors faces and a valence to conceal the light source from the audience. 1598 Every Man in His Humour* a satire 1599 Every Man Out of His Humour* a satire 1600-1 Cynthia's Revels* played by the Children at Blackfriars*. However. Among these is Ben Jonson*. 1603 Sejanus His Fall* a failure as a tragedy 1606 Volpone* his best comedy 1609 Epicaene* performed by the Children of the Queen's Revels* at Whitefriars*. comes out with an influential book. Even far from home in the New World the Spanish love theatre.

Baroque* 1600 . This leads to even more trouble for Spain. the Earl of Essex* to crush the rebels. It is applied to all artistic forms (music. In Italy a family of scenic designers named Bibiena* (or Bibbiena) make an international reputation over the next hundred years.About this time a new style called baroque* becomes popular starting in Italy. architecture and sculpture) and involves adding infinite decorative features. Thomas Dekker* does The Shoemaker's Holiday*.com . This is a grandiose.1614 Bartholomew Fair* excellent comedy 1616 The Devil is an Ass* a comparative failure and Jonson* leaves the theatre for some years although he keeps on as Court Poet*. In Spain there is a big controversy about actresses and the royal council declares that they can't appear on stage unless their husband or father is in the company. This baroque business will show up in theatre gradually over the next hundred years. He takes no interest in government and leaves all that work to various Dukes. However.pdffactory. richness and movement. His efforts meet with disaster and he runs for home.Shakespeare* is doing Henry V*. elaborate expression of princely power driven by the Church and Italian rulers. grandeur. 1629 The New Inn* 1631 The Magnetic Lady* 1633 The Tale of a Tub* (revised) 1598 In Spain Phillip III* (1578-1621) inherits the throne. writing. As You Like It* and Jonson* does Every Man Out of His Humour*. In Florence they finally get around to putting on an opera. The classical models they started with disappear under all these embellishments. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Professional productions and court masques (done by members of the court) are often done wherever the court is. 1599 . Julius Caesar*. He is also known for his extreme piety which doesn't do the public theatre much good. all those Spanish possessions and the problems of being a declining power. The trend is toward monumentality. 1599 Elizabeth I* tries to cope with the Irish problem and sends Robert Devereux. 1625 The Staple of News* marks Jonson*'s return to the stage but none of these later plays are as good as his early work. By 1600 in most of Europe (except Spain) religious drama has been abandoned. There is also a ruling that neither sex can appear in the dress of the other but nobody pays any attention to this. his queen is very fond of theatre and theatrical performances start to be given frequently at court.

is an actor in a traveling company.Shakespeare* is doing Troilus and Cressida*. to the large company of about sixteen who can perform fifty plays. His work. 1601 Earl of Essex* (who is coming home from that fiasco in Ireland) leads a revolt. He gets appointed to the household of Prince Henry as architect which puts him in sole charge of the court Masques*. is tried for treason (over this and his behavior in the Irish fiasco) and beheaded. One system strips a first cover off each wing. revealing a second. Jones* is familiar with the whole range of stage effects from moving clouds. starring Inigo Jones* 1603 .com .pdffactory. Unlike the professional theatre.One of the changes in the theatre is the use of the flat wing which shows up around now. 1603 . Six Books of Perspective* by Guido Ubaldus*. We have available extensive drawings and descriptions of all the marvels Ben Jonson* (see below 1605) and Jones* create which will be published after each show is over.Inigo Jones* is back from Italy and his studies of Vitruvius* and Serlio *. Jones* has the financial support of the Revels Office* which puts up the money for all his experiments.Shakespeare* is doing Hamlet*. travel in their own conveyances and have a ticket taker for entrance fees. The Battle of the Poets* is in full swing with Marston* and Dekker* accusing Jonson* of satirizing them and their style in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels*. ship wrecks and heaving seas to conflagrations and a darkened hall to enable controllable lighting. recites his piece and passes the hat. They produce Satyromastix* and Jonson fights back with The Poetaster* late this year. In Russia there are three years of terrible famine (1601-03). All's Well That End's Well* The Masque And The New Scenery. sky-borne chariots. 1602 . By now there are three systems for changing the wings. Entertaining Journey*. In London Jonson* does Sejanus His Fall* which is a failure as a tragedy both with the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. describes eight kinds of companies from the single actor who travels on foot. In Spain the number of theatrical companies is reduced to eight and these must be licensed. another system slides a flat off stage revealing one behind it and the third uses the prisim shaped periaktoi* which revolves revealing a new side each time. The picture frame effect of using a proscenium arch will show up extensively in his work. The author. Shakespeare* is doing Twelfth Night* and in 1600-1 Jonson* does Cynthia's Revels*. Colored lighting and the use of a flask in front of a light which focuses and projects the light are in use. Rojas*.A really fun Spanish document is published that tells all about the kind and range of traveling players of the time. earthquakes. Jones* is thoroughly familiar with all of the Serlian settings and the Italian devices for changing scenery. 1601 . He will now embark on a career of design that will determine the course of future scene design and theatre architecture in England. The procedure of transferring a perspective to a set of flat wings is described in a book published this year. transparencies.

This year they produce (among others) the famous Masque of Blackness*.Shakespeare* is doing King Lear*. Buontalenti*'s pupil. Next year he and his fellow conspirators are sentenced to death.pdffactory. They sometimes also sell shares to other investors. The company (sometimes before. sometimes after selling shares) applies to the King for a patent (a specific grant of land. In Italy those flat wings show up in a court production in Ferrara designed by Giovan Battista Aleotti*.) English Settlements Begin In America 1606 .) 1603 Elizabeth I* has declared James VI* of Scotland her heir.Shakespeare* is doing Measure For Measure*. We leave the Elizabethean period and begin the Jacobian. Giulio Parigi* (1570-1635) takes over designing for the de'Medici*s in Florence.We are now at the beginning of the English settlement in what will become the United States. Spain and England finally make peace. Othello* and Thomas Dekker* does his collaborations in The Honest Whore* (1604-5). It begins this year with the Virginia Company of London getting a royal charter and sending 120 colonists to Virginia.) He also writes about thirty plays but it is this satirical romance that is widely translated and dramatized which captures our imagination down through the ages. There's another heavy outbreak of plague in England. Many engravings of his work survive. 1606 . Arcadia (Canada. 1604 . 1604 The English East India Company is busy exploring Java and that area. He does a major festival this year. Jonson* does Volpone*. 1605 . Shakespeare* is doing Macbeth*.This is a busy theatrical year. In England Guy Fawkes* plots to blow up the House of Lords (called the Gunpowder Plot).public and in incurring official censure (the play had political implications but the Queen likes it. The system of colonization works like this . This year she dies and he becomes James I* of England. his best play which is performed by The King's Men*. Even in America there is a French production at Port Royal. Jonson* begins his collaboration with Inigo Jones* doing Masques* as entertainment for the court.A private company is founded with a board of governors who own the stock and put up the money for the enterprise hoping to reap big profits from it.) The King specifies (very loosely) which patch of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In Spain Cervantes* published the first part of Don Quixote* (the second part will be out in 1615.com . 1605 Czar Boris Godunov* dies and Russia plunges into eight years of anarchy and civil war.

This year James I* gives a patent to two small groups of colonizers. put on in Venice. John Fletcher* and Francis Beaumont* collaborate on The Knight of the Burning Pestle. The English put a permanent colony in the Americas at Jamestown. He also recognizes the independence of the Netherlands. 1608 Poland takes over much of northeast Russia and blockades Moscow. The Spanish are getting much stricter on censorship of plays.land is granted to the company for their colony and development. In Ireland the Brits are defeating the Irish and as a result of the massive defeats the Irish leaders flee the country." By the early part of this century there are three basic elements in the settings for productions: side wings. gets his opera. 1607 . Also he usually makes the grant run west to the Pacific Ocean even though no one knows how far that is from the Atlantic coast. Claudio Monteverde* (1567-1643). Plymouth is to settle their group between the 38th and 45th parallels and London between the 34th and 41st. Timon of Athens*.pdffactory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. overhead borders." who escape to Europe to avoid persecution for their rebellion. now the King's Men*. This one has a really spectacular water procession (naumachia*) on the Arno River called "The Battle of the Argonauts*. 1609 In Spain Phillip III*. Spain has national bankruptcy and this causes the Bank of Genoa to fail.Shakespeare* is doing Antony and Cleopatra*. CHURCH THEATRE CONTROVERSY IN SPAIN In Spain the problem of actresses leads to a decree that no one except actors are permitted backstage. Coriolanus*. back shutters. the other from London. throws out the last of the Moors (known as Moriscos*) which is economically a disaster. The whole affair is very untidy. one from the city of Plymouth. This is known as the "Flight of the Earls. So the London patentees head off for Virginia and the Plymouth ones try (but don't make a go of it) for Maine. He pushes the emphasis toward musical rather than dramatic values and introduces a greater role for instrumental music. Virginia. The first tea from China is shipped to Europe by the Dutch East India Company. in his extreme piety. Finally his company. Orfeo*. 1608 .000 square miles. 1607 The first great operatic composer. and. Shakespeare* is doing Pericles*.com . On some occasions a bunch of people colonize a place and then get a patent. Each one gets a tract of land of 10. This is rather tricky since the King doesn't own the land and nobody knows exactly where it is or what it is like. gets to make use of the private theatre at Blackfriars*. The Russian nobility (Boyars) form a provisional government and install a Polish Czar.Parigi* does another major festival in Florence. friars are forbidden to attend the theatre and secular plays are banned from presentation in religious houses and churches.

is exploring Delaware Bay and Hudson Bay. is assassinated and his son.com . Jonson* does Epicaene* performed by the Children of the Queen's Revels* at Whitefriars*. 1609 .Shakespeare* is doing Cymbeline*. Obviously there is a regent. his mother. This self-government doesn't work too well. The Dutch on Manhattan Island open a trading center there. 1612 . In Spain Tirso de Molina* comes out with The Man in Green Breeches* which features women disguised as men. 1610 . The Knight of the Burning Pestle* is performed.Shakespeare* is doing The Tempest*. Henry VIII* (both of these with Fletcher). 1613 . Queen Maria de'Medici*. which still must be licensed. He dissolves parliament because they won't do what he wants. Henry Hudson*.James I* issues a second colonizing patent to the Virginia Company (who sell open stock) for a strip 400 miles wide stretching from the Atlantic to Pacific.Shakespeare* is doing A Winter's Tale* and Jonson* The Alchemist*.Shakespeare* is doing Two Noble Kinsmen*. This will continue to happen until it turns into a civil war. of course) is published. 1614 James I* has another parliament that won't discuss finance and he dissolves it again. In America the English colonists prevent French from settling in Maine and Nova Scotia. Henry IV*. 1614 -John Webster* puts on The Duchess of Malfi*. 1611 .pdffactory. 1611 In Spain Phillip III*'s queen dies and court performances drop off. Louis XIII* succeeds at the age of nine. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Over in the New World the English explorer. The King James Bible* (the authorized English version of the Bible commisioned by James I*. 1615 -In Spain the number of theatrical companies is increased to twelve. The English are planting tobacco in Virginia and get the right to govern their Jamestown colony.John Webster* puts on The White Devil*. In England James I* is having trouble raising money. The Spanish Church doesn't like this sort of cross dressing (remember that 1599 ruling against it?) 1612 In Russia they drive out the Poles and put Mikhail Romanov* on the throne. Fletcher* and Beaumont* write The Maid's Tragedy*. 1610 The French king.

It all gets straightened out and later they are incorporated into Massachusetts.In England Thomas Dekker* does Witch of Edmonton*.In Spain Tirso de Molina* comes out with his best historical play. The Puritans have an OK from the Virginia Company to settle there but they land on Plymouth territory instead.Jonson* is made poet laureate by James I*. who have been fighting with Spain on and off for years. This is Gloucester. Albany and part of Philadelphia. 1618 The Thirty Years War* begins with the "Defenestration" (throwing the Regents out the window) in Prague.comes out with Las Mocedades del Cid* in two parts exploring the exploits of Spain's national hero the Cid. 1621 .] Guillen de Castro y Bellvis* (1569-1631) . the extravagances include spectacular theatre for the court. They also establish the Dutch West India Company with a monopoly on trade between Africa and America and the right to establish colonies. Prudence in Women*. 1620 The English colony business picks up this year with the successors of the Plymouth group getting a new charter as the "Council of New England" and a sneaky band of Puritans (now known as the Pilgrim Fathers) taking ship in the Mayflower* and landing at Massachusetts where they settle in this year as squatters. 1622 .Parigi* does another major festival in Florence.com . 1621 In Spain Phillip IV* (1605-1665) comes to the throne. A Puritan divine gets a spot in New England to offer refuge for the poor of England and be supported by fishing. These will make up the future colony of New Netherland which they will lose to the English in 1664. [This building is really the prototype of the modern stage and still survives today. Unfortunately for his country he leaves the running of it to his Prime Minister (Olivares* ) who introduces great extravagances and gets the country into a lot of wars. 1618 . It is designed by an architect called Giovan Battista Aleotti* (1546-1636) with a permanent proscenium arch. renew their fighting again. 1617 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. although it won't be used for another ten years. However. 1619 The first black slaves arrive in Virginia. treating the heroic Queen Maria.The Teatro Farnese* is finished this year at Parma. In the intermezzo at the Uffizi* palace theatre (built by Buontalenti*) there is a permanent proscenium arch. the first town of the Massachusetts colony.pdffactory. The Dutch. 1623 First English settlement is established in New Hampshire. They start small settlements on the Hudson and Delaware rivers which will become New York City. 1622 The Council for New England grants sections of land for colonization to two different men which starts off the settlement of what will become Maine and New Hampshire. Shakespeare* dies this year.1616 .

comes as a successor to Lope de Vega*.] Calderon* is particularly noted for his auto sacramentales* and is regarded as having perfected the form. The cape and sword comedies deal with happily resolved love intrigues and misunderstandings and are best represented by The Phantom Lady* (1629). as do most of the other best dramatists. Duc de Richelieu) (15851642). His serious plays explore honor and jealousy and include: No Monster Like Jealousy* (c. especially through French translations. light and somewhat similar to the Stuart masque. lived and worked in Madrid. The English make their first settlement in eastern India and that governance business in Virginia isn't working and James I* takes it back for himself.1624 In France an important figure. (with the work of Inigo Jones*) the Italinate design blossoms in the court productions. 1648) and Augustin Moreto* (1618-1669).com . Phillip IV* brings one of Parigi*'s students. steps onto the national stage. The most lavish productions with professional actors occur in the next decade as will be seen below in their own time. This is Richelieu* (actually named Armand Jean du Plessis. Many of these are performed at the royal hunting lodge and their name. The importance of his work for the court lies not only in the plays themselves but also in the production of them. He writes two main kinds.pdffactory. both for politics and the theatre. 1634) The Physician to His Own Honor* (1635) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1634) The Great World Theatre* (c. Spanish Court Theatre Flourishes Pedro Calderon* de la Barca (1600-81). 1641) After 1652 he writes secular plays on demand for the court which are short. As a favorite of of the Queen Regent he now becomes Louis XIII*'s Chief Minister and will exercise complete control. plays. comes from the name of the hunting lodge. His works have considerable influence on European drama. As in England. Even today his best secular work Life's A Dream* is frequently revived. mostly religious. writing about 200. of which about eighty survive. They are taken up by the French and will influence the English later through French translations. Beginning about 1621 and continuing until about 1640 Calderon* writes almost all of his secular plays. Best known of his early religious plays are: Belshazzar's Feast* (c. zarzuela*. better known as Calderon*. [His contemporaries. Most of his works are autos and the bulk of his other output is written for the Spanish court. including Francisco de Rojas Zorilla* (1607-c. He writes primarily for the court. Cosme Lotti* (?-1665) from Florence in 1626 to stage the court entertainments in a large hall at the Alcazar and in the gardens at Aranjuez. These are rather like musical comedy and become one of the most popular Spanish dramatic forms. He is already a prominent church man (Bishop and Cardinal) and elected member of the French States-General. More influential for European drama are his secular plays.

running from the Atlantic to Pacific.Another influential theatrical production author. In Spain The Suspicious Truth* by Juan Ruiz de Alarcon* comes out. Italy.) 1626 . of course. Life Is a Dream * (1636. 1627 . but he will write more later. and takes the Italian principles of theatrical staging back home. part of it with Parigi* during the 1608 festival.The Spanish court imports an Italian designer. He will be used as a hero in one of the later Romantic tragedies (see Schiller in Chapter 12.Philip Massinger* does A New Way to Pay Old Debts*. He studies for ten years in Italy. A tobacco tax and monopoly are established in England. Charles I* dissolves parliament again and it won't meet until 1640 when things will go from bad to really awful. Massachusetts. buys Manhattan Island.The Painter of His Dishonour* (1635) Secret Vengeance for Secret Insult* (1635) The Wonder-Wroking Magician* (1637) Mayor of Zalamea* (1642) His finest and best known play is a philosophical allegory. Cosme Lotti* (?-1643).John Ford* puts on 'Tis Pity She's a Whore*.) His highly personal lyrical style makes translation difficult and even in Spain his court plays are little studied. 1626 In America Roger Conant is settling Salem. comes out with his Civil Architecture *. 1629 In England. He designs elaborate Italinate scenery for court entertainments staged in a large hall at the Alcazar. who is one of Parigi*'s students. the elder (1591-1667). In Dresden Germany they put on the first German production of Shakespeare's Hamlet*. 1628 . Peter Minuit (1580-1638) as director-general of the Dutch West India Company. In the Thirty Years War the German general Wallenstein* is having a series of successes. 1625 . the German architect Josef Furttenbach*. The Puritans get the right to have their own governance and next year starts the great Puritan migration under Winthrop [John PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The plague is in London again.pdffactory. This company has two factions. Meanwhile he grants a charter to the Massachusetts Bay Company beginning with the land around the Merrimac and Charles Rivers and. The Germans love his plays and will continue productions of them. 1625 James I* dies and his son Charles I* takes over. This year they finally put on a production in the Teatro Franese* over in Parma. and a Dutch Colony is founded on the Hudson River. This will lead the English colonies in America to rebel eventually. money-making and building a Puritan commonwealth in New England. In this work there are only two pages devoted to constructing scenery.com .

Most people are tillers of soil who work the land of their immediate lord and subsist on a share of that land. It is the last great flourish of court dominated theatre. Everybody "belonged" in a definite relation to everyone else with a fixed status. which takes place in France. The next step at this transition time is the belated theatrical and social revival called Neoclassicism. The modern forms of commercial and industrial enterprise are slowly taking shape. By the middle of this century a whole new class arises and seeks political representation and power. This meant that each person had their place and function in the world. conservative who helps shape the theocratic policies of the colony. making and selling are rapidly becoming distinct functions and we see the appearance of people who are essentially merchants rather than craftsmen selling their own wares.pdffactory. banking. the whole local community on one hand and the court on the other. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Capital and labor. This economic system was made for a local civilization with the church. ******************************* Afterword As we complete the Renaissance with its last manifestation in the French Neoclassic period we need to take into account a major change which is occurring in European society. There is now a clear division between employer and hired workman.com . Middlemen. insurance and investment capital are driving commerce as transportation and exploration open up the whole world to European trade. will slowly change into a middle-class audience. This year marks the beginning of the "Puritan Exodus"from England. The old forms center on the organization of agriculture as seen in the system of manor. In towns this organization was paralleled by the organization of the guilds.]. the differentiation of function in industry has been growing for a long time. The traditional theatre audiences. As the power and money pass into their hands so will culture and the market for theatre pass to them.Winthrop*. village and open fields in England. nobles and administrative officers contributing to it functioning as a unit. Feudal society depended on service and inheritance which ensures a regular succession of people who work the land and others who make sure it is worked properly. By this point in time (1630). based on local privilege. It was dominated by tradition and custom. They will begin with founding Boston in 1630. 1588-1649. merchants and industrial capitalists. There is also a store of wealth which can be used for new and more profitable enterprises. This is what might be called the capitalist middle-class which includes land owners. Each district supplies the immediate needs of the local population. They inherit their rights and obligations from their fathers. Beginning in Italy. traders. The old medieval economic system is changing. exporters and importers are coming rapidly to dominate the economic scene. It's largely self-sufficient and organized to make a living off the land. 12 times govenor.

On the side of AGAINST: The king rules from his palace outside Paris and has a total autocratic hold on what can and cannot be done in the city. Paris must jump to Louis'* tune. Monopoly - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Spain and Italy who are currently using a number of urban theatrical performance spaces. France has only the Parisian Hotel de Bourgogne* and a tennis court. strive to develop enough expertise to win in the competition for the one or two available performance spaces in Paris. The centuries long conflicts with the English are no longer active but they have left a strong sense of French pride and nationalism which prevents the French from learning anything much from the English. With the turmoil of the Religious wars behind them.next Chap10 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER TEN French Neoclassic and English Restoration 1630-1680 The French Theatre Finally Gets Up and Running Introduction France at this time has several things going for it and a number slowing it down. Foreign exploration and international colonies are rapidly expanding. Louis XIII* is on the throne and the country is being driven on to greater artistic endeavors by the soon-to-be Chief Minister Cardinal Richelieu*. Economically the French are on the rise. bringing increased economic growth to the home country. On the side of FOR: The religious controversy between the catholics and protestants is finally resolved with the catholics in control of the government but a reasonable amount of freedom and security guaranteed the protestants. Unlike England. France has always had very close ties with Italy and has benefited from all the knowledge and skill developed thus far in education and the arts.com . The major theatrical activity exists in the Provinces where touring companies. Unlike England where the city of London enjoys a high degree of autonomy. peace and prosperity are spreading throughout the country. The Bourbon monarchy is secure and politically stable with close ties to the Hapsburgs and to Spain.pdffactory. The Puritan turmoil that is brewing in England does not extend into France. much like those in Spain.

with a stage at one end. when French theatre companies go looking for performance space that can be adapted from non-theatre use they are not looking at inn yards or corrales. and often with balconies for spectators. When the English come to visit (during their troubles) they will pick up on this monopoly system and take it back home. Since 1588. France has replaced Italy as the center of western dance theatre. The English will pick up thbis odd habit and take it back to use on their stages when they go home for the Restoration* Soon the great playwrights of the French Neoclassic period will swing into action. The game has been popular since medieval times and the spaces built for tennis play are 90 by 30 feet. This cuts down on the space the actors have to move around in and puts them. of course.By this time the ballet de cour* dominates the court entertainment.* Finally.com . You will notice that this monopoly applies only to plays in French.pdffactory. Moliere. This means that touring Italian commedia dell'arte troupes can not only perform but even move in permanently. the Hotel de Bourgogne*. They usually offer two or three performances each week. The king. Later a more elaborate space will be built here. Now it becomes a regular theatrical performance space. it has been used for balls and ballets. It has been occupied constantly by various amateur groups. The Court Theatre The Salle du Petit-Bourbon* is in a gallery of the Bourbon Dukes' palace. The monopoly only applies to the city of Paris so many different aspiring troupes of actors tour the provinces honing their skills and waiting for an opportunity to perform in the city.Ever since medieval times the Confrerie de la Passion* has held the monopoly for housing theatrical performance in the French language in Paris. 1660). The Crown seems to regard the monopoly as a satisfactory way to control theatre in the capital. These admirable structures only need a platform at one end to become a theatre space serving between 250 and 1800 spectators. One of the odd things about French theatre production is the custom of seating some privileged patrons on the stage. What turns out to be ideal are tennis courts. When the Confrerie* went out of business the monopoly remained with their theatre building. It will be the biggest and most advanced theatre yet attempted on the Italinate model.* and the greatest comedy writer. This will be the famous Salle des Machines* (see below. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. roofed. Consequently. in the audience's laps. often literally. Long. (and later the Cardinals who run things) has performance space in the palace (the Petit-Bourbon*) and sometimes permits additional companies to appear in Paris in converted tennis courts. These will be: two great writers of tragedy Corneille* and Racine. at the end of this period the French will develop the first permanent acting and producing company in the Comedie Francais*. Tennis courts The weather in Paris is wetter and colder than London and Spain. in the king's palace. traveling Italian comediens and aspiring French troupes. Background for French Theatre 1625 .

Francis Bacon* is busy writing Of Masques and Triumphs*. This view will lead to disaster for everybody. no soldiers billeted in private houses. She is strong for an absolute monarchy and she is Catholic. He will be prolific and more than thirty of hiw plays survive. next to Corneille*. Jean de Rotrou*. Pierre Corneille* (1606-84).com . 1626 . It makes him sign the Petition of Right* (dating from King John and the Magna Carta*) which forces him to promise not to do all those things he wants to do. By the time he turns nineteen he will have two plays produced at the Hotel de Bourgogne*. Charles I* convenes his first parliament and then adjourns it to Oxford because of plague in London. Jean de Mairet* (1604-86). Charles marries Henrietta Maria (daughter of Bourbon Henry IV*) of France. 1625 Back in England . and Pierre Corneille*. This year he writes his first play. no imprisonment without a specific charge. a tragi-comedy. Pierre du Ryer*.In Spain Court entertainments are reaching their peak as Philip IV* brings the Italian designer Cosmo Lotti* from Florence to put Italian scenery into the indoor and outdoor productions. He is a governmemt official who writes to make a little more money.The Hotel de Bourgogne* now regularly houses a professional troupe (as opposed to earlier amateur performers. The whole court has no sympathy with parliamentary Puritanism. He will write a number of plays based on works by Lope de Vega*. 1628 In England Charles I* is having trouble with parliament.Back in Spain Calderon* comes out with one of his best known cape and sword* plays. will become one of the two great tragic French playwrights of all time. He writes farce and tragi-comedy early on. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Phantom Lady*. Four important dramatists emerge: Jean de Mairet*. Neoclassical ideals are reinstated and professional troupes appeared in Paris. since he is always broke. turning to tragedy in the 1630s when it becomes popular. This makes Charles I* so mad that he dissolves parliament and tries to rule without it.James I* dies and Charles I* is crowned. is the foremost playwright of his time. He will be the first to formulate the Italian theory of the unities* for the French theatre. a new wrinkle. no martial law in peace time. contributes to the establishment of tragedy as a popular form. 1629 . parliament gets to have a say-so in how the English Church is run. Jean de Rotrou* (1609-50) is the second most important playwright of this period.) A new era in French theater begins with the efforts of a group of well-educated and technically proficient playwrights. Pierre du Ryer* (1600-58). and. So much for English experiments with democracy. These include not raising taxes without the consent of parliament. His plays remain in the classical repertory down to the present.pdffactory. Chryside et Arimand*.

He helps to establish tragedy as a popular form. Corneille* had written his first play back in his home town of Rouen for a strolling company.pdffactory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. starring Montdory* (Guillaume Desgilberts 1594-1651) who now comes to Paris with his acting company this year after beginning his acting career in a tour of Holland in 1612. Boisrobert and Corneille *). lighting and special effects can provide the visual wherewithal.Cardinal Richelieu* [see p. concern for the actor's personal character and dignity appears.com . He uses his position to encourage the development of French literature and the arts. becoming the virtual ruler of France. especially playwrighting. It is so successful that Montdory*'s company becomes one of the leading ones in Paris. This going to the Spanish will be very important for Corneille* later. Gougenot*'s La Comedie des Comedians*. In Spain Tirso de Molina* comes out with his El Burlador de Sevilla* (The Trickster of Seville) the first theatrical work of the Don Juan* story. an educated government official.Meanwhile English Theatre is Changing 1629 . the public theatres are now used only in good weather between May and October. It is created by Inigo Jones*. a comedy unlike either farce or pastoral and which will set French comedy on new path. 1629 . 1629 Over in America the English are fighting the French and this year the English storm Quebec. At court the Royal Cockpit* opens. He collects five playwrights (Collete. Georges de Scudery* (1601-67).140] (1585-1642) is made Chief Minister to the court of Louis XIII*. bringing love versus honor to the French stage. produces Clitophon*. Salisbury Court*. The play is titled Melite*. He becomes the principal dramatist to the Hotel de Bourgogne. depicts a rehearsal and defends actors from the charge of immorality. The colony of Massachusetts is founded.Du Ryer*.In England the second roofed public theatre. opens its doors in London. 1630 . 1629 In England Charles I* dissolves another Parliament in March and one will not meet again until 1640. and fancies himself a dramatic author. Claude de l'Etoile. to make plays out of rough sketches he writes for them. Rotrou*.In France. With so many private theatres showing up. De Rotrou* adapts Spanish dramas. The middle class has a craving for sensationalism. It was successfully produced in Rouen. an aspiring playwright is not one of these favored few and his resentment of Corneille* will crop up later. to provide Charles I* a home for the King's Men* to perform at court. Back in France Richelieu* Pushes Theatre Development 1629 . Montdory* mounts a new production of Melite* here in Paris. The love and honor theme will really excite Racine*. horror and spectacle which is much better served in these indoor theatres where scenery.

And that the profession of Play-poets." This viewpoint needs some exploration since it dogs the theatre down through the present day. Ben Jonson* retires from writing masques for the court and William Davenant becomes the principal writer.In England the Puritan opposition to theatre is growing by leaps and bounds. This year an acid-tongued Puritan pamphleteer called William Prynne* (1600-1669) comes out with a work titled Histriomastix* (he will call a later one by the same title) attacking popular amusements in general and stage plays in particular.. acting and frequenting of Stage players are unlawfull. affects the attitudes of the public is not a new argument. impressive bearing. English Religious Opposition Increases 1632 . infamous and misbeseeming Christians. like everyone else. In Spain the actors are finally allowed to form a guild like that of other trades. and most pernicious Corruptions. His list of qualifications to be an actor includes: appropriate facial expression. We have pointed out that Euro-centric theatre acts as a mirror for its society as well as a platform where public attitudes are propounded and debated. ungodly Spectacles.com . lewde. unconstrained movement. and sound judgement. a rogue and vagabond and denied church sacraments. It is both the glory and the bane of theatre that it affects public opinion and action. 1632 Charles I* issues a charter for the colony of Maryland (named for his queen. Mumtaz Mahal. condemned in all ages as intolerable Mischiefes. Punishment Without Revenge*.are sinfull. of Stageplayers. The Confradia de la Novena* is still in existence and includes all theatrical people. absence of provincial accent. In this particular case the Puritan view takes the position that human beings are inherently evil and must be won to God by exclusive devotion to hard work and religious observances.. Henrietta Maria) and puts it under the control of Lord Baltimore.. Pamphleteers make much use of historical precedent from classical sources as well as Christian sources. The notion that the theatre.1631 Over in India the Shah Jahan builds the Taj Mahal* for his favorite wife. absence of posturing. heathenish.That popular Stage-players. 1632 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Back in France they are also concerned about the social status of actors.. should be judged on an individual basis.. 1631 .Lope de Vega* is doing another of his better known plays. This torrent of venom can be seen in parts of its lengthy subtitle such as: ". Anything which might distract the struggling soul from these two activities is a tool of the Devil. who died giving birth to her fourteenth child. and consequently theatre going. This really helps raise the social status of the actor from being branded "infamous". Georges de Scudery* (1601-67) comes out with a play with the same title as Gougenot*'s La Comedie des Comedians* also arguing that actors. a good memory. together with the penning..pdffactory.

still alive and well in current times under the appellations of "fundamentalism" whether Christian or Moslem. wanton spending and for the Crown. theatre and crown are seen as identical in their evil.Also at this point in time in England the Crown is seen as unresponsive to the Puritan view. Fortunately the New World will also include other plantations with other views. all goodnesse. The Crown. Whores. He is a passionate advocate of the Anglican Church and vehemently opposed to Calvinism and Puritanism. the theatre and all who seem to tend in that direction will be excluded or expelled. is the symbol of all religious and political abuse and theatre is its willing tool. William Laud* (1573-1645) becomes the Archbishop of Cantebury and virtual first minister for Charles I*. for these immigrants. idle.* the First Earl of Strafford* (he is president of council of the north. The New World is.) Charles I* and Laud* works closely with Sir Thomas Wentworth. to be made into a truly pious society from which the Crown. more significantly. You will note that this particular view is one of the human extremes of social organization." He aptly represents the view that theatre stands for sensory pleasure.) Between these councillors and the notorious tribunals of the Court (the Star Chamber and High Commission Court). Prodigals. idleness. As we move on.000 Puritans flee the triumph of absolutism in church and state in Charles I's England. He has had a free hand in opposing these protestant sects and is now trying to root out Presbyterianism in Scotland (which is why Charles I* is here being crowned this year. for this view. Ruffians. in the 1600's. Drunkards. and make a mocke of piety. prophane and godlesse persons. In this view every expenditure is unwillingly wrested from the public by illegal means (the King keeps disbanding or dismissing Parliament in order to raise money for the Crown) and the primary use to which this money is put appears (since it is the only clearly public evidence of expenditure) to be theatrical display. It is useful to keep in mind that the Moslem view has always excluded theatre as a viable social entity. The period between 1629 and 1640 is known as the great "Puritan Exodus" from England.pdffactory. these matters in England go from bad to worse and defenders of the theatre are overwhelmed by the Puritan opposition. Whore-masters. Roarers. Consequently. totally given over to extravagant financial support of theatrical entertainments. privy councilor and lord deputy of Ireland where he put down both Catholic and Ulster Presbyterians. Bawdes. Prynne* calls the theatre audience: "Adulteres.com . particularly in New England. Cheaters. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It is this view that is transported across the Atlantic and planted on North American shores. Something like 21. mired in adherence to Anglican religious views and. 1633 Charles I* is crowned the King of Scotland and revives a fine on forest use to raise money. Charles I* is able to bypass normal legal processes and rule as he wishes. who hate all grace. base. Adulteresses. Panders.

the first serious rival to Hotel de Bourgogne*.pdffactory. This one casts aspersions on the King and Queen and earns him life imprisonment. 1634 . 1608-71) company played the Cockpit* (that ex-cockpit in Drury Lane that had been redone as a theatre. Back to the French 1634 . egged on by Richelieu*. This year he does Devotion to the Cross*. 15941654) and Charles LeNoir. orders the establishment of the French Academy* (L'Academie francaise*). This year Floridor's (he lived c. It is made up of forty men called "the immortals" because no new guys can be elected until one of the old ones dies off. The French players are touring to London. The French Academy* 1635 . The Academy is charged with the "purification of the French language. many really good writers don't make it into this exclusive club.) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Prynne*. This excessive spending for what the Puritans regard as tools of the Devil will lead very soon to civil war. best known for his work with the founding of the academy and later opinions for it is Jean Chapelain* (1595-1674. the Hudson River valley and Delaware. fed up with that business of turning sketches into plays for the Cardinal. Across the Atlantic there is a constant trickle of Dutch and a few Swedes settling in Long Island. Richelieu* has been urging the formation of the French Academy* as an arbiter of literary taste. comes out with another effort. Scudery* is tickled pink to be one of the founding members because Corneille* isn't.In England the most expensive masque." This means it is supposed to set standards for every kind of writing in French.1633 . is produced by the Inns of Court. This academy bunch will really give Corneille* a hard time. A new theatre. 1634 That venomous English pamphleteer. We think they're good anyway. opens in December.com . quits the Cardinal's group and begins serious playwrighting. Corneille*.Richelieu* wants a little more theatre in Paris and ok's breaking the Confrerie de la Passion*'s monopoly. When that happens the members themselves elect somebody new to replace him. Most of his early plays are produced by Montdory*'s company. It's a converted tennis court in the Rue Vieille-du-Temple and is used by a company headed by the actor Montdory* (Guillaume des Gilleberts. From England there is a rising tide of Catholics and Protestants escaping the pressures of Anglican conformity. will not be the end of his career. Theatre du Marais*. the loss of his ears in pillory and branding on both cheeks (SL for seditious libeler. All this will send shock waves through European monarchies and lay the ground work for later American and French rebellions. however. repression of the theatre and the death of a reigning monarch. over the years. The Triumph of Love* by James Shirley* (1596-1666) and Inigo Jones*.Back in Spain Calderon* is coming out with plays exploring honor.) This. Another writer.) Obviously. including plays. If you want to be a top-notch writer in France you have to get into this group.Louis XIII*.

Scudery* jumps into the argument with great enthusiasm. When he resumes playwrighting he adapts to the more stringent requirements and continues to be the leading playwright. [In 1991 the Academy decided to drop the accent ague from the written French language.1642-3 1660 Le Mort de Pompee* . the tragic form of the play is severely criticized by other playwrights. Corneille* 1636 .Corneille* produces Le Cid* with Montdory* in the role of Rodrigue. Its primary task is the study and codification of French language and style. He launches his first attack with his Observations sur le Cid* in which he sets out to prove: the subject matter is worthless and besides the handling of it is terrible. Cardinal Richelieu* asks the brand new French Academy* to pass a verdict on the play. especially the First of Polyeucte* .1640 Examens* several Cinna* . and. all of this in print.] The attacks really upset Corneille* and he doesn't write any plays for four years.In Spain Calderon* comes out with his play.com .Le Cid* has been such a terrific success that the other French playwrights are jealous and start a barrage of complaints. 1635 In America the colonization of Connecticut begins. The Doctor of His Own Honor*. Other important plays: Contributions to dramatic theory: Horace* . [see: Les Sentiments de l'Academie sur Le Cid* by Jean Chapelain*. This controversy becomes so intense. Like the earlier Romeo and Juliet*. and even insists that the findings be adverse. the plot revolves around the theme of lovers having to choose between their love for each other and their duty to their parents.1651 1637 French Academy* is given the official charter under which it still operates.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.1640 Discours* several. anything beautiful in it is stolen. a tragicomedy and a tragedy between 1634 and 1636. This play precipitates a battle that will clarify the conflict between old and new playwriting ideals. But this controversy will bring him increased fame and begin his period of greatest successes. leader of the Academy. This sets off a barrage of opinions back and forth between the critics attacking and Corneille* defending. It is to Richelieu's advantage to bring discredit on Corneille*'s play so he encourages this sentiment. especially in an absolute monarchy. The controversy about Le Cid* involves praise for the ways in which it adheres to neoclassical doctrine and censure for all deviations. has a lot of bad lines.1643-4 Nicomede* . Although popular with the people. This is rather unnerving for Corneille* who has successfully produced five comedies. [Remember? Corneille* dropped out of the Cardinal's playwrighting stable and then went on to be successful? You just don't offend the powerful. Finally the matter is referred to the newly founded Academy* and Chapelain* writes out the first draft of what will become their final Sentimens*. it violates the chief rules of drama.] 1637 . finally.pdffactory.

the Unity of Place* requires that the action take place in a single location (preferably in one house. The opinion sets up a strict view of what can be used in a tragedy. the number begins to pick up about now and seems to be about equal to the number of indentured servants arriving in Maryland and Virginia. The information includes how to rig a roll curtain and.The Unities Well.pdffactory.the Unity of Action* means that there should be no more than one principal action.* can do all that fantastic Italian scenic stuff at the English court. the Italian Nicola Sabbattini* (c. While there had been some small importation of African slaves to the colonies since 1619. It is the beginning of Irish theatre when. Now that architect-turned-set desigher. and in foot lights. This is regarded as his finest and is certainly his best known play. but at the most. Inigo Jones. opens for an audience drawn from all classes.com . on lighting. Remember he is writing mainly for the court and this play is done at the King's request. 2.Back in Italy (Venice). The basic points are called the three unities*: 1. 1574-1654). the upshot is the establishment of some terrifically restrictive requirements for French tragedy. the first Venitian opera house. This is a major source of information about scenic practice. This is the beginning of the spread throughout Italy of both operatic performance and buildings specifically designed for opera.In Spain Pedro Calderon de la Barca* does his famous philosophical allegory about the human situation. in Dublin.the Unity of Time* requires that the action of the play take place in the course of a single natural day (the "Twenty-four-hour rule". 1638 . 1637 . He also describes a system of dimming the lights by lowering tin cylinders over the lamps.A still different influential author. within one day's walking distance). comes out with his Manual for Constructing Theatrical Scenes and Machines*. In England a new masquing hall (for presentation of those elaborate masques) is constructed in Whitehall Palace. Opera is now starting to be performed professionally and the Venetians like it so much that in the next four years three more opera houses will open.) This tends to get still shorter until it becomes a requirement that the time covered in the action of the play should not be any longer than the actual time it takes to play out the production on the stage. 1638 In America there is an increasing flow of poorer immigrants to Virginia. mainly indentured servants (those who sell themselves into slave-like service for a set number of years to pay for passage and a start). Ireland a guy named John Ogilby* (16001676) is made Master of Revels for Ireland and gets a license to open a theatre in that city. One of the most relevant things about his plays at this time is that they have PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the San Cassiano* . 1638 . Life Is A Dream*. Calderon c. 3. candles and oil lamps placed inside the side wings. as well as above the scene.

But. His son will be the first Frederick of Prussia and his grandson will become known as Frederick the Great. They are translated into French and many of the English Restoration* playwrights get to know them through the French. [Remember that Scotland hasn't been a part of England for very many years. Frederick William (fl. who now becomes a member of parliament. The highest balconies are for the lower classes and the pit is anybody who doesn't care about social status. Another parliament is called in November and it will become known as the Long Parliament. 1640 . In this work he covers the same ground as in his first work but with much more information including drawings and designs he made for actual productions. It is the SS. The box system of seating means that you don't have to mingle with the rest of the audience. The German architect Josef Furttenbach* the elder comes out with his second work containing more information on theatre scenery. 1640-88) succeeds to the throne in Brandenburg. Problems in England 1639 In England that effort by Charles I* to try to change the Scots from Presbyterian to Anglican is turning into armed conflict. 1639 .In Spain that Italian designer Cosmo Lotti* is building a permanent theatre. A number of English plays turn up that are based on Calderon*'s plots and characters.Back in Italy there is a Venitian opera house built this year. This is what is called the First Bishops' War in Scotland. theatre in PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. in the new palace in Madrid.considerable influence on European drama. [Fortunately there is a surviving plan of the theatre and so we know exactly how it looked. This arrangement of audience seating will dominate until the end of the nineteenth century. It is so snazzy that they occasionally have public productions with a percentage going to charities. Another guy gets elected to parliament from Cambridge this year. In Germany the "Great Elector*". Nobody knows much about him now but he will soon make a big splash.pdffactory. It is short (two months) because it doesn't do what he wants it to and he dissolves it. It's long because it takes over the government from the King and it will stay in power into 1653. It is the most modern theatre of the day with a proscenium arch and wing and groove system for changing scenery. and begin to bring to trial those they regard as the king's evil advisors. the Coliseo*. The plays themselves have little impact on the English theatre because there are great difficulties in translating Calderon*'s highly individual lyrical style from Spanish into English.] There are five balconies with 29 boxes each and a "pit" (floor level seating). He will be busy all over Europe as will his descendents. Charles I* loses it and is forced to sign the Pacification of Berwick and abolish the Anglican episcopacy in Scotland. His name is Oliver Cromwell* and he is a Puritan by religious conversion. He becomes the leader of the Puritans in parliament.com . 1640 . Recreational Architecture*.In other parts of Europe theatrical activity is flourishing. They release prisoners like Prynne*. 1640 Charles I* needs money to raise an army to deal with all these problems in Scotland. The parliament then proceeds to address a long list of grievances that have built up over the years.] He convenes what will come to be known as the Short Parliament. It manages to do this by forcing the king (who needs it desperately) to agree that it won't be dissolved without its own consent. Giovanni e Paolo*.

This really lights the fuse. groove system will continue to be the main shifting method in England.pdffactory. passes the Grand Remonstrance which protests the king's wrongful actions. 1641 . selling or games permitted on Sundays. The old.1645 Down in Venice. Giacomo Torelli* (1608-1678).Back in France by this time. This results in a wave of Protestant Irish sailing off to settle in America. In Ireland the religious views are different but the effect of all this unrest is the same. The ropes that power each "chariot" are hooked together to one big winch so that all the flats can be moved at the same time.the actors' profession. There is a general atmosphere of uncertainty in Spain. Charles I* marches in person to Westminster in an attempt to arrest five members of the Parliament he accuses of treason. The Irish Catholics who had been subjugated by Strafford rise up and massacre the Ulster Protestants as part of a general Irish Catholic rebellion. works the kinks out of a scene-shifting system called the chariot-andpole* method. gambling. Parliament is really on a power roll and throws all Bishops out of the House of Lords. dicing. Those transformations that everybody is so crazy about work so much better with this system that it spreads all over Europe. His followers will be called the Cavaliers and the forces of Parliamentarians (or Puritans) are referred to as Roundheads because they wear their hair shorter and don't wear wigs. Palais Cardinal. 1641 In England the parliamentary initiated trials are in progress to punish those evil advisors of the king and Strafford* [see above 1633] is tried and beheaded. Cromwell* is in the lead in organizing armies for parliament. America and Holland. 1641 and the Civil War is up and running. so he can raise an army and fight parliament. Richelieu* builds a palace for himself. England Falls into Civil War 1642 In England. but his attempt fails and he has to flee with his family to Hampton Court." The church still denies sacraments to actors. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) This is the first Italianate theater in France. at the Teatro Novissimo*. Meanwhile the Puritans put many of their social ideas into practice: all theatres are closed and racing horses outlawed.com . Things are not looking good so he packs his wife. with an excellent performance space (later called Palais-Royal*. This entails cutting slots through the stage floor to enable a pole from the floor below to support a flat on the stage and be moved by a "chariot" that pulls it back and forth under the stage on a track. Henrietta Maria.. Louis XIII* issues a decree stating his desire that ". He turns out to be a real whiz both at military organization and strategy and his success in battles earn him the nickname "ironsides". Italy. 1641 . no sports.general is headed down hill in the 1640's in part because of the Catalan and Portuguese rebellions this year. Charles I* sets up his battle standard at Nottingham on August 22. all French acting troupes in Paris are receiving a government subsidy..not be considered worthy of blame nor prejudicial to their reputation in society. simpler. off with the rest of the family and the crown jewels to Holland to go chat up her relatives and friends on the continent for help. an influential designer...

he reigns 16431715. The Great Theatre of the World*. This year Moliere* gets out of debtor's prison. others remaining to attempt surreptitious performances in the Cockpit* and the Red Bull. 1643 Louis XIII* dies and the throne goes to his son Louis XIV* (born 1638. 1642 Richelieu* dies this year and is replaced as prime minister by his protege.pdffactory.com . Cardinal Giulio Mazarin* (1602-1661). joins some of his former actors and begins to act in the provinces. The actors who go to France will bring back many things they find in French theatre. 1642 . The Spanish court.In the English Civil War Cromwell* works out a surrender of the king's 46 forces and heads the army's council of war to negotiate with the king.An Act of Parliament closes the theatres in London and suspends all performances for a period of five years so theatrical activity virtually ceases. Cromwell*'s having problems with parliament and the king slips away to the Isle of Wight while trying to make a deal with the Scots for help. especially The Ballet of The Night. This contributes to the decline of Spanish drama.Cardinal Mazarin* picks up where his predecessor left off in the entertainment area. Acting companies disperse. that will influence nineteenth century Romantic playwrights. in which he appears as the Sun. 1647 Back in war torn England. This naturalized Sicilian will continue the policies of his mentor. books are censored for "scurrilities and gross jests". Louis XIV* often dances in them.The public theatres are closed in Spain this year and will remain so through 1651. 1645 . This formative stage of his career will last until 1658 [see below. Other theatre buildings are torn down or stand idle. fornication gets you three months in jail and adultery and sodomy are now felonies carrying a death sentence. In this religious allegory God is a playwright. The public will be without a public theatre for 18 years and will be very difficult to attract them back when theatres open again. only he wants snazzier court productions. or touring on the continent. The broad-based Renaissance audience is lost forever. The Globe* theatre is torn down and some of the companies sell off their costume wardrobes. some of them following the royal household into exile in France. 1645 . 1645. but stories explained by a spoken libretto and pantomimed by performers in movements based upon ballroom dances. Cromwell* PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Not the formal dance as we know it.] 1645-1659 Ballet regains popularity. however. There is a momentary lull in the war at this point.) Since he is only five at this time the regent is his mother. Many other actorss simply turn to other trades. He introduces opera to France. 1646 . He will come to be called the Sun King*. but Cardinal Mazarin* wields the power.Calderon* comes out with a play. still wants entertainment so their productions don't stop.swearing and drinking are fined. She does and Torelli comes and introduces the Italian ideal in scene design to France. A visiting commedia dell'arte troupe begs the Queen to bring in set designer Giacomo Torelli to make their productions as appealing as the opera.

Richelieu's successor. The whole thing raises doubts as to whether religious war is worth the effort.) This is the first great all-European peace treaty and gives Sweden and France a good deal.com . 1648 The English Civil War is on again and Cromwell* persuades parliament to embark on a government without a king. This leads to increasing religious tolerance in central Europe. Episcopalians and Presbyterians to get together and support the Royalist cause. does this send shock waves through the crowned heads of Europe. This doesn't go down well with Cromwell's faction and since the army is with him there is a purge in parliament. He will write two every year until his death in 1681. He is busy creating the role of Sun King* for Louis XIV* and he solves this rebellion by forcing all nobles of high rank to live at court where they can be watched for subversive tendencies. Calderon* turns to writing a greater number of religious autos*. rules France for the child-king Louis XIV*. This particular influx into Virginia raises the character and prosperity there by providing a balance to the earlier poor settlers. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In England the law forbidding performances expires and some open performances resume. Boy.has been willing to be lenient with the king but now he switches to requiring unconditional surrender. When that proves too dangerous they perform in private houses. Cardinal Mazarin*. emigrate to America. together with defeated Cavalier forces. This doesn't defeat the few hardy actors remaining. cause a decline in 1652 theatrical writing. who continue to perform illegally at the one remaining theatre. The Hapsburgs are on the short end of the stick and Germany is left a devastated and disorganized mess. Spanish and disparate parts of the Hapsburgs' Holy Roman Empire) ends with the Peace of Westphalia (except the Spanish and French who will keep fighting until 1659. 1649 . the Red Bull*. He copes well with the various protestant factions but really plays havoc with the Catholics and they. The French civil war (of the Fronde. All the autos* presented in Madrid during this time (from 1641 through 1681) are his new works. This won't last long. 1648 In France there is also war. 1649 In England Charles I* is condemned by act of parliament and beheaded. Cromwell* is sent off to Ireland to bring peace and protestant rule. it does not bring an end to the fighting. It also plants the seeds for the next century's revolutions.In England Parliament passes a new law ordering all actors be apprehended as rogues and the interiors of the Fortune*. The main fare seems to be short farcical plays called drolls* which are sort of condensations of longer works. with the public theatres closed. The Thirty Years War* (that religious fracas in Germany involving the Swedes. There is religious contention as well since Cromwell* and his armies belong to churches which are "independent" and this causes the Catholics. (especially to Virginia). bribing officials to look the other way.1648-53) and the continuing war with Spain. The upshot is a trial of the king and the framing of a new constitution called the Agreement of the People. The civil war involves the French nobles trying to regain rights taken from them by Richelieu.In Spain. Salisbury Court* and the Cockpit* are dismantled. The internal factional bickering in parliament is growing and when Cromwell* is off defeating the last of the Cavalier armies parliament makes a separate deal with Charles I*. tennis courts and inns. However. 1647 .pdffactory. French.

1656 .com . In India in the 1650's the Mongol ruler (Aurangzeb) reverses the religious tolerance introduced by Akbar* and sets the empire on a decline. 1655 In the Americas Anglo-Spanish hostilities grow and spread to Europe.pdffactory. reorganizes the church. Virginia alone will show an increase of 25. Thomas Corneille*. after a series of personal disasters.The first of several important works on theatrical practice comes out of the Jesuit schools in Germany. In England the fighting continues as the English heir. The Spanish theatres are reopened this year 1651 Prince Charles is defeated in Scotland in December and the Royalist part of the Civil War is effectively over. to Virginia.Back in France the French drama begins to recover from that modest civil war. 1653 Cromwell* is losing his argument with parliament and forcibly dissolves the Long Parliament. promotes trade and tries to enforce a reformation in manners. rebuilds it and begins training a company of boys.In Austria there is rising interest in the French and Italian theatre stuff. As the Mongols lose their grip the Europeans move in to open up trade and run things themselves. to put on lavish spectacles. Calderon* becomes a priest. He legally unites Scotland. 1651 .Back in England the actors seem to feel the future will be better and one William Beeston* (1606-1682) buys the Salisbury Court*. improves administration of justice.000 by the end of this Civil War period.In Munich (Germany) they open a court theatre and import Francesco Santurini*.In Spain. Prince Charles. In December he becomes "lord protector" under a new constitution. He continues to write autos* until the end of his life but no more secular Spanish plays. This one is Treatise on Perspective* by Dubreuil. From here on he is the only real central authority in the realm. The colonies are growing by the thousands. He puts together a new and more intimidated parliament (remember he has the army behind him) and they resign their powers to him. He is the author of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. part of them political. 1654 . Maryland and South Carolina. Italy's most outstanding designer. As a result there is a large emigration of Scots off to America. Ireland and England. Now that the Thirty Years War is over the courts are trying to be as much like the French as they can. younger brother of Pierre Corneille stages Timocrate. This is supplemented by forced transportation of criminals. 1652 . also organizes a boys company. 1650 In Russia by the 1650's the peasants have become serfs* (a sort of slave. 1650 . Meanwhile Cromwell* is having his problems with the other factions in parliament over constitutional reform and toleration. John Rhodes*. The emperor imports an Italian (Ludovico Burnacini*) from Venice to put on court entertainments. (later Charles II*) lands in Scotland (after all. except they can't be freed or buy their way out) and are legally bound forever to the estates they serve. he is a Scots' Stuart and they proclaim him king) and leads his army south into England. Another man.

but they aren't very good and he always lives in the shadow of his brother. Spain has always had songs and dance so it doesn't matter there.1661. an actor who has ridden out the Puritan Interregnum*.pdffactory. This is an historic moment in French theatre history.Plays done at produced at the PetitBourbon*: Richelieu*'s Palais-Royal*: Les Facheux* . [Note: see the character in Rostand's* Cyrano de Bergerac* who is supposed to be this actor. Monsieur*. The second production is more famous than the first because it is the first real use in England of the Italinate scenery for a public (rather than a court) performance. In England. Louis hates Moliere*'s quiet. These are done at a private house (his home). Don Garcie. Sir William Davenant*.] Fortunately for theatre history and the French stage.1663. Moliere* and his acting company have finally arrived on the Parisian theatrical scene.more than 40 plays. After Moliere*'s death his plays will make up a large and vital part of the French national repertory down to the present day. is born. The darling of the stage at the moment (who is also present for this performance) is Montfleury* who bombastically rants and raves.com . These are referred to as England's first operatic attempts but they are more like the later operettas. Since his company is well trained in the Italian manner for short comic impromptu pieces. He will become France's most important comic writer. censorship and religious intolerance by having music as part of it will provide some interesting experiments in the future of England and France. The English will learn a great deal from this. gets permission to put on two musical plays. But. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin called Moliere* (1622-73) appears before Louis XIV* and his Court acting in Corneille*'s tragedy Nicomede*. ou Le Prince Jaloux* . Rutland House. This business of getting a performance past the restrictions of monopolies.1661. L'Impromptu de Versailles* . Moliere* 1658 . their performance of Le Docteur Amoureuz* is an immediate success. mainly on the strength of Moliere*'s comedies L'Etourdi* and Le Depit amoureux* which had won them acclaim in the provinces. so they certainly don't count as public theatre events. Moliere* is among the first playwrights to bring a play's action inside instead of the more usual Roman habit of playing all the action out-of-doors. Les Precieuses*. it's a start. Moliere*'s plays Court plays . Comedy for the court and the popular commedia dell'arte* are blended and the new form. The public production of the one-act satire. and The Siege of Rhodes*. L'Ecole des Marais* .with music by Lully*.1661. Moliere*'s company is given permission to share the Petit-Bourbon* theatre with an Italian company already in residence. The First Day's Entertainment at Rutland House. this same year caps their success. comedy of manners*. Their reputation grows.Under the patronage of the king's brother. Moliere* quickly offers one of his comedies that have been so successful in the provinces. naturalistic acting style. Le Mariage Force* - PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.

1665. or Le Festin de Pierre* . L'Avare* . What with all the internal disagreements the parliament has been considering the idea of a constitutional monarchy.1668. Two of his best plays arouse so much animosity that the first. is performed for several months and then dropped from the repertory.In Paris Cardinal Mazarin* sends to Italy for that famous scenic designer and builder of theatres.1671.1672. There is plenty of it there and this makes a lot of powerful people mad. This development gives it added urgency.In England William Davenant* takes advantage of the legal loophole in the ban on theatre to present "musical entertainments. This one isn't even published in Moliere*'s lifetime. Tartuffe* . is not permitted to be performed publicly for five years. 1660 . This will make possible settings of increasing complexity. Le Medecin Malgre Lui* . Monsieur de Pourceaugnac* .1664.1666. The School for Wives* questions the right of guardians to dispose of their wards and precipitates an attack on moral grounds. 1658 In England Cromwell* dies and his son Richard Cromwell* becomes lord protector.Corneille*. Designed to be the last word in state-of-the-art theatrical design technology and stage effects. Les Femmes Savantes* . the elder.pdffactory. Les Fourberies de Scapin* .1664. the largest. The army finds him unacceptable and some of the council mistrusts him so he's off to a bad start.1662. The second. L'Ecole des Femmes* . The English will come to this theatre to copy the spectacles and manner of producing them after the Restoration*. ou Le Mari Confondu. best equipped theatre in Europe.1669.1663. Don Juan. La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas* . Le Sicilien. Georges Dandin.1671.1668.1670. Psyche* . He rewrites it twice before it is deemed acceptable.1671. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.1666 . Gaspare Vigarani* (1586-1663) to build a proper theatre for the king. La Critique de L'Ecole des Femmes* . Within it he builds the Salle des Machines*. 1658-59 . Les Amants Magnifiques* . and is thought to be a condemnation of religion.1671 Moliere* devotes most of his work to exposing hypocrisy and pretentiousness in the society around him.1665.1673. the Tuileries*. 1659 The war between France and Spain ends with the Treaty of the Pyrenees this year and France gets some territory including the Spanish Netherlands. Salle des Machines* in Paris 1659 . Even the king can't let it go on publicly although it is widely read and performed privately for members of the Court. La Princesse d'Elide* ." He puts on three such entertainments in the Cockpit* over the course of these two years. returns to writing plays but they are not among his best. Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme* . Tartuffe* is an attack on hypocrisy. 1667.The Petit Bourbon* is torn down and Vigarani* adds a new wing to the king's palace. ou L'Amour Peintre* L'Amour Medecin* .com . Le Malade Imaginaire* .1664. Amphitryon* 1668. 1659 . Le Misanthrope* . the new theatre has a stage depth of 132 feet and a proscenium of only 32 feet.

) They appear at a hastily converted tennis court.000. up and running since he is busy building the Theatre Royal*. He has to be content with regulating the rest of England and collecting fees for licensing plays. marries Anne Hyde. daughter of the Earl of Clarendon. upper- PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. in the French manner. Michael Mohun* at the Red Bull*. Herbert gives out three of these to William Beeston* at the Salisbury Court*. We now begin the English period known as the Restoration*. This leaves Davenant* and Killigrew* with almost complete control over theatrical performance in London. Charles II* has found the French system of theatre monopoly a sensible one so he sets his Master of Revels*. John Ogilby* who held the patent before the civil war gets it renewed now. and John Rhodes* at the Cockpit*. By this time the English colonies in America have a population of about 80. It takes him a little longer to get his troupe. The rush to pin down monopolies is further complicated by a guy named George Jolly* who has been running an English touring company in Germany and had a promise from Charles back in 1655. The upshot of this confusion over licensing is that Herbert and the office of Master of Revels looses the power to license theatres and companies in London. Since there is very little audience established in London this limited monopoly business makes economic sense. English Restoration Theatre Begins 1660 . the Duke's Men*. Eventually things get sorted out. It takes them a year to fix it up and open. duke of York and a Catholic.pdffactory. A new parliament comes in.) In England the Rump Parliament in England got rid of Richard Cromwell* last year (1659) and dissolves itself. 1660 In France Louis XIV* marries Marie Therese of Spain (no doubt adding a little cement to that treaty he signed with Spain last year. This is a licence to perform. It has the first English permanent proscenium arch behind the apron. Unfortunately Charles* isn't aware that Herbert is moving so fast and he (Charles*) gives a monopoly on theatrical production in London to two other guys.In England the theatre quickly revives but in a new French pattern. This will put a real crimp in the development of the English theatre and be a terrific help in getting theatre started in the English colonies in America. sits as a convention and invites Charles II* to come home and be king. The audiences are made up of the court. Although it does not seem relevant at the moment (it will later) Charles II*'s brother James*.The first object of this terrific theatrical space is to produce the shows given in honor of Louis XIV*'s marriage. The first goes to Sir William Davenant*'s troupe called The King's Men* (even though. it now includes women.com . Lincoln's Inn Fields*. The king adds him to the list but the other two patent holders manage to diddle him out of it and hire him to teach actors. It takes all year for these men who get the king's patents to suppress the three Herbert gave licences to. The second patent is given to Thomas Killigrew* (1612-83). Sir Henry Herbert* (who did this job for Charles' father) to work assigning monopolies in the English form of patents* . There is one more patent granted but it is for a theatre in Ireland. for obvious reasons. a dramatist before the theatre closing and one of those who went with the court into French exile.

He puts on L'ecole des maris* [School for husbands*] and a court entertainment. rakes.] In London the Theatre Royal* opens under the patent of Killigrew*. they will be able to do more realistic satires on current manners. Before the Civil War. This is apparently not Charles II*'s fault as the results of his many laisons with numerous mistresses shows. These kinds of plays will be popular for the next twenty years. who does not produce any children. At first. Fortunately it will be published. In London Sir William Davenant*'s The Siege of Rhodes* opens at his new theatre Lincoln's Inn Fields*. The Bores*. Louis XIV* begins to run the country himself.000. In America by this time the population of Virginia is about 40.pdffactory.1661-83) Minister of Finance. The number of African slaves is increasing because the southern plantations are labor intensive. 1661 . In England the new parliament is fiercely Royalist and passes the Act of Uniformity enforcing the use of the Anglican Prayer Book. More emigration to America. He appoints Jean Baptiste Colbert* (fl. They will also try their hands at "heroic" tragedies. their hanger-ons. bullies and ladies of pleasure. Colbert will be a significant figure in the fortunes of France. as part of the ongoing altercation with the Netherlands.class would-be courtiers. The Five Mile Act orders dissenting ministers to remain at least that far from any place they had ever preached in and forbids them teaching at schools.com .000 ministers leave the church in disgust.ieve it or not. the more populous English PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Soon they will come up with something like the new kind of comedies of manners* so popular in Paris. These stringent acts will lead eventually. His works poke fun at many contemporary affectations and at times makes the populace angry because of his disdain for conventions. 1662 . the plays put on by these companies are revivals of pre-commonwealth successes.Moliere* is granted an annual pension by Louis XIV*. to the industrial revolution. 1661 In France Cardinal Mazarin* dies. or le cocu imaginaire*.Moliere* comes out with L'ecole des femmes* [School for Wives*. Since they now use actresses. They also pass an interesting series of Acts repressing religious practice other than the approved Anglican.The first theatre built in Great Britain after the Restoration* opens in Ireland. Around 2. 1660 . Since he has a 22 million franc debt this is a smart move. in the French tradition. Many of these last are involved with the king at one time or another. only men were permitted to act on the stage. This year. The view was that having women on stage was immoral. 1662 Charles II* marries a Portuguese princess. A liberal charter is granted to Connecticut. and his troupe performs exclusively at the Palais Royal*. Catherine of Branganza. It is John Ogilby*'s The Smock Alley* in Dublin. One of the more interesting and informative characters of this period is Samuel Pepys*. There are now about 7. who keeps an extensive Diary* including tons of gossipy information about the theatre. be.000 Dutch in the New Amsterdam area. 1662 .Moliere* comes out with Sganarelle.

having been brought up by his grandparents and an aunt who becomes the Abbess of Port-Royal* (Jansenists*).pdffactory. This astronomical "sign" together with that plague in Holland makes the English nervous and they consider going to war with the Dutch. that smart Minister of Finance. Thereafter the play progresses through interior action as the hero or heroine fights psychological battles within themselves. Much too much rain and long. In Dresden between now and 1667 they put up an opera house. lighting has become very important.com . This book has a terrific section on perspective scenery and "Four Different Methods of Lighting. Furttenbach* the elder publishes his final work containing information on theatrical production. 1664 There is a comet this year. He also founds an artistic academy in Paris. Racine* 1664 . into a province and makes Quebec its capital.In England we are beginning to get the earliest of those Restoration* comedies.1669 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It is successful.) 1663 . He solves the thorny problems of sticking to one place and a short time by having these characters fight inner battles between duties and desires. There is terrible weather this winter. on the overhead borders.000 dying every week in Amsterdam alone. La Thebaide*. There are oil lamps. the tragedy. hard freezes. 1663 In France. In the summer of 1664 England closes down trade with the Dutch in hopes of preventing the plague from reaching the British Isles. as the English gossip Pepys* tells us. This year Moliere* puts on Racine* 's first play. Noble Mirror of Art*. He uses the obligatory simple plots and creates very complex characters.assisted by naval forces. The Indian Queen*. 1664 . 1663 The plague* (Bubonic). as an area light for a throne or other spots needing highlighting. behind a board shield as foot lights and. Colbert*.Jean Racine* (1639-99). Racine*'s plays: Britannicus* . take over the the Dutch colony and rename it New York (after the king's brother. which has been active around Europe for some -64 years. Love in a Tub* by Geroge Etherege*. The locale and action are set by opening each play with the protagonist telling all to a confidante." Since all this theatre stuff is going on indoors. the Duke of York. up in Canada. with mica reflectors behind them. escapes to Paris and is quickly accepted in literary circles. fixed in brackets on the back of wings. reaches Holland in 1663-64. by John Dryden* (1631-1700) .The German. forms the American colony of New France. in a reflective tin box. He will raise French tragedy to its peak. the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. Racine* uses the strict Unities set up by the French Academy to his advantage. It gets pretty bad with 1. We also get a heroic tragedy. This is bad news since this part of Europe is a major import-export spot and the plague can travel all over from here.

1668 Iphigenie* . 1665 . bigger and brighter than last year's.1677 1665 This is the year of English disaster. But with the spring thaw and warmer weather we get the great Plague* of London. also called The Bear and the Cub*. Northern colonies are largely under the Puritan influence which forbids theatre. This makes Moliere* pretty mad. does his first play.La Thebaide* . 1665 Exploration is still going on in America where the French Marquette and -75 Jolliet are busy exploring the Mississippi.In America we hear of the first play in English. There have been weeks of drought through the end of August. is gone and the fire spreads to later additions. Alexandre le Grand*. Moliere* also accepts Racine*'s second play. There is worse to come. Ye Bear and ye Cub* being done in Virginia. most people are too busy just trying to survive. Only 75 acres within the city remain unburnt.000 people homeless. Since Pepys* is running around London. Between July and October at least 68. Roger Boyle* (1621-79). but two weeks after his production opens Racine* lets the company at the Hotel de Bourgogne* do it in direct competition.1673 Les Plaideurs* .1665 Bajazet* . A guy named Daniel Defoe* (who is only five at this time) will write a really harrowing account of this in his book A Journal of the Plague Year*. Missouri and Arkansas rivers. this is bad news for the theatre.596 people die in England. 1665 . England declares war on Holland. as Pepys* tells us.1667 Mithridate* . An additional 63 acres outside the walls perish. carrying messages from the king to rouse fire fighters. Old London.1674 [his only comedy] Phedre* . Six days later. The winter's hard freeze doesn't break until March and at that time Pepys* tells us of a second comet. 1666 In England. in a bakery in Pudding Lane near London Bridge. Lully* composes the music for them. In Spain Phillip IV* dies and court performances cease for the next five years.com . The Tragedy of Mustapha*. and spreads over the city. with singing and dancing. The English are still bunched up in the fertile land east of the Appalachian mountain range. As we saw in earlier plagues. Ninety percent of the living quarters are destroyed and 200. All theatre in the new world is strictly amateur. This is the earliest record of any theatrical performance in the American colonies. 1665 .1672 Amdromaque* . All of the finest public and private city buildings are gone. he gives us a terrific eyewitness account. He produces and writes a series of these. September 1.pdffactory. There is a record of three men being arrested in Virginia for performing this playlet. the city is a smoldering ruin. within the walls.1670 Alexandre le Grand* . and besides. but there is more to come.In England one of those writers of heroic tragedy. The fire breaks out on Saturday.Moliere*'s company becomes known as the King's Players* but he also has to help out with the Comedie-Ballets*. this is the year of the great fire which destroys most of London. The New World is a harsh one. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.1664 Bernice* .

Sir Christopher Wren* (1632-1723) proposes plans for the rebuilding of the city. One of the unexpected benefits of the devasting fire is the opportunity to rebuild much of the city.In Italy the box set (that is a set which has side walls and a ceiling rather than just wings and borders) is apparently in use. This begins Vienna's reign as the most important center for opera production in Europe for the next eighty years. French. requiring better sanitation. to leave Moliere* 's company and come to the Hotel de Bourgogne* to play the lead in his new play. Hatred against Catholics intensifies and stiffer laws are passed against them. the play is an outstanding success and puts Racine* right up there rivaling Corneille*. A gifted architect. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. wardrobes. wider streets and building of brick or stone for the new London.Racine* comes out with another tragedy. Fabrizio Carini Motta* (1627-1699). comes out with a work called Construction of Theatres and Theatrical Machinery*. Champmesle*. of whom we will hear more later in relation to his theatres. The rebuilding of London will take years. Amdromaque*. buildings and scenery. 1667 In England there is now the Rebuilding Act. In Austria they open an elaborate court theatre in Vienna to stage works by composers and librettists of opera they want to bring in from Italy. is now in ruins. Les Plaideurs*. already strained by the war. Anyway. 1666 . the actress Mlle. Scenic delights that had been reserved for the British court before the fire. Interestingly enough the poor lady dies the following year and there is some nasty gossip that Racine* had her removed to make way for his new mistress. who comes from the Marais* theatre to play Heromine to Du Parc's Andromaque. A director of theatrical activities in Mantua. Much of the prominent work will be designed by Sir Christopher Wren*. The English economy. After a slow start it really takes off in popularity and is constantly revived.In the great fire of London there is great loss of theatre records. Motta gives a good summary of theatre stage practice up to this time. The financial loss is incalculable although it is estimated at ten million pounds.pdffactory. will soon be available to the paying public. Britannicus. Many of these are killed in riots.The fire is variously attributed to Catholics.Racine* gets his mistress. He will be best known for designing and rebuilding St Paul's Cathedral. arrested and otherwise attacked. This box set doesn't seem to be widely used. Racine* comes out with his only comedy. du Parc*. We are interested in him because he rebuilds several prominent theatres. 1667 . Hunger and riots continue through the winter.* which isn't very popular. 1668 . However the leading Italian had just left town and so it is done at the Hotel de Bourgogne*. which is intended for the Italian actors at the Palais-Royal*. Dutch and foreigners in general. the actress Mlle. In it Motta* describes how the flats attached to the chariots can have another flat hinged to them so that they can be folded out to fill that empty space between each set of wings. This finishes it for Moliere* and he never speaks to Racine* again.com . 1669 . His theatre designs bring the latest theatre architecture for the Italinate style of production to England. London booksellers lose their entire stock. scripts.

One of those new theatres designed by Sir Christopher Wren* opens. 1670 . which burlesques the typical themes and plot devices of these heroic works. This will be relevant in setting the northern boundary of what will become the United States. too. Iphigenie*. They are both working on plays with the same subject matter.In London the new Drury Lane Theatre* opens with Killigrew*'s company. some of his enemies get a hack writer named Pradon* to do a play on the same subject and have it produced two days after Phedre* opens. This year he comes out with his greatest work. because Jame's brother.Racine*'s Mithridate* joins his last year's play in showing historical. It. written this year. Everybody likes Racine*'s play better.pdffactory. 1673 In England. His two daughters by the first are Protestant and marry Protestants (Mary* to William of Orange* and Anne* to Prince George of Denmark. At his death Lully* takes over the Palais-Royal* and Moliere*'s troupe joins with that of the Theatre Marais* to open a new theater in the rue Guenegaud*. 1674 . is apparently designed by Wren*.) This second wife is Catholic and will produce a son.Racine* quits fooling with oriental subjects and goes back to the Greeks for this year's tragedy. Elkanah Settle* (1648-1724). the king (Charles II) has no legitimate heirs. 1674 . There is some criticism for his abandonment of Corneille*'s heroic mood but he is now the leading dramatist in France. the King's brother. 1671 . 1672 .1670 In America the Hudson Bay company is founded to cash in on the increased value of beaver skins. This will make for a sticky succession battle later. The production of Racine*'s Bernice* hits the stage a week before Moliere* produces Corneille's Tite et Bernice*. The Rehearsal*. This will only be a temporary arrangement and Louis XIV* begins to plan the future of theatre in France. In England the Theatre Royal* burns down and Killigrew* commissions another on the same site.Racine*'s career is about to come to an abrupt end.In England. That religious ban on church rites for actors is still very strong and they have to bury him in an unmarked grave at night.This year there is an unfortunate run in between Racine* and Corneille* . Phedre*. Even though there are no public Church ceremonies thousands follow the torchlit burial procession through the streets. oriental subjects overcome by degrading passions. His enemies PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This one is the Dorset Garden Theatre* for Davenant*'s company.* marries a second wife. 1677 . 1673 . This same year George Villiers* comes out with a comedy.com .Racine*'s Bajazet* goes on stage. Moliere* dies after one of the early performances of Le Malade Imaginaire. This comedy will remain popular a lot longer than the tragedies. It's a brilliant success. another writer of heroic tragedy. comes out with Cambyses. also named James. King of Persia*. But. James.

] The organization of the Comedie Francaise* resembles that of it's original medieval parent. Needless to say Racine* gets huffy about this (despite the fact that he had done the same thing to Corneille*. One of Charles II*'s illegitimate sons tours the country trying to raise support but the king declares him illegitimate so that his brother James* can inherit. we have a guy named Titus Oates* who fabricates what will be called the "Popish Plot. as a "regularized" adaptation of Shakespeare*'s Anthony and Cleopatra*. the Confrerie de la Passion*. and go back to Port-Royal* to study and record contemporary French history. Ever since the Civil War (which ended only 18 years ago) the Protestants have been afraid of loosing their hard-won rights and the Catholics have been scheming to regain those that they lost (when England turned Anglican under Henry VIII)*. In England the last of those heroic tragedy writers.* on the throne and make it legal for the king to be catholic. Mlle. There are some variations since the casting of a new play is done by the author. Charles II* has to sign the Act of Habeas Corpus to prevent arbitrary imprisonment but the country is seething with revolutionary fervor.pdffactory. This seems to be the tail end of the heroic stuff because John Dryden* is starting a new tragic style based on the French neoclassic simplicity and rules. It is a cooperative society where each permanent member actor holds a share. back in 1670) and when he gets the chance this same year to become Louis XIV*'s historiographer. Since the crown has been planning to bring to theatre something of the order and excellence the Academy was bringing to literature. with the new ones holding some fraction (a half or a quarter) of a share. This brought on a crisis in the Parisian theatre with everybody trying to inherit the prestige of Moliere and not doing much theatre. left to join the Guenegaud* troupe. he gives up writing for the theatre. Now. Champmesle*. The plot fails. the dilemma is resolved by a crown order to form a national company with a monopoly of spoken drama in French. make up with his home town. The shareholders make all company decisions from choosing the plays to choosing their own parts in them. but the attempt puts the country in a tizzy.*) is to be put on the throne. The Comedie Francaise* 1680 . Now the Catholics are arguing and conniving to put Charles II's* Catholic brother.com . Nathaniel Lee* (1653-1692).In France the Comedie Francaise* is formed making the world's first national theater. [This was the way this period started but it got out of hand. the Hotel de Bourgogne*'s principal tragic actress. The Anglicans and Protestants are working to forbid any king to be Catholic. It happens this way: In 1679. Plots and counter-plots abound and things are messy. in the midst of this Catholic-not Catholic debate." in which the king (Charles II*) is to be eliminated and his catholic brother (James. Later he will get religion.pack the audiences and make sure that the hack's play gets more acclaim than Racine*'s does. who PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. marries and raises seven kids. 1679 A new parliament passes the Exclusion Bill (excluding Catholics from the throne) to prevent the Catholic James* from getting to the throne but the House of Lords throws out the bill. 1678 In England the debate over who should succeed Charles II* and the big problem is religion. James. comes out with The Rival Queens*. He writes All for Love* this year.

***************************** Afterword We leave the French with the last of their great neoclassic playwrights dead or retired. the Comedie Italienne*. full members. and the ballet. After 20 years service an actor or actress is entitled to a pension for life. actors can't refuse a role. This period can last from a few weeks to years before an opening occurs in the permanent membership. French and Germans will be advancing theatre architecture and scenery as they concern themselves with opera and ballet more than straight theatre. their organization of actors. For this entrance level work they get a fixed salary and are called pensionnaires*.pdffactory. We will take note of developments in France as they occur. up and running. influence flavors the English theatre. which is now assigned a home in the Hotel de Bourgogne*. scenery. Similar to the Academy.usually writes his plays with certain actors in mind. Actors who want to enter the society are chosen on merit. They split the profits according to the full or partial share each holds. the Italian troupe. or doyen*. of the company. next CHAP11 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER ELEVEN Theatre in the Age of Reason 1680-1770 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and through them the Italian. The Italians. conserving the great works and styles of the past and gradually becoming stale until things get shaken up in the French Revolution. When the society decides the cast. the Comedie Francaise. which is the name now given to the commedia dell'arte* performers. called societaire*s. The Comedie Francaise* will be a conservative group. The retirement benefits are pretty good. are only selected to replace a member who has died or retired. If the members like what they see. Other roles in revivals are cast by the company in consultation. and the development of architecture. The actor with the longest service is the head. all well under way. the new kid on the block is taken on probation. They pick a role in a comedy and a tragedy to perform for their debut.com . The next major theatrical advancements in playwrighting and acting will occur in England as the French. but their first great theatre period is over. The new company is to perform in the Guenegaud* and is officially called the Comedie Francaise* to distinguish it from the other official resident Paris theatre troupe.

The rise of the powerful mercantile class is given a boost by the changes in attitude and emphasis among the philosophers and intellectual leaders. in A Discourse on Method*. We will take note of some of the more prominent of these enlightened rulers as we encounter them. superstition. the English. This is also the Age of Enlightenment* where reason is applied to public policy.com . Rulers strive to run their countries in an enlightened manner for the benefit of their subjects. The Age of Reason* will continue throughout the period covered in this chapter until it comes into collision with the next great idea. Scientific thinkers are attempting to be objective about what they see. He is particularly relevant for advocating a new systematic analysis of knowledge. The search for "fundamental laws".Introduction The English Restoration* has. This last great theatrical flourish of a society led by kings and nobility will gradually fade into a society led by the mercantile middle class. In England the merchant class is already rising on the tide of investments and ventures around the world. With the American colonies off to a profitable start. Thinkers are finally freeing themselves from slavishly following Aristotle as they discover that he was quite wrong about a number of things. In social and political thought there are new considerations about how society should be organized and how governments should be run. Scientific progress is rapid and widespread. through the expressions of "natural philosophers" into a new outlook.). owing much to two early thinkers: Francis Bacon* (1561-1626) was an English philosopher and writer." The neoclassic views of the Renaissance are beginning to change. already begun in 1660. Of course. improved the telescope for astronomical use and was denounced and later tried by the Inquisition for heretical views that the earth and planets revolve around the sun. moral and political. it is an Age of Faith. "I think. Theatre will adapt itself to serve new masters. in which the central concern is addressing the problem. intended to replace Aristotle's deductive logic with an inductive method in interpreting nature. Dutch and French are staking out colonial areas in India and the Far East. Gradually. of course. At the moment it may be useful to be aware of some of the major participants since this is the time when the foundations of our current thinking are established. Moreover. is undertaken in all realms. The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Reason* has already begun in the philosophical works of Rene Descartes (15961650). Romanticism*.pdffactory. "enlightenment" is interpreted differently by each ruler and mustn't infringe on their authority. like the "laws" of nature. of how to insure the rule of right reason here on earth. reason will grow and flower as nature intended. Galileo Galilei* (1564-1642) was an Italian astronomer and physicist who conceived the three laws of motion later formulated by Newton. therefore I am. theatre will find new audiences and change to meet their interests and preferences. bad laws. The Age of Enlightenment* is particularly evident in a new scientific way of looking at things. In 1637 he wrote. if given a good environment (free of ignorance. This new view holds that reason is the way the mind naturally works and. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. etc. but irreversibly.

] He asserts that man is the product of his environment. The seventeenth century produces a number of thinkers whose investigations lead them to reappraisals of current views in the Christian religion." There is the growth of "natural religion". David Hume* (1711-1776) is a Scots philosopher known for his philosophical skepticism (Humism. John Locke* (1632-1704) is better remembered by the general population for his work in political theory [see below. by applying Decartes method of enquiry. He is remembered for giving the first accurate descriptions of a number of things he sees. totally unconnected with Christianity. His work. especially microorganisms. scientist and philosopher [which makes it difficult to know where to put him. This is an attempt to bring religion into a viable relation with the explosion of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Carl Linnaeus* (von Linne) (1707-1778) is a Swedish botanist and the father of the modern system of botany. with others. he champions freedom and sympathizes with American and French people in their struggles for liberty. We owe our current Social Sciences to this guy. Antoine Laurent Lavoiser* (1743-1794) is a French chemist and the founder of modern chemistry. W.] His experiments with electricity place him among the scientists.com . Religion: Travelers and explorers find people worshiping deities. He is a follower of Descartes* and the most eminent expounder of pantheism. George Berkeley* (1685-1753) is an Irish philosopher who lives in America from 1728-31.pdffactory. develops calculus. In his principal work in theology he discusses the problem of evil and a defense of optimism [see Voltaire below. Philosophic progress is based on some earlier men: Rene Descartes* (1596-1650) "Cartesian rationalism" is the leading theory whereby man might. He names oxygen. He seeks to determine the laws and limits of man's knowledge while avoiding dogmatism. Leibniz* (1646-1716) is a German philosopher and mathematician. discover basic axioms on which to build a "social science" as accurate and valid as physical sciences. His political accomplishments will be addressed later. but his work in founding libraries and establishing the postal system need to be remembered. puts forth a theory of the formation of chemical compounds.) G. Benjamin Franklin* (1706-1790) is an American statesman. The intelligentsia consider that religion should be based on rationality and move to "deism" and "natural virtue" instead of "original sin.] David Hartley* is an English physician and philosopher who lays the foundation for psychology and is active in education. The old architecture of a Christian cosmos with God at the top and man in the center is being rethought. especially in England. The emphasis in now on rational inquiry and a search for empirical data to support views. Sir Issac Newton* (1642-1727) is an English natural philosopher and mathematician who conceives the idea of universal gravitation (1665. Liberal in his religious views. This leads to rethinking ideas of religion. together with Newton*'s. Baruch Spinoza* (1632-77) is a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese-Jewish extraction.Scientific progress is carried on by such figures as: Anton van Leeuwenhoeck* (1632-1723) who improves the microscope and discovers unexpected complexities of what can be seen. works out the system of chemical nomenclature that is the basis of our present system. that give every evidence of virtue and morality.) Immanuel Kant* (1724-1804) is a German metaphysician and transcendental philosopher and the founder of critical philosophy. and.

He begins the notion of the "noble savage." known for his Edict of Toleration. or sensualism.com . Enlightened despotism is found in several rulers: Peter I the Great* (1672-1725) renowned for introducing European civilization into Russia and raising his country to a recognized place among European powers. Aristocratic nobles turn more to opera and ballet and regular theatre caters to the increasingly affluent middle-class merchants. supported by the success of the English Civil War. which puts forth the notion of "enlightened self-interest. Marquis de Condorcet* (1743-94) is active politically in the aftermath of the French Revolution (with the Girondists) writing the Progress of the Human Spirit*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. becomes the King of Prussia. He attempts a systematic survey of human nature reflected in his Essay on Man* (1733. influencing the revolutions of the eighteenth century and gradually decreasing the number of "absolute" rulers in the western world.pdffactory.) This is an age of encyclopedias when a number of writers strive to put all this new knowledge together with the old. will grow and spread. then the community has the right to rebel. The triumph of innocent virtue rewarded and evil forces punished delights the public most. Both comedy and serious plays are transformed into "sentimental" forms.scientific discoveries (such as Galileo*'s discovery that the solar system revolves around the sun) and a rational view of the universe. Joseph II* (1741-90) of Austria/Germany and Holy Roman Emperor is one of the best examples of the "benevolent despot. He is best known for his military prowess but also excels as an enlightened administrator and is an admirer of George Washington*. Political theory: John Locke* begins the development with his 1690 publication Two Treatises of Government* in which he puts forth the view that government is responsible to the governed as a consequence of a mythical contract entered into when society was first formed. His followers and elaborators in France include: Montesquieu* (16891755) who is a lawyer and political philosopher. Catherine II the Great* (1729-96) of Russia is also known for extending her empire. but she identifies with the Russian people. Frederick the Great* (1712-1786)." Authors who reflect the Enlightenment: Alexander Pope* (16881733) is an English poet. This work is condemned by the Sorbonne and publicly burned because in it he expounds his doctrine of sensationalism. If this contract is broken by a ruler. Jean Jacques Rousseau* (1712-1778) who lives mainly in Paris and is an associate of Diderot. Economic theory: Adam Smith* will write the Wealth of Nations* in 1776. The combination of the ideas of the Enlightenment* and the inclinations of the middle class lead to theatre fare in which "sentiments" predominate. The coming Romantic movement will like it. We will. corresponds with Voltaire* and is a disciple of the encyclopedists. Clause Adrien Helvetius* (1715-1771) is a French philosopher who writes De l'Esprit* in 1758. This idea." Denis Diderot* (1713-1784) is best known for editing the Encyclopedia* although he also writes two plays and does a lot of art and theatre criticism. One of his more influential acts is when he sells his library to Catherine II* of Russia.

The proscenium arch is now a permanent feature. and traps in the floor and flying machinery hanging from above. there are grooves for wings and shutters. The English Restoration Theatre at this time: WHERE After the various fires the important usable theatres in London are: Christopher Wren*'s Dorset Garden Theatre*." The playwrights and members of the company know their audiences personally and reflect their interests and tastes. while acting and playwrighting flourishes in the public theatre. The trend is toward paying actors a salary and providing benefit nights in which the night's PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Drury Lane Theatre*. ACTORS The performances start fairly early in the afternoon since the audience doesn't go to work. These are the only theatre companies permitted to put on plays in England. Lincoln's Inn Fields* seats less. Those who live outside London are regarded as culturally deprived and of no account in "society. This will change gradually as the period goes on. but the English stages feature a large apron in front of the arch. The audience space has a raked pit. have to follow architectural and scenic innovations through Italian and Austrian opera presented by and for nobility. The roll drop is another mainstay of the background scenery. In this limited society everyone knows everyone else and they all live in London. There are a couple of licenses for theatre in the provinces.The English Restoration Continues and Becomes the Age of Great Acting Introduction: The actual restoration of the king is now twenty years in the past. Unlike the French. The two original patents were granted to William Davenant* and Thomas Killigrew*. It is also here that audience seating begins to encroach on both sides. The king. The plague and fire have come and gone and rebuilding London is well in hand. built by Davenant* to accommodate operatic spectacles. The scenery is behind the arch where the stage floor is raked. This does not include Ireland which has its own patent.COMPANIES Basically there are two patent companies in London. Thomas Betterton* and Henry Harris (until 1677.therefore. at least two galleries (or balconies) and lots of boxes. 1680 . his court and all sorts of hangers-on make up the mainstay of the theatre audience. then it is William Smith) take over the artistic direction with the Davenant family controlling the finances and the patent. HOW . When Davenant* died in 1668 two actors. Killigrew* doesn't manage his company very well and in 1682 the two companies merge. WHO. there are usually benches in the pit rather than standing only.pdffactory.AND WHO. used earlier by Davenant* and not in use at this time.com . The rest of the English population is still suspicious of the theatre and we will hear more of their views. Obviously there are also going to be "illegal" theatres and productions. seating 650 people and built by Killigrew*. It is on this forestage that all the action takes place. On the stage we have actors and actresses who began the period as shareholders but the financial arrangements are changing too.

from the theatre in Dublin. of intrigue. That works fine for the contemporary comedies but seems strange to us for plays that are supposed to take place. and. WHAT The types of plays and theatrical entertainments being given in these theatres include: tragedy written in blank verse. best seen in Thomas Otway*'s The Orphan*. The Country Wife* 1675. The next wave of important actors will come. The plays are rehearsed by the playwright (if he is alive) for the first three rehearsals. There is a traditional way of playing classic roles (that is. The Plain Dealer* 1676) William Congreve* (1670- PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. If it takes place in a chamber it is the same chamber they used for a different play last week. farce) and especially comedy of manners*. That is. The Man of Mode* 1676) William Wycherley* (Love in a Wood* 1671. for example. no matter what the play is. Elizabeth Barry* (1658-1713) leading tragic roles with Betterton*. roles in plays that are revived frequently) and it is handed down from actor to actor. audiences come to see their favorite actors no matter what play they are in. The scenery is made up of stock sets used over and over again. (1680).com . ACTRESSES Nell Gwynn* (1650-1687) brief career as a comedian and dancer 1665-69. [by 1750 this changes and actors try new ways of interpreting old roles] Acting style is oratorical (or declamatory) which means that the actor with the lines comes to center stage and speaks his lines beautifully to the assembled audience. The Gentleman Dancing Master* 1672. This is logical since there are audience members sitting on the stage and the actors can't move around with much freedom. ACTORS Thomas Betterton* (1635-1710) is regarded as the greatest actor of his day. This whole financial business will gradually change. in classical Rome. We are moving into a time when the actors are more important than the plays. The most interesting and enduring plays of this period are those known as comedy of manners* and the more important authors of these are: Sir George Etherege* (She Would if She Could* 1668. especially in heroic and tragic parts.pdffactory. After that the actors rehearse for no more than two weeks. 1663-1748) in comedy of manners beginning 1680. in large part. an English version of opera which uses Shakespeare*'s plays and new works by Dryden* and has spoken passages. The other actors fall far behind him. all contemporary clothes. comedy of all kinds (of "humours". The costumes are supplied by the actors with a company wardrobe for those who don't have something good enough. but at the moment the number of potential audience members is very small and this means there is a definite limit to the number of performances and the number of plays needed. The author gets the proceeds of the third night of a run.proceeds (less expenses) goes to the actor. They are. of course. This is the period when Henry Purcell* (1659-1695) is starting to write incidental music for plays. Anne Bracegirdle* (c. This is becoming the way to pay playwrights too.

The Rover. WOMEN PLAYWRIGHTS We are coming into a period with a large number of women playwrights. is just the thing that will lead the American colonies to insist on putting the separation of church and ctate business into their Constitution." in which the Catholic view is unsuccessful at the moment. 1671-1697) comes out with the popular London Cuckolds*. The Germans in Hamburg and Leipzig are also fairly involved with opera.Because of financial difficulties the companies of Davenant* and Killigrew* merge. [This business of having an enforced state religion. We will hear more from this town later in the next chapter.In Paris the French composer Jean Baptiste Lully* (who wrote music for Moliere*) comes out with his opera. Edward Ravenscroft* (fl.The Spanish theatrical Renaissance comes to an end with the death this year of Calderon*. the town of Gotha* builds an opera house. He calls it Louisiana* . The Dorset Garden Theatre* is now seldom used. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He wants a return to an absolute monarchy and a reestablishment of Catholicism as the national religion. The first and best known of this band is Aphra Behn* (1641-89). The title role is a favorite for leading actors. the Banish't Cavaliers*. or. performing mainly at the Drury Lane Theatre*. However. In England the leading writer of farce. The End of the Seventeenth Century 1681 . which makes sense since she spent the Dutch war being a spy. Many of these Protestants emigrate to North America and many others go to England and Holland. 1682 .com . 1683 In the tiny Duchy of Saxony. She is the first Englishwoman we know about to make a living as a writer. The conflict is called the "Glorious Revolution. ballet and foreign troupes touring. We will look at his work later. moon and earth. the best known nowadays of all in this period. They are among the most successful dramatists of their time and some of their plays continue to be produced into the nineteenth century. Armide et Renaud*. first done in 1678. which persecutes everybody who doesn. In France Louis XIV* revokes the Edict of Nantes* (that agreement that permittedreligious tolerance) and exiles thousands of French Protestants (called Huguenots*). is yet to come.1729).t belong to that particualr faith. 1682 La Salle* goes down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico and claims all the land in the valley for Louis XIV. all Chinese ports are opened to foreign trade. is often revived throughout the period in a modified version. In America we find the first German immigrants. This is just what Parliament has been afraid of and there is strong opposition to his views. 1683 Newton* explains his mathematical theory on tides and the gravitational attraction of the sun. Her most successful plays are comedies of intrigue.] In the Far East. 1685 In England Charles II* dies and his Catholic brother James II* comes to the throne. the controversy will continue without breaking into actual warfare.pdffactory. They tend to be very industrious and skilled workers which is a big help in the colonies. 1686 .

They accept and parliament ratifies the declaration as the Bill of Rights.com . Cyr. Germain-des-Pres.Racine* (now in retirement at Port Royal) is persuaded to write a play (Esther*) for Mme. but the Test Act (which tests your religious affiliation) has not been repealed and there is still a lot of controversy. 1688 . This brings to an end the "Glorious Revolution. Another crisis is on the way over this attempt to restore Catholic influence in the country. He does and James* quits without a fight at the moment. This oversight will lead to a later revolution in America." Parliament meets in convention and decides to offer the crown to William and Mary* jointly.) 1689 James II* tries to make a comeback and lands with an army in Ireland but William II* beats him soundly and James gives up next year. This is terrific for England but it doesn't cover the rights of overseas colonists. 1688 England is so mad at James II* about the Catholic business and his attempts to restore absolute monarchy that open revolt seems a real possibility. They both accept these conditions and this marks the beginning of the British constitutional monarchy*.1687 . 1689 . The Comedie Francaise* moves into a new theatre built especially for them out of a tennis court of the Etoile* in St. Instead of a real armed conflict. However parliament insists on certain conditions. with a libretto by Nahum Tate* (who is better remembered for his adaptations of Shakespeare's tragedies with happy endings.Charles Davenant sells his controlling interest in the theatre to his brother Alexander. 1687 The English Catholics win a victory when parliament passes exemptions for Catholics from the Test Act. which is not interesting in itself but is a forerunner of a theatrical trend that will lead to the English pantomime. we now have two British political parties.In England. joining his Catholic wife and son in exile in France. Peter I the Great* seizes the Russian throne from his half-sister and begins his attempts to turn Russia into a modern state. After all that parliamentary leadership since the first Charles fight in 1640. parliament invites Netherlands's ruler. Aphra Behn* brings out a pantomime-farce. By the author's request. William II and Mary I* have to accept a Declaration of Right which confirms the ancient rights and privileges of the people before they will be permitted to rule. the Whigs and the Tories. Both Catholics and Dissenters are benefited by suspension of the penal laws against them through the king's Declaration of Indulgence. The Emperor of the Moon*. his fatherin-law.pdffactory. In England Henry Purcell* writes his opera. Parliament requires the rulers submission to parliamentary consent on important matters including who gets picked for succession to the throne. They also sign on to a religious Toleration Act. Dido and Aeneas*. Meanwhile William of Orange* (William II* back home in Orange) signs on as William III* of England and Mary becomes Mary II* of England. to bring over Dutch troops and help them against the king. it is not performed professionally during his lifetime. William of Orange* (James* II's daughter Mary*'s husband. The Whigs back the notion that the throne can be assigned by parliament and the Tories are the last of the Royalists and insist that the throne belongs by heredity and divine right. remember?). This may seem irrelevant now but it makes trouble later. It is very successful anyway. In America the European settlers conflict with the native Indians PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. de Maintenon*'s girl's school at St.

Now you can borrow money from an institution instead of a moneylender.Racine* writes another play (Athalie*) for the girl's school at St. as the financial management of the theatre changes. He will also defend the morality of the stage against Jeremy Collier* [see below. His comedies are praised for their wit. 1695 . dies without children and the monarchy's succession become a matter for serious debate.Alexander Davenant (remember he bought the controlling interest in the theatre?) leaves England to escape his creditors.In England.In England William Congreve* comes out with Love for Love*. 1693 .com . Later (in 1721) this play will be performed and become known as one of his masterpieces. It turns out a lawyer named Christopher Rich* had put up a lot of the money. the actor-manager emerges as the one position that will become the dominant force in shaping British theatre through the end of our period. He will write four more before giving up the theatre in disgust. In this play.* The actors revolt and persuade William PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. William Congreve* 1693 . Now Rich seizes control of the theatre even though he doesn't know anything about the business. 1690 . and a later one. To the west a French explorer gets to the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This is the year the Bank of England is founded. too. Mary II*. Tate*'s versions of these Shakespearean plays will prevail on the stage through the nineteenth century. 1698. Old Bachelor*. the dramatist Nahum Tate* is made poet laureate.This is the year when William Congreve* (1670-1729) comes out with his first brilliant comedy. Congreve* brings the comedy of manners to its peak.pdffactory. This is also the year that the major performers. He has rewritten Shakespeare's* tragedies with happy endings to appeal to the sentimental audiences.] His other comedies are: Double Dealer* (1693) Love For Love* (1695) The Way of the World* (1700) 1694 The English queen. led by Betterton*. Among theatre artists. This. 1690 The English found Calcutta (India) with a colonial administrator for enlarging trade. ownership of theatres pass into the hands of non-theatre people. He turns out to be a really lousy guy to work for and theatrical mutiny begins to brew. grace and brilliance of the dialogue.In England. The brilliant scenes are marked by the wittiest dialogue and terrific characterizations. Cyr. 1691 . is successful but he won't let this one be performed professionally during his lifetime either. 1692 . break away from the management of Rich* at the Drury Lane Theatre. The actor-manager is also the one who has the biggest financial stake in a theatre company.and the Iroquois massacre French settlers near Montreal Canada.

) Love's Last Shift* is the first of a number of plays that show profligate characters pursuing their fashionable objectives until. These will become the headquarters of those new political parties. A Short View of the Immorality and Profaness of the English Stage* emphasizes neoclassic doctrine that theatre should teach and please.The English playwrighting trend toward moral and sentimental comedy shows up in The Constant Couple* by George Farquhar* (1678-1707). Mrs. after one last effort. The French court of Versailles is the model for European courts.The new more sentimental and moral trend shows up in a work by one of the most prominent rising playwrights. 1697 .III* to give them a license to form a second troupe. The Brits open coffee and chocolate houses. This promotes some changes in playwrighting. Colley Cibber* (1671-1757. Farquhar* manages to preserve wit in his plays but avoids problems of moral controversy and sets his plays in the country (which is more conservative and moral) rather than in the fashionable (and wicked) city. This will become home to the Tories* (the royalist party). Daniel Defoe* is writing and recommends income tax in his Essay on Projects* which is full of commercial and social proposals far ahead of his time. He will turn to fiction later. and they open up the Lincoln's Inn Fields* Theatre. That is. White's Chocolate House opens this year. 1698 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.In England. 1697 This year Peter* The Great of Russia goes traveling abroad incognito. triumph in the end. In England. In England and Europe a popular means of transportation is the Sedan chair.com . Ravenscroft* comes out with his other popular farce. and convert to a sentimental moral view. He makes a good case that current English plays don't do either one. In England. The Anatomist*. Dryden* and a few others make public apologies but Congreve* protests and. He is off for a year and a half to study European ways of life in Prussia. they do. at the end. reform. the good are sorely tried by evil. what with all these new foods being imported from distant parts. will give up playwrighting for good. He does. He will learn a lot. Parisian theater is reduced to the Comedie Francaise* and the Opera. and are rewarded while the evil are punished. chocolate and coffee are becoming very fashionable.pdffactory. 1698 In England. they have a change of heart. New plays now show a move toward a more conservative moral position and increasing sentimentality. 1699 .The commedia dell'arte* troupe is expelled from Paris following an alleged attack on Louis XIV*'s second wife. 1696 . Holland. Jeremy Collier* makes an attack on current playwrighting which has considerable merit. 1696 England establishes the Board of Trade to promote the interests of merchants and industry. England and Vienna.

intrigue. The play sparkles with witty dialogue. The war left an PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Germain which runs from February to Easter. 1700 . The French fairs have been big time international affairs since the early middle ages. of beaver skins.Over in America Richard Hunter* obtains permission to give theatrical performances. He changes the old Russian calendar to the Julian calendar* used in Europe. but it sure makes the English unhappy. Connecticut German Theatre Begins To Stir . marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire* and begins the modern European state system. and the St. and the Spanish Renaissance comes to an end.* But. show how the wise and prudent can reach a marriage agreement that can survive among the dangerous ways of their peculiar world. ballet and pantomime. We will hear only occasionally from Spain as an important part of western civilization from here on. This distinction leads. and most brilliant. all driven by their desire for reputation and money. 1700 In Spain the new King is a French Bourbon. In America the Hudson Bay Company is founded to take advantage of the increasing popularity. while reserving two for the "legitimate" theatre. they have competition from the theatres at the fairs. but there is no evidence that he actually does so.* recognizes the "Old Pretender".com . It doesn't work. play. Laurent which goes from the end of June to the end of October.In France there are only two legitimate troupes in Paris: the opera and the Comedie Francaise. This definition enables them to assign certain theatres for the production of Opera. unmarried women are taxed for their spinster state. the son of James II*) as James III* of England. It is full of fops. he makes a start on social reforms. These fairs are not the week long livestock shows we are used to now. it isn't suprising that the French King. Louis will help the "Jacobite" cause by funding attempts on behalf of James III* to regain the English throne. Philip V*.1700 The Peace of Westphalia* (1648) had put an end to the Thirty Years War*. Millamant and Mirabell. Opposing the archconservative church.Congreve*'s last. Obviously these events are in need of entertainment as a regular ingredient. to troupes producing plays with music in them to evade the restriction. In America. and. of course.1699-1702 . (James. The leading pair of lovers. Louis XIV. 1701 Since the French and English have been fighting each other off and on for hundreds of years. In Russia. goes on the stage. The French prohibition against any theatrical group (other than the two legitimate theatres) putting on performances depends on the definition of "legitimate" as a production in which there is only spoken dialogue. These are a combination of a trade fair and a semi-permanent international market.pdffactory. Berlin to be precise. Peter* has returned from his travels abroad and begins all sorts of changes. The Way of the World*. Yale College is founded in New Haven. In Germany. 1700 . The two biggest are the St. value. foolish men and women. Students present plays at Harvard and William and Mary colleges. as it does in England. After this play both the world and its ways begin to change.

Netherlands. Consequently. this decline reaches an all time low and theatre is forced to look to the rising merchant class for new audiences. Now Anne* has come to the throne. beginning a cultural and artistic flowering in Saxony that will last until his son's death in 1763.com . is issued in London. still technically the Holy Roman Empire*. The opening curtain time moves PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. By 1700 opera and Italinate scenery can be found in many of the German and Austrian courts. These characteristics are now being blended with the English clown and the Italian Commedia del'Arte* to give rise to the Hanswurst* (see below. who's been married to a Prince of Denmark but she doesn't share the throne with him. appearing in such guises as Hans Stockfisch* and Pickelhering*. He has appeared throughout the sixteenth century as one who lives foolishly. the popular theatre is to be found mainly at the fairs. Interestingly enough the next King of England will come out of the Germanic kingdom of Hanover. By and large most of this central European area is a political and cultural mess at this time. bishoprics and Free Cities. She also has no children and tends to let other people guide her. only gradually becoming a comic character. The German Narr* is equivalent to the English fool. The typical program there includes two plays followed by a farce. Keep in mind that this part of Europe. is made up of some 300 separate principalities. the Daily Courant.* In 1697. Among other attributes he can be a comic peasant where his assumed stupidity covers slyness. For the sake of convenience it is usually called Germany although it includes a lot of adjacent territory to the east and south. the elector of Saxony* becomes the King of Poland as Augustus II*. Consequently. The first of these English guides are the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough. The Peace settlement enabled the French to take pieces this Holy Roman Empire* territory and Sweden and Denmark rule over other pieces. it is only in the courts of those segments who are able to make economic progress that culture begins to raise a tentative head. The major force within this area is the Archduchy of Austria. Middle Class and Sentimental English Theatre 1702 William III* dies and parliament invites Anne* (James*'s other Protestant daughter) 1665-1714. As the period progresses we will see the rise of new acting methods and a new managerial system which will gradually raise theatrical performers from the misery of strolling players to dignified positions in an assured profession supported by noble patronage.) Attempts have been made to adapt French neoclassic plays to German but the audiences don't like them. This Central European area was the center of the German Reformation in thepreceding century and now is dominated by the Jesuit* school theatre which doesn't encourage professional theatre.impoverished and ravaged Germany. because the ruling Hapsburg*s have family connections all over Europe (Spain. The clown improvises at will. In Denmark serfdom is abolished. Hungary and Italy). The first daily newspaper. In all these the clown is the most prominent figure. Under William and Mary* there had been a gradual decline in the court's interest in theatre.pdffactory. Economic decline continued into the end of the seventeenth century.

This is followed in 1707 with his The Beaux' Stratagem*. The Jesuits are writing many important works on theatre practice. long yellow pants and a white neck ruff. The Recruiting Officer*. John Spencer*'s Hans Stockfisch* and Robert Reynold*'s Pickelhering*. Joseph Anton Stranitsky* (1676-1726) who works mainly in Vienna. Rich*. they are beginning to decline and be suppressed.progressively later in the day to cater to those who work for a living. through the English comedians' Germanspeaking clowns. the English actor Anthony Aston* arrives in America. 1704 In America the first newspaper to survive. His costume becomes a green pointed hat. school drama in the Jesuit* schools reaches its peak with some 769 schools. Peter the Great* (reigns 1682-1725) is trying to westernize Russia and this year he imports a Polish theatre troupe. universities and seminaries in France. A British vogue for Italian opera begins about now.] Hanswurst* is a jolly. but it doesn't prosper. but. Although John Weaver* is beginning this process. This character combines some of the attributes of the Italian Commedia del'Arte*'s zanni* with the medieval fool and various English clowns [from Shakespeare's colleague Will Kempe*. beer-drinking peasant with a Bavarian accent. 1707 . the new Queen's Theatre* doesn't work well for plays and it is now devoted entirely to the production of opera.In London this year. The popularity of this form sets back the development of written drama in German.Farquhar* comes out with another play. 1707 . 1703 . Betterton* moves his company. Germany and Austria.* These are presented in the public theatres as afterpieces to regular plays. 1705 . 1702 . Culture is slowly trickling in.In Germany the traditional clowns have coalesced into a national (even though there isn't any "nation") clown called Hanswurst*. now under the management of Congreve*. He helps establish a vigorous tradition of improvised comedy. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The kinds of plays presented change to meet the interests of a very different audience." is issued. He is given his distinctive traits by the German actor. But it also is devised as a means of pleasing the new. red jacket. 1706 .com . it will take a few years and the efforts of another man to get it up and running. He plays just enough performances in Charleston and New York to pay for his passage back to England. This seems to be a descendant and adaptation of the old court masques. lower class audiences.We come to the beginning of the English pantomime* as John Weaver* organizes dances into a connected story. from Lincoln's Inn Fields* to a new theatre in the Haymarket named Queen's Theatre*. because they are trying to get the monopoly on education and are deep in political intrigues. Both of these will become perennial favorites.In England. In Germany.Back across the Atlantic in the New World. The owner of Lincoln's Inn Fields* Theatre. Much of this kind of theatrical activity is designed to sidestep the licensing laws. the weekly "Boston News-Letter. tears it down and puts up a new building which won't open for a while.pdffactory.

what with all their ship building and turning wood into charcoal for making high quality metal.The first public German theatre opens in Vienna.com .) What with all that European confusion. a John Thomas. "the Examiner. England is running short of wood. war and economic downturn earlier. Even more momentous events are transpiring out in the English countryside. He seems to be one of the people responsible for originating the French Comic Opera (Opera Comique). The next problem delaying technological advancement is transportation. From the Palatinate in Germany. To be prominent means that the public goes to see the actor rather than the play. A Quaker metal worker turns from using charcoal to using coke (coal partially burned to get the impurities out). Turcaret*. In Paris.* comes up with a better coke. When. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 14. George Frederic Handel* (1685-1759. In 1710 he becomes one of the managers and leading players at Drury Lane*." appears. (that's sort of Bavaria). He will soon get into a dispute with the Comedie Francaise* and quit them to write for the theatres at the fairs. the metal-making business shifts into high gear. of England.The European composer.000 emigrate to America. Outstanding English and Irish Actors Between 1710 and 1730 there are a number of prominent actors on the English stage.In England. designed by Christopher Wren.1707 Queen Anne*. finally gets a workable Act of Union with Scotland (the old Cromwellian one failed) and the island is now officially one country. By this time written works (like plays) can be copyrighted for 14 years and playwrights can sell the copyright to theatre companies. a new wave of immigrants starts. 1708 . later this year.* is torn down. 1709 . Also. After the 14 years the copyright reverts to the author and it can be renewed for another 14.pdffactory. one of his workers.* comes out with his outstanding comedy. 1710 .) arrives in London. He is known for his system of subjective idealism (Berkeleianism. a novelist and playwright. He will later (1740) publish his autobiography which is a mine of information on the English theatre 1690-1735. Some of the best known (today) are: Colley Cibber* (1671-1757) who started acting in 1690 and worked for Rich playing leads (especially fops) and writing popular plays. Thomas Newcomen* develops a pumping engine to reduce flooding in the mines and there is now (in coke) unlimited fuel and access (because the ore mines finally aren't flooded) to the ore needed for technological advancement. Alain Rene Lesage. The playwrights get no royalties beyond this original payment. Another ironmonger. the first literary periodical. because the roads are really lousy and it's slow and expensive to move the coal and the ore to the ironmongering shops. In Vienna we find the first appearance of the comedy clown Hanswurst* in suburban theatres. 1709 George Berkeley* (that Irish philosopher) comes out with A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge*. the Dorset Garden Theatre*.

In two more years he will be playing small parts at Drury Lane*. has been king of Hanover since 1698 and is the next in line for the English throne. especially when he plays Falstaff*. Frederick* draws up a 297 page manual for all public employers. aiming for uniformity through extreme discipline (sometimes driving soldiers to suicide. 1713 In England. He sets up a General Directory to translate royal decisions into written instructions and supervise implementation as well. highly disciplined and efficient army.com . he is admitted to the management of Drury Lane*. Although he prefers doing tragedy. George*. 1713 . in 1713. She will be the first actress to be honored with burial in Westminster Abbey. begins in Irish theatre) comes to London in 1700. begins in Irish theatre) was an established actor in tragedy and dashing young hero roles in comedy at Drury Lane* by 1698. audiences love his comic portrayals. She plays both comedy and tragedy. but is best known for her success in high comedy. begins in Irish theatre) who starts acting in 1712 at Smock Alley Theatre* in Dublin. by royal order. The officer class is the Prussian aristocracy ["Junkers"] where military service is a traditional career. becomes one of the managers and leading players there. 1714 Queen Anne* of England dies this year without an heir. parliament's Act of Settlement enables them to go shopping for a suitable ruler. He will build a terrific. He. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. [We will see these guys being hired to fight in the American Revolution by the English.] Frederick* regulates civil life as well. Barton Booth* (1681-1733. They are the ones who begin marching in step. He becomes the finest tragic actor in London. In Prussia witchcraft trials are abolished.) They invent the iron ramrod and increase the speed of musketry. By 1733 these actors will all be dead or retired. later known as Frederick The Great. Thomas Doggett* (1670-1721.) He can't speak English and spends half of most years ruling his home turf in Hanover. 1665-1732. begins in Irish theatre) playing low comedian roles. He plays secondary roles until. This year he succeeds to the British throne as George* I (rules 1714-1727. He quits using foreign mercenaries as troops and develops native forces by requiring all peasants in each canton or district to be liable for two years military service in the rank and file. James*' granddaughter Sophia married into the German house of Hanover and had a son. Frederick I dies and his son Frederick II*.The School of Dance is established at the Paris Opera.pdffactory. No problem. This does not serve England very well. He is the last of the actors who achieve success with a declamatory style. He comes to London in 1691 and joins the management of Drury Lane*in 1710 but quits in 1713. this year marks the last execution for witchcraft. 1713 In Prussia.Robert Wilks* (c. This son.starts ruling. This is where the German rulers of England come from. too. Anne Oldfield* (1683-1730) goes on the stage about 1700. The only well known actor to remain will be James Quin* (1693-1766.

1716 -1717 theatrical season in London is the time when John Rich** (1692-1761). They come back but they are now doing a number of different shows. the son of Christopher Rich*. Oedipe*. at least nine will be revived at regular intervals. There is musical accompaniment for much of the action and lots of grand spectacle. This is the earliest extant American play. becomes the most famous and accomplished English pantomimist of the century. son of the last JamEs II* who got bounced for being Catholic . 1715 In England there is a Jacobite* revolt trying to put the "Old Pretender" (James III*. comes out with his first play. the Italian Commedia del'Arte* is invited back to Paris and the Hotel de Bourgogne*. Robert Hunter*.In England (or he may have been in Holland at the time) Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit* (16861736) comes up with his mercury thermometer with a temperature scale. philosophy. In France. This work provides the Fahrenheit scale in use in America and England. 1716 . Voltaire* (16941778). These are a way of avoiding government restrictions on what company can perform where.com .). England also issues the first bank notes this year. age five. establishes the pattern of English pantomime* with Harlequin Executed*.In America. Louis XIV* dies and his grandson Louis XV*. but at least the Americans know they need theatre buildings and they are starting to do something positive about it. This tragedy is successful and. Rich**. Voltaire* . As is evident by its title this theatrical form owes something to the Italian Commedia del'Arte* as well as John Weaver's dances with a connected story.The first American theater is built by William Levington* of Williamsburg. (who manages both the Lincoln's Inn Fields* and Covent Garden* theatres). the Governor of New York. history. It is uncertain what kind of programs are produced here. 1714 . He is under the regency of the Duc d'Oreleans. acting under the name of Lun*.pdffactory.remember that they call him James III because the French King said so) In France. 1717 In Prussia education is being promoted by Frederick* and school attendance is made compulsory. Virginia*. etc.In Paris vaudevilles and musical comedies appear. 1715 . social advancement and a PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He writes it while imprisoned in the Bastille for writing a political lampoon. There is also a mix of serious scenes featuring classical mythology (a sort of popular version of the earlier court masques*) with hilarious scenes using the commedia characters. While Rich will write only about twenty of these. brings him fame. together with his other writings (plays. publishes a theatrical political satire against his opponents called Androboros*. is crowned. They are also very appealing to the public. 1718 England is at war with Spain again.1718 This year in France one of the most influential theatrical figures of his time. In music Bach* and Handel* are busy writing and performing their works. theatre criticism.

In his works we also see the first influences of the cultures of the Far East creeping into the West.* and they both join a German acting troupe. gets to see his last tragedy. see below 1733). Comedie Larmoyante* (tearful comedy. later adapted for the stage is: Candide* (1759) [a satire on the philosophical optimism of Pope and Leibnitz*] He visits a number of courts of enlightened rulers and corresponds with them throughout his lifetime.Court position. calling it a "tragedy for chambermaids. He becomes a great friend of a number of French actors of the time and will be elected to the French Academy in 1746. He is big on using plays as a vehicle for expressing controversial and philosophical ideas.In Germany.see below] One of his philosophical novels. becoming known as Carolina Neuber. a keen (but not professional) actor and builder of several private theatres where he can do private theatricals. one of the most influential German theatre figures surfaces now. He unceasingly attacks religious bigotry. 1719 France joins England in war on Spain.com . passionately addicted to theatre. She is an excellent actress and will become an exceptional theatre troupe manager. He is exiled from France over a political quarrel and spends 1726-29 in London where he learns English and goes to the playhouses. tyrannical oppression and intolerance." This doesn't prevent him from writing a bunch of drames* himself. 1718 .pdffactory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He will become a very wealthy man. In France the theatrical companies that play the fairs are suppressed. He reads the Restoration playwrights and Shakespeare in the original and really learns from them. He will later oppose the French genre. at the age of 84.] One of his big contributions to theatre is his role in bringing about the elimination of spectators sitting on the stage. He lives to a ripe old age and. This has to do with all that business of founding colonies and foreign trade. influencing several generations of innovative actors and managers. His contemporaries regard his tragedies as comparable to Corneille and Racine but the days of neoclassic tragedy are over. Carolina (or Caroline) (1697-1760) marries Johann Neuber* this year. Among his best known tragedies are: Zaire* (1732) [based on Shakespeare's Othello*] Alzire* (1736) Mahomet ou le Fanatism* (1741) L'Orphelin de la Chine* (1755) Some of his drames* are: L'Enfant prodigue* (1736) Nanine* (1749) [based on Richardson*'s novel . Irene* (1778) performed on the stage of the Comedie Francaise*. So named by Denis Diderot* to describe his own plays. [A drame* is a type of French play. combining tragedy and comedy and dealing seriously with middle-class domestic problems.

pdffactory. The English laws of this time ensure that ownership of land be passed on through the eldest son (who are prohibited from moving to the city to engage in commerce or trade. Not only the weather improves. Johann Christoph Gottsched * (1700-66). profitable turn in the weather. In England the Old Haymarket* Theatre opens. The development of trade leads to the development of insurance to protect against loss and new ways to loan out the excess money to make still more money. as it turns out. Spain occupies Texas. protected from foreign competition by the great Navigation Acts of 1651 (they make all colonies subordinate to parliament and require all trade with them to be in English ships. Opera is never a financial success but continues to attract patronage from the aristocracy (who want to keep up with the Italians and Austrians. Problems with investment speculation make news this year with the bursting of the "South Sea Bubble" speculation craze. London is England's chief port and home to the bulk of the trading interests. This will lead to all sorts of inventions. Of course the weather change isn't confined to England. America. One of the results of all this abundance is earlier marriages and more children and the population begins to rise. 1719 . 1721 In this year it becomes possible to secure patents on inventions in England. all contribute their cargo to the busy English ships. Trade is booming with the import. This year also marks the establishment of regular postal service between London and New England. Also.The Jesuits are expelled from Russia. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. export business taking off like a rocket. the East and West Indies. More people need more houses and more household goods so building and manufacturing take off.The Royal Academy of Music* is founded as the home of opera in England. The plague drops off to almost nothing with a change in the rat population (the kind of rat that carries the plague is pushed out by another kind). but it is here that it will impact social conditions in a dramatic way.com . This summer is the hottest on record and it is only the beginning. Forts are built on the Gold Coast of Africa to protect the African slavers. Africa.) 1720's During this time in Germany a literary critic.) One of the most profitable areas of trade is in slaves from Africa needed to work the English sugar plantations in the West Indies. They also contract to supply slaves for the entire Spanish South American empire. becomes the intellectual theatrical leader of Germany. Russia. Newfoundland. He wants to reform the German stage along the lines of the French neoclassical theatre. English Prosperity Begins to Mushroom 1720 In England there is a startling. Swiss immigrants introduce rifles into America. After two centuries the "mini ice age" is over and the next three decades will bring really fine weather. and.) With the turn to warmer weather landowners are soon rolling in profits.

1723 . He simplifies the Russian alphabet. All physically able men of the landed class are required to serve in the military or civil bureaucracy in order to retain their position and lands. The whole thing is governed by forty departments of state. the theatre raises the ticket prices. civil and judicial. they are often more popular than the play they accompany. gives priority to finding and mining iron. When a new pantomime* is put on. He is now ready to make enlightened social changes in his country. There is a small (22. Wealth is determined exclusively by land where the boyars* (illiterate nobility) hold hereditary landed estates and the lesser nobles have life-time estates and where the peasant serfs* are bound by law to the same patch of land in perpetuity. Although they are only afterpieces to the main play. The characters seem to us unnaturally good and they manage to make their problems melt away. The audience loves it partly because pantomime exploits spectacle. 1721 . The country runs from the Arctic Circle in the north to the Caspian Sea in the south.pdffactory. He also introduces three parallel categories of state servants: military. All these are only the beginning and Peter* only starts the ball rolling. and coal.000) military called the streltsy. to fuel industry. It will take another enlightened ruler to raise the country to a level where theatre becomes a possibility. Peter the Great* concludes a peace treaty with Sweden. copper. Peter* builds up the army. He introduces promotion based on merit and establishes new class structure. who have developed into a hereditary conservative class. The feudal obligations of serf to landowner and landowner to czar are now changed so that the first service owed is to the state.com . giving Russia access to the Baltic. This particular trend in comedy is about to cross over and continue to flourish in tragedy. Peter* abolishes the Patriarchate of Moscow as head of the Church and replaces it with a Holy Governing Synod. establishes a navy.Peter the Great* Peter* is the absolute ruler of a country where the sheer size and ethnically divided population defy change. and six thousand miles from east to west. but this is in keeping with the Age of Reason* view that humans are good by nature and can be redeemed from any bad behavior if their "hearts" are touched. 1722 .The trend in English comedy toward middle class characters and sentimentality reaches its height in The Conscious Lovers* by Sir Richard Steele * (1672-1729). mining. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.By this year the English pantomime* becomes the most popular form of theatrical entertainment in England. This means that a commoner reaching the top level can achieve the status of a hereditary noble. he isn't able to reach very many people. He sends a large number of students to study abroad. Within each of these there are fourteen classes with promotion based strictly on merit. Loosely based on a play by Terence*. Unfortunately. sets up colleges specializing in languages. we find the penniless heroine braving endless trials to discover in the end that she is the daughter of a rich merchant.In Russia. Instead it is intended to arouse noble sentiments in the hearts of the audience. This reduces the church to a government department of spiritual affairs. promotes the publication of textbooks. established in the sixteenth century as a personal guard for the czar and his family. To deal with the appalling lack of education in Russia Peter* promotes education along secular lines instead of leaving it in the hands of the church. engineering and military affairs. Comedy is no longer funny or intended to amuse. with such a huge and diverse population.

innovations in costuming and company discipline.This progress into scenic extravagance will begin to change the size of the stage so that more and more scenery can be used. 1730 . This same year the theatrical fair companiesare permitted to resume their productions. Unfortunately the audiences don't want more refined theatre. the intellectual capital of Germany and the home of Gottsched*. This year the Dutch explorer. He will also have to deal with the biggest Jacobite* rebellion yet. The piece uses operatic conventions but has spoken dialogue and lyrics set to popular tunes. 1727 . the Italian Commedia del'Arte* company called the Com‚die-Italienne* since 1680. theatre is confined to the court.The first English ballad opera*. 1729 In America. 1725-50 . He had tried it in 1725 but returned to the provinces. 1700-97) comes back to London. In Brazil they are planting coffee for the first time. The superiority of training given the German troops makes them sought after. He plays at Lincoln's Inn PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. her work is very important because all the major actors and heads of prominent German theatre companies will work with and learn their basic theatrical ideas from Carolina Neuber. Like his father. Charles Macklin* (c. He will become involved in wars on the continent to protect Hanover.com . It is produced by Rich** and will be revived frequently down to today. in Scotland. both North and South Carolina become colonies. he doesn't speak English and puts Hanover's interests before England's.This year Carolina Neuber* and Johann form their own theatre company. 1724 In England. 1728 . However. Gottsched* provides translations and imitations of French neoclassic plays and Carolina Neuber* raises the standard of performances by requiring careful rehearsals. [see below 1732] 1727 In England. It won't last long and another of the same name will open soon.* In England the first Goodman's Fields Theatre* opens. is made into a state theatre company called the com‚diens ordinaires du roi**. George* I dies and his son George* II comes to the English and Hanover throne. The Beggar's Opera* by John Gay* (1685-1732) opens. acquiring the right to play the annual fair at Leipzig. He will rule 1727-1760. These are the guys who will show up working for England in the American Revolution.] 1728 North American exploring is still going on. He meets them and they agree to work together to reform the German theatre. gin drinking becomes popular. [Much later Bertolt Brecht* will use this work as the basis for his Threepenny Opera*. In France. The story of low-life in London includes satirical comments on the political situation of the time.This is the year when the Irish actor. Vitus Behring discovers the Behring (or Bering) Strait between Alaska and Russia.In Russia. All this means that there are now three legitimate companies and some semi-legitimate fair companies. 1727 England first begins the use of Hessian mercenaries.pdffactory.

repentant. This will serve the Russians much like the French Academy served the French. This dance master will turn out to be the founder of the Russian ballet. In Philadelphia Benjamin Franklin* starts bringing out "Poor Richard's Almanack." The chief exponent of this style is La Chaussee* (Pierre Claude Nivelle de . Benjamin Franklin* founds a subscription library.The London Merchant* by George Lillo* (1693-1739) comes out in England this year." It will continue publication through 1757.pdffactory. It will encourage playwrighting.Russia: They open the Cadet College for the education of sons of the nobility. opera and a French dance master. These plays mingle pathos and comedy and are the beginning of the move toward "domestic drama. as time goes on. La Fausse Antipathie*. His major plays include: Le Prejuge a la mode* (1735) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The poor guy goes on to kill his uncle and ends. 1731 In America. more famous. patent (that is it is legal) theatre opens. The hero is drawn from everyday life. What is of interest to us is that there is a Society of Lovers of Russian Literature founded in connection with the College. Another. [see below 1741] 1730 . 1733. 1732 This year James Oglethorpe* (1696-1785) gets an English charter to establish a colony in Georgia. Covent Garden* (the land had once been part of a convent garden) is designed by the architect. He has a very naturalistic style which doesn't impress the audiences at first. The Neuber* troupe also comes to Russia on Anna's* watch and leaves shortly after her death. 1732 .In England the popularity of the works of Henry Fielding* (1707-54) reaches its height in the 1730s and then begins to wane. He will be made a member of the French Academy in 1736. Next year.Fields* in comedy and in 1732 he goes to work for Drury Lane*. reigns 1730-40) continues her uncle's cultural interests and imports Commedia del'Arte*. 1730s . He is known for comedies and satires attacking political and literary follies. This play is a landmark in signaling a change of direction in playwrighting.) This year his first play.England: This year the old Goodman's Fields Theatre* closes and a new one with the same name opens. Comedie Larmoyante* 1733 France: There is a new kind of play developing.897. His plays become very popular and are translated into English. Edward Shepherd.In Russia Empress Anna* (niece of Peter the Great and daughter of Ivan V. but on the gallows. Philadelphia to be precise. 1731 . It will come to be known as Comedie Larmoyante*. 1732 . he founds Savannah. Dutch and Italian. Jean-Baptiste Landet*. This play is revived well into the nineteenth century. an apprentice who is led astray by a hooker. comes out.com .* to seat 1.1692-1754. but it will. Georgia. He will later turn to novel writing. It is under the management of Rich**.

) Later Goldoni* will give up on Italy and move to Paris (see below 1761. in Verona. gets the government to pass legislation protecting designers from piracy (Hogarth's Act*.pdffactory. Alexander Pope.* comes out with his Essay on Man*. Pirandello*.] Back to England and America 1735 This year William Hogarth* (1697-1764) the English artist.An Italian playwright.* which is getting pretty dull and monotonous.) He is busy doing his engravings and paintings from 1718-64. The Boors* (1760) The Impresario of Smyrna* (1760) The Fan* (1763) Squabbles in Chioggia* (1770) The Kindly Curmudgeon* (1773) [He dies leaving 150 plays and three volumes of memoirs. Belisario*. His notion of reform includes writing full scripts instead of relying on improvisation. The Servant of Two Masters* (1743) The Wily Widow* (1748) The Good Wife* (1749) The Liar* (1750) The Coffee House* (1750) The Mistress of the Inn* (1751) is regarded as his masterpiece. Carlo Goldoni* (1709-93) comes out with his first play. about 1761.com .Melanide* (1741) Pamela* (1743) (adapted from Richardson*'s novel . Goldoni* 1734 . we will list the major ones here. His work has a great affect on a much later Italian playwright. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He is trying to reform the commedia dell'arte.see above) La Gouvernante* (1747) 1733 The British author. best known as a supreme pictorial satirist.) Since a number of Goldoni*'s plays become classics and are produced with great regularity somewhere in the world every year to this day. He meets with a lot of opposition and hostility from actors and the other Italian playwright who is trying reform in a different way (we will get to him later. engraver and painter.

Her influence will eventually show up in the first national German theatre. It has a big effect on plays and on all theatre activity. These powers will not be modified until 1843. He tries to claim some territory and gets into the War of Austrian Succession* immediately.In England the authority of the Lord Chamberlain to intervene directly in regulating theatres and in acting as censor (mainly in religious and political references) of the plays permitted to be performed is legally spelled out in the Licensing Act of 1737. for the rest of the century. and will last until 1748. Another result is to reduce the demand for new plays. 1741 . It isn't very well thought out. This year William Byrd founds Richmond. Prime Minister Walpole* is very annoyed by the theatrical attacks of the political satires put on at the unlicensed theatres so he rushes a bill through parliament. 1739 . South Carolina.America: Amateurs give a season of three performances in Charleston. 1740 In Prussia Frederick II ( later to be called the Great*) comes to the throne. Virginia. One of the results of the law will be to send English actors off to America to make a living. This war comes out of the crisis created when the male Hapsburg* line dies out. her principles are picked up. 1737 Things are getting organized in America with all this immigration.Germany: One of the actors in Neuber*'s troupe. Johann Friederich Schonemann* (1704-82) leaves to form his own company. 1737 . The law prohibits acting for "gain" in any play not licensed by the Lord Chamberlain and it restricts authorized theatres to the City of Westminster. The validity of Charles II*'s patents has been questioned for about ten years and during the 1730's there are four unlicensed theatres operating in London. perpetuated and extended by other troupes. He will stay for 27 years.com . The actor Konrad Ekhof* (1720-78) joins the troupe this year too. as well as local amateur troupes. First. There will be a whole range of clever ways of getting around the law. Neuber* takes her troupe to Russia where they replace the Commedia del'Arte * company. Strolling players are heard of throughout the colonies. This year Charles Macklin* (see above 1730) persuades the management of Drury Lane* to let him play the role differently.1735 . He takes with him the actress. He becomes famous overnight playing Shylock* as a dignified and tragic figure. and the opportunity to produce plays.pdffactory.In England this is the year of great acting.Carolina Neuber* breaks with Gottsched* and both their careers begin to decline. Ekhof* will develop a more natural acting style and become the first professional theatrical theorist on German dramatic art. there is a really startling production of Shakespeare's* The Merchant of Venice*. Sophia Carlotta Schroder* (1714-92) who debuts this year in a German version of Racine's* Mithridate* with terrific success. However. We need to take a moment here to take notice of the English trend in doing Shakespeare's plays. England: Samuel Richardson* (1689-1761) comes out with his domestic novel Pamela: or Virtue Rewarded* which will be adapted for the theatre and achieve phenomenal popularity. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This puts Drury Lane* and Covent Garden* in the legitimate area and the others outside. 1740 . The law doesn't make any provisions for theatre troupes outside London. and the next year they build a theater there. He will use her methods and repertory and continue the reform of professional theatre. The role of Shylock* in this play has been being played by low comedians ever since the Restoration began.

However.This is the year Garrick* joins the management of Drury Lane* where he will later become sole manager.In Russia Empress Elizabeth* overthrows the government of Anna* and rules as regent for Ivan VI. too. This year he gets a chance to appear as Richard III in Shakespeare's play at Goodman's Fields Theatre*. It is becoming usual for actors to make a career of playing a few choice roles over and over. especially importing Italians for opera and French for plays. 1744 . what with those licensing laws. Peg Woffington* (c. But it is a step in the direction that will come with the next period.In Germany the actor Konrad Ernst Ackermann* (1712-71) joins Schonemann's acting troupe. especially Quin*). By this time England is using light ladders to hold lights on either side of the stage. He embarks on an exceptional career as one of the greatest English actors ever. He gradually changes just about everything related to production.) 1747 . 1745-51 In France the bickering between the fair companies and the legitimate Opera leads to an injunction against all performances of Comic Opera. In order to fill the entertainment gap the English pantomime is introduced and audiences love it. One thing that changes is the length of time for rehearsals. It's a terrific success and soon he is drawing crowds to the theatre. and the period it takes place in. also known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie"*) lands in Scotland. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1714-60) plays spirited heroines in comedy and "breeches" parts (where the girls get to wear men's clothes and show off their legs. 1745 The last Jacobite revolt occurs this year. This fracas will send another batch of Scots emigrating to the American colonies (mostly into the Carolinas.Lighting keeps improving to keep up with all that spectacle.) Kitty Clive* (1711-85) is terrific in farce and spirited comedy. He will join the management and introduce many reforms. continues cultural pursuits. Frances Abington* (1737-1815) is best known for her work in high comedy. 1742 . Of course all the other actors on the stage are still wearing their contemporary clothes.pdffactory. His successes will last until his retirement in 1776.com . At this time in England there is a range of fine actors.* She. raises the Stuart standard and leads an army south where they are defeated by George* II in the famous battle at Culloden. This time the "Young Pretender" (Charles Edward Stuart. many of whom are acting with Garrick* in Shakespeare's* plays. The second instance of great acting this year involves David Garrick* (1717-79. grandson of James II*. She rules from 1741-62 and real theatre progress will be made during her reign.) He has been acting ever since he started at the age of eleven. [see below] 1741 . Macklin* will play this one off and on until 1789. so it stays. He sometimes takes as long as eight weeks to get a show ready. the theatre soon closes and Garrick* gets hired on at Drury Lane* in 1742.One of the startling things he does is get a costume for the merchant Jew that looks more like both the character. His acting style is natural (in contrast to his competition.

Minna von Barnhelm* 1772 . His major plays are: 1755 . especially in the role of Lady Macbeth*.) He will be the driving force in forming the first professional Russian theatre company.In America. Covent Garden* and with Garrick* at Drury Lane*. begins in Irish theatre) is Garrick*'s biggest rival. Scenery has become so important in English theatre that Rich** (the pantomime guy at Covent Garden*) imports a designer from the continent.Emilia Galotti* 1779 . Montesquieu. get a bunch of their friends and relatives together. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing* (1729-81). 1748 The French author and theorist. daughter-in-law of Colley) specializes in tragic roles and learns to tone down her declamatory style while working with Garrick*. Hannah Pritchard* (1711-68) becomes known as the finest tragic actress of her time.) He writes in the style of the German and French neoclassical plays but his subject matter is Russian history. Spranger Barry* (1719-77.Susanna Cibber* (1714-66. he is refining and purifying the language.pdffactory. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing* 1748 . French and Germans. who has his first play The Young Scholar*. then move to New York in 1750. 1767).1750 French players have replaced Neuber*'s troupe in Russia. Khorev* came out last year (in 1749. By now the Russian court and nobility have been entertained regularly by Italians.In Germany there is a new playwright. He appears at the rival theatre. They seem to be ready to begin doing their own thing now.* comes out with his Spirit of Laws* which profoundly influences political thought in Europe and America. Tom Jones*. become the first dramaturg* (see below. Feodor Grigoryevich Volkov* and his brother Grigori. One of their best actors is a guy named Ivan Afanasyevich Dmitrevsky* (1733- PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Walter Murray* and Thomas Kean* put together a theatrical company in Philadelphia. Russian playwrighting begins around this time with Alexei Petrovich Sumarokov* (1718-77.Miss Sara Sampson* 1767 . In England Henry Fielding* comes out with his best remembered novel.Nathan the Wise* 1749 . performed by Neuber*'s company. The Beginnings Of Russian Theatre . This time it's Russian. A couple of sons of a merchant. Like Alexander Hardy* in France and Christopher Marlowe* in England. He will go on to write a number of plays. He's been a student at that Cadet College [see above] since it wss founded in 1732. and on to Virginia and Maryland. Now an amateur Russian group starts up in Yaroslavl. and start giving plays. and translate the plays and theatre writing of Diderot* into German. fix up a barn.com . They play the City of Brotherly Love for a year. and his first play.

Ekhof*. American Theatre Begins 1752 . the rivers don't go everywhere they are needed. along with his wife.Germany: By this time the German actor. A stock of scenery is accumulated and is reused regularly. tombs. They now drop the commedia dell'arte* characters and have new and original music. They still don't define what counts as "entertainment. These will also be used in America where stocks of this sort will be found in regional theatres down into the 1940's.America: The restrictions on theatre activity in England stimulate the English actor. palace exteriors and interiors. Scenery has grown from the basic three.In France." The laws still don't say anything about the rest of England and provincial theatre continues to operate and develop a number of regular circuits. German and Russian Theatre Continues 1750's in England there is a decline in burlesque and domestic tragedy and a brief resurgence of comedy. and other of the company to school at the Cadet College for more actor training and a good general education. three children. From there they travel to perform in New York. but in a changed form.pdffactory. 1750 . Lewis Hallam*.) This company builds a terrific reputation and will soon attract the attention of the Empress. bulky material over water by barge. Also in America.1821. However. city walls and gates. 1753 .In England we begin to see significant changes in theatre scenery. There are temples. There is now regular use of an act drop to cover scenery changes up stage where the depth is growing from the earlier 30 feet deep to 50 feet deep. the Murray*-Kean* theatrical company seems to die out after this year. In England. gardens and rural scenes. Virginia. Russia: The Empress Elizabeth* summons the amateur Volkov* company to court. and the weather doesn't affect travel on water like it does on dirt roads. tragic. the Comic Opera reappears. likes what she sees. gives them permission to perform publicly and sends the Volkov* brothers. the ways of getting around the Licensing Act lead to the passage of a new bill which requires all places of entertainment within a twenty mile radius of London to get licenses from local magistrates. 1752 . comic and pastoral. 1751 . and a troupe of 12 other professional actors to leave London and its restrictive laws to set up shop in the New World. 1750 By the middle of this century England is beginning to solve its transportation crisis. has become the leading man in Schonemann*'s company. Settings are so nonspecific and anonymous that they can be used in very different plays. chambers. Dmitrevsky*.Ekhof* opens an Academy of Acting in Germany but it doesn't pan out. prisons. streets. Charleston and Philadelphia. to a range of locations. so England begins building canals to connect the waterways. They fix up and open the first professional theater in America in Williamsburg.com . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. It is lots easier to move heavy.

this play will be seen as the earliest "realistic" effort. in A Dissertation on the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind. virtuous.) These plantations are making money hand over fist and their main problem is what to do with all that money." This idea will become clearer as time goes on but basically. In India the Mughal Empire has fallen apart and the English and French are forced to intervene in the conflicts of rival princes to protect their flourishing commerce. he puts forth the view that man is. Hallam* will become Mrs. Miss Sara Sampson*. Next year Robert Clive* (now governor in India and known to history as the founder of the British Empire of India) will win a significant victory over the French and ensure British dominance in India. too. England sides with Prussia (which is logical considering England's rulers are related to the Prussian ones.) In America. However. Ackermann* goes to East Prussia to build a permanent theatre for a dramatic company. (the islands of the Caribbean. She will continue as leading lady of the company with Lewis Hallam. Jr. is produced this year by Ackermann*'s company. a war is about to start. Sumarokov* is appointed head of the Russian theatre in St. It's soon the most popular and widely imitated play in Germany.America: The American company leader Hallam* dies.* is beginning to outline "nature's nobleman*. who will have to be "nature's noblemen. Rousseau's* ideas about the naturally virtuous nature of man will provide the basis for the next century's theatrical heroes. by nature. 1756 . The superiority of British naval power enables England to oust the French from many of their trading concessions. the Seven Year's War* is fought in the colonies and drags the native Indians into battle on both sides. Douglass. Saxony and Russia side with Austria.com . The English are into big sugar planntations all over the West Indies.* as leading man. Petersburg. The war sets back theatrical development in Central Europe. Russia: The Empress has the Volkov* company appear at court again in Sumarokov*'s Sinav and Truvor*. British naval forces take control of the Atlantic and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) France. America: The Hallam* company sails to Jamaica for a year. 1756 This is the beginning of the Seven Year's War* (1756-1763) between Prussia and Austria. The Cadets at the College no longer appear in plays for the court. Later they will do comedies and light operas. and Russia now establishes its first professional acting company which also includes actresses. The repertory of the company is full of adaptations and imitations of French and German models. The war will also enable England to take colonial territory away from the French (who are too preoccupied with events in Europe. but the troupe has already joined the troupe of David Douglass* from Jamaica and in 1758 Mrs. Russia: The Empress establishes a State Theatre which will do Russian plays."* 1755 .Germany: Lessing*' first major play. Such plays attract a large middle class audience for the first time. Obviously this is a lucrative place to do some theatre touring.1754 The French philosopher. Later. a domestic tragedy. he picks a bad time. and the war will end with Prussia as the leader of the German states.pdffactory. Jean Jacques Rousseau*.

These two are an important expression of the "Enlightenment" and have considerable influence on the German playwright Lessing. miraculous animals and magicians. Carlo Gozzi* (1720-1806) who also tries to reform the commedia dell'arte* but his changes involve changing the subject matter and keeping the characters and improvisational methods. His subject matter is a mixture of fantasy and foolery with stories that are full of fairytale characters. George III* will rule from 1760-1820.prevent the French from reinforcing their colonies in Canada. 1761 . rather than the French neoclassical. 1759 The Seven Year's War* is pretty savage in Canada where the English under General James Wolfe attack the French under General Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham. This one still doesn't speak English and will suffer from mental illness. These mix virtue.In Germany. who married the daughter of the duke of SaxeCoburg-Gotha.In America the Douglass* theatre company sails from Jamaica to play the mainland colonies until 1764. near the ports. Les Fils Naturel*.pdffactory. The upshot is that the English take Quebec. provides the best model for German drama and he breaks with Gottsched*.com . Among his best.This year Carlo Goldoni* leaves Venice and moves to Paris where he will write in Italian and in French for the Comedie Italienne*. The middle-class audiences are crazy about this stuff. His plays are not much good but his observations on theatre are very useful. Lessing* believes that English drama. ending up blind and permanently deranged. Diderot* (1713-84) comes out with the first of his two plays. During the 1760's in England every theatre starts having scene painters on their staff to handle all that spectacle that pantomime uses. Diderot* is an exponent of bourgeois drama* (the drame*) which is an offshoot of Comedie Larmoyante*. 1758 In France Rousseau* reflects on manners and morals on the stage in his An Epistle to Mr. George III*.) 1757 In England the first major canal is built to move coal from the pits to the growing population centers.* and European drama in general. The other Italian playwright. 1760 George* II has quarreled with his son. especially his dialogue on acting. He will remain in Paris until his death. d'Alembert*. 1757 . 1758 . he will also write: King Stag* (1762) PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and when George* II dies this year the throne goes to his grandson.France: The philosopher and man of letters. 1760 . Over the next fifty years canals will be built to connect all the major ports with coal fields. Paradoxe sur le comedien* (Paradox of the Actor*. sentiment and priggishness. Now that ironmasters no longer have to be near forests for their fuel they begin to build their furnaces on the plains of Lancashire. By the end of the war the English take over French Canada and Spanish Florida. This year he comes out with The Love of Three Oranges* and The Raven*. although his son will have to serve as regent from 1811 on.

America: The Douglass*-Hallam* company gives a presentation of "moral dialogues" in Rhode Island. There are at least four important troupes that relocate on the Boulevard and this location will give rise to the term for theatres that cater to popular audiences. The Social Contract* in which he lays some of the ground work for the political revolutions that will soon follow. 1762 . He spends the rest of his life as the leading actor and highest theatrical administrator.] The fair companies also relocate to the Boulevard du Temple (a popular recreation area) as well as playing at the fairs. the boulevard theatres*. In 1762 Volkov*'s company is attached to the political party supporting Catherine* (see below). Very soon after this event. Catherine* (1729-1796) heads a palace coup and deposes Peter in her favor. The theatrical fair companies are forced to return to using songs set to popular tunes for their shows. Catherine* the Great In 1762 in Russia.pdffactory. Now he can really get on with improving productions. which turns out to be a smart move.com .In England Garrick* finally gets to forbid audience seating on the stage. Between these productions and the plays of Goldoni* they are so successful that they quit putting on any French plays.) These plays appeal to musicians particularly and they will be widely used as librettos for opera. They get put in charge of the celebrations in honor of her coronation. In 1763 Dmitrevsky* (see above) takes over Volkov* 's company and is appointed Inspector of State Theatres. His plays are banned and he is thrown out as head of the Russian Theatre.Turandot* (1765). 1762 Rousseau* comes out with his most influential work. Under Catherine*. In Paris the Comedie Italienne* is given a monopoly on producing the Comic Opera. Peter III* (and his wife Catherine) comes to the throne. Russia: Sumarokov* is too liberal and outspoken for the current court political climate. He takes a leading part in running them in. This enables the companies to play year round. She becomes Empress Catherine* II (known as Catherine* the Great) and will rule Russia 176296. Unfortunately Feodor Volkov* catches cold while directing a street masquerade and dies. based on a Chinese fairytale. theatre will spread all over Russia under state control. between trips to Paris to improve his acting skills. (regarded his best work). The Russian theatre will continue to develop mainly in the "serf" theatres on the estates of the nobility. These are now called comedies-en-vaudevilles* [the term vaudeville* seems to mean either songs of the valley or songs of the city streets. She calls a commission to discuss the needed reforms and makes them read her sixty page Instruction in which she PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the first professional performances given in New England. in any case it refers to satirical lyrics sung to popular tunes and vaudeville* comes to mean a play that is light or satirical and is interspersed with songs. She continues the enlightenment reforms of Peter* the Great. The Beautiful Green Bird* (1765) His plays influence a number of playwrights in Germany and France (especially Alfred de Musset*. [see the 1920's] 1761-62 .

He tries to improve costuming in the same direction. Garrick*. Sophia Schroder* has married Ackermann. The job Lessing* holds comes PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. an academy to train actors and a pension system (like France) to attract the best performers.pdffactory. They begin to build permanent playhouses. It is called the John Street Theatre*. They also build another theatre. advisor and edit a theatrical journal to promote the enterprise. which they build this year. Despite its failure. Lessing* comes out with his admirable prose comedy. He reforms stage lighting and insists that scenery be more particularized.com . They will continue to build others in major towns between New York and Charleston. Robert Clive* is again governor and commander in chief of Bengal. 1767 . This troupe had been playing in Prussia but the war forced it to move to Switzerland and this year it arrives in Hamburg*. It's a great idea but it will last only two years. bringing her son. national theatre. is the Southwark Theatre* in Philadelphia. this time in New York. 1766) persuades twelve businessmen to back his idea of a theatre.The great English actor. She will do much more later 1763 The Seven Years War comes to an end and Prussia is the winner. Thomas Godfrey's* The Prince of Parthia*. 1765 . but it doesn't get much farther than an idea. Schonemann*'s son-in-law. non-profit theatre to be run by a salaried manager.advocates humane laws. the theatre is a break-through in noncommercial. publishes the first history of German theatre and proposes a permanent. In America the Douglass* theatre company sails off to Jamaica again for a two year stint. Boards of public welfare are set up to supervise schools. 1764 In India. The first. religious toleration and reform. He advocates prizes to encourage dramatists. where he obtains sovereignty over the whole province for the East Indian Company. 1766 . Minna von Barnhelm*. Douglass* and his company put it on. the Douglass* company returns from their sojourn in Jamaica and finds the colonies hungry for theatre. The Hamburg National Theatre* opens in April. Germany's first national comedy. In Germany. 1764 . the English. Friedrich Schroder* (1744-1816) with her. The profits from this segment of British territories soar. In America. poorhouses and correctional institutions. He further insists on high salaries. 1766 . Ackermann*'s company is to perform and Lessing* is hired to be resident critic. hospitals. the French give up all their territory east of the Mississippi to Prussia's ally. has been off to the continent checking out the theatres and comes back this year with a bunch of new ideas for scenery and staging. Lowen. founding the empire of British India. Johann Friedrich Lowen* *(1729-71). It is the first American play to be produced by a professional company.In America. That means that new settings have to be made for each production. 1767 .In the American colonies we find playwrighting getting a start with a play in the classical mold. subsidized.* (see above.The German.(or possibly 1767) In Germany the actor Ekhof* leaves Schonemann*'s troupe to join Ackermann*'s. Friedrich will learn everything Ekhof* knows about acting.The German.

in countries like Russia. play reader. Eugenie*.The Hamburg National Theatre* closes this year. Australia and New Guinea. repertory advisor and in-house critic) which European theatres regard as an essential position now. This rather loose and sprawling period is eclipsed around 1775 by a rising tide of national revolutions and the developing movement of Romanticism*. All this and more will be reflected in the theatre of the next period. 1769 . 1770 This is an historic year for modern development because James Watt* comes up with the steam engine. the London Stock Exchange will enable investment and production to flourish. In France there is a new and important playwright. Scientific discoveries and theories are changing how we perceive the world. The fruits of trade are raising a wealthy middle class which wants to participate in the cultural life of their world. followed by expansion into currently popular genres. and the rest of his career. The ground work for the industrial revolution is being laid. This trend will continue. enabling profits from one part of the country to be available in other parts. The pattern of development in playwrighting.pdffactory. Absolute monarchies are dropping like flies. Americans. and consequently. Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais* (1732-99). This year he writes a play.com . leaving an ideal to aim for and Lessing*'s publication Hamburg Dramaturgy* (his theatrical journal promoting the enterprise. Afterword . Domestic drama and comedy are becoming the most popular form of theatre throughout Europe and in America. in the next chapter where it properly belongs. 1767-87 In Germany there is a group of young dramatists who are in revolt against the formal. the drama of the past.) as a major critical work. It will revolutionize transportation and industry. We will hear a great deal about these guys later since they launch the next period of Romanticism*. fostering what comes to be called "melodrama" and providing the seeds for the later Realistic form. with beginnings in national historical neoclassic works. shape their ideas of society is changing profoundly. Fortunately the money is available for industrial progress because English banks have proliferated and by now there are at least fifty. He'll write another in this style before he has his first success. seems to be set.to be known as dramaturg* (resident literary and artistic advisor. in Diderot* 's style of domestic drama. The way in which western Europeans. We will pick up it.1770 In France the neoclassic era is over. 1773 The other necessary ingredient for industrial development comes into being this year. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. They want to create new forms based on the doctrine of the rights of man and Rousseau*'s plea for a return to nature. social drama available. 1768 Captain James Cook* (1728-1779) charts the coasts of New Zealand. and in 1771.

relies on instinct rather than on learned societal behavior to rise to fulfill his destiny. through his powers of imagination. of re-evoking the past and coming up with "poetic" constructs which become the basis of human institutions. The important aspect of this view is that man is capable. The world of nations he regards as a product of human activity in history. a sort of inborn. being good and noble by nature. (which can only be understood by God. Another thinker. some Christian view of the struggle for salvation. An Italian scholar. becomes a guiding light for the rising Romantic movement. with its preoccupation with reason.com . Some of the thinkers of the preceding Age of Reason* are particularly significant in laying the basis for this aspect of the new movement. history is a record of human errors. This view exalts history as the record of human knowledge and excellence. or. In previous views.next Chapter 12 back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER TWELVE Romanticism* 1770-1830 Introduction In theatre the period between 1770 and 1830 covers the Romantic* movement which rises in Germany and spreads to France and England. The new obsession sweeping the western world is passionate nationalism and a desire to throw off the old authoritarian way of doing things. The Enlightenment*. has provided little in the way of exciting theatre fare. Rousseau* [remember him from the previous PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) from the world of nations (which is made by men). Vico* separates the world of nature.pdffactory.* "Folk genius" The notion of "folk genius". As with other artistic movements it is in part a reaction against the past and in part a way of expressing the central preoccupations of the times. The artistic past of French Neoclassicism* has grown stale in endless repetition and imitation across the earthier and more robust culture of Germanic cities and towns. native. The more logical structures of reason follow along behind these leaps of imagination. Society is looking for heroes to lead it into the future. Giambattista Vico* (1688-1744). put forth a new way of looking at history. The noble savage. intuitive ability to do magnificent things. has an even stronger role in laying the groundwork for this important corner stone of Romanticism. The ideas of the Age of Reason* engender a belief in the rights and powers of the people (the "Rights of Man") to have a social contract with their rulers so that the individual (the noble savage) can flourish. this time a Frenchman.

humans go on a quest. an experience of change and a passing of everything through time.. or the comic in which the hero can bargain with reality to gain advantage. not the destination. in a very central way. Immanuel Kant* (1724-1804) to devote his career in philosophy to logical critique. in this period. Classic theatre has been a question of coming to terms with reality.. be widely found in political revolutions. He goes on at great length to investigate both reason and intuition.) He writes "I am not made like anyone I have ever met. and the idea of the quest. [Two of Kant*'s major works are Critique of Pure Reason* (1781) and The Critique of Judgement* (1790). the hunt.] This business about the quest for reality is central to theatre because theatre is always primarily concerned with searching for reality. It is a quest rather than a simple search because it is always a mystery rather than a clear hunt for a specific thing in a world of a fixed order. a quest for reality. He popularizes the notion that the present is an outgrowth of the past. But now the very nature of reality has come into question. "Quest"* In all forms of romance (the basis of Romanticism). Rousseau* lets people know that they can take control of their destinies by looking back to the simple "natural" origins of humans and comparing that with the present.pdffactory.) The quest may not be to find something. with re-examining the nature of reality. whether in terms of the tragic world in which reality destroys the hero. [We use the term hero as a sex neutral one whether it refers to Joan of Arc or Napoleon. especially aesthetic intuition (the experience of the sublime. This is why theatre constantly changes both the subject matter and how it is shown. The experience is essentially historical.] An example of the essence of the Romantic hero can be found at the beginning of Rousseau*'s Confessions* (written 1770-1778 and published 1781 and 1788. that matters. feelings. they make too much noise. Reflecting the reality of kings to kings is hardly reality for the merchant class. is often more important than what is being hunted. etc. It is the journey. He idealizes the primitive past and claims that feeling and intuition are far more important than calculating reason. Because of the nature of a quest. Actually. All this ferment about instinct (and emotion. I even venture to believe that I am not made like anyone now alive. The object of this quest is always important to the human spirit although what it is in a concrete sense can vary enormously (it can even be unknown. What goes on on the stage is always some attempt to portray a vision of reality for the audience of that time and place. Napoleon* will stand as the epitome of this romantic characteristic. or search. it may be to create it. The preoccupation with court manners and morals is not reality for artisans and traders." This dislike is well founded. for the hero threatens to burst the confines of orderly society and will. The meaning derives from the heroic nature of the individual and of their actions. Turning to the Age of Reason helps in understanding the Romantic hero for we find Voltaire* saying "I don't like heroes.com .chapter?] insists that scientific and artistic progress have corrupted rather than improved mankind.) In Kant*'s view art is indispensable in the quest for reality. So it is that this new period of Romanticism is concerned." No one can be more individual than that. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) and its relation to reason stimulates a younger man. The Romantic Hero The Romantic movement is one of extreme individuation where emphasis must fall on the Romantic hero.

Physical remains of ancient societies are popping up all over the place. the Hellenistic period between the two is only now being distinguished. But the romantic hero must have other characteristics as well (other than talent. This leads the characters to live in a world of emotions where sadness is more evident than happiness. love. While the Greek and Roman past has been the object of investigation since the beginning of the Renaissance.pdffactory. The "tender passion". These other. The romantic hero is an egotist and. prone to feelings of despair. The Romantic hero is often melancholy. they find that the irrational and emotional Dionysiac* has greater appeal than the rational Appolonian*. or condition. especially by the Germans who have felt excluded from the European heritage.com . less known. to be eagerly sought because it affirms a universe better than the one we inhabit. he (or she) is not cast in the aristocratic mold of past heroes. Joan of Arc and Napoleon for examples. more like the chilvalric notions of the middle ages. All Romantic heroes have an acute emotional sensibility which makes them significantly different from their fellows. an English consul in Bagdad. and tales and songs in which ancient Celts. dominates all other feelings and Romanticism is essentially very romantic.] In 1820 Claudius Rich*. and.) The "new" science of archaeology has been busy this century digging up the past (the Herculaneum in 1738 and Pompeii ten years later. The man (or woman) of feeling The groundwork (referred to above) which emphasizes intuition and emotion needs to be more particularized to give us the characteristics of the Romantic hero. Scandinavian and Teutonic North. The "Gothic" While earlier generations had called the period between the fall of Rome and the rise of the Middle Ages the Dark Ages. this "dark" period is now emerging as a fascinating pagan world. in the end.] The time is one in which traditional beliefs about the world of nature and the world of society (or nations) is being questioned. giving rise to passionate interest in the past. These heroes also have an awareness of not belonging to the existing social order. he (or she) will have to go down before the collective attack of society and his fellow men. Social hierarchies are about to crumble and careers will be built on talent rather than inherited social class.) In the 1750's Johann Joachim Winckelmann* (1717-1768) had explored these excavations [in 1764 he published the first systematic descriptions of Greek and Roman art in History of the Art of Antiquity*. The Romantic notion of love moves from being earthy and lusty to something spiritual. Rousseau*'s characters contribute two traits that seem to be central. downright miserable. [Consider Faust. Teutons. Saxons. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Not only is the romantic hero unique. In looking into the Hellenistic.) Being great and a genius seems to carry with it a sense of isolation and suffering. cultural traditions are slowly being revealed (the Celtic.) There is an enthusiastic rise in popularity of Scandinavian mythology. The Romantic Past and Exotic Lands One of the hallmarks of the Romantic movement is its preoccupation with the past. Love becomes something like Dante*'s notion of a route by which the time-bound individual might learn a vision of ultimate truth. frankly. This means that love is a state of being. the Norse Eddas*. will go looking for the biblical city of Nineveh* and write extensively on his Mesopotanian studies.) Heinrich and Sophia Schielmann* (1822-90) will unearth Mycenae and Troy. [see Rousseau* above] The Middle Ages had been virtually ignored by the preceding Age of Reason as had the pagan and early Christian North (Vikings and such like. Still later (beginning in 1876.

) Romantic Nature Nature. Whatever the specifics of the voyage it is always from the known (which is seen as conventional and dull) into the unknown (which is strange. However.pdffactory. It does not. has always seen the connection but now others are taking up this view. of course. We now have what will come to be called the "Gothic revival. The Romantic Voyage is the journey undertaken by the Romantic hero. as in the world apart from human activity and achievement. of course. social upheavals present a problem (we still haven't solved this one) that seems to point to a necessary relation between art and society. Plato banned many poets from his Republic on the grounds that they were a menace to civil order. August* edits translations of oriental literature (including the great Indian epics. mankind was better in a state of nature. Theatre. The philosophic attitude of many Romantics is Pantheism * in which an immanent God is manifested through all forms of nature and. sea and mountains provide an appropriate domain for the tortured and isolated Romantic hero. Europe and America in Social Ferment PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. for the first time.] The Romantic Revolutions and Artists Up to this point in the history of Western society there has been no necessary connection between intellectuals and artists and their political stands. exotic and mysterious. becoming accessible through the increase in world trade. however. society usually scorns its saviours. If.com . as Rousseau* claims. The Orient is the first to provide literary works through the active trade with India.) The notion of the voyage always holds the promise of peace after struggle." In addition to a rediscovery of European past there is a rising interest in strange and exotic lands and cultures that are only. ever provide the fulfillment of that promise. countryside. in this period. for the Greeks and Italians) but in their own historical heroes. So." one can see God in the clouds. Whatever the roots may be of the attitudes of the Romantic artist. just now. the artist claims his/her connection to society and becomes linked to revolution and social change. however.Vikings and Northmen fight and struggle just as actively and as poetically as the Greeks and Trojans. the Bhagavad-Gita* (1823) and the Ramayana* (1829). It may be a real. then it seems logical for the romantic to move out from the salon and the boudoir into the natural world. but. Historically. The final goal has to be death. becomes the focus of the "cult of nature. it is clear that he is convinced that the artist is a guide to society. The Romantic Voyage The poetic notion of the "voyage" is as old as human literature." The landscape. The "citizen of the world" of the Enlightenment is changing into a nationalistic patriot whose roots lie not in ancient Greece and Rome (except. The Schlegel** brothers (August* 1767-1845 and Friedrich* 1772-1829) will found a literary journal (the Athenaeum*) which will become the organ of German literary romantic writers. like Pope's "poor Indian. Plato has Socrates (in the Phaedrus*) describe this divine madness of the poet as the artist who is driven by godly inspiration to achieve beauties that can't be obtained by other mortals. but the Romantics put a new twist on it. physical journey or an internal and spiritual one. Now. [No wonder they are melancholy and depressed about it.

com . The advances in technology. in response. (They will also have to defend British interests in India and Africa at the same time.) The first major canal was dug in 1757. In England at this time the social ferment is economic. They are. The Dissenters. heavy loads (like coal. At the end of the Seven Year's War* (1763) there is a drop in interest on loans and more capital can be borrowed to build canals. The Stamp Act (1765) taxes the American colonies and. France has experienced a good deal of economic progress and expansion but no political change. as a result of Cromwell and the civil war. The only thing delaying a real factory system is the problem of power and that will come along soon. Holland and Spain will jump on the American side of the Revolution* bandwagon and England will find herself besieged at Gibraltar. In 1769 a machine called the water-frame is produced and for the first time all textile workers are put to work under one roof. the Caribbean and America. however. the long reign of Louis XV* (1715-74) is drawing to an end. are strong on education and set up a number of Dissenting Academies with modern. finance and industry are driven by the industrious "Dissenters" or Nonconformists. always open for a chance to beat up on the English. The final ingredient is cotton. These are members of the non-Catholic. The Age of Enlightenment has raised expectations among the intellectuals in Europe. will sign the Franco-American alliance. What with the new use of coal and coke to fuel things there has been a rise in small manufacturing which draws people in to the cities. The final straw will come with the Coercive Acts of 1774 (against Massachusetts) and closing the port of Boston.) The idea. and French ships and troops will help finish the revolution. permitted to work in trade and finance. are forbidden to hold positions in local government. Although many duties (taxes) are repealed in 1770 the one on tea remains in force (remember the Boston Tea Party?). and process.pdffactory. The following year the American Revolution* will break out.By 1770 a number of social and political revolutions are brewing. non-Anglican Christian sects who. This education prepares the students for success in industry. By 1770 there are all the ingredients in England for an industrial quantum leap forward. nine colonies draw up a declaration of rights and liberties. The French threat disappears from America and the British colonies no longer need British protection. In France. By 1775 a network of canals will connect all the major English ports with all the large coalfields. particularly the Quakers and Unitarians. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. practical curriculum. Britain runs a colonial empire that circles the globe but makes the mistake of keeping their English colonies out of representation in Parliament. Most of Europe will regard the American effort as a minor ripple on world affairs. In America the Seven Year's War* (1754-1761) was played out over control of the Ohio Valley and culminated in the capture in 1758 of the French forts Dusquesne (later Fort Pitt and then Pittsburgh) and Ticonderoga. France. The effective machine of French government is rapidly becoming obsolete. A new weaving technique has been developed in the 1760's and the spinning jenny in 1767. civil service or at the universities. The need for good transportation is being solved by those canals (see the previous chapter) which supplement the river system and provide the ideal route to move large. however. of Revolution will spread as the years pass. Textile work is beginning to take off. which is flowing in from the colonial empire in India. The American colonies will call a Continental Congress* to meet in Philadelphia in 1774.

The agricultural advances (noted in the previous chapter) since the 1720's encourage population growth. who will later be known as the Sturm und Drang* (Storm and Stress) movement. There is enormous population growth.pdffactory. He calls attention to the rich heritage of the folklore and legend of North Europe and lays the foundation there for the coming romantic movement.] The group includes Goethe* [see below] who will write the first German play in the Shakespearian style (Goetz von Berlichingen mit der eisernen Hand*) which will be produced in Berlin in 1773. Rolf Krage*. 1770 James Cook*.com . English explorer. In America they are busy with the "Boston Massacre" which is basically a brawl between drunken civilians and British troops. The ones that are.) In the 1770s in Germany the growing number of permanent theatre buildings means that the set designs will become more important. are mostly not well received. Some are episodic. others more ordered. One of the most relevant features of the period is that the hold of French dramatic models is broken and English models replace them. especially Shakespeare*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. emotionalism runs rampant and the plots are anything but simple. Most of the group's plays are not even produced. More appropriate and more detailed sets which can be changed easily are now necessary.). 1770 . Australia. Interest in historical accuracy shows up in Goetz von Berlichingen* and the plays it inspired. (strongly influenced by their admiration for Shakespeare*). etc. The world population will almost double in the nineteenth century.One other factor is evident in this period. The unities* (remember? back in the French neoclassic period) are ignored. The Sturm und Drang* movement covers roughly 1767-1787. Johannes Ewald* (1743-1781) comes out with the first significant Danish tragedy. In the 1770s all those domestic plays are written with specific costume descriptions which encourages costume design for particular characters. In England Gainsborough* (1727-1788) paints the "The Blue Boy.The first important Danish playwright." Sir Joshua Reynolds* is also busy painting. The master cabinetmaker. like Goetz von Berlichingen* with its fiftyfour scenes. But. For the first time we can see attempts to have authentic sets and costumes. Germany and the Beginnings of Romanticism Romanticism begins with the work of a bunch of young German intellectuals. James Bruce is zipping around the interior of Africa discovering the source of the Blue Nile. production failure doesn't seem to matter and the plays are read and discussed all over Germany. The primary object seems to be breaking all previous rules. named for a play of that title [written in 1776 by Friedrich M. Historical costuming becomes the usual thing. Thomas Chippendale* (1719-79) has produced his major work. Klinger*. All this lays a foundation for the really good stuff that will come out after 1785. The 1774 production of this play is the first time anybody uses sets and costumes to show a particular historical time and place. There is no clear philosophical direction and the plays are very diverse. as do the extensive colonization of resource rich areas (the Americas. discovers Botany Bay Australia and the Scots explorer. Much of this development will grow out of the establishment of state theatres (this will begin in 1776. but reaches its height in the 1800s.

1772 . a robber baron. [Very little of his theatrical output has been seen on English speaking stages. Goethe* In the early 1770's he makes a start on his lifetime preoccupation which shows up in a work called Ur-Faust. providing a model for the movement. He will stay here for the rest of his life.) comes out with his first success. the idealized story of a historical figure. This year brings the first German performance of Handel*'s (1685-1759) "Messiah. The Boston Assembly demands rights for the colonies and threatens secession. Goetz von Berlichingen*. Lessing* comes out with his tragedy. directs and acts. We will look at his achievements as they occur. Stella* 1776 Clavigo* 1779 Iphigenie auf Tauris* 1779 Egmont* 1787 In 1786 he takes a much needed vacation in Italy and gives up Romanticism in favor of classicism. 1773 . found an academy. Totally disregarding the Unities*. after his death. write plays himself and generally encourage art. but a brief outline of his major work might be helpful here. His job includes organizing Ducal entertainments.) He will give a boost to theatre. Emilia Galotti*. In 1773 he will start a national theatre.In Germany. Part I comes out in 1808 and Part II isn't completed until 1832 and not produced until 1853. Samuel Adams* (1722-1803) forms Committees of Correspondence in Massachusetts for action against Great Britain.] Goldsmith* PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.In Germany this year the Sturm und Drang* playwright.com .pdffactory.) Haydn* (1732-1809) and Mozart* (1756-91) are busy turning out great music. Goethe* becomes the leader of the young Romantics. His biggest hit. 1772 The American colonies are getting serious about their problems with England. He will go on to a lengthy and extremely influential and productive career spanning the entire period. although several of his works have been very popular in Russia. it kicks off the Romantic movement and is the spearhead of the "Storm and Stress*" guys. is Faust*." Gluck* (1714-87. of course.1771 In Sweden Gustav III* starts his reign (r. In 1775 he goes to Weimar* on invitation from the reigning Duke. Johann Wolfgang Goethe* (1749-1832. As a result he rewrites Iphigenie auf Tauris* (in 1802 there is a production of his new version) and writes Torquato Tasso* in 1807. 1773 Britain is busy expanding in India and this year they pass a Regulating Act* to put Indian acquisitions under parliamentary control. He writes plays. With the success of his short novel next year. 1771-1792.

The PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. On the political front in America. which satirizes the "super patriots" who see every opponent as an enemy agent. During the Revolution there are no professional performances. performed at the Comedie Francaise*. but their leading player thought it made fun of him (he had been a barber) so that didn't work. He is succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI*. penning mostly propaganda. 1774 In France Louis XV* dies. put on at Covent Garden*. and their homes or farms. being busy with international mercantile affairs. The Rivals*. generally against the British. He is a professional theatre man and will buy a share in Garrick*'s Drury Lane* where the rest of his theatrical output will be produced. the steam engine. This is the real beginning of the industrial revolution which will change the make-up of society by shifting production from families. of course. It is an immediate success and will continue to be popular. 1774. American Revolutionary Times Begin 1775 This is the year the American Revolution* breaks out (which.With the outbreak of the Revolution. but Robert Munford* writes a play called The Patriots*. and his novel. Douglass* moves his troupe to Jamaica (remember him? He runs The American Company* of English actors. The Barber of Seville*.In England an Irish-born dramatist. hires 29.In England. in 1777 (see below).pdffactory. It is a terrific success. This kind of precision will make possible the next important step in producing power. Richard Brinsley Sheridan* (1751-1816) gets his first play.000 German mercenaries to cope with the Americans.com . Oliver Goldsmith* (1730-74) comes out with She Stoops to Conquer*.) In England the last development needed for the steam engine becomes available when the dissenter John Wilkinson's boring mill becomes able to manufacture close tolerance cylinders. but both British and American soldiers entertain themselves with plays. He writes farces.) England. In America Anne Lee* (1736-1784) moves from Manchester England to New York to begin a spiritual revival that becomes the Shakers (they are the "Shaking Quakers. an immediate success which will continue to please and amuse to the present day. especially in England. 1775 . the Virginia House of Burgesses calls a Continental Congress in Philadelphia. It was originally supposed to be a play with music for the Italian company. is equally well known. The Vicar of Wakefield* (1766).This is the time during which machinery is introduced into textile (1780) factories. comic operas and.) Amateur playwrights flourish. puts a crimp in American theatrical activities. 1775 . After Beaumarchais* reworks the piece it is finally seen on the stage.In France Beaumarchais* (1732-99) finally gets a production of his comedy. to factories in the cities. the Continental Congress calls for a cessation of theatrical entertainments. In England there is a technological breakthrough when the high-grade steel (produced by Benjamin Huntsman's invention of crucible steel in the 1750's) enables the great ironmaster James Wilkinson* to cut iron accurately to within a few millimeters.1773 . He is mainly a poet and novelist. 1775 . the masterpiece of the English Comedy of Manners*.

School For Scandal*, as well as one of the best burlesques, The Critic: or, a Tragedy Rehears'd* (1779.) 1775 - In Germany the first state theatre is founded at Gotha* from the leftover members of the earlier Hamburg National Theatre* company. 1776 In England the new process for producing iron (Darby's reverberatory furnace) is so successful that this year the first cast-iron bridge is built at Coalbrookdale, over the River Severn. 1776 - In Germany Emperor Joseph II* establishes the Imperial and National theatre in Vienna, better known as the Burgtheater*. They use the organization and procedures of the Comedie Francaise* as a pattern for running it. Generous state support means that they can hire the best people for this company. This is the year that Friedrich M. Klinger* comes out with his play, Sturm und Drang* .In Russia, Catherine II* starts a pension system for actors in the state theatres. The French painter, Jean Honore Fragonard* (1732-1806) is busy turning out his work. 1777 - In England this is the year Richard Brinsley Sheridan* comes out with The School For Scandal*. It has all of the wit of the Restoration comedies but leaves out the coldly calculated hanky-panky and pride in fooling around. The role of Lady Teazle* becomes one of the plums for every English actress to aspire to. True love and respect triumph and wickedness is punished. 1777 - The German actor and dramatist, August Wilhelm Iffland* (1759-1814) joins the actor-manager Ekhof in Gotha. He goes with the company the following year to Hamburg and the National Theatre. There his early plays are terrifically successful but not memorable. He is more influential as an actor and training actors in serious acting style. 1778 The Franco-American alliance is signed this year (to be followed next year by another alliance between America and Spain and some help from Holland.) This brings French troops and ships into the American Revolution and puts England in the position of being threatened in her dominance of the seas. The French are exposed to the liberating ideas of Locke*'s philosophy of natural right being put into practice. They will go home and try something similar in France. 1779 - In Germany, the third state theatre, the Court and National theatre, is started up in Mannheim (The ruler becomes the Elector of Bavaria and moves his court to Munich. Establishing the theatre is sort of a consolation prize to the city to compensate for losing the court there.) This theatre will become one of Germany's best. After this (throughout the 1780s,) state theatres pop up all over Germany. Some of the most prominent ones will be in Cologne, Mainz, Salzburg, Weimar and Passau. In Russia Catherine The Great* establishes an acting school. 1781 The American Revolution* is over this year with the British forces surrendering at Yorktown. It will take two years to hammer out a treaty.

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1779 - The German playwright, Lessing,* comes out with his blank verse effort, Nathan the Wise*. 1780s In Italy Luigi Galvani* is exploring electricity and animals. 1782 - With the American war over, professional performances resume. John Henry* (who had been with The American Company* earlier) does a single act in Philadelphia, but it will take a few years to overcome the antitheatre resolution of The Continental Congress. 1782 In music, Haydn* and Mozart* are busy composing. In France the Montgolfier* brothers construct an air balloon. In England, the woman novelist, Fanny Burney* (17521840,) comes out with her second novel, Cecilia*. 1780's - In England new actors are coming along. These actors will affect theatrical production in the United States as well as at home. In order to rise economically, the normal way of doing things is to have the whole family involved in the same trade or profession. It is less usual to find this in the theatre since the profession is notoriously risky financially. One of the prominent theatrical families to descend on London at this time are the Kembles. 1782 marks the London debut (as "Hamlet" at Drury Lane*) of John Philip Kemble* (17571823). He will have a long and impressive career acting tragic roles as well as managing both Drury Lane* and Covent Garden*. His parents (Roger and Sarah) are players and manage a company in the provinces. He has three brothers and four sisters who are also on the stage. His sister, Sarah Siddons* (1755-1831, she had married actor William Siddons while playing with her parents' company) makes her successful London appearance this year, too. The other theatrical Kemble siblings are brothers Charles*, Stephen, and Henry and sisters, Frances, Anne, and Elizabeth*. The only one of these who makes a significant mark is Elizabeth* (or Eliza) Whitlock* (1761-1836,) who emigrates with her husband to America. John Philip Kemble* and Sarah Siddons* lead in establishing a restrained, classical mode of acting that, through Elizabeth* Whitlock* will affect American theater for years. In France, the pantomimes have become more melodramatic and include dialogue. They have mood music under scenes of innocence persecuted and rescued from villainy. Schiller* 1782 - This year one of the most prominent playwrights of German Romanticism has his first success. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller* (1759-1805) has his first play, The Robbers*, produced at Mannheim*. It's an immediate success and will be constantly revived. He will go on to be appointed official dramatist of this theatre in 1783. He writes several more of these melodramatic plays [Fiesko* 1783, Intrigue and Love* 1784] before turning to historical tragedy with Don Carlos* (1789). He, like Goethe*, reexamines his values and aims in the 1780's. His historical studies lead to two books [The Revolt of the Netherlands* and A History of the Thirty Years War*] which gain him a reputation as a historian. This leads to a job as history professor at the University of Jena*, which is only five miles from Goethe* at Weimar. They establish a strong friendship [about 1794] and begin to influence each other [their letters to each other are really informative about their artistic goals.] In 1799 Schiller* moves to Weimar and works regularly in the theatre. His best works are done after he moves to Weimar*. Together they create what comes to be known as "Weimar classicism."

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These works of Schiller*'s are: Wallenstein* (1799), Maria Stuart* (Mary Stuart, 1800), Die Jungfrau von Oreleans* (The Maid of Orleans, 1801), Die Braut von Messina* (The Bride of Messina, 1803), Wilhelm Tell* (1804). All Schiller*'s works are translated into English. The Robbers* is the most influential at this time and reinforces the Sturm und Drang* movement. 1782 James Watt* (inventor of the steam engine in 1763-4) [actually it is his assistant, William Murdock,* who develops it] comes up with a new improvement, the rotative engine. This is monumentally significant. The original steam engine has been used just to work pumps, mainly in the mines. Now he has a machine that can turn a drive shaft and drive machinery. This will really change things, first of all in the textile business. Textile machinery has been run by water power, which requires that the factories be built on the edge of swiftflowing waters that can turn the water wheel which powers everything. With the steam engine, there is more power and the factories can be built anywhere. In England the first change brought about by the rotative steam engine shows up immediately. It is a system of producing large quantities of high quality wrought iron at such a low price that machines can now be made out of metal instead of wood. There is a concurrent development in textiles with widespread use of the new invention, the Cromptom 'mule' (1779.) This machine improves the speed and variety of spinning yarns. More machines are rapidly developed to handle other aspects of the textile process. The cotton industry is launching the Industrial Revolution*. 1783 - In France Beaumarchais* comes out with The Marriage of Figaro*. 1783 The Treaty of Versailles* sets up the borders of the new United States* as the Great Lakes in the north and the Mississippi in the west. England continues to expand in India and this year passes the Younger Pitt*'s India Act* to further control through parliament the new Indian territories. These are now under Richard Wellesley*, (soon to be the first Marquis Wellesley, see 1799.) He begins Indian consolidation and the beginnings of an imperial realm. This year Beetoven*'s (1770-1827) first works are printed. In France, they are trying out a paddle-wheel steamboat on the Saone River. Theatre Progresses

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1784 - Lewis Hallam, Jr.* brings a small company to the new American republic. In 1785, John Henry* (see above,) who has gone back to Jamacia for more actors from The American Company*, brings his new troupe to Philadelphia. The two (Hallam and Henry) join forces and call their united troupe "The Old American Company*" (since it is made up of a number of actors from the earlier The American Company*.) This troupe will become the foundation of New York theater where they settle in the John Street Theatre*. In Germany, Iffland* comes out with his Crimes of Ambition* which finally brings him fame as a playwright. He is now the most influential member of the Mannheim company. 1784 In England Pitt's* India Act puts the East India Company under the control of the government. The first hot air balloon ascent takes place in England. A Scots millwright (Andrew Meikle) invents the threshing machine. Frederick VI* completes the abolishment of serfdom in Denmark. 1785 By this time, statistical analysis is growing in popularity. This year the French philosopher, Marquis de Condorcet*, writes an essay, The application of mathematics to the theory of decision-making.* Statistics, probability and census-taking, all seem useful tools for rulers to plan and organize the regulation of their societies. The process of reducing people to nembers begins here. 1786 The earliest attempts at using gas for illuminating are taking place in England and Germany. 1786 - In Germany another state theatre is started in Berlin (Prussia.) This one will be very important. This year Frederick William II* replaces Frederick The Great* as the Prussian ruler. He wants to be a cultural leader (as well as the dominant political force,) so he establishes a subsidized state theatre troupe. The idea is that theatre is a cultural institution that can be used to unify Germany. Even towns that have troupes of their own are busy building theatre buildings. In the 1790s there will be more than seventy companies to move into these buildings. 1787 - Royall Tyler* (1757-1826) presents the first American comedy to be professionally produced, The Contrast*. 1787 - In Germany there is a new playwright who will become the most popular dramatist in the world. August Friedrich von Kotzebue* (1761-1819) gets his first success this year with Misanthropy and Repentance*. For the next ninety years his plays will make up one-quarter of the Burgtheater*'s performances (Vienna.) We will look at him more closely a little later. 1788 There are bread riots in France. Trouble is brewing. 1788 - In England, the use of spectacle is increasing and this year Robert Barker* (17391806) shows off his invention of the panorama* at Edinburgh. His associate Robert Fulton* (1765-1815) [the guy who will invent the steamboat] will get a French patent for it and the

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circular spectacle will be displayed in London (1799) and by James Thayer (who buys the patent) in America and Paris (1800.) 1789 The mutineers of the H.M.S. "Bounty" settle on Pitcairn Islands in the East Pacific. In England the first steam-driven cotton factory opens in Manchester. French Revolution 1789 In France, Louis XVI* continues the absolute rule he inherited but he is not a competent ruler and there is a terrific financial crisis. The middle class takes advantage of this and establishes a parliamentary type government based on wealth. The peasants (who are still living in a feudal society) really object to this as even greater exploitation of them. This makes for widespread rioting and the end of feudal society in France. The riots cause food shortages in the city of Paris. This food shortage arouses the Parisian working class to storm the strategic fortress of the Bastille* preventing Louis XVI* from recovering his despotic power to intimidate the city. The French Revolution* is now up and running. The middle class manages to hang on to control of the political end of things for the next two years. They reorganize the civil, religious and military institutions and try to work in cooperation with some of the liberal aristocracy and the king but eventually the counter-revolutionary forces inside and outside France change the revolution. [see below 1792.] With the outbreak of civil disorder, theatre, of course, doesn't flourish. What does change in France, as a result of the revolution, is medicine. This is because the physicians, as elsewhere, are a small, powerful elite serving the aristocracy. Surgeons, on the other hand, are mere craftsmen. With the revolution, the doctors, as members of the upper class, have to be re-educated and the surgeons elevated. Only surgeons have studied anatomy, and dealt with battlefield wounds, and, being kept out of city practice by the physicians, they went to work in the villages and countryside. When the revolution breaks out there are more surgeons than physicians, which is good, since what is needed now is battlefield care. A new category, called 'health officer' grows up in which both physicians and surgeons are put and have to get used to working together. In America, exploration goes on. Alexander MacKenzie crosses Canada to the Pacific. There is still a lot of unknown territory out there. In the United States they elect the first president, George Washington* (1732-1799.) In England the poet, artist and mystic, William Blake* (1757-1827,) comes out with Songs of Innocence*. 1789 - A comedy, The Father*, introduces William Dunlap* as a new American writer. He continues to write for the Old American Company* for many years, including the tragedy Andre*, based on an incident in the Revolutionary War. 1790 In Russia, Catherine The Great* opens a second state theatre in St. Petersburg. From Vienna, a man named Johann Peter Frank* is becoming the first great practical exponent of the science of public health. He is a hospital administrator, clinician and teacher who travels extensively throughout Europe working for the rulers of small states and teaching as he goes. He will produce seven volumes under the title A System of Medical Police*

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teaching administrators how to deal with public health. He deals with everything from care in childbirth, through food, housing, sewage, garbage and water supply. Medicine and health are about to begin to move out of the dark ages. The Scots poet, Robert Burns* (1759-1796,) puts out his poems, Tam o' Shanter* and Auld Lang Syne*. The English romantic writer, Ann (nee Ward) Radcliffe*, originator of the school of romance characterized by vivid scenic descriptions, comes out with her A Sicilian Romance*. In England, the first steam-powered rolling mill (rolls wrought iron) is built and the building of the Firth-Clyde and Oxford-Birmingham canals are started. Lavoisier* (1743-1794) comes out with his "Tables of Thirty-one Chemical Elements." Mozart* writes Cosi fan tutte* in Vienna. In the United States, Washington, D.C. is founded. 1790 - In England and, consequently, in America, most of the major theater companies have abandoned the shareholder arrangement and actors now work for straight salaries under a manager. In Russia, many nobles select serfs* and train them as performers. The next twenty years will see the operation of the most important serf theatres. Some nobles [such as Prince Yusopov who owns some 21,000 serfs] set up separate ballet, opera and dramatic companies, complete with training schools. In Moscow there will be fifteen serf theatres by 1797. 1791 - Thomas Wignell,* a member of the The Old American Company*, leaves them and with Alexander Reinagle*, a musician, starts building the Chestnut Street Theatre* in Philadelphia. 1791 - In Weimar* (Thuringia, Germany) the duke appoints Goethe* director of the Weimar Court Theatre. Now, Goethe* has been producing plays for the court with courtiers as amateur actors from 1775 to 1783. By this time the court (and Goethe*) are tired of amateurs and in 1784 a new Court theatre opened with a resident professional company. This year (1791) Goethe* finally gets to exercise his artistic ideas with professionals and with good financial backing. He will put his own plays and those of Schiller* into a repertory that will grow to include all the best plays. Guest appearances by leading German actors will strengthen the company. Soon, (1799) he will bring in Schiller* to help. Stimulated by a visit from Iffland*'s acting company (1796) and encouraged by Schiller*, Goethe* will begin to take an active interest in the theatre company's work. This will lead him to write at some length on acting and other aspects of producing. He insists on strict discipline and requires the actors to follow his direction. He achieves the most integrated ensemble of the time and will be remembered as one of the earliest "directors." After his death the members of his company will spread his methods around Germany. 1791 Over in central Europe, Catherine The Great* has been extending Russia's boundaries. This year a Polish rebellion is crushed by Russian troops and we have one of those partitions of Poland. It is divided up between Russia and Prussia and by 1794 Poland ceases to exist.

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In the United States the first ten amendments to the Constitution* (the Bill of Rights*) are ratified. In England, Boswell* (1740-1795) comes out with his Life of Samuel Johnson*, which will be regarded as a masterpiece of biography. 1791 - In France, theatre monopolies are abolished by the revolutionary government and a lot of new companies are started up in Paris. In the next ten years there will be more than fifty. Most provide popular entertainment. The Comedie Francaise* splits into two troupes. One branch, with the famous actor Talma* (Francois-Joseph, 1763-1826), is pro-revolution and next year will take the name Theatre de la Republique*. Talma* is the leading actor in France, known for his careful study of roles and attention to historical costume. He is usually known as the greatest French actor ever. 1792 In France the French Revolution* is in trouble. Louis XVI*'s Austrian relations are mobilizing armies. So is Prussia. Between internal counter-revolutionary forces and this threat of armed invasion, the revolutionaries declare war on Austria and Prussia. Soon France is at war with the greater part of Europe. The French Revolution* is a decisive turning point in European history so we will spend a little more time following the flow of events. Early on there are a series of defeats which causes panic. Reaction to this panic leads to the execution of the king and a lot of slaughter of political suspects. The nation is unified against foreign invasion by the leadership of the Girondins*, Danton* (Georges Jacques Danton, 1759-1794) and Carnot* (Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot, known as "le grand Carnot",* 1753-1823). But the common people rally to a more extreme group, the Jacobins* (Maximelien Fran‡ois Marie Isadore de Robespierre,* 1758-1794, and others.). This group puts the government on a more democratic basis and takes a terrorist approach against anybody who disagrees with them. The guillotine is busy chopping off heads. There is a total military call-up which produces a really dandy and enthusiastic army, well organized by Carnot.* The tide turns and the invaders are not only expelled but are attacked on their home turf. France takes over Belgium and other territories to establish "natural frontiers." In the army there is a revolutionary doctrine of advancement based on merit, that is, army careers are now open to talent instead of money or aristocratic standing. This makes it possible for France to extend its power into Holland, Switzerland and Italy. It also brings onto the scene a brilliant military leader named Napoleon Bonaparte* (1769-1821.) 1792 - The Old American Company* has been struggling on, but does not have the intelligent management that will characterize the Chestnut Street Theatre* in Philadelphia. John Henry* is replaced as manager (of the John Street Theatre*) by John Hodgkinson*. This year yellow fever reaches America (from Africa by way of the West Indies.) Theatres are closed and the disease rages over two thirds of the United States. 1792 Health and medicine take a step forward this year when a French doctor, Phillippe Pinel*, is put in charge of the biggest asylum in Europe for the aged and infirm. It has 8000 patients. and Pinel* advocates strict and repeated observation, recording of findings and

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comparison of data over time. This, he claims, will provide some useful information for treatment. It certainly does. Illuminating gas is used for the first time in England and the Libel Act is passed. In the United States dollar coinage is minted. Exploration is still going on. This year American merchants, sailing out of Boston, are exploring the Pacific northwest coast of the American continent and find the mouth of the Columbia River (up there in what is now Washington state.) This may not seem like much but it makes a lot of people think there may be a "northwest passage" by water from the east to the west. This will prime the pump for northwest exploration (despite the fact that this territory belongs to somebody else.) 1793 - The prohibition against acting in Boston is rescinded and the Federal Street Theatre* is built. Frequented with management problems, it will never have a big impact on American theater, but Boston becomes a major theatrical center. 1793 In the United States they re-elect Washington* president. The portrait painter, Gilbert Stuart* (1755-1828) opens his studio in New York. He is, of course, remembered for his portraits of Washington* among many others. In France, the Marquis de Sade* (1740-1814) is writing a novel, La Philosophie dans le boudoir*. This is the year the violin virtuoso, Paganini* (1782-1840,) makes his debut at Genoa (at age 11.) He will later tour Europe and compose for the violin. 1794 - This year two new theatres open. The first, the Federal Street Theatre,* opens in Boston with an independent company. The second, and more important, opens in Philadelphia. Wignell* has gone to England for actors and brings back some of the best talent yet seen in the New World to play here. Among them is the great actress' Sarah Siddons*' sister, Elizabeth Whitlock*. Wignell* opens Chestnut Street Theatre* with this impressive group. The theatre building is modeled on the Theatre Royal* at Bath, England, and seats about 1200 with a stage 71 feet deep by 36 feet wide. The audience seating includes three tiers of galleries. Philadelphia will be a theatrical center for the new country for many years. The Chestnut Street Theatre* company is the only real challenger to the New York based The Old American Company*, which will remain the leading company in America well into the 19th century. 1794 In France they are beginning to be revolted by the excesses of the revolutionary terror. With the Revolution of the 9th of Thermidor (July 27, they renamed all the months) and the resultant execution of Robespierre,* the Reign of Terror* is over and the French return to a more middle-class government. The practice of medicine, however, is improving by leaps and bounds, what with having so many medical cases to deal with. This year all hospitals become state property and facilities continue to expand. At the medical college (Ecole de Sante) surgeons are in charge and there is an extensive curriculum including external, internal and advanced clinical. The ideas of the Enlightenment are adapted to medicine and careful attention is now being given to looking, examining and dealing with immediate causes. Clinical observation becomes central to medical practice. Slavery is abolished in French colonies.

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In the United States they establish the U.S. Navy. In the arts, Goya* (1746-1828) is painting in Spain. Later he will move to France (1814.) 1795 This is the time when the first attempt to quantify electricity and magnetism are taking place. The first horse-drawn railway shows up in England. This notion of rails to run transport on will be the second big step in the industrial revolution. 1795 - Charleston, South Carolina also becomes a major center for American theater. John Joseph Sollee* is the manager of the City Theatre* (or French Theatre*) where many plays are performed in French. Charleston has a large French population due to the refugees from the French Revolution and slave uprisings in Santo Domingo. In England, the romantic poets keep trying to write plays. Most of them are pretty bad plays. This year William Wordsworth* (1770-1850) comes out with The Borders*. 1796 - Thomas Abthorpe Cooper* (1776-1849) one of England's most promising young actors, comes to the Chestnut Street Theatre* in America because he is unable to find a suitable engagement at home. Within a few years he is considered America's leading actor, popularizing the Kemble style of acting in the New World. Hodgkinson* and Hallam*, both give up their managerial positions at the John Street Theatre* and William Dunlap* takes over management. But Hallam* and Hodgkinson* remain as actors in the company, even though they still remain rivals. 1796 The French Armies are on the march, especially in Italy where Napoleon Bonaparte* is sent by the Directory*. In the United States George Washington* refuses a third term as President and John Adams* narrowly beats out Thomas Jefferson* as the next president. Jefferson* serves as Vicepresident. In Russia Catherine The Great* dies and her son Paul I* succeeds. Melodrama,* Popular Theatre, and Napoleon MELODRAMA* In 1797 in France, the man who coins the word "Melodrama"* produces his first successful play. Rene-Charles Pixerecourt* (1773-1844) will write (or collaborate on) nearly 100 plays. For thirty years he will provide the second rate theatre with their main fare. His work typifies the mixture of ferocity and idealism of the French Revolution which permeates the plays produced for illiterate audiences. He is influenced by German writers and his own work will strongly influence the rise of French Romanticism. He will also strongly influence the English where most of his plays appear soon after they are done in France. By this time the works of Kotzebue* are being translated, adapted and performed in England, France and the United States. Kotzebue* is busy writing over 200 melodramas. The popularity of his works keeps the plays of better writers from becoming highly visible.

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Although Kotzebue* and Pixerecourt* are the most prominent authors of melodrama, English and American playwrights will follow. Melodrama* comes from several sources: incidental music used in spoken drama in Germany; the French melodrama* which was pantomime with music; the Gothic tales of mystery, horror, vice, virtue triumphant; the early works of Goethe* and Schiller*. Gradually the music becomes less important and the settings less Gothic, but the music will continue to be included throughout this period. Typically melodramas* of this period combine sensational subjects, striking spectacles and humanitarian sentiments. The plots require a virtuous hero/heroine be relentlessly pursued by a dastardly villain. The pursuit includes every imaginable threat to life and limb, reputation and happiness. All actions are shown on the stage (preferably catastrophic like earthquakes, battles and floods.) Lots of local color is included, such as festivals, dances, strange and interesting working or living conditions. A sort of formula develops to shape these plots elements. The play begins with a short expository scene to explain who's who and what's what. The scenes are episodic with lots of plot devices like disguises, mistaken identities, abductions and fortunate coincidences. There are three acts and each ends with a terrific climax. The ending is always a happy one with strict poetic justice in which virtue is rewarded and villainy defeated and punished. There is comic relief provided by servants, confidants or companions. Music is always woven in through songs, dances and underscoring of emotional scenes. Melodramas* contain all kinds of popular entertainment plus a simple, strong story with strict moral codes. Everybody can understand them and so they are enormously popular and will dominate the nineteenth-century stage. For the first time since the Renaissance, theatre is serving a large popular audience. In England, the craze for "Gothic" melodrama* is served by the dramatization of two novels by Matthew Gregory Lewis* (1775-1818), Ambrosio, or the Monk* (1795) and The Castle Spectre* (1797) as well as translations of thirty-two plays of Kotzebue* and numerous adaptations of Pixerecourt*'s plays. 1798 - The first use of Romanticism* as a descriptive term for the new movement shows up in the literary journal, Das Athenaeum* [see above.] The writers are attempting to clarify and develop concepts from Sturm und Drang*, the works of Goethe* and Schiller*, the writings of Kant* and other philosophers. They are trying to formulate the theoretical bases of "romantic" art. In the United States, the John Street Theatre,* which houses The Old American Company,* has become inadequate and it is replaced. The first really important theatre, the Park Theatre*, opens in New York. It is built and managed by Hallam*, Dunlap* and Hodgkinson* who sell off the old John Street Theatre*. The Park Theatre* will have its ups and downs, but over the rest of this century every player of any importance in America will appear here. 1798 The French are still on the march. This time Napoleon Bonaparte* is off to conquer Egypt (he has in mind taking it as a first step toward India.) He will be here another year until he begins to hear about the political mess at home.

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1800 In France the business of medical knowledge is forging ahead. Richard Wellesley* is honored for his progress in bringing English control to those parts by being created Marquis Wellesley (Irish peerage.com . (later to be created the Duke of Wellington* and known as "the Iron Duke") as supreme military and political commander of the Deccan (the southern half of India. and Cooper* as supporting actor. "Battle of the Nile.When Napoleon* comes to power he brings some order out of the theatrical chaos. the most successful of his melodramas. a new partner. This play earns Pixerecourt* the nickname "the Corneille* of the boulevards. He fixes up the quarrel that the revolution caused between the French government and the Church (Concordant of 1801) and gets state control of all the temporal aspects of the French Church while the Pope gets to look after the spiritual. He does a terrific job of getting the country out of the grip of chaos and introduces a whole range of measures that form the basis for most contemporary French institutions. Dunlap* manages the theater until bankruptcy is declared in 1805. political discontent and military defeats. reuniting the fragments of the Comedie Francaise*." A perfectly preserved mammoth is found in Siberia and Russia grants a monopoly on Alaska trade to the Russia-America Company.) Since the Napoleonic Wars* are about to keep Britain busy in Europe. One of the by-products of Napoleon*'s excursion into Egypt is the discovery this year of the Rosetta Stone* which enable scholars eventually to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics. At this point Napoleon Bonaparte* seizes power. George Frederick Cooke* (1756-1812) who favors realistic acting.pdffactory.) exhibits the first picture of a naval engagement.One of the first plays produced in the new theater is Andre* with Hodgkinson* in the lead. Turner* (1775-1851. we get the Directoire* style from this period) and a relaxation in the nation as a result of winning leads to economic crisis. He will be busy in India for some years. He will rule as First Consul 1799-1804. 1799 Off in India." In England there is a new actor. whatever) which make up France and assigns "prefects" to be sure that centralized authority reaches all parts of the country. states. He is a little past his prime by this year. Xavier Bichat* invents pathological anatomy and comes out with his systematic view of disease as a localized PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Pixerecourt* produces Coelina. 1800 . In 1808. ou l'Enfant du Mystere*. 1799 In France the corruption of the Directory* (the current government. will enter the picture and Cooper* will start touring companies which include major stars. the landscape artist. Arthur*. In 1807 Cooper* will take over management and the theater will begin to prosper. Stephen Price*. provinces. In England. but after ten years in London with great success he will tour the United States.* It is translated into English (by Thomas Holcraft) and appears in 1802 as the first melodrama* on the English stage.1798 .) He appoints his brother. He not only re-establishes the revolutionary institutions in France (with some of his own modifications) but exports them all over as he conquers various pieces of Europe. Administrative law reorganizes the revolutionary "departments" (counties. his London debut. This will set an important precedent. 1799 . Wellesley* has practically a free hand in India.

' a sort of primitive battery. [In England the only way to get a body for study is to buy it from grave robbers. In England the romantic writer.In Germany this year. This view means that you treat the disease and not the patient. Kaiser Octavianus*.) comes out with his first important work. Thomas Jefferson*. 1825-28) with little success. Melodramas* are rapidly becoming the mainstay of the minor theatres in London. another German romantic playwright.* Actually it is an adaptation of Pixerecourt*'s Coelina* by Thomas Holcroft* (1745-1809) which he calls A Tale of Mystery*. It carries a pension. Lugwig Tieck* (17731853) comes out with his best known tragedy. three volumes of Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border*. Later he will try to export his cooperative communities" to the United States (New Harmony. The Louisiana Purchase* covers all that territory from the Gulf of Mexico (New Orleans) north and west of the Mississippi River to some vague spot in the Rocky mountains. If a patient's relatives couldn't come up with the large sum charged for burial.] A Frenchman makes use of the voltanic pile to come up with electroplating. 1801 Thomas Jefferson* (1743-1826) becomes the third president of the United States (18011809) in a close battle that is decided in the House of Representatives.' The political scene sees the Federalist John Adams* beaten by the Republican candidate.pdffactory. No doubt all this will inform the author of "Frankenstein. 1802 Napoleon* creates the Order of the Legion of Honor* to reward both soldiers and civilians for outstanding service to the state. 1803 France needs money and the United States buys a big hunk of the American continent France claims to own.phenomenon in his Treatise on Membranes. In the United States what had been known as the 'back country' is now referred to as the 'frontier. The prologue of this play is regarded by his contemporaries as characteristic of the romantics." In England the public is crazy about melodrama* and finally there is an English play labeled as a melodrama. Indiana. Students flock to France from all over to take advantage of the availability of hands-on pathological anatomy. The Union Jack becomes the official flag of the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The English pass the "Health and Morals of Apprentices" Act to protect labor in factories. Teaching medicine becomes much easier since most of the patients are poor and destitute and are neither able or willing to object to being used as objects of study. He also writes a lot of "fantastic comedies. 1802 . In England the social reformer Robert Owen* takes over New Lanark mills and begins social reforms. Hospital doctors are now dominant and are the elite of the profession. [There is a tie in the popular vote with Aaron Burr." (see below 1818)] Down in Italy Count Alessandro Volta* (1745-1827) invents the voltanic 'pile. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the deceased goes to the dissecting room for pathological study. Sir Walter Scott* (1771-1832.com .

Napoleon* is a big fan of classical drama and beginning this year he offers annual prizes for new comedies and tragedies. Each of the eastern countries. She is now keeping out of Napoleon*'s way.) This year he also hammers out a civil code (later it will be known as the Code Napoleon* or Napoleonic Code) that confirms the legal and property rights that grew out of the revolution. Coleridge* had visited in Germany 1798-99 and translated Schiller*'s Wallenstein* into English in 1800.) She is married to the Swedish minister at Paris but left France during the Revolution and was exiled by Napoleon*.pdffactory. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.] This year Napoleon* appoints the founder of the French classical school of painting. By this time the brief era of peace and consolidation is over and France is once more at war. England is busy coping with events in Europe and in India. nee Necker. He is one of the first to use classicism and romanticism as polar terms. In America that business of a northwest passage* is so intriguing that President Jefferson* sends out an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis* (1774-1809) and William Clark* (17701838) to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase and find the headwaters of the Missouri and the Columbia rivers. Most of the winners are not memorable. The only thing that makes it drag on so long is that "one time or another" business. Schlegel* also. this year. is hired by his government to come up with an affordable. Jacques Louis David* (1748-1825. He is trying it out. At home in France Napoleon* makes the general Jean Bernadotte* (1763-1840) Marshal of France. Spain. At one time or another France is fighting England. Meanwhile he has invented a submarine but nobody is interested.) an American inventor. From 1803 to 1814 the French will be continuously at war. but it's a nice idea. will adapt Schlegel*'s ideas.com . He regards Shakespeare* as the greatest dramatist ever and translates seventeen of his plays into German. 1804 . Austria. actually she is Anne Louise Germaine. Prussia and Russia. emotion and character are Schlegel*'s idea of the main ingredients of drama. Austria. Prussia and Russia. This consolidates much of the concrete achievements of the revolution. but we'll call her by the shorter form. After the fall of his empire she will go back to France and take all this German romantic stuff with her (more on her later. becomes closely associated with Madame de Stael* (1766-1817. Some of those opposing France switch sides and fight beside her.) In England. In France Robert Fulton* (1765-1815. 1804 In France Napoleon* is proclaimed Emperor by the Senate and Tribunate and crowned in the presence of the Pope (Pius VII*. [This crafty politician will survive all political changes and be a powerful force in Europe. Unfortunately it also results in putting efficiency ahead of individual rights and turns the country over to administrative activity and bureaucracy. Baronne de StaelHolstein. at one time or another side with Napoleon* when it seems in their own interest to do so.) court painter. Samuel Taylor Coleridge* (1772-1834). He also makes Talleyrand* (1754-1838) his grand chamberlain. workable steamboat.Meanwhile.By this year August Schlegel* (see above in introduction) is formulating and disseminating romantic theory in Germany (and elsewhere) through his lectures in Vienna and his published essays. Mood. These translations become the mainstay of German repertory productions into the twentieth century.

pdffactory. especially since it also brings terrific career opportunities under the Napoleonic institutions based on advancement by merit. This is all very well.) 1805 . He authorizes four state-supported theatres. when it is won. King of Holland.com . It is staffed by the serfs which the crown purchases from other successful serf theatres belonging to several nobles. The Congreve rockets (originally constructed by Sir William Congreve*.] This wipe-out in Germany brings a final end to the Holy Roman Empire (which has been neither Holy nor Roman for a very long time. He comes home bringing his brother. a critical journal. Arthur* will now start fighting in the Napoleonic Wars*. annexation and making alliances.) It also lays the groundwork for the eventual union of Germany (it would have happened sooner under the Austrian Emperor but the Prussians wouldn't go along. In 1813 he goes to England where he becomes renowned as a dramatist and critic. Napoleon* is marching into Germany and issues a decree beginning the "Continental System" which closes continental ports to British vessels. Comic ballet and light opera goes on at the Opera-Comique*.) The British occupy the Cape of Good Hope (Africa. This year his brother Joseph Bonaparte* is named King of Naples and brother Louis*. 1805-6 . Back in Europe The English aren't about to put up with Napoleon*'s closing all of Europe to British trade and Nelson* (Horatio Nelson. Three years later he makes his debut as an actor. 1806 Napoleon* puts his relatives on various thrones to consolidate his conquests. All plays have to be passed by censors. Sweet Home"* for one of his plays. 1758-1805) wipes out the French and Spanish fleets in the battle at Trafalgar*. a few will PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. by conquest. Napoleon* sets up a Confederation of the Rhine and makes a kingdom out of Saxony. and has a play. "Home. Anything regarded as "lesser" drama goes on at the Theatre de l'Imperatice* [later it will be called the Odeon*.Napoleon* deals with the dilemma of who gets to be a state theatre. These divisions and troupes will continue into the next century. Julia*. He makes a decree that all the works in the repertories of the state troupes can't be performed by anybody else. Prussia declares war on France. but the state theatres haven't been straightened out yet. No new theatres can open without special permission. On the war front it is a busy year: Britain blockades the French coast. He is the first internationally famous American dramatist.In America John Howard Payne* (1791-1852) at age 14 publishes The Thespian Mirror*. produced at the Park Theatre*. an artillerist and not to be confused with the playwright) are reintroduced as weapons into the British army.In France Napoleon* puts his organizing talents to the French theatres. 1807 .] Grand opera and serious ballet are performed at the Opera*. Regular tragedy and comedy can only be done by the Comedie Francaise*.) 1806 .1805 Wellesley* (that Englishmen rolling up India for the merchants back home) has acquired. while continuing to write successful plays. Arthur.* with him. [With Germany such a fragmented area there is little national feeling and this fusing of tiny states into larger territorial units is much appreciated. This will prove a significant visual image for Francis Scott Key* (see below 1814. all but four of the minor theatres in Paris are closed (this won't last long. At the end of the battle. a sharpshooter gets a bead on Nelson* and kills him.In Russia they finally open a state theatre in Moscow. He writes the song. control over most of the subcontinent. These are determined by the kind of productions they get to put on. Next.

The Haymarket* and Covent Garden*) these three have trouble keeping audiences in the face of the new competition. The minor theatres counter with all kinds of devices (like changing Macbeth* into a "ballet of action" and adding songs to regular plays) to get around the prohibition against their performing regular drama. In England there is a new Lord Chamberlain. He is a metaphysician with a philosophy of the Absolute. The southern revolution is spearheaded by San Martin's army of the Andes.) This year he starts issuing permits for a number of new theatres. the Earl of Dartmouth. 1807 Another brother of Napoleon*.creep back later. They will write this into law in 1843. Regular plays can be billed as melodramas* if they are divided into three acts (instead of the traditional five) and some musical accompaniment added. steaming up to Albany and back on the Hudson River. While England tries something similar to France. In Germany the philosopher Hegel* (1770-1831) comes out with one of his major works. In 1800 there were only six theatres in the London area and by 1843 there will be twenty-one. Mexico runs its own revolution. keeping regular drama exclusively in the patent houses (the original Drury Lane*. These four get to divide up the minor genres. That means they don't have artistic pretensions. they just do popular stuff. the Clermont*. His system will come to be known as Hegelianism*.) The Latin American colonies are cut off from Spain and Portugal by Napoleon*'s subjection of the mother countries. the Theatre de la Gaite* and the Ambigu-Comique*. Obviously what happens is there is less and less difference between what goes on at the patent houses and the minor theatres. get to do short plays. The remaining two. (who got the job in 1804.) These "minor" theatres get to put on what are regarded as "minor" genres. Fulton* has his workable and affordable steamboat. in operation.pdffactory. The northern one is led by Simon Bolivar *. who are already in Brazil to escape Napoleon. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Two of them will perform melodramas* and pantomimes. This leads to Latin American wars of independence with Spain. John Constable* (1776-1837) is working.* have the good sense to lead Brazil to self-government. The United States Embargo Act against Britain and France is enacted to combat the taking of American sailors and their "impressment" into British naval service.) He interprets the Licensing Act (which governs what plays may be produced) in a liberal fashion and encourages the establishment of minor theatres in the City of Westminster (a part of London. Portugal's rulers. Gradually they start adding minor drama to the regular stuff and sometimes as many as three plays will be included in an evening's bill.com . the Theatre des Varietes* and the Vaudeville*. becomes King of Westphalia. This is a good idea since the population of the city is growing by leaps and bounds and audiences are increasing. Phanomenologie des Geistes*. 1808 Napoleon* invades Spain and puts brother Joseph* on the Spanish throne and replaces Joseph* in Naples with another guy (Jochin Murat*. who has a much harder time of it with the Spanish troops. France invades Portugal and the royal Portuguese family runs off to Brazil. Jerome*. comedies-en-vaudevilles (these are oneact plays with new lyrics set to popular tunes) and parodies. In the art world the English landscape painter.

La Belle Sauvage* by James Nelson Barker* (1784-1858) is produced at the Park Theatre*. including getting Napoleon* his second wife. and others. and. Since Werner*'s play is inspired by one of Schiller's. The Indian Princess. especially the effect of France on Spain and Portugal. also known as the Liberator. In the north (out of Venezuela) a vigorous revolution begins. Later.) comes out with Rip Van Winkle*. This does not apply to internal domestic trade in slaves. By this date the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution* are showing up in the coalfields of central Europe (the Ruhr. Sambre. led by Simon Bolivar (1783-1830. the U. The Twenty-Fourth of February*. or. This year Ecuador begins to get its independence. 1809 .The romantic movement includes what is called "fate tragedy.) It will take him." This is started this year by Zacharias Werner* (1768-1823) with his play. plans and engines stream into Europe along with English skilled artisans and entrepreneurs. a lot of other writers start imitating Schiller. This year the American author. In Sweden King Gustavus IV is deposed and Charles XIII* succeeds. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. (whose full name is Prince Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich so you see why everybody calls him by his last name) is named chief Minister of Austria. To show how loyal to the French they are. In the United States the first indigenous American drama. What with all this revolution business. South American areas start breaking off from Spain. administrative autonomy and economic self-determination. quite a while to make the Spanish give up. The Portuguese royal family agrees with this and leads Brazil peacefully toward nationhood (Brazil will become an independent kingdom in 1815) but Spain tries to crush her colonies.pdffactory. In Germany Metternich* (1773-1859. He will be an active player in European politics for years. Jean Bernadotte* (Marshal of France) is elected Crown Prince of Sweden. it will be the first American play to be produced in England at Drury Lane*. English machines.S.com . Constitution requires that the slave trade end this year. but it does demand that President Jefferson* and the United States prohibit the importation of slaves from Africa (or anywhere else). It is produced at Wiemar and helps spread the influence of Schiller*.In America. They want political freedom. Noted for his skillful diplomacy he will be largely responsible for a policy of stability of European governments and suppressing liberal ideas and revolutionary movements. In Russia the government sets up a theatrical training school in conjunction with the Moscow state theatre. and Meuse valleys in Germany. it's terrifically popular. 1809 In the United States James Madison* becomes the fourth president. France and Belgium) and. Washington Irving* (1783-1859. on a small scale in capital cities like Paris and Berlin.

) English novelist.000. will introduce Schlegel's ideas and German Romanticism to France and Italy. Later he will run his political campaign on this military effort ("Tippecanoe and Tyler. provide him with safe passage through their territory.This year a German dramatist. African slaves are moved to the Americas and Arabia. by 1900 he will be better regarded than most of his contemporaries and some of his plays are still prominent in German repertory.000 and in sixty years it will pass 1. This year the population is 100. 1811 . In the United States Madison* is reelected president and Louisiana becomes a state."). Too. Indians emigrate to Indochina and Africa. The Prince of Homburg*. Heinrich von Kleist* (1777-1811) comes out with his masterpiece. comes out with Sense and Sensibility*.Madame de Stael* puts out her work. but. later they will move into armaments. The Prussians. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory. This year Argentina becomes independent. 1811 The English finally figure out that George III* is insane and the Prince of Wales becomes the Prince Regent. More than two-thirds of the immigrants to the United States will pass through here. which is written in French and. So far they just produce iron. the rising number of "skirmishes" on the Canadian borders and other problems. Paraguay becomes independent of Spain. 1810 By this time New York city is the most dynamic urban center in the New World. Indiana. This poor guy has had little connection with the romantics and nobody encouraged him. European Russians emigrate to Siberia and North Africa. The British occupy the island of Java. Even then it will take a while for his works to become popular. [This one may be remembered as the War of 1812*. who think this is a neat idea.] This year Louisiana becomes a state. defeats Tecumseh and his Indian troops at Tippecanoe. William Henry Harrison* (1773-1841). Jane Austen* (1775-1817. and. 1812 In Europe Napoleon* controls most of western Europe. In Germany the Krupp* works open at Essen.000. the United States declares war on Britain. He will remain almost totally unknown until Tieck* publishes his collected works in 1826. From this date he is head designer for the Opera* but he works for just about all the other Parisian theatres too. In France Pierre-Luc-Charles Ciceri* (1782-1868) has become the top designer of this period.1810 . This year he makes the mistake of trying to invade Russia. There are enormous population shifts as Europeans emigrate to the Americas. Africa.com . Australia and New Zealand. In reaction to the high-handedness of the British who take American sailors and "impress" them into British naval service. A future president. Of Germany*. together with her later personal efforts.

1813 . a terrific temper and a habit of drinking to excess. and Wilhelm 1786-1859. Talleyrand* helps in restoring the Bourbons to the French throne and when Louis XVIII* takes the French throne as his hereditary right Talleyrand* becomes his minister for foreign affairs. but often he is drunk.) As a reward for his efforts in leading the British forces on their drive into France through Spain.) His play is called Remorse*. The French statesman.pdffactory. William Hazlitt* (1778-1830) begins reviewing plays for the London papers this year. Russia. Arthur Schopenhauer* (1788-1860. This encourages Austria. The waltz sweeps European ballrooms. He will go on to write 39 operas in all. 1814 . but plagued by undisciplined behavior. In Italy the prolific operatic composer.In England this year Edmund Kean* (1789-1833) makes his debut at Drury Lane* in a major role. some people have been noticing two interesting things that show up. He appears as Shylock* in The Merchant of Venice* in untraditional costume and a villainous character. Prussia and England converge on France. plus many other musical works. or absent entirely. This year another German philosopher. This seems PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. is instrumental in rebuilding the government after Napoleon's* defeat earlier this year.The brothers Grimm*. He is defeated and sent into exile on the island of Elba (off the west coast of Italy.) the chief expounder of pessimism. Russia. (Jacob 1785-1863. what with all that canal building and digging coal. A canal-builder named William Smith* writes up his conclusions on the relationship between strata and fossils in a work called Strata Identified By Organized Fossils* published this year. but he won't. Rossini* (1792-1868) comes out with his opera. Samuel Taylor Coleridge* (1772-1834. He will have a checkered career.com . mediocre. The audiences love his new version. One is the strata (layers of different kinds of rock and soil) and the other are fossils.Another English romantic poet tries writing a play. Tancredi*. One of the great English critics. The French people urge Napoleon* to make peace. It seems that there are some fossils of things that are no longer around and there are also fossils in upper layers that aren't there in deeper layers. Prussia and Britain to form an alliance and try to defeat France in Europe. a fascinating chap who plays a leading role in French governments from the revolution through 1830). Uber die Vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom Zureichenden Grunde. In England.) come out with what is known in English as Grimm's Fairy Tales* 1813 Napoleon* is defeated in Russia and begins the long trek home. Talleyrand* (Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-P‚rigord. This time it is the major theorist of romanticism in England. When he is good he is unbeatable. Now this endeavor raises some perplexing religious and philosophical questions. comes out with a major work. 1754-1838. 1814 The armies of Austria. appearing at his best in murderous villain parts. Arthur Wellesley* is created the Duke of Wellington*.

This is the year of the Battle of New Orleans* where the Americans defeat the British after the war is officially over. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Medicine takes a step forward when England forbids unqualified doctors to practice. A French Professor of Vertebrate Zoology at the Paris Museum of Natural History. Indiana becomes a state. Georges Cuvier*.) In the United States the War of 1812* is finally over and the country can get down to expansion and growth. comes up with a possible solution. A cholera epidemic breaks out in the Ganges delta in India and spreads toward Europe at about five miles a day.) This seems to do for the moment. together with marine life. But. We will follow the mainstream theatre to other countries.com .pdffactory. In December the Treaty of Ghent ends the war. There is a big economic crisis in England which gives rise to large-scale emigration to Canada and the United States. British forces also burn Washington.C. It will reach parts of Europe in 1829. he suggests.. This. In the United States. but more geologic and paleontologic investigations will cause more problems in the near future. He also finds fossils of extinct animals. Revolution will rise up in an abortive attempt in Germany in 1830. there are a few tardy battles.to imply that God must have changed his mind about retaining some animals he had originally created but which are now extinct. 1815 Napoleon* escapes from Elba and rules France again for one hundred days. Post-Napoleonic World Once the map of Europe is cleaned up after Napoleon* and the influence of his ideas. especially dinosaurs. This year the first practical locomotive runs at the collier at Killingworth. 1817 The United States inaugurates its fifth president. romanticism begins to be picked up in other countries and becomes out of fashion in Germany. 1816 This year a French doctor comes up with the idea of a stethoscope. what with all those British Congreve rockets flying around. He is finally defeated by Wellington* at Waterloo* (near Brussels in Belgium) and this time is exiled to the island of St. together with the Viennese idea of checking the condition of the heart and lungs by tapping the chest. Francis Scott Key* (1779-1843) writes the Star Spangled Banner*. McHenry (Baltimore harbor). shows that extinction is due to catastrophic floods (both the biblical one and an earlier one before the creation of man. The Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar grants the first German constitution. Railways will follow rapidly and the nature of transportation will change. leads to a more detailed examination of the patient. James Monroe* and Mississippi becomes a state. even though the war is over. but before the confirming news of the treaty of Ghent arrives there. Helena* (a British possession off the coast of southwest Africa. D. England. the War of 1812* is still going on and during the British siege of Ft. This.

) He will write a History of British Costume* (1834) and be instrumental in stimulating new legislation governing dramatic copyright laws and giving greater protection to British dramatists. In Austria a schoolteacher (Franz Xaver Huber*) writes the music for a curate's (Joseph Mohr*) words and we get Silent Night. A perennial favorite of the Gothic romantics and obviously influenced by the rise of pathological anatomy in France. He is regarded as a 'ranting' actor. He'll be big in the next period. Like other major English actors he will tour to America and France. which is a lot like the old Jacobean drama with lots of revenge action. extravaganzas and pantomimes also produces melodramas. John Keats* (1795-1821. the Bride of the Isles*. Later he will tour to England with some success. In Sweden Bernadotte* becomes Charles XIV* on the death of the old king. William Charles Macready* (1793-1873) is firmly established both at Covent Garden* and at Drury Lane*. He will become the leading American actor of this period. Franz Grillparzer* (1791-1872.* One of Planche*'s best known works comes out this year. produces his first play this year. 1819 The U. and those of Macready*. He is regarded as the only real rival to Edmund Kean*. He will have a running feud with Macready* and.In England.) comes out with his first play.In America. He will become best known for his knowledge and expertise in costume and setting (see 1823).] Two more English romantic poets. King of Little Britain*. 1818 . Holy Night*.S. [In 1849 he will be embroiled in the famous Astor Place* Riot in New York (one of those big fights between fans of the American actor. is appearing at Philadelphia's's Walnut Street Theatre*. or. with the support of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. His career is devoted primarily to spectacular extravaganzas.) Illinois becomes a state. They start building the Erie Canal between Albany and Buffalo (New York. 1819 .pdffactory.In Austria a new playwright. Transportation is improving by leaps and bounds. Edwin Forrest* (1806-72). Shelley* writes The Cenci*. buys Florida from Spain and Alabama becomes a state. He is a musician and a serious student of art and history (see below. one of the finest tragedians of his day.com . Keats*' play is Otho the Great*. The border between the United States and Canada is agreed upon (the 49th parallel. (see below 1823) 1818 This is the year Mary Wollstonecraft (nee Godwin) Shelley* (1797-1851) comes out with her novel Frankenstein*. Edwin Forrest*. The Vampire. without much subtlety but full of passion and fire.In England a prolific writer of burlesques. Amoroso. they are improving transportation by getting into the canal digging business just like the British. A later work will be regarded as one of the masterpieces of the German-speaking theatre.) 1817 . In America the actor. The Ancestress*. The first steamship (the "Savannah") crosses the Atlantic in 26 days. 1820 . by this date.James Robinson Planche* (1796-1880) playwright and antiquarian.) and Percy Bysshe Shelley* (1792-1822) are writing plays this year.

With this innovation independent scenic studios begin to replace those attatched to individual theatres. This year one of the most popular dramatists. Ciceri*. each of which change in appearance by varying the lighting. Specialists begin to concentrate on the behavior of particular organs. In the field of physics Andre Amphere* comes out with Laws of the Electrodynamic Action and (1821) Michael Faraday* discovers the fundamentals of electromagnetic rotation.] The English are having trouble writing memorable plays. He is an actor. Ever since the United States was founded there has been an argument over slavery. Monroe* begins a second term as U. using translucent cloth and light to make things appear and disappear. All of his plays will eventually be performed.Still another romantic English poet is writing plays.S. This year the "Missouri Compromise" permits Maine to become a free state (1820) while Missouri enters the union as a slave state (1821. it's best to take note of it here. [He will later invent the daguerreotype*. Since the date 1849 falls in the next period. [As noted above. 1788-1824) gets the only one of his plays produced in his lifetime put on the stage.More advancements in scenery are made this year with Daguerre* (Louis Jacques Mande. but that isn't saying much.] It shows the audience two different paintings. and east to the eastern edge of present day Texas. Now the argument takes place in Congress and centers around whether or not new states should be allowed to have slavery. Mexico becomes an independent state with a northern border running east and west in a line north of Utah's Great Salt Lake. president. be regarded as the American champion in response to the theatrical domination of the English. It shows great effects of changing weather and time of day. This year Lord Byron* (George Gordon.) 1821 . These and other discoveries will lead to the generation of electric power and electric motors and other such electric marvels. James Sheridan Knowles* (1784-1862) gets his first big hit with Virginius*. He is better at playwriting than the other English romantic poets. He is good at putting melodramatic stories together with a sort of Shakespearian form.pdffactory. is so busy that this year he opens one of the first scenic design studios in Paris to better handle all this business. Marino Faliero*.passionate fans. and the riot is really part of the Romantic movement. This play will soon be playing regularly in England and America. 1822 .com . which no doubt helps him know what works on stage. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Peru is now independent. but not often. It will be bloody. That top designer. 1789-1851) opening his diorama* in Paris. 1821 Napoleon* dies in exile on the island of St. Helena*. his anti-British fans will lead the Astor Place* Riot in 1849. with 22 people killed and another 36 wounded by gunfire from the militia trying to stop the riot. 1820s A number of medical journals appear in Paris encouraging specialization in medical labor.

comes out with his "Unfinished" Symphony (Symphony No. and they will. Planche* designs and supervises the costumes for Charles Kean*'s production of King John* (Shakespeare*.) the leader of the romantic school. Boris Gugonov*.The year the new Opera* building opens with all the latest technical devices including gas lighting and lots of systems to pipe water around for fountains and other aquatic stage effects.This is a landmark year in scenic design and staging. a writer. is painting Les Massacres de Chinos. In France a new artist. 1825 . In England. known as the greatest master of song in musical history. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) the Austrian composer. For the Russians the important thing is to return to Russian history. comes out with some enormously popular romantic novels and. Delacroix* (Ferdinand Victor Eugune.) the Hungarian pianist and composer makes his debut (age 11) at the piano in Vienna. 1798-1863.com . 8 in B minor. Pushkin* is the leader of the new romantic style in Russia. In England British workers are now legally allowed to unionize. This work fuels the fire of controversy between the neoclassical French and the French Romantic movement. Franz Peter Schubert* (1797-1828.) This production is the first to attempt costuming with complete historical accuracy for each and every character in the play. Franz von Liszt* (1811-1886. It won't appear on the stage for almost fifty years (1870.pdffactory. In France. This historical play in the style of Schiller* is banned for two years (it smacks of Napoleon*) but will eventually be well produced and hailed as a masterpiece. The best known form of Pushkin*'s work comes to us by way of the 1874 opera when Musorgski* (or Mussorgsky.) 1823 . Racine and Shakespeare*. In America James Fenimore Cooper* (1789-1851) comes out with the first of his LeatherStocking* novels. Modest Petrovich 1835-1881) uses this play as the libretto. Charles X* becomes king of France. 1822 Brazil becomes an independent Empire. this year. 1824 In the United States no one gets a majority in the presidential election so the House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams* as the next (sixth) president. 1823 Mexico becomes a republic. In Austria Grillparzer* writes Konig Ottokars Gluck und Endde*. folklore and themes as subject matter for a truly Russian theatre. This idea will take a little time to catch on but it marks the beginning of a trend. Marie-Henri Beyle Stendhal* (1783-1842). It won't be allowed to be published for six more years.) However.An interesting year in Russia as Alexander Sergeivich Pushkin* finishes his historical play.

behavior and even the personal lives of the actors.) a German Jewish lyric poet and literary critic is writing. 1827 Heinrich Heine* (1797-1856.By this date in France even the Comedie Francaise* is using historically accurate settings for their productions. [He will invent the Morse code and a working magnetic telegraph by 1837. In England.The French Romantic* movement starts with a bang this year with the publication of Victor-Marie Hugo*'s (1802-85) Cromwell*. 1827 . [Yes. 1825 Bolivia becomes independent. There are three theatres in St. His main emphasis is on showing both the sublime spiritual and the grotesque animal nature in order to provide a more truthful picture of humanity. this sets the tone for Russia. but in 1824 they opened the Moscow Maly*. They will continue to hold the lead. In ballet and opera foreign influence dominates. and the Mikhailovsky* (where they do foreign plays.pdffactory. The play is impossible to produce as written (it would take six hours) but the preface to it becomes a rallying point for the advocates of romanticism. both cities have theatres named the same thing for the same kinds of theatrical production. devises regulations that will govern the state troupes from now until the revolution in 1917. Many of these regulations are based on the French Comedie Francaise* and concern rehearsals.com .) When state theatres were set up in Moscow they were in temporary buildings. Since the Russian crown has a monopoly on theatrical production in Moscow and St. 1798-1875) which will shed a lot of light on theatrical stars. the whole thing starts an uproar between romantics and classicists that will rage in Paris for the next three years. Petersburg.] 1826 . Petersburg: the Bolshoi* (which means "large. Petersburg.] By this date the Moscow theatres have a reputation for being superior to those in St. Well. the Maly* (which means "small.By this date the Director of Repertory for the Imperial Theatres (Prince Alexander Shakhovskoy*. In 1839 the actors will become part of the civil service. An English company of Charles Kemble* comes to Paris to perform Shakespeare *. calling for abandoning the unities." it is replaced in 1832 by the Alexandrinsky* and does mainly drama). The Russians are conservative and their scenic practices lag behind Europe. This year marks the invention of oxygen-hydrogen limelight* (Sir Goldsworthy Gurney*. In America. Soon he will get around to being an inventor." used mostly for opera and ballet). the first railroad to carry passengers opens between Stockton and Darlington. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. and in 1825 the Moscow Bolshoi*. The ones in Moscow continue to the present and are the ones usually meant by these names. The Bard (Shakespeare* is referred to as the "Bard of Avon") is being widely read aloud and performed in France now which helps advance the position of the romantics. in an attempt to raise the quality level of production in Russian theatres. mixing the genres and concentrating on historical settings for the plots. in charge 1801-26) has visited a number of western theatrical centers and. Samuel Morse* (1791-1872) is busy being an artist and painting Portrait of Lafayette.

In Germany the composer. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This same year also sees the invention of the achromatic microscope by Joseph Jackson Lister* (no. Poland. Ohm* (1787-1854) comes up with his law defining electrical current potential and resistance.) Noah Webster* (1758-1843) comes out with his American Dictionary of the English Language*. Charles Lyell*.S.In England. led by John Quincy Adams* (loser in this election) and the Democrat-Republicans led by Andrew Jackson* (who wins the presidential election. The concern for discovering the mechanism by which disease spreads is particularly strong as cholera moves over Europe. These two events will lead to a radical approach to public health and state intervention by raising the doctor to a place of control over populations. the first American railroad for freight and passengers. Germany and Sweden this year. publishes with his three volume Principles of Geology*. Jackson* is inaugurated as the seventh U. 1828 In the United States the Federalist party has disappeared and the Jeffersonians have divided into the National-Republicans. pianist and conductor. is busy being an author. is inaugurated this year." Opus 21. Benjamin Disraeli* (1804-81. He attempts to reconstruct the history of earth with an 'adequate' time-scale. 1829 The Cholera epidemic (from India) reaches parts of Austria. it's his son who will found antiseptic surgery later. He puts out his novel Vivian Grey* this year. Pelham*. 1828 . president. Much more will follow on this in the next period. Felix Mendelssohn* (1809-47) is composing his Overture to "A Midsummer Night's Dream. By this time the French are publishing prompt books that describe in detail all the special effects and scenery used for the current crop of melodramas* and romantic plays as well as other shows where spectacle is vital. In England the novelist (and later playwright) Edward George Bulwer-Lytton* (1803-73) comes out with his novel. Construction of the Baltimore and Ohio.Another English troupe headed by William Charles Macready* performs Shakespeare* and romantic plays in Paris.) later to be a big time politician.pdffactory. In Paris 7000 die of cholera in eighteen days. His conclusion is that the time frame involves millions of years. They even tell how to get the same general effect by taking short cuts if your theatre doesn't have the equipment. Still more about electricity is becoming known as George S.) This new microscope gets rid of the aberrations that have prevented people from seeing clearly through earlier microscopes.com .) Transportation moves forward. Geologic investigations are continuing and this year the Englishman. The ship's screw propeller is invented (by Joseph Ressel 1793-1857. They have never experienced this disease and the effects are traumatic.

patent on a typewriter is granted (to William B. brings out the first triumph of the French Romantic movement. 1829 . The Americban poet and story writer.The most important author of the French Romantic movement shows up this year. 1829 . Edgar Allen Poe* (1809-1849. translates and adapts Hamlet* and its production in 1837 in Moscow is an event of tremendous importance. By this time the concern for historical accuracy dominates the production end of the French theatre. is only mildly romantic. Soon there will be Russian translations of Shakespeare* [Nikolai Polevoy*. This production marks a turning point in Russian Romantic drama.] Marino Faliero*. retaining some of the neoclassical form. Burt of Detroit. 1830 . Musset* manages to fuse the new romantic drama with the classical tradition by PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. by Casimir Delavigne (1793-1843). Unfortunately the practice does not disappear and is still with us today. This discourages him so much that he gives up writing for production. They will continue to be produced down to the present time. Frederic Chopin* (1810-1849. by Alfred de Vigny*. In France the novelist Honore de Balzac* achieves his first success with a historical novel. The composer and pianist.This year romantic plays are showing up at the Comedie Francaise*. N.) The first U.) Also in America the religious society of Mormons or Latterday Saints is founded by Joseph Smith and his friends at Fayette. [He is called pere (father) to distinguish him from his illegitimate son of the same name who will be called fils (son). Since he is already a member of the French Academy*. Alfred de Musset* has a production of his A Venetian Night* and it flops.pdffactory.In Mexico slavery is abolished. This is de Vigny*'s first attempt at playwrighting. 1783-1833) French melodrama.In Russia Ducange*'s (Victor Henri Joseph Brahain.) publishes some of his first work this year (Tamerlane and Other Poems. In British India the custom of suttee* (burning the widow along with her dead husband) is abolished.com . pere* (1802-70). Le Dernier Chouan. He will produce two original plays. Chatterton*.] These translations and adaptations of Shakesperian tragedies will become an integral part of the repertories of companies in both capitals and in the provinces. Henri III et sa cour*. Fortunately he does not stop writing and in 1847 his plays will start being performed. The Moor of Venice*.) has his professional debut in Vienna as a piano virtuoso. In Russia classic tragedy is being replaced by romantic drama and Shakespeare* is definitely considered the peak of romanticism. Alexandre Dumas. this romantic effort is significant.S.Y. who is better remembered now for his novels. of which the second.* Thirty Years* is produced and sets off Russian enthusiasm for melodrama* and musical plays. (1835) will be one of the great successes of the French Romantic period. is an adaptation of Shakespeare's Othello*. a melodrama* writer.

Fantasio*. This event. One of the most enduring and popular romantic writers (Edmund Rostand* ) will show up at the end of this century and be regarded as a neoromantic.) 1830's . The romantics win. There is a revolution in Paris [Talleyrand* is involved in this one too] and Charles X* abdicates. Louis Phillipe* (1773-1850) becomes the "Citizen King. In England the poet Alfred Lord Tennyson* (1809-92) publishes some of his early work (Poems. It will gradually fade over the next ten years as the leading movement. but romanticism continues as a mainstream form. Chiefly Lyrical. His best known works also include: A Door Should Be Either Open or Shut*.com .centering his plays on the inner feelings of his characters but moving freely through time and space." Actually. Les Caprices de Marianne* . In two years 22. and The Decoy*. Romanticism continues. 1830 This year both Venezuela and Ecuador become independent. 1831 The cholera epidemic reaches England where it races through the urban populations. and even grows in quantity. The supporters of both sides get into a raging battle that drowns out the actors and continues for three nights. This year also marks the high point of the fight between romantics and classicists when Hugo*'s Hernani* goes on at the Comedie Francaise*." Despite all this turmoil a French tailor comes up with the beginning of the sewing machine. will give rise to widespread social changes in England. He will write most of his work between now and 1840. Mikhail Lermontov* (1814-1841). It is basically a melodrama* with an unhappy ending. is writing some plays along with his better known poetry. This year the first Board of Health is set up in response to the epidemic. ****************************** Afterword The Romantic period in the theatre doesn't so much come to an end as it is overtaken and passed by other movements.Musset* writes his tragic No Trifling With Love* and what is probably the finest historical drama of the century. The battle is an important one since both sides realize that the future of the French stage depends on who wins. Lorenzaccio*. simply a strong tradition. together with the headlong changes brought on by the industrial revolution. 1834 .pdffactory. but as you can see it has been going for a while.In Russia another romantic writer. It's Impossible To Think of Everything*. This production is actually the high water mark of the Romantic movement. there is no such thing as neo-romantic. Serbia is a fully autonomous state. One Can Never Be Sure of Anything*. of the Romantic movement. This is the first time in theatre history that a stylistic movement does not die out when a new one arises. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. French Romanticism is usually dated from this event.000 will die. quality and wide-spread distribution. which continues into the present day.

pdffactory.* which sweeps the western world into a social change so great and so basic that we have yet to come to terms with it. A History of the Modern Theater (New York: Delta. The mysterious and distant East is getting much less distant. In terms of what society is up to. Driver's Romantic Quest and Modern Query. and some of their ideas and ways of expression are starting to filter back into European consciousness. 1971). Hugo provides a succinct discussion of the Romantic movement and its characteristics. what with all the advances in transportation. Although the industrial revolution got started in England during the previous period it's only now beginning to spread widely over the European continent.1939 Introduction We are now into the really busy period of theatre where things are changing right and left and so is everything in society. like classicism. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This is a real bombshell for Western thought. through the height of colonial empires into the Second World War. next PART III Introduction back PART II Introduction first Theatre History home Home PART III Realism and Symbolism . Romanticism. The Europeans don't necessarily understand these Eastern ideas. We begin in the middle of the political ferment of rising European nationalism and end in global war. continues as a viable form.* too. but they get pretty excited about them in all the arts. 1957) Howard E.The Flowering 1830 . All this exploration and discovery is about to run smack up against traditional Christian religious beliefs about the nature of the world. western thought has shaken itself free from being dazzled by the ideas of classic Greece and Rome and launched itself into a frenzy of intellectual and scientific exploration.The Romantic period is overwhelmed by the tide of the Industrial Revolution. Melodrama. but it is no longer the leading edge of experiment and the primary font of truth on the stage. In his Introduction to The Portable Romantic Reader (New York: Viking. An excellent view of the developments of this period can be found in Tom F.com . So we will be following the results and ramifications of that revolution. continues to thrive and provide entertainment for the public at large.

what with more and more colonial possessions around the world all sending back more raw materials.] In the pre-industrial situation (before the 1750's) the only kinds of power available are muscle power (human and animal). and that means that it will begin to split up into a lot of different ways of showing different segments of the audience the reality of their own lives. but there will soon be a big bunch of others. historically speaking. [You will notice that this gives us the current view of various cultures as nomadic (they didn't settle down to agriculture). cooking and smelting metals. But. it refers to the biggest change in human society since people quit being nomadic hunters and settled down to start agriculture. But this brings several problems. and nowhere is this more evident than in theatre. Romanticism. bumper crops of kids and a need for lots more household goods. But all this stability changes with the Industrial Revolution. Theatre is now for everybody.com . The Industrial Revolution Now. water power (like that used by mills to grind grain) and wind power (sailing ships and wind mills). we will be using the term Industrial Revolution in the broader sense. etc. Broadly speaking. For producing finished goods there are hand looms. The Problems The whole change starts with some really severe problems in England. Turning raw materials into finished goods is done by hand. and the industrial countries. You don't "go off to work" for most occupations.pdffactory. hand printing presses. It is the move from a settled agricultural and commercial society to what we call the modern industrial society. which means it's a family affair with hired hands and apprentices for big time businesses. are happening in a lot of countries at much the same time. all doing their own thing at the same time. This makes for earlier marriages. The center of production is in the home. since this revolution spreads to different countries at different times. The power of fire is used for heating. but very different things. the only good fuel is charcoal (made from wood). The weather has been terrific (since 1720) and the agricultural side of things is booming. has attracted really big theatrical audiences from the middle and lower classes. a time of tremendous change. the term "Industrial Revolution" refers to the period of British history covering the hundred years between about 1750 and about 1850 when England is busy starting it and getting it up and running. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. undeveloped (they didn't make the jump from agriculture to industry). For metal smelting. melodrama. Society is pretty stable since it is basically agricultural (growing all the food and raw materials) and commercial (moving and selling all the stuff). The previous theatrical genre of Romanticism continues to be popular and turns into one of the mainstream genres (the other one still hanging around is classicism). For this reason we will be covering the same time frame several times from different points of view. Commerce is also booming. in other words.It is. This part of theatre history is difficult to follow because important. with its sidekick. The start of the industrial revolution has begun to revolutionize transportation and both steam shipping and the railroad are starting to make the world seem smaller. European colonial empires which began in the fifteenth century are now spreading over the farthest corners of the world. The first new way comes to be called realism.

These are all the non-Anglican Protestants who are (because of the Civil War of 1640-60) forbidden by law to hold a position in local government. They also set up their own schools (since they can't attend the universities) where they teach in English (the universities still use Latin) and have practical courses with really terrific science labs and hands-on experience. etc. uses Darby's iron to cast a cylinder for a pumping engine he designs to take water out of a mine. stoves. An ironmonger from Devon.com . Since England has lots of navigable rivers. Second there is the problem of wood. What with all that ship building to have transport to distant colonies and turning what's left into charcoal to make iron for a rising population's domestic needs (pots. up in the hills where there is running water.) coming in from the colonies with not enough to do with them. to make use of the coke. another Dissenter named Thomas Newcomen. the ironmasters are putting up permanent furnaces on the plains of Lancaster near the ports where all that coal is showing up in abundance and where finished iron can be shipped out to the colonies or sent back up the canals to local markets. adding canals works wonders. The products of the mills are needed in the cities. etc. This means it is expensive. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the surplus finance pouring in from the colonial plantations and expanding international trade and the expanding credit systems (introduced by that Dutchman England brought in as a King. later known as the William of William and Mary). Third is the problem of water in the mines. civil service or universities. The mills are where the power is. etc. Unitarian. William II of the Netherlands. Solutions begin to pop up like daisies with these entrepreneurs. By 1770. however. and the cash is just sitting around. where they are sold and shipped. for tin. And last there are the problems of surplus cash and raw materials (especially cotton. There isn't much left.) the more water seeps in. made more acute by the need to move tons of coal. The next solution deals with the problem of water in the mines. It's a lot easier to move tons of stuff on water than it is to fix all those roads. The cotton can't make a very speedy trip through the cottage spinning wheels and hand looms. Presbyterian. The coke makes terrific iron and there is an endless supply of it. Their religion (Quaker.pdffactory. The deeper you dig (for coal. It works so well it is still working (in a museum). The engine works by using atmospheric pressure to push the plunger down and steam to raise it up. The Solutions By and large the solutions to all these problems come from an industrious group of Britishers called Dissenters. especially if you are digging on an island. iron. is being solved by building canals. Now there's lots of coal around (actually under) England and this works fine for most heating but it's got impurities that make for lousy iron production. By 1775 there is a network of canals connecting the major coal fields with the major ports. The roads are lousy and getting the raw materials from point A to point B takes weeks. The earliest solution comes in 1707 when a Quaker named Abraham Darby in a village Shropshire starts to use coke (coal that has impurities burned out of it) for his iron works. excellence and success in their enterprises which makes them natural entrepreneurs. They can go into trade.) there is a real fuel crunch. Since the Seven Years War is over (in 1763) the government has some surplus cash to put into the infrastructure and canals get top priority.First there is the transportation problem.) advocates hard work. Meanwhile the transportation problem.

and engineering. England. although roads are being improved. The Industrial Revolution Spreads Since the ability for industrializing depends on coal and iron ore fields that provide fuel for the power and raw material for all the machinery. for example. He brings all kinds of textile workers together in the first factory. In 1769 a wig-maker named Richard Arkwright figures out how to use water power to work with people power and comes up with the water-frame machine. the possession of either or both of these two natural resources becomes critical in international power. comes up with his steam-powered Claremont and makes the 150 mile trip from Albany to New York in 32 hours. passenger service can't be far behind. The minute people find out about what England is doing. The steam engine spins a shaft and belts around the shaft run individual machines in the factory. On the continent the Ruhr Valley. In 1781 one of Watt's assistants.By the 1760's new machines begin showing up to handle all that surplus cotton. An English engineer named George Stephenson (1781-1848) builds the first locomotive to run on steam power. In Germany. Silesia (in the Carpathian Mountains) and the Saar regions of Germany provide both raw materials. crosses the Atlantic. a guy named William Murdock. These are all still hand-run but they increase production. An ironmaster named Henry Cort uses it to come up with a new way of producing iron that is better and makes fifteen times as much. There is a new weaving loom (invented by a Lancashire clock-maker named John Kay) that lets one person weave a double width cloth. And. a clock-maker from Doncaster) which. develops a way to use Watt's steam engine (which drives a piston up and down) to provide the rotary motion needed for factory machinery. Traveling by steam power alone will take a few years to develop [see below 1838]. Transportation is also changed. developed by James Watt. Especially one of the first. for example. the PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. With this technique. why not on the water? A number of people experiment with steam for ships but they're not too successful until 1807 when an American. in turn. is practically an island of coal. Once he develops it they start laying rails everywhere. In Europe. while Sweden rests on iron ore. building and machines are all changed. The next step comes about with the development of crucible steel (in the 1750's by Benjamin Huntsman. of course. Watt has been working out improvements on Newcomen's engine to drain the water out of mines. Canals haven't solved all the transportation problems and.com . they want to do it too. The factory system takes off like a rocket. All this may not seem relevant but it makes better machines possible. iron is cheaper than wood. for hauling coal. The great ironmaster James Wilkinson invents a new way to bore cannon muzzles with great accuracy. a good deal of the financing is undertaken by the various states. But the use of the steam engine doesn't stop there. they only serve as a place to move horse drawn vehicles. Although railroads begin as a freight hauling business. This revolution spreads rapidly to the continent and America. A real speedy trip for the time. if the steam engine works on moving a machine on land. His steam engine is a great hit in the mines but the demand for power in the factories requires something different. He comes up with one because he is able (thanks to Huntsman's steel and Wilkinson's boring technique) to make a piston in a cylinder that is almost air-tight. Everybody jumps on this bandwagon too and in 1819 a combination sail and steam ship. In England and America industrial development is financed primarily by private capital. There are some continental exceptions. Robert Fulton (1765-1815). makes it possible for ironmasters to cut iron with the precision of a few millimeters. the Savannah. Seven years later James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny so yarn-spinners can keep up with the new loom.pdffactory.

and main. including Czechs. Slovaks. French. and will become one of the largest manufacturers of armaments in the world. France has given up European conquest and turned to intellectual. At the end of the Napoleonic wars the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation which was a really loose federation of all those German states.pdffactory. English. Bosnians. but these new countries are busy with their own development and internal matters and don't affect the larger movement of events. culminating in the Second World War. In other places (like the Polish parts of Russia) there will be struggles for separation. Beginning in 1815. Denmark and Finland) have been dominated first by Sweden (began a decline in 1721. on a geometric scale. theatrical center is Paris. Sweden. Slovenes. even now. After the final fall of Napoleon (in 1815) we face the rise of nationalism in Europe. It is currently under the control of Francis I who quit being Holy Roman Emperor (as Francis II) in 1806 and became Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia and Hungary. It dominates the peoples from Bohemia through the Balkans. These are all still in a state of flux. The Spanish. Italians and Scandinavians. Serbs. Prussia dominates the German scene where the French borders (especially the districts of Alsace and Lorraine) will be a constant bone of contention. This is where the action is.com . she will certainly do her best to lead in all other ways. Croats. This is the period of Paris as the center of western culture. and Bulgarians. cover the world.native entrepreneur Alfred Krupp of Essen starts with coal mining. beginning. In Italy and Germany there will be a struggle for unification. Prussia and Austria are rivals for this territory. and Portuguese have all led in building colonial empires around the world. Norway will not become a completely independent country until 1905. Which is why they call it the AustroHungarian Empire. losing Finland to Russia in 1809) and then by the Danes (who owned Norway until 1815 when they gave it to Sweden). The primary powers of established nations in Europe are England. She will not lose her place until the Second World War. German unification will not be resolved until 1871. The struggle for national status will occur among the peoples of the Germans. then steel. among others. The Political Setting The area of the world we're mostly concerned with (until after 1917) is Europe. The Scandinavians (Norway. This is where we left off with Romanticism and where other experimentation is. As we move through this period we will encounter ever growing conflicts over resources and markets. France and the AustroHungarian Empire. Some pieces of this colonial empire (like the Americas) have already moved to become nations in their own rights. The Austro-Hungarian Empire is the messy tag-end of the old Holy Roman Empire territory which belongs to the Hapsburgs. If France cannot be the center of a geographical and political empire. ending in the staggering industrial production evident in the Second World War. As we move through this period we will see industrial expansion. again. Dutch. Eventually it will lead to war [see below 1866]. scientific and cultural conquests. Russians (who control most of the Poles). After the final fall of Napoleon. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Theatre In Its Social Context Throughout this period the first.

theatre is in private control... These are primarily middle class people who want to see their own lives and preoccupations reflected on the stage...................com . New styles to fit new content is the order of the day.... philosophical..Realism Triumphant 1877 ... In England.The War To End All Wars And After 1914-1925 Chap16 CHAPTER SEVENTEEN.............. but.....1905 Chap14 CHAPTER FIFTEEN. It also accelerates conflict... This period continues the intellectual.... People stream into these new centers of production and families are fragmented as everybody now goes off to work instead of working in the home....... CHAPTER THIRTEEN. well supported companies.... The trade off is that when theatre is an expression of national esteem it's down right conservative in content...... Gradually the rest of Europe will add some privately controlled theatre but by and large it will remain in municipal control...... All this revolution revolutionizes the theatre.. scientific........ and social turmoil... design and production.........In most of Europe... religious.. As usual theatre will reflect these new audiences and their interests....... the make-up of society is rapidly changing as production shifts from families and their homes or farms to factories in the cities... it's expensively lavish in architecture.... technological............ political.........Jazz Age And Depression 1925-1939 Chap17 next Chap13 back PART II Introduction forward to PartFour first Theatre History home Home CHAPTER THIRTEEN PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www..... This financial arrangement makes it possible to have a large number of well-equipped theatre buildings which house large.. What with the Industrial Revolution....pdffactory. A whole new mix of people now makes up theatre audiences.... theatre is funded and controlled by the government (whether city or state depends on the country)..Experiment and Symbolism 1905-14 Chap15 CHAPTER SIXTEEN. ending the period in the world-wide cataclysm of the Second World War..Realism Begins 1830-1877 Chap13 CHAPTER FOURTEEN.. It takes private enterprise to be willing and able to support theatres trying out new and unusual things...

which are currently just about as messy as they are now. Austria is trying to fill the power vacuum by sneakily working its way up. The chief player is a really tough cookie called Metternich* (1773-1859) who has been the foreign minister since 1809. Britain. His methods are heavily into censorship. designed to get rid of the Empire and go back to a king) that puts Louis XVIII* on the throne. he conquered most of Europe and part of Russia?). Charles X* (rules 1824-30) takes over the French throne. Prussia* (started way back in the middle ages with a blood-thirsty bunch called the Teutonic Knights*) has been picking up territory right and left and is currently the top dog among the Germans with a really awesome military. Dutch. it will make more sense if we can focus on the turmoil out of which this theatrical movement comes. Prussia* and Austria will be playing tug-of-war with the Germans. He is the guiding force in the Congress of Vienna* and keeps on throughout what is referred to as the age of Metternich* (1814-1848). and suppressing revolutionary and nationalist movements. The government is supposed to be solved by the "Bourbon Restoration" (181430. Russia and France) in a London Conference. He uses these to maintain the balance of power while helping Austria become top dog in Italy and the German Confederation*. They are also busy occupying as much territory as they can in Africa. 18301916). It will take them a little longer. Meanwhile France (the aggressor in the Napoleonic wars) is cut back to the borders it had in 1790 (when all this started) and has to pay a bunch of reparations and the costs of the army of occupation for five years. but. Europe is being tidied up by the chief powers (Austria. It is also pretty messy along the edges of the shrinking Ottoman Turk Empire (centered in Turkey). Since theatre reflects society.pdffactory. Russian and German Empires (colonial possessions and adjacent territory) will continue to grow throughout the nineteenth century. before the century ends. the near and middle East and in the Far East. Unfortunately the liberal middle class and commercial interests resent this guy's ultraroyalist PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. his brother. they will dominate the region. At the moment it is known as the Hapsburg empire*. espionage. Prussia. It's a really loose arrangement with its central diet (a sort of legislative group) under the Austrians. The British. under Emperor Francis Joseph* (or Franz Joseph. Political State of Affairs It's been fifteen years since the final defeat of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna* (181415) that was supposed to put Europe back in some sort of reasonable order after the Napoleonic Wars (remember. French. German Confederation* (1815-66) is a bunch of 39 German states put together by the Congress of Vienna* to fill the gap left by the now-defunct Holy Roman Empire.com . [see below 1866]. They recognize Greece as an independent nation and order the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands.Realism* Begins 1830-1877 Introduction We need to take a little time here to get a grasp of the social and political state of affairs in Europe. Later.

Russia and France) are all concerned with the Eastern Question*. One of the prime examples of the Eastern Question* shows up in the Russo-Turkish wars* which have been going on (off and on) since 1697 and will continue until 1878. Social State of Affairs Socialism* is a new theory currently springing up as a reaction to all this dislocation and problems coming out of the Industrial Revolution* and the accompanying Capitalism*." This gets us to realism* and naturalism*. in the second (1787-92) the southwest Ukraine and PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. [See below. For artists (theatre. which is an economic unit of 1. We will have to examine some of these as we go along because the theatre (especially the playwrights) pick up these views and run with them. converting old mills into a model industrial town. This time the French make it a constitutional monarchy. As we move into 1830. and often fighting wars.The Great Powers (Austria. But. Russia (which is still recovering from being invaded by Napoleon) is dying to have a nice warm-water port (one that isn't frozen in by the ice most of the year) that will let them sail into the Mediterranean. Essentially it advocates some kind of collective or governmental ownership and management of producing and distributing goods. He is big on selfsufficient agricultural-industrial cooperative communities. Prussia.620 people who have communal living with the work divided according to who wants to do what. Socialism* generally covers a theory that is both political and economic. too) Comte*'s ideas leads them to try to make art "scientific. 1841. which seem to be a real trouble spot all the time) that is still controlled by the decaying Ottoman Empire* (later. His son (Robert Dale Owen. 1801-77) follows in daddy's footsteps as a social reformer.pdffactory. Turkey). over what they regard as their national interests in this part of the world.com .) He influences artists as well as scientists and philosophers. politics being what it is. in 1823. intriguing. we are smack up against the July Revolution*. every nation keeps shifting their position and being allied with some other country at different times. becomes an American. All the powers are busy as little beavers. In the first major Russo-Turkish war* (1768-74) she got the Crimea and ports on the Black Sea. and this can be improved by living in a society based on cooperation. what are they going to do with the European territory (especially the Balkans. In France . This idea really takes off and there are a lot of these communities popping up all over. Everybody else (especially Britain) keeps doing their best to prevent this from happening. His premise is that character is molded by environment.A similar movement has begun under Charles Fourier* (1772-1837). Britain. and is the first to publicly advocate Birth Control (1830). as usual.attempts to turn the clock back to the old style government (the ancien regime*). He claims social harmony can happen with a society based on the "phalanx* ". In Eastern Europe . known as duc d'Orleans) in as king. This is. In this little fracas Charles X* is thrown out (he hightails it out of the country) and they put Louis Philippe* (1773-1850. They call him the citizen king*. argue among themselves and break up into different factions.] There is also an idea called positivism* kicking around now. Auguste Comte * (1798-1857) is writing Positive Philosophy* (1830-42) and inventing the term sociology* as the method to achieve this positivism* (living in harmony and comfort.Beginning in 1800 a guy named Robert Owen* (1771-1858) pioneered a cooperative movement. These wars enable Russia to nibble away at the Ottoman Empire*. He starts up a number of these and spreads it to the United States when he builds New Harmony. Indiana. A whole bunch of theorists and practitioners spring up and. At this point in time (around 1830) things are something like this: In England .

artists need to try for impersonal. By this time the Ottoman Empire* is known as the "Sick Man of Europe.. and. In content. It gradually becomes clear that realism. We'll pick them up as they enter the mainstream of social reform.France PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the plays are about the social and domestic problems that preoccupy the middle class audience. The production form* tries to make the stage look like the real world in scenery. The Theatrical State of Affairs The Industrial Revolution* and Nationalism usher in Realism* which will be followed rapidly by a more extreme variant.the port of Odessa. These are anarchism* and communism* (which will grow out of socialism). 1830 . Naturalism*. then in 1806-12 Bessarabia. are the main determining factors in peoples lives. This means that.com . romanticism and classicism seem to have been around throughout theatre history as major ways of expressing ideas on the stage. and natural forces like these. lighting. There is some attempt to apply scientific methods of observation. But it's pretty brief and not a lot of plays are written in this style. Although realism* is usually regarded as beginning with the realistic works of Ibsen*. in the 1860's) insists that art should truthfully show the real. In order to understand the start of Realism* we need to have some common idea of what is meant by this term." It will give rise to even more trouble as we go along. A couple of other social theories that have been hanging around since the Greeks will surface again. this includes an approximation of the speech and manners of everyday people in everyday life.g. costume and the movement of actors. objective observation of the world around them. all the elements are in place on the stage before he writes his masterpieces." [This is where Comte*'s ideas come in. a variant. the intellectuals. physical world. This form business includes everything about the way in which it is done. For now we'll take a look at the beginnings of the realistic movement as it gets started in France. See above. the poor and the downtrodden. since only the contemporary world can be known directly. Heroes and heroines are now from the upper middle class or the bourgeoisie* [see below]. that is what they should be representing in their art. artists and merchant class. In realism. It includes both the form* of the play or production and the content*. We will look at this variant in its own place where it appears for specific reasons. At about the same time as realism* gets started. Naturalism. begins. hypothesis and experimentation to determine what is "real. Later we'll add symbolism to this list. This means that Naturalistic protagonists will come from the lowest classes. The whole idea is a defense for "scientific" views and the notion that environment and heredity. Naturalism* carries the attempt to show the "real" world to an extreme. and cause a lot of turmoil. Psychological motivation will become the most significant element of the content. Once the realistic style becomes recognized we begin to hear how "realistic" a whole bunch of earlier playwrights were (e.pdffactory. Euripides*' work compared with other classical authors).] The hero isn't from the upper class nobility anymore. and in 1828-29 (which included the Greek war of independence) the rest of the Caucasus bringing Russia to the height of her power. soon. The eventual Realistic theory (which comes along after the fact.

The play is really the last part of a long story. His main emphasis is on showing both the sublime spiritual. There are as many as fifty theatres operating at any given time in Paris. In 1815 he has his first success (Une Nuit de la Garde Nationale*).pdffactory. It is a commercially successful pattern of construction that usually contains at least a smattering of a moral or thesis. This formula will come to be called the well-made play*. By this time. Sometimes they are "serious" plays.com . In doing all this writing. and Scribe*'s plays in particular. but certain characters in the play don't until near the end of the play. mixing up the genres (comedy and tragedy) and concentrating on historical settings for the plots. comedy.The plot is based on a secret the audience gets to know about. full length plays and a lot of librettos for popular composers like Meyerbeer* (1791-1864) and Verdi* (1813-1901) as well as opera ballets. The first steps toward Realism come from these tenets of romanticism. Until the 1880s most of the minor houses specialize in a particular genre (melodrama. Technically they call this a "late point of attack." This means the play has to start with a lot of exposition* (telling you what happened before now). The Well-Made Play* The early move towards realism comes from the street smart playwrights who know the public and what they want. Scribe* comes up with a formula for writing successful plays based on all the plot construction tricks that have been successful throughout theatre history. and the grotesque animal nature in order to provide a more truthful picture of humanity. a lot of mediocre English playwrights pretend they wrote the plays they translate. according to Victor Hugo*. his plays are well known. 2. Since there isn't any international copyright yet. and operetta. Either the results of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The first one to make a real splash is Eugene Scribe* (1791-1861). spectacle drama. problem plays* or thesis plays*. Other times they are sort of comedy.In France melodrama and Romanticism have taken audiences away from the traditional French neoclassic plays but they don't fulfill all the tenets set out for the Romantic movement. and it will put a lot more attention on that "animal nature" stuff. which. [This is where that socialism* business we looked at above becomes important. vaudeville. called for abandoning the unities. He goes on to write 374 theatre pieces (one act vaudeville comedies. It will also "mix the genres" so that realistic plays can't be called tragedies at all.] The well-made play* goes like this: 1. Realism will emphasize this truthful aspect.) Gradually the length of the run of a particular play increases and this will lead to changes. are being translated into English and show up in America as well as England. French drama in general. one of those prolific French playwrights (like many others he often has collaborators). most of which has already happened before the curtain goes up. Well-made plays that are heavy on the moral business are called social plays*. The important thing here is the system (which almost amounts to a writing factory) that he develops for how to write plays. We'll pick up his best known works as they show up. 1830. The real action of the play can't start until the audience knows this exposition. He's been writing for some time and his earliest plays were flops.

The plot devices have been around since theatre began. This climax includes rewarding the good. Social Turmoil . Lamarck's theories paved the way for Darwin and Wallace (Alfred Russel Wallace*. which keep the action moving and suspense high. telling just as much as the audience needs to know. 6. The exposition* (telling what happened before the play starts) is very precise and careful.the secret or the revelation of the secret comes in the climactic* (or climax) scene. it is usually a very comic trick.M. This particular formula for writing successful plays turns out to be just the right form for the social content that is clamoring to be expressed. the audience knows about it. While this can be a serious thing. who's been suffering all kinds of problems throughout the play.com . The reversals (denouements)* at the end aren't just tacked on. There are lots of contrived entrances. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1823-1913. They grow out of the events in the plot. There are several features of the well-made play* that make it the beginning of realism*. 4. 7. Like the secret. letters and other devices of that sort. doing comparative biology in the East Indies). "something for something") involves two or more characters interpreting a word or a situation in different ways. because it is in this scene that the secret is revealed to the opposition. 5.There is also a central misunderstanding which may or may not be connected with the secret. The first is the work of a young English naturalist named Charles Darwin* (1809-82) who departs this year (1831-36) aboard the H.The overall plot pattern (the ups and downs. Beagle on a world voyage. etc. came up with his own evolutionary theories (and founded invertebrate paleontology).pdffactory. The important thing is that all the characters assume their own interpretations are the same as everybody elses.S. The plots are just as contrived as earlier plays but they are plausible and believable. What he discovers in his investigations will lead to his theory of organic evolution*. exits.) are reproduced in the individual acts. sympathetic character. logic and common sense. but some of the characters don't. but Scribe* adds probability.The plot proceeds in a pattern of intense action and suspense. This misunderstanding (a quidproquo*. 3. Jean Lamarck* (1744-1829). The idea has been kicking around since 1801 when a French naturalist. It also reveals or unmasks the bad character(s). It includes both the lowest and highest point in the hero's fortunes. or adventures.The hero's biggest down-turn (peripeteia*) takes place in what is called the obligatory* scene (the scene a faire*).There's a roller coaster of ups and downs in the hero's (or heroine's) fortunes as a result of conflict* with his/her adversary.1831-48 Various things are brewing in society which will soon break out in social action. This scene is the critical one in the play. and who the audience has come to love. while they are obviously (to the audience) very different.

As the population swells in the United States. The first signs of the effects of the Industrial Revolution on workers in America shows up in the 1830s with the beginning of the development of labor unions. to the workeroriented communism* and anarchism* (those who want to abolish all government). Each one has audience seating for between two and three thousand. regarded as the incarnation of frontier democracy. Andrew Jackson* is the seventh president (in office 1829-37). He controls theatres up and down the river and inland.The second thing brewing is a whole batch of reactions to the rise of capitalism* (supply and demand. introduces real properties (instead of the customary fakes). There are now more than twenty resident theatrical troupes and who knows how many traveling groups. like Nashville. Caldwell* (1793-1863) who came over in 1816. child stars and speciality PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. There are now 24 states. the United States is busy expanding and growing. An English light comedian named James H.pdffactory. 1832. He brings "stars" west to tour his theatres. the serfs and slaves.In America theatre is doing very well.) American Theatre 1831 . We find lots of animal acts. Mme Vestris*. She insists on historically accurate costumes. through Christian Socialism* (starts mainly in Great Britain and the U. a vast region acquired in the Louisiana Purchase*. A fellow called William Chapman* (1764-1839).com . The period of "Jacksonian democracy" is beginning and audiences are looking for native entertainment fit for the common man. These "stars" demand ridiculous salaries and the local company doesn't make very much money for themselves. While social turmoil is brewing in Europe." which means that all those people who are working their tails off in the factories are not much better off than their agricultural counterparts.)." to perform with local companies. South of the Rio Grande River Santa Anna* (1794-1876) has been ruling Mexico* since 1828 and is busy beating the Spanish in 1829. Philadelphia has three theatres and Boston at least two. This lowers the quality of the productions since the "stars" often arrive too late for much rehearsal and insist on doing plays that suit them best. all that Northwest Territory* (explored by Lewis and Clark* in 1803-6) and lots of land in the Southwest (claimed by Spain) that is disputed. The major social by-product of this busy capitalism* is what is usually referred to as the "exploitation of labor. She will go on to run one of the best managements. New York has four theatres now and they keep adding more. These will range from the idealistic Trancendentalism* (influenced by the idealist German philosophers. 1830 . We will be meeting these very soon. Socialism* is the first reaction (see above) and it is rapidly spinning off separate movements. private ownership of production. especially Kant*). More and more actors are touring as "stars. takes over the management of the Olympic Theatre*. It will take another five years to work up to getting a steamboat to tow them back up stream. and the box set (see below.S. the river boat theatre.This year in London a charming actress of light burlesque. outfits a flatboat to give performances at landings from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. sometimes three. that sort of stuff). The Industrial Revolution* has created modern capitalism* and sent it booming. another English actor come west. Another American theatrical invention starts up this year. the demand for entertainment does too. now dominates the theatre in the Mississippi valley. She makes major contributions toward realistic productions.

underneath. George Sand* (the pen name of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dupin. Later (1863). is personally busy having affairs with Alfred de Musset* and Chopin* while being a single (divorced) mother and supporting her two children by her pen. (made by a continuous series of flats joined together). He is a major figure in American plays at this time. the American plays are introducing two important native types as characters." or physical. the pressure of naturalism in the theatre will bring a decline to the ballet. Boris Godunov* which Moussorgsky* (1839-91) turns into an opera (produced in 1874). comes out with a verse drama. is the Afro-American. baronne Dudevant. found a more sympathetic reception in London.pdffactory. A third character type. Later in the century. Bernard*'s The Conquering Game*. King Shotaway* (about an insurrection on St.acts put on as entr'acte* (between the acts). He had made his New York debut in 1826 and two years later was regarded as the leading American actor. She writes over 80 novels. Ira Aldridge* (180467)." part.com . He is a big guy with a really strong voice and his style of acting is called "heroic. who. complete with ceiling. there are a growing number of imitators.Mme Vestris* introduces the first box-set* on the English stage. Brown* wrote the first known American play by an Afro-American author. He appears there as Othello*. A. B. Vincent Island." The Yankee is a comic. There are three real walls. 1832 In France. 1804-76) is professionally busy publishing novels expressing her feminist views. produced at the Olympic Theatre*. An Afro-American troupe was put together by James Brown* back in 1821 and had a couple successful years until white rowdies gave them too much trouble. practical doors and windows (instead of having the actors zip in and out of the old wings). American star is Edwin Forrest* (1806-72) who acted a lot around the frontier. full of democratic principles and not about to put up with pretense or hypocrisy. The Yankee is the American common man. This is a big departure from the usual perspective scene painted on the back drop. Rice* (1808-60) with his "Jim Crow*" song and dance around 1828. because of his race.) This company gave a start to a celebrated actor. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. S. the Indian and the Yankee. Popularized by Thomas D. The Indian is a sympathetic character. or "specialty. the biggest. Realistic Elements In Production 1832 . native-born. he will become a naturalized British citizen. and thickness pieces to make everything look real and solid. These white performers in black-face shouldn't be confused with Afro-American performers. Pushkin* (1799-1837). He will go on to great European fame. also a specialty role. Some of his other works will be made into operas by Tchaikovsky* (1840-93). 1831 A Russian poet and author. but. However. This year it is Indiana*. dresses like a man to protest the unequal treatment of women. In the art of ballet* the romantic period begins this year with La Sylphide*. the romantic "noble savage. filled with brilliant choreography and emphasizing the beauty and virtuosity of the leading female dancer (prima ballerina). Currently. apparently simple and naive. The plays are still mostly imports with American dramatists making up only about ten percent of the authors. The play this is used in is W. This comes to be regarded as the "American" acting style in contrast to the more restrained (and convincing) English style.

It is currently the snazziest theatre in the country.com . a third theatre opens in New Orleans. The English poet.The Russian writer. the longest reign in English history. the St.In America this year a new native-born actress is beginning work at the Park Theatre* in New York. 1835 . that are included in his twenty-year work.Around this year the "Jim Crow" song and dance business is enlarged into Ethiopian Operas* by Rice* (see above). Strafford*. 1836 This year Transcendentalism* as a literary movement begins to flourish (1836-60) in New England. but he quickly regains his Mexican power.In America.1833 Santa Anna*. Late this year (1836-7) he becomes famous with the publication of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club*. a tragedy. American critic and social reformer) and Henry David Thoreau* (1817-62. Transcendentalism* is an optimistic philosophy that emphasizes individualism. but he is about to have problems with the Americans who have settled in Texas. and become Empress of India. Charles Theatre *. 1833 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Thomas Carlyle* (1795-1881) is busy being a critic of materialism in his book Sartor Resartus*. 1837 . having beaten the Spanish. with the largest stage (90 by 95 feet). 1837 In Great Britain Victoria* (1819-1901) succeeds William IV* as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland. Sketches by Boz*. The Inspector General*. This won't be the end of the dispute. Down in the Southwest a bunch of Texas rebels declare Texas independent from everybody. social critic. In Great Britain. has his first play produced. It is centered in Concord. Robert Browning*.) There she will learn her craft. 1835 The French writer Honore de Balzac* (1799-1850) comes out with one of the stories. Margaret Fuller* (1810-50. but this year he comes out with a delightfully satirical play on provincial and bureaucratic folly. a fellow who has a great influence on the current literary world. The Human Comedy*. 1836 . MA with Ralph Waldo Emerson* (1803-82) stating the movements main principles in Nature. Nikolai Gogol* (1809-52) has been writing a number of things. gets to be president of Mexico* this year. She is Charlotte Cushman* (1816-76. This entertainment form will keep growing. Gas lighting is now the in thing.pdffactory. self-reliance and the rejection of traditional authority (especially Calvinist orthodoxy and Unitarian rationalism). He will be better remembered for Pippa Passes*. In Great Britain the novelist Charles Dickens* (1812-70) is just getting started with the publication of his early sketches of London life. Pere Goriot. They defeat and capture Santa Anna*. In the United States Arkansas is admitted as the 25th state. She will rule 1837-1901. naturalist and author) are part of this movement. We'll follow her career. Later she will be known as the finest tragic actress in the English-speaking world.

Denmark and Romania. He calls his works "Music-dramas". real props and a box-set* to the attention of the theatres here. The Daughter of the Regiment*. 1840 . Some of his ideas will be picked up later and made a part of communism*. The Lady of Lyons*. passionate nationalism. Later we will have some theatrical design theories come out of productions of his works. a Frenchman named Louis Blanc* (1811-82). Greece.In America gas lighting is now the way to go in theatres as gas sources become dependable. In Great Britain. Germany. There will be a lot of economic problems next year. 1838 Dickens comes out with Oliver Twist*. For the next forty years this system will be refined and improved until electricity begins to be available. This year he comes out with The Pathfinder* and next year he will publish The Deerslayer*. This makes for much more flexible and spectacular lighting since the gas flow can be controlled through what are called "gas tables" where each gas jet can be turned up and down by one operator. In this influential work he outlines an ideal social order based on the notion "From each according to his ability. Martin Van Buren* (1782-1862) takes over as the 8th president (183741). Nathaniel Hawthorne* (1804-64). Michigan is admitted as the 26th state this year." He claims we should start with a system of "social workshops" controlled by the workers themselves. By this time Richard Wagner* (1813-83) is writing his operas.In the United States. publishes his Organization of Work*. Prince Albert*. This German composer also writes his own librettos and brings the musical and dramatic expression of German romanticism to its height.pdffactory. in this case) and a fusion of music and text. Edward George Bulwer-Lytton* (1803-73). In America. The English novelist and playwright. Gaetano Donizetti*. comes out this year. brings out his most successful play. They will have nine children who will marry and link the British royal house with the rulers of Russia.This year Mme Vestris* (1797-1856) tours to America and brings historically correct costumes. produces his Twice-Told Tales*. The master of American fiction. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. James Fenimore Cooper* (1789-1851) is still writing. Social Reform Is Explored 1840 One of those social reformers. to each according to his needs.One of Scribe*'s best known plays. An Italian composer. This year he does Rienzi*. produces a delightful comic opera.com . but it will remain popular for many years. 1838 . A Glass of Water*. 1840's . a return to native folklore for his stories (German mythology. It's romantic and sentimental. Queen Victoria* marries her first cousin. He embodies all the major characteristics of the romanticists.

Margaret Fuller*. We will hear more about him and some of the 250 plays he will write later.com . 1841 William Henry Harrison* (1773-1841) comes in as the 9th President of the United States. Its based on shared manual labor and the ideas of Transcendentalism* (a movement in literature that flourishes in New England 1836-60 and emphasizes individualism. playwright and theatre manager who first appeared as an actor in 1838. This year a Scottish explorer. Political Philosophy Moves On 1841 Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach* (1804-72). John Tyler takes over the presidency as the first Vice President to succeed to that office. This year one of those Fourierist (see above in Introduction) cooperative living experiments starts up at Brook Farm*. but he dies after only a month in office. Nobody is very happy with him. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This year he gets a law limiting child labor. his works will have the greatest influence on what happens in the world for the next hundred and fifty years. This year Boucicault* begins acting under his own name because of the success of this play. Its ideas are best expressed in Emerson*'s essays and Henry David Thoreau*'s (1817-62) Walden. 1841 . It'll be suppressed next year. and rejection of traditional authority.] Meanwhile the Europeans are busy exploring the interior of Africa. Horace Greeley* and Nathaniel Hawthorne* are members or visit here. which he writes up in American Notes*. the Victoria Falls. 1842 This year Karl Marx* begins his editorship of a radical paper (the Rheinische Zeitung).1840s The medical establishment finally begins to use general anesthesia in surgical procedures. self-reliance.The box-set* is brought to perfection in Mme Vestris*' production of Dion Boucicault*'s (1820-90) London Assurance* at Covent Garden*. This play will be one of the most popular of the rest of the century. This is why we will keep up with these two guys. or a Life in the Woods* (1854).S. He is an Irish actor.) Ralph Waldo Emerson*. This makes surgery go much easier and better. He'll go on to find [that is the conventional way of saying that the white European is discovering for the first time a number of things well known to the native Africans] a lot of spots there [like the Kalahari desert. He is a German social philosopher who has studied both law and philosophy and has some very definite ideas about how society ought to work. This guy is busy rejecting idealism for materialism* and his works influence another fellow named Karl Marx* to develop a view of things called dialectical materialism*. goes off as a medical missionary into the wilds of Botswana. Dickens* does an American lecture tour and goes back to Great Britain with a very dim view of the U. At the moment Marx* is taking in the ideas of Feuerbach* (see above) and Moses Hess* (1812-75) who introduces him (Marx) to the study of social and economic problems (of which there are a lot around just now). [more about all this as we go along. director. launches his best known work. 7th earl of Shaftesbury. 1801-85) is busy passing laws to help with the terrible conditions of workers and the poor.pdffactory. The Essence of Christianity*. Along with Darwin. that sort of thing]. David Livingstone* (1813-73). In England Shaftesbury* (Anthony Ashley Cooper. a German philosopher.

1843 . even though they are still fighting over it there. a guy named Dan Emmett* (1815-1904) builds on those Ethiopian Operas* (see above) and comes up with a full-length entertainment.S. He is the stage manager of the troupe at the Boston Museum*. but this year Samuel Morse* (1791-1872) demonstrates his version to Congress. They begin a life-long collaboration. Gregor Johann Mendel* (1822-84) is busy [between now and 1868] analyzing how peas reproduce." Also. It will take a while for this to make a difference. Engels* is a German social philosopher and a revolutionary. 1843. Smith* (1806-72). Dickens publishes A Christmas Carol* and spends some of his time managing amateur theatricals. is named poet laureate. James Knox Polk* moves in) is to annex the independent Texas.The Russian. Now new theatres can open. This is the "city boy". 1843 This year in Great Britain.In America the hit play is the melodrama The Drunkard. and Canada). Dead Souls*. The Mexican War* will run from 1846-48. Later in the year. Meanwhile. Gogol*. William Wordsworth* (1770-1850). they raise telegraph lines along side). the romantic nature poet. around this time. The Mexican War* and Nationalism 1845 One of the few important things President Tyler does (before he moves out of office this year and the 11th President. in December. comes out with his novel. He gets associated with the system and it starts being put into use (especially as the railroads are built. The Condition of the Working Class in England* (it'll be published next year).In America. but his findings will provide the basis for genetics. Polk* is very successful in fulfilling his campaign pledges in this war. This year Margaret Fuller* publishes her feminist views in Woman in the Nineteenth Century*. 1844 This is the year when Marx* meets Engels* in Paris.A little Austrian monk. Texas is admitted as the 28th state. is being put together. In England. These two guys will begin working on other works immediately. another American character type shows up. In Great Britain. the Theatre Regulation Act* puts an end to the old monopoly of the Patent theatres. Also. the "Virginia Minstrels.pdffactory. It launches the Mexican War* (with the Alamo and all that). does Santa Anna* object to this. comes out this year with his first major work. Florida is admitted to the union as the 27th state. who has been managing a factory in England. She's the first literary PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. the telegraph*.com . Several guys have been working on this. Boy. Friedrich Engels* (1820-95). 1844 . [a still popular item] by William H. Meanwhile one of the first important communication devices. President Polk has a campaign pledge to get control of California and take Oregon territory from Britain (they settle on the 49th parallel as the northern boundary between the U. Shaftesbury* gets a law providing care for the insane. This may sound pretty obscure and esoteric. Actually the United States is dying to get their hands on California (which Mexico claims) so this is a good excuse. a good-natured city roughneck.

Charles Kean* (1811-1868) begins directing. written by Anna Cora Mowatt (1819-70). There is a widespread economic crisis and the condition of the working class is getting even worse than it was. Ever since the French Revolution (1789) this nationalism* business has (and will) provided the glue that enables countries to interact with each other in a fairly reasonable way. then her father took the name of Barrett. Feodor Dostoyevsky* (1821-81. This will grow in popularity and reach its peak between 1850 and 1890. 1846 Iowa comes into the union as the 29th state. Still a third author. Fashion*. These joke sessions trade off with musical numbers. Next year he will write Omoo*. It is also a state of mind held by people who share a common history. and now he is on his third tour with the most detailed productions yet seen in North America. Herman Melville* (1819-91). Charlotte* (1816-55). 1845 . This year the first publication comes out by the Bronte sisters. is a terrific spoof of New York city manners.critic of the New York Tribune. His works mark the beginning of realism in Russia. and a rising tide of nationalism*. Another author. writes Typee* this year.This year in Russia Alexander Ostrovshy* (1823-86) comes out with his first play. The English actor-manager. Emily Jane* (1818-48) and Anne* (1820-49). the American. Elizabeth Barrett* (1806-61 originally Elizabeth Moulton.pdffactory. then touring. which is a series of speciality acts and songs. published under the pen names of Currer. Nationalism* will grow as a powerful force in world politics. political repression. This is a two-part show in which the first part uses the Interlocutor* (master of ceremonies) and two stand-up comedians Tambo and Bones) to toss jokes around with "end" men (who stand at the ends of a semicircle of the group). or ethnic background. language. Christy* (1815-62). Basically it's a political philosophy where the welfare of the nation (state) is the most important thing. remember the Russian alphabet is not the one we use) publishes his first novel. It is a collection of their poems. 1847 . This is especially important when there is a political need for action and nationalism* becomes a group state of mind where patriotism and loyalty to the country are looked on as each individual's primary duty. This success will encourage him to go back home and do even better productions. whose name is also spelled two or three other ways. He will go on to write about 34 more. and the British Empire.This year in America the Minstrel Show* is given its definitive form by E. this time a Russian. It also leads to some terrifically excessive militarism and Imperialism (like Napoleon. P. Poor Folk* and begins to earn a reputation. She will marry an Italian and write about the revolution for her paper (see below 1848-49). The second part of the show is the olio*. religion. Since in this period everybody is preoccupied with it. Ellis and Acton Bell. He PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. for examples).com . we'll take a moment to try to understand what is meant here by nationalism*. All over Europe there are really bad crop failures. later she marries Browning) publishes some poems. 1846 . 1846-7 Economic conditions in France are terrible.One of the most enduring and popular American plays shows up this year.

Among other things it picks up on Blanc's* ideas (see above 1840). In the Hapsburg empire (see above) the revolutionaries are looking for more autonomy. More about him later. takes part in the Roman Republic. This year the novels of the Bronte sisters are published: Charlotte.concentrates on characters.com . and their later works. proves that child-bed (puerperal) fever is contagious. In the U.pdffactory. After the revolutionary failures (of 1848). 49 1818-65). Now Semmelweis* becomes the pioneer of antisepsis (getting rid of germs) in obstetrics. In Italy they are trying to get rid of the Hapsburgs. 1848 This is the year Engels* (see above 1844) and Marx* come out with their Communist Manifesto*. This enables Louis Napoleon* (1808-87. This Manifesto. Alphonse Marie Louis de Lamartine*. have been killing their patients right and left).S. canning food in glass and tin is replaced by tin-plated steel cans. 1847. Agnes Grey*. Instead they come up with the view that the laws of history are bound to lead to the triumph of the working class. It won't be very successful and in June the workers will revolt again. They don't get it. Emily Jane*. Shaftesbury produces another law limiting the work day and promotes building model tenements to house workers. The government is headed briefly by the romantic poet. In almost all cases the old orders get control back where they want it. Meanwhile Blanc* has been caught running a workers revolt and he runs off to England. Lots of street fighting and government troops firing on demonstrators sets it off. and Anne*. part company with socialist appeals to natural rights to justify social reform. There is a provisional government (made up of a lot of those social reformers like Blanc*) which overthrows the monarchy of Louis Philippe* and establishes the Second Republic*. without even washing their hands or their instruments. Engels* and Marx* (who is exiled) settle down in London to study and write. The 1848 Revolutions and Nationalism 1848 In France we have the February Revolution*. This is a big improvement and the basis of the modern industry. Eventually they hammer out a constitution. a Hungarian obstetrician. run for president and get the job. In Italy there is a period of cultural nationalism and political activism called Risorgimento* which will lead to Italian unification. next year. The French February Revolution* sets off a rash of revolutionary explosions (fueled by nationalism*) all over Europe.This period is a landmark for women when Semmelweis* (Ignaz Philipp. (All those doctors running around from one birthing mother to another. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. These revolutions of 1848 include some liberal revolutions in the German States (remember the German Confederation*?) which brings in the Frankfurt Parliament that favors German unification. their relationships and how it is affected by the environment they are in. They don't get that either. novelist and statesman. nephew of the great man) to come home. A leader in this movement in the current revolution is Giuseppe Mazzini* who. Jane Eyre*. 1847 In England. Wuthering Heights*. This will really get picked up in a big way by generations of revolutionaries as the way to go. Their careers will be very short (tuberculosis takes Anne and Emily) but brilliant.

pdffactory.S. This will really help economic growth out there. the rising star of the French stage. This is a real boost for English theatre. and with particular success on tour in Russia. Adrienne Lecouvreur*. launches her famous novel. Scribe* (and a collaborator. [This work will continue to influence a number of social movements and such later leaders as Gandhi* and Martin Luther King*.S. comes out with his powerful social criticism. Queen Victoria* revives the govermental post of Master of Revels* and appoints Charles Kean* to this post. California is a U. acting the leading role. besides. The characters in Scribe*'s PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.com . spoken dialogue. and America (1855). In 1849. This year that most influential figure in American thought and literature. fantasy. and her role in this play will remain as one of the choice roles for actresses. two fifths of Mexico's territory and $15 million. The Gold Rush* is on and over 40. Wisconsin enters the union as the 30th state. buffoonery parodying and satirizing just about everything.By this time the operetta* emerges as a distinct form. She really triumphs in these (especially as Racine's Phaedre*). comes out with Vanity Fair*. 1848 . Silas Marner*. In Great Britain.In America the Mexican War ends with a treaty that gives the U. Civil Disobedience*. Rachel* (1820-58) has been working in the Comedie-Francaise* in classical parts. territory which is handy because gold is discovered in California (at Sutter's Mill on the Sacramento River).S. the English satirist and novelist. She will become known as one of the finest tragediennes of the French stage. 1819-80). In Great Britain. It has the commercial advantage of having Rachel*. This helps make Adrienne Lecouvreur* a success. It's a fun combination of light pleasant songs. who will later write Scribe's biography) comes out with his most successful and well remembered play. He will supply the queen with all kinds of entertainment at Windsor Castle and she (and her court.] Sardinia (that island west of Italy) is ruled this year by Victor Emanuel II* (1820-78). London (1841). In Great Britain. The Social Play 1849 There are two French playwrights who take the next step toward realism* by developing the content* of social problems in the form of the well-made play*. The southern border is now the Rio Grande River. He will do it soon (see 1861). William Makepeace Thackeray* (1811-63). Legouve. 1849 Zachary Taylor* comes in as the 12th President of the U.000 prospectors will pour into California in the next two years. of course) will come to see shows at his theatre which will open in 1850 (see below). Geroge Eliot* (the pen name of Mary Ann Evans. Thoreau *. It's a sensation and will influence the next author's first play. He will get his country involved in the Risorgimento* (see above 1848) struggles to unite Italy.

but even this doesn't help. Since subject matter based on the "S" word hasn't been used on the stage. the new plays are real shockers.pdffactory. They serve the plot.Emile Augier* (1820-89) comes out with Gabrielle* attacking adultery. These terms need a little explanation since they are peculiar to European high society. in this new realistic style where characters talked and moved like real people . It doesn't help anything that President Taylor* dies this year and Millard Fillmore * (1800-74) becomes the 13th president. are favorite subjects. is rapidly moving from the romantic to the realistic. They serve best as social companions rather than mere sexual toys. The main characters are either courtesans* or demimondaine*. But. For two and a half years the French censors rant and rave over whether or not to let the play go on the stage. It had been OK to have plays and operas about courtesans when they were treated romantically. he turns the novel into a play with the same title.plays are not very fully developed. A demimondaine* is basically a kept woman on the fringes of respectable society. in 1849. The Compromise doesn't work and things are going down hill. especially when found hidden by hypocrisy and deceit in outwardly respectable society. This year the government comes up with the Compromise of 1850* which tries to fix how new states stand in relation to the slavery question. He tends to be more realistic than his contemporaries. many aristocratic but poor widows and daughters of officers killed in the Napoleonic wars turn to amorous entaglements and what are called "doubtful" enterprises. Later. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. However. Since there is no respectable way in which upper class women can support themselves. We will take note of some of his better known works as they come out. In order to reach the popular audience the social messages are sugar-coated as sheer entertainment and the social problems tend to be sexual. He (the Duc de Morny*) gives the production his full support. pere*.it's downright immoral! Enter political expediency. In 1847 he had written a novel. A courtesan seems to differ from a demimondaine* in having more freedom to associate with a number of admirers and having a higher social status. Alexander Dumas fils* (1824-95). that way they didn't seem very real. there is trouble brewing over the question of slavery.com . 1850 The United States welcomes California as the 31st state this year.Well! . free love and prostitution. the illegitimate son of the romantic writer Alexander Dumas. 1849 . Adultery. showing the prostitutes and courtesans as they really are. The first minister of France (the Duc de Morny) under Louis Napoleon* has a notion that such a controversial play could be a terrific help in distracting the public's attention from the current political dirty tricks that are causing a lot of agitation. These women are intelligent and have great capacity for delicacy and devotion which enable them to bring their brilliant social gifts to benefit the men who support them financially. The social forces that shape the characters actions are the first target of these authors. Essentially a courtesans* is a fashionable kept woman who has the education and refinement of a well-born lady. He has a more angry reception (than Dumas fils*) from audiences who prefer a touch of romanticism on their social lessons. The next step is taken by authors who are concerned with psychological insights into why characters do what they do. Daniel Webster* (1782-1852) becomes his Secretary of State. treating the subject of a courtesan frankly. La Dame aux Camelias*.

decides to manage a theatre and leases the Princess Theatre* in London.This year An Italian Straw Hat* (also variously called: Un Chapeau de paill d'Italie. supported by powerful conservatives. for this. Norway is busy trying to establish a national identity and break the last political ties holding it to Denmark. up in Christiania. He starts whipping out a new constitution. although "stars" come to play with these companies from time to time. Meanwhile. The purpose of the new theatre is to get out from under the Danish cultural influence and do plays by.com . Henrik Ibsen* (1828-1906) publishes his first drama. Catilina*. The Wedding Guest. Ole Bull (1810-80) to work as "dramatic author" at the new Norwegian Theatre* at Bergen. 1850 .This year. Haste to the Wedding and Horse Eats Hat) is a big success. His repertory of plays include a number of fairly high quality melodramas. dissolves the legislative assembly. He also starts taking out all that incidental music and variety acts move. We will take a closer look at him and his plays in the next chapter. America will be a little late getting into it (because of the up coming Civil War). Ibsen* (up in Norway) is invited by the violinist and patriot. bringing fashionable audiences back to the theatre. The actor-manager. It is written by Eugene Labiche* (1815-88) who raises French farce to a new height with more than 150 light comedies between 1831-77. 1851 . Her husband. a very important playwright. his earliest period. He begins his performances with a short curtain raiser (to help with the problem of fashionably late arrivals streaming in). almost entirely. These will have a twenty year run as top entertainment until the comic operas (see 1870s) begin to take their audience away. This will become the way to go for regular plays. 1851 The political dirty tricks in France turn into a coup in December as Louis Napoleon*. but when they get rolling it will be awesome. It will now begin a period of glory under Kean*'s management. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. He will develop antiquarianism to a fare-thee-well (see 1852).By this time the Industrial Revolution is pretty much accomplished in England.pdffactory. Charles Kean*. for and with Norwegians. The country is so big that each center of population has its own theatre groups. This nationalistic climate will stimulate Ibsen* to write historical and nationalistically romantic plays. For now we need to pick up the main events in his education as a playwright.In America the resident stock company is the main theatrical organization for the next twenty years. Robert Browning*. 1850 .In England the most popular kind of theatre is burlesque-extravaganza* (lots of low comedy. Norway. He is learning by doing. is busy writing poetry too. The Scarlet Letter* This year Elizabeth Barrett Browning* (she married in 1846) comes out with her Sonnets from the Portuguese*. Hawthorne* is publishing his masterpiece. He is a master of the dramatic monologue. myths and fairy-tales). Norway. writing and producing five of his own plays and helping out with 145 productions. mainly in verse. Ibsen* will stay here through 1857. broad take-offs on popular plays. 1850 . to the music halls. It's about ten years into it in France and just beginning in Germany. like those by Boucicault*. operas.

Herman Melville*. Charles Kean* puts on a production of Shakespeare*'s King John* with every detail of costume. Moby Dick*. 1852 . The American. the king of Sardinia. Nobody thinks much of his work now.com . Unfortunately he couldn't stop his leading actress (his wife. since the average run of a regular play is between 14 and 40 performances. Uncle Tom's Cabin* will be the most popular play of the period and be adapted by a lot of other authors. He helps establish the director as the primary artist in the theatre. especially Scribe*'s Adrienne Lecouvreur*. realistic portrayals which helps the impact of the play. make a big step in the direction of a really good realistic play. The Hungarian composer. This year the Italian.In Australia there is a big Gold Rush* which will last into 1853. The actors (Eugenie Doche and Charles Fechter) who play the leading roles give sensitive. The last three acts are strongly affected by Dumas* knowledge of the contemporary stage. sonatas and symphonic poems). Odds and Ends PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. This work will come to be known in English as Camille* and it doesn't make as much use of the techniques of the well-made play* as later authors will. Stowe*) begins a run of 300 consecutive performances. led by Gieseppe Garibaldi (1807-82). Alexander Dumas fils*' La Dame aux Camelias* is allowed to go on stage at the Theatre du Vaudevill* in Paris. set and props researched and reproduced with antiquarian care and attention. This will fan the flames of antislavery and provide the theatre with a real favorite piece (see Below 1852). B. but he will be rediscovered in 1920 and this work will come to be regarded as one of the greatest novels ever written. Hawthorne* comes out with The House of Seven Gables*.Finally.In America we can see the beginning of the long run which will gradually change the theatre production system.In Great Britain. Ellen Tree*. Giuseppe Verdi* comes out with his dramatic and melodic opera. 1852 . This will stimulate immigration and settling the land down under. Franz Liszt* (1811-86) has been teaching most of the major pianists of the next generation as well as composing this year six Paganini Etudes (other works include concertos. Rigoletto*. This year George L. Aiken*'s (1830-76) Uncle Tom's Cabin* (From the novel by H. Their love affair lasted two years (1844-46) until shortly before her death. 1806-80) from wearing hooped skirts under her costumes. this year.pdffactory. including a list for the audience of sources he has consulted. The first two acts of the play are based on Dumas' personal experiences with a well-known Parisian courtesan (Marie Duplessis) who was adored by many of the most illustrious personages of her day. Camille* will have the biggest effect on English and American realistic social drama of any nineteenth-century French play. This is not typical. Dumas* does. However. a one-time republican who is now throwing his support behind Victor Emanuel II*. however. 1852 . This year Uncle Tom's Cabin* by Harriet Beecher Stowe* 1811-96) comes out. 20 Hungarian Rhapsodies. comes out with his most famous work. Italy is still struggling to become united.

[This establishes women in nursing and she is the first woman to get the British Order of Merit. the Russo-Turkish wars*? Russia. He trys to approach acting "scientifically" by looking for the "laws" of expression. into the plays at his theatre. He will have some support from naturalists (like Darwin* ) who point out (with drawings and later. emotions and ideas. photographs) the similarity in the expressions of primates and humans in emotional states like anger. This is the theatre where all the realistic playwrights' work starts out. from the introduction. bought from Mexico. after the Comedie-Francaise* and the Odeon*). 1853 . near the Rio Grande River. etc. a tetralogy that most completely embodies his aesthetic principles. 1853 Franklin Pierce* (1804-69) becomes the 14th president of the United States. Adolphe Montigny* (1805-80).com . In that Crimean War* (down in the Black Sea region) the Russian port of Sevastopol* is under seige for 349 days. This is another piece of the Eastern Question* [remember.1852 In November a French plebiscite overwhelmingly supports the establishment of the Second Empire* (or the Third. Francois Delsarte (1811-71). France and Sardinia will join in. 1854 In the United States they try the Kansas-Nebraska Act* to address the slave-state freestate problem. but it tends to become mechanical (somewhere down the line of students) and later it will get a reputation for purely technical and mechanical repetition. It apparently works extremely well when first taught. From 1853 through 1874 Wagner* is doing his masterwork.pdffactory. if you think Napoleon had two) and Louis Napoleon* becomes Napoleon III*. The medical care of the English troops is so bad that Florence Nightingale* (1820-1910) organizes a bunch of 38 women nurses and sets off to the Crimea to make a name for herself. in the first one (176874) got the Crimea and ports on the Black Sea. This one doesn't solve anything either and the State's Rights doctrine (based on the 10th amendment) is being used to mobilize the pro-slavery southern states. Der Ring des Nibelungen*. etc. 1853-56 turns out to be the Crimean War*. He becomes world famous and his students will be teaching his "method" all over the world. DELSARTE Also in Paris is a world famous acting teacher. He's best known for the Gadsden Purchase*. adding a strip of land. It's a useful hunk of real estate since it is the best place to build a railroad across the southern territory. in the second (1787-92) the southwest Ukraine and the port of Odessa] It starts out between Turkey and Russia but soon England. He works out an elaborate scheme to show how each part of the body should be used to express attitudes. props. joy.] PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. In the south the plantation system for agriculture and the concomitant use of slaves to supply the enormous work force needed sets this region apart from other states. who gets the job of director of the Theatre du Gymnase* (the third most important theatre in Paris. Montigny* seems to be the first Frenchman to really work at the art of directing. He analyses emotions and ideas in terms of how they are expressed. He gradually introduces realistic furniture.In Paris there is a theatre man. fear.

American Theatre Blossoms 1857 . PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The Poor of New York* 1857. and now that he is here. director.This year Dion Boucicault* (see above 1841) is in America and comes out with The Poor (or Streets) of New York* (depending on where he does it. 1856 . after she moves on it will be known as the second Olympic*). Both plays become popular favorites. Christiana. playwright and theatre manager who first appeared as an actor in 1838) is remembered now as a playwright. This is a case before the Supreme Court involving the status of slavery in the federal territories.com . he uses the name of the local city in this title. or Life in Louisiana* 1859.pdffactory. His directing shows facility and inventiveness and his management brings in a lot of innovations. designed as a reply to Dumas*' Camille*. The abolitionists* believe slavery is an unmitigated evil. has settled here. This year Augier* also comes out with a play. writes on acting.Ibsen* (the Norwegian guy) leaves Bergen and goes back to the Norwegian capital. Although Dion Boucicault* (1820-90) (an Irish actor. Olympe's Marriage*. Palmer in connection with the Madison Square Theatre*). who. The upshot of the case is a decision that Afro-Americans have no rights as citizens and no standing in court. His earlier adaptation of The Corsican Brothers* (1852) is one of the most popular spectacular production shows and will be kept in theatre repertories for years.In 1855 the term demimondaine* is retired in favor of the title of this year's Dumas*' play Le Demi-Monde* which is regarded as Dumas*' best work. M. 1857 . Laura Keene (?-1873). and showing what might happen if a courtesan* married. and runs a school for actors (with A. He writes over 250 plays and adaptations Some of his best known plays: London Assurance* 1841. after touring here and in Australia. He's the first dramatist in England to receive royalties on his plays. 1856 In the United States this is the year of the infamous Dred Scott Case. it's flexible). Late in his life he lectures. His plays and adaptations are becoming terrifically popular all over. She is the first woman here to become a theatre manager. This makes everybody fighting mad and fuels the growing division among the states. Octoroon. characterization and technical perfection. He is very active in the American theatre in getting copyright laws passed (1857) and ensuring that playwrights get royalties for their work. the United States picks up on his work. he is best known in his own day as an excellent actor with great timing.American theatre is richer for an English actress." The repertory she presents is made up of good foreign and American plays. She will run an excellent stock company without the current disaster of importing "stars. Southern plantation owners regard slavery as an economic necessity and a natural social state protected under the states rights doctrine. to become the first artistic director of the Christiana Norwegian Theatre*. This year Laura Keene* opens her own theatre in New York (Laura Keene's Varieties. He will write three more plays while he is here in Christiana.

by Jacques Offenbach* (1819-80). An English philosopher. The coal-oil (kerosene. Some of his best known adaptations: The Corsican Brothers* 1852. will really pick up on this and put it into his ethical and social views in numerous works (between now and 1893). PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.This year that operetta* business shows up in its best guise in Orpheus in the Underworld*. He's really big on helping educate the working classes so this year. Meanwhile. Gustave Flaubert* (1821-80).pdffactory.com . PA. Darwin* comes out with his book The Origin of Species* this year and his theory of evolution will go buzzing around Europe raising all kinds of reactions.S). Louis XI * 1855. He will be busy trying to keep the "sacred balance" between the proslavery and antislavery factions. He will write over a hundred. This year begins what is called the "Age of Oil". but the best remembered will come in 1881. 1858 . Peter Cooper* (1791-1883). 1857 James Buchanan* (1791-1868) comes in as the 15th president of the United States. The Wicklow Wedding* 1864. 1858 Minnesota enters the union as the 32nd state. 1859 This year the French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps* (1805-94) begins building the Suez Canal* (connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea so you don't have to sail all the way around Africa to get from Europe to the East). A fellow called Edwin L. Sothern*) has a resounding success with Our American Cousin* by Tom Taylor*. a thin oil distilled from petroleum or coal shale) lamp has been invented and the demand for oil leads to drilling near Titusville. Dot* 1859. publishes his masterpiece. Herbert Spencer* (1820-1903). It will take ten years to finish the project.Plays of "authentic" Irish life and character: The Colleen Bawn* 1860. Scientific thought will never be the same.. Rip Van Winkle* 1865.E. Drake* strikes oil this year and the petroleum industry is off and running. The Shaughraun* 1874. he founds the Cooper Union. has been inventing devices and processes in the iron industry and making pots of money (on that and owning more than half of the telegraph lines in the U. such as Joseph Jefferson III* and A. Madame Bovary*. a free institution of higher learning with an evening engineering and art school. The French novelist. This play will have a long run and help establish New York as the theatre center of the United States. Oregon becomes the 33rd state in the union. He's one of the top composers in this genre. another fellow. in addition to helping get a public school system in New York City. Laura Keene*'s company (now employing excellent actors.

one of the most famous actors of the period. This year he does one of his early successful comedies. Abraham Lincoln* finds that by Inauguration Day seven states have seceded. Sardou* will be busy writing for the next forty years. 1861 Kansas becomes the 34th state.com . Obviously theatre will be needed for entertainment where there is no fighting. This will be the bloodiest war in the history of the country. The most influential one is Tommaso Salvini* (1829-1915) who begins touring this year. Georgia. He is terrific in several Shakespearian roles. Fiery tragic acting is his hallmark and he will influence a Russian we'll be talking about later (Stanislavsky*). four more states secede. He will also write extensively on acting. produces Faust*. A Scrap of Paper*. One thing this war will do is give railroads a terrific boost.Boucicault* (still in the United States) writes Octoroon. Thomas Henry Huxley* (1825-95). will be very popular.Another Englishman. He will stay with them for the next 26 years. He turns it all over to the king.The well-made play* formula is picked up and exploited by another Frenchman. In Paris. We'll hear more about him as we go along. Joseph Jefferson* gets his first serious part in Dot*. too. The Confederacy* (made up of South Carolina. The soon-to-be-popular American actor. where the war is being fought. Petersburg from his exile in Siberia. The French composer of romantic operas. the first play that treats the Afro-American seriously. 1860 . Louisiana. The American Civil War 1860 In America this December. For a big country like the United States (however temporarily fragmented) this will be a good thing. Hawthorne* publishes The Marble Faun*. Sumpter. He also adapts Dickens*' The Cricket on the Hearth*. President Buchanan* promises there won't be any hostilities but he sends troops to Fort Sumpter (South Carolina). except for Rome. it will not do too well. This year Garibaldi* leads a bunch of "red shirts" in a spectacular conquest of Sicily and Naples. VA their capital and they elect Jefferson Davis* president. Texas. Arkansas. and. He does a pretty good job showing current society but lacks any character depth. When he summons the militia and Confederate troops fire on Ft. North Carolina. Charles Francois Gounod*. Mississippi. joins the Comedie-Francaise*. Alabama. In Russia. or Life in Louisiana*. This play. Abraham Lincoln* (1809-65) is elected the 16th President. a bioligist and educator. Victorien Sardou* (1831-1908). calling his play Dot*. becomes the principle exponent of Darwin*'s theory of evolution. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Dostoyevsky* is out of prison and home in St. building a reputation for technical proficiency especially in comic roles and flamboyant romantic parts. Constant-Benoit Coquelin*. Florida. Most of the influence Italy has on the theatre in this period comes through international touring of Italian actors. which doesn't get taken over. 1859 .pdffactory. Virginia and Tennessee) makes Richmond. This sends a signal to the South to secede from the Union. especially Othello*.

In Paris this year an actress (who will become the most famous French star of the late nineteenth century) makes her debut. We'll hear more of him later. That.Two months after the outbreak of the American Civil War Laura Keene*'s theatre is the only one open in New York. This leads to great improvements in the canning business (started by Nicolas Appert* and patented in the U. Actually he is discovering microorganisms that cause food spoilage and then he works on how to get rid of them. acting for William I* (king of same). in the Confederacy*. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. 1862 . Edwin Booth* (1833-93) takes over as manager of the Winter Garden Theatre* (known as the Metropolitan Theatre* until 1859). Russian ballet. Swan Lake. This year he becomes the premier of Prussia. The next step will soon follow. This guy will raise Russian ballet to a peak of perfection. and. He (Edwin) made his first stage appearance at 16. 1861 . Sarah Bernhardt* (1844-1923) will spend about ten years performing and learning her art before making a deep impression on the theatrical world. In France. John Wilkes. 1860s In Great Britain miners and textile workers are getting organized into unions. dies and the Queen goes into three years of seclusion. 1863 West Virginia is created the 35th state and Lincoln* issues the Emancipation Proclamation* declaring all slaves free. This year John D.This year Italy is united as a country under Victor Emanuel II*.S. He will be a busy (and devious) adversary for Austria. He will be the first American actor to get a European reputation and will do a lot of starring tours all over. of course.pdffactory. Junius Brutus Booth* Senior (1796-1852) who came over to America in 1821. Prince Albert*. will come soon. Louis Pasteur* (1822-95) is busy developing the process of pasteurization which will make food a lot healthier. is appointed balletmaster of the Imperial Schools. Unfortunately her standards have to be lowered and the company sinks to mainly melodrama and spectacle. world-famous. This is a guy called Bismark* (Otto von Bismark. of course. 1864 This year Bismark* (the Prussian guy. Marius Petipa* (1822-1910).com .This year a rising star of the American stage. toured Australia and is now a fine tragedian. 1815-98) who will be known as the Iron Chancellor*. Rockefeller* starts an oil refinery with some partners. the king of Sardinia as the new king of Italy. the oil industry is taking off. he (Bismark) unconstitutionally dissolves the parliament and illegally levies a bunch of taxes to pay for the army. husband of Queen Victoria. in 1815). and. The Nutcracker. 1863 . He will choreograph 74 long works (including Sleeping Beauty. Meanwhile. with music by Tchaikovsky*) and give them the form long associated with the later. In Russia this year a Frenchman. however. see 1862) provokes a war with Denmark as the first step toward getting Austria out of the German Confederation*. 1862 This year another powerful player shows up on the European stage. In Great Britain this year. They aren't. Edwin is one of three sons (the others are Junius Junior. of whom we will hear more later) of the English actor.

Nevada comes in as the 36th state and General Sherman is marching through Georgia. He is one of the few in Great Britain to be interested in this realistic* stuff. 1st Baron of Lister) has been studying that germ theory of Pasteur* and comes up with the beginning of antiseptic surgery. The Civil War* is over and it will take a very long time for the defeated South to recover. He's writing about contemporary life in very specific settings with great detail about the place and the stage business. The theatre is closed and never opened again. has his first big success with David Garrick*. The Confederacy surrender happens on the 9th of April and on the 14th. singing and acting all over the west since she was six. It will open in 1968. Her versatility is legendary. Travel is broadening and he will learn a great deal more about playwrighting in Europe. He will continue to write them throughout the 1860s but he's just about the only one.] The Vice President. but it turns out they had nothing to do with it. in 1932. Jefferson* (the third) comes to be associated primarily with this role which he plays. In 1954 Congress will vote money to restore the theatre to the way it looks this year. makes her New York debut this year. Lee* at Appomattox* to General Ulysses S. the property will be turned into a Lincoln museum. This year an English playwright. A native American. Grant*. humorous personality and is typical of the best in America at this time. This is the year Mark Twain* (1835-1910. Andrew Johnson* (1808-75). The physical and economic devastation of the South sets theatre in that area back to square one [It does't do anything else much good either. 1865 An English surgeon. but since he worked for Mme Vestris* (see above) it's logical. assinates him. pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) becomes widely known for his The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County*. He first appeared on the stage at the age of 4 and will spend 71 years acting. The United States are finally united again with the surrender of Gerneral Robert E. She is one of the most popular entertainers in America (especially in the mining towns where she tours widely). almost exclusively. for the next fifteen years. No President will again attend a theatre performance until the 1960s. This throws the country into a tizzy and gives American theatre a black eye. writes a delightful autobiography (1890) and generally serves his profession well.Ibsen* (the Norwegian playwright) gets a little traveling scholarship and takes off for Italy. [Eventually. He lectures. put on by Laura Keene*'s company) at Ford's Theatre*.com . the actor. He toured Australia (1861-65) and becomes the recognized head of the American acting profession when he succeeds Edwin Booth* as President of the Players Club (see 1888) in 1893. 1865 . He has a charming. while Lincoln* is attending a performance of Our American Cousin* (by Tom Taylor*. He won't go home for 27 years. Lotta Crabtree* (1847-1924). John Wilkes Booth*. She has been dancing. Thomas William Robertson* (1829-1971).In America. Social Turmoil Escalates PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.Boucicault* writes Rip Van Winkle* for Joseph Jefferson* 1829-1905).pdffactory. The theatre manager and his brother are thrown in jail for 39 days.] 1864 . becomes the 17th president. Joseph Lister* (1827-1912.

(Engels* will edit volumes 2 and 3 after Marx dies and publish them in 1894). 1866 . By this year we hear about the Marxist philosophical method that will become so popular. In Germany. dialectical materialism*. comes in as the ruler. persuades the government to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7. novelist and philosopher.com . That will come in 1870 (see below).Ibsen* (The Norwegian. He is a theatre bug and begins to overhaul the court theatre and take a personal interest in everything they do. Johannes Brahms* (1833-97) is busily writing some of the greatest symphonic music ever. (actually in the Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen) Georg II. 1828-1910). The war is provoked by Bismark* in the second step in getting Austria out of the German Confederation*.2 million (known as "Seward's Folly). Nevada becomes the 37th state and William Henry Seward* (1801-72). War and Peace*. The German composer. This year Great Britain passes the British North America Act which gives Canada internal self-rule as a dominion. This will set a pattern of slowly releasing direct governing powers in European-settled colonies. Secretary of State. Prussia* comes out on top and makes a definite move toward the eventual unity of Germany under Prussian dominance. thanks largely to the efforts of Ostrovshy* (see 1847) who helps found the Russian Society of Dramatic Authors and Composers this year.pdffactory. The first is Marxism*. if you prefer. This year he comes out with Crime and Punishment*. He will be very important in future theatre changes. no doubt. Bismark* forms the North German Confederation which excludes Austria and scares the various German states into going along with Prussia* by playing up the bogey-man of France (they still remember what Napoleon did to them). Duke of Saxe-Meiningen*. Dostoyevsky* is rapidly becoming a towering figure in world literature.* On the practical level. This year he is doing the German Requiem*. contribute to his getting a government pension this year. These two are instant cultural and commercial successes. now traveling in Italy) devises two verse dramas. next year. this year and Peer Gynt*. a German engineer named Nikolaus August Otto* (1832-91) shows up as the co-inventor of the internal-combustion engine. They establish his European reputation.1866 The Austro-Prussian War* (better known as the Seven Weeks War) breaks out in June and is over in August. creates his first masterpiece. Das Kapital*. In America. In Russia they finally get full copyright protection for playwrights. We'd better take a minute here to look at the main points in two related terms that will be very prevalent in the rest of this period. They also. this refers to the ideas of PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Count Leo Tolstoy* (or Tolstoi. Obviously. They are pretty much ignored for years but will resurface in 1900. Mendel*'s genetic findings are published this year. 1867 Marx finally finishes the first volume of his major work. Bismark* still has one more step to take before he succeeds in uniting Germany. Brand*. A fellow countryman.

[Theatre folk.Marx*.com . still tootling around Italy and Germany) abandons writing plays in verse and turns out a lighthearted satire. change and development come about through a naturally occurring "struggle of opposites" that individuals don't have any power to influence. clergy and serfs or slaves. In the old days class* included the nobility. During the previous age there was the rise of a middle class of small business people called the bourgeoisie*. 1868 Dostoyevsky* publishes The Idiot* in Germany. Marxism* claims that the bourgeoisie* will be replaced by the working class. Utah. Grant* becomes the 18th president of the United States who continues the punitive Reconstruction of the South. Dialectical materialism* is the official philosophy of Communism* which holds that everything is material. This means that people put together a social life in response to economic needs. powerless. Later people will apply these principles to the study of history and sociology and that will be called historical materialism*. Unfortunately his administration will become known for its corruption. In this view every aspect of society reflects economic structure. She will write two sequels later. Marxism* insists that there are contradictions and weaknesses in capitalism* that will make for terrific economic crises that will get increasingly worse. 1868-9 This is the year Louisa May Alcott* (1832-88) comes out with her ever-popular Little Women*. This revolution is supposed to result in a classless society where the nasty. [For example.pdffactory. This whole idea will impact the development of Socialism* as well as Communism* from here on out.Ibsen* (the now famous Norwegian playwright. PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. for example. The starting point is the view that (reversing the Hegalian* dialectical idealism) the primary thing that determines history is economics.] Dialectical materialism* claims that the capitalist class is making a profit (surplus value) off the work of the proletariat*. finishing the first transcontinental railroad across America. theatre once served the nobility as a way to show off their economic power (which led to English theatre being dumped by the British Parliament when they threw out Charles I* ). According to Marxism* the history of society is the history of class* struggle. coercive state will be replaced by a benign and rational economic cooperation. creating a poorer and poorer proletariat*. In the Middle Ages the economic power of the Church enabled it to use theatre to keep populations informed of its views and suitably subdued. rogues and vagabonds until they were able to own their own theatre buildings (beginning in the Renaissance) and take control of the profits of their own production. This year (May 10th) the Union Pacific Railway meets the Central Pacific at Promontory Point. were poor. That will be a whole different kettle of fish and not at all the same as Communism*. It also claims that all aspects of society reflect the economic structure. 1869 Ulysses S. The working class is now called the proletariat*. 1869 .] Dialectical materialism* claims that growth. Now the term bourgeoisie* means the capitalist class because the small business people have exploded into factory owners and have filled the power vacuum left by a dwindling nobility. The League of Youth*. When things get bad enough the proletariat* will revolt and take over control of the means of production (industry).

remember?) provokes the Franco-Prussian War* (187071) as the final step in his plan to put together a unified German Empire. 1870 . Andrew Carnegie. They use the box set* (see above) and give contemporary plays as much care as other managements give to their period pieces. the postwar economic expansion and the general massive settlement of the country. the system of touring begins to change.com . Actors are being hired for the run of the show instead of a seasonal contract. The Bancroft*s go in for long runs of the plays they put on.pdffactory. in twenty years they only do thirty long plays (not counting the short curtain raisers. scenery and props. Another English author. The American oil business is building and J.Between the rail expansion. What with all those lovely railroads going to all the important places. James Fisk. Poetic drama and refined melodrama are the in thing. Jay Gould. Samuel Butler* (1835-1902) comes out with his satirical novel Erewhon*. steel and banking. There are no "stars" in the Bancroft*'s management and actors work on understatement instead of "bravura" acting. too. The forestage* is no longer used and everything takes place behind the proscenium arch*. Rockefeller*] These entrepreneurs are relevant to social development since they also choose to become cultural philanthropists. A variety of changes in theatrical production are happening. [Collis Potter Huntington. while advance sales encourage long runs. Edward Henry Harriman. libraries and foundations to support the arts. D. The French army gives up but Paris holds out. D. 1839-1921).By this time the population of London is passing four and one-half million and the number of theatres have increased to thirty.). and his wife Marie Effie. The Prussians capture the French emperor. this begins the period in which great fortunes will be made in rail. 1841-1926. The Bancroft*s start touring with a full company. They pay their actors so well (ten times the going rate) that they can insist on not having "benefit" performances for them. The most influential management (between 1860-80) is the Bancroft*'s (Squire Bancroft. the United States depends primarily on private support. completing the room illusion of the three walls of the box set) is always respected in Bancroft* productions. John Pierpont Morgan. They will endow museums. etc. Dickens* dies this year leaving the unfinished The Mystery of Edwin Drood*. Napoleon III* and in Paris he (Napoleon III*) is deposed and they set up a provisional government (September). PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. The royalty system of paying playwrights when their works are produced is beginng to be regular practice. The orchestra seating becomes the best place to sit and chair-style seating (they have just got rid of benches in the ochestra pit) which are numbered and reserved really helps develop advance sales. This system catches on and touring increases. together with the playwright Robertson* (see above 1864). Character and stage business go together for almost the first time. Cornelius Vanderbuilt. with a corresponding decline in the number of provincial resident companies. J. art galleries. The illusion of a fourth wall* (between the audience and the stage. While European countries accomplish their cultural goals by state subsidy. Rockefeller* organizes Standard Oil. 1870 This year Bismark* (Prussian. The Bancroft*s have refurbished an old theatre which they now call the Prince of Wale's (not to be confused with another theatre of the same name which will open later) and it becomes famous for the style of domestic realism they develop. Other managements begin to adopt their attention to modern play production and the over all production quality improves. universities.

who hold out for five months. Marxists. Edwin Booth*. Paris finally gives up. There are reprisals on both sides and after the defeat PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www. Another factor in the rise of naturalism* is the political and economic conditions in France after the Franco-Prussian War* (which isn't quie finished yet). 1870s . In part it appears as a logical outgrowth of the theories put forth in Darwin*'s The Origin of Species*.In France the movement of naturalism* begins to surface. The notions are that heredity and environment are primary causes of human behavior. naturalism*. Steele MacKaye* (1842-94) is also a man of many talents. and starts his own company. is big on realism. James' Theatre* in New York. speaks of the current idea that human beings are part of nature (not set above it in some superior way. He works so hard on coaching his actors that he attracts a lot of young ones and makes a lot of stars.In America. in 1869. and progress can be made by applying scientific method and new technologies. Fortunately he hangs on to some very good ones and becomes known as having the finest ensemble* in America. 1871 In January. The so-called "free plantation" scenery arrangement will be picked up all over. the Fifth Avenue Theatre*. There is no apron and he uses box sets extensively.pdffactory. Paris resists again. He introduces things like the heroine tied to the railroad tracks as the train approaches and the heroine locked in a stateroom on a burning steamboat. Augustin Daly* (1836-99) is a critic who then writes plays and. (see below 1884). Booth's Theatre* has a level stage floor with no grooves (for sliding scenery). statement of this movement's doctrine will come soon (see 1873). MacKaye* opens a series of acting schools and training programs at his St. The French royalists send a French army against the Parisians. These people object to the humiliating conditions Prussia wants and they want economic reforms. He will do more of this training business in the '80s. France has to pay a terrific amount for indemnity to Prussia and give up most of that pesky Alsace and Lorraine territory (mentioned in the Introduction as a bone of contention). director. but his inventions are best remembered (see 1879 in the next Chapter). designer and teacher. as they believed before). inventor. under the command of the Commune of Paris*. playwright. who excels in Hamlet* (it ran 100 performances). and most famous. The first. Booth* will eventually be considered the greatest actor this country has produced. Socialism* and the plight of the workers become the focus for the naturalistic movement. socialists and anarchists*.com . He. By 1876-77 there will be at least 100 combination companies traveling with full productions. The very name of the movement. as in Great Britain. The resident stock company is at its peak and about to decline in favor of the combination company* (one that travels with everyting from stars to the smallest prop). on returning to the theatre in 1869 (after a brief retirement from the shame of his brother's deed) renovates a theatre to his own specifications. He is an actor. He goes over to France to study acting and brings the Delsarte* method (see above) over to America. several hydraulic elevators to raise sets from the floor below and 76 feet of fly space overhead.1870s . He works toward making the director a major force in the theatre by being in absolute control of everything in the theatre. too. Some of his plays achieve great success (see below). the railroads make theatrical touring with a full company and sets a practical way to go. gets his own theatre. made up of radical republicans. This is a rebellious government in Paris. A few managers maintain troupes in this transition period. Local managers begin to dismiss their troupes and turn into theatrical landlords.

real chain mail.000 people are executed. adapting the texts and supervising the stage speech. This will be one of the startling things about this troupe. They also build the actors into an ensemble in which there are no stars and every actor who plays a lead in one show has to play a bit part in another. The Duke has a very good sense of design and this shows in his sets and the arrangement of the actors and their movement (blocking). so the theatre is only open twice a week for six months of the year. Stanley* finds Livingstone* and everybody is happy and now knows a good deal more about what the interior of Africa is like. There are only 8. death and seductiveness. the Third Republic* is formed. Sir Henry Morton Stanley* (1841-1904). Every actor in the company has to appear in crowd scenes. The visual appearance of his productions is both interesting and meaningful in terms of what the play is about. Geroge Eliot* publishes her masterpiece. Boy. This is the year when Darwin*'s (see above 1831) second big book.of the Commune of Paris* more than 17. period furniture. Soon they will begin to show their work to the rest of Europe (see below 1874). he can rehearse until it looks the way he wants it to.). Ludwig Chronegk* (1837-91). There are Ludwig.000 people in the Duchy. She has terrific magnetism. In France. scenery and props using authentic materials instead of cheap substitutes (heavy upholstery. All the great French roles from Phaedre to Camille (and more in the future) provide her with her great success. This guy will be a powerhouse in training the company and arranging the future tours that will make this company world famous. Severe repression follows the Commune's defeat which leaves a festering sore on the body politic of France. Since the theatre is the Duke's personal project (not dependent on making a profit). This is something new in the theatre. the New York Herald has sent a British journalist. 1872 . since other companies just use "extras" to fill in their crowds. etc. Down in Africa.* 1871 . Middlemarch. rage. who also makes translations from Russian and English (especially Shakespeare). all designed by the Duke. his wife (in 1873) Ellen Franz* (1839-1923) (who is an actress and takes over all the choice of plays. This makes for really impressive crowd scenes in which the actors really know what they are doing and make the whole scene look good. In Great Britain. does it stir up a kettle of worms! Everybody uses it to serve their own ideas or to attack someone else's views. She will spend the next eight years at this theatre attracting a lot of attention and not a little controversy. In Russia they finally get around to producing A Month in the Country* by Ivan Turgenev* (1818-83).This is the year when Sarah Bernhardt* joins the Comedie-Francaise*. The whole enterprise is an ensemble effort.The Duke of Saxe-Meiningen* (see above 1866) hires a director this year. apparently can't be beat. It is possible because they can take as long as they want to rehearse a play. stage presence and technical skill and her portrayals of pain. Friedrich von Bodenstedt* (1819-92). He had written this play back in 1850 but the censorship in Russia is so bad they PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version www.) and the poet and writer. he went exploring?).pdffactory. The company works and builds up authentic costumes.com . Georg II. The Descent of Man* comes out. to find out what happened to Livingstone* (remember back in 1841.

haven't gotten it on stage until now. His plays, particularly this one are an important contribution to realism and the psychological development of characters in Russian theatre. In Germany they finish building Wagner*'s Festival Theatre at Bayreuth*. Since Wagner* is big on having a strong director and a unified production he wants the theatre to make all this possible. His "master art work" (Gesamtkunstwerk*) will be done here and inspire much in the way of architecture and production all over the world. In order to have a "classless: theatre, Wagner* does away with the business of boxex, pit and gallery. There is just one large seating arrangement with a sunken orchestra pit that goes back under the stage.. Golden Years of the Operetta* 1870s Although the operetta* has been around in its present form since about 1848, it reaches memorable heights during these twenty years. After a brief lull, there will be two more, memorable, ten year periods later (1900s and the 1920s). 1873 - The Viennese composer, Johann Strauss* (1825-99), who has been busy writing waltzes and operettas, comes out with Die Fledermaus*. In 1885 he will do The Gypsy Baron*. 1873 - Ibsen* (The Norwegian) hasn't been writing for a while, but this year he produces a ten-act, complex play, Emperor and Galilean*. In France the first major statement of naturalism* occurrs in Emile Zola's (1840-1902) preface to his novel, Therese Raquin*. He'll say more about it later. The major plays in this genre are yet to come. 1874 In Great Britain, Benjamin Disraeli* (1804-81) becomes Prime Minister. He will lead in many domestic reforms and a really aggressive foreign policy. He will be a favorite of Queen Victoria*. 1874 - In France Realism in scenery, in terms of archeological accuracy, reaches its ultimate pinnacle in the production of Sardou*'s spectacle, Hatred* (it's set in medieval Italy and uses tons of costumes, armor and scenery). This is the year the troupe of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen* begins to tour (they will continue into 1890). The Meiningen Players* will be one of the various forces that will change the theatre completely in the coming years. GILBERT* AND SULLIVAN* 1875 - In England the brilliant pair, Gilbert* and Sullivan* (Sir William Schwenck Gilbert* 1836-1911, playwright and poet and Sir Arthur Sullivan* 1842-1900, composer) come out with their hit, Trial by Jury*. It's produced by Richard D'Oyly Carte* (1844-1901), who will later build a theatre (the Savoy* ) to house their plays. They will go on to write (among other things) H.M.S Pinafore* (1878), The Pirates of Penzance* (1879), The Mikado* (1885), Ruddigore * (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard* (1888), and The Gondoliers* (1889). Sullivan's music is delightful and Gilbert*'s lyrics are hysterically funny. The satire of English

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life and pretensions is so exquisitely biting that the playwright is snubbed when the composer is knighted. These works will continue to delight audiences constantly through the present day. The immensely popular grand opera, Carmen*, by Georges Bizet* (1838-75), is launched this year, too. The romantic ballet begins a renaissance in Russia where many of the great standard ballets will be created. 1875 This is the time (1875-77) the Russian, Tolstoy*, writes his second masterpiece, Anna Karenina*. Later we will get to his plays. This year Great Britain buys the Suez Canal*. It is a smart move. 1876 The United States welcomes Colorado as the 38th state. That communication business is taking off and this year Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) gets a patent for a telephone*. That German engineer, Otto*, develops the four-stroke Otto cycle for the internal-combustion engine. This little jewel will show up in the automobile, airplane and other motors. A German bacteriologist, Robert Koch* (1843-1910), discovers the bacterial cause of a lot of infectious diseases (this discovery will continue into the next century). Between improving ways of keeping food healthy and preventing disease, the death rate begins to drop and the beginning of overpopulation is underway. Mark Twain* publishes The Adventures of Tom Sawyer*. 1877 - The English novelist and poet, George Meredith* (1828-1909) this year lectures on On the Idea of Comedy* and Uses of the Comic Spirit* (these won't be published until 1897). 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes* comes in as the 19th president of the United States. It is a pretty dubious election but, at least, he will finally bring an end to the Reconstruction. Another American inventor is busy coming up with useful devices. This year Thomas Alva Edison* (1847-1931) comes out with the carbon michrophone which they use in telephones and later in sound recording, radio, etc. The French novelist, Emile Zola* (1840-1902), is busy writing a whole bunch of novels. This year he comes out with one of his best known, The Dram Shop*. He will be the leader of the naturalism* movement and a vocal supporter of the victim of the Dreyfus* affair (see 1898). ********************** Afterword Realism* in literature and the theatre is now fully up and running and Ibsen* is about to join it. Everybody is doing it and the next step will be to do it really well. Society is busily rushing into what we call the modern world, in all directions. Political, social, economic, philosophical and artistic movements are charging off in all directions and at great speed, gathering momentum and size as they go like a bewildering series of snowballs hurtling down hill at alarming rates. We will try to follow them into the eighties.

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CHAPTER FOURTEEN Realism Triumphant
1877 - 1905 Introduction Since events are moving so rapidly, we need to take a little time here to catch up on the state of world affairs around 1877. Europe is dominating Asia, the French in Indochina, the Russians in the north and the English across the south. Railroads are springing up everywhere, steamships are speeding up travel across the oceans, the telegraph is a reality and transatlantic cable provides communication between Europe and America. Next year the first commercial telephone exchange will go into operation in the U.S. The Ottoman Empire* is shrinking visibly and the European powers are fighting over each piece. Political State of Affairs British Empire - In 1877 Queen Victoria* is proclaimed Empress of India which puts Great Britain in the position of being the most powerful player on the world stage. This is helped along by the fact that Great Britain acquired the Suez Canal* (built by the French 1859-69) in 1875 when Disraeli* (who is now Prime Minister for Queen Victoria* again) gets Great Britain to buy controlling interest in the Canal This is a smart move because it makes it possible for British shipping to take the short route back and forth to India and parts East instead of going all the way around Africa. And, speaking of Africa - This year Great Britain annexes the Transvaal*. [This is that area in north-east South Africa that was put together by the Boers* (a bunch of Dutch and French farmers who had moved north from the coastal area to the veld, a high, mountainous area). In 1848 Paul Kruger* (1825-1904) and Jacobus Pretorius* (1799-1853, the Boer leader who defeated the Zulus and founded the Boer Republic of Natal) created the nucleus of Transvaal*. Pretorius'* son, Martinus*, was the first president of it. Martinus Pretorius* and Paul Kruger* become leaders of the Boers opposed to British rule. There will be a lot of fighting down here in Africa, especially when, in the near future, they find gold and diamonds here.]

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Australia has been attracting settlers ever since that big gold strike (1851). It will have another gold strike in 1892. New Zealand is moving quietly along (being a self-governing colony since 1852). It is a significant leader in social legislation in this period (see below). Ireland, which has been a sticky part of the British Empire for a very long time, is soon going to be a real pain for the government. The Irish will be part of that nationalism movement, which will give rise to some pretty great theatre (see below). India, now a crown colony and ruled from Great Britain (since the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58 was put down) is supplying cotton like crazy for British mills. The English are also into Burma and places like that. Europe - In 1877 Russia jumps into a war (which had started in 1875) which began as an antiTurkish uprising by Bosnia and Hercegovina (joined later by Montenegro and Serbia). The Treaty of San Stefano ends this war with so much benefit to Russia (and a large, autonomous Bulgaria is created) that all the other "great powers" get worried. In reaction (1878) they have an international meeting called the Congress of Berlin*. This event is intended to figure out how to stop Russia from eating up all the pieces of the decaying Ottoman Empire* as they break away. All the European powers, as well as Russia and Turkey are there. The whole thing is run by Bismark*(remember the Prussian, now German, chancellor?), as chairman. The result is a definite change in the political situation, including breaking up Bulgaria into three pieces. Everybody gets something, but not necessarily what they wanted. Montenegro, Serbia and Romania are recognized as independent. Russia gets Bessarabia. The British get to occupy Cyprus. Austria-Hungary gets Bosnia and Hercegovina. Russia gets mad at the way Bismark* runs the conference and goes home. This whole Balkan area will continue to be a tinder-box. Africa - All the Europeans with any pretensions to being a power are staking out parts of this continent as "protectorates", "colonies", or some such fancy names. Asia - or, perhaps more clearly, the Far East, is becoming an area of interest and concern for the Europeans. China is not very strong at this time, but Japan is. All the European powers want to carve up and pin down pieces of this marvelous area. It is vitally important for the European "powers" that they should have a nice, big, "sphere of influence" there. France - Is doing quite nicely, thank you, with its Third Republic and all the French Empire in Africa, Indonesia and a few spots in the Americas and the South Pacific. One of the things France will be doing is introducing the culture and arts of the East through a series of International Exhibitions. This will really shake up the arts. United States - is very busy expanding internally and minding its own business. We start this period as a non-player on the world stage with 35 states in the Union and a big silver boom in Leadville* (Colorado) that helps move immigrants west. The country is still not doing well by the native American population. The Nez Perc‚ Indians (living up there in Oregon, Washington and Idaho) were cheated out of land during the 1863 gold rush and this year they have an uprising, led by Chief Joseph. The Reconstruction officially ends this year, leaving a one-party "solid south" and a lasting racial bitterness. We will end this period as a new power on the international scene with 45 states. Social State of Affairs

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Socialism* is gaining wide spread interest and splitting up into a lot of political and economic subdivisions according to where and when someone is talking about it. Communism* is still a part of socialism, but Marxism* (all that stuff published by Marx* and Engels* and still coming off the presses) is, apparently, a distinct view which is now influencing Socialism. There is currently quite a struggle going on among socialists, especially after the First International Workingmen's Association dissolved (1876) over a philosophical split between Marx* and Mikhail Bakunin* (1814-76, the Russian revolutionary and chief exponent of anarchism*). Some of these people will be getting quite violent soon. In England - Almost everybody who is exiled from some other country seems to come to London and set up shop. At the moment Marx* and Engels* are the biggest names, but anyone interested in Socialism* or Marxism* (or any variant of these) comes here too. The local English are working on trade unions and will soon work up something more. In France - and in the other Latin countries of Europe, an economic and political variant of Socialism*, called Sy