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Underworld Encyclopedia - Part 1 (A - D)

Underworld Encyclopedia - Part 1 (A - D)

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Published by Darko Komazec
More than 1,400 detailed biography of the greatest figures of the underworld, the heads of various mafia groups, the most significant mobsters, the most dangerous gangsters, drug lords, outlaws, robbers, thieves, highwaymans and bloodiest pirates on Planet Earth.
Part 1 (A - D)
More than 1,400 detailed biography of the greatest figures of the underworld, the heads of various mafia groups, the most significant mobsters, the most dangerous gangsters, drug lords, outlaws, robbers, thieves, highwaymans and bloodiest pirates on Planet Earth.
Part 1 (A - D)

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more than 1,400 detailed biography of the greatest figures of the underworld, the heads of various mafia groups, the most significant mobsters, the most dangerous gangsters, drug lords, outlaws, robbers, thieves, highwaymans and bloodiest pirates on Planet Earth. PART 1 (A-D) KOMAZEC DARKO

Published by Green Earth Books Malory Aveny 208, New York www.greenearthbooks@com Original title UNDERWORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA Copyright © by Komazec Darko in 2013 All right reserved Printed in United States of America Circulation of 20 000 copies

Komazec Darko

Organized crime, Organised crime, and often criminal organizations are a group of terms which categorise transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals, who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly formonetary profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist organizations, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for so-called "protection".Gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. An organized gang or criminal set can also be referred to as a mob. Other organizations like, States, the Army, Police, Governments and Corporations may sometimes use organized crime methods to conduct their business, but their powers derive from their status as formal social institutions. There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crimes, such as, white-collar crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes andtreason. This distinction is not always apparent and the academic debate is ongoing. For example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, usually due to fractious violence or extreme poverty, organised crime, governance and war are often complimentary to each other. The term Parliamentary Mafiocracy is often attributed to democratic countries whose political, social and economic institutions are under the control of few families and business oligarchs. In the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act (1970) defines organized crime as "The unlawful activities of [...] a highly organized, disciplined association [...]". Criminal activity as a structured group is referred to as racketeering and such crime is commonly referred to as the work of the Mob. In the UK, police estimate organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups. In addition, due to the escalating violence of Mexico's drug war, the Mexican drug cartels are considered the "greatest organized crime threat to the United States" according to a report issued by the United States Department of Justice.

Models of organized crime Causal
The demand for illegal goods and services nurtures the emergence of ever more centralized and powerful criminal syndicates, who may ultimately succeed in undermining public morals, neutralizing law enforcement through corruption and infiltrating the legal economy unless appropriate countermeasures are taken. This theoretical proposition can be depicted in a model comprising four elements: government, society, illegal markets and organized crime. While interrelations are acknowledged in both directions between the model elements, in the last instance the purpose is to explain variations in the power and reach of organized crime in the sense of an ultimately unified organizational entity.

Organizational Patron-client networks
Patron-client networks are defined by the fluid interactions they produce. Organized crime groups operate as smaller units within the overall network, and as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition. These networks are usually composed of:
     

Hierarchies based on 'naturally' forming family, social and cultural traditions; 'Tight-knit' locus of activity/labor; Fraternal or nepotistic value systems; Personalized activity; including family rivalries, territorial disputes, recruitment and training of family members, etc.; Entrenched belief systems, reliance of tradition (including religion, family values, cultural expectations, class politics, gender roles, etc.); and, Communication and rule enforcement mechanisms dependent on organizational structure, social etiquette, history of criminal involvement, and collective decision-making.

Bureaucratic/corporate operations
Bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures. Focusing more on how the operations works, succeeds, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are generally typified by:
     

A complex authority structure; An extensive division of labor between classes within the organization; Meritocratic (as opposed to cultural or social attributes); Responsibilities carried out in an impersonal manner; Extensive written rules/regulations (as opposed to cultural praxis dictating action); and, 'Top-down' communication and rule enforcement mechanisms.

However, this model of operation has some flaws:
   

The 'top-down' communication strategy is susceptible to interception, more so further down the hierarchy being communicated to; Maintaining written records jeopardizes the security of the organization and relies on increased security measures; Infiltration at lower levels in the hierarchy can jeopardize the entire organization (a 'house of cards' effect); and, Death, injury, incarceration or internal power struggles dramatically heighten the insecurity of operations.

While bureaucratic operations emphasis business processes and strongly authoritarian hierarchies, these are based on enforcing power relationships rather than an overlying aim of protectionism, sustainability or growth.

Youth and street gangs
A distinctive gang culture underpins many, but not all, organized groups; this may develop through recruiting strategies, social learning processes in the corrective system experienced by youth, family or peer involvement in crime, and the coercive actions of criminal authority figures. The term ―street gang‖ is commonly

used interchangeably with ―youth gang,‖ referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet ―gang‖ criteria. Miller (1992) defines a street gang as ―a

self-formed association of peers, united by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership and internal organization, who act collectively or as individuals to achieve specific purposes, including the conduct of illegal activity and control of a particular territory, facility, or enterprise." "Zones of transition" refer to deteriorating
neighborhoods with shifting populations - conflict between groups, fighting, "turf wars", and theft promotes solidarity and cohesion. Cohen (1955): working class teenagers joined gangs due to frustration of inability to achieve status and goals of the middle class; Cloward and Ohlin (1960): blocked opportunity, but unequal distribution of opportunities lead to creating different types of gangs (that is, some focused on robbery and property theft, some on fighting and conflict and some were retreatists focusing on drug taking); Spergel (1966) was one of the first criminologists to focus on evidence-based practice rather than intuition into gang life and culture. Klein (1971) like Spergel studied the effects on members of social workers‘ interventions. More interventions actually lead to greater gang participation and solidarity and bonds between members. Downes and Rock (1988) on Parker‘s analysis: strain theory applies, l abeling theory (from experience with police and courts), control theory (involvement in trouble from early childhood and the eventual decision that the costs outweigh the benefits) and conflict theories. No ethnic group is more disposed to gang involvement than another, rather it is the status of being marginalized, alienated or rejected that makes some groups more vulnerable to gang formation, and this would also be accounted for in the effect of social exclusion, especially in terms of recruitment and retention. These may also be defined by age (typically youth) or peer group influences, and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity. These groups also form their own symbolic identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large (include colors, symbols, patches, flags and tattoos). Research has focused on whether the gangs have formal structures, clear hierarchies and leadership in comparison with adult groups, and whether they are rational in pursuit of their goals, though positions on structures, hierarchies and defined roles are conflicting. Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing finding that their structure and behavior had a degree of organizational rationality. Members saw themselves as organized criminals; gangs were formal-rational organizations, Strong organizational structures, well defined roles and rules that guided members‘ behavior. Also a specified and regular means of income (i.e. drugs). Padilla (1992) agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be loose rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals and little organizational structure. Shared norms, value and loyalties were low, structures "chaotic", little role differentiation or clear distribution of labor. Similarly, the use of violence does not conform to the principles behind protection rackets, political intimidation and drug trafficking activities employed by those adult groups. In many cases gang members graduate from youth gangs to highly developed OC groups, with some already in contact with such syndicates and through this we see a greater propensity for imitation. Gangs and traditional criminal organizations cannot be universally linked (Decker, 1998), however there are clear benefits to both the adult and youth organization through their association. In terms of structure, no single crime group is archetypal, though in most cases there are well-defined patterns of vertical integration (where criminal groups attempt to control the supply and demand), as is the case in arms, sex and drug trafficking.

Individual difference Entrepreneurial
The entrepreneurial model looks at either the individual criminal, or a smaller group of organized criminals, that capitalize off the more fluid 'group-association' of contemporary organized crime. This model conforms to social learning theory or differential association in that there are clear associations and interaction between criminals where knowledge may be shared, or values enforced, however it is argued that rational choice is not represented in this. The choice to commit a certain act, or associate with other organized crime groups, may be seen as much more of an entrepreneurial decision - contributing to the continuation of a criminal enterprise, by maximizing those aspects that protect or support their own individual gain. In this context, the role of risk is also easily understandable, however it is debatable whether the underlying motivation should be seen as true entrepreneurship or entrepreneurship as a product of some social disadvantage. The criminal organization, much in the same way as one would assess pleasure and pain, weighs such factors as legal, social and economic risk to determine potential profit and loss from certain criminal activities. This decision-making process rises from the entrepreneurial efforts of the group's members, their motivations and the environments in which they work. Opportunism is also a key factor – the organized criminal or criminal group is likely to frequently reorder the criminal associations they maintain, the types of crimes they perpetrate, and how they function in the public arena (recruitment, reputation, etc.) in order to ensure efficiency, capitalization and protection of their interests.

Multimodel approach
Culture and ethnicity provide an environment where trust and communication between criminals can be efficient and secure. This may ultimately lead to a competitive advantage for some groups, however it is inaccurate to adopt this as the only determinant of classification in organized crime. This categorization includes the Sicilian Mafia, Jamaican posses, Colombian drug trafficking groups, Nigerian organized crime groups, Corsican mafia, Japanese Yakuza (or Boryokudan), Korean criminal groups and ethnic Chinese criminal groups. From this perspective, organized crime is not a modern phenomenon - the construction of 17th and 18th century crime gangs fulfill all the present day criteria of criminal organizations (in opposition to the Alien Conspiracy Theory). These roamed the rural borderlands of central Europe embarking on many of the same illegal activities associated with today‘s crime organizations, with the exception of money laundering. When the French revolution created strong nation states, the criminal gangs moved to other poorly controlled regions like the Balkans and Southern Italy, where the seeds were sown for the Sicilian Mafia - the lynchpin of organized crime in the New World.

Typical activities
Organized crime often victimize businesses through the use of extortion or theft and fraud activities like hijacking cargo trucks, robbing goods, committing bankruptcy fraud (also known as "bust-out"), insurance fraud or stock fraud (inside trading). Organized crime groups also victimize individuals by car theft (either for dismantling at "chop shops" or for export), art theft, bank robbery, burglary, jewelery theft, computer hacking, credit card fraud, economic espionage, embezzlement, identity theft, and securities fraud ("pump and dump" scam). Some organized crime groups defraud national, state, or local governments by bid rigging public projects, counterfeiting money, smuggling or manufacturing untaxed alcohol (bootlegging) or cigarettes (buttlegging), and providing immigrant workers to avoid taxes. Organized crime groups seek out corrupt public officials in executive, law enforcement, and judicial roles so that their activities can avoid, or at least receive early warnings about, investigation and prosecution. Organized crime groups also provide a range of illegal services and goods, such as loansharking of money at very high interest rates, assassination, blackmailing, bombings,bookmaking and illegal gambling, confidence tricks, copyright infringement, counterfeiting of intellectual property, fencing, kidnapping, prostitution, smuggling, drug trafficking, arms trafficking, oil smuggling, antiquities smuggling, organ trafficking, contract killing, identity document forgery, money laundering, point shaving, price fixing, illegal dumping of toxic waste, illegal trading of nuclear materials, military equipment smuggling, nuclear weapons smuggling, passport fraud, providing illegal immigration and cheap labor, people smuggling, trading in endangered species, and trafficking in human beings. Organized crime groups also do a range of business and labor racketeering activities, such as skimmingcasinos, insider trading, setting up monopolies in industries such as garbage collecting, construction and cement pouring, bid rigging, getting "noshow" and "no-work" jobs,political corruption and bullying.

Violence Assault
The commission of violent crime may form part of a criminal organization's 'tools' used to achieve criminogenic goals (for example, its threatening, authoritative, coercive, terror-inducing, or rebellious role), due to psychosocial factors (cultural conflict, aggression, rebellion against authority, access to illicit substances, counter-cultural dynamic), or may, in and of itself, be crime rationally chosen by individual criminals and the groups they form. Assaults are used for coercive measures, to "rough up" debtors, competition or recruits, in the commission of robberies, in connection to other property offenses, and as an expression of counter-cultural authority; violence is normalized within criminal organizations (in direct opposition to mainstream society) and the locations they

The metho ds they use for converting its ‗dirty‘ money into ‗clean‘ assets encourages corruption. Organized crime groups need to hide the money‘s illegal origin. violent disputes over controlled territories and offenses against members of the public must also be considered when looking at the dynamic between different criminal organizations and their (at times) conflicting needs. motivations contrary to the security of the public. and the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF). arms smuggling and financial crime. a beneficiary and two intermediaries. by developing legitimate businesses and purchasing property. Also called ‗heavy soaping‘. as distinct from conventional banks. with groups continuously changing techniques to avoid investigation. The rapid growth of money laundering is due to:  the scale of organized crime precluding it from being a cash business . It often involves otherwise legitimate banks and professionals.groups have little option but to convert its proceeds into legitimate funds and do so by investment. and other psychosocial factors. often in the country of origin where the sender previously resided. banking reputations and for effective governments and rule of law. a lack of effective financial regulation in parts of the global economy. involves clandestine ‗bankers‘ around the world. Money laun dering is bad for international and domestic trade. sham loans. Because such systems operate outside conventional banking systems. parallel banking. may involve bank complicity. Counterfeiting In 2007. informal funds transfer and money/value transfer. Underground banking (flying money). armed robberies. Robinson 1996). This would make organized crime the third largest business in world after foreign exchange and oil (Robinson 1996). This is of little use to them unless they can disguise it and convert it into funds that are available for investment into legitimate enterprise. retribution or competition. private or criminal). Remittance services In addition to ordinary banking. black money markets purchasing goods. Terms used in other jurisdictions include hundi. within the context of organized crime.technology has made rapid transfer of funds across international borders much easier. Integration: (also called ‗spin dry): Making it into clean taxable income by real-estate transactions. It allows for the expansion of OC groups. Layering: disguises the trail to foil pursuit. its purposes and consequences. achieving retribution or eliminating competition. It involves creating false paper trails. Particular risks arise from the irregular forms of record-keeping which are often employed and the possibility that the laws of those countries in which they operate may not be fully complied with. enforcing criminal authority. Accurate figures for the amounts of criminal proceeds laundered are almost impossible to calculate. Means of money laundering:    Money transmitters. mixing licit and illicit funds. The role of the hit man has been generally consistent throughout the history of organized crime. They are invariably legitimate and legal in many countries. Revenge killings. although concerns have arisen in the recent decade that they could be used to circumvent anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing controls that now operate across the global financial services sector. The policy aim in this area is to make the financial markets transparent. The sender wishes to send a remittance to the beneficiary. Originating in southeast Asia and India. physical disposal of money by m oving crime funds into the legitimate financial system. The remittance system predates modern banking and arose in various locations including China. as the ‗laundry‘ or ‗wash cycle‘ operates to cover the money trail and convert proceeds of crime into usable assets. hawala. informal funds transfer. foreign bank complicity and false import and export transactions. globalization of communications and commerce .control. Whilst the intensity of violence is dependent on the types of crime the organization is involved in (as well as their organizational structure or cultural tradition) aggressive acts range on a spectrum from low-grade physical assaults to murder. However in the US estimated figures of money laundering have been put at between $200 – $600 billion per year throughout the 1990s (US Congress Office 1995. cheaply and securely between locations that often don't have established banking networks or modern forms of electronic funds transfers available. This may include the assassination of notable figures (public. 'underground' or 'parallel banking' systems. tobacco and even household cleaning products in addition to the usual films. software and fashion. including money.   Money Laundering is a three-stage process:    Placement: (also called immersion) groups ‗smurf‘ small amounts at a time to avoid suspicion. At its most basic. converting cash into assets by cash purchases. . underground banking. to a much less discriminate form of expressing power. 'Alternative remittance' is only one of a number of terms used to describe the practice of transferring value. increasing the complexity of the money trail. an intergovernmental body set up to combat money laundering. once again dependent on authority. Bodily harm and grievous bodily harm. It is generally used where value is sent through 'informal' channels. they are known as 'alternative remittance'. a remittance service involves a sender. pesticides. from one country to another. and in 2002 this was estimated between $500 billion to $1 trillion per year (UN 2002). Funds can be moved quickly. cash purchases and smuggling currency to safe havens. Financial crime Organized crime groups generate large amounts of money by activities such as drug trafficking. users of these systems transfer funds through the use of agents who enter into agreements with each other to receive money from people in one country (such as overseas workers) and to pay money to specified relatives or friends in other countries without having to rely on conventional banking arrangements. games and other electrical appliances. whether that be due to the efficiency or expediency of hiring a professional assassin or the need to distance oneself from the commission of murderous acts (making it harder to prove liability). pharmaceuticals. money and other forms of value can be transferred through the use of so-called 'remittance services' which have operated for hundreds of years in non-Western societies. and. literature. the OECD reported the scope of counterfeit products to include food. Murder Murder has evolved from the honor and vengeance killings of the Yakuza or Sicilian mafia which placed large physical and symbolic importance on the act of murder. electrical components. however. has stated that "overall it is absolutely impossible to produce a reliable estimate of the amount of money laundered and therefore the FATF does not publish any figures in this regard". poe kuan. southeast Asia and the Middle East where there was a need to move value without taking the risk of physically moving money itself.[59] A number of qualitative changes in the trade of counterfeit products:  a large increase in fake goods which are dangerous to health and safety. and minimize the circulation of criminal money and its cost upon legitimate markets. gambling. music. must be understood as indicators of intense social and cultural conflict.

a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities). either clandestinely or through deception. but include bribery. government officials have broad or poorly defined powers. The terms "forced prostitution" or "enforced prostitution" appear in international and humanitarian conventions but have been insufficiently understood and inconsistently applied. which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions. Labor racketeering has developed since the 1930s. it is not restricted to these activities. of the illegal entry of a person into a state party of which the person is not a national". at times severely disrupting commerce. raising costs. personal and/or familial betterment. (Keep in mind. in violation of one or more countries laws. attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border. In some cases. and human trafficking. For example. Belgium. however the nature of such activity allows for misrepresentation. and common reasons for individuals seeking to be smuggled include employment and economic opportunity. however. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking. some jurisdictions allow insider trading. Note that some forms of corporate corruption may not actually be criminal if they are not specifically illegal under a given system of laws. production is now operated on an industrial scale. cronyism. Tax evasion The economic effects of organized crime have been approached from a number of both theoretical and empirical positions.000. Turkey and the United States. graft. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy. effecting national and international construction. theFederal Bureau of Investigation estimated 700. in order to obtain. Illegal Immigration and People smuggling ('Migrant Trafficking') People smuggling is defined as "the facilitation. Human trafficking Sex trafficking Human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a major cause of contemporary sexual slavery and is primarily for prostituting women and children into sex industries. though this is probably the smallest proportion of the world's population in history. As with any other crime. Germany. As most organized crime is perpetrated in the liminal state between legitimate and illegitimate markets. Worldwide. golden crescent (Afghanistan) and Central and South America. There are suggestions that due to the continuing decline in opium production in South East Asia. literally meaning "rule by thieves". The activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the country or jurisdiction. Activity has focused on the importation of cheap or unfree labor. For the most part. Misuse of government power for other purposes. This practice has increased over the past few decades and today now accounts for a significant portion of illegal immigration in countries around the world. and bandits attacked trade routes and roads. if not all. energy production and transportation sectors immensely. general anonymity and the continuation of their operations. and escape from persecution or conflict. Official numbers of individuals in sexual slavery worldwide vary. is not considered political corruption.Israel. Corporate crime Corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i. or by individuals that may be identified with a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate liability). but for most of human history it was the rural interfaces that encountered the majority of crime. and operating goods smuggling syndicates to evade importation taxes help ensure financial sustainability.. Drug trafficking Heroin: Source countries / production: three major regions known as the golden triangle (Burma. In 2001 International Organization for Migration estimated 400. Thailand). mean household incomes and level of satisfaction with government and other economic factors all contribute to the likelihood of criminals to participate in tax evasion. such as the use of fraudulent documents". sometimes even for generations. technological advancements have made the commission of tax evasion easier. and embezzlement. transportation. involvement with union and public officials (political corruption). mining.000 and UNICEF estimated 1. Forms of corruption vary. outsiders such aspirates. directly or indirectly. utilize illicit offshore bank accounts. . which is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime as ". extortion. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties. bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. People smuggling generally takes place with the consent of the person or persons being smuggled. according to a report by UNODC.75 million. The ability for organized criminals to operate fraudulent financial accounts. for most of human history. such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality. faster and more globalized. who are under debt bondage incurred by lenders. Most aredebt slaves. rates of unemployment.nepotism. White-collar crime and corruption Political corruption Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. these economic factors must adjusted to ensure the optimal amount of taxation without promoting the practice of tax evasion.. Laos. The level of taxation taken by a nation-state. traffickers may begin to look to Afghanistan as a source of heroin. within a village. The term is understood as and often used interchangeably with migrant smuggling. Contemporary slavery and forced labor ('Labor Racketeering') The number of slaves today remains as high as 12 million to 27 million. a growing number of technological products. a financial or other material benefit. For instance.   most products repossessed by authorities are now household items rather than luxury goods. Japan. Sexual slavery encompasses most. "Forced prostitution" generally refers to conditions of control over a person who is coerced by another to engage in sexual activity. largely in South Asia. Historical origins Pre-Nineteenth Century Today. rural areas were the vast majority of inhabited places). forms of forced prostitution. and.e. money laundering.. patronage. highwaymen. The most common destinations for victims of human trafficking are Thailand. access tax havens or tax shelters. andcounterfeiting. certain political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. crime is sometimes thought of as an urban phenomenon. It is the fastest growing criminal industry and is predicted to eventually outgrow drug trafficking.the procurement. members kept crime at very low rates. Italy. security from law enforcement. the Netherlands.

While some crime involved well-known criminal hierarchies in the city. that define the group. limits on entrance. Twentieth century Cressey‘s Cosa Nostra model studied Mafia families exclusively and this limits his broader findings. yet they share many features associated with thriving criminal organizations. Structures are formal and rational with allocated tasks. a network characterized by complex webs of relationships. however loosely or tightly organi zed for the enrichment of those participating at the expense of the community and its members. not companies. It is frequently accomplished through ruthless disregard of any law. They are adaptable and change to meet the demands of their changing environments and circumstances. the closer the kinship relationship. People in the network may not directly be part of the core criminal organization. However. whether Vandals. if necessary. but not both. activity over a prolonged or indefinite period of time. looting and pillaging. the leadership group are assigned to legal or illegal enterprises. They were for the most part non-ideological. Smuggling and drug-trafficking rings are as old as the hills in Asia and Africa. According to criminologist Paul Lunde. The word 'thug' dates to early 13th-century India. and. Further studies showed neither bureaucracy nor kinship groups are the primary structure of organized crime. used violence and intimidation." Terrorism is linked to organized crime. absence of formal lines of communication. or gangs of criminals. Too much emphasis had been placed on the Mafia as controlling OC. leadership positions down to middle management are kinship based. The networks of criminals involved with the crimes did not exhibit organizational cohesion. International governance approach International consensus on defining organized crime has become important since the 1970s due its increased prevalence and impact. not the status or affiliations of their members. where family rather than the church or state is the basis of social order and morality.. Strong family ties are derived from the traditions of southern Italy. All observed networks and a degree of persistence. In this context there is a difference between organized and professional crime. Norsemen. Clients include members of gangs. Organized crime groups may be a combination of all three. The Mafia were certainly powerful but they ―were part of a heterogeneous underworld. There may be three main approaches to understand the organizations in te rms of their roles as social systems:  organizations as rational systems: Highly formalized structures in terms of bureaucracy‘s and hierarchy. . including offenses against the person and frequently in connection with political corruption. rather they were in partnerships or a series of joint business ventures. government officials and people engaged in legitimate business. but has political aims rather than solely financial ones. their own appointed tasks. Summarized they are:    more than two people.g. violence and corruption and the pursuit of multiple enterprises and continuity serve to form the essence of OC activity. OC is ―…the large scale and complex criminal activity carried on by groups of persons. Their perversity and violence in respect of relationships is often remarkable.. They all had links to a national network via Meyer Lansky. and influence the rules established for organizational maintenance and sustainability. with social and business functions merged. they were ‗disorganized‘. when Thugs. but they are characterized by their focus on the connections between their members. UN in 1976 and EU 1998. transfer of money. and it is the impersonal actions. and extant criminal organizations in Italy and Japan trace their histories back several centuries. of improperly influencing the operation of public authorities. Despite these conclusions. the higher the position. fragmented organizational structure. group assigns leadership positions to a central group of family members. Six of those must be satisfied and the four in italics are mandatory. it becomes evident even crime of the organized kind has a long if not necessarily noble heritage." OC groups were violent and aimed at making money but because of the lack of structure and fragmentation of objectives. this includes fictive godparental and affinitive ties as well as those based on blood relations. one that was rationally designed to maximize profits and to provide forbidden goods. not merely a means to some other end. For example. It is distinctively disorganized. their associates and their victims. whether such crimes or offenses are an end in themselves or a means of obtaining material benefits and. e. from legal and illegal business. Kinship is seen as the basis of organized crime rather than the structures Cressey had identified. rather than rational hierarchies or secret societies. Criminal entrepreneurs are the patrons and they exchange information with their clients in order to obtain their support. roamed from town to town. organizations as natural systems: Participants may regard the organisation as an end in itself. Ianni and Ianni studied Italian-American crime syndicates in New York and other cities. acting in concert with a view to committing crimes or other offenses which are punishable by deprivation of liberty or a detention order of a maximum of at least four years or a more serious penalty. but there was no evidence that Lansky or anyone else exercised centralized control over them." If we take a global rather than strictly domestic view. structured association of two or more persons. Goths. Each participant is interested in furthering his own welfare. There are eleven characteristics from the European Commission and Europol pertinent to a working definition of organized crime. in a formal sense. There is no one way in which they are organized or how they operate. and. Seattle‘s crime network in the 1970s and 80s consisted of groups of businessmen. "Barbarian conquerors. underlying rules and specific goals that determine their behavior. Furthering the approach of both Cressey and Albini. Promoting group values to maintain solidarity is high on the agenda. politicians and of law enforcement officers. Rules of conduct and behavioral aspects of power and networks and roles include the following:       family operates as a social unit. Turks or Mongols are not normally thought of as organized crime groups. who was powerful. there is well-defined hierarchy of roles for leaders and members.insurance rates and prices to the consumer. Albini saw organized criminal behavior as consisting of networks of patrons and clients. As Lunde states. with formal systems of rules r egarding authority and highly specific goals. and there may be utility in focusing on the identification of organizing roles of people and events rather than the group‘s structure. nor were activities limited to a finite number of objectives. predominantly ethnically based. and back to illegal business is by individuals. Evidence includes: lack of centralized control.‖ (UN) ―A criminal organization shall mean a lasting. "Piracy and banditry were to the preindustrial world what organized crime is to modern society. and these are formed as a social system. all researchers observed a degree of managerial activities among the groups they studied.‖ (UE) Not all groups exhibit the same characteristics of structure. including fictive godparental relationship reinforcement. local and national politicians. They do not rely on profit maximization. ‗organized‘ at all. and adhered to their own codes of law.   organizations open systems: High levels of interdependence between themselves and the environment in which they operate. The networks are characterized by a loose system of power relations. The ―disorganized crime‖ and choice theses One of the most important trends to emerge in criminological thinking about OC in recent years is the suggestion that it is not. criminal activity was not subject to central management by these hierarchies nor by other controlling groups. so there is overlap but separation between terrorism and organized crime.

such as a change of government or a period of rapid economic development. and. The evidence regarding OC ―shows a less well-organized. OC has widespread social. genocide). profit and perpetuity.OC may appear in many forms at different times and in different places. has explicit rules and regulations: Codes of honor. the Irish Mob boss of the Winter Hill Gang (in the 1980s) turned informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). and its extra-jurisdictional character…. The American Mafia in the U. realizing that it is better to work in cooperation rather than in competition with each other (once again. all within the context of organizational theory. absent or untrusted. specialized division of labor: to achieve organization goal. and. perpetuating itself: Recruitment process and policy. Infighting sometimes occurs within an organization. three or more people. Definitions need to bring together its legal and social elements. judicial authorities or the economy. It uses violence and corruption to achieve its ends: ―OC when group primarily focused on illegal profits systematically commit crimes that adversely affect society and are capable of successfully shielding their activities.e. The understanding of organized crime has therefore progressed to combined internationalization and an understanding of social conflict into one of power. Sacra Corona Unita. He used this position to eliminate competition and consolidate power within the city of Boston which led to the imprisonment of several senior organized crime figures including Gennaro Angiulo. profit driven. the use of commercial or businesslike structures. The newest growth sectors for organized crime are identity theft and online extortion. Organized crime most typically flourishes when a central government and civil society is disorganized.        the use discipline or control. media. and. political: criminal groups use corruption and violence to attain power and status. defining organized criminal behavior as:         nonideological: i. authority structures and the concept of 'control' over one's territory and organization. economic: seek to exert influence by means of corruption and by coercion of legitimate and illegitimate praxis. motivated by the pursuit of profit and/or power.S. consolidating power). equipment and finances. limited or exclusive membership: maintain secrecy and loyalty of members. If a network operates primarily from one jurisdiction and carries out its illicit operations there and in some other jurisdictions it is ‗ international.' though it may be appropriate to use the term ‗transnational‘ only to label the activities of a major crime group that is centered in no one jurisdiction b ut operating in many. economic and political power have sustained themselves as a core concerns of all criminal organizations:    social: criminal groups seek to develop social control in relation to particular communities. with the Westies operating as a contract hit man for the Gambino family after they helped Coonan come to power). These activities are troubling because they discourage consumers from using the Internet for e-commerce. putting them in competition with each other. Others stress the importance of power. and Sicilian Mafia. In the United States.g. monopolistic: Market control to maximize profits. exertion of influence on politics. its use of violence or corrupt ion to achieve its goals. political and economic effects. large businesses are able to afford more bandwidth (to resist denial-of-service attacks) and superior security. Today criminal organizations are increasingly working together. Furthermore. There is a tendency away from centralization of power and reliance upon family ties towards a fragmentation of structures and informality of relationships in crime groups. in particular by being willing to use physical violence or eliminate individuals by way of corruption‖ It is a mistake in using the term ‗OC‘ as though it denotes a clear and well-defined phenomenon. willing to use illegal violence and bribery. This competition. The accumulation of social. uses valuable resources such as manpower (either killed or sent to prison). though there is currently no international court capable of trying offenses resulting from such activities (the International Criminal Court‘s remit extends only to dealing with people accused of offenses against humanity. particularly if the society lacks strong and established institutions and the rule of law. organized crime using the Internet is much harder to trace down for the police (even though they increasingly deploy cybercops) since most police forces and law enforcement agencies operate within a local or national jurisdiction while the Internet makes it easier for criminal organizations to operate across such boundaries without detection. control. efficiency risk and utility. with the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the Palermo Convention) having a similar definition:    organized criminal: structured group. Contemporary organized crime may be very different from traditional Mafia style. e. perpetration of serious criminal offenses. The locus of power and organized crime Some espouse that all organized crime operates at an international level. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimated that organized crime . particularly in terms of the distribution and centralization of power. weak. E-commerce was supposed to level the playing ground between small and large businesses. engagement in money laundering. serious crime: offense punishable by at least four years in prison. the 'Ndrangheta. have had links with organized crime groups in Italy such as the Camorra. economic or social turmoil or transition. The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe that saw the downfall of the Communist Bloc created a breeding ground for criminal organizations. In the past criminal organizations have naturally limited themselves by their need to expand. the ‗organization‘ of its members. one or more serious crimes. public administration. and. The Cosa Nostra has also been known to work with the Irish Mob (John Gotti of the Gambino family andJames Coonan of the Westies are known to have worked together. but the growth of online organized crime is leading to the opposite effect. Due to the variety of defin itions. there is ―evident danger‖ in asking ―what is OC?‖ and expecting a simple answer. the Japanese Yakuza and the Russian Mafia. such as the Castellamarese war of 1930–31 and the Boston Irish Mob Wars of the 1960s and 1970s. often leading to violence. This may occur in a society facing periods of political.‖ Many of the definitions emphasize the ‗group nature‘ of OC. very diversified landscape of organizing criminals…the economic activities of these organizing criminals can be better described from the viewpoint of ‗crime enterprises‘ than from a conceptually unclear frameworks such as ―OC‘. in order to obtain financial or other material benefit. structured group: Not randomly formed and doesn‘t need formal structure. the use violence or other intimidation. This has led to the rise of global criminal organizations such as Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street gang. underboss of the Patriarca crime family. operations on an international or transnational level. hierarchical: few elites and many operatives.

ensuring criminal monopolies sustain profits. organized behavior produces stability. employment or education. as will deterrence measures (reducing demand). and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police).. Interpersonal relationships define the motivations the individual develops. thus the context of gang activity. legitimate access to public resources. Critical criminology and sociology Social disorganization Social disorganization theory is intended to be applied to neighborhood level street crime. Drug Enforcement Administration. as it defines the social learning. their intensity and arguably the level of community response. to coerce through the use of violence. and criminogenic motivations. state (e. Under these conditions competition is discouraged. arms. Criminal organizations therefore gravitate around illegal avenues of production. and the desires of individuals to achieve success through socially defined avenues. socioeconomic demographic impacts. and witness affluence they are deprived of and which is virtually impossible for them to attain through conventional means. and may be directly proportional to market forces as expressed by entrepreneurship. Little emphasis is placed on the offenders‘ backgrounds or circumstances surrounding the crimes or offenders. locus of control. Deterrence This theory sees criminal behavior as reflective of an individual. and Explosives. The concept of neighborhood is central to this theory.and lower-classes live in close proximity this can result in feelings of anger. Massachusetts State Police Special Investigation Unit and the New York State Police Bureau of Criminal Investigation) and city (e. For success. internal calculation by the criminal that the benefits associated with offending (whether financial or otherwise) outweigh the perceived risks.). cultural deviance. organized crime groups replicate such figures and thus ensure control over the counter-culture. D.g.. drugs. federal (e. organized crime exists because legitimate markets leave many customers and potential customers unsatisfied. Preoccupation with methods of accumulating profit highlight the lack of legitimate means to achieve economic or social advantage.g.g. purpose. greater socioeconomic control and influence. Criminal organizations capitalize on states of normlessness by imposing criminogenic needs and illicit avenues to achieve them. The perceived strength. respect and trust by other members of the organization. cultural influences and access to social opportunity experienced by criminals and the groups they form. Merton believed deviance depended on society‘s definition of success. increases protection or security. Bureau of Alcohol. Firearms. It is the inadequate supply of legitimate opportunities that constrains the ability for the individual to pursue valued societal goals and reduces the likelihood that using legitimate opportunities will enable them to satisfy such goals (due to their position in society). The success of organized crime groups is therefore dependent upon the strength of their communication and the enforcement of their value systems. the recruitment and training processes employed to sustain. This theory also developed to include the strengths and weaknesses of reinforcement. power or both). build or fill gaps in criminal operations. people commit crimes for the need of acceptance. and mobility give it relevance to organized crime. It ignores that in addition to financial gains. This rise in cooperation between criminal organizations has meant that law enforcement agencies are increasingly having to work together. and the United States Coast Guard). Russian Federal Security Service (FSB). The FBI operates an organized crime section from its headquarters in Washington. the decision to do so is a rational choice made after weighing up the benefits versus consequences of the crime. This theory has tended to view violent or anti-social behavior by gangs as reflective of their social disorganization rather than as a product or tool of their organization. which in the context of continuing criminal enterprises may be used to help understand propensities for certain crimes or victims.. The benefits of participating in organized crime (higher financial rewards. imitation of superiors. this theory treats all individuals as rational operators. . profit-making. and is known to work with other national (e. Where the upper. aggression and threatening behavior (at times termed 'terrorism'). protection of the family or significant others. financial etc. committing criminal acts after consideration of all associated risks (detection and punishment) compared with the rewards of crimes (personal. Tobacco. protectionism or social control and attempt (by increasing their operations or membership) to make these acceptable.C. Theoretical background Criminal psychology Rational choice Based on the now outdated notion that regardless of the reason for committing crime. This also explains the propensity of criminal organizations to develop protection rackets. The ability to effect social norms and practices through political and economic influence (and the enforcement or normaliszation of criminogenic needs) may be defined by differential association theory. with the organizations structure. This has been used as the basis for numerous meta-theories of organized crime through its integration of social learning. level of integration into the mainstream culture and likelihood of recidivism / success in rehabilitation.groups held $322 billion in assets in 2005. slaves). as does the organization of white-collar crime or political corruption (though it is debatable whether these are based on wealth. High demand for a particular good or service (e. hostility. Legal substitution of goods or services may (by increasing competition) force the dynamic of organized criminal operations to adjust..g. social injustice and frustration. there must be: an identified market and certain rate of consumption (demand) to maintain profit and outweigh perceived risks. low levels of risk detection and high profits lead to a conducive environment for entrepreneurial criminal groups to enter the market and profit by supplying those goods and services.g. Differential association Sutherland goes further to say that deviancy is contingent on conflicting groups within society. New York City Police Department Organized Crime Unit and the Los Angeles Police Department Special Operations Division) law enforcement agencies. United States Marshals Service. Polizia di Stato.or risk-based approaches. processes and authority as the main drivers behind organized crime. and the restriction of resources (controlling the ability to supply or produce to supply). Fear of or lack of trust in mainstream authority may also be a key contributor to social disorganization. and that such groups struggle over the means to define what is criminal or deviant within society. Social learning Criminals learn through associations with one another. and activity being indicative of the rational choices made by criminals and their organizers. The role of criminal organizations in lowering the perceptions of risk and increasing the likelihood of personal benefit is prioritized by this approach. perceived freedoms from 'oppressive' laws or norms) contribute greatly to the psychology behind highly organized group offending. Enterprise Under this theory. importance or infallibility of the criminal organization is directly proportional to the types of crime committed. and understanding of value systems. If crime is seen as a function of anomie. An understanding of this theory sees close associations between criminals. Criminals experience poverty. Criminality becomes attractive when expectations of being able to fulfill goals (therefore achieving success) by legitimate means cannot be fulfilled. with the effect of family or peer criminal activity being a strong predictor of inter-generational offending. loosely formed criminal associations or networks. prostitution. Anomie Sociologist Robert K.

law enforcement became stricter and tough governmental crackdown on criminal organizations forced the triads to migrate to Hong Kong. Ethnic Albanian gangs have grown rapidly since 1992 during the prolonged period of instability in the Balkans after the collapse of Yugoslavia. Bosnian Mafia. The people of the mountainous country of Albania have always had strong traditions of family and clan loyalty. They are notorious for their strict codes of conduct and very organized nature. Most modern yakuza derive from two classifications which emerged in the mid-Edo Period: tekiya. Crude markets emerged. Whilst early organized crime was dominated by the Sicilian Mafia they have been relatively substituted by the Irish Mob (early 1900s). A gang may be a relatively small group of people who cooperate in criminal acts. those who primarily peddled illicit. the Aryan Brotherhood (1960s onwards). as they have achieved success and wealth not otherwise available through socially-provided opportunities. the nobility owned most of the land and enforced law and order through their private armies. although the Vory are still strong in gambling and the retail trade. and the European Union (EU) countries. The triads evolved into criminal societies. although there is no clear consensus about what constitutes a gang or what situations lead to gang formation and evolution. Under feudalism. . and more recently the Mexican Tijuana Cartel (late 1980s onwards). The first record of a triad society.their values and norms conflicting with those of the working-. tattoos or rings. now unemployed but with experience that could prove useful in crime. But a gang may be a larger group with a formal organization that survives the death of its leader. and can provide services such as dispute arbitration and contract enforcement that parallel those of a legitimate government. It is through modeling organized crime as a counter-cultural avenue to success that such organizations are sustained.Cultural deviance Criminals violate the law because they belong to a unique subculture . middleor upper-classes upon which criminal laws are based. they have played more prominent roles during times of weakened social order or when governments have attempted to suppress access to goods or services for which there is a high demand. A small street gang that engages in sporadic low-level crime would not be seen as "organized". the most notorious being the Rizhsky market where prostitution rings were run next to the Rizhsky Railway Station in Moscow. and this is typically reinforced through shared activities and through visual identifications such as special clothing.. money laundering. recruiting. in some ways similar to that of southern Italy. which ended with the leader's death in 1882. and survived into the 21st century. and one fifth of the land was to become private property of the peasants. Bulgarian Mafia and so on. Regional variants Europe The Sicilian Mafia. In the Soviet period Vory v Zakone emerged. In 1988 the Soviet Union legalized private enterprise but did not provide regulations to ensure the security of market economy. but upon their return to prison they were attacked and killed by inmates who remained loyal to the rules of the thieves. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organizational structure and code of conduct. made up of Italian-dominated crime families. Asia In China. Yakuza are members of traditional organized crime syndicates in Japan. and the term "gangster" invariably describes a criminal. Gangs In modern usage. They engage in a variety of crimes including extortion. A contradiction of this theory is that syndicates had developed long before large-scale Sicilian immigration in 1860s. joined the increasing crime wave. Alien conspiracy/queer ladder of mobility The alien conspiracy theory and queer ladder of mobility theories state that ethnicity and 'outsider' status (immigrants. or Cosa Nostra is a criminal syndicate that emerged in the mid-nineteenth century in Sicily. This coincided with large scale migration to Europe. One such rule was that cooperation with the authorities of any kind was forbidden. Some preconceptions may be false. language and culture. Former KGBagents and veterans of the Afghan and First and Second Chechen Wars.the counter-culture . dates to the Lin Shuangwen uprising on Taiwan from 1786 to 1787. described by the British government as "one of the most dangerous men in the world". stolen or shoddy goods. ColombianMedellin cartel and Cali cartel (mid-1970s 1990s).Although gangs and gangsters have existed in many countries and at many times in the past. At first. As the Soviet Union headed for collapse many former government workers turned to crime. Role models include drug dealers. the United States and Canada. smuggling. and weapons. communications. drugs and other contraband.900 members. the Vory v Zakone played a key role in arbitrating the gang wars that erupted in the 1990s. which were given the triangle as their emblem. This subculture shares an alternative lifestyle. with departments responsible for functions such as accounting. Triads or even outlaw motorcycle gangs can undertake complex transactions that would be far beyond the capability of one individual. the term "gang" is generally used for a criminal organization. Al-Qaeda (1988 onwards) and the Taliban (1994 onwards). Primogeniture was abolished. and other cities around the world. land could no longer be seized to settle debts. The origins lie in the upheaval of Sicily's transition out of feudalism in 1812 and its later annexation by mainland Italy in 1860. The Chicago Outfit created by Al Capone outlasted its founder's imprisonment and death. Other criminal organizations that emerged in the Balkans around this time are popularly called the Serbian Mafia. with these immigrants merely joining a widespread phenomena of crime and corruption. The term "organized crime" is associated with gangs and gangsters. For example.More recently. Italy. When the Chinese Communist Party came to power in 1949 in mainland China. The alien theory posits that the contemporary structures of organized crime gained prominence during the 1860s in Sicily and that elements of the Sicilian population are responsible for the foundation of most European and North American organized crime. During World War II some prisoners made a deal with the government to join the armed forces in return for a reduced sentence. training and welfare in addition to the operational arms. criminals with stronger ties to big business and the government have displaced the Vory from some of their traditional niches. or those not within the dominant ethnocentric groups) and their influences are thought to dictate the prevalence of organized crime in society. thieves and pimps. the common view that illegal drug distribution in the United States is largely controlled by gangs has been questioned. as with the Jesse James gang. Drug cartels. As of 2009 they had an estimated 80. By the mid-1990s it was believed that "Don" Semion Mogilevich had become the "boss of all bosses" of most Russian Mafia syndicates in the world. but is not synonymous. Many argue this misinterprets and overstates the role of ethnicity in organized crime. Organized crime has existed in Russia since the days of Imperial Russia in the form of banditry and thievery. There is agreement that the members of a gang have a sense of common identity and belonging. trafficking and prostitution. Triads today are highly organized. After 1812. and bakuto. participating in a diverse range of criminal enterprises including drug and arms trafficking. taking care of their own affairs and rejecting government authority. An organization that coordinates gangs in different countries involved in the international trade in drugs or prostitutes may not be considered a "gang". while others moved overseas. the Russian Mafia (1988 onwards). Heaven and Earth Gathering. Bell's theory of the 'queer ladder of mobility' hypothesized that 'ethnic succession' (the attainment of power and control by one more marginalized ethnic group over other less marginalized groups) occurs by promoting the perpetration of criminal activities within a disenfranchised or oppressed demographic. the United States. those who were involved in or participated in gambling. the feudal barons steadily sold off or rented their lands to private citizens. Although based in Albania. and is generally typified by being tough. Much has been written on the subject of gangs. then a British colony. Large and well structured gangs such as the Mafia. The Albanian Mafia is active in Albania. Triads trace their roots to resistance or rebel groups opposed to Manchu rule during the Qing Dynasty. a class of criminals that had to abide by certain rules in the prison system. the gangs often handle international transactions such as trafficking in economic migrants.

These were followed by the Italian Five Points Gangand later a Jewish gang known as the Eastman Gang. and SouthFlorida. they have become more powerful since the demise of Colombia's Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s. markets. Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile. the United States being the worlds largest consumer of cocaine. The tongs recruited these gangs to protect their extortion. and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida. or the Five Families). In some cases these evolved into Tongs. or criminal organizations primarily involved in gambling. the Eighteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution banned the sale. The terms "gangster" and "mobster" are mostly used in the United States to refer to members of criminal organizations associated with Prohibition or with an American offshoot of the Italian Mafia (such as the Chicago Outfit. Peru. The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market in the United States. following waves of emigration from Sicily.000 kg. and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami. Colombia. and used acute violence to stake turf and protect their interest. manufacture. The Medellín Cartelwas an organized network of drug suppliers and smugglers originating in the city of Medellín. new immigrants were relocating to the United States. Often. Bolivia. The American Mafia arose from offshoots of the Mafia that emerged in the United States during the late nineteenth century. the Bahama Island chain. and smuggled into the United States and Europe. street gangs began to flourish in major cities. Peru. The new immigrants formed Chinese Benevolent Associations. In the later 1800s many Chinese emigrated to the United States. as well as Canada and Europe throughout the 1970s and 1980s. had successfully dismantled the cartel by imprisoning or hunting and gunning down its members. The gang operated in Colombia. and transportation of alcohol for consumption. There were similar offshoots in Canada among Italian Canadians. The traffickers use a variety of smuggling techniques to transfer their drug to U.S. escaping from insecurity and economic hardship at home. Sixty five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico. Cocaine traffickers from Colombia. Latin America Most cocaine is grown and processed in South America. helped by the US. the United States. particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels. Members of Triads who migrated to the United States often joined these tongs. . It was founded and run by Ochoa Vázquez brothers with Pablo Escobar. or drug trafficking organizations. the Philadelphia Mafia.United States and Canada As American society and culture developed. These include airdrops of 500–700 kg in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico. and recently Mexico. and also produces heroin that is mostly destined for the US market. have also established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean. Central America. Bolivia. There were also "nativist" anti-immigration gangs such as the Bowery Boys. have existed for several decades.S. Colombia is the world's leading producer of cocaine. Arrests of key gang leaders. this route is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile. The arid Bolivia-Chile border is easily crossed by 4x4 vehicles that then head to the seaports of Iquique and Antofagasta. Cocaine shipments from South America transported throughMexico or Central America are generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico. Many gangs sold alcohol illegally for tremendous profit. gambling and narcotics operations. With a new wave of migration in the 1960s. at first working on the west coast and later moving east. The first major gangs in 19th centuryNew York City were the Irish gangs such as the Whyos and the Dead Rabbits. Although Mexican drug cartels. particularly in Colombia. mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of 500–2. By 1993. the Colombian government. They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug. In 1920.–Mexico border. police officers and politicians were paid off or extorted to ensure continued operation. have led to increasing drug violence as gangs fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States.

for his leadership in the Norte del Valle cartel. the Supreme Federal Court of Brazil granted his extradition to the United States. An auction of his belongings following his arrest led to an enormous queue of Brazilians trying to get their hands on one of the drug lord's goods. Requests from the Department of State to Colombia for the extradition of Abadia have been denied. gang. Colombia) is a drug trafficker who. The $54 million was only a portion of the estimated $1. it is estimated Abadia smuggled a total of twenty metric tons of cocaine. In his twenties. Inc. it is believed Abadia also participated in money laundering and trafficking of heroin. In 1937. murder andRICO charges in the United States of America. 1941. the prosecutor said that Abbandando had all but admitted one rape. at his parents' urging. S. In January 2007. In addition to the trafficking of cocaine. named after the area they operated out of. Once the drugs arrive in their destination in the United States. The official ruling was that Reles died trying to climb down bedsheets to the street below. Brooklyn. During the mid-1990s Abadia was believed to be the youngest leader of the Cali cartel. Abbandando was a connoisseur of fine clothes and fancy cars. Abbandando had two sons: Lawrence. In 2003. Using an ice pick and a meat cleaver. On August 7. it is then believed they are transported to New York City. Abadia was arrested in Aldeia da Serra. and crushed his head inside a garage. labor racketeering. Reles fell out a hotel window in Coney Island. By the mid-1990s he was believed to have smuggled "multi-thousand kilograms of cocaine" yearly into San Antonio. Abadias' operation is believed to rely on shipping containers and go-fast boats primarily. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). while Abbandando was on the witness stand. He was reportedly a sexual predator. of the Cosa Nostra took over "Murder. Abbandando was convicted of murder. Reles became a government witness and began implicating his fellow gang members. was hit by a series of successful prosecutions that eliminated its leadership and several of its top hitmen. and his business associates Jorge Rodrigo Salinas Cuevas and Edgar Marino Otalora Restrepo. Through Abadias' illegal enterprise. included Jews. In his "free" time. Abbandando was convicted of beating a New York City police officer and was sent to reform school in Elmira. he whispered a threat into the judge's ear. he would drive around Brownsville and Ocean Hill. Abbandando was convicted of first degree murder and sentenced to death. Prior to his arrest. Abbandando's family immigrated from Avellino. With Buchalter's death." allowing the seizure of funds connected to. Albert "Lord High Executioner" Anastasia. Frank Jr. looking for young women to rape. however.S was believed to be used to hold real estate and other assets for Abadia. Buchalter called his group "The Combination". Inc. Abbandando reportedly helped Buchalter and gang member Abe Reles eliminate The Shapiro Gang. Facing a murder charge. In September 1931. a 5 million dollar bounty placed on Abadia for his arrest. S.8 billion by the US Department of State. At the beginning of the 1940s. 1910 – February 19.8 billion estimated fortune. A provisional arrest warrant has been issued and sent to the U. At his later murder trial. born on December 20. mostly in Brooklyn. Cali Colombia. based on information from Reles.C." Unlike the Five Families. six other members of Murder. that one doesn't count really—I married the girl later. Director of the U. 1995 in North Miami Beach. the New York crime families started using their own members and associates.C. Murder. his family name was inscribed as "Abbundando". by Brazilian Federal Police during a raid. Reles had ordered Rudnick's murder because he had received information that Rudnick was a police informant. Frank Abbandando was executed in the electric chair at Sing Sing Prison in Ossining. was one of the leaders of the North Valley Cartel (Norte del Valle Cartel).S. began using street gangs to commit their murders. known as the Five Families. In November 1994. he was a lieutenant for Harry "Happy" Maione. he has amassed a fortune estimated at $1.. were also convicted of murder and executed based on Reles' testimony. the families were better protected from public and law enforcement scrutiny. The United States Department of Statebelieves Abadia continued his operation and control over smuggling throughout his time in prison. On March 13. Murder Inc. a wealthy neighborhood of Barueri. one of the most powerful and most elusive drug traffickers in Colombia" by Adam J. On November 12. state of São Paulo. 2006. in an exclusive area called Aldeia da Serra. 1941. Having recently settled the vicious Castellammarese War and reorganized into a new structure. the Cosa Nostra crime families in New York. Ltda'.. In May 1940. Italy to New York. New York. At one point during the trial. Inc. Szubin. and a Colombian holdings company. 1935.. Abbandando was surpremely confident that his allies would succeed in fixing the verdict. 1963 in Palmira.S. and members of other ethnic groups. who was wanted on drug smuggling. the seizure of assets from two companies related to Abadia. As a teenager.. the families desperately wanted to keep themselves out of public attention. which required Sicilian or Southern Italian ancestry for membership. The residents of the houses were arrested and taken into custody. Abbandando replied. where he demonstrated skill at baseball and received the nickname "The Dasher". Texas and Los Angeles. again indicted in 2006 in Eastern District of New York. The verdict was overturned on appeal and Abbandando went on trial a second time in 1941. or stemming from his illegal activities. Abbandando was reputed to have killed thirty people. Disdrogas Ltda.000 to bribe Reles's guards to shove him out the window. to commit murders. and drug trafficking.S. the young Jewish leader of the "Gorilla Boys" gang.. making use of routes along the Pacific Coast. Disdrogas Ltda. Abbandando assisted in the murder of George Rudnick. During the 1920s and 30s. On August 7. Frank Abbandando (July .in 2004 in the Eastern District of New York and." Most of his victims would be stabbed in the chest with ice picks. a hairdresser from Ocean Hill. and extortion rackets for the gang as well as committing murders. Miami. including Buchalter and Maione. On his tombstone. Florida. was operated by Abadias' parents Omar Ramírez Ponce and Carmen Alicia Abadía Bastidas. soon faded away. nicknamed "The Dasher". until his capture. a loan shark in Brooklyn. The Cosa Nostra wanted Esposito dead because he testified for the prosecution in a mob murder trial 17 years earlier. No one was arrested for the crime. Colombian officials stepped up efforts to combat the drug cartels in a series of raids targeting their financial holdings. "Chupeta" was extradited to the United States on Friday. Inc. was killed in 1996 in South Beach. while under police protection. Murder. Buchalter's small informal network of killers turned into a group of 250 criminals who were involved in narcotics smuggling.A (Alias "Chupeta") (born February 16. the US State Department believes Abadia expanded his operation and began smuggling heroin into the US through ships. a made man. At some early point. "Well. On April 3. Throughout the trial. Abbandando organized gambling. also a mob associate." As a reaction to government informants in Murder. Inc. Inc. originally named Ramirez y Cia.S. but the press labeled it "Murder. 11. as well as. By using Jewish contract killers. hidden in buildings in the south-eastern portion of Cali. The now defunct Ramirez Abadia y Cia. and continued upon his early release in 2002. Italians. died of cancer on March 25. In a one week period Colombian officials discovered over $54 million in cash and gold ingots. where it is believed Abadia operated his drug trafficking empire. To his surprise. On February 19. on October 17. As the Cosa Nostra business increased. After Abbandando's conviction. In the early 1930s. Department of Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) declared Abadia a "Specially Designated Narcotics Trafficker. New York. Abbandando married Jennie DeLuca. 2007. where distribution cells controlled by Abadia then sell the product. loan sharking. Embassy in Bogotá. In August 2000 the U. The stash of money and gold was located in vacuum sealed plastic bags inside locked steel chambers covered in concrete which was tiled over. 1927 out of wedlock. 2008. Florida Abbandando had eleven Juan Carlos Ramírez Abadía. Abbandando and others killed mobster Felice Esposito in a contract killing. 1942. Abadia is believed to have entered into drug trafficking in 1986 under the Cali Cartel. Abbandando and several other gang members strangled Rudnick. it was rumored that the Cosa Nostra raised $100. He usually received about $500 for a murder. rivals from the Lower East Side of Manhattan who were trying to take over some of the men's rackets. was a New York contract killer who committed many murders as part of the infamous Murder. stabbed him 63 times. The gang leader that the mafiosi used the most was Louis "Lepke" Buchalter. He has been cited as ". Abadia was indicted in the District of Colorado. Californiat hrough Mexico. Abbandando joined a street gang in the Ocean Hill section of Brooklyn. In February 1939. Ramirez Abadia y Cia. Abadia surrendered in March 1996 to Colombian officials and was sentenced to 24 years in prison.. Abbandando extorted money from shop owners by threatening to torch their shops. Inc. In 1928. It is also believed Abadia began to associate himself with the Norte del Valle cartel upon his release from prison. Brazil. a mob associate. and other rackets. a pharmaceutical distribution company. Before long. The OFAC announced on August 29. It is believed Abadia surrendered due to a fear for his personal safety and to be eligible for a more lenient prison sentence. who were more easily controlled. As a young man. and Frank Abbandando Jr. August 22. Abbandando was indicted for the 1937 Rudnik murder.. Abbandando was one of twelve children of Lorenzo Abbondandolo and Rosaria Famighetti. Abbandando joined Murder Inc. 2008. 2007 Ramírez Abadía was arrested in São Paulo. 2004 brought forth a federal indictment on RICO charges. Between state indictments a federal jury in March. 1942). Lawrence.

Sabah was sentenced to prison for seven years. and the Colombo crime family. 2008. one of Abergil's main rivals. Florida. presumably by the Abergil organization which. Jennie. a nude bar in Dade County. had created a clear line of fire on Lautin. who was shot in the chest. The police believed the two hit men to be hired by the competing Alperon crime family.siblings: Filomena (December 10. Frank Jr. he told them. He is to serve the remaining eight and a half years time in Israel. Frank Jr. they turned for help to an upstart Latino street gang known as the Vineland Boyz.‖ They were charged with murder. The Abergils and their three associates have denied all charges. Brooklyn. 1921) and Angelina (the second) (1923 – May 2. The activities have been documented in hundreds of surveillance reports. On December 22. Frank Jr. Itzhak (Itzik) Abergil (Hebrew: ‫אברג'יל‬ )‫)יצחק (איציק‬. In Florida. which the Israelis provided. a mob associate. The assailants were apparently targeting Rami Amira.embezzlement. and sent the finger to the Colombo family in New York. Frank Jr. 2002. 1918 – March 31. Carmela (1917 – April 30. extortion. Rocco (December 22. who were later extorted to give up their businesses if they did not pay up. Brooklyn. Like his father. was indicted for racketeering with Thomas Agro and Joseph Armone.'s middle finger. although he was certainly capable of either one. enforcer. grew up knowing mobsters such as Harry Maione and Abe Reles. Allegedly he had tried to steal 76 kilograms of Ecstasy in 2002. the control of illegal casinos and other crimes. Sami Atias. Frank Abbandando. Jr. Meir Abergil returned to Israel after a California court had approved a plea agreement setting him free. 1981). who was sitting at a table nearby with Moti Hassin and Simantov Hatayeb. had come to Israel at the behest of a rival crime family embroiled in a vendetta with the Abergil crime syndicate. In May 2012. an Israeli drug dealer who had belonged to an ecstasy ring headed by Abergil and Moshe Malul. due to police negligence in collecting evidence. In August 2011. Napolitano's brother. the leadership passed on to his brother Itzhak. The charge sheet had claimed that the suspects had planned to kill Nissim Alperon. Carolina (1914 – September 16. and located around the world. In 2007. a small-time narcotics dealer. September 7. According to police. In 1985. In view of the Abergil brothers . police became convinced that Napolitano was dealing illegal steroids. attempting to run away from the shooters. their crime organization has continued to operate in Israel after their extradition.December 22. 1995). murder. Police believe the slain girls were innocent victims of a mistake by the attacker in identifying his true target. Rocco (the second. where he worked as a loan shark. who are all identified with the Abergil group. Napolitano wanted to use Frank Jr's La Cosa Nostra connections to become a mob associate. through the ―Jerusalem Ga ng′s‖ extortion of Ofer Maximov. The targets of the shooting. was responsible for special-operations. in part. Gabi Ben Harosh. were at the scene when Atias was shot. In the 1970s. After further investigation. but was allegedly seduced by Napolitano's charm and took him to her office in the police department. moved from New York City to Miami. 2011 Itzhak and Meir Abergil and three associates were extradited to the United States. which were recorded by police departments all over the world and are detailed in the indictment. To avenge this act of disrespect. After two years of house arrest.. Itzhak Abergil was sentenced by a Los Angeles federal court to 10 years in prison with credit for time served. placed it in a bottle of vinegar. They also suspected him in the murder of two drug traffickers who were arrested with Napolitano for dealing narcotics and then vanished. Florida. On October 5. the Miami-Dade Police Department had been keeping Napolitano under surveillance. photographs and phone calls. but were later apprehended by the police. a member of the infamous Murder. and Ben Adi to life in prison and required to pay Lautin's daughters NIS 350. and one of the world‘s top 40 biggest drug importers to the United States. 1920 – April 6. Frank Jr. are also charged with smuggling cocaine andhashish from Europe to the United States. Gabi Ben Harosh of the ―Jerusalem Gang‖ who was arrested in Los Angeles in 2004. and located around the world. valued at more than $5 million. were acquitted of a charge of grievous bodily harm by a Tel Aviv District Court. 1912). parts of his body washed ashore on Miami Beach. money laundering. the Gambino crime family. processing tens of millions of dollars of funds embezzled from the Israel Trade Bank. 2003. and operating an ecstasy-distribution network for millions of ecstasy pills. he signed a plea bargain for minor offenses. In June 2002 Yaakov Abergil. On November 2008. 1925). founded by Ya'akov Abergil. Considered one of the six major organized-crime cells in Israel. The US State Department considers the Abergils as one of the world‘s top 40 drug importers to the US. In December 2002. On January 12.'s murder. 60-year old Frank Abbandando Jr. 1912 – October 13. Unknown to Frank Jr. Itzhak Abergil had offered to help with the slaying during a meeting in Spain. husky man described as handsome by Joseph Iannuzzi. Frank Jr. was born in Ocean Hill. sent the Boyz looking for a new source of drugs. the Abergil crime family. On August 31.. fled the scene on a motorcycle. after pleading guilty to being part of a racketeering enterprise that distributed Ecstasy and whose members killed a man for stealing a large drug shipment. According to the indictment. described as the person in charge of finances. extortion of business people. drug trafficker. 1984). During an argument with the capo in New York. The Boyz' feud with the Mexican Mafia. Frank Jr's mother was the operator of a beauty salon in Williamsburg. He was killed on 2 February 2011 in Rishon Letzion. In a 77-page 32-count indictment filed on July 13. The organization ran 37 companies. Yaakov Alperon was killed in a car blast in Tel Aviv. Yoram Elal. was arrested on suspicion of conspiring to assassinate both Abergils. Frank Jr. connected to bringing in foreign currency without a permit. continued to operate while the two Abergil brothers were extradited and awaiting trial in the United States. and gambler. Inc. However.000 tablets of the drug. brother of crime boss Yaakov Alperon in retaliation for an attack on Itzhak Abergil said to be carried out by the Alperons five months earlier. the enraged capo ordered the removal of Frank Jr. The Abergil crime family (Hebrew: ‫ )משפחת הפשע אברג'יל‬is a crime organization based in Israel. partner of the Abergil brothers. The two suspected assassins. Amir Sanker and Eitan Gerella. did not belong to any of the five New York crime families. His brother was mob associate and "button man" Lawrence Abbandando. They were convicted in May 2010. also known as "Fingers" (October 17. Dressed in a black track suit and balaclava. On July 22. 2008 at federal court in Los Angeles. The two men immediately sparked a friendship. Inc. who was eventually executed in New York for murder. along with Moshe Malul and Israel Ozifa. the crime organization headed by Itzhak and Meir Abergil ran a flourishing money-laundering business in the US from 2002 to 2006. members of the Abergil mob. was killed while dining on the Bat Yam boardwalk with her husband and two young children. 1915). According to the LAPD. was arrested in Los Angeles. in an effort to resolve an internal dispute. Rocco exited the car and shot Abbandando several times. Frank Jr. In Florida. also worked for Bonanno crime family capo Gerald Francis Chilli and Gambino capo Andrew Ruggiero. was run over on Biscayne Boulevard in Miami by Rocco Napolitano. In 2005. Reles later testified against Frank Sr. Frank Jr. from Yehud. two girls were killed in Ramle by shots fired at a hall where Itzhak Abergil was celebrating. who has accumulated a number of powerful enemies and survived several assassination attempts. they did not think Frank Jr. Moshe Malul was the person behind the distribution of millions of ecstasy tablets in Southern California and Itzhak Abergil the person responsible for the ecstasy shipments from Belgium and Holland. the Abergil family is considered one of the most powerful crime families in Israel. In September 1995. the eldest of the brothers was murdered in front of his family. 1976). was a New York Gambino crime family associate who was the son of Murder. crime organization based in Israel. ["Francesco"]. 1995. According to the indictment. Belgium sentenced Itzhak Abergil along with eight other accomplices to a firm 5-year prison term for his involvement in large scale drug trafficking through the city of Antwerp′s port. The Abergils have been accused of number of murders and assassinations. Brooklyn to Frank Abbandando and his girlfriend/common law wife. according to police sources. killed Napolitano or ordered the hit. had tens of millions of shekels in assets in Israel. Ronen Ben-Adi and Shimon Sabah. two suspected associates of the Abergil crime family. who has fled to Brazil. was buried in Ocean Hill. and his brothers Meir Abergil (Hebrew: ‫ )מאיר אברג'יל‬and Avraham (Ibi) Abergil (Hebrew: ‫ )אייבי אברג'יל‬the leaders of Abergil crime family (Hebrew: ‫)משפחת הפשע אברג'יל‬. After his death. Meir Abergil. gestured at him with his middle finger. Aniello Napolitano was murdered. During the 1970s. later met Aniello Napolitano. ran the lending bank in the United States and updated Meir and Itzhak Abergil on its balance. believed to be from the Commonwealth of Independent States. Theresa (October 1. According to the Israeli Police. but he did not play a direct role in the killing.Its illicit activities include drug trafficking. Antonio (March 15. was shot at close range and killed in the parking lot of an Encino café as he was getting into his car. laundering millions of dollars obtained from embezzlement at Israel Trade Bank. that led to his sister Etti Alon′s embezzling 250 million shekel. known as "La Eme". ―because of its propensity for violence in Israel and around the world. Frank Jr. was a 5'5". In August 2008 31 year-old social worker Margarita Lautin (Hebrew: ‫)מרגריטה לאוטין‬. Moshe Malul and fugitive Vineland Boyz′ member Luis Sandoval. US federal prosecutors claim that when the Abergils wished to expand their mob syndicate in the US. confiscating over 400. Rocco was sentenced to life in prison for Frank Jr. instead being convicted of lesser crimes. 1924). 1907 – December 6. 1935 . hitman Frank Abbandando. Twins: Angelina and Arcangelo (August 1921 – October 18. a court in Antwerp. The money was given out as loans to Israeli businesspeople in the United States. 1915 – April 11. and was sentenced to community service and judicial supervision for three years. Colombo associates allegedly cut the finger off Abbandando's hand with a dull knife. In 2004. underworld kingpin Ze'ev Rosenstein. Frank Jr. for offending one of its capos (or captains) . In May 2008. Sasson Barashi of Jerusalem and Hai Vaknin of Los Angeles identified borrowers and businesses and also saw to the collection of the money. Avraham Abergil is currently incarcerated on a slew of drug and attempted murder charges. the Los Angeles Police busted a meeting of ecstasy dealers in the midst of a drug and money exchange. collected the money that was exacted and later laundered and invested it. owned 48 apartments and 56 cars. Undercover surveillance teams observed the two mobsters in clubs such as "Party Girls". Amira sustained a slight injury in his cheek as a result of the attack. The Abergils. 1970). "I'm the one that shot him" and that it was for revenge. According to Israeli police sources. Anna (June 25. A female police officer was assigned to go undercover as a stripper.frequently worked for the Lucchese crime family. 1910 – October 19. 1997).000 in compensation. all of whom had operations around Miami. When the police arrested Rocco. deriving that power. at its height in June 2004. the Colombo crime family punished Frank Jr. both in Israel and the US. the Abergils have been arrested and detainedmultiple times worldwide. Police learned that at least two contract killers. but another man had pulled the trigger. Shortly after the failed police investigation.

they were planning to take revenge on a Jerusalem resident. who was shot dead at point-blank range by a motorcyclist outside a Bat Yam steakhouse in October 2011. who was in ignorance of his patient's name. "Big" Mike Abrams (died 1898) was a New York criminal and a longtime figure in the underworld of New York's Chinatown. but refuses to testify against the Abergils. trapdoors. according to an article in the Oracle and Public Advertiser. only 22 years of age. The inquiry into the case had lasted for six years. which he had already served. five alleged members of the Abergil organization who were suspected of conspiring to commit a crime and possessing deadly weapons were arrested in Jerusalem. Hai Vaknin.S. Abershawe appears in The Romany Rye by George Borrow. A criminal for hire of the streets of New York's Chinatown. On January 12. who was shot to death while sitting in his car in Bat Yam.‘ which was noted for its dark closets. 2012 with credit for time served. arriving in Los Angeles on January 13. For his crimes he was brought to trial at the Surrey assizes in July of the same year. In May 2012. 2011 in the Los Angeles Federal District Court. it is said. after police had found a weapons cache inside a storage room in an apartment building in Jerusalem where one of the suspects's parents live. On one November night. which was immense‘. 2008 Itzhak and Meir Abergil along with Moshe Malul and Israel Ozifa were brought before a Jerusalem Magistrate′s Court judge for their alleged role in the killing of Israeli drug dealer Sami Atias in Encino in August 2003. In January 2011. On August 26. as a testimony to the eminence he had gained in his profession. Abershaw was hanged on Kennington Common. and his name was commonly used as a synonym for a daring thief in the early years of the nineteenth century. He received his sentence with extraordinary sangfroid. "Abershaw's humour seemed to be at its best when his personal fortunes were at their worst. On January 8. Meir Abergil dismissed claims that he and his brother were important criminals. productive member" of the organization. 32-count federal indictment that alleges murder." according to them. Israel Ozifa pleaded guilty to a charge of conspiracy to import Ecstasy pills from Belgium into the United States. saying: ―Who are we? We're peanuts compared to the mafias they have in America [.‘ and a doctor was sent for from Kingston. Local Highwaymen. Charged with blackmailing U. he is described as ‗a good-looking young man. including Internet cafes. He is to serve his time in Israel. businessmen to whom the brothers had lent money. He was also ordered to serve three years under supervised release after his release from federal prison. Meir Abergil was freed and returned to Israel after having served about three years in prison first in Israel and then in the United States. 1795. was a notorious highwayman who terrorised travellers along the road between Londonand Portsmouth in the late eighteenth century. and Itzik Geffen. The Three Brewers. but not the death penalty. In his plea agreement. he possessed a healthy sense of humour. trade in Ecstasy. In Israel. cockroaches. Asia and the Middle East. They were remanded in custody together with Sason Barashi as a result of a request by law enforcement in the United States for their extradition. to kill Sami Atias in retaliation for stealing Ecstasy that belonged to the Abergil organization. Abergil was facing the risk of getting a life sentence. including ceramic bulletproof vests with bullet holes in them. As a result. His lawyers called it "a good deal. putting on his own hat at the same moment as the judge assumed the black cap. On May 21. was arrested in the USA in 2006. While being driven to the gallows he ‗appeared entirely unconcerned. Europe. confessing to money laundering and receiving a 57-month jail sentence. The story was frequently repeated by the highwayman. 2011 Itzhak and Meir Abergil. Moshe Malul and Isra el Ozifa to the US. together with Sasson Barashy. the killings of Avi David. leading to a plea agreement approved by a California court in which Abergil confessed to extortion of over a million dollars from another mob figure. and sliding panels. Shortly after the extradition. while Ozifa's attorney said his client was "really the running dog" of the Abergil family and only followed orders. According to the police. According to his lawyer. entitled Hardened Villany Displayed." An extract from the history book.S. he hired members of the Vineland Boyz street gang based in North Hollywood. 1795). Itzhak Abergil called the allegations ―police provocation‖ during an earlier custody hearing. In early May 2012. 2012 with credit for time served. the main motive for the killings was the victim's intention to join a rival crime gang. The trial was set for November 8. reads. 2012 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison. as a revenge for his allegedly having stolen money from them. In March 2012. as US authorities have promised their Israeli counterparts that even if found guilty of murder. Moshe Malul pleaded guilty to a charge of racketeering conspiracy. called an ―Abergil henchman‖ by the Israeli daily Haaretz. at the time of his trial and eventual hanging a classic example of gallows humour. involving the FBI. most important. 2013 Sasson Barashy was found guilty of racketeering conspiracy and was sentenced to four and a half years in prison with credit for time served. were extradited to the US. a Jerusalem District Court approved the state‘s request to extradite the Abergils. In February 2013. The few days that intervened b etween his conviction and execution he spent in sketching with cherries on the walls of his cell scenes from his daring exploits on the road. The police suspects that the organization was planning a major attack. money laundering. Itzhak Abergil pleaded guilty in a Los Angeles federal court to being part of a racketeering enterprise that distributed Ecstasy and whose members killed Sami Atias for stealing a large drug shipment. and were ordered by Hassin partly to establish his position as the new leader of the crime family. who died in a hail of gunfire at a gas station in Holon two months later. known as the ‗Old House in West Street.‖ According to Israeli police sources. His description of loans and extortion practices was expected to help convict Itzhak and Meir Abergil. and ‗observing him with contemptuous looks‘ while pronouncing judgment. his body was afterwards set on a gallows on Putney Common[2] — the last hanged highwayman's body to be so displayed. Although a legal flaw in the indictment invalidated the case of murder against him. August 3. convenience stores. At the suspects‘ homes police discov ered signs of violence. The coolness with which Abershaw met his death prolonged his notoriety. trusted and. massive embezzlement. authorities reportedly were not able to built a case against Meir Abergil. Abershawe started his life of crime at the age of seventeen. took the reins of the organization after the Abergil brothers were extradited to the US. According to the suspects. Moshe Malul and Israel Ozifa. to travel back under the protection of one of his own men. they followed the advice of Itzhak Abergil to hide weapons in public buildings in order to deflect suspicion from the organization. which was for many years the terror of the roads between London. the Supreme Court rejected an appeal by the three associates of the Abergil brothers. On Monday. the five suspects would not be given the death penalty. Sasson Barashy. In early August 2008. Despite evidence. He was also ordered to serve three years under supervised release after his release from federal prison. who owed the organization money. he allegedly had played a relatively minor role in the crimes and is thought to have been involved mainly in the extortion of Asi Vaknin. admitting to conspiracy to commit murder and conspiracy to import the drug Ecstasy to the U. further stating that he had never been to the United States. he signed a plea bargain. they may face life imprisonment. he was convicted and sentenced to death on the second charge of felonious shooting. In an interview on Israeli Television. he was taken ill at the ‗Bald -faced Stag. extortion and violence against businessmen. alongside others such as "Galloping Dick" Ferguson. frequently laughing and nodding to others of his acquaintances whom he perceived in the crowd. In July 2009. Itzhak and Meir Abergil were arrested on suspicion of involvement in the murder of Margarita Lautin who had died after being mistakenly shot during a failed assassination attempt by members of the Abergil mob. According to the prosecution. Abershaw entreated the doctor. He was sentenced to eight years in federal prison on July 18. U. even should he meet with Abershaw himself. Hassin and three alleged accomplices were arrested on suspicion of being responsible for two gangland hits carried out in the Tel Aviv area. who was arrested in Mexico and brought to the United States in April 2011. According to the suspects.‘ Abershawe was sometimes known as 'The Laughing Highwayman' (ref: 'Weird Croydon'): "Although Abershaw was far removed from the romantic image of the lovable rogue.extradition to the US. Louis Jeremiah Abershawe (1773 – August 3. leaving eight and a half years for him to serve. Abergil′s involvement in the alleged activities was marginal. for instance. but in January 1795 he shot dead one of the constables sent to arrest him in Southwark. Mike Abrams was one of many employed by the Tongs and others for assault and murder for hire among other criminal . and Wimbledon. including the length of his detention in the US. which was published soon after his death. he and his wife were arrested for violating immigration laws. All efforts to bring Abershaw to justice for a time proved futile. When in hiding he frequented a house in Clerkenwell near Saffron Hill. The indictment includes four different crimes that are attributed to Yitzhak Abergil: involvement together with Malul in the murder of Atias in California in 2003. had a flower in his mouth … and he kept up an incessant conversation with the persons who rode beside t he cart. declaring that he feared no one. the police arrested three men suspected of taking part in the murder of Sharon Mizrachi. In August 2011. In December 2010. Under the terms of the extradition agreement. the Abergil crime organization has continued to operate in Israel after Itzhak Abergil and his brother Meir were arrested. they would likely serve their sentence in an Israeli prison. Kingston. tax authorities and law enforcement officials in more than ten countries in America. leading a gang based at the Bald Faced Stag Inn.. Born in Kingston-Upon-Thames then in Surrey.] Who are we? Nothing. If convicted. aboard an American government airplane. better known as Jerry Abershawe.S. but the gentleman refused. racketeering and running a large Los Angeles-based Ecstasy ring. and had often formed the asylum of Jonathan Wild and Jack Sheppard. Ozifa was an "important. and attempted to shoot another. In a pamphlet on his career. The Israeli Police reportedly believe that Moti Hassin. often incorporating his ironic wit into his robberies. He was also ordered to serve three years under supervised release after his release from prison. It is believed that American authorities tried to apply pressure to Ben Harosh to incriminate the Abergil brothers but failed. facing a 77-page. after several hours spent upon the road.. a reputed senior member of the Abergil group. a threatening letter was found under the car of the wife of the Prosecutor who was involved in the extradition. He was also ordered to serve three years under supervised release after his release from federal prison. he acknowledged that as part of the Abergil crime family.[2] He was eventually arrested in London at a public house. soccer lottery outlets and nightclubs functioning as casinos."' Anecdotes of Abershaw credit him with the rude generosity commonly ascribed to men of his vocation. and money laundering and fraud. and was ordered to serve three years under supervised release. He was sentenced to 15 years in prison on June 21. They were being held in the Metropolitan Detention Center in downtown Los Angeles. in Southwark. he faces criminal charges pending against him in the district court in Petah Tikva over allegations regarding his involvement in an Internet gambling business set up about 10 years ago which operated in many locations in Israel.

In 1994 the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) believed García Ábrego was making as much as $10 billion USD per year in profit. PGR). He is still . United States intelligence reports state Guerra reared his nephew on car theft before passing down his criminal enterprise. turning them from smugglers into suppliers. He has served in the Turkish Army. "Lou Metzer" is a caporegime in the New Jersey DeCavalcante crime family who was allegedly involved in security fraud and murder. In 1989. A further investigation found the door and windows of his room had been blocked off and a thin hose from a gas jet in the hall had been stuffed into the keyhole. In September 2008. During his trial. Upon García Ábrego's arrest a book detailing the scale of bribery was located. and securities fraud. In 1994. Abramo was indicted on charges of racketeering. was receiving $100.S. López Parra was the head of northern Mexico. He cannot be deported. 2018. 1945). Abramo was convicted of conspiracy to distribute heroin and sentenced to seven years in federal prison. By renegotiating deals with the Cali Cartel.S. police found the body of Abrams whose room had been filled with gas while he was asleep. as Antonio Ortiz noted. The renegotiating however brought a price. By the end of the 1980s and into the early 1990s it was estimated García Ábrego was smuggling over 300 metric tons per year across the US-Mexico border. Californiaand Arizona. to have the men taken care of. 2003. In 1989 Claude was removed from the case for unknown reasons. conspiracy to murder. shot twice in the back in the doorway of Guerra's Piedras Negras Restaurant. This change forced García Ábrego to begin stockpiling hundreds of tons of cocaine along Mexico's northern border in warehouses. The FBI identified him as a frequent visitor to Gotti prior to his imprisonment in 1992. it was believed the García Ábrego cartel would also ship large quantities of cash to be laundered. Chicago. In an article published in the Mexican daily El Financiero it was alleged García Ábrego had infiltrated 95% of the Attorney Generals Office. Abramo and other DeCavalcante family members allegedly murdered Frederick Weiss. Reports date his trafficking career beginning in the mid-1970s exporting marijuana from Mexico into the U. took in protection money from similar establish hments. was receiving $1. is a Turkish mobster of Assyrian/Syriac descent and founder of the Swedish crime syndicate Original Gangsters. since they were never stopped at the border. Although credited in the underworld for Abram's murder. In early 2008. From examining the contents it became known that the head of Federal Judicial Police (FJP) was receiving $1 million USD. retiring a year later. Acar fled to the tourist resort of Marmaris in Turkey because the Swedish police want him for an arson attack on a cafe in Gothenburg. Juan Antonio Ortiz. he frequently served as a liaison between the DeCavalcantes and the five crime families of New York. the Hip Sing Association never claimed responsibility (possibly fearing retribution from Abrams associates elsewhere in New York). Florida. Abramo is being held at the Metropolitan Detention Center (MDC) in Brooklyn. At some point. García Ábrego's ties however extended beyond the Mexican government and into the United States. a member of the Genovese crime family. The United States Department of Justice would confiscate over $53 million USD between 1989 to 1993 that was being laundered through two corrupt American Express employees as proof of such large scale operations. in 1985. Abramo was the hidden control person behind Sovereign. the cartel would have to guarantee any shipment from Colombia to its destination. López Parra. The exact date of succession is unknown. a federal appeals court reversed Abramo's racketeering conviction and ordered a new trial. Abramo allegedly participated in the killing of John D'Amato.000 USD. García Ábrego was also involved in providing protection to other cartels wishing to operate within corridors already claimed by his organization. who he was bribing. The murder was a favor to Gambino crime family boss John Gotti who feared that Weiss was cooperating with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) on a waste company investigation. As of May 2010. Carlos Reséndez setup a meeting between García Ábrego and Gernando "El Aguacate" Martínez. In addition to transporting cocaine for the Cali Cartel. Although feared by many Tong hatchetmen. force operations chief was receiving $500.-Mexico border now called the Gulf Cartel. in an attempt to gather information on U. possibly awaiting retrial. Abramo also allegedly committed murder. Despite the murder and decapitation of Hip Sing chief Ling Tchen. it was announced that he would hand over the formal leadership of the Original Gangsters in Sweden to the former Vice President.activities. Wojtek Walczak. Claude de la O has stated in testimony against García Ábrego that he received over $100. However. In 1993. Once the cocaine crossed the border into the United States it was believed to reach distribution networks across the country in cities such as San Antonio. Born in New York. loansharking. however law enforcement officials recall an incident on January 27. for two cases of assault with a deadly weapon. In addition to white collar crime. law enforcement operations. He was involved in a number of criminal activities as a youth and stood trial for the first time in 1991. instead of the $1. Oklahoma City. Abramo also controlled two penny stock firms. or full member. a man whom Gotti wanted to install as boss of the DeCavalcante family in 1990. of the family. García Ábrego permitted him to do so in exchange for $200k USD per airplane flying through the region. Juan García Ábrego is a former Mexican drug lord who started out his criminal career under the tutelage of his uncle Juan Nepomuceno Guerra. García Ábrego is widely known for innovating Mexican trafficking operations. Houston and New York City. In October 2000.[8] The book detailed the payments less as bribes and more as what García Ábrego would consider to be a tax on business. In addition to the INS bus scam. regarding permission for Martínez to move cocaine through Matamoros. His projected release date is January 21. however it allowed him to set up his own distribution network and expand his political influence. he founded the Original Gangsters and a year later. a recycling executive and former city editor of the Staten Island Advance newspapers. Abramo graduated from Pace University with a degree in accounting. in 1986. García Ábrego reached out to an FBI agent. Less than a month after Ling Tchen's murder. He also operated opium dens on Pell Street as well as on Coney Island and. Tamaulipas. however they were taken into custody. In 2007. In 1971. former officer in an elite Mexican police force turned national trafficker. states of Texas. Since then. In 1973. during his later years. Abramo was a capo of the DeCavalcante family's crew in Miami. however. also known as "The King Of Wall Street". Abrams was attacked by a drunken Hip Sing hatchetman Sassy Sam who chased the unarmed Abrams with a ceremonial sword down Pell Street. The buses made great transportation.000 USD and the federal police commander of the Gulf Cartels base of operations in Matamoros. Abramo made the following statement: "I have done many. as he is a Turkish national and has never been granted full citizenship by Sweden. Abramo was convicted of five murders. In the mid-1980s. despite his business activities. Claudio de la O. he had a violent and dangerous reputation among the residents of Chinatown particularly the decapitations of three men in front of dozens of witnesses on Pell Street. and moved to Bergsjön. many things in Philip Abramo (born my life that I am ashamed of. Abramo graduated from Cardinal Hayes High School in the Bronx. It was later revealed to García Ábrego that Martínez began moving planes through the region without paying the fee. Abramo allegedly controlled other small-cap stock dealers through brokers and traders owing allegiance to him.S.5 million per month in bribes. García Ábrego was able to secure 50% of every shipment out of Colombia as payment for delivery. Acar was born to Assyrian Syriac-speaking parents in the town of Midyat in Turkey in 1974. In the early 1980s he began incorporating cocaine into the cartel's trafficking operations. Abramo joined the DeCavalcante family and eventually became a made man. it became known the cartel would ship tons of cocaine in United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) buses between the years of 1986 to 1990. he was imprisoned in Denmark for armed robbery. García Ábrego's reach became known when he attempted to bribe a United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent named Claude de la O. andmicrocap stock fraud schemes. Louisianaand Florida. with smaller elements in Dallas. As Abramo's status rose in the DeCavalcante family. New Orleans. ever murdered another human being nor have I ever asked or ordered anyone to murder another human being.000 USD in bribes and had leaked information that could have endangered an FBI informant as well as Mexican journalists. who is reported to be the former head of a criminal dynasty along the U. Juan García Ábrego's web of corruption was believed to stretch to all aspects of the Ernesto Zedillo government. One of the few Cosa Nostra mobsters to attend college. exchanged harsh words with García Ábrego and was later found. Abrams lost a considerable amount of respect from the Tongs after the embarrassing incident and soon began plotting against him. 1987 when Tomás Morlet. Claudio de la O alluded to having the men killed. but I have never. Abramo was convicted of possessing stolen property. Abramo was indicted in New Jersey for allegedly swindling 300 people nationwide out of $1 million by selling them fraudulent lines of credit." On July 4. including those of D'Amato and Weiss. García Ábrego had a "special deal" with members of theTexas National Guard who would truck tons of cocaine and marijuana from South Texas to Houston for the cartel. a prominent microcap stock company and its sister trading firm. The following years Fortune Magazine estimated the García Ábrego empire to be worth $15 billion USD. a suburb of the Swedish city Gothenburg.500 USD per kilo they were previously receiving. It would later be revealed that a commander in the Procuraduria General de la Republica (the federal attorney-general's office. Denho Acar (born 1974 in Midyat) also known as Dano and Djingis Khan. In 1991. Falcon Trading. He became involved in extortion. and has also been charged with forgery by the Turkish government as he used a bogus Swedish passport to enter the country. as well as racketeering and loan sharking charges and sentenced to life in prison. Abramo is also the brother-in-law of Alan Longo. Toluca Pacific Securities and Greenway Capital. With the arrest of one of García Ábrego's traffickers. he's also been convicted of several other crimes.

Accardi sold counterfeit food ration cards. ironically. theInternal Revenue Service (IRS) issued a jeopardy tax assessment of $159. Paul "The Waiter" Ricca. May 8th). counterfeiting cigarette and liquor tax stamps and expanded narcoticssmuggling.S. Nitti committed suicide in 1943. However. he bought a ranch home on the 1400 block of North Ashland Avenue. the first for tax evasion. On July 10. These gangs served as talent pools (similar to the concept of farm teams) for the city's adult criminal organizations. For example. He controlled criminal operations in Northern New Jersey and was one of the largest heroin traffickers in the New York area during the 1950s. Under Accardo's leadership in the late 1940s. 2002. 1964. stepping away from the day-to-day running of the organization. The Outfit expanded rapidly. In June 1951. Accardi was born in Vita. He soon joined the Circus Cafe Gang. Accardo and Ricca were able to run the Outfit much longer than Capone. By using tactics such as these. claimed to have had a brief affair with Accardo in 1944 while her then-boyfriend. Accardi wasextradited back to New York. In fact. Thus. While serving a one-year sentence in federal prison. To reduce the Outfit's exposure to legal prosecution. He also converted the Outfit's brothel business into call girl services. In one scheme. Accardo moved The Outfit into new operations and territories. and Maria Tillota Accardo. in the Sicilian province of Trapani. he was fearful of serving a second prison term.363 against Accardi. 1906 – May 22. At age 14. Sicily.J. but was never charged for them. Accardi lived in Bloomfield. Joe Adonis and Abner Zwillman." Accardo in turn paid a tax to the family boss. when professional wrestlers Lou Albano and Tony Altomare. After 1957. Accardo then became boss of the Outfit. In the 1940s. Accardo had established a solid record making money for the organization. Accardo persuaded the men to drop the gimmick to avoid any mob-related publicity. 1953. It was during Prohibition that Accardo received the "Joe Batters" nickname from Capone himself due to his skill at hitting a couple of Outfit traitors with a baseball bat at a dinner Capone held just to kill the two men.S.the gang's overall leader. Gary. Italy. Unlike the majority of his colleagues. recruited Accardo into his crew in the Outfit. the son of Francesco Accardo. but the judge rejected this argument. Accardi was suspected of several gangland killings. Valentine's Day Massacre and none whatsoever with the Yale murder. and claims that he is now focussing on expanding the gang into Norway. Antonino Joseph Accardo (born Antonino Leonardo Accardo. U. after a long legal fight. In 1960. rose from small-time hoodlum to the position of day-to-day boss of the Chicago Outfit in 1947. Clarice Accardo died of natural causes on November 15. Ricca once said. became the boss in name as well as in fact and named Accardo as underboss. On November 28. such as labor racketeering and extortion. By this time. "The Big Tuna. Accardo became acting boss. he was sentenced to fifteen years of imprisonment and a $16. The Chicago newspapers eventually dubbed Accardo. Accardi served as the leader of theLucchese crime family Jersey Faction up until his deportation. Accardi later moved to Toronto. Jack "Machine Gun" McGurn. extortion. Accardi skipped bail and fled to Turin.000 bond. However. As with allcaporegimes. who remained in the background as a senior consultant. allegedly. citing her diminished mental capacity as a result of her illness.S. the Outfit moved into slot machines and vending machines. greatly increasing its power and wealth during his tenure as boss. 1977 Newark . run by Claude Maddox and Tony Capezio. just over a month prior to Larry's return to Chicago after VE Day (which was. until he started getting heat from the IRSabout his apparent high lifestyle. authorities finally located Accardi in Turin. at age 91. They later married and had four children. He emigrated to the U. attract attention instead. Over a period of three decades. it could mean a death sentence from The Outfit. Elaine Olsen (nee Wondra). most experts today believe Accardo had only peripheral connections with the St. Both Larry and Gary (whom Larry adopted as his own son in June of 1946) initially denied Elaine's claim. In 1926. a Polish-American chorus girl. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) had to finally admit that organized crime in America is real. in another scheme the narcotics were hidden in cans of anchovies. days before her death in 1998. because Nitti was claustrophobic. His permanent residence permit was revoked by the Swedish government in August 2008. such as when two men attempted to murder Capone while he was eating lunch. one of many street gangs in the poor neighborhoods of Chicago. who was drafted by the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League. New Jersey and was married to Teresa Mineo. Canada. In Kansasand Oklahoma. in River Forest. Settimo Accardi died. Capone gunmen murdered seven members of the rival North Side Gang. until his death. Accardi served as a gang enforcer both in New York and North Jersey. citizenship was revoked because he had not disclosed two previous arrests during his naturalization hearing. Accardi was receiving suitcases of heroin from Sicily. until Ricca's death in 1972. Born Antonino Leonardo Accardo (also known as Anthony Joseph Accardo) on Chicago's Near West Side. Ricca was barred from contact with mobsters. Accardo and Ricca emphasized keeping a low profile and let flashier figures.N. So. such as Sam Giancana. to ultimately become the final Outfit authority in 1972. In later years. Ricca and Accardo would run the Outfit either officially or as the powers behind the throne for the next 30 years. shortly before World War I." "Scarface Al"). In 1934. Accardo placed slot machines in gas stations." Also in the late 1950s. wrestling as a mafia-inspired tag team called "The Sicilians. money-making associate Giancana. 1963. In December 3. one of whom was Eric Kumerow. where he continuedsmuggling heroin into the US and Canada. 1992). and that that affair resulted in the birth of her only son. Accardi's lawyers argued that the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution gave him the right to withhold this information. Carmine. Capone was convicted of tax evasion and sent to prison for an 11-year sentence. the Accardos had emigrated to America from Castelvetrano. Settimo "Big Sam" Accardi (October 23. 1926. On July 21. Accardo met Clarice Pordzany. because of FBI Director J. Accardi was convicted on narcotics conspiracy and skipping bail. Accardo made sure that all the legal Las Vegas casinos used his slot machines." after a fishing expedition where Accardo caught a giant tuna. on the grounds that he no longer considered to be resident in the country. so Nitti let him establish his own crew. because of "heat" from the IRS. where he was supposedly working as a fruit merchant. Accardo received 5% of the crew's earnings as a so-called. On August 24th. Accardo turned over the official position as boss to long-time. Accardo had a strong marriage and was never publicly known to have been unfaithful to his wife. Italy." came to Chicago in 1961. Three years later. except for several counts of assault and battery. However. Edgar Hoover'sembarrassment over the local law enforcement's uncovering of the 1957 Apalachin Meeting. was serving in the U. New York gang boss Frankie Yale. however. and Joseph. and Frank "The Enforcer" Nitti became the new Outfit boss. Sicily – December 3. The couple had three children: Salvatore. If a crew member were to refuse to pay a street tax (or paid less than half of the amount owed). Accardo soon developed a variety of profitable rackets. and the distribution of untaxed alcohol and cigarettes. He was also named as the Outfit's head of enforcement. and installed a vault. . and soon became involved in gas-stamp black marketeering with Paul Castellano and Carlo Gambino. in the Province of Trapani. His arrest record included assault and battery and violation of federal narcotics laws. In practice. He later founded his own criminal organization with mobsters Joseph Sica. loansharking. it became evident that a number of Outfit bosses and members were going to have to face serious consequences for their parts in the extortion of the Hollywood movie industry's unions. a shoemaker. but he still retained considerable power and demanded ultimate respect and won it from his men. In 1955. Accardi's U. Accardo took advantage of the official ban on alcohol sales to introduce bootlegged alcohol. to oversee this operation. "street tax. The Outfit eventually dominated organized crime in most of the WesternUnited States. In 1932. During World War II. Army in Europe. Outside of Chicago. who had been the de facto boss since Capone's imprisonment. Accardi was able to avoid criminal charges. but eventually confirmed the story shortly after her death. Capone was quoted as saying. 1945. Valentine's Day Massacre in which. Accardi was arrested on a federal narcotics charge in Newark. Willie Moretti. So. an actress and cocktail waitress who occasionally worked as a stripper in Chicago during WWII.000 fine. "Boy. New Jersey. Accardi's legitimate business was real estate and construction. Accardo was expelled from school and startedlo itering around neighborhood pool halls. Accardo lived in River Forest. Accardi and 16 others were convicted of operating a 600 gallon-a-day alcohol still in Midtown Manhattan. the next day. 1977. However. Accardo boasted over federal wiretaps he participated in the infamous 1929 St. The Outfit took influence over gaming away from the five crime families of New York City. on October 11. on May 7.S. as a parole condition. also known as "Joe Batters" or"Big Tuna". After posting a $92. During Prohibition. 1902 in Vita. after serving his own 18-month sentence for tax evasion. restaurants and bars throughout the Outfit's territory. Accardo then became the Outfit'sconsigliere. Sicily. As the 1940s progressed. Illinois. For most of his married life. Accardo continued to gain power in the Outfit. again by Capone's orders to settle a dispute. "Accardo had more brains for breakfast than Capone had in a lifetime. Accardo's official job was that of a beer salesman for a Chicago brewery. Lawrence (Larry) Olsen. Accardo may have participated in the assassination of then Northside Chicago gang leader Hymie Weiss near the Holy Name Cathedral in Chicago. was a New Jersey mobster who served as capo in the Lucchese crime family's Jersey crew. Accardo phased out some traditional organized crime activities. one of the toughest hitmen of Outfit boss Alphonse Capone ("Big Al. When Ricca subsequently received a 10-year prison sentence for his part in the Hollywood scandal. The result of these changes was a golden era of profitability and influence for the Outfit. In Las Vegas. this kid's a real Joe Batters"' Accardo went on to save Capone's life multiple times. the FBI began to employ all types of surveillance against mobsters. he shared power with Ricca. Accardo also claimed that he was one of the gunmen who murdered Brooklyn. April 28. The Accardo crew would include such future Outfit heavyweights as Gus "Gussie" Alex and Joseph "Joey Doves" Aiuppa. One year prior to his birth. bookmaking. Germany and the Netherlands. including gambling. Accardo had two grandsons.

Delasco died in the late 1960s and Accetturo became a major earner under his successor. Taccetta was jealous of the rise of Accetturo's son. are divided as to whether this "hit" was sanctioned by the Outfit bosses or possibly by the U. The surviving assassins were all convicted in the famous. New Jersey. He was eventually arrested in Miami. In an interview with New York Times writer and Mafia historian Selwyn Raab. When the verdict was read. Abate went into semi-retirement. underboss Salvatore "Tom Mix" Santoro and consigliere Christopher "Christie Tick" Furnari was handed 100-year sentences in the 1986 Commission case. including all assassinations. During the RICO trial.C. in Hillside. because Accetturo was a ferocious street fighter. However. the entire New Jersey crew was summoned to meet with Amuso in Brooklyn. Accetturo described getting inducted into the family as "the greatest honor of my life" at the time. one of Amuso's compatriots. after spending most of his Outfit-exile years in Mexico and unceremoniously being booted from that country." He was simply told to burn a picture of a saint and swear not to betray the Lucchese family. Accetturo was indicted for loansharking and extortion. the Mafia was run by men who never put money above honor and only killed as a last resort. Anthony "Gaspipe" Casso. In June 1975. even if you didn't earn it. they paid him $100. They demanded that Accetturo turn over 50% of the crew's proceeds to them. In 1987. Accetturo provided investigators with a clear picture of the Lucchese family. who had participated in all of the subsequent murders. with Abate as his sponsor. Accetturo had been decreasing his tribute to the point that he was only giving the family $50.Giancana still had to obtain the sanction of Accardo and Ricca on major business. however. At age 16. burglars brazenly entered his River Forest home.000 to vote for acquittal. saying that "all he wanted to do is kill. Based in Hollywood. his sentenced was reduced to time served. which had subpoenaed Giancana just before he was murdered to testify on his knowledge of certain alleged government conspiracies. created a power vacuum in that family. Amuso and Casso were the ones who betrayed Cosa Nostra principles. Accetturo's decision to break his blood oath was a major coup for investigators. In 2002. Thomas Ricciardi went on to testify Anthony "Tumac" Accetturo (born . who was forever "tailing" his car throughout the greater-Chicago area. Anthony Accardo died of congestive heart failure at age 86. to run the day-to-day operations of the crew. history. Florida. within the New Jersey crew. One of the longest trials in U. Taccetta also felt that the father had given him very little respect and deference over the years that he had been watching the New Jersey operation. However. and Lucchese boss Anthony "Tony Ducks" Corallo put Accetturo in charge of the entire Lucchese operation in New Jersey. Accetturo was especially bitter about Casso. Illinois. netting about $500. Accetturo became Delasco's Protégé learning trades in illegal gambling and loansharking controlling the Newark area. the three suspected thieves were found strangled and with their throats cut.his mother a seamstress. He later found out that the top leadership of the family thought so highly of him that they felt they could dispense with the usual formalities. he had become Delasco's driver. everyone refused to go.. he said. Corallo was undemanding when it came to money. although he insisted he never personally participated in the slayings. When the trial ended in acquittals for the defendants. As he saw it. Although Accetturo had known that Amuso and Casso had put contracts on both him and his son. Anthony.000. the murder of Philadelphia crime family boss Angelo "The Gentle Don" Bruno. Ricca died in 1972. along with credit card and wire fraud.Joseph Abate. while cooking Italian sausages and escarole. Giancana was assassinated in the basement apartment of his home. Accardo's personal holdings included legal investments in commercial office buildings. "Family Secrets Trial.000 yearly. Accardo spent only one night in jail or avoided the inside of a cell entirely (depending on the source). Around 1966. Not only did it violate a long-standing Mafia rule against harming women. Accetturo provided unexpected information about the origins of the New Jersey family. In late 1986. Accetturo would continue to elude federal authorities while remaining involved in Lucchese interests in New Jersey. government. When the Luccheses got word that the nephew of an unidentified Jersey Crew capo was on the jury. In the early 1970s. Taccetta and several other Jersey Crew members went on trial for narcotics and racketeering charges. Accetturo used this unrest to establish a small foothold for the Lucchese family in Philadelphia. for refusing to testify in front a state panel.S. His father was a butcher. Accardo and Ricca replaced Giancana with street-crew boss Joseph "Joey Doves" Aiuppa. Accetturo was sentenced to a maximum of 20 years in prison in December 1994. In 1970. Accardo spent his last years in Barrington Hills. Abate and the family leadership. Accetturo would finally become the official boss of the Jersey Crew by 1979 when Abate retired. When Accetturo refused. California. Accetturo said he would have never even considered turning informer had Corallo still been running the family. furious that his home had been violated. This made his promotion even more remarkable. Accardo is portrayed by Maury Chaykin.S. trustworthy and a good earner. the relationship between Accetturo and Taccetta deteriorated into an outright power struggle. Corallo realized that he would almost certainly die in prison. In the late 1970s. Accetturo was granted a stay of sentence and was allowed to live in his Florida residence. In 1976. also a member of the Jersey crew. During his absence. He was later charged with intimidating of competitors of the Lucchese-controlled Taccetta Group Enterprises. kill. In September 1989. As the years went by. since Corallo chose him over several made men who had previously been his superiors. Over the next 12 months. Acceturo thus went into the courtroom knowing he was assured of at least a hung jury. however. Facing a number of federal prosecutions. New Jersey and became the leader of a large street gang. Accetturo returned to Florida for his own safety. Jr. car dealerships. Although Corallo and Accetturo had an "unbelievably great" relationship. with rivals Philip Testa and Nicodemo Scarfo fighting for control. retail centers. Some conspiracy theorists. He also learned that Amuso and Casso had marked his wife for death. He recalled that his ceremony was somewhat less elaborate than was normally the case for someone who was due to become "a friend of ours. Shortly afterward. Taccetta ordered a murder contract on the senior Accetturo. 1985 Accetturo was indicted on charges of threatening government witnesses and posing a threat to public safety. Accetturo represented the Mafia ideal: loyal. New Jersey authorities extradited Accetturo from North Carolina due to his refusal to appear and testify before a grand jury about labor racketeering and other state offenses. Amuso told the returned crew members that Accetturo was an outlaw and needed to be disposed of. Florida with his bail set at $10. and he retired to the South. Prosecutors at the time believed Accardo. However. after spending a year in jail on federal Contempt of Court charges. In 1993. The membership books of the Mafia had been closed since 1957. restaurants and travel agencies. Amuso sent hitmen to Florida. in Oak Park. most of the New Jersey crew members came back to the family. Despite an arrest record dating back to 1922. In the 1995 television movie Sugartime about Giancana and McGuire. leaving Accardo as the ultimate authority in the outfit. frequenting posh nightclubs and dating high-profile singer Phyllis McGuire. get what you can. In 1978. decimating the Lucchese interests in New Jersey. Accetturo finally became a made man in the Lucchese crime family along with the Taccetta brothers (Michael and Martin). Acceturo had served many of them meals in headier days. the entire Lucchese hierarchy--Corallo. Accardo was buried in Queen of Heaven Mausoleum. Illinois. In the fall of 1988. this working relationship eventually broke down. Accetturo was born in 1938 in Orange. Giancana also refused to distribute some of the lavish profits from Outfit casinos in Iran and Central America to the rank-and-file members. but Mrs. in December 2002. Unlike Accardo. however he fended off the order due to poor health. the defendants were pronounced not guilty on all counts. Anthony Accetturo Jr. Before the end of the trial. paper factories. 1938) is a former caporegime and leader of the New Jersey faction of the Lucchese crime family. New Jersey. Accetturo provided information on 13 murders. In those days. a stunning rebuke to the government. usingMichael Taccetta and his brother Martin. By the early 1960s. including its penetration and exploitation of businesses in New Jersey and its relationship with corrupt officials. Nonetheless. On May 22. As the highest-ranking New Jersey mobster at the time to turn informer and a three-decade veteran of the Mafia. going back to 1931 and Lucky Luciano. Accetturo decided to turn informer in hopes of saving his life and gaining a lenient sentence. By this time. In February 1973. In 1980. the widowed Giancana lived an ostentatious lifestyle. At age 17. Accetturo was placed in protective custody. During the last years of the Corallo regime. Accetturo. became underboss. had ordered the killings. Illinois living with his daughter and son-in-law.000 a year. Accetturo was recruited by Anthony "Ham" Delasco. Due to Taccetta's murder contract. reputed mob enforcer. in the eyes of Corallo. the trial went on for 21 months. Accetturo was convicted on racketeering charges. He received his nickname "Tumac" from the caveman hero of the 1940 adventure film One Million B. In 1993. Fearful of being massacred. Michael "Mad Dog" Taccetta of Florham Park. In 1976. and engineered a peaceful transition of power that saw Vittorio "Vic" Amuso become the new boss. Corallo had lowered his demands from the New Jersey Crew. lumber farms. Accetturo moved to Florida to avoid an investigation of his gambling operations in Newark. As it turned out. 1992. On October 18." Upon learning that he and his wife were targeted to be killed. newspaper companies. Soon the entire New Jersey crew had gone into hiding. searching for Accetturo and his son. hotels. the trial had been compromised by jury tampering--a common problem for Mafia trials. the boss of the Jersey Crew. what Amuso did not realize was that Accetturo was in jail in New Jersey. Another reason for his move was that South Florida was open to all the crime families for exploitation. so Accetturo wasn't an official member yet. He faced a sentence of at least 30 years in prison--tantamount to a life sentence at his age. Many in The Outfit also felt that Giancana was attracting too much attention from the FBI. Finally. Taccetta was sent to federal prison. As a result of his cooperation. trucking companies. Accardo bought a home in Palm Springs. this theory was confirmed on the witness stand by Outfit turncoat Nicholas Calabrese. Accetturo dropped out of school after completing the sixth grade. flying to Chicago to preside over Outfit "sit-downs" and mediate disputes. Mysteries about the relationship between the American and Sicilian Mafia were also clarified. He soon grew rich in the family. The ascension of Amuso and Casso ended Accetturo's idyllic lifestyle. the discovery that they were targeting his wife as well was the last straw. the two bosses stripped Accetturo of his rank as capo and threatened to kill him and his son. the State of New Jersey tried to extradite Accetturo from Florida. Accetturo moved to Newark. while Accardo vacationed in California. Blaming Amuso and Casso or the turmoil in the family. as well as a major player in his own right in the New Jersey underworld." and sentenced to long prison terms. Within a month.The Jersey Crew. Accetturo designated his lieutenant.

"James Arosa". MI5. Masseria took over Yale's criminal organization. who believed they were responsible for bombing Mickey Cohen's home or knew who was.against the Taccetta brothers and the remaining defendants. Doto Jr. He was also required to pay £800. and two men named Frank Paul Dragna (his son and nephew. extortion. In May. 2007.000 in his home. During their meal. Media reports have linked the Adams family to around 25 murders and credited them with wealth of up to £200 million. the salesmen would intimidate them into buying "protection insurance" for the . By 1930. He lived in Chicago and Kansas City before moving to Los Angeles in the 1930s and soon became Underboss to Jack Dragna in the Los Angeles crime family. As soon as Luciano was gone. The Inland Revenue was suspicious enough to ask Adams to explain how he had amassed his personal fortune including his £2 million house and his collection of valuable antiques. "For looks. Adonis had joined the Masseria faction. No one was ever indicted in the Masseria murder. On May 18. The reason for the killing isn't confirmed.000. conspiracy and murder in 1993. also known as "Joey A". Adonis and Luciano soon controlled bootlegging in Broadway and Midtown Manhattan. During the 1920s. Italy. Dolores Maria Olmo. 2010. When Jack Dragna died in 1956. He demoted Adamo and Adamo moved to San Diego shortly after. and Elizabeth Doto. wine. Andrew Mitchell QC summed up the prosecution's case in saying. several gunmen attacked and killed Maranzano in his Manhattan office. The five of them were taken into custody by the Los Angeles Police Department. Adamo's actions were out of shame from DeSimone raping Adamo's wife while being forced to watch. Adamo's wife was having an affair during their marriage and an alternative theory given is that Adamo committed these actions after finding out about it. For his part in murdering Masseria. They were all released without being charged when the police couldn't find evidence of their involvement (Tom built the bomb. this operation grossed $12 million in one year and employed 100 workers. Adonis was a cousin of Luciano crime family capo Alan Bono. but was recalled to prison in August 2011 for breaching his licence. but according to an unidentified police informant. Terry admitted a single specimen money-laundering offence on February 7. Adonis allegedly participated in Masseria's murder. and "Joe DiMeo". the war ended and Maranzano was the victor. He was released from prison on June 24. A hallmark of his career was the ability to keep his evidential distance from any of the violence and other crime from which he undoubtedly profited. for example. Doto started calling himself "Joe Adonis" (Adonis was the Greek god of beauty and desire). but otherwise none of them were involved). In 1950. On April 15.000 in prosecution costs.8 million in legal fees to three law firms who had initially represented him under the UK's free legal aid scheme. 2007. Luciano became an enforcer for Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria. His brother Joseph Adamo was also a member of the crime family. At the beginning of Prohibition. On one occasion. Terry was arrested in April 2003 detectives found art and antiques valued at £500. Another story says that Adonis adopted the name after reading a magazine article on Greek mythology. on May 21. who ran an organization loosely based on clans fromNaples and Southern Italy. 1902 – November 26. On 9 March (year?) at a hearing at the Old Bailey. his wife ended up surviving. However. Maranzano represented the Sicilian clans. 2009 media reports suggested that his £1. working with such mobsters asFrank Bompensiero. who supervised Adonis' operations in Greenwich Village. Luciano became the pre-eminent organized crime boss in New York City. To avoid any future wars.000 in cash and jewellery worth more than £40. In 1909. £59. Transcripts of the surveillance and investigations into several front companies Adams set up proved he was lying. Adonis was born Giuseppe Antonio Doto in the small town of Montemarano. "Joe Adone". On September 10. directed from an anonymous Hertfordshire address inside a secret bunker sitting somewhere on the busy Hoddesdon commuter belt into London. Extremely vain. the Los Angeles crime family cast a vote to see who would become the next Boss.is described as an Irish Catholic man of a refined and cultured manner who collects antiques. he approached Adonis about killing Luciano. When Masseria heard about Luciano's betrayal. he was released on June 24. the boss of some rackets in Brooklyn. Adonis. When Luciano discovered that the suspicious Maranzano had ordered his murder. When customers bought cars from his dealerships. Both he and his brother were well connected criminals in San Diego. Joe Adonis (born Giuseppe Antonio Doto. (movie star) Rudolph Valentino?" Adonis replied. Luciano. Momo was hoping that as a long time leader he would be elected. Adonis instead warned Luciano about the murder plot. most of which came from Castellammare del Golfo in Sicily. While working for Yale. Luciano struck first. 1931." The former Scottish gangster Paul Ferris asserted that none of the brothers isprimus inter pares (first among equals or in sole charge). that guy's a bum!" Adonis and his wife Joan had four children. Adonis supported himself by stealing and picking pockets. Instead. Adonis developed a loyalty to Luciano that would last for decades. After the 1928 assassination of Yale. 1954) is leader of Clerkenwell crime syndicate. (born October 18. as he was doing his sentence in Atlanta. The 2006 Sidney Lumet film Find Me Guilty chronicles the 2-year trial of Accetturo and other family members. Manhattan. It is believed he has been recalled to prison for breach of parole. Adonis became friends with future mob boss Charles "Lucky" Luciano and mobster Settimo Accardi. Adonis also bought car dealerships in New Jersey. unlike Maranzano. Adonis briefly met future Chicago Outfit boss Al Capone. Adamo attempted a murder–suicideby shooting his wife in the head before shooting himself. "Who do you think you are. in a unique inter-departmental collaboration the first of its kind after the Cold War ended. near Naples to Michele and Maria Doto. "It is suggested that Terry Adams Girolomo "Momo" Adamo was Terence George Adams was one of the country‘s most feared and revered organized criminals. Luciano had lured Masseria to a meeting at a Coney Island. Luciano excused himself to go to the restroom.Martin and Michael Taccetta were sentenced to 25-years to life imprisonment for racketeering. Also. In the early 1920s. Police and MI5 set up a secret squad to dismantle the Adams organisation. 2010. and was jailed for seven years. and cars (including custom-builtCadillacs and Bentleys). dark hair in front of a mirror and asked him. Salvatore Maranzano. Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel started a bootlegging operation in Brooklyn. Terry Adams's downfall came with the assistance of MI5 and the Inland Revenue. "Joe Arosa". Lucky Luciano saw Adonis combing his thick. including jeweller and public relations executive. as one of a family whose name had a currency all of its own in the underworld. loansharking. He then changed his name to Joe Adonis. One story states that Adonis received this nickname from a Ziegfeld Follies chorus girl who was dating him. who were involved in illegal gambling. As the war progressed. Adonis received a seat on the Syndicate "board of directors". was allegedly caught on tape. Vito Genovese. This operation soon began supplying large amounts of alcohol to the show business community along Broadway in Manhattan. Adams invented a range of unlikely occupations. Albert Anastasia. Anna Arrieta. 1971). It is uncertain as to what inspired his nickname. Taccetta reportedly went on to control the Jersey Crew. recovered and later married Frank Bompensiero. Louis Dragna (nephew). Some of the recordings made over a period of 18 months suggested that Adams had retired from front line involvement in crime in 1990. respectively) after Jack fled the state after being named in the California Crime Commission report as a member of a crime syndicate in Los Angeles. In August 2011 he appeared before City of London Magistrates court charged with 8 breaches of his Financial Reporting Order imposed upon him in 2007. played a leading part in the electronic war against organised crime—and turned its sights on Adams's international criminal cartel.. Meanwhile. narcotics. As a young man. Joseph A. Masseria soon became embroiled in the vicious Castellammarese War with his arch rival. lawyer-turned-mobster Frank DeSimone was elected in what is believed to be a rigged election. he was ordered to file reports of his income for the next ten years. His wife Marie. Adonis. Maranzano reorganized all the Italian-American gangs into families and anointed himself as the "boss of all bosses". With the death of Masseria. At its height. Adonis became an enforcer for Frankie Yale. As the war turned against Masseria. In the same year. Open case files remain untried on Operation Trinity records and rumour still exists that several further prosecution may eventually come to trial. November 22. However. both bosses started recruiting more soldiers. The Evening Standard reported in 2000 that he then lived in a ―Finchley mansion‖. He comes with a pedigree. in 1998. 2007 he was ordered to pay £4. English criminal organisation. Police sources believe Adams knew he was being monitored and had "stage managed" many conversation for the benefit of his defence. While working on the streets. Adonis and his family entered the United States at New York City. who was also working for Yale.6 million house was for sale as a result of the fees and costs arising from his 2007 conviction. Luciano did not want to become the "boss of all bosses". which would affect his legitimate business. Brooklyn restaurant. also known as the Adams Family or the A-team. However. was a New York mobster who was an important participant in the formation of the modernCosa Nostra crime families. Doto soon assumed the role of a gentleman bootlegger. However. Momo was arrested along with several members of Jack Dragna's family including Tom Dragna (brother). Adonis spent a great deal of time in personal grooming. Luciano secretly contacted Maranzano about switching sides. an Italian mobster in the American Mafia. Luciano and his loyalists quickly became dissatisfied with Maranzano's power grab. telling his adviser Solly Nahome that he did not want to be involved with a particular illegal deal. socializing with the theater elite. he established a National Crime Syndicate that united all the Italian-American gangs across the country and allowed for shared decision-making. and Bugsy Siegel rushed into the dining room and shot Masseria to death. With Maranzano's death. He. 1931. allegedly one of the most powerful in the United Kingdom.

Underboss Vito Genovese remained in charge of the family until he fled to Italy in 1937 to avoid a murder prosecution.S. Adonis soon moved into cigarette distribution. the 1991 film Bugsy by Lewis Van Bergen and in the 1999 television movie Lansky both by Casey McFadden and Sal Landi. in charge of the Luciano family and Adonis in charge of the Syndicate. He was the boss of Mazara del Vallo Mafia family since the 1970s when he replaced the old boss Mariano Licari. Adonis became partners with Meyer Lansky in an illegal casino in Hallandale Beach. In Pakistan he was given a seven-year sentence for the same charge. He contested the election as a free candidate from Khyber Agency. 1946. However. history and literature to a level that guaranteed him entry to university. including those of judge Giacomo Ciaccio Montalto and the mayor of Castelvetrano. He served three years of his sentence before being shipped to Pakistan on August 25. Trimboli and Barbaro clans from Platì in particular). Agate was arrested in 1982 for heroin trafficking. "So Long. He has also been approached by United States as a part of their efforts to exert control over Afghanistan. On August 9. bringing a huge floral wreath with the words. 1939 . Adonis has been featured in the television documentary series American Justice.S. 2006 the Supreme Court allowed the Anti Narcotics Force to confiscate a 100-room ‗palace‘ and other properties worth Rs 167. buying up vending machines by the hundreds and stocking them with stolen cigarettes. New Jersey. on February 24. In late May. 1959) is an Sicilian mafioso from the Guadagna neighbourhood in Palermo. Adonis moved his gambling rackets to New Jersey. The U. Afridi was elected as a Member of National Assembly. Adonis was also a major criminal power in Brooklyn. He also became a member of the Sicilian Mafia Commission. On February 10. Being a loyal supporter. the U. and mob associates such as Meyer Lansky and Louis "Lepke" Buchalter. April 3. In 2005 Afridi was accused of international drug trafficking and ordered to appear before the Pakistani Supreme Court on November 17. In 1931. Aglieri was a loyal supporter of the Corleonesi clan of Totò Riina and Bernardo Provenzano during the Second Mafia War. Adonis and several associates pleaded no contest to charges of operating three gambling rooms in Lodi. Afridi grew up in the Landi Kotal. In December 1995. 1950. He had a classical education and studied Greek. Government allowed Adonis' family to bring his body back to the United States for burial. The authorities banned a public funeral to guarantee public order and security. but there is no proof of it. He became the boss of the Santa Maria di Gesù Mafia family after Giovanni Bontade – the . where he died several days later on November 26. Adonis fought deportation. He is called the founder of theAfghan heroin trade. Salemi and Vita. No reasons were given for Afridi's release. known as Ayub Afridi Kalay (Ayub Afridi village). Adonis is portrayed in the 1984 film Gangster Wars by James Percell. He is buried in the Ayub Afridi Kalay. In 1936. the Italian Government forced Adonis to leave his Milan residence and move to Serra de' Conti. 1947. Most of his property at various posh areas in Pakistan was confiscated by the Government of Pakistan.S. Although Adonis escaped contempt charges. 1940. a throwback to his early criminal career on the streets. Palermo. Inc. New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia's campaign against illegal gambling had made it too difficult to do business in New York. Agate was a member of "Iside". 2005 in an appeal challenging an order of the special appellate court against the forfeiture of his assets. As is the custom in the area with the Maliks of the area. He only served a few weeks of his sentence.S. 2013. New Jersey. Agate was arrested again in 1992. In 1985 he was sentenced to life for several murders. Adonis allegedly participated in the kidnapping and brutal beating in Brooklyn of Isidore Juffe and Issac Wapinksy. Senate Kefauver Commission on organized crime. including the Mafia families of Marsala. the Americans were able to trick Afridi into leaving his sanctuary in Afghanistan and coming to Pakistan by promising him right of passage. After the September 11 attacks he was seen as an ally to the US attacks against the Taliban. such as Luciano and Genovese. Pakistan.Belgium. Adonis was released from prison in New Jersey. Haji Ayub Afridi or Ayub Afridi is a Pakistani drug lord turned politician presently living in Pakistan. Italy for interrogation. extortion. Agate died at home on April 3. Khyber Agency. In close collaboration with the CIA. supported by his son Epifanio Agate and Salvatore Miceli. On April 27. the principal city located in Khyber Pass. in Landi Kotal in Khyber Agency. In 1932. In late November. As soon as he touched down in Pakistan. prosecutors convicted Luciano on pandering charges and sent him to state prison for 30 years. in 2004 he was accused of running an international cocaine trafficking ring with several 'Ndrangheta clans (the Marando. Adonis voluntarily left New York City on an ocean liner for Naples. In December 1946. at a hearing in Adonis' prison. Adonis' funeral service was held at Epiphany Roman Catholic Church in Fort Lee.[2] On January 3. to two to three years in state prison. along with Buchalter. On August 6. 1953. He had been granted house arrest for serious health reasons. 1953. Luciano was deported to Italy. By 1932. the prosecutor requested a dismissal due to lack of evidence. Pietro Aglieri (born. Adonis released Juffe and Wapinsky after receiving a $5. attended only by his immediate family. Over time. New Jersey. Adonis set up a casino in Lodi. importing hashish into Belgium. Despite being jailed. members of his clan worked together with the 'Ndrangheta clan headed by Giuseppe Morabito from Africo to import hashish from Morocco and cocaine from Latin America. a restaurant he owned in Brooklyn. Mariano Agate (Mazara del Vallo. In the 1980s he forged close ties with Pakistan's military led by general Zia ul-Haq. In the 1990s. He gained Riina's favour by killing relatives of a rival Mafia bosses. However. he was able to supplement huge amounts of money for the Mujahideen in Afghanistan through his growing of poppies to supply the heroin trade. one of the most powerful local Masonic lodges. 1951. 2013) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia. He is known as U Signurinu ("The Little Gentleman") for his relatively sophisticated education and refined manners. Adonis may have met with Luciano in Naples. An agreement was reached where he would face another trial in Pakistan.Mazara del Vallo. He has been sentenced for life for the murders of the Antimafia judges Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. Despite his wealth. Latin. Once in Italy. Luciano died of a heart attack in Naples at age 64. Adonis and Luciano met at the famousHavana Conference of U. Adonis repeatedly refused to testify. the head of Murder. and assault in the 1932 Juffe/Wapinsky case. Adonis used his political influence to assist members of the Luciano crime family. in mid-eighties he built a well-fortified residence. He was buried in Madonna Cemetery in Fort Lee. prison and paying a 50. after being escorted from prison to a ship in Brooklyn harbor. He also was the boss of the mandamento of Mazara. 1941. Afridi was sentenced by the Pakistani AntiNarcotics Force (ANF) Court in a drug smuggling case and was declared absconder when he failed to appear before the court. The government claimed that Adonis was an illegal alien. 1956. During the lengthy questioning. Adonis suffered a heart attack. 1971. During this same period. Adonis willingly agreed to turn over his power in the syndicate to Luciano. 1971. Adonis still participated in jewelry robberies. Instead he chose for a career in Cosa Nostra. organized crime bosses in Cuba. in the 1980s. On December 12.5 tons of hashish.vehicle. Adonis attended the funeral service in Naples. In June 1971.S. a fugitive in Colombia. In the 1980s Agate supported the Corleonesi faction during the Second Mafia War and became the most important ally of Totò Riina in the province of Trapani.000 ransom payment. philosophy. Adonis. The British journal The Guardian listed him as the emerging man of the year 1995 in Italy. citing his right against self-incrimination under the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. A month later. Italian police forces transported Adonis to a small hillside shack near Ancona. Department of Justice ordered Adonis' deportation to Italy. New Jersey. in 1990. Adonis had lent the two men money for investment. Although incarcerated under the strict 41-bis prison regime he instructed his son on how to run the business. Landi Kotal. As a syndicate board member.S. 1962. using Cuba as a base. Adonis was sentenced in Hackensack. Luciano now left Frank Costello. Adonis was summoned before the U. may have been responsible for assigning some murder contracts to Murder Inc. On January 26. Agate was ill for some time with cancer. 1951. Adonis moved into a luxurious villa outside Milan. Adonis ran his criminal empire from Joe's Italian Kitchen. Adonis was one of 115 suspected mobsters relocated to Serra de' Conti after the assassination in May of the public prosecutor of Palermo. On May 28. New Jersey and Fort Lee. the U. after his release the year before. Luciano was placed on a ship by Cuban authorities for deportation back to Italy. government soon discovered Luciano's presence in Havana and pressured the Cuban government to expel him. He had also been fined 5 million rupees (US$82. claimed that he was a native-born American citizen. Wapinsky died of internal injuries from being assaulted. Two days after the kidnappings. June 6. Adonis was rushed to a regional hospital in Ancona. Adonis also moved his family to a luxurious house in Fort Lee. then kidnapped them in 1932 after deciding he should be receiving a higher profit. Adonis was indicted in Brooklyn on charges of kidnapping. an Adonis ally. He belonged to the Afridi tribe of Zakha Khail. New Jersey and provided limousine service there from New York City.8 million. he suffered undesirable national exposure as a mobster.000). Afridi used the same channels to move Afghan opium to secret laboratories in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Ayub Afridi died in November 2009 in his 70s. On February 24.000-dollar fine. His wife and children stayed behind in New Jersey. It was Luciano's goal at the conference to regain his mob influence. a small town near the Adriatic Sea. Sicily. Adonis placed many politicians and high-ranking police officers on his payroll. 1999 after serving a three and a half-year sentence in a U. Italy. He started life as a truck driver but quickly used his transportation connections to make a small fortune smuggling gold. During the 1940s. Pal". May 19. Vito Lipari. he was arrested in connection with importing hashish into Belgium. seized at Antwerp. On March 30. Using his smuggling network to move weapons supplied by the CIA to the mujahidin rebels fighting inside Afghanistan. the financially struggling Luciano grew angry at the wealthy Adonis for not helping him. or under which legislation he was allowed to return to his home town in Khyber Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Afridi was a key player in the Soviet war in Afgha nistan. After the September 11 attacks he was freed from prison in Karachi after serving just a few weeks of a seven-year sentence for the export of 6. Florida.

Standing 5'5. Puerto Rico. After his arrest. allegedly by paying 1 million dollars to unnamed high-ranking military personnel. Agnello and his second family live in Ohio. Agnello promised a cooperating witness $2000 to "buy glass bottles (and) fill them up (with gasoline) and throw them all around the truck" of a competitor. 1960. according to the DEA. A priest. Pierluigi Vigna and the Chief Prosecutor of Palermo. Aglieri was arrested in a disused lemon warehouse in the dilapidated industrial area of Bagheria together with his lieutenants. beat him with a baseball bat. Carmine Agnello. Nitto Santapaola. carrying a knife. Puerto Rico for 10 months. The family lived in a mansion in Westbury.S. Aglieri started to support Provenzano‘s new less violent mafia strategy. Agro would approach his victims quite slowly. Nevertheless. Although active since the early 1980s. Agro was known to carry a pair of sharpened scissors on him at all times. into the United States. of the Gambino family. Before the divorce. He is now in a federal cell awaiting trial in Brooklyn NY. as he tried to escape from officers conducting surveillance. According to the FBI. The officer was ticketing cars parked outside of Agnello's scrapyard. coexistence with state institutions. They were definitively frustrated when the centre-left government of Massimo D'Alema resigned on April 25. and "Thomas Ambrosiano". Gambino boss John Gotti retaliated against Agnello for assaulting his daughter. Pietro Grasso to ask for negotiations. He owns a business in Ohio that tows junk cars. Ending a 10year manhunt and. While Agro was never promoted above street-level soldier. Ex-Red Brigades members could publicly recognise their errors without having to admit their own criminal responsibilities. and police found $4 million in cash and $1 million in watches. There are rumors that Figueroa Agosto has over $100 Million Dollars in Puerto Rico. Giuseppe Farinella and Salvatore Buscemi. Figueroa was the most wanted fugitive by Puerto Rican and Dominican Republic authorities. In 1999. The victim later decided to drop the complaint. he enjoyed a privileged relationship with family boss Paul Castellano. Queens. 1991. In 1984. By 1976 Agro was dividing his time . one of Castellano's most trusted associates. The diplomatic Provenzano tried to stem the flow of pentiti by not targeting their families. 1994. While in the Dominican Republic he was arrested in a minor stint as one of his alternate identities and then released for an unknown reason (his alter ego wasn't yet known to the authorities). Michael who was born in 2009. his name was not brought to prosecutors' attention until 1989. Natale Gambino and Giuseppe La Mattina. and Agnello was again arrested. Additionally. He wore a jet black toupee that was supposedly so sleek that it reflected flashing disco lights. Agnello came out to argue with the officer. In 2003. The couple had three sons. Defense documents claimed that Agnello was on medication for bipolar disorder. law enforcement authorities in the region are on alert for potential bloody feuds among rivals and lieutenants trying to take his place. where he managed to obtain several alternate identities and continued drug trafficking for another 10 years. admitted in 1997 meeting Aglieri and celebrating Mass for him and his men on Christmas 1996 and Easter 1997 at the hideout. the family consigliere. only using violence in case of absolute necessity. New York that was the location in 2004 for the reality TV show. In an interview with La Repubblica in March 2004. 2000. a Sicilian politician with close links to Giulio Andreotti.brother of Stefano Bontade – was killed in 1988. In 1979. Pietro Aglieri wrote a letter to the National Anti-mafia Prosecutor (DNA). and systematic infiltration of public finance. A car chase followed. the daughter of activist Mourad "Moose" Topalian. Agnello was charged with racketeering and arson. Agro was sent to prison for bookmaking. Agnello accepted a plea bargain in return for a reduced sentence. not only because of resistance in the judiciary and the Anti-mafia movement. like fellow smuggler Christopher "Dudus" Coke in Jamaica. According to testimony. Minister of Justice. Agro was a classic bully who enjoyed beating up people. but not to testify against others. Oliviero Diliberto. He received a life sentence for the murder on judge Antonino Scopelliti on August 9. Agnello was charged with criminal mischief for damaging a police scooter. It took the authorities almost a year to locate him following the arrest of his right-hand man Carlo Greco. On August 16. Figueroa was wanted for allegedly moving cocaine through the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico with fellow co-worker Angelo Millones. 2000. 1997. until July 2010. helped police identify Aglieri. Following a lead in late 2009 one of his many apartments was raided. Aglieri's letter in March 2002 was followed by the statements of Leoluca Bagarella during a court appearance in July 2002 in which he suggested that unnamed politicians had failed to maintain agreements with the Mafia over prison conditions. Father Frittitta told a court that he tried to persuade Aglieri to turn himself in. Other bosses like Giuseppe "Piddu" Madonia. In 1975 or 1976. Agnello was arrested on assault charges for beating a former employee with a telephone.A. He was released from federal custody on January 16. That seemed to make an end to try to convince mafiosi to "dissociate" from the Mafia. Figueroa Agosto has also been charged by U. Vigna also approached the mafiosi Piddu Madonia. 2008. when DEA. Vigna‘s covert attempts were controversial and were made public by a mole in the DNA. Since he was sickly as well as small. it was alleged that Agnello had been dating another woman. As member of the Sicilian Mafia Commission. was a New York gangster with the Gambino crime family who ran lucrative bookmaking and gambling operations in Florida. or full member. US Marshals and Puerto Rican police arrested Figueroa in Santurce. On February 19. Apparently. but also because of a rift within Cosa Nostra. Victoria Gotti divorced Agnello on grounds of constructive abandonment (no sexual relations for more than a year) because he was in jail. he managed to return to Puerto Rico. "Tipp". On June 6. "T. "Growing up Gotti". Agro was a smiling pudgy little man always immaculately dressed and manicured. a neighborhood in San Juan. compartmentalisation. but they haven't charged him for narcotrafficking. Agro always needed several henchmen to hold down his victims so he could safely torture them. Undercover New York Police Department (NYPD) officers had set up a phony scrap metal business inWillets Point. His proposal was that mafiosi would get more lenient penalties (in particular the relaxation of the 41-bis prison regime) in return for recognizing the existence of Cosa Nostra and the authority of the Italian state. Queens) is a New York mobster from the Gambino crime family who ran a scrap metal recycling operation. Agro was sponsored for membership by Joe N. Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino. but it also means that members of his violent group may try to gain control of his share of the illegal trade. Aglieri had been approached by Vigna in February 2000 in an attempt to get mafiosi to "dissociate" from Cosa Nostra — without becoming collaborators of justice — a method that was used successfully in the struggle against the Red Brigades. 2008.". 2001. and Frank Agnello. a Riina loyalist arrested in May 1996. FBI. Other rumors are that Figueroa Agosto will be on the streets soon after all of this. 1964) in San Juan. On October 26. Figueroa was arrested wearing a wig after having made various plastic surgeries. Agnello quietly married Danielle Vangar. he said he preferred the harsh incarceration regime of 41-bis over being a collaborator of justice. Agnello was sentenced to nine years in federal prison and ordered to forfeit $10 million in assets to the court. if there is no proof by the federal agents they can't put him behind bars. a little chapel was discovered inside Aglieri‘s hide out. pushing it 15 feet down the street. Giovanni Brusca. Aglieri started to study church history with La Sapienza University in Rome while in Rebibbia prison. according to 2007 court testimony. and then shot him in the buttocks. Agnello then used firebombings and other illegal tactics to coerce them to sell their scrap to him at a below-market price. He also has been linked to criminal activity in Colombia and Venezuela. 2002. Figueroa Agosto escaped from prison in Puerto Rico. Agro had a prescription for lithium. He had been on the run since 1989. On January 20. Aglieri was being tried in absentia for the 1992 bombing deaths of Italy's two top Mafia investigators. Carmine Agnello (born Figueroa Agosto aka José David Figueroa Agosto (Junior Capsula) is a Puerto Rican drug trafficker [1] Thomas Agro (1931–1987). He was also on trial for the 1992 murder of Salvo Lima. Aglieri proposed a meeting of the Sicilian Mafia Commission in a jail somewhere in Italy to convince Totò Riina to agree with the Mafia's surrender and to hand over the Mafia's armoury. 2001. then started his Ford Bronco and rammed the police vehicle. This gave his pinioned victims ample time to urinate in their pants. On February 5. and a stillborn daughter. Agro became a made man. Agnello and Vangar have a son. Agnello and several Gambino members brawled with police outside the same location. but he managed to elude the police by fleeing his vehicle and hiding in a sewer. the former premier accused of Mafia association. again over parking tickets. Ozone Park. In June 1994. where he was serving a 209-year sentence for murder and illegal weapon possession. He was able to hide in San Juan. 1997. Dominican authorities have sought Figueroa Agosto for multiple violations including kidnapping. a clear sign of his devotion to the Catholic Church. He originally went to prison on murder charges in Puerto Rico but escaped and fled to the Dominican Republic. Vangar met Agnello in prison when she was visiting her father. Justine. On June 6. which led him to bad judgement. born (June 28. Mario Frittitta. Agro's attacks were more spontaneous than planned though. The new guidelines were patience. During this period. After his arrest Aglieri announced he wanted to study theology – but a leading Sicilian bishop refused him permission. also known as "Tommy A". Agnello married Victoria. Pippo Calò andGiuseppe Farinella appeared to agree. was replaced with Piero Fassino who stopped the negotiations. drug trafficking and murder. a daughter who was born in 2011 and a son who was born in 2012. Capture of Jose Figueroa Agosto in Puerto Rico's capital after a decade-long hunt was a big break. John Agnello. and on more than one occasion the victim would defacate. Several Gambino associates ambushed Agnello. With the Caribbean's biggest reputed drug lord back behind bars. who was killed while preparing the final sentence for the Maxi Trial for the Court of Cassation. Gallo. He worked underJoseph Armone. On March 28. he took medications for heart problems that stemmed from high blood pressure and for a lung ailment. authorities with passport fraud and unlawful flight to avoid prosecution. After the arrest of Riina in January 1993. Victoria Gotti. Eventually. money laundering.

Prior to his murder. He wrote poems about his life and street life. Their heroin contact was the Hamilton boss and Magaddino cap John Papalia. The two victims were Anthony Krzesinski and Robert Young. and when the character Tommy Devito (based on Thomas DeSimone) is murdered. Agron was murdered while waiting for the elevator on the sixth floor of his building early in the morning by a gunman who shot him in the back of the head. which involved selling tax-free home heating oil as diesel fuel. A television movie based on his life was proposed and he set up a fund for the families of his victims with the money he received. The Agueci Brothers immigrated from Sicily to Canada following World War II and. 'Conversations with the Capeman: The Untold Story of Salvador Agron was written by Richard Jacoby. The murders made headlines in New York and the city went into an uproar. a rival organization began expanding its own criminal operations under Boris Goldberg (who. She earned a living by working at a local convent. At other times. The two mobsters frequented all the top nightspots and track betting. The couple later moved to the Nuns' Island section of Montreal. under the direction of Oscar Hernández and his Spanish Harlem Orquestra. Gallo. In the 1990 film Goodfellas. In 2009. making him eligible for release in 1977. together with Danny Rivera. Agron went on trial for his escape (his lawyer was William Kunstler). The difference. However. in which he was wounded but survived. eventually cost the state of New Jersey alone an estimated $1 billion annually in lost tax revenues. Ianuzzi was not recording at that moment. In 1980. the enraged Agro found Ianuzzi at the Don Ritz Pizzeria on Singer Island. earning his high school equivalency diploma. His mother met and married a Pentecostal minister and the family moved to New York City. Iannuzzi enjoyed the attention and respect he received when Agro was in Florida. the Agro/Iannuzzi relationship began to fizzle. Florida. He later earned his Bachelor of Artsdegree in sociology and philosophy from the State University of New York in New Paltz. Agron was born in the city of Mayagüez on the western coast of Puerto Rico. It was in Florida that Agro selected mobster Joseph Iannuzzi to act as his representative. Puerto Rican singer Obie Bermúdez. the Ohio Valley and Toronto itself.k. went to work for Buffalo boss Stefano Magaddino to control narcotics distribution throughout western New York. In Puerto Rico. campaigned for leniency. is based on Agro. 1959. Agron began to get into trouble and was sent to the Industrial School of Mayagüez. Later in 1984. Papalia had connections to the Cotroni Family from Montreal and with the Genovese and Bonanno Family from New York. However.1961) and Vito Agueci (1924 . Jr. Agro had previously lent Ianuzzi a sizeable amount of money to be used to facilitate a loanshark book. with an introduction by Hubert Selby. Ray de la Paz. the FBI agents appropriately dubbed the case Operation Home Run. who had committed suicide by hanging herself. the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) arrested Agro. He was soon repatriated to the United States and sent to prison. and "Justice. "Uhuru Sasa! (A Freedom Call)". Agro was released from prison due to an inoperable brain tumor. Aurea. based on Paul Simon's play." Agron was sentenced to death. New York. however. Ianuzzi now paid Agro the delinquent money (with funds supplied by the FBI) and Agro welcomed him back to the family. Agro pleaded guilty to federal racketeering charges in a court session held in his hospital room at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. Agro told Iannuzzi that he had survived the January attack only because the pizzeria owner's wife entered the room. according to Agron. my mother could watch me. Agro was prosecuted at the Home Run trials in Florida for loan sharking. During Goldberg's trial. Ianuzzi would then lend offer loans to fellow criminals and gamblers at several additional points. would be Iannuzzi's profit. On one occasion. Iannuzzi would look after him. extortion. was a Puerto Rican gang member who murdered two teenagers in a Hell's Kitchen park in 1959. Vinnie is seen cooking sauce while in prison. However. After surviving this attack.2005) were Sicilian mafiosi who were involved in smuggling heroin from Canada into the United States during the 1950s. In prison he learned to read and write. 1981. delivering it to Agro whenever he visited New York. Florida and severely beat him with a baseball bat. a. operating from a bakery in Toronto. Together with Papalia they ran a branch of the "French Connection". His death sentence was commuted to life in prison by Governor Nelson Rockefeller in 1962. Agron's relationship with his stepfather was negative. which were published by some newspapers. Iannuzzi was given free rein to operate on behalf of Agro and the Gambino crime family. Jr. others like former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and Robert Young. After Agron was captured. who soon took the remnants of Agron's crew in gasoline bootlegging. Agron immigrated to the United States under the Jackson-Vanik Amendment in 1975. and he asked his mother to send him back to Puerto Rico to live with his father. his father had remarried. While many New Yorkers were outraged about the killings. with Magaddino's permission. In December 1976. they mistook a group of teenagers for members of the Norsemen. and in 1958 he became a member of notorious teenage street gang the Mau Maus from the Fort Greene neighborhood ofBrooklyn. It was while at the greyhound racing tracks that Agro coined Iannuzzi's nickname "Joe Dogs". Iannuzzi operated bookmaking and loansharking while engaging in the occasional robbery and burglary. the second was in the parking garage of his building on his birthday. Law and Order". Agro confessed to the murders of Lucchese associates Anthony DeSimone and Thomas DeSimone. and attempted murder." Agron was finally released from prison on November 1.. In the aftermath of Agron's murder. Since Ianuzzi had been assaulted with a bat. but was found not guilty of absconding due to "mental illness. the Vampires were on their way to "rumble" (street gang fight) with a gang composed mostly of Irish Americans called the Norsemen. May 1985) was a thief in law and boss of New York City's Russian Mafia during the 1970s and '80s. played by Charles Scorsese. while visiting New York. Ianuzzi decided to start working as an informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Agron stabbed two of the teenagers to death and fled the scene. Governor Hugh Carey reduced Agron's sentence. New York. However. One day the teenage Agron found the body of his stepmother. Agro had plans to invest the illegal interest into legitimate businesses. Travel Log of Thirty-Four Years". Agro would visit Iannuzzi in Florida to collect the interest. Agron took flight and absconded to Phoenix where he was captured two weeks later and brought back to New York. 1979. Luciano Leggio & Angelo La Barbera. a former black marketeer. in April 1977. in Mafia vernacular). participated in the recording of Songs of the Capeman. Ianuzzi soon fell several months behind in delivering the money of Agro. 1987. The Capeman. On January 19. The play opened at the Marquis Theatre in 1998. the father of director Martin Scorsese. The gunman approached Agron from behind. Agron became a bornagain Christian. Later in 1980. "The Capeman". there were two other attempts on his life. Agron's final resting place is in a cemetery in Brooklyn. Albert Agueci (1923 . the father of one of the victims. The first attempt was on the boardwalk in Brighton beach. While on death row. After being sentenced to fifteen years in a federal penitentiary. armed robbery. Agron was the subject of the musical The Capeman by Paul Simon. Agro fled to Quebec. where he deserted LuAnn for another woman. so Agro was never convicted of these murders. the character "Vinnie". Joe N. Ianuzzi would hold several weeks or months worth of interest (or vig. 1943 – April 22. Born in Leningrad. In 1984. called the 'spread'. They became associated with the Magaddino Family from Buffalo untill one of the brothers Albert was brutally murdered in 1961. When he was young. Ann Okcha. Agron was called "The Capeman" because he wore a black cape with red lining during the fight. When they arrived. In 1986. 1986. Agro died later in 1987. his parents divorced and his mother had custody of him and his sister. if not billions. Ianuzzi deliberately snubbed Agro. as other mobsters closed in on the operation. which made the 16-year-old the youngest prisoner ever sentenced to death row. a Broadway musical written by Paul Simon and Derek Walcott was based on the life of Agron. Some of their partners were Charles Luciano. would be charged under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) for drug trafficking. and spoke out against gang violence for over five years. Boris Nayfeld. he and his sister were mistreated by the nuns. he had denied conspiracy charges for Agron's death. This type of fraud. . he was quoted as saying: "I don't care if I burn. Giuseppe Settacase. Their early success encouraged the brothers to expand their operations into the United States and. he was admitted to a hospital with pneumonia and internal bleeding and died six days later at age 42. arms dealing and attempted murder). When Agro's sponsor. Boris Nayfeld would come to work for Agron as his chauffeur and bodyguard. On April 16. joined Balagula. In November 1977. while Hernandez was labeled "The Umbrella Man" because he used an umbrella with a sharp end as a weapon. including "The Political Identity of Salvador Agron.[1] Agron began working as a youth counselor. Ianuzzi now wore a hidden listening device whenever he met with Agro and other Florida mobsters operating. visited Florida. He swiftly gained control of criminal operations among the Soviet Jewsliving in Brighton Beach. Agron organized a motor fuel racket which would earn millions. The Unione Corse had many Italian/Sicilian born members and they mainly did business with the Sicilian Mafia. On February 11. On August 29.between New York and Palm Beach County. Claudette Sierra and Frankie Negrón. Evsei Agron (died Salvador Agron (April 24. He later joined another gang called the Vampires after meeting Tony Hernandez the gang's president. Around the early 1980s. Ianuzzi was supposed to pay Agro several percentage basis points (commonly referred to as points) a week. where he was joined by LuAnn. Agron mistook both teenagers for members of a gang called the Norsemen who were supposed to show up for a gang fight. 1986).a. through fuel tax fraud. Agron's old bodyguard. His father sent him back to his mother in New York. Agron was enrolled at SUNY New Paltz while spending his nights at the Fishkill Correctional Facility. Agro's character. the neighborhood rackets were taken over by Marat Balagula. a heroin traffic framework that was controlled by the Corsican mob (near France) which obtained opium base from Turkey and Afghanistan and converted it into heroin in clandestine laboratories in France and Corsica. In one tape. in 1989. coming from a stairwell directly opposite the elevator. extortion.

was burned alive before being strangled to death. Allegedly. He was wanted by the governments of Mexico and USA until his capture on July 4. In 1997. He was captured on April 23. Andalucia. 2011 in Atizapán de Zaragoza. Valachi became a government witness in 1962 to save his own life and escape prosecution. He reportedly had three personal cells for private access to a rooftop where he celebrated banquet dishes made in the most luxurious restaurants the area. Two of Moran's hitmen. Aiello offered the chef of Capone's favorite restaurant $35. Mexican authorities had posted a $30 million peso ($2. not Sicilian. then got themselves arrested near the front of the station. while the United States posted in July 2009 a $5 million USD bounty. He is an ancestor of Bonanno crime family mobster Antonino Aiello and Bonanno crime family street soldier Anthony Aiello. including Milwaukee gunman Angelo LaMantia. On one occasion. Rejón Aguilar coordinated a failed raid on the maximum security prison 'El Altiplano'. Born in Bagheria. Valachi also heared these rumors and began to fear Genovese. After the massacre. pleading guilty for conspiracy to traffic large sums of narcotics to the U. which they succeeded in doing on a busy Chicago street on September 7.a. 2008 by the Servicio de Vigilancia Aduanera in Ceuta on drug smuggling and bribery charges. as he attempted to liberate his boss Osiel Cárdenas Guillén. Aiello immigrated to the United States to join family members already residing there. Morocco where he had to serve a sentence of eight years for drug trafficking. transporting over 50. 2003. Ahmed was born in Ceuta and grew up on Malaga. the brothers Frank "Tight Lips" Gusenberg and Peter Gusenberg. satellite. Aiello was the co-owner of a cheese importing business alongside a fellow Sicilian. Aiello tried without success to assassinate Capone. Aiello had recently taken up an alliance of sorts with George "Bugs" Moran. While the Unione was originally intended for legitimate charitaeble purposes. He faces a mandatory 10-year sentence and a maximum sentence of life in prison. 1930) was a Chicago bootlegger during the 1920s and early 1930s who had a longstanding. at the invitation of Arturo Guzmán Decena. In Chicago. Pasqualino "Patsy" Lolordo. Aiello was also angry at Lombardo due to a long disagreement over control of their cheese importing business. With the enactment ofProhibition and startup of bootlegging. Moran's forces had been weakened. Mexico in 1976. Rejón Aguilar was born in Campeche.3 million USD) bounty for Rejón Aguilar. the government went after Capone with everything they . 1961. where he began trafficking more hashish and quickly moved up through the ranks due to his connections in Andalusia. For five years. Valentine's Day Massacre. Still believing he had a chance to take the throne himself. According to government documents. During the summer and autumn of 1927. The murder of Lolordo was the next major event in the battle for control of the Chicago mob. The head of the Chicago branch of the Unione was Sicilian Mike Merlo. were soon given the task of removing Antonio Lombardo. he managed to keep his territory through the end of prohibition and the early thirties. But the massacre had another side to it as well. Aiello himself was then picked up by police and taken to South Clark Street police station. After the split between the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas in 2010. or tributes. a Sicilian-American criminal gang. where he remained until early 2009. a benevolent society called the Unione Siciliana was set up to help Sicilian immigrants settle in the United States. 2005. two other Moran men but not Moran himself. Sicily. in 1975 in Ceuta. Vito had a vendetta against Joe Valachi concerning his brother Albert who Vito felt was betrayed by Valachi. In December 2007. but he was barred from even joining it because his background was Neopolitan. Aiello was one of 10 boys in his family. Rejón Aguilar oversaw the paramilitary training of new recruits[8] and then oversaw Gulf Cartel trafficking activities in the state ofCoahuila along with Alejandro Treviño Morales. Magaddino refused to provide bail money for the brothers. New York on November 3. at which the Unione Siciliana leadership would be discussed. leading to the arrest of 23 apparent mob figures. The massacre did one thing that Capone did not expect . became the new head of the Chicago branch. Al Capone wanted to control the Unione. but he himself survived the attack. promising retribution to those who refused to pay. In 1998 he was assigned to Saltillo. Police raided a number of addresses and arrested numerous Aiello associates. Capone heard of the arrest. At this stage. for having been placed in the cell next door to Aiello they duly informed Joe that he was as good as dead. The shooting decimated Moran's forces (he was effectively removed as a threat from this point) and removed almost all support Aiello had banked on in recent months. computer with internet connection and air conditioning and other amenities. cheeses. telling him that Valachi was thinking about becomming a rat to save himself. Vito Agueci was eventually convicted of narcotics violations and was taken to the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary. Bagheria – October 23. Rejón Aguilar entered the Mexican Army in his home state of Campeche and in 1996 was assigned to Special Forces Airmobile Group (GAFE). Nothing was known about it until 10 days later. at the age of 81. Albert Agueci reputidly began plotting to murder Magaddino but was killed himself instead. Pleading for 15 days' grace to sort out his affairs and leave the city. The Aiello family set up a number of businesses in both New York and Chicago. Aiello elected instead to inform the police of the meeting. police captured Rejón in a Mexico City suburb without firing a shot. Ahmed bribed eight officials to help him escape from prison. Z-7. he was assigned to the Mexico‘s Federal Attorney General's Office (PGR) in the cities of Reynosa and Miguel Alemán in Tamaulipas. Jesús Enrique Rejón Aguilar (a. The paranoid Valachi eventually killed an innocent inmate believing he was going to be murdered. With the remainder of his gang. In addition to the Unione Siciliana position. Ahmed used his influence and money to bribe various officials to ensure a luxurious stay. El Mamito. Aiello was due to attend a mob meeting at the Statler Hotel in Cleveland. 1993. He deserted the army in February 1999 and in March the same year. a number of hitmen hired by Aiello to murder Capone were themselves slain. and apparently ignoring the fact that it appeared to be a somewhat dangerous position to occupy. as with that of Lombardo. Unione officials soon began demanding "protection money". Rejón Aguilar was extradited to the United States on September 11. it was soon to become reality. Aiello was given police escort out of the building and duly appeared to do just that. a Capone ally. Though never arrested for the crime. and retaliated with the St. On August 21. bloody feud with Chicago Outfit boss Al Capone. disappearing to New Jersey with some of his brothers. In 2007 Rejón Aguilar was assigned to the streets of Nuevo Laredo and Miguel Alemán under the command of Miguel Treviño Morales. with who'm he and his brother Albert had worked before in the heroin trade. the officials who helped Ahmed were also arrested and sentenced to between two and four years in prison. On April 3. At that time. Lombardo. The death of Merlo in November 1924 reignited Capone's ambitions to control the Unione. Capone had long ago had enough of Aiello and Moran. Following his release. Aiello decided to eliminate both Lombardo and Capone.they would begin directly selling heroin in the Buffalo area. a hit that wiped out the Gusenberg brothers and their regular partner-in-crime James Clark. On July 4. 1961. Because of the murder he had committed inside the prison and the constant threat of his boss he had no other choice. 2012 for drug trafficking and organized crime charges. The Aiellos also opened a bakery and a confectionery shop. a bootlegger who used his position at the Unione to mediate disputes among the Chicago gangs. the sugar import business brought the family into contact with organized crime. 1928. they appear to remain the chief suspects to this day. Mohamed Taieb Ahmed (Born Giuseppe "Joe" Aiello (1891. Lombardo's success angered Aiello. on February 2013. True. a Mexico City suburb. Anthony "The Scourge" Lombardo. Three Capone gunmen. Albert's wife was later able to raise enough money to bail them out. and again Aiello was believed to have masterminded the killing. after having parts of skin sliced off. a territory previously occupied by the Genna family. an enemy of Capone from the North Side Gang of Chicago. Aiello stationed Angelo LaMantia with a submachine gun across the street from Capone's favorite cigar shop. His body was found horribly mutilated in a field outside Rochester. and sugar.bring down the big man himself. in that as well as the murder of Lombardo's successor as head of the Unione Siciliana. and dispatched a large team of gunmen to stand guard outside the station. On another occasion. Genovese died in 1969 and Valachi in 1971. In 2004. probably intentionally.S. his teeth kicked out and. They became importers of groceries such as olive oil. ostensibly to await Aiello's release. Both were eventually arrested in New York on July 20. who confessed that he had been hired by Aiello to kill Capone and Lombardo. from its members. but he was spotted in time. He fled to Spain to avoid capture. Esposito exposed the plot to Capone. including Louis "Little New York" Campagna. Vito Agueci died many years later on February 13. a plasma TV. including such notables as Joe Profaci and Joseph Magliocco. Rejón Aguilar is responsible for multi-ton shipments of marijuana and multi-kilogram shipments of cocaine from Mexico to the United States. Ahmed was arrested and imprisoned in a maximum security prison in Kenitra. following an anonymous tip. He became a drug trafficker. Spain) is a Spanish-Moroccan drug lord responsible for trafficking hashish across the Strait of Gibraltar and into Spain. the Aiello family began supplying sugar to gangs illegally distilling spirits.Coahuila. Among his injuries included a broken jaw. it was soon taken over and corrupted by Sicilian gang members. It is not certain if Agueci had contact with both Genovese or Valachi inside the prison walls but some reports do say Agueci plotted with Genovese to murder Valachi. However at first it were rumors which disgraced Valachi as a rat. In July 1907. his plan consisted of using 3 helicopters and over 50 Zeta members to liberate Cárdenas Guillén. taking the authorities by surprise. Rejón Aguilar was assigned as the regional coordinator in the states of central and northern Mexico. 2011.000 kilos of hashish a year and allegedly making over €30 million a month. born 1976) is a former leader of the Mexican criminal organization known as Los Zetas. known as "The Z1" was integrated into the group of 14 former soldiers who founded Los Zetas as the armed wing of the Gulf Cartel.000 to put prussic acid in Capone's soup.k. where he became a fellow inmate of the elder Genovese Boss Vito Genovese and soldier Joe Valachi. Instead.

Aiuppa was convicted of skimming profits from Las Vegas casinos and received 28 years in prison. So successful was Ray in running his operation that he purchased a custom money green Mercedes at a cost of $75. Meanwhile. Bureau of Prisons Federal Medical Facility at Rochester. Ray grew up in the 7 mile and Woodward area known as ―Little Iraq‖. 1930. the two grew up more like brothers after Ray's uncle Louis took Harry in following the death of his father in a car crash which severely injured Harry's older brother Tahrir. Aiuppa had bought a house in Palm Springs. and received a 3-month jail sentence and a $1000 fine. The list was widely published gaining Aiello a measure of nationwide notoriety. 1907 – February 22.had. Federal authorities had taken note of Ray's lavish life style which included a fleet of custom cars. however. Illinois. He also had a large arsenal of weapons. with Aiello himself taking over the North Side of Chicago following the departure of Bugs Moran. Remarkably. He comes from a family pedigree of Chaldean mobsters. while Aiello was ranked in seventh place. While serving that term. Loesch. jewelry and a 2-week vacation to Greece while claiming to earn a mere $2. The coroner eventually removed 59 bullets from his body. New York. 1997. Aiello hid in the Chicago house of Unione Siciliana treasurer Pasquale "Presto" Prestogiacomo. Illinois. five miles away from Aiuppa property near Morocco. Aiuppa was convicted in 1966 for the unlawful possession and transportation of mourning doves across state lines. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) suspected that the Outfit killed Giancana because he refused to share his offshore gambling profits from Mexico. But in April 1929. He would use violence as last resort. Joseph Aiuppa died of natural causes at Elmhurst Memorial Hospital in Elmhurst. At 17. Illinois. When Frank J. trying to convince them that they would all be winners were Capone wiped out. Montello and Frontiera by way of a Colombian national with an import-export business in Miami. in September 1962. Ragheed Akrawi . close to former friend and foe Lombardo. Ray and his crew often were seen at ―Taboos‖ nightclub dropping thousan ds at a time. Upon leaving Prestogiacomo's building. Three years younger than Harry. "Remo Gaggi. This connection eventually supplied the Kalasho organization with an estimated 500 kilos a month winding through a pipeline from Miami to New York and eventually finding its way to Detroit. It was commonly assumed that the Outfit ordered Tony Spilotro's murder because of his misbehavior in Las Vegas. former boxer Aiuppa rose through the ranks of the Outfit. Ray had a customized Mercedes Benz and an outstanding jewelry collection. Ray along with Basil Mezy. On October 23.400 a year as a grocery clerk. he stumbled into the range of a second submachine gun nest on the third floor of another apartment block. Joseph "Hop Toad" Giunta." was a Chicago mobster who became a leader of the Chicago Outfit. On January 19. Aiello. FBI agents in Kansas searching Aiuppa's car discovered 563 frozen doves. Ray‘s sentence should have been commuted years ago." or "Joey Doves. Ray's boys supplied cocaine to mid-level dealers who in turn supplied the numerous crack houses located in Detroit. California. while promoting the opening of the Las Vegas Mob Experience at the Tropicana Hotel. Sometime following the murder. and buried in a cornfield in Enos. In the 1995 film Casino." "O'Brien. In June 1975." "Mourning Doves. These clubs included bookmaking establishments and underground casinos with secret entrances. Born in Iraq. the cars filled with mourners and police on motorcycles who started the trip from Aiello's home disappeared before reaching the cemetery. as part of Robert Kennedy's crackdown on the Chicago Outfit. IL. MN. Another murder theory states that Giancana's murder was connected to the U. Aiuppa allegedly conspired with Johnny 'Johnny Handsome' Roselli to kill Sam Giancana. Capone beat them to the punch and had the three men killed (the scene famed by a number of movies in which Capone murders associates with a baseball bat at a banquet is based on the killings of Anselmi and Scalise).000. aka Ray Akrawi was the boss of Chaldean Mafia composed predominantly of Iraqi nationals (Assyrian/Chaldean). allegedly to move to Mexico. It was also rumored that Aiuppa ordered the executions because he blamed Spilotro for the skimming conviction. Ray rose to a high level in the Detroit narcotics underworld in the mid to late 80‘s. On February 22. His cousin Harry Kalasho got him into the game. Joseph John Aiuppa (pronounced. ostensibly a furniture manufacturer though in actuality a front for the manufacture of illegal slot machines. Tony "The Ant" Spilotro and his brother Michael were beaten and strangled to death in Bensenville. he was conspicuously absent during the final days of negotiation between the groups. duly saw this as an opportunity to scheme yet again for Capone's permanent retirement. However. Frontiera and Hector Alvarez. In spite of being cousins. Ray took a back seat to Harry when it came to criminal dealings but showed enough intelligence to acquire an exalted position within his cousin's growing criminal syndicate. Ray was tried twice for the murder but never convicted. Peter "Ashcan" Inserio and Aiello bodyguard Jack Costa. Senate's investigation into the alleged CIA role in the conspiracy to assassinate Cuba leader Fidel Castro. Joseph Aiuppa was born in Melrose Park." is loosely based on Aiuppa. Indiana. Since he has been locked up he has spent most of his time playing handball and fighting his unlawful conviction. In a move reminiscent of Al Capone's infamous conviction for tax evasion. 1997). Aiello then turned to Capone killers Albert Anselmi and John Scalise. Akrawi was named in a grand jury indictment which named him.S. Sicilian immigrants from Lascari. Ragheed aka Ray Akrawi was the first cousin and closest companion of Harry Kalasho. Besides the hearse. The Spilotro murders were fictionalized in this film. getting wind of the plot. operated a narcotics distribution networkmoving drugs from Phoenix and San Diego to Detroit. Capone headed the list. A conference in Atlantic City of numerous mob bosses saw Aiello's promotion as the only way to restore order in Chicago. Illinois. Ray became the street boss of the Akrawi-Kalasho drug organization and the Akrawi-Kalasho faction of the Chaldean Mafia.S. During these buying trips. During the 1920s. who resolved to finally eliminate Aiello. out of the line of fire. "I-U-PA") (December 1. 1996.They were able to get him on tax evasion charges and ship him off to prison. The rumors and gossip eventually got back to Capone. "The corrupt Oakland County prosecutor framed this Chaldean brother because the thought of someone young enough to be his son making more in a month than that prosecutor makes all year was just to much for the insecure prosecutor to bare" said one of Ray's friends. Sicily. Akrawi renewed the Tampa connection between the Kalasho group. Aiello then finally got his chance to head up the Unione Siciliana himself. 1930 Aiello was making plans to permanently leave Chicago. also known as "Doves.apparently at the behest of other mob leaders who felt his profile had got too high and he needed to be away for a short time while things blew over. effectively ending his reign as boss. Nick Konja and Basam Jarges among others were eventually convicted on the charges. but was pronounced dead on arrival. but he wasn‘t a particularly violent individual. Several Aiello associates were wiped out during 1930. Tony Spilotro's son Vincent claimed that the real target was his uncle Michael. at least temporarily. In 1986. and Capone apparently accepted this. a gunman in a second-floor window across the street started firing at Aiello with a submachine gun. It is rumored. the eldest son of Simone Aiuppa (1883-1934) and Rosalia (1886-1968). He was buried at Queen of Heaven Catholic Cemetery in Hillside. his uncle and 7 other members of the organization with drug conspiracy. Aiello was taken to Garfield Park Hospital. Aiuppa was released from the U. which were being held at this time. Province of Palermo. and Tony was killed to prevent any revenge. Following a series of appeals. Ray became more active in acquiring the rings supplies from various sources. in a 2010 interview with Maxim Magazine. After Harry was assassinated. It is rumored that Ray ordered a hit on one of his competitors and offered to give a bonus to the person if they would chop off the individuals head and put it on a street corner lamp post for all to see. In the early 1930s. all that remained of the procession was a car containing Aiello's widow Catherine and three Ford Sedans containing flowers. While Ray was in on the initial meetings between Kalaho. Akrawi would secure the deal with cash payments in the half million dollar range. Federal agents followed Akrawi as he made several trips to south Florida to secure shipments of cocaine in 25 to 50 kilo lots. He was also suspected of being a member of a Chaldean crime syndicate which moved small amounts of narcotics and extorted money from the small close knit Chaldean community in the Detroit area. including Mika Bizzarro. Before eventually being placed in Riverside Cemetery in Rochester. Louis once an autoworker dabbled in a variety of enterprises at one time or another owning a party store and restaurant.[1] Roselli himself was also killed soon afterward for apparently being too forthcoming in the Church Committee hearings. Akrawi allegedly stalked his cousins suspected killer before issuing the order which led to the murder of the suspected trigger man Raed Jihad outside of a Detroit coffee house. as well as the new head of the Unione. Aiello's time in charge coincided with Capone serving a year in prison for carrying a concealed weapon . Ray was accused of money laundering by the FBI and caught a hundred kilo conspiracy case out of Oakland County. Authorities were successful however in securing an 18-month jail term for a firearms violation in August 1990. beginning as a driver for higher ranking Outfit leaders such as Tony Accardo before graduating to operating several gambling establishments in Cicero. Aiello toppled off the building steps and moved around the corner. Aiello was originally buried in Mount Carmel Cemetery in Chicago on October 29. Montello. Aiello's funeral lacked the show of many organized crime funerals of the age. Ray "made his bones" and has "whacked" competing dealers. In June 1986. actor Pasquale Cajano's character. IN. By the age of 18. Unfortunately for Aiello. Ray Akrawi was in charge of a crew of 20 underlings known as Ray's boys who operated along 7 Mile Road between Woodward and John R. ever a man to bring misery onto himself. chairman of the Chicago Crime Commission compiled his "Public Enemies" list of the top 28 people he saw as corrupting Chicago in April 1930. Aiuppa was eventually sentenced in August 1966. Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 it is illegal to possess more than 24 doves per person outside of hunting season. Aiuppa managed Taylor & Company. Ray Akrawi's involvement in the Kalasho drug ring took yet another leap when his cousin was shot and killed in February 1989.

Alberti was arrested with three Corsican chemists in Trabia. he declared that he had been with a woman and could not reveal her name. Despite his life sentence he had obtained house arrest due to poor health. '". he was suspected of the attack against Angelo La Barbera. He was arrested again on December 16. a wonderful cover for both his trafficking operations and smuggling jewels and works of art (he allegedly possessed a Caravaggio Nativity). He barely survived an attempt on his life while incarcerated in the Ucciardone prison on February 9. he owned a green Maserati and he and his men spent their evenings at nightclubs with expensive women. One of his early arrests was for vagrancy. Alderisio began his criminal career as a teenager during the Prohibition era. Crawford. they were involved in a series of meetings about the future of Cosa Nostra. was killed with his driver Antonino Lo Russo. He had a luxurious lifestyle with apartments in Milan and Naples. in Milan in May 1963. and the police released them without charges. On June 28. In the early 1930s. In March 1974. At the second "Trial of the 114" in 1974. Together with Tommaso Buscetta. an old friend from their days in Seattle convinced Marco to move to Los Angeles. He belonged to the Porta Nuova family in Palermo headed by Giuseppe Calò. 1970. Alberti was charged in Rome with heroin trafficking as the result a 30 month investigation. "hit mobile". such as the Ciaculli massacre in 1963. Gerlando Alberti (September Marco Albori. Marco began serving his sentence. At the "Trial of the 114" he was acquitted but sent into internal exile in a village in Lombardy. Due to his age and cancer he was put under house arrest. 1933. "Momo". Those starting their careers in their shadow were forming into new generation of mafiosi. He died on February 1. Alberti asked. one of the protagonists of the war. 2008. bagman. between 1922 and 1924 Marco earned $500. Alberti had arrived from Naples just before the attack and left immediately afterwards. On April 1. He was among the men that wanted to re-establish the Sicilian Mafia Commission that had not been functioning since the arrest of Totò Riina in 1993. The political connections created by Crawford's political machine let Marco operate without much fear of prosecution for his crimes. in a Cadillac transporting alcohol to a Long Beach warehouse. the aging Alberti was arrested again when authorities issued 52 arrest warrants against the top echelon of Cosa Nostra in the city of Palermo (Operation Gotha). 2012). against the Corleonesiled by Totò Riina. the midwife begged to be allowed to bring his mother to the front door because of the lack of daylight in the house. Gaetano Badalamenti and Giuseppe Calderone. hiding among Sicilians in Northern Italy. when the Carabinieri arrested 94 Mafiosi in Operation Perseo. Alderisio headed a group of cat burglars that operated in Chicago's upscale Gold Coast district. narcotics and loansharking there . 1927 – February 1. Stefano Bontade and the Corleonesi boss Luciano Leggio. 1971) was a prominent . Sent to the island of Asinara. which adopted new gangster techniques. and pistols. when the traffic police in Milan stopped an Alfa Romeo for speeding. Doran. Tommaso Buscetta. Marco worked closely with Charles H. Marco was born in 1887 in Italy. They formed the so-called "New Mafia". Alberti and Gaetano Badalamenti were considered to be among the bosses of the international ring.[1] Alderisio began working with Sam Battaglia and John Marshall Caifano as an enforcer. 1962. Alderisio's crew was responsible for picking up payoffs from North Felix Anthony "Milwaukee Phil" Alderisio (April 26. At the time. in the derelict district of Danisinni. Marco came to the United States through Ellis Island in 1908. but was denied a second trial. Alderisio started working as an enforcer with Charles "Chuckie" Nicoletti. Scaglione was killed in the district under Alberti‘s command. who was sent by Corsican gangster Gaetan Zampa. At the time." During the 1950s and 1960s. a small lab was discovered first in Trabia and later that day a bigger lab in uncovered in Carini that could produce 50 kilograms a week. 1923. which they fenced to Outfit-controlled jewelry stores and wholesalers. hitman and burglar for the Chicago Outfit. It was the first time since the end of World War II that the Mafia had carried out a hit on an Italian magistrate. denying any knowledge or association with the crime. the Palermo Court absolved Alberti in relation the Gotha investigation.hence the nickname. he escaped in June 1975. On August 25. 1929 Marco was sent to San Quentin State Prison to serve his sentence.[5] Alberti. better known by his alias Albert Marco was an Italian bootlegger who was active in Los Angeles during the Prohibition Era in the 1920s. On January 21. Chief Prosecutor of Palermo. The police rounded up 114 mafiosi who would be tried in the second "Trial of the 114". In 1919 he served a brief prison sentence for burglary in Sacramento. one for the heroin lab in Trabia and one life sentence for the killing of a hotel owner who had tipped off the police about the lab. Pietro Scaglione. In the 1950s and 1960s. employing a squad of travelling salesmen. "Mafia! What is that? A kind of cheese?". had been in Palermo at the time of the bomb attack in Ciaculli. On April 1. which turned the First Mafia War into a war against the Mafia. He was born at home. According to the IRS. 2006. the Viale Lazio massacre in 1969." On May 2. and the road to leadership of a cosca had suddenly become quicker and more readily available to those who were fast with their tommy-guns. Alderisio soon gained a reputation for brutality. He only went to school for four years. Alderisio himself resided in the Gold Coast for a time. the Carabinieri began to consider Alberti as the boss of a kind of Murder Incorporated for the Sicilian Cosa Nostra. "Milwaukee Phil. Alberti was one of the rising stars of the Mafia in the 1970s. Alberti was indicted in July 1963 with 53 other mafiosi after the Ciaculli massacre. the imperturbable one. Due to his conviction and his links with the men on the losing side of the Second Mafia War. He returned to Los Angeles in 1937 hoping to permanently stay in the United States. but he received an 8 years and 5 months sentence in appeal. In December 1969 he was again in Palermo (while he was supposed to be in exile) when Mafia boss Michele Cavataio was killed by a Mafia hit squad for his double-crossing role in the First Mafia War. In the early 1920s Macro drove to L. He was found guilty on two counts and was sentenced to two seven-year terms by judge William C. There was a hidden compartment in the back with clamps for shotguns. In 1961 he set up a textile trading business in Milan and formed a cosca in Northern Italy. He received two sentences. but was arrested again in December that year. He was one of the top mafiosi involved in cigarette smuggling and heroin trafficking in the 1970s. "Mooney") during the 1960s and as boss for a short time from 1967 before being sent to prison in 1969 and dying there. Alberti was involved in numerous notorious Mafia events. two heroin-refining labs were discovered on Sicily. he frequently waited outside Outfit boss Al Capone'sLexington Hotel headquarters in the hope of getting a job as a messenger. 1971. Interrogated. as a bagman delivering payoffs to Chicago judges and police officials. Alberti was considered to be an upstart Mafia boss in the shadow of men like Pietro Torretta. In the 1950s. He was paroled on April 7. Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco. A barman who had confirmed to the police that Alberti was in Palermo while Scaglione‘s murder was taking place was kidnapped and killed. On May 5. Ironically. 1912 – September 25. 1928 Marco was arrested and put on trial for assault with a deadly weapon when he shot Dominick Conterno and Harry Judson. These thieves specialized in rare gems and jewelry.[5] His position was confirmed on June 17. Alberti was considered to be part of a moderate wing at the start of the 1981-83 Second Mafia War. Rising steadily through the ranks during the Great Depression. The inquiry started in September 1971 when US Customs agents seized 84 kilos of heroin in a Ford that was sent from Genoa to New York. Alderisio was suspected in carrying out 13 or 14 "hits" for The Outfit. On June 20. Tommaso Buscetta and the La Barbera brothers. Crawford. and figured "large" in gambling. They decided to set up a new Sicilian Mafia Commission (the first one was dissolved after the Ciaculli massacre) – initially headed by a triumvirate consisting of Gaetano Badalamenti. Throughout the next two decades. with bases in Genoa and Milan. Marco was deported to Italy in November 1933. police questioned the two men in a car that they had customized into a so-called. they had initiative. the disappearance of journalist Mauro De Mauro in 1970.. On his arrest. 1983. waiting for a friend". enforcer. Alderisio also owned several restaurants. and the killing of Chief Prosecutor Pietro Scaglione in 1971. In 1956 he was acquitted of a killing for lack of evidence. Alberti was convicted and sentenced to six years. He is said to be the first to transport Canadian whiskey to Los Angeles. when he was supposed to appear before a court in Naples charged with cigarette smuggling. Marco appealed the ruling. meat packing firms. Rush Street nightclubs. he was sentenced to 6 years and 4 months. In the car were Alberti. Nicoletti and Alderisio were frequently questioned by police about gangland "hits.000 from bordello prostitution. his unsuspecting neighbors were his targets. 1980. among them André Bousquet an old hand from the French Connection days. His nickname was "u Paccarè". On this occasion. 2008.. By the end of the decade. In 1925 Marco pistol whipped an LAPD officer and was given a $50 fine and his gun back. but he was denied and ordered to return to Italy again. who ran city politics along with Kent Kane Parrot. In October 2010.A. Alberti‘s role in Cosa Nostra shrunk. He controlled the prostitution in Milwaukee. He once said of the Mafia: "Mafia! What is that? A kind of cheese?" Alberti was the son of a fruit seller and was born and grew up in Palermo. small hotels. Alderisio was working under Jake "Greasy Thumb" Guzik. Alderisio and Nicoletti claimed they were. Alberti's official business was selling textiles. The black car had special switches that independently controlled the headlights and tail lights to avoid police detection. the Outfit's financial expert. in his house in the Porta Nuova district of Palermo. Unaware of the identity of the men in the car the police let them continue their journey. Alderisio's maternal cousin Louis Fratto brought Alderisio into the Outfit. bordellos and striptease joints. In October 1977 he became a fugitive again. 2012. serving as an underboss to Salvatore Giancana ("Sam". although living in Milan. also known as "U Paccarè" was a member of the Sicilian Mafia. Alberti was initiated in the Mafia by Gaetano Filippone. allied with Gaetano Badalamenti and Stefano Bontade.18. His first test was to steal an entire cheese. rifles. He started off as a pimp and con man in Nevada and Washington.

They finally placed McCarthy's head in a vise and tightened it until one of his eyes popped out of its socket. However. who succeeded Jake Guzik as the Syndicate's main political "fixer". Aleman was convicted and was sentenced to 12 years imprisonment.000 bribe to Cook County Circuit Court Judge Frank Wilson to find Aleman innocent. (The two weeks of each summer. which he had been battling for many years. 1998) was a Greek-American mobster and high-ranking member of the Chicago Outfit.000) Alex's operations brought in an estimated $1 million a month for the Syndicate. he wasn't very popular with the "rank-and-file" Chicago mobsters. They had a bitter divorce and argued constantly over custody of their son. Georgia. Born in the Taylor Street area of Chicago. Aleman's re-trial and subsequent conviction are historic as he is the first American to be retried for murder following a fraudulent first trial. Alex became experienced in securing Syndicate protection through bribery of city officials. Aleman was released on parole. During this time in federal prison. a former police officer. Circuit Court of Cook County. Described as "one of the wiliest and slickest crooks" within the Chicago Outfit. Illinois. at a bar with his brother and friends. goddammit! Ruins! I got coppers coming out of my eyeballs and you sit there telling me about ruins! Listen to me. 2010) was a Chicago mobster who was one of most feared enforcers for theChicago Outfit during the 1970s. In 1997. The ruling basically means that if in a bench trial the defendant is found not guilty. Accepting the arrangement. Aleman was prosecuted for only one murder: the 1972 Logan killing. a top aide to boss Sam Giancana. Alderisio was arrested at least 36 times for assault and battery. does not constitute double jeopardy. Gus and Strongy [Ferraro] had worked in the restaurant from an early age. therefore. Aleman married Ruth Felper Mustari. then flagged down a police car. Illinois. Aleman died from complications of lung cancer. spending hours photographing them. He was passionate about classical ruins. Two of the alleged victims. Illinois. Cooley was asked by First Ward political boss Pat Marcy to arrange a bench trial with a judge who could be bribed to acquit. Aleman was convicted under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act of organizing a series of home invasion robberies.[8] This Fifth Amendment ruling was named Harry Aleman vs. and Anthony Spilotro captured McCarthy and tortured him to provide Miraglia's name. During one meeting with Giancana that was recorded by law enforcement. being Greek. Constitution against self-incrimination 23 times and refuse to testify. armed robbery. his father a native of Durango. Under Guzik's guidance. "Gus. The incident started when Aleman. This was first profiled in 2002 and verified on the A&E Television Network/Biography Channel program ―American Justice‖/―Notorious. also provided a reprieve of sorts. including a lucrative call girl operation out of prominent downtown hotels (of which many call girls were paid up to $500 to $1. The only relief Aleman got was from ages seven to eleven. Judges of the Criminal Division. His victims allegedly included Richard Cain. Billy McCarthy and Jimmy Miraglia. Aleman took some college courses and started painting as a hobby. In 1991. 1971. Jake Guzik. Oxford. The Legendary Taylor Street was the port-of-call for Chicago's Italian Americans.' but he had done it all. Two witnesses watched Aleman commit the murder and prosecutors thought they had a strong case. Alex was the main liaison between the Chicago Outfit and city hall officials.' He probably could have beaten her up a few more times and it wouldn't have mattered. which Harry spent at the Bowen Country Club. when Louis was in prison. McCarthy named Miraglia. Both were sharp guys and came to the attention of the boys.. however. 1939 – May 15. Aleman was a nephew of future Chicago Outfit acting mob boss Joseph Ferriola and uncle to Joseph Aleman. the reason for Logan's murder was that the union man was obstructing Aleman's crew from hijacking trucks. bribery. the 23-year-old son of a Chicago police commander. on May 15.S. a widow with four children. 'You better be careful. extortion. identified Alex as their assailant as well as three others who were killed after reporting to police extortion and death threats sent by Alex. His dad had operated a small restaurant at Wentworth and 26th in Armour Square/Chinatown. after serving 11 years in prison. Aleman said that his father beat him every day. according to Ruth and his stepchildren. delivering millions of dollars in payments each week to the Outfit leadership. According to law enforcement and the Chicago Crime Commission. mob informants. Alderisio would plead the Fifth Amendment to the U. retired judge Frank Wilson shot himself to death at his Arizona retirement home. If the bookmakers refused. 'Fuck that guinea. et al. aggravated assault. Due to an accident as a teenager. I learned. The hit. possession of burglary tools. Yet. Aleman was charged with assaulting Howard Pierson.' And Logan replied. and another mob enforcer. Alderisio. Billy Logan. loansharking. the enraged Aleman punched Pierson. During the 1960s.Side restaurants and nightclubs. In 1964. Alex would later become his protégé as he rose through the ranks of the Chicago crime family. Giancana lost his patience and yelled: "Phil. He granted control of the Loop's illegal gambling and prostitution operations. Within a short time. in Marion. must have. Aleman was convicted of the Logan murder and sentenced to 300 years in state prison. He also served as the principal bagman for North Side bookmaking operations. Michigan. In 1962. Alderisio frequently visited Turkey. he was a loving and kind husband and father. However. Nicoletti.S. bombing. Aleman murdered Teamster's official William Logan in his Chicago neighborhood. 2010 at Hill Correctional Center in Galesburg. but received only two years' probation. Gus Alex (April 1. Aleman was also arrested for malicious mischief. After a barroom fight. Alderisio usually avoided prosecution because of the Outfit's strong political connections. Durango Mexico who was involved in narcotics trafficking. both McCarthy and Miraglia were found dead with their throats cut. Aleman graduated from Crane Technical High School and enrolled in the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts to study commercial art. Alderisio participated in an infamous mob torture incident. could not be 'made. On April 28. The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit ruled original trial presided by Judge Frank Wilson was a sham – because the acquittal was guaranteed by the bribe he accepted. By the mid-1940s. Illinois. and murder-for-hire. According to prosecutors. 1998. The final straw came after one of the fights when she said. During the late 1980s. grand theft auto. Working primarily for Al Capone's Jewish-American associate. been one of them almost since birth. but later demanded more money to compensate for the risk. 1989. Aleman pleaded guilty to extorting money from bookmakers Anthony Reitinger and Vince Rizza in 1972.) In 1956. Serving directly under Giancana and later under Gus "Gussie" Alex. Alderisio was convicted of extortion and sent to prison. The retrial. In 1978. In a 1997 interview. later dying of their injuries in hospital. bootlegging. It was strictly personal. listen real good! Ruins ain't garbage! Forget about them goddamn ruins!" Over several decades of criminal activity. When Pierson arrived at the scene. Aleman decided to force independent bookmakers in Chicago to pay extortion payments. During the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U. Aleman wasn't able to produce children of his own. Pierson chased Aleman out of the bar. he was suspected in the deaths of at least five unsolved murder cases. Sentenced to thirty years imprisonment. to the Outfit. Logan used to beat her up big time. In May 1962. This is because the defendant was never in jeopardy to begin with. Alderisio was identified by federal authorities in the early 1960s as a high-ranking member of the Outfit. On September 25. Aleman committed 13 murders in Chicago between 1971 and 1976. had ambushed and killed Outfit associates Ron Scalvo and Phil Scalvo. or "street tax". by definition. But Harry wasn't going to let some Irish goon get away with calling him a guinea. As a result. had been married to Harry's cousin. based on Robert Cooley's testimony." However. Cooley offered a $10. the victim. Harry "The Hook" Aleman (January 19. In 1958. Often traveling abroad (either on vacation or establishing connections for smuggling heroin into the United States).. His funeral was attended by Accardo and many other Outfit members. Phil. illegal gambling. and then the Nitti. mob. On September 27. acting as Outfit boss for Tony Accardo in the late 1960s. Illinois. shortly before Aleman's trial started. By 1930. and Milan. pushed a woman through a large window. but if evidence is shown that an act of bribery took place between the defendant and the judge. cause Harry won't be happy about it. the defendant can be retried again for the same crime and it would not be considered double jeopardy. narcotics. Felix Alderisio died from natural causes at the United States Penitentiary. In February 1990. Gus had. Aleman was willing to use force on them. In 1993. assault. Wilson agreed. According to Robert Cooley. an extensive investigation into decades of corruption and mob ties inside the Chicago court system. Aleman's mother was Italian. 1972.. Aleman was the first of three sons of Louis Aleman and Mary Virginia Baratta. Aleman was acquitted in a bench trial. Aleman was re-indicted for the 1972 Logan slaying. Later that week. investigators started Operation GamBat. Alderisio spent about 20 minutes describing ruins he had recently seen in Europe. who was Aleman's defense attorney. ". 1916 – July 24. and Greece. Aleman spent time at federal correctional facilities in Marion. At that point. Finally.‖ and later on the National Geographic Channeldocumentary: ―National Geographic: Inside‖ – ―Chicago Mob Takedown‖ in 2011. Alex would decline to answer questions under the Fifth Amendment over 39 times during his . illegal gambling. Aleman was convicted. he graduated with a two year degree in that field. had nothing to do with unions and all the other crap in the indictment. fearing prosecution from his actions during the 1977 Logan trial. Senate Committee on Government Operations investiga tions on organized crime. Atlanta. two small-time criminals. racketeering. Italy. along with counterfeiters. which was frequented by many members of the Capone. FBI agents were reported to have said that Aleman "oozed menace" and his mere presence was usually enough to enforce the Outfit's will. and aggravated kidnapping. hijacking. He is buried inWaldheim Cemetery in Forest Park. Aleman went to work selling race track program sheets and produce from the South Water Street Market. Aleman got the nickname "Hook" from his boxing career in high school. breaking his jaw.behind the scenes I picked up information that was total dynamite. In the early 1970s. Wisconsin. Police soon stopped Aleman and started questioning him. counterfeiting.

Dawson opposed government action. Carmine Alfieri (born February 18. and Salvatore "Sam. was arrested in his pyjamas by Italian police on September 11. They allege that some five tons of cocaine were seized as well as twenty-four aircraft. in particular between the Nuvoletta clan from Marano and Antonio Bardellino at the end of 1983. yet maintaining a Facebook page. However. In March 1994. it was clear Cutolo not only had lost his political protection but the war as well. His partner's Florida home was raided during the investigation. Alex died of a heart attack in federal prison after Leonard "Lenny" Patrick. Towards the end of his sentence. As a result of the US governments protest (although Illinois Senator Everett Dirksen and Congressman William L. Alfieri sided with Bardellino‘s Casalesi clan. wore a "wire" and taped Alex for the FBI. The Camorra entered in his life when he was only seven. was murdered. a corporate jet. making him the richest criminal in Italy. In 1978 he was charged for homicide and in 1981 for mafia association. assisted Lt. Alfieri‘s killers alone counted as many as 500 murders during the decade 1983-93. Around this time he divorced his first wife and became involved with another woman named Érika. Swiss officials banned Alex from entering Switzerland for 10 years. 1993. he took an oath with his brother Salvatore. Brasil. he left for his day of court-approved work release and never returned. his main rival in the bloody 198183 Camorra war between Cutolo‘s Nuova Camorra Organizzata (NCO) and the Nuova Famiglia. He finally was granted permission to begin work release. undercover agent Jerry Speziale published his book. Alexander was enraged that his private experiences were published and sued Speziale under the pretense that the book violated his privacy. Alex would come under suspicion during his annual ski trips to Switzerland as the US government accused Alex of depositing Outfit money in unnumbered Swiss bank accounts. set up by Mossad. Illinois. Alexander was eventually sentenced to a staggering 42 years in prison. the NCO's financier. 1943) is an Italian Camorra boss. on July 27. Alfieri was born in Saviano. Alexander claimed that Nicaragua was where he was introduced to the drug-dealing business. Alex would retain his position throughout the reigns of Felice "Paul 'The Waiter' Ricca" DeLucia. They claim not only to have met Gava. For instance. Alfonso Ferrara Rosanova. At the time of his arrest. he came under investigation in March 2005 on suspicion of plotting to assassinate Speziale.2 billion. His former political protectors turned and provided their support to Carmine Alfieri. war broke out among the anti-NCO coalition. From the lawsuit: Speziale explains how he was able to infiltrate powerful drug distribution cartels and dupe them into believing that he was a trustworthy member of the illegal drug importing network. He was deported to Brazil in September. was a "one girl talent agent office. His mother married a railroad worker and Alexander's family moved to Novo Hamburgo. selling ice cream on the beach in the summer and hot peanuts door-to-door during the winter. a fleet of motor cars and a 64. Alfieri.[2] In the end. 1992. Without A Badge. The political Camorra was also innovatory because it tried to establish a federation between clans to overcome mutual suspicion and bloody feuds. During the 1960s. Cutolo overplayed his hand in the Cirillo kidnap affair. 2011.S. Alexander has been known as "O barão da cocaina" in Brazil (translated into English as "The Baron of Cocaine"). 1956. the balance of power shifted in favour of Alfieri.One of Alexander's methods involved packing cocaine inside large electric transformers and shipping them to the United States. An invaluable resource. Xuxa is one of the most popular celebrities in Brazil. He was confined from 2005 until August 2010 at Nelson Hungria Prison in Minas Gerais. one of the most wanted men in Italy. a city on the Sinos River Valley. and Lorenzo Nuvoletta's "business Camorra" reinvested drug money into construction following the 1980 earthquake. and joined the Israeli Army. Alex's political connections would ensure his position with the organization during the unstable leadership of the decade." In 1983. The war culminated in the Torre Annunziata massacre of August 1984. including Carmine‘s brother Salvatore. Alfieri‘s Camorra is described as the "political Camorra" because of its ability to obtai n public sector contracts through political contacts. on appeal they were acquitted thanks to the intervention of politicians and the help of judge Armando Cono Lancuba. to avenge the killing of their father Antonio Alfieri. Meneghel had been in Playboy magazine's Brazilian edition in December 1982. His cover. like his former lieutenant Pasquale Galasso who preceded him. including Alexander himself. Alex would continue to consolidate his political influence during the 1970s and 1980s not only within Chicago but expanding into the state capital Springfield. angry sneer he wears constantly. which was opposed to the then dominant Nuova Camorra Organizzata of Raffaele Cutolo.000acre (260 km2) ranch in Mato Grosso. After the massacre and the murder of Ciro Nuvoletta two months earlier. Three years later. Vincenzo Casillo was killed via a car bomb in January 1983 by the allies of Alfieri. Domenico Cuomo. but no charges were filed. Santa Catarina. Alexander was born in Laguna. Alexander was still at large. calling to allow Alex to continue his "sporting trips"). Today. In 1982. he was initiated in the Camorra as uomo d'onore (man of honour). This casting of blame was critical to the success of the undercover activities because the people found to be responsible for drug seizures were no longer trusted and were liable to be killed by the Colombian drug lords running the cocaine cartels. he was the undisputed head of the Camorra from 1984 until his arrest in 1992. Mossad assigned him to São Paulo. Alexander was raising $350 million to buy the Manchete television network in Brazil. When Cutolo‘s deputy and main ‗military‘ chief. They abandoned the NCO and allied themselves with Alfieri. Brazil. In November 1982. who rose from Piazzolla di Nola to become one of the most powerful members of Neapolitan Camorra in the 1980s. a 25million-dollar megayacht he kept docked in Monte Carlo (he claimed that he was a good friend of Prince Rainier of Monaco). In the 1960s Carmine was first arrested. . The Brazilian Federal Police claim that Alexander directed major drug-dealing operations between 1997–1999 while he was a federal prison inmate. based in Palm Springs. son-in-law. Alexander. In fact. Remaining a high-ranking member of the Chicago Outfit for over 30 years. Oliver North during the Iran-Contra Affair. Before his arrest in April. Much speculation exists as to where Alexander went after he was released from prison. a nephew and Vincenzo Giugliano. Alfieri's main hitman confessed to have committed over 90 murders within the same period. His personal fortune was in the range of 100 million dollars. including his son Antonio. Brazil. his only client was Maria da Graça Meneghel. At the height of his wealth. Antonino "Tony. While in prison. After the defeat of Cutolo. born July 27. The Alfieri clan of the 1980s and 1990s exhibited a hubris and a penchant for wanton violence that compared favorably with Cosa Nostra‘s spectacular assassinations. together with Vincenzo Cesarano and Marzio Sepe. The book detailed how Alexander and Speziale brought down some of the biggest drug lords. 1956) is a former Brazilian drug smuggler noted for exporting cocaine to the United States (US) while simultaneously assisting the USDrug Enforcement Administration (DEA) with its investigations of other smugglers. On August 10. Both Alfieri and Galasso clarified numerous homicides and implicated the former Italian Minister of the Interior Antonio Gava and dozens of other politicians. near Naples. As boss of the Alfieri clan. thanks to the dissatisfied. he purchased a home in North Miami Beach and maintained close ties with the CIA. which led to her being cast in the motion picture Amor Estranho Amor ("Love Strange Love")in which she played a prostitute who seduces a thirteen-year-old boy. Érika came from a poor family. in 1956. His decision to become a pentito spurred the Camorra to kill several members of Alfieri's blood family. but insist that Gava used his influence to win the release of several convicted camorristi. and then attempt to foist off blame on other members of the importation network. where Alexander attended high school. Alexander had a team of attorneys working on various appeals. active in Nicaragua." "Joe Batters" Accardo. Over the next four years he developed Meneghel's career. Senate Committee on Government Operations. the courts ruled that Speziale‘s book did not violate Alexander‘s privacy. Speziale and the others involved in the undercover investigation would arrange for the shipments to be seized. a sentence that in Brazil is normally reserved for serial killers. In his book. Speziale describes how Alexander‘s sophistication and familiarity with the customs of these drug lords and the distribution network were critical to the success of the government‘s undertakings. Her father was a sergeant in the state of Rio de Janeiro prison service. She later married Alexander and had two children with him. which left eight people killed and 24 wounded among the Gionta clan allied with Nuvoletta. As of November 19. Alex would share overseeing day-to-day activities with Underboss Samuel "Wings" Carlisi (being supervised by former leader Accardo. 2005. Alexander married a woman named either "Claire" or "Clarese" when he was fifteen or sixteen years old. and the case was dismissed. In 1974." "Mooney" Giancana. 2011. Later. Tiffany Alexander and Yosef Matthew Alexander. a million-dollar house in North Miami Beach. Alexander then sought to leave behind his personal turmoil in Brazil. a brother Francesco. During Outfit leader Joseph "Joey Doves" Aiuppa's imprisonment. In the 1980s he was among the founders of the Nuova Famiglia. He became an entrepreneur at an early age. Many other Camorra gangs understood the shift in the balance of power caused by the death of Casillo. In 1953. a close Outfit associate. At the age of seventeen both he and his father were hospitalized as a consequence of a violent physical fight. Paul Lir Alexander (nicknamed El Parito Loco. he publicly claimed that he had been involved in drug dealing since 1979. According to police estimates. Alfieri‘s personal assets were estimated at US$1. The rivalry caused a ferocious war with a huge number of victims. and she became known as Xuxa. a dancer on television. Brazil. During the middle to late 1980s. the angry one. California). Alexander served over twelve years in prison for drug dealing in the US. Cutolo's "mass Camorra" of unemployed youth specializes in protection rackets. In the first instance Alfieri and others were convicted for having organised the massacre and given life sentences. Alexander had a fivemillion-dollar group of condominiums in the Barra da Tijuca section of Rio de Janeiro. After Nicaragua. Salvatore Alfieri killed the murderer of his father. Alfieri became a pentito. Alfieri's nickname is 'o 'ntufato. Col.appearance before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U.

in what would later become the "Tenderloin district". He had his own representative in the twelve districts next to the capintrito rionale that answered to Fucci. The dance hall also operated as a brothel occupied by twenty young women "who wore long black bodices of satin. 1912. ―I have been ruined by the Carabinieri. The women are driven to their work by imprecation. They had frequented a restaurant in Torre del Greco. was considered to be one of the chiefs of the Camorra. When Haskins began kidnapping young girls from more prominent families. According to some source Alfano was the man behind Petrosino‘s murder in Palermo on March 12. Among them were the Haymarket. was later revealed to be a fraud following exclusive exposes by the New York Times and the New York World forcing Allen to leave the city. and to Vito Cascioferro in particular. and government witness Abbatemaggio to five years. Allen's resort became one of the principal hangouts for gangsters and other criminals of the Fourth Ward. He lived with his brothers for about a year. The case hit the news headlines and Alfano was arrested for complicity with the thiefs. Alfano had become the head of the Camorra after the death of Ciccio Cappuccio in 1892. into the establishment where they would be drugged and shanghaied for outgoing vessels short on crew. while drinking with his employer one night. and continued for twelve months. He apparently became affiliated with the Camorra at an early age. On March 27. Gennaro Ibello and Gennaro Jacovitti. Allen and his wife opened a dance hall on Water Street. but this is not certain because he was not mentioned in a 1901 investigation report by the Ministry of Interior. had an interest in a private bank in New York where the savings of immigrants were forwarded to Italy. from their task master. and later the model for many of the city's most infamous dive bars. the ―guardian angel‖ of the Camorra. but has since been attributed to the Sicilian Mafia. Alfano was charged with the murder of Gennaro Cuocolo and his wife. The investigation got new momentum when Gennaro Abbatemaggio. The Cuocolo trial was followed with great interest by the newspapers and the general public both in Italy as well as in the United States. his former employer had been found "beaten to death with an iron belaying-pin". A public crusade against him. was the nominal head. While Susie continued her trade of "rolling drunks".000. The police moved quickly to arrest Alfano and his brother Ciro. The atmosphere reeks with blasphemy. of the Camorra at the time. The murder case led to one of the most complex legal cases of the twentieth century. however he gathered his employees.‖ he told the judge. Allen and Susie decided to leave her organization.[4] One of the girls who worked at Allen's establishment was supposedly the daughter of a Lieutenant-Governor in New England. The most prominent of these was Reverend A. these were often given away as souvenirs by Allen himself. in a zumpata – a kind of ritual initiation knife duel – despite the fact that his adversary sent his Mastino dog to attack Alfano. robbed and woke up hours later "in the forecastle of a ship bound for South America". among them are boys and girls below twelve years of age. the Camorra‘s ―treasurer‖. and two members of the Camorra rank and file. "I am the victim of yellow journalism. It was during this time that he married a "lush worker" known as Little Susie and the two moved to the waterfront district of the infamous Fourth Ward in 1855. in the vicinity of the Cuocolo murder. fifteen years later government witness Gennaro Abbatemaggio withdrew his accusations.000. Meanwhile. who visited Allen's resort to persuade him to allow an ordained preacher to conduct his prayer meetings. but the case was never reopened. scarlet skirts and stockings. A former religious student. 1909. were sentenced to a total of 354 years‘ imprisonment. I was neither its head nor its tail. a young Camorrista and a past Carabinieri informer serving a jail sentence in Naples gave his version of the facts: the decision to kill Cuocolo. The hearings began in the spring of 1911. He opened his resort every afternoon at 1:00 pm. On May 25. He became one of the primary underworld targets of police sergeant Joseph Petrosino of the New York City Police Department. Returning to the waterfront. It was reported that. every evening. but was absolved. Alfano began as a fruit merchant in Naples and speculating on the cattle fairs. thecapintesta (head-in-chief) Totonno 'o pappagallo. contacted Alfano to get back he stolen jewelry. As The New York Times reported: " They put themselves at his disposal as subjects would to a sovereign. Petrosino and his agents raided the apartment where Alfano was living and arrested him. In New York he began to run a gambling den in the basement of 108 Mulberry Street. a Mafia-type organisation in the region of Campania and its capital Naples in Italy. who was performing at the Salone Margherita a café-chantant in Naples. but he was considered a suspect by police and decided to seek different means of employment. and red topped boots with bells affixed to the ankles". particularly in light of the colorful atmosphere and his eccentric manner. John Allen (1823–1870) was an American saloon keeper and underworld figure in New York City during the early-to mid-19th century. the capintesta. suspected of being a police spy. Allen's activities also led to his being targeted by reformers and evangelical clergymen seeking to rid the city of vice and crime. at the turn of the 20th century. Fabbroni accused the Naples police of corruption and inefficiency. settled in New York City where they became "professional burglars and footpads". who tutored him in burglary. on the island of Sardinia. saloons and other resorts during the late 19th century and up until the turn of the 20th century. By 1860. He and Susie moved to the district around Sixth Avenue and Thirteenth Street. Alfano stood trial at Viterbo for the Cuoccolo murders. robbery and less important charges. most especially Theodore Allen who became one of the city's earliest underworld figures." Although involved in theft. 1874 . Born to a prominent and well-to-do religious family in upstate New York near Syracuse. Within a few days. suspected of being a police spy. Giovanni Rapi. bartenders and musicians alike. at the start of the trial. He disembarked on March 17. Giovanni Rapi. the trial ended with a guilty verdict and the defendants. two of his brothers became Presbyterian preachers while a third became a Baptist minister. The trial was transformed from a murder trial into one against the Camorra as a whole. In 1902.‖ The son of a shoemaker. a primary school teacher and usurer. On gala nights. The husband and wife were among "respectable-looking young men and women" employed by Haskins to travel throughout New England to lure young women to New York with the promises of work. Allen was attending the Union Theological Seminary when. or any passersby. known as "Erricone". the sfregio (a knife slash for dishonour. a Bible and other religious literature was available. known as 'O Gassusaro. most often. Allen made his way back to New York six months later. and did "quite well by his own account" but was eventually cast out by his brothers after confessing to being a police informant. Fabbroni intended to use the trial to strike the final blow to the Camorra. founder of the Howard Mission. Alfano claimed he was innocent. 1907. the investigation did not produce evidence and the suspects were released from jail 50 days later.Enrico Alfano (Naples. he left the institution to join his brothers in New York. resulted in a reform movement known as the "Water Street revival". However. and held a prayer meeting in a bar room in the back of the hall three days a week at noon. but had never been convicted. The main defendants Enrico Alfano and Giovanni Rapi were sentenced to thirty years. Funds to pay the defendant‘s lawyers were reportedly collected in Naples and from Neapolitan restaurants in New York. Arnold led a group of six clergymen and a number of devout . The murder investigation was taken over by the Carabinieri and delegated to Captain Carlo Fabbroni. in New York disguised as a member of the ship‘s crew. a sign of Camorra punishment). After his conviction Alfano was transferred to the prison of Sassari. headed by lawyer and journalist Oliver Dyer. had been taken at a meeting chaired by Alfano. 1907. was drugged. Paresis Hall and Billy McGlory's Armory Hall. The story that I have been the head of the camorra is a legend. In time. There was no evidence connecting Allen to the murder. the Assistant Public Prosecutor committed 47 persons for trial by the Court of Assizes in Naples. 1909. or US$ 10. 1868. He was arrested many times as an accomplice in homicide.000 lire. The New York defence fund treasurer was Andrea Attanasio. While Luigi Fucci. the famous French vaudeville singer and dancer and vedette of the Folies Bergère.unknown). On April 17. He was described as ―a kind of president of the confederation. on June 6. The convicts did all in their power to see the famous criminal and to pay him court.C. however. He scattered these about the dance hall and bar room of the resort while every table and bench had The Little Wanderers' Friend. including love letters from women. who believed Alfano to be a big player in the New York branch of the Camorra. He was a man of commanding presence. and often by blows. Haskins was arrested only a year later. the most prominent of these being Packard's Monthly journalist Oliver Dyer who first referred to him as the "Wickedest Man in New York". including 27 leading Camorra bosses. not in the least thanks to the intervention of the priest Ciro Vitozzi. Allen was considered one of the most notorious criminals in the city and was known as the "Wickedest Man in New York". The rest of his brothers. and soon after his return. He had been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude in Italy and was expelled. I admit that I have committed some excesses. Arnold. Allen himself was eventually suffered a similar fate two years later when. Across his cheek he bore a long scar. Allen subscribed to almost every religious paper and magazine published in the United States during this time[4] as well as his favorite newspapers the New York Observer and The Independent. She had originally come to New York to find her fortune and fell into the hands of procurers and forced her into prostitution. Alfano fled to Rome. What youth of my social class in Naples has not?" On July 8. due to many obstacles and attempts to corrupt the authorities the trial was transferred to the Court of Assizes in Viterbo. and began working for procuress Hester Jane Haskins. However. they were abducted and forced to work in brothels. In 1926. Allen remained a devoutly religious man long after leaving the ministry. including prostitutes. Allen's resort received considerable coverage by newspapers and magazines. His particular job was to was to lure sailor. In each cubicle where Allen's women brought men. also sought in connection with the Cuocolo matter. It was in this spirit that Allen would lead his employees and patrons in a sing-song. Allen was employed as a runner for a crimp house. The amount collected was 50. Alfano imposed his position when he defeated the Camorra head. around 1850. procuring and possibly murder. Once these women arrived. Alfano tracked the thiefs and restored the jewelry."several hundred partake of the rude fun. His resort became one of the earliest dance halls. Eugénie Fougère. "There is Rest for the Weary"." Many fan letters addressed to him arrived at the penitentiary. According to an informer. in which Allen and other notorious underworld figures had been "reformed" by religious leaders. 1906. McGurk's Suicide Hall. Back in Italy. then a popular hymnbook. The campaign. he had amassed a personal fortune of over $100. He was put behind bars in Naples. Alfano was the actual leader. obtained a false passport and sailed for the United States from Marseilles.

Allen was released and the others not already sentenced were discharged. Missouri. a cowboy at the time but later a well known Pinkerton Detective. The deputy marshal at the time was a man later to gain fame himself: Wyatt Earp. On September 11. and that he had forsaken his former occupation. Texas (now Hemphill County. The arresting officer. Arnold and other preachers continued to hold prayer meetings at the dance hall. along with his brothers Monroe and John. when he tried to overcharge Allison for the ferry across the Brazos River. After they had raced their horses. a Presbyterian minister. While his competitors soon returned to their criminal ways. where they stopped at a local saloon. James Hotel). a man named Charles Kennedy was being held in the local jail in Elizabethtown. and charged with robbing a sailor of $15. Allison enlisted in the 9th Tennessee Cavalry Regiment. he surrendered with Forrest's men on May 4. New Mexico. Once back home. convinced Allison and his cowboys to surrender their guns." On September 22. partly epileptic and partly maniacal. Allen had also agreed to sing hymns. On February 15. and hanged him. where he established himself as a cattle broker. Captain Thomas Woolsey Thorne. but after an inquiry the charge was dropped and the shooting was ruled self-defense. The following morning. Asked why he had accepted a dinner invitation from a man likely to try to kill him. The "Water Street revival" eventually faded from public attention and was abandoned. in what was then Wheeler County. Allison's reputation as a gunman grew. after a rude confrontation and the breaking of his mother's vase (an anniversary present from his father) Clay Allison took a rifle from the house and killed him. killing him. where he served under the Confederate "wizard of the saddle". took Kennedy from his cell. A mob led by Clay Allison broke into the jail. he enlisted the Confederate States Army in Captain W. and sister Mary and her husband Lewis Coleman. General Nathan Bedford Forrest. and certain financial backers. According to contemporary accounts. On November 1. Allison then drew his own revolver and fired one shot. New York two years later. Clay Allison reportedly was restless from birth. in Fort Worth. Masterson was not in town at the time and there is no evidence the encounter ever took place. but the charge was dismissed as the sheriff had begun the fight. Hadden and Slocum had freely allowed the use of their establishments for religious purposes because they had reformed and had renounced their lives of crime. In the fall of 1870. The mob hanged the man from a telegraph pole near Cimarron. On October 15. "Because I didn't want to send a man to hell on an empty stomach". Texas ). as an ordinance made it illegal to carry weapons inside the town limits. After briefly being held prisoner of war. Their ranch was 12 miles northeast of Mobeetie. John Allison was hit three times . H. Allison began to develop a reputation as a dangerous man. soon moved to Texas to settle. When they approached Allen. Allen denied this charge and insisted that is establishment had been in use for the past several days for religious meetings. most notably Tommy Hadden. Clay Pearl Allison (married . where they sat down together for dinner. Texas. Born Robert Clay Allison. Robert Clay Allison (September 2. 1861. Allison chased after them. Allison was faster and shot Griego twice. An extensive investigation by the New York Times showed that the preachers. Allison replied. as a young man became known for wild mood swings and his quick temper. Allison is alleged to have led a lynch-mob to kill Cruz Vega. The incident was covered extensively by the press causing regular curiosity seekers and ministers to visit the dance hall for several months. who wish to employ magdalenes as servants.One day after the close of Allen's resort. they entered the Clifton House. Allison and his brother John rode into Las Animas. while none of the men would attend services at the Howard Mission. These denouncements by the New York Times and the New York World caused serious damage to the preachers campaign as its large congregations began to desert the cause due to the perceived dishonesty by religious leaders. He deputized two men and returned with them to the saloon. Both Allison brothers would be arrested and charged with manslaughter. he was the fourth of the nine children of Jeremiah Scotland Allison and his wife Mariah R. Colorado. By the time Allison arrived in Dodge City. 1868 a prayer meeting was held in Hadden's Water Street boarding house with his consent although none were held in his more infamous Cherry Street resort. Finally. several cowboys working for him apparently were mistreated by the local marshal's office. He died in West Perth. 1971. 1875. Kansas. who was suspected of murdering a Methodist circuit-rider. Sheriff Faber left. accused Allen of running a "disorderly house". where he placed it on display on a pole in front of the Lambert's saloon. 1865. Allison was charged with the murder of Francisco Griego. It was also during this time that the ministers had approached Allen's rivals. (Though Charles Kennedy died at the hands of Clay. was born on August 9. and laws were upheld by force.laymen to Allen's dance hall. 1862. Emotional or physical excitement produces paroxymals of a mixed character. When the Allisons refused. On January 7. Allen claimed that his arrest had been caused by Oliver Dyer and that the charges were a "put up job". often in man-to-man knife fights. Allen's appearance at the mission gained attention by the press as well as the daily meetings at Allen's establishment which continued for a month. Whatever the reason. led by Vega's uncle Francisco Griego. a notice was posted on the door. and leg. prayer meeting and to claim that he had given his dance hall free of charge "because of his love of the preachers". had witnessed the incident and left a written account.but probably untrue . began making threats of revenge. Meetings were also held in Bill Slocum's gin mill. John William Allison and Jeremiah Monroe Allison. was immediately held for trial while Allen himself was bound over $300 (or $500) bail for appearance in General Sessions. Wyatt Earp did not make his claim until after Allison's death. also raised cattle and sheep to support his family. Allison and the others were paroled on May 10. Tennessee. Brown. Kit Burns and Bill Slocum. This Dance House Is Closed: No gentlemen admitted unless accompanied by their wives. to hold similar meetings in their establishments. John. they found he was so drunk that he was unable to object when they held a prayer meeting lasting from midnight until around 4:00 am. along with several of their girls. His underworld reputation was irrevocably damaged. a cattleman named Dick McNulty and Chalk Beeson.[1] His father. however. When the posse stepped inside. His last public appearance was in late 1868 when he and his wife were arraigned in the Tombs Police Court. his head could not have been taken to Lambert's saloon as the saloon did not yet exist at that date. Allison ranched from 1880 to 1883 with his brothers. until the American Civil War began when he was 21. at the junction of theWashita River and Gageby Creek. Colbert had already killed seven men and had quarreled with Allison years earlier. and most refrained from attending the dance hall. Their establishments were also overrun by preachers and. Allison sold his ranch to his brother. and Mace Bowman is said to have helped Allison to improve his fast draw skills. Jackson's Artillery Battery. Zachary Colbert. in Peña Flora district of Colfax County. Allen's dance hall closed for the first time in seventeen years. owner of the Long Branch Saloon. Colbert suddenly tried to draw his pistol to shoot Allison. Dodge City was a "cattle town". striking Colbert in the head. A. Clay Allison turned and fired four shots. In the towns of Cimarron and Elizabethtown. At the war's end. Earp's biographer and Earp himself claimed that Wyatt Earp and his friend Bat Masterson confronted Allison and his men in a saloon. the birthplace of his wife and sister-in-law. the barrel struck the table. purchasing another ranch near the Pecos River crossing of the Texas-New Mexico line (this was a landmark on the Goodnight-Loving Trail). They went to the Lambert Inn (now the St. Margaret Ware. at midnight on August 29. Bowman and Allison became friends. Allen never recovered from the Water Street revival. also on Water Street. Allison then cut off the man's head and carried it in a sack 29 miles (47 km) to Cimarron.) Allison was involved in numerous encounters during this period. He relocated to Sedalia. and began to call upon him to close down the dance hall. was declared in a public statement issued by many of the city's prominent religious leaders which explained its purpose claiming that Allen. The unwanted attention drove Allen's regular customers away and he began to lose money. 1874. Griego reached for his revolver. Texas. Vega's family members. 1885. 1881. Clay next moved to Hays City. at Gainesville. Kansas. Appearing before Judge Joseph Dowling.C. New Mexico. Arnold publicly announced that Allen had been converted and reformed. the following Sunday. Revival meetings were held in the resort several days later and. and said Earp had not even approached Clay Allison. however. usually whenever they were able to be given consent by an intoxicated Allen. He is one of the best known historic figures of the American Old West. Burns. Allison was involved in several violent confrontations before he left for Texas. Alabama. He believed himself fast with a gun. he was forced to close the dance hall within a few months. 1865 and allowed to return home. as did his notoriety. (Allison had beaten Colbert's uncle. As part of their agreement. later to become known as the "Water Street revival". his former criminal clientele regarding him as "loose and unsound". but they escaped. and that Allison backed down before them. 1840 – July 3. accused of going mad and murdering several strangers and his own daughter. but this changed when he was outdrawn in a friendly competition with Mason Bowman. Nevertheless. This campaign. and Kit Burns "rat pit" held in his liquor store. Siringo agreed that it was McNulty and Beeson who ended the incident. On October 30. This gunfight more than any raised Clay Allison to legendary status. killing Sheriff Faber. wearing only his holster and revolver. had paid Allen $350 for the use of his dance hall for a month. where they confronted Allison and accused him of taking part in the lynching. Allison married America Medora McCulloch in Mobeetie and became a family man. A verified story tells how a totally drunk Clay Allison rode through Mobeetie stark naked one day.in the chest. he was medically discharged because an old head injury: "Incapable of performing the duties of a soldier because of a blow received many years ago. A popular . One of the girls. Allegedly. arm. Clay Allison. In March 1877. Three months later.story claims that when a corporal from the 3rd Illinois Cavalry Regiment arrived at the Allison family's farm with intention of seizing it. When the house of Kennedy was later searched they found the bodies of those he had killed along with his daughter. Charlie Siringo. his reputation had preceded him. Allison had sold his ranch and moved to Pope's Wells. 1887) was a Texas cattle rancher and gunfighter. Clay and his wife "Dora" had two children: Patti Dora Allison (married name Byars). "Look out!" The sheriff and his men promptly opened fire. Allison killed a gunman named Chunk Colbert. Constable Charles Faber of Bent County told the Allisons they should surrender their pistols. they did allowed themselves to be mentioned in the congregation's prayers. Although he still retained his women and musicians. someone yelled. Allison helped on the family farm near Waynesboro. 1868.) During their meal. an inn located in Colfax County. In December 1876. Fulton County. she died on August 21. On November 10. By 1883. In reality. The deputized men fled. Allen attended church services at the Howard Mission where its congregation prayed for him at Arnold's request. 50 miles northwest of Pecos.

of Joseph "Joe the Boss" Masseria's powerful New York gang. After 11 days of deliberations. 1975. either to pay their respects or simply out of curiosity. He was a partner with Moe Dalitz and Lansky in Wilbur Clark's Desert Inn. Having served six years since his extradition. Alite agreed to testify in the trial of Gambino family enforcer Charles "Charlie Canig" Carneglia. This would end up not being true. On July 3. Alite could not become a made member of the organization. Prosecutors. not Italian. the jury sent word that they were deadlocked and Judge P. public embarrassment about the illegal gambling increased. who is at the apex of organized crime. 1988. after Lansky's death. Jeanne Cooper appears in the same episode as "Duchess". He was a prosecution witness against former associates. for trial in 2006. two from an ex-wife. This cooperative relationship between the town and the mob would continue uninterrupted until 1947. Thomas Milo Sr. When Lansky and Alo arrived in Florida. stated that "Alo is one of the most significant organized crime figures in the United States. Lansky was a valuable money-maker for Masseria's organization and Luciano wanted Alo to guard him. not to be confused with Nicholas Blanda. At that point. Francesco (Frank Casino) Cucola. Louis Phadu. Angelo Iandosco. A former member of the Gambino crime family he was a friend and crew leader for John A. New South Wales Police Detective-Sergeant Roger Rogerson was convicted of supplying heroin in a deal with Allen. When Alo first met Lansky. Jack Kelly appeared as Clay Allison in the 1955 syndicated series Stories of the Century. It is also reported that he was a major drug dealer in the Richmond and South Yarra areas of Melbourne during the 1980s. Soon afterwards.S. Gotti was best man at Alite's wedding in Queens. he was 46 years old. was born on February 10. 1888 (seven months after her father‘s death). A sack of grain fell from the wagon. Alo was convicted of armed robbery and sent to state prison (either at Sing Sing or Dannemora state prisons). including the dismembering of a Hells Angels biker with a chainsaw. As federal racketeering indictments were handed down for his group's activities in the Tampa area. New Jersey. Robert Clay Allison was buried the next day in Pecos Cemetery. Frank (Frank Gallucci)Galluccio. Named a caporegimeof the old Joe Adonis crew. federal prosecutors have made him a witness in their unsuccessful racketeering trial against Gotti. including Gotti and Charles Carneglia." Alo was described as being . Aniello Ercole. breaking his neck. one of Masseria's lieutenants introduced Alo to Meyer Lansky. Alo became a made man. according to the Brazilian Federal Police. He was buried by Father Peter Norden. New York. He testified in court that he was introduced to organized crime when an uncle of his took him to a gambling den in The Bronx and was accompanied by a made man in the Gambino crime family. he could be eligible for release in 2015. Lucky Luciano. He served two years in prison in Brazil while fighting extradition.. and illegal gambling in Brooklyn. In 1970. Following extradition from Brazil in 2006. Both Lansky and Alo were introverted. particularly Alite. nicknamed Mr. James Picarelli. Texas. By the 1990s. In a special ceremony held on August 28. Pecos. Joseph's Hospital and the shops in Channelside. on October 23.k. Carol. U. Before being cast as Bart Maverick on the ABC Western television series Maverick. 1904 – March 9. Allison's widow died on January 18. His death was almost instantaneous. he was convicted in Tampa. Alite and Gotti met in their teens and moved quickly into criminal enterprises. 2011. He is closely associated with Meyer Lansky of Miami. bookish men who wanted to become legitimate businessmen. and parked cars at restaurants and nude clubs. Louis Milo and Sabato "Bo" Milo. Immediately realizing that Alo would be perfect for this venture. Pennsylvania and Florida. Gotti in the 1980s and 1990s. but was eventually handed over to federal authorities in Tampa. Lawrence (Larry Black) Centore. An old friend of Luciano's. Victoria Gotti strongly denied the affair. "pieces of his heart actually broke off after decades of heavy drug abuse". also say that he also arranged for the purchase of Mirage. Alite grew up in Woodhaven. He was the oldest son of criminal matriarch Kath Pettingill. Allen received a ten-year prison sentence for rape during the 1970s. He died of heart disease in 1987 in prison custody awaiting trial for murder. A wagon wheel rolled over him. Alite received the family's permission to move to Tampa. Alite claims that he had been having an affair with Agnello‘s wife Victoria Gotti. Allen. jurors said that they had not trusted prosecution witnesses.a. who was found guilty of four murders and is now serving a life sentence. and two from a common-law wife. In 1929. Maryland and was interred in Oakwood Cemetery in Fort Worth. because his family is Albanian. Alo was also very active in Las Vegas. District Attorney for the Southern District of New York. Alite and Trucchio became involved in A&A. who prosecutors said were part of the drug ring he and Alite operated in Queens. four murder conspiracies. Queens and says he briefly attended the University of Tampa on a baseball scholarship and played on the university team. Ronnie "One Arm" Trucchio and ran a crew for the Gambino family. starring Dale Robertson. Carmine Agnello. Robert M. FL of several counts of murder conspiracy.000 in child support. Texas. they immediately started making contributions to local fraternal organizations and secret payments to politicians and law enforcement. the father and sons team. and Alite. Luciano may have wanted Alo to also monitor Lansky (a claim reinforced in Vincent Teresa's My Life In the Mafia and The Last Mafioso by Ovid Demaris). Aldo Duzzaratti. When they opened their first casino in Hallendale. She moved with him to Fort Worth in 1897. was believed to have been involved in up to 13 underworld murders. Allison was hauling a wagon load of supplies when the load shifted. 1962. where he had an interest in a valet business run by a friend. Rocco Perrotta. Son (Rudolph Prisco Jr. and Allison fell from the wagon as he tried to catch it. As the town's economy became more diversified. Alite secretly pled guilty to two murders. Grand Son Rudolph Prisco III and Grand Son Michael Prisco of Saratoga). Alo was involved in a setting up a casino in the town of Hallendale. Prestige had contracts with St. The maximum penalty for the charges is life in prison.name Parker). but was acquitted following appeal. origin. Alite says that the ring was earning $1 million a month. August (Jerry) Lasetta. Allen died in 1987 of heart failure. Death or Mr. John Edward Alite a. A second marker was later placed at the foot of the grave: "He never killed a man that did not need killing". Interviewed after the trial. Kevin Castel declared a mistrial. Rudolph (Rudy) Prisco Sr. The two mobsters quickly became friends. Alo started working on Wall Street at age 14. Alo and Lansky closed their two Hallandale casinos and started planning for casinos in Cuba. a Jesuit priest who buried three members of the Pettingill family during the 1980s. George Smurra. He lived there for 10 months before authorities there arrested him. she died on November 21 . Alite has testified that he and Gotti ran a cocaine trafficking ring in the Forest Hills section of Queens and extracted a tax from other dealers. Nicholas (Cockeyed Nick) Baterni. FL. He continued his reading habits until his death and often talked about the books that Alo and his friends were reading in their book club in Hollywood. D. Gaetano Martino. Vincent Alo's Harlem-based crew consisted of Nicholas (Nicky Blanche) Belandi. According to Alite. 1962) is a New York City mobster of Albanian Dennis Allen (1951–1987) was a Melbourne based drug dealer who was reported to have murdered many victims. Beginning in 1995. In 1995 Alite was arrested for illegal possession of a firearm in violation of a parole agreement and spent three years in prison. or full member. Texas. In January 2008. Morgenthau. Fl. Alo oversaw clubs. Warren Stevens was cast as Allison in a 1959 episode of NBC's western series. One victim who survived was guitarist Chris Stockley of The Dingoes. Authorities said Alite used his alleged mob ties to threaten in and intimidate others in the Tampa valet business. After the successful trial against Carneglia. On April 26. but as a sign of respect for Gotti because it was his birthday. 1887. After his release three years later. Alite earned an additional three months back in prison for smuggling sperm donation kits for a fellow inmate who was trying to impregnate his wife. Gaetano Somma.Tom Skerrit provides the voice for Allison in the video game. and said that they could arrange certain benefits for businesses that needed help in Las Vegas. As a young man. On February 14. Business was so good in the first casino that Alo and Lansky soon opened a second one in Hallendale. speakeasys. Batisto (Bart) Salvo. In 2009 Carol complained while testifying in court that her exhusband John owed her more than $30. Alite fled to Rio de Janeiro in January 2004 and lived and worked in theCopacabana neighborhood. Florida (now called Hallandale Beach). Alo was convicted of obstructing justice. Dora McCullough Allison married to Jesse Lee Johnson. a valet company in Tampa. 1926 in Baltimore. Prosecutors charged that Gotti ordered the murders of George Grosso and Bruce Gotterup. Wilbur Clark introduced Alo as his "uncle" ("Gumba") or protector. The date was selected not because it was Valentine's Day. After a tense reconciliation meeting with Gotti. "Johnny Alletto" (born September 30. Alite was sentenced to 10 years in prison by Judge Susan Bucklew. at least eight shootings and two attempted shootings as well as armed home invasions and armed robberies in New York. Vincent "Jimmy Blue Eyes" Alo (May 26. just west of the Pecos Museum. Clay Allison died an accidental death while working on his ranch. whom Allen shot in the stomach while attempting to gatecrash a party. 1989 in Hawaii by a justice of the peace. The Spartans but left after one semester following an injury. He divorced his wife several years later. However. Born in Harlem. While a part of the Gambino organization. 2001) was a New York mobster and member of the Genovese crime family who set up casino operations with mob associate Meyer Lansky in Florida and Cuba. starring and narrated by Jim Davis. The witness to his wedding was John Gotti Jr. in Pecos. racketeering and other charges stemming from allegedly heading a unit of the Gambino organization in Florida and was sentenced in 2011 to 10 years in prison (of which he had already served six). Tales of Wells Fargo. GuN. FL which later changed its name to Prestige Valet. according to federal prosecutors. He married his wife Carol on February 14. in Pecos. In 1985. Fl. Alo and Lansky faced no government or public opposition. In 1926. in wide-ranging racketeering trials. 1890. and grew angry when he believed that Agnello was beating her. He is the father of four children. a Tampa nightclub. It is said that hundreds attended his funeral. Clay Allison's remains were re-interred at Pecos Park. his relationship with Gotti and the Gambino leadership soured in 1994 when he confronted an associate. Meyer invited him to become a partner.

including explosives and shoulder-held missiles. At the grave site. in which the fee paid for use of the computer would be paid in cash to the restaurant and would then be used to gamble on the computer. Peter Alston (c1765-Feb. Carlo Gambino. then the younger Alston was simply using the alias "James May" just as Little Harpe was using the name John Setton at the time. at the crowded Tel Aviv intersection of Yehuda HaMaccabi Street and Namir Road. Sebastian "Buster" Aloi. However. but were captured again and tried for their crimes. Police were trying to determine the identity of a vehicle that had been spotted driving away from the site of the explosion. as well as took part in Mason's river piracy operations. The body was identified as wearing the same shirt that Alperon had been wearing in court for the indictment of his son on unrelated charges. 2010). also known as 'don Micu o Giannuzzu'. the prime suspect in Alperon's slaying is rival mobster Amir Mulner. Mississippi. unlike Colombo. A day after turning in the head. also named Peter as the second killer. He was reputed to have run Tel Aviv's third-largest crime family. he was jailed for 4. Frank de leon. Alperon was first arrested in his twenties. 1955 – November 17. However. a drug lord who had also been the target of murder attempts. a Mafia-type organisation in Calabria. Marshall Smith. In the early 1980s. and intentionally damaging a car" for their involvement in the incident. including several known Israeli underworld figures. 2008. There he reunited with his father and counterfeited coins and paper money. Alperon and his brother Reuven were charged with "making threats. Aloi was convicted on for stock fraud involving an automobile leasing company. an industry that brings in $5 million a year. and earlier attempts that same year against Alperon's brother Nissim and another attack against a member of a crime family linked with the Alperons. The earliest recorded use of the alias dates to around 1797 or 1798 in Red Banks. Guns and knives were used after the arbitration efforts failed. blackmail and intimidation over the course of his career. Kentucky. at Ra'anana Cemetery was attended by thousands. His last know descendants are Henry Coswald. lightly wounding seven people. At this point. 1970. In 1972. On November 19. Due to his bad health he was transferred to a hospital in Reggio . Aloi was convicted of perjury in state court. Persico appoint Aloi and his brother Benedetto as acting consiglieres.charming and intelligent. He was the son of the colonial-era counterfeiter Philip Alston associated with Cavein-Rock and Natchez. where he appeared along with a woman who claimed she was his lame sister. His remains were interred in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx. 2006. 1804. On February 5. who had succeeded the historical boss of the clan. and Mulner was stabbed in the neck. However. Alston and Harpe killed Mason in 1803 in an effort to secure the reward for the outlaw's head. some of which involved car bombs. including a 13-year-old boy. In March 2004. 1971. The two turned themselves into police custody. Later in 1973. Alston/May also used the names Samuel May and Isaac May. 8. On December 22. There he stole some horses. On June 28. December 5. Alperon was born in 1955 to a poor family of immigrants from Egypt and grew up in a small apartment in Givat Shmuel. Once dead. Alo died of natural causes in Florida at age 96. Alperon met with rival gangster Amir Mulner. their heads were removed and placed on poles as a warning to future pirates. a provincial commission of the 'Ndrangheta formed at the end of the war in September 1991. 2010. Carmine Persico and his family essentially took control of the family after the Colombo shooting. Colombo survived. to avoid further internal conflicts. in one of the most important and large operations against the 'Ndrangheta in Italy ever (Operation Crimine) in which more than 300 criminals were arrested.יעקב אלפרון‬February 18. Alston later shifted operations down to Stack Island in the lower Mississippi River along with Mason after regulators cleaned the outlaws out of western Kentucky and Cave-in-Rockin the summer of 1799. T. Aloi was sentenced to nine years in federal prison. Vincenzo Aloi was residing in Florida and is today assumed to be in retirement. at their hideout. Prosecutors had charged that Aloi lied to a grand jury when he claimed to have not visited a Colombo family safe house in Nyack. assault. Aloi was paroled from prison. after numerous court appeals. Indiana. Vincenzo "Vinny" Aloi (born September 22. 2002. Gambino crime family capo Nicholas "Little Nick" Corozzo became involved in a dispute over the DeCavalcante crime family of New Jersey inductingManhattan residents. In 1991. Eric Luna. Convicted and sentenced to death on February 4. He became the head of the locale of Sinopoli and Cosoleto. as opposed to the name James May which the killer used at the time. Nissim and Zalman. in his History of Russellville and Logan County Kentucky published two decades later. summit held at a hotel north of Tel Aviv intended to address their differences. Alperon had served prison terms on multiple occasions and had just been released from a 10-month prison sentence he had served as part of a plea deal. gives the earliest account so far that lists Alston as the second killer of Mason in 1803. Alperon also battled with the rival Abutbul and Abergil families over money from bottle recycling. He retired in the mid 1970s and his crew was taken over by Matthew Ianniello. Israeli police arrested four suspected contract killers from Belarus who had been found with weapons. He was never tried as he broke out of the jail the first night incarcerated. He also knew many famous celebrities like Marilyn Monroe and Frank Sinatra. As of December 2008. 2005. which would leave no documentation and could be redeemed for cash to provide an apparently legitimate revenue source. there is no evidence that Aloi had a direct role in the conflict. were also convicted. 1973. Aloi was acquitted on all charges. He and his brothers learned boxing and began taking over small businesses in the area. Later in the decade. Aloi definitely became acting boss because Persico had been sentenced to 10 years in federal prison on hijacking charges. after giving his men permission to kill Joey Gallo in a Manhattan restaurant. now Henderson. 2013 and two in 2003 and 2007. in his Legends of the War of Independence published in 1855. At a January 2. may have been a further assassination attempt against him. Yacovelli fled New York out of fear of reprisals from the Gallo crew. after the arrest of Carmine Alvaro on July 18. Alperon's enemies included Zeev Rosenstein. by a bomb explosion in his car. No other details of his early life are available. On June 26. attempted assault. 2008) was an Israeli mobster who was murdered in a car bomb attack. which included a more detailed account of the father's criminal activities. but he managed to escape unscathed. portrayed by Dominic Chianese. If this is correct. Yaakov Alperon (Hebrew: ‫ . At least three other people were wounded in the attack. well liked by his associates. However. and Persico allowed him to remain as caporegime when the Third Colombo War ended in 1993. A meeting was called to resolve the problem and Aloi attended it as the Colombo representative. In 1993. An article published in Haaretz shortly before his death indicated that Alperon had been involved in heating oil schemes with other gangsters. They escaped. 1971. The family gained power by protection racket in the Gush Dan area. 1804) was the late 18th Century and early 19th Century counterfeiter and river pirate. He is the brother of mobster Benedetto "Benny" Aloi. As part of a protection racket offered to restaurant owners. Kentucky. but in a vegetative state. Persico preferred to hide behind figurehead bosses. The internet business was shut down in spring 2002 after mounting costs started to exceed the gambling revenues. He became a member of La Provincia. including one in 2000. July 25. based on police estimates. 1924 − Sinopoli. As reported. New York. It was decided in the meeting that the DeCavalcante crime family could no longer induct associates outside of New Jersey and South Philadelphia. Persico demoted him from acting boss back to capo. returning to his crew in Brooklyn faction of the Colombo crime family. in the film The Godfather Part II (1974) is based on Alo. Alexander Finley. Domenico Alvaro (Sinopoli. During the mid-1990s. He had been arrested for stabbings. Alperon had also been involved in setting up internet cafés during a time when few had computer access at home. 1974. As of 2009. His funeral on November 18. and brought back for trial. 2006. In March 2006. a car explosion in Tel Aviv in January 2013. Cosimo Alvaro (1920–2000). He won't have a grave because I'll cut off his arms. Aloi was indicted on stock fraud charges involving the illegal takeover of an investment firm in Miami. 2012. Yaakov Alperon and his son went into hiding and were not found despite a two-month nationwide search. 1933) is a New York City mobster involved in stock fraud who briefly served as the acting boss of the Colombo crime family. 1973. The character Johnny Ola. the Alperon crime family. his head. on December 23. He was arrested on July 14. The arrested hit men had been accused of involvement in a failed murder attempt against Yaakov Alperon in December 2003. He was a mediator for the 'pax mafiosa' of the Second 'Ndrangheta war – in which more than 600 people were killed – brokering a deal between the main adversaries Pasquale Condello and Giorgio De Stefano. Aloi was incarcerated at the Allenwood Federal Penitentiary in Pennsylvania. I'll send this man to God. Alperon's brother Nissim Alperon survived several assassination attempts. Persico designated either Aloi or mobster Joseph Yacovelli as the front boss for the Colombo family. 2001.5 years after the police busted his extortion company. a former underboss of the family. Aloi sided with Colombo underboss Victor Orena in his bloody rebellion against the imprisoned Persico. the businesses would pay for the mobsters' "services" by leaving empty bottles. 2008. Two of his brothers. Vincent Aloi is the godson of Gambino crime family patriarch. Now that Aloi was also in prison. allegedly by Alperon. boss Joseph Colombo was shot at an Italian American Anti-Defamation League rally in Manhattan. He was later sentenced to seven years in state prison. but was caught at Vincennes. before the murder of Joe Gallo. who is believed to beLittle Harpe's associate and partner in the murder of notorious outlaw leader Samuel Mason in 1803. and his legs". On March 9. is an Italian criminal and a member of the 'Ndrangheta. Harpe's real identity was discovered and the two men were arrested. the two were hanged four days later on February 8. Aloi's perjury conviction was overturned in federal court. Florida. 53 year old Alperon was killed on November 17. one of Alperon's sons was quoted as saying that "We will find the man who did this. Vincenzo Aloi is the son of the former Profaci caporegime.

The only problem was that. but none of the assassination plots succeeded. New York. only to die of cancer and spark a massive power vacuum between rival factions within their crime families. but the situation is unclear. Amato was caught committing adultery. However. Constance moved to West Palm Beach. His body was never recovered. In 1992. New Jerseyduring the 1980s. the most powerful member of the DeCavalcante crime family at the time. when a man wasbeheaded. Frank was born out of wedlock raised in a blue collar family in New York City. He is believed to hold Lebanese or Turkish citizenship. Reputed Gambino family captain Nicholas "Little Nick" Corozzo and Colombo family Consigliere Vincenzo "Vinny" Aloi were present during the sitdown. Joseph and Phillip. According to the testimony provided by Vincent "Vinny Ocean" Palermo.Calabria and later to his home in Sinopoli. Anthony Gaggi. His son Cosimo Alvaro took over the command of the clan. Castellano put Amato to work as a butcher at his successful Meat Palace. Constance was granted divorce from Frank in 1973 on grounds of spousal abuse and infidelity. Amari and Vitabile. Sr. it was reported that Amari was diagnosed with stomach cancer. a butcher shop franchise owned by Castellano and his sons. After longtime official Underboss Louis LaRasso disappeared in the summer of 1991. He was arrested on July 14. Amato became a target for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) early on in the successful investigation dubbed "Operation Meathead". nicknamed "the president of Berlin. now the most powerful members of the family. Amato worked for brother-in-law. Frank was also shown how to drain meat of any foul smelling juices it had accumulated by usingformaldehyde and use counterfeit United States Department of Agriculture stamps to assign meats a false grade or expiration date. While serving as a "consultant" for Local 394 in the "International Association of Laborers and Hod Carriers".. Florida and lived in her father's condominium to overcome her emotional distress. Anthony Gaggi. and the Ruling Panel kept controlling the family throughout the 1990s. Paul Castellano became enraged and ordered Amato to move out of the Todt Hill mansion and had him fired from his job as a butcher at Dial Poultry. possibly both. formerly known as Blue Ribbon Meats. After reputed captain John "Johnny Boy" D'Amato stepped up as Acting Boss for Riggi in 1991. Amato was later transferred to Castellano's other butcher store chain. In 1995. Castellano's sons. as Amari meant it would have been an embarrassment if an homosexual represented their family of Cosa Nostra. the business that helped poultry magnate Frank Perdue distribute his chickens in supermarket chains. Castellano set Amato up in the legitimate business world as a distributor of Italian ice. His clan. which was another area that the DeCavalcantes had traditionally recruited from. Castellano had the female employee fired. the sons of Carlo Gambino. Amato was an Italian-American of Siciliandescent from Brooklyn. as the DeCavalcante crime family had been recruiting reputed Mafia associates Louis "Louie Eggs" Consalvo and Gregory Rago. was loosely based on Amari. Girolamo "Jimmy" Palermo (no relation) and Charles "Big Ears" Majuri were promoted into the family Ruling Panel as Street bosses in aide to Amari. 1980. New Jersey. discolored meat a healthy fresh red appearance. Chris Rosenberg and Joseph Guglielmo were later charged with his disappearance and suspected murder. Al-Zein arrived in Germany in 1982 claiming asylum but his claim was rejected. it was reported by FBI Special Agent Joseph O'Brien that she hardly ever left her mother's home and remained at her mother's side constantly. Because of his involvement in Castellano's stranglehold on the East Coast wholesale meat market and the United Food and Commercial Workers Union. authorities suspected that his body . Giacomo "Jake" Amari (died Frank Amato (disappeared September 20. During the mid-1990s. After being fired. Kennedy Airport. as a massive power vacuum was being developed into the crime family. as massive indictments were put up against the DeCavalcante crime family in 2000. but no convictions were ever obtained. there were three faction leaders who were eager to gain control of the DeCavalcante crime family. 1980. 2011. and the Meat Market. where he died of natural causes at the age of 86 on July 25. he was involved in the selling of rancid and expired meat products. Amari would soon be promoted again. Roy DeMeo. Inc. after an alleged fight with his girlfriend. After a few months of working at Dial Poultry. It was around this time that Amari was promoted within the organization and placed as Acting Boss of the DeCavalcante crime family in 1992. who slowly began to die. He worked as a butcher and as a transport truck "stick up man" or hijacker for a crew in the Gambino crime family crew that robbed transport trucks coming in and out of John F. and South America. the later Acting Boss of the DeCavalcante crime family. the Al-Zein Clan. Amari developed a great partnership with reputed Consigliere Stefano "Steve the Truck Driver" Vitabile. Especially when they both become acting boss of the New Jersey crime family. pronounced legally dead 1985) was a Sicilian-American mafioso who was the son-in-law of Gambino crime family boss Paul Castellano. who quickly acted on prior knowledge and decided to have D'Amato murdered while informing the incarcerated Riggi. After he caught Frank having an affair with a fellow co-worker. As a butcher employed at Dial Meat Purveyors Inc. Castellano greatly misjudged Amato who did not share the same keen business sense as Castellano and the Italian ice distribution business failed. and as Anthony Capo heard this. Dominick Montiglio. and could no longer run the family as much as he could before. however. and put Riggi aside. as well as AMI Construction. who had been put on trial for racketeering and extortioncharges after developing a great influence inside most of the unions in New Jersey together with Amari. Frederick DiNome. uninspected meats or meats of a dubious provenance by using a white preservative powder known as "dynamite" that gave the faded. Amari was reportedly promoted to LaRasso's position and fully in charge of all labor and construction racketeering operations.000 members. Although his remains have never been found. Amari was a prominent and ruthless captain before being promoted to the acting Underboss after the imprisonment of longtime family boss. Following the divorce from Amato. of the HBO hit-series The Sopranos. D'Amato was shot to death in his car. Mahmoud Al-Zein. from Elizabeth. After moving with her mother into a nearby home. Dial Meat Purveyors. rumors started going around that D'Amato was homosexual. It was around this time that prominent family capos Vincent Palermo. He was a fellow criminal associate of transport truck hijacker Edward Grillo. There is no evidence that Castellano promoted or wanted to induct Amato as a "made man" into the Gambino crime family. currently has around 4. Amari was reportedly a powerful labor racketeer of Newark. Dial Meat Purveyors. Al-Zein has contacts throughout Europe. His marriage to Constance was an Old World traditional Sicilian style wedding that was attended by many powerful Gambino mobsters. Attempts to deport him. as then-current Acting boss John D'Amato was recruited by Gambino crime family boss John Gotti into take over the DeCavalcante crime family. the Middle East. died of stomach cancer in 1997. and supplemented his meager income by committing petty burglaries. FBI Special Agent Joseph O'Brien states in Boss of Bosses that after Amato married Paul Castellano's daughter. There is little information available on Frank Amato before his marriage into the Castellano-Gambino-Lucchese blood relative family. Constance. Although married to Constance. who was also one of the most powerful figures in the DeCavalcante crime family at the time. Amato found work at a clothing store in Queens with the help of cousin-in-laws Thomas Gambino and Joseph Gambino. failed as he seemed to bestateless." is regarded as one of the most powerful organised crime bosses in Germany. informed authorities that Frank had been witnessed by mob associates and superiors like capo. A few weeks after Gaggi witnessed this. after turning state's evidence. and after her mother Nina separated from her father for having an affair with their livein Colombian housekeeper and maid Gloria Olarte. outdated. following convictions for drug trafficking offences. managed the chain. continuing to hamper ongoing attempts to deport him. were present in a sitdown with representatives of the Gambino and Colombo crime familiesin New York City. in this instance. In of Bosses: The FBI and Paul Castellano. 2011. making sexual advances and having had brief encounters with the female employees who worked with him at the Meat Palace. and eventually led to Vince Palermo and captain Anthony Rotondo becoming state's evidence. Paul Castellano Jr. who together operated a social club on Mott Street and held criminal interests in New York City. Inc. Jake Amari. O'Brien would also state that at Castellano's meat suppliers he would have Amato and fellow butchers carve meat and label it as "beef" that was not always carved from cows and "pork" that was not always carved from pigs. The conflict was eventually resolved peacefully when it was ruled the DeCavalcante crime family could no longer 'make' members outside of New Jersey and South Philadelphia. The mob is believed to have executed Amato on September 20. Giovanni "John the Eagle" Riggi. FBI Special Agent Joseph O'Brien suggests that at Dial Meat and the Meat Market he was taught by Castellano's men how to bleach tainted. and was almost charged with Riggi in extorting the unions into ripping of their welfare and pension funds in the early 1990s. He was responsible for the killings in Neukölln 2002 where four people were murdered and a 2010 killing in Kiel which attracted considerable attention. Constance left her father. Two attempts on the lives of both Vince Palermo and Charles Majuri were conspired and hatched by the one and another. Strong assemblement shows that the fictional character Giacomo "Jackie" Aprile. their profit and activities should have gone to one of the Five Families. after Amari's sudden death. either the Gambino crime family or the Colombo crime family. since these two mobsters were based in New York. he could quarter a lamb with great skill and was knowledgeable about tallow. also served Waldbaum's and Key FoodCooperative on whose boards of directors Gambino crime family capo Pasquale Conte sat as a member. Although Amato had little formal school education. Gambino crime family associate. Joseph Testa. 1997) was the powerful Underboss and later Acting Boss of the DeCavalcante crime family. he shared it with current administration members Amari and Stefano Vitabile.

Amato. It has been claimed that. the case was eventually dropped due to lack of evidence. For the rest of 1920 and into 1921. disputed the new rules. a group of ruthless Sicilian gangsters. Frank Amato. eventually arriving in Chicago's Little Italy. two unidentified men rushed into the barbershop and drew their guns. a primarily Irish gang then run by boss Hymie Weiss. Amato later split from the Di Lauro clan in October 2004. On February 26. as a result of Amatuna's death. and declared himself president. Amatuna worked as a messenger for the Genna Brothers. Powers stationed armed guards and private detectives around his house as he campaigned against Anthony D'Andrea. would be admitted to membership.Cesare Pagano and his clan were once a faction within the Di Lauro clan. setting up Amatuna's murder themselves is still a matter for debate as they were both killed shortly after his death (Zion. The Italian Interior minister. . Confident that he was safe in the Bluebird. He became a fugitive again. who quickly ducked behind the barberchair. He once boasted to reporters "No one can shoot me in here. Upon arriving at the shop. at age 17. Furthermore."). Enraged by his defeat. The Scissionisti are also known as "Spagnoli" (Spaniards) because of their endless trips ferrying cocaine from Galicia in Spain. where he was reinterred in his native village of Pozzallo by his family. His arrest came one month after that of his arch-enemy Cosimo Di Lauro. Constance married a business associate and friend of the family. Before the opera. however no charges were ever brought against them. which upset Al Capone. As a teenager. Amatuna. The identities of the men who killed Amatuna were eventually revealed as North Side Gang members Vincent "The Schemer" Drucci and Jim Doherty (along with Frank Gusenbergas the driver). 2005. Amatuna walked into the headquarters of the Unione Sicilane. returning from Amatuna's funeral. This place is full of my friends. however. The remaining Genna Brothers later commented that Amatuna's death was inevitable after he began hiring non-Sicilian bodyguards disregarding tradition (Mike Merlo was said to have stated "Them Jew boys only work for themselves and they will always side with the Irish in the end. On February 26. died in 1973. The war. He was extradited to Italy and received a 20-year jail sentence on May 19. 1965) is an Italian Camorra boss and head of the Scissionisti di Secondigliano. Amato was eventually extradited to Italy. Amato himself didn't completly resign and operated as LaRocca's advisor. As of 2011. Amatuna soon bought the Bluebird Cafe. and the couple moved into a modest mansion on Todt Hill. the owner Isadore Paul noticed the gang leader was without his bodyguards (who replied he had not been able to reach them that day). 1925) was a Chicago mobster and member of the Genna Brothers. Powers suspected that Amatuna was the bomber on orders from the Gennas. known as the Scampia feud (Italian "faida di Scampìa"). who was killed with a shotgun in a drugstore by two unidentified gunmen on November 25). In May 1925. many of them elderly. Powers narrowly won the election. The brothers continued to battle the Powers faction for political control of the Nineteenth Ward. Angelo. The feud caused widespread public revulsion against the Camorra and led to a major crackdown by the authorities. The noted absence of Goldstein and Zion has also been questioned. By the end of 1920. however. Angelo Genna was murdered by the North Siders. (1893 . Amatuna immigrated to the United States in the early 20th century. and of being "the principal. Born in Pozzallo (Sicily) in 1899. His death was greatly mourned in Sicily as much of his income was given to his family and was used to repair a local church. Amatuna's elaborate funeral was one of the many which would be seen between rival mobsters and. Taken to a local hospital. By the mid-1920s. drug and arms trafficking and money laundering. However. Earning the reputation of a "dandy". His successor was Sebastian LaRocca who took over in 1956. Capone wanted to control the Unione Siciliane himself so that he. not far from her family homestead.1973) was the boss of the Pittsburgh Mafia from 1953 until 1956. often wearing valuable diamond studs and cufflinks. who worked the Gennas alky boilers (often beating workers unconscious as a result in missing production quotas). Amatuna was preparing to attend the opera Aida at the Auditorium Theatre with his girlfriend Rose Picorara. The barber's screams alerted Amatuna. During prohibition he was a bootlegger and extortionist. Amatuna had become one of the Gennas' leading members. As Prohibition began in 1920. He is known by multiple nicknames in the Neapolitan criminal underworld. a restaurant in Halsted Street in Chicago.[3] Cosimo Di Lauro took charge of the clan. Amato was arrested along with five other clan members by the Spanish police while leaving a casino in Barcelona. in the trial against 48 members of the Amato-Pagano clan. Spain and Monaco. When the Gennas began bootlegging operations. After Angelo's death. he was released because the limits of his temporary arrest expired. Amato was arrested in the Spanish city of Barcelona in a joint operation between Italian and Spanish police. placed in cardboard boxes and taken to the Fountain Avenue landfill in East New York. Angelo Genna blamed Paul Labriola. 2005. the question of whether they were paid off to stay away that night or if they had instead defected to the Northsiders. a Camorra clan from Naples. Raffaele Amato (born Samuel Sammuzzo "Samoots" Amatuna (1899 – November 13. Amato was born in Sicily in 1893 and after arriving in America he moved to Pittsburgh were he became a naturilazed citizen in 1922. The brutal warfare between the Gennas and Powers became known in Chicago as the Aldermen's Wars. 2010. In spite of great damage. who served as president of the Unione Siciliane. Amatuna died before the ceremony was completed. however. "Lell o' chiatt'" (Lell the Fat One) and "'a vecchiarella". Amato became the boss of the family in 1953 but stepped down again only 3 years later due to his failing health. fled to Spain and organized a revolt against his former bosses. On September 28. Now in charge of the Genna gang. which had long been in ruins. Later on he musceled in on the family's gambling operations and used his bootleg profits to invest in vending machine rackets. Giuseppe Pisanu hailed his capture as "a signal to the people of Naples that we are winning the fight against the Mafia". the Camorra code of silence and step forward with evidence. His son Frank Jr. In defiance. Although a Genna ally. a powerful fraternal group under mob control. wrapped in plastic garbage bags. As the owner applied a hot towel on Amatuna's face. Amatuna was feared for his brutal treatment towards the many Sicilian immigrants. a bomb exploded on the front porch of Power's home. Amatuna had several bank accounts and held interests in various legitimate businesses. By age 25. a bitter enemy of the Genna brothers. including "Lo Spagnolo" (The Spaniard). after Di Lauro became a wanted fugitive in 2002 and his son Vincenzo's arrest in 2004. businesses and bank accounts in Italy. he tried to assert the Scissionisti's control over drugs and prostitution rackets in the areas that included Secondigliano and Scampia as its nerve centres. The murder and disposal of Frank Amato earned Roy DeMeo and his crew great respect from Paul Castellano. 1921. on November 17 and Goldstein. From there. a municipal court bailiff and a Powers supporter. Amatuna was the enforcer who oversaw production of the gangs numerous "alky cookers". he was shot in the chest twice during the gunfight as the gunman escaped. On March 9. Brooklyn. 1916. "'o Lell". In 2006. Cosimo wanted to centralize the drug dealing operation that had been run as a franchise in which dealers paid the Di Lauros a fee for doing business and were allowed to buy the drugs from any available source. where he had been accused of murder and drug trafficking. Connie bore a daughter. followed his father footsteps and joined the Pittsburgh Mafia as soldier. Amatuna had become the personal bodyguard for "Bloody" Angelo Genna. Amatuna visited a local barbershop on Roosevelt Road for a shave and manicure. Amatuna was said to have a pleasant tenor voice and often engaged in singing for his friends and on occasion played short violin compositions. Constance and Joseph Catalanotti are married and have several children. Pisanu urged more witnesses to break Omerta. On February 21. Any guy who would hurt me here would be torn apart by my patrons"[. Amatuna earned a full membership in the Genna gang by murderingFrank Lombardi outside a saloon. Prior to his arrest he had been living under a false name on the Costa del Sol.was dismembered. He stated that his capture meant the two Camorra factions blamed for the spate of killings in Naples have both been decapitated. although many on Little Italy praised his generosity to the local residents. or one of the principal importers of cocaine into Italy". Before he became official boss he was allready in charge of the New Kensington and West Virginia areas. He is accused of eight homicides between 1991 and 1993 during the so-called Mugnano feud. Amatuna was a later suspect in the murders of Powers supporters Harry Raimondi and Gaetano Esposito. His body was soon dug up and taken back to Sicily. alleged mob associate Joseph Catalonotti. in Naples on November 11. Although witnesses identified Genna and Gambino and the two men were charged with murder. no one inside was hurt. Amatuna never wore his two guns there. He was charged with Mafia association. Amatuna was seen attending operas with Angelo and other gunman. During that time he was arrested twice for murder but each time the charges were dropped. resulted in over 60 murders in 2004 and 2005. Amatuna struggled to keep the organization from disintegrating. He also removed older gangsters and replaced them with young toughs new to the business. Despite frequent bombings. On the evening of November 13. Lombardi was a supporter of incumbent Chicago alderman John Powers. they became one of the main suppliers of homemade alcohol to the Torrio-Capone gang. Sr. headed by Paolo Di Lauro. his usual habit before going out for the evening. a Neapolitan. Amatuna requested that a priest marry Rosa and him. it has been the practice of barbers to never put a hot towel over the face of a customer and have it always facing the front door so as to easily identify others entering the barbershop. the Genna brothers were into a vicious gang war with the North Side Gang. Frank Sr. and Genna lieutenant Frank "Don Chick" Gambino shot and killed Labriola. He will be stripped of € 20 million in assets in property. for convincing Sicilian and other Italian immigrants to support Powers.

1926. where he benefited from the protection and collusion of important personalities. while Maresca remained in Italy to face the charges. During the war in 1980-1983 between the Nuova Camorra Organizzata (NCO). Ammaturo managed to escaped to Africa and then to South America. he evolved into a cigarette smuggler in the 1960s. He later became an enforcer for Profaci crime family mobster. Amuso went to the Lucchese family sometime during that year. no crime family and specialised entirely in cocaine trafficking. In 1974 he was caught smuggling cocaine through thediplomatic bag of the consul of Panama with Aniello Nuvoletta. His father ran a wine business which suffered economic difficulties. He was included in the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy until his capture in May 1993. In the 1980s. He had no specific territory. Joseph Amberg (1892 – September 30. 1935) and Hyman Amberg (1902 . amongst others ofMichele Zaza and Luigi Giuliano. 1926) competing against Jacob "Gurrah" Shapiro. In 1987. He was the sole surving brother following the suicide of his brother Hyman during a failed jail break in 1926 and the gangland murder of Joseph only a month before his own when his body was found in a burning car after being hacked with an ax and shot by a shotgun blast on October 23. 1971 boss Joseph Colombo was shot. Beaumont. Hyman was arrested for the murder of a local jeweler in 1926. Vic Amuso is married to Barbara.Herman "Hyman" Amberg (c... he continued his war against the family on June 28. Inc. On September 30. He had made deals with both Raffaele Cutolo's NCO. In 1982. The particular success of Ammaturo was the result of his innovation to set up a triangular system of cocaine smuggling. he evaded prison for the third time and moved to South America. She would serve four years in prison from 1982-86 before she and Ammaturo were acquitted on appeal in 1989 for lack of evidence. because Profaci took huge parts of Gallo's profit. and the couple has one daughter. 1902 – November 3. Ammaturo confessed the murder when he decided to become a state witness (pentito) in June 1993.November 3. Amuso became of one of . While awaiting trial in the infamous Tombs Prison. Ammaturo was one of the chief financiers of the Shining Path guerrilla movement in Peru. Amuso would allegedly kill several members of the Profaci faction. He is currently serving a life sentence at the United States Penitentiary. 1941). formed one of the prominent criminal gangs during Prohibition. May 21. Ammaturo moved to Peru and was arrested again on May 3. The cocaine was soaked into clothes which were then smeared with solvents to distract sniffer dogs. against Cutolo‘s NCO. in particular with Antonio Bardellino of the Casalesi clan. Louis "Pretty" Amberg (1897 – 0ctober 23. Rather than surrender to prison authorities. after paying some US$ 100. After Joe Gallo's release from prison in early 1971. Ammaturo and Maresca were arrested and charged with killing the forensic psychiatrist Aldo Semerari who had helped Ammaturo in previous years to escape prison feigning insanity. Often acting as an enforcer for the Ambergs. or code of silence. buying a tourist centre in Senegal through a Swiss bank account. or code of silence. nine of his associates were arrested following the discovery of 10 kg of cocaine which had arrived from Colombia. Many Colombo crime family members. defected to other crime families. Amberg and the second prisoner chose to commit suicide. In retaliation his brother Antonio was killed. the same organization who had killed his brother. they made it only as far as the prison wall before being trapped by prison guards. he decided to collaborate with the Italian justice and became a pentito. forerunner of the Lucchese family. In the early 1960s. 1935 Amberg was murdered alongside associate Morris Kessler. Thought to have been killed by members of Murder Inc. involving the importation of 300 kg of cocaine from Colombia via Peru. Semerari offered psychiatric evaluations to members of various criminal organizations. headed by Raffaele Cutolo. He diversified his interests on a global scale. He entered the witness protection programme and was provided with a new identity. Ammaturo established a virtual monopoly of cocaine trafficking to Italy from Peru. Streetwise and intelligent. a Camorra boss named Pasquale Simonetti. He received serious police attention when he was arrested again in 1972 with Nunzio Guida. He was related to Felice Malvento (his brother Antonio was married to Luisa Malvento). In March 1992. He was active in Santa Lucia. New York.September 30. while he was celebrating his 43rd birthday. due to his trafficking activities. especially those from the old Gallo crew. a Mafia-type organisation in Italy. Maresca bore him twins. he was introduced to Anthony "Tony Ducks" Corallo. According to the DEA. he was arrested in Governador Valadares near Belo Horizonte (Brazil). and the Nuova Famiglia (NF) headed by Carmine Alfieri. 1935) was a New York mobster who. were gunned down by members of Murder. A drug smuggling operation of an even bigger scale was discovered in July 1992. Amuso acted as a bodyguard and chauffer for Carmine Tramunti. the Camorra‘s leader in Milan. Joseph "Crazy Joe" Gallo. Months later on April 7. but sent to prison sometime in the early 1960s. Umberto learned crime as a street urchin (guaglione). his mother died when Umberto was just seven-years old. as well as with the NF. in Brooklyn. Umberto Ammaturo (born Vittorio "Little Vic" Amuso (born 1934) is a New York mobster and was Boss of the Lucchese crime family from 1987 to 2009. 1972 Joe Gallo was shot to death in Little Italy Manhattan. His properties were seized. Victoria. However. involving several African countries as staging posts. he grew up in Brooklyn. with his brothers Joseph and Louis "Pretty" Amberg. in Lima (Peru) and extradited to Italy. However. although he lacked social control and even less political influence in Italy. He specialized in cocaine trafficking from South America. He was born in a large Neapolitan family.000 in bribes and was flown to Peru. as an associate in the crew of Christopher "Christie Tick" Furnari. Contrary to conventional Camorra bosses Ammaturo remained a loner. above all with Bardellino. 1935. A month later he decided to become a pentito. In the late 1940s. with his brothers Hyman and Louis "Pretty" Amberg. along with Joey Gallo and a dozen others for extortion charges. 1935) was a New York mobster and labor racketeer who led a criminal organization with his brothers Joseph (1892 . the handsome Ammaturo met Pupetta Maresca a former beauty queen who had made international headlines in the 1950s when she killed in revenge the murderer of her husband. Amberg is buried in the Montefiore Cemetery. New York) auto repair garage and. Ammaturo considered him to be a traitor siding with the enemy in the fierce criminal war. Two years later he feigned to be ill with cancer and was sent to a hospital from which he escaped. His testimony resulted in 40 arrests in May 1994. In exchange for financial support. he and another prisoner attempted to escape after acquiring guns on November 3. the seafront area in Naples. a state witness breaking omertà. While free and provided with a new identity in exchange for his testimonies. the clothes would then be treated in Castellamare di Stabia and the cocaine reconstituted. Giuseppe "Joe" Profaci and the old Profaci faction of the family. the Gallo brothers claimed war against longtime Boss. A petty criminal in the mid 1950s. In June 1993. a high-security federal prison in Texas on murder andracketeering charges. a prominent caporegime in the Gagliano crime family. Louis Amberg was killed the same day as Bronx Beerbaron Dutch Schultz. is an Italian criminal and a member of the Neapolitan Camorra. after being ordered to line up against the wall. New York. 1993. a cigarette smuggler with contacts to Sicilian mafiosi such as Tommaso Buscetta. In August 1990. Vittorio Amuso was born in 1934. Louis "Lepke" Buchalter and the Shapiro Brothers (no relation to Jacob Shapiro)for control of Brooklyn's racketeering activities during the 1920s and early 30s. She had met a lot of sympathy among ordinary Neapolitans for her deed. During the 1920s and 1930s the brothers competed with rivals such as Jacob "Gurrah" Shapiro. he admitted to killing Semerari and personally decapitating him in a rare interview with La Repubblicanewspaper in May 2010. also known as 'O pazzo (the mad one). Abe "Kid Twist" Reles and the Shapiro Brothers. The drug trade gave him wealth and power. The pair were ambushed in a Brownsville (Brooklyn. was involved in labor racketeering and other criminal activities. he managed to escape. Bardellino and Ammaturo were involved in many murders of members of the NCO. and spent three months in jail in Brasilia awaiting extradition. He was first arrested in 1962. In 1965. Ammaturo and Maresca sided with the NF. breaking the omertà. Louis "Lepke" Buchalter. rather than just using the traditional South American-European axis. 1926) was a New York mobster who. leaving his father to look after seven small children.On top of that.

1991. this decision almost triggered a new war within the crime family. 1986.. including Amuso. that they could take over. On February 15. As Amuso allegedly attempted to kill Aniello "Neil" Migliore from the Bronx faction in 1992. In early 1991. He also ordered D'Arco to bring in a bomb expert from the Philadelphia crime family as part of a plan to blow up Gambino boss John Gotti. toacting boss. had organized the murder of former Boss Paul Castellano earlier. fearing that they were being set up to be killed. Anthony "Tumac" Accetturo. searching for Accetturo. Richard Curro. he chose another Bronx faction-leader named Steven "Wonderboy" Crea as the new and powerful Underboss of the Lucchese crime family to keep rivals from the Bronx in line. and George Conte.000 to $60. along with Genovese crime family Boss Vincent "Chin" Gigante. 1972.Furnari's top protégés along with Anthony "Gaspipe" Casso. Amuso promoted his caporegime Joseph "Little Joe" DeFede. Accetturo would later become an informant. a gunman in a passing car fired one or two shotgun blasts through the restaurant window. By late 1986. Acting on prior knowledge. who was also despised by Amuso. Luongo disappeared. Florida. and Vic's brother Robert watched from a parked car. After the incarcerations of both Amuso and Casso. using corrupt NYPD cops Louis Eppolito and Stephen Caracappa as their personal hit men. where Corallo and others were sentenced to life imprisonment. The bomb had been planted by Herbert Pate. Anthony "Gaspipe" Casso was also reportedly involved in the Luongo incident. as Chiodo became a government informant and agreed to testify against several major heads of the Five Families. Amuso feared that rivalry was being developed in the Lucchese crime family. Suspecting that Chiodo had turned informer. Amuso became a made man in the Lucchese family. were sent to prison on various charges. Casso. Historically. Accetturo's former protégé and longtime rival. one of the most powerful capos of the family. as Crea. about the profit Amuso received. During the party. Amuso is currently serving his life sentence at a high security Federal penitentiary in Coleman. 1987. He and Casso crafted a list of 49 people that they wanted dead—half of whom were Lucchese wiseguys. without the permission of the Commission. his cooperator Casso. the first member of the Lucchese family's Brooklyn wing to become boss. The target was allegedly Gambino Boss John Gotti. D'Arco fled for his life and turned state's evidence.000 a month. then Luongo's driver and bodyguard. who. DeFede oversaw important crime family operations such as those in the Garment District. It was around this time that Lastorino used the indictments of Amuso and Anthony "Gaspipe" Casso to take advantage of the situation and gained much of the authority in the family when he aligned himself with Brooklyn faction leaders George "Georgie Neck" Zappola. which brought in between $40.000 to prison inmates. but toward December of that same year. Corallo realized that he. The cartel worked their controlled industry by charging a tax of approximately $1. He was named acting boss later in 1986. who acted as liaison between inmates and the Luccheses. Amuso and Casso went on to eliminate anyone with even the merest suspicion that they might be defectors or if they were considered potential rivals. To keep some sense of stability within the Lucchese crime family. Believing Casso was responsible for his arrest. what Amuso didn't realized was that Accetturo was jailed in New Jersey. and demanded that Casso supervise Lucchese's share in the cartel. Frank DeCicco. Amuso and Casso. On May 30. Corallo summoned Amuso and Casso to a meeting at Furnari's house. Shortly afterward. Amuso named Alphonse "Little Al" D'Arco as acting boss. Soon the entire New Jersey crew had gone into hiding. Frank "Big Frank" Lastorino saw to organize the murder ofSteven Crea using capos George Zappola. extort payoffs and enforce its monopoly. The bloodletting started with the so-called "Windows Case" in 1986. Amuso was in possession of a switchblade and a file folder of parole documents at the time of his arrest. 1992. Rumor has it that Amuso. Furnari then met with his two protègés and told them to decide which one would take the mantle. The iron fists of Casso and captain Peter "Fat Pete" Chiodo raised Amuso's shares in the cartel. His testimony (and that of many others) proved to be devastating to Amuso's case. overseeing the construction and union . killed him to remove his last major opponent. three shooters shot Chiodo 12 times. Amuso issued several other orders that led many inside and outside the Lucchese family to conclude he was no longer acting rationally. Santoro and Furnari were headed for convictions that would send them to prison for life. On April 3. the Underboss of the Gambino crime family. with Amuso out of the way. Reportedly. Reportedly. Migliore survived. as Lucchese caporegime Peter "Fat Pete" Chiodo was charged with violations of the RICO act in 1991. To replace him. toward his conviction in 1993. To avoid internal war and keep up the family's tradition of a peaceful transfer of power. Amuso sent word to Chiodo's attorneys that his wife had been marked for death. hitting Migliore in the head and chest. Anthony "Bowat" Baratta. as he kept operating throughout the 1990s. The bloodletting only increased after Amuso named Casso as his underboss in 1988. reputedly took overLucchese's Jersey Crew. On December 21. Amuso was arrested by police outside the "House on Morgan Avenue". Colombo. the cartel could solicit bribes. Federal agents captured Amuso at a suburban mall outside Scranton. most of the New Jersey crew members came back to the family. Aniello "Neil" Migliore. the gun was gone. Michael "Mad Dog" Taccetta. a Lucchese family-controlled local of the Iron Workers Union. as he was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1992. and even picked them up on wires and bugs saying they were going to kill Gambino crime family boss John "Junior" Gotti. On May 8. Thailand. Ten of the crew's members showed up for the meeting. was celebrating the birthday of a friend's granddaughter in a Westbury. as well as money laundering and drug trafficking operations around Queens. Anthony "Gaspipe" Casso before he was apprehended. He effectively demoted D'Arco by naming a four-man panel to run the family in his absence. but failed to kill him. At the time of the Brooklyn mobsters' arrest. and his rival Nicholas "Little Nick" Corozzo to split up the Gambinos. Salvatore "Sal" Avellino and Consigliere Frank "Big Frank" Lastorinoin 1991. New York restaurant on Long Island. During the mid-1990s. Through the union. Amuso promoted his loyal friend and Brooklyn capo Louis "Louie Bagels" Daidone to the position of Consigliere. In 1977. In marked contrast. Amuso's associate. However. for their involvement in a drug trafficking ring smuggling heroin from Bangkok. as some mobsters thought. a front for the "Bronx Connection" kickback scheme. with the help of the Ruling Panel members. and Amuso felt he had to prove that he was still in charge. but killed DeCicco by a mistake. didn't please the imprisoned boss Vic Amuso and his supporters within the Brooklyn faction. that same year. Genovese and Lucchese families had together created a cartel in 1978. Furnari and underboss Salvatore "Tom Mix" Santoro were indicted in the Mafia Commission Trial along with the top major heads of the Five Families. In early 1992. New York and back to the Bronx faction where it had been for decades. whom he held responsible for the failed hit on Chiodo. before Accetturo eventually agreed to become an informant. In the fall of 1988. The Gambino. 1985. the plot never succeeded. however. for refusing to testify in front a state panel. Corallo.000 a year to New York. D'Arco was set up to be killed at a meeting of top Lucchese leaders at a Manhattan hotel. New York as the Underboss. allegedly. had planned Gotti's execution. The move backfired spectacularly. the heroin operation was headed by Amuso. soon started one of the bloodiest reigns in Mafia history. Despite his wounds. On April 13. they all abruptly drove off. Amuso and Casso began arguing with the head of the family's New Jersey faction. Frank Gioia. Pennsylvania. while Amuso. along withJoseph "Little Joe" DeFede decided to turn the family's power center away from Brooklyn. Amuso also kept Stephen "Wonderboy" Crea of the Bronx. But due to massive indictments of the time. Amuso also kept Joseph "Little Joe" DeFede as the crime family's Acting Boss. and Amuso kept running the family from prison as most of the conspirators themselves were sent to prison. Amuso told the returned crew members that Accetturo was an outlaw and needed to be disposed off. the Lucchese family had been reckoned as the most peaceful of the Five Families. son of John Gotti. When Accetturo refused. 1977 Amuso was arrested with Anthony "Gaspipe" Casso. The cartel monopolized the industry through Local 580. selling prison paroles for as high as $20. which is the nickname of their faction in Northern New Jersey. Amuso and his Underboss went into hiding. D'Arco spotted a man carrying a gun under his shirt. Amuso then turned his wrath on D'Arco. This conspiracy also includedGenovese crime family boss Vincent "Chin" Gigante and on-the-lam leader. They ultimately decided that it should be Amuso. public and private. however. Amuso decided to have Chiodo killed. The rivals were the old Bronx faction of the family. with DeCicco. Chiodo revealed details of the entire Windows Case operation. Presumably to meet with the building owner. but Casso preferred to become Furnari's aide-de-camp. Amuso effectively banished Casso from the family. and two other associates of the Lucchese crime family. a city corrections officer and Lucchese family associate.[7] Over the next 12 months. was killed when a bomb placed under his car went off. But the bloodshed of Vic Amuso and Tony Casso wasn't over yet. Later. and decided that one of them would succeed him as boss. Amuso.00 for almost every window replacement. In a fury. The attempt on his life did not sway Migliore away from the crime family though. Corallo put his protégé Anthony "Buddy" Luongo as acting boss sometime in early 1986. many of whom were known Amuso's rivals. and the new official boss on January 13. Frank "Bones" Papagni. he had been found with three pounds of heroin in his possession. Jr. Amuso had a simple way of dealing with anyone who crossed him—kill them on the spot. because Casso was dropped from the Witness Protection Program many years later. the US government learned that they each had. decimating the Lucchese interests in New Jersey. US law enforcement also recognized these members as the actual leaders of the family at the time. Crime family Consigliere. Amuso stripped him of his rank. replacing Frank Lastorino. However. several murder and conspiracy charges. and Amuso succeeded him as capo. Furnari actually wanted Casso to succeed him. Amuso also sent hitmen to Florida. After Amuso's indictment in 1991 with the testimony provided by former acting boss Alphonse "Little Al" D'Arco.00 to $2. Brooklyn. a hit team nearly killed Chiodo's sister. slashing all members of the three families involved in the conspiracy. Manhattan and the Bronx. this was never raised at the trial. Steven "Wonderboy" Crea. the majority of the Brooklyn faction-leaders. A few weeks later. which eventually controlled over $150 million in contracts from the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA). but Amuso and Casso wanted half of the Jersey Crew's yearly take. Jr. when Amuso felt that his family wasn't getting enough profit from the operation. the entire Jersey Crew was summoned to meet with Amuso in Brooklyn. They were all sent to prison. Frank Papagni and Frank Gioia. sold in New York City. Realizing that the next guy to come out of the bathroom would likely come out shooting. This violated a longstanding Mafia rule that women are not to be harmed. Casso managed to stay free for two more years until he himself was apprehended in 1993. Furnari was promoted to consigliere in 1980. Toward the late 1980s. Amuso ordered the entire Jersey Crew killed-the now-infamous "whack Jersey" order. loansharking and extortion. The man later went to the bathroom--and when he came out. Casso responded by turning informer himself. Amuso and Casso were indicted as part of a racketeering investigation. Accetturo had only been sending $50. ordered more than 10-12 slayings while they were fugitives and while on trial. Although Casso later testified that both he and Amuso had conspired with Gigante. This. and would further plan to use the death of acting boss Steve Crea to gain the control of the Lucchese crime family.

racketeering operations that made the crime family between $300,000 and $500,000 a month. Daidone was put in control of the crews and street soldiers that took care of all the debt collection and muscle work, basically the collection of gambling and loansh arking debts, the extortion operations and allegedly murder for hire. After Daidone was promoted to the number three spot, Long Island caporegime Joseph "Joe C." Caridi stepped up to run Daidone's former crew. On April 28, 1998, DeFede was indicted on nine counts of racketeering stemming from his supervision of the crime family rackets in New York's Garment District from 1992 to 1997. The prosecution reported that since the mid-1980s the Lucchese crime family had been grossing between $40,000 and $60,000 per month from the Garment District rackets they controlled. In December 1998, DeFede pleaded guilty to the charges and received five years in prison. Angry at his guilty plea, Amuso became uncertain of DeFede's loyalty to the crime family and in the future Amuso would regard DeFede as a traitor and thief. After the imprisonment of Joe DeFede in 1998, Amuso handpicked Bronx faction leader, Steven "Wonderboy" Crea as the new acting boss of the Lucchese crime family. Crea, a loyal Amuso Underboss began sending a larger amount of the crime family's profits to the imprisoned boss, which convinced Amuso that DeFede had been skimming profits from the crime family the whole time he was acting boss, so Amuso decided to put out a contract on DeFede's life in late 1999. On September 6, 2000, Crea and seven other Lucchese members were arrested and jailed on extortion charges. Crea was eventually convicted in 2001 and sentenced to 5 years in prison. Steven Crea was released from prison in 2006. Following the imprisonment of Crea in 2001, influential Consigliere, Louis "Louie Bagels" Daidone was promoted to acting boss and began to run the day-to-day operations of the crime family. Daidone, at the time, one of the strongest and most dangerous crime family members, would continue to oversee the contract ordered by Amuso on imprisoned former acting boss Joseph "Little Joe" DeFede. DeFede did not know that Amuso had placed a contract on his life, but during DeFede's imprisonment he was demoted from capo to soldier and this alerted him to the possibility that he had fallen out of favor with boss Vic Amuso and could be in serious trouble. Upon DeFede's release from prison on February 5, 2002 it was reported that the former Amuso ally immediately turned to the government for help and became an informant. Federal witnesses Joe DeFede and Alphonse "Little Al" D'Arcogave the US government information regarding Lucchese controlled racketeering operations based around New York City, which helped the federal government continue their decimation of the old Amuso-faction. Both D'Arco and DeFede also provided information about rackets such as gambling, loansharking, extortion and even information about some old murders, which led to the indictments of Mafia cops, Louis Eppolito and Stephen Caracappa. Eppolito and Caracappa were allegedly working for and taking large bribes from former Lucchese underbossAnthony "Gaspipe" Casso since the 1980s. The two highly decorated police N.Y.P.D. officers were apparently used by Casso and the Lucchese crime family to gain valuable information about ongoing police investigations and cases concerning New York Mafia member. The two bad cops were also used to lure rivals and possible government informants to their deaths, and in some cases they apparently executed the victims themselves. Daidone received a life sentence in 2003 on racketeering and murder charges, while more than a dozen other prominent Lucchese crime family members were sent to prison during that same year on various charges. After the conviction and imprisonment of acting boss Louie Diadone in 2003, Amuso instituted a new Ruling Panel/Committee of influential capos to oversee and run the crime family's day-to-day activities. Prominent and senior Lucchese capos Aniello "Neil" Migliore, Matthew "Matt" Madonna and Joseph "Joey Dee" DiNapoli were handpicked by Amuso to lead the crime family. These senior capos were chosen as street bosses to work in tandem. Instead of placing one particular member in the official Underboss position Amuso divided the power between three influential capos. Migliore, a former Corallo loyalist and Amuso rival, is now said to be one of the most powerful mobsters in the Lucchese crime family. In 2006, former acting boss Stephen "Wonderboy" Crea was released from prison, and the Ruling Panel/Committee continued to run day-to-day activities of the crime family. In late 2009, ruling panel members Matthew Madonna and Joseph DiNapoli were indicted on labor racketeering, illegal gambling and extortion charges. In late 2009, Steven Crea took over as official boss of the Lucchese family. As of 2012, Amuso, 76 is serving his life sentence at the Federal Correctional Complex in Beaumont, Texas on murder and racketeering charges. Mafia expert Jerry Capeci described Amuso's succession as one of the biggest mistakes in the crime family's history. According to another Mafia historian, Selwyn Raab, Amuso's bloodthirsty tactics resulted in the loss of more than half the family's made members--either as a result of being killed, imprisoned or turning informer. ah-nah-STAH-zee-ah) (born Umberto Anastasio, September 26, 1902 – October 25, 1957) was one of the most ruthless and feared Cosa Nostra mobsters in U. S. history. A founder of the American Mafia, Anastasia ran Murder, Inc.during the prewar era and was boss of the modern Gambino crime family during most of the 1950s. Albert Anastasia was born on September 26, 1902, in Tropea, Calabria, Italy. His parents were Raffaelo Anastasio and Louisa Nomina de Filippi. The family name was "Anastasio", but Albert started using "Anastasia" in 1921. Raffaelo Anastasio was a railway worker who died after World War I, leaving behind nine sons and three daughters. Albert's brothers included Salvatore, Frank, Joseph, Gerardo, and Anthony Anastasio. Anastasia was married to Elsa Barnesi; they had one son, Anthony Anastasia, Jr. In 1919, Anastasia and three of his brothers arrived in New York City, working on a freighter. Deserting the ship, the brothers illegally entered the United States. The boys soon started working as longshoremen on the Brooklyn waterfront. On March 17, 1921, Anastasia was convicted of murdering longshoreman George Turino as the result of a quarrel. Anastasia was sentenced to death and sent to Sing Sing State Prison in Ossining, New York to await execution. Due to a legal technicality, however, Anastasia won a retrial in 1922. Because four of the original prosecution witnesses had disappeared in the meantime, Anastasia was released from custody in 1922. On June 6, 1923, Anastasia was convicted of illegal possession of a firearm and sentenced to two years in city prison. By the late 1920s, Anastasia had become a top leader of the International Longshoremen's Association (ILA), controlling six union local chapters in Brooklyn. Anastasia allied himself with Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria, a powerful gang leader in Brooklyn. Anastasia soon became close associates with future Cosa Nostra bosses Joe Adonis, Charles "Lucky" Luciano, Vito Genovese, and Frank Costello. In 1928, Anastasia was charged with a murder in Brooklyn, but the witnesses either disappeared or refused to testify in court. In 1930, Luciano finalized his plans to take over the organized crime rackets in New York by destroying the two old-line Mafia factions headed by Masseria and Salvatore Maranzano. Luciano outlined his plot to Anastasia, who joined him and Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel in the plot. Anastasia assured Luciano that he would kill everyone for Luciano to reach the top. Anastasia knew that if Luciano ran the National Crime Syndicate, he would eventually get a "piece of the action." By this point, Luciano had secretly given his support to Maranzano. On April 15, 1931, Anastasia allegedly participated in Masseria's murder. Luciano had lured Masseria to a meeting at a Coney Island, Brooklyn restaurant. During their meal, Luciano excused himself to go to the restroom. As soon as Luciano was gone, Anastasia, Vito Genovese, Joe Adonis, and Bugsy Siegel rushed into the dining room and shot Masseria to death. The war ended and Maranzano was the winner. No one was ever indicted in the Masseria murder. In Maranzano's subsequent reorganization of New York's mafia into its current Five Families, Anastasia was appointed underboss of the crime family of Vincent Mangano, the modern Gambino crime family. In September 1931, Maranzano was himself murdered and Luciano became the preeminent mobster in America. To avoid the power struggles and turf disputes that led to theCastellammarese War, Luciano established the National Crime Syndicate, consisting of the major family bosses from around the country and the so-called "five families" of New York. The Syndicate was meant to serve as a deliberative body to solve disputes, carve up and distribute territories, and regulate lucrative illegal activities such as racketeering,gambling, and bootlegging (which came to a close with the repeal of Prohibition in 1933). The Italian-American Mafia had their own body, known as the Commission. In 1932, Anastasia was indicted on charges of murdering another man with an ice pick, but the case was dropped due to lack of witnesses. In 1933, Anastasia was charged with killing a man who worked in a laundry; again, there were no witness willing to testify. To reward Anastasia's loyalty, Luciano placed him and Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, the nation's leading labor racketeer, in control of the Syndicate's enforcement arm, Murder, Inc. The troop, also known as "The Brownsville Boys", was a group of Jewish and Italian killers that operated out of the back room of Midnight Rose's, a candy store owned by mobster Louis Capone in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn. During its ten years of operation, it is estimated that Murder Inc. committed between 900 and 1,000 murders, many of which were never solved. For his leadership in Murder, Inc., Anastasia was nicknamed the "Mad Hatter" and the "Lord High Executioner". Unlike Lepke and many other members of Murder, Inc., Anastasia was never prosecuted for any of these murders. It is doubted by some that he even was involved, since as the underboss of a family, he had his own killers to use if needed. During this period, Anastasia's business card claimed that he was a "sales representative" for the Convertible Mattress Corporation in Brooklyn. On June 7, 1936, Luciano was convicted on 62 counts of compulsory prostitution. On July 18, 1936, Luciano received a 30 to 50-year sentence in state prison. Genovese became acting boss, but he was forced to flee to Italy in 1937 after being indicted on a 1934 murder. Frank Costello now became acting boss of the Luciano crime family. In May 1939, Anastasia allegedly ordered the murder of Morris Diamond, an official of a trucking union in Brooklyn. Diamond was a Teamsters Union official who had opposed mobster Louis Buchalter's attempts to maintain control of the Garment District in Manhattan. In the summer of 1939, Anastasia allegedly organized the murder of Peter Panto, an ILA activist. Panto had been leading a movement for democratic reforms in the ILA locals, and refused to be intimidated by ILA officials. On July 14, 1939, Panto disappeared; his body was later recovered on a farm in New Jersey. With the 1941 arrest of Abe Reles on murder charges, law enforcement finally dismantled Murder, Inc. Reles was a gang leader from Brownsville, Brooklyn who had been supplying Anastasia and Murder, Inc. with hitmen for the past 10 years. Reles decided to testify for the government to save himself from the death penalty. His testimony convicted seven members of Murder Inc. Reles also had information that could implicate

Albert Anastasia (pronounced

Anastasia in the 1939 Diamond and Panto murders. Fearful of prosecution, Anastasia offered a $100,000 reward for Reles' murder. On November 12, 1941, Reles was found dead on a restaurant roof outside the Half Moon Hotel in Coney Island. Reles was being guarded at a sixth floor room during an ongoing trial. In 1951, a grand jury ruled that Reles accidentally died while climbing down to the fifth floor using sheets tied to a heating radiator. However, many officials still suspected that Reles had been murdered. In the spring of 1942, Anastasia allegedly ordered the murder of an associate, Anthony Romeo. Like Reles, Romeo had been arrested and was willing to implicate Anastasia in several murders. However at the end of June, Romeo's body was discovered near Guyencourt, Delaware. Romeo had been beaten and shot multiple times. During World War II, Anastasia reportedly originated the plan to win a pardon for Luciano by helping the war effort. With America needing allies in Sicily to advance the invasion of Italy, and the desire of the Navy to dedicate its resources to the war, Anastasia orchestrated a deal to obtain lighter treatment for Luciano while he was in prison, and after the war, a parole in exchange for the Mafia protecting the waterfront and Luciano's assistance with his associates in Sicily. In 1942, Anastasia joined the U.S. Army. He may have been motivated by a desire to escape the criminal investigations that were dismantling Murder Inc. Attaining the rank oftechnical sergeant, Anastasia trained soldiers to be longshoremen at Fort Indiantown Gap in Pennsylvania. In 1943, as a reward for his military service, Anastasia received U.S. citizenship. In 1944, Anastasia was honorably discharged from the Army and he moved his family to a mansion in Fort Lee, New Jersey. In 1945, U.S. military authorities in Sicily returned Genovese to the United States to be tried for the 1934 Boccia murder. However, after the death of the main prosecution witness, all charges were dropped against Genovese. In 1946, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey commuted Luciano's sentence and the federal government immediately deported him to Italy. In 1948, Anastasia bought a dress making factory in Hazleton, Pennsylvania and left his waterfront activities in the control of his brother Anthony. In 1951, the U.S. Senate summoned Anastasia to answer questions about organized crime at the Kefauver Hearings. Anastasia refused to answer any questions. Despite being a mob power in his own right, Anastasia was nominally the underboss of the Mangano crime family. Through the years, boss Vincent Mangano had resented Anastasia's close ties to Luciano and Costello. Mangano was particularly irked that Luciano and Costello obtained Anastasia's services without first seeking Mangano's permission. This and other business disputes led to heated, almost physical fights between the two mobsters. In early 1951, Vincent Mangano went missing and his body was never found. On April 19, 1951, the body of Philip Mangano, shot three times, was discovered in a wetland in Bergen Beach, Brooklyn. No one was ever arrested in the Mangano murders, but it was widely assumed that Anastasia had them killed. After the deaths of the Mangano brothers, Anastasia, who had been serving as acting boss of the Mangano family, met with the Commission. Anastasia claimed that the Manganos wanted to kill him, but did not admit to killing them. With Costello's prodding, the Commission confirmed Anastasia's ascension as boss of the renamed Anastasia family. Costello wanted Anastasia as an ally against the ambitious and resentful Genovese. Anastasia was also supported by Joseph Bonanno, who simply wanted to avoid a gang war. In March 1952, Anastasia allegedly ordered the murder of Arnold Schuster. Schuster was a young New York man who successfully identified fugitive bank robber Willie Sutton, resulting in Sutton's arrest. When Anastasia saw Schuster being interviewed on television, he allegedly said: "I can't stand squealers! Hit that guy!" On March 8, 1952, a gunman shot Schuster to death on a street in Borough Park, Brooklyn. This public accusation against Anastasia was made in 1963 by government witness Joseph Valachi, but many people in law enforcement were skeptical of it. No one was ever arrested in the Schuster murder. On December 9, 1952, the Federal Government filed suit to denaturalize Anastasia and deport him because he lied on his citizenship application. To take control of the Luciano family, Genovese needed to kill Frank Costello. However, Genovese could not kill Costello without also eliminating Anastasia. To do that, Genovese needed allies. Vito Genovese used Anastasia's brutal behavior against him in an effort to woo away his supporters, portraying Anastasia as an unstable killer who threatened to bring law enforcement pressure on the Cosa Nostra. In addition, Genovese pointed out that Anastasia had been selling memberships to his crime family for $50,000, a clear violation of Commission rules that infuriated many high level mobsters. According to Valachi, Anastasia had been losing large amounts of money betting on horse races, making him even more surly and unpredictable. Over the next few years, Genovese secretly won the support of Anastasia capo Carlo Gambino, offering him the leadership of Anastasia's family in return for his cooperation. Genovese also received tacit approval from Meyer Lansky, an influential Jewish mobster. One of Luciano's earliest associates, Lansky handled most of Luciano's U.S. business interests. Lansky and Genovese were also business associates from the 1920s. Genovese could not kill Anastasia and Costello without Lansky's support. Anastasia's greed soon drove Lansky to help Genovese. During the 1950s, Lansky controlled all the casino gambling in Cuba, offering the Cosa Nostra bosses lesser shares of his profits. When Anastasia demanded a larger share, Lansky refused. Anastasia then started his own casino racket in Cuba. While Lansky had preferred watching Anastasia and Genovese battle each other from the sidelines, Lansky now threw his active support to Genovese. On May 23, 1955, Anastasia pleaded guilty to tax evasion for underreporting his income during the late 1940s. On June 3, 1955, Anastasia was sentenced to one year in federal prison and a $20,000 fine. After his conviction, the federal government successfully petitioned a federal court to revoke Anastasia's citizenship so he could be deported. However, on September 19, 1955, a higher court overturned this ruling. In early 1957, Genovese decided to move on Costello. On May 2, 1957, gunman Vincent Gigante shot and wounded Costello outside his apartment building. Although the wound was superficial, it persuaded Costello to relinquish power to Genovese and retire. Genovese now controlled what is now called the Genovese crime family. Joseph Bonanno would later credit himself with arranging a sitdown where he kept Anastasia from immediately taking Genovese to war in response. On June 17, 1957 of that year Frank Scalice, Anastasia's underboss and the man identified as directly responsible for selling Gambino memberships, was also assassinated. According to Joseph Valachi, Anastasia approved the hit, and the subsequent murder of Scalice's brother Joseph after offering to forgive his threats to avenge Frank. On the morning of October 25, 1957, Anastasia entered the barber shop of the Park Sheraton Hotel at 870 7th Avenue (now the Park Central Hotel, on 56th Street and 7th Avenue) in Midtown Manhattan. Anastasia's bodyguard parked the car in an underground garage and then took a walk outside, leaving Anastasia unprotected. As Anastasia relaxed in the barber chair, two men —scarves covering their faces—rushed in, shoved the barber out of the way, and fired at Anastasia. After the first volley of bullets, Anastasia allegedly lunged at his killers. However, the stunned Anastasia had actually attacked the gunmen's reflections in the wall mirror of the barber shop. The gunmen continued firing and Albert Anastasia finally fell to the floor, dead. The Anastasia murder generated a tremendous amount of public interest and sparked a high profile police investigation. Per New York Times journalist and Five Families authorSelwyn Raab, "The vivid image of a helpless victim swathed in white towels was stamped in the public memory." However, no one was charged in this case. Over time, speculation on who killed Anastasia has centered on Profaci crime family mobster Joe Gallo, the Patriarca crime family of Providence, Rhode Island, and certain drug dealers with the Gambino family. Initially, the NYPD concluded that the Anastasia hit had been arranged by Genovese and Gambino, and it was carried out by a crew lead by "Crazy Joe" Gallo of the Profaci family. At one point, Gallo boasted to an associate of his part in the hit: "You can just call the five of us the barbershop quintet." However, detractors say that it was illogical for Profaci to kill Anastasia. Profaci was allied with Bonanno and Anastasia on the Commission against Genovese, Costello, andThomas Lucchese. By killing Anastasia, Profaci was eliminating an ally and gaining a potential enemy in Gambino. The Patriarca theory is that Anastasia's killers came from the Patriarca Family in Providence/Boston. Genovese had traditionally strong ties to Patriarca boss Raymond L.S. Patriarca. In addition, it made sense to use out-of-town hitmen. The Patriarca hit team was allegedly led by mobster John (Jackie) "Mad Dog" Nazarian. The drug dealers theory is that Gambino used some Gambino drug dealers from the Lower East Side of Manhattan to kill Anastasia, including Stephen Armone, Stephen Grammauta, and Arnold Wittenberg. Carlo Gambino was expected to be proclaimed boss of Anastasia's family at the November 14, 1957 Apalachin Meeting, called by Genovese to discuss the future of Cosa Nostra in light of his takeover. When the meeting was raided by police, to the detriment of Genovese's reputation, Gambino's appointment was postponed to a later meeting in New York City. Under Gambino, Anthony Anastasio saw his power curtailed, and in frustration he began passing information to the FBI shortly before his 1963 death. Genovese enjoyed a short reign as family boss. In 1957, after Genovese's disastrous Apalachin Meeting, Lansky, Luciano, Costello, and Gambino conspired to entrap Genovese with a narcotics conviction, bribing a drug dealer to testify he had personally worked with Genovese. On July 7, 1958, Genovese was indicted on narcotics trafficking charges. On April 17, 1959, Genovese was sentenced to 15 years in state prison. Anastasia's funeral service was conducted at a Brooklyn funeral home; the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn had refused to sanction a church burial. Anastasia was interred inGreen-Wood Cemetery in Greenwood Heights, Brooklyn, attended by a handful of friends and relatives. After the Anastasia assassination, the barber chairs at the Park Sheraton Hotel were repositioned to face away from the mirror. The Anastasia chair was later auctioned off for $7,000. In February 2012, the chair will be on exhibit at the Mob Museum in Las Vegas. Anastasia's murder, as well as the 1957 Apalachin Meeting, were referenced in the 1999 film Analyze This, starring Robert De Niro and Billy Crystal. The fictional character Johnny Friendly (played by Lee J. Cobb) in the classic 1954 American film On the Waterfront was partially based on Anastasia. Mayra Montero's novel Son de Almendra (English Title: Dancing to "Almendra") is based on Anastasia's murder. In The Day of The Jackal, a 1973 novel by Frederick Forsyth, a detective considers Marco Vitellino, a fictitious bodyguard who was absent during Anastasia's assassination as one of several suspects who could be an assassin contracted to kill French President Charles de Gaulle. The bodyguard is ruled out because he doesn't fit the description of the assassin. In the TV series M*A*S*H, Season 5, Episode 3 "Out of Sight, Out of Mind," Hawkeye Pierce, temporarily blinded, bumps into an object, and discovers that it is an empty chair, and says, "Ah, Albert Anastasia's bodyguard." This is an anachronism, as the Korean War had already been over for four years when Anastasia was killed. In the Mafia game series, Don Alberto Clemente's death was based on anastasia's. In the TV series The West Wing Season 4, Episode 11 "Holy Night", Jules Ziegler, the estranged father of White House Communications Director Toby Ziegler, visits Toby at the White House. Following a query from the Justice Department, Toby asks his father, a former member of Murder, Inc. when Albert Anastasia was killed. Jules answers, "October 1957", and later tells his son, "You should know when Anastasia was killed." Toby, still angry at his father for having been involved in organized crime, retorts,

"I knowwhen Anastasia was killed!" In an episode of The Sopranos, Uncle Junior says that he wishes the mob were like they were in the 1950s when it was peaceful. Tony replies by saying he remembered seeing the picture of Anastasia "all amicably" in a pool of blood on the barbershop floor. Italian movie of 1973 with Alberto Sordi: "Anastasia mio fratello ovvero il presunto capo dell'Anonima Assassini". Anastasia's murder is mentioned in Harold Robbins book, The Raiders. Although in the book the hit is carried out by an obfuscated assassin known only by the pseudonym Milditesta (Italian for a greatly painful headache). MMG rapper Rick Ross entitled his 2011 mixtape, "The Albert Anastasia EP" 24, 1906 – March 1, 1963) was a New York City mobster and labor racketeer for theGambino crime family who controlled the Brooklyn dockyards for over thirty years. Born in Tropea, Italy, Anastasio and his brothers illegally entered the United States sometime between 1917 and 1924. The brothers were deckhands who deserted their ship in New York. Anastasio had several brothers, including mobster Albert Anastasia. Albert Anastasia had changed his last name from "Anastasio" in 1921. Anastasio was married to Rose Iacqua and the couple had one daughter, Marian. Their daughter eventually married Gambino mobster Anthony Scotto. Anastasio also had a nephew called Albert Anastasio. By 1925, the older Albert Anastasia had an arrest record that included homicide, assault, and felonious assault, but was not convicted on any of these charges. In 1932, Anastasio gained control of Brooklyn Local 1814 of the International Longshoremen's Association, and eventually rose to become a vice president of the national ILA. In 1937, Anastasio gained control of six ILA local chapters on the Brooklyn waterfront, sealing his control of the facility. Over the years, Anastasio earned millions for the New YorkFive Families through kickbacks from dues, stolen merchandise, and payoffs from rival shipping companies. Anastasio always wore trademark, custom made wide-lapeled double breasted suits with white tie and white carnation which made up his expensive wardrobe, flashy cars, and Broadway showgirl companions which were all paid for by the ILA. When Luciano was incarcerated in Dannemora, it made the Anastasio brothers nervous. His daughter Louise married Colombo crime family mob associate Joseph Cataldo, brother of Dominick Cataldo. With his brother Albert's position in Murder, Inc., Anastasio ruled the Brooklyn waterfront with an iron hand. During this time, while helping establish Anastasia as a major force on the New York waterfront, Anastasio's power was at its height. It is said he would severely damage foreign shipping and sabotage ships as a means of intimidation (presumably on orders from Anastasio). He made no effort to hide that he was a connected mobster; he only had to say "my brother Albert" to get his point across. After mob boss Charles "Lucky" Luciano was imprisoned for pandering, Anastasio allegedly organized the arson sabotage of the French luxury liner SS Normandie. Early in 1942, a few months after the U.S. entered World War II, the brothers hit upon a clever scheme. The U.S. Navy at the time was concerned about the dangers of possible acts of sabotage against warships berthed at Brooklyn and Manhattan docks. The brothers made a deal with the Navy to release Luciano, and in return the mob would guarantee the safety of the docks as far as the Navy's interests were concerned. To get the Navy concerned they created a maritime disaster: Anastasio had been aware that over the last few months agents of naval intelligence had been scouting the Brooklyn and Manhattan waterfront looking for Italians and Germans who might be involved in a plot to sabotage Navy shipping. A French luxury liner, the SS Normandie, was being hastily converted into a troop transport and was docked at a Hudson River pier. Anthony and his brother Albert decided to sabotage the Normandie. The fire that broke out the afternoon of February 9, 1942, became one of the most spectacular in New York City's history. For hours the Normandieburned, until, listing heavily to port from all the water she had taken on, the ship finally capsized along the pier. The destruction of the Normandie prompted the Navy to approach the mob. The Navy won a guarantee that there would be no sabotaging of shipping in New York Harbor. As a reward for his "patriotic" support Charles Luciano was transferred from the maximum-security prison at Dannemora to Great Meadow prison, a minimum-security facility. A federal investigation in the wake of the sinking, in conflict with the later claims of the mobsters, concluded that sabotage was not a factor. After Albert Anastasia's murder in 1957, Anthony Anastasio's influence began to fade. However, new boss Carlo Gambino did allow Anastasio to retain control of the Brooklyn docks until his death. In 1962, Anastasio started suspecting that Vito Genovese (the main suspect in his brother's murder) meant to kill him and decided to meet with FBI agents. While discussing Gambino, Peter DeFeo, and Thomas Eboli with the agents, Anastasio reflected on his deceased brother: "I ate from the same table as Albert and came from the same womb but I know he killed many men and he deserved to die." On March 1, 1963, Anastasio died of a heart attack at Long Island College Hospital in Brooklyn. He is buried in Holy Cross Cemetery, New York City. On the day of the funeral, the Brooklyn docks halted all operations. Anastasio's grandson John Scotto, the son of successor New York waterfront racketeer Anthony Scotto, later became an informant for the Los Angeles Police Department between 1993 and 1996.

Anthony "Tough Tony" Anastasio (February

David Lawrence Anderson (1862 – June 4, 1918) was a 19th-century American outlaw, better known under the alias Billy Wilson, who rode with Billy the
Kid following theLincoln County War. In his later years, he also served as a law enforcement officer and a U.S. customs inspector. Born in Trumbull County, Ohio, he moved with his family to southern Texas in the early 1870s. Working as a cowboy during his late teens, he moved to White Oaks, New Mexico in 1880 where he became the owner of a local livery stable. Closing his business the following year, he apparently received counterfeit money from the sale and was eventually indicted for passing the money in Lincoln County. Forced to go on the run, he joined Billy the Kid and his gang rustling cattle in the local area. From February to May 1880, Anderson stole horses from the Mescalero Apachereservation as well as cattle from ranchers on the Colorado River to whom they sold for $10 a head to White Oaks businessman Thomas Cooper. During the summer they also stole cattle from rancher John Newcomb and sold them along with an additional 20 beef cattle to butcher John Singer in Las Vegas, New Mexico. On November 29, 1880 Anderson and Billy the Kid were traveling in the open country near White Oaks when they were suddenly pursued by a local 8-man posse. Both their horses were killed during the chase however they were both able to escape on foot. Later meeting up with Dave Rudabaugh, the three rode into White Oaks the following day and attempted to gun down deputy sheriff James Redman but were forced to flee after a crowd of 30 or 40 local residents took to the streets. He and the others were tracked to a ranch house 40 miles away by a 12-man posse but they managed to escape. During the shootout, deputy sheriff Jimmy Carlyle was killed and their pursuers burned the hideout in frustration following their escape. Following the siege at Stinking Springs (near present-day Taiban, New Mexico), he was arrested with the rest of Billy the Kid's gang after surrendering to Pat Garrett and convicted in December 1880. Anderson later escaped from custody in Santa Fe and escaped to Texas where he lived under his birth name David L. Anderson. Starting a ranch Uvalde County, Texas, he eventually married and had two children. Thanks in part to the efforts of Pat Garrett and others, Anderson received a presidential pardon from President Grover Cleveland in 1896 and worked as a U.S. customs inspector for a time. Serving as sheriff of Terrell County, he was eventually ambushed and killed by cowboy Ed Valentine when he responded to a call at a local saloon in Sanderson. Warned that the suspect was armed, the sheriff knew the man and did not consider him a threat. When he entered the saloon the cowboy shot him, killing him instantly. Later the suspect was shot and killed by a deputy when he stepped outside the building. Sheriff Anderson was well liked by the public, and was buried in Brackettville, Texas, after a very emotional funeral at which many Sanderson citizens were in attendance.

George "Dutch" Anderson (born Ivan Dahl von Teler; c.1880 – October 31, 1925) was a Danish criminal and, with American
bandit Gerald Chapman, co-led an early Prohibition-era gang from 1919 until the mid-1920s. Anderson was born Ivan Dahl von Teler to a wealthy Danish family circa 1880, Anderson graduated from the University of Uppsalaand Heidelberg studying music, literature and several languages before emigrating to the United States around the turn of the century. Although attending the University of Wisconsin–Madison for a time, Anderson eventually dropped out and, by 1907, had begun committing petty theft. He was in and out of prisons in Illinois, Ohio and Wisconsin until 1914. In 1917, Anderson was arrested by police in Rochester, New York and convicted of a burglary charge in 1913. Sentenced to five years imprisonment in Auburn State Prison, Anderson became acquainted with bank robber Gerald Chapman. Following both men's paroles in 1919, they began bootlegging operations in Toledo, Ohio and Detroit, Michigan. In late 1921, along with former Auburn inmate Charles Loeber, Anderson and Chapman began committing armed robbery when, on October 21, 1921 the three men forced a U.S. Mail truck to stop at gunpoint on Leonard Street successfully taking with them $2.4 million in cash, bonds and jewelry. Eluding capture for more than eight months, the three were eventually arrested by United States Postal Inspectors William Doran, Jim Doyle and William Cochraine on July 3, 1922, after Chapman attempted to sell Argentine gold notes (stolen during the Leonard Street mail robbery) to an undercover Postal Inspector posing as a stock broker. Anderson and Chapman were both sentenced to 25 years imprisonment at the Atlanta Federal Prison. Anderson escaped from prison on December 30, 1923 and was suspected by authorities to have rejoined Chapman in several hold ups (Chapman had escaped six months earlier on April 5, 1923). Chapman was recaptured on January 18, 1925, in Muncie, Indiana, due to informant Ben Hance, also of Muncie, Indiana. Both Hance and his wife were found dead eight months later on August 11. Authorities suspected their deaths may have been attributed to Anderson as retribution for betraying Chapman to police (Chapman had been sentenced to death in Connecticut for the murder of a policeman). Traced

to Muskegon, Michigan for passing counterfeit money, on October 31, 1925, Anderson and Police Officer Charles Hammond confronted each other in a narrow alley. In the ensuing gunfight both men were killed. October 20, 1932) has been reported by Chicago newspapers to be a high-ranking member of the Chicago Outfit criminal organization. In 1989, the Chicago Sun-Times reported that Andriacchi had been elevated to being the second-in-command in the Chicago Outfit.[1]The article identified Andriacchi as having two nicknames: "the Sledgehammer" -because of his unsubtle ways as a safe cracker -- and "the Builder." The article also noted that Andriacchi had been imprisoned on burglary charges from 1968 until 1971. Andriacchi was one of several reputed mobsters ordered to appear before a federal grand jury after the May 17, 1992, bombing of a car outside the home of a daughter of mob turncoat Leonard Patrick, who was in the process of testifying against several known mobsters. Andriacchi is said to be the silent owner of popular Italian restaurant chain, "Rosebud," in Chicago, Illinois. Andriacchi was identified in a 1995 Chicago Tribune article as being an underboss for day-to-day operations for the Chicago Outfit. In 1997, the Chicago Sun-Times reported that Andriacchi was "at the top of the Outfit's new organizational chart," identifying Andriacchi as a reported longtime lieutenant of Chicago Outfit kingpin John DiFronzo. After the conclusion of the "Family Secrets" trial in Chicago in 2007, which sent multiple high-ranking members of the Chicago Outfit to prison for long sentences, Andriacchi was again identified in Chicago newspapers as being a powerful member of the Chicago Outfit. "Reputed mobsters not charged in the Family Secrets case who are still powerful in the Outfit include John "No Nose" DiFronzo, Joe "The Builder" Andriacchi, Al Tornabene (Now deceased, 2009), Frank "Tootsie Babe" Caruso, Marco D'Amico and Michael Sarno, law enforcement sources said," the Chicago Sun-Times wrote on September 11, 2007. On September 30, 2007, the Chicago Tribune reported that law enforcement sources indicated that Andriacchi controls Chicago's north side and north suburbs, and that he leads the Elmwood Park crew.

Joseph "The Builder" Andriacchi (born

Donald "The Wizard of Odds" Angelini (September 30, 1926 – December 6, 2000) was a mobster with the Chicago Outfit, a
criminal organization that specialized in gambling operations. After years in the Outfit, Angelini became the caporegime for a crew operating illegal gambling rackets in Elmhurst, Illinois. Angelini operated a highly successful sports bettingempire along with Dominic Cortina. He was the brother-in-law to Chicago Outfit mobster Michael Caracci. In 1986, Angelini became the Outfit's enforcer in Las Vegas; his job was to protect the Outfit's illegal casino profits. Angelini replaced Chicago mobster Tony "the Ant" Spilotro in running the skim. Tony Spilotro and his brother, Michael Spilotro, had been killed by the Chicago Outfit. White haired, trim, and very well-spoken with a pleasant smile, Angelini was a total opposite of the brutal Spilotro. Angelini found himself operating with a new crew in Las Vegas at a time when the Outfit's flagship casinos were badly crimped due to federal investigations. However, Angelini himself avoided arrest while there. In the late 1980s, Angelini, Sam "Wings" Carlisi, and John "No Nose" DiFronzo attempted to extend Outfit influence over the gambling operations of the Rincon Indian Reservationnear San Diego, California. Their objective was to skim profits off the casino profits there. In 1989, Angelini was sentenced to 37 months in prison on gambling and Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) charges resulting from the Rincon operation. On October 14, 1994, Angelini was released from prison. In 2000, Donald Angelini died of natural causes.

Donato "Smiley" Angiulo (March 21, 1923 – March 5, 2009) was a long going capo in the Patriarca Family and operated as a
strong force behind his brother Gennaro, the family underboss. Donato Angiulo was born to Sicilian immigrants and was one of 5 brothers. His brothers included Gennaro, Michele, Francesco and Nicolo. While growing up he and his brothers began a life of crime and came in contact with Raymond Patriarca. The Angiulo brothers were a strong force within the Italian underworld and rose to prominence within the Patriarca Family. Donato's elder brother Gennaro became the underboss in 1954, Nicolo became the family consigliere in 1974 and Donato was made a capo. His other brothers however always maintained a lower function with for example Francesco being a soldier and Michele an associate. Donato controlled a number of sub-book operations and was responsible for collecting money. During the late 1960's and 1970's the Angiulo brothers frequently worked together with Irish gangboss Whitey Bulger, who was secretly providing evidence against them to the FBI for years. In 1981 Donato and his brothers were eventually arrested and roled into Boston's first sensational Mafia trial. In 1986 Donato was convicted to 20 years for racketeering, gambling and loansharking but eventualy only served 11 years, making him a free man again in 1997. After his release he kept a low profile and enjoyed his wealth in peace. In 2005 his wife Marguerite Angiulo, a former model, died and in 2006 his brother Michele also passed away due to lung cancer. In the meanwhile Donato also suffered from bad health and passed away at the age of 86.

Gennaro "Jerry" Angiulo (March 20, 1919 – August 29, 2009) was a New England mob boss who rose through the
Mafia underRaymond L. S. Patriarca. He was convicted of racketeering in 1986 and was in jail until being released in 2007. One of the Angiulo Brothers, Angiulo was "probably the last very significant Mafia boss in Boston‘s history". Gennaro J. Angiulo was born in 1919 to Italian immigrants Caesar and Giovannina (Jeannie) Anguilo, who owned a mom-andpop grocery store. Even though he was from the North End neighborhood, he graduated from Franklin High School in Franklin, Massachusetts in 1938, where his ambition was to attend Suffolk Law School and become a criminal lawyer. Gennaro Angiulo enlisted in the U.S. Navy at the beginning of World War II and served 4 years in the Pacific theater; he achieved the rank of Chief Boatswain's Mate. Upon completion of his service, he moved back to the North End of Boston. He had a regular table in the back room of an Italian dinery called Francesca's Restaurant on North Washington Street in North End, Boston. The Angiulo brothers, who owned nightclubs, were publicly named as members of Cosa Nostra, more commonly known as the American Mafia. In 1963. Gennaro's reputation for being a shrewd businessman, along with his successful racketeering, led to Patriarca appointing him underboss of the Providence, Rhode Island-based Patriarca crime family. Angiulo later headed up Boston's underworld from the 1960s to the 1980s. He and his brothers ran the criminal organization out of Francesco's Restaurant at 98 Prince Street in the North End, the neighborhood in which he grew up. In 1981, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) placed wiretaps in the restaurant and at a nearby social club, located at 51 North Margin Street, for three months. It was later revealed in a federal court that rival gangsters Whitey Bulger and Stephen Flemmi drew a diagram for FBI agents telling them where to plant the bugs. As Angiulo was being taken in handcuffs from the restaurant on September 19, 1983, he yelled, "I'll be back before my pork chops get cold." As Angiulo sat in jail without bail awaiting trial on federal racketeering charges, he was demoted from the mob. At the highly-publicized trial, jurors heard hours of taped conversations of Angiulo and his associates planning numerous illegal activities, including murder, gambling, loan sharkingand extortion. In one conversation, Angiulo ordered the killing of a bartender after concluding that he was set to testify before a federal grand jury investigating gambling and loan-sharking. The FBI thwarted the plot by warning the witness. At the eight-month-long trial, the mobster often sarcastically commented on the evidence presented and cracked jokes, prompting District Court Judge Davis Nelson to repeatedly reprimand him. In February 1986, Angiulo and his co-defendants were convicted of "an avalanche of charges". He was sentenced to 45 years in prison on 12 counts of racketeering, gambling, loan sharking, and obstruction of justice. As his own lawyer, Angiullo argued numerous times, unsuccessfully, to have his conviction overturned. One argument claimed that he was framed by the FBI, Bulger, and Flemmi. In an affidavit filed in federal court in 2004, he wrote that he was in poor health and his term was "tantamount to an illegal death sentence". Angiulo, who had been incarcerated at the federal prison hospital in Devens, was paroled on September 10, 2007. He had been undergoing dialysis treatment since his release while living at his waterfront home inNahant. Prior to his death, he was spending time with his wife, Barbara, with whom he had three children (Jason, Gennaro Jay, and Barbara). Angiulo died on August 29, 2009 at the Massachusetts General Hospital of renal failure from kidney disease. His funeral was at the Joseph A. Langone Jr. Funeral Home in Boston's North End.

Don Pasquale Ania (died 1962) was a boss in Palermo and was a strong ally to Don Calogero Vizzini of Villalba and the New York boss Don Salvatore
"Lucky" Luciano during the 40s & 50s. He helped Luciano import heroin to America. Ania had connections to legitamite pharmacutical companies due to the fact that large scale heroin manufacturing in Italy was legal at the time. Luciano's narcotics network was big and complex and he had many of his old, deported former U.S. allies to help him run his empire throughout the late 1940's until he died in 1962. Further not much is known about Pasquale Ania.

1885 – October 23. finance. it is impossible to determine. as the shooters raced south on Western Avenue. pinyin: Zhāng Ānlè. William Sweeney. a story circulated that the three men were lured to a banquet with their Sicilian friends and. 1929. the two rose even higher. France through Cuba into Tampa. He returned to Taiwan in June 2013 and was arrested by Taiwanese police on arrival at Songshan Airport . Antinori established a drug pipeline from Marseille. Indiana in the early morning hours of May 8. later known as the Trafficante crime family. The Bamboo Union was headed by mobster Chen Chi-li (King Duck) for over 30 years until he died in 2007. also known as the White Wolf (Chinese: 白狼. Sicily for burial. The coroner said he had never seen such disfigured bodies. During the ensuing gun battle. fell under suspicion. through the events and trials of the past two years. 1924. Taiwan. they were tried once again and acquitted of the murder of Walsh. While serving a prison sentence in the United States Chang An-lo was quoted: ―The clock can‘t be turned back. "I was quite surprised. Genna was fatally shot by Sweeney while the other two fell into police hands. after taking many weeks in order to secure enough people who were willing to serve on the jury. extortion. . Within a few days. with close ties to French-Corsican heroin traffickers and American mafia bosses. 1883 – May 7. according to Taiwan‘s Apple Daily newspaper. Similar to other criminal organizations. soon set up rival smuggling rings. were attacked and killed. he said after leaving the prosecutors' office. Anselmi had moved on to Chicago. Chicago Police officers Charles Walsh and Harold Olsen were killed and Michael Conway severely wounded. China. Prosecutors said he was released on bail after close to three hours of questioning. Chang is also known for making public a taped confession of hitmen behind the shooting of Taiwanese American writer Henry Liu in 1984. the Criminal Investigation Bureau and the airport police immediately handcuffed and arrested Chang when he stepped out the plane at Songshan Airport. Many brothers are now in the stock. On October 22. along with Jack McGurn.A Taiwanese gang leader who has been on the island‘s most wanted list since he fled to the mainland 17 years ago was arrested on arrival at a Taipei airport on Saturday. 1940) was a Italy-born Florida mobster who built one of the earlier Albert Anselmi (July 15. but remains a fugitive living in Shenzhen. Sicily in 1884. Upon the murder of Unione Siciliane president Pasquale Lolordo in January 1929. At that point. The White Wolf is a top ranking official in the Bamboo Union who is dangerous because he is extremely smart. Florida. who was living in the US at the time. better known by his nickname ―White Wolf‖.. a more popular story would emerge that Al Capone had discovered that Anselmi and Scalise had decided to betray him. Although older. 1929. Antinori was one of the largest heroin traffickers in the country. Anselmi John Scalise & Albert Anselmi and Scalise. although there were those who insisted that Giunta received most of his marching orders from John Scalise. He was deported to Taiwan after serving 10 years in prison. According to theFederal Bureau of Narcotics. He fled Taipei in 1996 after being implicated in blackmailing and other cases. smuggling and money laundering. he fled to America around 1912 and entered the country illegally through the Gulf Coast. the "Murder Twins". simplified Chinese: 张安乐. narcotics trafficking networks in that state. Anselmi was not as quick thinking as his young apprentice. Chang. In the early 1980s the United Bamboo Gang rose to attention when the group became involved with politics. Currently. In June 1927. 1925. The United Bamboo Gang is the largest of Taiwan‘s three main Triads. mobsters such as Florida mobsterSanto Trafficante. as they were suspected. of murdering North Side gang leader Dion O'Bannion on November 10. Sr. as they were now called. After the infamous St. we will focus on the possible leader Chang An-lo (White Wolf). Valentine's Day Massacre of February 14. Louis. police said. and other areas with a significant Chinese population. the Chicago Outfit criminal organization. The pair became noted as the Gennas' deadliest killers. By the 1930s. In 1985. working for the six Genna brothers in Little Italy. Although much of his early life is unknown. while trying to break up a quarrel that was being staged for their benefit. Cook County prosecutors ended up with only enough evidence to indict Scalise for the massacre. blowing off the back of his head. Antinori had sent the Outfit a poor quality shipment of narcotics. Because they had gotten away with murdering two Chicago Police officers.‖ The statement is indicating that the Bamboo Union has moved so far into the political sector that they can make billions of dollars and yuan from legal activity and don‘t need to risk smuggling. Suddenly. and Joseph "Hop Toad" Giunta turned up dead on a lonely road near Hammond. In fact. Antinori was regarded as the first boss of the Tampa crime family. It is well known that the Triads do not deal with drug trafficking. The Bamboo Union prefers that people don‘t know who the Dragonhead (boss) is.Chang An-lo (traditional Chinese: 張安樂. a gunman appeared and fired two shotgun blasts at Antinori. with the ambitious Scalise acting as vice-president to Joseph "Hop Toad" Giunta. the Outfit put a murder contract on Antinori. Anselmi's body was shipped back to Marsala. the drugs were subsequently distributed in the Midwestern United States. More than 700 people attended a farewell banquet for Chang in Shanghai on Friday night.leading him to live in exile in Shenzhen. Nine months later. claimed no involvement in the shooting by two close friends and Bamboo Union members. Escaping the relatives of one of his murder victims. drawing a sentence of 14 years in prison. is an alleged gangster and reputed former leader of the Bamboo Union crime brotherhood. had forged a close bond. At the climax of a dinner thrown in their honor. Prosecutor Bob Crowe vowed to send both men to the gallows. He fled Republic of China in 1996 after being placed on the wanted list by authorities in Taipei for involvement in organised crime. The indictments became moot when Albert Anselmi.Prosecutors said Chang told th em that he returned to Taiwan because he wanted to promote "peaceful unification of China and 'one country. shooting up their car with shotguns and wounding Drucci. the two. Chang An-lo. Albert Anselmi became involved with the Mafia early in his life. they were acquitted of the murder of Officer Olsen due largely to the same arguments as the first trial.‖ police said in a statement. Chang was jailed in the US on drugsmuggling charges. 1940. along with Mike Genna. two systems'". the two killers' lawyers managed to convince the jury that they had reacted against "unwarranted police aggression. who held his own strong connections to Mangano crime family boss Vincent Mangano and Profaci crime family boss Joseph Profaci in New York.. The Triad Underground Society is a term used to describe a collection of Chinese criminal organizations based in Hong Kong. John Scalise. in December 1926. primarily through St. While on the mainland Chang was reportedly running a business and also set up an association to advocate Taiwan‘s peaceful unification with Beijing. yet rather happy" for the bail. no one shed any tears over them. it was here that he first met the youthful John Scalise. He was taken to the Taipei District Prosecutors' Office. who would become his crime partner and best friend. By the beginning of Prohibition. eventually settling on "The Hill". which is north of Hong Kong. He joined the Bamboo Union as a teenager and gradually climbed his way to the top. Anselmi and Scalise had a very unsavory reputation. 1948). The true influence of the crime syndicate is not fully understood and the Bamboo Union is a violent group that will do whatever necessary to achieve their ultimate goals. so much so that they were automatically suspected of guilt any time some of Al Capone's enemies turned up dead. Chang had said in Shanghai that he intended to return to Taiwan to promote his political ideals. along with New York gangster Frankie Yale. pinyin: Bái Láng). Chang was born on the mainland and moved to Taiwan with his family after Chinese communists took over in 1949. Scalise. pursued the fleeing Anselmi. 1929) was a Chicago mobster who became a hitman during the Prohibition era for the Chicago Outfit criminal organization. Ignacio Antinori was sipping coffee at the Palm Garden Inn in Tampa with a friend and a young female companion. Four months later. ―Chang An-lo of the Bamboo Union has returned to the country to turn himself in. All three had been severely beaten and shot to death. Anselmi and Scalise were granted a retrial by the Illinois Supreme Court and released from prison. When the Outfit complained. on June 13. Antinori was eventually eclipsed by Trafficante. Ignacio Antinori (February 17. About an hour later. Anselmi and Scalise were bound over for trial. During some of the most bizarre legalistics in American history. The gunman was allegedly sent by one of Antinori's dissatisfied customers. He said he was going to have a ride around Taipei after a 17-year absence. For this reason. the Italian community of St. Chang An-lo is recognized as a former leader of the Bamboo Union crime brotherhood. In addition. Antinori was one of the first mobsters to emerge in Florida during the Prohibition era. Law enforcement soon began to concentrate on Antinori's operation. Louismobster Thomas Buffa and Kansas City mobsters Nicolo Impostato. Shortly thereafter. Years later. Vietnam. However exactly the two died. the White Wolf holds five separate bachelor‘s degrees." Anselmi and Scalise were found guilty of the manslaughter of Officer Walsh. they were pursued by a detective squad and overtaken at the corner of Western and 60th. Contrary to common belief. Capone produced a baseball bat and beat the three men within an inch of their lives. is a key member of the Bamboo Union – one of Taiwan‘s biggest gangs accused of organised crimes including blackmail. and construction industries. However. The fourth officer. and soon enough the student was leading the teacher. ambushed North Siders Bugs Moran and Schemer Drucci in Little Italy. an incident which had strained Taiwan‘s ties with the United States. three of which were obtained from American universities. and Genna towards the next block of houses. according to Taiwanese media. Antinori refused a refund. before two or three gunmen stepped in to finish the job. Macau. Taipei-based Central News Agency reported. and they went to work for Capone with a venganance. Born in Marsala. according to Taiwanese media. By then. James DeSimone and Joseph Deluca.

Anstis escaped again in his swift brigantine Good Fortune. Between Hispaniola and Jamaica. that had been created as the result of negotiations to end years of inter family violence. The opposing faction apparently did not believe Ardizzone. The Ardizzones were related to several other families and they would maintain contact in America. they were surprised by the British man-of-war Admiral Sir John Flowers HMS Winchelsea. and eventually had several ships. he was sentenced to nine years for international drug trafficking. he was considered to be the "number one" of the 'Ndrangheta and the head of La Provincia. Basile was killed and Ardizzone wounded. Anstis lost more than forty of his men on Grand Cayman. Giuseppe was one of the last to arrive. Later he received a life sentence for ordering the killing in 1989 of Lodovico Ligato. a former head of the Italian state railways. Anstis spotted a treasure ship out from Guinea heading towards the Carolinas. and took prisoner all who remained loyal. the Los Angeles crime family may have supported Maranzano. so his family came to act as bodyguards. upon doing so. After its capture. Anstis commanded one of these. and with Piana di Greci being one of the larger Albanian communities. intending to careen their new vessels. In what he later called an act of self-defense. Those families included the Cuccias and the Matrangas. driving a 1930 Ford Coupe SRW7653 and carrying a . Continuing onward towards Bermuda. the brigantine Good Fortune. Nick Guastella. raiding shipping on the eastern coast of the American colonies and in the Caribbeanduring what is often referred to as the "Golden Age of Piracy". while on his way to a cousin's house in Etiwanda. For a while. the Good Fortune plundered two vessels. the Irwin. In 2008 after his deportation. he became the next chief of the Los Angeles crime family. It was also during this time that a faction developed that opposed Ardizzone. The Los Angeles Family was certainly active during this time period. if not most. murdered him as he slept in his hammock. police still strongly suspected him to control the brothel[6]and several members of Arabaci's clan were sighted in Berlin in 2008. in the Province of Palermo. or even if his immediate family were members. and on October 15. He became a wealthy farmer and wine maker. most of these being captured by a landing party from the two Royal Navy vessels. He eventually returned and was arrested. Joseph Bonanno {died 2002} and his son Salvatore Bonanno {died 2008} wrote of several close associates in the Los Angeles area. Santo Araniti (Reggio Calabria. Afterwards they stopped to careen their vessel. He was treated and sent to a hospital. human trafficking. as the survivors were being rescued by the Good Fortune. and racketeering. April 25. He then fled California and hid in different states. assault. He was incarcerated under the harsh article 41-bis prison regime. The pirates put in at Tobago in April. In 2010 it was reported that Arabaci took part in a meeting of international Hells Angels bosses in Izmir. On May 24. but his crew. and became the only Los Angeles boss to be murdered by his own men. he captured a sloop named Antelope. Anstis and Fenn (who had been rescued from Grand Cayman before the interference of the Royal Navy) now sailed to the Bay of Honduras and careened on an offshore island. he was in a leadership position in the early 1920s. In early 1931 he was driving with his friend Jimmy Basile when gunmen drove by and shot at them. During the course of the voyage. including Stefano and Francesco also moved to the Los Angeles area. and hired an Albanian contract killer from Duisburg. 1721. Anstis's crew committed gang rape and murder against a female passenger. the Kölner Ringe. but the charges against him were dropped. the pirates were sighted and pursued by HMS Hector and HMSAdventure. Rhode Island in 1718. A second attempt was made on his life in the hospital. In 1990. which he added to his squadron. extortion. In 2002 he was arrested for pimping. Turkey. In 1985. He then married a young girl named Elsa who was the daughter of a German neighbor in the city of Sunland. On the way. he chose the side of the Condello-Imerti alliance. Germany. 1994. An intense search followed. The Albanians were given land grants in what later became Italy.Thomas Anstis (died April 1723) was an early 18th-century pirate. In 1931. While it is uncertain when Ardizzone became a member of the Mafia. where they lived at that time.41 caliber Colt revolver No. The two ships continued to sail along the southeastern coast of the colonies until fighting began to break out among many of the forced crew members. in the war against their former boss Tripodo in the mid 1970s. but the Winchelsea's marines overtook and captured them. The prosecutor fled Germany in 2007 when Arabaci was deported to Turkey. who Americanized his name to Joseph. 1931) was an early Los Angeles mobster. at the start of the Second 'Ndrangheta war between the De Stefano and the Serraino. He was a key ally of the De Stefano brothers. 1931. and the king had sent Admiral Sir John Flowers to eradicate the pirates. mis-translation of some of the transcripts was detected. 1884 – October 15. became involved in a dispute with the Matrangas who lived in Los Angeles. He was involved in a long-standing feud with the Matranga family. He was a fugitive since 1983 and included in the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy until his capture in May 1994. He started his criminal career as an associate of Domenico Tripodo – the boss the city of Reggio Calabria and the surrounding areas. . Frank Bompensiero and Tony Mirabile. where the Morning Star ran aground and. Roberts' ships headed for Africa. After Davis' death Bartholomew Roberts replaced him as captain. He was born Giuseppe Ernesto Ardizzone in Piana dei Greci. the physician son of former L. Nick Gentile notes in his memoirs that during a conference Maranzano was backed by two men from California. Aboard one. During his detention in Germany. Sicily. and then a 24-gun ship. 1723. Some of his maternal ancestors were descended from Albanians who fought Muslims during the 16th century invasions in eastern Europe.A. Sailing to an island off Cabo San Antonio in Cuba. he reputedly still controlled the "Colosseum" brothel in Augsburg. where they received amnesty and their prisoners were hanged. such as Jimmy Costa (from Castellammare del Golfo).323 he "disappeared". Condello and Imerti clans. weapons violations. and Arabaci was acquitted. a provincial commission of the 'Ndrangheta. The so-called Arabaci-Clan reportedly controlled the bouncer scene of the night clubs in Cologne's entertainment district. stated their intentions to sail southward as pirates. His other children. who became the first Boss of the Los Angeles crime family. discouraged by their losses. He became a member of La Santa in the 1970s. In November 2008 he was released from the harsh regime but remained in prison. Anstis opting to retain command of the smaller Good Fortune because of her superior handling. when they received news from their courier ship that their pleas had been ignored. Upon the resignation of Rosario DeSimone for unknown reasons. and having just started the task. He had just been appointed president of the "Hells Angels MC Nomads Turkey". Antis and his men were forced to burn the ship and the sloop and flee into the island's interior. Anstis is first recorded as a member of the sloop Buck. 1947) is an Italian criminal and a member of the 'Ndrangheta. Morning Star. a Mafia-type criminal organisation in Calabria. He once claimed to have killed 30 men. and his gang of bouncers reportedly befriended girls in order to exploit them as prostitutes. The police had bugged his visiting room. finally making his escape under oars when the fresh wind subsided. which sailed from Providence. who was formerly active in Cologne. to Antonino Ardizzone on November 19. During his time as boss Prohibition was active and many. He confessed during his trial in 2004 and was sentenced to nine years in prison. but his body was never found. Necati "Neco" Arabaci (born 1972 or 1973) is a Turkish businessman and criminal. possibly trying to gain a foothold for the gang in the city's red-light scene. which was entrusted to Fenn. Howell Davis was elected captain. with the aim of obtaining "Sicherungsverwahrung" (indefinite imprisonment of extremely dangerous criminals). Joseph shot and killed a Matranga ally named George Maisano in 1906. Anstis was forced to cut his anchor cable and run. Based on the transcripts. the crew awaited a reply from the British government for nine months until August 1722. 1884. Arabaci also controlled several brothels in the Rhein-Ruhr region of Germany. under the command of Flowers. Antonino came in the later 19th century. Ardizzone managed to be taken to the house of Leon DeSimone. Underworld sources indicated that he agreed to retire after these incidents. capturing three or four prizes en route and augmenting their depleted crew from their captives. don Rosario DeSimone. and the prosecutor was given bodyguards and police protection. claiming they had been forced into piracy by Anstis and Roberts. landing in Louisiana then taking thetrain to southern California. He was released in 2007 and deported to Turkey. police arrested him in Rome. Mafiosi were involved in bootlegging. who served under Captain Howell Davis and Captain Bartholomew Roberts. the ship was outfitted with 32 guns and placed in the command of ships gunner John Fenn. Shortly after that their home was burned down by arsonists. They were distant cousins from Piana dei Greci. The bloody six-year war clan left 621 deaths. On their southward course they encountered the Grand Caymans. but Anstis and his crew in the Good Fortune slipped away in the night and continued to operate in the Caribbean. Anstis next sailed for the Bahama Islands in early December 1722. when the Castellammarese War between Joseph Masseria and Salvatore Maranzano was taking place. Arabaci was prosecuted again. The mutineers then surrendered to Dutch authorities in Curaçao. At trial. After seven years Ardizzone's wife had him declared legally dead. The Ardizzone family came to America at different times.[1] During the night of April 18. before setting up on his own account. While already in prison. and they decided to petition George I of Great Britain for a pardon. For reasons uncertain Giuseppe. Joseph "Iron Man" Ardizzone (November 19. Anstis conspired with six other crew members to attempt a mutiny aboard the ship which. Arabaci reportedly plotted to kill the prosecutor.

Armone assisted Gambino capo John Gotti in the Castellano assassination and Gotti's subsequent takeover of the Gambino family. On February 23. underboss Joseph Biondo allegedly picked Armone and two other family mobsters to assassinate family boss Albert "Mad Hatter" Anastasia. Gallo from a New York state prison to afederal prison. the Cosa Nostra code of silence.[3] Armone wore thick glasses and had an arthritic limp in his leg from an ancient gunshot wound. However. A devoted family man. Reportedly. His other sons are also involved in illicit business. A small-statured man with black-gray hair. and considered by Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional as "one of the most violent" drug traffickers in Mexico.5 million) bounty for information leading to his arrest. They were accused of transporting $20 million of heroin from 1956 to 1965 from France to the U. In 1964. until his arrest on October 26. a Mexican drug trafficking cartel based in Tijuana. and highly trusted in mob circles. possession of counterfeit currency. the Juárez Cartel.000. and narcoticsviolations. In 1957. In 1991. 2006) was a caporegime in the Genovese crime family [1] Luis Fernando Sánchez Arellano (born ca. however. on the "list of most wanted fugitives in Italy" of the ministry of the Interior since 1993. probably in partnership with his mother Enedina Arellano Félix. Baja California. Joe Armone is portrayed as "Piney Armone" by actor Mark Margolis. under the tutelage of Sánchez Arellano. 1899 Palermo. He was born in New York. Joseph Armone stayed away from mistresses and often took his wife out for dinner. Armone was a leader of Gambino operations in the Lower East Side of Manhattan. he limped due to a previouship fracture. and narcotics laws violations.: El Ingeniero. his speech. responsible for a number of murders. He stood at 5'9 and weighed 160 pounds. He is a fugitive since December 1993 when he managed to escape from Operation Orsa Maggiore. On September 24. Armone was sentenced to 15 years in federal prison and was fined $820. for drug trafficking. Giovanni Arena (born in Catania. However. and boats. the FBI started using electronic surveillance to record many of Ardito's meetings in several Bronx restaurants. 1988. Sicily – 1960). On June 22. Sillas Rocha. 2011. or killer. Miranda eventually became the family consigliere under boss Vito Genovese and help run the family while Genovese was in prison. In January 1986. A later indictment alleged that Ardito once ordered a beating on a debtor who owed him $150. but only on the condition that he publicly renounce his ties to the Gambino family. The Tijuana cartel (or Arellano Félix Organization) has been described as one of the biggest and most violent criminal groups in Mexico. New York. On December 22. (September 13. but is now considered to be allied with the Sciuto-Tigna crime group of the Cappello clan. He is an uncle to Gambino crime family capo Joseph (Joey The Blonde) Giordano. Armone and 11 other mobsters were indicted in what became the French Connection case. was straightforward and direct. Gotti appointed Armone as his new underboss. In July 1965. 1992. a drug baron of the Sinaloa cartel. DeAlesandro was later convicted of bribery and sentenced to five years in prison. Armone is portrayed by Dominic Chianese in the 1996 TV film Gotti. in a separate case. a former Playboy bunny and a friend of Armone. 2006. Prior to sentencing. Ardito was sent to federal prison for conspiracy to obstruct justice. Armone and his family lived in Brooklyn. the government charged Ardito. He engaged in large-scale . Armone married Josephine DiQuarto and was the father of two children.who worked in the Bronx borough of New York. loan sharking. medical offices. Ardito was released from prison. Armone was convicted of the French Connection charges. Sillas Rocha was believed to be retaliating for the disappearance of his sister in 2010. wanted for murder. His son Antonino Arena is a fugitive as well since 2009. in Catania. nicknamed El Sillas and La Rueda. Armone was offered a similar temporary release. an international alert had been issued for his arrest and extradition. Armone moved to the United States with his family to Queens. 2008. Armone was convicted in Florida of extortion. He was the older brother of Gambino capo Joseph Armone. homicide. Mob author and journalist Jerry Capeci would cite Armone's success as an example of the American Mafia disregarding its official ban of dealing drugs.000 to transfer the son of Gambino mobster Joseph N. In 1985. and his younger brother Maurizio Arena was arrested on December 4. he started holding his meetings in retail shops. In the 2001 television movie Boss of Bosses. The Tijuana Cartel was initially composed of seven brothers and four sisters. The Attorney General of Mexico is offering a $30 million peso (USD $2. 2011. wanted for cannabis trafficking. also known as "14th Street Steve". His group supplied 50 kg cannabis a month to dealers in neighbourhoods of Catania around the Palazzo di cemento in the Librino quarter. and racketeering in Broward County. due to failing health. 1992) was a gangster in the Gambino crime family who served as underboss. Later on. a Gambino soldier. 1964. using sailors. His arrest record included assault and battery with intent to kill. Armone was convicted in New York on charges of racketeering conspiracy involving extortion. Ardito was released on bail while awaiting trial on these racketeering charges. the FBI also started bugging Ardito's home phone. theGulf Cartel. In 2005. 2006. The bribery charge involved a plot from 1981 to 1982 to bribe a government official $20. had banned Gambino members from taking plea deals that acknowledged the existence of the family. Curcio collapsed in court with what seemed like a heart attack. fought Teodoro García Simental (El Teo) for the control of the criminal activities in Tijuana between 2008 and 2010. was a New York gangster with theGambino crime family who ran gambling operations in Lower Manhattan. Biondo allegedly replaced Armone with his brother Stephen and the hitmen killed Anastasia. After serving ten years in prison. Genovese captain Liborio Bellomo. and especially following the arrest of his uncle Eduardo Arellano Félix on October 25. loansharking. In 1985. Armone was also respectful and polite to any Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents he encountered. the judge allowed Gallo to be free on bail. a major police action against the Mafia in Catania. He was the second-in-command in the Tijuana cartel. 1919 – December 31. Ardito died from pancreatic cancer. When mobster Paul Castellano became family boss. Stephen Armone (November 17. He was the younger brother of mobster Stephen Armone. After joining the Genovese family. and refused Armone an exception. effectively giving him a final Christmas with his family. Luis Fernando Sánchez took the cartel leadership. Armone earned his nickname "Piney" in the 1930s by extorting money from Christmas tree vendors. John Gregory "Buster" Ardito (October 30. felonious assault. and narcotics possession. Armone survived an assassination attempt. He is also accused of kidnapping three women who were relatives of Ismael Zambada García (El Mayo). He competes with three other major cartels. Gotti then sent Armone to Florida to supervise Gambino activities there. DeAlesandro tried to bribe the juror. The racketeering charge involved New York Local 102 of the Bakery. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in May 2003 for the murder of Maurizio Romeo of the rival Ferrera clan in October 1989. Ardito became a button man. Armone was in a Manhattan bar when a gunman shot him five times at point blank range. On October 1. His arrest record included seduction. August 9. 1917 – February 23. Armone was released. He was buried in the Cemetery of the Resurrection in Staten Island. Manhattan. in the crew of Michele Miranda. On November 7. Armone died in prison of natural causes. Gotti. 1965. he promoted Armone to caporegime. In 2006. In 2003. Ardito was involved in extortion. bribery and illegal interstate travel to commit bribery. He believed in omerta. Confectionery and Tobacco Workers' Union and New York Local 15 of the International Union of Operating Engineers. and the Sinaloa Cartel for the illegal drug corridors into the United States. while not grammatical. who inherited the organization from Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo upon his incarceration in Mexico in 1989 for his complicity in the murder of DEA Special Agent Enrique Camarena. one of the jurors was approached outside the courthouse by Patricia DeAlesandro.k. 1977) a. also known as Shorty. before the attack could take place. He was Joseph "Piney" Armone. using this surveillance information. cars. was captured by the Mexican Army in the border city of Tijuana. Following the death or arrest of the Arellano Félix family members.S. During a 1983 trial for Genovese mobster Gus Curcio. burglary. After Ardito discovered one of the devices. Agatino Arena was arrested in February 2009. His legitimate profession was as part owner of a butcher shop in the Bronx.000. During the trial. 1988. 1987. and illegal gambling operations. the FBI was even able to turn on Ardito's cell phone without his knowledge and use that as a listening device. and a diplomat as drug couriers. Ardito married Fay Cerasi and was the father of John and Annette Arditio. other accounts suggest that Profaci crime family capo Joe Gallo and his crew members were responsible for the Anastasia murder. businessman. Armone participated in the 1985 assassination of Gambino boss Paul Castellano. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) surveillance recorded that Ardito had secretly passed some medications that simulated cardiac problems to Curcio to delay the trial. Armone rarely cursed. However. and other Genovese family members with labor racketeering and other charges. Arena was one of the top figures of the clan of Nitto Santapaola. 2011 Juan Francisco Sillas Rocha. historic rivals of Cosa Nostra. Born on the Upper East Side. On December 31. Giovanni Arena was arrested on October 26. membership to the Mafia and other crimes. 2009. On February 22. but he reported the incident to law enforcement. Armone was arrested on a narcotics charge and sent to jail. had a high-flown formality once described as "Mob Shakespearean". Armone's arrest record included robbery. Armone was sentenced to 15 years in prison. Josephine is a relative of Genovese crime family capoDominick DiQuarto. On December 25. is a Mexican drug trafficker leader of the Tijuana Cartel.a. 1956) is an Italian criminal belonging to Cosa Nostra.

200. In November 1923. Baker. Prior to his arrest. On September 6. Baker spent months searching the Florida Everglades and came up empty-handed. he surrendered himself to authorities in West Palm Beach where he was imprisoned until his trial. making it an ideal hideout. however the local prosecutor petitioned the judge for a change of venue to Miami. Almost every major crime in Florida was blamed on Ashley and his gang and one Florida official called him the greatest threat to the state since the Seminole Wars.narcotics smuggling and distribution. While they were together. that John Ashley had sold them the hides for $1. Whenever she heard authorities were nearing one of Ashley's hideouts. he sent eight of his deputies to the house early in the morning. Two deputies. Mobley and Middleton were caught in Plant City and Matthews in Georgia. 1924) was a 20th-century American outlaw. the state's attorney believed that that had a better chance of prosecuting Ashley for the Stuart robberies in West Palm Beach. only that he "vanished from his cell". 1924. We were in your city at the time one of our gang. In early 1924. Ashley may have hoped that a hometown jury might sympathize with him. Joe Ashley had several stills in Palm Beach County while John's brothers Ed and Frank Ashley ran liquor from the Bahamas to Jupiter Inlet and Stuart. He may have worked as a logger in Seattle and later claimed to have robbed a bank in Canada. and returned to bank robbery with his gang. He was taken to Miami to stand trial for the murder of Desoto Tiger. possibly out of guilt for shooting John Ashley. Authorities were later told by fur traders in Miami. sent a note to Dade County sheriff Dan Hardie demanding the release of Ashley: Dear Sir. Ashley behaved as a model prisoner for two years until escaping from a road camp. Florida. This was in part the result of help from fellow Florida "crackers" and a "grapevine telegraph of the 'glades". bank robber. However. when he suddenly broke away. In one of their more memorable robberies. And if John Ashley is not fairly dealt with and given a fair trial and turned loose simply for the life of a God-damn Seminole Indian we expect to shoot up the hole [sic] God-damn town regardless of what the results might be. he and Bob Ashley robbed an FEC passenger train with Chicago mobster Kid Lowe. Laura also cased banks and served as a getaway driver. Upthegrove acted primarily as the gang's lookout. John Ashley (March 19. was brutally shot to death by your officers and now your town can expect to feel the result of it any hour. According to fellow Seminole Jimmy Gopher. The gang leader also tried his hand at piracy. a shootout occurred resulting in the deaths of both Bob Ashley and Riblet. the US federal government threatened to intervene. with the assistance of fellow bank robber Tom Maddox. was killed in his bunk while his partner. Indeed. Hearing of the prosecutor's plans. costing him the sight in one of his eyes. Bob Ashley attempted to break his brother John out of jail. Albert Miller. he killed one of the deputies. he attempted to force several men at gunpoint to drive the car for him. she became known as "Queen of the Everglades" and she took a central role in the gang while Ashley was incarcerated.000 in silver and cash in a daring daylight bank robbery in Stuart. He then ran from the house to the garage where gang members had left him a getaway car. a dredging crew working near Lake Okeechobee discovered the body of Seminole trapper Desoto Tiger. the gang robbed $23. It was only after police paraded the body of Bob Ashley though the streets that the mob dispersed. He and his brothers then became outlaws and. Family underboss Carlo Gambino and Luciano crime family capo Vito Genovese had been plotting to assume power in their respective families. the self-styled "King of the Everglades" or "Swamp Bandit" operated from various hideouts in the Florida Everglades. to take him out of town. they were in position by dawn. an express boat carrying a quarter-million dollars had left forNassau. While Anastasia was in the chair having a shave and haircut. the previous day he had also been arrested in West Palm Beach on a charge of "recklessly displaying firearms". the smuggling ring started in 1940. The Ashley family moved from Fort Myers to Pompano in the 1890s where Joe Ashley and his older sons worked on the new railroad being built by industrialist Henry Flagler. Ashley's gang was so effective that rum-running on the Florida coast virtually ceased while the gang was active. Gambino capo Joseph Biondo selected Armone to head a hit squad that included family heroin dealers Stephen Grammauta and Arnold Wittenburg. Within a few years of Prohibition. they were surprised by his brother Bob Ashley and were disarmed at gunpoint. Ashley's activities also hindered Prohibition bootleggers in major cities. Many chose to pay the Ashleys protection money. maintaining their many stills in the woods of central Florida. the Ashley Gang was so feared by Florida bootleggers that many began deserting the area looking for safer routes far out of reach of the gang. spotted Ashley and gave chase. The deputies fired at the dog. In 1915. Even the newspapers of the era frequently compared him to Jesse James. His near 13-year feud with Palm Beach County Sheriff George B. lawmen and wealthy landowners. Ashley and Sheriff Baker were engaging in a personal feud. Armone and his hit squad ambushed Anastasia at a Manhattan hotel barber shop. he decided to escape. Ashley's dog began barking at the lawmen. Upon his return. they crossed a canal and disappeared into the swamp near Clewiston. and trapping otters. Riblet. who made his living by fishing. With the start of Prohibition. Leaving the town. however. made plans to surround the cabin and starve him out. In 1924. Florida. On January 10. Baker finally got a lead on Ashley's location. We expect to make our appearance at an early date. his brothers disappeared while on a return voyage from Bimini in October 1921. the Girtman Brothers. young Bob Ashley. When the truck suddenly stalled in the middle of the street. When Ashley attempted to get medical attention for his eye. hunting. often without headlights if at night. he began moonshining with his gang before his eventual recapture in June 1921. Using a fleet of small boats. on March 31. became a skilled trapper and alligator hunter. However. The circumstances surrounding Ashley's third and final escape remain a mystery. An investigation was held and Ashley soon came under suspicion. Armone died in 1960. His gang robbed nearly $1 million from at least 40 banks while at the same time hijacking numerous shipments of illegal whiskey being smuggled into the state from theBahamas. with other occasional partners. 1915. a poor Florida woodsman. he was considered a folk hero who represented a symbol of resistance to bankers. After wrapping the loot in a bedsheet. S.[1] In 1911. According to contemporary accounts.A. Barfield and Bob Hannon. John Ashley was born and raised in the backwoods country along the Caloosahatchee River in the community of Buckingham. like his father. the sheriff's cousin Fred Baker. However. they stole $45. if not impossible. causing Ashley to return fire. His father. Baker "not to send anymore chicken-hearted men with rifles or they are apt to get hurt". Lowe accidentally shot John Ashley in the jaw. found Ashley camping in a palmetto thicket near Hobe Soundand attempted to take him into custody. formed a criminal gang. several thousand Miami residents threatened the jailhouse and talked of lynching John Ashley in his cell. A deputy. Hendrickson at point-blank range and left with his jail keys. The sheriff had received a tip from a local car salesman and had set a trap on the eve of the Bahamas raid. Joe moved his family to West Palm Beach and briefly served as county sheriff. Armone allegedly participated in the assassination of family boss Albert Anastasia.[6] Hours before the raid. The Ashley gang continued moonshining in his absence. Kid Lowe. Entering the jailer's house. 1911. On June 2. and began hijacking rum runners as well under Clarence Middleton or Roy Matthews. On December 29. Angered by Bob's killing spree. in the resulting gunfight. Each of the men claimed to not know how to drive the car either so Bob Ashley jumped on the running board of a passing truck and forced the driver. Ashley changed his route at the last minute and sailed through St. bootlegger. Ashley supposedly left a bullet with one of the victims to give to Sheriff Baker if "ever got out to the 'Glades". John Ashley pled guilty to robbery and was sentenced to 17 years in the state penitentiary at Raiford. to warn fellow gang members. Forced to . Between 1915 and 1924. intercepting many rum-runners along the coast of southern Florida. John Ashley spent much of his youth in the Florida Everglades and. John Ashley then sent the officers back with a message for Sheriff George B. 1916. While John Ashley was still in jail. and occasional pirate active in southern Florida during the 1910s and 1920s. they slowly drove through the middle of the town in a stolen taxi. whose importation of foreign liquor undermined local moonshiners. narrowly avoiding capture. By this time. When he found he was unable to drive the particular car left for him. Ashley had been last seen with Desoto traveling in a canoe together with a boatload of otter hides to sell at a local market. Armone was indicted on charges of attempting to smuggle morphine and opium into the United States from theBahamas. he was captured and held in the Dade County jailhouse to await trial. T. Bob Ashley shot Wilber W. 1957. the gang managed to rob the Stuart bank a second time in September 1923 after Ashley's teenage nephew Hanford Mobley sneaked into the building disguised as a woman and escaped with several thousand dollars. The hit squad entered the shop and shot him to death. 1944. Their first attempt was less than successful as they failed to agree on who would collect valuables from the passengers and who would rob the mail car. On October 25. Lucie Inlet. Among poor Florida "crackers". with weapons from the Florida National Guard and deputized civilians. Shortly after the robbery. Baker ended in the death of Ashley and his three lieutenants in 1924.000 in cash and securities from a bank in Pompano. That same year. officer J. He was one of nine children born to Joe Ashley. however all escaped and were back together in the woods near Gomez by the end of the year. 1888 or 1895 – November 1. Just as they were about to make their move. 1918. Robert C. Baker learned that Ashley was staying with family members in a moonshiner's cabin hidden in a swamp about 2 miles south of the Ashley family home. this was followed by reckless celebrating in the streets. Like many of their heists. The short bushes and palmetto scrub made it very difficult.R. As a result. Suspecting that the law might be on to his plans. John Ashley fled to New Orleans for a year or two before returning to Florida around 1914. Ashley began a relationship with Laura Upthegrove.000 from four wholesale liquor warehouses. Duckett. When the Seminole Nation raised protest over the murder. Floridanear Fort Myers. His two-man raid on the Bahamas' West End in 1924 marked the first time in over a century that American pirates had attacked a British Crown colony. Through his informants. Baker was determined to capture Ashley and.H. the Ashleys' opportunities for liquor piracy dwindled and they eventually returned to bank robbery as their primary activity. to approach the cabin. his bodyguards disappeared. ran out an unlocked door and climbed a 10-foot fence to freedom. On November 23. During their getaway however. and Laura were seriously wounded by buckshot from a deputy's shotgun. Ashley was being escorted to his cell by Sheriff Baker's son. They waved a bottle of whiskey to onlookers and shouted "We got it all!". he and his nephew Hanford Mobley stole a sea skiff and led a raid against rum-runners in theBahamas' West End leaving with $8. no attack from the Ashley Gang came forth and the town proceeded with the prosecution. she would drive her car through secret backwoods trails. but stopped in 1941 due to World War II[2] In 1957. Joe Ashley.

1927. In 2003. According to the DEA Atkinson was in fact the main supplier of heroin to Harlem drug lord Frank Lucas after the two met in Bangkok around 1974. There are two alternate versions. Attanasio participated in the murder of Bonanno soldier Cesare Bonventre. An hour after the ambush was laid. "It is a total lie that's fueled by Frank Lucas for personal gain. Frank Lucas. who bought the heroin from the undercover German diplomat at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. I was caught off guard. 1924. Despite a manhunt involving 200 men. Ashley's black touring car was spotted. Samuel Arrante. Atkinson is represented by the character Nate. where he was immediately arrested. 36. Baker received a tip from an anonymous source. At the time of Ashley's death. 1975 in his home in Goldsboro. big enough to load up with six. the heroin would eventually arrive at Fort Bragg. but this time one woman contacted the postal authorities. Ashley and his gang were portrayed in the 2000 historical novel Red Grass River: A Legend by James Carlos Blake and the 2006 novel Queen of the Everglades by Robert Blaske. In 1968. Once it stopped at the bridge. the deputies approached the car from behind and ordered the gang out of the vehicle. Attanasio earned the nickname "HaHa" because he laughed whenever he heard about a mobster dying. for his part in yet another heroin smuggling operation which he was allegedly running from prison.‘‖ . An Army serviceman would come to pick up the shipments. and Clarence Middleton were lined up outside the car. only to re-appear later in the series in the episode "Stone's War" (first aired October 3. Ashley made a sudden move forward and dropped his hands. J. Ashley returned to Florida and spent several months with his gang planning their revenge. 1985). The film depicts Nate as being Lucas' cousin. but Maynard escapes. Atkinson and his organization bought heroin at about US$4000 a kilogram before being cut four ways and transporting it to the United States by military personnel.000 of the gang's fortune was ever recovered. In the heat of the moment.‖ (The coffin rumor was probably a misunderstanding). The Cadaver Connection was a supposed heroin smuggling operation involving hiding heroin in the American serviceman's coffins. According to the official story. The only thing I could think of to say was: ‗We are making coffins.R. that Ashley would be travelling up the coast on the Dixie Highway to rob a bank in Jacksonville. she was arrested on several occasions before eventually opening a gas station at Canal Point on Lake Okeechobee. Atkinson was finally released in 2007. Frank barged in and went right to the back. Also charged was Mr. who is investigating a series of drug-related deaths involving methanol poisoning. In the next two years. The first. The investigation leads to a character known as "The Sargeant. along with three of Baker's deputies. She was 30 years old. was offered in the 1996 book Florida's Ashley Gang by historian Ada Coats Williams: an unidentified deputy claimed that. He apparently developed a plot to kill Sheriff Baker at the Jacksonville courthouse following his election in November." ―He (Leon) never had any association with constructing coffins for transporting heroin or drugs. blocking the road with a chain with a red lantern across the bridge. Six other inmates and a correctional officer were also charged. North Carolina. Flown on US Air Force aircraft.[5] He was charged following a 15-month investigation where an undercover agent. Ashley escaped through a secret entrance.Ike Atkinson. the byproduct of a decomposing drug stash that had been brought back to Miami more than 10 years earlier in the bodies of dead GIs. (born 1944 in White Plains. A third theory. That same day. one of Ike's partners in the US. ‗What are you doing?‘ Frank asked me.000 over a span of five years. who allegedly suffered from a bipolar disorder. the actual operation was overseen by the sheriff of Indian River County. the Little Ashley Cemetery. claim they had also been stopped on the bridge and saw the officers approach Ashley's car behind them. according to two men who witnessed their arrest. Only $32. Atkinson's nephew. Six members of the Ashley clan were buried there. In the movie American Gangster (which is based on the life and times of Frank Lucas). A few members of the Ashley gang still remained.. He hoped to plan a jail break for her. 40. This explanation was accepted by a coroner's jury. posing as a corrupt German diplomat bought five pounds of heroin on Atkinson's behalf in Thailand. As the bridge was out of his jurisdiction. Atkinson moved to Bangkok. causing the deputies to open fire. however police claimed the marks were the result of the coroner examining the bodies. although they were eventually killed. the deputies searched the car and found several guns while Ashley. Ray Lynn. during which the homes of both Joe Ashley and Hanford Mobley were burned (as well as a small grocery owned by Miller). his wife's screaming caused the deputies to hold their fire. Hanford Mobley..000. each belonging to elderly black women. Atkinson's downfall came in 1975. Atkinson has recently been released from prison. except we fixed them Leslie "Ike" Atkinson (born up with false bottoms. Baker arranged an ambush at a bridge over Sebastian River. Thailand in the mid-1960s and became a partner in Jack's American Star Bar. but it was widely reported that she had committed suicide. all having died a violent death with the exception of an infant grandchild. However.. Frank came to visit. contacted the police. and Lynn (Middleton was buried in Jacksonville) were buried in a family cemetery. however. Ike was very smart. A shipment of heroin was due to arrive at two addresses in Fayetteville. fearing she had been sent a bomb. 1986) running an illegal mercenary operation in support of the Contras in Nicaragua. it was widely believed among poor "crackers" that he had been executed by the police as a form of frontier justice. outside Gomez. maybe eight kilos. he entered into the drug trade from the Golden Triangle through a Chinese Thai man named Luchai Rubiwat. The cemetery eventually became part of anexclusive residential neighborhood. The concept of smuggling drugs from Vietnam via dead soldiers is referenced in Tom Clancy's book Without Remorse. In the 2007 film American Gangster. she died during an argument with a man trying to buy moonshine from her. 1925) is a former US Army master sergeant and convicted drug trafficker.‖ But Atkinson who used his lifelong friend Leon as the carpenter claims he never used coffins to smuggle the heroin. he divorced his second wife Erica. The CO. Leon was in Bangkok hollowing out teak furniture. Philip Wade Atkinson.000 a quarter kilo. The plan had worked before. A similar plot was used in the 1980s television show Miami Vice in the episode titled "Back In The World" (first aired December 6. netting a profit of about US$96. claims that this is how Ike smuggled the narcotic out of Thailand: ―Ike flew a country-boy North Carolina carpenter over to Bangkok.000 and other Everglades stashes have never been found. Mariner Sands. Atkinson was charged in 1987. both men insisted that Ashley and the others were handcuffed. There were marks that could have been made by handcuffs. as well as avenge the death of his father. the so-called "Cadaver Connection" in which heroin was smuggled in the coffins of dead American soldiers coming back from Vietnam. Maynard. believed to be a gang member's girlfriend (or a disgruntled brother-in-law). who was a business partner in Atkinson's bar and would later go on to found P. where the Ashley family home once stood. but as more time passed he left for California to lie low.. Louis "Louie HaHa" Attanasio Jr. it was found only with the help of ex-gang member Joe Tracy. The lethal drug stash is uncovered. Chang's and Pei Wei restaurants. the other. but Atkinson's family deny there are any blood ties between the two..On the contrary. We used teak furniture to smuggle the heroin and we were getting a shipment ready. It had to be snug. Mobley. believed to have been a major figure in smuggling heroin into the United States from Southeast Asia from about 1968 to 1975. We had him make up 28 copies of the government coffins. and he was arrested on January 19. was charged because he was smuggling the letters out of prison to prevent the authorities from reading the letters. On the day of the murder. Laura Upthegrove lived under an assumed name in western Florida for a time. Ashley and his three partners were killed in the shootout. while in prison. Frank Lucas claims that Ike is married to one of his cousins. Atkinson takes issue with the most famous aspect of Lucas' operation. John Ashley and Laura Upthegrove were the subject of the 1973 film Little Laura and Big John starring Fabian and Karen Black. which made him akin to family. New York) is a New York mobster and reputed captain in the Bonanno crime family. Merritt. It is unclear whether it was an accident. John Ashley then pulled out a concealed weapon. After her husband's death. Bonanno leaders Philip Rastelli and Joseph Massino had ordered Bonventre's murder because they felt he was a threat to their power. Ashley. He didn't put them in no skinny guys'. The police found Atkinson's palm prints on one of the heroin bags. some 28 miles north of Fort Pierce. when I was in Bangkok. She later moved in with her mother in Upthegrove Beach. as some claim she mistook it for a bottle of gin. Attanasio was married twice. North Carolina and other military bases and be sold to American distributors for US$25. instead claiming he smuggled the drugs inside furniture.leave his wife behind. or fled the state within a few years. causing officers to fire.. because he made sure we used heavy guys' coffins. and didn‘t want him to know how I was moving drugs. A state historical marker was placed at Sebastian Inlet but disappeared when a new bridge was built over the river. A reported $110. In the divorce settlement. she swallowed a bottle of disinfectant and died within minutes. saying it had been accidentally mailed to the wrong address. ―One time. captured. Attanasio and Bonanno mobster Salvatore Vitale picked up Bonventre to bring him to a meeting with Rastelli. In April 1984. On November 1. I never had anything to do with transporting heroin in coffins or cadavers." who turns out to be a rogue CIA agent named Col. and it is rumored that some unrecovered loot is buried somewhere on this property.F. On August 6. Erica allegedly received $200. however.. his on-screen counterpart "Nate" is played by Roger Guenveur Smith. while in handcuffs. marrying young and divorcing his first wife in 1992. played by Roger Guenveur Smith. He had told Williams this during the 1950s on the promise that she not reveal this information until all the deputies had died. He is the brother of Bonanno mobster Robert Attanasio. You couldn't have shit sliding around. one thought to be closer to the truth. Ashley remained in the area where Laura was being held by police. Vietnam war correspondent Ira Stone (Bob Balaban). As Vitale . When police directed them to leave the scene. He was convicted the following year and was sentenced to 31 years in prison. which helped enable the escape.

In 1986. Avellino was very curious and was constantly asking questions about the operation of the family and the Mafia Commission. Ohio. Attanasio was indicted in New York on charges of murder. including the 1984 Bonventre murder. Avellino and his relatives established a stranglehold on the waste hauling business on Long Island. facing evidence from the car recordings. He reportedly ran his loansharking operation in the 1980s while in federal prison on his tax evasion conviction. or whoever we. As part of a plea deal. a low security unit in Elkton. Avellino also served as right-hand man and chauffeur to boss Anthony "Tony Ducks" Corallo. His younger brother Carmine Avellino and his son Michael Avellino followed him into the waste management rackets. where he maintained a residence. were working.[6] In 1983. in a prison wedding ceremony. absorb everybody. New Jersey warehouse. 1935 St. Salvatore Avellino." Avellino was involved in the infamous Mobro 4000 garbage scow incident of 1987 which made the national news for weeks. (born November 19. For nearly 15 years. agreed to wear a surveillance device during meetings with the mobsters. During the 1980s. Avellino used aggressive strong-arm tactics to keep Long Island's waste hauling industry under Lucchese family control. Bonventre crawled out of the car onto the concrete before Attanasio finished him off with two more shots. the owner of a Suffolk County. Attanasio was convicted of tax evasion and of trying to bribe a state trooper. Avellino asked Lucchese underboss Anthony Casso permission to murder Kubecka. it took forensic technicians three months to identify it. forcing the two hitmen to stop the car. To gather evidence against Avellino. Agents then listened to many conversations between Corallo. Avellino pleaded not guilty to both charges. During one recorded phone call. 1999. New York. along with other relatives of the SSC Corporation in Holtsville.drove into a garage. Avellino pleaded guilty to using threats of violence to run his Long Island waste hauling business from federal prison. . Jr. In January 2004. eat them up. New York garbage hauling business. New York. where he and his brother-in-law. Avellino's wife Elaine was the owner. one of the largest waste haulers in the region. Avellino was indicted in federal court on racketeering charges involving the 1989 Kubecka and Barstow murders. he and Erica fled to Sint Maarten. On April 13. New York. 1989. in February 1994 Avellino pleaded guilty to helping plan the two murders and was sentenced to ten years in federal prison. federal agents installed an electronic surveillance device inside the dashboard on Avellino's Jaguar while he and his wife were at a dinner dance. Attanasio married his second wife. Erica. Avellino explained the Lucchese plans for the waste hauling industry on Long Island to an associate: "We're gonna knock everybody out. conspiracy to murder and loansharking. 2018. Bonventre still struggled. To avoid prosecution. federal agents used undercover informant Robert Kubecka. In mid 1986. On September 20. Allegedly on August 11. the information Kubecka gathered eventually persuaded a judge to allow a wire tap on Avellino's home phone in Nissequogue. In December 2004. Avellino was to serve five more years in prison after the end of his racketeering sentence. On July 16. In March 2001. Over the years. Donald Barstow. Both Kubecka and Barstow were shot to death. Surprisingly. history. On October 13. In June 1996. 1993. Attansio was arrested by members of the Sint Maarten Police Force after they received a tip that he was residing on the island. whoever stays in there is only who we allowing to stay in there. Since the 1970s. Lucchese gunmen Rocco Vitulli and Frank "Frankie the Pearl" Federico burst into Kubecka's office. 2006. 2006. Kubecka had refused to participate the mob control of the waste hauling business and had suffered extensive harassment as a result. Attanasio is serving his sentence at the Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) Elkton. Attanasio was sentenced to 15 years in prison as part of his plea agreement for the 1984 Bonventre murder. These conversations provided prosecutors with invaluable evidence against Corallo and other family bosses in the 1986 Mafia Commission trial. Avellino pleaded guilty to conspiracy charges of using coercion to prevent Kubecka from bidding on waste hauling contracts onLong Island. His projected release date is January 23. After the body was recovered. In 1997. Although Kubecka was unable to get close to Avellino himself. James. As of November 2010. Kubecka. From these recorded conversations. Attanasio was indicted on racketeering and loansharking charges. He was later extradited to the United States to face charges. also known as "Sal" is a mobster and former caporegime in the Lucchese crime family who was involved in labor racketeering in the garbage and waste management industry in Long Island. Attanasio shot Bonventre twice in the head. In 1983. The home phone tap was also disappointing to the agents. Avellino was released from federal prison. and relations with other crime families. However. Avellino. federal agents learned the Commission's internal structure. and other mobsters as they drove around the city. In 1985. In 1982. Avelino was indicted again in federal courts on 15 counts of racketeering in the waste hauling industry from 1983 to 1998. Casso agree to the killing. Bonventre's body was hacked to pieces and dumped into three 55-gallon glue drums in aGarfield. it did reveal that Avellino was driving boss Anthony Corallo around all day in Avellino's car. New York). Salvatore Avellino oversaw operations of Laborers' International Union of North America (LIUNA) Local 66 in Long Island. He received five years in prison. after a 23-year romance. Avellino was afraid that Kubecka was going to provide evidence in new criminal and civil cases. however. Avellino ordered his son Michael and son-in-law Michael Malena to set fire to competitors' garbage trucks. Avellino was promoted to capo.

65 billion drug-trafficking ring that used pizzerias as fronts to distribute heroin from 1975 to 1984. he was one of the main ringleaders of a US$1." Despite his 45-year sentence in the US he never became a pentito.000. It prompted the first concerted anti-mafia efforts by the state in postwar Italy. Gaetano Badalamenti would become one of the major heroin traffickers of the Sicilian Mafia. a USD 1. arrested and incarcerated. His two construction firms. published the same year. the capomafia of Cinisi. 1979. ruled in October 2004 that former Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti had "friendly and even direct ties" with top men in the so-called moderate wing of Cosa Nostra. Francesco Madonia was murdered. Ayer. Badalamenti joined forces with Salvatore Catalano of the Sicilian faction in the Bonanno family in New York and was involved with the "Pizza Connection" case. From 1975 to 1984. as well as the alleged killersMassimo Carminati. Badalamenti and Di Cristina decided to go on and on April 8. After 1975. and always liked a chat. a New York Times reporter. Salvatore Riina. Ralph Blumenthal. Massachusetts.200 mafiosi were arrested. Impastato used humor and satire as his weapon against the Mafia. Gaetano Badalamenti was expelled from the Commission and Michele Greco replaced him. Greco tried to convince them not to go ahead and offered Di Cristina to emigrate to Venezuela. the capomafia of Alcamo) and set up a business on the family land as a lemon grower. Di Cristina was killed in May 1978 by the Corleonesi. Only his son Vito Badalamenti was released.000 kilograms of foreign-made cigarettes. where the mafia smuggled millions worth of heroin and cocaine to USA using mafia-owned pizzerias as distribution points. Giuseppe Di Cristina and Salvatore Inzerillo from retaliating against the growing power of the Corleonesi.. and he fled to his brother Emanuele in the US. 1923 – April 29. attending school for only four years. On June 22. However. he deserted before the Allies invaded Sicily in July 1943. Nevertheless. The trial of Badalamenti and his allies took 17 months." Tano Badalamenti was the youngest of a family with five boys and four girls. that imported heroin from the Middle East and distributed the drugs through U. In the early 1960s he successfully bribed officials to have the airport built near his hometown. Last Days of the Sicilians. Drafted into the Italian army in 1941. In 1947 he was charged with murder as well. 2002.. Di Cristina and Badalamenti wanted to kill Francesco Madonia. It consisted of ten members but was initially ruled by a triumvirate consisting of Gaetano Badalamenti.B Gaetano Badalamenti (September 14. when you look at him. On November 17. Next was Giuseppe Calderone. He is described as "the kind of person who. his righthand man Claudio Vitalone (a former Foreign Trade Minister). Italy‘s highest court. 2003. many of whom would be kept out of circulation for five or six years. depicted Badalamenti as "a manipulator who would do anything to regain leadership of the Sicilian mob" in his 1988 book. portrayed him as "a man of unusual dignity" in her book The Pizza Connection. a thinly disguised pseudonym of Don Tano Badalamenti. the Sicilian Mafia Commission was revived. In retaliaton. managing editor of a magazine Osservatorio Politico (OP). The murder took place on March 20. In his popular daily radio programme Onda pazza (Crazy Waves) he mocked politicians and mafiosi alike.Giuseppe Calderone and Di Cristina went to visit Borghese in Rome. He had minimal schooling. Don Tano Badalamenti died from heart failure at the age of 80 at the Devens Federal Medical Center. This marked the end of a period of relative peace and signified a major change in the Mafia itself. The Commission was meant to settle disputes and keep the peace. On a daily basis he exposed the crimes and dealings of mafiosi in Mafiopoli (Cinisi) and the activities of Tano Seduto (Sitting Tano). Tommaso Buscettaand Gaetano Badalamenti. Don Tano Badalamenti was the capofamiglia of his hometown Cinisi. Prosecutors also said that they were responsible for murders in USA and Sicily. it was a quiet little town. Badalamenti founded a successful construction business that supplied the crushed rock for Palermo's Punta Raisi Airport which fell within the Cinisi family's sphere of influence. The Ciaculli Massacre on June 30. In 1957 he was caught again with 3. the Court of Cassation. His family owned a dairy farm in Cinisi. despite its inconvenient geographical position. on April 29. Andreotti feared Pecorelli was about to publish information that could have destroyed his political career. His elder brother Emanuele Badalamenti migrated to the United States and operated a supermarket and gas station in Monroe. 2004. Badalamenti assumed leadership of the Mafia in Cinisi in 1963 after a car bomb killed Cesare Manzella during the First Mafia War.S. 1987 Badalamenti was convicted only of money laundering but sentenced to 45 years in prison and fines of $125. known as the Pizza Connection. In 1987 he was sentenced in the United States to 45 years in federal prison for being one of the leaders of the socalled Pizza Connection. Already in 1951. He married Theresa Vitale (her sister was married to Filippo Rimi. Badalamenti fled to Spain but was arrested in Madrid. and headed the Sicilian Mafia Commission in the 1970s. the Appeals Court overturned the acquittal of Badalamenti and Andreotti. . Badalamenti commanded respect. a concrete plant and a fleet of trucks provided much needed employment for the townsfolk and enriched Badalamenti. You can't have faith in the institutions when you see the police arm in arm with mafiosi. In April 2002. 1970. which were available in large quantities on the family property. Stefano Bontade and theCorleonesi boss Luciano Leggio. the Golpe Borghese fizzled out in the night of December 8. although it was Salvatore Riina who would actually represent the Corleonesi. The repression caused by the Ciaculli Massacre disrupted the Sicilian heroin trade to the United States. in the 1950s most money was made by smuggling foreign cigarettes into Italy. In 1946 Gaetano was named in an arrest warrant on charges of conspiracy and kidnapping. The Sicilian Mafia Commission was dissolved. Gaetano Badalamenti and Stefano Bontade.65 billion dollar heroin trafficking operation. However. However. but Leggio and his stand-in and successor. The construction needed large quantities of rock and gravel. In 1999 the Perugia Court acquitted Andreotti. He never admitted to belong to Cosa Nostra. Sicily." according to Giovanni Impastato – the brother of murdered anti-mafia activistGiuseppe Impastato – in his declaration before the Italian Antimafia Commission. Tano Badalamenti was also replaced as head of the Cinisi Mafia family by his cousin Antonio Badalamenti. In 1970. you know is in charge of something. In 1953 Badalamenti was arrested for cigarette smuggling in Italy for the first time. also known as "l'ingegnere" or "Totò il lungo". favoured by the connection between them and Salvo Lima through the Salvo cousins. one of the founder of the far-right Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (NAR) group. He moved to Brazil through Spain and settled in São Paulo. At the close of 1978. the Supreme Court cleared both on October 30. Badalamenti was arrested in 1950 and deported back to Italy. before he was put to work as a field hand at age ten. Badalamenti opposed the plan. the American police identified a 50 kilogram shipment of heroin to Badalamenti who was then living in Detroit as an illegal immigrant. At one point he said during interrogations by the FBI: "If I did answer I would damage myself in Italy. in particular the illegal financing of the Christian Democratic Party and secrets about the 1978 kidnapping and killing of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro by the Red Brigades. faithful to the rule of omertà. the old and ailing former head of the Commission Salvatore Greco "Ciaschiteddu"came all the way from Venezuela to try to refrain Badalamenti. reliable. Tano Badalamenti always remained an old-style mafioso. Control of the trade fell into the hands of a few fugitives: the cousins Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco and Salvatore Greco. In January 1978. conspiracy against the RICO Act and for money laundering. In 1974 the full Commission was reconstituted under the leadership of Badalamenti. and Michelangelo La Barbera. During it Badalamentis and Catalanos testified against each other. 1963 – when seven police and military officers sent to defuse a car bomb intended for mafioso Salvatore Greco were killed – changed the Mafia War into a war against the Mafia. His judicial difficulties were all resolved because of insufficient evidence.] "I often used to see them walking arm in arm with Tano Badalamenti and his henchmen." [. 1978. Badalamenti and Giuseppe Calò. mid-western pizzeria store fronts. Badalamenti had complete control in Cinisi. were plotting to decimate the Palermo clans. who was killed on September 8. Within a period of ten weeks 1. Mafiosi were banned. the boss of Vallelunga Mafia family and an ally of the Corleonesi in the province of Caltanissetta. In 1985 Badalamenti and others involved with the case were charged with illegal narcotics trade. When the FBI began to close in 1984. It almost felt like he was doing them a favour in that nothing ever happened in Cinisi. Shana Alexander. an Italian court convicted him of the 1978 murder of activist radio broadcaster Giuseppe Impastato and sentenced him to life imprisonment. One of the first issue that had to be confronted was an offer of prince Junio Valerio Borghese who asked for support for his plans for a neofascist coup in return for a pardon of convicted mobsters like Vincenzo Rimi and Luciano Leggio. 2004) was a powerful member of the Sicilian Mafia. Michigan. Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta testified that Gaetano Badalamenti told him it was the Salvo cousins who commissioned the murder with the Mafia as a favour to Andreotti. but he never denied it either. According to investigating magistrates Andreotti also commissioned the Mafia to kill the journalist Mino Pecorelli. 1978. "It seemed that Badalamenti was well liked by the Carabinieri as he was calm. Pietro Davì. They were sentenced to 24 years in prison for ordering the murder of Pecorelli.

These charges were primarily based on information from government informant Hector Pagan (Anthony Graziano's ex son-in-law). knew Bagarella in prison back in the 1970s and had the following to say about Bagarella: "I prefer not to speak about him. February 3. 1987. Mafia boss Salvatore Lo Piccolo was in contact with Badalamenti before Lo Piccolo was arrested in November 2007. Calogero Bagarella. Emanuele D‘Agostino of Stefano Bontade‘s Santa Maria di Gesù Family and Damiano Caruso a soldier of Giuseppe Di Cristina. The state came under intense political pressure because of its failure to protect Falcone and Borsellino. Michele Navarra. was contacted by emissaries claiming to represent the government. From 1958 to 1963. because he used to own a Brooklyn electronics store. He is on the "Most wanted list" of the Italian ministry of the Interior since 1995. He is from the town of Corleone. In 2000. April 29. The explosion was part of a series of terrorist attacks. After a postponement in sentencing in August 2012. during a shootout with rival mafioso Michele Cavataio and his men. Calogero worked at a mill with his childhood friend Bernardo Provenzano. 57 days later his colleague Paolo Borsellino died in another bombing. 1969. onetime boss of the Sicilian Mafia Commission and a notorious heroin trafficker who was the principal defendant in the Pizza Connection Trial in the mid-1980s in New York. having been a fugitive for four years. who moved to the town of Corleone after marriage. He has not lost his contacts with Sicily. In Italy. She allegedly also was shocked by the killing of the 13-year old Giuseppe Di Matteo in January 1996 in retaliation for the ―betrayal‖ of his father Santo Di Matteo who had turned state witness after his arrest on June 4. From the second half of the 1950s. the Italian police issued an international arrest warrant.in prison everybody feared him. The family lived without any problems for a short while. Bagarella sided with Luciano Leggio in the late 1950s. 1958. their daughters. After extensive surveillance. 1969. Falcone died in the bomb attack along with his wife and 3 policemen on 23 May 1992. until Salvatore Bagarella was sent to confinement in Northern Italy from 1963 to 1968 for Mafia-related crimes. 23 people were injured. In April 2012. He was part of a Mafia hit-squad consisting of Bernardo Provenzano. Vito Badalamenti was involved in the heroin trafficking activities of his father. 2012. Provenzano protested about the terrorist attacks. on the other hand. but barely managed to earn enough to take a little flout home to his family. was the sister of Giuseppe Marchese and the niece of Filippo Marchese. I remember we stayed three months together in the prison infirmary and the only words he told me were good morning and good evening. a notorious killer and high-ranking member of the Corleonesi. Riina's strategy seemed to be bearing fruit. capping a four-year undercover investigation by Italian and US law enforcement agencies on both sides of the Atlantic. rivalling Riina's putative successor. In fact. Attacks on art galleries and churches left 10 dead with many injured. A second brother. They were unable to post multimillion-dollar bails and remained in jail throughout the trial. was also the boyfriend of Bagarella's younger sister Antonietta. 1993. Bagarella assisted at the scene during preparations. known as the Pizza Connection. Calogero Bagarella became affiliated with the Corleonesi clan headed by the doctor. Both were extradited to the United States on November 15. a Mafia boss who turned state witness. Bagarella became known as one of the most fearsome and ruthless killers in all of Sicily. He was tried in absentia and acquitted of all charges laid against him at the trial which took place after the First Mafia War at Bari on June 11. Following Salvatore Riina's arrest in early 1993. Vito Badalamenti received a six-year sentence in the Maxi Trial. Brooklyn. In January 2012. one of the younger sisters of Salvatore. She later committed suicide after Giuseppe Marchese began collaborating with authorities. 1993 Riima was caught after decades as a fugitive. Sicily. was shot dead on December 10. They moved to Brazil and later to Spain. Calogero Bagarella was born in Corleone to a family of Mafiosi that gave Cosa Nostra various affiliates. who had expressed delight at the arrest of Riina. a bomb was placed under the motorway Falcone used to get from the airport when arriving from Rome. became a wanted man. Calogero's brother. 1969. On February 6. On December 10. After Navarra was murdered on August 2. Bagarella. his elder brother. along with 5 police bodyguards. Bernardo Provenzano. after a series of miscarriages. accusing the stores of violating the Americans With Disabilities Act. Antonietta and Maria Giovanna.000 loanshark loan in 1999. Santiago withdrew her lawsuit against Bagels Plus. 1957) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia. Two of Bagarella's brothers were also Mafiosi. telling him to wear a sign saying "I don't have anything to do with the massacres". Leoluca Bagarella (Corleone. but Ciancimino and Provenzano thought Riina's demands were unrealistic. Following Riina's arrest in early 1993. It is also alleged that Badalamenti controls a mob social club on 20th Avenue and 72nd Street in Bensonhurst. He was the second son of Salvatore Bagarella and Lucia Mondello. He received his nickname "Vinny TV". rivalling Riina's putative successor. 2013 Badalamenti was released from theFederal Correctional Institution. Vito Ciancimino. his younger brother Leoluca became one of the most famous and ruthless killers in Sicily. 1984. Badalamenti plead guilty to nonviolent collection of an unlawful debt. andGambino crime family associate James LaForte. Vito followed his father in voluntary exile after Badalamenti was expelled from Cosa Nostra by the rival faction of the Corleonesiheaded by Totò Riina. the Mafia boss of Riesi. wife Angelamaria. known as the Viale Lazio massacre. Bagarella was an important boss of the Corleonesi and trusted by Riina who had become overlord of the Sicilian Mafia. He is the eldest son of Mafia boss Gaetano Badalamenti. Bagarella was arrested. Vito was the only one acquitted at the Pizza Connection Trial.. eventually dying in prison in 1972. Bagarella was the third most important figure in the Leggio faction of the Corleonesi. He was from the town of Corleone and belonged to the Mafia clan of Corleonesi. while his father was sentenced to 45 years in prison. included Giuseppe. Vito Badalamenti (Cinisi. and that consequently Bagarella actually welded more power than Bernardo Provenzano who was Riina's formal successor. After Bagarella's death. Michele Navarra and was a lieutenant of Navarra's right hand man Luciano Leggio along with Bernardo Provenzano and Salvatore Riina. On May 16. He is alleged to be either in Australia or Brazil. 1935 – December 10. Once the convictions were upheld by higher courts. His mother was thus forced to work from home to support the family. At least one high ranking investigator believed most of those who carried out murders for Cosa Nostra answered solely to Bagarella. Giovanni Brusca was tasked with the killing. Riina's reign as 'boss of bosses' suffered a severe reverse when hundreds of mafioso were found guilty at the Maxi Trial in 1986-1987. aged 20. behind Leggio and Riina. one of many of Buscetta's relatives to die since he betrayed the Mafia. As a boy. the Spanish police arrested Vito and Gaetano Badalamenti in Madrid on April 8. Vincenza Marchese. 9-year-old Nadia and two-month-old Caterina. The murders of Falcone and Borsellino proved highly counter productive for Riina as it resulted in new laws being passed that offered powerful incentives for mafia members to collaborate with the police. Bagarella became the brother-in-law of Salvatore Riina in 1974." Buscetta said Bagarella had mental problems and has been involved in possibly 300 murders. On June 24. was murdered in prison in 1972. Bernardo Provenzano. The body of the little Giuseppe was dissolved in acid. but Bagarella responded sarcastically. when he married the attractive niece of a boss he had the movie theme played at a lavish reception.Bagarella stopped ordering . Bagarella was killed in an attack on Mafia boss Michele Cavataio. known as the Viale Lazio massacre. Bagarella is believed to have taken over a section of the Corleonesi. Badalamenti is the owner of Bagels Plus a bagel store in Bensonhurst.. On January 15. is an American mobster who was acting boss of the Bonanno crime family. Another version was that she was clinically depressed. and caused outrage among Italians. Vincenza Marchese‘s body has never been found. 1995. the boss of the Acquasanta quarter in the Viale Lazio in Palermo. On 14 May television host Maurizio Costanzo. including Bagels Plus. at the start of the Second Mafia War. Riina. Bagarella is believed to have taken over a section of the Corleonesi. Bagarella's own wife. the content of the negotiations has been disputed. 1969) was an Italian criminal and member of the Sicilian Mafia. 1942) is an Italian criminal and member of the Sicilian Mafia. the decision was taken over an objection by Ignazio Salvo who had argued Falcone was best neutralized through political machinations. It was discovered after his death that his girlfriend was Arcangella Riina. in the Viale Lazio in Palermo. Badalamenti was charged with extorting restaurants and bars in Brooklyn andManhattan and extending a $50. and Dario Capolicchio. Giuseppe would eventually meet the same fate. 1993 a bomb under the Torre dei Pulci killed five people: Fabrizio Nencioni. allegedly after finding out that Badalamenti was the owner. soldiers Vito Balsamo and Anthony Calabrese. Maryann Santiago filed a lawsuit against three restaurants. The arrest set off a series of raids by the Federal Bureau of Investigation throughout the United States. Tommaso Buscetta. Badalamenti was sentenced to 18 months in prison on September 25. while the children went to school. The powerfully built Bagarella modelled himself on the eponymous character of The Godfather. 33 people were injured. Vito Badalamenti is a fugitive since 1995. Bagarella fought in the internal clan war against his former boss. whom he eventually married in 1974. Bagarella married Vincenza in 1991. Bagarella was very close to Salvatore Riina and Bernaro Provenzano since childhood. who was involved in many murders including that of the head of Palermo's Flying Squad Boris Giuliano. Leoluca. Vito Badalamenti was born in Cinisi. was almost killed in an bomb attack in a Rome street. The next day. on May 27. New Jersey. In 1981. Brooklyn. Giuseppe. I think he doesn't belong to the human species. and no concessions were in fact obtained. Riina ordered the murder of high profile prosecutor Giovanni Falcone. Calogero Bagarella (January 14. who knew Riina's lieutenant Bernardo Provenzano. On June 22. Fort Dix in Fort Dix.Vincent Badalamenti (born 1958). 1984. This union produced six children which other than Calogero. Badalamenti was indicted along with capo Nicholas Santora. Bagarella also killed police chief Boris Giuliano as well as a nephew of Buscetta.

W. joining shortly after his second marriage. After the war he operated with a gang he organized with outlaw Lee Rames in the late 1860s. where he quickly led his "Rangers" in shooting and killing nine other men. 1857. On June 1. Barron. Martha Jane Petty was the daughter of Hubbard and Nancy Petty. Titus. Shortly after Baker joined the "Independent Rangers" they began an ongoing feud with another band called the "Mountain Boomers". though many of these no doubt were killed by his men. apparently due to the suicide of his wife. he was arrested for murder and spent four years in prison until his conviction was overturned. Baker fled to Arkansas. and for his fiery temper. Texas. 1995. he became involved in a verbal altercation with a youth named Stallcup. The gang was active in the areas of Queen City. On December 17. Arkansaswhen he was approached by four African American Union soldiers and asked for identification. 1933 during a breakout in which the warden was kidnapped and used as a human shield. Texas Baker married Martha Jane Petty. where he stayed with an uncle. During one fight. Prior to the war was a petty criminal who was in prison from 1985 to 1991. who had previously taken part as a member of aposse hunting Baker. eight months into his marriage. Bajramović's health began to decline as a result of the bullet wound to the heart. but by the end of that year the "Boomers" had been driven out or forced to disperse due to several of their members having been killed by the "Rangers". the remaining settlers returned to Baker's side of the river. to have shocked him into behaving. saying the Mafia is "tired of being exploited. and joined a band of men called the "Independent Rangers". On June 24.000 reward being placed on him for his capture or death. and despised by Baker. but word of his crimes had spread. he became involved in an argument with several Union Soldiers. Bailey insisted that he and Burke were planning a bank robbery together in Calumet City. He returned to Arkansas. and a black man was shot and killed. Texas and Texarkana. and many with a shotgun. One of the many possible suspects listed as one of the four assassins in the St. Beth Warthom screamed. By that stage of the war the Union Army occupied most of Arkansas. 1867. On January 11. During the raid one of Smith's daughters was stabbed. he was knocked unconscious by a man named Morgan Culp. grabbed awhip. 1933. Missouri on March 1. In 2002 he protested about his treatment under a new law that placed heavy restrictions on jailed Mafia bosses to prevent them from running their criminal empires from behind bars. the reality was that he killed most of them from ambush or in the back. Baker was born in Weakley County. in the years following the Civil War. Salmons had previously killed one of Baker's gang members. He was returned to Leavenworth in 1946 and transferred in 1960 to Seagoville Federal Correctional Institution in Texas." Some interpreted this as a sign the Mafia was annoyed that its previously cozy relationship with politicians had broken down. In November. was confronted by Baker at Bailey's home. about 20 miles south of the massacre site. he was transferred to Alcatraz on September 1. and for a time he settled a bit. 1860. 1920 and his last in Kingfisher. women and children. Martha Jane Baker died. Bailey robbed his first bank c. 1964. and overwhelmed him in front of the house. having returned to Cass County. who was unaware that he was wanted for murder. Rowden. Bagarella was convicted of multiple murder and imprisoned for life. at the time the massacre took place.murders some time before his own capture. His declining health was cited as the motive for the suicide. and he was shot in the arm. Bajramović was one of them and at the same time was head of the military police of Sarajevo. David Warthom. John Baker. After the initial offensive against the city devolved into a siege those same criminal groups turned to profiteering. Smith resisted. criminal groups were among the first to offer resistance the Yugoslav National Army besieging Sarajevo. She had become depressed about her inability to have children. In the post war years Bajramović was often arrested on various charges. the son of Mr. 1979). Born in West Virginia. and beat the boy to near death. Seth Rames. In his 1973 autobiography. In the fall of 1993 Bajramović was shot in the heart by a sniper. His father was a farmer. Bagarella was arrested. however. He was notorious for fighting in saloon brawls. now on the run from Union authorities. with several troops under the command of Captain F. and a local woman named Beth Warthom was openly critical of him.G. leaving mostly elderly men. At a court appearance that June. although these numbers are likely inaccurate. and while in a saloon in Bright Star he agreed to join a mob intending to raid the farm of a local farmer named Howell Smith. 1932 until he escaped on June 1. This left the door open for acts of intimidation. Martha Jane Baker gave birth to a baby girl. This seemed. oppressed and used like goods exchanged among the various political forces. and her husband looked her way. Baker returned to Arkansas. which was loosely associated with the Confederate Home Guard which specialized in pursuing and capturing men who deserted the Confederate Army. Warthom died on the spot. Illinois. He was also reportedly distressed by the death of his sister a month earlier. in addition to having a habit of drinking heavily and often. Like many of the ex-Confederates who operated after the war. 1866 he traveled back to Texas. and in July. Most of these Union troops were African American. One of the witnesses. By 1864 he had deserted. Allegedly this was considered "un-patriotic" by Baker. 1979 at the age of 91. Soon after his birth his family moved to Clarksville. During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and specifically the siege of Sarajevo. 1966 – December 17. 1854 in Cass County. in April 2000. Valentines Day Massacre is Fred "Killer" Burke. On May 24. He took several hickory switches to her house. 1864 Baker led a group of "Rangers" to intercept a band of Arkansas settlers. had a long criminal career. Even at a young age Cullen Baker is said to have developed a quick temper. Baker shot him in both legs with a shotgun. where he remained until he was released on March 30. He was incarcerated in the Kansas State Prison on July 8. During the war he was profiled by The New York Times and Vanity Fair magazine. humiliated. A shootout ensued. Baker has also been described as one of the earlier versions of a gunfighter. went on a killing spree. The event became known locally as the Massacre of Saline. rape. believing it to be a punishment for the kidnapping and murder of Giuseppe Di Matteo. and owned several head of cattle in addition to working his crops in the fields. where he left his daughter with his in-laws. brother to gang member Lee Rames. and another clubbed. and as Cullen Baker matured he spent much of his time in the saloons and bars in and around what is now Lafayette and Miller Counties. 26. but when the settler band refused to return Baker drew his pistol and shot and killed the band's leader. In March. With his attention drawn away from Baker. 1887 – March 1. speculating about Mafia bosses having been in some sort of clandestine negotiations with politicians. walking off with over $1 million during that time. Baker fled back to Texas. Authorities credit him officially with killing at least 30 people. He was recaptured and found guilty of complicity in theUrschel Kidnapping and was sentenced to life in prison on October 7. Ismet "Ćelo" Bajramović (April Cullen Montgomery Baker (June 23. 1835 . Harvey John Bailey (August 23. Dodge enforcing the law in the area of Lafayette County. However. Before he could be arrested for the murder. Arkansas during that time. Arkansas. Baker turned to face them with his pistol drawn. and while in New Boston. and Mrs. and a shootout ensued resulting in several mob members being wounded. Kirkman and John Salmons. Cullen Baker then returned to Texas. He suffered a tachycardia and was frequently hospitalized as a result. including Baker being shot in the leg. which was considered inappropriate by much of the local population. women and children who had fled Perry County. during which he killed two men. Oklahoma on September 9. but his record shows a merciless killer who killed anyone who angered him. On June 2. This resulted in a $1. Smith had hired several recently freed slaves. Tennessee. shooting and killing one sergeant and the three other soldiers. Wesley Bailey. Harvey Bailey died peacefully in Joplin. mostly older men. committing acts of robbery and murder. and threatened to beat her. Arkansas for a better life out West. Originally sent to Leavenworth. S. She was a daughter of William and Elizabeth Young Foster. regardless of their loyalties. 2008. and calmed his temper. and he almost always had his victims outnumbered. but which more often than not took advantage of the fact that most of the men in the Arkansas and Texas areas were away at war. Baker became enraged. When the store's . Bagarella made some thinly veiled threats to the Italian government. was a Tennessee-born Texas and Arkansas desperado whose gang is alleged to have killed hundreds of people including former slaves during the early days of the American Old West.January 1869). Bajramović was born in Sarajevo. and the actual number is likely closer to fifty or sixty. There were several witnesses to the incident. called "The Dean of American Bank Robbers". He was one of the most successful bank robbers during the 1920s. then left him lying in front of his house. Baker was regarded as a hero by some because he opposed the Union occupation. Unlike the romanticized versions of his exploits. Meanwhile. theft and violence for groups of well armed men like the "Independent Rangers". When the war began. he was stabbed once with a knife Baker had in his possession. Bailey died a few days later. he married his second wife Martha Foster. with him killing army sergeant Albert E. Louisa Jane. having been a fugitive for four years. 2008) was a Bosnian soldier and reputed organized crime figure from Sarajevo. who hit him in the head with atomahawk. He also appeared in an episode of the PBS program Frontline on the story of Romeo and Juliet in Sarajevo which aired in 1994. He was evacuated from the city and returned in 1997. 1862. The "Rangers" caught up with these fleeing settlers as they were crossing the Saline River somewhere in the Ouachita Mountains. and Baker was soon charged with the crime. Arkansas. Baker entered the Rowden general store where he found the store kept by Mrs. Her husband. operating out of the Sulphur River bottoms near Bright Star. Baker served with the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. began to fight with Baker. after which he simply helped himself to whatever he wanted and left without paying. for a time. 1933. Baker. With assurances from Baker that he would not kill anyone else. while out drinking with friends. but more likely than not is that he wished to rob them of their possessions. Bajramović committed suicide by shooting himself in the temple in his Sarajevo home. Bajramović played a key role in the defense of the city in the early days of the war. Toward the end of 1864 Baker was in a saloon in the small town of Spanish Bluffs. 1934. He also killed a local man named George W.

All but one gang member. People would come over from Russia and he'd give them jobs. "Marat was the king of Brighton Beach. and associate of the Lucchese crime family. Baker fled back into Arkansas. when Joe Davis. about 50 yards from de house. Arkansas) section shortly after the Civil War. His mother. he acquired a knowledge of global markets that enabled him to make millions in the arcane world of commodities trading. and both died from poisoning." After the Colombo crime family began shaking down his gasoline business. he put them into car washes or taxi companies. and with the experience he had gained in the Soviet Union. Baker referred to was Cullen Baker. the leader of a ruthless gang of bushwhackers that operated in this (Texarkana. it turned out.. 1868 Baker and his gang were reported to have been involved in the killings of Major P. who was recognized as the co-leader and co-founder of Baker's gang. author of many western novels.. 1986. "Balagula's fortunes improved markedly when he relocated his family to Brighton Beach and began to work for the infamous vor Evsei Agron. shooting and killing him near to the chimney of the house. authored by Barry A. Jakov worked in a factory manufacturing locks. Rames began to doubt Baker's leadership. Andrews. Rowden to come out and face him. sided with Rames. Reznikov entered the Odessa nightclub in Brighton Beach.a scheme that would reportedly earn him hundreds of millions of dollars and an honored position with the Italian Mafia -. where he felt it would be harder for Reznikov to kill him. Baker and Kirby were killed. Following his murder of this sergeant Baker was pursued relentlessly by Union forces in the area. along with Kirby. 1867. These were people who knew him from the Old Country. When he was accused of being Cullen Baker. Baker went for his gun as did the sergeant. "Dummy" Kirby. fled with the children from their home in Odessa after the German Wehrmacht swept across the Russian steppes." Louis L'amour. Balagula took over as the most powerful Russian gangster in Brooklyn. He quickly learned to attend to the demanding appetites of the apparatchiks.in the linings and collars of great overcoats and in secret compartments of very expensive leather luggage -. but instead was standing in front of the store yelling for Mr. on June 12. Lt H. Furnari declared. Proceeds benefit the Bloomburg Volunteer Fire Department. Lee Rames. "Fuck with me and you're dead – you and your whole fucking family. What both versions share is the end result.. After Balagula promised to get the money. there was another side to Balagula. Marat attended night school. He has often been referred to as "the Russian Tony Soprano.Arkansas Narratives. It is known that a school teacher named Thomas Orr was one of the friends to the in-laws who took part in the killing of Baker. however. a fellow Russian immigrant named Vladimir Reznikov. an unnamed negro and wounding of Sherriff Standel of Little Rock Arkansas." Whilst Doc Quinn refers to Cullen Baker as Colonel Baker.F. Doc Quinn provides a somewhat different perspective on Cullen Baker throughout. John Rowden. Agron. after he'd told them his name was Johnson. Texas continues to commemorate the event with the annual Cullen Baker Country Fair. He had a Robin Hood complex. Africa. "Marat Balagula was born in 1943 in Orenburg. According to one former associate. making certain that the choicest meats and produce was delivered to them In 1977. Determined to get ahead. Casso later .. "I saw Colonel Baker killed. They were really. Their bodies were then shot several times by Foster and some friends. presumably included by the editor of the publication to clarify any confusion: "Note: The Col. was the beginning of serious trouble. On June 5. He also demanded a percentage of everything Balagula was involved in. If anyone does bother you. however. As to the affair. Balagula's days were numbered.. First version: Unknown to Baker.owner. with the Union private fleeing on horseback and reporting the murder to a Captain Kirkham. the Balagulas led a comfortable." "De Colonel wuz standin' by de chimney an did not see dem come aroun' de house. has at least two versions. receiving diploma as a teacher of mathematics and then a business degree in economics and mathematics. They opened a business office in Freetown. Meanwhile. Balagula did in fact have balls -. Then all of a sudden he was at risk of being killed if he couldn't pay to the penny. Dey killed him befo' he knew dey wuz aroun'. to leave the table satisfied. Brice. Part 6. Reconstruction Desperado. and he wuz a good frien' ob de South 'cause he saved lots ob white folks frum de wrath ob de mean niggers. Kirby and Baker drank and ate it. then the bodies were dragged through the town of Bloomburg. however. Balagula's rival. one of L'amour's many novels about a feuding Tennessee family. concerted force of the Italian crime families would quickly wipe the newly arrived Russian competition off the proverbial map.he was a ruthless killer when necessary -. It would be there that Cullen Baker and "Dummy" Kirby were killed. it did happen at the Foster home. Balagula organized his followers into a hierarchy.J. "Everybody in Brighton Beach talked about Balagula in hushed tones. "Because Gaspipe and Russian mobster Marat Balagula hit it off so well. I swear I'll fuck and kill your wife as you watch – you understand?" Shortly after Reznikov left. While Agron's technical expertise didn't go beyond seeking sadistic new uses for his electric cattle prod. where they were placed on public display. drove up to Balagula's offices in the Midwood section of Brooklyn. leading to the gang breaking up. Sitting in his car. and led a small band of men who ambushed Baker and Kirby at the Foster home. New York prosecutor. succeeded in transforming theOrganizatsiya into a multibillion dollar a year criminal enterprise that stretched across from the tatters of Communist Eastern Europe. he developed a business acumen that put him in a class by himself. Then. The town of Bloomburg. Willis. Crouch and Donally E.but he also was a smart diplomatic administrator and he knew that the combined.000 as the price of not pulling the trigger.From Interviews with Former Slaves . Second version: A local school teacher named Thomas Orr had become involved romantically with Baker's second wife Martha. USSR) is a Soviet Jewish immigrant." According to Robert Friedman. to which Baker replied that he would come back to the store in a few days with the money. His wife Alexandra later reminisced.. a highly fictional account of Baker's origin and subsequent years. Casso was soon partners with Balagula on a diamond mine located in Sierra Leone. According to Anthony "Gaspipe" Casso." Shortly afterward. was a lieutenant in the Red Army. who was a Lucchese soldier present at the meeting. however. it was Balagula's spectacular success in the gasoline bootlegging business -. middle class life. and a few days later he was confronted by a Union sergeant and one private as Baker boarded a ferry. He put them into the gasoline business.50 per hour. it is unknown. surrounded by a cadre of Russian economists and math prodigies at the Odessa restaurant. Guys came over and couldn't practice medicine or use their engineering degrees. as did his wife. Balagula asked for a sitdown with Lucchese crime family consigliere Christopher Furnari at Brooklyn's19th Hole social club. an average high school student. He sought them out. Other books by L'amour that reference Baker include Lando. I propose to make a deal with the others so there's no bad blood. "It was hard for us. we will send word out that from now on you and your people are with the Lucchese family. "The LCN reminded Marat of the apparatchiks in the Soviet Union. Orenburg. after which the Party assigned him to manage a food co-op in Odessa. he listened to Balagula's story and seethed with fury. No one will bother you. Baker and Kirby rode to Bloomburg. a Russian city. with no language. Balagula suffered a massive heart attack. Baker only starred in one of these. According to a former associate.particularly brilliant diamonds back into the country. Casso also arranged for an Orthodox Jewish friend of his named Simon Stein. Africa. He co-opted them." (sic) . Balagula wanted to lead the Organizatsiya into the upscale world of white collar crime. The bodies were then taken to the US Army outpost near Jefferson. a diamond expert and member of theDeBeers Club. Although Baker was feared by his own men. discovered this he armed himself with a shotgun and rode out to Baker's house. In the harshness of the Joseph Stalin era. held the first weekend in November. He also energetically cultivated the Italian mobsters he met as Agron'sconsigliere. Baker shot the Union sergeant four times killing him. Baker returned. Zinaida. Reference to Cullen (Col) Baker is made by former slave Doc Quinn in the Slave Narratives: a Folk History of Slavery in the United States . "It didn't take long for word on the street to reach the Russian underworld: Marat Balagula was paying off the Italians. New York's Five Families imposed a two cent per gallon "Family tax" on Balagula's bootlegging operation. Reznikov pushed a 9mm Beretta into Balagula's skull and demanded $600. of course. come to us and Anthony will take care of it. former mob boss. his wife Martha Foster's father and friends had laced a bottle of whiskey and some food with strychnine.that would usher in the first Golden Age of Russian organized crime in America. He'd reinvest his own money in their business if they were having trouble. Balagula was a punk." In the aftermath. Reznikov snarled. When Anthony Casso arrived. The statements of Doc Quinn are recorded as follows: "He wuz mah frien' as long as he lib. 1943. Manhattan for $3. Doc Quinn provides an account of Cullen Baker's death at which he claims to have been present. He was fascinated with intellectuals. Jakov. wrote about Cullen Baker in several of his books. the text from which Doc Quinn is quoted has the following inclusion. was no match for the ambitious Balagula. He insisted." According to Carlo. he promptly plunged into the country's flourishing black market. Baker was also the subject of the book Cullen Baker. One of Balagula's close associates was killed and several secretaries were wounded. What exactly happened. Texas and the house of Baker's in-laws in January 1869.. whether that was what killed them or it happened after they died from poisoning. After Agron was executed. Marat's father. no money. genuinely scared of this guy." In the aftermath of Agron's murder. He demanded that Baker pay him. and Southeast Asia. He thought as long as he gave them something they would be valuable allies. At first he worked as a textile cutter in Washington Heights. This. Ultimately. Lee Rames defied Baker and Baker backed down. however on being treated at his home in Brighton Beach. He had a heart. Marat Balagula (born September 8. Balagula decided to move his family to the United States under the Jackson-Vanik Amendment. was drafted into the Soviet Army at the age of nineteen and served as a bursar for three years. Like many ambitious Russians with capitalist predilections. Thomas Orr and some more men rode up. What we must avoid is trouble between us and the other families. Balagula had no balls. to travel from the Forty-seventh Street diamond district to Africa to smuggle -. much like the Italian Mafia and before long. both were shot numerous times." According to a former Suffolk County. Rowden armed himself with a shotgun and stepped out only to be shot in the chest and killed by Baker. Young Marat. which became their greatest moneymaker after drug trafficking. "Here there's enough for everybody to be happy. also had a substantial and deadly reputation. We had just arrived at his father-in-law's house and I wuz in the horse lot. On October 24. Balagula claims that he was one of the armored corps that stormed Berlin during the last desperate hours of the war. at the height of World War II. and that eventually Baker would lead to the downfall of the entire gang." According to Friedman. that being The First Fast Draw. "According to author Philip Carlo. He liked professional men. Reznikov opened fire on the office building with an AK-47 assault rifle.

It was around this time that Banghart acquired his criminal nickname "The Owl" because of his abnormally large eyes. Banghart headed south and eventually made his way to Chicago where he joined up with Roger Touhy's organization. Chicago." – Marat Balagula. In November 1992. made him a protégé and taught him methods of mail robbery and prison escapes. Balistrieri wanted to buy an option to purchase part of Glick's Argent Corporation.‖ After the "hit" on an acquaintance. Mary's) in Milwaukee. Reznikov launched into a barrage of profanity and stormed back to the parking lot.' was when I read it in the newspapers. $300. Rosenthal narrowly averted death in a Las Vegas car bombing that was attributed to Balistrieri. armed felon and a police impostor". also known as "Mr. I came to America to find work. "Don't concern yourself. Balagula was convicted at a separate trial for gasoline bootlegging and sentenced to an additional ten years in Federal prison. 1984. Jimmy O'Brien was killed by Nitti's gunmen in front of the Garage Nightclub. Benedetta and Cathrine (Cootie) and Tami MacLeod While Married. Although a successful "stickup artist" during the 1920s and early 1930s. He made a second escape a year later. Balistrieri later claimed that. 1961. "Send word to Vladimir that you have his money. John and Joe. Balistrieri blamed Frank "Lefty" Rosenthal. 'If you don't cooperate with us you'll go to jail for twenty years. and create a future for my children.to my face . Balistrieri was tried in Kansas City. Chapman. ―. Close to achieving a seat on the ruling Mafia Commission in New York. the Cosa Nostra front man in that city. the FBI created a sting operation in Milwaukee aimed at Balistrieri. Balistrieri was sentenced in Milwaukee to 13 years in prison and fined $30." Balagula served his sentence and was released from Federal prison in 2004.. 1985. Balistrieri was thwarted by this prison sentence. to Milwaukee to help set up a vending machine company. There. On January 31. which was controlled by the Cosa Nostra. ". began wearing a wire on him for the U. 1974. Forget it. to his mind. Testa then jumped into a car driven by Anthony Senter and left Brighton Beach. Banghart escaped from Leavenworth months into his sentence. was grooming Balistrieri as his successor. Judge Leonard Wexler declared. It turned out to be a hell for us. Balistrieri soon built a reputation for arrogance. On October 9.. Balistrieri was released early from federal prison due to his poor health. I promise we'll take care of him. Escaping from a window washing detail. "He called me a name . He is buried in Holy Cross Cemetery and Mausoleum in Milwaukee. that he should come to the club tomorrow. "Mr. In June 1971. He got as far as Montana but was recaptured and returned to jail. According to Casso. On February 7. When police arrived moments later. cruelty and ruthlessness. They want me to tell them about the Mafia. Frank Peter Balistrieri (May 27. for $25.75 million. at a crime family social event in Milwaukee. Joseph and John Balistrieri.he had an obligation arising from the assistance to Glick in obtaining a pension fund commitment in the amount of $62. left alone in an office for a few minutes. Hugh Banghart was born in Berville. and Cleveland. Balistrieri pleaded guilty in Kansas City to conspiracy and racketeering and was sentenced to 10 years in prison (to run concurrently with his 13-year sentence from 1984). Big". and no doubt an active participant in Toughy's war with the Chicago Outfit. in Las Vegas. who became lawyers and became involved in their father's business. he told the press. John Balistrieri and Joseph P. It's crazy! I got nothing. Okay?" Casso then requested a photograph of Reznikov and a description of his car. he is best remembered for his involvement in the hoax kidnapping of Chicago mobster Jake "The Barber" Factor. Balistrieri was college educated and attended law school for six months. He dropped out of college after one year to become a professional car thief. 1933.. What have I got? The government took my apartment in Manhattan.. a veteran bootlegger from the days of Prohibition. from any charges. Minnesota for two years. he was released. On December 31.' . In 1977. This time. Reznikov was shot dead by DeMeo crew veteran Joseph Testa. giving orders over a red telephone. while serving a prison sentence in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary. Balistrieri was convicted on five illegal gambling and tax evasion charges. While passing sentence.000 credit card scam when a business associate.000 in cash. about hits. During the meeting. On March 20. Balagula was extradited to the United States and sentenced to eight years in prison for credit card fraud. This was the first case in which federal authorities had successfully connected mobsters from four different states. he leapt 25 feet from a window he was washing and over the prison's wall escaping through the marsh on the other side. While awaiting sentencing on extortion and bookmaking charges. In failing health." Balistrieri was referring to the Teamsters Union pension fund. in particular. After three years as a fugitive. Frank Balistrieri died of heart-related natural causes. Banghart became a major asset to Touhy during this time. he started working for the Milwaukee crime family. He continued claiming that "Banghart" had escaped after handcuffing him and described the US Marshal that was escorting him noting that he was "a dangerous. Basil Banghart. as ruled by Outfit leader Joseph "Joey Doves" Aiuppa and underboss John "Jackie The Lackey" Cerone. however there is only one recorded incident in which Banghart was specifically involved. Balistrieri was installed as the new boss of the Milwaukee family. Marat didn't have any problems with other Russians. Banghart was arrested once more in February 1930." On May 30. was returned Leavenworth but quickly escaped again.told his biographer Philip Carlo that. They said. a man identified as . A week later. "Frankie Bal". working undercover in New York City as "Donnie Brasco". In March 1967. Balistrieri had two sons. The results of the arrangement. The object was to provoke Balistrieri into either retaliating against or working with the new business. Nevada. Finally.000.000." Balagula responded. On December 27. "You're sure? This is an animal. August "Augie" Palmisano. Robert Fasano. They sent Special Agent Joseph Pistone. reportedly for colon surgery. Balistrieri eventually referred to himself as. Balistrieri met with Kansas City mobsters Nicholas Civella and Carl DeLuna. "This was supposed to be a haven for you. was a Milwaukee Mafia boss who was a central figure in skimming during the 1980s. this time with Chapman. burglar and prison escape artist. for Balistrieri's problems in Las Vegas. In December 1989. but was caught trying to steal a car in Pittsburgh in October 1928. He also attempted to shield his sons. Balistrieri declared his innocence. a crime for which he and Roger Touhy were eventually proven innocent after nearly 20 years in prison. a holding company for four casino resorts.S. Mary's Hospital (now Columbia St. He was arrested in Detroit for armed robbery in January 1932 and held in the South Bend Indiana jail but escaped by throwing pepper in a guard's face then using a machine gun to shoot his way out. Balistrieri. the two mobsters requested arbitration from The Outfit. Balistrieri was admitted to St. replacing the retired Alioto. Banghart stole over one hundred cars in the Detroit-area before his arrest in 1926. Reznikov had just spat in the face of the entire Cosa Nostra. my house in Long Island. "The first time I heard the word. Touhy. Milwaukee. 1993. Secret Service. Basil "The Owl" Banghart (1901–1982) was an American criminal. Michigan in 1901. Balistrieri pled guilty to two counts of conspiracy in exchange for dropping federal charges. John Alioto. Federal prosecutors further accused Balistrieri of skimming the unreported income and distributing it to organized crime figures in Kansas City. Balagula fled to Antwerp with his longtime mistress Natalia Shevchenko. which owed allegiance to the powerful Chicago Outfit criminal organization in Chicago. support myself. Upon realizing that Balagula wasn't there. Banghart met future associates Gerald Chapman and George Dutch Anderson. He was taken to a federal building and. Balistrieri married Antonina (Nina) Alioto and soon his father-in-law and Milwaukee boss. Soon Balistrieri and Civella were feuding over each other's share from the skimming operations. everybody thinks I'm a boss. 1991. In September 1985. and "Mad Bomber". The following day. 1993). they took the escort into custody while Banghart escaped in the confusion.. Banghart used a phone to call local police claiming he was a federal agent who had been assaulted and overpowered by his prisoner. 1983. Balistrieri had two daughters. the mobsters arranged a meeting between Balistrieri and Allen Glick. We'll take care of the rest. 1989. In September 1983. Casso responded. Balistrieri allegedly received the "Mad Bomber" nickname because he frequently used Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) attached to cars as weapons against his enemies..and now they can't find his skin!"Balistrieri conducted his business at a table at Snug's restaurant in Milwaukee's Shorecrest Hotel. In December 1992. was then in the midst of a fierce rivalry between himself and Frank Nitti over labor racketeering. Later. O'Brien was one of Touhy's union men and one of the latest victims of the Touhy-Nitti feud." Casso responded." In 1986. Glick later agreed to sell half of the corporation to Balistrieri's sons. When Pistone and another FBI agent finally met with Balistrieri to create a partnership. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) named Balistrieri in a news release as a "crime leader" in Milwaukee. 1918 – February 7. Just because a lot of people come to me for advice. As a young man. Balistrieri laughingly admitted that he had been getting ready to murder them. Slick".. about gasoline. demanded that The Outfit receive a 25% tax as its cut in skimming operations.the most powerful man in Milwaukee. Balistrieri was quoted as saying. After being convicted on Federal charges. In 1982. Balagula was arrested in Frankfurt am Main. Balagula was masterminding a $750. It was him that used a machine gun in the office. His sons were convicted of extorting a vending machine businessman and each received two years in prison. Banghart was escorted back to prison by US Marshals. Balistrieri was convicted of income tax evasion and was sent to federal prison in Sandstone. Missouri with eight other associates for skimming an estimated $2 million of the gross income of the Argent Corporation from Syndicate casino operations.. the Outfit representative at the Stardust Hotel. West Germany on February 27. 'Mafia. All these charges are bullshit! All my life I like to help people. In 1978. Reznikov returned to the Rasputin nightclub to pick up his money. Balistrieri and his two sons were indicted on charges of skimming over $2 million in unreported income from the Fremont Hotel and Casino and the Stardust. which included attempting to conceal ownership of a casino to skim profits and interstate travel to aid racketeering. "They claim I made $25 million per day bootlegging.. "After that. On November 5.

On July 29. 1942. He spent the rest of his time in the prison kitchen working with former public enemy Alvin Karpis in the bakery. Banghart retired to a small island in Puget Sound. he denied these claims and attempted to explain that the kidnapping was staged. Pennsylvania. who was working undercover in the Bonanno family as "Donnie Brasco". Banghart and Connors surprised everyone by escaping after a wild shootout. He was known as the king of kidnapping in the 1980s. a Mafia-type criminal organisation based in Calabria. 2009. According to some government informers Barbaro was involved in several murders during the second 'Ndrangheta war in 1985-1991 against the Condello-Imerti clan that cost some 600 lives. Jake "The Barber" Factor. mail truck of $105. Baratta along with Albert Puco and twelve others were arrested and charged with conspiracy to sell narcotics. Baratta was released from prison on September 25. Over the years. Factor and the Chicago mob sought to make the kidnapping more legitimate by arranging a pickup with the supposed kidnappers.S. Despite being set up. a criminal organisation inCalabria. when he began taking over their topless bars. he is the head of the Barbaro 'ndrina. 1991 Desimone's dead body was found in a truck of a car at LaGuardia Airport. One of his daughters married Giuseppe Pelle. in particularly around Buccinasco. Jr. In 1980.. heard of the two families having a sitdown over Long Island topless bars. St. while undergoing plastic surgery.000 in Charlotte. a provincial commission of the 'Ndrangheta formed at the end of the Second 'Ndrangheta war in September 1991. after seeing the name Ralph Desimone "He is a rat. when Connors was found murdered on March 14. Clair McInerney and James O'Connor on October 9. In June 1992. North Carolina. In spite of the obvious double-cross. In April 2008. He was close to the boss Orazio De Stefano. The Genovese family Acting Boss Liborio Bellomo. 1938) is a New York City mobster and former capo in the Lucchese crime family. and on January 2.. a federal judge declared the Factor kidnapping a fraud and that Banghart and Touhy had most likely been wrongly convicted involving the Chicago Outfit and corrupt Chicago officials. Jr. Supreme Court. As soon as they arrived. 1943. for which he has been convicted to 22 years and five months. Platì has been called the "cradle of kidnapping" and it is suspected that kidnap victims were held within a complex network of underground tunnels. Banghart and his partner Charles "Ice Wagon" Connors were brought into the plan at this point. Martlick Nelson.". Baratta was imprisoned in the Otisville Federal Correctional Institution. Frank Lastorino and Alpnonse D'Arco. In 1978. one of the four sons of Antonio Pelle. Anthony "Bowat" Baratta (born July 3. 1997. 2003. Hired to be the "bagmen". A sitdown was arranged between the two family's. Baratta along with capo Frank Lastorino and soldier Mike DeSantis conspired to kill Alphonse D'Arco in the Kimberly Hotel in Manhattan but failed.S. Born in Reggio Calabria. 1991 and became a government witness. such as Trimboli. On August 15. He was included on the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy. he took Connors place and falsely stated that he and Banghart had been hired for the Factor kidnapping by Roger Touhy.Banghart returned to the nightclub where he stepped out of a sedan and tossed a bomb through the front doors of the club. controlling the Pleasant Avenue narcotics ring in East Harlem and other rackets in the Bronx and Long Island. Banghart and Touhy were suspected of taking part in a robbery at Melrose Park. buildings and land that belonged to Barbaro. 1934. they were told all they needed was to pick up the money. After years of unsuccessful appeals. In January 1995. and they could keep the ransom money. May 13. 2001. authorities seized assets worth one million euro invested in two construction companies.000 although no charges were brought against them. The clan participated in a cartel of 'Ndrangheta families involved in cocaine trafficking with the Mafia family of Mariano Agate. Banghart and Touhy escaped Joliet with Edward Derlack. 2012. make it "look real". D'Arco defected on September 21. "The challenge was to avoid becoming an alcoholic" Karpis later wrote in his memoirs. . Many of the 'Ndrangheta clans in Platì. In 1991. 1948) is an Italian criminal belonging to the 'Ndrangheta. also known as U'Castanu. Gregory Cappello and Jody Calabrese into the Lucchese family. In the end the Mammoliti clan prevailed and the Barbaros moved back to Platì. Jokingly referred to by inmates as the "Karpis Kitchen Crew". He became a member of La Provincia. near Milan. To make matters worse. On September 23. and had a killer squad under his command. Baratta was indicted along with Carmine Avellino. In September 1996. Banghart was returned to Stateville where he was placed in solitary confinement. McInerney and O'Connor were killed in a gun battle with federal agents less than two weeks after their escape and the rest were captured at a nearby address on December 29. they found 300 Chicago police officers and FBI agents waiting for them. On June 13. 1933 the two showed up at the scheduled drop on Manheim Road just outside the Chicago city limits. In the early 1980s. Carmelo Barbaro (Reggio Calabria. Baratta became a made man in the Lucchese crime family operating under the family's Bronx faction. extortion. 1991. Giuseppe was included in the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy until his arrest on December 10. Born in Platì. Rocco Barbaro. Soon after their escape. Banghart and Karpis allegedly learned to produce wine from cherry pie juices and alcohol from other material in the kitchen for making wine and other alcoholic beverages. Romeo. after Lucchese crime family boss Vittorio "Vic" Amuso and underboss Anthony "Gaspipe" Casso were indicted on labor racketeering. In desperation. was arrested on February 8. in July 1933. He'd also received a small inheritance from his aunt 15 years before. leaving Alphonse "Little Al" D'Arco as Acting Boss. the FBI captured boss Vic Amuso in Scranton. Pistone. On November 15. Kubecka and Donald Barstow two executives of a Long Island trash-collection company. Sergi. Baratta took a plea deal and was sentenced to fifteen years in prison. Baratta was sentenced to eight years in prison. Acting Underboss Michael Generoso and Consigliere James Ida attended the meeting to discuss "Ralph Desimone" with Lucchese family Acting Boss Alphonse D'Arco and Baratta as Acting Underboss. He was then transferred. When the Chicago Outfit staged the kidnapping of one of their own members. 1991.[7] In early September 1991. Facing long prison sentences for the Charlotte mail truck robbery. he commented to D'Arco. Banghart and Costner were eventually captured by the time the second trial for Factor's kidnapping was held on February 13. The Genovese leaders asked Baratta about Desimone he said "Desimone had been a government witness". He is considered to be an important member of the De Stefano-Tegano alliance in Reggio Calabria. to Alcatraz. In 1954. Francesco‘s son Giuseppe Barbaro took over the leadership of the clan from his aging father. He was arrested on January 5. Banghart's testimony was largely ignored and he along with Touhy and two others were convicted and received 99-year sentences. securing a tight alliance between these two powerful 'ndrine. When Banghart took the stand however. FBI agent Joseph D. Massaro started a feud with the Bonanno crime family. Baratta serving as Acting Underboss viewed a Genovese family list of proposed new members. He was arrested on September 12. The FBI immediately joined the manhunt justifying its involvement charging that the convicts had violated the federal draft law by not informing Selective Service of their change of address. The convicts were given even longer jail sentences for their escape. On September 18. the 'Ndrangheta boss from San Luca. 1933. The money extorted with kidnappings was invested in drug trafficking and construction in northern Italy. they inducted (made) Thomas D'Ambrosia. Edgar Hoover observed the raid and took part in what would be his last "personal arrest". In May 1990. William Stewart. until his arrest in September 2009. Frank Gioia. to avoid further internal conflicts. Amuso demoted D'Arco and created a "Ruling panel" to run the family. wanted for criminal association and murder. it was expected that his extradition to stand trial for fraud in Great Britain would be postponed as well as rid themselves of rival bootlegger Roger Touhy for whom the kidnapping would be blamed. Although Costner had not been involved in the ransom pickup. Banghart was transferred back to Stateville in 1959 and eventually his kidnapping conviction was overturned and the mail robbery charges were dropped for time served. at age 60. Baratta placed soldier Joseph "Joey Bang Bang" Massaro in charge of running his Long Island topless bars operations. 1989. He began working with DeCavalcante crime family associates in trafficking Asianheroin. they teamed with Ike Costner and Ludwig "Dutch" Schmidt to hijack a U. inside the ransom package was only $500. he was reunited with his longtime girlfriend Mae Blacock. June 23. in the city of Reggio Calabria. Francesco Barbaro (Platì. which center around the Barbaro. He was released the following year where. J. In November 1993. Baratta was jailed on murder and racketeering charges. is a boss of the 'Ndrangheta. drug trafficking and murder. both men agreed to testify for the prosecution. Another son of Francesco. The ruling panel contiuned to control the family in October 1991. Anthony Baratta was promoted Caporegime (or Capo) of the "Harlem Crew". Illinois on December 19 which netted $20. he has been a fugitive since 2001. 1942. The members of the British consulate refused to believe the story and won a judgment for Factor's extradition from the U. Italy. Joseph Tortorello. In the 1950s the clan was involved in a bloody feud with the Mammoliti 'ndrina from Castellace in the municipality of Oppido Mamertina. murders of Robert M. Banghart and Connors did not seek revenge against the Chicago Outfit and instead went on the run. the Genovese leaders leave saying "will take care of it". Baratta became a member along with Salvatore "Sal" Avellino. Papalia and Marando are associated through blood relations. No one was injured but the club itself was heavily damaged. with an escort of 18 federal marshals. 1927). they went into hiding. Frank Federico and Rocco Vitulli on the August 1989.

Following the arrest of Barbato and three others. New York. who was kidnapped on December 11. Barbara immigrated to the United States in 1921 at age 16. in particularly around Buccinasco. He had become a father four times in his fourteen years on the run. Seventeen high profile kidnappings have been attributed to the clan. The tunnels – most running parallel to the town's sewer system – were sophisticated and in some places large enough to drive a lorry through. Peter. Barbato. New York. May 24. Vincent Gigante. Barbara claimed to be too sick to testify. wanted for murder. As a result. who had suffered a debilitating heart attack in 1956. a Mafiatype criminal organisation based in Calabria. 1959) was a New York state mobster who became the boss of the Bufalino crime family. The State of New York established a State Investigation Commission to investigate the Apalachin Meeting and it sent Barbara a summons. the police chief of Endicott. went to jail in 1997. Sicily. New York region. Although he admitted to membership in a crime family. Police apprehended numerous mobsters. Mauskopf. The men. In 1957. troopers and federal agents quickly established a cordon around the Barbara estate. near Milan. Angela S. This would be Barbara's first and last criminal conviction. Roslynn R. It is suspected that kidnap victims were held within the complex. is a boss of the 'Ndrangheta. . loansharking and witness tampering. and a daughter. Reportedly. underboss of the Bonanno crime family. U. Born Giuseppe Maria Barbara (bar-BEAR-uh) in 1905 in Castellammare del Golfo. a contingent of police officers from West New York. and Italy convened at the Barbara estate. New York. triggering both state and federal hearings. The New York Times reported: "'With these arrests.' the United States attorney in Brooklyn. The Apalachin Conference put the media spotlight directly on the secretive Cosa Nostra.Giuseppe Barbaro (Platì. as it was contrary to the "rules" that Mafia members had formerly lived by. 1997. New York served as a reference. Genovese agreed. loan sharking and fraud.S. Many Mafiosi escaped through the woods surrounding the Barbara estate. The operation of the Carabinieri in Platì revealed a complex system of caches. However. (born May 15. After the police raid. The meeting agenda included the resolution of open questions on illegal gambling and narcotics dealing. Barbara married Josephine Vivana on May 24. said in a statement announcing the indictments of the men. Many arrested mobsters told authorities that they were at Barbara's home to visit him after his recent heart attack. Barbara gained substantial national attention. New Jersey arrived in town and attempted to bribe the troopers to release Galante." Federal Bureau of Investigation Acting Assistant Director John Klochan said at the time: "Our hope is that the indictment will serve as their retirement papers. continued the family's involvement 'in crimes designed to enrich its members. also known as "u Sparitu" (the Disappeared). they started fleeing the gathering by car and by foot. extortion. including Genovese. Barbato entered a guilty plea. In October 1956 a state trooper stopped a speeding car in Windsor. In 2005. After being recognized as a "made member" or soldier since the 1970s. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) director J. In 1944. Joseph Maria Jr. Pennsylvania mob boss John Sciandra in order to take over his criminal organization. New Jersey) is a New York City mobster and reputed captain in the Genovese crime family. he did not name the Genovese family or acknowledge being a capo. 2005. 1956). After the Galante incident. He was the father of mobster Joseph Barbara. The common reason given by mobsters for being at the estate was that they were visiting their sick friend Barbara. hidden doors and underground tunnels in the mountains of Platì and country. Jr.' including extortion. Barbato was officially excluded from the state of New Jersey on August 11. Barbara was arrested for several murders. 1989. The clan participated in a cartel of 'Ndrangheta families involved in cocaine trafficking with the Mafia family of Mariano Agate. Prosecutors charged that the men took over the administration of the Genovese family business when their leader. He is considered to be one of the key players in the complex secretive negotiations with the authorities that returned the freedom to Milan-based entrepreneur Alessandra Sgarella. powerful mafiosi from all over the United States. Barbara soon involved himself in local business circles and philanthropy. The indictment alleged that Barbato was included in a panel since the late 1990s of powerful family capos on how to corrupt labor and construction unions in New York and New Jersey through bribery and extorting their locals in order to achieve influence with companies operating in those areas. He was soon working as a hitman for the Buffalo crime family in their Northern Pennsylvania territory. Soon after Galante's arrest. With their suspicions raised. He is a son of Francesco Barbaro.[1] It is also speculated that in 1940 Barbara murdered Pittston. 1998 after paying a USD 5 million ransom. Observers of organized crime noted that there was little precedent for this type of admission. buying a Canada Dry bottling plant. particularly in the New York City area.000. Giuseppe Barbaro gradually took over the leadership of the clan from his aging father while he was on the run. Wichner had gone to Barbara's house for a business meeting. John "Johnny Sausage" Barbato or Johnny Pistachio. 2001. During the 1930s. a ruling panel that runs the crime family in the absence of imprisoned Genovese boss Vincent (Chin) Gigante. in June 1959. New York and built an estate on it for a total of $250. boss Vito Genovese wanted to legitimize his new power by holding a national Cosa Nostra meeting. Barbato became the personal bodyguard and chauffeur for Genovese crime family Underboss and Brooklyn faction leader Venero "Benny Eggs" Mangano. When his father was arrested on January 5. On November 14. He was on the run since 1987 and in 1992. prosecutors said. John Barbato was released from prison at age 74 on July 3. Barbato is an uncle to Nancy Sinatra and Frank Sinatra Jr. his criminal record included convictions of four counts of bookmaking in the 1950s and 1960s. and Angelo. bunkers. New York and arrested the driver. Barbara is most notable for hosting the abortive Apalachin Conference in 1957. some of them uninhabited. The money extorted with kidnappings was invested in drug trafficking and construction in northern Italy. and Galante spent 30 days in jail. Barbara was convicted of illegally purchasing 300. Edgar Hoover could no longer deny the existence the Cosa Nostra in the United States and was forced to start investigating it. 2008. 2001. enabling the mafiosi to escape from the police. 1957. Carmine Galante. law enforcement never obtained enough evidence to prosecute Barbara. Federal and state authorities alleged that Barbato was a "capo" (or captain) in the Genovese crime family. he was arrested with his wife in an underground bunker in is hometown Platì. In response. and Bonanno crime family boss Joseph Bonanno. a New York state trooper overheard Joseph Barbara Jr. Sometime in the late 1970s. Nancy Barbato. and Christina Sinatra. Cirillo and Antico were even charged with murder conspiracy. Soon after this. which included murder conspiracy. the newly wealthy Barbara bought a 58-acre (23 ha) tract of land in the rural town of Apalachin. 1934 Jersey City. Barbato has been an associate of the Genovese crime family since the 1940s At the time. The troopers soon discovered that Galante had been a recent guest of Barbara's. Remote-controlled trap doors lead into houses. The troopers refused the bribe. By coincidence. Gambino crime family boss Carlo Gambino. Barbato has lived in the area of Wolfes Pond Park in Staten Island. as with the other murders. but Buffalo boss Stefano Magaddino instead suggested Barbara's estate. He is a distant cousin of Genovese crime family mob boss Frank Costello and cousin to Genovese crime family capo Willie Moretti. Joseph "Joe the Barber" Barbara (August 9. 1905 – June 17. Joseph Barbara died of another heart attack. Barbara eventually gained control of the beer and soft drink market in the Binghamton. However. where Barbara allegedly strangled Wichner to death. Barbato was a distant relative to the first wife of singer/actor Frank Sinatra. John stands at 5'7 and weighs 170 pounds with black hair and brown eyes. Barbara is buried at the Calvary Cemetery in Johnson City. Italy.. When the mobsters discovered the police presence. he was included in the list of the 30 most wanted fugitives in Italy. local troopers realized that Barbara had ties to New York crime figures and should be watched closely. including the 1933 murder of rival bootlegger Sam Wichner. one of leaders of the Barbaro 'ndrina based in Platì. He put the Apalachin estate and his beverage business up for sale and moved to Endicott. Platì has been called the "cradle of kidnapping" and the clan was actively involved in the kidnap industry.000 pounds of sugar (intended for the manufacture of bootleg alcohol). Barbato was indicted on federal racketeering charges and racketeering conspiracy. His first choice for the meeting site was Chicago. trying to find rooms at a local motel for attendees of a beverage meeting. law enforcement charged him with operating criminal activities in the Brooklyn section as well as associating with then-current family acting boss Dominick "Quiet Dom" Cirillo and fellow captains Lawrence "Little Larry" Dentico and Anthony "Tico" Antico. On December 10. Barbara entered the soft drink distribution business. the visiting police were indicted. before he could appear before the Commission. after taking control of the Luciano crime family from boss Frank Costello. New York. plus a conviction for robbery in 1963. 1936 in Endicott. 1987. admitting to his participation in an organized crime family and two acts of extortion conspiracy." The New York Daily News reported that Barbato and the others were "allegedly members of the Westside Crew." On October 18. He was included in the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy until his arrest on December 10. Canada. In 1946. as they reputedly plotted to murder an important witness who had helped building the racketeering case against the defendants. and released after 266 days on September 4. Some of the tunnels emerged outside the town close to woodland. which had been used in the past for smaller meetings. kidnapping and mafia association. When Barbara applied for a New York handgun permit. and fathered three sons. while others open into animal pens and barns on local farms. used for decades by Barbaro and other families Platì to escape the police. law enforcement has effectively dismantled the present leadership of the Genovese family. The Commission sent a heart specialist to examine Barbara and in May 1959 a state supreme court ordered Barbara to testify.

although he bragged to his friends that the total was closer to twenty nine because he wanted to be respected and feared—nobody really knew the truth. overpowered four prison guards and raced away in two separate cars. "The Wild Thing". Arthur Bratsos. By 1966. yet many women had to put up with his violent nature due to their financial dependence on them. He was born on September 30. he snarled at Henry Tameleo. he came to terms with his falling-out with the organized crime element after he and three local hoodlums were arrested on weapons charges while cruising the Combat Zone in Boston. they stuffed their bodies in the back seat of Bratsos's car and dumped it in South Boston. the mob tried to get at Barboza by planting a bomb in the car of his attorney. The authorities were constantly on his heels. Twenty years later. His crew of small-time burglars and thieves consisted of Joseph W. The FBI began diligent efforts to turn Barboza into an informant. After relieving them of their bail money. learned how to cook French cuisine. after raising $59. In his 1975 autobiography "Barboza" written by true crime writer Hank Messick he admitted to murdering at least seven men. the jury returned a guilty verdict. Brimming with reckless power. which would become the largest in the prison's seventy-five-year history. Massachusetts club that was patronized by figures of organized crime and Patriarca crime family underbossHenry Tameleo. Joe Amico. jury foreman Kenneth Matthews said none of the sixteen jurors had found Barboza believable. After 50 days of testimony and deliberations. Patrick Fabiano. John Fitzgerald. with five of them ending in knock outs. Henry Tameleo and Ronald Cassesso. Massachusetts. who served in the crew of Ilario Zannino. Shortly after the indictment of Raymond Patriarca." The La Cosa Nostra was willing to pay Barboza $25. 1961 against Don Bale in Boston. Barboza was considered a powerful crime figure in the Boston underworld and was often represented by F. and eventually testified against Raymond Patriarca. The crew was officially supervised for the Patriarca crime family by Stephen Flemmi. Barboza was given a one-year prison term.He was a close friend of Joseph Amico and Arthur Bratsos. A few notorious victims on his murder roster while involved with organized crime included Edward McLaughlin and both Cornelius Hughes and Stevie Hughes. but this was never verified nor proven. who Barboza hunted down in a fit of rage after receiving news that his best friend Vincent Flemmi was badly wounded in a 1967 shootout with them. Tameleo. He fathered a daughter in 1965 and also a son and lived in Chelsea. He was known to be quite unattractive and burly. Paul Rico. 1949 against Rocky Lucero in El Paso. authentic Portuguese cuisine dishes and later.Concord for five years. before becoming one of the first informants to enter the Witness Protection Program. Barboza slugged a prison guard in the cafeteria for no reason. the Deegan trial began. Joe himself would pursue a career as a professional light heavyweight boxer and member of the United States Boxing Association for a short period of time.000 to quit talking. resulting in Fitzgerald losing his right leg below the knee. In October 1966. It is thought that he first met figures of Boston organized crime while incarcerated at Walpole. Barboza. He was never officially inducted into the Patriarca crime family because of his Portuguese heritage but within eight years during the escalation of gangland warfare he earned a reputation as one of Boston's most prolific contract killers and sidewalk soldiers. on a hand-shake deal. The escape party had barely lasted twenty-four hours. another friend of Barboza‘s. Frank Otero and Ben DeChristoforo. hwith his first boxing match on April 18. He showed some interest in the deal raising the price to $50. Five weeks later.S. both of whom would later be murdered for trying to avenge his incarceration. Barboza had rugged good looks and thick. however. also known as "The Animal". Kentucky. "I don't want you to ever slap that man. He was nothing as a witness.000 which he could not afford. DePrisco. Americo Sacramone. Barboza was at the nightclub drinking and carrying on when an older Italian patron who did not enjoy Barboza's crude behavior told him so. Gennaro Angiulo was accused of participating in the murder of Rocco DiSeglio. On August 9. but that has not yet been proven. He was pig-necked and weighed between 125 to 135 pounds. Carlton Eaton. He earned the nickname "The Animal" after an altercation at a Revere. In May 1968. and it is thought that they arranged to have him paroled in 1958. Barboza owned a German Shepherd Dog and while at Fort Knox he would walk his dog with future FBI agent John Morris. He had been shot at while standing outside his home in Chelsea. He was married to a Jewish woman.He loved children and animals and was known to take neighborhood children to the park or zoo. After his release from prison and his graduation from an expensive cooking school he was shipped out on the S. the unrelenting attention from the law Barboza received from the authorities only made his standing in organized crime more tenuous. which drew front page stories about Barboza as a turncoat. John Morris was a member of the military police at the time. was using that trust to drive Barboza in becoming an informant. The following month. He was later murdered by Mafia associates Carmen Gagliardi. was born to Portuguese-American emigrants from Lisbon. He was an amazing artist and would entertain neighborhood children with his sketches of Disney characters. the son of a middle-weight boxer and a mother who was a seamstress. 1932 – February 11. he had a very turbulent position in the Boston underworld.000 the pair were murdered in the Nite Lite Cafe by soldiers serving under Ralph "Ralphie Chong" Lamattina. Patriarca and Tameleo were indicted for conspiracy to murder in the 1966 killing of Providence bookmaker Willie Marfeo. by the time he reached adulthood. shouted angrily. Barboza approached the man and slapped him hard across the face. He had a reputation of being absolutely fearless. Gennaro Angiulo was later found not guilty. James Kearns. He was paroled in March 1969 and relocated to Santa Rosa. By January 1966. was murdered. Connors and Anthony Veranis. Barboza wrote to the Boston Herald: "All I want to be is left alone. after graduating from cooking class as a sauce." Barboza. Louis Greco. now brooding at the bar. and dark eyes. futureMassachusetts Auditor Joe DeNucci. after a ten-day trial. Italian and Spanish and was self-educated because of a lack of formal schooling. Arthur C. Texas and his last fight on September 23.S. Joseph's father was a constant womanizer who eventually abandoned his wife and four children when Joe was only twelve. 1976) was a PortugueseAmerican mafioso and one of the most feared mob hitmen during the 1960s. Portugal who settled in the old whaling city of New Bedford. Bratsos and Thomas J. For disturbing the peace one night. However. dark brown naturally wavy hair. six men were charged with the March 1965 murder of Edward ―Teddy‖ Deegan. After that Barboza was moved around frequently from Thacher Island to Fort Devens and even to the Junior Officers' quarters located in Fort Knox. In June 1967. Steven Flemmi met with Joseph and informed him that Gennaro Angiulo and his brothers had plans to murder him. He was a skilled chef who cooked. Barboza turned FBI informant while imprisoned for murder. Thomas DePrisco. Despite efforts by reporters to coax jurors to explain their deliberations. stating "He didn't help the state at all. he slugged a Boston Police Department Detective and received a six-month sentence. none did. a mob associate named Joseph Lanzi tipped the cops about the murder. and were finally apprehended at a subway station in East Boston. He was classified as an out-fighter who was known for having very powerful punches. Barboza was sentenced to a five-year term at Walpole on the weapons charges. who was seated not far away. He later worked as a longshoreman and as a clerk in a fruit store but always returned to crime. Found guilty and sentenced to death were Peter J. and "The Joe Valachi of New England". California where he enrolled in a culinary arts school and is . That November. Barboza aligned himself with the Winter Hill Gang in part because James "Buddy" McLean was an ally of James Flemmi. and a younger sister and younger brother. he tossed a table at a guard's chest when he entered his cell. He became a recognized figure in East Boston's organized crime circles and was a regular habituate of a bar on the corner of Bennington Street and Brook Street which became known among local criminals as "Barboza's Corner". The local authorities believed there had been other unreported attempts. Limone. Joe drove a 1965 Oldsmobile Cutlass which was referred to by law enforcement as "the James Bond car" because it had a sophisticated alarm system and a device for making thick black smoke come out of the tailpipe. 1932. Sr. Patriarca. Edward Goss and Nicholas Femia.. He boxed under the moniker of "The Baron". went to raise Barboza's bail. Three months later. One night he went into a nightclub that was payingGennaro Angiulo for protection and demanded that the owner make payments to him as well. "Joseph Donati".000 which was agreed upon but later turned down after consulting his lawyer. It was widely believed in law official circles that Barboza had performed contract killings for Raymond L. Barboza went on to testify against Raymond Patriarca and many high-ranking members and associates of the New England family. for his family and members of his crew. cruised the bars in Boston's Scollay Square. the government promised to set him up in his own restaurant and also promised him plastic surgery to change his appearance. He had one older brother who became a minor criminal in New England. yet again not fulfilling their promises after they finished with him." While the trials were going on. Two of his compatriots and members of his crew. but Barboza had his bail set at $100. On June 20. including time served. Sentenced to life in prison were Joseph Salvati and Wilfred Roy French. He was a sparring partner of Patriarca crime family associate. Additionally. while awaiting trial for his prison break. Massachusetts. He wasn't reliable. Barboza would later lead a wild prison break in the summer of 1953. suddenly leaned over and bit the man's ear. Nobody from the Patriarca crime family came down to post his bail and he heard that it was the Mafia family who tipped off the cops. "I didn't touch him with my hands". I don't want you to touch anybody with your hands again. wandered to the neighborhoods of Lynn and Revere. His accomplices were released on bail. Edward G. soaking wet. It is stated by other sources that he chewed off the man's cheek.Joseph "The Animal" Barboza (pronounced BAR-bow-sa) (September 20. Barboza trusted Steven and James Flemmi. President Wilson to the Orient. He was first sent to prison in 1950 to the Massachusetts Correctional Institution . vegetable and roast chef. In the summer of 1967. mostly with wines. He is reputed to have murdered at least 26 men in his lifetime. Finally in October. hoping to throw blame onto the Irish gangs. Lee Bailey which proved to be a huge mistake-But he was also facing major problems. Joe was fluent in Portuguese. Joe and six other fellow inmates had guzzled contraband whiskey and pilfered amphetamine tablets. he was not abiding to the traditional rules of the La Cosa Nostra. The government would not protect his wife and two young children if he refused to testify and even after the ordeal ended never kept any of their promises--he traded one evil for another. and as early as 1965 H. His boxing record shows Joseph as winning eight out of the twelve matches. He would often buy popcorn for children in the movie theatre that didn't have any and his young daughter wanted for nothing. Amico. He fought with an orthodox stance. and had a mouse-like voice and diminutive appearance. father and son team Joseph Dermody and Ronald Dermody. During their furlough of freedom they beat random people in the street. In December. Massachusetts while employed by the Patriarca crime family. which would further help to protect him and his family. By mid-1966. All of his crew would all later be murdered by rival mobsters including himself.

and has left power in the hands of the other families within the Casalesi clan in order to ensure the survival of his family. In contrast to the Nuvoletta brothers who were allied with the Corleonesi headed by Luciano Leggio and Salvatore Riina. At prison Barboza became an amateur poet and wrote poems portraying the evils of the La Cosa Nostra and his own fearlessness. He was armed with a Colt . with Cutolo and the NCO out of the picture. Stefano Bontade. the Alfieri clan of Saviano led by Carmine Alfieri. Ilario Zannino. Iovine. Both French and Casseso refused the offer and when French was threatened with the death penalty he responded by telling Rico to "warm up the electric chair. In the 1980s. This victory further allowed Antonio Bardellino to expand his sphere of control and influence to include almost the entire province of Caserta and Naples. Venosa) rooted in a large territory which extended from southern Lazio through the agro aversano (countryside near Aversa). After he was befriended by small-time South Boston hoodlum James Chalmas. future aide to Governor Michael Dukakis. the brother of Stephen Flemmi. the FBI knowingly let four men go to prison for a crime they didn‘t commit. Bardellino was the main exponent of the Nuova Famiglia (NF). Heroin was smuggled as well. Lee Bailey was quoted as having said his client's death (referring to Joseph Barboza) was "no great loss to society. not heroin. even the ones that could not stand him. Salvati and Limone currently have lawsuits totaling in excess of one billion dollars filed against the Federal government. events culminated with an attack at Torre Annunziata. Together with Lorenzo Nuvoletta and Michele Zaza he was sworn in to seal a pact on cigarette smuggling in 1975." Cassesso died in prison 30 years later. Bardellino was allied with Rosario Riccobono. Many other leaders of the Nuvoletta clan would have been arrested had they not suffered a chance accident in Northern Italy. Bardellino could exercise his power and coordinate criminal activities unhindered." After the news of Bardellino's death spread. respectively. In the conversation. Bardellino was an important Cosa Nostra affiliate in the region ofCampania. F. Besides trafficking cocaine trade. He was hit by four shotgun blasts from close range. but Aniello Nuvoletta was arrested at the rendezvous. thanks to a tip off from the local police. With his charisma he managed to maintain a certain equilibrium in Campania". Zannino described Russo as "a genius with a carbine". he was involved in the heroin trade with Lorenzo Nuvoletta and Ciro Mazzarella. Henry Tameleo for the murder of a small time criminal named Edward "Teddy" Deegan in Chelsea. Additionally. passed the order to Bardellino. 1988) was a powerful Neapolitan Camorrista and boss of the Casalesi clan. identical twin brothers Richard and Robert Donati. "Boston Gang War". According to the official version of the story. initially with the Porta Nuova family of Pippo Calò. Peter Limone. Winter Hill enforcer John Martorano became a government witness in 1999 after learning that both Steven Flemmi and James "Whitey' Bulger were FBI informants and have been delivering information about the Mafia and the Winter Hill Gang to them. a confederation of clans that was formed to contrast the growing power of the predominant Nuova Camorra Organizzata (NCO). Zagaria. Antonio Bardellino was murdered by his right hand man. Instead of arresting Vincent Flemmi. and ended with the NCO's defeat and the victory of the NF. who turned state witness (pentito) also said Bardellino was still alive when he gave a rare interview to La Repubblica newspaper in May 2010. and Salvati and Limone were finally released in 1997 and 2001. Antonio Bardellino managed to evade capture in his Rio de Janeiro apartment. Louis Greco as well as his former mob superior. he pleaded guilty to a second-degree murder charge in California and was sentenced to five years at Folsom Prison. led by Raffaele Cutolo. Iovine. The NF consisted of Bardellino. the Giuliano clan fromNaples' quarter Forcella (led by Luigi Giuliano and the Vollaro clan from Portici (led by Luigi Vollaro). chief enforcer of Gennaro Angiulo. Originally from San Cipriano d'Aversa in the Province of Caserta. Bardellino was arrested in Barcelona in Spain in November 1983. a meeting was soon arranged between Bardellino and the Nuvolettas in Zurich. Another factor was the great entrepreneurial ability of Bardellino himself. He had close and powerful contacts within the Sicilian Mafia. On February 11. Bardellino realized that cocaine. which led to the massacre of eight members of theGionta clan allied with the Nuvolettas at the Circolo dei Pescatori (fisherman's club). the Gionta clan (from Torre Annunziata). May 26. each with their own army. including Spain. Brazil and Santo Domingo. Tameleo and Greco died in prison after serving almost 30 years. building houses and roads. R. "A Cat's Lives" and "The Gang War Ends". He was one of the few Camorra bosses who were also initiated in Cosa Nostra. FBI agent Paul Rico had offered French and Casseso leniency if they would corroborate Barboza's false testimony. as part of an internal feud within the Casalesi. would become the more profitable drug and organized a trafficking operation smuggling it from Latin America to Aversa via a fish flour import-export business. He was one of the last of the old style Camorra godfathers. In spite of being a fugitive sought by Interpol.38 but never had a chance to draw it. Antonio Bardellino (San Cipriano d'Aversa. "Don't worry. Stephen "The Rifleman" Flemmi. He took the last name from small-time underworld figures. around which for almost a decade moved a united confederation of families (Schiavone. . His former ally Umberto Ammaturo. "Bardellino was the reference point of all Camorra clans. Tameleo. An attack was made at the Nuvoletta family's farm in Marano which resulted in the death of Ciro Nuvoletta. While working with the corrupt FBI agent H. Vincent Flemmi and his brother were both acting as informants to the FBI. Gennaro Angiulo was at last informed of his whereabouts. Bardellino's attitude soon marked him for death. Out of the six people convicted for the murder. Deegan was the maternal uncle of Gerry Indelicato. This episode was known as the Torre Annunziata massacrein the local press. Towards the end of 1982. Gaetano Badalamenti. he was a talented artist. Barboza allegedly said that the Patriarca crime family had "screwed me and now I‘m going to screw as many of them as possible. Two months later. While the Second Mafia War between the Corleonesi and the Bontade-Buscetta-Inzerillo-Badalamenti faction was being fought in Sicily. French was finally freed 34 years later. was later overheard saying to an associate on a hidden bug that it was J. Massachusetts. its effects were being felt on the Campanian underworld. the Galasso clan of Poggiomarino (led by Pasquale Galasso). his family left their homes and native areas to take refuge in Formia where they still reside. was himself murdered in Portugal in 1991 while using a phone booth. Despite this setback. he told the Drug Enforcement Administration agent that Barboza had admitted to lying about the men convicted of killing Teddy Deegan." Martorano also revealed that Vincent "Jimmie the Bear" Flemmi. He owned an import/export firm of fish meal together with other clans. Tommaso Buscetta who later became a pentito was asked about the status of Bardellino during a testimony before the Antimafia Commission. Bidognetti. The rituals of affiliation remained as well as the rate of murders. according to the pentito Pasquale Galasso. Bardellino reportedly called John Gotti and told him. Michele Zaza (a Camorra boss with strong ties with Cosa Nostra). When one shipment was intercepted by the authorities. a beach side resort for the rich and famous in the State of Rio de Janeiro. with a war breaking out between the Bardellino and Nuvoletta clans towards the end of 1983. The order was not brought to an end. Salvatore Riina. However. Russo who had assassinated Barboza. in turn. These circumstances have fueled a legend that Bardellino is still alive. De Falco and Zagaria) took control. and he would spend the last years of life in hiding outside Italy. Barboza left Chalmas' San Francisco apartment and walked towards his Oldsmobile. Paul Rico. However. especially due to the transformation he implemented within the clan. the five families (Schiavone. which in fact covered up a cocaine smuggling operation from Brazil to Italy. but the disagreements came with the Casalesi itself. and had once shared the same house with Buscetta in Brazil when the latter was absconding. In his plea agreement. near the Swiss border. and is perhaps the worst gangland massacre to ever take place in Italy. Barboza used this opportunity to settle some old grudges with some local North Enders and Mafia associates who he felt had not shown him the proper respect. had admitted to murdering Deegan. only Ronald "Ronnie the Pig" Casseso and Wilfred Roy French were actually involved and present in the alley where the murder took place. It is believed that Antonio Bardellino was the initiator of the Casalesi clan in the area of Casal di Principe and San Cipriano d'Aversa. the NF alliance soon disintegrated. because Bardellino had been good friends with Buscetta in Sicily. 1988. the Nuvoletta clan from Marano. The resulting war between the NF and the NCO resulted in a large number of victims from both sides. Another twenty four were wounded.rumored to have killed ten more men. Barboza was paroled in October 1975 and moved into a $250-a-month apartment under the name "Joseph Donati". Mario Iovine in his Brazilian home at Búzios. Lawyers representing the families of Greco. May 4. "The Mafia Double Crosses". He also deeply distrusted the Nuvoletta's and was unwilling to accept the supremacy of the Nuvoletta brothers with the interference of the Corleonesi. he helped to frame Mafia associates Joseph Salvati. but he was inexpicably released on bail and disappeared soon afterwards. he replied: "Is it already obvious that Bardellino died? I do not know. 1976. In 1971. now we're sending twice as much the other way". Deegan had been marked for death by the New England family in 1965 for several burglaries which he had committed with future Winter Hill Gang heavyweight. This was favoured by the 1980 Irpinia earthquake and the subsequent reconstruction. and Tommaso Buscetta. The Corleonesi boss. Iovine. After the disappearance of Antonio Bardellino. Bidognetti." but his young daughter never recovered from his death and was consumed by grief. having a prominent role in the organized crime in the province of Caserta during the 1980s. one of the brothers. but the leap in quality was the continued infiltration of the legal capitalist economy with the proceeds of illicit drug trafficking. but I do not believe that he is dead. all heads of fallen Palermo families which were defeated by the Corleonesi in the Second Mafia War. and shipments to the Gambino crime family were concealed inside espresso filters. supplying the Sicilian Mafia. The clash with the Nuvoletta clan resulted in Bardellino's victory. Nuvoletta.[1] He was the founder of theCasalesi clan. 1945 – Rio de Janeiro. to Naples. protecting the real culprit. this story has never been clarified because his body was never found and the alleged assassin. that prompted the families to create a consortium for their companies that performed the work of earth-moving. When his old friend. mandated Lorenzo Nuvoletta to order the murder of Tommaso Buscetta. killing him instantly. and forced to flee. an area infamous for its illegal activities. on May 26.

Agents surrounded the house at 13250 East Highway C-25 on the morning of January 16. but his term would be short lived. Kate Barker (born Arizona Donnie Clark. who often sent her to the movies while they committed crimes. as well as contacts with alias "John 40" guerrilla chief of the 42nd front. In the 1920s. In 1978 he had his first conviction for heroin trafficking. The arrest was announced by Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos live on national television. Barrera was an associated of alias "Negro Acacio" a renowned guerrilla commander involved in the illegal drug trade business for the FARC. and even helped them before and after they committed their crimes. and had nothing to do with the Barker/Karpis case. "Arnoldo Barrera". Arthur. Miriam Allen deFord. Alvin Karpis. also known as El Loco. Coincidentally. In 1980 he was out on parole but was arrested again shortly after for selling heroin to an undercover policeman and was sentenced to another 3 years. 1997) was a member of the Magaddino family and was active in Ontario. 2007 the Colombian newspaper El Tiempo reported that Barrera was the link between the FARC and a new cartel called Los Nevados formed by former paramilitary group and led by alias the "Mellizos" (the twin [brothers]) Víctor Manuel and Miguel Ángel Mejía Múnera. Caja was a member of the Outlaws. The 1959 movie The FBI Story starring Jimmy Stewart portrays a number of deaths of 1930s-era criminals. Whether he was thrown out by Arrie. and Fred was in the Kansas State Prison. He was arrested in Venezuela on September 18. Arrie did everything she could to protect her boys and to keep them out of jail. Kansas. 10th and 16th fronts. On February 7. hours-long gunbattle.2 million. including Ma Barker (portrayed by Jane Crowley. he worked for the Crystal Springs Water Co. Carmen Barillaro took over his business affairs. is a former Colombian drug lord suspected of being the boss of the illegal drug trade in Colombia's eastern plains. Barillaro had blamed the Musitano's for the Papalia assassination and fearing for his revenge they had him killed as well. Lloyd was incarcerated in the federal penitentiary at Leavenworth. their gang consists of four instead of three Dalton brothers. and then stored unclaimed. Arthur "Doc" Barker was in the Oklahoma State Prison. intelligence agency MI6 and U. She is absent from the original comics by Carl Barks. 1944 – July 23. The drug lord allegedly was also one of the main allies of the neo-paramilitary group ERPAC and Los Rastrojos. Their bodies were put on public display. According to an article by Colombian magazine Revista Semana. including Karpis. The movie also starred Shelley Winters as Ma Barker. the same trigger man who had shot Papalia. was the result of a complex fournation endeavor. until October 1. One of Papalia's main rivals. According to Colombian authorities Barrera also assassinated the commander of the Centauros Bloc of the AUC after presumably having differences. in October of that same year Barrera escaped from prison. and other crimes between 1931 and 1935. On May 31. FBI Agents discovered the hideout of Ma Barker and her son. 2012. He became closely affiliated with Ontario gangster John Papalia and became a member of the Magaddino family in Buffalo. According to the FBI. His brother was gunned down a few months after being in Guaviare for what he took revenge and respect among the other drug dealers in the region. No Orchids for Miss Blandish (1939). 1873 – January 16. . having a conversation on the phone with a friend when someone came knocking at the door. when relatives had them buried—at Williams Timberhill Cemetery in Welch. Lloyd. It appears from the 1910 to 1930 censuses and the Tulsa City Directories from 1916 to 1928 that he was regularly employed. He was out about a year later and was arrested again shortly after on charges of dealing drugs. but it is clear that he did not desert his family when the boys were young.S. He shot himself after a shootout with police that lasted hours. Edgar Hoover[2] and his fledgling Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to justify his agency's killing of an old lady. intelligence agency CIA. as some claim. a gang of criminals. "Vicente Rivera" or "El Gordo". she knew we were criminals but her participation in our careers was limited to one function: when we traveled together. John Eaton composed an opera. have suggested that the myth was encouraged by J. when the exploits of gangs of criminals in the U. one of the villains in series one was Ma Parker (played by Shelley Winters). as well as small cartels in the Department of Antioquia. George and Arrie's son Herman committed suicide on August 29. Lurene Tuttle portrayed Ma Barker in the low-budget feature film Ma Barker's Killer Brood (1960). A couple of months later Barillaro was at home in Niagra Falls. who knew the Barkers well. Fred opened fire. In the 1985 film The Goonies Ma Fratelli is loosely based on Ma Barker. Barrara initiated his illegal drug activities in San Jose del Guaviare in the 1980s under the support of his brother Omar Barrera. While The Daltons of the Lucky Luke comic book series. in her 1970 biography titled The Real Ma Barker. "This was the period when George Barker gave up completely and quietly removed himself from the scene. He observed in his autobiography that Ma Barker "couldn't plan breakfast" let alone a criminal enterprise. Part of the drug produced by the FARC in western Colombia was bought by Barrera and sold to cartels or paramilitary groups.[5] Barrera was a buyer of illegal drugs to many of the Eastern Bloc of the FARC-EP' fronts which included the 14th. therefore figured it would be at their advantage to attack the Magaddino faction in Ontario (with possible backings from the Montreal family) and take over their drug affairs. a motorcycle gang. Crime author James Hadley Chase based some of the characters in his first novel." Though her children were undoubtedly murderers and their Barker-Karpis Gang committed a spree of robberies. a group formed by former commanders of one of the military wings of the Norte del Valle cartel On September 18. station engineer. the Musitano family. both he and his mother were killed by federal agents after an intense. though it was uncredited). In 2000 both Angelo and Pasquale Musitano pleaded guilty of ordering the Barillaro hit. Florida. or he left on his own accord when life with her and the family became intolerable. Barker's story was also adapted in the low-budget film Bloody Mama (1970). New York. Barrera was "the last of the great capos. in Wichita. Carmen Barillaro (July 23. Another retelling of the legend occurred in the 1996 movie Public Enemies starring Theresa Russell. George and Arizona had five boys named Herman. Papalia was killed by a Musitano gunman. a villainous mob boss based on Ma Barker. 1935. the Caribbean region and Department of Narino were among his customers. In real life Ness was not a member of the FBI at the time of the shoot-out. 1935. Some accounts claim that George Barker was an alcoholic. This would make her an accomplice. after Arthur "Doc" Barker was arrested in Chicago on January 8. According to Colombian authorities Barrera was a key associated of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) in drug retail and distribution. an episode of 1959 TV series The Untouchables. is not known. She wasn't a leader of criminals or even a criminal herself. Ma . 2012 after trafficking drugs for more than 20 years. Gunshots were heard and Barillaro was found dead shortly after. were originally based on the real Dalton Gang. the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) bloc. What could look more innocent? This view of Ma Barker is corroborated by notorious bank robber Harvey Bailey. Barillaro was also involved in loansharking and bookmaking. and clerk. later said that: The most ridiculous story in the annals of crime is that Ma Barker was the mastermind behind the Karpis-Barker gang. is led by their mother Ma Beagle. . . Her role was in taking care of gang members. Ma Parker along with her three sons and one daughter almost managed to defeat the Dynamic Duo in the series. The DuckTales version of Disney's Beagle Boys (the series lasted from 1987-1990).Juan Carlos Pinzón. . music and literature: "Ma Barker and Her Boys". His killer was revealed to be Ken Murdock.Daniel Barrera Barrera. and depicts Ness as leading the assault on Ma Barker and her sons at their Florida hide-out. Fred and Willmer. among these cartels were people strongly associated with the enemy. Fred. From 1916 to 1919. according to news reports in the New York Times.S. 1935. a town ten miles from the Colombian border. she did battle the FBI to the death with a Tommy gun on January 16. She was portrayed in different movies. In the 1966 Batman series. Barrera bribed numerous Colombian policemen in order to maintain his drug emporium in Bogotá. their mother Ma Dalton is clearly inspired by Ma Barker. After a few months.K. . watchman. In 1989 Barillaro was sentenced to 3 years for conspiracy to murder a man named Roy Caja. on Ma Barker and her sons. who is based on Ma Barker. Over the years the Magaddino family had been weakened and lost much of it's old glory. and the country's national police chief. 1927. the arrest was the result of a months-long cooperation between authorities from Colombia and Venezuela. George is last listed with Arrie in the 1928 Tulsa city directory. Barillaro put his caller on hold and went to see who it was. wrote. U. which has grown after being a key link in the drug business first with members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) guerrilla group and later with members of the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) paramilitary group and members Colombian Government Forces. Canada. 1935) better known as Ma Barker was the mother of several criminals who ran the Barker gang from the "public enemy era". Ordered to surrender. but there is no evidence that she was ever an active participant in any of the crimes themselves or involved in planning them. October 8. Midwest gripped the American people and press. paramilitary groups. 1997. Barrera was arrested by Venezuelan security forces in San Cristobal. Barrera had parallel illegal drug businesses also with FARC's enemy. The Norte del Valle Cartel. Vencedores de Arauca Bloc which was led by Miguel Ángel y Víctor Mejía. the gang's second most notorious member. However. In 1928. Carmen Barillaro was born in Italy and moved to Canada with his family at a young age. pits Federal Agent Eliot Ness against the Barker clan. According to the Colombian National Police intelligence service DIJIN. According to Santos. On December 15. 1990 Barrera was arrested on drug charges by Colombian authorities. Besides being known as "El Loco" Barrera goes by the names of "Germán Barrera". Oklahoma[5]—next to the body of Herman Barker. 1935. The arrest of the drug lord. and owed him money. Kansas. He was frequently in and out of jail and was well known in the Canadian underworld. Ma Barker certainly knew of the gang's activities. he was variously employed as a farmer. a Tommy gun was found lying in the hands of Ma Barker. A map found in his possession indicated that the other gang members were in Ocklawaha. kidnappings. 17th. the popular image of her as the gang's leader and its criminal mastermind has been found to be fictitious. we moved as a mother and her sons. mainly in the Niagra Falls area. aliased "Los Mellizos" (the twins). worth up to $2." According to Colombia's defense minister. Many. There is not one police photograph of her or set offingerprints taken while she was alive .

as they concluded that Urschel had been held in Paradise. Machine Gun Kelly spent his remaining 21 years in prison. 3) the first major case solved by J. for smuggling liquor onto an Indian Reservation in 1928 and sentenced for three years to Leavenworth Penitentiary. 1974. After a short time. but survived and continued running the gang." Leroy Nicholas "Nicky" Barnes (born October 15. 1933 in a cotton patch on Coleman's ranch. 2012 with a suggested minimum of $1 million. Florida was listed for sale on August 16. brutal gangster his wife made him out to be. former drug lord and crime boss. Indiana that same night. Kelley 1954". Barnes was sent to prison in 1965 for low-level drug dealing. "Play it. hard-drinking father. Kelly. 1947 – September 2. and boasting of and exaggerating his past escapades to other inmates. where. who purchased Kelly‘s first machine gun and went to great lengths to familiarize his name in the underground crime circles.P. then take your Pelle Pelle.V. George Kelly allegedly cried "Don't shoot. He died of a heart attack at Leavenworth on July 18. Caught without a weapon." In the song "Bluesman" by Harry Chapin. Barksdale died from kidney failure as a result of the 1968 attack in which he was accidentally shot by one of his cohorts "Suitcase Charlie". 2012. 1954). This money was located by Bureau agents in the early morning hours of September 27. from the penitentiary in Michigan City. German disco band Boney M. and officers administering the event were forewarned about potential gang violence. after entering a plea of guilty. Machine. in 1955. By 1966. Shortly thereafter. which was later covered by German Comedy Rock band Knorkator. The arrest of the Kellys was overshadowed by the escape of ten inmates. Former wife of gangsta rap pioneer Kool G Rap and fellow MC also goes under the name of Ma Barker. Black Gangster Disciples and Satan's Disciples. Five hundred notes to the bar. with a black skully. Mr. who led the notorious African-American criminal organization known as The Council. On several occasions when he was arrested he used the alias "David Jones". Oklahoma. 1933) is a government informant. Machine Gun Kelly is portrayed by Richard Eschliman in a minor role. in the 1973 film Dillinger. Mississippi to parents Virginia and Charlie in a family of thirteen children." by the late Harlem rapper Big L. Untouchable. In 2007 he released a book. 1954. 1933. Turning to drug dealing for income. became synonymous with FBI agents. 2) the first kidnapping trials after the passage of the so-called Lindbergh Law. Texas disclosed that the Kellys had been housed and protected by Cassey Earl Coleman and Will Casey and that Coleman had assisted George Kelly in storing $73. Urschel. When Gallo got out of jail.C. 1928. They were: 1) the first federal criminal trials in the United States in which moving cameras were allowed to film. He was reportedly a model inmate and was released early. The kidnapping of Urschel and the two trials that resulted were historic in several ways. This was in reference. which controlled the heroin trade in Harlem. his 59th birthday. and on October 17. 1933. He was arrested in Tulsa.250 of the Urschel ransom money on his ranch. made note of evidence of his experience including remembering background sounds. In 1977. Born Donise David Barksdale in Sallis. During his time at Alcatraz he got the nickname "Pop Gun Kelly"." William Burroughs narrates. An investigation conducted at Memphis disclosed that the Kellys were living at the residence of J. after the FBI discovered "Ma" by tracking letters she sent to her other son. Barnes was himself addicted to heroin for several years in his 20s until spending time in jail. Within three years Barksdale had become a notorious gang leader. During the Prohibition era of the 1920s and 1930s Kelly worked as a bootlegger for himself as well as a colleague. Gangster Disciples. Urschel in July 1933 for which he. G-Men! Don't shoot. Eugene Hairston. Leroy Barnes was a good student in his youth but left home early to escape an abusive. Alabama were immediately dispatched to Memphis. It is believed Gallo passed on his knowledge of how to run a drug trafficking organization to Barnes and asked Barnes to assemble the necessary personnel. Machine Gun Kelly and Kathryn Kelly were the inspiration for "Machine Gun Kelly" (1970). Special agents from Birmingham. Every year there is a birthday celebration in his honor given separately by both gangs.. David was shot seven times while exiting a bar one night. beginning February 11. 1933. Burroughs' work entitled. Coleman. Barksdale eventually grew sick of the bloodshed and proposed a merger with Larry Hoover. Kelly is (along with Pretty Boy Floyd and Baby Face Nelson) one of the main characters of the comic book series Pretty. 1933. he moved with his family to Chicago in 1957.. Jarrett. and is buried at Cottondale Texas Cemetery with a small headstone marked "George B. charged with harboring a fugitive and conspiracy. also known as King David. Baby. While in prison he metColombo crime family member "Crazy" Joe Gallo and Lucchese crime family heroin dealer Matthew Madonna. was sentenced to serve two years in the United States Penitentiary at Leavenworth. leave you smelly. registered by the Chicago City Council for the Saturday of Memorial Day Weekend. and Casey after trial and conviction. The parade was criticized by the Fraternal Order of Police. and his gang. he changed his name to George R. Investigation at Coleman. Furniture is included.[5] He continued to commit smaller crimes and bootlegging. Machine Gun Kelly is referenced in the 1993 film So I Married an Axe Murderer by Phil Hartman's character while touring Alcatraz. working in the prison industries. To protect his family and escape law enforcement officers. They had at one point formed a group called 5 Family Click. This proved invaluable for the FBI in their investigation. The song's title and lyrics clearly reference Ma Barker. based on sounds that Urschel remembered hearing while he was being held hostage. having been blindfolded. Kansas. Texas. New York. Crime novelist Ace Atkins' 2010 book Infamous is based on the Urschel kidnapping and subsequent multi-state misadventures of George and Kathryn Kelly as they attempted to flee both the FBI and other gangsters eager to claim the Urschel ransom money. in a controversial move. They were both indicted at Dallas. better known as "Machine Gun Kelly". a song written by Danny "Kootch" Kortchmar and recorded by James Taylor on his 1971 album Mud Slide Slim and the Blue Horizon. The lawyer got Barnes' conviction overturned on a technicality and he returned to New York . according to a former prisoner. where he gave up his habit. and a documentary DVD of the same title about his life.Barker. Maniac Latin Disciples. 1895 – July 18. In the song "M. was sentenced to serve one year and one day. G-Men!" as he surrendered to FBI agents. he says: "I run up like Machine Gun Kelly. telling him about "Gator Joe". written with Tom Folsom. was an American gangster during the Prohibition era His nickname came from his favorite weapon." Rapper Foxy Brown refers to Machine Gun Kelly in her song "Massacre". His crimes also included bootlegging and armed robbery. Florida (Marion County). Tennessee on September 26. His most famous crime was the kidnapping of oil tycoon and businessman Charles F. "It's an instrument. Gator Joe's Beach Bar and Grill in Ocklawaha. counting footsteps and leaving fingerprints on surfaces in reach. The term. The band Maylene and the Sons of Disaster (formed in 2004) are named after the group of criminals and their songs are based on the gang's history. Punk band the Angelic Upstarts released a single in 1984 titled "Machine Gun Kelly". released a hit single titled "Ma Baker".[6] The Barker deathhouse in Ocklawaha. Hoover accepted and the Black Gangster Disciple Nation was born.there was a parade that was sponsored and supported by the Black Disciples organization. On October 12.000 ransom. and several run-ins with the local Memphis police. In 1968 the leader of the Black Stone Rangers. Mentioned in These Animal Men's "I'm Not Your Babylon": "Machine Gun Kelly was the first to crack". The FBI killed Fred and Ma Barker in Ocklawaha. which had applied to all federal investigators. Barksdale's gang absorbed several others and became known as the Black Disciple Nation. to the fact that Kelly was a model prisoner and was nowhere near the tough. Kelly married Kathryn Thorne. Edgar Hoover‘s FBI 4) the first prosecution in which defendants were transported by airplane. ordered a hit on King David. Gallo wanted to have more of a stake in the Harlem heroin market but didn't have any personnel to deal in the mostly black Harlem. "Where he was going. George and Kathryn Kelly were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. Texas on October 4. which made kidnapping a federal crime. On September 2. Offers on the Florida property are being accepted through October 5. Tichenor. In the William S. David Barksdale (May 24." Machine Gun Kelly said. a raid was conducted. George Celino Barnes (July 18. Over the course of his life Barksdale was arrested 25 times. she also helped plot some small bank robberies. He was survived by his three children (one of which was ironically gunned down by a member of the Gangster Disciples street gang in 1996) and wife Yvonne Barksdale. 1974). while Hairston was sent to prison and eventually killed for trying to organize his murder. there's a line: "No! A fool plays the blues like Machine Gun Kelly. American rapper MGK gets his stage name from Machine Gun Kelly. He spent 17 years on Alcatraz. releasing a collective album and surfacing on mixtapes. He is still revered by the Black Disciples and the Gangster Disciples. until her murder three years later in 1977. was the original leader of the Chicago-based street gangs the Black Disciples. he provided a lawyer for Barnes. leader of the Gangster Disciples in 1969. Courthouse and Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City. he decided to leave town and head west with his girlfriend. Florida was named after a large alligator that lived in Lake Weir. collected a $200. including all of the members of the future Dillinger gang. Machine Gun Kelly is a central character in the 1974 TV film Melvin Purvis: G-Man. and was quietly transferred back to Leavenworth in 1951. in the early morning hours of September 26. a Thompson submachine gun. George and Kathryn Kelly were taken into custody by FBI agents and Memphis police. Kansas.Machine Gun Kelly and his crimes were (loosely) portrayed in the 1958 film Machine-Gun Kelly starring Charles Bronson. Tensions grew between the Black Disciples and other gangs such as the Black Stone Rangers. Their victim had collected and left considerable evidence that assisted the subsequent FBI investigation that eventually led to Kelly's arrest in Memphis. Devil's Disciples. but never convicted of any serious offense. The restaurant's website displays a wanted poster for the Barker-Karpis gang. The trial was held at the Post Office. put one in your belly. Machine Gun Kelly is referenced in the 1973 film The Sting by Luther Coleman's son as his mother pulls him away from a radio telecast chronicling his arrest. The couple was immediately removed to Oklahoma City. In 2008. 1933.

In the Poggioreale prison. As such. "'o Nimale" (The Animal). 1978. The third one was "Alias". The Council had stopped paying his attorneys' fees. and one of his fellow council members. According to DEA records. During the night of November 18. a seven man organization modeled after the Italian mob families. being a more practical and ordinary man. it was another murder which would eventually lead to his downfall and subsequent defection from the NCO. Once home. Untouchable". Faro disemboweled and chewed Turatello's intestines. Barnes began to assemble his personnel and began cutting and packaging heroin. Now tell me how these people think that they can survive. Wallace Rice. In response. private property of R. who was assisted by two younger Assistant United States Attorneys. impending vendettas and gang feud's exploded and were resolved in the bloodiest ways. an NCO board executive: "Brother. Frank James. Thomas "Gaps" Foreman. had already been convicted of five murders. Guy Fisher. Old rancors. The DEA eventually discovered the true ownership of the companies and seized the cars. Barnes‘ posture of smug invulnerability so affronted President Jimmy Carter that the President ordered his attorney general to prosecute him to the fullest extent of the law. 2008. He seemed obsessed. be confident. Untouchable". After Turatello was dead. Raffaele Cutolo was born. Barra and Andraus held Turatello. From the very beginning. Sicily. He became a full-time killer for the organization. 1970. earned a college diploma with honors. Among the two Sicilian hitmen. Work was something Barnes seemed to thrive on during the more than 15 years he spent at Otisville. Andraus was also wounded and would later receive minor surgery in the prison infirmary. In order to avoid panic and a greater disaster. when Cutolo purchased a 16th-century castle in Ottaviano which had previously belonged to the Medici dynasty. I am telling you: be calm. New York. a Bentley. he created The Council. a self-appointed war name. a Citroën SM. he was able to muffle some of the more extreme features of Cutolo's behavior and reveal them to the other people who would have otherwise been simply too scared to approach Cutolo. when the NCO had total control over Ottaviano and the Neapolitan hinterland. then spat it out as a sign of contempt.8 on the Richter scale hit Naples and the Campania region. You name it he did it. who each controlled a dozen mid-level distributors." His great admiration for Barra was expressed in a poem entitled "N'omme 'e Camorra" (A man of the Camorra) which was written by him for Barra's birthday. Nicky Barnes' net worth was well over one-hundred million dollars at the height of his career. ruling on every aspect of the town's activities. I will take care of them with the help of the people who love the prince (Cutolo) for life and death. they were able to find him a job inside City Hall. Faro was 28 years old at the time of Turatello's murder and by then. When the NCO began its long standing war against the rival Camorra clans. Barra had been a faithful follower of Cutolo whom he practically revered. Cutolo greatly appreciated Barra's role within the organization. At 6'3 iches tall. Barnes was interviewed by Howard Stern on Stern's Sirius Satellite Radio show.. Barnes earned two months off and was released in August 1998. Eventually. The NCO even had their own men inside the city council. the prison penitentiary system).. due to the utmost cruelty and pitiless way in which he killed his enemies. several Thunderbirds. In the ensuing confusion from the attack." When one of Cutolo's major enemies was arrested. Barnes helped to indict 44 other traffickers. a Maserati. then the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York. including a Mercedes-Benz. the confusion and terror were magnified by the feeling of being entrapped. handled distribution problems and other drug-related issues. Barnes set up front companies to protect some of his assets. after having provided him with a governmental pension for an alleged permanent infirmity. During the period between 1976 and 1983. a Camorra organization inNaples. Italian shoes. Faro and Andraus were from Catania. the high security prison inNuoro. I was so Pasquale Barra is nervous that my own liver rotted because i did not have a chance yet to meet and greet these scumbags. Francis Turatello aka "Faccia D'Angelo" (Angel Face) in the courtyard of Bad'e Carros. he discovered that his assets were not being taken care of. understand?" In another letter to Cutolo's sister. he also won a national poetry contest for federal inmates. Rosetta. In 2007. Mr. with its sons. It is believed while under surveillance. 16 of whom were ultimately convicted. you have heard about the arrest of that big don." In just a couple of years Barra had amassed an impressive list of killings. Barnes' operation spread throughout all of New York State and into Pennsylvania and Canada. Barra has the distinction of being the first NCO member to become a pentito. In fact. who hated mug shots. Barnes was prosecuted for his drug-related crimes and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole on January 19. the same town near Naples where Neapolitan crime boss. particularly the newly formedNuova Famiglia." and he acquired the nickname "'o Nimale" (The Animal). These hits as well as many others greatly increased Barra's prestige and standing among the other NCO members. In this testimony. Barra personally killed three rival NF members. Frank Lucas. Untouchable. The chief prosecutor in the case was Robert B. he implicated himself in eight murders. Barnes wrote his memoir. they will pay with their last drop of blood. which appeared to be rented through those companies. I will give you full satisfaction. Barnes is part of the Witness Protection Program. Otisville in Otisville. he decided to primarily concentrate on the killing of rivals inside the prison system. He forwarded a list of 109 names.e. under Cutolo's orders Barra organized an ambush to kill Milanese crime boss and Cosa Nostra associate. this decision made by the prison authorities had an unintended consequence. He pursued his newly appointed mission with a fervent religious zeal and he became almost suicidal in his attempts to eliminate his adversaries. a former Italian Camorrista who was a senior member and hitman for the Nuova Camorra Organizzata (NCO). The Times told Barnes that they were going to use a mug shot of Barnes unless he posed for the cameras. and Guy Fisher. five of them Council members'. agreed and took the shot. 1977 The New York Times magazine released an article titled "Mr. He once wrote to Marco Medda. which alone was estimated at over one million dollars. because I want to show them how much Alias is worth. an earthquake of 6. He worked in the kitchen. Barra was assisted in the murder by two well known Sicilian assassins. The Council included Joseph "Jazz" Hayden. When Barra's younger brother was shot in the knee-caps by a rival gang. Barnes and his former competitor.. Barra became his second in command and immediately took charge of reinforcing all intimidation. featuring Barnes posing on the front cover. The Council had a rule that no council member would sleep with another Council member's wife or mistress. Untouchable. along with his wife's name. Barra once wrote to Cutolo about him: "Catania. Barnes would often make pointless stops and go on high speed chases with little purpose other than to aggravate those following him. He never worried about getting caught. both self-appointed and those given to him. When Cutolo set up the NCO at their hometown on October 24. On the contrary. His many murder convictions earned him a life sentence from the Italian court. Among many assassinations. also titled Mr. On January 31. Turatello was unable to escape the ambush. Be calm. extortion and racketeering activities within their territory. Barra. Barra had come to know Faro well. 1981. Rudolph Giuliani sought a reversal of Barnes' life sentence. The Council settled disputes. On June 5. sat down with New York magazine's Mark Jacobson for a historic conversation between men who had not spoken to each other in 30 years. he was physically impressive with a lean and athletic build. Cutolo and P." The murder . such as numerous car dealerships. A New York Times article estimated Barnes purchased hundreds of tailor made suits. In addition to Barnes. I beg you to give a kiss to our Prince (Cutolo). He peed in his pants because he thought that he got caught by the men of the Prince. Barnes' operation in 1976 consisted of seven lieutenants. I am doing all I can to get transferred to Napoli to kill some of these scumbags. while in prison. and jewelry. However. However. The relationship between Barra and Cutolo had always been a close one. He worked all the time . After Barnes cooperated with the government by working as an informant. Then there was his public nickname. which was given to him by Cutolo during his years as a student in Ottaviano. and taught fellow inmates English.000 inhabitants as his own personal fiefdom. and anyway I am waiting to cross the paths of some of these conspirators. when he decided to collaborate with Italian Justice in 1982. he established himself as the second in command of the organizational executive board inside the cielo scoperto (i. Barra wrote directly to Cutolo: "My dearest compare. Barra sported numerous nicknames. was having an affair with Barnes' mistress. Tom Sear and Bob Mazur. Ishmael Muhammed. Moreover. the prisoners were allowed to go to the jail courtyard presumed to be safer from collapsing buildings. A native of Ottaviano. Vincenzo Andraus and Antonino Faro. It was during this time that the media started calling him "the killer of the prisons. regarding this crawling vermin (the traitors). By 1976. while Faro stabbed him sixty times. he was resentenced to 35 years and housed in a special Witness Security Unit at Federal Correctional Institution.City. who in turn supplied upwards of forty street level dealers each. According to Barnes. he used even stronger words while describing about his project: "My dearest comare. coats. Fiske. By working in jail. some of his letters sent to other members of the NCO attest to his thirst for blood. To deal more efficiently with other black gangsters. he had a special postcard of the castle printed with the caption "Castello Mediceo. While in prison. from illegal businesses such as prostitution. which was allegedly given to him by the Italian media. The courtyard soon became a battlefield. the most famous of which were the three deadly assaults that occurred during the 1980 Irpinia earthquake. after successfully beating numerous charges and arrests. Barra ruled this town of 200. separating the recycle stuff from the regular garbage. Now in his 70s. Barra was in fact the de facto link between Cutolo and other NCO members. Barra was the first and most devoted member of Cutolo's gang ever since they were both teenagers. For instance. Barra's arrest in 1979 did not diminish his influence inside and outside of prison. Barnes became an informant. On August 17. must be hugged by the prince. in the dining area. During this time Barnes was given the name "Mr. Sardinia. favoring the use of knives and butchery tools over guns and automatic weapons to carry out his hits. 1980. and I will perform one of my best dramas: they must pay.[1] The Justice Department did just that. – Prison official. in 2007 and appears in a documentary about his gang life. gambling and extortion to more respectable businesses. The first one was "'o Sturiente" (The Student).Cadillacs and a yellow Volvo. Lincoln Continentals. implicating them all in illegal activities related to the heroin trade. Barnes. bridging Cutolo's charisma with a more practical vision of life.

were arrested with a truckful of stolen turkeys they intended to sell for the holidays. Buck died of his wounds. Sam Bass (July 21.D. Bass was orphaned at the age of 10. all wounded in the same gunfight. Blanche was frank about the fact that she not only knew of Buck's escape. joined his younger brother Clyde. while carrying a knife carefully hidden in his anus at all times. In 1871. He was tried. several days after meeting Blanche. and W. Jones. were killed. 23. His mother gave the stonecutters their sister Nell's birth year for him. Frank Coppola. After failing at a series of legitimate enterprises. and W. Jones killed Alma. However. and held without medical treatment where his condition rapidly worsened. Texas. His sister Marie. Barra had barely escaped two attacks and was completely stressed out by being on the lookout 24 hours a day. many of the pentiti's allegations were proved to be fabrications and several of the convicted defendants were released. she was tried for the attempted murder of Sheriff Holt Coffey at Platte City. He and his wife Blanche were wounded in a gun battle with police four months after they joined up with Bonnie and Clyde. they would continue to withhold medical treatment. However. who was very ill at the time. 1878. and W. Jim Murphy. On June 23.[3] Just before Christmas 1926 Buck." He stopped going to school around age 8 or 9. Newton County Constable Wes Harryman and Joplin City Motor Detective Harry McGinnis. ricocheted off a rib and lodged in his chest wall close to the pleural cavity. she had recorded the birth dates of all her children in the family Bible. On November 29.to this day the largest single robbery of the Union Pacific. Missouri. 1929. though. 1982." an interrogator noted. 1931. He married twice and divorced twice during this time. Buck Barrow. 1933. the third child of Henry and Cumie Barrow. 1933. During his two years at Huntsville Buck sent repentant letters home. At 18 or 19 Buck too went to Dallas. 1933. decided to wait for Clyde. he and his siblings lived with an uncle on a nearby farm. convicted. and that if he did not agree to meet with them. Barra decided to reveal details of NCO murders. That bullet. but the turkey adventure was an ironic joke. was taken into custody (and held for 'questioning'). and had three children by those marriages. Blanche and Buck were married in Oklahoma. watching the little boy "running around acting like a horse. ostensibly to work for his brother repairing cars. 1930. and Clyde. were found reliable and convincing enough to become a significant factor in the convictions of more than 800 defendants. For the next five years. he set out on his own and spent the next year in Mississippi. Cutolo told the Sicilians that he had never wanted Turatello killed and that Barra had acted out on his own. Cutolo chose to dissociate himself from the murder. Nebraska. His doctors commented in their report on how clean Buck's head wound was. and it was at this meeting that Jim Murphy reluctantly agreed to become an informant. By involving both Faro and Andraus in the murder. "Where are you wanted by the law?" "Wherever I've been. They held Cutolo responsible for the murder and threatened to immediately retaliate against him. She and other members of the Barrow family convinced Buck to turn himself in to Texas prison authorities and complete his sentence. 1929. An aunt. Clyde. As his pneumonia strengthened he became delirious and finally slipped into a coma. She and her youngest son LC arrived for Buck's last conscious hours. Bass and his gang staged a string of robberies. Marvin Ivan "Buck" Barrow (March 14. near death. who asked him. was his godfather and Luciano Leggio. Mario Incarnato. etc. however. Missouri. and sentenced to four years in the Texas State Prison System. Before he had served two years of his six-year sentence he was abruptly pardoned. Murphy. Law officers then sent a message to Murphy informing him that they had his father in custody. Though doctors kept him numb with opiates. Dallas County Sheriff R. He was not allowed to see a doctor. Jones was informed of Bass's movements. On April 13." He agreed with Deputy Red Salyers that he had shot and killed Marshal Humphrey in Arkansas. D. Mr. Buck. Two days after Christmas 1931 his mother and his wife drove him to the gate of Huntsville penitentiary. D. "Due to the lack of medical attention. which tore off the back of her dress. Buck Barrow was shot and captured following a burglary in Denton. Blanche survived her wounds. partly as part of Texas governor Ma Ferguson's plan to decrease prison crowding and partly due to the lobbying efforts of his wife and his mother. Upon his release. Texas. agreed to the meeting. Marion County. In exchange for greater protection. 17. a former friend who had turned into a crazed out of control assassin. Bonnie. In the early 1920s the older Barrow children left the family farm one by one. Barra's testimony along with those of Giovanni Pandico. In 1878. to marry and start careers in the city of Dallas. and drove to his parents' place in West Dallas where Blanche was living." On Buck and Clyde's shared gravestone. They were sure Clyde would follow him into death any day. the whole plot backfired. with threats against his life already carried out. He was the older brother of the gang's leader. The rationale for this was that the Mafia would never allow a killing of which it did not approve. as by now Buck was making ends meet by stealing automobiles in cities all over Texas and selling them for a comfortable $100 or so to fences out of state. She was convicted and sentenced to ten years in prison. Clyde Barrow. On arrival Buck was generally lucid and told doctors that aspirin helped the pain in his head and the only real pain he felt was from his other gunshot wounds. Extradicted to Missouri. Blanche was also wounded in the same gunfight. 1851 – July 21. written for him by fellow prisoners. a powerful Gambino family figure in New York City. 1877 at Big Spring. Buck and Blanche. stole a guard's car. He claimed that Barra was in fact. although losing sight in one eye. Henry and Cumie Barrow put off buying a gravestone for Buck. however. Barra was not only left alone to fend off the reprisals of the Sicilians. but he quickly became part of the West Dallas petty-criminal underworld. However. the two assassins were from an Eastern Sicilian family headed by Giuseppe Calderone. this time near an abandoned amusement park between Redfield andDexter. in the company of Blanche. Buck. He simply walked out of the prison. and W. Five days later. Buck was seriously wounded in the head during a shootout at the Red Crown Tourist Court at Platte City. Barra hoped to share responsibility with the Sicilian Mafia over the murder. Bass was able to elude the Rangers until a member of his gang. "the wound in Barrow's head gave off such an offensive odor that it was with utmost difficulty that one could remain within several feet of him. they also injected him with stimulants at least twice. had entered his back. but now he also had to watch out against violent attacks from the other NCO members. They took Turatello's murder as an insult to their honor and reacted angrily. Clyde.resulted in the two assassins being more loyal to Cutolo than to anyone else. They welcomed him in. Barrow escaped from the Ferguson Prison Farm near Midway. where Bass planned to rob the Williamson County Bank. 1933) was a member of the Barrow Gang. Missouri where he participated in several armed robberies. Pasquale D'Amico. escaped. He avoided contact with everyone and chose to prepare his own tea and coffee. When word of Buck's dire situation reached Texas. the gang held up two stagecoaches and four trains within twentyfive miles of Dallas and became the object of a manhunt by Pinkerton agents and by a special company of the Texas Rangers headed by Captain Junius Peak. John B. remembered watching him put spurs on roosters for cockfighting. Turatello had close and powerful contacts within the Sicilian Mafia.A. D. Buck's year of birth is incorrect. yet never netted over $500 at any one time. Arkansas City Marshal Henry D. Buck and W. 1903 – July 29. and whether for practical or loving reasons or a mix of both. he moved to Denton in north Texas. They predicted either that or infection of his head wound would kill him in a few days. and his pit bull. Faced with certain defeat against the Mafia. and went on to testify against Cutolo and numerous NCO members during the three-year-longMaxi Trials which resulted from the NCO's crackdown in 1983. Bass and his men intercepted the train on September 18. Pasquale Barra decided to become a pentito. Clyde Barrow was not involved in the Humphrey killing. were captured. enjoying fishing and hunting far better. knowing how sick his father was. On July 19. was wounded in the back during yet another shootout. In interviews with author/historian John Neal Phillips. He formed a gang and robbed the Union Pacific gold train fromSan Francisco. from which he did not wake. Following this betrayal by Cutolo and his abandonment by the NCO.000 . He was able to chat with the doctor. looting $60. Bass turned to crime. Moreover. Buck's birthdate is 1903." replied Buck. D. 1933. In 1869. The notion that Blanche did not know until later that Buck was an escaped convict was fabricated by the Barrow family and Blanche herself as a means of convincing Missouri State authorities to reduce her prison sentence following her capture in July 1933. Texas. Jones participated in a shootout with law enforcement officers at Joplin. Clyde. Jones."Smoot" Schmid wrote a letter of introduction to the local authorities for Buck and Clyde's mother Cumie. barely school age when she and her parents moved to the West Dallas campground. Jones in Joplin. From his cell in the local penitentiary in Foggia." gave him the nickname "Buck. March 22. Buck took the rap for himself and his brother and went to jail for a week. Bass . Texas. Through his sister. On March 8. thus becoming the first NCO member to become an informant. Blanche was not interested in pursuing a criminal career. As a result. Iowa. that he might answer questions. he promised to collaborate with them in taking care of Barra. She and her husband escaped. not involved with the ruling corporate group of the Sicilian Mafia based in Western Sicily. where he told surprised prison officials that he had escaped almost two years before and needed to resume his sentence. On July 3. Murphy's father. and a deputy sheriff provided money to help her cover the costs of the 36-hour drive to Iowa by Model-A. doctors discovered. 1878) was a nineteenth-century American train robber and outlaw. They fell in love almost immediately. Barra summoned Judge Apperti to inform him of his decision to collaborate with the Justice Department on October 18. particularly the one in his back. along with Bonnie. on July 24. Because he was in such a weakened state—his limbs had grown paralyzed from another bullet wound and his temperature would not lower from 105—his doctors expected he would develop pneumonia from the surgery on his chest. Clyde liked the idea and suggested the epitaph to go over himself and his brother: "Gone But Not Forgotten. 1933. the head of the Corleonesi faction of the Sicilian Mafia had himself put Turatello in charge of all drug trade in the region of Milan. Two officers. given the circumstances. Bonnie Parker. turned informant. On July 19. Ivan Barrow was born in Jones Prairie. and set up an ambush at Round Rock. On November 11. Humphrey during a gunfight on the road between Alma and Fayetteville. but that she hid with him and actually staged robberies with him. Barrow met Blanche Caldwell in an unincorporated part of Dallas County called West Dallas. Lawmen visited him in the hospital to get his final statements. there.

000 from betting on a basketball game between Arizona State and the University of Southern California. Bates (October 16. Bass was portrayed by Don Haggerty in an episode of the syndicated western television seriesStories of the Century.B. In December 1988. Bates was arrested the same day in Denver for passing stolen checks. On July 22. Soapy exclaimed. He was taken into custody and died the next day. betting slips showed that his clients often wagered large sums on baseball. He stood at 5'8" and weighed 140 pounds with blue eyes and brown hair. Bates and Kelly began considering kidnapping. 1893-July 4. With Battaglia in prison and Giancana living in exile in Mexico." He was found lying in a pasture by a group of railroad workers. Battaglia was considered as Giancana's successor once he stepped down. "Shaddup. starring Wayde Preston. 1933. Battaglia pleaded the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution over 60 times. were Soapy Smith and his cousin Edwin who witnessed Ware's shot. basketball. Bass heads a gang composed of The Sundance Kid. Rose famously denied knowing Basso at his farewell news conference on August 25. King. his grave is marked with a replacement headstone. and murder (he was a suspect in seven homicides). 1927. As with many figures of the American Old West. Salvatore Joseph "Teets" Battaglia (November 5. he was given medical parole due to terminal cancer and was flown to St. Although Kelly would evade authorities for another month. Senate Committee on Government Operations investigations on organized crime. Albert Bates was born on October 16. Bates and Kelly split up while the FBI took over the investigation. In 1954. Bass was shot by Ranger George Herold and then by Texas Ranger sergeant Richard Ware. Felix Alderisio and Fiore "Fifi" Buccieri. In 1924. Supposedly Battaglia's nickname "Teets" came from one such encounter. Battaglia was born in Chicago.[2] He enlisted in the U. 1916 and was sentenced to serve 1 to 15 years at the state prison in Carson City. He died in Round Rock. 1933. Grimes. and was imprisoned in the Colorado state penitentiary in Canyon City for a third burglary conviction on May 10. where he died a week later. Albert Bates was first arrested in Nevada for burglary on March 28. Upon his death. Basso served in the United States Navy. 1921 and sentenced to five years at the Utah state prison where he remained for five years. Samuel Battaglia was temporarily released from prison because of the death of his wife and son. In January 1991. Basso had been reported by the Chicago Sun-Times to have operated a cleaning store to conceal his real occupation as the head of crime syndicate bosses who had controlled the Midwest's sports betting. Bass was buried in Round Rock. 1932. While testifying before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U. Jimmy Basso reaped $27. All were sentenced to life imprisonment a week later[8] with Bates being sent to Alcatraz where he was later joined by his partner Kelly. However in 1967. W.000 each on a variety of sporting events. Bass captured the public's imagination. 1989. then squares off against two convicts recruited by John B. Bates and Kelly abducted Urschell from his home at gunpoint and drove him to a Texas ranch owned by Kelly's in-laws. John Wesley Hardin. under close FBI and police surveillance. This robbery was one of many wrongly attributed to Pretty Boy Floyd by authorities. Dominick Basso (February 15. hit another bank in Tupelo." Rose told reporters in August 1989. In 1989." "Joe Batters") Accardo stepped away from the limelight to shield himself in the 1950s. The Chicago Sun-Times reported at the time that Rose had made calls listed to telephones in various locations where Basso operated sports betting operations. he was shot and killed. As he attempted to flee. 1973) was a Chicago mobster and high-level member of the Chicago Outfit criminal organization. "I think you got him. Albert L. He and Kelly.45. the son of Venetian immigrants Salvatore Battaglia and Giuseppa Scaletta. and horse racing events. was sentenced in 1999 to 1½ years in prison and fined $27. They may have been encouraged by the successful 1933 kidnapping of brewer William Hamm for $100. Utah on April 22.000 as they soon began planning the kidnapping of Charles Urschell. Jimmy Basso.000 ransom and Urschell was safely released on July 31. He soon joined up with bank robber "Machine Gun Kelly". Authorities had seized $225. where they would be severely beaten or killed. reports vary between detective work by the FBI or a tip received from local authorities.000 on November 30. Donald Angelini. who summoned the authorities. after years of public denial. Battaglia struggled for power along with rivals Giancana.and his gang were scouting the area before the robbery. Battaglia had an extensive criminal record that included over 12 counts of burglary. a wealthy oil tycoon in Oklahoma City. according to a news account. Investigator John M. James. was a mobster in the Chicago Outfit and a highranking bookmaker who was convicted in 1988 for syndicated gambling. He was paroled on November 13. In the 1949 Western. and is buried at Holy Cross Cemetery in Colma. 1948) was an American bank robber and burglar during the 1920s and 1930s. played Bass in the episode "The Saga of Sam Bass" on theABC/Warner Brothers western series.. Colt . 1948. Basso's 1988 Lincoln Town Car. Washington of $77. Illinois and Chicago's northwest suburbs. Debtors behind in their payments would be brought to Battaglia in the back room of the Casa Madrid restaurant. Anthony. Broomfield for his role in a point-shaving scandal involving Arizona State University basketball. What remains of the original stone is on display at the Round Rock Public Library. two days apart in August 1971. Basso lived in Barrington Hills. Bates died of heart disease on July 4. He was the husband to Angela Rose Siciliano who bore him two children. "I don't know no Mr. Bates would continuously be in trouble with the law throughout his criminal career.S. Basso was convicted in Chicago of syndicate gambling and conspiracy to commit gambling and later was sentenced to 20 months of probation and 70 days of work release. California. With violent shootouts between outlaws and law enforcement on the rise in 1932 and 1933. He used a number of different aliases during his criminal career including George Davis. best known for his role on Gilligan's Island. 1917 and was out for less than half-a-year when he was arrested for burglary in Ogden.[5]Chuck Connors was thirty-five when he played Sam Bass in an episode of Tales of Wells Fargo. A close associate of Outfit boss Giancana. Basso was arrested in January 1988 after being suspected of being an overseer of the Chicago Outfit's betting operations in DuPage County. 1932. particularly as a young man. Battaglia was convicted of violating the Hobbs Act for obstructing interstate commerce and sentenced to 15 years in prison. Battaglia had become a high-ranking member of the Outfit and a formidable loan shark. He was the brother of Mary. George Harris and J. Seven months later. 1933. Illinois. the Reds). after he agreed to permanent ineligibility from baseball because of allegations that he had gambled on baseball games while playing for and managing the Cincinnati Reds (in 2004. 2001. Basso's son. who had been released from Leavenworth a month before Bates. Texas with several others on February 6. They eventually received a $200. In 1936. and today. in Chicago. Bass is portrayed by Howard Duff. his cell telephone and $8.S. He was released only in order to attend the funeral. When Grimes approached the men to request that they surrender their sidearms..700 in cash. robbery. Illinois from at least the 1980s until 1999. . the original having suffered at the hands of souvenir collectors over the years. In August 1973. As long-time Outfit leader Antonino ("Tony. Basso. He was convicted on August 3. though. Jr. 1908 – September 7. Salvatore Jr. Diane. Basso was survived by his wife. which was under bossDean O'Banion. Texas. 2001). Dowd's aides told the Internal Revenue Service that Rose had placed bets with Basso believed to be more than $2. Near Ware. 1930. football.000 by United States District Judge Robert C.000 in betting slips. In the fictional 1951 film The Texas Rangers. Jones to bring them to justice. Basso most notably was linked to baseball star Pete Rose in a scandal as having been a bookie through whom Rose had placed bets on major-league baseball. "Sounds like he should be from Chicago. Dowd discovered six telephone calls that Rose had made to Basso's home and his bookmaking wire room over a period of several years in the late 1980s. baseball manager and retired baseball star Pete Rose was accused of having placed bets on major-league baseball games. Joseph and August. By the late 1930s. his 27th birthday. At the time of Basso's arrest. Army in 1911 but was arrested for desertion and sent to the military prison on Alcatraz where he stayed for 15 months. Rose admitted to betting on baseball and on." Basso died on March 25. the Chicago Crime Commission publicly identified Basso in a report titled Organized Crime in Chicago 1990.000 in cash and bonds on September 21. or I'll bust ya in da teets!"[ By 1950. Bass was thereafter portrayed by Jack Chaplain in an 1961 episode of The Outlaws. By the time of his release on July 17. they were noticed by Deputy Sheriff A. Calamity Jane and Sam Bass. again being granted parole. Butch Cassidy and Dave Rudabaugh. Another mobster was questioning Battaglia's handling of a debtor and Battaglia yelled back at him. Basso was identified in 1989 as having worked for mob chieftains Ernest Rocco Infelise. he and Kelly teamed with Eddie Bentz to rob a bank on Colfax. Sarah. 1920. the actor Alan Hale. Bates and the rest involved in the Urschall kidnapping were convicted in federal court on September 30. He was the longtime partner of George "Machine Gun" Kelly and participated in the kidnapping of oil tycoon Charles Urschel in 1933. and federal agents raided the ranch on August 12 arresting three of Kelly's in-laws and a visiting Harvey Bailey. Haggerty was forty when he played the doomed 27-year-old Bass. The ranch was eventually discovered by authorities. sometimes shown incorrectly as Dominic Basso. Battaglia joined bosses Johnny Torrio and Al Capone in the Chicago Outfit at the start of the gang war against the mostly Irish North Side Gang. and together robbed their first bank in Denton. Dominic Cortina and Salvatore DeLaurentis. In 1959. Hale was thirty-eight when cast as the 27-year-old Bass. When they bought some tobacco at a store. this time with Eddie Doll. Bates had become a hardened criminal. 1893 to Elizabeth May and Wiley Bates. Anne's Hospital in Chicago. Felix "Milwaukee Phil" Alderisio took over as day-to-day boss. Mississippi for $38. but not against. the radio drama Death Valley Daysportrayed Bass's last days before his death in Round Rock. 1938 – March 25.

Belgian. Centraland South America. and Nizamettin Baybaşin. Abdullah Baybaşin was also convicted in 2002 and jailed in the United Kingdom. his son Jr. Hüseyin was arrested in the United Kingdomfor possession of fake passport. " The treatment I received at HMP Belmarsh was very degrading and at times I struggled to cope. also a drug lord. after the take down of Battle and his top organized crime associates. little is yet known about how the Corporation is actually structured or the total membership despite approximately 30 years of existence. bookmaking. he was apprehended with 11 kg (24 lb) hashish found in his house by a raid. along the other surviving expatriate soldiers. An appeals court overturned the conviction. Battle was convicted in 1977 and sentenced to 30 years in prison in connection with the death of Ernestico Torres. 1932. New York and Florida.. Battles' reputation was such that he was known among the Cuban American community as El Padrino. except the statement of a convicted felon. In the late 1980s. he was wrongly accused by the British Police. So he fled to Lima. Allegedly Castro stopped executing theprisoners of war and used the remaining surviving exiled soldiers as bargaining chips in exchange for $52 million worth of American goods. imprisoned in the Netherlands. Abdullah Baybaşin is Kurdish drug trafficker who accused of being at the helm of a £25 billion heroin empire based in North London.August 8. was worried again when several of his associates were indicted. Soon afterwards. immigrated to the United Kingdom and set up his business in North London. which he invested in tourist resorts along the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts. Bazzano struck first on July 29.two years. He made the bulk of his wealth from an illegal lottery racket known as bolita (little ball). he was released after around four years to serve the rest in Turkey. four arson attacks resulting in eight deaths. illegal lottery and loan sharking. Battle assisted the Central Intelligence Agency in the early 1960s in training Cuban exiles and personally volunteering as a soldier in the Cuban liberation effort of the Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1962.J. it was decided to detain him in a pre-trial detention unit of maximum security in Vught. where there was a large population of Cuban immigrants and began to operate his East Coast empire from the Little Havana area of the city. the Court of Appeal in 2010 ordered a retrial on the drugs charge after deeming that the judge‘s summing up of the evidence at the trial was unfair. He was the father of John Bazzano Jr. was captured after three days of arduous battle and imprisoned for nearly two years in a Cuban prison. and was charged with two years in prison. unreliable and unsafe. There are rumors that they have a strong presence in Northern New Jersey and the South Florida area with even some influence in eastern Pennsylvania in areas around the Lehigh County. Battle Jr and associate Julio Acuña attempted to appeal the decision but failed. The ocean freighter MV Kısmetim-1 was intercepted end of 1992 by the Turkish police in Mediterranean. although it killed beyond a thousand Castro supporters per less than 200 exiled loses. Battle pleaded guilty to the racketeering charges due to his health. while Hüseyin choose the Dutch metropole Amsterdam for his base." which is otherwise known as the "Cuban Mafia. and often thought things would never get better. On May 6. Judge Charles Byers said that there was no direct evidence and very little circumstantial evidence of Baybasin's involvement in a conspiracy to supply 5 lb (2. 2010. 1929 – August 4. Kennedy aborted American air support just five minutes before the armed Cubans reached Cuban soil. and Europe. Hüseyin Baybaşin and Gıyasettin were tried and found guilty on February 10. By the 1980s Battle had built up an empire of crime and began investing heavily in legitimate businesses throughout the New York area. In 1987 Battle was listed as one of Dade County's wealthiest men with a net worth of $175 million.000 in damages by the Prison Services. Hüseyin was convicted and sentenced to twenty years in prison. 2007) was the nominal leader and founder of "The Corporation. he was apprehended in Silivri. Abdullah Baybasin was rewarded £20. 2004 a psychiatric report found that Baybaşin had developed various mental problems including chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. The Corporation is considered to be not as strong or lucrative as it was in the 1980s. while Gıyasettin received eleven years in prison. with Battle Jr sentenced to more than 15 years in federal prison and ordered to forfeit $642 million and Acuña sentenced to life and a $1. This faction was led by 3 brothers. increased to a life sentence in July 2002.[2] In the early 1990s Battle Sr. (September 14. He became the boss of the Conti family in 1931. He was housed in the Metropolitan Correctional Center (MCC) in Miami on more charges ofracketeering. The 3 tried to kill Bazzano in order to take over his territory. Florida. 2007 he died from various ailments in South Carolina while in Federal Custody awaiting transfer to another prison. 2010. suffered from degrading treatment and discrimination on account of his disability while he was in Belmarsh jail in London. Diyarbakır in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. His elder brother Abdullah Baybaşin. It was claimed that the drug belonged to a consortium of the ship's owner Osman Ayanoğlu and his partners including Şeyhmus Daş and Hüseyin Baybaşin. They alleged that he was convicted at the first trial despite the lack of any evidence against him. By 1998. 1998.3 kg) of heroin. Subsequently Jose. that turned out to be untruthful. Jose Miguel Battle Sr. and began establishing a presence as the leader of a family of Cuban-American criminals involved in organized crime activities from loansharking and gambling to drug trafficking and murder. In the same period. the State Security Court (DGM) in Istanbul tried 21 Turkish people." Battle was born in Havana. On October 22. is considered the original "godfather" of the Cuban Mafia. resulted disastrous after President John F. and sentenced to twelve years. who made decisions for him. he is currently serving life sentence in the Netherlands convicted of drug smuggling charges. 2001 on charges of conspiracy to murder. worth millions of dollars. Battle settled in Union City. One was in Puerto Rico and another in Spain. depression and a strong tendency towards somatisation during his detention in the maximum security prison. but Battle later pleaded guilty to murder conspiracy in exchange for a sentence of time served . Turkeyclose to the Syrian border. Of the 21. direct or loosely associated.100 kg (29. 1998. New Jersey.5 kg) of heroin and sentenced to 22 years in prison. racketeering. Enrique and Henry who ran all the numbers and Bolita for him in the uptown part of the city. Pablo Escobar". James and John Volpe and were very powerfull in the area of Wilmerding PA. In the Spanish Harlem area of the city Battle had the Torres brothers Pancho. The Ministry of Justice has accepted that Abdullah Baybasin who uses a wheelchair. an alleged hit man for Battle's organization. Cubans and Puerto Ricans. His family members claimed that Abdullah Baybaşin is a victim of injustice. four were arrested in the New York and Union City. 2003. suspected of smuggling about 13. On August 6.4 billion judgment. 1932) was the Boss of Conti family. or even the 1990s. Hüseyin was arrested along with his nephew Gıyasettin Baybaşin following a joint operation carried out by the British. The ship was scuttled by the crew during the operation. the Baybaşins were making millions from exporting heroin to Europe. areas. Hüseyin Baybaşin was transferred to another prison with a different regime. The Corporation was making hundreds of millions from gambling. Diyarbakır) is a Kurdish drug lord. He was initially placed in an ordinary detention facility in Rotterdam. judge at Woolwich Crown Court in London ordered the retrial jury to find Baybasin not guilty because the lack of prosecution evidence meant that a conviction would be unsafe. Peru where he built a hotel and casino complex.5 million Florida ranch. he was set free in 1989. and 21 other key aid members and associates were indicted and charged with five murders. In 1976. On January 15. Arthur. and numbers rackets.. all Turkish drug lords. N. His incarceration in the Vught Prison was extended several times. On March 23. and had all 3 . On hearing the decision of the Ministry he said that.. On November 8. which was popular among expatriate Italians. Only four days from his release from the prison. Bazzano's term of leadership was short and only lasted for a year. It is known that Battle had an operative outside of jail. Today. After four months of incarceration in Turkey. However. On March 27. He allegedly established good working relationships with the Italian Mafia in the New York City area. 2007. After being released from what many saw as the result of a betrayal from JFK. the rest were in the Miami area. and operated in the US. Both brothers grew up in Lice. The Torres brothers had a family affair using Pancho Torres son in law Jose Castro and also his son Kiko Jr. Italian. the Caribbean. but at other times the Corporation is known to have had violent turf wars with various Italian mafia families. for setting up a criminal organization and exporting illicit drugs.5 billion collected from drug trafficking. A former policeman in Fulgencio Batista's Cuba. Cuba in 1929. The court concluded the apprehension of those accused. I thought I would die in prison. who remained a powerfull member of the Pittsburgh Mafia untill his death in 2008. On June 26. kidnapping and drug smuggling. to run the Bolita operation thru out the bodegas in the Harlem and South Bronx sections of the city." His brother Hüseyin is serving a life sentence in the Netherlands on drug-related charges. However. Battle expanded to Miami. On December 24. It was also claimed that the British Press declared him quilty on the basis of hearsay without carrying out any kind of investigation into the accusations against him.Jose Miguel Battle. 2006. presumably the head of the New Jersey faction.000 lb) morphine base. However.5 lb (2. or the Godfather. including Battle's son. Once described as "Europe's John Bazzano (1889 . for carrying an unlicensed gun andnarcotics. and more than $1. German and Dutch police in a villa in Lieshout. he was sentenced to 20 years in prison. Hüseyin fled abroad but was arrested by the Dutch police in 1995 and served a sentence. During the tenure of Bazzano the family had a rival faction within it's own borders. He had been convicted of drug charges in 2006 involving up to 5. President Ronald Reagan's Select Committee on Organized Crime investigated the Corporation and estimated its membership. among them in absentia Hüseyin and Gıyasettin Baybaşın. at 2. a town west of Istanbul. Hüseyin is believed to have retained most of his vast wealth. after former boss Joseph Siragusa was murdered on September 13. The invasion.500 members. convicted for fifteen years in prison in Germany. But when the smoke settled he moved back to his $1. Sr. Later. Hüseyin Baybaşin (born 1956 in Lice. It is estimated that his network was making up to $45 million a year in the 1970s from bolita in New Jersey. In 2004 Battle Sr.

said Beeka lived a very complicated life. Alternatively. His Audi Q7 was riddled with bullets from a semi-automatic gun . Beeka commanded respect in the underworld and was hailed for the truce he brokered among gangs in Cape Town. The Brett Kebble killers notoriously failed to implicate Agliotti to the court‘s satisfaction – leading to the acquittal of Agliotti and. identified Booysen in court as a suspect in the Beeka killing during Gavric‘s bail application hearing. Last week Mdluli‘s suspension was lifted after fraud charges were controversially dropped by the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA). Capone invited Belcastro to join the Outfit and he soon became a prominent member. In October. Captain Paul Hendrikse.Beeka had 12 dogs and several horses at his home on a smallholding outside Pretoria. This may simply be about the drug trade in Cape Town. or a reduced sentence. Dorothy van Schalkwyk. 2011) was South African underworld figure and drug smuggler. ―He was involved in Cyril and Yuri‘s murders. Beeka stepped in. Belcastro was highly skilled at constructing improvised explosive devices.July 25. also said he knew nothing about the man being placed in witness protection. and also was Santo Volpe. Another senior policeman. He was paroled in 1981 after only serving 3 years. He was one of the few more left Made members in Pittsburgh. The witness – a Cape Town gangster apparently personally implicated in both killings – is reportedly seeking a plea bargain with the state. He was twice convicted of theft in 1982. John Bazzano Jr. In the early 1920s. on March 21. He seemed to be protected." Yesterday. I grabbed the phone and I saw who his handler was. when he ran Red and Pro Security. along with his four-year-old daughter. who was 49 when he died. enlisted in the US military in August 1945. said they were "intelligence reports". Beeka is listed as a director in various companies. charged him with intimidation. he may enter into a plea bargain with the state. 2011. Belville. on Cape Town druglords and on an Eastern European crime networks operating in South Africa. that they were unable to confirm or deny reports that the man was in witness protection. during an exclusive interview at his mother Olive's home. David. Nigel McGurk and Fiazal ―Kappie‖ Smith – the self-confessed murderers of mining magnate Brett Kebble – exchange indemnity from prosecution for testimony against underworld tycoon Glenn Agliotti. During the 1950's he was a crew member of his father-in-law Antonio Ripepi for whom he ran the numbers rackets in the Monongahela Valley many years. At the time of his death Beeka was assisting with the probe into crime intelligence boss Lieutenant-General Richard Mdluli. I choose to remember my karate instructor without whom I would not have found my dignity and self-respect through martial arts. 2 weeks after his 18th birthday. a reform school for teens. group of Albert Anastasia and Lepke Buchalter. and the brutal gunning down of notorious Ukrainian underworld enforcer Yuri ―The Russian‖ Ulianitski.level entrapment operation" involving the drug trade. Saturday Star sources indicated that different legislation was being explored for this process from the provisions of Section 204 of the Criminal Procedure Act – as controversially invoked in the case of Schultz and his accomplices. but added that it wa s possible that ―crime intelligence took him away‖. Just when WWII was over Bazzano Jr." This was in reference to Beeka being an informer for the National Intelligence Agency. 2008. the gang member is apparently seeking to escape prosecution as a pay-off for bringing the masterminds to book. Known as "King of the Bombers". He was one of eight children.those killers were in a Toyota Tazz. Those that resisted were taught violent lessons with the help of the syndicate controlled by Ulianitski. and later chief bomber for the Chicago Outfit during Prohibition. Beeka told them not to touch a batch of papers and. In 1975 federal agents uncovered his massive gambling organization wherefore he was convicted and sentenced to 7 years in a federal prison in Danbury. Police have a secret witness who could help solve two of Cape Town‘s most sensational unsolved murde r mysteries of recent years – the drive-by assassination of crime boss Cyril Beeka in March 2011. During the late 1960's Bazzano Jr. The Saturday Star understands that the gangster spilling the beans was closely associated with the ill-fated bouncer operation Specialised Protection Services (SPS). Anastasia did became a suspect in the following weeks. Two men on a motorbike rode alongside his car and sprayed it with bullets. One of the two masterminds allegedly fingered by the gangster is a Cape Town entrepreneur. Beeka died and Gavric was seriously injured. James "Mad Bomber" Belcastro (1895 – August 23. Beeka was gunned down near the University of Cape Town on March 21. Eight sources independently told the Saturday Star the gangster was secretly being held in protective custody." his sister. Last year. Under negotiation. who may not be named. outside a karaoke bar in Long Street. Beeka again got involved. Shots were fired from a motorcycle into the four-wheeldrive vehicle in which he and fugitive Serbian hitman Dobrasov Gavric were travelling. which may lead to him receiving a lighter sentence for his involvement. Andre Lincoln. The other has been identified as an alleged gang leader. The others of the Volpe organisation were angered about the killings of their leaders and protested against Bazzano to the Commission. when pressed. The head of the task team. Not long after his body was found in Brooklyn. said: "He had lots of friends and he had lots of enemies. boss of the Conti Family (later known as the LaRocca Family) was brutally murdered in Brooklyn. said. extortionist. when a family in Vosloorus east of Johannesburg.even though he was involved in all these shady things. the failure of the state to bring any of the conspirators to book.March 21. Hong Liang Wu. 81 year old Bazzano Jr. Inc. according to sources close to the investigation. grew up on the grounds of the Faure Boys School in Cape Town. The Russian was killed in a hail of bullets on his birthday in Cape Town in 2007. Beeka enjoyed respect in karate circles and obtained national colours in the 1990s and also spent time training in Japan. His murder has rocked the underworld and cast the spotlight on the upper ranks of organised crime in the country. who could possibly be a relative of the murdered Volpe brothers of Pittsburgh. The murder took place minutes after a meeting the two had had with alleged Sexy Boys gang leader Jerome ―Donkie‖ Booysen. During the mid to late . 1945) was a Black Hand gang member." A politician who spoke on condition on anonymity said he met Beeka years ago when he was "a low level courier" for the ANC's underground movement. He later owned several schools and was an instructor. forget about politicians. SPS was closed down by an order of court earlier this year after it emerged that the company was operating illegally in the absence of accreditation with the Private Security Regulatory Authority (Psira). the now defunct Scorpions took over several investigations into Beeka's operations and confiscated documents and computers.‖ one of the sources said. "He had natural flair and got a black belt four years after he joined the Goju Kai school of karate. Bazzano was send to New York to explain himself. when a friend in the Northern Cape had difficulties with her late husband's legacy project. It soon became apparent that he was involved in drug smuggling and other shady dealings. She said Beeka was always helpful. and he has implicated the masterminds. In the 1990s. slowly began run Ripepi's crew. in defiance of the recommendation of Intelligence Inspector-General Faith Radebe. He was the son of John Bazzano. which emerged to fill the vacuum left by Beeka‘s death in the Cape Town bouncer busine ss. Cyril Beeka (1962 . Hawks spokesman McIntosh Polela and national police spokesman Vish Naidoo said. one of the first Pittsburgh Mafia bosses. In 2002. outside a Milnerton restaurant in 2007.‖ a source said. who also asked not to be named. Beeka was shot and killed during a drive-by shooting in Modderdam Road. Bazzano was replaced as head of the family by Vincenzo Capizzi. his siblingssaid he was a loving and generous man who was fond of animals . Bazzano was only 5 years old when his father. Beeka was the subject of a presidential task team probe into his protection racket. Because the murders occured without permission of the Commission. so an alternative arrangement will be made for him. When Cape Town police arrested him at home several years ago. His recent activities in Cape Town suggested plans to relocate there. But Beeka never spent a day in jail. He used these skills to extort money from business owners in Chicago's Little Italy district during the 1910s. ―No more 204s after Kebble‘s murder. The former bouncer provided security services at clubs that had no choice in the matter. died peacefully on July 25. "Forget about Radovan Krejcir. cut up by ice picks. when asked about his brother's background." he said." his elder brother David said yesterday and said an acquaintance online: "I choose to remember Cyril Beeka as someone who walked me home from school when I was a little boy. for fingering the masterminds behind the Beeka and Ulianitski murders. That same year Beeka and five others were acquitted in the Cape Regional Court on charges of murdering a Chinese sailor. "He planned a big family function. The investigator said he had not interviewed this man. with the indemnification of the shooters. However. Johnny Torrio and Al Caponeformed the Chicago Outfit and put the Black Hand gangs out of business. Because of the way Bazzano was murdered. The list of police cases against him over the years range from petty crime to murder. who died 5 years later. according to police protocol. he was said by police to rule Cape Town's nightspots. One of the investigating officers in the Beeka case. Said a senior policeman attached to the drug unit who was present at the time: "We were driving to the office with those reports and he kept on calling someone from his cellphone. crime historicians believe he was killed by the murderous Murder. is an arrangement whereby he would be guaranteed indemnity from prosecution. Beeka. the investigating officer in the Beeka case and various cases against Gavric – who faces extradition to Serbia for triple murder. He completed his matric at Spes Bona Secondary School in Athlone and in 1986 obtained a diploma in mechanical engineering at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. who face being charged with conspiracy to murder. (1927 .men murdered at his Coffee Shop. In a deal reminiscent of the arrangement which saw Mikey Schultz. Everyone also knew he was an informer for the old intelligence services but he was taken up in the ANC intelligence structures . 2011. were looking for answers in the 1999 murder of a relative. 2008) was a longtime racketeer in Western Pennsylvania and served as the LaRocca Family underboss between 1987 and 2006 under Micheal Genovese. however. At the time of his death he was the father of four children. under the authority of a senior SAPS Crime Intelligence officer. Days after his death another high-ranking policeman said Beeka was involved in a "high. most likely in orders of the commission. After he returned to Pittsburgh he was promoted to capo and eventually underboss. where his father was principal.

Pirate Treasure Hunters." by Janet Elaine Smith. 2008 the National Geographic Channel aired a 2-hour documentary. VA." Captain Charles Johnson. TX. Though his known career as a pirate captain lasted little more than a year. but his crew had just voted to burn it. Belcastro chased one Thompson supporter. Removing the captain's quarters and upgrading the ship to 28 guns. damn the sloop. On April 10. Later in 1931. his home country.. corner of Main and W. The exhibit is currently at the Kansas City's. killing at least 15 people. better known as "Black Sam" Bellamy. Pershing Rd. Bellamy had wanted to let the captain keep his ship. Bellamy. Fla. ivory. about the ongoing excavation of the wreck of the Whydah Gally. By the end of the 1920s. A name for the island where Jack Sparrow and Elizabeth Swann are marooned in Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the . The Mary Anne was also wrecked that night several miles south of the Whydah. leaving seven more survivors. 2013 through January 5. He likened himself toRobin Hood. In 1985. according to local lore. the grandfather of U. for the cowardly whelps have not the courage otherwise to defend what they get by knavery. The future pirate became a sailor at a young age and traveled to Cape Cod. he failed. Massachusetts dedicated to Samuel Bellamy and the Whydah. The last. gold and artifacts. Bellamy assigned his friend Palsgrave Williams as commander of the Marianne and made the Sultana his flagship. The treasure hunters apparently met with little success. who allow superiors to kick them about deck at pleasure. The Franklin Institute. Throughout the 30's and 40's. Perry. 28–29. even among pirates: "He made a dashing figure in his long deep-cuffed velvet coat. "Pirate In My Arms. the scoundrels do. published by Star Publish LLC. gold. taking Bellamy and all but two of the Whydah's 145-man crew with her. Louis. Bellamy is attributed with making this now-famous speech: "I am sorry they won't let you have your sloop again. Turchi. Clifford. to be called "The Pineapple Primary". On August 23. By a majority vote of the crew. and over 30. the first incontrovertible evidence of his find. and was driven onto the sand bar shoals in 16 feet of water some 500 feet from the coast of what is now Wellfleet. Paulgraves. and also appears in the other books in the The Pirates! series. and Paulsgrave). Unlike some of his fellows. Paul (1999).). accompanied by his friend and financier Palgraves Williams (also recorded as Palsgrave. Clifford recovered the ship's bell upon which were the words "THE WHYDAH GALLY 1716". wrote what became the first standard historical text on pirates. He primarily attacked voting stations in Thompson's strongest wards. The republic of pirates : being the true and surprising story of the Caribbean pirates and the man who brought them down (1st Harvest ed.Captain Bellamy. ed. Bellamy never wore the fashionable powdered wig. Woodard. On January 11.). At 15 minutes past midnight. Bellamy's greatest capture was to come in the spring of 1717. than sneak after these villains for employment?" [Beer replied that his conscience would not let him break the laws of God and man. quoted by Captain Charles Johnson (1724). the "Prince of Pirates". commands a mission returning King Arthur to the modern age. leaving 43 bodies unaccounted for. Williams told Bellamy that he wished to visit his family in Rhode Island. President John Quincy Adams. Captain Bellamy appears as a minor character in the book "Cape Cod" written by William Martin in 1992. including a cannon found to be stuffed with precious stones. the masts snapped and drew the heavily-loaded ship into 30 feet of water where she capsized and quickly sank. and with speeds of up to 13 knots. a Native American from the Miskito tribe in Central America. Had you not better make then one of us.3 m) of water and 5 feet (1. and Bellamy continued] "You are a devilish conscience rascal! I am a free prince. and I have as much authority to make war on the whole world as he who has a hundred sail of ships at sea and an army of 100. and would soon become the first authenticated pirate shipwreck ever discovered in North America. St. James Belcastro died of heart disease(although other accounts mistakenly claim his date of death on October 13. 2010. During the 1927 Chicago primary elections. the Whydah was the largest pirate prize ever captured. 1991. Norfolk. having arrived in Boston three weeks too late). Peter (1993). but later recovered from his wounds. published by Avon Books. The remaining 90-man crew then elected Bellamy as captain. loaded with a fortune in gold and precious trade goods from the sale of nearly 500 slaves." by author Elizabeth Moisan. including Teach. which includes detailed interviews with Barry Clifford. forsooth. February 23. Bellamy became famous again when the discovery of the wreckage of his flagship Whydah was announced. In July 1984. An exhibition entitled "Real Pirates: The Untold Story of 'The Whydah' (from slave ship to pirate ship)" is touring the U.. 1931. with a sword slung on his left hip and four pistols on his sash. in live coverage of a dive at the Whydahsite. The discovery of the wreck was made in 1982 by a diving crew led and funded by underwater explorer Barry Clifford.Celtic Fire" written by Toney Brooks and illustrated by Matthew Harvey (Wessex Books. He subsequently founded The Whydah Pirate Museum on MacMillan Wharf in Provincetown. Bellamy was probably the youngest of six known children born to Stephen and Elizabeth Bellamy in the parish of Hittisleigh in Devonshire. They vilify us. At the time of its sinking. "Master Of The Sweet Trade: A Story of the Pirate Samuel Bellamy. and was a distinctive figure. He soon left Cape Cod—allegedly to support Hallett—by salvaging treasure from the Spanish plate fleet sunk off the coast of Florida. ed. 1933). Built in England in 1715 as a state-of-the-art. for I scorn to do any one a mischief. and you. Arrested in October 1927 for Granady's murder. they rob the poor under the cover of law. IL. Union Station's Grand Gallery exhibit. OH. Barry. when he and his crew chased down and boarded the Whydah Gally (pronounced "WID-uh"). Belcastro was suspected of causing over 100 deaths while bombing saloons that refused to buy alcohol from Capone. issued the previous month in September.000 artifacts so far recovered are currently on a six-year tour around the United States under the sponsorship of The National Geographic Society. On May 27. Sam Bellamy is a character in the book "The Mystic Rose . and the two agreed to meet up again near Maine. Nauticus. The Field Museum. ed.5 to 5 tons). and the treasure in its hold included huge quantities of indigo. when it is not to my advantage. Belcastro was considered a suspect in the murder of bootlegger Matt Kolb. Samuel Bellamy appears as one of the main characters in the time travel historical novel. 1689 – April 26. who serve them. Colin (2008). Bellamy turned his new flagship northwards along the eastern coast of the Carolinas and on to New England. It is currently available on DVD. Mariah Hallett. Bellamy traded the Sultana to Captain Lawrence Prince for the Whydah. Orlando. Cincinnati. 102 foot-long English slave ship with 18 guns (cannons). Live! followed a team of divers. He is acter three no fiction books Expedition Whydah : the story of the world's first excavation of a pirate treasure ship and the man who found her (1st ed. Bellamy was well-known to his contemporaries and to later chroniclers. Hornigold was deposed as captain of the Marianne and left the vessel with his loyal followers. This reputation earned him another nickname. New York: Simon & Schuster.: Harcourt. Belcastro continued to rise in the Outfit and ultimately became one of its top enforcers. and so are all those who will submit to be governed by laws which rich men have made for their own security. The Whydah was swept up in a violent Nor'easter storm off Cape Cod at midnight. lawyer Octavius Granady. Chicago. the Whydahwas on its maiden voyage in 1716 and had just finished the second (Africa to Caribbean) leg of the Atlantic slave trade. Elizabeth died in childbirth and was buried on February 23. 1717). NY: Cliff Street Books. True to his reputation for generosity. Barry. when there is only this difference. 300-ton. for a parcel of hen-hearted numbskulls. but was never charged. Clifford. but damn ye altogether: damn them for a pack of crafty rascals. Belcastro would later be portrayed by Peter Mamakos in the 1959 television movie The Scarface Mob as well as on The Untouchables TV series. Upon capturing a second ship. he and his crew captured at least 53 ships under his command – making him the wealthiest pirate in recorded history – before his death at age 28. a pseudonym.000 men in the field. including comedian Vic Reeves." . PA. P 261. Paulgrave. and silver-buckled shoes. Philadelphia.5 m) of sand. Massachusetts." by author Danelle Harmon. and this my conscience tells me! But there is no arguing with such snivelling puppies. It houses many artifacts which were brought from the actual wreck. 2007 a UK documentary/reality show titled Pirate Ship . 1945. A portion of the some 200. now a captain in the Celtic Otherworld Navy. Bloomington IN. 2001). who commanded the Marianne with his first mate. New York. MO and Houston. as they soon turned to piracy in the crew of pirate captainBenjamin Hornigold. A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates.1920s. In the summer of 1716. the soon to become famous Edward "Blackbeard" Teach. NY. and six were hanged in October 1717 (King George's pardon of all pirates. Inc. the court believing their testimony that they had been forced into piracy. The vessel was under just 14 feet (4. John Julian. the Sultana Galley. Samuel Bellamy is the main character of the historical novel. the Chicago Crime Commission had listed Belcastro on its famous "public enemies" list. is believed to have been sold into slavery to John Quincy. published by iUniverse Books. On January 7. A pirate known as "Black Bellamy" is a major character in Gideon Defoe's novel The Pirates! in an Adventure with Scientists. we must sink her. by car and then killed him.S. 1927. he took up an affair with a local girl named Maria Hallett—the "Witch of Wellfleet". and with approval of the crew.000 pounds sterling (approximately 4. Belcastro was later acquitted after key witnesses recanted their statements. "House Call to The Past. and the Whydah. The pirate prince : discovering the priceless treasures of the sunken ship Whydah : an adventure(1939 Hardcover ed. Bellamy became known for his mercy and generosity toward those he captured on his raids. where. One hundred and three bodies were known to have washed ashore and were buried by the town coroner. (June 21.S. was an English pirate who operated in the early 18th century. (3rd Edition. as she and the Mary Anne approached Cape Cod. 1689. However. Two were set free. Samuel Bellamy (c.). Sam Bellamy appears as the main protagonist/hero in the bestselling novel. Belcastro launched a bombing campaign against then Mayor William Hale Thompson. silk stockings. and the captain of the merchant vessel had just declined an invitation to join the pirates. Belcastro was shot five times in the head and body during a shootout. three weeks before Samuel's baptism on March 18. England in 1689. pp. If Bellamy intended to revisit his lover Maria Hallett. but grew his dark hair long and tied it back with a black satin bow. knee breeches. 2014). the crew became irritated by Hornigold's unwillingness to attack ships of England. That source relates the story of the Whydah overtaking a sloop commanded by Captain Beer. with his crew calling themselves "Robin Hood's Men". New York. Though you are a sneaking puppy. All nine survivors from the two ships were captured and prosecuted for piracy in Boston. Venues include Cincinnati Museum Center. A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates Just two months after acquiring the Whydah. and she might be of use to you. Called "Black Sam" in Cape Cod folklore because he eschewed the fashionable powdered wig in favor of tying back his long black hair with a simple band. and we plunder the rich under the protection of our own courage. 2007).

Bellomo won a jurisdictional dispute against Genovese Little Italy captain Peter DeFeo. including a life sentence for murder. On his instigation Giuseppe Rogoli imported the codes. the center of the crew's most important rackets.[11] A 'Bellamy the Hyena' character based on Samuel Bellamy appeared in the anime and manga series One Piece by Eiichiro Oda. Dilorenzo was found shot to death in the backyard of his home in West New York. a mafia-type organisation in Calabria. He headed the clan after the arres t of his cousin Gregorio Bellocco in February 2005. ―He ruled from his territory. extortion and the control of nearly all commercial businesses in theGioia Tauro plain. In 1997. With fellow capo Vincent DiNapoli. In July 1988 he was released because the terms for detention expired. He was arrested in the company of his wife on July 16. Fiorino was also responsible for funneling tribute payments the Genovese and the Irish Westies Mob received from contractors operating in the Javits to the labor bosses and Barney Bellomo. Furthermore. In or about 1987. and 60 of the 100 had criminal records. Jointly with the Pesce clan and in collaboration with the Piromalli-Molè 'ndrina they controlled the public contracts for the construction of the container terminal in the port of Gioia Tauro. many charges resulted in acquittal in appeal. Bellomo's brother-inlaw and the Local 257 steward in charge of the Javits. Now released from prison he is believed to have resumed his role as captain and maybe even holds a high ranking administrative position in the Genovese crime family hierarchy. Bellomo was inducted into the Genovese family in a ceremony held in an apartment above an East Harlem pizzeria. extortion and the control of nearly all commercial businesses in the Gioia Tauro plain. moving from tunnels and bunkers. a mafia-type organization in Apulia. 1993. and involved in kickbacks from NYC contractors and businesses operating at the Javits Center. At some point he was charged with 14 murders. Activities ranged from drug trafficking. In 1977. Bellomo was indicted on Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) charges. In February 1997. Bellomo was appointed acting boss of the Genovese family. and the Carpenter's Union). vain and despises those who dream. and became a fugitive. He was directly involved in the family's most powerful rackets (including the waterfront. He was sentenced to 14 years for drug trafficking. He was succeeded as acting boss by his cousin Gregorio Bellocco. 1937) is an Italian criminal and a member of the 'Ndrangheta. He was presiding over a meeting of the 'Ndrangheta. Captain Bellamy is a minor character in Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest. to counter the growing influence of the Camorra. New Jersey. 2007. Bellomo demonstrated his power during disputes with rivals from other families. Bellomo is one of the fastest rising Mafia members in the United States today. He succeeded his cousin Umberto Bellocco – arrested in 1993 – as the acting boss of the clan. becoming a captain in his mid-twenties. Bellomo dressed in jeans and sweatshirts. unlike Samuel in real life. Bellomo is the father of three sons and one daughter. some of whom were made members of one of the Five Families. Eugene Hanley. the character was based on Samuel's last name alone as he was shown to be arrogant. Javits Center on the West Side of Manhattan by installing crew members in important union positions at the center. Santora became the family underboss and Bellomo took over the 116th Street Crew. Activities ranged from drug trafficking. structure and initiation rites of the 'Ndrangheta to be used by the SCU. Bellomo was considered Vincent Gigante's logical successor as boss of the Genovese family until Bellomo was sent to prison in 1996.Black Pearl is Black Sam's Spit. He was succeeded by his cousin Giuseppe Bellocco. To maintain control. February 22. to avoid further internal conflicts. Jointly with the Pesce clan and in collaboration with the Piromalli-Molè 'ndrina they controlled the public contracts for the construction of the container terminal in the port of Gioia Tauro. The Javits was controlled through affiliations with labor bosses Frederick Devine. in which consigliere Louis Manna awarded Bellomo exclusive control over Bronx Carpenters Local 17. including Vincent Gigante and Venero Mangano. was the nephew of the Genovese family's Godfather. once threatened a man's life at a Local 257 meeting in 1984. looking for evidence that Bellomo had used drugs to beat the polygraph machines. written and performed by celtic punk band Barren Waves. One of whom. at age 20. 1957) is a high ranking caporegime (captain) and street boss of the Genovese crime family in New York City. On June 11. When they broke into the building they found eight others and no sign of their main target. Gigante thought enough of him that in 1992. DeSimone was found in the trunk of his car at La Guardia Airport in Queens. Umberto Bellocco (Rosarno. During the late 1980s. By the early 1990s. an alleged made man in the Genovese family. and Ralph Coppola. However. a provincial commission of the 'Ndrangheta formed at the end of the Second 'Ndrangheta war in September 1991. Bellomo was also close to Genovese associate Attilio Bitondo who was Local 257's Vice-President. prosecutors dropped the DeSimone and DiLorenzo murder charges and offered Bellomo a chance to plead guilty to extorting payoffs from a . and then a year studying mortuary science. including the murders of mobster Ralph DeSimone and Antonio DiLorenzo. Sam Bellamy is the subject of a song by The Musical Blades. supported by three helicopters.000 salaries.[5]Both DeSimone and DiLorenzo were murdered because the Genovese leadership thought they were government informants. in his mid-30's and close to the family's leaders. Around 1982. and is currently in prison. 1996. Samuel Bellamy's life and death are the main subject of the song "The Death of Captain Bellamy". A Carabinieri official said police had been hunting Bellocco for a long time. He is the capobastone of the Bellocco 'ndrina from Rosarno in Calabria. arrested in February 2005. The Bellocco clan is one of the most powerful groups in the 'Ndrangheta. and labor racketeering. Bellomo became dominant in the rackets at the Jacob K. extortion. He was sentenced to three years for illegal possession of firearms. Upon reaching the winter of 1717 in the game Empire: Total War the player is presented with a message that the Samuel Bellamy has died. Liborio Salvatore "Barney" Bellomo (born January 8. However. Bellomo owns a residence in Pelham Manor. including soldier Ralph Coppola and his Genovese associate brother-in-law and Carpenters Local 257 shop steward Anthony Fiorino. New York along with several Bronx-based businesses. This has led law enforcement to confuse their identities on several occasions. A report by the New York State Organized Crime Task Force indicated that an alarmingly high number of the 100 carpenters that worked at the Javits Center had ties to organized crime. Mobster Vincent Cafaro had sponsored Bellomo into the family. including a waste hauling company. 1948) is an Italian criminal and a member of the 'Ndrangheta. Bellomo was a rising power in the family. 2005. Liborio Salvatore Bellomo is the double cousinof Genovese associate Liborio Thomas Bellomo. their fathers are brothers and their mothers are sisters. Bellomo's lawyers stated that their client passed two polygraph tests in which he denied killing anyone. removing all of DeFeo's influence. Attilio Bitondo. while hiding in an underground bunker. Special police units. Bellomo is the son of Salvatore Bellomo. Bellomo was the undisputed leader of the family's East Harlem/Bronx faction. and Bellomo now joined capo Saverio Santora's East Harlem 116th Street Crew. He is the boss of the Bellocco 'ndrina from Rosarno in Calabria. December 17. though the character is not a pirate and bears no resemblance to the historical Bellamy. FBI agents shaved Bellomo's head. Though Bellamy has reappeared and is shown to be a much nicer person. Bellomo moved the crew from East Harlem to the Bronx. arrested in July 2007. He was arrested again on February 18. Leonard Simon. extortion. Vincent Gigante. Bellomo became the preeminent racketeer in the New York City District Council of Carpenters and an extremely influential figure in the New York construction industry. Liborio Salvatore Bellomo stands 6'0" and can speak both Italian and English. He was arrested in June 1983 in Lecce in Apulia. He became a member of La Provincia. He was a fugitive since 1996 and included in the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy until his capture in February 2005. Gregorio Bellocco (Rosarno. Keen to avoid public attention. He has to serve time on several convictions. and was indirectly connected to powerful heroin traffickers. He spent a year studying business at Monsignor Scanlan High School in the Bronx. Giuseppe Bellocco (Rosarno. The Bellocco clan is one of the most powerful groups in the 'Ndrangheta.‖ he said. shot five times. Bellomo only met fellow mobsters late at night in quiet locations. Bellocco‘s criminal career goes back to 1974 when he was arrested for extortion and theft. Bellomo had become one of the wealthiest and most feared organized crime figures in New York. In the subsequent years he received multiple charges for murder. he named Bellomo as the family's street boss. after Gigante's indictment in the Windows Case. surrounded the farmhouse knowing that Bellocco was inside. Anthony Fiorino. until he was arrested in pre-dawn raid on February 16. A two-hour search eventually led to the discovery of Bellocco's hideout. Anthony Fiorino. Liborio T swore in an affidavit that he was guilty of federal charges instead of his cousin Liborio S. drug trafficking and Mafia association. In 1990. The crew was involved in illegal gambling activities and labor racketeeringwithin the New York City District Council of Carpenters. 1956) is an Italian criminal and a member of the 'Ndrangheta. telling him his kids could be hurt if he "steps on people's toes". the Javits Center. Around this time Genovese boss Vincent Gigante began mentoring Liborio Bellomo to take over as boss of the Genovese crime family. in an underground bunker concealed below a manger in farmhouse near Rosarno. These carpenters made $100. andGiuseppe Bellocco. In the beginning of the 1980s he was involved in setting up the Sacra Corona Unita (SCU). Fabian Palomino. as well as those within the Genovese crime family. Martin Forde. Carmine Fiore. Unlike many mobsters of his era. He belongs to and was the boss of the Bellocco 'ndrina based in Rosarno. giving him control of most of the family's day-to-day operations. He was a fugitive since 1997 and included in the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy until his capture in July 2007.

BELLOMO became the Acting Boss of the Genovese Organized Crime Family in or about 1992. but he was not identified in any other hold ups after the Danville robbery. Bergl had two locations. 2006. who controlled a crew of Soldiers and associates based in the Bronx. Bergl admitted that he simply loaned some money from Winkeler. On September 16. This was a practice that had also been followed by Big Jim Colosimo. Winkeler was partnered with Bergl on some deals. He was associated with several high-profile public enemies during his criminal career including Harvey Bailey. The car she was riding in overturned. as well as his participation in two schemes to obstruct justice. Joe and Marie were held up in front of 2449 South Ridgeway Ave. 1894-October 31. New York. Bergl (1901 . However. Bentz remained a fugitive. Peluso pleaded guilty to his role in the murder. Albert Bates. family and people who just liked Joe for the kind man he was. On July 4. The people who showed up there were friends."without ever being named or indicted".870. According to crime historian William Helmer. others say that he was stealing family profits. There too they had alleged that Kelly was driving a Bergl car. On February 23. Following his incarceration. amongst other things. That was a lesson that fell on deaf ears to another Cicero Capone neighbour by the name of Theodore Anton. His exact role in the family is yet to be revealed. With insufficient evidence to press the murder charge against Bellomo. Prior to becoming Acting Boss of the Genovese Organized Crime Family in or about 1992. the acting captain of Bellomo's crew and Bellomo's good friend. he had missed her high school. he and several unidentified accomplices robbed a bank in Danville. BELLOMO was responsible for. Joe did what was asked and never asked questions. Bentz was eventually tracked down to an address in Brooklyn. Due to her father's 12 year imprisonment. following the incarceration of Genovese Family Boss Vincent Gigante. Bellomo accepted the deal and was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Bellomo and over 30 Genovese family members were indicted on more racketeering charges. 1950) was a member and hitman of Al Capone gang. one by conspiring to tamper with a potential witness.000 in Lincoln. is credited with helping get her father a light sentence with a tearful plea to judge Lewis A. In November of that same year Bergl had been freed on the charge of harboring George "Machine Gun " Kelly who had been on the lam. The Bergl's had been visiting friends at the time. Capo. On September 26. On July 13. Nelson and the others. his original name in the 1930 census was that of Paul Joseph Bergl. On December 1. 2001.000. Dillinger gang members and people like Frank Nash also had used Bergl's famous cars. the government offered him a plea bargain for mail fraud. Whenever questioned by police. one situated at 5346 W. Michigan. Edward Wilhelm "Eddie" Bentz (June 2. He and Harvey Bailey were the prime suspects in the infamous bank robbery of $2. During 1932. His father was supposedly killed by a runaway horse when he was a child and his family later moved toTacoma. Just as legal woes stepped in. He was married to a woman named Marie who was also Czech. Minnesota (or South Dakota) on June 2. college.S. Bergl was even as far as being implicated with Machine gun Kelly and somehow tied to the Kansas city massacre in which several lawmen where cold bloodedly assassinated. 1894. Joseph Bergl suddenly dies at the age of 49. a former lawyer for the Genovese family. His daughter Sabrina. The marriage did end a short while after.000 in cash and bonds. however historical evidence indicates he was involved in bank heists on his own in Indiana and Ohio at the time of the robbery. Bellomo is now believed to be serving as street boss for the Genovese family. One can understand how Joe had become associated with the gangster neighbours. and make decisions with respect to." the defendant. One of the robbers. Some accounts state that Coppola was disrespectful. a Genovese Family Soldier and Acting Capo. BELLOMO. But that alone did not get the judge's sympathy. BELLOMO was first a Soldier in the Genovese Family. Eight days after the Colfax robbery. Sure gangland didn't forget a . a Soldier. He was eventually captured by the FBI and sentenced to Alcatraz. 1936. Bentz and several unidentified accomplices raided another bank in Holland. Texas on July 31 and another in Colfax. His parents were from Czechoslovakia. and he continued to be consulted on. One trait the Capone mob really loved in a person was the ability to keep one's mouth shut. BELLOMO was himself incarcerated after being arrested on Federal criminal charges filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. George "Machine Gun" Kelly and Baby Face Nelson. Bentz spent much of his youth in juvenile reformatories for burglary and later began safecracking and armed robbery by his early 20s. 1979. a/k/a "Barney Bellomo. In or about 1996. One just happened to have a common wall shared with none other than Ralph Capone's Cotton Club in Cicero. Eddie Doyle. Nebraska on September 17. It is unclear if this was the last robbery Bentz participated in. The Bergl dealership was associated with many gangster names. Both robberies were wrongly attributed to Bonnie and Clyde and Pretty Boy Floyd respectively. stated that he had transported a message from Bellomo in prison ordering Coppola's murder. and Acting Boss of the Genovese Organized Crime Family. and then a powerful Capo. the Genovese Family's criminal activities. In September of 1933. Joe dated many women. which consequently would involve the FBI's hunting down many Depression-era outlaws. Joe Bergl's estranged wife Marie was killed in a car accident in August of 1936.500. Joseph P. They fell in love and were married. Bellomo accepted and received one additional year in prison. Indiana when he was approached in 1933 by George "Baby Face" Nelson to join he and his gang in planning the robbery of a bank in Grand Haven. Kaplan. Born 1901 in Illinois. however Helmer has never provided verifiable evidence for his claims. so did tragedy. so did Gus Winkeler. and law school graduations. Joe still cared for Marie.September 26. Bellomo was specifically charged with ordering the 1998 murder of Ralph Coppola. His funeral equalled that of a gangland figure. Her name was Dorothy Johnson. finding him hiding in a dumbwaiter. 22nd and another at 2211 Austin boulevard. he began teaming with Albert Bates and George "Machine Gun" Kelly robbing a bank in Ponder. The driver survived. lamps etc. One can only assume that they visited Joe for a car. Bentz participated in over 150 robberies across the U. He was a gangster's associate. taking $70. Government witness Peter Peluso. Little information is known of his early life. and the other by giving false and misleading testimony in a grand jury proceeding. but Marie died shortly at Westlake Hospital in Melrose park. BELLOMO was sentenced to a term of 10 years' imprisonment. and even after being replaced as Acting Boss. 2008. Bellomo was released from prison after serving 12 years. employees. New York and arrested by federal agents on March 13. Bellomo was accused of hiding money stolen from the ILA's members pension fund account between 1996 and 1997. at various times relevant to this Indictment. Joe had been quite a ladies man. Bentz went into semi-retirement after this job and was living in Long Beach. pushing back his scheduled release date in 2004. Bentz agreed.He was eventually paroled from Alcatraz in 1948 and returned to his hometown in Tacoma where he died of a heart attack on October 31. he refused to name his accomplices in the Danville robbery and was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. Bentz became extremely successful as a bank robber and lived an extravagant lifestyle collecting rare books and coins. In or about 1997. BELLOMO's criminal activities included the 1998 murder of Ralph Coppola. Many people were saddened by the news of his sudden death. In spite of the federal government placing most bank robberies under federal jurisdiction. was arrested however the rest of the robbers managed to escape in a second waiting car with $30. She had been a heavy drinker and stayed out all hours. although neither were ever charged for that robbery. Taken into custody. Being associated with gangsters did not mean that Joe was immune to life's daily happenings. BELLOMO retained significant power and authority within the Genovese Organized Crime Family. following his conviction on Federal extortion charges. Joe used to carry a pocketful of diamonds that he liked to roll around in his hands. One girl even testified that she had seen Bergl help get Kelly a car. Michigan. Cars in those days were really selling. was. Vermont but escaped with only $8. 1998. control over labor unions associated with the Jacob Javits Convention Center in Manhattan. 1934. Joe finally fell in love with a showgirl at Chicago's Chez Paree club. however when the getaway driver fled on the day of the robbery stranding Bentz. Washington on September 21. by bandits who made off $500 cash and $2100 in jewelry. Washington. 1930. Joe was the typical successful business man who never turned away a client. the government had no proof that Peluso had indeed met with Bellomo. He was also known as a meticulous planner and well known for charting escape routes. He dressed to the nines and hung around in clubs that gangsters frequented. At the time of his sentencing. Coppola disappeared a few weeks before his sentencing on fraud charges and was never found. Bergl was brought into trial when a policeman was killed and the bandit's car was revealed to have been equipped with bullet proof glass and a police radio installed by Bergl's garage. Bellomo again pleaded guilty to lesser charges. Joe started a used car business. Joe had another marriage that was short lived to a woman named Claire. even though he was not. Fred Goetz had a car from Bergl's. the imprisoned Bellomo was indicted on money laundering charges related to the Genovese family's involvement in the waterfront rackets and control of the ILA.construction union and a garbage hauling company. She was the poster girl for alot of the Chez Paree advertisements. however most accounts agree that Eddie Bentz was born in Pipestone. Bentz asked to be sent to Alcatraz supposedly stating to the judge that "all my friends are there". John Dillinger was widely speculated to have been one of the participants. He probably knew that it wasn't his place or concern. It had made the news in that she hit Joe with ashtrays. repairs or modifications. According to the Bellomo indictment: LIBORIO S. On the evening of March 14. 1950. 1930. 1979) was an American bank robber and Depression-era outlaw. They tried to get him on an accessory to murder charge that didn't end up sticking. Dorothy gave birth to Joe Jr. The favors and special jobs certainly earned Joe a good name with the Capone mob.. He loved women and they loved him.

a chief supplier of Canadian whiskey to Chicago Outfit leader Al Capone. Bianco moved to Brooklyn. The couple's only child. into World War II. Throughout Bernal's career he was heavily pursued by the local governor. Berman also used his crew to intimidate and terrorize members of the pro-Nazi Silver Shirts. Bernstein and his brothers had emerged as leading members of the gang. "Chickie" Berman. In 1982. Bernal wanted 30. he ran a crew of teenaged thugs committing petty shakedowns and eventually a string of illegal distilleries. military as a convicted felon. Abe and other gang members were under continual police surveillance. Susan indicates she knew little of her father's past until an acquaintance brought to her attention the mentions of her father in the book The Green Felt Jungle. 1968) was a Detroit. who operated along the mining zones of the Sierra Madre Occidental. he managed to evade capture repeatedly due to his established good relations with the lower class and important people of the region he operated within.000 pesos was placed on the capture of Bernal. and Isadore Bernstein. Due to his close relationship with Minneapolis mayor Marvin L. However. He had previously been turned away by the U. often participating in illegal acts such as. although it is unclear whether it was suicide or a mob murder for refusing to give up Davie Berman's shares in the Flamingo for pennies on the dollar. As the Purple Gang members grew older. Abe Bernstein and his brothers moved to Detroit in their youth. This decision may have resulted from press reports that alleged the deceased Welsh had extorted money from independent bootleggers and speakeasy operator. who had begun branching out to other major cities in the country during the mid-1920s. Susan. He was also one of the pioneers of gambling in Las Vegas. In 1887 Bernal entered the role of a political rebel. he had been attending the mobster Atlantic City Conference with Meyer Lansky and Charles "Lucky" Luciano. 1928. Bernstein supposedly set up North Side Gang leader George "Bugs" Moran for a murder attempt by Capone by selling him a recently hijacked liquor shipment and delivering it to a North Side warehouse. forty-two witnesses testified over a threemonth period before Judge Charles Bowles. A Patriarca associate. wrote a memoir about growing up as Las Vegas mob royalty titled Easy Street (1981. a reconnaissance outfit. When he was a young child. they joined a juvenile street gang that was the precursor to the adult Purple Gang. New York to work for the Colombo crime family. eventually became an associate of New York mobsters Joe Adonis and Meyer Lansky. where David got his start as a mobster. Minnesota. a German-American dancer who later converted to Judaism. and fellow troopers did not know of his criminal background. Bianco was born and raised in Providence. Sedway and Berman walked into the lobby of the The Flamingo and announced that they were in charge. 1888) was a bandit from the Sinaloa region of Mexico. Bernstein. The move to enact such a policy was past its time as many of those who would have backed Bernal. In 1885 Bernal attempted to enter government service and sent word. During their teenage years. Davie's mother was reportedly horrified after getting off the train and realizing that they had exchanged the warmth of Odessa for the icy cold of theGreat Plains. Berman was a partner with Bugsy Siegelat the Flamingo Hotel and was one of the few mobsters of his era to die a non-violent death (during surgery)." Bernal led a group of pistoleros. Patriarca agreed and also inducted Bianco. 1888. In March 1928. Michigan gangster and a leader of the infamous Prohibition-era Purple Gang with his brothers Joseph Bernstein. they normally attracted little attention from police as their victims were usually either rumrunners or rival gangs such as the Little Jewish Navy. of an offer. Berman moved his crew to Las Vegasand operated there in concert with Genovese Family associate Moe Sedway. In addition. As a young man.000 pesos to finance himself and his security and the release of any of his captured gang members. on his black horse. Bianco continued to serve as a liaison to the Colombos. creating a platform which called for following the 1857 Constitution of Mexico and putting an end to re-elections.S. in 1883. Irving Milberg. is also suspected to have been involved in the St. It is also believed police and soldiers would sell Bernal. fighting against thirty-five).S. The band was believed to have reached up to 100 men strong. 1994) was a Rhode Island mobster who became an influential member of the Patriarca crime family of New England. On February 13. After developing close ties to the Genovese crime family. as a made man in the Patriarca family. Berman died on the operating table during surgery to remove polyps from his colon on Father's Day. to then president José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori. While he lived in Minneapolis. Davie's gambling operations were shattered during the first term of racket busting Mayor Hubert Humphrey. After his return to Minneapolis. en su caballo retinto. At the age of 13. Arrested and charged with Bernstein were Purple Gang members Raymond Bernstein. he moved toMinneapolis. Patriarca if Patriarca could serve as mediator between the two factions. along with Minnesota friend Nathan Gittlewich. One of Berman's closest enforcers during those years was Israel "Ice Pick Willie" Alderman. raiding mines for silver which was later sold. Police were initially unable to locate Bernstein. Returning several days later. where he operated a major bookmaking operation in rivalry with local mob bosses Kid Cann and Tommy Banks. Bernal countered with an even more lavish dinner in a neighboring town. One of the more popular involves changing of the colors of the horse Bernal is riding on and the features of description: Que rechulo era Bernal. he devoted the rest of his life to getting his brother out of prison until his death on March 7. 1932 – November 14. a homicidal Jewish gangster from North Minneapolis. they lead to Bernal being viewed as a hero by the people of the surrounding villages. Irving Shapiro. Bernstein and the others soon formed an association with longtime mobsters Charles Leiter and Henry Shorr and they were working exclusively as enforcers for them by the early 1920s. Beginning June 4. now preferred to have Díaz maintain control.friend of the Outfit either. Díaz refused the offer and it is believed Bernal could have received a pardon had he not requested such a high payment. Berman briefly eclipsed his rivals as boss of the Minneapolis gambling rackets. In time the government would move soldiers into the Mazatlán region and form anti-guerrilla forces to track down Bernal. and brothers Abe and Simon Axler. Joe's funeral turned out 14 flower cars with some of the flowers being sent by the boys in the Outfit. he lived with his wife and children in Barrington. All the defendants were acquitted of all charges. However. He saw combat in the European Theater with the 18th Armoured Car Regiment (12th Manitoba Dragoons). including his imprisoned brother. 1957. Bianco asked Patriarca bossRaymond L. David Berman (1903 – 1957). It is believed. also worked for him. dominating parts of Sinaloa and Durango. In the early 1960s. Mirabella had incurred disfavor with . In exchange for service as an officer. later became a partner in several syndicate gambling casinos in Miami. He then went on to run his own bank-robbing crew. Stories exist of Díaz holding a dinner for dignitaries and upon hearing of such event. Bernstein surrendered to authorities and posted a $500 bail bond. and he was soon after set up in an ambush by two of his gang members. and other bandits. attacking armories. on land provided by Baron Maurice de Hirsch's Jewish Colonization Association. 1892 – March 7. He is widely known as the "Thunderbolt of Sinaloa. daughter Susan Berman. Minnesota. New York City. Although the Chevrolet coupe used in his murder was traced to Bernstein's brother Raymond. After his brother Ray was imprisoned for his part in the "Collingwood Massacre". nicknamed "Davie the Jew". Persecution of his fellow Jews enraged Berman so much that he enlisted in the Canadian Army.S. By the beginning of Prohibition. Bernal died on January 5. Berman then sent for his wife and children. Abe Bernstein (c. weapons and ammunition. the Bermans moved to Sioux City. 1968 in his hotel room of the Book-Cadillac. Almost immediately after the assassination of Bugsy Siegel. Bernstein and several other members were later arrested three days after the murder of Detroit policeman Vivian Welsh. For being upstanding. the Colombo family was being torn apart by an internal war between boss Joseph Magliocco and Soldier Joe Gallo. Iowa. robbing stagecoaches. Nicholas "Nicky" Bianco (March 21. In 1963. at that time in the Russian Empire. driving them out of Minneapolis. '83). Over thirty corridos or folk ballads exist placing Bernal in the role of a hero and promoting his exploits. and stealing from the rich residents of towns he raided. Bernals group was joined by five of the Parra brothers. Kline. After failing on the land. His father was a former rabbinical student who played the violin. Heraclio Bernal (died January 5. Bernstein. seven North Side gunmen waiting for the liquor shipment were instead killed by Capone gunmen at that warehouse. Eddie Fletcher. then just a Colombo associate. His brother. Gladys Berman died shortly after Davie Berman at age 39 of an overdose of barbiturates. Rhode Island. 1929. was a Jewish-American organized crime figure in Iowa. Joe Miller. North Dakota. a few of the boys showed up. Raymond was convicted of first degree murder in a different case. Valentine's Day Massacre. Bianco allegedly participated in the murder of Anthony Mirabella. Abe Kaminsky. Berman was born into a Jewish family in Odessa. In her memoir. with his pistol in his hand. Bugs Moran. Raymond Bernstein. often challenging and mocking him. A ransom of 10. they quickly gained a reputation along the Detroit waterfront as ruthless and violent hijackers. Several years later. Pearl Harbor had not yet brought the U. his father departed for America and settled in Ashley. Born in New York. the real target. including Ignacio Parra whose gang would absorb many of Bernals members following his death. Abe was released to due to lack of evidence. Louis Campagna's signature had appeared in the register. Nevada. Berman was well liked. While the stories are in doubt. According to his daughter. con su pistola en la mano peleando con treinta y cinco (how beautiful was Bernal. Joe Bergl is interred at St Adalbert's Cemetary. Bernstein was arrested and charged with conspiracy to extort money from the city's wholesale dry cleaners industry. never arrived. Ukraine. and Minneapolis. In later years. During Bernals ten year stint as a bandit and as a political rebel. Rhode IslandHe sent his children to private schools and one of his sons later become a lawyer. Berman met and married Gladys Ewald.

2008. police believe that the real target of the attack may have been the woman‘s mother. In June 1989. he stole £2. and later on mob-owned casinos in Las Vegas. two other Casalesi bosses. where his health rapidly declined. he joined the RAF but was dis honorably discharged in 1949 for desertion. 1991) was an Omaha mobster who had a long career in gambling and narcotics and briefly headed the Omaha. During the 1930s. Carrino's testimony led to the arrest of several of his henchmen. Five months later. where he acquired new identity papers and underwent plastic surgery. Biggs fled on a passenger liner from the Port of Melbourne using the doctored passport of his friend. Tonnes of dangerous waste from northern and central Italy are planted in the dumps. burglary. Jack Mills. Finally in June 2008. Over the course of the initial trial and the appeal. In 1985. With the aid of government witness John Castagna. Bianco was convicted on August 8. On August 6. Biggs' wife and sons stayed behind in Australia. hit recently by an order of the harsh 416-bis prion regime. was arrested on November 21. More than 500 witnesses testified in the trial which saw the heaviest penalties ever for organised crime with a total of 700 years of imprisonment. In 2001. illegal gambling. five people involved in the case were murdered. crime organization. Anna Carrino‘s sister. Kansas for 15 years. Together with other gang members. he was evacuated to Flitwick. otherwise known as Lou Gehrig's disease at the Federal Medical Center (FMC) in Springfield. Gianluca. Bidognetti's lover. Bidognetti's uncle.[3][5] He initially fled to Brussels by boat. 2008 and charged with the attempted murder of Anna Carrino's niece. one of the five clans which make up the Casalesi. Biase later became an associate of New York Genovese crime family boss Vito Genovese as he extended his criminal operations in the West. Raffaele. Unknown to the participants. Villa Wanda was searched. including an interpreter. Sheetz was ambushed and nearly killed by two members of the Omaha organization. In March 1960. Schiavone and 14 other Casalesi bosses were sentenced to life imprisonment in the Spartacus maxi-trial. Missouri. As a child during the Second World War. Biggs was born in Lambeth. serving for only two years. In May 1967. as well as toxic wastes from factories. Biase maintained a low profile for the rest of his life. the Patriarca family entered a period of instability with the death of boss Raymond L. was beaten with an iron bar in the course of the robbery. when Biggs arrived in Rio Ronald Arthur "Ronnie" Biggs (born August 8. In 1964. The 10-year legal trial. Biggs participated in the Great Train Robbery. Biggs was released from prison on compassionate grounds. He is the chief lieutenant of Francesco Schiavone. but police failed to find the computer discs that they were looking for. Most received sentences of 30 years. Biase succeeded him as boss. Biase was indicted on several narcotics charges. Biase and his brother Benny owned a cigar store that served as a front for a bookmaking operation. 1965 by scaling the wall with a rope ladder and dropping on to a waiting removal van. Nicholas and Chris. for living as a fugitive for 36 years and for his various publicity stunts while in exile. Gennaro Falco. the body of current underboss William Grasso was discovered on a river bank with a bullet wound to the head. In 1990. In 1993. soon after the trial began. then to Paris with his wife Charmian and two sons. 1929) is an English criminal. a group of hitmen disguised as police officers wounded Anna Carrino. the family moved to Melbourne. Anna Carrino. of two counts of racketeering in Hartford. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) had placed electronic surveillance devices in the room. through his lawyers in the courtroom. Aniello and Raffaele. Connecticut. where he lived for several months before moving to the seaside suburb of Glenelg in Adelaide. Anthony Marcella. he voluntarily returned to the United Kingdom and spent several years in prison. loan sharking. He eventually became involved in illegal gambling operations in San Francisco and Los Angeles. the younger Patriarca was not a strong boss. Biggs served 15 months before escaping from Wandsworth Prison on July 8. staying with family friends in the outer eastern suburbs of Melbourne. in Casal di Principe) is a powerful Italian Camorrista. Bianco essentially had control now of the Providence-based family operations. a minor drug dealer in his organization. The story then led the 6 o'clock news at Channel 9. He had refused police protection after his son's repentance. wire fraud and interstate travel in aid of racketeering. In 1989. Bianco and other top Patriarca family members were indicted on charges of conspiracy to murder. Bidognetti's wife was arrested in November 2007 and charged with passing messages from her imprisoned husband to his subordinates on the outside. Francesco Bidognetti (born January 21. After a period of jockeying. while his wife Charmian and his three sons lived in Doncaster East. a newspaper report by a Reuters correspondent claimed that Biggs was living in Melbourne and that police were closing in on him. It also signaled a growing rivalry between the Patriarca mobsters in Boston. As such. 1991. She subsequently became a pentito and began giving away information that resulted in a number of major raids aimed at suspected members of the Camorra. in order to dissuade those who wish to collaborate with law enforcement. at age 18. In 1960. Paroled in 1970. In Melbourne. A judge and two journalists were threatened with death. In March 2008. and head of the Bidognetti clan. Biggs took a British Overseas Airways Corporation flight to Sydney. Rosaria Capacchione.Nebraska. Among those arrested was Bidognetti's son. These incidents are believed to be part of the murder strategy of Iovine and Zagaria. Grasso was murdered by members of the Boston faction who wanted more control over the family. Mirabella was shot to death in a Providence restaurant. 9 of the 15-strong gang. Anna is currently being held in a top-security jail after the Casalesi put a million-pound contract on her. hospitals and cemeteries. he had a number of jobs before undertaking set construction work at the Channel 9 TV studios.6 million (£40 million in 2013) after holding up a mail train from Glasgow to London in the early hours of the morning on 8 August 1963 (his 34th birthday). Two weeks later. In 1959. Michele Zagaria and Antonio Iovine. Nebraska. Casalesi clan members Sebastiano Caterino and Umberto De Falco were murdered. the ship berthed in Panama.On May 2. daughter of a primary school headmaster. Bidognetti is considered by Italian law enforcement to be the boss of the waste disposal arm of the clan. Bidognetti and his son Aniello were indicted for the murder of doctor Gennaro Falco in the town of Parete. due to his son Domenico's collaboration with the police. Bianco became the new unofficial boss of the Patriarca family. Patriarca. boss of the Omaha organization. Biggs disembarked and within two weeks flew to Brazil. In the following month. known for his role in the . for his escape from prison in 1965. London. His lawyer further demanded the transfer of the trials of Bidognetti and fellow fugitive Casalesi boss. for having not taken proper care of his wife by failing to diagnose her with cancer in time. head of the defunct P2 masonic lodge. The two scion of Francesco Bidognetti. and Roberto Saviano. with whom he had three sons. In 1947. Bidognetti ordered the death of a medical doctor. In March 1990. in Villaricca. The Bidognetti and Tavoletta clans are very strong in the northern towns of Caserta province. Biase's rap sheet went back to 1922. named as such in recognition of the need to fight a revolution in the Casalesi's territory. the judge dismissed all charges against Bianco due to lack of evidence. of the newspaper "Il Mattino ". Nicholas Bianco died of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). based on information from Kenneth Bruce Sheetz. However. Angela Barra ruled the territory of Teverola and was the main conduit of all the political and economic alliances of the Casalesi Clan. On June 16. Victoria where he rented a house in the suburb of Blackburn North. 1909 – September 21. In June 1960. On September 21. Anthony Biase died of natural causes in South Omaha. In 1967. In October 2003. She also provided information that led to the arrest of 52 Casalesi clan members on April 2008. Twenty days later. In July 1984. just after their third child was born. Many tapped telephone conversations by the Roman police proved that Cerci stayed several times at Gelli's house in Villa Wanda. However. In 1963. boss of the Casalesi clan from Casal di Principe in the province of Caserta between Naples and Salerno. Bianco's presence at this ceremony served as evidence that he was a member of the family in an upcoming indictment. Patriarca became the new official boss. author of the best-selling book Gommora. 1951. In 1966. In October 1969. got the same sentence but are currently on the run and included in the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy. Anthony Joseph Biase (September 6. Antonio Cantone of being unduly influenced by the pentiti and the anti-Mafia journalists.000 murder contract on him. 1991. 1994. Francesco Bidognetti accused the prosecutor of the Dda. the engine driver. He was soon joined by his wife and two children. Umberto was murdered at Castel Volturno. Bianco was indicted on charges of conspiracy and aiding and abetting in the 1982 Mirabella murder. Biase was convicted on the narcotics charges and sent to Leavenworth Federal Prison in Leavenworth. Biggs received an anonymous letter from Britain telling him that Interpolsuspected that he was in Australia and that he should move. and the family leadership in Providence.the family because he was hard to control. In December 1960. his son Raymond J. the family would be controlled over the next few years by a succession of powerful underbosses. Antonio Iovine to Rome for "legitimate suspiscions". His only other arrest was a misdemeanor gambling charge in 1986. on orders of the Naples public prosecutor. Bianco was sentenced to 11 and half years in federal prison. It was rumored that Biase had ordered a $5. near Arezzo. On November 25. he married Charmian Powell. It included several burglary and assault charges. On November 16.S. He is known as "'Cicciott' 'e Mezzanotte'" (Neapolitan for Midnight Fatty). were jailed for the crime. However. which deals with the criminal activities of the Casalesi clan. so Biggs fled his home. Great Train Robbery of 1963. South Australia. All were found guilty and 16 sentenced to life imprisonment. was convicted on charges of narcotics and tax evasion. 2009. She was shot in the stomach when she opened the door. Bedfordshire for a time. the niece of Anna Carrino. Biase was arrested on charges including bookmaking. and armed robbery. Bidognetti's son. Bianco attended a Patriarca ceremony in a Massachusetts house in which four mob associates were admitted to the family. including Biggs. They operate several illegal dumps between Naples and Caserta. His nephew Gaetano Cerci is believed to be the key link between the clan and Licio Gelli. charged 36 members of the clan with a string of murders and other crimes. He was born in Omaha. In 1970. 1991. Massachusetts. Bidognetti.

Scotland Yard detective Jack Slipper arrived soon afterwards but Biggs could not be extradited because Biggs' then girlfriend (Raimunda de Castro. and one of the first things he asked was. Biggs sang vocals for the songs "Police on My Back" and "Carnival in Rio (Punk Was)" by German punk band Die Toten Hosen. In 1974. Bilotti became a close aide-de-camp. 1940 – December 16. This album was re-released in 2004 by whatmusic. He was unable to speak and used a word board to communicate with the press. from the people involved. the Home Office stated only that an application for the early release on compassionate grounds of a prisoner at HMP Norwich had been received by the public protection casework section in the National Offender Management Service. I might even surprise them all by lasting until Christmas. 2012. seeking for his release on grounds of compassion. it was claimed by representatives of Biggs that he had been given "permission" to challenge the decision to refuse him parole. On February 10. it was reported that Biggs had been taken to hospital from his cell at Norwich Prison. which reportedly paid Michael Biggs £20. Biggs had stated that he would no longer oppose extradition. On July 4. Biggs was kidnapped by a gang of British ex-soldiers. His health was deteriorating rapidly and he asked to be released into the care of his son for his remaining days. 1978 and reached number 7 in the UK Singles Chart. Over the years. along with the mastermind of the robbery. he lasted not only until Christmas 2009. I am sorry for what happened. Biggs' eldest son. The book contained the most complete details of the robbery and its planning. asking to be released from jail to die with his family: "I am an old man and often wonder if I truly deserve the extent of my punishment. Straw decides to allow me to do that. two days before his 80th birthday. 2001. to be based around the life of Biggs' wife Charmian. John Mills. Bilotti assaulted Colombo associate Robert Pate. Biggs's family hosted barbecues at his home in Rio. however. In March 2013. from Australia. Biggs had heard that ex-footballer Stanley Matthews was in Rio and invited him to his apartment. from Norwich Prison. leaving father and son in financial difficulty again. In response to claims that Biggs's state of health had been faked. bringing a new source of income to his father. Biggs was claimed by his son Michael to need a tube for feeding and to have "difficulty" speaking. 2009. Woolwich in less than six months. on July 1. His son Michael had also claimed that the Parole Board might bring the release date forward to July 2009. English lawyer Nigel Sangster QC travelled to Brazil to advise Biggs. who have made money from my father's death. the UK Government made a formal request to the Brazilian government for Biggs' extradition. However." On July 30.[11]The ITN reporter Desmond Hamill paid to accompany Biggs on the private Learjet returning him to Brazil and secured an exclusive interview and his agreement to a suggestion that he kiss the tarmac upon landing. Julien Temple's film about the Sex Pistols. 2011. Brazil did not have an extradition treaty with the United Kingdom. In December 2007. Biggs was aware that he would be detained upon arrival in Britain and returned voluntarily on May 7. In April 1977 Biggs attended a drinks party on board the Royal Navy frigate Danae. There is no honour to being known as a Great Train Robber. Two months later. he attended the funeral of his fellow train robber. Biggs was admitted to Barnet General Hospital with another suspected stroke. a musical narrative of his life that he intended to use as a movie soundtrack. but surprisingly he was not arrested. Bilotti was a regular visitor to Castellano's Todt Hill. Biggs himself stated. I have accepted it and only want freedom to die with my family and not in jail. died in a car crash. it was claimed in the press that Biggs was to be released in August 2009 and would die a "free man". It was this promotion that helped trigger the 1985 assassination of Gambino boss Paul Castellano. Following the extradition attempt. it was reported that Biggs had contracted MRSA. Home Officecompassion policy is to release prisoners with three months left to live. which was in Rio for a courtesy visit. Biggs was again admitted to hospital in London after complaining of chest pain. His son said in a press release that. eventually became a member of the successful children's program and music band Turma do Balão Mágico. Bilotti joined the Staten Island crew of Gambino capo Michael D'Alessio. His son Michael said he was conscious and preparing to have a CT scan and a series of other tests to determine what had happened.de Janeiro. just before filming for Mrs Biggs began and visited Biggs. His trip back to Britain on a private jet was paid for by the Sun. The application was denied. confidant and chauffeur for capo Paul Castellano. On November 17. aged 10. Biggs was moved from Belmarsh Prison to Norwich Prison on compassionate grounds. On May 29. stating that Biggs was 'wholly unrepentant'. 2007. Biggs collaborated with Bruce Henry (an American double-bass player). Daily Express reporter Colin MacKenzie received information suggesting that Biggs was in Rio de Janeiro and a team consisting of MacKenzie. Mrs Biggs. Biggs sang vocals in 3 tracks for the album "Bajo otra bandera" by Argentinian punk band Pilsen. The kidnappers hoped to collect a reward from the British police but Barbados had no extradition treaty with the United Kingdom and Biggs was sent back to Brazil. The stranded kidnappers and Biggs were rescued by the Barbados Coast guard and towed into port in Barbados. Biggs' son by de Castro. King claimed that the kidnapping may have in fact been a deniable operation. I have been in jail for a long time and I want to die a free man. "I've got a bit of living to do yet. This was confirmed the following day by his son Michael. "We had tea on the small balcony at the rear of his home. In 1997 the UK and Brazil ratified an extradition treaty. 2005. Michael Biggs. 2008 having served a third of his 30-year sentence. where tourists could meet Biggs and hear him recount tales of his involvement in the Robbery (which was in fact minor). Reynolds' son. However. I hope Mr. the ex-British Army soldier who carried it out. His son Michael said. Nick. photographer Bill Lovelace and reporter Michael O'Flaherty confirmed this and broke the story. D'Alessio allegedly recruited Bilotti and his brother Joseph to murder Thomas Ernst. suffering from pneumonia." Ronnie Biggs" mugs. Bruce Reynolds. 2009. Ernst was murdered a few months later. In February 2006. It was not just tourists. he is ill. In August 2010. Even in Brazil I was a prisoner of my own making. Jack Mills' son. 1985) was a New York mobster with the Gambino crime family who served as underboss for two weeks. Thomas Bilotti (March 23. leading to suggestions that he might soon be moved from hospital to a nursing home. Biggs was readmitted to Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital with pneumonia. 'How are Charlton Athletic doing?' It turned out he had supported Charlton from being a small boy and had often seen me play at The Valley. Biggs petitioned Governor Hynd of HMP Belmarsh for early release on compassionate grounds based on his poor health. In 1993. Since his return he has had a number of health problems. The boat in which Biggs and his kidnappers were sailing had mechanical problems off Barbados. News of his condition prompted fresh calls from his son Michael Biggs for his release on compassionate grounds. In one incident. Biggs' health improved. visiting bars or being away from home after 10 pm. Staten Island mansion and was considered a close family friend. "No One is Innocent" was released as a single in the UK on June 30. Bilotti later became a criminal associate of John D'Alessio. coffee cups and T-shirts also appeared throughout Rio. giving Biggs the right to live in Brazil for the rest of his life. whereupon he was immediately arrested and re-imprisoned. Biggs contributed to the "The Great Train Robbery 50th Anniversary:1963-2013" (ISBN: 978-0957255975). the Home Secretary Charles Clarke declined his appeal stating that his illness was not terminal. Nicholas. On October 26. On April 23. in one of his frequent news releases: "It's the worst he's ever been. there is going to be no Lazarus coming back from the dead. He died of an unrelated cause (leukaemia) in 1970. but well beyond that date. The doctors have just told me to rush there. He had been treated four times at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital.000 plus other expenses in return for exclusive rights to the news story. Michael's brother. Bilotti was involved in labor racketeering. In 1991. In a short time. Biggs' status as a known felon prevented him from working. He had been admitted to the same hospital a month earlier with a chest infection and a fractured hip but returned to prison on July 17. On January 12. 2010. Bruce Reynolds and posed happily for media photographers. Ronald Biggs had 28 years of his sentence left to serve. 2008 Jack Straw did not accept the Parole Board's recommendation and refused parole. It has not been an easy ride over the years. Biggs issued a further appeal. the boyfriend of D'Alessio's daughter. who said Biggs had serious pneumonia but was stable. 2011. including Biggs. However. Biggs recorded vocals on two songs for The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle. he is seriously ill. "he's conscious but he's in a lot of pain". On February 13. He underwent tests at Barnet General Hospital. His representatives. On 10 August 2005. "Odd Man Out: The Last Straw" at Shoreditch House in London. the murder attempt failed when D'Alessio's daughter shot at them. Following his release from prison. Biggs did not return to the UK simply to receive health care because health care was available in Brazil and Biggs had many friends and supporters who would certainly have contributed to any such expenses. Biggs launched his new and updated autobiography. In 2001 Biggs announced to The Sun that he would be willing to return to the UK. While for the time being safe from extradition. ITV Studios announced it had commissioned a five-part drama. In 1970. The extradition request was rejected by Brazilian Supreme Court. As a young man. was unforgiving: "I deeply resent those. 2009. contrary to some press reports. Bilotti also spent time as Alexander DeBrizzi's chauffeur and bodyguard. 2009. Biggs' stated desire was to "walk into a Margate pub as an Englishman and buy a pint of bitter". The basic tracks for "No One is Innocent" (aka "The Biggest Blow (A Punk Prayer)"/"Cosh The Driver") and "Belsen Was a Gas" were recorded with guitarist Steve Jones and drummer Paul Cook at a studio in Brazil shortly after the Sex Pistols' final performance. with overdubs being added in an English studio at a later date. "This man is going to die. extortion and loansharking. Charmian Biggs acted as a consultant on the series flew to Britain in February 2012." Mills never fully recovered from his injuries sustained during the robbery. 2001.com. His son Michael stated. Jaime Shields and Aureo de Souza to record Mailbag Blues. My life has been wasted. In 1971. played by Sheridan Smith and Biggs by Daniel Mays. Chris Pickard. On July 28. frail. ." In January 2009. In July 2013. it was claimed by the Sunday Mirror that Biggs would be attending a gala dinner where he would be collecting a lifetime achievement award for his services to crime." However. the sleeve showing a British actor posing as Martin Bormann (Nazi Leader) playing bass with the group. On November 14. his lawyer stated. and Biggs' ghost. Biggs was released from custody on 6 August. In April 1981. the band faded into obscurity and dissolved. Channel 4 aired a documentary featuring dramatisations of the attempted kidnap and interviews with John Miller. In fact. Bilotti soon gained a reputation for violence. In the documentary. 2007 the Parole Board recommended that Biggs be released on July 4. a nightclub dancer) was pregnant: Brazilian law at the time did not allow the parent of a Brazilian child to be extradited. including two heart attacks. Biggs should serve his punishment. after a series of strokes that were said to have rendered him unable to speak or walk. said that their client's death was likely to be imminent. To supplement their income. The team was headed by security consultant Patrick King. on 'compassionate grounds'. however. but apparently no longer at Death's door. that would be fantastic.

he gave Bilotti a crew to manage. He was also heavily involved in the Steam Fitters Local 638 of the Plumbers Union that was represented by George Daly. the Commission decided to make Binaggio pay for his failure to deliver.300 at the time of his death and was not armed. a brutish loan shark. the First Ward Democratic Club and slowly began taking over wards in and near Kansas City's North Side. Binaggio was denied a majority on both boards. Following this incident. police detectives believe it was John Gotti associate. It started back to the turn of the 20th century when the Black Hand version of the Mafia terrorized the city's North Side. Tampa. at the Last Chance saloon. the police determined that he hadn't taken part in the shootout and released him with a vagrancy charge. Many members of the Gambino family were contemptuous of Bilotti and considered him to be Castellano's stooge. In 1939. on December 16. James Failla. Binaggio became Carollo's underboss. a major Chicago Mafioso. He formed his own political club. an off-duty registered nurse went to Bilotti's aid in a vain attempt to revive him. Once that control was achieved. Texas. a gangster who thought himself more as a businessman. They warned Binaggio to fix it. At some point. In the process. in Denver. He would also act as his chauffeur. In the late 1930s. Nick Penna. mob gambling operations would be safe in both cities. Bilotti's wife Donna suffered a nervous breakdown and a miscarriage. or else. Staten Island. Gambino associate Joseph Watts wanted Gotti to kill Bilotti's brother Joseph because he might seek revenge. Louis police departments. but a coroner's jury refused to indict him. Missouri. Caramusa was found murdered on a Chicago street. the nephew of former Kansas City political boss Tom Pendergast. Bilotti and Castellano were said to make an odd pair. News of the Bilotti promotion. This led to Binaggio's involvement with the local and State political scene that would last until his death in 1950. but with no effect. which was then heavily populated bySicilian and Italian immigrants. Anthony Rampino who gunned down Bilotti as he was getting out of his black Lincoln. Binaggio chartered a private railroad car for transportation to the inauguration ceremony in Washington. Binaggio was arrested for the first time at age 21. John Gotti was convicted in the 1985 Bilotti and Castellano murders. The police raided a Denver apartment that Binaggio shared with Anthony Gizzo and Tony Casciola.m. Binaggio moved with his family to Kansas City. Binaggio's strategy had been to take control over both the Kansas City and St. followed by a fire. 1985 Gambino underboss Aniello Dellacroce died of cancer. who were against the age-old ban on narcotics as a business option. After the Lusco-Noto shootout. this ring was broken up by a major Bureau of Narcotics investigation that netted mafiosi in Kansas City. Binaggio. In the TV movie Boss of bosses. In November 1941. were called to meet some unknown persons at the First Ward Democratic Club near downtown Kansas City. Gravano would step out and shoot him in the head. In 1944. Using mob money and manpower. was sent to prison when a low-level member of the ring. Carollo was caught up in a citywide clean-up campaign and was sent to prison for income tax evasion. Binaggio was more successful. he rose quietly to prominence. Binaggio was arrested and charged with manslaughter. he was approached by the other shooters. Truman was a staunch Pendergast supporter and he made it abundantly clear that Binaggio was not welcome at the ceremony. stirred up considerable anger in the family. Shortly after 8 P.However. During the raid. When Castellano became Gambino boss in 1976. Binaggio left his driver/bodyguard. in order to increase his mob's power in Kansas City. Binaggio earned his prominence in the Kansas City family by earning a lot of money from liquor and gambling. This would change under Binaggio as several unsolved mob slayings occurred on his watch. Independence Avenue looking for evidence in a recent "spot" killing. Castellano. The violence had reached a peak during and immediately following the Lazia years(1928–1934). Gravano would hide in the archway with Frank DeCicco. at an early age. DeCicco would then go up to Paul Castellano's home and tell him Bilotti called in sick so he would act as Castellano's replacement driver. However. at a tavern owned by the mob.M. On the night of April 5.000 and $2. 1950) was a Missouri gangster who became the boss of the Kansas City crime family and concocted a bold plan to control the police forces in Kansas City. Binaggio became a major rival of Jim Pendergast. However. Gravano and DeCicco thought that it was too haphazard of a plan. Binaggio had approached the National Commission of La Cosa Nostra for a loan between $200. Bilotti left behind ten children. On April 2. He pulled his black Lincoln right up in front of the restaurant. In December 1930. turned state's evidence. Lazia had established a political club. when Castellano started an affair with his maid.April 5. but refused to give a consensus to Binaggio's candidates. two gunmen (including Tony Rampino) walked up and fired at least six bullets at him. Daly served as Local 638's business agent until his 1987 conviction for soliciting bribes to ensure labor peace. However. Thomas Bilotti is buried fifty yards away from Castellano in the Moravian Cemetery of New Dorp. the syndicate was forced to fold up their new gambling establishments. Smith pulled the rug out from under him. Binaggio's first candidate was defeated in the primary election by the Pendergast candidate. This wing considered Castellano to be greedy and out of touch of with their concerns. a lieutenant of Lazia. residents in apartments above the Democratic Club heard several shots. In 1948. Bilotti and Castellano most certainly saw their ensuing executioners. To celebrate this victory. Binaggio and his underboss. Louis. As Castellano began exiting the car. every part of the plan seemed in place. This attitude was widespread in the traditional. As Bilotti would walk past. The fatal meeting was arranged by Frank DeCicco. After the shooting. The Kansas City crime family had always enjoyed a violent reputation. At that time. a Missouri native. Binaggio grew up in the city's North Side. This opened the way for Binaggio to become the Kansas City mob's boss in October 1939. From the 1930s on. At some point. including a six-week old baby son. Binaggio was speeding down Broadway near his Armour Boulevard apartment when he struck and killed a 50 year old man while crossing the street. Louis.000 for Smith's election campaign. Watts would open the door for Bilotti and walk him into the home's front corridor.000. With Smith's election. his gambling plan was doomed to failure. saying that he would return in a few minutes. However. From descriptions of the shooters given by witnesses. Binaggio turned his attention to politics. and other cities. and they would put up plastic on the walls and floor to protect it from "paint". Both departments were ruled by separate Boards of Police Commissioners that were appointed by the Governor. one of his main lieutenants. Binaggio and the local mob continued to get rich through their gambling and liquor interests. Kansas City was subservient to Chicago in the mob hierarchy. Then. Castellano's cement company on Staten Island. Louis. "blue collar" wing of the family. Colorado. apparently on the orders of caporegime John Gotti. 1909 . Binaggio reportedly received the money at the home of Charles Fischetti. He was later sentenced to life in federal prison. including a pedestrian who witnessed the shooting from only a few feet away. a shootout started. Binaggio desperately tried to bribe one of the Kansas City police commissioners and threatened others. he also heard water running inside. to Binaggio's chagrin. the son of former Gambino crime family underboss Aniello Dellacroce. Prohibition agents and local police had raided the mob-run Lusco-Noto Flower Shop at 1039 E. Lazia took Binaggio under his wing. a cab driver going to a nearby cafe noticed that the club door was open. Born in Beaumont. Bilotti kept it secret from Castellano's wife. Binaggio and Gargotta then borrowed a car and drove off to the Democratic Club. But after some cautious thinking. was arrested and taken in for questioning. Unable to control the police forces in Kansas City or St. He backed the Democratic nomineeForrest Smith and used his mob connections to help Smith win the election. two well-known Kansas City Mafiosi. Bilotti is portrayed by actor Ron Gabriel. The 1948 election also brought President Harry Truman. On December 2. Bilotti had a no-show job at Scara-Mix. led by underboss Aniello Dellacroce. Gotti appointed Frank DeCicco as his new underboss. As it turns out. police found a mini-cache of firearms and charged the three with weapons violations. In 1934. In the early 1940s. 1931 Binaggio was arrested in Kansas City following a shootout that killed a Bureau of Prohibition agent and two others. reelection to the White House. Despite the election of Binaggio's candidate as government. Binaggio hoped to get candidates of his choosing appointed to the Police Boards.C. Charles "Mad Dog" Gargotta (a notorious enforcer within the Kansas City family). Nick Penna. If he won. D. Smith made initial appointments to each Police Board. Missouri and St. Salvatore "Sammy the Bull" Gravano planned to murder Bilotti. Gene Gotti and Armando Dellacroce. 1985 Bilotti chauffeured Paul Castellano to where they were ambushed outside Sparks Steak House in Manhattan. Binaggio was seated at a desk and Gargotta was lying inside the front door. Missouri. Binaggio was always accompanied by his driver. both departments had been taken over by the State due to mass corruption within the ranks. The crime bosses in Chicago were not happy with the developments in Missouri and they blamed Binaggio for it. Immediately after his death. The police were called and they found the bodies of Charles Binaggio and Charles Gargotta inside the club. However. It isn't known when first Binaggio fell in with the mob. Gambino crime family mob associate Anthony Rampino shot Bilotti six times in the head and chest after Castellano was gunned down. along with a perceived slight to the Dellacroce family by Castellano. including a final shot to his head. Both Charles Binaggio (January . and his Democratic faction. 12. A few minutes before 6:00 p. St.. By controlling the Governor. Bilotti is portrayed by actor Richard Poronjy. Florida. In 1945. an associate who belonged to his crew. However. Lazia was assassinated and his underboss Charles "Charley the Wop" Carrollo ascended to the crime throne. Police found Bilotti to be in possession of $6. before being shot dead. and Bilotti. DeCicco would shoot Castellano when he was in his car. Gravano persuaded Gotti that Joseph would accept his brother's death. Binaggio was again arrested in Denver for vagrancy. the North Side Democratic Club. when he did join them. the payback would be Smith helping the mob open Missouri to gambling. In 1931. Capo John Gotti and Salvatore Gravano orchestrated a plan to kill both Castellano and Bilotti. Castellano decided to appoint Bilotti as the new underboss. Eight hours later. On July 20. the mob had also been making money through a nationwide narcotics ring. 1950. In the 1996 made for TV movie Gotti. Binaggio managed to get Smith elected Governor. Binaggio's goal was to elect his candidate to the Missouri Governorship. who was in the flower shop during the raid. Then sometime early in the morning Watts would call to arrange a meeting with Bilotti. Colorado. 1992. Joe DeLuca. Carl Caramusa. Binaggio himself escaped being linked to this drug ring. Searching the apartment. The building was also the headquarters of Joe Lusco. As Bilotti stepped out. One idea was to have associate Joseph Watts tell his wife that he wanted his house painted. They would then discard the plastic and body. but things had remained relatively quiet under Carollo's rule. Binaggio had been part of a team sent to Denver by then Kansas City boss John Lazia to aid the Denver crime family in a "war" with the crime family from Pueblo. The charges were later reduced to vagrancy and Binaggio was released on bond.

Bioff. In 1943. George Birdwell was born in the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) in 1895. he was convicted of possessing a revolverand received a sentence of probation. Philip D'Andrea. Lou Kaufman. He is buried at the Maple Grove Cemetery in Queens. In 1957. wrongly accused by authorities of robbing a bank in Henryetta of $11. During the 1930s. Biondo owned a shipping business in Queens. six weeks after their escape from Tulsa. on January 14. Over 1. who no doubt received the leadership of the Kansas City family as a reward. as well as extortion and racketeering. 1931. By early-1932. Bioff was born and briefly raised in a kosher Jewish household in Chicago. and "Little Rabbit". He was exposed by conservative newspaper columnist Westbrook Pegler.[1] Bioff soon became involved in criminal ventures. They were.men had been shot in the head four times with separate .252 six days later. was a New York mobster with the Gambino crime family who was heavily involved in gambling activities. On October 19. Oklahoma. along with a number of his associates. local sheriff's deputies staked out the funeral home in Earlsboro hoping to capture Birdwell if he showed up. But his fancy suits and solid gold business cards made him too high profile . a glorified Chicago thug. it is most likely that the two mob bosses were killed by members of their own crime family under orders from the Mafia Commission in New York. 1934 he and Floyd returned to Earlsboro and robbed the same bank they had originally raided with Miller seven months before. perhaps encouraged by George William Birdwell (1894 . Biondo became close associates with bootlegger Dutch Schultz and mobster Charles "Lucky" Luciano. Birdwell and Floyd managed to sneak out the back way as police fired tear gas into the house. Five months later. While driving near Ada on June 7. The police theorized that Gargotta had been trying to escape the club when he was shot in the back of the head. at the Chicago Outfit-owned Las Vegas casino. Bobby. and Frank "The Enforcer" Nitti. then minor protection rackets and working his way up to pimping in Chicago's Levee vice district. Bioff.743 on September 8 and scored another $3. police saw the two fugitives driving through the city and attempted to pursue but lost them after a wild gunfight which resulted in the shooting of a police officer. 1931 and another $2. 1966). who was trying to prove that criminal corruption was rampant in labor unions. Birdwell's children and surviving descendants. others said the hitmen came from Chicago. Upon his release. Biondo had gained a share of revenues from a sanitation landfill in New Jersey. Biondo's early criminal record included arrests for extortion. In 1965. Oklahoma. Cherokee and Choctaw. In August 1922. a New York Police Department (NYPD) detective arrested Biondo in Queens after observing him driving with a female companion. 1897– June 10. however. Gambino became dissatisfied with Biondo's independence and replaced him as underboss with capo Aniello Dellacroce. Biondo and underboss Carlo Gambino conspired to assassinate family boss Albert Anastasia in a Manhattan barber shop. Bioff testified against his companions. Indeed. but his father kicked him out on the street when he was eight years old. his ancestry being a mix of Irish.000. They continued on their crime spree stealing $2. The next day. went Hollywood in a big way with his sudden wealth. homicide. Biondo stood at 5'4" and weighed 150 pounds. Joseph Biondo died in New York of natural causes on June 10. DeCavalcante later revealed the deception to Gambino. William Morris ("Willie") Bioff (1900 – November 4. Birdwell and Floyd showed no signs of ceasing their activities despite their narrow escape as.500 in Castle. Biondo lived in the Jackson Heights section of Queens and owned a stately summer cottage in Long Beach. Charlie "Cherry Nose" Gioe. 1955. Brooklyn. Biondo was convicted on a narcotics charge. "William Nelson. Binaggio was buried in Mount Saint Mary's Cemetery in Kansas City. Biondo emigrated to New York City. where he became involved with future top Cosa Nostramembers.498. a judge dismissed Biondo's 1938 indictment because none of the indicted men had been brought to trial. By the late 1930s. and an automobile dealership in Flatbush. for $500 on March 23.850 from a bank in Maud three weeks later. Bioff received a reduced sentence along with Browne. Biondo was indicted on charges of extorting payments from taxicab companies. Biondo was close to the top. Five months later. Biondo moved into labor racketeering in the taxi cab industry. Soon afterwards. who then removed Biondo from power. the murderers were never found. Biondo was also the family underboss for approximately eight years. Oklahoma on November 1." Bioff later threatened a strike against New York movie theaters by demanding two projectionists in each theater. of which he was later convicted in 1922. Some people theorized that Binaggio and Gargotta were murdered by St. a confrontation between police became even more likely." a Hollywood labor leader with ties to organized crime who makes an appearance in The Godfather (novel) by Mario Puzo. He was also believed to have been the unidentified accomplice who helped Floyd robbed $800 from a bank in Dover a week later. In 1931. 1934 Birdwell and Floyd were ambushed in a police trap but managed to getaway. Biondo assisted Luciano in the assassination of Cosa Nostra boss Salvatore Maranzano. Biondo was indicted on murder charges from a gang fight in which another gangster died. However. Joseph Biondo (April 16 . soon began working for Riviera Casino manager Gus Greenbaum. In early 1938. they robbed yet another bank in Meeker. eventually became the collector for the Syndicate-controlled unions in Hollywood.. have always maintained that Birdwell had worked as a farmer until meeting with bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd in 1930 and began robbing banks with him soon after. "Joe the Blonde". but the charge was later dismissed. 1932. Bioff extorted millions of dollars from movie studios with the threat of mass union work stoppages. Missouri. In any case. The probable organizer of the hit was Gizzo. As for the running water heard by the cabbie. 1938. Bioff was assassinated on November 4. William "Billy the Killer" Miller and Aussie Elliott. Rather than face prison. who later became President of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees. but stayed away from top position. New York. Nitti sent Bioff to California as an enforcer for Mafia-controlled union leader George Browne. local residents recalled Birdwell often passing out $20 to his neighbors during the Great Depression. Parts of Bioff and his truck were strewn all over the driveway. He was born in Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto in Sicily. "Amusingly. a real estate office in Long Beach. an explosion rocked the neighborhood. however. Biondo had hid this new revenue from Gambino to avoid sharing it with the family. particularly those affected by the Great Dust Bowl. Louis gunmen. . 1934. on February 7. (pronounced "bee-ON-doh") also known as "JB". Biondo became involved in bootlegging. . He lived on New York's Lower East Side. however. they raided another bank in nearby Shamrock but managed to get only $400. When Birdwell's father died a month later. including Paul "The Waiter" Ricca. In 1919. this time getting $2. Bioff met Al Capone and later Frank "The Enforcer" Nitti In the 1930s. Bioff's name appears to have inspired the fictional "Billy Goff. a newspaper campaign began bringing attention to the Bioff-Browne extortion operation creating a huge scandal in Hollywood. Bioff was indicted for tax evasion and related crimes. Bioff later worked for Harry and Jake "Greasy Thumb" Guzik where.500 in Conowa on November 5. Like his real-life counterpart. on April 21. Johnny Rosselli. and illegal firearms possession.Oklahoma. for $3. 1942. 1932) was an American bank robber and Depression-era outlaw. He was married to Louise Volpe. In 1930. 1955) was an American organized crime figure who operated as a labor leader in the movie production business from the 1920s through the 1940s.000 people watched the funeral procession to the cemetery. extorting millions of dollars from major motion-picture studios.hence the indictment. While crime author Myron Quimby claimed that Birdwell began his life of crime during the 1920s committing 10 murders and robbed "countless" banks. however public records indicate that he was shot by a local farmer over an alleged affair with his wife when he was 18. The bandits did indeed arrive at the funeral home but unexpectedly turned the tables on the lawmen when Floyd held them at gunpoint while Birdwell was able to pay his last respects. The killers were never found. During this time.530 from a bank in Sallisaw. When owners complained they would go broke under the terms he demanded.. A moment later. After Floyd began renting a home in Tulsa for his wife and child. Birdwell's first recorded robbery was on March 9. he is killed by unknown enemies. through a bombing described as follows: Bioff walked out of his home and slid behind the wheel of his truck.200 mourners attended Binaggio's funeral service at Holy Rosary Church and 10. aided by John "Handsome Johnny" Rosselli. he and Floyd committed one of their biggest bank jobs when they and Aussie Elliott stole $2. and keeping several hundred thousand for himself. most notably. much of which went to Bioff. bankers across the state were petitioning the governor to take action against Birdwell and Floyd. however. Nitti committed suicide shortly after Bioff's testimony. Bioff moved to Arizona and assumed a new identity. Oklahoma for $1." and even reportedly developed a friendship with then Senator Barry Goldwater helping contribute to his re-election campaign fund and even going into business with the senator's nephew. Biondi cooperated in the arrest and was sent to jail. Police found the remains of a dynamite bomb wired to the starter. he appointed Biondo as underboss. On June 24. they took $600 from the cash drawers of a bank in Stonewall. and gained him considerable public support and sympathy. They fared better several days later when they raided a bank in Morris. Three days later.32 caliber revolvers. When Gambino took over after Anastasia's death. During the Prohibition era. Shortly afterwards. 1966. it came from a broken toilet and was unrelated to the hit. Bioff.November 23. Published accounts of his background and early life are vague and inconsistent. He was one of Pretty Boy Floyd's closest known associates and also teamed with a number of fellow Oklahoma-based bandits. they were again confronted by the authorities when police surrounded Floyd's home and attempted to force the outlaws out. he provided little evidence to support these claims of his early criminal career. As one source notes. beginning with petty theft. On July 13. "Joe Bandy". Working with mobster Sam DeCavalcante of theDeCavalcante crime family. Oklahoma. Police sharpshooters later claimed that both men had most likely worn full body armor in order to have survived the gunfight. However. when he and Floyd joined William "Billy the Killer" Miller in robbing a bank in Earlsboro. With the repeal of Prohibition. through Guzik. Bioff agreed to an arrangement for two projectionists in exchange for reduced pay. and frequently served as an intermediary between them.

the United States adopted national prohibition. When he left the army. the Shady Rest was destroyed by a series of large explosions and an ensuing fire. which was stationed in South Dakota. Illinois. Birger publicly made good the owner's losses and the suspected thief was found shot dead a few days later. announcing that they "had a letter from Carl [Shelton]". half way between Harrisburg and Marion. Birdwell managed to kill bank president D. but did not respond." Although the Klan's losses were not large. two men (Harry and Elmo Thomasson) appeared at Joe Adams' house. The Klan buried its dead and the coroner ruled that the deaths were homicides "by parties unknown. living mainly in very small towns with a strong ethnic identity. Many were killed during the war and it was sometimes not clear which side they were on. manufacture. armed with a . the family moved to Cleveland. Many immigrants worked in the coal mines of southern Illinois. the Birnsteins Americanized their surname to Birns. Birns was convicted of car theft in 1925. He soon Charles Birger (1881 – 19 April 1928) was an American bootlegger during the Prohibition period in southern Alex Birns (February . to save his family from the embarrassment of his involvement with criminals.45 automatic pistol.000 for his actions and made an honorary major in the state militia. for which he served 18 months in the Mansfield Reformatory. Shady Rest was located off old Highway 13.trucks converted into makeshift armored vehicles from which they could shoot. but their attention was soon diverted by a common enemy. Louis on July 5. holding meetings attended by more than 5000 people. 21. His sister (Mrs. he was accompanied to the gallows by a rabbi and wore a black hood rather than a white one. She ran outside screaming. many of whom belonged to the Catholic Church and other religions.the Henryetta robbery. but the Italian and Jewish neighbors took to calling the boy "Shondor" (as the Hungarian equivalent of "Alexander" is "Sándor". Birdwell decided to go ahead with the robbery and recruited Charles Glass and C. The following month. a 58 year old former federal law enforcement officer. On the streets. Charlie's initial base of operation was Harrisburg. Mortally wounded. destroying Adams' front porch. Large mobs began going door to door. When Adams failed to surrender it. charred beyond recognition. theft.J. Ohio who was once labeled as the city's "Public enemy No. since he did not want to be mistaken for a Klansman. Her clothing caught fire and was engulfed in flames. Three deaths became important in ending Birger's own life. Floyd disagreed with the proposal pointing out that they would likely stand out in the heavily Black town and that local residents would most likely rush to the aid of the bank in the event of a robbery. where a passing motorist helped extinguish the flames and drove her to the hospital. a suburb of St. This incident coincided with the beginning of his war with the Shelton Brothers Gang. He shook hands with the hangman. fell on the first day of bird-hunting season and residents were stocking up on shotguns and ammunition. In December 1926. On January 24. Alcohol was a part of their life. Charlie Birger was not the last man to be executed in a public hanging in Illinois. the Klan began organizing in Williamson County. etc. The Klan drew its support from both the farming community and people in the larger towns. Birns was 13 at the time of his mother's death. 1901. but being discharged six months later because he was underage. he lived with his grandmother. His parents were Herman and Illon Birnstein. By October 1926. Many elected public officials of Williamson County were viewed as being allies of the bootleggers. and he emigrated to the United States as a child with his parents from the Russian Empire. who had been overlooked while at work in the back room. the latter mainly of southern origin and belonging to the Baptist and other traditional Protestant churches. In April 1926. (Birger's grave with his name in Hebrew) Birger was in the news again in 2006 when the granddaughter of the sheriff who had supervised the execution sued the local historical museum in an attempt to regain possession of the noose used in the hanging. Horribly burned over 75% of her body. from the days of Prohibition until his demise. and bootlegging came naturally to them. Young was able to shoot Thomas once before falling to the floor. Deputy Sheriff Ora Thomas responded and walked into a cigar store. At Birger's request. They handed a letter to Adams. November 23. the Birger and Shelton Gangs were in open conflict. McCormick. he became a cowboy. He may not have realized he would be tried in Franklin County. It was after this that his major brushes with the law began. Birger and the two men who did the killing were convicted. Charlie demanded the tank. Charlie saw this as a business opportunity. when a faulty gas connection caused an explosion. His real name was Shachna Itzik Birger. It would be fought over control of bootlegging in the area. If alcohol was found. "It's a beautiful world. a village near Benton. He had been arrested many times. the Herrin attack broke the back of the local KKK. Birger was hanged for the murder of Joe Adams on April 19. he developed a reputation as a fierce fighter. where he married and became first a miner in the quickly expanding mining community of Harrisburg. only Birger was sentenced to hang. which banned the sale. taking in a small still from Cleveland Mafia boss Joe Lonardo to supplement their income and better provide for their children. and his final words were. In the 1920s theKu Klux Klan supported prohibition. however by this time local residents had been alerted by the gunfire and were waiting for them as they exited the bank. From New York City. where he saw Klan leader Young. Birns was sheltered for a time in the old Jewish orphanage. Youngest of three children. in Southern Illinois. The Shelton Gang even tried to bomb Shady Rest from the air. the "humane hangman" Phil Hanna. Alexander's name was abbreviated to an English translation of Zander. Patterson eventually recovered from his wounds and later sentenced to the state prison in McAlester. held everyone in the bank while Glass and Peterson looted the desk drawers. Following World War I. she died the next morning. McCormick was later awarded $1. It was at roughly this time that he changed his surname to Birns. Charles Shader was hanged October 10 of that year. As a student. He had been running a scam in which Birger would steal cars and hide them until a reward was offered. Illinois state trooper Lory Price and his wife went missing. Birger's men orchestrated a drive-by bombing. Glenn Young. The state government was either unable or unwilling to reestablish lawful authority.C.000 people. proving himself quick with his fists in many fights with street thugs. Birger was arrested on a charge of ordering the murder of Joe Adams. Birdwell was found alive in the bank and was taken to a nearby hospital in Henryetta but died shortly after his arrival. Like many immigrants during Prohibition. enlisting in the United States Navy in 1923. Birdwell. Birns excelled at athletics. In one of the tellers' cages however. The dynamite they dropped missed. Missouri.. 1907 – March 29. 1975). and confronted the men with a rifle shooting Birdwell through the heart. Thomas drew his pistol and shot Young twice. Rachel Shamsky) and one of his two daughters are buried nearby. 1904. Birdwell failed to note that the day of the planned robbery. Then the trooper would pretend to find the cars and split the reward with Birger. he was brought to New York at the age of one month. 1925. a shot was fired in the street in Herrin. then a saloon keeper. Turner before collapsing. Later on. The robbery proceeded as planned as Birdwell and his accomplices managed to gain entry into the bank. one that he did not control. The authorities in Saline County eventually invited him to leave. Opening fire. The Klan soon found a charismatic leader in S. Alex Birns was born Alexander Birnstein in 1907 in the town of Lemes in a section of Austria-Hungary that went to Czechoslovakia under the Versailles treaty. 1928. Price was widely believed to be associated with the Birger gang. This was widely seen as a decisive blow struck by the Sheltons. he eventually returned to Illinois. also known as Shondor. His marker bears his real name of Shachna Birger. However. Federal authorities apparently had deputized the Klansmen to aid in the enforcement of Prohibition. Louis. A small barbecue stand just off the highway served as the guard shack. an automatic alarm was triggered when the last bills were taken. after which he built a fortified speakeasy namedShady Rest just across the line in Williamson County. Birger learned that the Sheltons' tank was in Joe Adams' garage for repairs.C. He grew up. Birns dropped out of school after 10th grade in 1922. 1" by the local newspapers. and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the country. at Fort Meade. He was actively involved in a wide variety of racketeering and other organized crime related activities such as prostitution. Four bodies (one a woman's) were found in the ruins. they turned to bootlegging. Illinois. however. Like most families. Lawfully elected officials returned to their offices. perhaps correctly. These elected public officials were driven from office and replaced by Klan members. and was assigned to Company G of the newly formed 13th Cavalry Regiment. Alcohol was viewed as an "un-American" vice practiced by immigrants. and Birger and the Shelton Brothers went back into business. Birger was described as a good soldier and was honorably discharged on July 4. Patterson. forcibly searching houses for alcohol. and all four men were fatally wounded. He was saved by the town sheriff who intervened before the mob could fire a second volley. quickly taking a job as a newspaper boy during the tough Newspaper circulation wars. Charlie Birger regarded Harrisburg as his town. Birdwell came up with a plan to rob the Farmers and Merchants Bank in Boley. Army records show he enlisted in St. When a small shop was robbed. especially baseball and swimming. the occupants were taken to Klan "prisons". Two of Young's companions joined in the melee. Nevertheless. Illinois. pronounced roughly as most Americans would pronounce "Shondor") and the name stuck. and had always been released a few days later. South Dakota. Charlie Birger and the rival Shelton Brothers Gang fought for control of the coal fields of southern Illinois. Birger allowed himself to be taken into custody without a fight. at the Franklin County Jail in Benton. they drew their pistols and shot him dead." Charlie Birger is buried in Chesed Shel Emeth Cemetery in University City. Like many immigrant families. The police were called repeatedly. In the spring of 1923. Both gangs built "tanks" . Glass was killed instantly and Paterson seriously wounded. settling in the lower Woodland Avenue district. The Klan held a public funeral for Young that was attended by more than 15. In November 1920. The alarm alerted bookmaker H. Birns' mother was tending to the 10-gallon still in their apartment. Oklahoma. In June 1927. Glass and Paterson attempted to flee. Charlie Birger and the Shelton Brothers joined forces to attack the remaining Klan leaders in Herrin. numbers. At about the same time. He would not tolerate crime in Harrisburg. was a notorious Jewish-American mobster and racketeer from Cleveland. As he started to read it. Birger objected that it was unfair he should hang while the confessed trigger man was sentenced only to prison. Joseph Adams was the mayor of West City. using Tommy guns and shotguns. the Birns family struggled to earn a living in the New World.

" The Cleveland safety director denounced the deal in which the state okayed Birns's license as "stinking to high heaven of politics. The police drove him to the hospital. a 36-year-old night club bouncer at Euclid Avenue Keystone club. With a terrified Stanley crouching in the seat. an explosion ripped apart the front porch of King's house. It would take a couple of years of paperwork to catch up. It was a popular nightspot which had a reputation for serving excellent food. Birns was unaware of the Immigration Act of 1917 which required any alien convicted of a crime of moral turpitude to gain permission prior to entering or leaving the country. Birns was building a profitable legitimate business as a restauranteur. shortly after he hooked up with the Maxie Diamond gang. Birns eventually came to respect and admire the city's police officers. firemen and rescue workers for free. He practically ran the place. the bouncer who also happened to be her live-in boyfriend. On the stand. He was released. The judge and jury had difficulty understanding King and his rapid. Birns was convicted of auto theft and served two years in prison. "It is time the court put away this man whose reputation is one of rampant criminality. Her attorney told the judge she was told that she and her 12-year-old daughter would be killed if she testified. He happened to notice the two detectives assigned to follow him and flagged them over. Birns became a ranking member of Diamond's gang during the battles for control of the city's dry cleaners and launderers. one on each side. During the trial. witness-fixing extortionist himself. Although he had never applied for American citizenship. Birns was arrested on a deportation warrant based on the auto theft and bribery convictions. demanded an explanation as to Birns's presence in the Club. At the time. he was successfully prosecuted only twice. A wartime presidential order was issued charging Birns as an enemy alien and he was interred at McAllester. Stanley to a movie show at the Uptown theater outside E. When they got into their car back in the theater parking lot. In separate incidents in quick succession. He denied even knowing Duncan at all. Meanwhile. lying. They would serve as important contacts for him in the future and vice versa. One hit Birns in the shoulder and the other hit one of Birns's friends in the leg. politicians and police officers of high rank. Birns entered the coatroom. his attorney was successful in getting him released on bond. he was questioned briefly about his criminal history and answered honestly. He was convicted of assault and battery and was once again sent to the Warrensville Workhouse for nine months. The restaurant was usually frequented by local and out-of-town big shots. Birns made a longstanding alliance and had become closely involved with the local Cleveland family mobsters such as Angelo Lonardo. Duncan came up behind him and in a menacing manner. 105th Street and Saint Clair Avenue. This greatly offended Birns. two men wearing white cotton gloves walked up alongside. and retrieved some cigars from his coat. Uninjured. He soon developed a knack for beating the charges. he would guarantee there would be no more shooting at me or bombing my house and I'd have no reason to be scared no more. 1" by the local press.acquired an assault conviction in which Birns broke the jaw of a motorist who had taken too long to make his turn in front of Birns. Birns always considered himself a patriotic American. With 18 arrests in a 12-year period. he was simply its "public relations director. He then returned to the table. However. In spite of being diligently pursued by law enforcement for most of his life. judges and the public." During the 1940s. The Plain Dealer said. He was released. Birns intervened on their behalf. While in prison. Joe Allen. His Alhambra Tavern on the East Side was another popular restaurant. While serving his sentence at the Warrensville Workhouse after being convicted for the bribery charges. Afterward. while holding a bloody handkerchief to his shoulder. In 1959. Lonardo and their associates. "King was flamboyant — always seen with a . Two years later. or pay the consequences. he glowed in his fame and enjoyed the attention which he received from local law enforcement as well as fellow gangsters. They searched his car and confiscated a revolver which he had placed in his glovebox. In 1938. Over her objections. they fired five bullets into Duncan. King was ambushed outside his house. A few weeks later. officials were determined to keep Birns locked up. and had experienced previous run-ins with Birns and his gang. he was an excellent source of news tips. Duncan's recollection of the incident was so vague that he wasn't even called to testify as a witness. Birns and three others were charged with manslaughter but were acquitted. Defense lawyer Fred Garmone called King "a scheming. served 60 days and paid a $500 fine. Birns tried to enlist in the United States Army. and Cleveland. Birns was soon recruited by Maxie Diamond. The state tried Birns twice for the crime. told the jury that police had offered to let him run an unhampered gambling game if he gave them information against Birns. However. Alex Birns was accused of masterminding the car bombing of numbers operator. Diamond was an associate of Teamster leader William Presser and was once referred to by the local newspapers as "Cleveland's Number One Racketeer". She told him about the incident with Birns. he was convicted of bribery. Birns operated freely and was well liked by all the prostitutes of his whore houses. In October 1956." The prosecution even produced a surprise witness who was a former employee of the rackets. were convicted of bribing a witness. The outcome of the first trial was a hung jury. when he was under a 24 hour surveillance. but only after paying $2 for two overdue traffic tickets. ruthless enforcer made it easy for him to establish lucrative "protection" services. He opened his Ten-Eleven Club at 1011 Chester Avenue. When the police arrived. During the early morning hours. Four days later. Likewise. During this time. By law. two shots were fired. Birns was leaving a Cleveland Indians baseball game. inarticulate speech led the local newspapers to dub him "The Talker". One morning in 1957. those who initially refused would soon pay up." The judge sentenced them to 60 days in the Warrensville Workhouse. King was cast as the star witness in the trial. leader of the E. At the trial. At one point. In any event. A workhouse guard admitted to having acted as a go-between in trying to arrange a deal with Allen. Birns granted his first newspaper interview. Birns returned to Cleveland and was well known by the police. the future boxing promoter. He refused to identify Duncan as the man who shot him. In the mid-1960s.38 in his belt and a big cigar in his mouth". The coatroom girl subsequently refused to give Birns access to his coat. along with co-defendant Yale Cohen and attorney Max Lesnick. but King survived. Largely on King's testimony. the coatroom girl ran outside and summoned Rudy Duncan. The superintendent was later fired for the liberties he allowed Birns. Duncan ordered Birns's crew out of the bar at gunpoint. Upon his release in 1944. Duncan's murder went officially unsolved. Birns physically assaulted a police officer. He denied ownership of the gun and would not reveal who shot him. Birns was sitting at Keystone with two of his fellow gang members when he arose to retrieve some cigars from his overcoat which he had checked in the coat room. killing one of the stick-up men. "a continuation of the city's dry cleaning racket war. Birns had misplaced his cheque and could not produce it when asked for it by the coatroom girl. Buffalo. convicted felons weren't supposed to be legally able to get liquor licenses. in an attempt to shake him down for 25 percent of his operation. One of the best known of the black numbers operators was Donald "The Kid" King. In the same time period." At this time. The officers agreed to drive him to his next destination. Birns was on his way to notoriety in northeast Ohio. After six appearances in court. he became close to many of the city's newspaper reporters and could sometimes be found chatting with one over a cocktail. Rudy Duncan took his 11-year-old foster son.000 a day on policy. had two more drinks and smoked one cigar. It was. Birns attempted to dissuade King from testifying by sending some of his men to kill him at his home. In 1933. With the backing of the Cleveland crime family. According to a 1988 Plains Dealer series by Christopher Evans. Oklahoma. They found him." When the trial began. a Cleveland prize-fighter named Victor Ogletree were reportedly grossing $15. Duncan was a former boxer with arrests in Pittsburgh. Lonardo had already taken over the black lottery and numbers operations. "one of the few cases on record in which men identified by police as 'gangsters' were convicted of anything. In the ensuing ruckus. They initially agreed but by December deemed the price too high. King told jurors that Birns's emissary had offered him $10. He was then taken to the hospital and refused to cooperate any further with police. In the years to come. The jury deliberated 11 hours and the trial resulted in Birns and the other defendants acquittal. Once. Police and newspaper reporters ate and drank on the house. To them. Two months later. a co-defendant. Many of Birns's clients were judges. Birns kept the club open. feeding policemen. Birns became heavily involved in protecting whorehouses or "vice resorts" as they were dubbed by the media. a prosecutor remarked. Birns' reputation as a brutal. this was to no avail. they found Birns in his car ready to pull away. King eventually began holding out on the protection money being paid on a regular basis to Birns. When the tragic Cleveland East Ohio Gas Explosion that killed 134 persons and left thousands homeless occurred in 1944. Birns and the others were indicted. Birns was only in his twenties. In 1942. after he thwarted a robbery of one of his gambling houses. The shooting was deemed a justifiable homicide. Birns muttered something and the two lunged at each other. When the officers were reprimanded by a superior. King also informed police of his decision to get out of the racket. he went to the police and accused Birns of ordering the bombing. After two days. In 1933. Birns was determined to firmly keep this traditionally black racket under his control. King and his partner. Those who refused to pay would usually find their store windows broken or their cars blown up. Birns testified that he did not see his assailant and that whoever came up behind him in the cloakroom had the gun. Several pellets of shot hit him in the back of his head. Later in the year. Birns sent an emissary to King and his colleagues demanding that they pay up to $200 a week to make sure that none of their competitors paid odds of more than 500 to 1. 24 hours a day. 55th street and Woodland Mob. King gained prominence among the other operators in 1954. at the height of the Second World War." Birns was among those picked up for questioning. Birns. shoving her aside in the process. One of Birns's most serious arrests was for the 1934 murder of Rudy Duncan. two men were shot from the same passing car. where many judges and politicians dined. During this period." They picked up Birns for interrogation along with five of his fellow henchmen. He was soon labeled as "Cleveland's Public Enemy No. however. During the late 1930s. Police immediately began a search for Birns. The . Legal businesses who wished to be allowed to operate undisturbed had to pay him as a labor consultant. Alex Birns craved respectability and sought to obtain it through his popular Alhambra Restaurant. Birns managed to bypass that by disguising his connections to the Alhambra. Birns would often send food over to the nearby Fifth District police station for the police officers working the late shift. Birns visited Canada for a vacation. Upon his re-entry to the United States." Elijah Abercrombie. they walked to a confectionery for ice cream. At the age of 19.000 not to testify: "He said if I didn't testify. He was regarded as a celebrity gangster and had many public sympathizers in what was generally seen as a vendetta. Throughout his lifetime. Diamond narrowly escaped death from gunfire by rival gangsters in what was called by the police. Birns told the reporter that he was serving his time happily and enjoying the hard work. "she burst into tears again and again and refused to answer questions as Birns and the other defendants glared at her. but they couldn't find evidence to tie him to the murder. the Press reported. Birns checked himself out of the hospital and was well on his way to a full recovery when he was arrested and charged with carrying a concealed weapon. Police called it "continuation of guerrilla warfare among policy game racketeers. Birns was once again arrested by the police. During his incarceration.

I'll tell you why.. Samuel Gerber.[1] A chain link fence between Christy's and St. Two shots were fired." Suspecting that Birns was behind it. Apparently. "Let me in. but he refused. Birns insisted he had been dining on frog legs in a Garfield Heights steakhouse at the night of Gold's murder. but a genial and generous man. a newspaper thundered. He changed his mind again and reluctantly agreed to testify. This contract was soon taken by several minor underworld characters who were burglars by trade. a potent military explosive in the lot behind Christy's Lounge. Michael (died 1978). investigators wrongly concentrated on several black numbers operators as suspects rather than Danny Greene. The bodyguard reacted quickly. Police also found a tape made by Gold of a phone call between himself and Birns.. Willis. He was shot three more times in the skull. holding court almost daily at the Theatrical Lounge where he lunched. He was black through and through. On July 8. By this time. keeping the peace among rival operators and getting a cut from each of them. waved goodbye to reporters. Some customers scurried towards the exits. His bail was set at $50. The death of boss John Scalish had put Birns and Greene on opposite sides of a Mafia dispute with Greene supporting challenger John Nardi and Birns supporting the heir apparent gangster James T. Police predicted what the press called "a fresh outbreak of shootings and violence in Cleveland's multi-milliondollar numbers racket. A leather gym bag and gym shoes had been blown from the trunk. was known by many newsmen because he was good copy and was ever ready to buy them a drink. By the 1970s. Alex Birns had mellowed significantly. he was found murdered and stuck in the trunk of his car. Shon had a black soul. Towards his death. especially in the event of any harm befalling him. he was planning to retire and live out his twilight years in Florida. his state-ofthe-art burglar system survived.000. Edward Kovacic. Birns produced Allene Leonards. but he managed to run up to the front porch of a house yelling. "Birns cocked his summer straw hat. Ohio. Amid aggressive interrogation by Delau. a shy. playing handball daily and spending several hours on lunch and a cocktail or two. For a relatively small cut of their profits. Birns gave $25. It was during this time. Birns and his attractive girlfriend. Birns had arranged a loan for Greene through the Gambino family. Greene envied Birns's control of the rackets and looked forward to the day when it would be his." Birns had been suspected of two murders. On Monday his car turned up outside a motel in Toledo. Jane. In February. Gold was being investigated for using stolen Canadian bonds for using a bank loan. He promised his parole officer. They expressed their refusal to believe the changing testimony of Coleman who had been a dope peddler and police informant. let me in!" In the hospital. Birns was having trouble with some black numbers operators. Birns told them. from whom Birns had borrowed the loan. Birns would later divorce his first wife. John Scalish died. He was a helluva guy.. Aware that Greene was also a pet lover. Shon wasn't no bad fella. In retaliation. was waiting.000 with an associate to hire a hit man for Greene to be murdered. Upon his acquittal. so no single operator lost too much if a number came up. It was a decision which Birns would eventually regret. Therefore. instead asserting that it wasn't his fault that it got lost. however. Though Birns's Cadillac was demolished and smoking heavily. but it was a Jewish holiday. $1. a go-go spot at 2516 Detroit Ave.. Birns was a feared man because of his violent reaction to any adversary. Holy Saturday. but neither Birns nor his girlfriend were hit. and had one son. Three bullets hit him. a paper bag of clothing from inside his car survived. that he came into contact with a brash ambitious young IrishAmerican upstart named Danny Greene. The coroner.second acquitted him." a speakeasy and gambling house. Birns cruised the neighborhood on the lookout for him. Then.. Birns pressed Greene but Greene flatly refused to return the money. baby.000 weekly.. A blanket was wrapped around his head. where he always sat at the end of the bar. Greene himself survived a little while longer (although the Birns-allied Licavoli faction continued to try to kill him due to his partnership with their enemy Nardi) but like Nardi was killed by getting blown to pieces in a car bombing. Upon arrival. He told the doctor a firecracker caused the injury. after a massive investigation into his assets by the Internal Revenue Service. wanted their money. In 1968. Coroners workers spent hours collecting as many pieces of skin and bones that they could find. who used it to purchase narcotics. Licavoli as the new boss. fellows. His hair was scorched off from the heat of the horrific blast. Birns and his bodyguard were immediately accosted by several of the numbers men.. telling him. a neighbor backed Birns's alibi. He was released soon after questioning." Police said the blast was among the most powerful they had ever investigated. Birns chose to lunch at the Theatrical. I don't break any provisions of parole. He also refused to hand over the bomb. "We want you out of the business or you're dead". "Who runs this town — Birns or the Law?".000. Greene disassembled the bomb himself. Birns was still alive. On Wednesday morning. Gold left behind an affidavit claiming that Birns had given him the bonds. Birns hired Greene to be an enforcer for his various numbers operators. the Plain Dealer reported. He had been beaten. Birns walked into an east side bar in response to a meeting requested by several black numbers racketeers. Birns was always dealing with heavy opposition from a few black gangsters who wanted independence from him and the more powerful and politically connected Mafiosi of the Cleveland family. Birns was blown several feet through the roof of the car and his torso landed near the passenger door." Birns was taken to Central Station for questioning by the head of the Homicide Unit. The motel owner said he had checked in Saturday and sought treatment for an injured right hand. Birns claimed that he was at home with a woman of fine character. including that of a financier named Mervin Gold. In the following weeks. leveling a small sub-machine gun from under his overcoat. "I'm going to send this back to the old bastard that sent it to me. A reporter and photograph were waiting when he arrived. "I would have surrendered yesterday. "Kid. He also laid off or distributed big bets to other cities like Pittsburgh. Most of them are worse than I am. He was also jealous of Birns's immense wealth and popularity with the Cleveland media and public. while pulling back his coat to reveal a pistol in his waistband. His severed legs landed fifty feet away and other smaller parts of him were scattered all over the place. Birns blew kisses to the jury. The gunman missed. were walking downtown when a car with several black men drove by. This time. Birns once told a reporter. Dick McLaughlin summed up his career: "A muscleman whose specialty was controlling numbers gambling on the East Side. If I go back to jail. a numbers operator. He did not name her. One of the gangsters shouted. with her. This contract would result in numerous failed assassination attempts on Greene. However. chief deputy Cuyahoga County sheriff. though barely.. why do they all want to be my friend? I'll tell you why. the upper part of his body was convulsing violently.m. Birns was convicted and sent to federal prison for lying about his assets. Yet he was popular. His wife told police that Gold was on his way to meet with Birns the night he was murdered. one black numbers operator said: "Its dumb to talk about blacks doing Shondor.Fashions for men which women love. A month later. The police raided his house. the money wound up in the hands of Billy Cox. they resembled steaming pieces of meat. which resulted in Birns's acquittal. but said she was willing to testify for him. The explosive was wired improperly and failed to detonate. he would head out to the Silver Quill or Christie's Lounge to chat with the owner and the barmaid and sometimes buy drinks for the regulars. In the 1960s. Greene decided to retaliate. Somehow later. The Internal Revenue Service promptly claimed the money to be put toward back taxes that Birns owed. estimated his time of death as shortly before midnight Friday. Birns' nose was broken when his body landed on the street after being blown out the top of his car. At the trial." All concerned was shocked when two days later. Kovacic offered him police protection. Impressed with his fearless attitude and abilities. walked out of the building and down the front steps to where his attorney. Birns was blown up via a bomb containing C-4. On Birns and the supposed involvement of blacks in his murder.. removed the dynamite. Police and bomb squad members worked an entire day examining the bombing scene. he told police the shooter was a man in the back seat of a car driven by Shondor Birns. didn't give up and accused Birns of trying to contact a juror in the second case. In March 1975. It took the jurors four hours to reach a verdict. the eve of Easter. strangled with a clothesline and shot in the chest. No. there wasn't no racial prejudice in that goddamn Shondor Birns at all. He said he saw Birns arrive home at 12:07 a. A man who walked Birns to his car braved flames and smoke and located him near the car. Shit. Ten of the jurors signed a statement protesting the charge that they had been unduly influenced. Several months later. Birns had been blown in half. Anticipating an untimely demise." Somebody also tipped off the press. Birns was arrested and brought to the booking window at Central Station. when longtime Cleveland family boss. Amazingly." In the Cleveland Press. "If I'm the city's biggest crook. Greene had requested Birns for a loan of $75. The man only managed to drag away Birns's upper torso. At first glance. the police arrested Coleman as a material witness. He said he had merely asked an Alhambra waitress to see if the juror would be fair to him. He was white but it didn't make no difference. Coleman was shot on a neighborhood street shortly after midnight. This was also confirmed by the owner. A pickup order was sent out for Birns. Licavoli. The relationship between Danny Greene and Alex Birns also began to sour. and brought the rest of the package to the Cleveland police lieutenant." Birns's widow was oblivious to his conflict with Danny Greene. In 1959. 1963. Several close murder attempts led Birns to buy a Doberman Pinscher to protect his home. Greene was soon willing to take on Birns. However. Greene found an unexploded bomb in his car when he pulled into a Collinwood service station for gas. No. He was a feared man. The relentless prosecutors. which he posted with ease. . It read: "Diamond's of Ohio . Malachi Church caught many of the smaller fragments of flesh and bone. Upon investigation.. A short time afterward. Birns brought his heavily armed black bodyguard along in anticipation of trouble. and they all know that I know. and marry Leonards a year later." After lunch. the former Jack & Jill West Lounge. His face. 24-year-old teacher in the Garfield Heights school system who confirmed his alibi claiming that she had been with Birns the whole night. "Thanks for coming. had an engaging personality. In the 1960s. Coleman changed his mind and told police that he had only speculated that it was Birns in the car. The group continued shouting at Birns as he and his bodyguard cautiously backed out of the bar and left. James R. He didn't want any more trouble. about the time of the shooting several miles away. Birns teamed up with the faction backing James T." More often. Not long after. There ain't gonna be no more Shondors. Birns was shot at by an unknown assailant as he arrived home. whereupon. she gave his Doberman Pinscher to him. arrested him. Birns called John Kocevar. He told Kocevar. His remains are held at Hillcrest Cemetery in Bedford Heights. who owed money to Birns for interrogation. He had married Jane in 1952. Cleveland police picked up a small-time hood named Clarence "Sonny" Coleman.000. arms and chest were bloodied and blackened. The Gambino family. fourteen years his junior. seized the narcotics and what was left of the $75. Birns had been serving as a peacemaker and mediator of disputes among the blacks. A total of $843 in cash was found on or around Birns's body. Greene wanted the money to set up a "cheat spot. since Birns had largely sheltered her from his underworld activities. I'll die there. He arranged to surrender at a meeting spot in suburban Garfield Heights. Lieutenant Carl Delau. In a Page One editorial.

1724 with Field and Wild again due to give evidence. Dominick LoFaro. Holborn. A school friend. Sheppard was recaptured for a final time on 1 November. Despite the altercation outside the court. on Monday 16 November. Blake was arrested by Wild. Blake was tracked to a hideout in Major County. or the Doolin-Dalton Gang. Blake was sentenced to be hanged. but showed no remorse for his crimes. or disguised. perhaps due to influence deployed on his behalf by Wild. although his account was not consistent with the evidence that he gave at Sheppard's trial. Three accomplices (John Levee. Field's evidence was enough to ensure that Blake was convicted. 1724. 1928). he pleaded guilty to charges including racketeering and conspiracy. and most audacious. they approached one of Wild's fences. in a column printed on 30 March 2010. slashing his throat with a pocket-knife. his former underling. and the Genovese crime family was not happy. although the characterisation often bears little resemblance to the reality. but he received a sabrecut to the head as he resisted his arrest by Wild in December 1722. Bitondo and four other Carpenters Union leaders. The indictment came from information provided by Gambino crime family associate turned informant. Kneebone. On April 4. Also providing evidence was Genovese family turncoat Vincent "Fish" Cafaro. LoFaro testified that the Local 257 officers laundered. Meanwhile. In 2000. having escaped from Newgate on 4 September and been recaptured five days later. but he was confined in Wood Street Compter instead. before drifting into Oklahoma Territory. Several of his colleagues were arrested that summer. was a New York City labor leader and an associate in the Genovese crime family in the crew of powerful Manhattancaptain Vincent DiNapoli. George's College. In 1990. he was suffering from kidney disease and undergoing dialysis. They burgled the house of William Kneebone (Sheppard's former apprentice master) on Sunday July 12. Bitondo and Local President Eugene Hanleysystematically extorted New York City drywall contractors for the Genovese family. He was detained in Newgate Prison pending trial.June 20.April 4. He moved to New York in 1973. Blake's trial went ahead in Wild's absence. Wild was quickly attended by passing surgeons. which appears in John Thurmond's play. 1724 by Wild's henchman. and his grip over his criminal empire started to slip while he recuperated. but Wild refused. His attack on Wild inspired John Gay's ballad "Newgate's Garland". escape.1724 Sheppard was arrested at Blueskin's mother's brandy shop in Rosemary Lane (later renamed Royal Mint Street). working with Edward Pollitt (or Pawlett or Pollard). 1859 . east of the Tower of London. 1895. and he was buried in the churchyard at St Andrew. by a posse led by Deputy Marshal Will Banks. and joined Doolin's Wild Bunch gang. however. Blueskin was tried on Thursday October 15. he was extradited to the United States in 1999. Blake was overshadowed by Sheppard's fame. Blueskin expected to be released and to receive some of the reward money for securing the convictions. Blake returned to Jamaica. On Wednesday November 11. Despite being incarcerated. and also demonstrated the grip the men had over the City's construction industry. Blake and other gang members were charged in a multiple killing in Miami. After a brief interlude as highwaymen on the Hampstead Road on Sunday July 19 and Monday July 20. Bitondo and Hanley were convicted of racketeering charges. also called "Blueskin's Ballad". and was a key figure during the gangs shootout with US Marshals inIngalls. Hanley and other union and organized crime figures. William Blewitt. the Equitable Life Assurance Building." During the 1980s. In his drunkenness. William Field. on July 23. and admitted to his role in the gang. Wild was lucky to survive. LoFaro also wore a wire while sitting in during extortion meetings attended by Bitondo and another Local 257 officer and Gambino soldier. 1956 – March 21. Wild and Field gave evidence against Sheppard. the day after Sheppard's death sentence was confirmed. He turned King's evidence against several former associates. At the time of his death. also known as "Tillio". saying "This here we shoulda done two months ago had a cup of coffee. and taken away. and he was convicted of the burglary on August 12. reach out ". Blake was the son of Nathaniel and Jane Blake. 2010) was a Jamaican drug kingpin who founded and operated the American operations of the Jamaican Shower Posse. He quickly joined forces with notorious thief and gaol-breaker Jack Sheppard. He quickly lost the confidence of his "customers" and the grudging respect of the general populace. Blake is credited with the dubious distinction of being "one of the creators of crack. 1987. who was determined to punish Sheppard because he had refused to work for Wild. The Manhattan District Attorney Robert Morgenthau stated that the indictments documented only about 10 percent of the payoffs that 17 cooperating contractors said they made. Wild took against Blake. Eventually. Judge Stephen Crane authorized the New York State Organized Crime Task Force to wiretap the Local 257 Office telephones located at 157 East 25th Street in Manhattan. 11.000 each atManufacturers Hanover Trust Company branch. and the disturbance continued into the evening. and member of the Wild Bunch gang. Blake escaped this time. introduced him to the self-styled "Thief-Taker General" (and thief) Jonathan Wild in around 1714. sometimes called the Oklahombres. One of the cooperating contractors testified that Bitondo approached him at a construction site with another man and threatened to throw him off the roof of the building if he didn't comply with his extortion demands. Blake at first held the . By 1719. By the age of 17. Sheppard. Attilio Bitondo (born Joseph "Blueskin" Blake (baptised October 31. Pier 17 at the South Street Seaport. Carmine Fiore. but possibly due to excessive facial hair or a port-wine birthmark. or perhaps a punning reference to his friend Blewitt. 1895) was an outlaw of the Old West. The affected projects included the World Financial Center at Battery Park City. Blake's attack caused an uproar which spread to the adjacent prison. Marsillo asked to "have a cup of coffee" — apparently a euphemism for a bribe — with Bitondo. Harlequin Sheppard. He left school and became a professional thief. Blake was responsible for flooding Bronx neighborhoods such as Soundview. during which three Deputy Marshals were killed. Blake tried to persuade Wild to put in a good word for him. and he was himself convicted and hanged in 1725. Oklahoma in September 1893. As Vice-President of Carpenters Union Local 257. He was incapacitated for weeks. Blake appears in many accounts of Sheppard's life. 2010 at the age of 53 after being admitted to University Hospital of the West Indies for a heart attack. and was released in June 1724. by 1722. Blake was drawn to Tyburn along the traditional route. In the mid-1980s. were indicted for extortion. Blake died on March 21. who knew Bitondo as a close underling of Vinny DiNapoli and a labor racket partner of Liborio "Barney" Bellomo. Bitondo had jurisdiction over construction on the East Side of Manhattan. 1724 stealing a quantity of cloth and some other trinkets. Sheppard was hanged 5 days after Blake. He was baptised at All-Hallows-the-Great in London." Ultimately. corroborative evidence could not be obtained to support all the allegations. During a fierce gun-battle that lasted over 45 minutes. Marsillo said "I tried to reach. He tried to escape from Newgate without success. the East Side was Bitondo's jurisdiction. and. Bitondo was convicted of Enterprise Corruption charges and sentenced to 1½ to 4½ years in prison. he was a member of a gang of street robbers led by Robert Wilkinson. He took part in numerous bank robberies and train robberies. He had been a cowboy in Kansas through the 1880s. Blake was working with Irish highwayman James Carrick. but Bitondo refused. and had been nicknamed "Blueskin". probably due to his recent association with Sheppard. and Anthony Simon to important labor posts. Hanley replied "You reached out to the wrong people Mario. Arnold and Abraham Mendez Ceixes at his lodgings in St Giles on Friday October 2. Quilt Arnold. Vivian Blake (May William "Tulsa Jack" Blake (c. but was released on parole after eight. They received a short prison term and were banned from union business. The origin of his soubriquet is uncertain: it is probably due to his swarthy complexion. Crotona Park and Bronx River with tons of cocaine and crack cocaine. because he appointed organized crime figures like Anthony Fiorino. 1700 – November 11." After Bitondo and Hanley discussed with Marsillo the picketing at his site because of his failure to sign the union agreement. Meanwhile. protected by the stock worn about his neck. ensuring that the Genovese crime family would continue to reap profits from extortion and labor racketeering. accused of the Kneebone robbery. he was earning his living as a pickpocket. to sell the stolen goods. Outside the courtroom. where he started distributing marijuana and cocaine. but was granted a scholarship to a private high school. and three were hanged in September. eventually expanding his network nationwide. contractor Mario Marsillo indicated to Bitondo and Hanley that he was using non-union workers on an East Side job because he had "given a cup of coffee" to Local 608 official John O'Connor. Word of the crime soon reached Wild. but this burglary was to prove their undoing. he slurred his speech from the scaffold before he was hanged. After being released from prison. 1724. Richard Oakey and Matthew Flood) were hanged on the strength of Blake's testimony in February 1723. but he escaped apprehension by traveling to Jamaica. 1724) was an 18th-century English highwaymanand felon. LoFaro wore a wire during meetings with Bitondo at theQueens social club of Gambino captain Ralph Mosca. stopping at the Griffin tavern on Holborn for a stiff drink. Mario smartened up and paid the Local 257 bosses. The resulting intercepted telephone calls would be used as evidence against Bitondo. The two union leaders also engaged in bid rigging and bribery. Blake is best remembered for his vicious attack on Wild. 1724. He was sentenced to 28 years. Oklahoma. Blake was born to a poor family in West Kingston. His body was laid out for a few days. On October 13. also according to O'Shaughnessy. His parents had the means to send him to the parish school of St Giles-withoutCripplegate for about six years. Blake found sureties for his good behaviour. In on telephone call. Having stored the goods near the horse ferry at Westminster. St. including Blewitt. Ralph Coppola. Bitondo's influence remained. Blake attacked Wild.000 from Manhattan contractors wanting to avert labor problems. illegal payments by making numerous deposits of $6. where in 1892 he met outlaw Bill Doolin. They were accused of taking more than $100. used the distraction inside the prison to cover his fourth. According to New York Daily News columnist Patrice O'Shaughnessy. and explained that each month Bitondo would deliver an evelope to the Genovese higher-ups in East Harlem. and exhibits at the Whitney Museum of American Art. After later charges were added. under threat of deportation.

largely due to technicalities. In the mid-1970s. but spent a great deal of time at Phil Alderisio's bar. Blanco was born in Cartagena. he was shot and killed by Deputy Marshal Banks. when cocaine supplantedmarijuana. Blitzstein stood at 6 feet and weighed three hundred pounds and sported a goatee and moustache. utilizing about eight associates as burglars. "Put your freedom over failure. later known as The Cocaine Godmother. Of the seven people arrested in the plot to kill Blitzstein. which spanned the United States. I may crack ya taco/ I'm screamin' Rest in Peace. emigrated to the United States. is portrayed by Colombian actress Luces Velasquez. Tony Spilotro. so named because they punched holes through walls and ceilings to grab the loot and run. In 1987. or anyone who displeased her. Griselda Blanco" on a remix of "Ochoa Cinco" Blanco played a significant role in Jon Roberts' book American Desperado (2011). rapper Game says. She was suspected of masterminding over two hundred murders. he moved to Las Vegas to serve as muscle for Spilotro. 1997) was a loanshark. Spilotro's relationship with Rosenthal had collapsed. Blitzstein was killed execution style in his Las Vegas home. brought in US$80 million per month.January 6. testifying against Spilotro. Joseph Blasko. at that time the biggest cocaine case in history. in the Colombian TV series Escobar. three-hundred pound) man who drove a white 1973 Cadillac Eldorado and dressed impeccably. Gerald Tomasczek. Nevada.Marshals off. Anthony Spilotro. Her distribution network. He lived at 6720 North Damen Avenue in Rogers Park. Herbert took over his clientele along with mob bookmaker's Boodie Cowan. Davino. His case was part of a 1991 congressionalinvestigation into medical abuse in prisons. 15. They established a sizable cocaine business there. Rick Ross is featured in the song "Believe It" on Meek Mill's album. Colombia. Ana Lucía Restrepo. and Tony was acquitted. The Tradewinds in The Patch. The crew became known as the Hole in the Wall Gang because of its penchant for gaining entry by drilling through the exterior walls and ceilings of the buildings they burglarized. Herbert was a 183-cm. a bookmaker that was suspected of being murdered by Anthony Spilotro. and bore him three sons: Dixon. In 1967. Geraldine McGee Rosenthal. Blitzstein." and that Blitzstein was responsible for some of the most "embarrassing" crimes in Las Vegas city history." In 2012.[5] Following the botched burglary at Bertha's Gifts & Home Furnishings on July 4. kidnapping Michael when he and Griselda disagreed over who would take custody. Michael LaJoy. He had been a close associate of convicted mob bookmaker Henry Kushner. season 4. He was one of the few Hole in the Wall Gang members who was not arrested after a botched July 4 burglary at Bertha's Home Furnishings in 1981. One died in prison awaiting trial. three of whom were killed in Colombia after being deported following prison sentences in the U. Frank Cullotta. Blitzstein was convicted on federal charges. portrayed in the film Casino by Bret McCormick as Bernie Blue. Illinois. "Fat Herbie" ordered the murder of associate loan shark and bookmaker Arthur "Boodie" Cowan for holding back a street tax. On January 6. she was arrested by DEA agents in her home. He was born in Chicago. 135-kg (six-foot. Michael Corleone Blanco. 1991. Blanco was involved in much of the drug-related violence known as the Cocaine Cowboy Wars that plagued Miami in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Las Vegas. Las Vegas. This is what led to Blanco's mass murders. Michael Blanco. 34. at age 11. high profile Miami drug scene of those times.[8]Blanco was killed by two gunmen on a motorcycle as she walked out of a butcher shop in her hometown. and Osvaldo. Her violent business style brought government scrutiny to South Florida. on the country's north coast. "Karma catches up to all you head honchos. Held without bail. He was sentenced to eight years in prison. two dome shots in that head. According to the Miami New Times. titled "Outlaws" (first airdate 19 August 2010). While incarcerated in California. "Crazy Larry" Neumann. When he was released from prison. In the documentary film Cocaine Cowboys II: Hustlin' with the Godmother. Blanco was indicted on federal drug conspiracy charges along with 30 of her subordinates. Las Vegas. 2012. as Tony had had an affair with Rosenthal's wife. which included prostitution. attempted grand larceny and possession of burglary tools. Illinois. Griselda Blanco". She fled to Colombia before she could be arrested. On 20 February 1985. tryna find my Griselda. Blanco features prominently in the documentary films Cocaine Cowboys (2006) and Cocaine Cowboys 2 (2008. 2012). who acted as a lookout and who later worked as a bartender at the Crazy Horse Too. By this time. 43. Cullotta.S. Chicago with his third wife. His death marked the beginning of the downfall of the Wild Bunch Gang. "Michael's father and older siblings were all killed before he reached adulthood. Former police officer and board member Steve DuCharme said that Blitzstein's life "reads like a crime novel. Blasko. and in his verse he says. Michael Spilotro. and died of a heart attack in 2002. Ernest Lehnigg of Addison. Leonardo "Leo" Guardino." On his song "Pain" (2012) featuring Future. Uber. 45. until age 20. allegedly kidnapped. conspiracy. She and her mother. Charles Cosby. four pleaded guilty to lesser charges in order to receive reduced sentences. the Miami-Dade State Attorney's Office obtained sufficient evidence to indict her for three murders. also written as Cocaine Cowboys II: Hustlin' With the Godmother). moved to Medellínwhen she was three years old. Meanwhile. formed a burglary ring with his brother Michael and Blitzstein. and two went to trial and were acquitted. they gon' nail ya. Butch Pancsko and Pops Pancsko. The charges were later dropped for insufficient evidence. she had become a pickpocket. and her son returned to her in Miami. settling in Queens. Other gang members included Peanuts Pancsko. including credit card fraud. Ernesto "Ernie" Davino. in 1976. Herbie started working the rackets in the late 1950s. Illinois. rapper Pusha T says. By her preteens. and former Las Vegas detective. Joseph Cusumano. her last living child. Blitzstein also worked as a fence for stolen goods at the combination jewelry store and electronics factory. However as he broke cover to flee. Carlos Trujillo. el patrón del mal (2012). 47. Blanco's character. Michael Corleone Blanco by her lover Darío Sepúlveda. "Don't want no beef. When he was convicted of bookmaking by the FBI and sent to prison. was under house arrest after a May arrest on two felony counts of cocaine trafficking and conspiracy to traffic in cocaine. jewelry store. Griselda Blanco's son. Blitzstein was taken off his heart medication by a prison medic and suffered a heart attack as a result. Samuel Cusumano. She married her first husband. His capo. who left her in 1983. on September 3. among others. Blanco resorted to prostitution for a few years in Medellín. He was later convicted of racketeering. located on West Sahara Avenue. On December 10. In 1976. The Miami Herald cites El Colombianonewspaper reports that one man fired two bullets into her head. and accused him of associating withFrank Rosenthal. Las Vegas. recounted how Blanco. Nevada Deputy District Attorney Charlotte Matanane called Blitzstein a "notorious and unsavory person" during the relevant board hearing. The only members of Spilotro's gang not arrested for the July 4th burglary were Blitzstein. Blanco was featured in episode 3. executing her in the type of motorcycle assassination she has been credited with inventing. where a photo was taken of her. However. tried to ransom. Rapper Jacki-O released a mixtape entitled Griselda Blanco. Carl Urbanotti of Chicago. Blanco and her second husband. conspiracy to commit burglary. was not murdered by the Las Vegas police during a bungled arrest as Griselda Blanco (February Herbert "Fat Herbie" Blitzstein (November . Although Herbie did not participate in the July 4 robbery. and Blanco was released from prison and deported to Colombia in 2004. Alberto Bravo. 2. His mom was in prison for most of his childhood and teenage years. In 1984. Joseph D'Argento. but in the late 1970s she returned to Miami. according to FBI affidavits. a gentleman's club. season 1 of Gangsters: America's Most Evil (2012). Cullotta had turned state's witness. But the testimony was insufficient. and at the age of 14 she ran away from her allegedly physically abusive mother. Blitzstein is described by FBIagent William Roemer in his book The Enforcer as one of the mobsters tested by the FBI in the early days of the Top Hoodlum Program. 1934 . Guardino. 1943 – September 3. and eventually shot a child from an upscale flatland neighborhood near her own slum neighborhood. Blitzstein was unanimously nominated by the Nevada Gaming Control Board for inclusion in its official Black Book. He was shot by mob members from Buffalo and Los Angeles who planned to take over his street rackets. She moved to California to escape the assassination attempts. Graciela Rojas. On his song "Griselda Blanco" rapper 2Turnt says "Put a million on yea head.Blanco was featured in episode 2 of Deadly Women. and receiving stolen property. she was last seen[in Bogota Airport in 2007. dressed flamboyantly and drove a 1973 Cadillac Eldorado. might as well. and in April 1975. Romano and Cusumano. Blanco was sentenced to more than a decade in jail. leading to the demise of her organization and the free-wheeling. the case collapsed. later gave his blessing to promote the mixtape. Blitzstein was convicted of running an illegal gambling operation. Blanco bore her youngest son. Griselda Blanco. Peter Basile of Wilmette. She continued to run her cocaine business while in jail. bookmaker. racketeer and lieutenant to Tony "The Ant" Spilotro and the Chicago Outfit in Las Vegas. They were locked into the Las Vegas police department's holding cell in downtown Las Vegas. and Matecki were arrested and each charged with burglary. New York. Wayne Matecki. La Madrina (2010) as an ode to Blanco's lifestyle and character. Blanco had four sons." The song is about world behind drug dealing. Medellín. he was indicted with Tony Spilotro on federal racketeering charges. returning to Colombia. which was a front for the Hole in the Wall Gang. John Spilotro and Herbie ran the Gold Rush Ltd. 1981. Blanco's willingness to use violence against her Miami competitors. and he was raised by his maternal grandmother and legal guardians. Dreams and Nightmares (2012). Blanco paid to have Sepulveda assassinated in Colombia. led her rivals to make repeated attempts to kill her. 1997. Salvatore "Sonny" Romano. insurance fraud and loansharking. Frank DeLegge. It was said he had a close physical resemblance to the Italian opera singer Luciano Pavarotti. was a drug lord for the Medellín Cartel and a pioneer in the Miami-based cocaine drug trade and underworld during the 1970s and early 1980s. On his song "See No Evil" (2012) featuring Kendrick Lamar. Neumann. Blanco's former lover. By pressuring one of her lieutenants. Before her death in 2012.

the best selling locations had to be held by force against gangs of other boys. he moved to Miami Beach. According to Twin Cities crime reporter Paul Maccabee. Frank Boccia was murdered by Dominick Pizzonia. In 1959. 1900 – September 19. He was involved in organized crime in Miami Beach and Havana. Blumenfeld and his brothers. 1937. not Blitzstein as stated above." At the time. on one hand glorying in the attention and also feeling infuriated by the increased Federal Bureau of Investigation surveillance that it brought him beginning in the early 1950s. had lured Boccia to Cafe Liberty in Ozone Park. According to one legend. The mainstream newspapers hardly mentioned what was going on. he was alleged to have installed bulletproof windows on his suburban house and to have been able to fix any problem with a single phone call. however. the body of Ferdinand Boccia was pulled from the Hudson River in New York City. Thomas (Tommy Flash)Morea. and brother-in-lawof Andrew Ruggiano Jr. but when a Federal court case years later led several executives from the company to go to prison. In 1946. Liggett's widow would always believe that Minnesota Governor Floyd Olson was deeply implicated in the murder. 1900 – June 21. Freddy DiCongilio. Rabbi Max Shapiro of Temple Israel recited the graveside services when Kid Cann was interred at the Adath Yeshurun Cemetery in Edina. He frequently visited his family and friends in Minnesota and declared to a Minneapolis reporter in 1976 that he had recently turned down an offer to write his memoirs. but reporters and editors quickly became targets. Enraged by the poverty of his family. he picked up the name during a brief attempt at boxing. Ferdinand Boccia is a paternal blood relative of Gambino crime family mob associate Frank (Geeky) Boccia from Queens. Kid Cann was indicted by a grand jury. He said. Minnesota. Minnesota to purchase the area's legendarymoonshine from local farmers. During the sentencing phase of this trial it was revealed that Kid Cann was receiving a cut of the money skimmed from at least one Las Vegas casino. and disposing of the scrap metal on the black market after their hostile takeover had succeeded. and labor racketeering. Although this conviction was later overturned on appeal. son-inlaw Anthony (Fat Andy) Ruggiano. following which they called him into a back room for the alleged clandestine meeting and Pizzonia shot him in the head repeatedly. had no part of the shooting. However. lacking enough evidence. The extortion was carried out by threatening to deny them liquor licenses. So I said Kaddish for Kid Cann. ostensibly for their perfume factory. Some was disposed of in the Twin Cities. and was also suspected of being responsible for the attempted murder of police officer James H. Trepanier and the December 1935 killing of newspaperman Walter Liggett. They gutted Boccia's like a fish so that his body would not float. they would legally import industrial grade alcohol from Canada. After his release from prison. 1945. including journalists who were killed after writing articles exposing the inner workings of his organization as well as his ties to corrupt politicians from several parties. a furrier. the wife of Andrew Ruggiano for refusing to pay for his daughter's $500 baptism. who was the brother-in-law of Gambino crime family capo Anthony Ruggiano. A decade later the paper lost another reporter when Arthur Kasherman was killed on January 22. After escaping two attempts on his life. and finally died after being machine gunned in the alley behind his home on December 9. Kid Cann's rivalry with Minneapolis's Irish Mob ended after he and Irish Mob boss Tommy Banks divided their territories with a handshake. While Rupolo was sentenced to twenty years for attempted murder.. similar to Al Capone or Whitey Bulger. According to a later trial. the founder and editor of a weekly paper called The Midwest American. Florida with his friend Meyer Lansky. Genovese offered Rupolo $175 to murder Gallo. Sinai Hospital of heart disease in the summer of 1981. Queens on the ruse of an upcoming planned heist. but poor investigative work and a careless trial meant that he was acquitted. Some historians believe he held considerable responsibility for what happened. according to the book Minnesota 13. and questionable real estate dealings. Liggett was beaten up.S. which was likely committed by fugitive bank robberVerne Miller. was being dismantled in the early 1950s and replaced with diesel buses. His wife and daughter witnessed the assassination as did several neighbors. for having assaulted his mother-inlaw Jennifer Ruggiano. Kid Cann indignantly denied both versions. Gallo went to the police and implicated both Rupolo and Genovese in the Boccia murder. Howard Guilford of the Twin City Reporter was shot and killed on September 6. 1934 or September 19. Paul Maccabbee. and threw the body into the waters off Merrick. Harry Bloom and Yiddy Bloom (their family name had been changed by this time) held considerable power over the Jewish neighborhoods in North Minneapolis and oversaw illegal activities such as bootlegging.portrayed in the film. Blumenfeld was convicted of violating the Mann Act in 1959 and. Two tales are told of the origins of his famous nickname. Boccia had assisted Genovese in setting up a rigged card game for a rich Italian businessman that Boccia introduced to Genovese. and divert it to their illegal distilleries in the forests nearFort Snelling. he was again tried and convicted of jury tampering and extorting kickbacks from bars and nightclubs throughout Minneapolis. As the area streetcar system.[2] A Jewish restaurant owner who recalls this era once said that the Blumenfelds were worshipped by several generations of neighborhood boys. On May 11. What remained of Twin City Rapid Transit was taken over at the behest of governor Orville Freeman by noted Minneapolitan Carl Pohlad in 1960. was a Jewish-American organized crimefigure based in Minneapolis." He died in Minneapolis' Mt." In Minnesota today. while present. During his lifetime. "After Kid Cann‘s funeral. he was convicted on Federal charges of transporting a Chicago prostitute named Virginia Tollefson across state lines (see Mann Act). By his 20s. Buzău County. in Brooklyn and then dumped in the river. According to the U. Kid Cann bore a love–hate relationship with his legend. He had been threatened and offered bribes to stay quiet. New York. Genovese fled the country to Italy to avoid prosecution. 1981). Rabbi Shapiro later recalled. The shooting depicted in the movie "Casino" was that of another reputed associate of Anthony Spilotro named Frank Bluestein. Blumenfeld was indicted for the killing of taxicab driver Charles Goldberg. The most notorious murder was that of Walter Liggett. Boccia later demanded a third of the profits from the scam. The same book also alleges that the Blumenfelds owned a lake side cabin near Melrose. 1934. Jr. tales of Kid Cann and his rumored dark deeds may be considered to have made him a local urban legend. who would become a mob boss. 1934. Blumenfeld was not convicted. but most of it was sold to the Chicago Outfit. Anthony Ruggiano Jr. operated by Twin City Rapid Transit. Minnesota. though they changed tack. Trepanier at the Cotton Club in Minneapolis. Pizzonia paused midway to reload. he turned to running errands for the pimps and madams of Minneapolis's red light district. Minnesota. it‘s my belief that every Jew at death. Minneapolis. until his death. He was accused of allying himself with a corporate raider. Blumenfeld owned a 16% stake in the company. Her husband had repeatedly accused the Governor of corruption. no matter what he did in life. 1934) was a New York mobster and gambling racketeer who was killed by Vito Genovese. jurors said they could not convict without a . the government later released Genovese from custody. The power and influence he held in Minneapolis were often compared to that of Al Capone in Chicago and were associated with several high-profile crimes in the city's history. retired to Miami Beach. and then shot him a few more times. where he and Meyer Lansky operated a real estate empire. Cuba. In later years. settled the family in Near North. commonly known as Kid Cann. According to Ruggiano Jr. Minnesota. 8. Isadore Blumenfeld was born in 1900 in the Romanian shtetl of Râmnicu Sărat. prostitution. deserves to have the Mourner‘s Kaddish – the last prayer – said for him. Kid Cann and his brothers were transformed from small time hoods into major figures in the American Mafia. New York. Kid Cann would also tell stories of how he had made extra money picking up bus tokens and reselling them. His father. Boccia's murder would force Genovese to flee the United States to Italy to avoid prosecution.s---!" Ferdinand "The Shadow" Boccia (March 18.. He is also thought to have participated in the dismantling of the Twin City Rapid Transit street railway during the early 1950s. including his alleged involvement in the 1924 murder of cab driver Charles Goldberg and the attempted murder of police officer James H. for over four decades and remains the most notorious mobster in the history of Minnesota. Another story told by his fellow North Side Jews alleges that young Isadore Blumenfeld would always lock himself in the outhouse to avoid gang fights in the neighborhood. "I have nothing to say. Boccia was an early victim of Vito Genovese's killing spree that aimed to increase his power in the Luciano crime family. "Ninety percent of what was written about me is b--. All identified Kid Cann as the shooter. There was a high degree of political and civil corruption in the region in the 1920s and 1930s. I received a call from someone who asked. 1935. Genovese was extradited back to New York and jailed on the Boccia murder charge. Immigration and Natur alization Servicedocuments. prosecuted for a non-existent rape incident. how could I possibly officiate at the funeral of such a terrible human being? And I Isadore Blumenfeld (September answered. either on February 9. Isadore had to leave school and support his family by selling newspapers on Minneapolis's "Newspaper Row. With the onset of Prohibition. his parents emigrated to America in 1902 via the port of Duluth. In a 1976 interview he snapped. said "this guy don't want to fucking die". as any outlet that published articles critical of the status quo were threatened. but he persisted in reporting on links he found between organized crime figures and Minnesota's ruling Farmer-Labor Party. They reportedly continued to make money through illegal activities. Kid Cann and his brothers made frequent trips to Stearns County. Florida. Although prosecutors Joseph Lipton and Paige Petersen presented an eyewitness who implicated Pizzonia as the shooter. really. He is the father-inlaw of Andrew Ruggiano Sr. and Anthony (Tony Lee) Guerrieri in June 1988. It was widely believed that Boccia was shot to death three years earlier. Sr. Following the recovery of Boccia's body. A number of deaths are attributed to him and his gang. after a short prison term. writes that Kid Cann. His ties to the Chicago Outfit and New York's Genovese crime family date back to the Prohibition period. which was then bossed by Al Capone. using force to intimidate stockholders. Also. During childhood. to a Jewish family. Genovese refused to pay Boccia and hired hitmen Willie Gallo and Ernest "The Hawk" Rupolo to murder him. focusing instead on stock market fraud. Some small tabloid newspapers attempted to report what was going on. money laundering.

where he came into contact with Lem Woodruff. Bogan and Woods. Bogan approached lawyer H. He was right. killing him. according to witnesses. Bogan still had several friends in cowboy circles. Texas. As Smith walked toward Bogan. Kemp began urging his friend to leave. Bogan learned that things had gotten worse for the blacklisted cowboys. went undercover and was able to gain the confidence of Hall and his cohorts. but before he could bring it up Bogan ran over and shot him point blank in the head. Owens. Smith was a well-respected and even-tempered man. When Gunn entered. Bogan feared Gunn. but had no issues with anyone else. The last he was heard of. are you heeled". Three posse members were wounded during the exchange. were hiding out at the Howry Cattle Company headquarters. His family moved to Hamilton County. This resulted in a brief gunfight between the lawmen and the cowboys. Laramie County Sheriff Seth Sharpless led the posses. had avoided criminal acts. In February. Town Marshal Jack Bridges and his deputies confronted them and ran them out of town. Joined by fellow prisoners Charles H. Siringo. Smith turned Bogan's pistol over to the town marshal. in the book "Deadly Dozen". the editor of the localnewspaper. Bogan rode to Wilbarger County. and he registered two brands in his own name. as he had on many occasions prior. and his mother would remarry and divorce twice. Bogan and Thompson. By all accounts. believed he could not go far. Bogan met with Owens sixteen miles outside of Lusk. sent word to Owens that he wished to surrender and receive medical attention. Bogan stated to him. he'd knock him to the ground. DeArment. and again turned his taunts toward Smith. whereas Bogan claimed they were mavericks. leaving only Thompson and Bogan inside. which included Bogan. Bogan was infuriated. which probably led to what happened next. as two weeks later Bogan. Wallace. Bogan brandished his pistol at the shocked patrons. as Gunn was extremely well liked and respected in the town. then to New Mexico Territory. they reached the house in which the cowboys were believed to be located. finding themselves unable to work in the Panhandle. resulting in one being shot and killed by the Hamilton County Sheriff. this time in a dance hall. When the drive reached Dodge City. 1887. Concealed in his shoes Jones had saw blades. behind his back. Bogan was waiting inside the Jim Waters Saloon for Gunn to make his usual rounds. and seconds later Constable Charles S. and had made his way toward Utah. settling into working on ranches in and around the Texas Panhandle. Siringo continued to pursue Bogan. whom famed Old West detective Charlie Siringo would later identify as having actually been Tom Nicholls. backed down when confronted by Gunn. who had reprimanded him on several occasions by this point. Bogan was placed in the back room of a local saloon. and spotted the posse. who was seated on his wagon who was in town to buy supplies. Tom Harris then yelled out to Garrett as to what his business was. backing Cleveland. According to Woodruff. Owens left with Bogan en route to Cheyenne. the county settled for $800. but before his shotgun wound had healed. Gunn replied that he was always armed. However. and was known to have killed two men while holding that office. who today is considered to have been one of the most underrated gunmen of the 19th century west. The Laramie Sentinel announced in 1889 that Bogan had been killed during a shootout in Mexico. Kansas. Texas officials pay $25. Bogan was last known to be heading for New Orleans. Siringo was able to produce evidence for indictments against Hall and several others for their having assisted Bogan. alerting the others. calling him names and daring him to step down and stop him. and blocked Bogan's only exit from town. Bogan came across local farmer F. The next day. which separated into groups of fifty men each. Dan Bogan (1860 . stating he was tired of living on the run. 1887. who had organised what was called the "Get Even Cattle Company". Bogan was convicted of murder. they made their escape through a ventilator and onto the roof. and who had gone by at least two other names in the past. Owens backed down a mob that was intent on hanging Bogan. Gunn was a former Texas Ranger. A. Gunn entered with his own pistol drawn. the body of Frank Boccia was never found. Smith then turned and pointed his pistol at Kemp. burning up with fever and with his wound infected. Garrett and Oldham County Sheriff Jim East learned that three of the holdouts. and often it seemed to many that he wished to do so. In 1907 it was announced by yet another newspaper that he'd been killed when his horse bucked him. On September 7. Woods was not present. Texas while Bogan was still only a boy.000 in damages. Garrett and his followers rounded up 30 head of cattle bearing Bogan's brand. stating they were stolen. Bogan hated Gunn. when Bogan dragged a chair out of Smith's wagon and began beating it on the ground. although his alleged killer Pizzonia would later be indicted for two other murders. by author Robert K. Kemp ran over producing his own handgun. Owens shot him in the shoulder. and the other receiving a prison term. who demanded that Oldham County.corpse. otherwise I'd step down and whip you". January 15. Bogan sent a letter addressed to Tom Hall in Cheyenne. working for the Worsham R-2 Ranch. a murderer from the Texas Panhandle. while Woods was killed. was no longer riding with them. and hit Smith in the back of the head. Bogan was born in Alabama in 1860. The ranchers and county officials commissioned former Lincoln County. resulting in their arrests. By the fall of that year. during which cowboy John Briley was shot and killed. The following morning. they commenced to drink and party. Before they reached their horses. he quickly whipped his gun around and shot Gunn in the stomach. To this. wrote that Bogan was possible a cowboy wanted in Texas. As he did this. J Burkett. When Gunn returned. and the cowboys took no action in retaliation. Bogan was in Wyoming working for the Vorhees Ranch. he went looking for Bogan. who eventually climbed down from his wagon and headed toward Bogan. mounting a horse belonging to Jack Andrews. that the muzzle flash caught Gunn's hair on fire. Bogan and Balou retreated and fled. "Charlie. 1881. already unholstered. yet again to stop him. a trek which led him into Utah. and voiced to Owens that he feared a lynch mob would be waiting for him when they reached Lusk. he would arrest Bogan. the next day in fact. However. thus being placed in jail with Bogan. accompanied by cowboy Sterling Balou. and Bogan began working as a cowboy as soon as his age would allow. would years later comment that Bogan was a valuable hand to have. Riding all night through a snowstorm. however. 1887. and Bogan set out looking for him. Cowboy Bob Bassett was outside the house gathering firewood.000 reward was placed on Bogan. Smith. His two older brothers became involved in activities involving horse theft. as he did want to avoid trouble if possible and would be satisfied if the cowboys merely left. indictments had been handed down against 159 cowboys. thus far. However. and that one night during a fierce thunderstorm. Louisiana. began taunting the patrons of the saloons. and fearing Bogan might have a case. A few days later. Smith had already made the statement that "I do not whip dogs. Owens fired one blast into the air as a warning. however. intending on taking a ships passage to South America. Bogan again went on a rampage. He joined up with cowboy Tom Harris. He is included as one of twelve described in such a way. Bogan was so close when he fired this second shot. When the manhunt did not produce Bogan. namely Tom Hall. which ended in all who took part being blacklisted. However. Bogan alone was able to hold 600 head of cattle from breaking into stampede. The two entered the Cleveland Brothers Saloon. On January 14. from New Orleans. Smith told him that if he pulled his gun. while he and friend Dave Kemp were making their way around Hamilton's saloons drinking heavily. did not disguise his movements. also working on that drive. Cropper General Store. New Mexico sheriff Pat Garrett to stop the cowboys. As Gunn fell face down to the floor. meaning was he armed. At one point. Bogan began to verbally taunt Smith. which he and Bogan used to saw through the bars and make an escape on October 4. and the cowboys were paid. Hall paid professional safecracker James Jones to commit a minor crime in Cheyenne. Bogan. Bogan then replaced the chair. to which Garrett announced he had warrants for Woods. After returning to the Panhandle. during which Bogan was able to make his escape. The two then wrestled briefly before Smith was able to take the young man's gun from him. and ran out. Bogan did pull his pistol. an old Panhandle friend to Bogan. while Gunn was out of town. and sentenced to death. and led him to where their horses were tied behind the W. and to allow himself to be captured. After moving to Texas. however. H. He is known to have killed three men by this time. One of the Cleveland brothers was able to bring a sawed off shotgun to bear on the two cowboys. His suspected murderers were all acquitted. However. LeRoy and Bill Steary. who'd made his way up to Wyoming from Texas. In addition to this. and when Bogan continued riding forward. which he had shown on several occasions. Bogan was hiding his revolver. and a shootout erupted. Bogan being one. Bogan left Hamilton not long afterward. Boccia left behind a wife and a daughter. and in doing so it was insinuated he either "should" or "could" kill the main ring leaders. Bogan. Gunn entered. and daring any of his friends to challenge him. Anything after that was mere hearsay. Wyoming. By 1886. However. Smith began to become more agitated. but at the same time he was prone to fight. which was taking to the practice of placing their own brand on already branded calves owned by the ranchers. and learned of this. As they entered town. and pulled the trigger. and warned him that if this happened again. Bogan was by this time going by the name Bill Gatlin. at first ignored him.after 1889) was an American gunfighter and outlaw of the American Old West. Deputy Marshal John Owens was quick to respond. at which point Bogan drew his pistol calling for Calkin. the latter stuck his hand into his coat. he took advantage of the poor security and made an escape during a roaring blizzard. a $1. by later witness accounts. However Bogan's taunts for no apparent reason began to wear on Smith. refused to surrender. the pistol misfired. Bogan replied that he would do as he pleased. as a man who would not back down nor be intimidated. both horse thieves. near Lusk. On May 2. acting on information he had received from sources. and joined up for a cattle drive as a drover. Upon Gunn's response. Constable Gunn had a reputation. his father died. Dominic became a made member of the Gambino crime family for committing the murder. Cowboy T. 1887. evidently Bogan was beginning to tire of the embarrassment of having been slighted so many times by Gunn. Believing they were getting out of hand. Nine cowboys then filed from the house. Wyoming. Bogan. Bogan. Garrett. daring any who desired to take him on in a fight. as there was no jail at the time. again . those who refused to leave the Panhandle. Bogan again was causing a disturbance. Bill Calkin. T. Within hours a posse was organised in one of the largest manhunts in Wyoming history. indicating he was heading to Argentina. 1885. and Kemp fled at top speed. "Doll" Smith. Bogan was a ring leader in a cowboy's strike for better wages. who did not know Kemp or Bogan. by the time Bogan was in his late teens. knocking Bogan from his saddle and into the street. and Garrett and his men set out to round them up. dead or alive. then Owens shackled Bogan in the back of the Sweeney Saloon. while intoxicated. knowing that Bogan was badly wounded. and by February 4 he had him secured in the Laramie County jail. In 1884. at which point Smith did knock him down with one punch. Gunn pulled his own pistol. Bogan and Burkett were both involved in that escapade.

1948. Boiardo's family immigrated to the Newark area in 1910. Italy. North Arlington. The creator of the TV series The Sopranos. to pay back a $2 million loan that she had made to him. Bonanno himself claimed years later that he fled because he was ardently anti-Fascist. Campbell stated in 1931 that the last he heard of Bogan. 1905 – February 10. Born in Naples. settled in southwestern New Mexico. both of whom he teamed up with on multiple occasions to commit murder. a millionaire real estate broker and investor from San Diego. As a child he attended Andrew Jackson Elementary School in Milwaukee. In 1977. Gaspare Matranga. To make Bompensiero less cautious. Paul Mirable. In 1955. Brooklier promoted him from soldier to consigliere. New Jersey area. a close associate. 1905. classified and unclassified FBI and police files.22 caliber handgun while standing in a phone booth in thePacific Beach neighborhood of San Diego. Author Richard Linnett has written a biography of Boiardo. His first address in San Diego was at 5878 Estelle St. but later evidence pointed to the members of another rival gang led by the Mazzocchi brothers. finally lost patience and decided to have him killed. 2002) was a Sicilian-born American mafioso who became the boss of the Bonanno crime family. However. During the Prohibition era. former Bogan friend A. allegedly orchestrated by Charles "Lucky" Luciano. He also counted retired Bonanno crime family boss Joseph Bonanno in Arizona. but was unsuccessful. Impressed with the young criminal. While on parole. Bompensiero had dealings in Las Vegas with Cleveland mobster Moe Dalitz and Chicago Outfit mobster Anthony Spilotro. Dragna eventually made him a caporegime (captain). Since the death of Los Angeles boss Jack Dragna. He was convicted of a liquor violation in San Diego and his other early arrests were for possession of firearms. The rest of the defendants were acquitted at trial. Bonanno was born Giuseppe Carlo Bonanno on January 18. married. Frank Bompensiero was shot to death at close range with a silenced . In The Godfather Garden: The Long Life and Times of Richie the Boot Boiardo. Fratianno became convinced that he was informant. Bompensiero made a name for himself for the many killings he committed on the orders of his superiors. a daughter Mary Ann. He began his sentence at Chino in San Bernardino. the Los Angeles family was still trying to get to Bompensiero. Spilotro sneaked into Rand's house and fatally shot her. but suffice to say Siringo felt all but certain he knew these facts. By all accounts. Boiardo was ambushed and seriously wounded with 12 buckshot pellet wounds. He eventually married Thelma Jan San-Felippe and had one child. Bompenseiro worked several jobs for close associates. the press suspected Zwillman was responsible. illegal gambling. kidnapping and murder. Sr. Rand was suing Allen Glick. During this time he was also used by Dragna as a hitman in San Diego and Los Angeles. who was working for the Los Angeles crime family and became his mentor. Charlie Siringo revealed that he believed Bogan was still living. However. the same place where Jimmy Fratianno was serving a prison sentence. a town on the northwestern coast ofSicily. New Jersey in North Arlington. Bompensiero was reduced to the rank of soldier by the new boss.February 28. Salvatore Maranzano. Despite this animosity. or full member of the new Luciano crime family established by Lucky Luciano. and the personal recollections of the Boot's grandson Roger Hanos.April 1953 and "Red" Sagunda .date unknown. and made peace with each other. Bompensiero agreed to become an undercover FBI informant and the charges against him were dropped. The government later charged Ricciardi with Bompensiero's murder. and Florida where he had majority gambling interests in the early hotel/casinos. In his book "A Lonestar Cowboy". once said that Bompensiero "had buried more bones than could be found in the brontosaurus room of the Museum of Natural History. In 1978. Eventually. and Michael Rizzitello was given a subpoena.Frank DeSimone. suffering a broken neck. Bompensiero was convicted of bribery. Harry "Hooky" Rothman . At the time. on February 10. His close associates in Los Angeles included Jimmy Fratianno and Leo Moceri. He eventually served a year in McNeil Island Corrections Center for the liquor conviction and was released in 1933. 1939. was a Mafia hitman and longtime Caporegime in the Los Angeles crime family. Boiardo became a made man. With Zwillman's death in 1959. He also owned the Gold Rail cafe in downtown that he owned with Dragna's son Frank and nephew Louis. Six months later. he worked at an automobile parts manufacturer. Fratianno told law enforcement that mob associate Thomas Ricciardi killed Bompensiero in return for membership in the Los Angeles family. Jimmy Fratianno. Bompensiero was arrested with Fratianno over a dirt hauling bribery scheme involving Fratianno's trucking company. 1984. Bonanno became involved in bootlegging activities. Florida. While in Milwaukee. and was interred at Holy Cross Cemetery. placing him in charge of all of the L. Bompensiero attempted to transfer to the Chicago Outfit. and also that he'd built a ranch there and prospered. Bompensiero had been highly critical of the new family leadership. and that he had reason to believe Bogan had returned to the United States under yet another assumed name. His first criminal activity involved bookmaking while he worked as a milkman. he'd become active in the Mafia during his youth in Italy. Outraged. His San Diego crew consisted of men like Tony Mirable. 1905 – May 11. When Ricciardi shot Bompensiero. In November 1975. Sometime later. who never trusted Bompensiero. Bompensiero was escorted from prison by the police so he could attend her funeral. boss Jack Dragna died of a heart attack and Frank DeSimone took over the crime family. and Joseph Li Mandri.A. a mob front man in Las Vegas. Richard Boiardo (December Frank "Bomp" Bompensiero (October 29." Bompensiero's family was from in Sicily. but he died of heart disease before the trial could start. these were just front jobs to satisfy his parole requirements. this family became the Genovese family under boss Vito Genovese. (January 18.August 18. The following is a list of confirmed murders that Bompensiero committed: Phil Galuzo . Unsatisfied with Bompensiero's responses. In the 1930s. In 1957. 1905 in Castellammare del Golfo. and soon joined a Mafia family led by another Castellammarese. He demoted Bompensiero to soldier and placed Tony Mirable as boss of San Diego. and John Roselli as his allies (although he'd have a falling out with the latter). Boiardo also owned a residences in Havana. During his time in prison. A week later. 1977) Joseph Charles Bonanno. 1984). During this time he was active in bootlegging in San Diego during the prohibition era. Bonanno was recognized by his . and conspiracy in an illegal liquor license transaction and was sentenced to 3–42 years in prison. published in 1919. Cuba. New Jersey. Boiardo died of natural causes on October 29. The sting operation worked. 1890 – October 24. the FBI set up a pornography business called "Forex" and used Bompensiero to convince the Los Angeles family to make an attempt to extort it. His family immigrated to the United States in 1904 along with the Balistieri family (Frank Balistrieri would eventually lead the Milwaukee crime family). Here he met Jack Dragna. He also had a grandson named Frank. At the time. he was alive and well with a family. but returned in 1941. In 1956. with the death of boss Jack Dragna. he never revealed the identity of who he believed Bogan to be. He is the older brother of associate Salvatore "Sam" Bompensiero. Almost from the beginning. whom the Boot subsequently had murdered. Bonanno slipped back into the United States in 1924 by stowing away on a Cuban fishing boat bound for Tampa. the former account is more likely. Frank Borgia – 1951. He was later transferred to San Quentin State Prison in Northern California. his family moved to the United States and settled in the Williamsburg neighborhood in Brooklynfor about 10 years before returning to Italy. However. Biaggio Bonventre. It was during his time in San Diego that he worked in organized crime. family's interests in San Diego. He moved toSan Diego as a young man in the mid-1920s and also served in the United States Army for a year. and he fled to the United States after Benito Mussolini initiated a crackdown. Bompensiero helped Spilotro murder Tamara Rand. Bompensiero was an extremely cautious gangster and proved difficult to kill. said the Soprano family was based on Boiardo and his crew. His family were Mafioso themselves in Sicily before leaving.in Mexico. Boiardo became the undisputed mob boss of Newark. the two mobsters were brought together. He was involved in one of the botched attempts on Mickey Cohen's life. The book was published by Rutgers University Press in March 2013. 8. but dropped out after the third grade. It was rumoured Bogan was killed while riding with bandits in Argentina. was a caporegime in the Genovese crime family who ran mob operations in the Newark. also known as "Ruggiero Boiardo" and "Richie the Boot". After the family settled in Milwaukee Bompensiero was born on October 29. He was later wanted for murder and was forced to leave the city to avoid law enforcement scrutiny. During the 1940s and 1950s. 1977. Bompensiero and Spilotro started a loan shark operation in Las Vegas. based on archival material. and raised a family on a small ranch. Boiardo eventually controlled criminal activities in the First Ward section of Newark. In some support of Siringo's allegations. Boiardo fought with Jewish mobster Abner "Longy" Zwillman for control of criminal rackets in Newark. Brooklier was on the other end of the phone line and Jack LoCicero was waiting with the getaway car. Bompensiero's early career in San Diego dates to the 1920s. Louis "Russian Louie" Strauss . Boss Dominic Brooklier. interviews with family and friends. David Chase. In 1967. After the Forex indictments in February 1977. operating a small ranch under an assumed name in Texas. Fratianno questioned Bompensiero about the company. Bompensiero owned a San Diego music store with Gaspare Matranga and a wire service company. In the early 1970s. C. While in prison. Joe Adamo. Bompensiero and his men owned and operated several bars in the downtown area where they often conducted loan sharking operations. since several other Castellammarese mafiosi fled to the United States around the same time. his wife Thelma died of a stroke. before moving to the Pacific Beach neighborhood later on in his life. When he was three years old.

In 1931. Additionally. born 1945. Arizona. another Castellammarese. Catherine. New York mob boss Stefano Magaddino. Soon. Although none of his testimony led to any actual prosecutions. the Commission imposed a very lenient punishment—a $43. Vito Genovese and Frank Costello were fighting for control of the Luciano family. Despite this. Bonanno claimed he skipped the meeting. momentum had shifted to Maranzano and the Castellammarese faction. Long Island and moved his family out of Brooklyn. For instance. In light of Magliocco's failing health. also supported Maranzano. Bonanno left the country. and according to Bonanno. a name he despised. would not accept this. a third. Magaddino's son was Peter Magaddino. They were better organized and more unified than Masseria's men. knowing that his fellow bosses had put a price on his head. Supposedly Magaddino represented the Commission. Luciano established a national commission in which each of the families would be represented by their boss and to which each family would owe allegiance. While it was traditionally one of the smaller ones of the five New York families. unmasked many of the leaders and recalled old feuds and murders. The Buffalo. it was nonetheless devastating to the mob. but was gunned down in October 1957. were indicted with obstruction of justice after refusing to answer questions regarding the meeting. However. Bonanno's large cash position gleaned from crime allowed him to make many profitable real estate investments during the Great Depression. Magaddino was incensed that Bonanno was moving in on Toronto. a boyhood friend of Bonanno from his student days in Palermo. The first round of questioning was to start on the day after he disappeared. Although this account has long been accepted as part of Mafia lore. Attorney Robert Morgenthau. as well as Bonanno's cousin Magaddino and Frank DeSimone in Los Angeles. the Commission ordered Magliocco and Bonanno to appear for questioning. FBI recordings of New Jersey boss Sam "the Plumber" Decavalcante revealed that the other bosses were taken by surprise when Bonanno disappeared. Bonanno had no interest in starting another gang war to avenge his predecessor and quickly reconciled with Luciano. Gambino called an emergency meeting of the Commission. but Masseria stubbornly refused. His legitimate business interests included areas as diverse as the garment industry (three coat factories and a laundry). under indictment for murderering a fellow inmate. The purpose of this organization was to prevent another bloodletting like the Castellammarese War. but the attending capo Gaspar DiGregorio was carrying Bonanno's recently renewed driver's license. secret. whom they called "Mustache Petes. have a decided preference for expensive cigars. it was more tight-knit than the others. Eventually. by nearly all accounts he'd been murdered by Albert Anastasia. With almost no internal dissension and little harassment from other gangs or the law. Masseria became increasingly suspicious of the growing number of Castellammarese in Brooklyn. As he prospered. In return for safety and equal status for Luciano in Maranzano's new organization. Profaci. Masseria had Lucky Luciano. when DiGregorio was arrested at a roadblock he was misidentified as Bonanno. After Masseria's death. especially Luciano. one of the most feared men in the syndicate. After the death of Joe Profaci. the meeting was aborted when police investigated the destination of the many out-of-state attendees' vehicles and arrested many of the fleeing mafiosi. however. two months after Maranzano was murdered. He was also facing pressure from U. Called by Vito Genovese to discuss the future of Cosa Nostra in light of the intrigues that brought himself and Carlo Gambino to power. his family was sometimes called "the Bananas family" after his nickname. it didn't take them long to conclude that Bonanno was the real mastermind. then re-entered legally at Detroit so that he could apply for citizenship. He sensed they were gradually dissociating themselves from his overall leadership. and told his cousin that he "took up too much space in the air". Colombo betrayed his boss and went instead to Gambino and Lucchese. Peter Magaddino and Antonino Magaddino. which he was reported to have attended. Magliocco was dead from high blood pressure. .. As a consequence. and the other headed by Bonanno and his son.000 fine and ordering him to hand over leadership of his family to Colombo. This war between Masseria and Maranzano became known as the Castellammarese War. Lucchese. An official police report instead lists him as being caught fleeing on foot. Gambino and Anastasia on the Masseria side and Profaci. and other illegal activities. Maranzano and other old-line mafiosi. In New York City. bookmaking. Vincent Mangano had mysteriously disappeared in 1951. but this is highly unlikely. Bonanno bought property in Hempstead. Each family would be largely autonomous in their designated area. wanting to avoid a repetition of the bloodbaths of the 1930s. The two then planned to have Gambino and Lucchese killed.S. Dozens of capos – including Bonanno – were captured and charged with various crimes. who were now backed by Lucchese and Gambino. In 1927 violence broke out between the two rival factions that shortly developed into all-out war. and Joseph Charles Jr. long considered part of the Buffalo family's territory. Luciano and Genovese urged Masseria to make peace with Maranzano. They had three children: Salvatore "Bill" Bonanno. where he had business interests. "respect" and "dignity" than others of his generation. Luciano and Genovese murdered Masseria and ended the Castellammarese War. They intended to let Bonanno off easily as well. For instance. however. they removed him from power and replaced him with one of his capos. The only encounter Bonanno had with the law during these years was when a clothing factory that he partly owned was charged with violating the federal minimum wage and hour law. cheese factories.accomplices in Brooklyn as a man with superior organizational skills and quick instincts. In 1938. Bonanno and his wife would visit their son during the winter months. Bonanno didn't show up. it is not likely that Bonanno would have been walking the streets of New York unguarded. The company was fined $50. each of whom would elect its own boss. he was held captive in upstate New York by his cousin. Maranzano's chief aides were Bonanno (as underboss and chief of staff). Joe "the Boss" Masseria. a Sicilian proverb for arrogance. Bonanno was awarded most of Maranzano's crime family. However. Bonanno was nicknamed "Joe Bananas". Albert Anastasia and Frank Costello on his side. This final article of the plan did not please many of the gangsters. Profaci) had been with Bonanno. After six weeks. Salvatore. When Bill was ten years old he developed a mastoid infection of his ear that led to his being transferred to a private boarding school in Tucson. He preferred meeting with his soldati in his Brooklyn home or at rural retreats. After several months with no response from Bonanno. He did. Joseph Colombo. funeral homes. Luciano would have almost certainly had him killed as well had he still been loyal to Maranzano. Then in November the New York State Police raided the infamous Apalachin Meeting in rural Apalachin. and a trucking company. Bonanno was already becoming unpopular with other Mafia bosses. Adonis. or refuse and be jailed for contempt of court. A much safer nickname to use around him was "Don Peppino". Luciano arranged Maranzano's murder. Valachi described in detail the organizational structure of the Mafia. it is almost certainly false based on contemporary accounts of the time. At the head of the whole organization would be the capo di tutti capi (the boss of all bosses). In any case.Vincent Mangano and Maranzano respectively. By the mid 1950s. This resulted in his family breaking into two groups. some of whom began to defect. Bonanno. Arizona. born 1934. Joe Adonis. Bonanno was all but unknown to the general public until the disastrous Apalachin Conference of 1957. a very good friend of Bonanno and leader of the Profaci crime family. he was succeeded by another good friend of Bonanno's. Gagliano." In October 1964. Bonanno thus faced two bad choices—testify and break his blood oath. Bonanno purchased a house in Tucson. Bonanno was married to Fay Labruzzo. "tradition". It continued for more than four years. claiming he had lied on his citizenship application by concealing a criminal conviction. They quickly realized that Magliocco could not have planned this by himself. and other FBI recordings captured angry Bonanno soldiers saying. he saw the need to modernize and joined forces with the Young Turks. Maranzano outlined a peace plan to all the Sicilian and Italian gang leaders in the United States. 27 Apalachin attendees. At Gambino's suggestion. Bonanno was only a shareholder in the company and was not fined. Although Bonanno was more steeped in the old-school traditions of "honor". headed by Luciano. Some members of his family also thought he spent too much time away from New York. Many family members complained that Bonanno was almost never in New York and spent his time at his second home in Tucson. Vito Genovese. broke the code of omertà. however. In place of the capo di tutti capi in Maranzano's plan. Bonanno largely eschewed the lavish lifestyle associated with gangsters of his time. the one led by DiGregorio. By 1931." Bonanno's hold on his family had become tenuous in any event. and more than one body would be buried at once. Magliocco gave the contract to one of his top hit men. New York. In the end. and Bonanno wrote: "For nearly a thirty-year period after the Castellammarese War no internal squabbles marred the unity of our Family and no outside interference threatened the Family or me". Tommy Gagliano ran another gang that supported Maranzano. It was said that a Joe Bonanno-owned funeral parlor in Brooklyn was utilized as a convenient front for disposing of bodies: the funeral home's clients were provided with double—decker coffins. it succeeded. there would be 24 gangs (to be known as "families") throughout the United States. and more in Canada and Tucson. Carlo Gambino. Bonanno later claimed that he was kidnapped in front of his lawyer's apartment at 36 East 37th Street in New York City by Buffalo Family members. Magliocco and Magaddino on the Maranzano side. Bonanno was also feeling threatened by Lucchese and Gambino. a diminutive of his original Italian name. He also became known to the leader of Mafia activities in New York. Newspapers referred to this as "The Banana Split. By the time Bonanno became a US citizen in 1945. Then in 1963 Joseph Valachi. who had served him with a subpoena to testify before a grand jury investigating organized crime. Bonanno disappeared and was not heard from again for two years. the Commission that had held the peace for so many years was unraveling. numbers running. "That son-of-a-bitch took off and left us here alone. Years later. born 1932. but Magliocco did and confessed. Government officials later arrested Bonanno. Gagliano. but the Commission would arbitrate disputes between gangs. Luciano and Genovese concluded a secret deal with Maranzano. Magliocco began to have troubles with the rebellious Joe Gallo and his brothers Larry and Albert. Meanwhile. Bonanno himself suffered a heart attack and was severed from the resulting trial. Bonanno became one of the youngest-ever bosses of a crime family. prostitution. Anastasia took control of his family. Bonanno was released and allowed to go to Texas. he was a multi-millionaire. the charge was dismissed in court. Under this plan. and the indictment and resulting convictions were ultimately thrown out. By 1930. Gaspar DiGregorio. faction soon emerged. Joe Magliocco. Stefano Magaddino. the Bonanno family prospered in the running of its loan sharking. Remembering how close Magliocco (and before him. Tommy Lucchese and Joseph Magliocco. The establishment of the Commission ushered in more than 20 years of relative "peace" to the New York and national organized crime scene. five Mafia families were established. including Bonanno. According to Bonanno. Bonanno wrote in hisautobiography that he didn't know about the plan to kill Maranzano. Unlike most of his compatriots. At age 26. composed of younger mafiosi on both sides disgusted with the old-world predilections of Masseria. Soon." This group of "Young Turk" mafiosi was led by Luciano and included Costello. a soldier in the Genovese family. Genovese. namely Maranzano. The Bonanno crime family's underbosses were Frank Garofalo and John Bonventre.

his two sons. In later years.] [H]e actually admitted [. Despite an arrest record dating back to the 1920s. died on May 11. and when Bill Bonanno arrived a large gun battle ensued.] that he was the boss of a family. Many people considered this kidnapping to be a ruse meant to protect Joseph from the Commission's wrath.000 guests. Joe's cousin. Lucchese crime family boss Gaetano Lucchese. Charles. Mustache Petes. Bill was indicted in Oakland. Salvatore and Joe Jr. The Bonannos were looking to buy him out for $2 million. He became close friends with Bill's father. This book was eventually converted to the 1993 Lifetime Network filmLove. Bill developed a severe mastoid ear infection. In 2006. episode 66 of The Sopranos. Bonanno reasoned. Bonanno kept the vow of omertà and answered no questions in government hearings. Upon retirement. however. Bonanno. in view of his status as a Mafia elder statesman. Joe Bonanno Sr. On January 23. In 1999. However. but never graduated. Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield. He was indicted for failing to appear before the grand jury. taping conversations. Assigned federal inmate number 07255-008. Designed to cement an alliance between the two crime families. Bonanno was never convicted of a serious crime. No one was wounded during this confrontation. still in hiding. After considerable debate. Bonanno justified his decision to write A Man of Honor on the grounds that omertà represented a lifestyle and tradition greater than the code of silence it is generally understood to be: as he had not been compelled to reveal his secrets by becoming an informant or government witness. However. Instead. and Buffalo crime family boss and cousin. Joseph Bonanno was initially infuriated at the book and refused to speak to Salvatore for a year. A fierce.[3]DeCavalcante crime family boss Sam DeCavalcante later remarked on Bill's poor treatment of Rosalie: "It's a shame. Gambino boss Paul Castellano and Lucchese capos Salvatore Avellino and Salvatore Santoro were all caught on tape expressing their horror that Bonanno discussed the existence of the Commission. grew up. this was one of the closest indictments in Joe Bonanno's career. Bill and Rosalie eventually had four children. which then summoned Joseph to explain the assassination plot. Between 1950 and 1952. But Peters instead became an undercover agent for the FBI. In 1985.What is beyond dispute is that Bonanno resurfaced in May 1966 at Foley Square. In 1968.2 million. participated as a Mafia expert in the filming of Deadliest Warrior: "Mafia vs. During Joseph's two-year absence. but the fighting carried on regardless. The family split into two factions. the last remaining Mafia don who survived Italian fascism.. Bill also attended Tucson High. He was once fined $450 and held in contempt of court for refusing to testify in 1985. In early 1966. When I got up in the morning. Honor. Arizona. published the memoir Mafia Marriage: My Story. In 1938. Arizona to the U. niece of Profaci crime family boss Joseph Profaci. Rosalie Profaci Bonanno. Peters provided key insider testimony. Bill also resigned as consigliere and moved out of New York with his father. after his father purchased property in Hempstead. California on 21 counts of grand theft for defrauding senior citizens in California for home improvements that were never completed. Bonanno's attitude had changed. Technically. they stipulated that if Bonanno broke his promise. There was no violence from either side until a 1966 Brooklyn sit-down. but short gunfight took place. was equally disgusted by the book. many family members felt that Bill lacked experience and was too intellectual to lead effectively. he moved to an apartment in Stockton. the sumptuous wedding had 3. the Lifetime TV network produced a biographical film called Bonanno: A Godfather's Story. Although his father never intended for him to be the underboss of the Bonanno crime family. In 1964. In 1963. the Commission accepted Bonanno's offer. DiGregorio revolt led to four years of strife in the Bonanno family. Eugene Pontecorvo wants to retire and uses Joe Bananas as an example of a retired mob member. However. the girl wanted to commit suicide because of the way he treated her". brought high heat in Northern California after getting involved with Lou Peters. Peters turned into an undercover for the FBI. In 2009. he became a writer and produced films for television about his family. Bill Bonanno appeared on the CBS News TV program 60 Minutes to be interviewed by correspondent Mike Wallace. California areas. Further peace offers from both sides were spurned with the ongoing violence and murders. factories. laundered his ill-gotten millions through legitimate businesses. Arizona with his family. He also promised to never involve himself again in New York Mafia affairs. DiGregorio's men arrived at the meeting.actually two goals. in the San Jose. his appointment to high positions in the syndicate precipitated a "mob war" which led to the Bonanno family's exile to Arizona. his brother-inlaw Frank Labruzzo and Bonanno's son Bill. his parents enrolled him in a Catholic boarding school in the dry climate of Tucson. Though he was not arrested for this. soon after the commission summons. Louis E. Thomas Bonanno. although the character is in many ways a composite of several figures. and collaborated with author Gay Talese on the bookHonor Thy Father. suffering a heart attack and announcing his permanent retirement in 1968. even staying at Bonanno's Tucson home. 2002 of heart failure at the age of 97. hoping to prove its existence given that he spoke about it in his book." He was so outraged and embarrassed by it that he renamed the family "the Massino family" (although Massino himself later became a government witness and the "Massino" family name never caught on outside the family). Bill Bonanno was the first child of Joseph and Fay (née Labruzzo) Bonanno. becoming the Bonannos' friend. At some time after 1952. with an offer to buy him out for $2 million. In the late 1970s. "Members Only". the DiGregorio supporters and the Bonanno loyalists. Bonanno's book was publiched in 1983 as A Man of Honor: The Autobiography of Joseph Bonanno. Lodi andStockton." Joseph Massino. The Commission grew tired of the affair and replaced DiGregorio with Paul Sciacca. Bill agreed and suggested his grand-uncle's house on Troutman Street in Brooklyn as a meeting site. These tensions only worsened when Bill advised his father against involving the family in the illegal narcotics trade. On January 26. after a heart attack. and considered it a flagrant violation of omertà. Bonanno rallied several members of his family behind him. Stefano Magaddino. and Felippa ("Gigi"). In April 1983. my goal was to live to sunset. Bill and his brother. The DiGregorio's loyalists planned to wipe out the opposition but they failed and no one was killed. In 2004 Joe's daughter-in-law began putting Joe's personal items up for auction on eBay. DiGregorio allegedly contacted Bill about having a peace meeting. Joseph was kidnapped off the streets of New York. labeled by the media as the "Bananas Wars".his death (from natural causes) in 1973 brought Philip "Rusty" Rastelli to the throne. was named after Bonanno. Missouri due to ill health at his advanced age and released on November 1. In 1991. Bill was inducted as a "made man" into the Bonanno family. & Obey: The Last Mafia Marriage. demonstrating his skills and marksmanship with aThompson submachine gun as well as talking about "true" Sicilian Mafia philosophy and culture.[1] On August 18. henchman for Don Uggie Apelino. Long Island. A federal judge smacked the 75-year-old Bonanno with his first felony conviction. Yakuza". he did not violate his code of honor.. Salvatore. Bill was convicted of conspiracy and theft. Bill studied agriculture at the University of Arizona. that he's a man of honor? [. Peters. and Stockton. The government seized the opportunity and questioned him about the Commission. Bill married Rosalie Profaci. they were fired on by people inside. This continued until 2008. the FBI hit Bonanno with an indictment alleging he obstructed a San Jose grand jury investigation into his California assets. Lodi. As part of this peace agreement. with Avellino complaining "What is he trying to prove. Bonanno mobster Gaspar DiGregorio took advantage of family discontent over Bill's role to claim family leadership. 1981. And when sunset came. bluntly telling his colleagues that Bonanno had "disrespected the family by ratting. even staying at Joe Bonanno's Tucson home. In 1977. which led many observers to conclude that it never happened. After a paranoid Peters saw Bonanno's nephew flirting with his daughter. To aid in treating this ailment. was considered by many to be largely based on Bonanno. he had become interested in writing an autobiography to offer his own take on his life. Bill's first ambition (after a try at law school) was to manage the legitimate end of Joseph's farms. Joe Jr. where he was at one time sent to federal prison to serve time for various offenses during his previous stay in that state. Evola's leadership was short lived .. His replacement was Natale "Joe Diamonds" Evola as boss of the Bonanno family. Joseph. as Bill and his loyalists approached the house. The film chronicles the rise and fall of organized crime in the United States. Bonanno Sr. he was transferred from the Federal Correctional Institution in Tucson. 1932 – January 1. The Bonannos planned to purchase a string of 13 Central Valley car dealerships and launder mob money. Bonanno worked occasionally as a television producer (primarily on mini-series and films related to his family's criminal past). 1966. The Godfather. Later in life. claiming he'd been kidnapped. 1986. he next attended school there after the family relocated. Bonanno and his son subsequently moved to Arizona. Peters would remain a front man. but challenged it for five years until it was dismissed in 1971. Joseph ended the family warfare by agreeing to retire as boss and move to Arizona. a Salvatore Vincent "Bill" Bonanno (November . The Judge Dredd comic strip character Joe Bananas. even Bonanno staying there for three days. Bonanno's daughter-in-law." In the late 70s. Bill made the following observation about this period: "I always say I had only one goal in the '60s . brought high heat in Northern California after getting involved with Lou Peters. But Peters decided to help take Bonanno Sr. 2008) was the son of Cosa Nostra boss Joseph Bonanno. a Cadillac-Oldsmobile dealer. in particularlySan Jose. though the family would need almost a quarter-century to recover the prominence and wealth it had enjoyed under Bonanno. By the late 1970s.. California. In later years. Unwilling to accept the loss of his family. Bill first attended school in Brooklyn. Profaci capo Joseph Colombo betrayed Joseph to the Commission. Salvatore approached the owner of a Lodi Cadillac-Oldsmobile dealership. 1956. a Cadillac-Oldsmobile dealer. The title character Vito Corleone in Mario Puzo's 1969 novel. down. he was allowed to live at home in the Blenman-Elm neighborhood of Tucson. who took over Bonanno's family in 1991. he would be killed on the spot. and his own bloody war. Charles was adopted by Bonanno and his wife in 1958. Joseph conspired with Profaci family boss Joseph Magliocco to assassinate their three bitter rivals on the Mafia Commission: Gambino crime family boss Carlo Gambino. Both factions came together under Sciacca's leadership. in which the dealership was valued around $1. At age 10. The war was finally brought to a close with Joe Bonanno. Joseph Bonanno and his son. Bonanno got five years. he served one. many of them in California. my second goal was to live to sunrise. Joseph appointed him as family consigliere. 5.. The Bonanno loyalists were led by Bonanno. allegedly by Magaddino's men.S. Owing to his poor health. During Salvatore Bonanno's trial he gave interviews to author Gay Talese that formed part of the basis of his 1971 true crime book Honor Thy Father. He is buried at Holy Hope Cemetery & Mausoleum in Tucson. As Joe Jr. and the real estate empire..[17] Other New York Mafia leaders were nevertheless outraged by his revelations. Supported by the Mafia Commission.

. Actor Tony Nardi depicted the adult Joseph Bonanno in Bonanno: A Godfather's Story. he encountered the 400-ton merchant vessel Protestant Caesar off Honduras. not guns and money. Bonnet and Blackbeard separated. and his frustrated crew became restive. increasing the sloop's armament to twelve guns. The Revenge later captured and looted the Spofford and Sea Nymph. Blackbeard and Bonnet weighed anchor and sailed northward to Delaware Bay. Discussing the allegation that Roselli fired from a storm drain in a conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy. Bonanno's autobiography. While at Nassau. and . which were leaving Philadelphia. Bonnet now sailed into the western Caribbean. which he equipped with six guns and named the Revenge. Under Captain Richards. Bonnet anchored the Royal James on an estuary of the Cape Fear River to careen and repair the ship. In his memoir. He had returned to piracy by July 1718. since deterring slave revolts was an important function of the militia. On November 17. where he attacked two more ships. he married Mary Allamby. Bonnet set course for Nassau. This was unusual. the Revenge captured a Jamaican sloop. Bonnet would not exercise command again until the summer of 1718.. In 1709. were the cornerstones of the Mafia. but he was seriously wounded en route during an encounter with aSpanish warship. Honor & Obey: The Last Mafia Marriage". Charles Johnson wrote that Bonnet was driven to piracy by Mary's nagging and "[d]iscomforts he found in a married State. while the other children survived to see their father abandon them for piracy. Bonnet's crew deserted him to join Blackbeard. According to Bonanno. sometimes called "The Gentleman Pirate" because he was a moderately wealthy landowner before turning to a life of crime. for 36 years Speaker of the Assembly of Barbados. 1718 but was recaptured on Sullivan's Island. He stated that several Cosa Nostra families shared close ties with members of the Cuban exile movement dating back to the mob casinos in Havana before the Cuban Revolution. Roselli fired at Kennedy from a storm drain on Elm Street. Bonnet was seriously wounded. 1718) was an early 18th-century Barbadian pirate. Blackbeard and Bonnet plundered and captured merchant ships along the East Coast. 1718 Bonnet was brought to trial and charged with two acts of piracy. Bonnet married Mary Allamby in Bridgetown on November 21. After Bonnet failed to capture the Protestant Caesar. Bonnet decided to turn to piracy in the summer of 1717. On November 10. They had three sons—Allamby. Bonnet enlisted a crew of more than seventy men. Bill Bonanno was the main character in the 1971 non-fiction book Honor Thy Father. better known as Blackbeard.[8] Bonanno also claimed in the book that he had discussed the assassination of President John F. In August 1718. surprised that his colleague had betrayed him." Emil Franzi of the Tucson Weekly wrote: "This slice of high-level Mafia existence definitely belongs on the shelves of two different libraries -. Bonanno said that he realized the degree of Cosa Nostra involvement in the assassination when he witnessed on television Jack Ruby. Bill Bonanno died of a heart attack on the morning of January 1. Rhett arrested the pirates and brought them to Charleston in early October." Details of Bonnet's military service are unclear." Blackbeard took the Concorde and sailed south into the Grenadines. so he adopted the alias "Captain Thomas" and changed his ship's name to Royal James. Disabled by his wounds. Blackbeard put a henchman named Richards in command of the Revenge. with the authorisation of South Carolina governor Robert Johnson. Bonnet stayed on Blackbeard's ship as a guest. Bonnet was born into a wealthy English family on the island of Barbados. who witnessed and experienced it firsthand. Bonanno was an executive producer for Showtime's two-part television miniseries. In late August and September. was published by St. when Mario Puzo's books and Francis Ford Coppola's movies introduced the country to the peculiar mix of honor and violence that Bonanno crudely celebrates. PW said: "overblown claims are just part of a bloviating style windy with references to 'our tradition' and 'our world. Edward and Sarah Bonnet. Bonnet temporarily ceded command of the Revenge to Blackbeard. By August 1717. found himself as a guest aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge. Edward's granddaughter. He relied on his quartermaster and officer for their knowledge of sailing. and Stede—and a daughter. but rather a treatise on the demise of the American Mafia told from the perspective of someone. lacking any command and still unwell from his wounds. despite having no knowledge of shipboard life. Barbados under cover of darkness. Some time after December 19. the Adventure. Bound by Honor: A Mafioso's Story. "Love. an associate of Chicago Outfit mobster Sam Giancana. played a large role in the remainder of Bonnet's life. and despite his lack of sailing experience. Bonnet replaced his casualties and refitted the Revenge. whose merchant ship was taken on October 12. and did not command a crew again until summer 1718. When Bonnet encountered Blackbeard again shortly afterward. and traveled with his paid crew along the Eastern Seaboard of what is now the United States. Stede Bonnet decided to become a pirate. where he renamed the ship Queen Anne's Revenge. En route. but surrendered after the pirates bombarded them with "two volleys of cannons and musketry. Bonanno theorized that Cuban exiles and the Cosa Nostra murdered President John F. but remained aboard as a guest of the more experienced pirate captain. and half the crew of the sloop was killed or wounded in the encounter. His parents. Bonnet had returned to the Carolinas. Because of marital problems. the infamous pirate Blackbeard. Royal Navy intelligence reported that he departed Carlisle Bay. The ship escaped him. named it Revenge. the Revenge. Mary. In another break from tradition. In September 1717. killing Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald while in police custody. During the spring of 1717. He was interred near his father in Holy Hope Cemetery and Mausoleum in Tucson. The crew of the Concorde put up a fight. Herriot joined the pirates. Blackbeard and Bonnet left Delaware Bay and returned to the Caribbean in November. After the Barbadian sloop's tackle was used to careen the Revenge. The production was based on Bound by Honor: A Mafioso's Story and his father's 1983 autobiography A Man of Honor. which was bequeathed to Bonnet upon his father's death in 1694. Bonanno "writes longingly of a better time when honor and loyalty. capturing other vessels and burning other Barbadian ships. Robert Kennedy. Martin's Press in 1999. The rank was probably due to his land holdings. 1688 – December 10. Bonnet. plundered the sloop Betty. Captain Codd. he was not highly respected by his crew. fought. 1718. or else converted a privateer vessel to a pirate ship. opened a strong legal assault on the mob. Kennedy with mobster John Roselli and implicated him as the primary hitman in a conspiracy instigated by the mob." In 1999. After arriving in Nassau. 1717 the Revenge stopped and robbed the Robert and Good Intent of their supplies. Bahamas. In A General History of the Pyrates. and Bonnet was hanged in Charleston on December 10. captained by David Herriot. Bonnet confided in a few loyal crew members that he was ready to give up his criminal life if he could exile himself in Spain or Portugal. where they plundered eleven ships. He stripped the brigantine. In March 1718. 1709. Bonnet paid his crew wages. Bonnet met Edward Teach. 1717 a 200-ton ship named theConcorde was attacked by two pirate craft nearly 100 miles (160 km) away from the island of Martinique. Bonanno: A Godfather's Story. both the Cubans and the Cosa Nostra hated Kennedy enough to kill him. Bonnet temporarily ceded his ship's command to Blackbeard. He contracted a local shipyard to build him a sixty-ton sloop. as most pirates seized their ships by mutiny or boarding. but there is no record that he took part in the fighting. Bonnet wrote to Governor Johnson to ask forclemency. On October 22. the ship was dismantled for timber. Stede Bonnet (c. and engaged in some level of militia service.history of the Bonanno crime family. and Judge Nicholas Trott alluded to Bonnet's liberal education when sentencing him. Bonnet is believed to have been born in 1688. Eric Roberts portrayed him in the 1993 made-for-TV movie. The Revenge was badly damaged. George Anastasia wrote that the book "is not a mob tell-all. 1717. Anne Thomasine Clarke. not shares of plunder as most pirates did. which had a cargo full of Madeira wine. Bonnet set sail for Nassau. The Cosa Nostra felt betrayed when Kennedy's brother and Attorney General. Putting in at Nassau. was the wife of General Robert Haynes. 1717 described Bonnet as walking the deck in his nightshirt. but the outnumbered pirates ultimately surrendered. but brought the cargo-filled Barbadian sloop to an inlet off North Carolina to use for careening and repairing the Revenge.' phrases that would have struck a more resonant chord in the mid-70s. It is not known where Bonnet received his education. Bonnet's initial cruise took him to the coast of Virginia near the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay. which was then an infamous pirate den on the island of New Providence in the Bahamas. where they successfully continued their piracy. Incapable of leading his crew. Colonel William Rhett. captained by Blackbeard. as he was christened at Christ Church parish on July 29. a brigantine from Boston and a Barbadian sloop. He also co-wrote the novel "The Good Guys" with former undercover FBI agent Joseph Pistone and scriptwriter David Fisher. Judge Nicholas Trott sentenced Bonnet to death. On September 29. Edward. He then sailed north to New York. Bill was portrayed by actor Joseph Bologna. led a naval expedition against pirates on the river. Besides its obvious historical relevance. but he held the rank of major in the Barbados militia." According to Anastasia. and inherited the family estate after his father's death in 1694. but did not want to lose his pardon. Bonnet was tempted to resume his piracy. but Johnson endorsed the judge's decision. But like so much else in Bound by Honor. 1717. and burned the Barbadian shipTurbet to keep news of his crimes from his home island. but many who knew him described him as bookish. It is a fascinating description. and as a result. The lieutenant on board described the pirate vessels as one having 12 guns and 120 men and the other having eight guns and 30 men. when he was pardoned by North Carolina governor Charles Eden and received clearance to go privateering against Spanish shipping.collections on organized crime and those on the Kennedy assassination. In the television miniseries based on the book. Publisher's Weekly said in its review that the book is "big on bluster and short on substance" and that the author's "only apparent goal is to exalt the world of his father". According to Bonanno. 2008. taking two more ships. Bonnet's militia service coincided with the War of the Spanish Succession. He bought a sailing vessel. Kennedy. Rhett and Bonnet's men fought each other for hours. it's a fun read loaded with Tucson references. it is virtually unverifiable. Allamby died before 1715. where he captured and plundered four vessels. and escaped from a Spanish man of war. 1688. Many exiled Cubans blamed Kennedy for the failure of 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba. Teach. Bonnet met Captain Benjamin Hornigold and Edward Teach for the first time. and picking up naval supplies and releasing captives atGardiners Island.6 km2) southeast of Bridgetown. his crew abandoned him to join Blackbeard aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge. despite the mob's alleged support for Kennedy in the 1960 presidential election. he encountered. owned an estate of over 400 acres (1. Bonnet escaped on October 24. possibly as an insult to King George I of Great Britain. Before separating in December 1717. and the remains were then burned.

By the end of August. with no . This is the only time Bonnet is known to have practiced this important pirate custom. a small shallop entered the river and was captured. which would last until autumn. Bonnet's men would have had little hope of winning a boarding action. While awaiting his execution. putatively on condition of their renouncing piracy forever. the pirates intended to wait out the hurricane season there. had more power than Bonnet. and calling acharacter witness in his favor.Blackbeard now possessed three ships. where Blackbeard's four vessels blockaded the port of Charleston in the late spring of 1718. robbed the Revenge and two other vessels of the squadron of most of their supplies. Blackbeard and Bonnet went ashore and journeyed to Bath. He appears to have been entrusted with the company's treasure. his flagship Henry had run aground in the river mouth. At daybreak. Rhett's closing sloops also ran aground. Ross apparently attempted this. Robert Johnson. Shortly after Bonnet resumed command. Bonnet reinforced the Revenge by rescuing a number of men whom Blackbeard had marooned on asandbar in Topsail Inlet. Bonnet downplayed his own authority over his pirate crew. Bonnet also wrote a letter to Governor Johnson. Blackbeard and Bonnet headed north to Topsail Inlet. and London papers later reported that the governor delayed his execution seven times. Shortly afterward. Despite the frequent appearance of this flag in modern pirate literature. Bonnet's crew represented him as being a leader. Philip Gosse in 1939. Bonnet's crew and contemporaries generally referred to him flying a "bloody flag". Because of his ignorance of nautical matters. he cruised north to Delaware Bay. 1718. of his original crew from Barbados were still aboard. while the Henry's deck was tilted toward the pirates. news had reached Charleston that Bonnet's vessels were moored in the Cape Fear River. Trott sentenced Bonnet to death. two pressing problems now tempted him back into piracy. Bonnet ordered his gunner. leaving only the Henry in range of the Saint James. Eden granted Bonnet this clearance. Bonnet was brought to trial before Sir Nicholas Trott. First. The 46 pirates were scattered among the three sloops. Soon afterward. Nevertheless. 1718. a bumboat's crew told him that Blackbeard was moored in Ocracoke Inlet. and it appears likely that. which was then capital of North Carolina. and sailed away for parts unknown aboard the sloop Adventure. but could not find him. all on a black field. at Delaware Bay he ordered two of his crew to be flogged for breaches of discipline. initiating the Battle of Cape Fear River. begging abjectly for clemency and promising to have his own arms and legs cut off as assurance that he would never again commit piracy. threatening to kill any pirate who faltered in the fight. if any. Rhett arrived at the mouth of the Cape Fear River on September 26. and the jury delivered a guilty verdict. he retained control of the last two ships he captured: the sloops Francis and Fortune. but foul winds and lack of supplies forced the four of them onto Sullivan's Island. Charles Johnson wrote that Bonnet's visibly disintegrating mind moved many Carolinians to pity. He told the court that his crew engaged in piracy against his will. some of whom joined his pirate crew. Few. and Bonnet never met Blackbeard again. Needing a place to rest and refit their vessels. Bonnet now (probably late June or early July 1718) resumed command of theRevenge. In July 1718. Bonnet's force suffered twelve casualties while killing ten and wounding fourteen of Rhett's 70-man crew. Bonnet entered the estuary of the Cape Fear River and anchored near the mouth of a small waterway now known as Bonnet's Creek. Trott rendered a damning summation of the evidence. the Royal James and the two captured sloops sailed southward from Delaware Bay. somewhat reluctantly. whose commanders were on hand to testify against Bonnet in person. On August 1. Trott had already sat in judgment on Bonnet's crew and sentenced most of them to hang. to blow up the Royal James's powder magazine. Twelve days out of Delaware Bay. On November 10. and his sailing master. Bonnet threatened at least one man with marooning if he did not work the Royal James' pumps. Unfortunately for Rhett. Bonnet was formally charged with only two acts of piracy. The captured sloops lagged behind. as is demonstrated by the utter domination Blackbeard exercised over him during their collaboration. in Charleston. obtained a boat and made for the north shore of Charleston Harbor. Rhett arrested the pirates and returned to Charleston with his prisoners on October 3. Bonnet was left helpless. authorised Colonel William Rhett to lead a naval expedition against the pirates. Bonnet remained in the Cape Fear River for the next 45 days. carrying all the loot with him. The battle was at a stalemate for the next five or six hours. and all three sloops opened fire. Robert Tucker. who surrendered. Although Bonnet apparently never discarded his hopes of reaching St. A powerful quartermaster appears to have been a common feature of pirate crews in the early modern era. The Royal James had begun to leak badly and was in need of careening. his crew seems to have been less than loyal to him and to have greatly preferred the more charismatic and experienced Blackbeard. probably by colluding with local merchant Richard Tookerman. The name Royal James that Bonnet conferred on his sloop was presumably a reference to the younger Prince James Stuart. challenging their enemies to board and fight hand to hand. as he had no access to the procedures and sanctions of admiralty law that supported legitimate captains. watching while the enemy vessels repaired their rigging and closed to board his paralysed vessel. Bonnet tried to avoid the trap by steering the Saint James close to the river's western shore. This version of Bonnet's flag is probably one of a number of pirate flags appearing on an undated manuscript with unknown provenance in Britain's National Maritime Museum. against Bonnet himself. on December 10. no known early-Georgian period source describes any such device. and said he had warned them that he would leave the crew unless they stopped robbing vessels. Bonnet adopted the alias "Captain Thomas" and changed the Revenge's name to the Royal James. Many pirate captains were elected by their crews and could be deposed in the same manner. Thomas. The sun had set by the time the rising tide lifted the Henry off the river bottom. Bonnet and his crew divided their loot into shares of about £10 or £11 and distributed them amongst themselves. 1717. Most significantly. an event authorities would later describe as having nearly resulted in the burning of the town and the overthrow of the government. after his rescue of Blackbeard's marooned crewmen. Bonnet set sail toward Rhett's force. He took several prisoners. much less attributes it to Bonnet. According to Bonnet's boatswain. which likely means a dark red flag. accompanied by a slave and an Indian. but was overruled by the remainder of the crew. During the night. Bonnet's flag is traditionally represented as a white skull above a horizontal long bone between a heart and a dagger. Leaving the remaining three vessels at Topsail Inlet. recognise the heavily armed and manned sloops as hostile and return uninjured to warn Bonnet. pillaging another eleven vessels. Bonnet further tried to disguise his return to piracy by engaging in a pretense of trade with the next two vessels he robbed. but ran aground in the process. even though the Cape Fear River was in North Carolina's jurisdiction. Boatswain Ignatius Pell testified that Bonnet's quartermaster. The work of careening was done. killing Herriott and wounding the two slaves. While awaiting trial. Bonnet accompanied Blackbeard to South Carolina. Pirates did not lightly submit to flogging. Bonnet and Herriott. Bonnet's men had the advantage that their deck was heeled away from their opponents. with all the participants immobilised. Two days later. returning to freebooting meant nullifying Bonnet's pardon. Hoping to preserve his pardon. enabling Bonnet's canoe crews to approach. Ignatius Pell had turned King's evidence in the trial of Bonnet's crew and now testified. The actual degree of authority any pirate captain exercised over his crew was questionable. Bonnet returned to Topsail Inlet to find that Blackbeard had beached the majority of their former crew. which was donated by Dr. Bonnet was eventually hanged at White Point Garden. threatening to burn all the ships in Charleston harbor. While Blackbeard quietly returned to Topsail Inlet. and made most major command decisions such as the direction of the ship and what vessels to attack. some of the prisoners who had been forced to join the pirate crew refused to fire on Rhett's men. Bonnet pleaded not guilty and conducted his own defence without assistance of counsel. During the passage. On 24 October. Bonnet surrendered and was returned to Charleston. Bonnet was in an even weaker position than other pirate captains. some sort of civil uprising in his support took place within the city. Bonnet himself patrolled the deck with a pistol drawn. During Bonnet's early career. against the Francis and the Fortune. Nevertheless. Thomas and getting his letter of marque. One of Bonnet's prisoners further reported witnessing Bonnet's men drinking to the health of the Old Pretender and wishing to see him king of the English nation. 1718. However. The battle was ultimately decided when the rising tide lifted Rhett's sloops free while temporarily leaving the Royal James stranded. Bonnet brought all of them aboard the Royal James and planned to fight his way out to sea in the morning rather than risk the Cape Fear River's narrow channels in the dark. both men accepted pardons from Governor Charles Edenunder King George's Act of Grace. He further stated that he had been asleep during the capture of the sloop Francis. and opened fire. where the Queen Anne's Revenge ran aground and was lost. Once there. Governor Johnson at once placed a £700 bounty on Bonnet's head and dispatched search teams to track him down. The court did not accept these protestations. where he planned to buy a letter of marque and go privateering against Spanish shipping. Bonnet stayed in Bath to get a "clearance" to take the Revenge to Denmark's Caribbean colony of St. and one narrowly escaped death at Bonnet's hands in the confusion of the engagement. 1718 with two eight-gun sloops and a force of 130 men. Second. particularly the female population. governor of South Carolina. Bonnet initially mistook Rhett's squadron for merchantmen and sent three canoes to capture them. 1718. after treating the convicted man to a stern lecture on his violation of Christian duties. Ignatius Pell. In Charleston. giving them cover. George Ross. The posse discovered Bonnet after an extensive search. Outnumbered almost three to one. While Bonnet set loose most of his prizes after looting them. and thus only a leader who commanded the obedience of his crew could successfully order such penalties. and Bonnet threatened to sink them if they did not stay closer. There is also a report from the 1718 Boston News-Letter of Bonnet flying a death's-head flag during his pursuit of the Protestant Caesar. in whole or in part. Blackbeard had stolen the food and supplies he and his men needed to subsist (one pirate testified at his trial that no more than ten or eleven barrels remained aboard the Revenge). and tying a knot in their flag as a mock signal to come aboard and render aid. and may suggest that Bonnet or his men had Jacobite sympathies. St. Bonnet wrote to Governor Johnson. Ignatius Pell. by the prisoners Bonnet had captured. he became at least a co-equal commander aboard the Royal James. Governor Johnson sent a posse under Rhett to Sullivan's Island to hunt for Bonnet. on September 27. Bonnet quit the charade of trading and reverted to naked piracy. thus exposing Rhett's men to punishing musket volleys. David Herriott. cross-examining the witnesses to little avail. Bonnet set sail at once to hunt down his treacherous ex-confederate. The two South Carolinian sloops split up in an effort to bracket the Saint James. and it suggests he had by then abandoned his unorthodox practice of paying regular wages to his crew. sitting in his capacity as Vice-Admiralty judge. At his trial. Bonnet had the shallop broken up to help repair the Royal James. Bonnet was separated from the bulk of his crew and held for three weeks in the provost marshal's house along with his boatswain. Most of Bonnet's men fought enthusiastically. After a false start due to the appearance of another pirate ship near Charleston. Thomas was now in the midst of the Atlantic hurricane season. as they resented the frequent use of this punishment in the naval and merchant services from which most of them came. Bonnet and Herriott escaped.

The wanted men. 1878. his young years. Tunstall's biographer. but then turned up at Heiskell Jones's house in Pecos Valley. November 23. is a satirical novel relating the adventures of a fictional daughter of Bonnet named Kate. the teenager escaped up the jailhouse chimney. Bill Morton and Frank Baker. McCarty was arrested by Grant County Sheriff Harvey Whitehill for stealing cheese. He is a major character in Tim Powers'On Stranger Tides. who abhorred violence. Jr. Utley writes that the nickname arose because of McCarty's slight build and beardless countenance. Sheriff Whitehill would later say that he liked the boy. accompanied by James Dolan and associate John Riley. 1877 Cahill reportedly attacked McCarty after a verbal exchange and threw him to the ground. enterprise of horse thievery. some researchers have theorized that his name was Patrick McCarty. Reliable accounts say that McCarty retaliated by shooting Cahill. One of McCarty's schoolteachers later recalled that the young orphan was no more of a problem than any other boy.mention of color or of any long bone. when Tunstall was spotted while driving a herd of nine horses towards Lincoln and murdered by William Morton. and was hired by Doc Scurlock and Charlie Bowdre to work in their cheese factory. Henry McCarty. Attorney Thomas Benton Catron. but profitable. The coroner's inquest concluded that McCarty's shooting of Cahill was criminal and unjustifiable. generally agree that the whole concept of pirates forcing prisoners to walk the plank belongs to a later age than Bonnet's. McCarty (or Bonney. On the day that McCloskey. In 1873. McCarty. an Irish immigrant named Frank "Windy" Cahill. whom they suspected of being a traitor. She is believed to have emigrated to New York during the time of the Great Famine. Born to Irish Immigrants. blond hair or dirty blond hair. he obtained warrants for their arrests from the local justice of the peace. was hired as a cattle guard by John Tunstall. After a short stint working on the ranch of Henry Hooker. to Indianapolis. Brady. who died the next day. contending that he was the only young man who ever worked for him who did not steal anything. Bowdre. According to this account. "As a wry and macabre joke on Tunstall's great affection for horses. Catron cooperated closely with the House. Bonnet is very briefly mentioned in James A. or Edward McCarty. Axtell refused to acknowledge the so-called "Santa Fe Ring". Tunstall's men formed their own group called the Regulators. The Regulators "went from lawmen to outlaws". Tunstall's foreman. heart. and it's been said that he was as lithe as a cat. contributed to his paradoxical image as both a notorious outlaw and a folk hero. On August 17. After being deputized by Brewer. He killed his first man in 1877 at the age of 17. a prominent lawyer. 1875. their far-reaching operation was known locally as "The House". the name he used at the height of his notoriety) was 5'8" (173 cm) tall with blue eyes. William McCarty. Henry and Joseph. such as Sid Meier's Pirates! (2004) and films. the Las Vegas Gazette (Las Vegas. Portrayals of Bonnet extend to video games. McCarty was arrested again when found in possession of clothing and firearms that a fellow boarder had stolen from a Chinese laundry owner. along with other famous piratical characters. In 1877. New Mexico. According to legend. Mackie. Catherine McCarty died. The Yacht Basin Provision Company also holds an annual Stede Bonnet Regatta near Southport. During their journey to Lincoln. he eventually found work as an itinerant ranch hand and shepherd in southeastern Arizona. Relatively unknown during most of his lifetime. Through them he met Frank Coe. In addition. McCarty rode for a time with the gang of rustlers known as the Jesse Evans Gang. and modern scholars such as Marcus Rediker. and his partner. Jr. Apaches stole McCarty's horse. Louis Abraham. The Regulators planned to settle a score with Sheriff William J. Some of those who witnessed the incident later claimed that McCarty acted in self-defense. McCarty (now widely known as William Bonney) moved to Lincoln County. is believed by Michael Wallis and Robert M. no records that prove that he ever lived there have ever been uncovered. became known by the name of "Kid Antrim". the dead bay's head was then pillowed on his hat". after several years of moving around the country. McCarty began working on the Coe-Saunders ranch. In 1877 McCarty was involved in a conflict with the civilian blacksmith at Fort Grant. McCarty began to refer to himself as "William H. Contemporaries described him as a "neat" dresser who favored an "unadorned Mexican sombrero". William Henry McCarty. proceeded to the Murphy-Dolan store. On September 24. 1859 – c. A conflict known today as the Lincoln County War had erupted between the established town merchants. but Mrs. and settled further south in Silver City. Years later. Antrim found work as a bartender and carpenter. Two days after McCarty was placed in jail. Brewer. New Mexico) and the New York Sun carried stories about his exploits. where he joined a band of cattle rustlers who raided the sprawling herds of cattle magnate John Chisum. baked pies. proved hostile to the faction now headed by McSween. In fear of Cahill's friends. took steps to punish Tunstall's murderers through legal means. Scurlock. and the teenager's involvement with the notorious gang was mentioned in a local newspaper. such as Hero's Island (1962). He eventually arrived at the former army post of Apache Tejo. A plaque commemorating Bonnet stands near Bonnet's Creek in Southport. Events turned bloody on February 18. he killed 21 men. The governor. three cousins who owned their own ranch near the ranch of Richard M. Biographers sought to explain McCarty's subsequent descent into lawlessness by focusing on his habit of reading dime novels that romanticized crime. Michael McCarty. The two men supposedly became involved in the risky. and his acts of theft were more due to necessity than wantonness. No contemporary source makes any mention of Bonnet forcing prisoners to walk the plank. the gunmen shot down his prized bay horse. placed a price on his head. At some point in 1877. Late in 1877. the Regulators killed one of their members. North Carolina. 1874. The manager was impressed by the youth. New Mexico. McCarty fled the Arizona Territory and entered into New Mexico Territory. On September 16. New Mexico. Professor of History at theUniversity of Pittsburgh. Bonnet has been portrayed several times in literature. on the Cape Fear River. George Coe and Ab Saunders. Catherine McCarty had moved with her two young sons. In 1876 McCarty settled in the vicinity of the Fort GrantArmy Post in Arizona. Michener's historical novel. who has used Bonnet's hatred for his wife (only married two years in the novel) against him. who stole from local soldiers. Billy was catapulted into legend in 1881 when New Mexico's governor. Frank Baker and Sheriff William J. and a smooth complexion. He was said to be friendly and personable at times. but then became involved in prospecting and gambling as a way to make a living. to have been born on the eve of the Civil War in an Irish neighborhood in New York City (at 70 Allen Street). along with his cunning and celebrated skill with firearms. These qualities. Chesapeake. In April 1875. There she met William Antrim. Murphy and Dolan. In this novel. Kate Bonnet: The Romance of a Pirate's Daughter. who took pleasure in bullying the young McCarty. the Coes and Saunders. Bonney (born William . and took in boarders in order to provide for herself and her sons. Forced to seek new lodgings when his foster family began to experience domestic problems. although there have been continuing debates about whether McCarty was her maiden or married name. evidence at the scene suggested that Tunstall attempted to avoid a confrontation before he was shot down. Utley. a man named McCloskey. Bonney". Lew Wallace.[42] Before the arrival of Tunstall and McSween. along with Brewer. or dagger. who was 12 years her junior. Tunstall's murder enraged McCarty and the other ranch hands. sent to attack McSween's holdings. banker and merchant. Governor Samuel Beach Axtell arrived in Lincoln County to investigate the ongoing violence. According to some accounts. while it's not known for sure who his biological father was. particularly Blackbeard. was a 19th-century American gunman who participated in the Lincoln County War and became a frontier outlaw in the American Old West. after a large mansion in Lincoln that served as Murphy and Dolan's headquarters. c. but it is generally believed that he killed between four and nine. commemorating the infamous pirate's dash for the ocean. The Jones family developed a strong attachment to McCarty and gave him one of their horses. Indiana. After his death. At age 14 McCarty was taken in by a neighboring family who operated a hotel where he worked to pay for his keep. July 14. who had been appointed a special constable and given the warrant to arrest Tunstall's killers. better known as Billy the Kid and also known as Henry Antrim. When he arrived. If indeed his birthplace was New York. an English cattle rancher. several biographies were written that portrayed the Kid in varying lights. After murdering Tunstall. the two were married at the First Presbyterian Church in Santa Fe. McCarty. were strongly opposed to an Englishman like Tunstall cutting into their business. attempted to flee. which happened to be Jones's home. scholars of western history. Murphy and Dolan presided over a monopoly of Lincoln County's cattle and merchant trade. Wilson. McCarty moved into a boarding house and pursued odd jobs. and during that period spent very little time at home with his wife and stepsons.S. the Regulators reported that Morton and Baker had been shot on March 9 near Agua Negra during an alleged escape attempt. a Scottish-born ex-cavalry private with a criminal bent. full of life and mischief. His mother's name was Catherine McCarty. who had known McCarty in Silver City but was not a witness." McCarty's mother reportedly washed clothes. Although members of the House sought to frame Tunstall's death as a "justifiable homicide". writes Frederick Nolan. and his appealing personality. From that point on McCarty was more or less a fugitive. Boarders and neighbors remembered her as a jolly Irish lady. Another explanation was that his slender physique placed him in precarious situations with bigger and stronger boys. McSween. Tom Hill. In 1868. which was perceived as part of the notorious "ring". but they were captured on March 6. and Baker were slain. Alexander McSween. both Irish immigrants. During this period McCarty was spotted by a resident of Silver City. Bonnet is alleged to have been one of the few pirates to make his prisoners walk the plank. Jones nursed him back to health. always quite willing to help with chores around the schoolhouse. she was buried in the Memory Lane Cemetery in Silver City. Morton. Young William McCarty did not often use the surname "Antrim. by 19th century author Frank Stockton. but she was already in the final stages of tuberculosis when the family reached Silver City. Biographer Robert M. Brady of Lincoln County – all members of a posse serving the House. There was also an ethnic element to the House's conflict with Tunstall. a group of corrupt politicians and business leaders led by U. During this time McCarty became acquainted with John R. Jesse Evans. denied that anyone was killed in the altercation. who had arrested McCarty and fellow deputy Fred Waite in the aftermath of William H. John B. forcing him to walk many miles to the nearest settlement. 1881). Upon returning to Lincoln. and competing business interests headed by Tunstall and McSween. Bonnet takes up piracy after having been framed by Blackbeard. the young man was supposedly near death. Lawrence Murphy and James Dolan. where he worked on ranches and tested his skills at local gaming houses. Other newspapers followed suit.

McCarty and O'Folliard escaped on horses supplied by friends. Wallace. On April 13. Although the popularity of the first story persists.Billy the Kid: Unmasked. According to a contemporary newspaper account. The only casualty was Dutch Charley Kruling. Garrett and McCarty engaged in a friendly exchange. The details of the escape are unclear. in McSween's home in Lincoln on July 15. claiming to be innocent of this crime and others attributed to him. Some researchers believe that a sympathizer placed a pistol in a nearby privy that McCarty was permitted to use. he assembled a posse and set out to arrest McCarty. McCarty. the posse set McSween's house on fire. During this time. as many local residents "admired the way Roberts put up a gutsy fight against overwhelming odds. who did not realize who his opponent was. McCarty was loyal to the memory of Tunstall. while looking at the weapon. Peppin. The Regulators' position worsened when the governor. 1878 a column of U. McCarty entered carrying a knife. grabbed Bell's own gun. The connection between McSween and the Regulators was ambiguous. and the Kid's trial was held in April 1881 in Mesilla. On December 23. there is no evidence that they were friends. the first bullet striking McCarty in the chest just above his heart. Tom O'Folliard. 1877 in what became known as the Gunfight of Blazer's Mills. and uttered the words. Grant. a House gunman wounded by a rifle slug fired by George Coe. and portrays Garrett in a better light. Four other Regulators were wounded in the skirmish. 1877 the Regulators Jim French. where they traded shots with Dolan's men as well as U. Wallace and McCarty met in Lincoln County to discuss the possibility of a deal. The posse shot McSween when he escaped the fire. to respond to the gunshot and come to Bell's aid. the Regulators elected Frank McNab as captain. whose body blocked the building's only exit. killing them both in Lincoln's main street. as the Kid entered. Recognizing McCarty's voice. and McCarty shot him. a young Texas "cowpoke" named Tom O'Folliard. When Grant fired. some historians contend that the second version is probably the accurate one.Tunstall's murder. the posse became demoralized and scattered.S. though not necessarily to McSween. he was shot down by the posse. asking "¿Quién es? ¿Quién es?" (Spanish for "Who is it? Who is it?" ). Another theory holds that McCarty slipped off his manacles at the top of the stairs. The Kid's escape was delayed for an hour while he worked free of his leg irons with a pickaxe and then the young outlaw mounted a horse and rode out of town. which left one member of the gang. On April 9. severely wounded Saunders and captured Coe. When asked about the incident later. Paulita. McCarty vehemently denied shooting Carlyle. 1878. McCarty drew his pistol and backed away. who came to view both sides as "equally nefarious and bloodthirsty". dead. reportedly singing. he remarked. a former buffalo hunter whom they suspected of involvement in the Tunstall murder. essentially marking the end of the Lincoln County War. nothing happened. his back turned to Grant. There are at least two versions of what happened next. was under indictment. New Mexico). named Charlie Bowdre. the only conviction ever secured against any of the combatants in the Lincoln County War.S. One biographer. With his execution scheduled for May 13. cavalrymen. and turned it on Bell when the pair had reached the top of a flight of stairs in the courthouse. but sent Wallace a letter requesting immunity in return for testifying in front of the Grand Jury. he shot Grant in the chin. with Garrett inviting McCarty outside to eat. John Middleton. rotated the cylinder so the hammer would fall on the empty chamber when the trigger was pulled. McCarty unexpectedly entered the room. McCarty became acquainted with an ambitious local bartender and former buffalo hunter named Pat Garrett. Next. where he gave an interview to a reporter from the Las Vegas Gazette. and bound and gagged her in her bed. McCarty stunned the territory by killing both of his guards and escaping. Ab Saunders and Frank Coe in a shootout at the Fritz Ranch. to question one of the town's residents. He noticed someone in the darkness. and later wrote to Governor Wallace. Grant tried to shoot McCarty in the back. and taking defensive action. the suspected murderer of Frank McNab. but Garrett shot and killed the horse. While popular accounts often depict McCarty and Garrett as "bosom buddies". 1881. On April 28. he reportedly killed a man named Joe Grant in a Fort Sumnersaloon. After a five-day siege. At some point in the evening. the district attorney—one of the powerful "House" faction leaders—disregarded Wallace's order to set McCarty free after his testimony. the Regulators gained a new set of enemies. Garrett's posse surrounded the building and waited for sunrise. The arrangement called for McCarty to submit to a token arrest and a short stay in jail until the conclusion of his courtroom testimony. the Regulators disillusioned many former supporters. Carlyle heard a shot that had been fired accidentally outside. Henry Brown and McCarty/Bonney ambushed Sheriff Brady and his deputy. and McCarty inviting Garrett to "go to hell. gambling. he heard a distinct click. 1878 by members of the House and some of Brady's men. Frank McNab. Wallace proclaimed an amnesty for any man involved in the Lincoln County War who was not already under indictment. In the second version." Realizing that they had no hope of escape. as Governor of the New Mexico Territory. After taking several days to consider Wallace's offer. "¿Quién es? ¿Quién es?" at which point he was shot and killed. this version says that Garrett went to the bedroom of Pedro Maxwell's sister. 1880 after two days of testimony. For the next year-and-a-half. refused to intervene. Under indictment for the Brady killing. Fred Waite. 1880 he was sentenced by Judge Warren Bristol to hang. as well as against his posse members for the murder of Tunstall." After Brewer's death. a posse pursued and trapped McCarty's gang inside a ranch house owned by his friend James Greathouse at Anton Chico in the White Oaks area. McCarty scooped up Ollinger's 10-gauge double-barrel shotgun. Bell staggered down the stairs. at that time known almost exclusively as "Billy the Kid. cavalry soldiers entered the fray. crashed through a window and was fired upon and killed. In the Autumn of 1878. At the time Brady arrested them. 1880 McCarty barely escaped a midnight ambush in Fort Sumner. and his men closed in quickly. In those days people loaded their revolvers with only five rounds. Soon afterward somebody from within the building reached for the horse's halter rope. enabling McCarty and his gang to slip away. Mistaken for McCarty. According to one version. who had been across the street with some other prisoners. has also been suggested. On April 1. On May 15. On July 19. in an effort to negotiate the group's surrender. McCarty was transported from Fort Sumner to Las Vegas. 1880 McCarty was removed to Lincoln. McCarty agreed to testify in return for amnesty. Garrett was elected as sheriff of Lincoln County in November 1880. In Jacobsen's recounting of the incident. 1878 the Regulators tracked down Seven Rivers Warriors gang member Manuel Segovia. the besieged and hungry outlaws finally surrendered and were allowed to join in the meal. McCarty fell to the floor and gasped for a minute and died. While McCarty and his gang were asleep inside." Other versions of this story exist. They killed McNab. the two men were trying to serve a warrant on him for his suspected role in looting Tunstall's store after the Englishman's death. On April 29. In January 1880. Joel Jacobsen. he chose escape. Both barrels had been fully loaded with buckshot earlier by Ollinger himself. 1880 while Garrett was out of town. McCarty and the other Regulators spent the next several months in hiding and were trapped. McCarty survived by rustling. dying as he fell. For a short period. McCarty and the other Regulators fled. "As [McCarty] was leaving the saloon. With this move. in a quasi-legal move. who became McCarty's close friend and constant companion. under escort. the Regulators disclaimed "all connection or sympathy with McSween and his affairs" and expressed their sole desire was to track down Tunstall's murderers. Garrett was waiting . Recognizing their mistake. evidently headed to a kitchen area. By shooting at US government troops. Dick Brewer. along with McSween. Most recently explored in the 2004 Discovery Channel documentary. where he was held under guard by two of Garrett's deputies. The horse returned two days later. James Carlyle of the posse entered the house under a white flag. who proved sympathetic to their cause. which recruited members from among Brady's former deputies. Copeland's authority was undermined by the House. however. Jacobsen doubts whether McCarty and McSween were acquainted at the time of Brady's death. in which Garrett and his posse set a trap for McCarty. the Regulators sought the arrest of Buckshot Roberts. Concluding that the posse had shot down Greathouse." The Kid then carried a $500 bounty on his head that had been authorized by governor Lew Wallace. the president appointed Lew Wallace. McCarty greeted the governor with a revolver in one hand and a Winchester rifle in the other. under the direction of former Brady deputy George W. George W. their actions favored the Dolan faction. The next day the Regulators "iron clad" took up defensive positions in the town of Lincoln. the Regulators benefited from the appointment of Sheriff John Copeland. The next morning a cattle rustler. One version suggests that. The posse led by Garrett fared well. The Kid asked Grant if he could see his ivory-handled revolver and. Sheriff Pat Garrett responded to rumors that McCarty was lurking in the vicinity of Fort Sumner almost three months after his escape. During the gun battle. a friend of McCarty's named Pete Maxwell (son of the land baron Lucien Maxwell). called out "Hello Bob!" and killed him. recounts the story as described in Utley. On April 4. 1880 the Kid was tracked to an abandoned stone building located in a remote location known as "Stinking Springs" (near present-day Taiban. although the second one missed and struck the mantle behind him. the prisoner was transferred to Santa Fe. with the hammer down on an empty chamber. each day. struck Bell over the head with them. Coe escaped custody a short time later. McCarty retrieved the gun. A markedly different theory. engaged McNab. Although McCarty's testimony helped to indict John Dolan. where he sent four separate letters over the next three months to Governor Wallace seeking clemency. in early December. In March 1879. Around the time of Segovia's death. and I got there first. although he suffered a severe bullet wound to the chest. he shot and killed the Regulators' leader. "It was a game for two. however. Roberts refused to be taken alive. After the Dolan trial. who had fled to Texas after his escape from McSween's house. James Bell and Robert Ollinger. The Kid is described as rotating the cylinder "so an empty chamber was beneath the hammer". stepped outside to feed his horse. When McCarty arrived. Garrett and two deputies set out on July 14. Garrett drew his own pistol and fired twice. Although the soldiers were ostensibly neutral. McCarty was shot in the thigh while attempting to retrieve a rifle that Brady had seized from him during an earlier arrest." In November 1880. the Regulator "iron clad" gained a new member. He spun around before Grant could reach a loaded chamber. Carlyle evidently decided the outlaws were stalling. boasted that he would kill "Billy the Kid" if he ever encountered him. McCarty was found guilty of the murder of Sheriff Brady. On December 19. He told Grant his identity. a former Union Army general. as Garrett and Maxwell sat talking in Maxwell's darkened bedroom. Hindman. describing Grant as a "drunk" who was "making himself obnoxious in a bar". McCarty leveled the shotgun at him. The Kid waited at the upstairs window for his second guard. Greathouse was sent out to act as a hostage for the posse. Running on a pledge to rid the area of rustlers. The incident had the effect of further alienating the public. As the lawmen began to cook breakfast over an open fire. Always a good marksman. on the top floor of the town courthouse. As Ollinger came running into view. he failed to recognize Garrett in the poor light. and shot him with it. This was done to prevent an accidental discharge should the hammer be struck. and killed him. a posse including the Jesse Evans Gang and the Seven Rivers Warriors. In an effort to restore peace to Lincoln County. Close to midnight. removed Copeland and appointed House ally George Peppin as sheriff.

Rumors persist that Billy the Kid was not killed that night.3 million. notably the regional political leader Thomas Benton Catron. I went in and was the first to discover that they had killed my little boy. Wallis has speculated that the Dolan faction created the Kid's image to distract the public's attention from their activities and those of their influential supporters in Santa Fe. Texas (Brushy Bill's residence). He would have been a successful man under other circumstances. a cousin to Frank who also served as a Regulator. so Garrett called upon his friend." Susan McSween. The next morning. descendants of Dedrick." Legends grew over time that Billy the Kid had somehow cheated death and survived. A string of negative newspaper editorials referred to him as "Billy the Kid". but I can't see how a fellow like him can expect any clemency from me. the Kid. but he had a wonderful presence of mind. his humor was often apparent even in such situations. The ferrotype survived because after Billy's death. the side reserved for ladies' blouses. It is the only image of McCarty that scholars agree is authentic. and the buttons on the Kid's vest are on the left side. on and off his horse. brave and reliable. and at least two became notable because they were successful in persuading a small segment of the public. articulate in both his writing and his speech. Like many gunfighters of the "Old West". Tom O'Folliard and Charlie Bowdre. resourceful and honest boy. Bill Richardson. In 1954 western historians James D. it eventually proved to be an important reference for historians who would later write about the Kid's life. an accomplished dancer. He cited "historical ambiguity" surrounding the conditions of Lew Wallace's pardon.behind Paulita's bed and shot the Kid. and had eventually ended up in Arizona. who rode as a Regulator. one of the best soldiers we had. who was at the Maxwell farmhouse at the time of The Kid's death. recalled years after the Kid's death: I never enjoyed better company." Wallis writes. It was widely assumed throughout much of the 20th century that Billy the Kid was left-handed. whose family supported his claim in 1938. the evidence (from viewing his photo correctly) is that he was right-handed: he wears his pistol on his right hip with the butt pointing backwards in a conventional right-handed draw position. After Billy's burial. Of course I cannot very well defend his stealing horses and cattle. said: "Billy was a brave. Deluvina Maxwell. however. some six times the estimate. and Riley people forced him into such a lawless life through efforts to secure his arrest and conviction. but further examination revealed that as all Winchester Model 1873 rifles were made with the loading gate on the right side of the receiver. The Kid was a thousand times better and braver than any man hunting him. Justice of the Peace Milnor Rudulph viewed the body and made out the death certificate but Garrett rejected the first one and demanded another one be written more in his favor. Ultimately. The notoriety that McCarty gained during the Lincoln County War effectively doomed his appeals for amnesty. it is hard to blame the poor boy for what he did. to ghostwrite a book with him. Robert Stack did a segment on Brushy Bill in early 1990 on the NBC television seriesUnsolved Mysteries. When a reporter reminded Wallace that the Kid was depending on the governor's intervention. The experts concluded that the Colt revolver carried by McCarty was probably not his primary weapon. depending on varying sources. since his holster is not the type normally associated with gunslingers.[110] Upson was a roving journalist who had a gift for graphic prose. a known friend of the Kid's. Most of those he killed deserved what they got. Though he was serious in emergencies. but he was scared and ran away. no DNA test results have been made public. He was humorous and told me many amusing stories. is unerring. in which he appears to be wearing a gun belt with a holster on his left side. a paralegal named William Morrison located a man in Central Texas known as Ollie Partridge Roberts (nicknamed Brushy Bill). Texas. Clyde Jeavons. except to buy cartridges with. it is a common holster. Dan Dedrick. and at noon was buried at the Fort Sumner cemetery between his two friends. Contemporaries of Bonney often claimed that tales of his crimes were exaggerated or denied their veracity altogether. I hated those men and am glad that I lived long enough to see them all dead and buried. This particular reproduction error has occurred so often in books and other publications over the years that it has led to the myth that Billy the Kid was left-handed. in a three-day Western show. the governor of New Mexico. He was a good boy. It was the most expensive piece ever sold at Brian Lebel's Annual Old West Show & Auction. If he had only waited until they let him out he would have been all right. Robert Utley told the story of Pat Garrett's book effort. considered a posthumous pardon for McCarty. The prong on the belt buckle points the wrong way. 2010. He was right-handed and carried his gun on his right hip. and the seventh most expensive photograph ever sold. who had been convicted for killing Sheriff William Brady. On the contrary. "Yes. said. The ferrotype sold at auction on June 25. In the weeks following Garrett's execution of the Kid. Louis Abraham. saying: Billy was not a bad man. He was fluent in Spanish. "His many Hispanic friends did not view him as a ruthless killer but rather as a defender of the people who was forced to kill in self-defense. This observation seems to be supported by contemporaneous newspaper accounts reporting that Billy the Kid could shoot handguns "with his left hand as accurately as he does with his right" and that "his aim with a revolver in each hand. Marshall Ashmun (Ash) Upson. came to McCarty's defense in the years of his notoriety. "In the time that the Kid roamed the land he chided Hispanic villagers who were fearful of standing up to the big ranchers who stole their land. The photograph of The Kid. but that Garrett. to be compared with traces of blood obtained from a bench that was believed to be the one upon which McCarty's body was placed after he was shot to death. Miller was buried at the state-owned Pioneers' Home Cemetery in Prescott. Billy was never in any trouble at all. In 2004. and he always used about ten times as many as everyone else. Billy stood with us to the end. from every conceivable angle. They started in Fort Sumner. Many people had begun to talk about the unfairness of the encounter." Various accounts recorded by friends and acquaintances describe him as fun-loving and jolly. The tighter the place the more he showed his cool nerve and quick brain. Although his story was refuted by mainstream historians. he felt the need to tell his side of the story. who befriended the Kid in Silver City. Wallis wrote in 2007 that McCarty was ambidextrous. Their detailed findings were presented at a symposium held in 1989." One of the few remaining artifacts of McCarty's life is a 2x3 inch ferrotype taken by an unknown photographer sometime in late 1879 or early 1880. He never pushed in his advice or opinions. Rather. disinterred the bones of John Miller in May 2005. In 1949. In 2010. Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life. Their collaboration led to a book entitled The Authentic Life of Billy. just scared. maybe a little too mischievous at times. publicize the results of those tests along with other evidence that Sullivan and Sederwall collected. between his fallen companions Tom O'Folliard and Charlie Bowdre." Several surviving accounts portrayed Billy McCarty as friendly. but McCarty could not accomplish either. who claimed to be Billy the Kid and challenged the popular account of McCarty as shot to death by Pat Garrett in 1881. and well loved in the territory's Hispanic community. The ferrotype appeared in several copied forms before the original was made public in the mid-1980s by Stephen and Art Upham. has capitalized on the Kid's infamy by opening the "Billy The Kid Museum". The convention for men's wear is that buttons go down the right side. being naturally full of fun and jollity. Arizona. McCarty was buried in Fort Sumner's old military cemetery the day after he was killed. In his book. some time after Miller's death. as well as a 2011 episode of Brad Meltzer's Decoded on the History Channel. Billy the Kid enjoyed a reputation built partly on exaggerated accounts of his exploits. the notion of a left-handed Billy became so entrenched that in 1958 a film biography of "the Kid" (starring Paul Newman) was titled The Left Handed Gun. saying: The story of Billy the Kid killing a blacksmith in Silver City is false. Cartridges were scarce. Garrett allowed the Kid‘s friends to take his body across the plaza to the carpenter‘s shop to give him a wake. the widow of Alexander McSween. 2011. On December 31. denied the killing of the blacksmith attributed to Bonney there. His negotiations with governor Lew Wallace (a famed Civil War general and author of the novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ) for amnesty came to nothing. including Pat Garrett. a former sheriff of Lincoln County. Another individual who allegedly claimed to be Billy the Kid was John Miller. which was first published in April 1882. McCarty's main weapon appears to be the Winchester Carbine held in his hand in the ferrotype. held onto the picture and passed it down in his family. a former curator of the National Film and Television Archive. It was displayed for several years in the Lincoln County Heritage Trust Museum before it was withdrawn again. McCarty's mother. despite eyewitness accounts of his slaying. Horan and Paul Sann announced that McCarty was "right-handed and carried his pistol on his right hip. someone took a plain board. on the last day of his term in office. the town of Hico. He got in with a band of rustlers in Apache Tejo in part of the county where he was made a hardened character. if successful. the governor supposedly smiled and said. popular with Latina girls. a former mayor of Capitan. and jammed it into the soft earth at the head of his . a lawsuit is pending against officials in Lincoln County that would. official permission had not been given. Brushy Bill later claimed that Ollie Partridge Roberts was an assumed name which accounted for the discrepancies in birth dates and physical appearance between Ollie Roberts and Billy the Kid. commonly known as the Upham tintype – after its longtime owner Frank Upham – was the subject of intense study by experts in the late 1980s. with a safety strap across the top to keep the six-shooter from bouncing out. Tom Sullivan. A number of the Regulators faded away or secured amnesty. fun loving and loyal. Several men have claimed to be McCarty over the years. who knows all too well the value of Billy as a cultural icon and a draw for tourists". for which there is no evidence. According to Garrett. and loyal to those for whom he cared. Bill Richardson announced on Good Morning America his decision not to pardon McCarty. He was not. When the boy was placed in jail and escaped. New Mexico. The two investigators had searched for McCarty's physical remains since 2003. McCarty was credited with the killing of between 15 and 26 men. It was purchased for $2. that is he was not a murderer who killed wantonly. Though Sederwall and Sullivan believed the exhumation was allowed. the case was bogged down in the courts. the "left-handed" photograph is in fact a mirror image. water. Frank Coe. "much to the delight of New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson. stenciled letters on it. he was not bad. As of 2008. The book originally sold few copies. and way of life. The Kid‘s body was then prepared for burial. and Steve Sederwall. in response to a story from The Guardian that used an uncorrected McCarty ferrotype." More recently. Indeed. may have staged it all so the Kid could escape the law. He always found a touch of humor in everything. DNA samples from the remains were sent to a lab in Dallas. This perception was encouraged by the above-mentioned photograph of McCarty. "Garrett was afraid to go back in the room to make sure of whom he had shot. To date. This is a common error which has continued to reinforce the myth that Billy the Kid was left-handed. Dolan. George Coe. He would practice shooting at anything he saw. but when you consider that the Murphy. cited their work and added: You can see by the waistcoat buttons and the belt buckle. Brushy Bill's story was further promoted by the 1990 filmYoung Guns II. The pardon was considered to be a follow-through on a purported promise made by then Governor Lew Wallace in 1879. He never seemed to care for money. A second look at the ferrotype confirms what Jeavons wrote. shooting simultaneously. "so her DNA could be tested and compared with DNA to be taken from the body buried under the Kid's gravestone". researchers sought to exhume the remains of Catherine Antrim. one of Billy's rustler friends.

The cemetery is located 34° 24. New Mexico Governor Bruce King arranged for the Sheriff of the county seat to fly to California to bring it back to Fort Sumner. The song has the line.grave to mark it. traveling to the Old West.5 km) south of State Highway 60 on Route 212. directed by William Beaudine. This story is from an adaptation by Rod Serling of a Charles Neider novelization of Billy the Kid's life. to discourage further vandalism and theft. Joe Ely recorded the song Me and Billy the Kid on his 1987 album Lord of the Highway. who also played its lead character. as Bob Ollinger The Left Handed Gun. Eight years later. All copies are believed to be lost. Billy the Kid. The 2004 Discovery Channel Quest. Warner of Salida. Billy the Kid. but did not do well. It reveals that he was the only one of many combatants of the Lincoln County War who was indicted and brought to trial. Another Billy The Kid. The stolen tombstone became the inspiration for the World's Richest Tombstone Race. Columbia Pictures Corporation) starring Scott Brady as the Kid. with his own melody and instrumental. James N. and with a soundtrack by Bob Dylan. It was stolen again in February 8. Chisum (1970). and William H. To hell with the death and the tears that were cried. Chuck Courtney co-stars as Billy. The Renegade. Howard Hughes' 1943 motion picture starring Jack Buetel as Billy and featuring Jane Russell in her breakthrough role as the Kid's fictional love interest. operating in the Caribbean. Purgatory. spearheaded the drive to raise funds for a marker. investigated the life and death of Billy the Kid through forensic science. Bonney. Little is known of Bonny's life. but recovered days later in Huntington Beach. Billy the Kid and his dead-ringer lookalike who shows up after the Kid has been shot by Pat Garrett. Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure (1989) features Billy the Kid (played by Dan Shor) as the "Historical Figure" that Bill and Ted pick up in the Old West. Arthur Penn's 1958 motion picture based on a Gore Vidal teleplay. where he takes a shine to Billy's fiancee and tries to turn her into a vampire. although it is estimated that she was born in Ireland on March 8. There is a story that Bonny set fire to her father's plantation in retaliation. It purports to tell of Billy the Kid's first murder as a runaway boy and credits Matt Dillon with giving him the "Billy the Kid" moniker. but Anne was disowned by her father. 1938: Roy Rogers plays a dual role. somewhere between 1697 and 1700. Lincoln County War (1968). a professor at Binghamton University. Sender. Her father attempted to establish himself as an attorney. What little is known of her life comes largely from Charles Johnson's A General History of the Pyrates. Coe. a 1967 "spaghetti Western" directed by Julio Buchs. Billy the Kid vs. However. Local resident Joe Bowlin brought it back. The exact location of Billy's grave in the small one-acre cemetery is unknown. this large white marker has never been stolen. set during Billy's early years as a criminal. She married a poor sailor and small-time pirate named James Bonny. Michael Ondaatje's 1973 play. in which he also starred. A one-foot length was cut off and hammered onto the longer piece to form a cross. a serial poem by Jack Spicer. In 1889 and 1904 the Pecos River floods over took the cemetery and all the markers were washed away. Bonny's family travelled to the new world very early on in her life. 104° 11. particularly prior to her arrival in the Bahamas. California. Betta St. starred Peter Lee Lawrence as Billy and Fausto Tozzi as Pat Garrett. I Shot Billy the Kid. 1952. Her mother died shortly after they arrived in North America. Foor. in May 1976. but may have had a fiery temper. Aaron Copland's Billy the Kid. Young Guns. one of the Board of Directors (a fellow named Chauncey from Boston). released by Poverty Row studio Producers Distributing Corporation. Chris LeDoux also covered the song on his album Haywire. Billy the Kid has been the subject and inspiration for many popular works. Billy the Kid folksong sung by Woody Guthrie. preserved the chipped-away white headstone. McLaglen and stars Geoffrey Deuel as Billy and Glenn Corbett as Pat Garrett. Michael McClure's 1965 play The Beard recounts a fictional meeting between Billy the Kid and Jean Harlow. Lucky Billy: a novel about Billy the Kid is a 2008 novel by John Vernon. a group of vandals entered the cage at night and tipped over the stone. donated this marker to the cemetery when it was no longer required for the movie. was published in John A. was directed by Andrew V. and Western Cyclone (1943). The Outlaw. The Illegal Rebirth of Billy the Kid is a science fiction novel by Rebecca Ore. Many inhabitants received a "King's Pardon" or otherwise evaded the law. Rio. and cemetery entrance." Dia Frampton's Billy the Kid. The NBC series The Tall Man ran from 1960 to 1962. Anne Feinsilber's 2006 motion picture starring Kris Kristofferson. 1981. 1970 Governor General's Award-winning biography in the form of experimental poetry. a 2011 film in two parts based on Frederick Nolan's book The Lincoln County War: A Documentary History directed by Andrew Wilkinson Billy the Kid. Colorado. Jon Bon Jovi's album Blaze of Glory. on the album Into The Purple Valley. it is known that sometime between 1714 and 1718. the village. It serves as a memorial monument noting three individuals buried in the cemetery. In a 1952 film. starring Clu Gulager as Billy and Barry Sullivan as Pat Garrett. The definitive history of the Lincoln County War. Some of the titles include Blazing Frontier. The Kid from Texas (1950) starring Audie Murphy as Billy the Kid The Law vs. in a field on a ranch near Granbury. In 1932. Cattle Stampede.593′ W. including: The Story of the Outlaw (1907). has Count Dracula. Dirty Little Billy (1972). Pollard. Birth of a Legend. Billy the Kid: Unmasked. held during Fort Sumner's Old Fort Days Celebration every June. Charlie Bowdre. a 1950 film directed by William Berke and starring Don "Red" Barry as Billy. It was never recovered. For over two decades Billy's grave remained unmarked. On June 16. It is also recorded that after the arrival of Governor Woodes Rogers in the . Young Guns II.253′ N. they were able to approximate Billy's grave location. James Griffith as Pat Garrett. known as a sanctuary for English pirates. 1941 remake of the 1930 film. The latter flood inundated the cemetery under four feet of muddy water until the cemetery had no grave markers left of any kind. and placed Billy's individual footstone in shackles. Anything for Billy is a 1988 novel by Larry McMurtry. a ballet that premiered in 1938. This individual grave marker was placed as a footstone with a pointed top. and not recovered until 25 years later. Eventually. Dracula (1966). the first edition accurate. released on his 1999 album Echo. on the 2011 album Red Charlie Daniels recorded the song Billy the Kid on his 1976 album High Lonesome. with Tyler MacDuff in the role of Billy the Kid One-Eyed Jacks (1961). a 1911 silent film directed by Laurence Trimble and starring Tefft Johnson. Billy the Kid. starring Robert Taylor and Brian Donlevy Bob Steele and Buster Crabbe played Billy the Kid in a series of 42 western films from 1940 through 1946. The Gunsmoke radio show had an episode titled "Billy the Kid". On his album Piano Man. used a Billy The Kid grave marker as a prop in the movie The Outlaw. John as Nita Maxwell. 1782) was an Irish woman who became a famous pirate. This marker remained at least until the early part of 1882 before it was stolen or shot to pieces. at aged 13 she supposedly stabbed a servant girl with a table knife. 1930 widescreen film directed by King Vidor and starring Johnny Mack Brown as Billy and Wallace Beery as Pat Garrett Billy the Kid Returns. The Collected Works of Billy the Kid. Bob Dylan's album Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid. Allan "Rocky" Lane goes after Billy the Kid's lost treasure. at first the family had a rough start in their new home. Bill Richardson talked of pardoning the outlaw. recorded by Alan Lomax in 1940 for the Library of Congress (#3412 B2). but no evidence exists in support. a biography written by Spanish author Ramón J. and also their Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads. Texas. The Collected Works of Billy the Kid: Left-handed Poems. Billy the Kid was published in 1962 as an episode in the ongoing adventures of Lucky Luke by Goscinny and Morris. a folk song in the public domain. starred Michael J. He also recorded it in 1944 for Moe Asch's Asch/Folkways label (MA67). Uli Edel's 1999 made-for-TV movie starring Donnie Wahlberg as Deputy Glen/Billy The Kid. was written by Robert W. on New Providence Island. she and James Bonny moved to Nassau. Gore Vidal's 1989 film starring Val Kilmer as Billy and Duncan Regehr as Pat Garrett. Billy The Kid (1958). where it was re-installed in May 1981. co-written by Santley. who also appears in the movie. Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid. Sam Peckinpah's 1973 motion picture with Kris Kristofferson as Billy. with a melody Guthrie later used for his song "So Long. erected a steel cage to protect the grave site. Although the edges are damaged. and featured the song "Billy Get Your Gun". I'll Kill Him and Return Alone. soundtrack of the 1973 film by Sam Peckinpah. It was first stolen in August 1950. Fulton. Tom Petty wrote the song Billy the Kid. however relying on old timers who had once lived nearby to pick the walls. Joseph Santley's 1906 Broadway play.[5] James Bonny hoped to win possession of his father-in-law's estate. El bandido adolescente ("The teenage outlaw") (1965). Anne Bonny (March 8. is the only film directed by Marlon Brando. it's Been Good to Know You". Pete Maxwell then placed the next marker and used a four-foot-long. 2012. the unofficial tour guide of the cemetery. Richard Jaeckel played The Kid in a 1954 episode of the syndicated television series Stories of the Century. and the words "Billy The Kid (Bonney) July 14. 1881" were placed on the horizontal crosspiece. and it was ceremoniously re-installed that June. James Coburn as Pat Garrett. by Emerson Hough. Billy Joel performs a fictional song about the outlaw titled "The Ballad of Billy the Kid" (1973). This marker was stolen and recovered twice. wooden slat removed from the parade-ground picket fence near his home. Gore Vidal's Billy the Kid. Requiem for Billy the Kid. Charles W. corner. "With a slap in the face to those who had died. Warner Bros. Jr. Christopher Cain's 1988 motion picture starring Emilio Estevez as Billy and Patrick Wayne as Pat Garrett. It is recorded she had red hair and was considered a "good catch". and Alan Hale. by Michael Ondaatje. Geoff Murphy's 1990 motion picture starring Emilio Estevez as Billy and William Petersen as Pat Garrett. Tom O'Folliard. A short time later. After Maxwell sold the old fort to the New England Livestock Company. published in 1991. Frontier Fighter (1934) a firsthand account of the Lincoln County War from George W. Lomax and Alan Lomax's American Ballads and Folksongs. Billy the Kid (1954. about three and a half miles (5. broadcast on April 2. with a later revision by Sam Peckinpah among others. the second much embellished). Official records and contemporary letters dealing with her life are scarce and most modern knowledge stems from Charles Johnson's A General History of the Pyrates (a contemporary collection of pirate biographies. This is a collection of stories of famous outlaws and badmen and includes a complete account of the events involving Billy the Kid. played by John Carradine. It was also on Ry Cooder Classics Volume II. set during the Lincoln County War. Ry Cooder recorded the folk song "Billy the Kid". used as part of the soundtrack for Young Guns II. Bonny's father joined the more profitable merchant business and accumulated a substantial fortune. Marr in 2010 when New Mexico Governor. that visited Fort Sumner in the late 1880s took the marker claiming he was taking it back east to a museum. by Maurice G. Marty Robbins' song "Billy the Kid" from the album Gunfighter Ballads & Trail Songs Volume 3. starring Paul Newman as Billy and John Dehner as Garrett The Boy from Oklahoma (1954). 1702 – April 22. which owned the cemetery at the time.

Stefano Bontade and his brother Giovanni Bontade – who would become a lawyer – studied at a Jesuit college. She was buried on April 24. capturing many ships and bringing in an abundance of treasure. fat man walked in. Bonny and Rackham escaped to live together as pirates. After all. Stefano Bontade became the boss of the Santa Maria di Gesù . ―At that moment. Stefano Bontade (April 23. he backed the regional Sicilian government of Silvio Milazzo. investing in real estate in the center of Palermo. and later his son Stefano Bontade. and put out to sea.‖ He had first noted the muscle of Bontade when during a meeting in the factory where all the highest regional and local authorities were present. who eventually took the name of Cunningham. Bonny did not disguise herself as a man aboard the Revenge as is often claimed. he was absolved in the Trial of the 114. 1935) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia.summer of 1718. They had a child in Cuba. he switched to support the Monarchist Party. he provides me with the water I need. infiltrating public offices and private companies. On December 21. that she might have returned to her husband. This is a probable solution to the mystery. the door opened and a short. although investigators found evidence that whoever had been staying there had left in a hurry. His father and grandfather were both powerful Mafia bosses in the area Villagrazia. Bonomo was born in Partinico in Sicily. a sloop captained by Jonathan Barnet under a commission from the Governor of Jamaica. James Bonny became an informant for the governor. He acquired substantial wealth. exercising his influence through sly and hidden intimidation systems covered up by formally correct and respectful behaviour. Neo-Fascists and dissident Christian Democrats. Bontade first backed the Sicilian separatist movement after the Allied invasion of the island in 1943. The Boston News-Letter. Joseph Burleigh. According to police sources Bonomo had been living in Namibia and South Africa. In December 1968.[4][5] He did not hesitate to publicly slap in the face a deputy that had not voted in favour of Milazzo. Bontade was born in Palermo into a family of Mafiosi. His death sparked a brutal Mafia War that left several hundred mafiosi dead.and Il Falco (The Falcon). drug trafficking and money laundering. The government was formed in protest against infringement on Sicilian autonomy and threat to Sicilian patronage by the Christian Democrat party headquarters in Rome. He has been charged with the murder of two men in Partinico in 1994 who defied the rule of the Mafia clan in that town. which were rural districts before they were absorbed into the city of Palermo in the 1960s. Bonny. While in the Bahamas. Although Bonny has historical renown as a female Caribbean pirate. Bonny began mingling with pirates in the local taverns. Rackham and the two women recruited a new crew. at the age of 25. July 10. a subsidiary of the huge US defence contractor Raytheon. South Carolina. Rackham and his crew were attacked by a "Kings` ship". Stefano‘s father. 1974). although she is called Anne Providence. In 1996 the Italian anti-Mafia police came to South Africa with arrest warrants for Giovanni Bonomo and another Mafia man. though it has been alleged that she died during childbirth. and they had 10 children.[4] When it became clear that an independent Sicily was not feasible. She met Jack "Calico Jack" Rackham. stepped down as head of the Mafia family because of ill health. The estate was raided by members of the South African organised crime unit on June 6. In 1964. a respectable woman. I understood what the word ‗mafia‘ meant. Assets worth 45 billion lire (23 million euro) were confiscated in 2001. Read. He died on February 25. This was probably because of her father's business contacts in Jamaica. Bonomo had been at large since 1996. He showed fake documents. Rackham and his crew were taken to Jamaica. Bontade was among the many that received an internal banishment in Italy to dislodge Mafiosi from their home towns. the Corleonesi. access to influential regional politicians. In accordance with English common law. both women received a temporary stay of execution until they gave birth. or even that she resumed a life of piracy under a new identity. In November 2003 he was arrested in Dakar in Senegal. where they were convicted and sentenced by the Governor of Jamaica to be hanged. she is buried in the York County Churchyard in York County. Most of Rackham's pirates did not put up much resistance as many of them were too drunk to fight. 1782.‖ he later recalled.‖ He was a pallbearer at the funeral of Mafia boss Calogero Vizzini – one of the most influential Mafia bosses of Sicily after World War II until his death in 1954. He was expelled to Italy where he was arrested and incarcerated. and an unknown man fought fiercely and managed to hold off Barnet's troops for a short time. Governor Rogers had named them in a "Wanted Pirates" circular published in the continent's only newspaper. Bonny rejoined Rackham and continued the pirate life. and became his mistress. Giuseppe Gelardi. an atypical coalition government that was supported byCommunists. Anne Bonny will be played by Clara Paget in the upcoming pirate-themed tv series Black Sails. in his district in 1962. including Anne. He used his excellent connections to secure the location Eletronica Siciliana (ELSI). Some sources spell his surname Bontate. other sources indicate it was at night and most of them were asleep. also known as Don Paolino Bonta. where he had been in close contact with another of Italy's most wanted Mafia criminals. Some sources spell his surname Bontate. Santa Maria di Gesù and Guadagna. According to the Palermo criminal court. 1782. He succeeded Vito Vitale as the capo mandamento of Partinico after the latter‘s arrest in April 1998. and respected by her shipmates. Mary Read's and her names and gender were known to all from the start. Many different theories state that he was left with his family or simply abandoned. In October 1720. Like Vizzini. one of them because he committed robberies in the area without the consent of the Mafia. According to Sherman Carmichael'sForgotten Tales of South Carolina. Don Paolino Bontade. Anne Bonny is to appear in the forthcoming game by Ubisoft Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag. Francesco Paolo Bontade (1914 – February 25. The Italian manager of the factory later testified to the parliament‘s Antimafia Commission about why he had to deal with the Mafia boss: ―Paolo Bonta is useful to me. most likely from a fever. She took part in combat alongside the men. as a result. After this interlude. A fictionalized Anne is the subject of the 1951 20th-Century Fox film Anne of the Indies. Around 1964. and was in close contact with Giovanni Brusca and Leoluca Bagarella of the Corleonesi. they were successful as pirates. Rackham's crew spent a lot of time in Jamaica and the surrounding area. Bonny always escaped punishment and harm. effective in combat. after he spent six months as a bedridden patient in a hospital in Messina. at the age of eighty on April 22. Rackham. 1939 – April 23. supposedly because she was born on New Providence island. The wanted mafiosi were allegedly staying on Palazzolo's Franschhoek estate La Terra de Luc. Bonny. she never commanded a ship of her own. Read and Bonny both "pleaded their bellies": asking for mercy because they were pregnant. was one of the most powerful mafiosi on the island and a pallbearer at the funeral of Mafia boss Calogero Vizzini – one of the most influential Mafia bosses of Sicily after World War II until his death in 1954. an important Christian Democrat politician and Minister in various governments in the 1950s and 1960s. He stood next toGiuseppe Genco Russo – considered to be the heir of Vizzini – an indication of the Mafia stature of Bontade. Monarchists. In 1958. She died in South Carolina. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography states that "Evidence provided by the descendants of Anne Bonny suggests that her father managed to secure her release from jail and bring her back to Charles Town. Virginia. According to the pentito. arbitrating private disputes. He hailed from Villagrazia. In 1981 he was killed by the rival faction within Cosa Nostra. but if he had fought like a Man. He had links with several powerful politicians." After being sentenced. then at anchor in Nassau harbour. assuming the role of great protector of his citizens. he suffered from diabetes. 1996. until his arrest in Senegal in November 2003. In the aftermath of the First Mafia War in 1962-63 and the Ciaculli Massacre that prompted the first concerted Antimafia efforts by the state in post-war Italy. In 2001. Although the crew.the area of Palermo he controlled . he gives me the land to expand the factory and I depend on him for workers to run the factory. Vito Roberto Palazzolo. her father's business connections had saved Anne a number of times before. but was identified by fingerprints. 1981) was a powerful member of the Sicilian Mafia. There is no historical record of Bonny's release or of her execution. Over the next several months. and Mary Read stole the Revenge. where she gave birth to Rackham's second child. He was on the "most wanted list" of the Italian ministry of the Interior since 1996 for two murders. This has fed speculation that her father ransomed her. was discovered or caught on a number of occasions. and the accounts of her exploits present her as competent. captain of the pirate sloop Revenge. gained control over the private concession for collecting taxes in Sicily. Don Paolino embodied ―the traditional capomafia who intervenes directly in all matters in his area. The relation with the Salvos allowed Don Paolino. and that this was made possible by his far reaching and favorable merchant connections. Read died in prison. However. Everyone immediately turned to the new arrival to embrace him. 1721 she married a local man. he became a staunch supporter of the Christian Democrats. He was also known as the Prince of Villagrazia . coming from the Ivory Coast. bank shares and the family winery. and Mafia association. he was sentenced to 6 years for Mafia association. According to Johnson. Some claim that she was smuggled away by her father. Giovanni Bonomo (born in Partinico. The Salvos and Bontade withdrew their support for Milazzo when the mainstream Christian Democrats tried to regain control of the region. His son Stefano Bontade succeeded him as the boss of the Mafia family. Francesco Paolo Bontade. He was the capomafia of the Santa Maria di Gesù Family in Palermo. He was considered to be the strategical and financial brain of the Mafia clan. 1974. but Bonomo and Gelardi were not found. His father Stefano had been a powerful Mafia boss in the area that included Santa Maria di Gesù and Guadagna. Bonny's last words to the imprisoned Rackham were that she was "sorry to see him there. who has spent long periods in South Africa and who remains at large. through his connection with the Salvo cousins – other supporters of Milazzo who. having divorced her husband and marrying Rackham while at sea. Francesco Marino Mannoia. including Giulio Andreotti. he was close with Bernardo Mattarella. was a legendary and powerful member of the Sicilan Mafia. he need not have been hang'd like a Dog. a rural village before it was absorbed into the city of Palermo in the 1960s.

Historically. Other pentiti said that De Mauro was kidnapped by Emanuele D'Agostino. rich. 1971. a thriving smuggler such as Nunzio La Mattina. it all made Bontade an undisputed candidate to sit on the Sicilian Mafia Commission. stepped down because of ill-health (he suffered from diabetes). The Corleonesi initiated the war against the coalition led by Bontade and Badalamenti to try to control heroin trafficking. was killed three weeks later with the same Kalashnikov. Bontade visited Berlusconi's villa in Arcore on the outskirts of Milan. many of whom would be kept out of circulation for five or six years. While under indictment in the US. He was a member of a freemason lodge[16] and had links with the Christian Democrat politician Salvo Lima (DC – Democrazia Cristiana) and Antonio Salvo and Ignazio Salvo. became Palermo‘s largest building contractor and biggest taxpayer of Sicily. being a godfather to one of his children. Marino Mannoia testified that he had been ordered by Bontade in 1977 or 1978 to dig up several bodies. Salvatore Greco "Ciaschiteddu". Mattei was killed in 1962 at the request of the American Cosa Nostra because his oil policies had damaged important American interests in the Middle East. The plot failed and after his ―release‖ Sindona surrendered to the FBI. when Berlusconi still was just a wealthy real estate developer and started his private television empire (Berlusconi became prime minister in 1994. After the killing of Pietro Scaglione – Chief Prosecutor of Palermo – on May 5. Salvatore Contorno. The Bontade-Spatola-Inzerillo traffickers supplied the Gambino Family – through John Gambino – in New York with heroin that was refined in laboratories on the island from Turkish morphine base. It consisted of ten members but would initially be ruled by a triumvirate consisting of Gaetano Badalamenti. decided to cooperate with the Italian state in October 1989. They were the key witnesses that enabled prosecuting magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino and the Antimafia pool to successfully prosecute the Mafia in the Maxi Trial in the mid-1980s. The most important members of the Inzerillo. ruled in October 2004 that Andreotti had "friendly and even direct ties" with top men in the so-called moderate wing of Cosa Nostra. intelligent and judicious. who would be initiated in Cosa Nostra. Greco was actually allied with Salvatore Riina. According to Giovanni Falcone. including Bontade and Bontade's ally. and later their involvement. . Salvatore Riina. This secretive inter-family group would become known as the Corleonesi. the leadership of the Sicilian Mafia changed. Marino Mannoia. and unless you want the whole DC canceled out. and Bontade‘s own role in the affair. Buscetta said that Bontade organized the kidnap. Bontade was arrested in 1972 and he was sentenced to three years in the second Trial of the 114 in July 1974. The Mafia Commission was meant to settle disputes and keep the peace. the investigating magistrate. though only ten minor figures would be convicted of anything. 2001–2006. his sister and his aunt killed as well). a mafioso who was a key aide to Mafia kingpin Bernardo Provenzano but turned state witness after his arrest in April 2002. Don Paolino Bontade. Italy‘s highest court. including De Mauro‘s. The American Mafia in turn was possibly doing a favour to the large oil companies. whilst driving home from his 42nd birthday party. a lawyer appointed to liquidate his failedBanca Privata Italiana. cutting across clan divisions. were plotting to decimate the Palermo clans. In May 1994 Mafia turncoat Buscetta declared that Bontade had been involved in the murder of Enrico Mattei. In the aftermath of the investigations it appeared that many of them were connected through the secret P2 lodge (Propaganda Due) of Licio Gelli. Salvatore Inzerillo.) Bontade was closely linked to the SpatolaInzerillo-Gambino network. two wars were being waged simultaneously by the Corleonesi clan. although it was Salvatore Riina who actually would represent the Corleonesi. Spatola and Gambino clans were arrested in March 1980 for heroin trafficking. and he subsequently used his position to lure many more of Bontade's friends to their deaths in the subsequent Mafia War. and again from 2008). fellow mafiosi and relatives were cut down in the following months to prevent them from avenging the death of their boss. Bontade‘s close ally. and dissolve them in acid. as well as the son of a renown ed Mafia boss. The inquiry also pointed out Sindona‘s relationship with Giulio Andreotti – who served as the prime minister of Italy seven times – and who once defined Sindona as the 'rescuer of the lira'. "When Vittorio Mangano got the job in the Arcore villa. the police rounded up the known Mafia bosses. 114 went to trial. Bontade and other banished mafiosi managed to get into the market of international cigarette smuggling by imposing first their protection. Bontade told Andreotti: "we are in charge in Sicily. according to a 1982 parliamentary inquiry. was expelled from the Commission and Michele Greco replaced him. the Court of Cassation. the Sicilian Mafia Commission was revived. Bontade and other mafiosi felt betrayed by Mattarella (his father Bernardo Mattarella was rumored to be associated with the Mafia. The pentito Francesco Marino Mannoia. who belonged to the Santa Maria di Gesù Family and who was highly sought after by all Mafia families for his skills in chemistry. A bloody internal struggle (known as the First Mafia War) culminated in theCiaculli Massacre in June 1963 that killed seven police and military officers sent to defuse a bomb in an abandoned Alfa Romeo Giulietta after an anonymous phone call. After the murder of Mattarella on January 6. two wealthy mafia-cousins from Salemi who acted as the tax collectors on the island (tax collection was contracted out by the government). At the time Bontade was emerging as one of the Sicilian Mafia‘s acknowledged leaders. The policy of banishing mafiosi to other areas in Italy backfired. Bontade. Buscetta also claimed that the journalist Mauro De Mauro was killed in September 1970 on the orders of Bontade because of his investigations into the death of Mattei. Gaetano Badalamenti. you do as we say. The Ciaculli Massacre changed the Mafia war into a war against the Mafia. because they were able to establish contacts outside the island as well. At the same time the Mafia killed police superintendent Boris Giuliano who was investigating the Mafia‘s heroin trafficking and had contacted Ambrosoli just two weeks before to compare investigations. This marked the end of a period of relative peace and signified a major change in the Mafia itself. Bontade used to say that fortunately Tommaso Spadaro did a little bit of cigarette smuggling and gave him part of the profits.200 mafiosi were arrested. For instance. In 1970. according to Marino Mannoia. but the sentence was annulled in appeal. Andreotti‘s attempt failed. a Sicilian born Mafia boss from Philadelphia. "because they were starving to death. Salvatore Inzerillo. Bontade‘s brother in law Giacomo Vitale (a freemason. the president of Italy's stateowned oil and gas conglomerate ENI. linked up with Giuseppe Sciorio of the Maisto-clan of the Camorra. The Corleonesi slaughtered the ruling families of the Palermo Mafia to take control of the organisation while waging a parallel war against Italian authorities and law enforcement to intimidate and prevent effective investigations and prosecutions. It prompted the first concerted anti-mafia efforts by the state in post-war Italy. upon the smugglers in Naples (who were connected with the Camorra) and Palermo who had been running this activity since the 1950s. a convicted mafioso who used to be a stable manager there. the group had made about US$600 million. The real purpose of the kidnapping was to issue sparsely disguised blackmail notes to Sindona‘s past political allies – among them Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti – to engineer the rescue of his banks and recuperate Cosa Nostra‘s money. the Franklin National Bank. But then they started to accumulate large amounts of money rapidly. The slaying was carried out by Riina's favourite hitman Pino Greco also known as the "little old shoe" (scarpuzzedda) – a nephew of Michele Greco. Berlusconi's lawyer dismissed Giuffrè's testimony as "false" and an attempt to discredit the Prime Minister and his party. The Second Mafia War raged from 1981 to 1983. One of Bontade's close friends was Tommaso Buscetta. In 1975 the full Commission was reconstituted under the leadership of Badalamenti. 1980. was initiated into the Santa Maria di Gesù Family. Bontade was sent in banishment to Qualiano (in theprovince of Naples). This network and other Sicilian suppliers dominated heroin trafficking since the mid-1970s until the mid-1980s when US and Italian law enforcement were able to significantly reduce the heroin supply of the Sicilian Mafia (the so-called Pizza Connection). In 1968. who in his youth peddled watered milk in the streets of Palermo. Sindona was in charge of one of the biggest banks in the United States.Mafia Family when his father. Bontade‘s contact at Arcore was the late Vittorio Mangano. De Mauro‘s body has never been found. Andreotti again contacted Bontade to try to straighten things out. In fact. Despite the larger economic means and the wider international network. recalled having refined at least 1000 kilograms of heroin for Bontade. The Sicilian Mafia Commission was dissolved and those mafiosi who had escaped arrest went into exile abroad or had to hide out in Italy. Stefano Bontade and the Corleonesi boss Luciano Leggio. in Palermo. After Sindona‘s banks went bankrupt in 1974. for instance. Sindona ordered the murder of Giorgio Ambrosoli." Stefano Bontade was also in touch with Silvio Berlusconi in the mid-1970s. According to pentito Antonio Calderone. Rosario Spatola. On April 23. In July 19 79. According to Marino Mannoia the Sicilian-born banker Michele Sindona laundered the proceeds of heroin trafficking for the Bontade-Spatola-InzerilloGambino network. one of Bontade‘s trusted aides. and Giuseppe Di Cristina on the request of Angelo Bruno. The Sindona-affair showed the close links between the Mafia and certain important business men. According to pentito Francesco Marino Mannoia. Andreotti contacted Bontade to try to prevent the Mafia from killing DC-politician Piersanti Mattarella." (Spadaro was related to Bontade. Within a period of ten weeks 1. according to Antonino Giuffrè. freemasons and politicians. which undermined Bontade‘s position significantly. Mattarella became the President of the autonomous Sicilian Region in 1978 and wanted to clean up the government‘s public contracts racket that benefitted Cosa Nostra. The proceeds were re-invested in real estate. the Greco clan was at odds with Bontate. However. because De Mauro‘s investigations into the death of Mattei came very close to the Mafia. Buscetta claimed that the killing was organized by Bontade. 1981. Sindona fled to the US. who subsequently became a pentito (collaborating witness) after he was arrested in Brazil in 1983. personable. Stefano Bontade and Gaetano Badalamenti. Stefano Bontade and some of his close aides used to meet Berlusconi using visits to Mangano as an excuse. Sindona staged a bogus kidnapping in August 1979 to conceal a mysterious 11-week trip to Sicily before his scheduled fraud trial." Giuffrè said. Nevertheless. At the close of 1978. Young. favoured by the connection between them and Salvo Lima. controlled the Vatican foreign investments and was a major sponsor of theChristian Democrat party (DC – Democrazia Cristiana). The Mafia went through difficult times at that moment. who had been close to Bontade. Stefano Bontade was very well connected. the Bontade-Spatola-Inzerillo-Badalamenti network was unable to withstand the ruthless violence of the Corleonesi. followed Buscetta‘s example. but Leggio and his stand-in and successor. but all accusations against him were not proven before any court of law). like Bontade) was one of the persons who organised Sindona‘s travel. after his brother was killed by the Corleonesi (and subsequently saw his mother. Through them Bontade had access to Giulio Andreotti. Many of Bontade's friends. Bontade was machine gunned to death in his car. a Giulietta 2000. in defiance of the rules concerning loyalty in Cosa Nostra. Riina had secretly formed an alliance of mafiosi in different families. a mafioso from Bontade‘s Santa Maria di Gesù Family. It was only through cigarette smuggling and subsequently heroin trafficking that many mafiosi were able to survive the difficult period after the Ciaculli Massacre.

but with a warning that if he was to return to the country that he would be thrown in prison and never leave again. FBI agents searching the trading company offices for stolen goods discovered the three drums. At some point. A week after the Galante murders. In April of 1981 they were convicted and after serving two months. If Bonventre and the Zips had stayed loyal to Indelicato. who himself immigrated to New York City in 1924. Anthony M. which oversees all the crime families. The family settled in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn. Philip Giaccone and Dominick Trinchera. During the 1960s. He was well built and fastidious about his clothing and was regularly accepted entry into the high-class discos. to betray him. Bonventre's other business ventures included a garment factory in Brooklyn. DeMeo's son Albert wrote in his book "For the Sins . presumably to protect themselves from stray bullets and debris. Louis Attanasio then killed him on the garage floor with two more shots. In 1957. In May 1971. travelled to Morocco to purchase hashish. 18. an Italian restaurant in theBushwick section of Brooklyn. He had been dropped off for lunch at Joe & Mary's. Bonventre's nephews were Joseph Profaci. Born in Castellammare del Golfo in Sicily. a government informant later claimed that one of Bonventre's killers was Bonanno mobster Cosimo Aiello. Massino warned. ruining his candidacy for the police department. Bonventre was promoted to family underboss.1948 in New York City. the crew included Joseph Testa. The farm's main product was mozzarella cheese. However. Sicily. After a short while. Rastelli and Massino started purging their opponents in the family. directly under Bonanno. New York that was broken up by New York State Police. the captain of a crew of mobsters. When he was younger. Bonventre frequented clubs such as The Toyland Social Club and the Knicker bocker Avenue area with other Sicilian mobsters. aviator sunglasses and European man purses embodied Italian couture. The deli had burned down not long before January of 1984 but in its place the Amato family built an apartment building with a sleek Italian cafe and restaurant called Biffi. 1951 – April 16. a federal grand jury indicted him and 12 other men on charges of distributing narcotics through the pizza restaurants . unaware that Bonventre was dead. Galante and his two lunch companions died. three men in ski masks appeared on the patio and opened fire on Galante. Attanasio shot Bonventre twice in the head. American mobsters soon derisively dubbed the Sicilians "Zips" due to their fast speech. Bonventre's uncle was John Bonventre. New York shortly before the execution of Carmine Galante. and Vermont.the so-called "Pizza Connection" case. Louis Attanasio and Calabrese were sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. in October 1984. Galante's bodyguards. That same year. it took forensic technicians three months to identify it. Unfortunately when New York City froze the hiring list during a budget crisis. this move did not end his involvement in the Bonanno family. a stronghold of immigrants from their village. Bonventre himself was prone to outbursts of sadistic violence and was suspected of over 20 murders. 1901 – late 1970s) was a New York mobster with the Bonanno crime family. Bonventre allegedly participated in the murders of Galante and two of his friends. Bonventre's moniker was "The Tall Guy" because he stood close to six feet nine tall. both Bonventre and Amato wore leather jackets. Bonventre and Amato allegedly joined in the attack. Bonventre emigrated to New York with his family. 1984. the future founder of the Profaci crime family and Cesare Bonventre." In April 1984. After his return to Canarsie. Bonventre was also related to the first family boss Joseph Bonanno and a cousin of Bonanno mobster Baldassare "Baldo" Amato. had sanctioned Galante's murder and arranged for Bonventre and Baldo. Bonventre attended the abortive Apalachin Conference of American Cosa Nostra leaders in rural Apalachin. Bonanno became boss of the reorganized Bonanno family and Bonventre became a caporegime. a former Bonanno underboss. Galante was allegedly murdered for not sharing his drug trafficking profits with the family. Borelli was a drug dealer before he joined the DeMeo crew. New Jersey. received 10 years imprisonment. In 1979 Cesare and Baldassare were arrested for carrying illegal firearms in their car after being stopped by police at the Green Acres Mall in Valley Stream. Bonventre switched sides. on occasion. Although some believed Massino was the real power in the family. Sicily with Bonanno and the exiled mob boss Charles "Lucky" Luciano. In September 1957 Bonventre had attended several meetings in Palermo. New York. The backyard of his home abutted the backyard of Joseph Testa's. he was arrested twice for petty burglary. Philip "Rusty" Rastelli succeeded Galante as boss of the family. Borelli could never become a made man in the Gambino family. Despite his usefulness as an enforcer and hitman. the DeMeo gang was suspected of 75 to 200 killings. Surprisingly. Gambino crime family boss Paul Castellano and the other Commission bosses. nearly 20 years after the Bonventre murder. In 1974. With the end of the Castellammarese War. federal authorities arrested Louis Attanasio. dark and handsome who was casual about having an affair as his wife was also engaged in a relationship with another married man. You have to be careful. Bonanno boss Carmine Galantebrought Bonventre to New York to be his bodyguard. New Jersey restaurant. 1984) was a Sicilian mobster and caporegime for the New YorkBonanno crime family. Bonventre had been on the side of the three capos' Alphonse "Sonny Red" Indelicato. a three mile long island off the coast of Sicily. Bonventre normally wore his shirt unbutton with a gold crucifix hanging from his neck. New York in the Catskill Mountains. 1979. Giovanni "John" Bonventre (April Henry Joseph Borelli also known as "Dirty Henry" (born 1948) was a New York mobster with the Gambino crime family who became a member of the violent DeMeo crew. He was released. the precursor of the modern Bonanno crime family. New York. Bonanno and Bonventre were picked up by police as they tried to escape the meeting site through a field. Bonventre controlled the Sicilians. Bonanno and Bonventre used their mob influence to eventually dominate the production of this cheese in New York State. "He's a very sharp guy. On April 9. Bonventre still struggled. He was a lover of Babette Judith Questal who he met in 1972 when she hailed down his car-service escort car. a family faction who were planning a coup to take over the family. Although it was a hot summer day and they were dining on the patio. Now a government witness. Not Much is known about his early Life other than he was born in c. after being convicted of murder. At 28. Italian Carabinieri police banished Bonventre and 14 other Sicilian Mafia leaders to Filicudi. Bonventre became the youngest capo in Bonanno family history. 2006. As Vitale steered into the garage. when he was forced out by Salvatore Maranzano. In 1984. Bonventre's body was hacked to pieces and dumped into three 55-gallon glue drums. Bonanno mobsters Salvatore Vitale and Louis Attanasio picked up Bonventre to bring him to a meeting with Rastelli at a glue factory in Wallington. New Jersey. Born in Castellammare del Golfo. joining Rastelli's faction. he was arrested while in possession of a test amount. the meanest killers in the family. who had cleaned up the murder car. then disappeared from the scene after the three hitmen. Bonventre married Caterina Vitale. Bonventre's widow gave birth to their only son after the murder. many in the Canarsie area of Brooklyn. After Galante's death. On September 20. Due to his reputed efficiency as a shooter. Bonventre was the uncle of family founder Joseph Bonanno. After the body was recovered. Bonventre was arrested by federal agents. Borelli acquired the nickname "Dirty Henry" in homage to the Clint Eastwood movie character Dirty Harry popular in the 1970s. The ascension of Rastelli as boss triggered a period of discontent and rivalry in the Bonanno family. car thieves and drug dealers associated with the Gambino mafia family. he would have probably taken over the Bonanno family. he sought a job at his father-in-law's car service company. Bonanno and Bonventre purchased a dairy farm near Middletown. Suddenly. The killers then moved the drums to the fourth floor offices of a trading company in Garfield. 1984. Bonventre is buried at Saint Charles Cemetery in Farmingdale. Bonventre was promoted from soldier to capo and joined Salvatore Catalano's Brooklyn crew. Destefano writes that there was something about Bonventre that made him stand out from the other ethnic Italians. As Vitale drove the car into the factory. However. Bonventre became involved in the importation and drug trafficking of heroin from Sicily into New York pizza parlors. He was a regular habituate of his cousin Baldassare Amato's deli run by his family located at Second Avenue and Eighty-fourth Street in Yorkville. The DeMeo crew was an infamous group of murderers. Bonventre's pedigree. The hit on Galante required Philip "Rusty" Rastelli to get approval from the Zips. Robert Attanasio. Bonventre's body was recovered. bodyguards Bonventre and Baldo Amato joined Galante. His stylish clothing. but it is unknown if they had any children. Bonventre and his brother Vito Bonventre soon joined the local Castellammarese criminal organization. Joseph Guglielmo and Chris Rosenberg. known as the "Pizza Connection". Lean and handsome. On April 17. Henry was tall. Boss Cola Schiro ran the organization until 1930. As a result. It was later rumored that the Mafia Commission. he had ambitions to be a police officer and had taken the entrance exam and passed.Cesare "The Tall Guy" Bonventre (January 1. Led by Gambino soldier Roy DeMeo. Bonventre was a member of the Sicilian Mafia. Bonventre soon became the unofficial underboss of the Bonanno family Sicilians. Vitale testified against them.Wisconsin. In 1950. Anthony Senter. In the book King of the Godfathers. but he was soon released and was never charged with the crime. increasing wealth and fearsome reputation had made him into a threat to Massino's leadership. Bonventre crawled out of the car. Massino decided to eliminate Bonventre. Soon after the murder. On July 12. He was automatically disqualified from family membership because in the early 1970s he took the New York Police Department entrance exam and failed. Henry. even though he was incarcerated at the time and Joseph Massino became underboss. a major conflict between the Sicilian clans in New York. In January 2004. However. Peter Calabrese and Louis's brother Robert Attanasio. grabbing the steering wheel and trying to crash the car. during what would be his last trip at twenty-six years old to Casablanca. From the mid-1970s to the early 1980s. forcing the two hitmen to fight him off. Aiello was shot to death in the parking lot of a Clifton. Bonventre decided to move back to Sicily. the New York crime families imported young Sicilian men from Sicily to the United States to work as drug traffickers and hitmen.

Staten Island. Genovese. Manfredi also gave detailed information on Borgio's organization and the police bounty. Henry Borelli. Boriello also conducted business at the One Over Golf Club. as Manfredi put his hand on the pool table revealing a scar on his hand. Living above his store. George White on May 25. Gotti told Boriello to murder Gambino soldier Louis DiBono. arresting both operations and clientele alike. Bobby Boriello was shot to death outside his Bensonhurst. Queens. Jeff and Steve Dobies. and as no money was taken from the victims (indicating theft was not a motive). After several months of contacting informants and maintaining a surveillance of criminal hangouts. Ohio during the early 1900s. and ended up shooting him to death. most likely through bribery. 31. rifles. In 2004 Geritano's own brother-in-law Andrew Gargiulo stabbed him to death in broad day light. on charges of weapons possession. loan sharking and drug trafficking. as the property was guarded by an extensive security system including alarms on both the front and back stairs. In jail at the time. he found the suspect. Brooklyn home. On another occasion.of My Father". John Ruggiero. or full member. Another officer. Fiaschetti arrested Manfredi and Biondo. 1988. Pasquale Biondo. a paraplegic gangster involved in loan sharking and gambling in the neighborhood who was killed a few years ago. Borriello's wife. he ordered Gambino family members to meet with the leaders of the Genovese family. Fiaschetti received a tip in January 1919 from one of his leading informants a man fitting the suspects‘ description was spotted at his pool hall. A burly. a high security facility in Preston County. The first victim was Patrolman Robert Norris who. Borgio controlled the Black Hand operations (aimed primarily at the cities growing Italian community) as well as dominating illegal gambling and prostitution. The crew's associates included Steve Kaplan. Low level mob associate David Fisher had been in a physical altercation with Mascuzzio. as well as involvement in extortion. two New York Police Department officers working for the mob. 1991. he was furious. a solid steel door. offering a bounty of $250 on all police officers of the city. Stevie was instrumental in securing the crew's South Brooklyn rackets. operated by Gambino soldier Joseph "Joe Pits" Conigliaro. Carmine Agnello. were shot and killed. As of April 2008. Boriello's business dealings were conducted in Manhattan. where he associated with Gambino family wiseguys Angelo Paccione. gambling. In 1986. and loan sharking. Arriving at the pool hall the following night. Akron's police force remained considerably free of bribery. unaware of Borgio's involvement. playing pool. 1934 and fled to Italy. Lastorino shot Boriello twice in the head. larceny and gambling. Receiving an extradition order for the two mobsters. Jr. Fiaschetti escorted Manfredi and Biondo on board a train to Akron. and after Joey's murder. In fact. Boriello operated his rackets from his Brooklyn social club where he was about to rechange the order of rank of crew members from club at the time he was killed. Albert Gallo and Frank Illiano. the 150-year sentence for the auto theft was upheld. and many others. His projected release date is October 10. With Manfredi's testimony (for which he received 20 years imprisonment). you profess Roman Catholicism. 1861 – May 22. New York. including Bobby Boriello. Rosario claimed his home was "police proof". Frank Lividisi. with a second man. "You have been convicted of being what is generally called a contract killer. Gethin Richards. especially South Brooklyn. and Pasquale "Patsy" Conte. DiBono had secured. West Virginia. He was found. along with other capo Gene Gotti. John Alite. Akron police. Gravano took over the business. and five times in the torso. a social club in Carroll Gardens. and gave him his own crew. more suited for Wall Street. Boriello unsuccessfully tried to kill Gambino crime family associate Preston Geritano on a Brooklyn street. In the 1980s. Fiaschetti eventually convinced him that Biondo would kill Manfredi to silence him from testifying at the trial. Borgio was convicted. andNicholas LaSorsa.April 13. In 1990. Anthony "Toddo" Anastasio. Joseph Chirico. the Italian Squad had long established themselves in New York's Italian-American areas. and Craig DePalma. Calling on Lt. Louis Casaneti. He quickly developed close relationships with Gotti. Gotti assigned Bobby Boriello to the Junior Gotti crew. Judge Duffy stated. however. Boriello grew up in South Brooklyn. shot several times in the back. construction. With all local Black Hand groups. In sentencing Borelli. Rosario operated a successful general goods store (a front he used as a legitimate business as he soon began criminal operations in two backrooms of his store). The men stood there with family capo John "Jackie Nose" D'Amico. Boriello was suspected in several gangland slayings. that Borelli was a "suit and tie" type of guy. Boriello crew member and close associate Anthony "Shorty" Mascuzzio from Carroll Gardens was killed in a New York nightclub owned by Kaplan. along with Borgia lieutenant Paul Chiavaro. and Colombo crime families. Between 1967 and 1972. over a business squabble. Boriello and Gotti would often spend weekends together on Long Island. Tony Manfredi. Boriello was arrested six times. Police had concluded the suspect to be a serial killer. Michael Fiaschetti. and later on the crew included Dominic "Fat Dom" Borghese. assault. Borgio decided to declare war on the Akron Police Force. Although Borelli has been eligible for parole since 1996. Although the two men remained silent during the trip. firing shots at him in public. 1944 . 6-foot. Boriello died in the street beside his 1991 Lincoln Towncar. James Palmeri and Lorenzo Biondo were sentenced to life terms in Ohio penitentiary. in the Gambino family. and a large arsenal of weapons including shotguns. This may be because of the unlikelihood of Borelli being released given Judge Duffy's recommendation that Borelli never receive parole. while patrolling his beat. During his early days. he has waived his parole consideration and has failed to appear before the Commission for parole hearings. His older brother Stevie was a close friend of neighborhood gangsters Joseph "Crazy Joey" Gallo. After DiBono's death. reasoning that Boriello had been one of the more accomplished "hitters" in the family. when Chief of Detectives Harry Welsh received an anonymous call from a woman who claimed one of the men involved in the murders had gone to New York and could be identified by a scar on his hand. Rosario Giuseppe Borgio (January 18. partying. outside his home on Bay 29th Street. After serving Manfredi a few drinks in the lounge car. Boriello had been under investigation by multiple federal agencies and the Kings County District Attorney's Office for directing a cocaine trafficking conspriacy. Since Geritano had relatives in Genovese crime family. pistols. He was electrocuted on May 22." The judge recommended that Borelli never receive parole. I would suggest that what you should do is beg God for forgiveness. Boriello participated in the 1990 murder of Gambino Soldier Louis DiBono. Arriving in Akron. Genovese and Gambino representatives met to discuss his fate. The hit was carried out by Lucchese captain Frank "Big Frank" Lastorino. pits built into the stairs which held foot-long steel spikes. Anthony "Sonny" Ciccone. Vito Mezzano. as well as his suspected involvement in the murder of former family boss Paul Castellano. and attending performances by singer Jay Black. Susan. Borelli is serving his sentence at United States Penitentiary Hazelton. administering the oath was Salvatore "Sammy the Bull" Gravano. 1919. Michael McLaughlin. Borgio had extensive political protection. Thomas "Tommy Twitch" Cacciopoli. Charles Carneglia. and their two young children were inside the home at the time of the shooting. Steven Kaplan was paying Boriello and Junior Gotti tribute for his investments in strip clubs up and down the East Coast. on orders from Lucchese crime family underboss Anthony Casso. 1918. Admitting to his and Biondo's involvement. they agreed to kill Bartholomew "Bobby" Boriello (March . In December 1990. Observing the two men. By the early 1910s. was killed several days after the Costigan-Hunt murder. Within days patrolmen Edward Costigan and Joe Hunt. In early 1918. On April 13. Casso received information to perform the Boriello murder from Louis Eppolito and Stephen Caracappa. ruling out the local street gangs as suspects. soon after Junior became a capo. Keeping to their earlier agreement. Boriello became a made man. Although Borelli successfully appealed the life sentence. Biondo was secretly paroled by Gov. his father was indicted and set up a 5-man ruling panel to which Junior was appointed. Gambino informant Dominick LoFaro. Eventually the Gambinos released Geritano to the Genovese with the condition that he be killed if he tried to retalliate against Boriello. and submachine guns. was ambushed and killed on December 26. Nicholas Corozzo and Joseph "Jo Jo" Corozzo. After John Gotti promoted his son to capo at the behest of Sammy Gravano. also on patrol. Akron police began raiding Borgio's gambling dens and brothels. with much of the city's politicians on the payroll. Other crew soldiers included John "Jackie" Cavallo. and throughout Brooklyn. 1991) was a New York mobster who belonged to the Gambino crime family and served as boss John Gotti's favorite bodyguard and chauffeur. Dominick "Skinny Dom" Pizzonia. the lucrative contract to install fireproofing foam on the infrastructure of the Twin Towers of the New York World Trade Center. Boriello. Vincent "Vinnie Butch" Corrao. Despite the vague description. fingered Boriello as one of the shooters in the slaying. by a local resident who stumbled over his body several hours later. for assistance the NYPD agreed to begin an investigation. the head of the New York Police Department (NYPD) "Italian Squad" following the death of his predecessor Joseph Petrosino by the Black Hand in 1909. John Gotti. 2072. being the most powerful and closest ally to John Gotti in the crew. surrounded by mobsters from the Gambino. Fiaschetti decided to interrogate Manfredi. he was led into an apartment located on Mulberry Street (the apartment belonged to Joe Butch Corrao's mother). New York. 1919) was an early Italian-American mobster establishing one of the first organized crime operations in the Midwest during the early 20th century. The murders occurred in different locations of the city.. When Gotti heard about Boriello's murder. Former Gambino capo Michael "Mikey Scars" DiLeonardo testified that on December 24. with interests in trucking. a childhood friend of Gotti. Salvatore "Sammy the Bull" Gravano and two brothers. Boriello was appointed acting capo of the Junior Gotti crew. He is now eligible for parole. Borelli was sentenced to life in prison and a concurrent sentence of 150 years for 15 counts of auto theft. Pasquale Biondo and his brother Lorenzo Biondo. A prominent hitman during the 1980s. were baffled by the killings. Boriello was a feared enforcer for the Gallo gang. 3-inch man. At the time of his murder. In 1987. detectives were unable to establish a plausible motive for the crimes. Sitting at the table. of the Akron police murders and sentenced to the electric chair later that year. Borgio responded by holding a meeting in the fall of 1918. Inside were the other men who were going to be inducted that evening.

An inquest was held. UNITA was under a United . He and Kid Dahl split the profits equally for six weeks until Kid Dahl brought in The Nailer and ordered The Bottler to leave. It was his death. But other sources state he rose to the rank of Major in the GRU (an arm of the Soviet military that combines intelligence services and special forces). one which was considered the most successful in the East Side. shot him in the chest twice and left. 2008.. In 1995 he was involved in negotiations to free Russian hostages during the 1995 Airstan incident. Sammy Gravano attended a sit-down with Genovese family acting boss Liborio "Barney" Bellomo. Beginning in 1994 he made shipments for the pre-Taliban government. The power. and in the early 1980s he was member of the Esperanto club in Dushanbe. handling loan sharking.. Patrizio Bosti (Naples. judge. to Liberia and Angola". holding the rank of Lieutenant. He ran a highly popular stuss parlor in the Five Points district during the early 20th century. A former Soviet military translator. Spain. Despite there being at least twenty people in the room at the time of the shooting. John Gotti sent word to Stevie Boriello that he had permission to avenge his brother's death by killing whoever he needed to. Bulgarian arms manufacturing companies had exported large quantities of different types of weapons between 1996 and 1998 on the basis of (forged) end-user certificates from Togo". September 5. which was eventually mandated by the Thai High Court in August 2010. and he knew Ahmed Shah Massoud. from east Europe. except only that he was of Egyptian origin.S. Bout was involved with a Soviet military operation in Angola in the late 1980s. with only one exception.. Some time after that. Little is known of his life prior to his arrival in New York. principally Bulgaria.S. The Bottler was portrayed in the 1999 historical novel Dreamland by Kevin Baker. A 2000 United Nations report stated. the UN and the U. Marion in Illinois. As willing to work forCharles Taylor in Liberia as he was for the United Nations in Sudan and the United States in Iraq. Bout says he has done little more than provide logistics. deliver anti-aircraft missiles and provide aid to a terrorist organization. the resort was empty by the time police arrived. Bout may have facilitated huge arms shipments into various civil wars in Africa with his private air cargo fleets during the 1990s. near Dushanbe.S. He soon gained a reputation as a "money maker" in the underworld. At this time. Bout's nickname. in Girona. and extortion rackets in Brooklyn and Staten Island. The detective managed to relieve both men of their weapons and took them into custody whereupon he marched them both to the local police precinct where the two were charged with disturbance of the peace. Viktor Anatolyevich Bout (Russian: Виктор Анатольевич Бут) (born January 13. he was sentenced to 25 years imprisonment by a U. owned by Victor Bout. and began building up a successful illegal gambling empire based around his Glonconda stuss parlor on Suffolk Street.. ". in 2008. seeking Geritano's execution. but nothing ever came of it. trial would eventually lead to his acquittal. A citizen of Russia. but a few other birthplaces have been suggested: A 2001 South African intelligence file listed him as Ukrainian in origin. who repeatedly threatened the life of The Bottler. He was spotted when he took a flight from Naples to Barcelona a week before and traced to nearby Girona. He is thought to have been discharged in 1991 with the rank ofLieutenant Colonel. was the main transporter of these weapons from Burgas airport in Bulgaria". but former British Foreign Office minister Peter Hain called Bout a "sanctions buster" and described him as "the principal conduit for planes and supply routes that take arms . He was later extradited to Italy to face the murder charges. This did not occur. a police detective from Central Office was tracking down a lush worker when he stumbled upon the scene between the desperate gambler and Kid Dahl both brandishing firearms at each other. He has said he was in Angola for only a few weeks. forces. where he was spending some time in a luxurious villa. however it was widely speculated that this had been the Five Pointers retribution for The Bottler's murder.S. From 1993. His nickname is "'o Patrizio". where he currently resides. he was arrested in Thailand in 2008 before being extradited in 2010 to the United States to stand trial on terrorism charges. was fined $5 and released. (now the capital of Tajikistan) possibly on January 13. Bout's Web site states that he began an air freight business in Africa around the time of the collapse of the USSR. The Bottler (died 1908) was the pseudonym of an Egyptian-born American gambler and underworld figure in New York. is due to his being implicated in the facilitation of the violation of UN arms embargoes in Angola. and the weapons may have been destined for use by União Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA). Bout has reportedly shipped flowers. Bout acknowledges having been to Afghanistan on numerous occasions during the 1990s but has denied dealing with al Qaeda or the Taliban. The Bottler decided against it and instead barred his doors to Dahl and sent word to the Five Pointers in preparation to make a stand against the Eastmans. he was convicted by a jury in a Manhattan federal court of conspiracy to kill U. that he graduated from a Soviet military intelligence training program. the company Air Cess. Unsure that the Five Pointers could protect him. 1967. both men were released due to lack of evidence. On April 5.Geritano. A few days later. Bout had reportedly made a significant amount of money through his multiple air transport companies. influence and wealth his clan held allowed Bosti to become one of the top Camorra leaders within the Secondigliano Alliance (Alleanza di Secondigliano) of leading Naples area clans. "Sanctions Buster". 1959) is a powerful Italian Camorra boss and head of the Bosti clan. In June 2012 he was transferred to the United States Penitentiary. This was the first time Bout was mentioned in connection with arms trading. The Bottler's success soon attracted Kid Twist. which he had mastered by age 12. On November 2. Although he considered going to the police. The CIA has described Bout-owned planes as transporters of small arms and ammunition into Afghanistan. gambling. French soldiers and African heads of state. and that ". 2012.. one faction in Angola's 1975– 2002 civil war.S. Bout's personal website states that he served in the Soviet Army as a translator. then leader of the Eastman Gang. who took advantage of The Bottler's affiliation with the rival Five Points Gang and sought to take over his operation by forcing The Bottler to take on Kid Dahl as his partner. but the true end-user was UNITA. an Afghan Northern Alliance commander. Royal Thai Police arrested Bout in Bangkok. Another suspected arms dealer. Carroll Terry. Both were tried and Kid Dahl. Boriello had done nothing else wrong to be killed then being John Gotti's closest friend in the family . 1967. is said to have employed Bout's aircraft during the mid-1990s to transport weapons to Africa from Eastern European states. UN documents and Bout himself both state his birthplace as Dushanbe. Having graduated from the Military Institute of Foreign Languages. and had the backing of Gotti and Gravano and at present time Locatirino has never been covicted of the crime nor has been avenged . Bout's air freight companies provided service to the French government. 2011. Imad Kebir. Thailand. Soviet Union) is a convicted Russian arms smuggler of Ukrainian origins. he expressed confidence that this U. and was described as "round. In cooperation with American authorities. It was soon after this incident that Kid Dahl allegedly began planning the murder of The Bottler. Tajik SSR. until his death when he confronted Kid Twist and the Eastman Gang from taking over his gambling establishment. frozen chicken. that he was an officer in the Soviet Air Forces. These include Persian and Esperanto. well-dressed and affable". There is some confusion regarding Bout's military career although it is clear that he served in the Soviet Armed Forces.. after having being accused of intending to smuggle arms to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) to use against U. Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of Congo during the 1990s. USSR. Bosti and his clan are aligned with the long established Licciardi and Contini Camorra clans. specifically for his clever methods for cheating. which later became the Northern Alliance. However. according to gangland lore. a Camorra crime syndicate based in the city of Naples. Bosti was convicted in absentia of heading a clan of the Naples-based Camorra crime syndicate and sentenced to 23 years in prison for the murder of two rival mobsters during a feud in 1984. inoffensive. however with Kid Twist being at the Delancy station house arguing over the release of an Eastman member and Kid Dahl seen arguing with the owner of a Houston Street restaurant. The cargo supposedly had Zairean end user certificates. especially in the midst of their gang war with the Eastmans. UN peacekeepers. Before his extradition to the United States in November 2010. From January 2011 to June 2012 Bout was incarcerated in the Metropolitan Correctional Center. Stevie Boriello remained involved with the family after his brother's death. New York City. The argument had been over a showgirl. The United States demanded his extradition. but was eventually arrested on August 10. a young member of the Five Points Gang known as Louie the Lump ambushed Kid Twist and his bodyguard Cyclone Louie at a Coney Island dance hall and gunned down the two men. a stranger entered the stuss parlor. it wasn't until 2004 that Geritano was stabbed to death outside a Bay Ridge. The Bottler was forced to agree to Kid Twist's terms. that resulted in the murder of Kid Twist and his bodyguard Cyclone Louie by Louie the Lump in 1908. while The Bottler was at his place. or that he was a KGB operative. by shipping cargo mostly in Africa and the Middle East during the 1990s and early 2000s. Bosti was included on the list of most wanted fugitives in Italy and had been a fugitive from 2005. Moldova and Ukraine. he is said to be fluent in six languages. Liberia. citizens and officials. Both shots had struck The Bottler's heart and he had died at the scene. Brooklyn restaurant by his brother in law andrew garguilo a big bookmaker for the genovese famuily over geritano's constant shaking his brother in law down for money earlier that day preston broke gargiulo's arm with a baseball bat the killing had nothing to do with boriello's and later it was found out that Frank Locastirino a member of the Luchesse Family was ordered to kill Boriello as a message to the senior John Gotti.

Charlie Bowdre was played by Charles Martin Smith in Sam Peckinpah's Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid (1973). Bowdre worked as a cowboy on the ranches of Thomas Yerby and Pete Maxwell as the war went on. 1876. some months before his death. be extradited to the United States. But the relative disagreed. Jose Chavez y Chavez and the rest of the Kid's associates. Eyewitnesses describe personal meetings between the two. the Russian government called the extradition illegal. Rwanda. and he was interred next to Tom O'Folliard. reports state that some of the planes used to do this were linked to Bout. Charles Bowdre (1848 .. 2010. Bout's strategy of constantly moving location. Records show that by 1874.S.Nations Security Council embargo prohibiting the importation of arms. Foreign Secretary) Clinton. and frequently re-registering aircraft made it hard for authorities to make a case against him. on allegations about Bout's personal history and black-market activities. and Ab Saunders stormed the very weak Lincoln jail. After the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. Bout's network allegedly delivered surface-to-air missiles used to attack an Israeli airliner during takeoff in Kenya in 2002. indicated that in late September 2003. Bout's U. taking Largo outside of town and hanging him. nature of the case.S. young Charlie started working in his father's farm. He may have sold planes to the Taliban. Bout's father-in-law Zuiguin "at one point held a high position in the KGB. Guns. including Belgium. 1877. These included illegal purchase of aircraft. assets were among those frozen in July 2004 under Executive Order 13348. Bowdre was shot by Buckshot Roberts during the Gunfight of Blazer's Mills on April 4. The site has a document in Dutch to support the claim that the Belgian case against him was dismissed due to his lack of a fixed residence and because the case could not be prosecuted in a timely fashion. Chichakli was. Russian President Medvedev's aideSergei Eduardovich Prikhodko said that Russia had "nothing to hide" in Bout's criminal case. 2013. On December 23. and he is alleged to have connections to ranking Russian officials. the U. Bout was extradited to the United States. Brewer and Jim French. he had never made contact with al Qaeda or the Taliban — instead supplying the rebel Northern Alliance. Scurlock. 2008. The alleged crime was conspiracy to provide material support or resources to a designated foreign terrorist organization. Manuela was a sister to Doc Scurlock's wife. shortly after the overthrow of the Gaddafi government in 2011. be brought to completion. Royal Thai Police arrested Bout in Bangkok on March 6. but Bowdre and most of the Kid's gang members escaped alive. in fact. and [Bout] should answer all the questions the American justice system has. a higher court in Thailand ruled that Bout could. and as he grew up became an adept farmer. Bout was suspected of supplying Charles Taylor with arms for use in the Sierra Leone Civil War. Bout was convicted by a jury at a court in Manhattan on November 2.-designated foreign terrorist group. Russian government officials announced that ―judges.S. Antonia. Soon after the beginning of the 2001–present war in Afghanistan. He has never been charged for the alleged African arms deals to which he owes his notoriety. Bout was reportedly seen meeting with Hezbollah officials in Lebanon during the run-up to the 2006 Lebanon War. and William McCloskey were killed along the Blackwater Creek on March 9. Bout has lived in various countries. In February 2009. stating. perhaps even as high as a deputy chairman". and current Russian deputy prime minister.S. Much of what Bowdre did between the year in which his last sister was born (1863) and 1874. he is portrayed by actor Casey Siemaszko. Frank Baker. Charged in 2000 with forging documents in the Central African Republic. On August 11. he had arrived at Lincoln County. Bout was convicted in absentia but the charges were later dropped. denying the United States' request for extradition and citing the political. is purportedly based. assisted by Brendan McGuire. and the Man Who Makes War Possible. a relative named Louis Bowdre was found. The language institute Bout attended has been linked to the GRU. 2009. The Belgians requested that Interpol issue a notice for Bout on charges of money laundering. George Coe and Frank Coe. Records found in Muammar Gaddafi's former intelligence headquarters in Tripoli. 2010. members of the United States Congress signed a letter to Attorney General Holder and Secretary of State (i. "it is in our interest that the investigation . was extradited to New York on charges that he conspired to buy aircraft in violation of economic sanctions. media's one-sided approach to the story. and a court tried to have Bowdre's remains removed. During the trial Bout's lawyers also implied that he was a political prisoner. that he abandoned the family's farm to become a wanderer. 1878. pursuing cattle thieves and rustlers. which had surrounded the building in the night. and in 2002 an Interpol red notice on Bout was issued. 2011. however. Billy the Kid and his partners gave up. investigators. On August 20. Bowdre became friends with Doc Scurlock during this time. Bout allegedly worked alongside GRU-affiliated. officials who will be denied Russian entry visas. Merchant of Death: Money. the Criminal Court ruled in his favor. freeing cattle rustler Jesus Largo from the custody of Sheriff Saturnino Baca. but he still joined the rest of the gang on a mission to ambush Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner. remains a mystery. however. On the date of his arrest in Bangkok. Its Foreign Ministry took steps to prevent his extradition to the U. He was an associate and member of Billy the Kid's gang. The fact that he was recently married when he died makes him less likely to have been involved in the gang's activities during the few weeks that passed between his marriage and his death. Bout's wife Alla has stated that the judge acted correctly and that 25 years was the minimum term for the crime. Igor Sechin in Africa in the 1980s. Russia's Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov suggested that Bout was innocent. as well as being an active participant. in response for the U. No charges were ever filed for the event. Charlie Bowdre was ready to quit riding with Billy the Kid and surrender for the murder of Buckshot Roberts. Richard Ammar Chichakli. The 2005 film. on several occasions taking part in the lynching of those captured. He also joined Scurlock on several posses during this period. On August 5.Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement rejecting Bout's sentence as "a political order" and criticizing the U. On July 18. 1880) was an American cowboy and outlaw. 2008 the culmination of a sting operation set up by Drug Enforcement Administration agents. Frank Coe. South Africa. at least in part. 2010 at 1:30 pm. although both men deny this allegation. established in Resolution 864. During the conflict. 1878 Battle of Lincoln. British intelligence officials told then-Libyan intelligence chief Musa Kusa that Bout had a "considerable commercial presence in Libya" and aimed to expand his interests there. owning numerous companies. Later. wire fraud. On November 16. and in turn shot Roberts. Some sources claim he was actually in Russia when the meeting took place. At dawn. and conspiring to acquire and use an anti-aircraft missile. the gang was holed up in a rock house at Stinking Springs. al Qaeda is said to have moved gold and cash out of the country. and he met Billy. By December 1880. expressing their wish that the Bout extradition "remain a top priority".S. Charlie Bowdre emerged to feed the horses and was riddled with rifle slugs by Garrett's posse. Bout was extradited amid protests by the Russian Government. saying that Bowdre would prefer to rest next to O'Folliard." Bout is suspected of supplying weapons to numerous armed groups in the Second Congo War in the 2000s and may have employed some 300 people and operated 40 to 60 aircraft. New Mexico. Georgia. It is thought that Bout was of help to Russia's intelligence agencies. who stated that: "I woke up after September 11 and found I was second only to Osama. In 1962. a co-conspirator of Bout‘s. including Richard M.S. 1878. The United States government was represented by Anjan Sahni. In June 2013. Later that day. His wanted poster can be viewed here. "Magnitsky Act". Bout was arrested in Thailand on an Interpol red notice and on November 16. 2012.S. Manuela. District Judge Shira Scheindlin ruled that the minimum sentence was appropriate because "there was no evidence that Bout would have committed the crimes for which he was convicted had it not been for the sting operation". Bout appeared in Moscow and stated that while his aircraft made regular flights to the country. however. one such agency.. dealer and transporter of weapons and minerals" and cites his close association with Charles Taylor. not criminal. In July 2003 the New York Times interviewed Bout. he was known to have been present with his fellow Regulators when William Morton. Planes. Bowdre. an Interpol red notice was requested by the United States against Bout. Department of Justice charged Bout with conspiracy to provide material support or resources to a designated foreign terrorist organization. In 2007 Stephen Braun and Douglas Farah published a book about Bout. A gun battle ensued. Russia. Lebanon. 2010. With the outbreak of the Lincoln County War in 1878. Bowdre married a twenty five-year-oldMexican girl. Bowdre sided with the Tunstall-McSween side. Lord of War. Syria and the United Arab Emirates. His remains were returned to his wife.. By 1854. and the two men opened a cheese factory on the Gila River. – December 23. under which certain Russian officials are ineligible to enter the United States. It was never confirmed as to whether Bowdre's shot eventually killed Roberts. In 1993 Bout began collaborating with Syrian-born Richard Chichakli and in 1995 Sharjah International Airport in the United Arab Emirates hired Chichakli to be the commercial manager of its new free trade zone.e. George Coe. The day after his Bangkok arrest. Bout's website states that because he failed to appear in court a Belgian warrant (not the Interpol notice) for his arrest was issued but later cancelled. The United States appealed that ruling. in the 1988 film Young Guns. According to a 2002 United Nations report. The Order describes him as a "businessman. Bowdre was born in Wilkes County. On November 18. Bowdre would be charged with killing Buckshot Roberts during the Blazer's Mills Gunfight. After months of delay.S. which saw use from Bout. he was sentenced to 25 years in prison (the minimum sentence) for conspiring to sell weapons to a U. called Bout's "financial manager" by the U. or a shot fired by George Coe killed him. When he was three years old. Additional charges against him were filed in February 2010. and was present in the July 15 through July 19. shortly after Bout's extradition to the United States. It is believed. On April 5. including Igor Sechin. and money laundering. the Criminal Court in Bangkok began an extradition hearing for Bout on September 22. Bout allegedly offered to supply weapons to people he thought were representatives of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) rebels. conspiring to kill Americans. Russia called the Thai court decision in 2010 politically motivated. he and his parents moved to Mississippi." On January 18. at one time. justice ministry officials and special services agents who were involved in Russian citizens Viktor Bout‘s and Konstantin Yaroshenko‘s legal prosecution and sentencing to long terms of imprisonment‖ would be added to the "Guantanamo list" of U. he and a companion were arrested for "shooting up" the town of Lincoln while intoxicated. another member of Billy's gang. conspiring to kill American officers or employees.

much in the style of Thomas Holden or Alvin Karpis. accompanied once more by his brother David and this time by another brother. on the first night of the voyage. but in a letter to his wife in August 1871 he mentioned an unpleasant incident involving some Wells. Released in 1946. David and James.000. Bowerman and three other men entered the Southwest Bank in north St. Bowen openly towed her into the nearby port of Callicoon and sold her in three shares to local merchants. one-time college football star Glenn Chesnick. 1953. as a bank employee was shot for "raising his hands too slowly". However. but the Speedy Return was refitted for action against commercial vessels. to John and Maria Bowles. took a female hostage and held a shotgun on her as he too attempted to escape. Bowen and Howard decided to join their forces. They had four children. In 1854. along with a number of English merchant captains and seamen who had also been imprisoned aboard the privateer's vessel. That same year. 116th Illinois Regiment. or Bolles. 1953. Bowen then sailed to Augustin Bay. New York. escaped on foot without the money. He was later portrayed by Crahan Denton in The Great St. At first. As the robbers began firing at police through the windows. After an unknown period of time. Illinois. Bowerman participated in one of the most violent bank heists in American history. he drove to Chicago using stolen cars committing 36 robberies between June–October 1938. The Great St. By 1867. one of the Comoros Islands. had a small role in the film. Despite these attacks. they were able to purchase a sloop and. she ran aground St. Melburn Stein. four miles north of Plessis Village in the direction of Alexandria Bay. He proved to be a good soldier.following his attack on the East Indiaman. putting in at Port Dauphin briefly. They began mining in the North Fork of the American River in California. He served five years and was paroled in 1937. He sailed with other famous contemporaries. Bowles continued mining for two more years before leaving the goldfields. he was also known as Charles Bolton. A lone survivor. Bowles enlisted in Decatur as a private in Company B. serving as Petty Officer. Unaware of this. Missouri. he was eventually identified as one of several men who robbed a bank in South Bend. Bowen took around £170. Fargo & Company employees and vowed to extract revenge. purchased a farm in the area. On June 7. 1953) was an American criminal. He made it as far as the sidewalk before he shoved his hostage to the pavement. Bowen attacked a number of ships.. he was sentenced to Joliet Prison where he would spend the next seven years. breaking both her wrists. Bowen was able to continue to trade in local ports . Shortly after his release. the bank employees hid in the vault to escape the firefight and tear gas being thrown into the building. who. Scholl attempted to go for a backup weapon but police were able to disarm him and dragged him off in handcuffs.E. Nearing 60. commanded by Captain Drummond. In April 1699 the pirates captured the 450 ton. leaving the island and being electedsailing master by the crew. was shot in the chest by police officer Melburn F. Bowerman organized and led the disastrous Southwest Bank holdup in St. heading to Madagascar. Bowerman was named #46 by the FBI of its "Ten Most Wanted" list on March 3. the Content ran aground on a ledge. he was discharged in Washington. Finding themselves trapped in the bank. his criminal career lasted over 30 years and was placed on the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted" list in 1953. the FBI used his fingerprints to prove his identity. Both David and Robert were taken ill and died in California soon after their arrival. the officer who shot Bowerman. Frank Vito. The Speedy Return and the Content later left Maratan together but. 50-gun former slave ship Speaker. Bolton and Black Bart the Poet. Nathaniel North was elected to replace him as Captain of the Defiant. He then stopped writing. His father. Bowen was initially successful. Bowen's career as a pirate was later profiled by Captain Charles Johnson . He was one of 10 children: seven boys and three girls. In late 1702 Bowen once again met Thomas Howard. Onepolice sergeant was killed in the fight. Having also taken a sum of £70. after converting it into a brigantine (later renamed as the Content) he and his crew left and. which resulted in a standoff between himself and his three partners against a strike force of over 100 officers of the St. off the coast of Malabar. However. including Nathaniel North (who would succeed him as captain of Bowen's final ship. captured a prize with an estimated value of £100. Bowen moved to the proprietary colony of Carolina and joined an English ship. Bowerman was taken to a local hospital where he identified himself as John W. but eventually time began to work against the robbers. Louis. and after Charles Earl Bowles (b. In early 1702. andSherman's March to the Sea. a quiet life of farming held little appeal to Bowles. He had received brevet commissions as both second lieutenant and first lieutenant.he joined the crew of Captain Read. A veteran holdup man. taken the 36-gun Prosperous. Bowen and most of the crew were able to reach the shore. England. William Scholl (though this also has been attributed to Bowerman).after 1888). 1893-May 1. he refused to attack the ships present in the harbour as he feared the unknown strength they may have possessed. capturing the larger and renaming her Defiant. and Thomas Howard remained. He attacked a 13-strong fleet of Moorish ships and. at the port of Mayotta. 1862.in A General History of the Pyrates. Bowerman died of his wounds on May 1. outlaw noted for the poetic messages he left behind after two of his robberies.000 from the bank teller's cages and prepared to carry them out in a nylon satchel. 1953. Augustine. One of his partners. Indiana for $53. the Defiant) and George Booth. The violent daylight robbery attracted national attention. a bank employee had set off a silent alarm. Missouri. as it had been previously sighted there by former members of Drummond's crew. 1865. Finding the Rook once again absent. where he met the Content. with the crew coming aboard the Speedy Return. A little over a month later. After declaring the Speedy Return and Prosperous unsound. He took part in numerous battles and campaigns. The pirates then crossed the Atlantic Ocean. including the Battle of Vicksburg. As the robbers were about to make their getaway. Bowerman began committing robberies throughout the Chicagoarea. When Charles was two years old. in 1700 George Booth was killed by Arabs at the settlement of Zanzibar while attempting to negotiate the resupplying of the Speaker. The brigantine was found to be useless and was burned. Little is known of him during this time. Black Bart had a reputation for style and sophistication. However. Thomas' Reef off Mauritius. with his intention being to retire from piracy and to return to Madagascar.John Bowen (died 1704) was a pirate of Créole origin active during the Golden Age of Piracy. Bowen remained there for the next 18 months before entering piracy . On the afternoon of April 2. D. Louis. his parents emigrated to Jefferson County. The Speaker was lost in late 1701 when. shot in both hands and the neck. Bowen returned to the port of Rajapura where the plunder was divided. He was captured by detectives three days later. However. Bowen's ship was attacked and he was captured by French pirates. was an English-born American Old West .C. Bowen and a number of pirates seized the Speedy Return. After three months on the island. Fred William Bowerman (January 8. the Rook Galley was absent and Bowen sailed to Mauritius to look for her. John Bowles. One man. Louis Police Department. took part in the California Gold Rush. including an English East Indiaman commanded by Captain Conway in November 1701. Bowerman. By the time he was finally captured a year later. but ran aground near Elesa to the south of the island. starring Crahan Denton and Steve McQueen. Considered a gentleman bandit. rising to the rank of first sergeant within a year. Bowles (who had by now adopted this spelling of his surname) married Mary Elizabeth Johnson in Illinois. The events were later made into a film. Louis Bank Robbery (1959). In March 1703 Bowen had the Speedy Return careened and it was not until the August 1703 that together they attacked and plundered the East Indiaman Pembroke near Johanna Island. the robbery went as planned as the men quickly gathered up around $140.000 in September 1952.commonly believed to be a pseudonym of Daniel Defoe . There Bowen. While living in Michigan. he was one of the most notorious stagecoach robbers to operate in and around Northern California and southern Oregon during the 1870s and 1880s. Called Charley by his friends. 1829. on August 13. as well as an aged Brigantine which Drummond had planned to fill with slaves from Île Sainte-Marie. Charles Bowles was born in Norfolk. Bowles and two of his brothers. Bowles mined for only a year before returning home in 1852. he was prospecting again in Idaho and Montana. Bowen continued to sail for the Mascarene Islands. Bowerman's partners panicked. Following this. and attempted to shoot it out with police before a bullet knocked him sprawling. Following the capture of a large Indian ship by Read. He soon made a second trip to the California goldfields. Bowen continued to sail under Booth's command until. despite a number of the ships escaping in darkness. nearly 100 police officers arrived and surrounded the bank. By Christmas. The American Civil War began in April 1861. bank robber and Depression-era outlaw. within six months Bowen died of an unspecified intestinal disease and was buried on Bourbon. Bowen and Howard then attacked two Indian ships in the Red Sea. where he was seriously wounded. Frederick. along with a group of pirates. and then on to the Mascarene Islands where he and 40 others left the Defiant. and attempted to hold up the bank. However. seized the ship's longboat and sailed the 15leagues (45 miles) to St.000. attempting to find a getaway car outside. for sale to Portuguese cocoa plantation owners in Africa.C. they were burned and Bowen took command of the Defiant. Unknown to Bowerman and the others. Fred William Bowerman's criminal career began in the 1930s and was eventually arrested in Illinois for armed robbery in 1932. the couple had made their home in Decatur. who was his captain when he served under him as a crewman aboard the Speaker. and returned home to Illinois. The bullet had pierced a lung and lodged itself in his spine. during a voyage to Madagascar. d. In late 1849. By 1860.000 in goods and coinage and retired to Bourbon for a brief period of time before his death in 1704. Over the course of a four-year period. Bowerman kept a low profile for several years. upon arriving at Madagascar founded a town and at fort Maratan. Born on Bermuda. There he expected to find the Rook Galley. Stein. better known as Black Bart. chose to commit suicide and shot himself with his pistol. However when the Content was surveyed she found to be worthless and was burned. Bowen returned to Madagascar and joined George Booth as a member of the crew. Following his retirement. after leaving Bowen's crew at Madagascar following the loss of the Speaker had. After the long years of war. and he yearned for adventure. Louis Bank Robbery (1959). Robert.

Bowles left only two authenticated verses. Let come what will. He had visibly aged. perpetrated 28 robberies of Wells Fargo stagecoaches across northern California between 1875 and 1883. this came to be considered his signature and ensured his fame. Bowles robbed his first stagecoach in Calaveras County. The lone bandit left a verse that read: So here I've stood while wind and rain Have set the trees a-sobbin. the stagecoach driver. Bowles may have read the Sacramento Union story. and he knew that the fourth one hit him. Bowles was always courteous and used no foul language in speech. and wild grey eyes. Bowles shouted.X. and wanted to get away from everybody. Bowles had been shot in the hand. Bowles eventually admitted that he had robbed several Wells Fargo stages but confessed only to the crimes committed before 1879. It read: Here I lay me down to sleep To wait the coming morrow. However. He kept the $500 in gold coins. It should be noted that there is a manuscript written some 20 years after the robbery by stage driver Reason McConnell in which McConnell says that he fired all four shots at Bowles. What made the crime unusual was the politeness and good manners of the outlaw. After initially denying he was Black Bart. read