Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar


What is training ?
• Meaning – training is the systematic process of increasing the knowledge & skills of an employee for doing a specified job by providing a learning experience. • It helps the trainee acquire new skills, technical knowledge, problem-solving ability etc. thereby increasing the performance of the employees. • It also gives awareness of rules & procedures

• Training is the continuous, systematic development among all levels of employees of that knowledge and those skills and attitudes which contribute to their welfare and that of the company. –
Planty, Cord M.C and Efferson • “The process of aiding employees to gain effectiveness in their present and future work - Richard P. Calhoon

• A key tool for enhancing job-related performance and organizational effectiveness, its value is being increasingly acknowledged in engendering behavioural changes & in developing life skills leading to personal growth. • The scope has considerably widened. It equips an individual with competencies that help him/her cope with day-to-day problems of living & manage interpersonal relations and improving them.

• Training needs  training objectives • TO are tactical applications of strategic goals. • Written in clear, unambiguous, specific and precise terms. • They specify what learners will be able to do at the end of each stage of the training

• TO are essential for evaluating the training • TO are to be specific to knowledge, skills or attitudes that the trainees are to gain as a result of the training activity and also measurable.

Importance of Training objectives
i. Articulate the goal of training ii. Communicate intent to learner iii. Provide means of evaluation iv. Assists in selection of materials, content, methods.

Elements of Training objectives
• Outcomes of training program: observable behaviours  “by the end
of the program participants will be able to …”

• Conditions of the training program: circumstances in which the outcomes should take place  “in a
cohesive team situation”, without the use of instructional materials”

• Standards of the training program: expected level of attainment in

Assumptions Participants knowledge acquisition means greater competence Participants learn what trainers teach. Learning is a simple function of their capacity to take in and trainers teaching ability Individual improvement leads to improvement in organization Truth Motivation & skills lead to improved practice. Competence grows through practice. Learning is a complex function. Participants’ motivation and use of training varies with support I the organization It is complex function of learning, norms of the group and the organizational climate. Individual learning if unused leads to frustration Organization, participants and the trainers are all partners in the training process.

Training is the responsibility of the training establishment

1. Increasing productivity 2. Improving quality 3. To fulfill future personnel needs 4. Improve organizational climate 5. Improve health &safety 6. Obsolescence prevention 7. Personal growth

Need for Training
• • • • • • • Increased use of technology Labour turnover Need for additional hands New employees Promotion, career development Increasing the employee morale For reducing grievances & minimizing accident rates • Refresher training for Old employees

According to Miller five functions • Research – training systems • Analysis - identifying training needs • Development – teaching materials • Operation – training aids & methods • Evaluation – monitors the effectiveness of trainer I meeting goals, success of program and its impact on performance of employees.

Levels of training
• Prof. John Mee – training is done at two levels  Training dept & line supervisors • Training dept. – should assume primary responsibility for instruction of trainers in
– Methods of teaching – Formal orientation – Training of supervisors in human relations – General education of employees

Levels of training
• Prof. John Mee – training is done at two levels  Training dept & line supervisors • Line supervisors should carry out the bulk of teaching in foll. Areas
• On-the-job instruction • Technical & professional aspects • Daily development thro’ counseling • Departmental communication

• Benefits to the business
– – – – – Increase efficiency Wastage eliminated Less chances of accidents Reduced supervisory need Increase quality of goods

• Benefits to the employees
– More loyal ; increased morale & confidence – More efficient & effective – Produce more with minimum effort

Training & education
Training Increasing the knowledge & skill for doing a particular job Practice based and job specific Conducted by business organization Education Increasing general knowledge & understanding total environment Person oriented Conducted in schools and colleges

Through both differ in nature and orientation they are complementary to each other. Both aims to enhance learning.

Training & Development
• Training is a short-term process ; learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose • Development is long-term educational process ‘ trainees learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.

Distinction between training & development
Learning dimensions Who is learning ? What is to be learnt? Why such learning takes place? When learning occurs ? Training Non-managerial personnel Technical & mechanical operations Specific job-related purpose Short-term Development Managerial personnel Theoretical, conceptual ideas General knowledge Long-term

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