Definition: Joint is the articulation between any of rigid component parts of the skeleton whether bones or cartilage by different tissues.

Functions of the joints:
1) Allowing movements of body segments by providing the bones with a mean of moving or rather of being moved. 2) Providing stability without interfering with the desired motion.

The function of the joints depends upon:
A. The shape of the contours of the contacting surfaces. B. How well it fits together.

Classification of human Joints according to structure Synarthoroses Limeted or no movement Diarthroses Free movement Synostoses Bone is connected to bone by bone Synovial There is synovial membrane and Synovial fluid Synchonroses Bone is connected to bone by Cartilage or fibrocartilage Syndesmoses Bone is connected to bone by a fibrous Connective tissues .

• Multiaxial. • Two degree of freedom of movement.• According to the degree of freedom of movement • One degree of freedom of movement. . • Three degree of freedom of movement. • Biaxial. • According to the number of axes of rotation: • Uniaxial.

Classification of synovial joints Anatomical classification Mechanical Classification Hinge joint Pivot joint Codyloid joint Saddle joint Elbsoid joint Ball and socket Gliding joint Example Elbow joint Atlanto axial joint. Superior radio-ulnar joint Knee joint Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb Wrist joint hip joint and shoulder joint Midtarsal joints of foot Uniaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Biaxial Triaxial Triaxial Nonaxial .

or linear movements.Classification of motion • Rotation • Is motion about an axis. most cartilaginous and fibrous joints allow translation. • Synovial joints allow rotation and translation movements . causing points on the rotating body to travil different distances depending upon their distance from the point of rotation • Translation • Produces a linear movement in which all points in the body travel the same distance regardless of their location in the body.

Congruent: The surfaces of the joint are equal Incongruent : The surfaces of the joint are not equal .Terminology Concave : hollowed or rounded inward. Convex : curved or rounded outward.

with the opposing surface convex & concave respectively – What is an example of a sellar joint? .Joint Shapes • Ovoid – one surface is convex. other surface is concave – What is an example of an ovoid joint? • Sellar (saddle) – one surface is concave in one direction & convex in the other.

extension.Relationship Between Physiological & Accessory Motion • Biomechanics of joint motion – Physiological motion • Result of concentric or eccentric active muscle contractions • Bones moving about an axis or through flexion. adduction or rotation – Accessory Motion • • • • Motion of articular surfaces relative to one another Generally associated with physiological movement Necessary for full range of physiological motion to occur Ligament & joint capsule involvement in motion . abduction.

Arthrokinematics • Arthrokinematics means motions of bone surfaces within the joint are : Roll. Slide. Spin. Compression and Distraction (5 motions) .

Roll • A series of points on one articulating surface come into contact with a series of points on another surface – Rocking chair analogy. equidistant points touch each other in the course of motion. . ball rolling on ground – Example: Femoral condyles rolling on tibial plateau – Roll occurs in direction of movement – Occurs on incongruent (unequal) surfaces – Usually occurs in combination with sliding or spinning • In rolling.

hip flexion/extension – Spin does not occur by itself during normal joint motion In spinning. shoulder flexion/extension. the contact point of one surface rotates around a longitudinal axis.Spin • Occurs when one bone rotates around a stationary longitudinal mechanical axis • Same point on the moving surface creates an arc of a circle as the bone spins • Example: Radial head at the humeroradial joint during pronation/supination. .

Slide Specific point on one surface comes into contact with a series of points on another surface In sliding. Combined rolling-sliding in a joint The more congruent the surfaces are. the more sliding there is The more incongruent the joint surfaces are. (sometimes referred to as a GLIDE) Surfaces are congruent . the more rolling there is . a point of a shallow concave gliding surface sweeps over a larger surface of the other convex joint body.

Slide (glide) .

• Compression – – Decrease in space between two joint surfaces – Adds stability to a joint – Normal reaction of a joint to muscle contraction • Distraction – Two surfaces are pulled apart – Often used in combination with joint mobilizations to increase stretch of capsule. .


. • Kinematic chain is when a number of links are united in series.Kinematic chain • It is a combination of several successively arranged joints constituting a complex motor system.

• Link systems are interconnected by joints that predetermine the particular type of motion permitted to the functional segments.Body link System and Kinematic Chains: • Body link system: • Body link is the distance between joint axes and it unites joint axes.called and members. In the case of hands and feet. • A body link is the central straight link that extends between two joint axes of rotation. . • The link system is used to make calculations regarding different body segments in different positions. the terminal links are considered to extend from the wrist and ankle joint centers to the center of the mass of these so.

Each segment of an open chain has a characteristic degree of freedom of motion. the distal possessing a higher degree of freedom than the proximal ones.g. • In a closed kinematic chain. when reaching forward to pick up a small object from a high shelf. Such linkage system allows the degrees of freedom of the many joints in the chain to be pooled giving the segments (particularly those more distal) greater potential for achieving a variety of movements than any one joint could possibly have on its own. the distal segment terminates free in space. • • In an open kinematic chain. e. • When one link moves all the other links will move in a predictable pattern. the rib cage.The kinematic chain may be open or closed.g. e. the distal segment is fixed and the end segments are unite to form a ring or a circuit. • • .

g. the other links will move in a predictable pattern e. rib cage It has a characteristic degree of freedom. The distal segments possess higher degrees of freedom than the proximal one. 2) end segments are united to form a ring when one link moves.g. chinning oneself on horizontal bar or stance phase of gait cycle. e. CLOSED CHAIN The distal segment is fixed and the terminal joint meets with great resistance which restraints its free motion.Kinematic chains OPEN CHAIN The distal end terminates free in space. Such linkage system allows the degree of freedom of many joints in the chain to be pooled giving the segments greater potential for achieving a variety of movements than can any one joint could possibly have on its own .

• Walking and ascending and descending stairs are examples of alternation between open and closed chains • Open kinematic chains are the most common type in the human body .

. 5. it may vary from thin to tough and fibrous membranes. e. Ligaments Arrangement: the ligaments attach the ends of the bones that form a movable joint and help in maintaining them in the right relationship to each other. 2. 4. Muscular Arrangement: They play part in the stability of joints especially in those joints whose bony structure contribute little to stability. Shape of the bony structure: e.g.g. Atmospheric Pressure: It plays a role mainly in the hip joint. The importance of this factor remains as long as the ligaments remain undamaged. Fascia: Accordingly to the location and function of the fascia.Factors Affecting Joint Stability ( Resistance to Displacement) 1.g collateral ligament of the knee. rotator cuff of the shoulder have strong inwards pull on the humeral head toward the glenoid fossa. depth of the acetabulum of the hip joint and shallowness of the glenoid fossa of the shoulder joint. e. 3.They check the movement when it reaches its normal limits and the resist the movements for which the joint is not constructed.

Current state of physical fitness. E. 9.g. 4. 5. Age. Heredity. 8. • N.Factors Affecting Range of Motion: 1. 3. Personal exercise habits. hamstring muscles tightness when attempting to touch the floor. Restraining effect of the ligaments and muscles crossing the joint as well as overlying skin. 7. relationship of pelvic tilting to movement of the hip and relationship of the shoulder girdle articulation to movement of the shoulder joint .B. Body build: Mesomorph and ectomorph have usually a greater flexibility than endomorph. 6. Shape of articular surfaces.: Apparent range of motion can be affected by the close relationship that exists between certain joints.g. Controlling and restraining action of the muscles e. The bulk of tissue in the adjacent segments. 2.

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